WorldWideScience

Sample records for air cargo containers

  1. Scanner for the detection of contraband in air cargo containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: There is a growing worldwide need to rapidly scan bulk air cargo for contraband such as illicit drugs and explosives. CSIRO has been working with Australian Customs Service to develop an innovative and cost-effective solution capable of directly scanning air freight containers in 1-2 minutes without unpacking. A new scanner has been developed that combines fast neutron and gamma-ray radiography to provide high-resolution images that include information on material composition. A full-scale prototype scanner has been successfully tested in the laboratory and a commercial-scale scanner will be installed at Brisbane airport in 2005. Copyright (2005) Australian Institute of Physics

  2. Recent developments in fast neutron radiography for the interrogation of air cargo containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a worldwide need for improved methods for the scanning of consolidated air cargo for contraband such as illicit drugs and explosives. Ideally, cargo containers must be imaged without unpacking and with scan times of less than a few minutes. Fast neutron radiography techniques are particularly attractive for screening cargo. Neutrons have the required penetration, they interact with matter in a manner complementary to X-rays and they can be used to determine cargo composition. The Commonwealth Science and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) has developed a scanner for fully-loaded air cargo containers. The scanner combines fast (14 MeV) neutron and γ-ray (or X-ray) radiography, using intense radiation sources and custom high-efficiency detector arrays. The ratio of the transmissions of neutrons and X-rays provides a measure of material composition that is much more sensitive than alternative dual high-energy (MeV) X-ray systems. A full-scale prototype scanner was used by Australian Customs Service to screen incoming air cargo at Brisbane International Airport in 2005/6. The trial of the scanner at Brisbane demonstrated the material discrimination capability of the technology and its ability to make hidden organic materials more obvious. Consolidated cargo was scanned in less than two minutes allowing high volumes of cargo to be screened rapidly. CSIRO is working directly with Nuctech Company Limited, Beijing, China to develop and commercialise the next generation in air cargo scanning technology. A commercial version of the airport scanner being developed by Nuctech and CSIRO is expected to be commissioned by January 2009. The commercial scanner combines a 14 MeV fast neutron radiography system with Nuctech's dual-energy X-ray technology that uses a 6 MeV LINAC X-ray source and Binocular Stereoscopic imaging technology. The commercial scanner will have much better spatial resolution than the Brisbane scanner. The improved resolution, combined with

  3. Fast-neutron/gamma-ray radiography scanner for the detection of contraband in air cargo containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, J.; Liu, Y.; Rainey, S.; Roach, G.; Sowerby, B.; Stevens, R.; Tickner, J.

    2006-05-01

    There is a worldwide need for efficient inspection of cargo containers at airports, seaports and road border crossings. The main objectives are the detection of contraband such as illicit drugs, explosives and weapons. Due to the large volume of cargo passing through Australia's airports every day, it is critical that any scanning system should be capable of working on unpacked or consolidated cargo, taking at most 1-2 minutes per container. CSIRO has developed a fast-neutron/gamma-ray radiography (FNGR) method for the rapid screening of air freight. By combining radiographs obtained using 14 MeV neutrons and 60Co gamma-rays, high resolution images showing both density and material composition are obtained. A near full-scale prototype scanner has been successfully tested in the laboratory. With the support of the Australian Customs Service, a full-scale scanner has recently been installed and commissioned at Brisbane International Airport.

  4. Fast neutron radiography scanner for the detection of contraband in air cargo containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a growing need to rapidly scan bulk air cargo for contraband such as illicit drugs and explosives. The Commonwealth Science and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) have been working with Australian Customs Service to develop a scanner capable of directly scanning airfreight containers in 1-2 minutes without unpacking. The scanner combines fast neutron and gamma-ray radiography to provide high-resolution images that include information on material composition. A full-scale prototype scanner has been successfully tested in the laboratory and a commercial-scale scanner is due to be installed at Brisbane airport in 2005

  5. IP-1 Certification of Cargo Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagler, Lisle [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-10-05

    The purpose and scope of this engineering note is to demonstrate that the structural design of the cargo container complies with the IP-1 container requirements of 49 CFR 173.410 as required by CFR 173.411.

  6. System for inspection of stacked cargo containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenzo, Stephen

    2011-08-16

    The present invention relates to a system for inspection of stacked cargo containers. One embodiment of the invention generally comprises a plurality of stacked cargo containers arranged in rows or tiers, each container having a top, a bottom a first side, a second side, a front end, and a back end; a plurality of spacers arranged in rows or tiers; one or more mobile inspection devices for inspecting the cargo containers, wherein the one or more inspection devices are removeably disposed within the spacers, the inspection means configured to move through the spacers to detect radiation within the containers. The invented system can also be configured to inspect the cargo containers for a variety of other potentially hazardous materials including but not limited to explosive and chemical threats.

  7. Detection of Shielded Nuclear Material in a Cargo Container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho National Laboratory, along with Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Idaho State University's Idaho Accelerator Center, are developing electron accelerator-based, photonuclear inspection technologies for the detection of shielded nuclear material within air-, rail-, and especially, maritime-cargo transportation containers. This paper describes a developing prototypical cargo container inspection system utilizing the Pulsed Photonuclear Assessment (PPA) technology, incorporates interchangeable, well-defined, contraband shielding structures (i.e., ''calibration'' pallets) providing realistic detection data for induced radiation signatures from smuggled nuclear material, and provides various shielded nuclear material detection results. Using a 4.8-kg quantity of depleted uranium, neutron and gamma-ray detection responses are presented for well-defined shielded and unshielded configurations evaluated in a selected cargo container inspection configuration

  8. Detection of shielded nuclear material in a cargo container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James L.; Norman, Daren R.; Haskell, Kevin J.; Sterbentz, James W.; Yoon, Woo Y.; Watson, Scott M.; Johnson, James T.; Zabriskie, John M.; Bennett, Brion D.; Watson, Richard W.; Moss, Cavin E.; Frank Harmon, J.

    2006-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory, along with Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Idaho State University's Idaho Accelerator Center, are developing electron accelerator-based, photonuclear inspection technologies for the detection of shielded nuclear material within air-, rail-, and especially, maritime-cargo transportation containers. This paper describes a developing prototypical cargo container inspection system utilizing the Pulsed Photonuclear Assessment (PPA) technology, incorporates interchangeable, well-defined, contraband shielding structures (i.e., "calibration" pallets) providing realistic detection data for induced radiation signatures from smuggled nuclear material, and provides various shielded nuclear material detection results. Using a 4.8-kg quantity of depleted uranium, neutron and gamma-ray detection responses are presented for well-defined shielded and unshielded configurations evaluated in a selected cargo container inspection configuration.

  9. Detection of shielded nuclear material in a cargo container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho National Laboratory, along with Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Idaho State University's Idaho Accelerator Center, are developing electron accelerator-based, photonuclear inspection technologies for the detection of shielded nuclear material within air-, rail-, and especially, maritime-cargo transportation containers. This paper describes a developing prototypical cargo container inspection system utilizing the Pulsed Photonuclear Assessment (PPA) technology, incorporates interchangeable, well-defined, contraband shielding structures (i.e., 'calibration' pallets) providing realistic detection data for induced radiation signatures from smuggled nuclear material, and provides various shielded nuclear material detection results. Using a 4.8-kg quantity of depleted uranium, neutron and gamma-ray detection responses are presented for well-defined shielded and unshielded configurations evaluated in a selected cargo container inspection configuration

  10. Detection of Neutron Sources in Cargo Containers

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, J. I.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the problem of detecting the presence of clandestine neutron sources, such as would be produced by nuclear weapons containing plutonium, within cargo containers. Small, simple and economical semiconductor photodiode detectors affixed to the outsides of containers are capable of producing statistically robust detections of unshielded sources when their output is integrated over the durations of ocean voyages. It is possible to shield such sources with thick layers of neutron-abs...

  11. Aviation System Analysis Capability Air Carrier Investment Model-Cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jesse; Santmire, Tara

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC) Air Cargo Investment Model-Cargo (ACIMC), is to examine the economic effects of technology investment on the air cargo market, particularly the market for new cargo aircraft. To do so, we have built an econometrically based model designed to operate like the ACIM. Two main drivers account for virtually all of the demand: the growth rate of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and changes in the fare yield (which is a proxy of the price charged or fare). These differences arise from a combination of the nature of air cargo demand and the peculiarities of the air cargo market. The net effect of these two factors are that sales of new cargo aircraft are much less sensitive to either increases in GDP or changes in the costs of labor, capital, fuel, materials, and energy associated with the production of new cargo aircraft than the sales of new passenger aircraft. This in conjunction with the relatively small size of the cargo aircraft market means technology improvements to the cargo aircraft will do relatively very little to spur increased sales of new cargo aircraft.

  12. Three-dimensional container and cargo inspection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumer, Tumay O.; Su, Chih-Wu; Baritelle, J.; Rhoton, B.

    1997-02-01

    A fusion of two independent but complementary three- dimensional imaging techniques is proposed for detecting drugs in containers, cargo, mail and luggage. The containers, cargo, mail and/or luggage are scanned using a combined neutron and gamma ray source. A detector that can detect both neutrons and gamma rays is used to produce three dimensional images from both signals. The two images will be combined and analyzed by a fast host computer to detect drugs that may be concealed in the container, cargo and/or luggage. The two independent signatures from both neutrons and gamma rays, when analyzed simultaneously, may help determine the type of concealed material inside the containers. Containers, cargo and luggage are filled with a large variety of materials. Imaging them only in two dimensions may result in a poor contraband detection probability as different materials may shield each other. Therefore, a true three-dimensional imaging system is proposed, where the individual items inside the container or cargo can be resolved. This is expected to lead to reliable identification of the drugs even in small quantities. Such a system will also pinpoint the location of the suspected item and help expedite inspection by law enforcement agents. The proposed detection system produces two complementary three- dimensional images of the containers, cargo and/or luggage. These images are combined and analyzed by a specially developed algorithm to identify and locate the contraband automatically.

  13. Technical and economic evaluation of advanced air cargo system concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews NASA air cargo market studies, reports on NASA and NASA-sponsored studies of advanced freighter concepts, and identifies the opportunities for the application of advanced technology. The air cargo market is studied to evaluate the timing for, and the potential market response to, advanced technology aircraft. The degree of elasticity in future air freight markets is also being investigated, since the demand for a new aircraft is most favorable in a price-sensitive environment. Aircraft design studies are considered with attention to mission and design requirements, incorporation of advanced technologies in transport aircraft, new cargo aircraft concepts, advanced freighter evaluation, and civil-military design commonality.

  14. Aggregating Secondary Source Data for Air Cargo Prescreening Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to improve the effectiveness of air cargo prescreening by enabling background knowledge about companies and products to be used for threat assessment....

  15. 19 CFR 122.117 - Requirements for transit air cargo transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for transit air cargo transport. 122... Requirements for transit air cargo transport. (a) Transportation—(1) Port to port. Transit air cargo may be... cargo, a receipt shall be given. The receipt shall be made by the airline responsible for transport...

  16. Optimisation of key performance measures in air cargo demand management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander May

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article sought to facilitate the optimisation of key performance measures utilised for demand management in air cargo operations. The focus was on the Revenue Management team at Virgin Atlantic Cargo and a fuzzy group decision-making method was used. Utilising intelligent fuzzy multi-criteria methods, the authors generated a ranking order of ten key outcome-based performance indicators for Virgin Atlantic air cargo Revenue Management. The result of this industry-driven study showed that for Air Cargo Revenue Management, ‘Network Optimisation’ represents a critical outcome-based performance indicator. This collaborative study contributes to existing logistics management literature, especially in the area of Revenue Management, and it seeks to enhance Revenue Management practice. It also provides a platform for Air Cargo operators seeking to improve reliability values for their key performance indicators as a means of enhancing operational monitoring power.

  17. Temperature Controlled Aircraft Unit Load Devices: The Technological Response to Growing Global Air Cargo Cool Chain Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Baxter; Kyriakos Kourousis

    2015-01-01

    Unit load devices (ULDs) are pallets and containers which are used to carry air cargo, mail and passengers baggage on wide-body aircraft. Using an in-depth case study, an empirical investigation was undertaken to examine the recent technological developments and innovations in the temperature-controlled containers that are used extensively in the growing and highly important air cargo cool chains. The results demonstrated that advances in refrigeration systems and the use of composite materia...

  18. National Security Science and Technology Initiative: Air Cargo Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, Philip R [ORNL; White, Tim [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Cespedes, Ernesto [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Bowerman, Biays [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Bush, John [Battelle

    2010-11-01

    The non-intrusive inspection (NII) of consolidated air cargo carried on commercial passenger aircraft continues to be a technically challenging, high-priority requirement of the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate (DHS S&T), the Transportation Security Agency and the Federal Aviation Administration. The goal of deploying a screening system that can reliably and cost-effectively detect explosive threats in consolidated cargo without adversely affecting the flow of commerce will require significant technical advances that will take years to develop. To address this critical National Security need, the Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle), under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with four of its associated US Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, Idaho, and Brookhaven), conducted a research and development initiative focused on identifying, evaluating, and integrating technologies for screening consolidated air cargo for the presence of explosive threats. Battelle invested $8.5M of internal research and development funds during fiscal years 2007 through 2009. The primary results of this effort are described in this document and can be summarized as follows: (1) Completed a gap analysis that identified threat signatures and observables, candidate technologies for detection, their current state of development, and provided recommendations for improvements to meet air cargo screening requirements. (2) Defined a Commodity/Threat/Detection matrix that focuses modeling and experimental efforts, identifies technology gaps and game-changing opportunities, and provides a means of summarizing current and emerging capabilities. (3) Defined key properties (e.g., elemental composition, average density, effective atomic weight) for basic commodity and explosive benchmarks, developed virtual models of the physical distributions (pallets) of three commodity types and three

  19. Shift designs for freight handling personnel at air cargo terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Aiying; Grunow, Martin

    2009-01-01

    resources efficiently, we implement a new mechanism for demand leveling. In addition, we consider the qualification hierarchy between build-up and break-down workers. A case study based on the real-life data shows that the model is useful for manpower planning at air cargo terminals and the integrated...

  20. SIMULATION OF CARGO CONTAINER INTERROGATION BY D-D NEUTRONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High fidelity, three-dimensional computer models based on a CAD drawing of an intermodal cargo container, representative payload objects, and detector array panels were developed to simulate the underlying physical events taking place during active interrogation. These computer models are used to assess the performance of interrogation systems with different sources and detection schemes. In this presentation, we will show that the use oversimplified models, such as analyzing homogenized payloads only, can lead to errors in determining viable approaches for interrogation

  1. SIMULATION OF CARGO CONTAINER INTERROGATION BY D-D NEUTRONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou, Tak Pui; Antolak, Arlyn

    2007-02-15

    High fidelity, three-dimensional computer models based on a CAD drawing of an intermodal cargo container, representative payload objects, and detector array panels were developed to simulate the underlying physical events taking place during active interrogation. These computer models are used to assess the performance of interrogation systems with different sources and detection schemes. In this presentation, we will show that the use oversimplified models, such as analyzing homogenized payloads only, can lead to errors in determining viable approaches for interrogation.

  2. Advanced gamma ray technology for scanning cargo containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orphan, Victor J; Muenchau, Ernie; Gormley, Jerry; Richardson, Rex

    2005-01-01

    The shipping industry is striving to increase security for cargo containers without significantly impeding traffic. Three Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) development programs are supporting this effort. SAIC's ICIS system combines SAIC's VACIS gamma ray imaging, radiation scanning, OCR, elemental analysis and other technologies to scan containers for nuclear materials and other hazards in normal terminal traffic. SAIC's enhanced gamma ray detector improves VACIS image resolution by a factor of three. And SAIC's EmptyView software analyzes VACIS images to automatically verify empty containers. PMID:15996470

  3. Advanced γ ray technology for scanning cargo containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shipping industry is striving to increase security for cargo containers without significantly impeding traffic. Three Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) development programs are supporting this effort. SAIC's ICIS system combines SAIC's VACIS[reg] γ ray imaging, radiation scanning, OCR, elemental analysis and other technologies to scan containers for nuclear materials and other hazards in normal terminal traffic. SAIC's enhanced γ ray detector improves VACIS image resolution by a factor of three. And SAIC's EmptyView software analyzes VACIS images to automatically verify empty containers

  4. 46 CFR 151.05-2 - Compliance with requirements for tank barges carrying benzene and benzene containing cargoes, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... benzene and benzene containing cargoes, or butyl acrylate cargoes. 151.05-2 Section 151.05-2 Shipping... Compliance with requirements for tank barges carrying benzene and benzene containing cargoes, or butyl acrylate cargoes. A tank barge certificated to carry benzene and benzene containing cargoes or...

  5. Vehicle and cargo container inspection system for drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbinski, Victor V.; Orphan, Victor J.

    1999-06-01

    A vehicle and cargo container inspection system has been developed which uses gamma-ray radiography to produce digital images useful for detection of drugs and other contraband. The system is comprised of a 1 Ci Cs137 gamma-ray source collimated into a fan beam which is aligned with a linear array of NaI gamma-ray detectors located on the opposite side of the container. The NaI detectors are operated in the pulse-counting mode. A digital image of the vehicle or container is obtained by moving the aligned source and detector array relative to the object. Systems have been demonstrated in which the object is stationary (source and detector array move on parallel tracks) and in which the object moves past a stationary source and detector array. Scanning speeds of ˜30 cm/s with a pixel size (at the object) of ˜1 cm have been achieved. Faster scanning speeds of ˜2 m/s have been demonstrated on railcars with more modest spatial resolution (4 cm pixels). Digital radiographic images are generated from the detector count rates. These images, recorded on a PC-based data acquisition and display system, are shown from several applications: 1) inspection of trucks and containers at a border crossing, 2) inspection of railcars at a border crossing, 3) inspection of outbound cargo containers for stolen automobiles, and 4) inspection of trucks and cars for terrorist bombs.

  6. Vehicle and cargo container inspection system for drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vehicle and cargo container inspection system has been developed which uses gamma-ray radiography to produce digital images useful for detection of drugs and other contraband. The system is comprised of a 1 Ci Cs137 gamma-ray source collimated into a fan beam which is aligned with a linear array of NaI gamma-ray detectors located on the opposite side of the container. The NaI detectors are operated in the pulse-counting mode. A digital image of the vehicle or container is obtained by moving the aligned source and detector array relative to the object. Systems have been demonstrated in which the object is stationary (source and detector array move on parallel tracks) and in which the object moves past a stationary source and detector array. Scanning speeds of ∼30 cm/s with a pixel size (at the object) of ∼1 cm have been achieved. Faster scanning speeds of ∼2 m/s have been demonstrated on railcars with more modest spatial resolution (4 cm pixels). Digital radiographic images are generated from the detector count rates. These images, recorded on a PC-based data acquisition and display system, are shown from several applications: 1) inspection of trucks and containers at a border crossing, 2) inspection of railcars at a border crossing, 3) inspection of outbound cargo containers for stolen automobiles, and 4) inspection of trucks and cars for terrorist bombs

  7. Photonuclear-based Detection of Nuclear Smuggling in Cargo Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have performed experiments in La Honda, California and at the Idaho Accelerator Center in Pocatello, Idaho to assess and develop a photonuclear-based detection system for shielded nuclear materials in cargo containers. The detection system, measuring photonuclear-related neutron emissions, is planned for integration with the ARACOR Eagle Cargo Container Inspection System (Sunnyvale, CA). The Eagle Inspection system uses a nominal 6-MeV electron accelerator and operates with safe radiation exposure limits to both container stowaways and to its operators. The INEEL has fabricated custom-built, helium-3-based, neutron detectors for this inspection application and is performing an experimental application assessment. Because the Eagle Inspection system could not be moved to LANL where special nuclear material was available, the response of the Eagle had to be determined indirectly so as to support the development and testing of the detection system. Experiments in California have successfully matched the delayed neutron emission performance of the ARACOR Eagle with that of the transportable INEEL electron accelerator (i.e., the Varitron) and are reported here. A demonstration test is planned at LANL using the Varitron and shielded special nuclear materials within a cargo container. Detector results are providing very useful information regarding the challenges of delayed neutron counting near the photofission threshold energy of 5.5 - 6.0 MeV, are identifying the possible utilization of prompt neutron emissions to allow enhanced signal-to-noise measurements, and are showing the overall benefits of using higher electron beam energies

  8. Photonuclear-based Detection of Nuclear Smuggling in Cargo Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. L.; Haskell, K. J.; Hoggan, J. M.; Norman, D. R.; Yoon, W. Y.

    2003-08-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have performed experiments in La Honda, California and at the Idaho Accelerator Center in Pocatello, Idaho to assess and develop a photonuclear-based detection system for shielded nuclear materials in cargo containers. The detection system, measuring photonuclear-related neutron emissions, is planned for integration with the ARACOR Eagle Cargo Container Inspection System (Sunnyvale, CA). The Eagle Inspection system uses a nominal 6-MeV electron accelerator and operates with safe radiation exposure limits to both container stowaways and to its operators. The INEEL has fabricated custom-built, helium-3-based, neutron detectors for this inspection application and is performing an experimental application assessment. Because the Eagle Inspection system could not be moved to LANL where special nuclear material was available, the response of the Eagle had to be determined indirectly so as to support the development and testing of the detection system. Experiments in California have successfully matched the delayed neutron emission performance of the ARACOR Eagle with that of the transportable INEEL electron accelerator (i.e., the Varitron) and are reported here. A demonstration test is planned at LANL using the Varitron and shielded special nuclear materials within a cargo container. Detector results are providing very useful information regarding the challenges of delayed neutron counting near the photofission threshold energy of 5.5 - 6.0 MeV, are identifying the possible utilization of prompt neutron emissions to allow enhanced signal-to-noise measurements, and are showing the overall benefits of using higher electron beam energies.

  9. 46 CFR 154.1210 - Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1210 Hold space, void... spaces containing cargo piping must have: (1) A fixed mechanical ventilation system; or (2) A...

  10. Electronic Method to Detect Persons Hidden Within Cargo containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, G.M.

    1997-11-10

    Physical security technologies have been unable to address most `Trojan Horse' scenarios at vehicle portals which provide access through the perimeter of a secure area. Thorough visual searches of vehicle cargo containers are time consuming, involve a number of security personnel and are cursory at best. Vehicles entering or exiting a protected site provide an adversary with an easy pathway across secure boundaries. A method to detect the presence of persons hiding within a vehicle's enclosed cargo container has been developed by LQckheed Martin Energy Systems. The system measures vibrations coupled to the container and generated by the human heart. Each time the human heart beats, it generates a small but measurable shock wave. This shock wave is propagated through the body and transmitted to anything with which the body has contact. This wave is referred to as a baflistocardiograrn and is the mechanical equivalent to an electrocardiogram. Systems have been installed in several State prisons and have been independently tested and evaluated. The effectiveness of the system has been determined by the Thunder Mountain Evaluation Center at Fort Huachuca. Arizona. Sympathetic vibrations of the cargo container's surface can be collected using any of several detection methods, i.e. infrared, Doppler microwave, Doppler ultrasonic wave and geophones. The analog signal delivered by the sensors is passed through an amplifier and a low pass filter and then fed to a microprocessor via an analog to digital converter. When initiated by the operator, anafog signals are recorded for a specific interval of time and rate. At the end of the recording intervaL the data are analysed using wavelet transform techniques and compared with a ballistocardiographic template. If the collected data are similar, the system informs the operator that there is a high degree of probability that a person is within the vehicle. The paper describes in depth the development of the system

  11. Optimization of the imported air express cargo distribution problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang, T.L.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the delivering network of imported air express cargo as an integrated multi-depot vehicle routing problem. Integrated multi-depot vehicle routing problem attempts to decide which service centers should be used and how much freight should be unloaded in each service center. The role of an exchange point which is allowing the delivery vans and shuttles to exchange imported and exported goods is also addressed. Test results demonstrate the feasibility of the four models so these are highly promising for use in a diverse array of applications, such as in home delivery and reverse logistics.

  12. 46 CFR 105.25-5 - Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks or pumping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks or pumping systems. 105.25-5 Section 105.25-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO... or pumping systems. (a) Compartments or areas containing tanks or pumping systems shall be closed...

  13. 75 FR 1070 - Cargo Securing Methods for Packages in Transport Vehicles or Freight Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... SECURITY Coast Guard Cargo Securing Methods for Packages in Transport Vehicles or Freight Containers AGENCY... the public on methods for securing cargo in transport vehicles and freight containers in order...

  14. Scanning of Cargo Containers by Gamma-Ray and Fast Neutron Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the combined systems which were installed and tested to detect contraband smuggled in cargo containers. These combined systems are based on radiographers work by gamma-rays emitted from point source 60Co with 0.5 Ci activity and neutrons emitted from point isotopic sources of Pu-α-Be as well as 14 MeV neutrons emitted from sealed tube neutron generator. The transmitted gamma ray through the inspected object was measured by gamma detection system with NaI(Tl) detector while the transmitted fast neutron beam was measured by a neutron gamma detection system with stilbene organic scintillator. The later possess the capability of discrimination between between gamma and neutron pulses using a discrimination system based on pulse shape discrimination method. The measured intensities of primary incident and transmitted beams of gamma-rays and fast neutrons were used to construct 2D cross-sectional images of the inspected objects hidden directly within benign materials of the container and for object screened by high dense material to stop object detection by gamma or X-rays. The constructed images for the inspected objects show the good capability and effectiveness of the installed gamma and neutron radiographers to detect illicit materials hidden in air cargo containers and sea containers of med size. They have also indicated that the developed scanning systems possess the ease of mobility and low cost of scanning

  15. Final Report, Next-Generation Mega-Voltage Cargo-Imaging System for Cargo Container Inspection, March 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UNLV Research Foundation, as the primary award recipient, teamed with Varian Medical Systems-Security and Inspection Products and the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV) for the purpose of conducting research and engineering related to a ''next-generation'' mega-voltage imaging (MVCI) system for inspection of cargo in large containers. The procurement and build-out of hardware for the MVCI project has been completed. The K-9 linear accelerator and an optimized X-ray detection system capable of efficiently detecting X-rays emitted from the accelerator after they have passed through the device is under test. The Office of Science financial assistance award has made possible the development of a system utilizing a technology which will have a profound positive impact on the security of U.S. seaports. The proposed project will ultimately result in critical research and development advances for the ''next-generation'' Linatron X-ray accelerator technology, thereby providing a safe, reliable and efficient fixed and mobile cargo inspection system, which will very significantly increase the fraction of cargo containers undergoing reliable inspection as the enter U.S. ports. Both NNSA/NA-22 and the Department of Homeland Security's Domestic Nuclear Detection Office are collaborating with UNLV and its team to make this technology available as soon as possible

  16. Diffusion-Limited Cargo Loading of an Engineered Protein Container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschoche, Reinhard; Hilvert, Donald

    2015-12-30

    The engineered bacterial nanocompartment AaLS-13 is a promising artificial encapsulation system that exploits electrostatic interactions for cargo loading. In order to study its ability to take up and retain guests, a pair of fluorescent proteins was developed which allows spectroscopic determination of the extent of encapsulation by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). The encapsulation process is generally complete within a second, suggesting low energetic barriers for proteins to cross the capsid shell. Formation of intermediate aggregates upon mixing host and guest in vitro complicates capsid loading at low ionic strength, but can be sidestepped by increasing salt concentrations or diluting the components. Encapsulation of guests is completely reversible, and the position of the equilibrium is easily tuned by varying the ionic strength. These results, which challenge the notion that AaLS-13 is a continuous rigid shell, provide valuable information about cargo loading that will guide ongoing efforts to engineer functional host-guest complexes. Moreover, it should be possible to adapt the protein FRET pair described in this report to characterize functional capsid-cargo complexes generated by other encapsulation systems. PMID:26637019

  17. A study of international security requirement on Hong Kong air cargo industry : development and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yu-to, Matthew; 鄧汝滔

    2012-01-01

    Currently, most of the research related to aviation sector of Hong Kong would focus on infrastructure perspective such as the building of 3rd runway in HKIA and the cooperation issues among airports in Pearl River Delta (PRD) Region in order to analyze the impact towards competitiveness of Hong Kong as a major international air cargo hub. However, there are not much research on air cargo industry has been done from security perspective but the recent trend of tightening international security...

  18. Air cargo: An Integrated Systems View. 1978 Summer Faculty Fellowship Program in Engineering Systems Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaton, A. (Editor); Eastman, R. (Editor); Hargrove, A. (Editor); Rabiega, W. (Editor); Olsen, R. (Editor); Soberick, M. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The national air cargo system is analyzed and how it should be in 1990 is prescribed in order to operate successfully through 2015; that is through one equipment cycle. Elements of the system which are largely under control of the airlines and the aircraft manufacturers are discussed. The discussion deals with aircraft, networks, facilities, and procedures. The regulations which govern the movement of air freight are considered. The larger public policy interests which must be served by the kind of system proposed, the air cargo integrated system (ACIS), are addressed. The possible social, economical, political, and environment impacts of the system are considered. Recommendations are also given.

  19. 33 CFR 155.310 - Containment of oil and hazardous material cargo discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) For a tankship, as defined in 46 CFR 30.10-67, the coaming or other barrier required in 46 CFR 32.56... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Containment of oil and hazardous... FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.310 Containment of oil and hazardous material cargo discharges....

  20. 19 CFR 122.48a - Electronic information for air cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic information for air cargo required in... OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members...

  1. Air cargo market outlook and impact via the NASA CLASS project. [Cargo/Logistics Airlift Systems Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, M. M.; Conner, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is given of the Cargo/Logistics Airlift Systems Study (CLASS) project which was a 10 man-year effort carried out by two contractor teams, aimed at defining factors impacting future system growth and obtaining market requirements and design guidelines for future air freighters. Growth projection was estimated by two approaches: one, an optimal systems approach with a more efficient and cost effective system considered as being available in 1990; and the other, an evolutionary approach with an econometric behavior model used to predict long term evolution from the present system. Both approaches predict significant growth in demand for international air freighter services and less growth for U.S. domestic services. Economic analysis of air freighter fleet options indicate very strong market appeal of derivative widebody transports in 1990 with little incentive to develop all new dedicated air freighters utilizing the 1990's technology until sometime beyond the year 2000. Advanced air freighters would be economically attractive for a wide range of payload sizes (to 500 metric tons), however, if a government would share in the RD and T costs by virtue of its needs for a slightly modified version of a civil air freighter design (a.g. military airlifter).

  2. Overview of Crane Control Systems and the Related Problems: Analysis of Container Oscillation Using Different Types of Cargoes

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas Eglynas; Marijonas Bogdevičius; Arūnas Andziulis; Tomas Lenkauskas

    2016-01-01

    Growing international trading increased cargo transportation in containers, therefore the port cranes have higher loads. Increased cargo flows can influence transportation safety. It is therefore necessary to review the crane systems and determine what factors might influence the volatility of the container and its cargo during transportation. The paper includes consideration and analysis of crane control systems and related problems. The authors consider the reasons of problems, probable dam...

  3. STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN PORT CARGO FLOW DISTRIBUTION IN ASIAN CONTAINER PORT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Itoh, Hidekazu

    2012-01-01

    International audience This study discusses the structural changes in port cargo flow distribution in Asia and traffic inequality in Asian container port systems, by conducting an inequality decomposition analysis of the Gini index. Specifically, port systems considered here comprise 229 container ports, which were classified into fifteen port ranges according to their geographic locations and annual port container traffic data from 1980 to 2009. The results confirmed the trend of shrinkin...

  4. IMPACT OF INFORMATION ON THE DELIVERY OF CARGO WITH AIR TRANSPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Габріелова, Т.Ю.; National Aviation University; Войцеховський, В.С.; National Aviation University

    2014-01-01

    Peculiarities of the impact of informatization on the process of cargo delivery involving air transport under conditions of competitive environment dynamic development have been considered. Information products providing uploading capacity on an extensive air route network were analysed. The role of international mediation bodies for financial settlements between participants of air transportation process was determined. Basic aspects of the pricing control depending on the condition of fligh...

  5. Determination of Fire Enviroment in Stacked Cargo Containers with Radioactive Materials Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arviso, M.; Bobbe, J.G.; Dukart, R.D.; Koski, J.A.

    1999-05-01

    Results from a Fire Test with a three-by-three stack of standard 6 m long International Standards Organization shipping containers containing combustible fuels and empty radioactive materials packages are reported and discussed. The stack is intended to simulate fire conditions that could occur during on-deck stowage on container cargo ships. The fire is initated by locating the container stack adjacent to a 9.8 x 6 m pool fire. Temperatures of both cargoes (empty and simulated radioactive materials packages) and containers are recorded and reported. Observations on the duration, intensity and spread of the fire are discussed. Based on the results, models for simulation of fire exposure of radioactive materials packages in such fires are suggested.

  6. Overview of Crane Control Systems and the Related Problems: Analysis of Container Oscillation Using Different Types of Cargoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Eglynas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Growing international trading increased cargo transportation in containers, therefore the port cranes have higher loads. Increased cargo flows can influence transportation safety. It is therefore necessary to review the crane systems and determine what factors might influence the volatility of the container and its cargo during transportation. The paper includes consideration and analysis of crane control systems and related problems. The authors consider the reasons of problems, probable damage and solution methods. The paper also provides the analysis of the relationship between different container cargoes and container oscillations occurring during handling operations using a container crane prototype. The analysis of the effect of different cargoes in containers on loading process and the results of occurring oscillations are presented.

  7. Automatic air cargo selection and weight balancing: A mixed integer programming approach

    OpenAIRE

    Vancroonenburg, Wim; Verstichel, Jannes; Tavernier, Karel; Vanden Berghe, Greet

    2014-01-01

    The present contribution introduces a mixed integer linear programming model as a decision support tool for air cargo load planning. The main objective for the model is to find the most profitable selection from a set of cargo to be loaded on an aircraft. The secondary objective is to minimize the deviation between the aircraft’s centre of gravity, and a known target value so as to reduce fuel consumption and improve stability. The model is subject to a large number of constraints that ensure...

  8. Desktop Application Program to Simulate Cargo-Air-Drop Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The DSS Application is a computer program comprising a Windows version of the UNIX-based Decelerator System Simulation (DSS) coupled with an Excel front end. The DSS is an executable code that simulates the dynamics of airdropped cargo from first motion in an aircraft through landing. The bare DSS is difficult to use; the front end makes it easy to use. All inputs to the DSS, control of execution of the DSS, and postprocessing and plotting of outputs are handled in the front end. The front end is graphics-intensive. The Excel software provides the graphical elements without need for additional programming. Categories of input parameters are divided into separate tabbed windows. Pop-up comments describe each parameter. An error-checking software component evaluates combinations of parameters and alerts the user if an error results. Case files can be created from inputs, making it possible to build cases from previous ones. Simulation output is plotted in 16 charts displayed on a separate worksheet, enabling plotting of multiple DSS cases with flight-test data. Variables assigned to each plot can be changed. Selected input parameters can be edited from the plot sheet for quick sensitivity studies.

  9. Status report on the detection of illicit materials in cargo containers by using neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-intrusive inspection of cargo containers has become a key issue in the fight against terrorism. Indeed, shipping of cargo container between seaports represent today one of the more important way of the international trade. After 9/11, the Cargo Security Initiative started setting standards for the cargo containers inspections in the trading between US and other countries, as the ones in the European Union (E U). US are now aiming at 100% scanning of cargo containers shipped towards the American ports. At present time, controls are mainly based on X- or gamma-ray scanners, which provide mainly the shape and density of the transported goods. Fast neutrons can be additionally employed to deduce information about their elemental composition. Neutrons have been selected mainly thanks to their capability of penetrating materials and the availability of different type of neutron sources. Neutron transmission measurements or the detection of characteristic gamma-rays emitted following neutron induced reactions have been proposed to characterize carbon, oxygen and nitrogen, which are major components of explosives or narcotics, with the goal of discriminating illicit from benign materials. Several systems have been validated under laboratory conditions demonstrating that such technologies are capable of providing material specific information and few of them have been fielded. However, the use of neutron based tools depends not only on the intrinsic capability of the method, as explored in laboratory conditions, but also on some major issues: 1) the possibility of solving logistics and licensing problems; 2) the possibility of constructing systems that are operated directly by end-users; 3) the effective integration of the neutron based system in current customs procedures. In this talk, the general capability of neutron sources to be used in a cost effective way to detect illicit materials inside cargo containers will be discussed looking also to the latest technical

  10. Detection of Special Nuclear Material in Cargo Containers Using Neutron Interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaughter, D; Accatino, M; Bernstein, A; Candy, J; Dougan, A; Hall, J; Loshak, A; Manatt, D; Meyer, A; Pohl, B; Prussin, S; Walling, R; Weirup, D

    2003-08-01

    The goal of the work reported here is to develop a concept for an active neutron interrogation system that can detect small targets of SNM contraband in cargo containers, roughly 5 kg HEU or 1 kg Pu, even when well shielded by a thick cargo. It is essential that the concept be reliable and have low false-positive and false-negative error rates. It also must be rapid to avoid interruption of commerce, completing the analysis in minutes. A new radiation signature unique to SNM has been identified that utilizes high-energy (E{sub {gamma}} = 3-7 MeV) fission product {gamma}-ray emission. Fortunately, this high-energy {gamma}-ray signature is robust in that it is very distinct compared to normal background radiation where there is no comparable high-energy {gamma}-ray radiation. Equally important, it has a factor of 10 higher yield than delayed neutrons that are the basis of classical interrogation technique normally used on small unshielded specimens of SNM. And it readily penetrates two meters of low-Z and high-Z cargo at the expected density of {approx} 0.5 gm/cm{sup 3}. Consequently, we expect that in most cases the signature flux at the container wall is at least 2-3 decades more intense than delayed neutron signals used historically and facilitates the detection of SNM even when shielded by thick cargo. Experiments have verified this signature and its predicted characteristics. However, they revealed an important interference due to the activation of {sup 16}O by the {sup 16}O(n,p){sup 16}N reaction that produces a 6 MeV {gamma}-ray following a 7-sec {beta}-decay of the {sup 16}N. This interference is important when irradiating with 14 MeV neutrons but is eliminated when lower energy neutron sources are utilized since the reaction threshold for {sup 16}O(n,p){sup 16}N is 10 MeV. The signature {gamma}-ray fluxes exiting a thick cargo can be detected in large arrays of scintillation detectors to produce useful signal count rates of 2-4 x 10{sup 4} cps. That is high

  11. Detection of Special Nuclear Material in Cargo Containers Using Neutron Interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the work reported here is to develop a concept for an active neutron interrogation system that can detect small targets of SNM contraband in cargo containers, roughly 5 kg HEU or 1 kg Pu, even when well shielded by a thick cargo. It is essential that the concept be reliable and have low false-positive and false-negative error rates. It also must be rapid to avoid interruption of commerce, completing the analysis in minutes. A new radiation signature unique to SNM has been identified that utilizes high-energy (Eγ = 3-7 MeV) fission product γ-ray emission. Fortunately, this high-energy γ-ray signature is robust in that it is very distinct compared to normal background radiation where there is no comparable high-energy γ-ray radiation. Equally important, it has a factor of 10 higher yield than delayed neutrons that are the basis of classical interrogation technique normally used on small unshielded specimens of SNM. And it readily penetrates two meters of low-Z and high-Z cargo at the expected density of ∼ 0.5 gm/cm3. Consequently, we expect that in most cases the signature flux at the container wall is at least 2-3 decades more intense than delayed neutron signals used historically and facilitates the detection of SNM even when shielded by thick cargo. Experiments have verified this signature and its predicted characteristics. However, they revealed an important interference due to the activation of 16O by the 16O(n,p)16N reaction that produces a 6 MeV γ-ray following a 7-sec β-decay of the 16N. This interference is important when irradiating with 14 MeV neutrons but is eliminated when lower energy neutron sources are utilized since the reaction threshold for 16O(n,p)16N is 10 MeV. The signature γ-ray fluxes exiting a thick cargo can be detected in large arrays of scintillation detectors to produce useful signal count rates of 2-4 x 104 cps. That is high enough to quickly identify SNM fission by its characteristic high energy γ-ray emission and

  12. Economic Feasibility of an Air Cargo Handling Facility at Fargo, North Dakota

    OpenAIRE

    Golz, Theresa K.; Golz, Joel T.; Koo, Won W.

    1992-01-01

    Exports to Taiwan in 1990 via air freight were approximately $2.9 billion, and imports via air freight to the united States were $3.1 billion. Total U.S. exports/imports to/from Taiwan in 1990 were $11.5 billion and $22.7 billion, respectively. China Airlines operates three air cargo hubs in the united States: New York, Los Angeles, and Dallas. The real per capita Gross National Product (GNP) in Taiwan for 1989 was $7,512, up from $3,297 in 1985. This implies that the Taiwanese economy is one...

  13. Containment air cleaning for LMFBRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of air cleaning concepts was evaluated for potential use in future sodium-cooled breeder reactors. A 3-stage aqueous scrubber system was selected for large-scale demonstration testing under conditions similar to those postulated for containment venting and purging during reactor melt-through accidents. Two tests were performed in the Containment Systems Test Facility using a quench tank, a jet venturi scrubber and a high efficiency fibrous scrubber in series. The results of two tests with Na202 and Na0H aerosol and NaI vapor are presented showing >99.9% removal of Na202 and Na0H and >99.7% for NaI

  14. Sensitivity of a Multi-view Bremsstrahlung Scanning Technique for Radiography of Intermodal Cargo Containers to Identify Fisssionable Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Araina

    2014-01-01

    Rapid scanning of intermodal cargo containers for clandestine fissionable material is a security concern of the United States government. This issue has been investigated over the past ten years with limited success. This dissertation builds on previous simulation work to investigate the limits of a multi-view scanning technique to determine the linear attenuation coefficients of small high-Z objects hidden within cargo containers. Monte Carlo modeling was used to estimate the uncertainties i...

  15. Design of an experiment to measure the fire exposure of radioactive materials packages aboard container cargo ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The test described in this paper is intended to measure the typical accident environment for a radioactive materials package in a fire aboard a container cargo ship. A stack of nine used standard cargo containers will be variously loaded with empty packages, simulated packages and combustible cargo and placed over a large hydrocarbon pool fire of one hour duration. Both internal and external fire container fire environments typical of on-deck stowage will be measured as well as the potential for container to container fire spread. With the use of the inverse heat conduction calculations, the local heat transfer to the simulated packages can be estimated from thermocouple data. Data recorded will also provide information on fire durations in each container, fire intensity and container to container fire spread characteristics

  16. Design of an experiment to measure the fire exposure of radioactive materials packages aboard container cargo ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koski, J.A.

    1997-11-01

    The test described in this paper is intended to measure the typical accident environment for a radioactive materials package in a fire aboard a container cargo ship. A stack of nine used standard cargo containers will be variously loaded with empty packages, simulated packages and combustible cargo and placed over a large hydrocarbon pool fire of one hour duration. Both internal and external fire container fire environments typical of on-deck stowage will be measured as well as the potential for container to container fire spread. With the use of the inverse heat conduction calculations, the local heat transfer to the simulated packages can be estimated from thermocouple data. Data recorded will also provide information on fire durations in each container, fire intensity and container to container fire spread characteristics.

  17. Trace detection of explosive materials in air cargo containers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jezierska, M.M.; Spreen, J.S.; Ruiter, J.C. de; Koomen, G.C.M.; Slegt, M.

    2011-01-01

    At the request of the National Coordinator for Counterterrorism in the Netherlands a research project called “Security through innovation - risk-oriented detection in a drive-through set-up” has been carried out by TNO Defense, Security and Safety (TNO) and by Dutch Customs. In 2009 and 2010, a grou

  18. Applicability of gamma detection systems for the detection of illicit transports of radioactive substances in cargo containers shielded by the cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topic of this research project is the detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material inside of cargo containers. The currently used radiation portal monitors (RPM) at border crossings are not sufficient due to two effects which often occur during operation: false positive and false negative alarms. In case of false positive an alarm is given in the absence of radioactive material (or natural and harmless radioactive substances are classified as relevant anthropogenic material). In the second case, false negative, radioactive material with high risk potential is not detected. Because of these two effects, more advanced detections systems and other technical efforts are desirable. The expected increase of cargo container flow and special security programs like the Mega Port Initiative are demanding more reliable detection systems. Main focus of research project: This research project focuses on the applicability of spectrometric gamma detection systems in general. Regardless whether currently used, advanced detectors or hypothetic gamma detectors, all need a certain amount of gamma radiation to afford the identification of characteristic peaks. The overall problem is that the emitted gamma radiation is attenuated and has to be discriminated from the radiation background. One has to consider that the attenuation of radiation depends on the energy, and that often in the lower part of the energetic spectrum a higher background occurs. This leads in particular to a larger decrease of detection probability of radionuclides in the lower part of the energy spectrum. One can assume that even with high ambitioned efforts only a small progress in detection efficiency will be achieved because the marginal improvements approach physical limitations that cannot be overcome. The first part of the research project consisted of measurements with portal monitors and, in comparison, smaller spectrometric detectors. This was done in order to get an overview on realistic

  19. The EURITRACK project: Status of a tagged neutron inspection system for cargo containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EURopean Illicit TRAfficking Countermeasures Kit project is part of the 6th EU Framework program, and aims at developing a neutron inspection system for detecting threat materials in cargo containers. Neutron interaction in the container produces specific gamma-rays used to determine the chemical composition of the inspected material. The use of D+T tagged neutrons allows the inspection of a suspect voxel identified by previous x-ray scan. The EURITRACK project consists in developing: a transportable deuterium-tritium neutron generator including a position sensitive alpha detector (8x8 matrix of YAP:Ce crystals), fast neutron and gamma-ray detectors, front-end electronics to perform coincidence and spectroscopic measurements, and an integrated software which manage detector positioning, data acquisition, processing and analysis. All components have been developed and tested in Laboratory condition with neutron beams, their integration in the final portal will start in September 2006, whereas a field demonstration in a European seaport is planned for 2007. The provisional performances of the system were assessed by Monte Carlo calculations validated by experiments in which elemental or complex target were detected in cargo containers filled with different matrices (Fe-based or wooden). The status of the EURITRACK project will be presented. (author)

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF DECISION MAKING ALGORITHM FOR CONTROL OF SEA CARGO CONTAINERS BY 'TAGGED' NEUTRON METHOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays in Russia and abroad there are several groups of scientists, engaged in development of systems based on 'tagged' neutron method (API method) and intended for detection of dangerous materials, including high explosives (HE). Particular attention is paid to possibility of detection of dangerous objects inside a sea cargo container. Energy gamma-spectrum, registered from object under inspection is used for determination of oxygen/carbon and nitrogen/carbon chemical ratios, according to which dangerous object is distinguished from not dangerous one. Material of filled container, however, gives rise to additional effects of rescattering and moderation of 14 MeV primary neutrons of generator, attenuation of secondary gamma-radiation from reactions of inelastic neutron scattering on objects under inspection. These effects lead to distortion of energy gamma-response from examined object and therefore prevent correct recognition of chemical ratios. These difficulties are taken into account in analytical method, presented in the paper. Method has been validated against experimental data, obtained by the system for HE detection in sea cargo, based on API method and developed in VNIIA. Influence of shielding materials on results of HE detection and identification is considered. Wood and iron were used as shielding materials. Results of method application for analysis of experimental data on HE simulator measurement (tetryl, trotyl, hexogen) are presented.

  1. Analysis of the crush environment for lightweight air-transportable accident-resistant containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the longitudinal dynamic crush environment for a Lightweight Air-Transportable Accident-Resistant Container (LAARC, now called PAT-2) that can be used to transport small quantities of radioactive material. The analysis of the crush environment involves evaluation of the forces imposed upon the LAARC package during the crash of a large, heavily loaded, cargo aircraft. To perform the analysis, a cargo load column was defined which consisted of a longitudinal prism of cargo of cross-sectional area equal to the projected area of the radioactive-material package and length equal to the longitudinal extent of the cargo compartment in a commercial cargo jet aircraft. To bound the problem, two analyses of the cargo load column were performed, a static stability analysis and a dynamic analysis. The results of these analyses can be applied to other packaging designs and suggest that the physical limits or magnitude of the longitudinal crush forces, which are controlled in part by the yield strength of the cargo and the package size, are much smaller than previously estimated

  2. Analysis of the crush environment for lightweight air-transportable accident-resistant containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, J.D.; Hartman, W.F.

    1981-12-01

    This report describes the longitudinal dynamic crush environment for a Lightweight Air-Transportable Accident-Resistant Container (LAARC, now called PAT-2) that can be used to transport small quantities of radioactive material. The analysis of the crush environment involves evaluation of the forces imposed upon the LAARC package during the crash of a large, heavily loaded, cargo aircraft. To perform the analysis, a cargo load column was defined which consisted of a longitudinal prism of cargo of cross-sectional area equal to the projected area of the radioactive-material package and length equal to the longitudinal extent of the cargo compartment in a commercial cargo jet aircraft. To bound the problem, two analyses of the cargo load column were performed, a static stability analysis and a dynamic analysis. The results of these analyses can be applied to other packaging designs and suggest that the physical limits or magnitude of the longitudinal crush forces, which are controlled in part by the yield strength of the cargo and the package size, are much smaller than previously estimated.

  3. Gamma-ray nuclear resonance absorption (γ-NRA) for explosives detection in air cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The γ-NRA method has been utilized to detect explosives concealed in aviation containers loaded with a variety of cargo. In γ-NRA, gamma-rays at an energy of 9.17 MeV undergo a resonant nuclear attenuation component proportional to the integrated density of 14N nuclei along the line of sight from source to detector. When inspecting objects in transmission mode, projected images of nitrogen density of their contents can be generated. In an experiment performed earlier this year at the Dynamitron accelerator lab. of Birmingham Univ., U.K., diverse items such as passenger bags, electronic equipment, paper goods and mixed cargo were scanned along with explosives simulants. The results from this run will be presented and anticipated performance ratings of an operational explosives detection system (EDS) discussed

  4. Gamma-ray nuclear resonance absorption (γ-NRA) for explosives detection in air cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartsky, D.; Goldberg, M. B.; Engler, G.; Goldschmidt, A.; Feldman, G.; Bar, D.; Sayag, E.; Katz, D.; Krauss, R. A.

    1999-06-01

    The γ-NRA method has been utilized to detect explosives concealed in aviation containers loaded with a variety of cargo. In γ-NRA, gamma-rays at an energy of 9.17 MeV undergo a resonant nuclear attenuation component proportional to the integrated density of 14N nuclei along the line of sight from source to detector. When inspecting objects in transmission mode, projected images of nitrogen density of their contents can be generated. In an experiment performed earlier this year at the Dynamitron accelerator lab. of Birmingham Univ., U.K., diverse items such as passenger bags, electronic equipment, paper goods and mixed cargo were scanned along with explosives simulants. The results from this run will be presented and anticipated performance ratings of an operational explosives detection system (EDS) discussed.

  5. The Nuclear Car Wash: Neutron interrogation of cargo containers to detect hidden SNM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LLNL is actively involved in the development of advanced technologies for use in detecting threats in sea-going cargo containers, particularly the presence of hidden special nuclear materials (SNM). The 'Nuclear Car Wash' (NCW) project presented here uses a high-energy (E n ∼ 3.5-7.0 MeV) neutron probe to scan a container and then takes high-energy (E γ ≥ 2.5 MeV), β-delayed γ-rays emitted during the subsequent decay of any short-lived, neutron-induced fission products as a signature of fissionable material. The components of the proposed system (e.g. neutron source, gamma detectors, etc.) will be discussed along with data processing schemes, possible threat detection metrics and potential interference signals. Results from recent laboratory experiments using a prototype system at LLNL will also be presented

  6. The Nuclear Car Wash: Neutron interrogation of cargo containers to detect hidden SNM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. M.; Asztalos, S.; Biltoft, P.; Church, J.; Descalle, M.-A.; Luu, T.; Manatt, D.; Mauger, G.; Norman, E.; Petersen, D.; Pruet, J.; Prussin, S.; Slaughter, D.

    2007-08-01

    LLNL is actively involved in the development of advanced technologies for use in detecting threats in sea-going cargo containers, particularly the presence of hidden special nuclear materials (SNM). The "Nuclear Car Wash" (NCW) project presented here uses a high-energy (En ≈ 3.5-7.0 MeV) neutron probe to scan a container and then takes high-energy (Eγ ⩾ 2.5 MeV), β-delayed γ-rays emitted during the subsequent decay of any short-lived, neutron-induced fission products as a signature of fissionable material. The components of the proposed system (e.g. neutron source, gamma detectors, etc.) will be discussed along with data processing schemes, possible threat detection metrics and potential interference signals. Results from recent laboratory experiments using a prototype system at LLNL will also be presented.

  7. Analysis and Design of a Long Range PTFE Substrate UHF RFID Tag for Cargo Container Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrariu, Adrian-Ioan; Popa, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a high-performances microstrip antenna for UHF (ultra high frequency) RFID (radio frequency identification) tag is designed, prototyped and tested. The antenna consists of two main components: a 1.52 mm RT/duroid 5880 laminate substrate on which the antenna is designed and a 10 mm polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) dielectric material placed as a separator between the antenna and the reference ground plane for the microstrip antenna. With this structure, the RFID tag can reach a maximum reading distance of 19 m, although the antenna has a compact size of 80 mm × 50 mm. The long reading distance is obtained by attaching to the antenna an RFID chip that can provide a reading sensitivity of -20.5 dBm. The high bandwidth from 677 MHz to 947 MHz measured at -10 dB, makes the tag being usable worldwide especially for cargo container identification, the main purpose of this research.

  8. The EURITRACK project: development of a tagged neutron inspection system for cargo containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perot, Bertrand; Perret, Gregory; Mariani, Alain; Ma, Jean-Luc; Szabo, Jean-Louis; Mercier, Emmanuel; Sannie, Guillaume; Viesti, Giuseppe; Nebbia, Giancarlo; Pesente, Silvia; Lunardon, Marcello; Formisano, Paola; Moretto, Sandra; Fabris, Daniela; Zenoni, Aldo; Bonomi, Germano; Donzella, Antonietta; Fontana, Andrea; Boghen, Gaia; Valkovic, Vladivoj; Sudac, Darovin; Moszynski, Marek; Batsch, Tadeusz; Gierlik, Michal; Wolski, Dariusz; Klamra, Wlodzimierz; Isaksson, Patrick; Le Tourneur, Philippe; Lhuissier, Miguel; Colonna, Annamaria; Tintori, Carlo; Peerani, Paolo; Sequeira, Vitor; Salvato, Martino

    2006-05-01

    The EURopean Illicit TRAfficing Countermeasures Kit project is part of the 6th European Union Framework Program, and aims at developing a neutron inspection system for detecting threat materials (explosives, drugs, etc.) in cargo containers. Neutron interaction in the container produces specific gamma-rays used to determine the chemical composition of the inspected material. An associated particle sealed tube neutron generator is developed to allow precise location of the interaction point by direction and time-of-flight measurements of the neutrons tagged by alpha-particles. The EURITRACK project consists in developing: a transportable deuterium-tritium neutron generator including a position sensitive alpha detector (8×8 matrix of YAP:Ce crystals coupled to a multi-anode photomultiplier), fast neutron and gamma-ray detectors, front-end electronics to perform coincidence and spectroscopic measurements, and an integrated software which manages neutron generator and detectors positioning, data acquisition and analysis. Hardware components have been developed and tested by the consortium partners. Current status of this work and provisional performances of the system assessed by Monte Carlo calculations are presented.

  9. Monte Carlo parametric studies of neutron interrogation with the Associated Particle Technique for cargo container inspections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyglun, Clément; Carasco, Cédric; Pérot, Bertrand

    2014-06-01

    The detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) by neutron interrogation is extensively studied by Monte Carlo simulation at the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory of CEA Cadarache (French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission). The active inspection system is based on the Associated Particle Technique (APT). Fissions induced by tagged neutrons (i.e. correlated to an alpha particle in the DT neutron generator) in SNM produce high multiplicity coincidences which are detected with fast plastic scintillators. At least three particles are detected in a short time window following the alpha detection, whereas nonnuclear materials mainly produce single events, or pairs due to (n,2n) and (n,n'γ) reactions. To study the performances of an industrial cargo container inspection system, Monte Carlo simulations are performed with the MCNP-PoliMi transport code, which records for each neutron history the relevant information: reaction types, position and time of interactions, energy deposits, secondary particles, etc. The output files are post-processed with a specific tool developed with ROOT data analysis software. Particles not correlated with an alpha particle (random background), counting statistics, and time-energy resolutions of the data acquisition system are taken into account in the numerical model. Various matrix compositions, suspicious items, SNM shielding and positions inside the container, are simulated to assess the performances and limitations of an industrial system.

  10. Structural response of cargo containment systems in LNG carriers under ice loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas exploration has been extended into the Arctic region such as in the Russian Arctic area, because of the increasing demand for energy resources. As a result, shipping in ice-covered seas is also increasing. Many technical issues are involved in ensuring the safety of liquefied natural gas (LNG) ships during the transportation. This paper discussed an investigation of ship-ice interaction scenarios for possible operation routes in Arctic areas. Six scenarios were selected to study the structural response of cargo containment systems (CCS) in both membrane and spherical types of LNG ships. For selected ship-ice interaction scenarios, ice loads and loading areas in the hull structure were determined based on the energy theory. The configurations of LNG carriers were discussed and illustrated. The paper also outlined the assessment criteria and structure analysis procedures. It was concluded that the strength of the CCS of membrane-type LNG carrier and the strength of the skirt structure of spherical-type LNG carrier were strong enough under the design ice loads. 13 refs., 9 tabs., 18 figs

  11. The impact of sea-air mode on air cargo transport

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hajri, Ghanem Mohamed

    1997-01-01

    The following research looks into the concept of sea-air intermodality, a combination of two or more modes of transport for the carriage of goods from origin to destination. The study examines why and how this form of transport evolved to become a viable alternative to the conventional single modes of ocean and air transport. The viability of the sea-air mode depends on various equally important factors which are analysed in depth, with a special emphasis on the sea-ai...

  12. Low cost combined systems for detection of contraband hidden in cargo containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fruitful cooperation between Egypt and the International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA through the Coordinated Research Project (Contract No.13497/RO) which is concerned with the use of neutron based techniques for the detection of illicit materials and explosives tends to design and construct combined systems to search the contents of cargo containers for illicit trafficking. The systems consist of a scanner based on using γ rays emitted from 60Co source to locate the position of contraband hidden within the payload and an identifier based on using neutrons emitted from Pu-α-Be source to distinguish the suspected object through elemental analysis by fast and thermal neutrons. The systems include as well a especially mechanical system to move the inspected container between the radiation sources and detector. The mechanical system is equipped with an electrical controller unit to adjust the movement increment of the inspected container and time of measurement. A γ ray measuring system with NaI(Tl) detector is used to measure the γ rays transmitted through the container during the scanning process. The same γ detector is used to measure the γ spectrum resulting from neutron interrogation. The measured γ rays are fed to two counting stations, the first station is used to count γ rays transmitted through the container during the scanning process, while the second one is used to record the spectrum of γ ray emitted from the suspected object during the identification stage. Results obtained from the primary tests are presented in the form of 2D image for the suspected object and in the form of displayed γ spectra for γ rays emitted from the suspected objects by neutron interrogation analysis. The constructed 2D images and γ-ray spectra measured for different hidden illicit materials clearly indicate that the system is of low scanning cost, very fast and efficient for detecting contraband screened by steel shield of 1 cm thick. In addition, the system weight

  13. Evaluation of a flag-based explosives detection algorithm based on active neutron interrogation for use in sea land cargo containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly explosive materials smuggled in sea land cargo containers are a security concern. An algorithm based on neutron and photon measurements during active neutron interrogation with 14.1 MeV neutrons was developed. The detection algorithm has now been evaluated for effectiveness over a wide range of explosive sizes, positions, and cargo configurations. Various sources of uncertainty were also studied. An estimate of the false positive and false negative rates was completed for various measurement conditions. Results showed that, although minimum detectable mass depends on the surrounding cargo, explosive position, and cargo configuration, 200 kg RDX could be reliably detected. (author)

  14. A Proposal for High-resolution X-ray Imaging of Intermodal Cargo Containers for Fissionable Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiter, B J; Prussin, S G; Pohl, B; Hall, J; Trebes, J; Stone, G; Descalle, M

    2007-07-05

    The sensitivity for identification of high-Z objects in elemental form in the massive cargo of intermodal containers with continuous bremsstrahlung radiation depends critically on discriminating the weak signal from uncollided photons from the very intense flux of scattered radiations that penetrate the cargo. We propose that this might be accomplished by rejection of detected events with E {le} 2-3 MeV that contain the majority of multiply-scattered photons along with a correction for single-scattered photons at higher energies. Monte Carlo simulations of radiographs with a 9-MeV bremsstrahlung spectrum demonstrate that rejection of detected events with E {le} 3 MeV removes the majority of signals from scattered photons emerging through cargo with Z {le} 30 and areal densities of at least 145 g cm{sup -2}. With analytical estimates of the single-scattered intensity at higher energies, accurate estimates of linear attenuation coefficients for shielded and unshielded uranium spheres with masses as small as 0.08 kg are found. The estimated maximum dose is generally so low that reasonable order tomography of interesting portions of a container should be possible.

  15. A flag-based algorithm and associated neutron interrogation system for the detection of explosives in sea-land cargo containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, A. L.; Kearfott, K. J.

    2015-07-01

    Recent efforts in the simulation of sea-land cargo containers in active neutron interrogation scenarios resulted in the identification of several flags indicating the presence of conventional explosives. These flags, defined by specific mathematical manipulations of the neutron and photon spectra, have been combined into a detection algorithm for screening cargo containers at international borders and seaports. The detection algorithm's steps include classifying the cargo type, identifying containers filled with explosives, triggering in the presence of concealed explosives, and minimizing the number of false positives due to cargo heterogeneity. The algorithm has been implemented in a system that includes both neutron and photon detectors. This system will take about 10 min to scan a container and cost approximately 1M to construct. Dose calculations resulted in estimates of less than 0.5 mSv for a person hidden in the container, and an operator annual dose of less than 0.9 mSv.

  16. Light or Heat? The Origin of Cargo Release from Nanoimpeller Particles Containing Upconversion Nanocrystals under IR Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Juyao; Zink, Jeffrey I

    2015-09-01

    Nanoimpellers are mesoporous silica nanoparticles that contain azobenzene derivatives bonded inside the pores and rely on the continuous photoisomerization of multiple azobenzenes to release cargo under near UV irradiation. A recent study employs upconversion nanocrystal embedded particles to replace UV light with IR light to stimulate nanoimpellers. However, the photothermal effect of IR irradiation and its likely contribution to the observed release behavior are not examined. It is found that, in the absence of upconversion nanocrystals, the azobenzene co-condensed silica particles still respond to 980 nm illumination, which increases the nanoparticle temperature by 25 °C in 15 min, experimentally measured by an encapsulated nanothermometer. After suppressing the heating, the IR irradiation does not initiate the release, indicating that optical heating, not upconverted light, is responsible for the triggered cargo release. The results are explained by numerical analyses. PMID:26034008

  17. Specification of test criteria for containers to be used in the air transport of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential accidents in the transport by aeroplane of plutonium are considered. Past literature on the subject is reviewed. Civilian air accident statistics are surveyed: impact and fire are shown to be the major threats. Probabilities (given an accident) are derived for encountering and impact of above any given speed as a function of speed, and a fire of above any given duration, as a function of duration. The crash of two typical jet cargo aircraft (BAC-111, Boeing-707) against a rigid normal surface is considered and cargo hold decelerations derived from a one-dimensional model. The response of a cargo to such decelerations is calculated for loads of two typical containers, and related to the velocity of impact into a hard target necessary to produce similar damage in single containers. Free fall of containers and the effect on the surface struck are discussed. The response of two typical containers to a fire is calculated, allowing for the charring of insulating/shock absorbing material. Calculations without charring appear pessimistic. The consequences of plutonium release are estimated and risk spectra derived for two failure assumptions. The implications for container test criteria are discussed, and recommendations made

  18. National Security Science and Technology Initiative: Air Cargo Screening, Final Report for CRADA Number NFE-07-01081

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, Philip [ORNL; Bush, John [Battelle Memorial Institute; Bowerman, Biays [Brookhaven National Laboratory; Cespedes, Ernesto [Idaho National Laboratory; White, Timothy [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2004-12-01

    The non-intrusive inspection (NII) of consolidated air cargo carried on commercial passenger aircraft continues to be a technically challenging, high-priority requirement of the Department of Homeland Security’s Science and Technology Directorate (DHS S&T), the Transportation Security Agency and the Federal Aviation Administration. The goal of deploying a screening system that can reliably and cost-effectively detect explosive threats in consolidated cargo without adversely affecting the flow of commerce will require significant technical advances that will take years to develop. To address this critical National Security need, the Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle), under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with four of its associated US Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, Idaho, and Brookhaven), conducted a research and development initiative focused on identifying, evaluating, and integrating technologies for screening consolidated air cargo for the presence of explosive threats. Battelle invested $8.5M of internal research and development funds during fiscal years 2007 through 2009.

  19. Waste Crate and Container Imaging Using the Vehicle and Cargo Inspection System. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vehicle and Cargo Inspection System (VACIS) is a highly penetrating gamma ray imaging system that provides a means to non-invasively image crate contents prior to crate disassembly. The VACIS unit uses a 1.6 Curie collimated source (Cesium-137) aimed at a linear detector to create an image as the unit passes by the crate. In the demonstrated mobile unit, the source and detector were mounted on a boom truck. As the crate passed between the source and detector, a near real-time composite image of the contents was constructed from the linear image of the VACIS unit's on board computer and recorded on disk

  20. Waste Crate and Container Imaging Using the Vehicle and Cargo Inspection System. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-07-01

    The Vehicle and Cargo Inspection System (VACIS) is a highly penetrating gamma ray imaging system that provides a means to non-invasively image crate contents prior to crate disassembly. The VACIS unit uses a 1.6 Curie collimated source (Cesium-137) aimed at a linear detector to create an image as the unit passes by the crate. In the demonstrated mobile unit, the source and detector were mounted on a boom truck. As the crate passed between the source and detector, a near real-time composite image of the contents was constructed from the linear image of the VACIS unit's on board computer and recorded on disk.

  1. Role of Air Cargo and Road Feeder Services for Regional Airports – Case Studies from the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beifert Anatoli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although airports play an important role the global and European economies, according to the new guidelines of the EU Commission on the new state aid rules for a competitive aviation industry (EC, 2014, it will be more difficult for unprofitable airports, to get financial public subsidies in the future. The Commission noted that the majority of regional airports experience severe problems to cover their operative costs, resulting from among other things from overlapping of airports’ catchment areas. The main objective of the above mentioned measures is not to close the regional airports, but to motivate them to operate on cost efficient, profitable and more flexible basis, stating however that and that the most inefficient airports will be still closed. In order face upcoming challenges, the regional airports shall reconsider their future development plans. Traditionally, the airports including small and regional airports focus on the passenger traffic and thus, the possible benefits and opportunities of the air cargo market are totally underestimated or even completely ignored. Most regional airports in the Baltic Sea region act totally isolated and do not have a clear picture of the current situation on the international air cargo market today, its future perspectives and sustainable development plans remain basically hidden. There are some examples when trying to meet the market demand, the regional airports have made huge, but unfortunately unjustified investments, e.g. improving airport infrastructure, runways, etc. However, the airports’ infrastructural investments alone cannot fulfil the expected “remedy” role for the airports’ sustainability. This paper aims at investigating the positioning and the role of the regional airports in the current hub-and-spoke network, focusing on the relevance and potential of the air cargo sector for the regional airports development. The optional freight value proposition for the development of

  2. A flag-based algorithm and associated neutron interrogation system for the detection of explosives in sea–land cargo containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent efforts in the simulation of sea–land cargo containers in active neutron interrogation scenarios resulted in the identification of several flags indicating the presence of conventional explosives. These flags, defined by specific mathematical manipulations of the neutron and photon spectra, have been combined into a detection algorithm for screening cargo containers at international borders and seaports. The detection algorithm's steps include classifying the cargo type, identifying containers filled with explosives, triggering in the presence of concealed explosives, and minimizing the number of false positives due to cargo heterogeneity. The algorithm has been implemented in a system that includes both neutron and photon detectors. This system will take about 10 min to scan a container and cost approximately $1M to construct. Dose calculations resulted in estimates of less than 0.5 mSv for a person hidden in the container, and an operator annual dose of less than 0.9 mSv. - Highlights: • Monte Carlo model of explosives screening in cargo containers using fast neutrons. • Monte Carlo model also explores neutron detector response. • Development of an explosives detection algorithm using active neutron interrogation. • Implementation of the algorithm, including equipment, infrastructure, cost and dose. • System will cost ~1M USD and an entire container may be scanned in ~10 min

  3. Investigation of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Boarded search of a cargo container ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detonation of a terrorist nuclear weapon in the United States would result in the massive loss of life and grave economic damage. Even if a device was not detonated, its known or suspected presence aboard a cargo container ship in a U.S. port would have major economic and political consequences. One possible means to prevent this threat would be to board a ship at sea and search for the device before it reaches port. The scenario considered here involves a small Coast Guard team with strong intelligence boarding a container ship to search for a nuclear device. Using active interrogation, the team would nonintrusively search a block of shipping containers to locate the fissile material. Potential interrogation source and detector technologies for the team are discussed. The methodology of the scan is presented along with a technique for calculating the required interrogation source strength using computer simulations. MCNPX was used to construct a computer model of a container ship, and several search scenarios were simulated. The results of the simulations are presented in terms of the source strength required for each interrogation scenario. Validation measurements were performed in order to scale these simulation results to expected performance. Interrogations through the short (2.4 m) axis of a standardized shipping container appear to be feasible given the entire range of container loadings tested. Interrogations through several containers at once or a single container through its long (12.2 m) axis do not appear to be viable with a portable interrogation system

  4. Containment air circulation for optimal hydrogen recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accepted first-line defense for hydrogen mitigation is to design for the hydrogen to be rapidly mixed with the containment atmosphere and diluted to below flammability concentrations. Then, as hydrogen continues to be produced in the longer term, recombiners can be used to remove hydrogen: recombiners can be located in forced-air ducts or passive recombiners can be distributed within containment and the heat of recombination used to promote local air circulation. However, this principle does not eliminate the possibility of high hydrogen concentrations at locations removed from the recombiners. An improvement on this strategy is to arrange for a specific, buoyancy-driven, overall circulation of the containment atmosphere such that the recombiners can be located within the recirculation flow, immediately downstream of the hydrogen source. This would make the mixing process more predictable and solve the mass-transfer problem associated with distributed recombiners. Ideally, the recombiners would be located just above the hydrogen source so that the heat of recombination would assist the overall circulation. In this way, the hydrogen would be removed as close as possible to the source, thereby minimizing the amount of hydrogen immediately downstream of the source and reducing the hydrogen concentration to acceptable levels at other locations. Such a strategy requires the containment volume to be divided into an upflow path, past the hydrogen source and the recombiner, and a downflow path to complete the circuit. The flow could be generated actively using fans or passively using buoyancy forces arising from the difference in density of gases in the upfiow and downflow paths; the gases in the downflow path being cooled at an elevated heat sink. (author)

  5. Tagged neutrons from portable neutron generator for detection of high explosives and fissile materials in cargo containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two prototypes of measuring inspection systems created in VNIIA and intended for active interrogation of cargo containers to detect high explosives (HE) and fissile materials (FM) are presented. Both systems are based on 14 MeV tagged neutrons (API) method. The first system (for HE detection) includes: - VNIIA portable neutron generator ING-27 with built-in segmented 9-pixel semiconductor α-detector (30 x 30 mm2); - 12 scintillation γ-detectors based on bismuth germanate crystal (BGO) with size of diameter 63 x 63 mm2; - γ-detector shielding from primary neutron flux (borated polyethylene + iron); - electronics for data acquisition and processing system. Experimental results on detection of 50 kg of HE simulator melamine (C3H6N6) are presented for wood and iron matrix as container mock-up with average density of 0.4 g/cm3 and for different distances of HE simulator from container front wall. With increase of distance from container wall to melamine the excess of signal over background decreases. This is conditioned both by measurement geometry and attenuation of probe neutron beam and produced inelastic γ-quanta by container filling. Various decision-making algorithms and improvements are discussed. The second system (for FMdetection) includes the same neutron generator, six plastic (polystyrene) large square (120 x 9 x 9 cm3) scintillators for detection of multiple coincidences of prompt neutrons and fission γ-quanta from FM. Radiation types were distinguished according to time of flight. Measurements were conducted for depleted uranium (8 kg) arranged in container filled with wood and iron of 0.4 g/cm3 average density at the distance of 60 cm from container front wall. Excess of two- and three-fold coincidences from uranium over the corresponding background value was observed both in neutron and γ-channels. The best signal/background ratio was revealed for container filled with iron. (author)

  6. X-ray and neutron interrogation of air cargo for mobile applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system for scanning break-bulk cargo for mobile applications is presented. This combines a 140 kV multi-view, multi-energy X-ray system with 2.5 MeV neutrons. The system uses dual energy X-ray radiography with neutron radiography. The X-ray and neutron systems were designed to be collocated in a mobile environment. Various materials were interrogated with the intent of distinguishing threat materials such as explosives from similar benign materials. In particular, the identification of threats and bengins with nearly identical effective atomic numbers has been demonstrated

  7. X-ray and neutron interrogation of air cargo for mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Liew, Seth

    2015-06-01

    A system for scanning break-bulk cargo for mobile applications is presented. This combines a 140 kV multi-view, multi-energy X-ray system with 2.5 MeV neutrons. The system uses dual energy X-ray radiography with neutron radiography. The X-ray and neutron systems were designed to be collocated in a mobile environment. Various materials were interrogated with the intent of distinguishing threat materials such as explosives from similar benign materials. In particular, the identification of threats and bengins with nearly identical effective atomic numbers has been demonstrated.

  8. Radiation Scanning Methods for Ship-to-Rail Intermodal Cargo Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Homeland Security's (DHS) Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) runs the Rail Test Center (RTC) at the Port of Tacoma (POT). The RTC affords DNDO with the opportunity to test radiological and nuclear threat detection systems associated with the unique on-dock rail environment while in an operational seaport. DNDO selected the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to manage the RTC. The RTC is conducting various evaluation studies to assess scanning opportunities in terms of their affects on the number of container moves required and the affect that the scanning opportunity has on the time it takes to move a container through the on-dock transfer process from ship to rail. The velocity and the number of container moves are directly associated with incremental costs to the terminal operators; increases in either of these parameters help in-form the potential for incremental costs that would result from the implementation of the opportunity.

  9. The concept of the development of cargo container transport system within airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Hentschel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The transport of luggage units between the check-in terminal and airplanes is realized by the use of very simple transport solutions and manual reloading of the luggage. The luggage trolleys are used for the transport purposes, which are hitched to the mover and moved directly to the surroundings of the airplane. The loading and unloading of luggage is performed manually. Regarding actual safety requirements there was a need to create a new transport system, working in a closed cycle and based on the device for automatic loading and unloading of luggage units. Methods: Various potential variants of the device were generated based on results of analytical researches by the use of the morphological schema. The detail evaluation and the optimization of individual variants allow to prepare the concept of the complex method to solve problems of the reliable transport of luggage units within an airport. Results: The closed transport system was created as a result of the innovative project. The main element of this system is a container trolley, which is equipped in five storage layers. By the use of the special mover and gravitational forces, luggage units can be transported and placed inside this trolley as well as being loaded and unloaded. This solution enables to move 200 pieces of luggage in one transport cycle from the check-in terminal to the hatchway of the airplane.

  10. Fliposomes: pH-Sensitive Liposomes Containing a trans-2-morpholinocyclohexanol-Based Lipid That Performs a Conformational Flip and Triggers an Instant Cargo Release in Acidic Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Barbora Brazdova; Franz, Andreas H.; Samoshin, Vyacheslav V.; Xin Guo; Xin Liu; Samoshina, Nataliya M.

    2011-01-01

    Incorporation of a pH-sensitive conformational switch into a lipid structure enables a drastic conformational flip upon protonation that disrupts the liposome membrane and causes rapid release of cargo specifically in areas of increased acidity. pH-sensitive liposomes containing the amphiphile (1) with trans-2-morpholinocyclohexanol conformational switch, a phospholipid, and a PEG-lipid conjugate were constructed and characterized. The optimized composition—1/POPC/PEG-ceramide (50/45/5)—could...

  11. Monitoring tritium in air containing other radioactive gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief survey is presented of methods that have been developed for active tritium monitoring that may be applied to measure tritium concentrations in air containing 13N, 16N, and 41Ar produced by D-T neutrons. Included are instruments that employ current subtraction to achieve discriminations and others that selectively remove atmospheric water vapor from stream of activated air

  12. Evaluation of an air drilling cuttings containment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westmoreland, J.

    1994-04-01

    Drilling at hazardous waste sites for environmental remediation or monitoring requires containment of all drilling fluids and cuttings to protect personnel and the environment. At many sites, air drilling techniques have advantages over other drilling methods, requiring effective filtering and containment of the return air/cuttings stream. A study of. current containment methods indicated improvements could be made in the filtering of radionuclides and volatile organic compounds, and in equipment like alarms, instrumentation or pressure safety features. Sandia National Laboratories, Dept. 61 11 Environmental Drilling Projects Group, initiated this work to address these concerns. A look at the industry showed that asbestos abatement equipment could be adapted for containment and filtration of air drilling returns. An industry manufacturer was selected to build a prototype machine. The machine was leased and put through a six-month testing and evaluation period at Sandia National Laboratories. Various materials were vacuumed and filtered with the machine during this time. In addition, it was used in an actual air drive drilling operation. Results of these tests indicate that the vacuum/filter unit will meet or exceed our drilling requirements. This vacuum/filter unit could be employed at a hazardous waste site or any site where drilling operations require cuttings and air containment.

  13. Air Cargo Security

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin Georgescu

    2012-01-01

    Homeland security is all activities to protect, guard and protect people, communities of people, infrastructure and property against asymmetric threats of military or non- military, and those generated by geo-physical, weather-related or other natural and threatening human life, liberty, property and activities of the people and communities, infrastructure and socio-economic activities, and other values at a level of intensity and scope significantly different from the usual state. Internal s...

  14. Aerosol Characterization in Containment Air during Severe Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To ensure the reduction of the radioactive aerosol concentration and to guarantee the filter efficiency in accident scenarios with various conditions, it is essential to characterize the aerosols in the containment air. This study is to investigate the aerosol size distribution and the concentration in containment air during the severe accident scenario by using numerical simulations. NAUA code was used to model the behavior of radioactive aerosol particles. As input parameters for NAUA simulation, the data of the currently operating nuclear power plant (OPR-1000) was used and conservative thermal hydraulic conditions were provided from the conservative simulation results. For verification, the simulation results were compared with the data found in the literature. Aerosol in containment air during severe accident is modeled by using NAUA code. The aerosol characteristics are calculated and variations due to some parameters are investigated. For verification, the main results are compared with the information of the previous works. The simulation results in this study for particle size distribution in containment air during severe accident were in general agreement with previously reported measurements. The simulation results and findings would be useful data for prototypic CFVS design and for planning further experimental studies

  15. Incorporating biplane wing theory into a large, subsonic, all-cargo transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyskowski, Michael K.

    1994-01-01

    If the air-cargo market increases at the pace predicted, a new conceptual aircraft will be demanded to meet the needs of the air-cargo industry. Furthermore, it has been found that not only should this aircraft be optimized to carry the intermodal containers used by the current shipping industry, but it should also be be able to operate at existing airports. The best solution to these problems is a configuration incorporating a bi-wing planform, which has resulted in significant improvements over the monoplane in lift/drag, weight reduction, and span reduction. The future of the air-cargo market, biplane theory, wind tunnel tests, and a comparison of the aerodynamic characteristics of the biplane and monoplane are discussed. The factors pertaining to a biplane cargo transport are then examined, resulting in biplane geometric parameters.

  16. Determination of high-risk cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Leo A.; Smith, Douglas E.; Khan, Siraj M.

    1994-10-01

    The approach and methodology used in the determination of the type of cargo containing concealments of commercial quantities of narcotics such as cocaine and heroin is described. This high-risk cargo enters the United States through border crossings at land, seaports and airports. The volume and variety of cargos make it a complex and challenging task for the U.S. Customs Service.

  17. 46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154.412... Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion...) carries a cargo that corrodes the tank material. Note: Corrosion allowance for independent tank type C...

  18. Surface charge accumulation of particles containing radionuclides in open air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity can induce charge accumulation on radioactive particles. However, electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are typically neglected in transport modeling of radioactive plumes because it is assumed that ionizing radiation leads to charge neutralization. The assumption that electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are negligible is evaluated here by examining charge accumulation and neutralization on particles containing radionuclides in open air. A charge-balance model is employed to predict charge accumulation on radioactive particles. It is shown that particles containing short-lived radionuclides can be charged with multiple elementary charges through radioactive decay. The presence of radioactive particles can significantly modify the particle charge distribution in open air and yield an asymmetric bimodal charge distribution, suggesting that strong electrostatic particle interactions may occur during short- and long-range transport of radioactive particles. Possible effects of transported radioactive particles on electrical properties of the local atmosphere are reported. The study offers insight into transport characteristics of airborne radionuclides. Results are useful in atmospheric transport modeling of radioactive plumes. - Highlights: • Radioactivity-induced charge enhances electrostatic particle interactions. • Radioactivity-induced particle charging is important in radioactivity transport. • Ionization rate coefficients of beta-emitting radionuclides are reported

  19. 19 CFR 103.31a - Advance electronic information for air, truck, and rail cargo; Importer Security Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advance electronic information for air, truck, and... AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Other Information Subject to Restricted Access § 103.31a Advance electronic... following types of advance electronic information are per se exempt from disclosure under §...

  20. 46 CFR 154.534 - Cargo pumps and cargo compressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pumps and cargo compressors. 154.534 Section 154... Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.534 Cargo pumps and cargo compressors. Cargo pumps and cargo compressors must shut-down automatically when the quick-closing shut-off valves under §§...

  1. Cargo-cult training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magueijo, João

    2009-12-01

    Richard Feynman, in one of his famous rants, evoked as a metaphor what he called "cargo-cult science". During the Second World War, the indigenous people of the South Pacific became accustomed to US Air Force planes landing on their islands, invariably bringing a profusion of desirable goods and tasty foods. When the war ended, they were distressed by the discontinuation of this popular service. So, they decided to take action. They cleared elongated patches of land to make them look like runways. They lit wood fires where they had seen electric floodlights guiding in the planes. They built a wooden shack and made a man sit inside with two halves of a coconut on each ear and bamboo bars sticking out like antennas: he was the "air controller". And they waited for the planes to return.

  2. Prácticas y representaciones bibliotecarias en la Biblioteca Pública de Buenos Aires: Una lectura del libro de "Cargo y data" (1810-1818 Library practices and representations in the public library of Buenos Aires: a reading of the book of "Cargo y data" (1810-1818

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro E. Parada

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo estudia, brevemente, las prácticas de gestión bibliotecaria en la Biblioteca Pública de Buenos Aires durante el período 1810-1818. El mismo se basa en un documento existente en el Archivo General de la Nación: el "Libro de cargo y data, o de cuenta corriente de los encargados de los gastos de la Biblioteca Pública formado por el Director de ella Dr. Dn. Luis José Chorroarín en el año 1812". Gracias a esta fuente es posible rastrear la administración y los diversos procesos que permitieron administrar a ese importante establecimiento, una de las primeras creaciones de política cultural de la Revolución de Mayo. De este modo, se abordan varios tópicos de particular interés: ingresos y gastos, personal, venta de ejemplares duplicados y deteriorados, encuadernación de obras, adquisición de libros, mantenimiento edilicio, etc. Entre otras conclusiones se señala la importancia de este tipo de documentos administrativos y burocráticos para conocer la variedad de las prácticas bibliotecarias dentro del marco de la Historia de la Bibliotecología en la Argentina.The article briefly studies the library management practices in the Public Library of Buenos Aires from 1810 to 1818. It is based on a document from the General Archive of the Nation: the "Libro de cargo y data, o de cuenta corriente de los encargados de los gastos de la Biblioteca Pública formado por el Director de ella Dr. Dn. Luis José Chorroarín en el año 1812". Thanks to that source it is possible to track the administration and the different processes that allowed to manage that important place, one of the first creations of cultural politics of the Revolution of May. Thus, several subjects of particular interest are seen here: incomes and expenditures; personnel; selling of duplicate or damaged material; bookbinding; book acquisition; building maintenance; etc. Among several conclusions, the relevance of this type of administrative and bureaucratic

  3. 46 CFR 153.371 - Minimum relief valve setting for refrigerated cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum relief valve setting for refrigerated cargo... Design and Equipment Cargo Venting Systems § 153.371 Minimum relief valve setting for refrigerated cargo tanks. The relief valve setting for a containment system that carries a refrigerated cargo must at...

  4. Conceptual design of passive containment cooling system with air holdup tanks in the concrete containment of improved APR+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Byong Guk; NO, Hee Cheon, E-mail: hcno@kaist.ac.kr

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Conceptual design of passive containment cooling system (PCCS) based on APR+ is proposed. • Decay heat removal rate is to be maximized by introducing air holdup tanks (AHT). • Only air is transported into the AHT decreasing air mass fraction near HXs inside containment and increasing heat transfer rates. • Large AHT volume gives significantly higher heat removal rate. • External HXs have merits over in-tube HXs for long term cooling. - Abstract: The accident of the Fukushima nuclear power plant emphasized passive systems against prolonged station blackout. This paper aims at conceptual design of passive containment cooling system (PCCS) based on APR+, an advanced PWR developed in Korea with passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS). In the design, decay heat removal rate is to be maximized by introducing air holdup tanks (AHT). The AHT is an isolated space disposed above IRWST and is connected to the containment free space by vent lines through IRWST water and PAFS heat exchangers (HXs), where steam generated by decay heat is condensed. Since a lot of steam is condensed through in-tube HXs and IRWST water, air is mainly transported into the AHT decreasing air mass fraction near HXs inside containment and increasing heat transfer rates. Several design options (AHT volume, flow distribution in vent lines, HX types) are evaluated via scoping analysis. The scoping analysis had proved that AHT (>10% containment volume) decreased the required number of PCCS HXs to be installed less than a half, failure of valves caused marginal increase in HXs to be installed, and external HXs had merits over in-tube HXs for long term cooling.

  5. Development of air coolers for compartments located within the containment of a nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluev, D. E.; Matsyuk, V. P.; Nikanorov, O. L.; Panov, Yu. K.; Shepelev, S. F.

    2008-05-01

    The results of design studies and experimental investigations performed in the course of developing a unified set of air coolers for facilities for technological ventilation of compartments of a leaktight containment of an NPP are presented.

  6. Indirect estimation of radioactivity in containerized cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring radioactive material in containerized cargo challenges the state of the art in national and international efforts to detect illicit nuclear and radiological material in transported containers. Current systems are being evaluated and new systems envisioned to provide the high probability of detection necessary to thwart potential threats, combined with extremely low nuisance and false alarm rates necessary to maintain the flow of commerce impacted by the enormous volume of commodities imported in shipping containers. Maintaining flow of commerce also means that inspection must be rapid, requiring relatively non-intrusive, indirect measurements of cargo from outside containers to the extent possible. With increasing information content in such measurements, it is natural to ask how the information might be combined to improve detection. Toward this end, we present an approach to estimating isotopic activity of naturally occurring radioactive material in cargo grouped by commodity type, combining container manifest data with radiography and gamma-ray spectroscopy aligned to location along the container. The heart of this approach is our statistical model of gamma-ray counts within peak regions of interest, which captures the effects of background suppression, counting noise, convolution of neighboring cargo contributions, and down-scattered photons to provide estimates of counts due to decay of specific radioisotopes in cargo alone. Coupled to that model, we use a mechanistic model of self-attenuated radiation flux to estimate the isotopic activity within cargo, segmented by location within each container, that produces those counts. We test our approach by applying it to a set of measurements taken at the Port of Seattle in 2006. This approach to synthesizing disparate available data streams and extraction of cargo characteristics, while relying on several simplifying assumptions and approximations, holds the potential to support improvement of

  7. Cargo-Positioning System for Next-Generation Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Jon; Colton, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    A report discusses a proposed system for mounting loaded pallets in the cargo bay of a next-generation space-shuttle-like spacecraft, such that the center of mass of the cargo would lie within a 1-in. (2.54-cm) cube that would also contain the center of mass of the spacecraft. The system would include (1) an algorithm for planning the locations of the pallets, given the geometric and weight properties of the pallets, and the geometric restrictions of the cargo bay; (2) quick-connect/quick-disconnect mounting mechanisms similar to those now used on air hoses; (3) other mounting mechanisms, comprising mostly spring-loaded pins, in a locking subsystem that would prevent shifting of the pallets under load; and (4) mechanisms for performing fine position adjustments to satisfy the center-of-mass requirement. The position- adjusting mechanisms would be motor-driven lead-screw mechanisms in groups of three - one for positioning each pin of the locking subsystem along each of three mutually perpendicular coordinate axes. The system also would include a triple-threaded screw that would provide compensation for thermal expansion or contraction of the spacecraft.

  8. 49 CFR 1548.15 - Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for individuals having unescorted access to cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for... SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY INDIRECT AIR CARRIER SECURITY § 1548.15 Access to cargo: Security threat... must successfully complete a security threat assessment or comparable security threat...

  9. 基于风险规避航空货运舱位优化控制RAMDP模型%RAMDP Model of Air Cargo Inventory Control Based on Risk Aversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    衡红军; 马明华

    2013-01-01

      航空货运订舱存在不确定性,航空货运收益管理决策者不仅要考虑期望收益最大化,还要考虑决策风险,需要通过风险规避降低风险损失。针对不确定性的舱位优化控制问题,利用马尔可夫决策方法,结合期望效用理论的冯。诺依曼-摩根斯坦效用函数,构建了基于风险规避的有限阶段马尔可夫决策RAMDP模型并给出了相应的算法过程。与基于目标期望收益最大化的模型相比,模型不仅具有结构化舱位保护策略,而且通过调整风险规避因子可为决策者提供不同的决策选择。算例分析说明了该模型的适用性。%With uncertainty of air cargo booking,air cargo revenue decision-makers don’t only consider maximizing expected revenue, but also consider the decision-making risk,policy makers need risk aversion to reduce the risk loss. With Markov decision-making meth-od and von Neumann-Morgenstern utility function of expected utility theory,a finite stage Markov decision processes model based on risk aversion,RAMDP for short,is established for the air cargo uncertain inventory control problem,also,the corresponding algorithm is giv-en. Compared with the model based on the target expected revenue maximization,the model has not only structured protection strategy, but also through the adjustment of risk aversion factor,can provide decision makers with different decision-making choices. A numerical example is given to illustrate the application o f the proposed model.

  10. 49 CFR 178.348 - Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.348 Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle....

  11. 49 CFR 178.346 - Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.346 Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle....

  12. 49 CFR 178.347 - Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.347 Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle....

  13. Groupage Cargo Transportation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksejevs Ruslans; Guseinovs Raufs; Medvedev Alexander N.; Guseynov Sharif E.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we consider a specific problem of optimal planning of maritime transportation of multiproduct cargo by ships of one (corporate strategy) or several (partially corporate strategy) companies: the core of the problem consists of the existence of the network of intermediate seaports (i.e. transitional seaports), where for every ship arrived the cargo handling is done, and which are situated between the starting and the finishing seaports. In this work, there are mathematical models b...

  14. Containment vessel, its auxiliary system and plant air conditioning system of advanced thermal reactor Fugen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The functional requirement for, the design and the construction of, and the functional test on the containment vessel, its auxiliary system, the plant air conditioning and ventilation system of the advanced thermal reactor, Fugen, are described in detail. The main specifications of the containment vessel are as follows: The type enclosed cylinder, the maximum operating pressure 1.35 kg/cm2g, the maximum operating temperature 100 deg C, the leak rate 0.4%/day, the inner diameter 36 m. The height 64 m, the volume 40,900 m3, and the material JIS G3118, SGV-49. The containment vessel is provided with an hatch of 5 m diameter for carrying equipments in two air locks, many high and low voltage cable penetrations, pipe penetrations, a transfer shoot and isolation values. The functions and the specifications of the containment vessel and its auxiliary equipments are explained. The relating auxiliary systems are composed of the containment vessel spray system, the pool facility for steam blow-down, the recirculation system for the air in the vessel, the annulus evacuation system and its pressure control devices, the pressure measuring instruments and pressure relief valves and the temperature measuring devices for the containment vessel, and the object, function, layout and installation of these systems are explained. Concerning the air conditioning system, each main building has the special subsystem, and they are introduced. The progress stage of construction works and the procedure and results of the functional test at the site are described. (Nakai, Y.)

  15. Treatment of Wastewater Containing Heavy Metals Using Dissolved Air Released Flotation Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new type of dissolved air released flotation column is developed to treat wastewater containing Cr(Ⅵ) based on advantages of both dissolved air floatation and column floatation. By using a column with a diameter of 50 mm and a specially made dissolved air releaser, micro-bubbles inside the column can be formed. N2H4.H2O was used as reductant, AlCl3 as flocculant, C12H25SO3Na(SDS) as surfactant in the experiment. The effects of pH of wastewater, pressure of dissolved air, ratio of return water, and concentration of flocculant and surfactant on the removal efficiency are studied. The results show that the efficiency of dissolved air released flotation column is much higher than that of other approaches after the operation parameters are optimized, with the reduction ratio of Cr(Ⅵ) in wastewater reaching 98%. So this technique can be widely used in wastewater treatment.

  16. Second Line of Defense, Port of Buenos Aires and Exolgan Container Terminal Operational Testing and Evaluation Plan, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Bryan W.

    2012-08-23

    The Office of the Second Line of Defense (SLD) Megaports project team for Argentina will conduct operational testing and evaluation (OT&E) at Exolgan Container Terminal at the Port of Dock Sud from July 16-20, 2012; and at the Port of Buenos Aires from September 3-7, 2012. SLD is installing radiation detection equipment to screen export, import, and transshipment containers at these locations. The purpose of OT&E is to validate and baseline an operable system that meets the SLD mission and to ensure the system continues to perform as expected in an operational environment with Argentina Customs effectively adjudicating alarms.

  17. Possibility of air ingress into a BWR containment during a LOCA in case of activation of containment venting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pressure relief systems installed in BWRs protect the containment from overpressure in case of a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). This paper analyzes the possibility of air ingress, which can cause hydrogen burn, through the rupture disks of the filtered and non-filtered venting systems. Two scenarios were considered: a LOCA without SBO (Station Blackout) and a LOCA with SBO. The thermal-hydraulic code GOTHIC® was used with 3D models of the drywell and wetwell of a Nordic-type BWR. In the LOCA event, we found no activation of the rupture disks within the considered transient simulation. Moreover, the containment spray ensured a low pressure in the drywell and induced a continuous mixing of the wetwell pool. In the LOCA with SBO event, the development of thermal stratification in the wetwell pool accelerated the pressure increase in the drywell, which led to activation of the rupture disk of the filtered venting system. However, no air ingress through the vent was found during the depressurization of the containment, and hence no risk of hydrogen burn under the given assumptions. (author)

  18. High-speed impact test of an air-transportable plutonium nitrate shipping container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To obtain information on package response for comparison with other test environments, a high-speed impact test was performed on a modified Federal Republic of Germany 18B plutonium nitrate air-transportable container. The container, modified with reinforcing rings for improved crush resistance around the inner tube assembly, was impacted at a velocity of 137 m/s onto an unyielding surface. Substantial crushing of the foam overpack and extensive deformation of the container cavity occurred, causing release of the liquid surrogate contents from the titanium shipping container. The container damage resulting from the high-speed pulldown test was more severe than that from a 185-m free fall onto a semirigid surface by a similar container or the crush environment produced by a 9-m drop of a 2-Mg block onto the container resting on an unyielding surface

  19. Vehicle and cargo inspection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbinski, Victor V.; Orphan, Victor J.

    1997-02-01

    Vehicle and Cargo Inspection System (VACIS) is comprised of a 1 Curie 137Cs gamma-ray source in a shield and collimator which produces a fan-shaped beam designed to intercept a vertical array of gama-ray detectors contained in a tower structure. The source and detector modules straddle the vehicle or container being inspected and are mounted on self-propelled trolleys which travel in synchronization along two parallel tracks covering the length of the scanned object. The signals from the gamma-ray detector array are processed and displayed so as to produce a 2D gamma-radiographic image of the object. Testing of the system on a variety of empty and lightly-loaded vehicles and containers has demonstrated the effectiveness of VACIS in detecting hidden contraband. For example, a small sample of cocaine only 1.5 inches thick was readily detected in a container.

  20. Monte-Carlo simulations of neutron-induced activation in a Fast-Neutron and Gamma-Based Cargo Inspection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberger, B.; Bar, D.; Brandis, M.; Dangendorf, V.; Goldberg, M. B.; Kaufmann, F.; Mor, I.; Nolte, R.; Schmiedel, M.; Tittelmeier, K.; Vartsky, D.; Wershofen, H.

    2012-03-01

    An air cargo inspection system combining two nuclear reaction based techniques, namely Fast-Neutron Resonance Radiography and Dual-Discrete-Energy Gamma Radiography is currently being developed. This system is expected to allow detection of standard and improvised explosives as well as special nuclear materials. An important aspect for the applicability of nuclear techniques in an airport inspection facility is the inventory and lifetimes of radioactive isotopes produced by the neutron radiation inside the cargo, as well as the dose delivered by these isotopes to people in contact with the cargo during and following the interrogation procedure. Using MCNPX and CINDER90 we have calculated the activation levels for several typical inspection scenarios. One example is the activation of various metal samples embedded in a cotton-filled container. To validate the simulation results, a benchmark experiment was performed, in which metal samples were activated by fast-neutrons in a water-filled glass jar. The induced activity was determined by analyzing the gamma spectra. Based on the calculated radioactive inventory in the container, the dose levels due to the induced gamma radiation were calculated at several distances from the container and in relevant time windows after the irradiation, in order to evaluate the radiation exposure of the cargo handling staff, air crew and passengers during flight. The possibility of remanent long-lived radioactive inventory after cargo is delivered to the client is also of concern and was evaluated.

  1. Monte-Carlo Simulations of Radiation-Induced Activation in a Fast-Neutron and Gamma- Based Cargo Inspection System

    CERN Document Server

    Bromberger, B; Brandis, M; Dangendorf, V; Goldberg, M B; Kaufmann, F; Mor, I; Nolte, R; Schmiedel, M; Tittelmeier, K; Vartsky, D; Wershofen, H

    2012-01-01

    An air cargo inspection system combining two nuclear reaction based techniques, namely Fast-Neutron Resonance Radiography and Dual-Discrete-Energy Gamma Radiography is currently being developed. This system is expected to allow detection of standard and improvised explosives as well as special nuclear materials. An important aspect for the applicability of nuclear techniques in an airport inspection facility is the inventory and lifetimes of radioactive isotopes produced by the neutron and gamma radiation inside the cargo, as well as the dose delivered by these isotopes to people in contact with the cargo during and following the interrogation procedure. Using MCNPX and CINDER90 we have calculated the activation levels for several typical inspection scenarios. One example is the activation of various metal samples embedded in a cotton-filled container. To validate the simulation results, a benchmark experiment was performed, in which metal samples were activated by fast-neutrons in a water-filled glass jar. T...

  2. Measurement of uniform flame movement in carbon monoxide - air mixtures containing either added D2O or H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, Glen E

    1950-01-01

    Relative velocities of the flame in a carbon monoxide - air mixture containing either added heavy water or light water were measured in a glass tube. Throughout the range of carbon monoxide - air composition, the flame containing added light water had a faster speed than the flame containing heavy water.

  3. Groupage Cargo Transportation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksejevs Ruslans

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we consider a specific problem of optimal planning of maritime transportation of multiproduct cargo by ships of one (corporate strategy or several (partially corporate strategy companies: the core of the problem consists of the existence of the network of intermediate seaports (i.e. transitional seaports, where for every ship arrived the cargo handling is done, and which are situated between the starting and the finishing seaports. In this work, there are mathematical models built from scratch in the form of multicriteria optimization problem; then the goal attainment method of Gembicki is used for reducing the built models to a one-criterion problem of linear programming.

  4. 46 CFR 153.370 - Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature... temperature cargo tanks. The relief valve setting for a containment system that carries a cargo at ambient temperature must at least equal the cargo's vapor pressure at 46 °C (approx. 115 °F)....

  5. Air-water simulation of phenomena of corium dispersion in direct containment heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present research at Purdue addresses the corium dispersion during the direct containment heating in reactor severe accident. The degree of corium dispersion has not only the strongest parametric effect on the containment pressurization but also has the highest uncertainty in predicting it. In view of this, a separate effect test program on the corium dispersion mechanisms in the reactor cavity and the subcompartment trapping mechanisms was initiated in spring of 1992 at Purdue under the direction of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Four major objectives of this corium dispersion study are: (1) to perform a detailed scaling study using the newly proposed step-by-step integral scaling method, then to evaluate existing models for entrainment, particle size and trapping, (2) to perform carefully designed simulation experiments using water-air and woods metal-air in a 1/10 linear scale model, (3) to develop reliable mechanistic models and correlations for corium dispersions, which can be used to predict corium jet disintegration, entrainment, drop size, liquid film carry over, and subcompartment trapping, and (4) to use the models to perform stand along calculations for typical prototypic conditions. The combination of water-air and woods metal-air as working fluid will give a unique data base over broad parametric ranges which can be used together with the integral test results to develop reliable models and correlations. The results of the experiments that were conducted using air-water are presented

  6. Tracking 800-year-old Shipments: An Archaeological Investigation of the Mado Shipwreck Cargo, Taean, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkoo; Moon, Whan Suk

    2011-12-01

    This paper examines cargo from an 800-year-old shipwreck and discusses its implications in relation to the exchange networks and maritime transportation of the Goryeo period (A.D. 918-1392) in Korea. In 2007, two local fishermen fortuitously discovered porcelain vessels from a Goryeo-period shipwreck off the mid-western coast of the Korean peninsula. Underwater excavation conducted by the National Research Institute of Maritime Cultural Heritage (NRIMCH) revealed that the ship was carrying a myriad of cargoes destined for Gaegyeong, the capital of the Goryeo dynasty. Excavation indicates that the main body of the cargo was porcelain vessels produced in the southern part of the peninsula. Archaeobotanical investigation of the wreck deposits revealed that the ship was carrying crops such as rice ( Oryza sativa L.), broomcorn millet ( Panicum miliaceum L.), foxtail millet ( Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.), and buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) bound for the capital. Among the recovered objects were 73 wooden cargo tags with Chinese letters. These tags, equivalent to the modern day air bill, contained detailed information about the senders, recipients, and shipped goods. These findings indicate that during the Goryeo period maritime transportation played an important role in the interpersonal exchange of products over long distances.

  7. 76 FR 4709 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Certified Cargo Screening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... off- airport and includes facilities upstream in the air cargo supply chain, such as shippers... supply chain to accept, screen, and transport air cargo. The uninterrupted collection of this information... below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for renewal in compliance with the...

  8. Bifurcations of a creeping air-water flow in a conical container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Adnan; Brøns, Morten; Herrada, Miguel A.; Shtern, Vladimir N.

    2016-04-01

    This numerical study describes the eddy emergence and transformations in a slow steady axisymmetric air-water flow, driven by a rotating top disk in a vertical conical container. As water height Hw and cone half-angle β vary, numerous flow metamorphoses occur. They are investigated for β =30°, 45°, and 60°. For small Hw , the air flow is multi-cellular with clockwise meridional circulation near the disk. The air flow becomes one cellular as Hw exceeds a threshold depending on β . For all β the water flow has an unbounded number of eddies whose size and strength diminish as the cone apex is approached. As the water level becomes close to the disk, the outmost water eddy with clockwise meridional circulation expands, reaches the interface, and induces a thin layer with anticlockwise circulation in the air. Then this layer expands and occupies the entire air domain. The physical reasons for the flow transformations are provided. The results are of fundamental interest and can be relevant for aerial bioreactors.

  9. 46 CFR 154.315 - Cargo pump and cargo compressor rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pump and cargo compressor rooms. 154.315 Section... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.315 Cargo pump and cargo compressor rooms. (a) Cargo pump rooms and cargo compressor rooms must be above the weather deck and must be within the cargo area. (b) Where pumps...

  10. Deflagrations of lean and rich hydrogen-air-steam mixtures in nuclear reactor containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a severe accident in a nuclear plant, hydrogen-air-steam explosions may occur. Sixty six tests in a 0.5 m3 containment were carried out to study the flammability and the deflagration of hypo- and hyper-stoichiometric mixtures. The data of these and another 848 tests which can be found in literature were elaborated, compared and interpreted. The hydrogen rich mixtures are more unlikely to be flammable and thus, it is simpler to prevent them from exploding. On the other hand, their deflagration at the flammability limits would cause greater overpressures in a closed containment. Taking into account scaling problems, a method of utilizing the data and the knowledge acquired in the laboratory is then suggested in order to assess hydrogen risks in nuclear reactor containments, and furthermore to check deliberate ignition as a system to reduce such risks. (author). 17 refs., 9 figs

  11. Radial-firing optical fiber tip containing conical-shaped air-pocket for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Ho; Ryu, Yong-Tak; Son, Dong Hoon; Jeong, Seongmook; Kim, Youngwoong; Ju, Seongmin; Kim, Bok Hyeon; Han, Won-Taek

    2015-08-10

    We report a novel radial-firing optical fiber tip containing a conical-shaped air-pocket fabricated by deforming a hollow optical fiber using electric arc-discharge process. The hollow optical fiber was fusion spliced with a conventional optical fiber, simultaneously deforming into the intagliated conical-shaped region along the longitudinal fiber-axis of the fiber due to the gradual collapse of the cavity of the hollow optical fiber. Then the distal-end of the hollow optical fiber was sealed by the additional arc-discharge in order to obstruct the inflow of an external bio-substance or liquid to the inner air surface during the surgical operations, resulting in the formation of encased air-pocket in the silica glass fiber. Due to the total internal reflection of the laser beam at the conical-shaped air surface, the laser beam (λ = 632.8 nm) was deflected to the circumferential direction up to 87 degree with respect to the fiber-axis. PMID:26367974

  12. 基于销售协议的货运舱位控制竞争模型研究%Competition Model of Air Cargo Cabin Inventory Control Based on Sales Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗咪; 徐月芳

    2011-01-01

    Several airlines' cabin inventory control strategies in a competitive environment were investigated when the actual situation of domestic air cargo was considered. A mathematical model of long - term contract of cabin inventory control was established for profit equilibrium of airline. It can get the solution to balance the profit of airline. Hie model provides the theoretical reference to decision of airlines' cabin inventory control in the competitive market.%结合国内航空货运的实际情况,研究了在竞争环境下各航空公司所采取的舱位控制策略,以航空公司利润均衡为目标建立了长期合同舱位控制的数学模型,从而确定在竞争情况下各航空公司的收益均衡解,为航空公司竞争环境下的货运舱位控制决策提供理论参考.

  13. Reliability analysis of air recirculation and-refrigeration systems of Angra-1 reactor containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reliability analysis of the air refrigeration and recirculation containment systems (ARRCS) of Angra-1 nuclear power plants, were done. The fault tree analysis was used. The failure primary data were taken out of Wash-1400 and IEEE. These data were processed by these following computer codes : Prep-Kitt, Sample, Trebil, Cressex and Streusl for the two stages of ARRCS operation. The design bases accident studied was a LOCA (loss of coolant). The component that more contribution give to the non-availability of ARRCS is the motor of the ARRCS. (E.G.)

  14. A Framework for Analysis of Security Measures Within On-airport Cargo Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Rountree, Carla; Demetsky, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 displayed the shortcomings of aviation security in the United States. Most of the attention on aviation security since that time has focused on airline passengers, their luggage, and their carry-on items, leaving air cargo security on the back burner. The lack of security screening and screening guidelines of cargo traveling by both passenger and all-cargo aircraft is the driving purpose behind this research project: the development of a framework t...

  15. 49 CFR 1549.111 - Security threat assessments for personnel of certified cargo screening facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security threat assessments for personnel of... SECURITY CERTIFIED CARGO SCREENING PROGRAM Operations § 1549.111 Security threat assessments for personnel... cargo screening facility, an indirect air carrier under 49 CFR part 1548 for transport on a...

  16. Air-lift reactor system for the treatment of waste-gas-containing monochlorobenzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Pradnya R; Deshmukh, Sharvari C; Morone, Amruta P; Kanade, Gajanan; Pandey, R A

    2013-01-01

    An air-lift bioreactor (ALR) system, applied for the treatment of waste-gas-containing monochlorobenzene (MCB) was seeded with pure culture of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, isolated from soil as a starter seed. It was found that MCB was biologically converted to chloride as chloride was mineralized in the ALR. After the built up of the biomass in the ALR, the reactor parameters which have major influence on the removal efficiency and elimination capacity were studied using response surface methodology. The data generated by running the reactor for 150 days at varying conditions were fed to the model with a target to obtain the removal efficiency above 95% and the elimination capacity greater than 60%. The data analysis indicated that inlet loading was the major parameter affecting the elimination capacity and removal efficiency of >95%. The reactor when operated at optimized conditions resulted in enhanced performance of the reactor. PMID:24617061

  17. Survey of RFID and Its Application to International Ocean/Air Container Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Minoru; Nakada, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Hitoshi; Shimizu, Masashi

    “Internet of Things” (IoT) requires information to be collected from “anything”, “anytime”, and “anywhere”. In order to achieve this, wireless devices are required that have (1) automatic data acquisition capability, (2) small size, (3) long life, and (4) long range communication capability. One way to meet these requirements is to adopt active Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems. Active RFID is more advantageous than passive RFID and enables higher data reading performance over longer distances. This paper surveys active RFID systems, the services they currently promise to provide, technical problems common to these services, and the direction in which research should head in the future. It also reports the results of EPCglobal (EPC: Electronic Product Code) pilot tests conducted on global logistics for tracking ocean/air container transportation using active RFID systems for which we developed several new types of active RFID tags. The test results confirm that our active RFID tags have sufficient capability and low power consumption to well support ocean/air transportation and logistics service.

  18. Radioiodine deposition losses from sample air containing particulate and gaseous iodine in nuclear reactor sample lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanisms of radioiodine deposition from sample air containing both gaseous and particulate radioiodine in reactor sample lines are studied, and experimental methods are developed. A short half-lived radioiodine tracer, 128I (t1/2 = 25 min), is used in the chemical forms of molecular iodine and methyl iodide. An effort is made to investigate the type of particles for particulate iodine. Of the various types of particles tested, only tobacco smoke particles have a sufficiently high iodination rate to be used in these studies. The 609.6-cm (20-ft)-long sample lines of Types 316 and 304 stainless steel tube (2.29 cm i.d.) were tested for the sample flow rates of 28.3 ell/min (1 ft3/min) and 56.6 ell/min (2 ft3/min). In-tube measurements using a calibrated thin-walled Geiger tube are conducted to determine the penetration factor and space-dependent deposition velocity profile of radioiodine. Methyl iodide is not reactive for either the tube surfaces or aerosol particles. The overall deposition velocity of the mixture of the smoke particles and molecular iodine is higher than that of molecular iodine alone for similar sampling conditions. It is concluded that the high deposition rate of radioiodine in the sample air mixed with smoke particles and molecular iodine is caused by the different sample line surfaces that are contaminated with smoke particles

  19. A crystal detector for measuring beta and internal conversion electrons in flowing air containing fission gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, W. R.; Vives-Batlle, J.; Yoon, S. R.; Tobin, M. J.

    1999-02-01

    Low levels of radioactive gases are released from nuclear electric power generation, nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, nuclear weapons tests and from diagnostic medical uses of radioactive gas tracers. A prototype model of an inorganic scintillator - Crystal Gas Electron Detector (CGED) - was built for measurements of xenon isotopes in-line by detecting the beta and internal conversion (IC) electrons present in atmospheric samples. The detection and quantification of the radionuclide spectra are accomplished, during air flow, without complete purification of the fission gases. Initial operational tests and calibrations made permit the integration of the CGED into a portable Gas Analysis, Separation and Purification (GASP) system [1-3]. The CGED detector, Pulse Shaping and Timing (PSA) electronics, and mathematical treatment of the accumulated spectra are used to resolve the K and LMNO-IC electrons and beta continuum. These data are used, in-line, for dating the age of an air parcel containing fission gases released from nuclear reactors and/or from nuclear weapons tests, as part of the monitoring equipment required to enforce the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, CTBT. This report is one of a series of papers providing the design features, operational methods, calibration, and applications of radioactive gas analysis system to the International CTBT.

  20. Air/water oxidative desulfurization of coal and sulfur-containing compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzinski, R. P.; Freidman, S.; LaCount, R. B.

    1981-02-01

    Air/water Oxydesulfurization has been demonstrated in autoclave experiments at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center for various coals representative of the major U. S. coal basins. The applicability at present of this treatment for producing an environmentally acceptable coal has been restricted by recently proposed SO2 emission standards for utility boilers. The product would, however, be attractive to the many smaller industrial coal users who cannot afford to operate and maintain flue gas desulfurization systems. It is also possible that the utility industry could realize a benefit by using chemically cleaned coal with partial flue gas scrubbing. The higher cost of the cleaned coal would be offset by the reduction in capital and operating costs resulting from decreased FGD requirements. The susceptibility of sulfur in coal to oxidative removal varies with the nature of the sulfur-containing species. The inorganic sulfur compounds, primarily pyrite, marcasite, and iron sulfate, are more amenable to treatment than the organically bound sulfur which exhibits varying degrees of resistance depending on its chemical environment. Air/water Oxydesulfurization consistently removes in excess of 90 percent of the pyritic sulfur; the extent and efficiency of organic sulfur removal however, depends on the type of coal and severity of treatment used. In general, the organic sulfur of the higher rank coals exhibits more resistance to treatment than that of the lower rank coals; however, the accompanying heating value is greater for the latter. Similar treatment of sulfur-containing model compounds further illustrates the relative susceptibilities of different chemical species to oxidation. Application of these data to the understanding of the complex chemistry involved in the treatment of coal is a preliminary step toward improving the efficiency of Oxydesulfurization.

  1. Containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary mission of the Containment Group is to ensure that underground nuclear tests are satisfactorily contained. The main goal is the development of sound technical bases for containment-related methodology. Major areas of activity include siting, geologic description, emplacement hole stemming, and phenomenological predictions. Performance results of sanded gypsum concrete plugs on the Jefferson, Panamint, Cornucopia, Labquark, and Bodie events are given. Activities are also described in the following areas: computational capabilities site description, predictive modeling, and cavity-pressure measurement. Containment publications are listed. 8 references

  2. 77 FR 30542 - Air Cargo Screening Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... the Federal Register.\\5\\ \\4\\ 76 FR 51848. Section 1540.209 of the 2006 rulemaking stated that a fee of... amounts and any revisions to the fee amounts as a notice in the Federal Register. \\5\\ 76 FR 51857. The... additional 30 days. TSA responds to comments submitted on the fee below. \\6\\ 76 FR 53080. Fee Amount By...

  3. 29 CFR 1918.85 - Containerized cargo operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... required in paragraph (a)(3) of this section, or it exceeds the capacity of the lifting appliance. (d... rated capacity. (D) The lift angle is at 80 to 90 degrees; (E) The distance between the lifting beam and... maximum cargo weight, in pounds. (b) Container weight. No container shall be hoisted by any...

  4. Design of a spanloader cargo aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    With a growing demand for fast international freight service, the slow-moving cargo ships currently in use will soon find a substantial portion of their clients looking elsewhere. One candidate for filling this expected gap in the freight market is a span-loading aircraft (or 'flying wing') capable of long-range operation with extremely large payloads. This report summarizes the design features of an aircraft capable of fulfilling a long-haul, high-capacity cargo mission. The spanloader seeks to gain advantage over conventional aircraft by eliminating the aircraft fuselage and thus reducing empty weight. The primary disadvantage of this configuration is that the cargo-containing wing tends to be thick, thus posing a challenge to the airfoil designer. It also suffers from stability and control problems not encountered by conventional aircraft. The result is an interesting, challenging exercise in unconventional design. The report that follows is a student written synopsis of an effort judged to be the best of eight designs developed during the year 1988-1989.

  5. Operational efficiency in STS cargo processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    A multifaceted program is presented that addresses both the operational aspects of Shuttle-cargo integration and the needs of the STS Cargo Community. The program consists of the following key elements: (1) processing team awareness of cargo needs and requirements; (2) standardization of Orbiter preparation and cargo integration procedures and methods; (3) maximum application of state-of-the-art ADP techniques in all relevant areas; (4) continual review of cargo integration facility and ground system capabilities versus requirements and enhancement; (5) continual assessment of proposed cargo processing changes for safety and other needs; and (6) review of cargo processing philosophies, policies, and concepts for potential improvements.

  6. Radon in air concentrations arising from storage of articles containing radium or thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major component of public and occupational radiation exposure worldwide arises from the inhalation of radon and thoron gases, produced during the decay of naturally occurring uranium and thorium respectively. Whilst radon and thoron exposures are normally associated with the natural environment, there may also be a risk associated with sources, manufactured articles and waste produced through refining and concentration of naturally occurring radioactive material. Sources and articles manufactured from refined uranium do not normally give rise to the release of radon as the uranium progeny are largely removed during production and, if removed, will take thousands of years to reach full equilibrium with the uranium parent isotopes. Exposure to radon -222 (222Rn) may, however, arise in areas where the uranium-238 (238U) daughter radium-226 (226Ra) is concentrated, for example in the form of sources, luminous articles or low-specific activity (LSA) scale. Exposure to radon- 220 (220Rn), otherwise known as thoron, may occur in areas where thorium isotopes are concentrated, for example as manufactured laboratory thorium compounds. This paper explores the issues affecting radon and thoron release from manufactured articles containing uranium and thorium and their progeny. A methodology is provided for the calculation of 222Rn and 220Rn in air concentrations likely to arise as a result of the storage and use of articles containing radium-226 (226Ra) or thorium-232 (232Th). The methodology provided in the document allows derivation of the equilibrium equivalent radon concentration and the radon exposure rate in circumstances where the ventilation rate and volume of the facility can be reliably estimated and the quantities of 226Ra or 232Th held are known. A critical variable in the calculation is the release fraction (i.e. the proportion of radon generated that is release to atmosphere), and this paper considers methods for estimating this parameter. (authors)

  7. Simulation Of A Photofission-Based Cargo Interrogation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael; Gozani, Tsahi; Stevenson, John; Shaw, Timothy

    2011-06-01

    A comprehensive model has been developed to characterize and optimize the detection of Bremsstrahlung x-ray induced fission signatures from nuclear materials hidden in cargo containers. An effective active interrogation system should not only induce a large number of fission events but also efficiently detect their signatures. The proposed scanning system utilizes a 9-MV commercially available linear accelerator and the detection of strong fission signals i.e. delayed gamma rays and prompt neutrons. Because the scanning system is complex and the cargo containers are large and often highly attenuating, the simulation method segments the model into several physical steps, representing each change of radiation particle. Each approximation is carried-out separately, resulting in a major reduction in computational time and a significant improvement in tally statistics. The model investigates the effect on the fission rate and detection rate by various cargo types, densities and distributions. Hydrogenous and metallic cargos, homogeneous and heterogeneous, as well as various locations of the nuclear material inside the cargo container were studied. We will show that for the photofission-based interrogation system simulation, the final results are not only in good agreement with a full, single-step simulation but also with experimental results, further validating the full-system simulation.

  8. Simulation Of A Photofission-Based Cargo Interrogation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive model has been developed to characterize and optimize the detection of Bremsstrahlung x-ray induced fission signatures from nuclear materials hidden in cargo containers. An effective active interrogation system should not only induce a large number of fission events but also efficiently detect their signatures. The proposed scanning system utilizes a 9-MV commercially available linear accelerator and the detection of strong fission signals i.e. delayed gamma rays and prompt neutrons. Because the scanning system is complex and the cargo containers are large and often highly attenuating, the simulation method segments the model into several physical steps, representing each change of radiation particle. Each approximation is carried-out separately, resulting in a major reduction in computational time and a significant improvement in tally statistics. The model investigates the effect on the fission rate and detection rate by various cargo types, densities and distributions. Hydrogenous and metallic cargos, homogeneous and heterogeneous, as well as various locations of the nuclear material inside the cargo container were studied. We will show that for the photofission-based interrogation system simulation, the final results are not only in good agreement with a full, single-step simulation but also with experimental results, further validating the full-system simulation.

  9. Lignite air-steam gasification in the fluidized bed of iron-containing slag catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, B.N.; Shchipko, M.L.; Golovin, Yu. [Inst. of Chemistry of Natural Organic Materials, Academgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    The influence of fluidized bed of iron-containing slag particles on air-steam gasification of powdered Kansk-Achinsk lignite in entrained flow was studied in pilot installation with productivity about 60 kg per hour. Slag of Martin process and boiler slag were used as catalytic active materials until their complete mechanical attrition. Two following methods of catalytic gasification of lignite were compared: the partial gasification in stationary fluidized bed of slag particles with degree of fuel conversion 40-70% and complete gasification in circulating bed of slag particles. In the first case only the most reactive part of fuel is gasified with the simultaneously formation of porous carbon residue with good sorption ability. It was found the catalytic fluidized bed improves heat transfer from combustion to reduction zone of gas-generator and increases the rate of fuel conversion at the temperature range 900-1000{degrees}C. At these temperatures the degree of conversion is depended considerably on the duration time of fuel particles in the catalytic fluidized bed. The influence of catalytic fluidized bed height and velocity of reaction mixture on the temperature profiles in the gas-generator was studied. The optimal relationship was found between the fluidized bed height and velocity of flow which makes possible to produce the gas with higher calorific value at maximum degree of fuel conversion.

  10. 49 CFR 178.320 - General requirements applicable to all DOT specification cargo tank motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Lading means the hazardous material contained in a cargo tank. Loading/unloading connection means the... cargo tank loading/unloading outlet to which the loading/unloading connection is attached. Manufacturer... means for attaching a closure), except that the following are not outlets: a threaded opening...

  11. 75 FR 9638 - Safety Advisory Notice: Use of Composite Cargo Tanks Manufactured Under DOT Special Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... reinforced plastic (GFRP) cargo tanks. Federal hazardous materials transportation law (Federal hazmat law; 49..., and use of FRP or GFRP cargo tank motor vehicles: Expiration SP number Holder Status date 9166... above contain the following requirement: The compatibility of the commodities and the (FRP or...

  12. Spectroscopic neutron radiography for a cargo scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahon, Jill; Danagoulian, Areg; MacDonald, Thomas D.; Hartwig, Zachary S.; Lanza, Richard C.

    2016-06-01

    Detection of cross-border smuggling of illicit materials and contraband is a challenge that requires rapid, low-dose, and efficient radiographic technology. The work we describe here is derived from a technique which uses monoenergetic gamma rays from low energy nuclear reactions, such as 11B(d,nγ)12C, to perform radiographic analysis of shipping containers. Transmission ratios of multiple monoenergetic gamma lines resulting from several gamma producing nuclear reactions can be employed to detect materials of high atomic number (Z), the details of which will be described in a separate paper. Inherent in this particular nuclear reaction is the production of fast neutrons which could enable neutron radiography and further characterization of the effective-Z of the cargo, especially within the range of lower Z. Previous research efforts focused on the use of total neutron counts in combination with X-ray radiography to characterize the hydrogenous content of the cargo. We present a technique of performing transmitted neutron spectral analysis to reconstruct the effective Z and potentially the density of the cargo. This is made possible by the large differences in the energy dependence of neutron scattering cross-sections between hydrogenous materials and those of higher Z. These dependencies result in harder transmission spectra for hydrogenous cargoes than those of non-hydrogenous cargoes. Such observed differences can then be used to classify the cargo based on its hydrogenous content. The studies presented in this paper demonstrate that such techniques are feasible and can provide a contribution to cargo security, especially when used in concert with gamma radiography.

  13. Combining technologies - radiography and neutron based - for cargo security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inspection of air and sea cargo has traditionally been done by X-ray systems of various energies relying on operators to analyze images looking for anomalies in the image of cargo that may signify a threat. This has shown only limited success in detecting explosives and other threats, which do not have any distinctive shapes. OSI Systems, through its subsidiaries Rapiscan and Ancore, has combined high-energy x-ray radiography with thermal neutron analysis (TNA) to create the combined system-''TNX''. The system provides automatic material specific detection of bulk threat items, like explosives, while furnishing the operator with a high-resolution image for weapons detection and also to identify anomalies for the TNA to inspect. Similarly the Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA) can be combined with high-energy x-ray to create a ''FNX'' system for both air and sea cargo applications. This enables the operator obtain a three dimensional image of the material composition of the cargo under inspection and remove the clutter from the image leaving only the potentially hazardous material(s) automatically while viewing a high resolution image for manifest verification and weapons. The current status of the technology will be discussed and data be presented

  14. 49 CFR 1544.228 - Access to cargo and cargo screening: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... threat assessments for cargo personnel in the United States. 1544.228 Section 1544.228 Transportation... COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.228 Access to cargo and cargo screening: Security threat assessments... paragraph (b) of this section— (1) Each individual must successfully complete a security threat...

  15. Effect of aluminum-containing additives on the reactivity in air and CO2 of carbon anode for aluminum electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Yanqing; LI Jie; LI Qingyu; DING Fengqi

    2004-01-01

    Airbum reaction and carboxy reaction result in the excess consumption of carbon anode in aluminum electrolysis.To reduce the excess carbon consumption, carbon anode was doped with aluminum-containing additives, such as Al, Al4C3,AlF3 and Al2O3. Their reactivity in air and CO2 was determined with an isothermal-gravimetric method to study the effect of aluminum-containing additives on the reactivity in air and CO2 of carbon anode. Results shown that the airburn reactivity at 450℃ and carboxy reactivity at 970 ℃ of carbon anode both decreased with Al-containing additives adding, while shown a minimutn with the amount of Al4C3, AlF3 and Al2O3 increasing. However, all Al-containing additives increase the airbum reactivity at 550℃ of carbon anodes. Coke yield measurement and XRD examination with aluminum containing additives doped pitch cokes revealed that the effect of Al-containing additives on the airbum reactivity and carboxy reactivity of carbon anode would result from chemical factors and structural factors.

  16. 46 CFR 153.908 - Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring... Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge: Categories... lading, a written statement of the following: (1) For Category A or B NLS, the cargo's viscosity at 20...

  17. 46 CFR 154.1810 - Cargo manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo manual. 154.1810 Section 154.1810 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1810 Cargo manual. (a) No person... navigable waters of the United States, or a U.S. flag vessel, unless the vessel has on board a cargo...

  18. 46 CFR 153.907 - Cargo information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo information. 153.907 Section 153.907 Shipping... Information § 153.907 Cargo information. (a) The master shall ensure that the following information for each... process for the vessel. (b) The master shall make sure that the following information for cargoes...

  19. Containing air pollution and traffic congestion: Transport policy and the environment in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Anthony T. H.

    Land transportation remains one of the main contributors of noise and air pollution in urban areas. This is in addition to traffic congestion and accidents which result in the loss of productive activity. While there is a close relationship between traffic volumes and levels of noise and air pollution, transport authorities often assume that solving traffic congestion would reduce noise and air pollutant levels. Tight control over automobile ownership and use in Singapore has contributed in improving traffic flows, travel speeds and air quality. The adoption of internationally accepted standards on automobile emissions and gasoline have been effective in reducing air pollution from motor vehicles. Demand management measures have largely focused on controlling the source of traffic congestion, i.e. private automobile ownership and its use especially within the Central Business District during the day. This paper reviews and analyzes the effectiveness of two measures which are instrumental in controlling congestion and automobile ownership, i.e. road pricing and the vehicle quota scheme (VQS). While these measures have been successful in achieving desired objectives, it has also led to the spreading of traffic externalities to other roads in the network, loss in consumer welfare and rent seeking by automobile traders.

  20. Cargo-shell and cargo-cargo couplings govern the mechanics of artificially loaded virus-derived cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llauró, Aida; Luque, Daniel; Edwards, Ethan; Trus, Benes L.; Avera, John; Reguera, David; Douglas, Trevor; Pablo, Pedro J. De; Castón, José R.

    2016-04-01

    Nucleic acids are the natural cargo of viruses and key determinants that affect viral shell stability. In some cases the genome structurally reinforces the shell, whereas in others genome packaging causes internal pressure that can induce destabilization. Although it is possible to pack heterologous cargoes inside virus-derived shells, little is known about the physical determinants of these artificial nanocontainers' stability. Atomic force and three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy provided mechanical and structural information about the physical mechanisms of viral cage stabilization beyond the mere presence/absence of cargos. We analyzed the effects of cargo-shell and cargo-cargo interactions on shell stability after encapsulating two types of proteinaceous payloads. While bound cargo to the inner capsid surface mechanically reinforced the capsid in a structural manner, unbound cargo diffusing freely within the shell cavity pressurized the cages up to ~30 atm due to steric effects. Strong cargo-cargo coupling reduces the resilience of these nanocompartments in ~20% when bound to the shell. Understanding the stability of artificially loaded nanocages will help to design more robust and durable molecular nanocontainers.Nucleic acids are the natural cargo of viruses and key determinants that affect viral shell stability. In some cases the genome structurally reinforces the shell, whereas in others genome packaging causes internal pressure that can induce destabilization. Although it is possible to pack heterologous cargoes inside virus-derived shells, little is known about the physical determinants of these artificial nanocontainers' stability. Atomic force and three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy provided mechanical and structural information about the physical mechanisms of viral cage stabilization beyond the mere presence/absence of cargos. We analyzed the effects of cargo-shell and cargo-cargo interactions on shell stability after encapsulating two

  1. Design of experiment apparatus for testing effects of counter-current air-water flow on containment water film formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces the working principle of Passive Containment Cooling System (PCS) following a design basis accident. A flat-plate test bench and the accompanying measurement system are designed to study how the counter-current air affects the water film on the containment surface. Two key experiment parameters, flat-plate spacing and probe positions, are calculated and analyzed through fluid mechanics, experimental characteristic and experience correlation. The analysis results show that the experiment plan is reasonable and feasible, and it is proper when the flat-plate spacing is 150 mm and the probe position of the first rank is 1 m away from the flat-plate upside. (authors)

  2. A methodology for the evaluation of the turbine jet engine fragment threat to generic air transportable containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uncontained, high-energy gas turbine engine fragments are a potential threat to air-transportable containers carried aboard jet aircraft. The threat to a generic example container is evaluated by probability analyses and penetration testing to demonstrate the methodology to be used in the evaluation of a specific container/aircraft/engine combination. Fragment/container impact probability is the product of the uncontained fragment release rate and the geometric probability that a container is in the path of this fragment. The probability of a high-energy rotor burst fragment from four generic aircraft engines striking one of the containment vessels aboard a transport aircraft is approximately 1.2 x 10-9 strikes/hour. Finite element penetration analyses and tests can be performed to identify specific fragments which have the potential to penetrate a generic or specific containment vessel. The relatively low probability of engine fragment/container impacts is primarily due to the low release rate of uncontained, hazardous jet engine fragments

  3. Cargo Assured Access to International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Boeing's Cargo Assured Access logistics delivery system will provide a means to transport cargo to/from the International Space Station, Low Earth Orbit and the moon using Expendable Launch Vehicles. For Space Station, this capability will reduce cargo resupply backlog during nominal operations (e.g., supplement Shuttle, Progress, ATV and HTV) and augment cargo resupply capability during contingency operations (e.g., Shuttle delay and/or unavailability of International Partner launch or transfer vehicles). This capability can also provide an autonomous means to deliver cargo to lunar orbit, a lunar orbit refueling and work platform, and a contingency crew safe haven in support of NASA's new Exploration Initiative.

  4. Spatial partitioning of secretory cargo from Golgi resident proteins in live cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Jamie

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To maintain organelle integrity, resident proteins must segregate from itinerant cargo during secretory transport. However, Golgi resident enzymes must have intimate access to secretory cargo in order to carry out glycosylation reactions. The amount of cargo and associated membrane may be significant compared to the amount of Golgi membrane and resident protein, but upon Golgi exit, cargo and resident are efficiently sorted. How this occurs in live cells is not known. Results We observed partitioning of the fluorescent Golgi resident T2-CFP and fluorescent cargo proteins VSVG3-YFP or VSVG3-SP-YFP upon Golgi exit after a synchronous pulse of cargo was released from the ER. Golgi elements remained stable in overall size, shape and relative position as cargo emptied. Cargo segregated from resident rapidly by blebbing into micron-sized domains that contained little or no detectable resident protein and that appeared to be continuous with the parent Golgi element. Post-Golgi transport carriers (TCs exited repeatedly from these domains. Alternatively, entire cargo domains exited Golgi elements, forming large TCs that fused directly with the plasma membrane. However, domain formation did not appear to be an absolute prerequisite for TC exit, since TCs also exited directly from Golgi elements in the absence of large domains. Quantitative cargo-specific photobleaching experiments revealed transfer of cargo between Golgi regions, but no discrete intra-Golgi TCs were observed. Conclusions Our results establish domain formation via rapid lateral partitioning as a general cellular strategy for segregating different transmembrane proteins along the secretory pathway and provide a framework for consideration of molecular mechanisms of secretory transport.

  5. Friction and wear of tough and brittle zirconia in nitrogen, air, water, hexadecane and hexadecane containing stearic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The friction and wear of zirconia sliding on zirconia at low speed (1 mm/s) and moderate load (9.8N) were studied with a pin-on-disc machine. Two materials were investigated, a brittle (2.5 MPam/sup 1/2/), cubic phase doped with 5.5 m/o yttria and a tough (11.6 MPam/sup 1/2/), tetragonal phase stabilized with 3 m/o yttria. Sliding occurred in dry nitrogen, where mechanical effects alone are expected, in laboratory air (50 +- 10% RH), in water, in pure hexadecane and in hexadecane containing 0.5 w/o stearic acid. Friction coefficients of depend on the environment and somewhat on toughness. (f = 0.1 in hexadecane containing stearic acid, 0.15 in pure hexadecane, 0.3 to 0.6 in air, 0.7 in water and 1.0 in dry N/sub 2/). All wear rates decrease with increasing sliding distance. They are in the range of 10/sup -5/ to 3.10/sup -4/ mm/sup 3//Nm for the brittle zirconia and in the range of 10/sup -9/ to 10/sup -6/ mm/sup 3//Nm for the tough material. Environment effects are strong; they are compatible with stress corrosion cracking and not with the tribochemistry that governs environmental effects in non oxide ceramics such as Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/. For the tough zirconia, the wear rate is lowest in dry nitrogen. For the other environments, it increases in the order; hexadecane, hexadecane containing stearic acid, air, water. With the brittle material, wear is lowest in hexadecane and highest in air. The results are analyzed with the help of a model that relates the wear rate to the local contact stresses

  6. Containing urban sprawl: An integrated improvement of space-tranport strategies to reduce air pollution emission

    OpenAIRE

    Ambarwati, L.; Verhaeghe, R.J.; Pel, A.J.; VAN AREM,B

    2014-01-01

    Diverse effective strategies have been designed to minimize the phenomenon of urban sprawl. Previous research focused on the link between spatial and transport development strategies to achieve this goal, with the intention of increasing mobility, reducing commuting time and travel costs. However, a side effect of urban sprawl is an increase of air pollution. Higher pollution levels result in higher costs for road users. To reduce these costs, improvement in public transport linked to urban d...

  7. Chitin-containing materials as sorbents for radioiodine from air-gas mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown the perspective of mushroom genesis chitin-chitosan materials for creation of screens entrapping joint of radioiodine from air-gas mixtures of NPP's workplace and on waste-handling spent nuclear fuel enterprises. Contrasted to traditional sorbents, chemical activity of natural chitin materials allows to increase immobilization in 3-5 times not only inorganic iodine, but also its organic derivatives

  8. Cargo-shell and cargo-cargo couplings govern the mechanics of artificially loaded virus-derived cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llauró, Aida; Luque, Daniel; Edwards, Ethan; Trus, Benes L; Avera, John; Reguera, David; Douglas, Trevor; Pablo, Pedro J de; Castón, José R

    2016-04-28

    Nucleic acids are the natural cargo of viruses and key determinants that affect viral shell stability. In some cases the genome structurally reinforces the shell, whereas in others genome packaging causes internal pressure that can induce destabilization. Although it is possible to pack heterologous cargoes inside virus-derived shells, little is known about the physical determinants of these artificial nanocontainers' stability. Atomic force and three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy provided mechanical and structural information about the physical mechanisms of viral cage stabilization beyond the mere presence/absence of cargos. We analyzed the effects of cargo-shell and cargo-cargo interactions on shell stability after encapsulating two types of proteinaceous payloads. While bound cargo to the inner capsid surface mechanically reinforced the capsid in a structural manner, unbound cargo diffusing freely within the shell cavity pressurized the cages up to ∼30 atm due to steric effects. Strong cargo-cargo coupling reduces the resilience of these nanocompartments in ∼20% when bound to the shell. Understanding the stability of artificially loaded nanocages will help to design more robust and durable molecular nanocontainers. PMID:27091107

  9. A Comprehensive Assessment of Biologicals Contained Within Commercial Airliner Cabin Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDuc, Myron T.; Osman, Shariff; Dekas, Anne; Stuecker, Tara; Newcombe, Dave; Piceno, Yvette; Fuhrman, J.; Andersen, Gary; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Bearman, Greg

    2006-01-01

    Both culture-based and culture-independent, biomarker-targeted microbial enumeration and identification technologies were employed to estimate total microbial and viral burden and diversity within the cabin air of commercial airliners. Samples from each of twenty flights spanning three commercial carriers were collected via air-impingement. When the total viable microbial population was estimated by assaying relative concentrations of the universal energy carrier ATP, values ranged from below detection limits (BDL) to 4.1 x 106 cells/cubic m of air. The total viable microbial population was extremely low in both of Airline A (approximately 10% samples) and C (approximately 18% samples) compared to the samples collected aboard flights on Airline A and B (approximately 70% samples). When samples were collected as a function of time over the course of flights, a gradual accumulation of microbes was observed from the time of passenger boarding through mid-flight, followed by a sharp decline in microbial abundance and viability from the initiation of descent through landing. It is concluded in this study that only 10% of the viable microbes of the cabin air were cultivable and suggested a need to employ state-of-the art molecular assay that measures both cultivable and viable-but-non-cultivable microbes. Among the cultivable bacteria, colonies of Acinetobacter sp. were by far the most profuse in Phase I, and Gram-positive bacteria of the genera Staphylococcus and Bacillus were the most abundant during Phase II. The isolation of the human pathogens Acinetobacter johnsonii, A. calcoaceticus, Janibacter melonis, Microbacterium trichotecenolyticum, Massilia timonae, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Corynebacterium lipophiloflavum is concerning, as these bacteria can cause meningitis, septicemia, and a handful of sometimes fatal diseases and infections. Molecular microbial community analyses exhibited presence of the alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta- proteobacteria, as well as

  10. Green channel cargo inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiation detection device was installed in the lanes of a highway toll station, radioactive rays which was collimated emitted through the measured, and arrived the detector. The average density of the fresh agricultural products belonged to Green channel and other prohibited items vary greatly, the absorption of radiation are different between the Green Channel Cargo and other substances. Prior to the experimental group, different standard samples which represent different models and goods were measured, the different standard samples were stored in a computer database. When the trucks get through the Green Channel, the detector will detect the radiation signal and bring to the computer, the computer will process the measured data, and make a conclusion whether the goods are Green Channel cargo. (authors)

  11. Structural safety analysis of 500 MWe pressurized heavy water reactor containment for air craft impact load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Transient dynamic analysis of 500 MWe PHWR nuclear containment has been carried out to evaluate the damage that may be caused due to aircraft impact of Boeing 707-320. A special three dimensional finite element analysis procedure has been developed for the double containment walls with an annulus gap in between outer containment wall (OCW) and inner containment wall (ICW). The case studies include the analyses of OCW single model and the combined model of OCW and ICW for impulsive load due to the aircraft impact. It is demonstrated that OCW would suffer local perforation with a peak local deformation of ∼94 mm without loss of the overall integrity. However, this first barrier cannot absorb the full impulsive load. Here after the local perforation of the first barrier OCW, the impulse load is transferred to the second barrier ICW in the combined model of OCW and ICW. In the analyses of the combined model, the ICW is subjected to lower impulse duration as the load is transferred after 0.195 sec due to the local perforation of OCW. This results in the local deformation of the ICW ∼66 mm. The analysis methodology evolved in the present work would be useful for studying the behaviour of double containment walls for aircraft impact with higher energies

  12. A cargo inspection system based on pulsed fast neutron analysis (PFNATM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cargo inspection system based on pulsed fast neutron analysis (PFNATM) is to be used at a border crossing to detect explosives and contraband hidden in trucks and cargo containers. Neutrons are produced by the interaction of deuterons in a deuterium target mounted on a moveable scan arm. The collimated pulsed fast neutron beam is used to determine the location and composition of objects in a cargo container. The neutrons produce secondary gamma rays that are characteristic of the object's elemental composition. The cargo inspection system building consists of an accelerator room and an inspection tunnel. The accelerator room is shielded and houses the injector, accelerator and the neutron production gas target. The inspection tunnel is partially shielded. The truck or container to be inspected will be moved through the inspection tunnel by a conveyor system. The facility and radiation source terms considered in the shielding design are described. (authors)

  13. 77 FR 25187 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Certified Cargo Screening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... and include facilties upstream ] in the air cargo supply chain, such as shippers, manufacturers, warehousing entities, distributors, third party logistics companies, and indirect air carriers located in the... collection of information on February 24, 2012, 77 FR 11146, and TSA received no comments. The...

  14. NWA Cargo Is Granted Additional Cargo Frequencies to China Four all-cargo frequencies per week granted by U.S. Department of Transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ NWA Cargo, the cargo division of Northwest Airlines, will expand its all-cargo freighter service between the United States and China after being awarded four additional frequencies per week by the U.S. Department of Transportation.

  15. Damage evaluation of 500 MWe Indian pressurized heavy water reactor nuclear containment for air craft impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-linear transient dynamic analysis of 500 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) nuclear containment has been carried out for the impact of Boeing and Airbus category of aircraft operated in India. The impulsive load time history is generated based on the momentum transfer of the crushable aircraft (soft missiles) of Boeing and Airbus families on the containment structure. The case studies include the analyses of outer containment wall (OCW) single model and the combined model with outer and inner containment wall (ICW) for impulsive loading due to aircraft impact. Initially the load is applied on OCW single model and subsequently the load is transferred to ICW after the local perforation of the OCW is noticed in the transient simulation. In the first stage of the analysis it is demonstrated that the OCW would suffer local perforation with a peak local deformation of 117 mm for impact due to B707-320 and 196 mm due to impact of A300B4 without loss of the overall integrity. However, this first barrier (OCW) cannot absorb the full impulsive load. In the second stage of the analysis of the combined model, the ICW is subjected to lower impulse duration as the load is transferred after 0.19 sec for B707-320 and 0.24 sec for A300B4 due to the local perforation of OCW. This results in the local deformation of approx. 115 mm for B707-320 and 124 mm for A300B4 in ICW and together both the structures (OCW and ICW) are capable of absorbing the full impulsive load. The analysis methodology evolved in the present work would be useful for studying the behaviour of double containment walls and multi barrier structural configurations for aircraft impact with higher energies. The present analysis illustrates that with the provision of double containments for Indian nuclear power plants, adequate reserve strength is available for the case of an extremely low probability event of missile impact generated due commercial aircraft operated in India. (author)

  16. Elastic airtight container for the compaction of air-sensitive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoulders, W. Taylor; Locke, Richard; Gaume, Romain M.

    2016-06-01

    We report on the design and fabrication of a simple and versatile elastic canister for the compaction and hot-pressing of air-sensitive materials. This device consists of a heated double-ended floating die assembly, enclosed in a compressible stainless steel bellows that allows the action of an external hydraulic press in a uniaxial motion. The enclosure is fitted with vacuum, gas, and electrical feedthroughs to allow for atmosphere control, heating, and in situ process monitoring. The overall chamber is compact enough to be portable and transferrable into and out of a standard laboratory glovebox, thus eliminating the problem of exposing samples to ambient atmosphere during loading and unloading. Our design has been tested up to 600 °C and 7500 kg-force applied load, conditions within which transparent ceramics of anhydrous halides can be produced.

  17. The effect of air-bubble barriers in containing oil-slick movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the performance of an air-bubble barrier and to determine the oil volume passage rate through such a barrier under various oil sample, wind, wave and current conditions. Two empirical equations were derived based on the laboratory data. The first equation determines the relationship between current velocity and the minimum airflow rate required to avoid oil flow through the barrier from the surface. The second equation predicts the dimensionless oil volume passage rate through the barrier under the surface per unit width when the required minimum airflow rate is given in order to prevent oil flow through the barrier from the surface. If the current and wind speed are given, both the minimum required airflow rate for avoiding oil flow through the barrier from the surface, and the dimensionless oil volume passage rate through the barrier under the surface per unit width can be determined. (author)

  18. The effect of stone-filling on the progress of the exploision of a hydrogen - air mixture in a container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation dealt with the problem of suppressing a detonation in a container by filling the space with stones. The experiments were made with 5 different types of filling. The detonations were produced by the ignition of a mixture of air and hydrogen. The events of pressure-time were recorded at 6 points of a vertical tube with L=240 cm and D=25 cm. A small-scale experiment was made by measuring the total impulse which was propogated to the bottom of a small tube with L=70 cm. The investigation was past of a cooperative Swedish programme, the FILTRA project. (G.B.)

  19. 46 CFR 64.89 - Cargo pump unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pump unit. 64.89 Section 64.89 Shipping COAST... HANDLING SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.89 Cargo pump unit. (a) A cargo pump unit that fills or...) The cargo pump power unit must be— (1) Diesel; (2) Hydraulic; (3) Pneumatic; or (4) Electric. (c)...

  20. Air sampling system for evaluating the thyroid dose commitment due to fission products released from reactor containment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accidental releases of radioactivity from fission reactors will consist of active vapors and aerosols. Composition of the released plume or cloud will depend on the energy of release and fission product volatility. In accidents at Windscale and SL-1, 131I was the predominant isotope present in both the initial cloud and later release. Thus an air sampling system was developed for efficient radioiodine collection. The air sampling, readout, and dose assessment system was developed to be used in the environment after loss of containment accidents. The system can detect less than 1 rem dose commitments to thyroids of 5 year old children for immersion times of 10 hours or less. The air mover can be operated on either 110V ac power or 12V dc power available from vehicles with cigar lighter sockets. An inorganic silver loaded silica gel adsorber was developed for high mehyl iodine, HOI, and elemental iodine efficiency and low noble gas efficiency. A peal away high efficiency particulate filter permits the gaseous and particulate sample fractions to be evaluated separately. Predicted particulate iodine is combined with the adsorbed component to account for the total radioiodine in a given sample

  1. Development of a Cargo Screening Process Simulator: A First Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Siebers, Peer-Olaf; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    The efficiency of current cargo screening processes at sea and air ports is largely unknown as few benchmarks exists against which they could be measured. Some manufacturers provide benchmarks for individual sensors but we found no benchmarks that take a holistic view of the overall screening procedures and no benchmarks that take operator variability into account. Just adding up resources and manpower used is not an effective way for assessing systems where human decision-making and operator compliance to rules play a vital role. Our aim is to develop a decision support tool (cargo-screening system simulator) that will map the right technology and manpower to the right commodity-threat combination in order to maximise detection rates. In this paper we present our ideas for developing such a system and highlight the research challenges we have identified. Then we introduce our first case study and report on the progress we have made so far.

  2. Empty Container Logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Karmelić, Jakov; dundović, Čedomir; Kolanović, Ines

    2012-01-01

    Within the whole world container traffic, the largest share of containers is in the status of repositioning. Container repositioning results from the need for harmonization between the point of empty container accumulation and the point of demand, and waiting time for the availability of the first next transport of cargo. This status of containers on the container market is the consequence of imbalances in the worldwide trade distribution on most important shipping routes. The need for fast a...

  3. Fully self-contained vision-aided navigation and landing of a micro air vehicle independent from external sensor inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockers, Roland; Susca, Sara; Zhu, David; Matthies, Larry

    2012-06-01

    Direct-lift micro air vehicles have important applications in reconnaissance. In order to conduct persistent surveillance in urban environments, it is essential that these systems can perform autonomous landing maneuvers on elevated surfaces that provide high vantage points without the help of any external sensor and with a fully contained on-board software solution. In this paper, we present a micro air vehicle that uses vision feedback from a single down looking camera to navigate autonomously and detect an elevated landing platform as a surrogate for a roof top. Our method requires no special preparation (labels or markers) of the landing location. Rather, leveraging the planar character of urban structure, the landing platform detection system uses a planar homography decomposition to detect landing targets and produce approach waypoints for autonomous landing. The vehicle control algorithm uses a Kalman filter based approach for pose estimation to fuse visual SLAM (PTAM) position estimates with IMU data to correct for high latency SLAM inputs and to increase the position estimate update rate in order to improve control stability. Scale recovery is achieved using inputs from a sonar altimeter. In experimental runs, we demonstrate a real-time implementation running on-board a micro aerial vehicle that is fully self-contained and independent from any external sensor information. With this method, the vehicle is able to search autonomously for a landing location and perform precision landing maneuvers on the detected targets.

  4. Determination of contamination in the air of reactor containment. Sampling and measuring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purposes of radiological safety work, the most important elements emerging from the primary circuit and responsible for contamination of the containment are noble gases due to fission or activation, iodine in different physico-chemical forms, and tritium. Sampling and measuring techniques used in studies conducted on in-service reactors (pressurized-water and fast reactor plants) are described, together with the results obtained. The method used for measuring the activity of iodine in its different forms (penetrating or non-penetrating) is to trap the iodine by means of a selective sampling device. The measurements are then made by gamma spectrometry. The technique used for measuring the noble gases is to enrich the carrier gas by means of cold traps, and then to make measurements with an ionization chamber or by gamma spectrometry. Tritium is trapped by bubbling through water and its activity measured with a liquid scintillation detector or proportional counter. (author)

  5. Burning rates of hydrogen-air mixtures in containment buildings and the consequent pressure transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One-dimensional flame models are often used to predict the pressure transients caused by hydrogen combustion in containments during postulated severe accidents. In the absence of data, these models account for prevailing flame acceleration mechanisms, such as initial turbulence, venting and obstacle-induced turbulence, by using arbitrarily large burning velocities that are much higher than laminar burning velocities. Using an intermediate-scale test facility at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment we have obtained necessary data on the effects of flame acceleration mechanisms, to estimate the safety margin in the buring velocities used in the models. So far, data have been analyzed, with a one-dimensional model, to determine effective burning velocities and burning-rate enhancement factors. The results of the analyses indicate that the effect of initial turbulence on the burning rate can be bounded only if the effect of flame-generated turbulence is included. The effect of venting can be accounted for by using two burning velocities, one for the pre-vent duration and a second increased value during the vented-combustion stage. The enhancement factors due to these two mechanisms, for the different conditions analyzed, varied up to 5.4, and the effective burning velocities varied up to 8.4 m/s

  6. Suitability of containers from different sources as breeding sites of Aedes aegypti (L.) in a cemetery of Buenos Aires City, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Darío Vezzani; Nicolás Schweigmann

    2002-01-01

    Cemeteries are ideal urban areas to study the importance of different types of containers as breeding sites of Aedes aegypti (L.). In the present study, the suitability of plastic, glass, ceramic and metal containers was evaluated in four patches within a cemetery of Buenos Aires City, Argentina. Between October 1998 and May 2000, we found 215 breeding sites of Ae. aegypti out of 13,022 water-filled containers examined. In two patches containing microenvironments sheltered from the sun, the u...

  7. 46 CFR 151.45-6 - Maximum amount of cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... temperature corresponding to the vapor pressure of the cargo at the safety relief valve setting. A reduction... required for a cargo vapor pressure equal to the relief valve setting. d L=Density of cargo at the...

  8. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... house) Industrial emissions (like smoke and chemicals from factories) Household cleaners (spray cleaners, air fresheners) Car emissions (like carbon monoxide) *All of these things make up “particle pollution.” They mostly come from cars, trucks, buses, and ...

  9. 46 CFR 28.885 - Cargo gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo gear. 28.885 Section 28.885 Shipping COAST GUARD... Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.885 Cargo gear. (a) The safe working load (SWL) for the assembled gear... the load the gear is approved to lift, excluding the weight of the gear itself. (b) All wire...

  10. 48 CFR 470.203 - Cargo preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo preference. 470.203 Section 470.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS COMMODITY ACQUISITIONS 470.203 Cargo preference. An agency having responsibility under this subpart...

  11. Heat transfer analyses using computational fluid dynamics in the air blast freezing of guava pulp in large containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. M. Okita

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Heat transfer during the freezing of guava pulp conditioned in large containers such as in stacked boxes (34 L and buckets (20 L and unstacked drums (200 L is discussed. The air velocities across the cross-section of the tunnel were measured, and the values in the outlet of the evaporator were used as the initial conditions in computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations. The model tested was turbulent standard k-ε. The CFD-generated convective heat transfer coefficients were mapped on the surfaces for each configuration and used in procedures for the calculation of freezing-time estimates. These estimates were compared with the experimental results for validation. The results showed that CFD determined representative coefficients and produced good correlations between the predicted and experimental values when applied to the freezing-time estimates for the box and drum configurations. The errors depended on the configuration and the adopted mesh (3-D grid construction.

  12. Stereo particle-image-velocimetry measurements of an unstable air stratification due to natural convection in a model containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical simulations of a realistic containment configuration (size of several tenths of meters) are both challenging from the physical modeling aspect and the relevant spatial/temporal resolution being necessary to capture all important mean flow and turbulence characteristics, the latter implying a correspondingly long computational time. Furthermore, full-scale experiments for model validation (CFD and lumped parameter methods; CFD - Computational Fluid Dynamics) are hardly affordable. To resolve this situation the THAI-facility (Thermal-hydraulics, Hydrogen, Aerosol and Iodine) was designed and built to enable large-scale experiments, which could then serve as a source for validation database used for the computational models improvement. This facility consists of test vessel (60 m3 volume) with a diameter of 3.4 m and a height of 9.2 m and is equipped with a broad range of measurement techniques and monitoring systems. The present study examines an unstable air stratification created by heating the lower walls and cooling the upper wall of the THAI vessel. In the center of the vessel an inner cylinder was inserted to promote establishing of a re-circulating convective flow. Velocity field data were acquired using a stereo PIV system, used to cover a flow area of about 0.5m2 during the stereo PIV measurements and up to 1 m2 for two-velocity component (2D) measurements. Furthermore, due to the low bulk velocities involved, the system could acquire the data of the bulk motion in a quasi time resolved manner. Long averaging times of over 1000 s allowed the estimation of the turbulent flow quantities (all velocity and Reynolds-stress components). Selected time-averaged and instantaneous flow fields illustrating mean flow and turbulence structure within the containment configuration in the case of the unstable air stratification due to natural convection will be shown and appropriately discussed. (author)

  13. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  14. Demonstration of oxygen-enriched air staging at Owens-Brockway glass containers. Quarterly technical progress report for the period August 1, 1996--October 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rue, D.; Abbasi, H.

    1997-03-01

    The objective of the program is to demonstrate the use of a previously developed combustion modification technology to reduce NO, emissions from sideport regenerative container glass melters. This technology, known as oxygen-enriched air staging (OEAS), has been demonstrated, and is now being commercialized for endport container glass furnaces. This report focuses on full furnace parametric and long-term testing.

  15. MiniPanda - a small-scale containment test facility with novel instrumentation is used for code validation for an air ingress scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    “MiniPanda”, a small-scale containment test facility built at ETH Zurich, was equipped with novel field measurement techniques. The capabilities of the facility were demonstrated in a first test series on an air ingress scenario. The ingress of air into a helium cooled reactor is considered to be one of the most severe accidents for the GenIV-type helium cooled reactor. The air once arrived inside the reactor can cause the oxidation of the graphite structures. The ingress of air into a helium environment was investigated experimentally and analytically using the commercial CFX-13 and StarCCM+ 5.06 CFD codes. The experimental volume consists of two cylindrical vessels that are filled separately with air or helium. The experiment is initiated by removing the blockage from the pipe connecting the two vessels. The experimental and analytical results of the consequent buoyancy-driven air ingress are compared against each other. (author)

  16. Nonradioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC) Application for the Central Waste Complex (CSC) for Storage of Vented Waste Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KAMBERG, L.D.

    2000-04-01

    This Notice of Construction (NOC) application is submitted for the storage and management of waste containers at the Central Waste Complex (CWC) stationary source. The CWC stationary source consists of multiple sources of diffuse and fugitive emissions, as described herein. This NOC is submitted in accordance with the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-400-110 (criteria pollutants) and 173-460-040 (toxic air pollutants), and pursuant to guidance provided by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). Transuranic (TRU) mixed waste containers at CWC are vented to preclude the build up of hydrogen produced as a result of radionuclide decay, not as safety pressure releases. The following activities are conducted within the CWC stationary source: Storage and inspection; Transfer and staging; Packaging; Treatment; and Sampling. This NOC application is intended to cover all existing storage structures within the current CWC treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) boundary, as well as any storage structures, including waste storage pads and staging areas, that might be constructed in the future within the existing CWC boundary.

  17. Nonradioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC) Application for the Central Waste Complex (CSC) for Storage of Vented Waste Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Notice of Construction (NOC) application is submitted for the storage and management of waste containers at the Central Waste Complex (CWC) stationary source. The CWC stationary source consists of multiple sources of diffuse and fugitive emissions, as described herein. This NOC is submitted in accordance with the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-400-110 (criteria pollutants) and 173-460-040 (toxic air pollutants), and pursuant to guidance provided by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). Transuranic (TRU) mixed waste containers at CWC are vented to preclude the build up of hydrogen produced as a result of radionuclide decay, not as safety pressure releases. The following activities are conducted within the CWC stationary source: Storage and inspection; Transfer and staging; Packaging; Treatment; and Sampling. This NOC application is intended to cover all existing storage structures within the current CWC treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) boundary, as well as any storage structures, including waste storage pads and staging areas, that might be constructed in the future within the existing CWC boundary

  18. Final Report, Next-Generation Mega-Voltage Cargo-Imaging System for Cargo Conainer Inspection, March 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. James Clayton, Ph.D., Varian Medical Systems-Security & Inspection Products; Dr. Emma Regentova, Ph.D, University of Nevada Las Vegas; Dr. Evangelos Yfantis, Ph.D., University of Nevada, Las Vegas

    2007-03-27

    The UNLV Research Foundation, as the primary award recipient, teamed with Varian Medical Systems-Security & Inspection Products and the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV) for the purpose of conducting research and engineering related to a "next-generation" mega-voltage imaging (MVCI) system for inspection of cargo in large containers. The procurement and build-out of hardware for the MVCI project has been completed. The K-9 linear accelerator and an optimized X-ray detection system capable of efficiently detecting X-rays emitted from the accelerator after they have passed through the device is under test. The Office of Science financial assistance award has made possible the development of a system utilizing a technology which will have a profound positive impact on the security of U.S. seaports. The proposed project will ultimately result in critical research and development advances for the "next-generation" Linatron X-ray accelerator technology, thereby providing a safe, reliable and efficient fixed and mobile cargo inspection system, which will very significantly increase the fraction of cargo containers undergoing reliable inspection as the enter U.S. ports. Both NNSA/NA-22 and the Department of Homeland Security's Domestic Nuclear Detection Office are collaborating with UNLV and its team to make this technology available as soon as possible.

  19. High energy gamma ray telescope using a cargo airplane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method to measure high energy gamma rays from astronomical objects is presented. In this method, we use commercial cargo airplanes to get the altitude near the air shower maximum. Gamma rays with the energy greater than 100 GeV can be detected by the lead-glass based detector. Directions of gamma rays are determined by those of the secondary electrons (positrons) in the showers. The angular resolution obtained by this method is considered to be better than 1 degree. The detector is sensitive to the gamma ray point sources. (author)

  20. Water spray interaction with air-steam mixtures under containment spray conditions: experimental study in the TOSQAN facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcheron, E.; Lemaitre, P.; Malet, J.; Nuboer, A.; Brun, P.; Bouilloux, L.; Vendel, J. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Direction de la Surete des Usines, des laboratoires, des transports et des dechets, Saclay, BP 68 - 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: During the course of an hypothetical severe accident in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), hydrogen can be produced by the reactor core oxidation and distributed into the reactor containment according to convection flows and steam wall condensation. In order to assess the risk of detonation generated by a high local hydrogen concentration, hydrogen distribution in the containment has to be known. The TOSQAN experimental program has been created to simulate typical accidental thermal hydraulic flow conditions in the reactor containment. The present work is devoted to study the interaction of a water spray injection used as a mitigation mean in order to reduce containment pressure and to produce a mixing of air, steam and hydrogen induced by spray entrainment and condensation on droplet. In order to have a better understanding of physical phenomena, we need to make a detailed characterization of the spray and the gas. The TOSQAN facility that is highly instrumented with non-intrusive diagnostics consists in a closed cylindrical vessel (7 m{sup 3} volume, 4 m high, 1.5 m i.d.) into which steam is injected. Water droplets size is measured in the vessel by the Interferometric Laser Imaging for Droplet Sizing technique. Droplet velocity is obtained by Particle Image Velocimetry and Laser Doppler Velocimetry, and droplet temperature is measured by global rainbow refractometry. Gas concentration measurements are performed by Spontaneous Raman Scattering. The walls of the vessel are thermostatically controlled by heated oil circulation. Inner spray system that is located on the top of the enclosure on the vertical axis, is composed of a single nozzle producing a full cone water spray. Spray test scenario consists of water spray injection in TOSQAN that is first pressurized with a steam injection (steam injection is stopped before spray injection). Water spray falling into the sump is removed to avoid accumulation and evaporation

  1. Water spray interaction with air-steam mixtures under containment spray conditions: experimental study in the TOSQAN facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: During the course of an hypothetical severe accident in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), hydrogen can be produced by the reactor core oxidation and distributed into the reactor containment according to convection flows and steam wall condensation. In order to assess the risk of detonation generated by a high local hydrogen concentration, hydrogen distribution in the containment has to be known. The TOSQAN experimental program has been created to simulate typical accidental thermal hydraulic flow conditions in the reactor containment. The present work is devoted to study the interaction of a water spray injection used as a mitigation mean in order to reduce containment pressure and to produce a mixing of air, steam and hydrogen induced by spray entrainment and condensation on droplet. In order to have a better understanding of physical phenomena, we need to make a detailed characterization of the spray and the gas. The TOSQAN facility that is highly instrumented with non-intrusive diagnostics consists in a closed cylindrical vessel (7 m3 volume, 4 m high, 1.5 m i.d.) into which steam is injected. Water droplets size is measured in the vessel by the Interferometric Laser Imaging for Droplet Sizing technique. Droplet velocity is obtained by Particle Image Velocimetry and Laser Doppler Velocimetry, and droplet temperature is measured by global rainbow refractometry. Gas concentration measurements are performed by Spontaneous Raman Scattering. The walls of the vessel are thermostatically controlled by heated oil circulation. Inner spray system that is located on the top of the enclosure on the vertical axis, is composed of a single nozzle producing a full cone water spray. Spray test scenario consists of water spray injection in TOSQAN that is first pressurized with a steam injection (steam injection is stopped before spray injection). Water spray falling into the sump is removed to avoid accumulation and evaporation. Measurements are

  2. First beam trials of 6 MeV RF electron linac for mobile Cargo-scanning applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 6 MeV compact RF Electron Linac for container cargo-scanning applications has been designed and developed by the Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, BARC. This compact linac has been designed to be a mobile system, to be mounted in a moving container. In linac-based cargo-scanning systems, the linac acts as the source of X-rays, which fall on the cargo and are then detected by the detector system. This paper describes the salient features of the 6/3 MeV dual energy compact linac and results of the first beam trials. (author)

  3. Design Verification of a High Energy X-ray Scanner for Cargo Inspections with the Stereo Visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, validity verifications of the design of the system have been carried out with Monte Carlo simulations for the precise technical design. The central goal in this research asks that the designed system is suitable enough for the purpose, which is to inspect cargo container in fast and with good visualization performance. The simulation test of the design of the cargo container inspection system has been carried out using Geant4, which is a widely used Monte Carlo code. The calculation is to expect whether the geometrical design is able to visualize the inside of a cargo with reasonable coverage and the results give an insight to achieve the goal

  4. X-ray scan detection for cargo integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Juan; Miller, Steve

    2011-04-01

    The increase of terrorism and its global impact has made the determination of the contents of cargo containers a necessity. Existing technology allows non-intrusive inspections to determine the contents of a container rapidly and accurately. However, some cargo shipments are exempt from such inspections. Hence, there is a need for a technology that enables rapid and accurate means of detecting whether such containers were non-intrusively inspected. Non-intrusive inspections are most commonly performed utilizing high powered X-ray equipment. The challenge is creating a device that can detect short duration X-ray scans while maintaining a portable, battery powered, low cost, and easy to use platform. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a methodology and prototype device focused on this challenge. The prototype, developed by PNNL, is a battery powered electronic device that continuously measures its X-ray and Gamma exposure, calculates the dose equivalent rate, and makes a determination of whether the device has been exposed to the amount of radiation experienced during an X-ray inspection. Once an inspection is detected, the device will record a timestamp of the event and relay the information to authorized personnel via a visual alert, USB connection, and/or wireless communication. The results of this research demonstrate that PNNL's prototype device can be effective at determining whether a container was scanned by X-ray equipment typically used for cargo container inspections. This paper focuses on laboratory measurements and test results acquired with the PNNL prototype device using several X-ray radiation levels.

  5. 49 CFR 1544.202 - Persons and property onboard an all-cargo aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Persons and property onboard an all-cargo aircraft. 1544.202 Section 1544.202 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.202 Persons and property onboard an...

  6. 46 CFR 105.25-10 - Cargo pumping installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pumping installation. 105.25-10 Section 105.25-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS... Installed Below Decks § 105.25-10 Cargo pumping installation. (a) Cargo pumps shall not be installed in...

  7. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.195 Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. (a) An aluminum cargo tank and its... the aluminum cargo tank must meet the steel structural standards of the American Bureau of...

  8. 46 CFR 154.562 - Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. 154.562 Section 154.562 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Hose § 154.562 Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. Each cargo hose must pass a hydrostatic pressure test...

  9. 29 CFR 1918.87 - Ship's cargo elevators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's cargo elevators. 1918.87 Section 1918.87 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.87 Ship's cargo elevators. (a) Safe working load. The safe working loads of ship's cargo elevators shall be determined and...

  10. 46 CFR 153.977 - Supervision of cargo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supervision of cargo transfer. 153.977 Section 153.977 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS... Procedures § 153.977 Supervision of cargo transfer. The person in charge of cargo transfer shall:...

  11. 46 CFR 151.13-5 - Cargo segregation-tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo segregation-tanks. 151.13-5 Section 151.13-5... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Cargo Segregation § 151.13-5 Cargo segregation—tanks. (a... and list the various degrees of segregation required. Paragraphs and (2) of this section explain...

  12. 46 CFR 154.500 - Cargo and process piping standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo and process piping standards. 154.500 Section 154... SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.500 Cargo and process piping standards. The cargo...

  13. 41 CFR 102-117.140 - What is cargo preference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is cargo preference... cargo preference? Cargo preference is the statutory requirement that all, or a portion of all, ocean... the cargo preference laws must be approved by: Department of Transportation Maritime...

  14. Effects of secondary containment air cleanup system leakage on the accident offsite dose as determined during preop tests of the Sequoyah Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sequoyah Nuclear Plant has two secondary containments. One is the annular region between the primary containment and the shield building surrounding the primary containment. The second is the auxiliary building secondary containment enclosure which is potentially subject to direct airborne radioactivity. Two air cleanup systems are provided to serve these areas. The emergency gas treatment system (EGTS) serves the annulus between the primary containment and the shield building, and the auxiliary building gas treatment system (ABGTS) serves the area inside of the auxiliary building secondary containment enclosure. The major function served by these air cleanup systems is that of controlling and processing airborne contamination released in these areas during any accident up to a design basis accident. This is accomplished by (1) creating a negative pressure in the areas served to ensure that no unprocessed air is released to the atmosphere, (2) providing filtration units to process all air exhausted from the secondary containment spaces, and (3) providing a low-leakage enclosure to limit exhaust flows. Offsite dose effects due to secondary containment release rates, bypass leakage, and duct and damper leakages are presented and parameter variations are considered. For the EGTS, a recirculation system, the most important parameter is the total inleakage of the system which causes an increase in both whole body (gamma) and thyroid (iodine) doses. For the ABGTS, a once-through system, the most important paramter is the inleakage which bypasses the filters resulting in an increase in the thyroid dose only. Actual preoperational test data are utilized. Problems encountered during the preop test are summarized. Solutions incorporated to bring the EGTS and ABGTS air cleanup systems within the test acceptance criteria required to meet offsite dose limitations are discussed and the resultant calculated offsite dose is presented

  15. Design of heavy lift cargo aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the bird of the skies of the future. The heavy lift cargo aircraft which is currently being developed by me has twice the payload capacity of an Antonov...

  16. 75 FR 56538 - Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Agreement Containing Consent Orders to Aid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... ] Consent Agreement, Air Products is required, among other things, to divest 15 air separation units (``ASUs... liquid nitrogen. Pursuant to the Consent Agreement, Air Products will divest all of the Airgas business... transaction takes place after February 15, 2011. Any acquirer of the divested assets must receive the...

  17. Relative sensitivity of greenhouse pot plants to long-term exposures of NO- and NO2-containing air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxe, H

    1994-01-01

    Thirty-five cultivars of pot plants of 20 families were exposed for 50-64 days in a greenhouse facility to either 1 microl litre(-1) NO with 0.5 microl litre(-1) NO2, or 1 microl litre(-1) NO2 with 0.1 microl litre(-1) NO for 15 h each day, with air which was free from these gases as the reference. A sensitivity ranking of the pot plants was compiled, with the highest priority on visible injuries, followed by growth reductions, primarily as a response to the NO-dominated exposures, simulating the NOx-polluted environment in direct-fired, CO2-enriched greenhouses. This treatment reduced the leaf dry weight more than the number and area of the leaves. Twenty-two cultivars were significantly injured, while two (Hibicus sp, Epipremnum pinnatum, green) were significantly improved. The NOx-sensitivity of pot plants was highest in cultivars with variegated, small or narrow leaves, and in the Moraceae family. Nine cultivars (Ficus elastica 'Robusta', F. benjamina, F. pumila 'Sonny', Dieffenbachia maculata 'Camilla', F. elastica 'Tineke', Epipremnum pinnatum 'Marble Queen', Begonia elatior 'Nelson', Cyclamen persica, Poinsettia 'Mini') were specifically sensitive to the NO-containing exposure; six were specifically sensitive to the NO2-containing exposure (F. elastica 'Robusta', Asparagus den. 'Sprengeri', Hedera helix 'Shamrock', Aspledium nidus, Aster novo-belgii, Hypoestes phyl. 'Betina'); and 12 (Soleirolia soleirolii, Asparagus den. 'Sprengeri', H. helix 'Ester', Codiaeum 'Pictum', Rosa 'Minimo Red', F. benjamina 'Starlight', Saintpaulia ionantha 'light blue', F. pumila, Rhododendron simsii, H. helix 'Shamrock', Hibiscus sp., E. pinnatum) were equally sensitive to mixtures dominated by either gas, as measured by at least one response parameter. PMID:15091658

  18. Characterizing X-ray Attenuation of Containerized Cargo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birrer, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Divin, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glenn, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martz, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wang, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-02

    X-ray inspection systems can be used to detect radiological and nuclear threats in imported cargo. In order to better understand performance of these systems, the attenuation characteristics of imported cargo need to be determined. This project focused on developing image processing algorithms for segmenting cargo and using x-ray attenuation to quantify equivalent steel thickness to determine cargo density. These algorithms were applied to over 450 cargo radiographs. The results are summarized in this report.

  19. Containment Performance Evaluation of a Sodium Fire Event Due to Air Ingress into the Cover Gas Region of the Reactor Vessel in the PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sang June; Chang, Won-Pyo; Kang, Seok Hun; Choi, Chi-Woong; Yoo, Jin; Lee, Kwi Lim; Jeong, Jae-Ho; Lee, Seung Won; Jeong, Taekyeong; Ha, Kwi-Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Comparing with the light water reactor, sodium as a reactor coolant violently reacts with oxygen in the containment atmosphere. Due to this chemical reaction, heat generated from the combustion heat increases the temperature and pressure in the containment atmosphere. The structural integrity of the containment building which is a final radiological defense barrier is threaten. A sodium fire event in the containment due to air ingress into the cover gas region in the reactor vessel is classified as one of the design basis events in the PGSFR. This event comes from a leak or crack on the reactor upper closure header surface. It accompanys an event of the radiological fission products release to the inside the containment. In this paper, evaluation for the sodium fire and radiological influence due to air ingress into the cover gas region of the reactor vessel is described. To evaluate this event, the CONTAIN-LMR, MACCS-II and OR-IGEN-II codes are used. For the sodium pool fire event in the containment, the performance evaluation and radiological influence are carried out. In the thermal hydraulic aspects, the 1 cell containment yields the most conservative result. In this event, the maximum temperature and pressure in the containment are calculated 0.185 MPa, 280.0 .deg. C, respectively. The radiological dose at the EAB and LPZ are below the acceptance criteria specified in the 10CFR100.

  20. Containment Performance Evaluation of a Sodium Fire Event Due to Air Ingress into the Cover Gas Region of the Reactor Vessel in the PGSFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparing with the light water reactor, sodium as a reactor coolant violently reacts with oxygen in the containment atmosphere. Due to this chemical reaction, heat generated from the combustion heat increases the temperature and pressure in the containment atmosphere. The structural integrity of the containment building which is a final radiological defense barrier is threaten. A sodium fire event in the containment due to air ingress into the cover gas region in the reactor vessel is classified as one of the design basis events in the PGSFR. This event comes from a leak or crack on the reactor upper closure header surface. It accompanys an event of the radiological fission products release to the inside the containment. In this paper, evaluation for the sodium fire and radiological influence due to air ingress into the cover gas region of the reactor vessel is described. To evaluate this event, the CONTAIN-LMR, MACCS-II and OR-IGEN-II codes are used. For the sodium pool fire event in the containment, the performance evaluation and radiological influence are carried out. In the thermal hydraulic aspects, the 1 cell containment yields the most conservative result. In this event, the maximum temperature and pressure in the containment are calculated 0.185 MPa, 280.0 .deg. C, respectively. The radiological dose at the EAB and LPZ are below the acceptance criteria specified in the 10CFR100

  1. Radioactive material air transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation

  2. Tackling the x-ray cargo inspection challenge using machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaccard, Nicolas; Rogers, Thomas W.; Morton, Edward J.; Griffin, Lewis D.

    2016-05-01

    The current infrastructure for non-intrusive inspection of cargo containers cannot accommodate exploding com-merce volumes and increasingly stringent regulations. There is a pressing need to develop methods to automate parts of the inspection workflow, enabling expert operators to focus on a manageable number of high-risk images. To tackle this challenge, we developed a modular framework for automated X-ray cargo image inspection. Employing state-of-the-art machine learning approaches, including deep learning, we demonstrate high performance for empty container verification and specific threat detection. This work constitutes a significant step towards the partial automation of X-ray cargo image inspection.

  3. Survey of Modified Clinoptilolite Zeolite and Cooper Oxide Nanoparticles-Containing Modified Clinoptilolite Efficiency for Polluted Air BTX Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhollah Rostami

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Background and Objectives:Benzene, toluene and Xylenes (BTX are organic pollutants, which are mainly associated with oil and its derivatives. BTX is environmental contaminants and considered harmful to human health. Application of surface absorbents such as zeolite is one of several methods for the removal of these compounds. In this study, BTX compounds' removal efficiencies were investigated and compared by using clinoptilolite type zeolite and zeolite with copper oxide nanoparticles.Materials and Methods: In this study, the modified zeolite by hydrochloric acid in the grain size 1-2 mm and modified zeolite with nano particle of copper oxide were used.  Artificially- Contaminated Air flow was used continuously .To determine BTX concentrations, samplings were done by charcoal tube in current input and output. The concentrations of contaminants were determined by gas chromatography with FID detector.Results: Removal efficiency of benzene, toluene, p-xylene, m-xylene and o-xylene by clinoptilolite were 78.3%, 62.1%, 32.2% 32.15% and 18.8%, respectively. For the clinoptilolite containing copper oxide nano particles efficiency were 25.42%, 35.65%, 36.33%, 33.24% and 29.39%, respectively. Average removal efficiency of BTX compounds observed when the zeolite without nanoparticles used (43.31% was more than zeolite with nanoparticles (32%. The results showed that the concentration of CO2 in the outlet air of the zeolite-containing nanoparticle (550 ppm was more than the zeolite without nanoparticle (525 ppm.Conclusion: Results showed that adding nanoparticles to the zeolite, although the removal efficiency of benzene and toluene can be reduced. The results showed that adding nanoparticles to the zeolite, although can be reduced removal efficiency of benzene and toluene, which may be due to occupying or blocking of the pollution absorption sites by the nanoparticles on the

  4. The salvaging of the Mont Louis cargo ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On Saturday the 25th of August 1984, at 2:20 P.M., the German car ferry Olau Britannia with 800 passengers aboard rammed the rear starboard side of the French cargo ship Mont Louis. The collision occurred in the English Channel at a point 18 kilometers north of Ostend. At 7:00 P.M. the Mont Louis sank to a depth of 15 meters at a distance of several miles by rail from Antwerp. Half the ship's hull lay uncovered at low tide. The cargo included 30 type 48-Y containers, each filled with 12 tons of UF6, and 22 empty type 30-B containers for return of the enriched uranium. The UF6 was to be enriched to 4% in the Soviet Union for use as fuel in nuclear power plants. The table below details the nature of the UF6. After salvaging operation the containers have been inspected and no damage or leaks have been detected. The accident involved no risk of radioactive or chemical contamination of the sea water. The systematic misinformation campaign by Greenpeace and news media is briefly described. (orig./HP)

  5. Uncertainty Quantification for Cargo Hold Fires

    CERN Document Server

    DeGennaro, Anthony M; Martinelli, Luigi; Rowley, Clarence W

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold -- first, to introduce the application of high-order discontinuous Galerkin methods to buoyancy-driven cargo hold fire simulations, second, to explore statistical variation in the fluid dynamics of a cargo hold fire given parameterized uncertainty in the fire source location and temperature. Cargo hold fires represent a class of problems that require highly-accurate computational methods to simulate faithfully. Hence, we use an in-house discontinuous Galerkin code to treat these flows. Cargo hold fires also exhibit a large amount of uncertainty with respect to the boundary conditions. Thus, the second aim of this paper is to quantify the resulting uncertainty in the flow, using tools from the uncertainty quantification community to ensure that our efforts require a minimal number of simulations. We expect that the results of this study will provide statistical insight into the effects of fire location and temperature on cargo fires, and also assist in the optimization of f...

  6. Water bath and air bath calorimeter qualification for measuring 3013 containers of plutonium oxide at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to present qualification data generated from water and air-bath calorimeters measuring radioactive decay heat from plutonium oxide in DOE STD-3013-2000 (3013) containers at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Published data concerning air and water bath calorimeters and especially 3013-qualified calorimeters is minimal at best. This paper will address the data from the measurement/qualification test plan, the heat standards used, and the calorimeter precision and accuracy results. The 3013 package is physically larger than earlier plutonium oxide storage containers, thereby necessitating a larger measurement chamber. To accommodate the measurements of the 3013 containers at PFP, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) supplied a water bath dual-chambered unit and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) provided two air-bath calorimeters. Both types of Calorimeters were installed in the analytical laboratory at PFP. The larger 3013 containers presented a new set of potential measurement problems: longer counting times, heat conductivity through a much larger container mass and wall thickness, and larger amounts of copper shot to assist sample thermal conductivity. These potential problems were addressed and included in the measurement/qualification test plan

  7. Characterizing Complexity of Containerized Cargo X-ray Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guangxing [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martz, Harry [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glenn, Steven [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Divin, Charles [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Birrer, Nat [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-19

    X-ray imaging can be used to inspect cargos imported into the United States. In order to better understand the performance of X-ray inspection systems, the X-ray characteristics (density, complexity) of cargo need to be quantified. In this project, an image complexity measure called integrated power spectral density (IPSD) was studied using both DNDO engineered cargos and stream-of-commerce (SOC) cargos. A joint distribution of cargo density and complexity was obtained. A support vector machine was used to classify the SOC cargos into four categories to estimate the relative fractions.

  8. DNA hairpins promote temperature controlled cargo encapsulation in a truncated octahedral nanocage structure family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franch, Oskar; Iacovelli, Federico; Falconi, Mattia; Juul, Sissel; Ottaviani, Alessio; Benvenuti, Claudia; Biocca, Silvia; Ho, Yi-Ping; Knudsen, Birgitta R.; Desideri, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    In the present study we investigate the mechanism behind temperature controlled cargo uptake using a truncated octahedral DNA cage scaffold functionalized with one, two, three or four hairpin forming DNA strands inserted in one corner of the structure. This investigation was inspired by our previous demonstration of temperature controlled reversible encapsulation of the cargo enzyme, horseradish peroxidase, in the cage with four hairpin forming strands. However, in this previous study the mechanism of cargo uptake was not directly addressed (Juul, et al., Temperature-Controlled Encapsulation and Release of an Active Enzyme in the Cavity of a Self-Assembled DNA Nanocage, ACS Nano, 2013, 7, 9724-9734). In the present study we use a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and in vitro analyses to unravel the mechanism of cargo uptake in hairpin containing DNA cages. We find that two hairpin forming strands are necessary and sufficient to facilitate efficient cargo uptake, which argues against a full opening-closing of one corner of the structure being responsible for encapsulation. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to evaluate the atomistic motions responsible for encapsulation and showed that the two hairpin forming strands facilitated extension of at least one of the face surfaces of the cage scaffold, allowing entrance of the cargo protein into the cavity of the structure. Hence, the presented data demonstrate that cargo uptake does not involve a full opening of the structure. Rather, the uptake mechanism represents a feature of increased flexibility integrated in this nanocage structure upon the addition of at least two hairpin-forming strands.In the present study we investigate the mechanism behind temperature controlled cargo uptake using a truncated octahedral DNA cage scaffold functionalized with one, two, three or four hairpin forming DNA strands inserted in one corner of the structure. This investigation was inspired by our previous

  9. Fluctuation effects in bidirectional cargo transport

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Sarah; Santen, Ludger

    2014-01-01

    We discuss a theoretical model for bidirectional cargo transport in biological cells, which is driven by teams of molecular motors and subject to thermal fluctuations. The model describes explicitly the directed motion of the molecular motors on the filament. The motor-cargo coupling is implemented via linear springs. By means of extensive Monte Carlo simulations we show that the model describes the experimentally observed regimes of anomalous diffusion, i.e. subdiffusive behavior at short times followed by superdiffusion at intermediate times. The model results indicate that subdiffuse regime is induced by thermal fluctuations while the superdiffusive motion is generated by correlations of the motors' activity. We also tested the efficiency of bidirectional cargo transport in crowded areas by measuring its ability to pass barriers with increased viscosity. Our results show a remarkable gain of efficiency for high viscosities.

  10. Zinc-air cell with KOH-treated agar layer between electrode and electrolyte containing hydroponics gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otham, R. [International Islamic University, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Yahaya, A. H. [University of Malaya, Dept. of Chemistry, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Arof, A. K. [University of Malaya, Dept. of Physics, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2002-07-01

    Zinc-air electrochemical power sources possess the highest density compared to other zinc anode batteries, due their free and unlimited supply from the ambient air. In this experiment zinc-air cells have been fabricated employing hydroponics gel as an alternative alkaline electrolyte gelling agent. Thin KOH-treated agar layer was applied between the electrode-electrolyte interfaces which produced significant enhancement of the cells' capacities, indicating that the application of thin agar layer will improve the electrode-gelled electrolyte interfaces. Promising results have been achieved with porous zinc anode prepared from dried zinc-graphite-gelatinized agar paste; e g. a zinc-air cell employing a porous zinc anode has demonstrated a capacity of 1470 mAh rated at 0.1 A continuous discharge. 32 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Institute Cargo Clauses : Nova verzija 2009.

    OpenAIRE

    Lovrić, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Institute Cargo Clauses, 2009. znače izmijenjene i dopunjene Institute Cargo Clauses iz 1982. Osnovni razlozi za reviziju prijašnjih uvjeta leže u pojavi novih rizika, potrebi da se uvjeti kargo osiguranja prilagode promjenama u suvremenom transportnom sustavu te jezično i terminološki osuvremene. Novi uvjeti donose niz rješenja koja znače modernizaciju u odnosu na rješenja Marine Insurance Acta iz 1906. Redaktori novih uvjeta vodili su računa i o tome da pojedine odredbe budu jasnije form...

  12. Trajanje osiguranja prema Institute Cargo Clauses (2009.)

    OpenAIRE

    Petrinović, Ranka; Lovrić, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Institute Cargo Clauses iz 2009. zapravo su izmjene i dopune Institute Cargo Clauses iz 1982. Osnovni su razlozi za reviziju prijašnjih uvjeta u pojavi novih rizika, potrebi da se uvjeti kargo-osiguranja prilagode promjenama u suvremenome transportnom sustavu te jezično i terminološki osuvremene. Novi uvjeti donose više rješenja koja znače modernizaciju u usporedbi s onima u Marine Insurance Acta iz 1906., pa se prezentiraju kao klauzule za novo tisućljeće. Među bitnim promjenama koje donose ...

  13. Accelerator requirements for fast-neutron interrogation of luggage and cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several different fast-neutron based techniques are being studied for the detection of contraband substances in luggage and cargo containers. The present work discusses the accelerator requirements for fast-neutron transmission spectroscopy (FNTS), pulsed fast-neutron analysis (PFNA), and 14-MeV neutron interrogation. These requirements are based on the results of Monte-Carlo simulations of neutron or gamma detection rates. Accelerator requirements are driven by count-rate considerations, spatial resolution and acceptable uncertainties in elemental compositions. The authors have limited their analyses to luggage inspection with FNTS and to cargo inspection with PFNA or 14-MeV neutron interrogation

  14. Genetic algorithms approach for containerships fleet management dependent on cargo and their deadlines

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, Ana; Martins, Paulo; Andrade-Campos, António; Lobo,

    2010-01-01

    This work proposes a method to improve the flexibility of short sea shipping and to increase its competitiveness with other means of freight transport. A logistic model and a mathematical model are developed to manage a fleet of two or more vessels which transport cargo to and from several ports, bearing in mind the cargo distribution and delivery deadlines. At each port, the model determines which port to visit next, which containers to embark, disembark and to shift, as well as how to stow ...

  15. 46 CFR 105.20-3 - Cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Specific Requirements-Cargo Tanks § 105.20-3 Cargo tanks. (a... subjected, except that in no case shall the thickness of the shell or head be less than that specified...

  16. Suitability of containers from different sources as breeding sites of Aedes aegypti (L. in a cemetery of Buenos Aires City, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Vezzani

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Cemeteries are ideal urban areas to study the importance of different types of containers as breeding sites of Aedes aegypti (L.. In the present study, the suitability of plastic, glass, ceramic and metal containers was evaluated in four patches within a cemetery of Buenos Aires City, Argentina. Between October 1998 and May 2000, we found 215 breeding sites of Ae. aegypti out of 13,022 water-filled containers examined. In two patches containing microenvironments sheltered from the sun, the use of the different types of containers was proportional to the offer (correlation coefficient = 0.99, P < 0.05 in both cases. In the remaining patches, plastic and metal containers were the most and less frequent breeding sites, respectively (P < 0.001 in both cases. The number of immatures per breeding site (median = 4.5 did not show significant differences among the four types of containers examined (H3, 215 = 1.216, P = 0.749. Differences found in patches from a same cemetery suggest that different microenvironmental conditions affect the suitability of each type of container for Ae. aegypti breeding. Plastic containers appeared as key breeding sites that should be removed to reduce the Ae. aegypti population in the study area.

  17. Delivery of Non-Native Cargo into Mammalian Cells Using Anthrax Lethal Toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabideau, Amy E; Pentelute, Bradley Lether

    2016-06-17

    The intracellular delivery of peptide and protein therapeutics is a major challenge due to the plasma membrane, which acts as a barrier between the extracellular environment and the intracellular milieu. Over the past two decades, a nontoxic PA/LFN delivery platform derived from anthrax lethal toxin has been developed for the transport of non-native cargo into the cytosol of cells in order to understand the translocation process through a protective antigen (PA) pore and to probe intracellular biological functions. Enzyme-mediated ligation using sortase A and native chemical ligation are two facile methods used to synthesize these non-native conjugates, inaccessible by recombinant technology. Cargo molecules that translocate efficiently include enzymes from protein toxins, antibody mimic proteins, and peptides of varying lengths and non-natural amino acid compositions. The PA pore has been found to effectively convey over 30 known cargos other than native lethal factor (LF; i.e., non-native) with diverse sequences and functionalities on the LFN transporter protein. All together these studies demonstrated that non-native cargos must adopt an unfolded or extended conformation and contain a suitable charge composition in order to efficiently pass through the PA pore. This review provides insight into design parameters for the efficient delivery of new cargos using PA and LFN. PMID:27055654

  18. 49 CFR 172.448 - CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label. 172.448 Section 172.448... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.448 CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label. (a) Except for size and color, the CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label must be as follows: ER14JA09.001 (b) The CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label must be black on...

  19. Significant air embolism: A possibility even with collapsible intravenous fluid containers when used with rapid infuser system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepanjali Pant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant venous air embolism may develop acutely during the perioperative period due to a number of causes such as during head and neck surgery, spinal surgery, improper central venous and haemodialysis catheter handling, etc. The current trend of using self collapsible intravenous (IV infusion bags instead of the conventional glass or plastic bottles has several advantages, one of thaem being protection against air embolism. We present a 56-year-old man undergoing kidney transplantation, who developed a near fatal venous air embolism during volume resuscitation with normal saline in collapsible IV bags used with rapid infuser system. To our knowledge, this problem with collapsible infusion bags has not been reported earlier.

  20. 46 CFR 151.25-2 - Cargo handling space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo handling space. 151.25-2 Section 151.25-2 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Environmental Control § 151.25-2 Cargo handling space. Pump rooms, compressor rooms, refrigeration rooms, heating rooms, instrument rooms or other closed...

  1. 33 CFR 157.23 - Cargo and ballast system information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.23 Cargo and ballast system information. (a... automatic and manual operation of the cargo and ballast system in the vessel. (b) The format and information... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cargo and ballast...

  2. 46 CFR 153.440 - Cargo temperature sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo temperature sensors. 153.440 Section 153.440 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS... Temperature Control Systems § 153.440 Cargo temperature sensors. (a) Except as prescribed in paragraph (c)...

  3. 48 CFR 52.228-9 - Cargo Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Insurance. 52.228-9... Insurance. As prescribed in 28.313(a), insert the following clause: Cargo Insurance (MAY 1999) (a) The..., cargo insurance of $_____ per vehicle to cover the value of property on each vehicle and of $_____...

  4. 46 CFR 151.20-20 - Cargo transfer methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 90 percent of the set pressure of the cargo tank safety relief valve. The pressurizing line shall be... shall be fitted with a safety relief valve set to lift at a pressure no higher than 80 percent of the cargo tank safety relief valve setting. (d) When cargo vapors are flammable, combustible or toxic,...

  5. THE ANALYSIS OF THE LOGISTICS ORGANIZATION OF CUSTOMS CARGO PROCESSING

    OpenAIRE

    N. Ponomariova; Stoliar, T.

    2008-01-01

    The matter concerning customs logistics being an integral part of cargo delivery logistics range of international routes has been considered. The aim of functioning of cargo customs handling process has been determined. The application of Petri network theory for the purpose of customs cargo handling model development has been proved.

  6. Development of 60Co cargo train inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author introduces the research and development of 60Co cargo train inspection system. With the use of radiography principle, every car image is acquired when the cargo train runs through the inspection channel. It is evaluated whether the cargo in car matches the corresponding customs declaration information with digital image processing techniques. The system has been installed in railway port at Manzhouli Customs

  7. Molecular approach to intracellular cargo transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ahmet

    2010-03-01

    Landmark discoveries in the study of cytoplasmic motors have been made through advances in single molecule biophysics and detailed mechanistic models exist for kinesin and dynein. However, the function of motors in physiological conditions has not been carefully tested. In cells, more than few dyneins can attach to the same cargo and interact with the opposite polarity motors of kinesin. To study the molecular crosstalk between the motors, we have used intraflagellar transport (IFT) in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model system. Ultrahigh spatio-temporal tracking of single cargo movement showed that IFT particles move for long distances unidirectionally with 8 nm increments, agreeing with measured step sizes of kinesin and dynein. To measure how many motors transport each cargo, we have linked large polystyrene beads to internal IFT particles through a transmembrane protein. Force measurements indicated that, on average, 3-4 motors transport cargoes in each direction. The results showed that IFT motors are tightly coordinated and might be involved in recycling each other to the appropriate end of the flagellum.

  8. 78 FR 68784 - Cargo Securing Manuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). D. Public... Practice for Cargo Stowage and Securing E.O. Executive Order FR Federal Register IMO International Maritime.... vessels or for foreign vessels operating in U.S. waters. In a notice (64 FR 1648; Jan. 11,...

  9. 46 CFR 64.91 - Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge. 64.91 Section... PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.91 Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge. The cargo pump discharge must have a relief valve that is— (a) Fitted between the cargo...

  10. Multirole cargo aircraft options and configurations. [economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, D. W.; Vaughan, J. C., III

    1979-01-01

    A future requirements and advanced market evaluation study indicates derivatives of current wide-body aircraft, using 1980 advanced technology, would be economically attractive through 2008, but new dedicated airfreighters incorporating 1990 technology, would offer little or no economic incentive. They would be economically attractive for all payload sizes, however, if RD and T costs could be shared in a joint civil/military arrangement. For the 1994-2008 cargo market, option studies indicate Mach 0.7 propfans would be economically attractive in trip cost, aircraft price and airline ROI. Spanloaders would have an even lower price and higher ROI but would have a relatively high trip cost because of aerodynamic inefficiencies. Dedicated airfreighters using propfans at Mach 0.8 cruise, laminar flow control, or cryofuels, would not provide any great economic benefits. Air cushion landing gear configurations are identified as an option for avoiding runway constraints on airport requirements and/or operational constraints are noted.

  11. Mark I Containment Program. Scaling analysis for modeling initial air clearing caused by reactor safety/relief valve discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A generalized method of similitude is introduced and applied to develop scaling relationships for a General Electric Mark I suppression pool. A scale model is proposed to model suppression pool wall loads due to air flow through a T-quencher discharge device. The scaling relationships developed provide the means for relating scale model parameters (i.e., pressure, velocity,) to full scale

  12. A Sensor and Communications System for Containerized-Cargo Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach Jr., R R

    2005-02-10

    A public/private collaboration between federal, state, provincial, and local U.S. and Canadian governmental organizations, called the Canada - United States Cargo Security Project has been formed, with the goal to improve security of containerized cargo moving from overseas locations into eastern Canadian provinces and the Northeastern United States. The current phase of this project has two technical objectives. These are: (1) to build and test a prototype in-container sensor system able to detect unauthorized entry into the container and the presence of radioactive material, to record geographical location and environmental data, and to transmit this information via satellite communications to a remote monitoring facility, and (2) to develop a secure website where data from the in-container sensors and other information will be displayed in real or near-real time and can be made available to law enforcement and emergency response organizations as appropriate. This paper will describe these activities, currently being undertaken by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. An additional goal of the project's current phase is to integrate multi-jurisdictional training and first-responder exercises while monitoring and tracking container shipments from overseas to the US via Canadian ports-of-entry into North America. This activity is being undertaken by other project partners, which include the National Infrastructure Institute--Center for Infrastructure Expertise (NI2CIE), Transport Canada, Canadian Provinces of Quebec and Nova Scotia, Ports of Halifax and Montreal, U.S. Coast Guard (First Coast Guard District), States of New Hampshire, Maine, Vermont, and New York and the Port of Portland.

  13. Discharging Part of LNG Liquid Cargo Handling Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Zhou Yang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the national economy, it is important to develop LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas liquid cargo handling simulator. In this paper, the discharging part of Liquid Cargo Handling Simulator of LNG Carriers is developed by Visual Basic. The system includes 5 major forms and 3 mathematical models such as cargo pump model, the pressure and temperature model of the LNG vapour in the cargo tank and the liquid level model. The system can complete the unloading task. The system has become a preliminary model of LNG liquid cargo handlings simulator training.

  14. Cargo inspection system based on pulsed fast neutron analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Douglas R.; Coates, Allison; Kuo, Stelly N.; Loveman, Robert; Pentaleri, Ed; Rynes, Joel C.

    1997-02-01

    The pulsed fast neutron analysis (PFNA) cargo inspection system (CIS) uses a nanosecond pulsed beam of fast neutrons to interrogate the contents of small volume elements -- voxels -- of a cargo container or truck. A color display shows the three-dimensional location of suspected contraband, such as drugs or explosives. The neutrons interact with the elemental contents of each vowel, and gamma rays characteristic of the elements are collected in an array of detectors. The elemental signals and their ratios give unique signatures for drugs and other contraband. From the time of arrival of the gamma rays, the position of the vowel within the truck is determined. The PFNA CIS is designed to scan five or more trucks per hour. The operator interface has been designed to assist in the rapid identification of drugs, explosives or other contraband. This paper describes the system and the tests for drugs and explosives that have been carried out during the past year. These tests were aimed at exploring the envelope of performance of the system.

  15. Relocatable cargo x-ray inspection systems utilizing compact linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetron-powered, X-band linacs with 3-4 MeV capability are compact enough to be readily utilized in relocatable high energy cargo inspection systems. Just such a system is currently under development at AS and E trade mark sign using the commercially available ISOSearch trade mark sign cargo inspection system as the base platform. The architecture permits the retention of backscatter imaging, which has proven to be an extremely valuable complement to the more usual transmission images. The linac and its associated segmented detector will provide an additional view with superior penetration and spatial resolution. The complete system, which is housed in two standard 40' ISO containers, is briefly described with emphasis on the installation and operating characteristics of the portable linac. The average rf power delivered by the magnetron to the accelerator section can be varied up to the maximum of about 1 kW. The projected system performance, including radiation dose to the environment, will be discussed and compared with other high energy systems

  16. Egypt air radioactive sources warehouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I would like to give me this chance, of being here among famous scientists. I wish to thank the general director of cargo division, and the general manager of import for providing all facilities for me to be present at this scientific meeting. At this conference, I wish to explain the role played by egypt air (as public sector company) in the officiant of radiation physics. The atomic energy authority, ministry of health, and ministry of civil aviation; have provided instructions that were essentially required to complete the work of the national radioactive warehouse located in egypt air terminal in Cairo. Now the license for operating the store has been granted. Prior to constructing the warehouse, the radioactive sources were distributed among the foreign cargo terminals at Cairo airport, such as swiss air, air france, saudi arabia, the Ice stores, as well egypt Air. Cargo terminals. The control of radiation hazard was therefore difficult. The ministry of Civil aviation then issued a decree dictating the storage of all radioactive sources exclusively at the national store of egypt air. All foreign cargo terminals should transfer all imported radioactive sources to the national warehouse at Cairo air port. According to that decree. 6 figs, 2 tabs

  17. 77 FR 65006 - Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... December 5, 2003, CBP published a final rule in the Federal Register (68 FR 68140) to effectuate the... secure VPN connection with CBP that the ACAS pilot participant is willing to set up. ACAS...

  18. Oxidation resistance in LBE and air and tensile properties of ODS ferritic steels containing Al/Zr elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, R. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Xia, L.L. [Armor Forces Department, Army Officer Academy of PLA, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China); Zhang, T.; Wang, X.P. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Fang, Q.F., E-mail: qffang@issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Liu, C.S. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2014-12-15

    The effects of Al and Zr addition on improvement of oxidation resistance in lead–bismuth eutectic (LBE) and in air as well as the tensile properties were investigated for the oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels. The 16Cr–4Al–0.8Zr–ODS steel samples were fabricated by a sol–gel method combining with spark plasma sintering technique. The tests in LBE at 600 °C for 1000 h indicate the good oxidation resistance comparing with the specimens without Zr/Al elements. The samples also exhibit superior oxidation resistance in air due to formation of dense and continuous aluminum oxide film. Minor Zr addition prevents the Al element induced coarsening of the oxide particles in ODS steels and significantly improves the ultimate tensile stress and total elongation of the samples.

  19. Oxidation resistance in LBE and air and tensile properties of ODS ferritic steels containing Al/Zr elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of Al and Zr addition on improvement of oxidation resistance in lead–bismuth eutectic (LBE) and in air as well as the tensile properties were investigated for the oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels. The 16Cr–4Al–0.8Zr–ODS steel samples were fabricated by a sol–gel method combining with spark plasma sintering technique. The tests in LBE at 600 °C for 1000 h indicate the good oxidation resistance comparing with the specimens without Zr/Al elements. The samples also exhibit superior oxidation resistance in air due to formation of dense and continuous aluminum oxide film. Minor Zr addition prevents the Al element induced coarsening of the oxide particles in ODS steels and significantly improves the ultimate tensile stress and total elongation of the samples

  20. Ports sustainability: a life cycle assessment of zero emission cargo handling equipment:

    OpenAIRE

    Jerman, Boris; Vujičić, Andrija; Zrnić, Nenad Đ.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present and evaluate the latest trends in the cargo handling equipment (CHE) industry, aimed at mitigating the environmental impact of container terminal operations and contributing to the sustainability of ports. The most common machines for handling containers are described and dealt with separately, with a focus on electric CHE, usually referred to as zero emission CHE. In a separate chapter, recommendations on methodologies suitable for investigation of the en...

  1. 46 CFR 154.1415 - Air compressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air compressor. 154.1415 Section 154.1415 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... Equipment § 154.1415 Air compressor. Each vessel must have an air compressor to recharge the bottles for...

  2. Gamma-ray and neutron radiography for a pulsed fast neutron analysis cargo inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the design, optimization, and characterization of a gamma-ray and neutron radiographic subsystem that was developed for the Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA) cargo inspection system. The PFNA inspection system uses D-D based nanosecond pulsed neutron source to produce three-dimensional elemental content images of cargo. The PFNA neutron source produces gamma rays as well as neutrons. The new radiographic subsystem measures these radiations in an array of plastic scintillators to produce gamma-ray and neutron transmission images of the cargo simultaneously with the PFNA elemental content measurement. Although the radiographic subsystem improves PFNA performance in many forms of contraband detection, it was specifically designed to detect Special Nuclear Material (SNM) in cargo containers and trucks. A feasibility study, including experiments and modeling, was performed to determine the usefulness of neutron and gamma-ray radiography in this application. The study showed that the baseline configuration was useful in cargoes up to 144 g/cm2 thick. In order to improve the subsystem performance, the source output needed to be increased. The neutron and gamma-ray yield and spectrum were measured for a variety of different beam stops. The maximum cargo thickness was increased to 180 g/cm2 by changing the source beam stop from gold to copper and by increasing the detector length to 17.0 cm. An experiment was then performed that determined a 3.5 cm radiographic resolution was adequate for SNM detection. The detector configuration and the source motion were optimized to obtain a resolution of approximately 3.5 cm using the minimal number of detectors (128) and the maximum detector diameter (5.1 cm). A prototype of the final design was built, installed, and tested, and is currently in use at the PFNA test facility. (author)

  3. Gamma/x-ray linear pushbroom stereo for 3D cargo inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhigang; Hu, Yu-Chi

    2006-05-01

    For evaluating the contents of trucks, containers, cargo, and passenger vehicles by a non-intrusive gamma-ray or X-ray imaging system to determine the possible presence of contraband, three-dimensional (3D) measurements could provide more information than 2D measurements. In this paper, a linear pushbroom scanning model is built for such a commonly used gamma-ray or x-ray cargo inspection system. Accurate 3D measurements of the objects inside a cargo can be obtained by using two such scanning systems with different scanning angles to construct a pushbroom stereo system. A simple but robust calibration method is proposed to find the important parameters of the linear pushbroom sensors. Then, a fast and automated stereo matching algorithm based on free-form deformable registration is developed to obtain 3D measurements of the objects under inspection. A user interface is designed for 3D visualization of the objects in interests. Experimental results of sensor calibration, stereo matching, 3D measurements and visualization of a 3D cargo container and the objects inside, are presented.

  4. The use of x-ray imaging technology in cargo inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aftermath of the September 11,2001 terrorist attack in the United States has brought a significant change in the conduct of trade and commerce among nations. The introduction on non-intrusive cargo inspection equipment, most x-ray and gamma ray scanners, among customs administrations worldwide has been widely employed and incorporated in their respective cargo examination procedures as part of their security initiative to deter terrorist threats. In compliance with our international commitment and agreement passed by the World Customs Organization which required the use of modern technology in cargo inspection, the Bureau of Customs had acquired 30 units of container x-ray scanners in 2006 from China that became operational in 2007 and the acquisition of which was guided by the following objectives: maximize collection of government revenues,facilitate trade and commerce, prevent smuggling, and safeguard the public and environment against the entry of hazardous and harmful substance. In this light, this paper discusses the brief background of the non-intrusive container inspection system project of the Bureau of Customs, an overview of the technical features of x-ray imaging technology acquired, the procedures in the application of x-ray inspection in containerized cargo, the radiation safety infrastructures and considerations, and a review of some major accomplishments after its two years of existence. (author)

  5. Comparing the Air Abrasion Cutting Efficacy of Dentine Using a Fluoride-Containing Bioactive Glass versus an Alumina Abrasive: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa H. X. Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Air abrasion as a caries removal technique is less aggressive than conventional techniques and is compatible for use with adhesive restorative materials. Alumina, while being currently the most common abrasive used for cutting, has controversial health and safety issues and no remineralisation properties. The alternative, a bioactive glass, 45S5, has the advantage of promoting hard tissue remineralisation. However, 45S5 is slow as a cutting abrasive and lacks fluoride in its formulation. The aim of this study was to compare the cutting efficacy of dentine using a customised fluoride-containing bioactive glass Na0SR (38–80 μm versus the conventional alumina abrasive (29 μm in an air abrasion set-up. Fluoride was incorporated into Na0SR to enhance its remineralisation properties while strontium was included to increase its radiopacity. Powder outflow rate was recorded prior to the cutting tests. Principal air abrasion cutting tests were carried out on pristine ivory dentine. The abrasion depths were quantified and compared using X-ray microtomography. Na0SR was found to create deeper cavities than alumina (p<0.05 despite its lower powder outflow rate and predictably reduced hardness. The sharper edges of the Na0SR glass particles might improve the cutting efficiency. In conclusion, Na0SR was more efficacious than alumina for air abrasion cutting of dentine.

  6. Solar driven nitrous acid formation on building material surfaces containing titanium dioxide: A concern for air quality in urban areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langridge, Justin M.; Gustafsson, R. Joel; Griffiths, Paul T.; Cox, R. Anthony; Lambert, Richard M.; Jones, Roderic L.

    The photoenhanced uptake of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) to the surface of commercially available self-cleaning window glass has been studied under controlled laboratory conditions. This material is one of an array of modern building products which incorporate titanium dioxide (TiO 2) nanoparticles and are finding increasing use in populated urban areas. Amongst the principal drivers for the use of these materials is that they are thought to facilitate the irreversible removal of pollutants such as NO 2 and organic molecules from the atmosphere and thus act to remediate air quality. While it appears that TiO 2 materials do indeed remove organic molecules from built environments, in this study we show that the photoenhanced uptake of NO 2 to one example material, self-cleaning window glass, is in fact accompanied by the substantial formation (50-70%) of gaseous nitrous acid (HONO). This finding has direct and serious implications for the use of these materials in urban areas. Not only is HONO a harmful respiratory irritant, it is also readily photolysed by solar radiation leading to the formation of hydroxyl radicals (OH) together with the re-release of NO x as NO. The net effect of subsequent OH initiated chemistry can then be the further degradation of air quality through the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and VOC oxidation products. In summary, we suggest that a scientifically conceived technical strategy for air quality remediation based on this technology, while widely perceived as universally beneficial, could in fact have effects precisely opposite to those intended.

  7. Bicaudal-D uses a parallel, homodimeric coiled coil with heterotypic registry to coordinate recruitment of cargos to dynein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Salter, Hannah K; Holding, Andrew N; Johnson, Christopher M; Stephens, Elaine; Lukavsky, Peter J; Walshaw, John; Bullock, Simon L

    2013-06-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is the major minus end-directed microtubule motor in eukaryotes. However, there is little structural insight into how different cargos are recognized and linked to the motor complex. Here we describe the 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of a cargo-binding region of the dynein adaptor Bicaudal-D (BicD), which reveals a parallel coiled-coil homodimer. We identify a shared binding site for two cargo-associated proteins-Rab6 and the RNA-binding protein Egalitarian (Egl)-within a region of the BicD structure with classical, homotypic core packing. Structure-based mutagenesis in Drosophila provides evidence that occupancy of this site drives association of BicD with dynein, thereby coupling motor recruitment to cargo availability. The structure also contains a region in which, remarkably, the same residues in the polypeptide sequence have different heptad registry in each chain. In vitro and in vivo analysis of a classical Drosophila dominant mutation reveals that this heterotypic region regulates the recruitment of dynein to BicD. Our results support a model in which the heterotypic segment is part of a molecular switch that promotes release of BicD autoinhibition following cargo binding to the neighboring, homotypic coiled-coil region. Overall, our data reveal a pivotal role of a highly asymmetric coiled-coil domain in coordinating the assembly of cargo-motor complexes. PMID:23723415

  8. Studies of heat transfer having relevance to nuclear reactor containment cooling by buoyancy-driven air flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two separate effects experiments concerned with buoyancy-influenced convective heat transfer in vertical passages which have relevance to the problem of nuclear reactor containment cooling by means of buoyancy-driven airflow are described. A feature of each is that local values of heat transfer coefficient are determined on surfaces maintained at uniform temperature. Experimental results are presented which highlight the need for buoyancy-induced impairment of turbulent convective heat transfer to be accounted for in the design of such passive cooling systems. A strategy is presented for predicting the heat removal by combined convective and radiative heat transfer from a full scale nuclear reactor containment shell using such experimental results

  9. Radiological risks from irradiation of cargo contents with EURITRACK neutron inspection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroletti, E.; Bonomi, G.; Donzella, A.; Viesti, G.; Zenoni, A.

    2012-07-01

    The radiological risk for the population related to the neutron irradiation of cargo containers with a tagged neutron inspection system has been studied. Two possible effects on the public health have been assessed: the modification of the nutritional and organoleptic properties of the irradiated materials, in particular foodstuff, and the neutron activation of consumer products (i.e. food and pharmaceuticals). The result of this study is that irradiation of food and foodstuff, pharmaceutical and medical devices in container cargoes would neither modify the properties of the irradiated material nor produce effective doses of concern for public health. Furthermore, the dose received by possible stowaways present inside the container during the inspection is less than the annual effective dose limit defined by European Legislation for the public.

  10. Demonstration of oxygen-enriched air staging at Owens-Brockway Glass Containers. Technical progress report, August 1, 1995--July 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rue, D.; Abbasi, H.

    1996-11-01

    The objective of the program is to demonstrate the use of a previously developed combustion modification technology to reduce NO, emissions from sideport regenerative container glass melters. This technology, known as oxygen-enriched air staging (OEAS), has been demonstrated, and is now being commercialized, for endport container glass furnaces. A 17-month development program has been established with specific objectives to: (1) acquire baseline operating data on the host sideport furnace in Vernon, California, (2) evaluate secondary oxidant injection strategies based on earlier endport furnace results and through modeling of a single port pair, (3) retrofit and test one port pair (the test furnace has six port pairs) with a flexible OEAS system, and select the optimal system configuration, (4) use the results from tests with one port pair to design, retrofit, and test OEAS on the entire furnace (six port pairs), and (5) analyze test results, prepare report, and finalize the business plan to commercialize OEAS for sideport furnaces. The host furnace for testing in this program is an Owens-Brockway 6-port pair sideport furnace in Vernon, California producing 325-ton/d of amber container glass. The baseline NO{sub x} level of this optimized furnace is about 4.0 lb/ton of glass. An anticipated NO{sub x}, reduction of 50% will lower the NO{sub x} production level to below 2 lb/ton. Secondary oxidant staging techniques being considered include oxygen-enriched ambient air staging (OEAS) and oxygen staging (OS).

  11. Demonstration of oxygen-enriched air staging at Owens-Brockway glass containers. Quarterly technical progress report, November 1, 1996--January 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rue, D.; Abbasi, H.

    1997-03-01

    The objective of the program is to demonstrate the use of a previously developed combustion modification technology to reduce NO, emissions from sideport regenerative container glass melters. This technology, known as oxygen-enriched air staging (OEAS), has been demonstrated, and is now being commercialized, for endport container glass furnaces. A 17-month development program has been established with specific objectives to: (1) acquire baseline operating data on the host sideport furnace in Vernon, California, (2) evaluate secondary oxidant injection strategies based on earlier endport furnace results and through modeling of a single port pair, (3) retrofit and test one port pair (the test furnace has six port pairs) with a flexible OEAS system, and select the optimal system configuration, (4) use the results from tests with one port pair to design, retrofit, and test OEAS on the entire furnace (six port pairs), and (5) analyze test results, prepare report, and finalize the business plan to commercialize OEAS for sideport furnaces. The host furnace for testing in this program is an Owens-Brockway 6-port pair sideport furnace in Vernon, California producing 325-ton/d of amber container glass. The baseline NO{sub x} level of this optimized furnace is about 4.0 lb/ton of glass. An anticipated NO{sub x}, reduction of 50% will lower the NO{sub x} production level to below 2 lb/ton. Secondary oxidant staging techniques being considered include oxygen-enriched ambient air staging (OEAS) and oxygen staging (OS).

  12. 46 CFR 153.1011 - Changing containment systems and hoses to and from alkylene oxide service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Changing containment systems and hoses to and from... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations Special Cargo Procedures § 153.1011 Changing containment systems and hoses to...) No alkylene oxide is loaded into a containment system that last carried a cargo other than...

  13. 46 CFR 153.404 - Standards for containment systems having required closed gauges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for containment systems having required closed... Design and Equipment Cargo Gauging Systems § 153.404 Standards for containment systems having required closed gauges. When Table 1 requires a cargo's containment system to have a closed gauge, the...

  14. 46 CFR 153.406 - Standards for containment systems having required restricted gauges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for containment systems having required... MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Gauging Systems § 153.406 Standards for containment systems having required restricted gauges. When Table 1 requires a cargo's containment system to have a restricted...

  15. Discussion on "field study of air purification paving elements containing TiO2" by Folli et al. (2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleffmann, Jörg

    2016-03-01

    In the study by Folli et al. (2015) photocatalytic pavement blocks were used on both sidewalks of a street canyon in Copenhagen (Denmark) for the purpose of air remediation of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Outstanding nitrogen monoxide (NO) degradation was observed with an average (day and night) reduction of 22% during summer months reaching values >45% at noontime. In contrast, for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) no significant improvement was obtained. Although these results would be of significant importance for many European urban environments usually suffering from high NOx levels, the results are highly unrealistic. Two simple back-to-the-envelope calculations show that the upper limit photocatalytic reduction of NO will be <1% for the investigated street canyon conditions. In addition, an alternative explanation of the experimental observations by the gas phase titration of NO by ozone (O3) is discussed.

  16. Response of acid mobilization of iron-containing mineral dust to improvement of air quality projected in the future

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, A.; Xu, L.

    2014-01-01

    Acidification of dust aerosols may increase aerosol iron (Fe) solubility, which is linked to mineral properties. Combustion aerosols can also elevate aerosol iron solubility when aerosol loading is low. Here, we use an atmospheric chemical transport model to investigate the deposition of filterable iron and its response to changes in anthropogenic emissions of both combustion aerosols and precursor gases. By introducing three classes of iron-containing minerals into the deta...

  17. Modeling of experimental treatment of acetaldehyde-laden air and phenol-containing water using corona discharge technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faungnawakij, Kajornsak; Sano, Noriaki; Charinpanitkul, Tawatchai; Tanthapanichakoon, Wiwut

    2006-03-01

    Acetaldehyde-laden air and phenol-contaminated water were experimentally treated using corona discharge reactions and gas absorption in a single water-film column. Mathematical modeling of the combined treatment was developed in this work. Efficient removal of the gaseous acetaldehyde was achieved while the corona discharge reactions produced short-lived species such as O and O- as well as ozone. Direct contact of the radicals and ions with water was known to produce aqueous OH radical, which contributes to the decomposition of organic contaminants: phenol, absorbed acetaldehyde, and intermediate byproducts in the water. The influence of initial phenol concentration ranging from 15 to 50 mg L(-1) and that of influent acetaldehyde ranging from 0 to 200 ppm were experimentally investigated and used to build the math model. The maximum energetic efficiency of TOC, phenol, and acetaldehyde were obtained at 25.6 x 10(-9) mol carbon J(-1), 25.0 x 10(-9) mol phenol J(-1), and 2.0 x 10(-9) mol acetaldehyde J(-1), respectively. The predictions for the decomposition of acetaldehyde, phenol, and their intermediates were found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. PMID:16568779

  18. Radiological risks from irradiation of cargo contents with EURITRACK neutron inspection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological risk for the population related to the neutron irradiation of cargo containers with a tagged neutron inspection system has been studied. Two possible effects on the public health have been assessed: the modification of the nutritional and organoleptic properties of the irradiated materials, in particular foodstuff, and the neutron activation of consumer products (i.e. food and pharmaceuticals). The result of this study is that irradiation of food and foodstuff, pharmaceutical and medical devices in container cargoes would neither modify the properties of the irradiated material nor produce effective doses of concern for public health. Furthermore, the dose received by possible stowaways present inside the container during the inspection is less than the annual effective dose limit defined by European Legislation for the public. - Highlights: ► Neutron irradiation of cargo containers implies a radiological risk. ► The risk is about the modification of food properties and the products activation. ► Assessment is made about the EURITRACK neutron irradiation system. ► Results show that the EURITRACK scanning is not dangerous for the population.

  19. SUBMERGED GRAVEL SCRUBBER DEMONSTRATION AS A PASSIVE AIR CLEANER FOR CONTAINMENT VENTING AND PURGING WITH SODIUM AEROSOLS -- CSTF TESTS AC7 - AC10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HILLIARD, R K.; MCCORMACK, J D.; POSTMA, A K.

    1981-11-01

    Four large-scale air cleaning tests (AC7 - AC10) were performed in the Containment Systems Test Facility (CS'lF) to demonstrate the performance of a Submerged Gravel Scrubber for cleaning the effluent gas from a vented and purged breeder reactor containment vessel. The test article, comprised of a Submerged Gravel Scrubber (SGS) followed by a high efficiency fiber demister, had a design gas flow rate of 0.47 m{sup 3}/s (1000 ft{sup 3}/min) at a pressure drop of 9.0 kPa (36 in. H{sub 2}O). The test aerosol was sodium oxide, sodium hydroxide, or sodium carbonate generated in the 850-m{sup 3} CSTF vessel by continuously spraying sodium into the air-filled vessel while adding steam or carbon dioxide. Approximately 4500 kg (10,000 lb) of sodium was sprayed over a total period of 100 h during the tests. The SGS/Demister system was shown to be highly efficient (removing ~99.98% of the entering sodium aerosol mass), had a high mass loading capacity, and operated in a passive manner, with no electrical requirement. Models for predicting aerosol capture, gas cooling, and pressure drop are developed and compared with experimental results.

  20. PCB-containing wood floor finish is a likely source of elevated PCBs in residents' blood, household air and dust: a case study of exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seryak Liesel M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are persistent pollutants identified worldwide as human blood and breast milk contaminants. Because they bioaccumulate, consumption of meat, fish, and dairy products predicts human blood concentrations. PCBs were also used widely in building materials, including caulks and paints, but few studies have evaluated the contribution of these exposures to body burden. Methods In an earlier study, we detected PCBs in indoor air in 31% of 120 homes on Cape Cod, MA. Two of the homes had much higher concentrations than the rest, so we retested to verify the initial finding, evaluate blood PCB concentrations of residents, and identify the PCB source. Results Air and dust concentrations remained elevated over 5 years between initial and follow-up sampling. Blood serum concentrations of PCBs in residents of the homes were generally elevated above the 95th percentile of a representative sample of the US population. Serum concentrations in residents and air and dust concentrations were especially high in a home where a resident reported use of PCB-containing floor finish in the past, and where the floor of one room was sanded and refinished just prior to sample collection. Conclusion This case-study suggests that PCB residues in homes may be more significant contributors to overall exposure than diet for some people, and that use of a commercially-available PCB-containing wood floor finish in residences during the 1950s and 1960s is an overlooked but potentially important source of current PCB exposure in the general population.

  1. Cargo transportation by two species of motor protein

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yunxin

    2012-01-01

    The cargo motion in living cells transported by two species of motor protein with different intrinsic directionality is discussed in this study. Similar to single motor movement, cargo steps forward and backward along microtubule stochastically. Recent experiments found that, cargo transportation by two motor species has a memory, it does not change its direction as frequently as expected, which means that its forward and backward step rates depends on its previous motion trajectory. By assuming cargo has only the least memory, i.e. its step direction depends only on the direction of its last step, two cases of cargo motion are detailed analyzed in this study: {\\bf (I)} cargo motion under constant external load; and {\\bf (II)} cargo motion in one fixed optical trap. Due to the existence of memory, for the first case, cargo can keep moving in the same direction for a long distance. For the second case, the cargo will oscillate in the trap. The oscillation period decreases and the oscillation amplitude increase...

  2. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF TRANSPORT CARGO COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Okorokov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Making the qualitative administrative decisions defining strategy and tactics of transport cargo complexes development, and also its subsystems, is possible only in the presence of flexible optimization model. This model has to consider multiparametricity and multicriteriality of the given task, uncertainty and vagueness of input information, and also to provide process automation of searching the best parameters of the given production facility. The purpose of the research is to develop procedures for the strategic management of complex with view of the most important factors and their stochastic nature, which will execute the improvement of technical equipment of TCC. Methodology. The problem of strategic management is based on solving the complex of issues of the optimal number of shunting locomotives, optimal processing capability of handling the front and rational capacity of warehouses. The problem is solved on the basis of the proposed optimality criterion – the specific set of profit per unit of capital assets of freight industry. The listed problems are solved using simulation modeling of the freight industry. Findings. The use of developed procedure allows one to improve the technical equipment of the freight stations and complexes. Originality. For the first time it was developed the procedure of strategic management of development. This procedure allows taking into account the probabilistic nature of demand for services of transport freight complexes and technological processes of client services on the complex stations. The proposed procedure can be applied during when planning the investments in the creation of transport freight complexes. Practical value. Use as a basic tool of simulation models of complex cargo operation allows estimating the effectiveness of the capital investments, the level of operating costs, as well as the quality of meeting the demands of potential customers in transportations at the stage of

  3. NLS cargo transfer vehicle propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, Hank C.; Langford, G. K.

    1992-02-01

    The propulsion system of the Cargo Transfer Vehicle is designed to meet a wide range of requirements associated with the National Launch System (NLS) resupply function for Space Station Freedom. It provides both orbit adjustment and precise vehicle control capability, and is compatible with close proximity operation at the space station as well as return on the shuttle for ground refurbishment and reuse. Preliminary trade studies have resulted in designing and sizing an integrated bipropellant system using monomethyl hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide. Design and analysis activities are continuing, and the design will evolve and mature as part of the NLS program.

  4. Transportation of nanoscale cargoes by myosin propelled actin filaments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Persson

    Full Text Available Myosin II propelled actin filaments move ten times faster than kinesin driven microtubules and are thus attractive candidates as cargo-transporting shuttles in motor driven lab-on-a-chip devices. In addition, actomyosin-based transportation of nanoparticles is useful in various fundamental studies. However, it is poorly understood how actomyosin function is affected by different number of nanoscale cargoes, by cargo size, and by the mode of cargo-attachment to the actin filament. This is studied here using biotin/fluorophores, streptavidin, streptavidin-coated quantum dots, and liposomes as model cargoes attached to monomers along the actin filaments ("side-attached" or to the trailing filament end via the plus end capping protein CapZ. Long-distance transportation (>100 µm could be seen for all cargoes independently of attachment mode but the fraction of motile filaments decreased with increasing number of side-attached cargoes, a reduction that occurred within a range of 10-50 streptavidin molecules, 1-10 quantum dots or with just 1 liposome. However, as observed by monitoring these motile filaments with the attached cargo, the velocity was little affected. This also applied for end-attached cargoes where the attachment was mediated by CapZ. The results with side-attached cargoes argue against certain models for chemomechanical energy transduction in actomyosin and give important insights of relevance for effective exploitation of actomyosin-based cargo-transportation in molecular diagnostics and other nanotechnological applications. The attachment of quantum dots via CapZ, without appreciable modulation of actomyosin function, is useful in fundamental studies as exemplified here by tracking with nanometer accuracy.

  5. Information tecnology and its impact on port cargo distribution businness

    OpenAIRE

    Trampus, Francesca

    2002-01-01

    The IT revolution has dynamised the port cargo business: up-to-date software is needed to optimize operations such as vessel loading, yard planning, equipment flow, gate handling, administration and invoicing and it is also essential for vessel tracking, electronic declaration of cargo and passengers and as a communication platform to all port users.

  6. 29 CFR 1917.14 - Stacking of cargo and pallets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stacking of cargo and pallets. 1917.14 Section 1917.14 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... pallets. Cargo, pallets and other material stored in tiers shall be stacked in such a manner as to...

  7. 33 CFR 155.775 - Maximum cargo level of oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum cargo level of oil. 155.775 Section 155.775 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Personnel, Procedures, Equipment, and Records § 155.775 Maximum cargo level of oil. (a) For the purposes...

  8. The distance that kinesin-1 holds its cargo from the microtubule surface measured by fluorescence interference contrast microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Kerssemakers, Jacob; Howard, Jonathon; Hess, Henry; Diez, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Kinesin-1 is a motor protein that carries cellular cargo such as membrane-bounded organelles along microtubules (MTs). The homodimeric motor molecule contains two N-terminal motor domains (the motor “heads”), a long coiled-coil domain (the “rod” or “stalk”), and two small globular “tail” domains. Much has been learned about how kinesin's heads step along a MT and how the tail is involved in cargo binding and autoinhibition. However, little is known about the role of the rod. Here, we investig...

  9. Effects of hydraulic retention time and nitrobenzene concentration on the performance of sequential upflow anaerobic filter and air lift reactors in treating nitrobenzene-containing wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jinhua; Chen, Guocai; Gu, Jingjing;

    2014-01-01

    Sequential upflow anaerobic filter (UAF)/air lift (ALR) reactors were employed to investigate the effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and nitrobenzene (NB) concentration on treatment of NB-containing wastewater. The results showed that NB was effectively reduced to aniline (AN) with glucose...... as co-substrate in the UAF reactor. The AN and the remaining intermediates after the UAF reactor were then efficiently degraded in the ALR reactor. A removal efficiency of 100% and 96% was obtained for NB and chemical oxygen demand (COD), respectively, using sequential UAF/ALR reactors with an HRT of 8......-72 h in the UAF reactor and 2-18 h in the ALR reactor. The corresponding optimal influent NB concentration varied between 100 and 400 mg l super(-1) to achieve the optimal NB and COD removal. The NB removal efficiency decreased to 90% and to 97% if the HRT in the UAF reactor decreased from 8 to 2 h...

  10. Evaluation of Batteries for Safe Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Williard

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion batteries are shipped worldwide with many limitations implemented to ensure safety and to prevent loss of cargo. Many of the transportation guidelines focus on new batteries; however, the shipment requirements for used or degraded batteries are less clear. Current international regulations regarding the air transport of lithium-ion batteries are critically reviewed. The pre-shipping tests are outlined and evaluated to assess their ability to fully mitigate risks during battery transport. In particular, the guidelines for shipping second-use batteries are considered. Because the electrochemical state of previously used batteries is inherently different from that of new batteries, additional considerations must be made to evaluate these types of cells. Additional tests are suggested that evaluate the risks of second-use batteries, which may or may not contain incipient faults.

  11. The standardised freight container: vector of vectors and vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, P

    2010-04-01

    The standardised freight container was one of the most important innovations of the 20th Century. Containerised cargoes travel from their point of origin to their destination by ship, road and rail as part of a single journey, without unpacking. This simple concept is the key element in cheap, rapid transport by land and sea, and has led to a phenomenal growth in global trade. Likewise, containerised air cargo has led to a remarkable increase in the inter-continental transportation of goods, particularly perishable items such as flowers, fresh vegetables and live animals. In both cases, containerisation offers great advantages in speed and security, but reduces the opportunity to inspect cargoes in transit. An inevitable consequence is the globalisation of undesirable species of animals, plants and pathogens. Moreover, cheap passenger flights offer worldwide travel for viral and parasitic pathogens in infected humans. The continued emergence of exotic pests, vectors and pathogens throughout the world is an unavoidable consequence of these advances in transportation technology. PMID:20617647

  12. Environmental control of microtubule-based bidirectional cargo-transport

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Sarah; Santen, Ludger

    2014-01-01

    Inside cells, various cargos are transported by teams of molecular motors. Intriguingly, the motors involved generally have opposite pulling directions, and the resulting cargo dynamics is a biased stochastic motion. It is an open question how the cell can control this bias. Here we develop a model which takes explicitly into account the elastic coupling of the cargo with each motor. We show that bias can be simply controlled or even reversed in a counterintuitive manner via a change in the external force exerted on the cargo or a variation of the ATP binding rate to motors. Furthermore, the superdiffusive behavior found at short time scales indicates the emergence of motor cooperation induced by cargo-mediated coupling.

  13. Fatalities to occupants of cargo areas of pickup trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C L; Agran, P F; Winn, D G; Greenland, S

    2000-07-01

    We sought to describe the fatalities to occupants of pickup truck cargo areas and to compare the mortality of cargo area occupants to passengers in the cab. From the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) files for 1987-1996, we identified occupants of pickup trucks with at least one fatality and at least one passenger in the cargo area. Outcomes of cargo area occupants and passengers in the cab were compared using estimating equations conditional on the crash and vehicle. Thirty-four percent of deaths to cargo occupants were in noncrash events without vehicle deformation. Fifty-five percent of those who died were age 15-29 years and 79% were male. The fatality risk ratio (FRR) comparing cargo area occupants to front seat occupants was 3.0 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 2.7-3.4). The risk was 7.9 (95% CI = 6.2-10.1) times that of restrained front seat occupants. The FRR ranged from 92 (95% CI = 47-179) in noncrash events to 1.7 (95% CI = 1.5-1.9) in crashes with severe vehicle deformation. The FRR was 1.8 (95% CI = 1.4-2.3) for occupants of enclosed cargo areas and 3.5 (95% CI = 3.1-4.0) for occupants of open cargo areas. We conclude that passengers in cargo areas of pickup trucks have a higher risk of death than front seat occupants, especially in noncrash events, and that camper shells offer only limited protection for cargo area occupants. PMID:10868756

  14. 49 CFR 1546.213 - Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for...: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the United States. This section applies in the United...— (1) Each individual must successfully complete a security threat assessment or comparable...

  15. Dose to drivers during drive-through cargo scanning using GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Rogerio S.; Gomes, Joana D' Arc R.L.; Costa, Mara Lucia L., E-mail: rogeriog@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jlopes@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: mara@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Radioprotecao e Seguranca muclear; Miranda, Valeria F.E.S., E-mail: mvaleria@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The use of radiation technologies to perform screening for cargo containers has been increased due to security issues, mainly, as a consequence of the United States (US) legislation which requires, from 2013, the scanning of all intermodal cargo containers which arrive at US ports. Currently, systems to cargo inspections, using accelerator-driven high energy X-rays, between 4 and 9 MeV, are available for scanning operations. It is expected that, in the future, the use of these systems will be widely spread on roads, ports and airports in Brazil. However, in order to improve the productivity and reduce the costs of acquisition, operation and maintenance these systems require that the driver drives its vehicle through irradiation area, in a situation where members of the public (the truck drivers) enter in controlled area and are deliberately exposed to high-energy beam. Some manufacturers justifies this procedure arguing that the drivers are exposed briefly, and only to the scattered beam, since there are safety systems in order to avoid that the drivers are exposed to direct beam. In this work, it is presented the preliminary results of Monte Carlo simulations concerning the dose of drivers during scanning operations, including the dose due to a failure of safety system, producing an exposure of drivers to the direct beam, as well as, an analysis of the justification of practice, mainly related to the drive-through operational procedure. (author)

  16. Cargo identification algorithms facilitating unmanned/unattended inspection at high throughput portals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Alex

    2007-10-01

    A simple model is presented of a possible inspection regimen applied to each leg of a cargo containers' journey between its point of origin and destination. Several candidate modalities are proposed to be used at multiple remote locations to act as a pre-screen inspection as the target approaches a perimeter and as the primary inspection modality at the portal. Information from multiple data sets are fused to optimize the costs and performance of a network of such inspection systems. A series of image processing algorithms are presented that automatically process X-ray images of containerized cargo. The goal of this processing is to locate the container in a real time stream of traffic traversing a portal without impeding the flow of commerce. Such processing may facilitate the inclusion of unmanned/unattended inspection systems in such a network. Several samples of the processing applied to data collected from deployed systems are included. Simulated data from a notional cargo inspection system with multiple sensor modalities and advanced data fusion algorithms are also included to show the potential increased detection and throughput performance of such a configuration.

  17. The complex network of global cargo ship movements

    CERN Document Server

    Kaluza, Pablo; Gastner, Michael T; Blasius, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Transportation networks play a crucial role in human mobility, the exchange of goods, and the spread of invasive species. With 90% of world trade carried by sea, the global network of merchant ships provides one of the most important modes of transportation. Here we use information about the itineraries of 16,363 cargo ships during the year 2007 to construct a network of links between ports. We show that the network has several features which set it apart from other transportation networks. In particular, most ships can be classified in three categories: bulk dry carriers, container ships and oil tankers. These three categories do not only differ in the ships' physical characteristics, but also in their mobility patterns and networks. Container ships follow regularly repeating paths whereas bulk dry carriers and oil tankers move less predictably between ports. The network of all ship movements possesses a heavy-tailed distribution for the connectivity of ports and for the loads transported on the links with s...

  18. Shock and vibration environments encountered during normal rail transportation of heavy cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to obtain vibration and superimposed shock data during normal rail shipment of heavy cargo. The data were obtained during a regularly scheduled rail shipment of a 45-tonne (50-ton) cargo which consisted of an empty spent-fuel container, its supporting structure, and associated hoisting devices. The shipment was made over rail lines which are operated by the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway Company between Denver, Colorado and Albuquerque, New Mexico. The instrumented rail car was equipped with 0.38-m (15-in.) hydraulic end-of-car coupling devices. The 99 percentile levels of vibration acceleration amplitudes and single degree-of-freedom superimposed shock response spectra for the longitudinal, transverse, and vertical axes are presented

  19. An airport cargo inspection system based on X-ray and thermal neutron analysis (TNA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cargo inspection system incorporating a high-resolution X-ray imaging system with a material-specific detection system based on Ancore Corporation's patented thermal neutron analysis (TNA) technology can detect bulk quantities of explosives and drugs concealed in trucks or cargo containers. The TNA process utilises a 252Cf neutron source surrounded by a moderator. The neutron interactions with the inspected object result in strong and unique gamma-ray signals from nitrogen, which is a key ingredient in modern high explosives, and from chlorinated drugs. The TNA computer analyses the gamma-ray signals and automatically determines the presence of explosives or drugs. The radiation source terms and shielding design of the facility are described. For the X-ray generator, the primary beam, leakage radiation, and scattered primary and leakage radiation were considered. For the TNA, the primary neutrons and tunnel scattered neutrons as well as the neutron-capture gamma rays were considered. (authors)

  20. Transporting "exceptional cargo" on the CERN sites

    CERN Multimedia

    EN Department

    2012-01-01

    When the Transport Service is managing "exceptional cargo", the driver and the escort are often in charge of an operation involving equipment worth many hundred thousand francs. Equipment that may well be irreplaceable for a facility or an experiment.   The members of the Transport Service who carry out these tasks are very professional and are – needless to say – highly concentrated on the job. They count on your understanding and support in the traffic on site. Their convoys are – for good reasons – moving slowly. Kindly do not overtake, do not cut in in front of them and do not drive too closely. Respect the escort and do not position yourself between the truck and the escort vehicles. The EN department counts on your courtesy on the road.  

  1. A Liquid Cargo Handling Training Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvin Villabø

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a computer-based, real-time training simulator for liquid cargo handling. The mathematical model description is modular and emphasizes the flow generating part. The flow model applies network theory to describe the logical piping connections and the overall flow system performance, while Bernoulli's equation is used for the description of the piping elements. Numerically the Newton-Raphson method is applied for computation of the non-linear flow model. The programming language is HP-FORTRAN IV and the simulator is implemented on an HP minicomputer system. The instructor part of the system is interactive and controlled by the use of a standard ASCII terminal. The simulation part of the system is running in real-time or scaled real-time, and is controlled from the trainee's panel.

  2. Water spray interaction with air-steam mixtures under containment spray conditions: comparison of heat and mass transfer modelling with the TOSQAN spray tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: During the course of a hypothetical severe accident in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), hydrogen can be produced by the reactor core oxidation and distributed into the reactor containment according to convection flows and water steam wall condensation. In order to mitigate the risk of detonation generated by a high local hydrogen concentration, spray systems are used in the containment. The TOSQAN programme has been created to simulate separate-effect tests representative of typical accidental thermal-hydraulic flow conditions in the reactor containment. The present work concerns the interaction of a water spray, used at the top of the containment in order to reduce the steam partial pressure, with air-steam mixtures. The main phenomena occurring when water spray is used are the mixing induced by spray entrainment and the condensation on droplets. In order to improve the latter phenomena, different levels of modelling can be used. The objective of this paper is to analyze experimental results obtained for water spray interaction with air-steam mixtures using different heat and mass transfer modelling. For this purpose, two modelling issues have been used: the first one is devoted for the determination of the gas thermodynamical properties, and the second one concerns the droplets characterization. In the first one, the gas thermodynamical analysis is performed using depressurization, gas temperature variation and humidity decrease during the spray injection. In this modelling, heat and mass transfer between the spray and the surrounding gas is treated in a global way by energy balance between the total amount of water and the gas. In the second one, droplets characterization is obtained by means of droplet size, temperature and velocities evolutions. In this modelling, the spray is considered as a single droplet falling with an initial velocity. Droplet interactions are neglected. Assessment of these two modelling is performed

  3. Injuries to occupants in cargo areas of pickup trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agran, P; Winn, D; Anderson, C

    1994-11-01

    Transporting passengers in the cargo area of pickup trucks is a public health safety issue in the United States. Our study compared crashes involving passengers in the cargo area with those involving passengers in the cab. We obtained data for all injury events of pickup occupants for 1990 from the California Highway Patrol. A total of 702 traffic reports coded as having passengers riding in pickup truck beds involved 1,685 passengers in the cargo area and 865 in the cab. Significantly more events involving passengers in the cargo area occurred in summer in rural areas and were noncollisions than did events with only cab passengers. Crashes with passengers in the cargo area resulted in death in 5% of passengers. Of the drivers, 81% were male and 22% were younger than 20 years. Among the 1,685 passengers in the cargo area, 65% were male, 36% were younger than 15 years, and 30% were ages 15 to 19 years. Passengers in the cargo area were more frequently ejected and more seriously injured than their counterparts in the cab. Legislation to restrict travel in truck beds and the design of restraints for this area are some measures that may reduce the risk of injury. PMID:7810125

  4. Monte-Carlo Simulations of Radiation-Induced Activation in a Fast-Neutron and Gamma- Based Cargo Inspection System

    OpenAIRE

    Bromberger, B.; Bar, D.; Brandis, M.; Dangendorf, V.; Goldberg, M B; Kaufmann, F.; Mor, I.; Nolte, R.; SCHMIEDEL M.; Tittelmeier, K.; Vartsky, D.; H. Wershofen

    2012-01-01

    An air cargo inspection system combining two nuclear reaction based techniques, namely Fast-Neutron Resonance Radiography and Dual-Discrete-Energy Gamma Radiography is currently being developed. This system is expected to allow detection of standard and improvised explosives as well as special nuclear materials. An important aspect for the applicability of nuclear techniques in an airport inspection facility is the inventory and lifetimes of radioactive isotopes produced by the neutron and ga...

  5. 46 CFR 153.436 - Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo. 153.436... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.436 Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo. A heat transfer fluid separated from the cargo by only one wall (for example, the heat transfer fluid in a...

  6. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a... vapor pressure described in § 153.371(b); or (2) An alarm that operates when the cargo's...

  7. 46 CFR 154.707 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Ventilation. 154.707 Section 154.707 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES... Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.707 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Ventilation. (a)...

  8. Early results utilizing high-energy fission product gamma rays to detect fissionable material in cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A concept for detecting the presence of special nuclear material (235U or 239Pu) concealed in inter modal cargo containers is described. It is based on interrogation with a pulsed beam of 6-8 MeV neutrons and fission events are identified between beam pulses by their β-delayed neutron emission or β -delayed high-energy γ-radiation. The high-energy γ-ray signature is being employed for the first time. Fission product γ-rays above 3 MeV are distinct from natural radioactivity and from nearly all of the induced activity in a normal cargo. High-energy γ-radiation is nearly 10X more abundant than the delayed neutrons and penetrates even thick cargo's readily. The concept employs two large (8x20 ft) arrays of liquid scintillation detectors that have high efficiency for the detection of both delayed neutrons and delayed γ-radiation. Detector backgrounds and potential interferences with the fission signature radiation have been identified and quantified. This information, together with predicted signature strength, has been applied to the estimation of detection probability for the nuclear material and estimation of false alarm rates. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48

  9. The nuclear car wash: A system to detect nuclear weapons in commercial cargo shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A concept for detecting the presence of special nuclear material (235U or 239Pu) concealed in intermodal cargo containers has been developed, studied, and recent performance results are described. It is based on interrogation with a pulsed beam of 3-7 MeV neutrons that produce fission events and subsequent detection of their β-delayed neutron emission or β-delayed high-energy γ-radiation reveals the presence of fissionable material. Fission product β-delayed γ-rays above 3 MeV are nearly 10 times more abundant than β-delayed neutrons and are distinct from natural radioactivity and from nearly all of the induced activity in a normal cargo. Detector backgrounds and potential interferences with the fission signature radiation have been identified and quantified. Their impact on detection sensitivity is relatively minor and can be addressed readily. Components of a simple laboratory prototype have been assembled, tested with the most challenging cargo threat scenarios, and results compared to computer simulations. Preliminary results will be presented

  10. 46 CFR 98.25-55 - Cargo piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... piping by means of seamless steel pipe expansion bends. Special consideration will be given for packless... Cargo piping. (a) Piping shall be of seamless steel meeting the requirements of § 56.60-1 of...

  11. Bidirectionality From Cargo Thermal Fluctuations in Motor-Mediated Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Christopher E

    2016-01-01

    Molecular motor proteins serve as an essential component of intracellular transport by generating forces to haul cargoes along cytoskeletal filaments. In some circumstances, two species of motors that are directed oppositely (e.g. kinesin, dynein) can be attached to the same cargo. The resulting net motion is known to be bidirectional, but the mechanism of switching remains unclear. In this work, we propose a mean-field mathematical model of the mechanical interactions of two populations of molecular motors with diffusion of the cargo (thermal fluctuations) as the fundamental noise source. By studying a simplified model, the delayed response of motors to rapid fluctuations in the cargo is quantified, allowing for the reduction of the full model to two "characteristic positions" of each of the motor populations. The system is then found to be "metastable", switching between two distinct directional transport states, or bidirectional motion. The time to switch between these states is then investigated using WKB...

  12. 46 CFR 98.25-80 - Cargo hose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... rubber or other hose material acceptable to the Commandant, shall be fitted to the liquid or vapor lines... valve. (d) Before being placed in service, each new cargo hose, with all necessary fittings...

  13. Stochastic modeling of cargo transport by teams of molecular motors

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Sarah; Santen, Ludger

    2014-01-01

    Many different types of cellular cargos are transported bidirectionally along microtubules by teams of molecular motors. The motion of this cargo-motors system has been experimentally characterized in vivo as processive with rather persistent directionality. Different theoretical approaches have been suggested in order to explore the origin of this kind of motion. An effective theoretical approach, introduced by M\\"uller et al., describes the cargo dynamics as a tug-of-war between different kinds of motors. An alternative approach has been suggested recently by Kunwar et al., who considered the coupling between motor and cargo in more detail. Based on this framework we introduce a model considering single motor positions which we propagate in continuous time. Furthermore, we analyze the possible influence of the discrete time update schemes used in previous publications on the system's dynamic.

  14. Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) Cargo Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampiceni, John J.; Harper, Lon T.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the New Shuttle Orbiter's Multi- Purpose Logistics Modulo (MPLM) Cargo Heat Exchanger (HX) and associated MPLM cooling system. This paper presents Heat Exchanger (HX) design and performance characteristics of the system.

  15. Bidirectional cargo transport: Moving beyond tug-of-war

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, William O.

    2016-01-01

    Preface Vesicles, organelles and other intracellular cargo are transported by kinesin and dynein motors, which move in opposite directions along microtubules. This bidirectional cargo movement is frequently described as a “tug-of-war” between oppositely-directed motors attached to the same cargo. However, although many experimental and modeling studies support the tug-of-war paradigm, numerous knockout and inhibition studies in a variety of systems have found that inhibiting one motor leads to diminished motility in both directions, which is a “paradox of codependence” that challenges it. In an effort to resolve this paradox, three classes of bidirectional transport models, termed microtubule tethering, mechanical activation, and steric disinhibition, are proposed and a general mathematical modeling framework for bidirectional cargo transport is put forward to guide future experiments. PMID:25118718

  16. 33 CFR 157.134 - Cargo tank drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.134 Cargo...

  17. Book Review: Radiation protection and measurement issues related to cargo scanning with accelerator-produced high-energy X rays, NCRP Commentary No. 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Having spent roughly the first third of his health physics career on the Norfolk, VA waterfront area, the reviewer was excited to see the NCRP Commentary 20, 'Radiation Protection and Measurements Issues Related to Cargo Scanning with Accelerator Technology'. It signals the advent of the Cargo Advanced Automated Radiography System (CAARS). The waterfront is a border that challenges physical security programs and technology. As Commentary 20 provides in the introduction, waterfront cargo terminals and land border crossings together represent over 300 ports of entry in the USA. Every year, the USA receives over 10 million cargo containers from commercial shipping and a roughly equal amount from land border crossings. While rapidly processing containerized cargo, CAARS will be able to detect small quantities of high atomic number radioactive materials and dense shielding materials used for radioactive gamma ray sources and even illicit human cargo - important concerns for homeland security. It will also be able to detect other contraband such as explosives, weapons and drugs. Section 1 of the Commentary presents an executive summary with NCRP's radiation dose management recommendations and related operational recommendations for effective implementation of CAARS technology in the current regulatory environment.

  18. Book Review: Radiation protection and measurement issues related to cargo scanning with accelerator-produced high-energy X rays, NCRP Commentary No. 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert May

    2008-11-01

    Having spent roughly the first third of his health physics career on the Norfolk, VA waterfront area, the reviewer was excited to see the NCRP Commentary 20, 'Radiation Protection and Measurements Issues Related to Cargo Scanning with Accelerator Technology'. It signals the advent of the Cargo Advanced Automated Radiography System (CAARS). The waterfront is a border that challenges physical security programs and technology. As Commentary 20 provides in the introduction, waterfront cargo terminals and land border crossings together represent over 300 ports of entry in the USA. Every year, the USA receives over 10 million cargo containers from commercial shipping and a roughly equal amount from land border crossings. While rapidly processing containerized cargo, CAARS will be able to detect small quantities of high atomic number radioactive materials and dense shielding materials used for radioactive gamma ray sources and even illicit human cargo - important concerns for homeland security. It will also be able to detect other contraband such as explosives, weapons and drugs. Section 1 of the Commentary presents an executive summary with NCRP's radiation dose management recommendations and related operational recommendations for effective implementation of CAARS technology in the current regulatory environment.

  19. Cell-Penetrating Peptides: A Comparative Study on Lipid Affinity and Cargo Delivery Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ruzza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of natural and/or synthetic peptides with cell membrane penetrating capability have been identified and described in the past years. These molecules have been considered promising tools for delivering bioactive compounds into various cell types. Although the mechanism of uptake is still unclear, it is reasonable to assume that the relative contribute of each proposed mechanism could differ for the same peptide, depending on experimental protocol and cargo molecule composition. In this work we try to connect the capability to interact with model lipid membrane and structural and chemical characteristics of CPPs in order to obtain a biophysical classification that predicts the behavior of CPP-cargo molecules in cell systems. Indeed, the binding with cell membrane is one of the primary step in the interaction of CPPs with cells, and consequently the studies on model membrane could become important for understanding peptide-membrane interaction on a molecular level, explaining how CPPs may translocate a membrane without destroying it and how this interactions come into play in shuttling CPPs via different routes with different efficiency. We analyzed by CD and fluorescence spectroscopies the binding properties of six different CPPs (kFGF, Nle54-Antp and Tat derived peptides, and oligoarginine peptides containing 6, 8 or 10 residues in absence or presence of the same cargo peptide (the 392-401pTyr396 fragment of HS1 protein. The phospholipid binding properties were correlated to the conformational and chemical characteristics of peptides, as well as to the cell penetrating properties of the CPP-cargo conjugates. Results show that even if certain physico-chemical properties (conformation, positive charge govern CPP capability to interact with the model membrane, these cannot fully explain cell-permeability properties.

  20. The Cargo Tray Industry in India – A Market Research

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Martin; Ohlsson, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Title: The Cargo Tray Industry in India – A Market Research Authors: Martin Eriksson and Tobias Ohlsson Supervisor: Cecilia Lindh University: University of MälardalenDepartment: School of Sustainable Development of Society and TechnologyCourse: Bachelor thesis in Business Administration, 15 credits Research question: Is the Indian cargo tray industry a promising place for Autoform to make futureinvestments? Target group: The primary target is Autoform. The secondary target group is other cara...

  1. CARGO INSURANCE. TOTAL LOSS UNDER NORWEGIAN, ENGLISH AND RUSSIAN LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Evstigneeva, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    This Master Thesis was created because of great personal interest towards marine insurance as such ans cargo insurance in particular. The purpose of this work is to give a proper overview of three legal fields - Norwegian, English and Russian Law. Cargo insurance is of no doubts tremendously important nowadays. How often do people consider where the goods they use daily are coming from? Some tea from India, a new phone form Japan, household appliances from Germany. All these goods were made l...

  2. Analysis of berth allocation and inspection operations in a container terminal

    OpenAIRE

    Yongpei Guan; Kang-hung Yang

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, approximately 90 per cent of the world's cargoes are moved by vessels, and the majority of general cargoes are transported in containers. Accordingly, a container terminal becomes one of the important nodes in the global supply chain network and it is important to make container terminals operate efficiently. Meanwhile, after the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001, the US Government has proposed and implemented several approaches to improve security systems, including container ...

  3. Seaport-Surface Transportation Access and Air Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, Peter L.

    1993-01-01

    Seaports are dependent upon the supporting surface transportation network. Where port cargo volume is growing in already air-polluted urban areas, increased highway and rail traffic is perceived as exacerbating air quality conditions. In some seaport locations, stringent air quality control measures may impact operations and access, thereby possibly causing serious negative impacts on the economy. In still other areas, inadequate air quality controls may inadvertently foster more air pollution.

  4. Accident resistant transport container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  5. Air Shipment of Spent Nuclear Fuel from Romania to Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Lucian Biro; Alexander Buchelnikov

    2010-10-01

    Romania successfully completed the world’s first air shipment of spent nuclear fuel transported in Type B(U) casks under existing international laws and without shipment license special exceptions when the last Romanian highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel was transported to the Russian Federation in June 2009. This air shipment required the design, fabrication, and licensing of special 20 foot freight containers and cask tiedown supports to transport the eighteen TUK 19 shipping casks on a Russian commercial cargo aircraft. The new equipment was certified for transport by road, rail, water, and air to provide multi modal transport capabilities for shipping research reactor spent fuel. The equipment design, safety analyses, and fabrication were performed in the Russian Federation and transport licenses were issued by both the Russian and Romanian regulatory authorities. The spent fuel was transported by truck from the VVR S research reactor to the Bucharest airport, flown by commercial cargo aircraft to the airport at Yekaterinburg, Russia, and then transported by truck to the final destination in a secure nuclear facility at Chelyabinsk, Russia. This shipment of 23.7 kg of HEU was coordinated by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR), as part of the U.S. Department of Energy Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), in close cooperation with the Rosatom State Atomic Energy Corporation and the International Atomic Energy Agency, and was managed in Romania by the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN). This paper describes the planning, shipment preparations, equipment design, and license approvals that resulted in the safe and secure air shipment of this spent nuclear fuel.

  6. Creep-rupture tests on chromium-containing conventional and ODS steels in oxygen-controlled Pb and air at 650 °C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Generally superior creep performance of ODS steels with 12–14% Cr is indicated. • Strength of 9Cr-ODS at 650°C approaches conventional 9Cr steels at decreasing load. • ODS steels show brittle primary and ductile residual fracture. • Apparent link between secondary creep rate and fracture mode of ODS steels. • Clear impact of liquid Pb at low load, corresponding to long time-to-rupture. - Abstract: Conventional martensitic steels with 9 mass% chromium (Cr), namely T91 and P92, and ODS steels with 9, 12 and 14 mass% Cr, respectively, were subjected to creep-rupture tests in stagnant oxygen-controlled lead (Pb) at 650 °C and co = 10−6 mass% dissolved oxygen. The 9Cr conventional steels were tested in the liquid metal at static engineering stress in the range from 75 to 200 MPa. 12 and 14Cr ODS were tested at 190–400 MPa, and 9Cr ODS at 75–300 MPa. Reference tests in stagnant air were carried out in the same stress ranges. The ODS steels with 12 or 14 mass% Cr, mainly tested in oxygen containing Pb, clearly exhibit a change in the stress-dependence of secondary creep rate and appearance of fracture surface at 330–400 MPa. No such change has been observed for 9Cr ODS so far. The conventional martensitic steel P92 shows a significant drop in creep strength accompanied by reduced necking and a change from ductile to brittle fracture when tested in Pb at 75 MPa (time-to-rupture tR = 13,090 h)

  7. Failure of cargo aileron’s actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zucca

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During a ferry flight, in a standard operation condition and at cruising level, a military cargo experienced a double hydraulic system failure due to a structural damage of the dual booster actuator. The booster actuator is the main component in mechanism of aileron’s deflection. The crew was able to arrange an emergency landing thanks to the spare oil onboard: load specialists refilled the hydraulic reservoirs. Due to safety concerns and in order to prevent the possibility of other similar incidents, a technical investigation took place. The study aimed to carry out the analysis of root causes of the actuator failure. The Booster actuator is composed mainly by the piston rod and its aluminum external case (AA7049. The assembly has two bronze caps on both ends. These are fixed in position by means of two retainers. At one end of the actuator case is placed a trunnion: a cylindrical protrusion used as a pivoting point on the aircraft. The fracture was located at one end of the case, on the trunnion side, in correspondence to the cap and over the retainer. One of the two fracture surfaces was found separated to the case and with the cap entangled inside. The fracture surfaces of the external case indicated fatigue crack growth followed by ductile separation. The failure analysis was performed by means of optical, metallographic, digital and electronic microscopy. The collected evidences showed a multiple initiation fracture mechanism. Moreover, 3D scanner reconstruction and numerical simulation demonstrated that dimensional non conformances and thermal loads caused an abnormal stress concentration. Stress concentration was located along the case assy outer surface where the fatigue crack originated. The progressive rupture mechanism grew under cyclical axial load due to the normal operations. Recommendations were issued in order to improve dimensional controls and assembly procedures during production and overhaul activities.

  8. 19 CFR 115.9 - Certifying Authorities responsibilities-containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certifying Authorities responsibilities-containers...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARGO CONTAINER AND ROAD VEHICLE CERTIFICATION PURSUANT TO INTERNATIONAL CUSTOMS CONVENTIONS Administration § 115.9 Certifying Authorities responsibilities—containers. (a) General....

  9. 19 CFR 115.40 - Technical requirements for containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Technical requirements for containers. 115.40...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARGO CONTAINER AND ROAD VEHICLE CERTIFICATION PURSUANT TO INTERNATIONAL CUSTOMS CONVENTIONS Procedures for Approval of Containers After Manufacture § 115.40 Technical requirements...

  10. Stokes Efficiency of Molecular Motor-Cargo Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhou

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A molecular motor utilizes chemical free energy to generate a unidirectional motion through the viscous fluid. In many experimental settings and biological settings, a molecular motor is elastically linked to a cargo. The stochastic motion of a molecular motor-cargo system is governed by a set of Langevin equations, each corresponding to an individual chemical occupancy state. The change of chemical occupancy state is modeled by a continuous time discrete space Markov process. The probability density of a motor-cargo system is governed by a two-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation. The operation of a molecular motor is dominated by high viscous friction and large thermal fluctuations from surrounding fluid. The instantaneous velocity of a molecular motor is highly stochastic: the past velocity is quickly damped by the viscous friction and the new velocity is quickly excited by bombardments of surrounding fluid molecules. Thus, the theory for macroscopic motors should not be applied directly to molecular motors without close examination. In particular, a molecular motor behaves differently working against a viscous drag than working against a conservative force. The Stokes efficiency was introduced to measure how efficiently a motor uses chemical free energy to drive against viscous drag. For a motor without cargo, it was proved that the Stokes efficiency is bounded by 100% [H. Wang and G. Oster, (2002]. Here, we present a proof for the general motor-cargo system.

  11. 3D visualization design and implementation in 60Co container CT inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    60Co γ-ray container inspection system (TC-Scan), developed at Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET) of Tsinghua University, is installed at the customs for air-cargo or mega-object inspection against smuggling and prohibited objects. With the development of computer science and technology, 3D visualization technology applied to CT inspection system becomes a hotspot. In this paper, a volume rendering visualization system is designed and implemented for TC-Scan, based on ray-casting algorithm. In order to keep flexibility and compatibility for further development, the 3D rendering subsystem is independent from acquisition and reconstruction subsystems. Final rendering results demonstrate legible and distinct 3D vision for container inspection, which improves inspection validity. (authors)

  12. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  13. Effect of cargo size and shape on the transport efficiency of the bacterial Tat translocase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Neal; Bageshwar, Umesh; Musser, Siegfried M

    2013-04-01

    The Tat machinery translocates fully-folded and oligomeric substrates. The passage of large, bulky cargos across an ion-tight membrane suggests the need to match pore and cargo size, and therefore that Tat transport efficiency may depend on both cargo size and shape. A series of cargos of different sizes and shapes were generated using the natural Tat substrate pre-SufI as a base. Four (of 17) cargos transported with significant (>20% of wild-type) efficiencies. These results indicate that cargo size and shape significantly influence Tat transportability. PMID:23422074

  14. Consortin, a trans-Golgi network cargo receptor for the plasma membrane targeting and recycling of connexins

    OpenAIRE

    del Castillo, F. J.; Cohen-Salmon, M; Charollais, A.; Caille, D.; Lampe, P. D.; Chavrier, P; Meda, P.; Petit, C

    2009-01-01

    Targeting of numerous transmembrane proteins to the cell surface is thought to depend on their recognition by cargo receptors that interact with the adaptor machinery for anterograde traffic at the distal end of the Golgi complex. We report here on consortin, a novel integral membrane protein that is predicted to be intrinsically disordered, i.e. that contains large segments whose native state is unstructured. We identified consortin as a binding partner of connexins, the building blocks of g...

  15. Large area x-ray detectors for cargo radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, C.; Albagli, D.; Bendahan, J.; Castleberry, D.; Gordon, C.; Hopkins, F.; Ross, W.

    2007-04-01

    Large area x-ray detectors based on phosphors coupled to flat panel amorphous silicon diode technology offer significant advances for cargo radiologic imaging. Flat panel area detectors provide large object coverage offering high throughput inspections to meet the high flow rate of container commerce. These detectors provide excellent spatial resolution when needed, and enhanced SNR through low noise electronics. If the resolution is reduced through pixel binning, further advances in SNR are achievable. Extended exposure imaging and frame averaging enables improved x-ray penetration of ultra-thick objects, or "select-your-own" contrast sensitivity at a rate many times faster than LDAs. The areal coverage of flat panel technology provides inherent volumetric imaging with the appropriate scanning methods. Flat panel area detectors have flexible designs in terms of electronic control, scintillator selection, pixel pitch, and frame rates. Their cost is becoming more competitive as production ramps up for the healthcare, nondestructive testing (NDT), and homeland protection industries. Typically used medical and industrial polycrystalline phosphor materials such as Gd2O2S:Tb (GOS) can be applied to megavolt applications if the phosphor layer is sufficiently thick to enhance x-ray absorption, and if a metal radiator is used to augment the quantum detection efficiency and reduce x-ray scatter. Phosphor layers ranging from 0.2-mm to 1-mm can be "sandwiched" between amorphous silicon flat panel diode arrays and metal radiators. Metal plates consisting of W, Pb or Cu, with thicknesses ranging from 0.25-mm to well over 1-mm can be used by covering the entire area of the phosphor plate. In some combinations of high density metal and phosphor layers, the metal plate provides an intensification of 25% in signal due to electron emission from the plate and subsequent excitation within the phosphor material. This further improves the SNR of the system.

  16. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags fro Reducing Exploration Mission Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) division is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  17. Reducing Mission Logistics with Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep-out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  18. Optimizing an undulating magnetic microswimmer for cargo towing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Emiliya; Or, Yizhar

    2016-06-01

    One of the promising capabilities of magnetic microswimmers is towing a cargo, which can be used for targeted drug delivery or performing tissue biopsy. A key question is what should be the optimal size ratio between the cargo and the swimmer's flexible tail. This question is addressed here for the simplest theoretical model of a magnetic microswimmer undergoing planar undulations—a spherical load connected by a torsion spring to a rigid slender link. The swimmer's dynamic is formulated and leading-order expressions for its motion are obtained explicitly under small-amplitude approximation. Optimal combinations of magnetic actuation frequency, torsion stiffness, and tail length for maximizing displacement, average speed, or energetic efficiency are obtained. The theoretical results are compared with reported experiments in several types of cargo-towing magnetic microswimmers.

  19. 9 CFR 3.62 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... rabbits shall be mechanically sound and provide fresh air by means of windows, doors, vents, or air... temperature in the animal cargo space is 75 °F (23.9 °C) or higher. The ambient temperature within the animal... temperature in the cargo space may be below 45 °F (7.2 °C) if the rabbits are accompanied by a certificate...

  20. Experimental ship fire measurements with simulated radioactive cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from a series of eight test fires ranging in size from 2.2 to 18.8 MW conducted aboard the Coast Guard fire test ship Mayo Lykes at Mobile, Alabama are presented and discussed. Tests aboard the break bulk type cargo ship consisted of heptane spray fires simulating engine room and galley fires, wood crib fires simulating cargo hold fires, and pool fires staged for comparison to land based regulatory fire results. Primary instrumentation for the tests consisted of two pipe calorimeters that simulated a typical package shape for radioactive materials packages

  1. SHIP AND CARGO MORTGAGE, TWO DIFFERENT LEGAL VIEWPOINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abouata

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the subject-matter of cargo and ship mortgage are similar (providing financial security for creditors,the regulations of these contracts, differ from each other essentially with regard to the conditionality of taking possession in concluding the contract, the possibility of endorsement and cession in mortgage document, the creditor s kind of real right ,the preference of prior or latter creditor in vindication of right and the effect of mortgage loss on the contract and the possibility of recovery of claim. Moreover the cargo mortgage regulations are, in some regards and aspects, contrary to general legal rules and hence subject to criticism.

  2. Column generation approaches to ship scheduling with flexible cargo sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønmo, Geir; Nygreen, Bjørn; Lysgaard, Jens

    cargo sizes to the column generation framework is not straightforward, and we handle the flexible cargo sizes heuristically when solving the subproblems. This leads to convergence issues in the branch-and-price search tree, and the optimal solution cannot be guaranteed. Hence we have introduced a method...... that generates an upper bound on the optimal objective. We have compared our method with an a priori column generation approach, and our computational experiments on real world cases show that the Dantzig-Wolfe approach is faster than the a priori generation of columns, and we are able to deal with...

  3. 46 CFR 32.50-20 - Cargo piping for tank vessels constructed between November 10, 1936, and July 1, 1951-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Pumps, Piping, and Hose... may be omitted where the pipe is extra heavy, all joints are welded, and bends are installed to provide for expansion and contraction. (b) Cargo piping shall not pass through spaces containing...

  4. A non-canonical mechanism for Crm1-export cargo complex assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ute; Schäuble, Nico; Schütz, Sabina; Altvater, Martin; Chang, Yiming; Faza, Marius Boulos; Panse, Vikram Govind

    2015-01-01

    The transport receptor Crm1 mediates the export of diverse cargos containing leucine-rich nuclear export signals (NESs) through complex formation with RanGTP. To ensure efficient cargo release in the cytoplasm, NESs have evolved to display low affinity for Crm1. However, mechanisms that overcome low affinity to assemble Crm1-export complexes in the nucleus remain poorly understood. In this study, we reveal a new type of RanGTP-binding protein, Slx9, which facilitates Crm1 recruitment to the 40S pre-ribosome-associated NES-containing adaptor Rio2. In vitro, Slx9 binds Rio2 and RanGTP, forming a complex. This complex directly loads Crm1, unveiling a non-canonical stepwise mechanism to assemble a Crm1-export complex. A mutation in Slx9 that impairs Crm1-export complex assembly inhibits 40S pre-ribosome export. Thus, Slx9 functions as a scaffold to optimally present RanGTP and the NES to Crm1, therefore, triggering 40S pre-ribosome export. This mechanism could represent one solution to the paradox of weak binding events underlying rapid Crm1-mediated export. PMID:25895666

  5. SPECIFICS OF ORGANIZATIONAL AND FUNCTIONAL MECHANISM TO PROVIDE IMPLEMENTATION OF MARKETING STRATEGY OF CARGO HAULERS

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchenko, Galina

    2013-01-01

    Specifics of implementation of marketing strategy of cargo haulers are identified. Indicators of their marketing strategies’ efficiency are reviewed. The structure of organizational and functional mechanism of implementation of marketing strategies’ by cargo haulers is suggested.

  6. 46 CFR 308.512 - Declaration of shipments under Open Cargo Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.512... shipments and a closing report for all outward shipments, and pay the premium and fees, for all...

  7. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  8. Pressurized air supply device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventilation air-conditioning facilities in a nuclear reactor building are adapted to suck clean external air not containing radioactivity through air supply filters disposed at an air intake port of the nuclear reactor building by means of an air supply blower and then supply the sucked air through an air supply duct and an air supply port to the inside of the power plant. Futher, pipeways for supplying sucked air to a compressor is branched from the air supply duct, through which air is supplied to an air compressor for instrumentation and an air compressor used in the power plant. The air sucked and compressed in the air compressor for instrumentation is further supplied by way of pipeways for supplying air for instrumentation to air-actuated valves, instruments, etc. Further, air sucked and compressed in the air compressor used in the power plant is further supplied by way of air supply pipeways for the power plant to a reservoir, air mask, etc. By supplying clean compressed air in this way, operators exposure dose can be reduced. (T.M.)

  9. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE MANAGEMENT ON THE CARGO MOTOR TRANSPORTATION ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    Kylnytsvska, Y.; Gluhova, S.

    2014-01-01

    In the article the efficiency of accounts receivable management on cargo motor transportation enterprises is analyzed using the method of statistical analysis, namely middle descriptions of variation row of account receivable of cargo motor transportation enterprises are analysed; the analysis of unevenness of distributing of the account receivable of cargo motor transportation enterprises is conducted; the degree of dirigibility of conduct of debtors of cargo motor transportation enterprises...

  10. 46 CFR 154.705 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: General. 154.705 Section 154.705... Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.705 Cargo boil-off as fuel: General. (a) Each cargo boil-off fuel system under § 154.703(c) must meet §§ 154.706 through 154.709. (b) The piping in the cargo boil-off...

  11. Reconstitution of mitochondria derived vesicle formation demonstrates selective enrichment of oxidized cargo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Soubannier

    Full Text Available The mechanisms that ensure the removal of damaged mitochondrial proteins and lipids are critical for the health of the cell, and errors in these pathways are implicated in numerous degenerative diseases. We recently uncovered a new pathway for the selective removal of proteins mediated by mitochondrial derived vesicular carriers (MDVs that transit to the lysosome. However, it was not determined whether these vesicles were selectively enriched for oxidized, or damaged proteins, and the extent to which the complexes of the electron transport chain and the mtDNA-containing nucloids may have been incorporated. In this study, we have developed a cell-free mitochondrial budding reaction in vitro in order to better dissect the pathway. Our data confirm that MDVs are stimulated upon various forms of mitochondrial stress, and the vesicles incorporated quantitative amounts of cargo, whose identity depended upon the nature of the stress. Under the conditions examined, MDVs did not incorporate complexes I and V, nor were any nucleoids present, demonstrating the specificity of cargo incorporation. Stress-induced MDVs are selectively enriched for oxidized proteins, suggesting that conformational changes induced by oxidation may initiate their incorporation into the vesicles. Ultrastructural analyses of MDVs isolated on sucrose flotation gradients revealed the formation of both single and double membranes vesicles of unique densities and uniform diameter. This work provides a framework for a reductionist approach towards a detailed examination of the mechanisms of MDV formation and cargo incorporation, and supports the emerging concept that MDVs are critical contributors to mitochondrial quality control.

  12. Safety evaluation for packaging (Onsite) transport of LSA-II liquids in MC-312 cargo tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes the onsite transfer of bulk LSA-II radioactive liquids in the 222-S Laboratory Cargo Tank and Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility Cargo Tanks (which are U.S. Department of Transportation MC-312 specification cargo tanks) from their operating facilities to tank farm facilities

  13. 46 CFR 154.706 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Fuel lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Fuel lines. 154.706 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.706 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Fuel lines. (a) Gas fuel lines must not pass through accommodation, service, or control spaces. Each gas fuel line...

  14. 46 CFR 308.549 - Application for appointment of Cargo Underwriting Agent, Form MA-319.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Iv-General § 308.549 Application for appointment of Cargo Underwriting Agent, Form MA-319. Any domestic insurance company authorized to do a marine insurance business in any State of the United States may apply for appointment as a Cargo Underwriting...

  15. 46 CFR 154.650 - Cargo tank and process pressure vessel welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank and process pressure vessel welding. 154.650... Equipment Construction § 154.650 Cargo tank and process pressure vessel welding. (a) Cargo tank and process pressure vessel welding must meet Subpart 54.05 and Part 57 of this chapter. (b) Welding consumables...

  16. 46 CFR 154.701 - Cargo pressure and temperature control: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pressure and temperature control: General. 154.701 Section 154.701 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.701 Cargo pressure and temperature control:...

  17. 46 CFR 91.60-5 - Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. 91.60-5..., 1974 § 91.60-5 Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. (a) All vessels on an international voyage are required to have a Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. This certificate shall be issued...

  18. 46 CFR 189.60-5 - Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. 189.60-5..., 1974 § 189.60-5 Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. (a) All vessels on an international voyage are required to have a Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. This certificate shall be issued...

  19. 7 CFR 1493.3 - Restrictions on programs and cargo preference statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on programs and cargo preference... Restrictions on programs and cargo preference statement. (a) Restrictions on use of credit guarantees. (1... service the debt associated with such sales. (b) Cargo preference laws. The provisions of the...

  20. 46 CFR 154.709 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection equipment. 154.709 Section 154.709 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.709 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection...

  1. 46 CFR 154.708 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Valves. 154.708 Section 154.708 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.708 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Valves. (a) Gas fuel lines to the...

  2. Transportation of Nanoscale Cargoes by Myosin Propelled Actin Filaments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persson, Malin; Gullberg, Maria; Tolf, Conny; Lindberg, A. Michael; Mansson, Alf; Kocer, Armagan

    2013-01-01

    Myosin II propelled actin filaments move ten times faster than kinesin driven microtubules and are thus attractive candidates as cargo-transporting shuttles in motor driven lab-on-a-chip devices. In addition, actomyosin-based transportation of nanoparticles is useful in various fundamental studies.

  3. 14 CFR 29.787 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... emergency landing conditions of § 29.561. (b) There must be means to prevent the contents of any compartment...) Under the emergency landing conditions of § 29.561, cargo and baggage compartments must— (1) Be... any of the escape facilities provided for use after an emergency landing; or (2) Have...

  4. 14 CFR 27.787 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... emergency landing conditions of § 27.561. (b) There must be means to prevent the contents of any compartment...) Under the emergency landing conditions of § 27.561, cargo and baggage compartments must— (1) Be... any of the escape facilities provided for use after an emergency landing; or (2) Have...

  5. Study on Alternative Cargo Launch Options from the Lunar Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheryl A. Blomberg; Zamir A. Zulkefli; Spencer W. Rich; Steven D. Howe

    2013-07-01

    In the future, there will be a need for constant cargo launches from Earth to Mars in order to build, and then sustain, a Martian base. Currently, chemical rockets are used for space launches. These are expensive and heavy due to the amount of necessary propellant. Nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) are the next step in rocket design. Another alternative is to create a launcher on the lunar surface that uses magnetic levitation to launch cargo to Mars in order to minimize the amount of necessary propellant per mission. This paper investigates using nuclear power for six different cargo launching alternatives, as well as the orbital mechanics involved in launching cargo to a Martian base from the moon. Each alternative is compared to the other alternative launchers, as well as compared to using an NTR instead. This comparison is done on the basis of mass that must be shipped from Earth, the amount of necessary propellant, and the number of equivalent NTR launches. Of the options, a lunar coil launcher had a ship mass that is 12.7% less than the next best option and 17 NTR equivalent launches, making it the best of the presented six options.

  6. 48 CFR 752.228-9 - Cargo insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo insurance. 752.228-9... insurance. As prescribed in 728.313(a), the following preface is to be used preceding the text of the clause at FAR 52.228-9: Preface: To the extent that marine insurance is necessary or appropriate under...

  7. 46 CFR 151.50-5 - Cargoes having toxic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Gravity type cargo tanks shall be fitted with an approved pressure-vacuum relief valve of not less than 21... or pressure vacuum relief valve shall be directed in such a manner as to not impinge on another tank... from the safety or pressure vacuum relief valve as a result of a fire or other casualty. In...

  8. 46 CFR 151.20-5 - Cargo system valving requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... will cause the quick closing shutoff valves to close in case of fire. Quick closing shutoff valves... penetrations are not applicable to nozzles at which pressure vacuum or safety relief valves are fitted. (a... conditions, every cargo piping system shall be provided with one of the following sets of control valves...

  9. 46 CFR 13.309 - Eligibility: Cargo course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TANKERMEN Requirements for âTankerman-PIC (Barge)â Endorsement § 13.309 Eligibility: Cargo course. Each applicant for an original “Tankerman-PIC (Barge)” endorsement shall present a certificate of completion from a course in DL or LG appropriate for tank barges and for Tankerman-PIC or Tankerman-PIC (Barge),...

  10. Mars Hybrid Propulsion System Trajectory Analysis. Part II; Cargo Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and electric propulsion systems are used to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By combining chemical and electrical propulsion into a single spaceship and applying each where it is more effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper shows the feasibility of the hybrid transportation architecture to pre-deploy cargo to Mars and Phobos in support of the Evolvable Mars Campaign crew missions. The analysis shows that the hybrid propulsion stage is able to deliver all of the current manifested payload to Phobos and Mars through the first three crew missions. The conjunction class trajectory also allows the hybrid propulsion stage to return to Earth in a timely fashion so it can be reused for additional cargo deployment. The 1,100 days total trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to deliver cargo to Mars every other Earth-Mars transit opportunity. For the first two Mars surface mission in the Evolvable Mars Campaign, the short trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to be reused for three round-trip journeys to Mars, which matches the hybrid propulsion stage's designed lifetime for three round-trip crew missions to the Martian sphere of influence.

  11. 46 CFR 148.01-7 - Permitted cargoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... heating and ignition. Note: Definitions of hazard classes of hazardous materials are found in 49 CFR 171.8 and 49 CFR 173.500. (b) A mixture or blend of two or more cargoes, one or more of which is listed in... Flammable solid Contact with water may cause self heating. Coconut meal pellets (or copra...

  12. 19 CFR 4.62 - Accounting for inward cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounting for inward cargo. 4.62 Section 4.62 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.62 Accounting for inward...

  13. Column generation approaches to ship scheduling with flexible cargo sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønmo, Geir; Nygreen, Bjørn; Lysgaard, Jens

    2010-01-01

    consequences for the times used in the ports because both the loading and unloading times depend on the cargo sizes. We found it computationally hard to find exact solutions to the subproblems, so our method does not guarantee to find the optimum over all solutions. To be able to say something about how good...

  14. Integrated cargo routing and ship scheduling in liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    The problem consists of creating routes and schedules for a heterogeneous fleet of ships while determining the cargo routing and the speed for all relevant port pair/ship combinations. Transshipment is allowed in ports with transshipment capabilities. The service frequency is fixed at one week...

  15. 33 CFR 157.132 - Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.132 Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions. Each tank vessel having a COW system under §...

  16. Simultaneous Optimization of Container Ship Sailing Speed and Container Routing with Transit Time Restrictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Røpke, Stefan; Pisinger, David

    We introduce a decision support tool for liner shipping companies to optimally determine the sailing speed and needed fleet for a global network. As a novelty we incorporate cargo routing decisions with tight transit time restrictions on each container such that we get a realistic picture of the...... decomposition and column generation that exploits the separability of the problem. Computational results show that the method is applicable to liner shipping networks of realistic size and that it is important to incorporate cargo routing decisions when optimizing speed....

  17. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements...

  18. 46 CFR 98.30-15 - Leakage containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Leakage containment. 98.30-15 Section 98.30-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL... Leakage containment. (a) No person may transfer a product to or from a vessel unless there is a...

  19. Correct Code Containing Containers

    OpenAIRE

    Dross, Claire; Filliâtre, Jean-Christophe; Moy, Yannick

    2011-01-01

    For critical software development, containers such as lists, vectors, sets or maps are an attractive alternative to ad-hoc data structures based on pointers. As standards like DO-178C put formal verification and testing on an equal footing, it is important to give users the ability to apply both to the verification of code using containers. In this paper, we present a definition of containers whose aim is to facilitate their use in certified software, using modern proof technology and novel s...

  20. Working out of generalized dynamic model of cargo fixation with cargo pads jointly with flexible and thrust elements under the action spatial force system

    OpenAIRE

    Khabibulla TURANOV; Elena TIMUKHINA

    2011-01-01

    The article gives an account of the results of working out a generalized dynamic model of fixation of cargo with pads jointly with flexible and thrust elements. Working out a generalized dynamic model of cargo fixation is rather a complicated problem not in the sense of solving differential equations systems but in the sense of presenting them as a complex mechanical system “cargo – pads – flexible elements – thrust bars”. Generalized dynamic model of cargo with pads observed that this model ...

  1. A proposed benchmark problem for cargo nuclear threat monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is currently a great deal of technical and political effort focused on reducing the risk of potential attacks on the United States involving radiological dispersal devices or nuclear weapons. This paper proposes a benchmark problem for gamma-ray and X-ray cargo monitoring with results calculated using MCNP5, v1.51. The primary goal is to provide a benchmark problem that will allow researchers in this area to evaluate Monte Carlo models for both speed and accuracy in both forward and inverse calculational codes and approaches for nuclear security applications. A previous benchmark problem was developed by one of the authors (RPG) for two similar oil well logging problems (Gardner and Verghese, 1991, ). One of those benchmarks has recently been used by at least two researchers in the nuclear threat area to evaluate the speed and accuracy of Monte Carlo codes combined with variance reduction techniques. This apparent need has prompted us to design this benchmark problem specifically for the nuclear threat researcher. This benchmark consists of conceptual design and preliminary calculational results using gamma-ray interactions on a system containing three thicknesses of three different shielding materials. A point source is placed inside the three materials lead, aluminum, and plywood. The first two materials are in right circular cylindrical form while the third is a cube. The entire system rests on a sufficiently thick lead base so as to reduce undesired scattering events. The configuration was arranged in such a manner that as gamma-ray moves from the source outward it first passes through the lead circular cylinder, then the aluminum circular cylinder, and finally the wooden cube before reaching the detector. A 2 in.x4 in.x16 in. box style NaI (Tl) detector was placed 1 m from the point source located in the center with the 4 in.x16 in. side facing the system. The two sources used in the benchmark are 137Cs and 235U.

  2. A proposed benchmark problem for cargo nuclear threat monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Thomas Wesley, E-mail: twholmes@ncsu.edu [Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes, Nuclear Engineering Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7909 (United States); Calderon, Adan; Peeples, Cody R.; Gardner, Robin P. [Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes, Nuclear Engineering Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7909 (United States)

    2011-10-01

    There is currently a great deal of technical and political effort focused on reducing the risk of potential attacks on the United States involving radiological dispersal devices or nuclear weapons. This paper proposes a benchmark problem for gamma-ray and X-ray cargo monitoring with results calculated using MCNP5, v1.51. The primary goal is to provide a benchmark problem that will allow researchers in this area to evaluate Monte Carlo models for both speed and accuracy in both forward and inverse calculational codes and approaches for nuclear security applications. A previous benchmark problem was developed by one of the authors (RPG) for two similar oil well logging problems (Gardner and Verghese, 1991, ). One of those benchmarks has recently been used by at least two researchers in the nuclear threat area to evaluate the speed and accuracy of Monte Carlo codes combined with variance reduction techniques. This apparent need has prompted us to design this benchmark problem specifically for the nuclear threat researcher. This benchmark consists of conceptual design and preliminary calculational results using gamma-ray interactions on a system containing three thicknesses of three different shielding materials. A point source is placed inside the three materials lead, aluminum, and plywood. The first two materials are in right circular cylindrical form while the third is a cube. The entire system rests on a sufficiently thick lead base so as to reduce undesired scattering events. The configuration was arranged in such a manner that as gamma-ray moves from the source outward it first passes through the lead circular cylinder, then the aluminum circular cylinder, and finally the wooden cube before reaching the detector. A 2 in.x4 in.x16 in. box style NaI (Tl) detector was placed 1 m from the point source located in the center with the 4 in.x16 in. side facing the system. The two sources used in the benchmark are {sup 137}Cs and {sup 235}U.

  3. A proposed benchmark problem for cargo nuclear threat monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley Holmes, Thomas; Calderon, Adan; Peeples, Cody R.; Gardner, Robin P.

    2011-10-01

    There is currently a great deal of technical and political effort focused on reducing the risk of potential attacks on the United States involving radiological dispersal devices or nuclear weapons. This paper proposes a benchmark problem for gamma-ray and X-ray cargo monitoring with results calculated using MCNP5, v1.51. The primary goal is to provide a benchmark problem that will allow researchers in this area to evaluate Monte Carlo models for both speed and accuracy in both forward and inverse calculational codes and approaches for nuclear security applications. A previous benchmark problem was developed by one of the authors (RPG) for two similar oil well logging problems (Gardner and Verghese, 1991, [1]). One of those benchmarks has recently been used by at least two researchers in the nuclear threat area to evaluate the speed and accuracy of Monte Carlo codes combined with variance reduction techniques. This apparent need has prompted us to design this benchmark problem specifically for the nuclear threat researcher. This benchmark consists of conceptual design and preliminary calculational results using gamma-ray interactions on a system containing three thicknesses of three different shielding materials. A point source is placed inside the three materials lead, aluminum, and plywood. The first two materials are in right circular cylindrical form while the third is a cube. The entire system rests on a sufficiently thick lead base so as to reduce undesired scattering events. The configuration was arranged in such a manner that as gamma-ray moves from the source outward it first passes through the lead circular cylinder, then the aluminum circular cylinder, and finally the wooden cube before reaching the detector. A 2 in.×4 in.×16 in. box style NaI (Tl) detector was placed 1 m from the point source located in the center with the 4 in.×16 in. side facing the system. The two sources used in the benchmark are 137Cs and 235U.

  4. Mesoporous silica-supported lipid bilayers (protocells) for DNA cargo delivery to the spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler, Ellen C; Liu, Juewen; Kerwin, Audra; Torres, Sergio; Olcott, Clara M; Bowman, Brandi N; Armijo, Leisha; Gentry, Katherine; Wilkerson, Jenny; Wallace, James; Jiang, Xingmao; Carnes, Eric C; Brinker, C Jeffrey; Milligan, Erin D

    2013-06-10

    Amorphous mesoporous silica nanoparticles ('protocells') that support surface lipid bilayers recently characterized in vitro as carrier constructs for small drug and DNA delivery are reported here as highly biocompatible both in vitro and in vivo, involving the brain and spinal cord following spinal delivery into the lumbosacral subarachnoid space (intrathecal; i.t.). Specifically, positively charged, 1, 2-Dioleoyl-3-Trimethylammonium-Propane (DOTAP)-cholesterol (DOTAP:Chol) liposome-formulated protocells revealed stable in vitro cargo release kinetics and cellular interleukin-10 (IL-10) transgene transfection. Recent approaches using synthetic non-viral vector platforms to deliver the pain-suppressive therapeutic transgene, IL-10, to the spinal subarachnoid space have yielded promising results in animal models of peripheral neuropathy, a condition involving aberrant neuronal communication within sensory pathways in the nervous system. Non-viral drug and gene delivery protocell platforms offer potential flexibility because cargo release-rates can be pH-dependent. We report here that i.t. delivery of protocells, with modified chemistry supporting a surface coating of DOTAP:Chol liposomes and containing the IL-10 transgene, results in functional suppression of pain-related behavior in rats for extended periods. This study is the first demonstration that protocell vectors offer amenable and enduring in vivo biological characteristics that can be applied to spinal gene delivery. PMID:23517784

  5. The Complete Exosome Workflow Solution: From Isolation to Characterization of RNA Cargo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeoffrey Schageman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are small (30–150 nm vesicles containing unique RNA and protein cargo, secreted by all cell types in culture. They are also found in abundance in body fluids including blood, saliva, and urine. At the moment, the mechanism of exosome formation, the makeup of the cargo, biological pathways, and resulting functions are incompletely understood. One of their most intriguing roles is intercellular communication—exosomes function as the messengers, delivering various effector or signaling macromolecules between specific cells. There is an exponentially growing need to dissect structure and the function of exosomes and utilize them for development of minimally invasive diagnostics and therapeutics. Critical to further our understanding of exosomes is the development of reagents, tools, and protocols for their isolation, characterization, and analysis of their RNA and protein contents. Here we describe a complete exosome workflow solution, starting from fast and efficient extraction of exosomes from cell culture media and serum to isolation of RNA followed by characterization of exosomal RNA content using qRT-PCR and next-generation sequencing techniques. Effectiveness of this workflow is exemplified by analysis of the RNA content of exosomes derived from HeLa cell culture media and human serum, using Ion Torrent PGM as a sequencing platform.

  6. The bacterial carbon-fixing organelle is formed by shell envelopment of preassembled cargo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna H Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cyanobacteria play a significant role in the global carbon cycle. In Synechococcuselongatus, the carbon-fixing enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO is concentrated into polyhedral, proteinaceous compartments called carboxysomes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using live cell fluorescence microscopy, we show that carboxysomes are first detected as small seeds of RuBisCO that colocalize with existing carboxysomes. These seeds contain little or no shell protein, but increase in RuBisCO content over several hours, during which time they are exposed to the solvent. The maturing seed is then enclosed by shell proteins, a rapid process that seals RuBisCO from the cytosol to establish a distinct, solvent-protected microenvironment that is oxidizing relative to the cytosol. These closure events can be spatially and temporally coincident with the appearance of a nascent daughter RuBisCO seed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Carboxysomes assemble in a stepwise fashion, inside-to-outside, revealing that cargo is the principle organizer of this compartment's biogenesis. Our observations of the spatial relationship of seeds to previously formed carboxysomes lead us to propose a model for carboxysome replication via sequential fission, polymerization, and encapsulation of their internal cargo.

  7. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation??s (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  8. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  9. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... contradictions should motivate manufacturers and researchers to develop new efficient filtration techniques and/or improve the existing ones. Development of low polluting filtration techniques, which are at the same time easy and inexpensive to maintain is the way forward in the future....

  10. The cobalt-60 container scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology (INET) has successfully designed and constructed a container (cargo) scanner, which uses cobalt-60 of 100-300 Ci as radiation source. The following performances of the Cobalt-60 container scanner have been achieved at INET: a) IQI (Image Quality Indicator) - 2.5% behind 100 mm of steel; b) CI (Contrast Indicator) - 0.7% behind 100 mm of steel; c) SP (Steel Penetration) - 240 mm of steel; d) Maximum Dose per Scanning - 0.02mGy; e) Throughput - twenty 40-foot containers per hour. These performances are equal or similar to those of the accelerator scanners. Besides these nice enough inspection properties, the Cobalt-60 scanner possesses many other special features which are better than accelerator scanners: a) cheap price - it will be only or two tenths of the accelerator scanner's; b) low radiation intensity - the radiation protection problem is much easier to solve and a lot of money can be saved on the radiation shielding building; c) much smaller area for installation and operation; d) simple operation and convenient maintenance; e) high reliability and stability. The Cobalt-60 container (or cargo) scanner is satisfied for boundary customs, seaports, airports and railway stations etc. Because of the nice special features said above, it is more suitable to be applied widely. Its high properties and low price will make it have much better application prospects

  11. Vesicular glutamate transporter 1 orchestrates recruitment of other synaptic vesicle cargo proteins during synaptic vesicle recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ping-Yue; Marrs, Julia; Ryan, Timothy A

    2015-09-11

    A long standing question in synaptic physiology is how neurotransmitter-filled vesicles are rebuilt after exocytosis. Among the first steps in this process is the endocytic retrieval of the transmembrane proteins that are enriched in synaptic vesicles (SVs). At least six types of transmembrane proteins must be recovered, but the rules for how this multiple cargo selection is accomplished are poorly understood. Among these SV cargos is the vesicular glutamate transporter (vGlut). We show here that vGlut1 has a strong influence on the kinetics of retrieval of half of the known SV cargos and that specifically impairing the endocytosis of vGlut1 in turn slows down other SV cargos, demonstrating that cargo retrieval is a collective cargo-driven process. Finally, we demonstrate that different cargos can be retrieved in the same synapse with different kinetics, suggesting that additional post-endocytic sorting steps likely occur in the nerve terminal. PMID:26224632

  12. Assessment of energy performance and air pollutant emissions in a diesel engine generator fueled with water-containing ethanol-biodiesel-diesel blend of fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass based oxygenated fuels have been identified as possible replacement of fossil fuel due to pollutant emission reduction and decrease in over-reliance on fossil fuel energy. In this study, 4 v% water-containing ethanol was mixed with (65-90%) diesel using (5-30%) biodiesel (BD) and 1 v% butanol as stabilizer and co-solvent respectively. The fuels were tested against those of biodiesel-diesel fuel blends to investigate the effect of addition of water-containing ethanol for their energy efficiencies and pollutant emissions in a diesel-fueled engine generator. Experimental results indicated that the fuel blend mix containing 4 v% of water-containing ethanol, 1 v% butanol and 5-30 v% of biodiesel yielded stable blends after 30 days standing. BD1041 blend of fuel, which composed of 10 v% biodiesel, 4 v% of water-containing ethanol and 1 v% butanol demonstrated -0.45 to 1.6% increase in brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC, mL kW-1 h-1) as compared to conventional diesel. The better engine performance of BD1041 was as a result of complete combustion, and lower reaction temperature based on the water cooling effect, which reduced emissions to 2.8-6.0% for NOx, 12.6-23.7% particulate matter (PM), 20.4-23.8% total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 30.8-42.9% total BaPeq between idle mode and 3.2 kW power output of the diesel engine generator. The study indicated that blending diesel with water-containing ethanol could achieve the goal of more green sustainability. -- Highlights: → Water-containing ethanol was mixed with diesel using biodiesel and butanol as stabilizer and co-solvent, respectively. → Fuel blends with 4 v% water-containing ethanol, 1 v% butanol, 5-30 v% biodiesel and conventional diesel yielded a stable blended fuel after more than 30 days. → Due to more complete combustion and water quench effect, target fuel BD1041 was gave good energy performance and significant reduction of PM, NOx, total PAH and total BaPeq emissions. → Study

  13. 46 CFR 153.490 - Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and Arrangements Manual: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and... Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and Arrangements Manual: Categories A, B, C, and D. (a) Unless... carry NLS cargo, a ship must have— (1) If U.S., a Cargo Record Book published by the Coast Guard...

  14. Radioactive material air transportation; Transporte aereo de material radioativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pader y Terry, Claudio Cosme [Varig Logistica (VARIGLOG), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation.

  15. Concept design of a fast sail assisted feeder container ship

    OpenAIRE

    Burden, Aaron; Lloyd, Thomas; Mockler, Simon; Mortola, Lorenzo; Shin, Ie Bum; Smith, Ben

    2010-01-01

    A fast sail assisted feeder container ship concept has been developed for the 2020 container market in the South East Asian and Caribbean regions. The design presented has met the requirements of an initial economic study, with a cargo capacity of 1270 twenty-foot equivalent unit containers, meeting the predictions of container throughput derived from historical data. In determining suitable vessel dimensions, account has also been taken for port and berthing restrictions, and considering...

  16. Implementation of cargo MagLev in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Chris R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Peterson, Dean E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leung, Eddie M [MAGTEC ENGINEERING

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have been completed in the United States, but no commercial MagLev systems have been deployed. Outside the U.S., MagLev continues to attract funding for research, development and implementation. A brief review of recent global developments in MagLev technology is given followed by the status of MagLev in the U.S. The paper compares the cost of existing MagLev systems with other modes of transport, notes that the near-term focus of MagLev development in the U.S. should be for cargo, and suggests that future MagLev systems should be for very high speed cargo. The Los Angeles to Port of Los Angeles corridor is suggested as a first site for implementation. The benefits of MagLev are described along with suggestions on how to obtain funding.

  17. Characterization of the solid product(s) formed when UF6 is released into ambient air in a contained volume (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary characterization of the plume or cloud produced by the release of UF6 into humid air and the particulates comprising this cloud has been accomplished. The explosive release was conducted in a vessel in which the air at atmospheric pressure was static and the particulate material was collected on microscope grids by gravitational settling. Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy (TEM and SEM) have been used to determine the size or range of sizes of the particles produced by the release and the nature of the agglomerates produced from these particles. The particulate material was also analyzed by x-ray diffraction. The plume produced dispersed rapidly, completely filling the 30,000 cm3 release vessel in less than 10 sec. Settling of the particulte material required several hours for completion. Particles produced by the release were generally >1000A spheroids but some as small as 100A were collected. The agglomerates were like those seen in typical smokes, i.e. catenulate or chain-like in nature and several microns in length, although some were less than 1μ in dimension. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the material to be UO2F2 2H2O while infrared absorption spectrometry indicated the presence of UO22+ H2O in the material. These results were, of course, not for ephemeral species but stable, long-term products

  18. SESAM - a model for calculating the radiation exposure associated with the release of pollutants contained in the exhaust air in the case of a multi-source situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the scope of the research project St.Sch.645, sponsored by the German Federal Minister of Research and Technology (BMFT) a model and computer code called SESAM (calculation of radiation exposure by release of pollutants with the exhaust air in the case of a multi-source situation) was established, allowing to perform all the assessments of long-time exposure required for licensing - as e.g. evaluation of the maximum individual radiation exposure of the different organs at the most unfavorable point of reference - associated with the environmental impact of several nuclear sources of release - as e.g. several units of a nuclear power plant, different sources of a waste management center, or also consideration of the pre-existing exposures of a site caused by nuclear sources. The basis of this multi-source model SESAM are the models for calculating the exposure in the environment of nuclear facilities for the pathways external gamma radiation from the cloud, external beta radiation from the cloud, gamma radiation from material deposited on the ground, inhalation and ingestion, as well as the data material, as e.g. dose constants and radioecological conversion factors (kg 1 and kg 2) for critical groups of the popualation, specified in the German guideline Principles for Calculating the Exposure Caused by the Release of Radioactive Material with the Exhaust Air. (orig./HP)

  19. The Application Model of Moving Objects in Cargo Delivery System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Feng-li; ZHOU Ming-tian; XU Bo

    2004-01-01

    The development of spatio-temporal database systems is primarily motivated by applications which track and present mobile objects. In this paper, solutions for establishing the moving object database based on GPS/GIS environment are presented, and a data modeling of moving object is given by using Temporal logical to extent the query language, finally the application model in cargo delivery system is shown.

  20. Reject or embrace? Messengers and electric cargo bikes

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Johannes; Kihm, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    One of many approaches to react to the challenges faced by urban freight can be the introduction of electric cargo bikes as an environmentally friendly mode of transport for courier deliveries. Since this market consists of highly decentralized decision-making structures, it is important to characterize the individuals involved and their perceptions in order to estimate market potentials and identify barriers to market uptake. To achieve this goal, we use information from a nationwide survey ...

  1. SHIP AND CARGO MORTGAGE, TWO DIFFERENT LEGAL VIEWPOINTS

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Abouata

    2015-01-01

    Although the subject-matter of cargo and ship mortgage are similar (providing financial security for creditors),the regulations of these contracts, differ from each other essentially with regard to the conditionality of taking possession in concluding the contract, the possibility of endorsement and cession in mortgage document, the creditor s kind of real right ,the preference of prior or latter creditor in vindication of right and the effect of mortgage loss on the contract and the pos...

  2. Hydrogel Walkers with Electro-Driven Motility for Cargo Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Yang; Wei Wang; Chen Yao; Rui Xie; Xiao-Jie Ju; Zhuang Liu; Liang-Yin Chu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, soft hydrogel walkers with electro-driven motility for cargo transport have been developed via a facile mould-assisted strategy. The hydrogel walkers consisting of polyanionic poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid-co-acrylamide) exhibit an arc looper-like shape with two “legs” for walking. The hydrogel walkers can reversibly bend and stretch via repeated “on/off” electro-triggers in electrolyte solution. Based on such bending/stretching behaviors, the hydrogel walkers ...

  3. Contribution to the study of fluids transfers within a concrete wall: application to the case of a containment wall subjected to air tightness tests conditions and to accidental situation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The correlation between the leak rate of a containment wall of nuclear power plants reactor buildings measured during periodic airtightness tests and the leak rate during a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) is a fundamental element in the security analysis of reactor building. The aim of this work is to contribute to the study of the transfers of fluids induced by these two types of loading in the case of a concrete wall integrating inhomogeneities and singularities capable to exist within the containment wall. In a first experimental phase, the development of a test rig allowing to work with concrete specimens having the same height as the thickness of containment wall of future nuclear power plant (1.3 m) permits to develop concrete compositions representative of these high air permeability zones. Their characterization is focused on the types of gaseous flow being able to exist within these high diffuse permeability concretes and on the structuring of their porous network. This step is completed by water vapour sorption measurements and by mercury porosimetry tests in the case of a concrete qualified according a leak flow criterion. In a second experimental phase, this concrete is subjected to air tightness tests conditions and to an accidental situation of LOCA type (141 deg C, effective humid air pressure equal to 4,2 bar) always with a thickness of 1.3 m. The analysis of pressure and temperature fields and the water content distributions is performed by an appropriate instrumentation which also permits the study of kinetics of the mass flux (both gaseous and liquid) crossing to the extrados of the wall. The numerical investigation is carried out with the Thermal-Hydro-Mechanic of non-saturated porous media model, recently implemented in Code Aster (developed by EDF). This model allows to consider all the fluid phases in presence. From a interpretation work of experimental data according to hypotheses of the model, notably towards the particular aspects bound up

  4. A Novel Multilayered RFID Tagged Cargo Integrity Assurance Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming Hour; Luo, Jia Ning; Lu, Shao Yong

    2015-01-01

    To minimize cargo theft during transport, mobile radio frequency identification (RFID) grouping proof methods are generally employed to ensure the integrity of entire cargo loads. However, conventional grouping proofs cannot simultaneously generate grouping proofs for a specific group of RFID tags. The most serious problem of these methods is that nonexistent tags are included in the grouping proofs because of the considerable amount of time it takes to scan a high number of tags. Thus, applying grouping proof methods in the current logistics industry is difficult. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a method for generating multilayered offline grouping proofs. The proposed method provides tag anonymity; moreover, resolving disputes between recipients and transporters over the integrity of cargo deliveries can be expedited by generating grouping proofs and automatically authenticating the consistency between the receipt proof and pick proof. The proposed method can also protect against replay attacks, multi-session attacks, and concurrency attacks. Finally, experimental results verify that, compared with other methods for generating grouping proofs, the proposed method can efficiently generate offline grouping proofs involving several parties in a supply chain using mobile RFID. PMID:26512673

  5. Secreted primary human malignant mesothelioma exosome signature reflects oncogenic cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, David W; Ji, Hong; Chen, Maoshan; Robinson, Bruce W S; Dick, Ian M; Creaney, Jenette; Simpson, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly-aggressive heterogeneous malignancy, typically diagnosed at advanced stage. An important area of mesothelioma biology and progression is understanding intercellular communication and the contribution of the secretome. Exosomes are secreted extracellular vesicles shown to shuttle cellular cargo and direct intercellular communication in the tumour microenvironment, facilitate immunoregulation and metastasis. In this study, quantitative proteomics was used to investigate MM-derived exosomes from distinct human models and identify select cargo protein networks associated with angiogenesis, metastasis, and immunoregulation. Utilising bioinformatics pathway/network analyses, and correlation with previous studies on tumour exosomes, we defined a select mesothelioma exosomal signature (mEXOS, 570 proteins) enriched in tumour antigens and various cancer-specific signalling (HPGD/ENO1/OSMR) and secreted modulators (FN1/ITLN1/MAMDC2/PDGFD/GBP1). Notably, such circulating cargo offers unique insights into mesothelioma progression and tumour microenvironment reprogramming. Functionally, we demonstrate that oncogenic exosomes facilitate the migratory capacity of fibroblast/endothelial cells, supporting the systematic model of MM progression associated with vascular remodelling and angiogenesis. We provide biophysical and proteomic characterisation of exosomes, define a unique oncogenic signature (mEXOS), and demonstrate the regulatory capacity of exosomes in cell migration/tube formation assays. These findings contribute to understanding tumour-stromal crosstalk in the context of MM, and potential new diagnostic and therapeutic extracellular targets. PMID:27605433

  6. Calcium and cargoes as regulators of myosin 5a activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myosin 5a is a two-headed actin-dependent motor that transports various cargoes in cells. Its enzymology and mechanochemistry have been extensively studied in vitro. It is a processive motor that takes multiple 36 nm steps on actin. The enzymatic activity of myosin 5 is regulated by an intramolecular folding mechanism whereby its lever arms fold back against the coiled-coil tail such that the motor domains directly bind the globular tail domains. We show that the structure seen in individual folded molecules is consistent with electron density map of two-dimensional crystals of the molecule. In this compact state, the actin-activated MgATPase activity of the molecule is markedly inhibited and the molecule cannot move processively on surface bound actin filaments. The actin-activated MgATPase activity of myosin 5a is activated by increasing the calcium concentration or by binding of a cargo-receptor molecule, melanophilin, in vitro. However, calcium binding to the calmodulin light chains results in dissociation of some of the calmodulin which disrupts the ability of myosin 5a to move on actin filaments in vitro. Thus we propose that the physiologically relevant activation pathway in vivo involves binding of cargo-receptor proteins

  7. Secreted primary human malignant mesothelioma exosome signature reflects oncogenic cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, David W.; Ji, Hong; Chen, Maoshan; Robinson, Bruce W. S.; Dick, Ian M.; Creaney, Jenette; Simpson, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly-aggressive heterogeneous malignancy, typically diagnosed at advanced stage. An important area of mesothelioma biology and progression is understanding intercellular communication and the contribution of the secretome. Exosomes are secreted extracellular vesicles shown to shuttle cellular cargo and direct intercellular communication in the tumour microenvironment, facilitate immunoregulation and metastasis. In this study, quantitative proteomics was used to investigate MM-derived exosomes from distinct human models and identify select cargo protein networks associated with angiogenesis, metastasis, and immunoregulation. Utilising bioinformatics pathway/network analyses, and correlation with previous studies on tumour exosomes, we defined a select mesothelioma exosomal signature (mEXOS, 570 proteins) enriched in tumour antigens and various cancer-specific signalling (HPGD/ENO1/OSMR) and secreted modulators (FN1/ITLN1/MAMDC2/PDGFD/GBP1). Notably, such circulating cargo offers unique insights into mesothelioma progression and tumour microenvironment reprogramming. Functionally, we demonstrate that oncogenic exosomes facilitate the migratory capacity of fibroblast/endothelial cells, supporting the systematic model of MM progression associated with vascular remodelling and angiogenesis. We provide biophysical and proteomic characterisation of exosomes, define a unique oncogenic signature (mEXOS), and demonstrate the regulatory capacity of exosomes in cell migration/tube formation assays. These findings contribute to understanding tumour-stromal crosstalk in the context of MM, and potential new diagnostic and therapeutic extracellular targets. PMID:27605433

  8. A Novel Multilayered RFID Tagged Cargo Integrity Assurance Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Hour Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To minimize cargo theft during transport, mobile radio frequency identification (RFID grouping proof methods are generally employed to ensure the integrity of entire cargo loads. However, conventional grouping proofs cannot simultaneously generate grouping proofs for a specific group of RFID tags. The most serious problem of these methods is that nonexistent tags are included in the grouping proofs because of the considerable amount of time it takes to scan a high number of tags. Thus, applying grouping proof methods in the current logistics industry is difficult. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a method for generating multilayered offline grouping proofs. The proposed method provides tag anonymity; moreover, resolving disputes between recipients and transporters over the integrity of cargo deliveries can be expedited by generating grouping proofs and automatically authenticating the consistency between the receipt proof and pick proof. The proposed method can also protect against replay attacks, multi-session attacks, and concurrency attacks. Finally, experimental results verify that, compared with other methods for generating grouping proofs, the proposed method can efficiently generate offline grouping proofs involving several parties in a supply chain using mobile RFID.

  9. How molecular motors are arranged on a cargo is important for vesicular transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P Erickson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial organization of the cell depends upon intracellular trafficking of cargos hauled along microtubules and actin filaments by the molecular motor proteins kinesin, dynein, and myosin. Although much is known about how single motors function, there is significant evidence that cargos in vivo are carried by multiple motors. While some aspects of multiple motor function have received attention, how the cargo itself--and motor organization on the cargo--affects transport has not been considered. To address this, we have developed a three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation of motors transporting a spherical cargo, subject to thermal fluctuations that produce both rotational and translational diffusion. We found that these fluctuations could exert a load on the motor(s, significantly decreasing the mean travel distance and velocity of large cargos, especially at large viscosities. In addition, the presence of the cargo could dramatically help the motor to bind productively to the microtubule: the relatively slow translational and rotational diffusion of moderately sized cargos gave the motors ample opportunity to bind to a microtubule before the motor/cargo ensemble diffuses out of range of that microtubule. For rapidly diffusing cargos, the probability of their binding to a microtubule was high if there were nearby microtubules that they could easily reach by translational diffusion. Our simulations found that one reason why motors may be approximately 100 nm long is to improve their 'on' rates when attached to comparably sized cargos. Finally, our results suggested that to efficiently regulate the number of active motors, motors should be clustered together rather than spread randomly over the surface of the cargo. While our simulation uses the specific parameters for kinesin, these effects result from generic properties of the motors, cargos, and filaments, so they should apply to other motors as well.

  10. Variations of Ship’s Deck Elevation Due to Stochastic Process of Containers Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemyslaw Krata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The stochastic process of container loading is described in the paper with special emphasis to ship motion when she is lying at a quay. The 3 DOF system was applied to describe rolling, pitching and heaving of a vessel which may cause a significant variations of momentary deck elevation. The realistic range of such variations are assessed for a variety of cargo locations on-board and a phase shift between two independent gantries engaged in cargo operations. The process is modeled with regard to random character of crucial variables affecting ship motion due to cargo loading.

  11. Effect of surface radiation on the breakdown of steady natural convection flows in a square, air-filled cavity containing a centered inner body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical model considered in the present numerical work is a square air-filled cavity cooled from below and above, with a heated square body located at the cavity center. The aim is to establish the effects of radiation interchanges amongst surfaces on the transition from steady, symmetric flows about the cavity centerline to complex periodic flows. Owing to the low temperature differences involved (1 K ≤ ΔT ≤ 5 K), the two-dimensional model is based on the Boussinesq approximation and constant thermophysical fluid properties at room temperature. The cavity walls are assumed gray and diffuse. The flow structure is investigated for various Rayleigh numbers, emissivities of the wall surfaces and sizes of the inner body. The results clearly establish the influence of surface radiation, both for steady and unsteady flows. For the geometry and thermal boundary conditions considered, the Rayleigh number for the transition to unsteady flows is considerably increased under the influence of radiation. This work underlines the difficulties in comparing experimental data and numerical solutions for gas-filled cavities partly subjected to wall heat flux boundary conditions. - Research highlights: → Heat transfer in cavities cooled from below and above with an inner heated body. → Effects of radiation on the transitions to unsteady flows are numerically studied. → The surfaces are gray and diffuse and the temperature differences are from 1 K to 5 K. → Critical Rayleigh numbers are considerably increased by radiation. → According to the thermal boundary conditions, combined analyses are required.

  12. AIR SHIPMENT OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL FROM ROMANIA AND LIBYA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June 2009 Romania successfully completed the world's first air shipment of highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel transported in Type B(U) casks under existing international laws and without special exceptions for the air transport licenses. Special 20-foot ISO shipping containers and cask tiedown supports were designed to transport Russian TUK 19 shipping casks for the Romanian air shipment and the equipment was certified for all modes of transport, including road, rail, water, and air. In December 2009 Libya successfully used this same equipment for a second air shipment of HEU spent nuclear fuel. Both spent fuel shipments were transported by truck from the originating nuclear facilities to nearby commercial airports, were flown by commercial cargo aircraft to a commercial airport in Yekaterinburg, Russia, and then transported by truck to their final destinations at the Production Association Mayak facility in Chelyabinsk, Russia. Both air shipments were performed under the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) as part of the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI). The Romania air shipment of 23.7 kg of HEU spent fuel from the VVR S research reactor was the last of three HEU fresh and spent fuel shipments under RRRFR that resulted in Romania becoming the 3rd RRRFR participating country to remove all HEU. Libya had previously completed two RRRFR shipments of HEU fresh fuel so the 5.2 kg of HEU spent fuel air shipped from the IRT 1 research reactor in December made Libya the 4th RRRFR participating country to remove all HEU. This paper describes the equipment, preparations, and license approvals required to safely and securely complete these two air shipments of spent nuclear fuel.

  13. AIR SHIPMENT OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL FROM ROMANIA AND LIBYA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher Landers; Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Stanley Moses

    2010-07-01

    In June 2009 Romania successfully completed the world’s first air shipment of highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel transported in Type B(U) casks under existing international laws and without special exceptions for the air transport licenses. Special 20-foot ISO shipping containers and cask tiedown supports were designed to transport Russian TUK 19 shipping casks for the Romanian air shipment and the equipment was certified for all modes of transport, including road, rail, water, and air. In December 2009 Libya successfully used this same equipment for a second air shipment of HEU spent nuclear fuel. Both spent fuel shipments were transported by truck from the originating nuclear facilities to nearby commercial airports, were flown by commercial cargo aircraft to a commercial airport in Yekaterinburg, Russia, and then transported by truck to their final destinations at the Production Association Mayak facility in Chelyabinsk, Russia. Both air shipments were performed under the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) as part of the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI). The Romania air shipment of 23.7 kg of HEU spent fuel from the VVR S research reactor was the last of three HEU fresh and spent fuel shipments under RRRFR that resulted in Romania becoming the 3rd RRRFR participating country to remove all HEU. Libya had previously completed two RRRFR shipments of HEU fresh fuel so the 5.2 kg of HEU spent fuel air shipped from the IRT 1 research reactor in December made Libya the 4th RRRFR participating country to remove all HEU. This paper describes the equipment, preparations, and license approvals required to safely and securely complete these two air shipments of spent nuclear fuel.

  14. The Highly Conserved COPII Coat Complex Sorts Cargo from the Endoplasmic Reticulum and Targets It to the Golgi

    OpenAIRE

    Lord, Christopher; Ferro-Novick, Susan; Miller, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Protein egress from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is driven by a conserved cytoplasmic coat complex called the COPII coat. The COPII coat complex contains an inner shell (Sec23/Sec24) that sorts cargo into ER-derived vesicles and an outer cage (Sec13/Sec31) that leads to coat polymerization. Once released from the ER, vesicles must tether to and fuse with the target membrane to deliver their protein and lipid contents. This delivery step also depends on the COPII coat, with coat proteins bin...

  15. Modular Modeling of a Refrigeration Container

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær Sørensen, Kresten; Juel Skovrup, Morten; M. Jessen, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling of a refrigeration container for use as a reference for energy-optimizing controller design. The model is based on first principles in order to conserve mass and energy, but various assumptions are used to simplify the equations, resulting in a unified model for the...... Star Cool refrigeration unit, the container and the cargo. Comparisons between simulations using the model and measurements from a real container show an average error of less than ±1K on the states important for control....

  16. A platform for actively loading cargo RNA to elucidate limiting steps in EV-mediated delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, Joshua N.; Hung, Michelle E.

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate intercellular communication through transfer of RNA and protein between cells. Thus, understanding how cargo molecules are loaded and delivered by EVs is of central importance for elucidating the biological roles of EVs and developing EV-based therapeutics. While some motifs modulating the loading of biomolecular cargo into EVs have been elucidated, the general rules governing cargo loading and delivery remain poorly understood. To investigate how general ...

  17. Analytical basis of technology asymmetrical allocation of cargo masses common centre in wagons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khabibulla TURANOV

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the account of results of the analytical basis of technology asymmetrical cargo allocation in a wagon during rolling stock movement on track unevenness waves. The finite analytical formulas have been obtained for determination of response of wagon bogie spring sets in case of simultaneous displacement of cargo masses common centre longitudinally and sideways to the wagon, which make it possible to ground the cargo allocation according to admissible value of wagon vertical dynamic addition coefficient.

  18. 46 CFR 36.10-1 - Cargo pump relief valves-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pump relief valves-TB/ALL. 36.10-1 Section 36.10-1..., Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 36.10-1 Cargo pump relief valves—TB/ALL. (a) Cargo pump relief valves and pressure gages may be omitted, however, a suitable device shall be fitted to stop...

  19. Rossiiskim gruzam - rossiiskije konteinerõ = Russian containers for Russian cargoes / Alla Petrova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Petrova, Alla

    2004-01-01

    Autor teeb ülevaate transpordisüsteemi arengust, konteinerite tootmisest ja konteinervedude korraldusest NSV Liidus alates 1970ndatest ning analüüsib põhjuseid, miks käesoleval ajal tegelevad Venemaal konteinervedudega valdavalt välisfirmad kasutades läänes toodetud konteinereid

  20. Simulation study into the identification of nuclear materials in cargo containers using cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muon tomography represents a new type of imaging technique that can be used in detecting high-Z materials. Monte Carlo simulations for muon scattering in different types of target materials are presented. The dependence of the detector capability to identify high-Z targets on spatial resolution has been studied. Muon tracks are reconstructed using a basic point of closest approach (PoCA) algorithm. In this article we report the development of a secondary analysis algorithm that is applied to the reconstructed PoCA points. This algorithm efficiently ascertains clusters of voxels with high average scattering angles to identify 'areas of interest' within the inspected volume. Using this approach the effect of other parameters, such as the distance between detectors and the number of detectors per set, on material identification is also presented. Finally, false positive and false negative rates for detecting shielded HEU in realistic scenarios with low-Z clutter are presented

  1. Health risks in international container and bulk cargo transport due to volatile toxic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baur, Xaver; Budnik, Lygia T; Zhao, Zhiwei; Bratveit, Magne; Djurhuus, Rune; Rubino, Frederico; Vershoor, Louis; Colosio, Claudio; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    lethal outcome, occur not only during the fumigation, but also during freight transport (on bulk carriers and other transport vessels), as well as in the logistic lines during loading and unloading. Risk occupations include dock-workers, seafarers, inspectors, as well as the usually uninformed workers of...

  2. Cargo delivery to adhering myoblast cells from liposome-containing poly(dopamine) composite coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Martin Elias Lynge; Mian Teo, Boon; Laursen, Marie Bækgaard; Zhang, Yan; Stadler, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Designing surfaces to deliver therapeutic compounds to adhering cells is of paramount importance for both implantable devices and tissue engineering. We report the assembly of composite films consisting of liposomes as drug deposits in a poly(dopamine) matrix. We monitor the film assembly using a...... thiocoraline is entrapped in the lipid membrane, is assessed for different films. Coatings with one or two liposome deposition steps are considered. Further, the effect of the polymer separation layers between the liposome layers is determined. We found that it is possible to use the different nano......-engineered composite coatings to impose a corresponding cellular response, e.g., a higher amount of embedded liposomes leads to higher uptake efficiency of the fluorescent lipids and cell mean fluorescence or a higher reduction in the viability of the adhering cells. Assessment of the uptake efficiency and cell mean...

  3. Indoor air: Reference bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency initially established the indoor air Reference Bibliography in 1987 as an appendix to the Indoor Air Quality Implementation Plan. The document was submitted to Congress as required under Title IV--Radon Gas and Indoor Air Quality Research of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. The Reference Bibliography is an extensive bibliography of reference materials on indoor air pollution. The Bibliography contains over 4500 citations and continues to increase as new articles appear

  4. Report on the 2011 and 2012 NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) / Alaska State Cargo Airship Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstettler, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    This presentation will summarize the Cargo Airships for Northern Operations workshop that was held August 24-25, 2011. This workshop co-sponsored by NASA ARC and the Alaska State Department of Transportation was initiated by interest from Alaska Lt. Governor Mead Treadwell for assistance in investigating the potential benefits of proposed cargo airships for the Alaskan economy and societal needs. The workshop provided a brief background on the technology and operational aspects of conventional airships and hybrids followed by presentations on issues affecting cargo airship operations such as weather management, insurance, regulations, crew duty/rest rules, and available support infrastructures. Speakers representing potential cargo airship users from Alaskan State and commercial organizations presented the needs they felt could be met by cargo airship services. Presenters from Canadian private and military interests also detailed applications and missions that cargo airships could provide to remote regions of Canada. Cost drivers of cargo airship operations were also addressed and tools for modeling and analyzing operational factors and costs affecting cargo airship operations were discussed. Four breakout sessions were held which allowed workshop participants to contribute inputs to four topic areas: Business Approaches and Strategies (financing incentives public/private partnerships etc) for Airship Development and Operation, Design, Development, Production Challenges, and Possible Solutions, Regulatory, Certification, Legal, and Insurance Issues, and Operational Issues, Customer Requirements, and Airship Requirements. A follow on to the 2011 cargo airship workshop is being planned for July 31 August 2, 2012. A status update on this second workshop will also be presented.

  5. Measuring the amount of gas in import containers

    OpenAIRE

    Knol - de Vos T; IMD

    2003-01-01

    A study was carried out to gain insight into the total number of containers being imported into the Netherlands via Rotterdam harbour, that still contain remnants of gaseous pesticides. The study also checked to see if a 'risk profile' could be drawn up for certain containers due to remnants of gaseous pesticides, depending on the country of origin, cargo or labelling.The study concluded that - - the pesticides methyl bromide, formaldehyde and phosphine were found in 21% of the random sample ...

  6. Automatic continuous monitoring system for dangerous sites and cargoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of creation of automatic comprehensive continuous monitoring system for nuclear and radiation sites and cargoes of Rosatom Corporation, which carries out data collecting, processing, storage and transmission, including informational support to decision-making, as well as support to modelling and forecasting functions, are considered. The system includes components of two levels: site and industry. Currently the system is used to monitor over 8000 integrated parameters, which characterise the status of nuclear and radiation safety on Rosatom sites, environmental and fire safety

  7. Collinear swimmer propelling a cargo sphere at low Reynolds number

    CERN Document Server

    Felderhof, B U

    2014-01-01

    The swimming velocity and rate of dissipation of a linear chain consisting of two or three little spheres and a big sphere is studied on the basis of low Reynolds number hydrodynamics. The big sphere is treated as a passive cargo, driven by the tail of little spheres via hydrodynamic and direct elastic interaction. The fundamental solution of Stokes' equations in the presence of a sphere with no-slip boundary condition, as derived by Oseen, is used to model the hydrodynamic interactions between the big sphere and the little spheres.

  8. The legal and documentary aspects of sale of oil cargoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is divided into three main sections. The first part discusses a number of specific areas where sale contracts in the oil markets differ from traditional CIF or FOB contracts in other trades and where difficulties have therefore arisen which are peculiar to the oil trade. The second part deals with the passing of ownership and risk in oil cargoes. Finally it looks at certain documentary aspects of oil trading transactions, again concentrating on areas such as letters of indemnity, where the oil markets differ from the traditional commodity markets. (author)

  9. Evaluation of caries progression in dentin treated by fluoride-containing materials using an in-air micro-PIGE and micro-PIXE measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well-known that fluorine (F) is involved in the progression of caries. The evaluation of caries progression has conventionally been based on the change in mineral content using transverse microradiography (TMR). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the progression of dentinal caries by the change in calcium (Ca) content using Particle-Induced Gamma-ray Emission/Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIGE/PIXE) techniques at the Wakasa Wan Energy Research Center. We also assessed the relationship between caries progression rate and the concentration of F penetration into dentin from dental fluoride-containing materials (FCMs). Dentin sections of six extracted human teeth were prepared to obtain various amounts of F uptake using three types of FCMs. F and Ca distribution of specimens were obtained using PIGE/PIXE techniques. After evaluation, the specimens were immersed in 10 ml of demineralizing solution (pH 4.5) to simulate caries attack. To estimate caries progression rates, the same portions of the specimens were evaluated after caries attack treatment using PIGE/PIXE. A negative correlation between the F uptake in dentin and the rate of caries progression was observed. Therefore, caries progression in dentin was reduced by increasing the amount of F uptake from FCMs. This demonstrates that PIGE/PIXE techniques are valuable for estimating caries progression rates

  10. Evaluation of caries progression in dentin treated by fluoride-containing materials using an in-air micro-PIGE and micro-PIXE measurement system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H., E-mail: yhiroko@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamada-Oka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Iwami, Y.; Yagi, K.; Hayashi, M. [Department of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamada-Oka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Komatsu, H.; Okuyama, K.; Matsuda, Y. [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Yasuda, K. [The Wakasa Wan Energy Research Center, 64-52-1 Nagatani, Tsuruga 914-0192 (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    It is well-known that fluorine (F) is involved in the progression of caries. The evaluation of caries progression has conventionally been based on the change in mineral content using transverse microradiography (TMR). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the progression of dentinal caries by the change in calcium (Ca) content using Particle-Induced Gamma-ray Emission/Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIGE/PIXE) techniques at the Wakasa Wan Energy Research Center. We also assessed the relationship between caries progression rate and the concentration of F penetration into dentin from dental fluoride-containing materials (FCMs). Dentin sections of six extracted human teeth were prepared to obtain various amounts of F uptake using three types of FCMs. F and Ca distribution of specimens were obtained using PIGE/PIXE techniques. After evaluation, the specimens were immersed in 10 ml of demineralizing solution (pH 4.5) to simulate caries attack. To estimate caries progression rates, the same portions of the specimens were evaluated after caries attack treatment using PIGE/PIXE. A negative correlation between the F uptake in dentin and the rate of caries progression was observed. Therefore, caries progression in dentin was reduced by increasing the amount of F uptake from FCMs. This demonstrates that PIGE/PIXE techniques are valuable for estimating caries progression rates.

  11. Driving Cargo Prevention with Facts: : How Risk Analysis Brings Light in the Dark Leading to a Pro-active Supply Chain Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Skorna, Alexander C.H.; Bode, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Transport and logistics operations are vulnerable to many types of risks due to an increasing dynamic and structural complexity of today's supply chain networks. Global distributed sourcing and production leads to more transported goods in general but also to more high value cargoes being shipped around the world. However, detailed information about the transport condition and integrity are not available in the end-toend chain as e.g. a sealed container can be considered as "black box". In t...

  12. C-C chemokine receptor-7 mediated endocytosis of antibody cargoes into intact cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FrançoisMarceau

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The C-C chemokine receptor-7 (CCR7 is a G protein coupled receptor that has a role in leukocyte homing, but that is also expressed in aggressive tumor cells. Preclinical research supports that CCR7 is a valid target in oncology. In view of the increasing availability of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies that carry cytotoxic cargoes, we studied the feasibility of forcing intact cells to internalize known monoclonal antibodies by exploiting the cycle of endocytosis and recycling triggered by the CCR7 agonist CCL19. Firstly, an anti-CCR7 antibody (CD197; clone 150503 labeled surface recombinant CCR7 expressed in intact HEK 293a cells and the fluorescent antibody was internalized following CCL19 treatment. Secondly, a recombinant myc-tagged CCL19 construction was exploited along the anti-myc monoclonal antibody 4A6. The myc-tagged ligand was produced as a conditioned medium of transfected HEK 293a cells that contained the equivalent of 430 ng/ml of immunoreactive CCL19 (average value, ELISA determination. CCL19-myc, but not authentic CCL19, carried the fluorophore-labeled antibody 4A6 into other recipient cells that expressed recombinant CCR7 (microscopy, cytofluorometry. The immune complexes were apparent in endosomal structures, colocalized well with the small GTPase Rab5 and progressed toward Rab7-positive endosomes. A dominant negative form of Rab5 (GDP-locked inhibited this endocytosis. Further, endosomes in CCL19-myc- or CCL19-stimulated cells were positive for β-arrestin2, but rarely for β-arrestin1. Following treatment with CCL19-myc and the 4A6 antibody, the melanoma cell line A375 that expresses endogenous CCR7 was specifically stained using a secondary peroxidase-conjugated antibody. Agonist-stimulated CCR7 can transport antibody-based cargoes, with possible therapeutic applications in oncology.

  13. Achieving integrated convoys: cargo unmanned ground vehicle development and experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zych, Noah; Silver, David; Stager, David; Green, Colin; Pilarski, Thomas; Fischer, Jacob

    2013-05-01

    The Cargo UGV project was initiated in 2010 with the aim of developing and experimenting with advanced autonomous vehicles capable of being integrated unobtrusively into manned logistics convoys. The intent was to validate two hypotheses in complex, operationally representative environments: first, that unmanned tactical wheeled vehicles provide a force protection advantage by creating standoff distance to warfighters during ambushes or improvised explosive device attacks; and second, that these UGVs serve as force multipliers by enabling a single operator to control multiple unmanned assets. To assess whether current state-of-the-art autonomous vehicle technology was sufficiently capable to permit resupply missions to be executed with decreased risk and reduced manpower, and to assess the effect of UGVs on customary convoy tactics, the Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory and the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise sponsored Oshkosh Defense and the National Robotics Engineering Center to equip two standard Marine Corps cargo trucks for autonomous operation. This paper details the system architecture, hardware implementation, and software modules developed to meet the vehicle control, perception, and planner requirements compelled by this application. Additionally, the design of a custom human machine interface and an accompanying training program are described, as is the creation of a realistic convoy simulation environment for rapid system development. Finally, results are conveyed from a warfighter experiment in which the effectiveness of the training program for novice operators was assessed, and the impact of the UGVs on convoy operations was observed in a variety of scenarios via direct comparison to a fully manned convoy.

  14. Simulations and imaging algorithm development for a cosmic ray muon tomography system for the detection of special nuclear material in transport containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cosmic Ray Inspection and Passive Tomography (CRIPT) collaboration is developing a cosmic ray muon tomography system to identify Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) in cargo containers. In order to gauge the viability of the technique, and to determine the best detector type, GEANT4 was used to simulate the passage of cosmic ray muons through a cargo container. The scattering density estimation (SDE) algorithm was developed and tested with data from these simulations to determine how well it could reconstruct the interior of a container. The simulation results revealed the ability of cosmic ray muon tomography techniques to image spheres of lead-shielded Special Nuclear Materials (SNM), such as uranium or plutonium, in a cargo container, containing a cargo of granite slabs. (author)

  15. Simulations and imaging algorithm development for a cosmic ray muon tomography system for the detection of special nuclear material in transport containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewett, C.; Anghel, V.N.P. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Armitage, J.; Boudjemline, K.; Botte, J. [Carleton Univ., Dept. of Physics, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Bryman, D. [Advanced Applied Physics Solutions, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Bueno, J. [Advanced Applied Physics Solutions, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Charles, E. [Canada Border Services Agency, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Cousins, T. [International Safety Research, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Didsbury, R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Erhardt, L. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Erlandson, A. [Carleton Univ., Dept. of Physics, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Gallant, G. [Canada Border Services Agency, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Jason, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos (United States); Jonkmans, G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Liu, Z. [Advanced Applied Physics Solutions, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); McCall, M.; Noel, S. [International Safety Research, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Oakham, F.G. [Carleton Univ., Dept. of Physics, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia, (Canada); Ong, D.; Stocki, T. [Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Thompson, M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Waller, D. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The Cosmic Ray Inspection and Passive Tomography (CRIPT) collaboration is developing a cosmic ray muon tomography system to identify Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) in cargo containers. In order to gauge the viability of the technique, and to determine the best detector type, GEANT4 was used to simulate the passage of cosmic ray muons through a cargo container. The scattering density estimation (SDE) algorithm was developed and tested with data from these simulations to determine how well it could reconstruct the interior of a container. The simulation results revealed the ability of cosmic ray muon tomography techniques to image spheres of lead-shielded Special Nuclear Materials (SNM), such as uranium or plutonium, in a cargo container, containing a cargo of granite slabs. (author)

  16. Nickel-Doped La0.8Sr0.2Mn1-xNixO3 Nanoparticles Containing Abundant Oxygen Vacancies as an Optimized Bifunctional Catalyst for Oxygen Cathode in Rechargeable Lithium-Air Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaodong; You, Ya; Yuan, Jing; Yin, Ya-Xia; Li, Yu-Tao; Xin, Sen; Zhang, Dawei

    2016-03-16

    In this work, Ni-doped manganite perovskite oxides (La0.8Sr0.2Mn1-xNixO3, x = 0.2 and 0.4) and undoped La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 were synthesized via a general and facile sol-gel route and used as bifunctional catalysts for oxygen cathode in rechargeable lithium-air batteries. The structural and compositional characterization results showed that the obtained La0.8Sr0.2Mn1-xNixO3 (x = 0.2 and 0.4) contained more oxygen vacancies than did the undoped La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 as well as a certain amount of Ni(3+) (eg = 1) on their surface. The Ni-doped La0.8Sr0.2Mn1-xNixO3 (x = 0.2 and 0.4) was provided with higher bifunctional catalytic activities than that of the undoped La0.8Sr0.2MnO3. In particular, the La0.8Sr0.2Mn0.6Ni0.4O3 had a lower total over potential between the oxygen evolution reaction and the oxygen reduction reaction than that of the La0.8Sr0.2MnO3, and the value is even comparable to that of the commercial Pt/C yet is provided with a much reduced cost. In the lithium-air battery, oxygen cathodes containing the La0.8Sr0.2Mn0.6Ni0.4O3 catalyst delivered the optimized electrochemical performance in terms of specific capacity and cycle life, and a reasonable reaction mechanism was given to explain the improved performance. PMID:26900959

  17. 46 CFR 105.25-7 - Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment. 105.25-7 Section 105.25-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO... pumping system compartment. (a) Each compartment shall be provided with a mechanical exhaust...

  18. 46 CFR 308.551 - War risk insurance clearing agency agreement for cargo, Form MA-321.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false War risk insurance clearing agency agreement for cargo... EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Iv-General § 308.551 War risk insurance... domestic insurance companies authorized to do a marine insurance business in any State of the United...

  19. 46 CFR 153.981 - Leaving room in tank for cargo expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Leaving room in tank for cargo expansion. 153.981 Section 153.981 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Transfer Procedures § 153.981 Leaving room in tank for cargo expansion. The person in charge of...

  20. 46 CFR 31.10-16 - Inspection and certification of cargo gear-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection and certification of cargo gear-TB/ALL. 31.10... CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-16 Inspection and certification of cargo gear—TB/ALL. (a) The owner, operator... treatment of chains, rings, hooks, shackles, and swivels which require such treatment; and,...

  1. 33 CFR 126.29 - Supervision and control of dangerous cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supervision and control of... Supervision and control of dangerous cargo. (a) Authority. The Captain of the Port is authorized to require... cargo covered by this subchapter shall be undertaken and continued only under the immediate...

  2. 46 CFR 32.60-15 - Segregation of cargo; Grade E-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Segregation of cargo; Grade E-TB/ALL. 32.60-15 Section 32.60-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT... § 32.60-15 Segregation of cargo; Grade E—TB/ALL. (a) General. The galleys, living quarters,...

  3. 19 CFR 123.91 - Electronic information for rail cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic information for rail cargo required in advance of arrival. 123.91 Section 123.91 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Advance Information for Cargo Arriving by Rail or...

  4. 19 CFR 123.92 - Electronic information for truck cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic information for truck cargo required in advance of arrival. 123.92 Section 123.92 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Advance Information for Cargo Arriving by Rail or...

  5. 14 CFR 121.198 - Cargo service airplanes: Increased zero fuel and landing weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cargo service airplanes: Increased zero... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.198 Cargo service airplanes: Increased zero fuel and landing...

  6. 46 CFR 308.501 - Cargoes on which coverage is available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance I-Introduction § 308.501 Cargoes on which coverage is available. The Maritime Administrator will be prepared to provide marine insurance against loss or damage by the risks of... Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as amended (46 App. U.S.C. 1281(a)); (b) Shipped or to be shipped on any...

  7. 46 CFR 31.40-5 - Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate-T/ALL. 31.40... Safety Construction Certificate—T/ALL. (a) All tankships on an international voyage are required to have a Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. This certificate shall be issued by the U.S....

  8. 29 CFR Appendix III to Part 1918 - The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory.... 1918, App. III Appendix III to Part 1918—The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory) Note: This appendix is non-mandatory and provides an explanation of the mechanics in the correct spotting...

  9. 49 CFR 173.33 - Hazardous materials in cargo tank motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... pressure in accordance with 49 CFR 180.405(k). (3) Any Specification MC 310 or MC 311 cargo tank motor... this subchapter. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 173.33, see the List of CFR... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazardous materials in cargo tank motor...

  10. Structural Basis of Cargo Recognition by Unconventional Myosins in Cellular Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianchao; Lu, Qing; Zhang, Mingjie

    2016-08-01

    Unconventional myosins are a superfamily of actin-based molecular motors playing diverse roles including cellular trafficking, mechanical supports, force sensing and transmission, etc. The variable neck and tail domains of unconventional myosins function to bind to specific cargoes including proteins and lipid vesicles and thus are largely responsible for the diverse cellular functions of myosins in vivo. In addition, the tail regions, together with their cognate cargoes, can regulate activities of the motor heads. This review outlines the advances made in recent years on cargo recognition and cargo binding-induced regulation of the activity of several unconventional myosins including myosin-I, V, VI and X in cellular trafficking. We approach this topic by describing a series of high-resolution structures of the neck and tail domains of these unconventional myosins either alone or in complex with their specific cargoes, and by discussing potential implications of these structural studies on cellular trafficking of these myosin motors. PMID:26842936

  11. Screening of Maritime Containers to Intercept Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manatt, D R; Sleaford, B; Schaffer, T; Accatino, M R; Slaughter, D; Mauger, J; Newmark, R; Prussin, S; Luke, J; Frank, M; Bernstein, A; Alford, O; Mattesich, G; Stengel, J; Hall, J; Descalle, M A; Wolford, J; Hall, H; Loshak, A; Sale, K; Trombino, D; Dougan, A D; Pohl, B; Dietrich, D; Weirup, D; Walling, R; Rowland, M; Johnson, D; Hagmann, C; Hankins, D

    2004-02-18

    The goal of our research was to address the problem of detection of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) materials within containers in common use on commercial cargo trafficking. LLNL has created an experimental test bed for researching potential solutions using (among other techniques) active interrogation with neutrons. Experiments and computational modeling were used to determine the effectiveness of the technique. Chemical weapons materials and high explosives can be detected using neutron activation and simple geometries with little or no intervening material. However in a loaded container there will be nuisance alarms from conflicting signatures resulting from the presence of material between the target and the detector (and the interrogation source). Identifying some elements may require long counting times because of the increased background. We performed some simple signature measurements and simulations of gamma-ray spectra from several chemical simulants. We identified areas where the nuclear data was inadequate to perform detailed computations. We concentrated on the detection of SNM in cargo containers, which will be emphasized here. The goal of the work reported here is to develop a concept for an active neutron interrogation system that can detect small targets of SNM contraband in cargo containers, roughly 5 kg HEU or 1 kg Pu, even when well shielded by a thick cargo. It is essential that the concept be reliable and have low false-positive and false-negative error rates. It also must be rapid to avoid interruption of commerce, completing the analysis in minutes. A potentially viable concept for cargo interrogation has been developed and its components have been evaluated experimentally. A new radiation signature unique to SNM has been identified that utilizes high-energy, fission-product gamma rays. That signature due to {gamma}-radiation in the range 3-6 MeV is distinct from normal background radioactivity that does not extend above 2.6 MeV. It

  12. A Dual-Purpose Ion-Accelerator for Nuclear-Reaction-Based Explosives-and SNM-Detection in Massive Cargo

    CERN Document Server

    Goldberg, M B; Vartsky, D; Bar, D; Böttger, R; Brandis, M; Bromberger, B; Feldman, G; Friedman, E; Heflinger, D; Lauck, R; Löb, S; Maier-Komor, P; Mardor, I; Mor, I; Speidel, K -H; Tittelmeier, K; Weierganz, M

    2010-01-01

    A dual-purpose ion-accelerator concept, capable of serving as radiation source in a versatile, nuclear-reaction-based cargo inspection system, is presented. The system will automatically and reliably detect small, operationally-relevant quantities of concealed explosives and special nuclear materials (SNM). It will be cost-effective, employing largely-common hardware, but different reactions/DAQ-modes. Typical expected throughput is 10-20 aviation containers/hr. PACS: 25.20.Dc; 25.40.Ny; 27.20.+n; 29.27.Fh; 79.77.+g; 89.20.Bb; 89.20.Dd Keywords: Cargo inspection; Nuclear-reaction-based methods; Explosives detection; SNM detection

  13. Concept design of a fast sail assisted feeder container ship

    OpenAIRE

    Burden, Aaron; Hearn, Grant E.; Lloyd, Thomas; Mockler, Simon; Mortola, Lorenzo; Shin, Ie Bum; Smith, Ben

    2010-01-01

    An environmentally sustainable fast sail-assisted feeder-container ship concept, with a maximum speed of 25 knots, has been developed for the 2020 South East Asian and Caribbean container markets. The use of low-carbon and zero-sulphur fuel (liquefied natural gas) and improvements in operational efficiency (cargo handling and scheduling) mean predicted Green house gas emissions should fall by 42% and 40% in the two selected operational regions. The adoption of a Multi-wing sail system reduces...

  14. ATHLETE: A Cargo-Handling Vehicle for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is developing a vehicle called ATHLETE: the All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer. Each vehicle is based on six wheels at the ends of six multi-degree-of-freedom limbs. Because each limb has enough degrees of freedom for use as a general-purpose leg, the wheels can be locked and used as feet to walk out of excessively soft or other extreme terrain. Since the vehicle has this alternative mode of traversing through or at least out of extreme terrain, the wheels and wheel actuators can be sized for nominal terrain. There are substantial mass savings in the wheel and wheel actuators associated with designing for nominal instead of extreme terrain. These mass savings are comparable-to or larger-than the extra mass associated with the articulated limbs. As a result, the entire mobility system, including wheels and limbs, can be about 25% lighter than a conventional mobility chassis. A side benefit of this approach is that each limb has sufficient degrees-of-freedom to use as a general-purpose manipulator (hence the name "limb" instead of "leg"). Our prototype ATHLETE vehicles have quick-disconnect tool adapters on the limbs that allow tools to be drawn out of a "tool belt" and maneuvered by the limb. A power-take-off from the wheel actuates the tools, so that they can take advantage of the 1+ horsepower motor in each wheel to enable drilling, gripping or other power-tool functions. Architectural studies have indicated that one useful role for ATHLETE in planetary (moon or Mars) exploration is to "walk" cargo off the payload deck of a lander and transport it across the surface. Recent architectural approaches are focused on the concept that the lander descent stage will use liquid hydrogen as a propellant. This is the highest performance chemical fuel, but it requires very large tanks. A natural geometry for the lander is to have a single throttleable rocket engine on

  15. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  16. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  17. Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory contains measured and estimated data on ambient air pollution for use in assessing air quality, assisting in...

  18. INNOVATION STRATEGY FOR MODERNIZATION CARGO PLANE IN THE AIR ENTERPRISE UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г.А. КЛИМЕНКО

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available  The state of the Ukrainian transport aerotechics, generalization of experience of exploitation of the modernized sky and passenger trucks which are exploited in the Russian airlines, and exposure of ways of extension of profitable exploitation of senescent park of domestic sky trucks, is probed in the article.

  19. Air Cargo Development in the Regional Airports of the Baltic Sea Region Through Road Feeder Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beifert Anatoli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As issued in the Competition Policy Brief on the new state aid rules for a competitive aviation industry by the Competition Directorate-General of the European Commission in February 20141, it will be more difficult for unprofitable airports, to obtain financial public subsidies on EU, national or regional level. Although the positive impact of small airports on the regional development and general accessibility was mentioned, still the operating aid to the airports shall be cut out over a maximum of 10 years. It has been further stated that the vast majority of small and regional airports experience problems to cover their running operative costs, as a result from an intensive market competition and overlapping of airports’ catchment areas preventing even some promising airports from growth. Public subsidies are mostly used by the airport management for infrastructural investments, to cover operating losses or to attract price-sensitive airlines. Herewith, among other things, the EU Commission is pointing out at the lack of cooperation structures and network strategies among the regional airports and at rather isolated and individual approach during elaboration of the airport development scenarios. However, the Competition Policy Brief permits public aid to regional airports, among other things if there is sufficient transports need to establish transition periods for small airports; the need for more flexibility of the regional airports in the remote areas has been underlined. The EU Commission is expecting herewith not to close the regional airports, but to stimulate them to operate on cost efficient and profitable basis, and that only the most inefficient airports will be closed.

  20. Competitiveness of the Air and the Sea Cargo Transport of Mexico under the International Trade Frame

    OpenAIRE

    America I. Zamora Torres; Jose Cesar Lenin Navarro Chavez; Joel Bonales Valencia

    2015-01-01

    International trade trends have changed the cost structure, pricing, logistics, supply chain and hence comparative advantages. Such trends have similarly defined the trade competitiveness of countries becoming more relevant with the level of integration of global transport networks as a driver of international trade. In this paper we evaluate through Principal Component Analysis methodology the international transport competitiveness considering the most important variables that affect this s...

  1. Discussion on the Logistics Construction of Railway Container Freight Stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟永林; 张锦

    2002-01-01

    From the perspective of logistics, the article discusses some essential functions and service functions of railway container freight stations. Then it plans the construction of the logistics operation system of container freight stations, and designs five main operating yards such as deconsolidation and groupage yard, storage and distribution yard, container receiving-departure yard, container stack yard, and special cargo yard. The management pattern is discussed under the direction of modern business management theory. The ideas presented in this article is significant to the construction of railway container freight stations.

  2. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  3. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  4. ATMOSPHERE PROTECTION IN CASE OF EMERGENCY DURING TRANSPORTATION OF DANGEROUS CARGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Berlov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper highlights the development of numerical models for prediction of atmospheric pollution in case of burning of the solid rocket propellant in a railway car, situated near the building on railway territory. These models can be used in predicting the effectiveness of neutralization upon the atmosphere protection for this type of accidents. Methodology.To solve this problem the numerical models based on the use of Navier-Stokes equations, to determine the velocity field of the wind flow near cars and buildings, and contaminants-transfer equations in the atmosphere were developed. For the numerical integration of pollutant transport equation was used implicit «change – triangle» difference scheme. When constructing a difference scheme physical and geometric cleavage of the transfer equation is carried out in four steps. Unknown value of pollutant concentration at each step of cleavage is determined by the explicit scheme – the method of «point-to-point computation». For the numerical integration of the Navier-Stokes equations are used implicit difference schemes. When carrying out computing experiment also takes into account: the velocity profile of wind flow; interaction between the building and the wind flow and flame jet of solid rocket propellant; the presence of a railroad car; inside which there is a source of pollution; instability of pollutant emissions. On the basis of constructed numerical models was performed the computer experiment for assessing the level of air pollution at dangerous cargo rail transportation in case of emergency at railway territory.The application calculations for the timely combustion products neutralization of solid rocket propellant were carried out. Findings. The numerical models that let promptly calculate air contamination in case of emergency during solid rocket propellant transportation, as well as calculate the rational parameters of pollutant neutralization process were developed by

  5. The Extracellular Vesicles of the Helminth Pathogen, Fasciola hepatica: Biogenesis Pathways and Cargo Molecules Involved in Parasite Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwiklinski, Krystyna; de la Torre-Escudero, Eduardo; Trelis, Maria; Bernal, Dolores; Dufresne, Philippe J; Brennan, Gerard P; O'Neill, Sandra; Tort, Jose; Paterson, Steve; Marcilla, Antonio; Dalton, John P; Robinson, Mark W

    2015-12-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by parasites have important roles in establishing and maintaining infection. Analysis of the soluble and vesicular secretions of adult Fasciola hepatica has established a definitive characterization of the total secretome of this zoonotic parasite. Fasciola secretes at least two subpopulations of EVs that differ according to size, cargo molecules and site of release from the parasite. The larger EVs are released from the specialized cells that line the parasite gastrodermus and contain the zymogen of the 37 kDa cathepsin L peptidase that performs a digestive function. The smaller exosome-like vesicle population originate from multivesicular bodies within the tegumental syncytium and carry many previously described immunomodulatory molecules that could be delivered into host cells. By integrating our proteomics data with recently available transcriptomic data sets we have detailed the pathways involved with EV biogenesis in F. hepatica and propose that the small exosome biogenesis occurs via ESCRT-dependent MVB formation in the tegumental syncytium before being shed from the apical plasma membrane. Furthermore, we found that the molecular "machinery" required for EV biogenesis is constitutively expressed across the intramammalian development stages of the parasite. By contrast, the cargo molecules packaged within the EVs are developmentally regulated, most likely to facilitate the parasites migration through host tissue and to counteract host immune attack. PMID:26486420

  6. El sistema de cargos en San Bernardino de Milpillas Chico, Durango

    OpenAIRE

    Chantal Cramaussel

    2013-01-01

    La principal estructura política de los tepehuanos es el sistema de cargos. En San Bernardino de Milpillas, Durango, los cargos de la Iglesia son diferentes a los del gobierno tradicional. Los segundos parecen apegarse más a las culturales locales, aunque los cargos de la Iglesia han sido objeto de transformaciones significativas para excluir a los ministros católicos en las ceremonias cristianas. La fiesta de la Candelaria, que precede a la toma de posesión de los nuevos “empleados”, muestra...

  7. Local synaptic signaling enhances the stochastic transport of motor-driven cargo in neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Newby, J. M.; Bressloff, P. C.

    2010-01-01

    The tug-of-war model of motor-driven cargo transport is formulated as an intermittent trapping process. An immobile trap, representing the cellular machinery that sequesters a motor-driven cargo for eventual use, is located somewhere within a microtubule track. A particle representing a motor-driven cargo that moves randomly with a forward bias is introduced at the beginning of the track. The particle switches randomly between a fast moving phase and a slow moving phase. When in the slow movi...

  8. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australian cites experience a number of current and emerging air pollution problems. Concentrations of traditional primary pollutants such as CO, lead and dust have fallen in recent years as a consequence of air pollutant control measures, and the widespread introduction of lead-free petrol. However, recommended guidelines for ozone, the principal component of photochemical smog, are regularly exceeded in major capital cities in the summer months. In addition, it is predicted that extensive urban expansion will lead to much greater dependence on the motor vehicle as the primary means of transportation. Effects of air pollution are felt at a variety of scales. Traditionally, concerns about gaseous and particulate emissions from industrial and vehicular sources were focused on local impacts due to exposure to toxic species such as CO and lead. As noted above, concentrations of these pollutants have been reduced by a variety of control measures. Pollutants which have effects at a regional scale, such as photochemically-produced ozone, and acidic gases and particles have proved more difficult to reduce. In general, these pollutants arc not the result of direct emissions to atmosphere, but result from complex secondary processes driven by photochemical reactions of species such as NO2 and aldehydes. In addition, global effects of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere have received significant recent attention, concentrations of atmospheric CO2 with predicted impacts on global climate, and ozone depletion due to anthropogenic emissions of chlorine-containing chemicals are the two major examples. Combustion processes from petrol- and diesel-fuelled vehicles, make major contributions to air pollution, and the magnitude of this contribution is discussed in this article

  9. Coronary Artery-Bypass-Graft Surgery Increases the Plasma Concentration of Exosomes Carrying a Cargo of Cardiac MicroRNAs:An Example of Exosome Trafficking Out of the Human Heart with Potential for Cardiac Biomarker Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Emanueli, Costanza; Shearn, Andrew I. U.; Laftah, Abas; Fiorentino, Francesca; Reeves, Barnaby C.; Beltrami, Cristina; Mumford, Andrew; Clayton, Aled; Gurney, Mark; Shantikumar, Saran; Angelini, Gianni D.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Exosome nanoparticles carry a composite cargo, including microRNAs (miRs). Cultured cardiovascular cells release miR-containing exosomes. The exosomal trafficking of miRNAs from the heart is largely unexplored. Working on clinical samples from coronary-artery by-pass graft (CABG) surgery, we investigated if: 1) exosomes containing cardiac miRs and hence putatively released by cardiac cells increase in the circulation after surgery; 2) circulating exosomes and exosomal cardiac mi...

  10. Coronary Artery-Bypass-Graft Surgery Increases the Plasma Concentration of Exosomes Carrying a Cargo of Cardiac MicroRNAs: An Example of Exosome Trafficking Out of the Human Heart with Potential for Cardiac Biomarker Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Emanueli, Costanza; Shearn, Andrew I. U.; Laftah, Abas; Fiorentino, Francesca; Reeves, Barnaby C.; Beltrami, Cristina; Mumford, Andrew; Clayton, Aled; Gurney, Mark; Shantikumar, Saran; Angelini, Gianni D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Exosome nanoparticles carry a composite cargo, including microRNAs (miRs). Cultured cardiovascular cells release miR-containing exosomes. The exosomal trafficking of miRNAs from the heart is largely unexplored. Working on clinical samples from coronary-artery by-pass graft (CABG) surgery, we investigated if: 1) exosomes containing cardiac miRs and hence putatively released by cardiac cells increase in the circulation after surgery; 2) circulating exosomes and exosomal cardiac miR...

  11. Recapitulating the Size and Cargo of Tumor Exosomes in a Tissue-Engineered Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasante, Aranzazu; Marturano-Kruik, Alessandro; Ambati, Srikanth R.; Liu, Zen; Godier-Furnemont, Amandine; Parsa, Hesam; Lee, Benjamin W.; Moore, Malcolm A.S.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the pivotal role of exosomes in cancer and in their use as biomarkers. However, despite the importance of the microenvironment for cancer initiation and progression, monolayer cultures of tumor cells still represent the main in vitro source of exosomes. As a result, their environmental regulation remains largely unknown. Here, we report a three-dimensional tumor model for studying exosomes, using Ewing's sarcoma type 1 as a clinically relevant example. The bioengineered model was designed based on the hypothesis that the 3-dimensionality, composition and stiffness of the tumor matrix are the critical determinants of the size and cargo of exosomes released by the cancer cells. We analyzed the effects of the tumor microenvironment on exosomes, and the effects of exosomes on the non-cancer cells from the bone niche. Exosomes from the tissue-engineered tumor had similar size distribution as those in the patients' plasma, and were markedly smaller than those in monolayer cultures. Bioengineered tumors and the patients' plasma contained high levels of the Polycomb histone methyltransferase EZH2 mRNA relatively to their monolayer counterparts. Notably, EZH2 mRNA, a potential tumor biomarker detectable in blood plasma, could be transferred to the surrounding mesenchymal stem cells. This study provides the first evidence that an in vitro culture environment can recapitulate some properties of tumor exosomes. PMID:27279906

  12. State of the Art and Development Trends of the Digital Radiography Systems for Cargo Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udod, V.; Van, J.; Osipov, S.; Chakhlov, S.; Temnik, A.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing requirements for technical parameters of inspection digital radiography systems are caused by increasing incidences of terrorism, drug trafficking and explosives via variety of transport. These requirements have determined research for new technical solutions that enable to ensure the safety of passengers and cargos in real-time. The main efforts in the analyzed method of testing are aimed at the creation of new and modernization of operated now systems of digital radiography as a whole and their main components and elements in particular. The number of these main components and elements includes sources of X-ray recording systems and transformation of radiometric information as well as algorithms and software that implements these algorithms for processing, visualization and results interpretation of inspection. Recent developments of X-ray units and betatrons used for inspection of small- and large-sized objects that are made from different materials are deserve special attention. The most effective X-ray detectors are a line and a radiometric detector matrix based on various scintillators. The most promising methods among the algorithms of material identification of testing objects are dual-energy methods. The article describes various models of digital radiography systems applied in Russia and abroad to inspection of baggage, containers, vehicles and large trucks.

  13. Standards and conventions for the Worldwide Port System (WPS) regional Integrated Cargo Database (ICDB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loftis, J.P.; Truett, L.F.; Shipe, P.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Faby, E.Z.; Fluker, J.; Grubb, J.W.; Hancock, B.R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Ferguson, R.A. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-02-28

    This document, prepared for the Worldwide Port System (WPS) Regional Integrated Cargo Database (ICDB), provides standards and conventions for the screens developed using ORACLE`s SQL*Menu, SQL*Forms, and SQL*Reportwriter; for the ORACLE keys; and for commenting ORACLE code. It also covers standards for database system transfers. The results of adherence to these standards and conventions by all developers at both geographically separated development sites, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and The Military Traffic Management Command`s Eastern Area (EA), will be a consistent appearance of ICDB to users, code that is easily maintained, and a system that will be quicker to develop and integrate. This final report of the Standards and Conventions contains general guidelines to be followed for the development of the ICDB user interface screens. Though additional ICDB user interface screens are being developed both at ORNL and EA, and existing screens may have fields added to or deleted from them, the standards and conventions presented in this document should remain unchanged.

  14. ExoCarta: A Web-Based Compendium of Exosomal Cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keerthikumar, Shivakumar; Chisanga, David; Ariyaratne, Dinuka; Al Saffar, Haidar; Anand, Sushma; Zhao, Kening; Samuel, Monisha; Pathan, Mohashin; Jois, Markandeya; Chilamkurti, Naveen; Gangoda, Lahiru; Mathivanan, Suresh

    2016-02-22

    Exosomes are membranous vesicles that are released by a variety of cells into the extracellular microenvironment and are implicated in intercellular communication. As exosomes contain RNA, proteins and lipids, there is a significant interest in characterizing the molecular cargo of exosomes. Here, we describe ExoCarta (http://www.exocarta.org), a manually curated Web-based compendium of exosomal proteins, RNAs and lipids. Since its inception, the database has been highly accessed (>54,000 visitors from 135 countries). The current version of ExoCarta hosts 41,860 proteins, >7540 RNA and 1116 lipid molecules from more than 286 exosomal studies annotated with International Society for Extracellular Vesicles minimal experimental requirements for definition of extracellular vesicles. Besides, ExoCarta features dynamic protein-protein interaction networks and biological pathways of exosomal proteins. Users can download most often identified exosomal proteins based on the number of studies. The downloaded files can further be imported directly into FunRich (http://www.funrich.org) tool for additional functional enrichment and interaction network analysis. PMID:26434508

  15. A container

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    A container assembly for the containment of fluids or solids under a pressure different from the ambient pressure comprising a container (2) comprising an opening and an annular sealing, a lid (3) comprising a central portion (5) and engagement means (7) for engaging the annular flange, and sealing...... means (10) wherein the engagement means (7) is adapted, via the sealing means, to seal the opening when the pressure of the container assembly differs from the ambient pressure in such a way that the central portion (5) flexes in the axial direction which leads to a radial tightening of the engagement...... means (7) to the container, wherein the container further comprises locking means (12) that can be positioned so that the central portion is hindered from flexing in at least one direction....

  16. Containment design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanical design and engineering principles of different reactor type containments are presented. The related criteria, codes and guide-lines necessary for the evaluation of the containment are mentioned and discussed in detail as demanded. The technical requirements for PWR-containments regarding - mechanical design - stress analysis - materials - fabrication - inspection form the main part of the lecture. Special aspects like qualification of penetrations are discussed briefly. The thermodynamic loads arising from accident conditions are taken as given conditions. (orig./RW)

  17. 46 CFR 38.15-5 - Cargo hose-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the cargo are carried on board the vessel, they shall be of flexible metal and fabricated of seamless steel pipe and flexible joints of steel or bronze, or of other suitable material resistant to the...

  18. 考虑货舱绝热层压力的薄膜型LNG 船相关操作要领%Related Operation Essentials of Membrane Types LNG Carriers on Considering the Pressure of Cargo Tank and Insulation Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何庆华; 尹建川; 章文俊

    2015-01-01

    Considering the pressure of cargo tanks of membrane type LNG carrier including No 96 and Mark III can bear is limited due to their very thin barriers, in order to protect cargo tanks, cargo containment systems of the two types of LNG carriers are interpreted, as well as the routine working pressure range of cargo tanks and insulation spaces of these two membrane types LNG carrier.The reasons of over pressure and under pressure are also presented.The alarms may be activated due to high or low pressure of cargo tanks are specified, and the precautions to be paid during cargo operations for LNG carrier are summarized.%针对No 96和Mark III两种薄膜型LNG船的屏壁非常薄,承受压力的范围有限的问题,为保证货舱安全,比较分析这两种船型的货物围护系统、货舱和主次绝热层正常压力范围,以及引起压力过高和过低的原因,介绍货舱压力升高、降低可能触发的报警,总结薄膜型LNG船货物操作过程中应注意的问题。

  19. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Object: To provide a jet and missile protective wall of a configuration being inflated toward the center of a reactor container on the inside of a body of the reactor container disposed within a biological shield wall to thereby increase safety of the reactor container. Structure: A jet and missile protective wall comprised of curved surfaces internally formed with a plurality of arch inflations filled with concrete between inner and outer iron plates and shape steel beam is provided between a reactor container surrounded by a biological shield wall and a thermal shield wall surrounding the reactor pressure vessel, and an adiabatic heat insulating material is filled in space therebetween. (Yoshino, Y.)

  20. C-PORT: A Community-Scale Near-Source Air Quality System to Assess Port-Related Air Quality Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    With increasing activity in global trade, there has been increased activity in transportation by rail, road and ships to move cargo. Based upon multiple near-road and near-source monitoring studies, both busy roadways and large emission source at the ports may impact local air qu...

  1. An 18680 dwt Multipurpose/Heavy Lift Cargo Vessel, Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Grubišić, Rajko; Grubiša, Robert; Rimanić, Radojka; Vlah, Radivoj; Kučan, Edi; Štokić, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    In the article the second part of the signifi cant design features of an 18680 dwt multipurpose/ heavy lift cargo vessel is presented. The specifi c features of the ship structure design are fi rst dealt with. Then, the propulsion assembly, including the main engine, the gearbox/coupling and the controllable pitch propeller system, is described. Also, features of the electrical system are given, with special emphasis laid on the supply, driving and controlling system of the heavy cargo dec...

  2. Hybridization of General Cargo Ships to meet the Required Energy Efficiency Design Index

    OpenAIRE

    Øverleir, Magnus Anders

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis a hybrid propulsion system is proposed for a general cargo ship with the aim to meet the required Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI). The study has investigated how a hybrid propulsion system will influence the ship s EEDI value and fuel economy. The central problem is the coming challenge for the general cargo segment meeting the required efficiency value. Especially small vessels (3 000-15 000 DWT) with high speed will have troubles complying with the stricter regulations....

  3. Crystal Structures of the Tetratricopeptide Repeat Domains of Kinesin Light Chains: Insight into Cargo Recognition Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Haizhong; Lee, Han Youl; Tong, Yufeng; Hong, Bum-Soo; Kim, Kyung-Phil; Shen, Yang; Lim, Kyung Jik; Mackenzie, Farrell; Tempel, Wolfram; Park, Hee-Won (SGC-Toronto); (PPCS); (Toronto)

    2012-10-23

    Kinesin-1 transports various cargos along the axon by interacting with the cargos through its light chain subunit. Kinesin light chains (KLC) utilize its tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain to interact with over 10 different cargos. Despite a high sequence identity between their TPR domains (87%), KLC1 and KLC2 isoforms exhibit differential binding properties towards some cargos. We determined the structures of human KLC1 and KLC2 tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains using X-ray crystallography and investigated the different mechanisms by which KLCs interact with their cargos. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we attributed the specific interaction between KLC1 and JNK-interacting protein 1 (JIP1) cargo to residue N343 in the fourth TRP repeat. Structurally, the N343 residue is adjacent to other asparagines and lysines, creating a positively charged polar patch within the groove of the TPR domain. Whereas, KLC2 with the corresponding residue S328 did not interact with JIP1. Based on these finding, we propose that N343 of KLC1 can form 'a carboxylate clamp' with its neighboring asparagine to interact with JIP1, similar to that of HSP70/HSP90 organizing protein-1's (HOP1) interaction with heat shock proteins. For the binding of cargos shared by KLC1 and KLC2, we propose a different site located within the groove but not involving N343. We further propose a third binding site on KLC1 which involves a stretch of polar residues along the inter-TPR loops that may form a network of hydrogen bonds to JIP3 and JIP4. Together, these results provide structural insights into possible mechanisms of interaction between KLC TPR domains and various cargo proteins.

  4. Research on combination forecast of port cargo throughput based on time series and causality analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Zhang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a combined model composed of grey-forecast model and Logistic-growth-curve model to improve the accuracy of forecast model of cargo throughput for the port. The authors also use the existing data of a current port to verify the validity of the combined model.Design/methodology/approach: A literature review is undertaken to find the appropriate forecast model of cargo throughput for the port. Through researching the related forecast model, the authors put together the individual models which are significant to study further. Finally, the authors combine two individual models (grey-forecast model and Logistic-growth-curve model into one combined model to forecast the port cargo throughput, and use the model to a physical port in China to testify the validity of the model.Findings: Test by the perceptional data of cargo throughput in the physical port, the results show that the combined model can obtain relatively higher forecast accuracy when it is not easy to find more information. Furthermore, the forecast made by the combined model are more accurate than any of the individual ones.Research limitations/implications: The study provided a new combined forecast model of cargo throughput with a relatively less information to improve the accuracy rate of the forecast. The limitation of the model is that it requires the cargo throughput of the port have an S-shaped change trend.Practical implications: This model is not limited by external conditions such as geographical, cultural. This model predicted the port cargo throughput of one real port in China in 2015, which provided some instructive guidance for the port development.Originality/value: This is the one of the study to improve the accuracy rate of the cargo throughput forecast with little information.

  5. Oligomerization of a Cargo Receptor Directs Protein Sorting into COPII-coated Transport Vesicles

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Ken; Nakano, Akihiko

    2003-01-01

    Secretory proteins are transported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi complex in vesicles coated with coat protein complex II (COPII). The incorporation of certain transport molecules (cargo) into the COPII vesicles is thought to be mediated by cargo receptors. Here we show that Emp47p, a type-I membrane protein, is specifically required for the transport of an integral membrane protein, Emp46p, from the ER. Exit of Emp46p from the ER was saturable and de...

  6. Sugar exported: sugar packed in containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Yemal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study in the port sector specialized in handling of bagged sugar. Sugar has always been exported in bags of 50 kg, placed directly in the holds of ships for general cargo. It appears that this form of transport has become obsolete now, the market for the direct form of transport of sugar packed in containers. Companies involved in this type of port handling need understand the reasons that are influencing this new mode of transportation as a way to fit and remain active and competitive in the industry.

  7. Mulheres em cargos profissionais de chefia: o paradoxo da igualdade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabia Alberton de Silva Galvane

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O artigo aqui apresentado foi construído a partir de informações obtidas em uma pesquisa realizada no ano de 2009, apresentada como Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso da Psicologia, ao Centro Universitário Barriga Verde - UNIBAVE (GALVANE, 2009. A pesquisa teve como objetivo geral verificar os sentidos produzidos por mulheres que ocupam cargos de chefia em indústrias de uma cidade do sul de Santa Catarina, Brasil. O modelo de pesquisa foi o qualitativo proposto por González Rey (2005. Os sujeitos da pesquisa foram sete mulheres e as informações obtidas por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas. Neste artigo, propõe-se revisar informações obtidas e ampliar discussões outrora realizadas, utilizando-se das contribuições teóricas de Joan Scott e Judith Butler. Entre outras questões relevantes, o estudo sugere que as entrevistadas utilizam concepções baseadas em “certa essência feminina” como estratégia de visibilidade, permanência e poder no mercado de trabalho.

  8. The Lethal Cargo of Myxococcus xanthus Outer Membrane Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JamesEBerleman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Myxococcus xanthus is a bacterial micro-predator known for hunting other microbes in a wolf pack-like manner. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs are produced in large quantities by M. xanthus and have a highly organized structure in the extracellular milieu, sometimes occurring in chains that link neighboring cells within a biofilm. OMVs may be a vehicle for mediating wolf pack activity by delivering hydrolytic enzymes and antibiotics aimed at killing prey microbes. Here, both the protein and small molecule cargo of the OMV and membrane fractions of M. xanthus were characterized and compared. Our analysis indicates a number of proteins that are OMV-specific or OMV-enriched, including several with putative hydrolytic function. Secondary metabolite profiling of OMVs identifies 16 molecules, many associated with antibiotic activities. Several hydrolytic enzyme homologs were identified, including MXAN_3564 (mepA, an M36 protease homolog. Genetic disruption of mepA leads to a significant reduction in extracellular protease activity suggesting MepA is the long-predicted (yet to date unknown primary extracellular protease in M. xanthus.

  9. El sistema de cargos en San Bernardino de Milpillas Chico, Durango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Cramaussel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La principal estructura política de los tepehuanos es el sistema de cargos. En San Bernardino de Milpillas, Durango, los cargos de la Iglesia son diferentes a los del gobierno tradicional. Los segundos parecen apegarse más a las culturales locales, aunque los cargos de la Iglesia han sido objeto de transformaciones significativas para excluir a los ministros católicos en las ceremonias cristianas. La fiesta de la Candelaria, que precede a la toma de posesión de los nuevos “empleados”, muestra que los aspectos civiles de los cargos son indisociables de los rituales religiosos. Los cargos reunían funciones militares, judiciales y económicas, pero éstas han ido perdiendo vigencia por la violencia y por la compañía forestal, una notable fuente de recursos. Sin embargo, por el sistema de cargos los mestizos de Milpillas se han integrado a la organización política y la cultura de los tepehuanos.

  10. Quantifying the Dynamic Interactions Between a Clathrin-Coated Pit and Cargo Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Aubrey; Tamkun, Michael; Krapf, Diego

    2014-03-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is a major pathway of internalization of cargo in eukaryotic cells. This process involves the recruitment of cargo molecules into a growing clathrin-coated pit (CCP). However, cargo-CCP interactions are difficult to study because CCPs display a large degree of lifetime heterogeneity and the interactions with cargo molecules evolve over time. We use single-molecule total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, in combination with automatic detection and tracking algorithms, to directly visualize the recruitment of individual voltage-gated potassium channels into forming CCPs in living cells. Contrary to widespread ideas, cargo often escapes from a pit before abortive CCP termination or endocytic vesicle production. By measuring tens of thousands of capturing events, we build the distribution of capture times and the times that cargo remains confined to a CCP. An analytical stochastic model is developed and compared to the measured distributions. Due to the dynamic nature of the pit, the model is non-Markovian and it displays long-tail power law statistics. Our findings identify one source of the large heterogeneities observed in CCP maturation and provide a mechanism for the anomalous diffusion of proteins in the plasma membrane. This work was supported by National Science Foundation Grant PHY-0956714.

  11. Irradiation Effects for the Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA) Cargo Interrogation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, C.O.

    2001-02-02

    At the request of Safety and Ecology Corporation of Tennessee, radiation effects of the proposed Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA) Cargo Interrogation System have been examined. First, fissile cargo were examined to determine if a significant neutron signal would be observable during interrogation. Results indicated that ample multiplication would be seen for near critical bare targets. The water-reflected sphere showed relatively little multiplication. By implication, a fissile target shielded by hydrogenous cargo might not be detectable by neutron interrogation, particularly if reliance is placed on the neutron signal. The cargo may be detectable if use can be made of the ample increase in the photon signal. Second, dose rates were calculated at various locations within and just outside the facility building. These results showed that some dose rates may be higher than the target dose rate of 0.05 mrem/h. However, with limited exposure time, the total dose may be well below the allowed total dose. Lastly, estimates were made of the activation of structures and typical cargo. Most cargo will not be exposed long enough to be activated to levels of concern. On the other hand, portions of the structure may experience buildup of some radionuclides to levels of concern.

  12. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  13. Portable containment sleever apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Michael J.; Brown, Roger A.

    2000-01-01

    A sleever apparatus includes an inner member with a central passage through which an item to be sleeved is passed. An outer member surrounds the inner member and defines a space between the members for holding a supply of containment material, which is preferably plastic sleeving. The apparatus has a handle which allows a user to hold the apparatus and walk the apparatus along the length of the item to be sleeved. As the user passes the item through the sleever apparatus, the containment material exits through a slit at one end of the apparatus in order to contain the item. The sleever apparatus may be formed of disposable materials, such as cardboard, and may be intended for a single use application. Alternatively, the sleever apparatus may be comprised of more permanent materials such as PVC or fiberglass. The sleever apparatus may include a serrated end for cutting the containment material and may include appropriate tubing and valves for either directing an inert gas into the containment material around the item or for withdrawing air from within the containment material in order to create a vacuum. In one embodiment, the sleever apparatus has a cartridge that can be replaced with another cartridge once the supply of the containment material has been depleted.

  14. Effect of process-dependent parameters of the handling-and-storage facility operation on the cargo handling cost

    OpenAIRE

    Шраменко, Наталя Юріївна

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of the handling-and-storage facility operation revealed the disadvantages of the technology that is related to the non-consideration of incoming cargo traffic variations in the planning and organization of industrial activity.The criterion of the handling-and-storage facility operation that presents unit costs for cargo handling has been formalized. The criterion makes it possible to take into account the cargo owner's costs associated with downtime of vehicles waiting for service an...

  15. 46 CFR 30.25-1 - Cargoes carried in vessels certificated under the rules of this subchapter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... category C oil-like NLS, under 33 CFR part 151. Requirements for category D NLS cargoes and mixtures of non-NLS cargoes with category D NLS cargoes are in 33 CFR part 151. Table 30.25-1—List of Flammable and..., n.o.s. (see also Oil, edible) D Including: Beechnut oil Castor oil Cocoa butter Coconut oil Corn...

  16. Bicaudal-D uses a parallel, homodimeric coiled coil with heterotypic registry to coordinate recruitment of cargos to dynein

    OpenAIRE

    Yang LIU; Salter, Hannah K.; Holding, Andrew N.; Johnson, Christopher M.; Stephens, Elaine; Lukavsky, Peter J.; Walshaw, John; Bullock, Simon L.

    2013-01-01

    Cargo transport by the microtubule motor dynein is critical to diverse cellular processes. However, little is known about how different cargos are recognized and linked to this motor complex. Here, Liu et al. investigate the cargo-binding region of the dynein adaptor BicD in Drosophila. They provide a crystal structure of BicD and identify a shared binding site for two cargo-associated proteins: Rab6 and the RNA-binding protein Egl. This study provides structural insight into the molecular in...

  17. Cargo binding promotes KDEL receptor clustering at the mammalian cell surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Björn; Shaebani, M. Reza; Rammo, Domenik; Bubel, Tobias; Santen, Ludger; Schmitt, Manfred J.

    2016-01-01

    Transmembrane receptor clustering is a ubiquitous phenomenon in pro- and eukaryotic cells to physically sense receptor/ligand interactions and subsequently translate an exogenous signal into a cellular response. Despite that receptor cluster formation has been described for a wide variety of receptors, ranging from chemotactic receptors in bacteria to growth factor and neurotransmitter receptors in mammalian cells, a mechanistic understanding of the underlying molecular processes is still puzzling. In an attempt to fill this gap we followed a combined experimental and theoretical approach by dissecting and modulating cargo binding, internalization and cellular response mediated by KDEL receptors (KDELRs) at the mammalian cell surface after interaction with a model cargo/ligand. Using a fluorescent variant of ricin toxin A chain as KDELR-ligand (eGFP-RTAH/KDEL), we demonstrate that cargo binding induces dose-dependent receptor cluster formation at and subsequent internalization from the membrane which is associated and counteracted by anterograde and microtubule-assisted receptor transport to preferred docking sites at the plasma membrane. By means of analytical arguments and extensive numerical simulations we show that cargo-synchronized receptor transport from and to the membrane is causative for KDELR/cargo cluster formation at the mammalian cell surface. PMID:27353000

  18. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Object: To stand a vapor passage extending through a diaphragm floor from a bottom of a pressure restraining chamber and to position a steam ejecting outlet, which is disposed in pressure restraining water, so as not to directly be directed toward the body of a container and the bottom of the pressure restraining chamber, thereby eliminating influence due to blow-off condensation of steam. Structure: In an arrangement wherein a container is divided by a diaphragm floor into two portions, i.e., an upper drywell and a lower pressure restraining chamber containing pressure restraining water to from a steam communicating duct which communicates said drywell with said pressure restraining chamber, said communicating duct being stood extending through the diaphragm floor from the bottom of the pressure restraining chamber, and a steam ejecting outlet of said communicating duct disposed in pressure restraining water being fitted so as not to directly be directed toward the body of the container and the bottom of the pressure restraining chamber. (Ohara, T.)

  19. Foldable container

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buskermolen, R.A.; Eggers, K.; Meijers, A.V.M.; Kusuma, G.

    2010-01-01

    Foldable container (1) comprising a bottom plate (2), side plates (3) and first hinges (4) for connecting the side plates (3) to the bottom plate (2), and a roof plate (5) that is can be raised from the side plates (3), wherein the roof plate (5) connects to opposite side plates (3) by interposition

  20. 49 CFR 176.170 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in... REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Cargo Transport Units and Shipborne Barges § 176.170 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers....