WorldWideScience

Sample records for air cargo containers

  1. Wisconsin Air Cargo Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Air cargo is a key economic lifeline for the communities that have airports. Manufacturers, businesses, hospitals and : other community cornerstone employers depend on air cargo to successfully operate. While there is no doubt that air : cargo repres...

  2. Fast neutron radiography scanner for the detection of contraband in air cargo containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, J.E.; Rainey, S.; Stevens, R.J.; Sowerby, B.D.; Tickner, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing need to rapidly scan bulk air cargo for contraband such as illicit drugs and explosives. The Commonwealth Science and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) have been working with Australian Customs Service to develop a scanner capable of directly scanning airfreight containers in 1-2 minutes without unpacking. The scanner combines fast neutron and gamma-ray radiography to provide high-resolution images that include information on material composition. A full-scale prototype scanner has been successfully tested in the laboratory and a commercial-scale scanner is due to be installed at Brisbane airport in 2005

  3. Fast neutron radiography scanner for the detection of contraband in air cargo containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, J.E. [CSIRO Minerals, Private Mail Bag 5, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Rainey, S. [CSIRO Minerals, Private Mail Bag 5, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Stevens, R.J. [CSIRO Minerals, Private Mail Bag 5, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Sowerby, B.D. [CSIRO Minerals, Private Mail Bag 5, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)]. E-mail: brian.sowerby@csiro.au; Tickner, J.R. [CSIRO Minerals, Private Mail Bag 5, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2005-08-01

    There is a growing need to rapidly scan bulk air cargo for contraband such as illicit drugs and explosives. The Commonwealth Science and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) have been working with Australian Customs Service to develop a scanner capable of directly scanning airfreight containers in 1-2 minutes without unpacking. The scanner combines fast neutron and gamma-ray radiography to provide high-resolution images that include information on material composition. A full-scale prototype scanner has been successfully tested in the laboratory and a commercial-scale scanner is due to be installed at Brisbane airport in 2005.

  4. Liberalisation of air cargo transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-02

    Over a period of many years, international air cargo demand has continued to increase more rapidly than international air passenger demand. Air cargo arrangements need to be as efficient and expeditious as possible, to meet user requirements for air ...

  5. Port Security: Container Cargo Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladivoj Vlaković

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available illicittrafficking of threat materials, especially explosives, chemicalsubstances and radioactive or nuclear material. The transportof the threat materials by using sea routes is an advantageto te"orists especially because of the possible use of ship containers.The container is the basis of world trade. It is assumed thatthe world total movement in containers is about 200 millionTEUs ("20-foot equivalent units" per year. The list of materialstransported by containers which should be subject to inspectionwith the aim of reducing the acts of te"orism includes explosives,narcotics, chemical weapons, hazardous chemicalsand radioactive materials.Of special interest is nuclear te"orism. The risk of nuclearte"orism carried out by sub-national groups should be considerednot only in the construction and/or use of nuclear device,but also in possible radioactive contamination of large urbanareas.The system of ship containers control is an essential componentof «smart border» concept. Modem personnel, parcel,vehicle and cargo inspection systems are non-invasive imagingtechniques based on the use of nuclear analytical techniques.The inspection systems use penetrating radiations: hard x-rays(300 keV or more or gamma-rays from radioactive sources(137Cs and 60Co with energies from 600 to 1300 keV that producea high resolution radiograph of the load. Unfortunately,this information is "non-specific" in that it gives no informationon the nature of objects that do not match_ the travel documentsand are not recognized by a visual analysis of the radiographicpicture. Moreover, there are regions of the containerwherex and gamma-ray systems are "blind" due to the high averageatomic number of the objects i"adiated that appear asblack spots in the radiographic image.The systems being developed are based on the use of fast, 14Me V, neutrons with detection of associated a-particle from nuclearreactionbywhichneutrons are produced (d+t>a+n.Jnsuch a way the possibility to

  6. System for inspection of stacked cargo containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenzo, Stephen [Pinole, CA

    2011-08-16

    The present invention relates to a system for inspection of stacked cargo containers. One embodiment of the invention generally comprises a plurality of stacked cargo containers arranged in rows or tiers, each container having a top, a bottom a first side, a second side, a front end, and a back end; a plurality of spacers arranged in rows or tiers; one or more mobile inspection devices for inspecting the cargo containers, wherein the one or more inspection devices are removeably disposed within the spacers, the inspection means configured to move through the spacers to detect radiation within the containers. The invented system can also be configured to inspect the cargo containers for a variety of other potentially hazardous materials including but not limited to explosive and chemical threats.

  7. Air cargo in the Mid-America Freight Coalition region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report contains a contextual review of air cargo transportation in the 10-state Mid-America Freight Coalition (MAFC) region including the industrys recent history, security implications, and integration within the greater MAFC economy. The re...

  8. 76 FR 51847 - Air Cargo Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... apply to international inbound cargo. \\2\\ 74 FR 47672. The IFR provides detailed information on TSA's... Chain Management Professionals, Express Delivery and Logistics Association, International Air Transport... use in other countries for international inbound cargo. TSA Response: TSA is working closely with its...

  9. Optimization of the air cargo supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pérez Bernal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper aims to evaluate and optimize the various operations within the air cargo chain. It pursues to improve the efficiency of the air cargo supply chain and to provide more information to the decision-makers to optimize their fields.Design/methodology/approach: The method used is a process simulation modelling software, WITNESS, which provides information to the decision-makers about the most relevant parameters subject to optimization. The input for the simulation is obtained from a qualitative analysis of the air cargo supply chain with the involved agents and from a study of the external trade by air mode, given that their behaviour depend on the location. The case study is focused on a particular location, the Case of Zaragoza Airport (Spain.Findings: This paper demonstrates that efficiency of the air cargo supply chain can increase by leveraging several parameters such as bottlenecks, resources or warehouses.Originality/value: It explores the use of a simulation modeling software originally intended for manufacturing processes and extended to support decision making processes in the area of air cargo.

  10. Scanning Cargo Containers with Tagged Neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viesti, G.; Botosso, C.; Fabris, D.; Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S.; Nebbia, G.; Pesente, S.; Zenoni, A.; Donzella, A.; Perot, B.; Carasco, C.; Bernard, S.; Mariani, A.; Szabo, J.-L.; Sannie, G.; Valkovic, V.; Sudac, D.; Nad, K.; Peerani, P.; Sequeira, V.

    2007-01-01

    A new Tagged Neutron Inspection System (TNIS) able to detect illicit materials such as explosives and narcotics in cargo containers has been developed within the EURopean Illicit TRAfficing Countermeasures Kit (EURITRACK) project. After the R and D phase, the inspection portal has been installed and commissioned at the Rijeka seaport in Croatia, where it has been operated in connection with the existing X-ray scanner for a first two-month demonstration campaign. Results obtained are presented and discussed in this paper

  11. Revenue management of air cargo service in theory and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiarto, S.; Putro, H. P.; Pradono, P.; Yudoko, G.

    2018-05-01

    This study examines the air cargo service by comparing existing theories from previous research with the conditions on the ground. The object of the study is focused on the freight forwarder and the airport management. This study reviews the models and results of previous research that will be summarized and used to identify any issues related to the characteristics of air cargo operational services, as well as observing and monitoring literature with airlines, shipping companies, and airport management to explore and see the gap between prior research and implementation of its process in the air cargo service. The first phase in this study is to provide an overview of the air cargo industry. The second phase analyzes the characteristic differences between air cargo services and air passenger operating services. And the third phase is a literary bibliography study of air cargo operations, where the focus is on the studies using quantitative models from the perspective of the object of the study, which is the optimization of revenue management on air cargo services. From the results of the study, which is based on the gap between theory and practice, new research opportunities which are related to management of air cargo service revenue in the form of model development are found by adding booking timelines aspects of cargo that can affect the revenue of cargo airline companies and airports.

  12. Models for Comparing Air-Only and Sea/Air Transportation of Wartime Deployment Cargo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Theres, Michael

    1998-01-01

    ...) to an overseas Port of Debarkation (POD). This thesis evaluates a proposal to load air-transportable cargo aboard vessels at CONUS seaports and to ship that cargo to an appropriately located sea-air-interface (SAI...

  13. Comparative International Air Cargo Solutions: The Pathway to a Resilient, Adaptable, Balanced and Sustainable Secure Global Air Cargo Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    counterfeit merchandise smugglers, and remains the weakest link in the air cargo transportation chain. The TSA and CBP continue to seek administrative...been exploited by narcotics, human and counterfeit merchandise smugglers for centuries, remains the weakest link in the air cargo transportation chain... visual depiction of the European Union 3rd country security processes. 96 Official Journal of the

  14. 14 CFR 399.86 - Payments for non-air transportation services for air cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payments for non-air transportation... Enforcement § 399.86 Payments for non-air transportation services for air cargo. The Board considers that... air carriers for non-air transportation preparation of air cargo shipments are for services ancillary...

  15. Air Cargo Transportation Route Choice Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obashi, Hiroshi; Kim, Tae-Seung; Oum, Tae Hoon

    2003-01-01

    Using a unique feature of air cargo transshipment data in the Northeast Asian region, this paper identifies the critical factors that determine the transshipment route choice. Taking advantage of the variations in the transport characteristics in each origin-destination airports pair, the paper uses a discrete choice model to describe the transshipping route choice decision made by an agent (i.e., freight forwarder, consolidator, and large shipper). The analysis incorporates two major factors, monetary cost (such as line-haul cost and landing fee) and time cost (i.e., aircraft turnaround time, including loading and unloading time, custom clearance time, and expected scheduled delay), along with other controls. The estimation method considers the presence of unobserved attributes, and corrects for resulting endogeneity by use of appropriate instrumental variables. Estimation results find that transshipment volumes are more sensitive to time cost, and that the reduction in aircraft turnaround time by 1 hour would be worth the increase in airport charges by more than $1000. Simulation exercises measures the impacts of alternative policy scenarios for a Korean airport, which has recently declared their intention to be a future regional hub in the Northeast Asian region. The results suggest that reducing aircraft turnaround time at the airport be an effective strategy, rather than subsidizing to reduce airport charges.

  16. Analysis of containerized cargo in the ship container terminal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obhodas, Jasmina, E-mail: jobhodas@irb.h [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka c. 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Sudac, Davorin [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka c. 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Valkovic, Vladivoj [A.C.T.d.o.o., Prilesje 4, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Baricevic, Martina [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka c. 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Franulovic, Andrej [Croatian Custom, Alexandera von Humboldta 4, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Perot, Bertrand; Carasco, Cedric; Alain, Mariani; Anne-Cecile, Raoux; El Kanawati, Wassila [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2010-07-21

    The container scanning system based on the elemental analysis of suspect cargo by use of fast 14 MeV neutrons with detection of associated alpha particle has been recently developed under the EU-FP6 'EURITRACK' project. The system is currently set-up in port of Rijeka, Croatia, to be tested and upgraded under the EU-JLS ERITR-C project. Here we present results of analysis performed on 152 screened containers selected by the Croatian Custom and detail descriptive statistical analysis of their shipping manifests. Statistics such as distribution functions of container types, type of packages, type of cargos and average cargo densities were obtained in order to establish the properties of standard cargo traffic. The analyses by using multivariate statistical approach that included principal component analysis (PCA) and between group analysis (BGA) have shown that cargo matrices can be classified as metallic (Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, Ni...), ceramic-glass (Si, O) and organic (C, O, N). In this paper the organic matrices have been analysed in more detail since they are identified as most difficult because of their potential interference with main elements contained in threat materials such as explosives or drugs. Density as a discriminating factor has been included for better recognition of different types of goods.

  17. Cosmic Ray Background Analysis For A Cargo Container Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensslin, Norbert; Geist, W.H.; Lestone, J.P.; Mayo, D.R.; Menlove, Howard O.

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a new model for calculating the expected yield of cosmic-ray spallation neutrons in a Cargo Container Counter, and we have benchmarked the model against measurements made with several existing large neutron counters. We also developed two versions of a new measurement uncertainty prediction code based on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets. The codes calculate the minimum detectability limit for the Cargo Container Counter for either neutron singles or doubles counting, and also propagate the uncertainties associated with efficiency normalization flux monitors and cosmic ray flux monitors. This paper will describe the physics basis for this analysis, and the results obtained for several different counter designs.

  18. Optimisation of key performance measures in air cargo demand management

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander May; Adrian Anslow; Udechukwu Ojiako; Yue Wu; Alasdair Marshall; Maxwell Chipulu

    2014-01-01

    This article sought to facilitate the optimisation of key performance measures utilised for demand management in air cargo operations. The focus was on the Revenue Management team at Virgin Atlantic Cargo and a fuzzy group decision-making method was used. Utilising intelligent fuzzy multi-criteria methods, the authors generated a ranking order of ten key outcome-based performance indicators for Virgin Atlantic air cargo Revenue Management. The result of this industry-driven study showed that ...

  19. 19 CFR 122.117 - Requirements for transit air cargo transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for transit air cargo transport. 122... Requirements for transit air cargo transport. (a) Transportation—(1) Port to port. Transit air cargo may be... surface carrier for transport. Otherwise, all shipments on the transit air cargo manifest shall be...

  20. Screening Cargo Containers to Remove a Terrorist Threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazi, A

    2005-01-01

    Each year some 48 million cargo containers move between the world's ports. More than 6 million of these enter the U.S., but only about 2 percent are opened and inspected when they arrive at U.S. seaports. The West Coast ports of Los Angeles-Long Beach, Oakland, and Seattle alone process 11,000 containers per day, or about 8 containers per minute. Because of this high traffic volume, U.S. seaports are especially vulnerable to a terrorist attack. Illicit radioactive materials could be hidden in any one of the cargo-filled containers that arrive at U.S. ports. Yet, searching every shipment would be bring legitimate commercial activities to a halt. Improving security at U.S. ports is thus one of the nation's most difficult technical and practical challenges because the systems developed for screening cargo must operate in concert with ongoing seaport activities. Working at this intersection of commerce and national security, Lawrence Livermore researchers are applying their expertise in radiation science and detection to develop improved technologies for detecting hidden radioactive materials. One new technology being designed and tested at the Laboratory is a neutron interrogation system for cargo containers. This system will quickly screen incoming shipments to ensure that nuclear materials such as plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU) are not smuggled into the U.S

  1. "Choice of Air Cargo Transshipment Airport: An Application to Air Cargo Traffic to/from Northeast Asia"

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi Ohashi; Tae-Seung Kim; Tae Hoon Oum; Chunyan Yu

    2004-01-01

    Based on a unique data set of 760 air cargo transshipment routings to/from the Northeast Asian region in 2000, this paper applies an aggregate form of multinomial logit model to identify the critical factors influencing air cargo transshipment route choice decisions. The analysis focuses on the trade-off between monetary cost and time cost while considering other variables relevant for choice of transshipment airport. The estimation method considers the presence of unobserved attributes, and ...

  2. Optimisation of key performance measures in air cargo demand management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander May

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article sought to facilitate the optimisation of key performance measures utilised for demand management in air cargo operations. The focus was on the Revenue Management team at Virgin Atlantic Cargo and a fuzzy group decision-making method was used. Utilising intelligent fuzzy multi-criteria methods, the authors generated a ranking order of ten key outcome-based performance indicators for Virgin Atlantic air cargo Revenue Management. The result of this industry-driven study showed that for Air Cargo Revenue Management, ‘Network Optimisation’ represents a critical outcome-based performance indicator. This collaborative study contributes to existing logistics management literature, especially in the area of Revenue Management, and it seeks to enhance Revenue Management practice. It also provides a platform for Air Cargo operators seeking to improve reliability values for their key performance indicators as a means of enhancing operational monitoring power.

  3. SIMULATION OF CARGO CONTAINER INTERROGATION BY D-D NEUTRONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, Tak Pui; Antolak, Arlyn

    2007-01-01

    High fidelity, three-dimensional computer models based on a CAD drawing of an intermodal cargo container, representative payload objects, and detector array panels were developed to simulate the underlying physical events taking place during active interrogation. These computer models are used to assess the performance of interrogation systems with different sources and detection schemes. In this presentation, we will show that the use oversimplified models, such as analyzing homogenized payloads only, can lead to errors in determining viable approaches for interrogation

  4. Shift designs for freight handling personnel at air cargo terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Aiying; Grunow, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model for determining manpower requirements and related personnel shift designs for the build-up and break-down of the unit load devices (ULDs) at the air cargo terminal to minimize manpower costs. To utilize the manpower...... resources efficiently, we implement a new mechanism for demand leveling. In addition, we consider the qualification hierarchy between build-up and break-down workers. A case study based on the real-life data shows that the model is useful for manpower planning at air cargo terminals and the integrated...

  5. Detection of nuclear material by photon activation inside cargo containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmar, Mehdi; Berthoumieux, Eric; Boyer, Sébastien; Carrel, Frédérick; Doré, Diane; Giacri, Marie-Laure; Lainé, Frédéric; Poumarède, Bénédicte; Ridikas, Danas; Van Lauwe, Aymeric

    2006-05-01

    Photons with energies above 6 MeV can be used to detect small amounts of nuclear material inside large cargo containers. The method consists in using an intense beam of high-energy photons (bremsstrahlung radiation) in order to induce reactions of photofission on actinides. The measurement of delayed neutrons and delayed gammas emitted by fission products brings specific information on localization and quantification of the nuclear material. A simultaneous measurement of both of these delayed signals can overcome some important limitations due to matrix effects like heavy shielding and/or the presence of light elements as hydrogen. We have a long experience in the field of nuclear waste package characterization by photon interrogation and we have demonstrated that presently the detection limit can be less than one gram of actinide per ton of package. Recently we tried to extend our knowledge to assess the performance of this method for the detection of special nuclear materials in sea and air freights. This paper presents our first results based on experimental measurements carried out in the SAPHIR facility, which houses a linear electron accelerator with the energy range from 15 MeV to 30 MeV. Our experiments were also modeled using the full scale Monte Carlo techniques. In addition, and in a more general frame, due to the lack of consistent data on photonuclear reactions, we have been working on the development of a new photonuclear activation file (PAF), which includes cross sections for more than 600 isotopes including photofission fragment distributions and delayed neutron tables for actinides. Therefore, this work includes also some experimental results obtained at the ELSA electron accelerator, which is more adapted for precise basic nuclear data measurements.

  6. 77 FR 65395 - Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program Correction In notice document 2012-26031 appearing on pages 65006-65009 in the issue of October 24, 2012 make the following correction: On page 65007, in the first column, under the...

  7. Compressed Sensing Techniques Applied to Ultrasonic Imaging of Cargo Containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Álvarez López

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key issues in the fight against the smuggling of goods has been the development of scanners for cargo inspection. X-ray-based radiographic system scanners are the most developed sensing modality. However, they are costly and use bulky sources that emit hazardous, ionizing radiation. Aiming to improve the probability of threat detection, an ultrasonic-based technique, capable of detecting the footprint of metallic containers or compartments concealed within the metallic structure of the inspected cargo, has been proposed. The system consists of an array of acoustic transceivers that is attached to the metallic structure-under-inspection, creating a guided acoustic Lamb wave. Reflections due to discontinuities are detected in the images, provided by an imaging algorithm. Taking into consideration that the majority of those images are sparse, this contribution analyzes the application of Compressed Sensing (CS techniques in order to reduce the amount of measurements needed, thus achieving faster scanning, without compromising the detection capabilities of the system. A parametric study of the image quality, as a function of the samples needed in spatial and frequency domains, is presented, as well as the dependence on the sampling pattern. For this purpose, realistic cargo inspection scenarios have been simulated.

  8. Photonuclear-based Detection of Nuclear Smuggling in Cargo Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. L.; Haskell, K. J.; Hoggan, J. M.; Norman, D. R.; Yoon, W. Y.

    2003-08-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have performed experiments in La Honda, California and at the Idaho Accelerator Center in Pocatello, Idaho to assess and develop a photonuclear-based detection system for shielded nuclear materials in cargo containers. The detection system, measuring photonuclear-related neutron emissions, is planned for integration with the ARACOR Eagle Cargo Container Inspection System (Sunnyvale, CA). The Eagle Inspection system uses a nominal 6-MeV electron accelerator and operates with safe radiation exposure limits to both container stowaways and to its operators. The INEEL has fabricated custom-built, helium-3-based, neutron detectors for this inspection application and is performing an experimental application assessment. Because the Eagle Inspection system could not be moved to LANL where special nuclear material was available, the response of the Eagle had to be determined indirectly so as to support the development and testing of the detection system. Experiments in California have successfully matched the delayed neutron emission performance of the ARACOR Eagle with that of the transportable INEEL electron accelerator (i.e., the Varitron) and are reported here. A demonstration test is planned at LANL using the Varitron and shielded special nuclear materials within a cargo container. Detector results are providing very useful information regarding the challenges of delayed neutron counting near the photofission threshold energy of 5.5 - 6.0 MeV, are identifying the possible utilization of prompt neutron emissions to allow enhanced signal-to-noise measurements, and are showing the overall benefits of using higher electron beam energies.

  9. National Security Science and Technology Initiative: Air Cargo Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, Philip R [ORNL; White, Tim [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Cespedes, Ernesto [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Bowerman, Biays [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Bush, John [Battelle

    2010-11-01

    The non-intrusive inspection (NII) of consolidated air cargo carried on commercial passenger aircraft continues to be a technically challenging, high-priority requirement of the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate (DHS S&T), the Transportation Security Agency and the Federal Aviation Administration. The goal of deploying a screening system that can reliably and cost-effectively detect explosive threats in consolidated cargo without adversely affecting the flow of commerce will require significant technical advances that will take years to develop. To address this critical National Security need, the Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle), under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with four of its associated US Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, Idaho, and Brookhaven), conducted a research and development initiative focused on identifying, evaluating, and integrating technologies for screening consolidated air cargo for the presence of explosive threats. Battelle invested $8.5M of internal research and development funds during fiscal years 2007 through 2009. The primary results of this effort are described in this document and can be summarized as follows: (1) Completed a gap analysis that identified threat signatures and observables, candidate technologies for detection, their current state of development, and provided recommendations for improvements to meet air cargo screening requirements. (2) Defined a Commodity/Threat/Detection matrix that focuses modeling and experimental efforts, identifies technology gaps and game-changing opportunities, and provides a means of summarizing current and emerging capabilities. (3) Defined key properties (e.g., elemental composition, average density, effective atomic weight) for basic commodity and explosive benchmarks, developed virtual models of the physical distributions (pallets) of three commodity types and three

  10. 19 CFR 19.41 - Movement of containerized cargo to a container station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Movement of containerized cargo to a container station. 19.41 Section 19.41 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... THEREIN Container Stations § 19.41 Movement of containerized cargo to a container station. Containerized...

  11. 77 FR 6135 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Manifest/Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... Activities: Cargo Manifest/ Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status Messages and Importer Security Filing... the Paperwork Reduction Act: Cargo Manifest/Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status Messages and.../Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status Messages and Importer Security Filing. OMB Number: 1651-0001. Form...

  12. Scanning of Cargo Containers by Gamma-Ray and Fast Neutron Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousri, A.M.; Bashter, I.I.; Megahid, M.R.; Osman, A.M.; Kansouh, W.A.; Reda, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the combined systems which were installed and tested to detect contraband smuggled in cargo containers. These combined systems are based on radiographers work by gamma-rays emitted from point source 60 Co with 0.5 Ci activity and neutrons emitted from point isotopic sources of Pu-α-Be as well as 14 MeV neutrons emitted from sealed tube neutron generator. The transmitted gamma ray through the inspected object was measured by gamma detection system with NaI(Tl) detector while the transmitted fast neutron beam was measured by a neutron gamma detection system with stilbene organic scintillator. The later possess the capability of discrimination between between gamma and neutron pulses using a discrimination system based on pulse shape discrimination method. The measured intensities of primary incident and transmitted beams of gamma-rays and fast neutrons were used to construct 2D cross-sectional images of the inspected objects hidden directly within benign materials of the container and for object screened by high dense material to stop object detection by gamma or X-rays. The constructed images for the inspected objects show the good capability and effectiveness of the installed gamma and neutron radiographers to detect illicit materials hidden in air cargo containers and sea containers of med size. They have also indicated that the developed scanning systems possess the ease of mobility and low cost of scanning

  13. 76 FR 4362 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Air Cargo Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... airports, passenger aircraft operators, foreign air carriers, indirect air carriers operating under a security program, and all-cargo carriers. These five categories are: Security programs, security threat assessments (STA), known shipper data via the Known Shipper Management System (KSMS), cargo screening...

  14. 77 FR 24506 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Air Cargo Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... air carriers, indirect air carriers and all-cargo carriers operating under a TSA-approved security program. These five categories are: Security programs, security threat assessments (STAs), known shipper data via the Known Shipper Management System (KSMS), cargo screening reporting, and evidence of...

  15. 77 FR 65006 - Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... electronic cargo information by way of a CBP-approved electronic data interchange (EDI) system before the... electronically receive certain information regarding that cargo through a CBP-approved EDI system no later than... the above information regarding that cargo through a CBP-approved EDI system no later than the time of...

  16. International air cargo operations and gateways : their emerging importance to the state of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Air cargo transport has become particularly important in todays expanding global : economy for the movement of high-value goods such as electronics, computer components, : precision equipment, medical supplies, auto parts, and perishables. Air car...

  17. Final Report, Next-Generation Mega-Voltage Cargo-Imaging System for Cargo Container Inspection, March 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. James Clayton, Ph.D., Varian Medical Systems-Security and Inspection Products; Dr. Emma Regentova, Ph.D, University of Nevada Las Vegas; Dr. Evangelos Yfantis, Ph.D., University of Nevada, Las Vegas

    2007-01-01

    The UNLV Research Foundation, as the primary award recipient, teamed with Varian Medical Systems-Security and Inspection Products and the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV) for the purpose of conducting research and engineering related to a ''next-generation'' mega-voltage imaging (MVCI) system for inspection of cargo in large containers. The procurement and build-out of hardware for the MVCI project has been completed. The K-9 linear accelerator and an optimized X-ray detection system capable of efficiently detecting X-rays emitted from the accelerator after they have passed through the device is under test. The Office of Science financial assistance award has made possible the development of a system utilizing a technology which will have a profound positive impact on the security of U.S. seaports. The proposed project will ultimately result in critical research and development advances for the ''next-generation'' Linatron X-ray accelerator technology, thereby providing a safe, reliable and efficient fixed and mobile cargo inspection system, which will very significantly increase the fraction of cargo containers undergoing reliable inspection as the enter U.S. ports. Both NNSA/NA-22 and the Department of Homeland Security's Domestic Nuclear Detection Office are collaborating with UNLV and its team to make this technology available as soon as possible

  18. Design of an experiment to measure fire exposure of packages aboard container cargo ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The test described in this paper is intended to measure the typical accident environment for a radioactive materials package in a fire abroad a container cargo ship. A stack of nice used standard cargo containers will be variously loaded with empty packages, simulated packages and combustible cargo and placed over a large hydrocarbon pool fire of one hour duration. Fire environments, both inside and outside the containers, typical of on-deck stowage will be measured as well as the potential for container-to-container fire spread. With the use of the inverse heat conduction calculations, the local heat transfer to the simulated packages can be estimated from thermocouple data. Data recorded will also provide information on fire durations in each container, fire intensity and container-to-container fire spread characteristics. (authors)

  19. 77 FR 11145 - Intent to Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Air Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... operating under a security program, and all-cargo carriers. The collections of information that make up this ICR are security programs, security threat assessments (STA), known shipper data via the Known Shipper Management System (KSMS), Air Cargo Data Management System (ACDMS), Cargo Reporting Tool for cargo screening...

  20. 75 FR 9919 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Air Cargo Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... operating under a security program, and all-cargo carriers. These five categories are: security programs, security threat assessments (STA), known shipper data via the Known Shipper Management System (KSMS), cargo... Verification Form, Aircraft Operator or Air Carrier Reporting Template, Security Threat Assessment Application...

  1. Cargo container inspection test program at ARPA's Nonintrusive Inspection Technology Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volberding, Roy W.; Khan, Siraj M.

    1994-10-01

    An x-ray-based cargo inspection system test program is being conducted at the Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA)-sponsored Nonintrusive Inspection Technology Testbed (NITT) located in the Port of Tacoma, Washington. The test program seeks to determine the performance that can be expected from a dual, high-energy x-ray cargo inspection system when inspecting ISO cargo containers. This paper describes an intensive, three-month, system test involving two independent test groups, one representing the criminal smuggling element and the other representing the law enforcement community. The first group, the `Red Team', prepares ISO containers for inspection at an off-site facility. An algorithm randomly selects and indicates the positions and preparation of cargoes within a container. The prepared container is dispatched to the NITT for inspection by the `Blue Team'. After in-gate processing, it is queued for examination. The Blue Team inspects the container and decides whether or not to pass the container. The shipment undergoes out-gate processing and returns to the Red Team. The results of the inspection are recorded for subsequent analysis. The test process, including its governing protocol, the cargoes, container preparation, the examination and results available at the time of submission are presented.

  2. 77 FR 21579 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... Activities: Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department... a Container Station. This is a proposed extension of an information collection that was previously... Container Station. OMB Number: 1651-0096. Form Number: None. Abstract: Before the filing of an entry of...

  3. Container cargo simulation modeling for measuring impacts of infrastructure investment projects in Pearl River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-Qi; Shibasaki, Ryuichi; Li, Bo-Wei

    2010-03-01

    In the Pearl River Delta (PRD), there is severe competition between container ports, particularly those in Hong Kong, Shenzhen, and Guangzhou, for collecting international maritime container cargo. In addition, the second phase of the Nansha terminal in Guangzhou’s port and the first phase of the Da Chang Bay container terminal in Shenzhen opened last year. Under these circumstances, there is an increasing need to quantitatively measure the impact these infrastructure investments have on regional cargo flows. The analysis should include the effects of container terminal construction, berth deepening, and access road construction. The authors have been developing a model for international cargo simulation (MICS) which can simulate the movement of cargo. The volume of origin-destination (OD) container cargo in the East Asian region was used as an input, in order to evaluate the effects of international freight transportation policies. This paper focuses on the PRD area and, by incorporating a more detailed network, evaluates the impact of several infrastructure investment projects on freight movement.

  4. Throughput Evaluation of an Autonomous Sustainment Cargo Container System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yeh, Mingtze

    2007-01-01

    .... Autonomous containers will play an essential role in the ability to deliver logistical supplies to waterborne littoral vessels enabling them to maintain station and complete there military operations...

  5. Spatial relationships and movement patterns of the air cargo industry in airport regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus J. van V. Coetzee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the past few years, with the increase in air traffic and the expansion of airports, very few industries had such a large spatial development and movement impact as that of airport-related clusters or airport regions. Although much research was done on the various impacts of the airport industry, very little research was done on the air cargo industry in airport regions. Objectives: This article specifically explored the unique spatial relationships, impacts, trends and movement patterns of the air cargo industry within a typical airport region. Method: The article focused on the OR Tambo International Airport in Gauteng, South Africa, as a case study and was informed by an extensive quantitative spatial and land use analysis and modelling of the study area. Results: The article presented findings and insights on the movement patterns and relationships between (1 the airport facility and (2 the spatial configuration of air cargo industries in the particular airport region. These findings also provided some framework for a possible spatial model and guideline that could assist in steering and managing development and movement patterns in airport regions. Conclusion: The article provided new insights and understanding on the spatial dynamics of airport regions and the air cargo industry, ultimately addressing some gaps in this knowledge field. The article in the end highlighted the need for a different and novel approach to the planning and management of the air cargo industry in airport regions and a basis for further research.

  6. Characteristics of future air cargo demand and impact on aircraft development: A report on the Cargo/Logistic Airlift Systems Study (CLASS) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Current domestic and international air cargo operations are studied and the characteristics of 1990 air cargo demand are postulated from surveys conducted at airports and with shippers, consignees, and freight forwarders as well as air, land, and ocean carriers. Simulation and route optimization programs are exercised to evaluate advanced aircraft concepts. The results show that proposed changes in the infrastructure and improved cargo loading efficiencies are as important enhancing the prospects of air cargo growth as is the advent of advanced freighter aircraft. Potential reductions in aircraft direct operating costs are estimated and related to future total revenue. Service and cost elasticities are established and utilized to estimate future potential tariff reductions that may be realized through direct and indirect operating cost reductions and economies of scale.

  7. Cooperating to Compete in the Global Air Cargo Industry: The Case of the DHL Express and Lufthansa Cargo A.G. Joint Venture Airline ‘AeroLogic’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Baxter

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study of the DHL Express and Lufthansa Cargo strategic joint venture cargo airline ‘AeroLogic’, the global air cargo industry’s largest operative joint venture between an airline and a leading international express and logistics provider. The study used a qualitative research approach. The data gathered for the study was examined by document analysis. The strategic analysis of the AeroLogic joint venture was based on the use of Porter’s Five Forces framework. The study found that the AeroLogic joint venture airline has provided synergistic benefits to both partners and has allowed the partners to access new markets and to participate in the evolution of the air cargo industry. The new venture has also enabled both joint venture partners to enhance their competitive position in the global air cargo industry through strengthened service offerings and has provided the partners with increased cargo capacities, a larger route network, and greater frequencies within their own route networks. The study also found that the AeroLogic business model is unique in the air cargo industry. A limitation of the study was that AeroLogic’s annual revenue or freight traffic data was not available. It was, therefore, not possible to analyse the business performance of the joint venture.

  8. Air cargo: An Integrated Systems View. 1978 Summer Faculty Fellowship Program in Engineering Systems Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaton, A. (Editor); Eastman, R. (Editor); Hargrove, A. (Editor); Rabiega, W. (Editor); Olsen, R. (Editor); Soberick, M. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The national air cargo system is analyzed and how it should be in 1990 is prescribed in order to operate successfully through 2015; that is through one equipment cycle. Elements of the system which are largely under control of the airlines and the aircraft manufacturers are discussed. The discussion deals with aircraft, networks, facilities, and procedures. The regulations which govern the movement of air freight are considered. The larger public policy interests which must be served by the kind of system proposed, the air cargo integrated system (ACIS), are addressed. The possible social, economical, political, and environment impacts of the system are considered. Recommendations are also given.

  9. Determination of Fire Enviroment in Stacked Cargo Containers with Radioactive Materials Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arviso, M.; Bobbe, J.G.; Dukart, R.D.; Koski, J.A.

    1999-05-01

    Results from a Fire Test with a three-by-three stack of standard 6 m long International Standards Organization shipping containers containing combustible fuels and empty radioactive materials packages are reported and discussed. The stack is intended to simulate fire conditions that could occur during on-deck stowage on container cargo ships. The fire is initated by locating the container stack adjacent to a 9.8 x 6 m pool fire. Temperatures of both cargoes (empty and simulated radioactive materials packages) and containers are recorded and reported. Observations on the duration, intensity and spread of the fire are discussed. Based on the results, models for simulation of fire exposure of radioactive materials packages in such fires are suggested.

  10. Container shipping service selection and cargo routing with transshipment limits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balakrishnan, Anantaram; Karsten, Christian Vad

    2017-01-01

    containing links (representing sub-paths) between every pair of ports visited by a candidate service. This sub-path structure, together with our approach of indexing the flow variables by transportation stage, enables the model to accurately capture transshipment costs and enforce transshipment limits....... To reduce the computational time to solve this problem, we develop preprocessing steps that exploit network structure to eliminate variables, describe valid inequalities to strengthen the model's linear programming relaxation, and propose an optimization-based heuristic algorithm to generate good initial...

  11. 19 CFR 122.48a - Electronic information for air cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic information for air cargo required in... OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard...

  12. Overview of Crane Control Systems and the Related Problems: Analysis of Container Oscillation Using Different Types of Cargoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Eglynas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Growing international trading increased cargo transportation in containers, therefore the port cranes have higher loads. Increased cargo flows can influence transportation safety. It is therefore necessary to review the crane systems and determine what factors might influence the volatility of the container and its cargo during transportation. The paper includes consideration and analysis of crane control systems and related problems. The authors consider the reasons of problems, probable damage and solution methods. The paper also provides the analysis of the relationship between different container cargoes and container oscillations occurring during handling operations using a container crane prototype. The analysis of the effect of different cargoes in containers on loading process and the results of occurring oscillations are presented.

  13. Air cargo market outlook and impact via the NASA CLASS project. [Cargo/Logistics Airlift Systems Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, M. M.; Conner, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is given of the Cargo/Logistics Airlift Systems Study (CLASS) project which was a 10 man-year effort carried out by two contractor teams, aimed at defining factors impacting future system growth and obtaining market requirements and design guidelines for future air freighters. Growth projection was estimated by two approaches: one, an optimal systems approach with a more efficient and cost effective system considered as being available in 1990; and the other, an evolutionary approach with an econometric behavior model used to predict long term evolution from the present system. Both approaches predict significant growth in demand for international air freighter services and less growth for U.S. domestic services. Economic analysis of air freighter fleet options indicate very strong market appeal of derivative widebody transports in 1990 with little incentive to develop all new dedicated air freighters utilizing the 1990's technology until sometime beyond the year 2000. Advanced air freighters would be economically attractive for a wide range of payload sizes (to 500 metric tons), however, if a government would share in the RD and T costs by virtue of its needs for a slightly modified version of a civil air freighter design (a.g. military airlifter).

  14. Model of Optimal Cargo Transport Structure by Full Container Ship on Predefined Sailing Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serđo Kos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mathematical model for solving theproblem of defining optimal cargo transport structure, occurringwhen, on a predefined sailing route, adequate number ofcontainers of various types, masses and sizes, possibly includingRO!RO cargo, is to be selected, i.e., a "container lot" is to beestablished in loading ports with the aim of gaining maximumship profit and, at the same time, of exploiting useful load andtransport capacity of container ship as much as possible. Theimplementation of the proposed model enables considerableincrease in the efficiency of container ship operations. Themodel was tested using a numerical example with real data.The applied post-optimal analysis examines the influence ofchange in some values of the mathematical model on the resultingoptimal program.

  15. Finite element analysis of container ship's cargo hold using ANSYS and POSEIDON software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanny, Tania Tamiz; Akter, Naznin; Amin, Osman Md.

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays ship structural analysis has become an integral part of the preliminary ship design providing further support for the development and detail design of ship structures. Structural analyses of container ship's cargo holds are carried out for the balancing of their safety and capacity, as those ships are exposed to the high risk of structural damage during voyage. Two different design methodologies have been considered for the structural analysis of a container ship's cargo hold. One is rule-based methodology and the other is a more conventional software based analyses. The rule based analysis is done by DNV-GL's software POSEIDON and the conventional package based analysis is done by ANSYS structural module. Both methods have been applied to analyze some of the mechanical properties of the model such as total deformation, stress-strain distribution, Von Mises stress, Fatigue etc., following different design bases and approaches, to indicate some guidance's for further improvements in ship structural design.

  16. The ''nuclear car wash'': a scanner to detect illicit special nuclear material in cargo containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaughter, D. R.; Accatino, M. R.; Bernstein, A.; Dougan, A. D.; Hall, J. M.; Loshak, A.; Manatt, D. R.; Pohl, B. A.; Prussin, S. G.; Walling, R. S.; Weirup, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    There is an urgent need to improve the reliability of screening cargo containers for illicit nuclear material that may be hidden there for terrorist purposes. A screening system is described for detection of fissionable material hidden in maritime cargo containers. The system makes use of a low intensity neutron beam for producing fission; and the detection of the abundant high-energy γ rays emitted in the β-decay of short-lived fission products and β-delayed neutrons. The abundance of the delayed γ rays is almost an order of magnitude larger than that of the delayed neutrons normally used to detect fission and they are emitted on about the same time scale as the delayed neutrons, i.e., ∼1 min. The energy and temporal distributions of the delayed γ rays provide a unique signature of fission. Because of their high energy, these delayed γ rays penetrate loW--Z cargoes much more readily than the delayed neutrons. Coupled with their higher abundance, the signal from the delayed γ rays escaping from the container is predicted to be as much as six decades more intense than the delayed neutron signal, depending upon the type and thickness of the intervening cargo. The γ rays are detected in a large array of scintillators located along the sides of the container as it is moved through them. Measurements have confirmed the signal strength in somewhat idealized experiments and have also identified one interference when 14.5 MeV neutrons from the D, T reaction are used for the interrogation. The interference can be removed easily by the appropriate choice of the neutron source

  17. Detection of Special Nuclear Material in Cargo Containers Using Neutron Interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaughter, D.; Accatino, M.; Bernstein, A.; Candy, J.; Dougan, A.; Hall, J.; Loshak, A.; Manatt, D.; Meyer, A.; Pohl, B.; Prussin, S.; Walling, R.; Weirup, D.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the work reported here is to develop a concept for an active neutron interrogation system that can detect small targets of SNM contraband in cargo containers, roughly 5 kg HEU or 1 kg Pu, even when well shielded by a thick cargo. It is essential that the concept be reliable and have low false-positive and false-negative error rates. It also must be rapid to avoid interruption of commerce, completing the analysis in minutes. A new radiation signature unique to SNM has been identified that utilizes high-energy (E γ = 3-7 MeV) fission product γ-ray emission. Fortunately, this high-energy γ-ray signature is robust in that it is very distinct compared to normal background radiation where there is no comparable high-energy γ-ray radiation. Equally important, it has a factor of 10 higher yield than delayed neutrons that are the basis of classical interrogation technique normally used on small unshielded specimens of SNM. And it readily penetrates two meters of low-Z and high-Z cargo at the expected density of ∼ 0.5 gm/cm 3 . Consequently, we expect that in most cases the signature flux at the container wall is at least 2-3 decades more intense than delayed neutron signals used historically and facilitates the detection of SNM even when shielded by thick cargo. Experiments have verified this signature and its predicted characteristics. However, they revealed an important interference due to the activation of 16 O by the 16 O(n,p) 16 N reaction that produces a 6 MeV γ-ray following a 7-sec β-decay of the 16 N. This interference is important when irradiating with 14 MeV neutrons but is eliminated when lower energy neutron sources are utilized since the reaction threshold for 16 O(n,p) 16 N is 10 MeV. The signature γ-ray fluxes exiting a thick cargo can be detected in large arrays of scintillation detectors to produce useful signal count rates of 2-4 x 10 4 cps. That is high enough to quickly identify SNM fission by its characteristic high energy

  18. Detector placement optimization for cargo containers using deterministic adjoint transport examination for SNM detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, Trevor D.; Sjoden, Glenn E.; Manalo, Kevin L.

    2011-01-01

    With growing concerns over port security and the potential for illicit trafficking of SNM through portable cargo shipping containers, efforts are ongoing to reduce the threat via container monitoring. This paper focuses on answering an important question of how many detectors are necessary for adequate coverage of a cargo container considering the detection of neutrons and gamma rays. Deterministic adjoint transport calculations are performed with compressed helium- 3 polyethylene moderated neutron detectors and sodium activated cesium-iodide gamma-ray scintillation detectors on partial and full container models. Results indicate that the detector capability is dependent on source strength and potential shielding. Using a surrogate weapons grade plutonium leakage source, it was determined that for a 20 foot ISO container, five neutron detectors and three gamma detectors are necessary for adequate coverage. While a large CsI(Na) gamma detector has the potential to monitor the entire height of the container for SNM, the He-3 neutron detector is limited to roughly 1.25 m in depth. Detector blind spots are unavoidable inside the container volume unless additional measures are taken for adequate coverage. (author)

  19. Risk Analysis on Ship Wreck and Container Cargo to Ship Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Badrus Zaman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wreck of a ship is an incident that must be avoided. Ship accidents are generally caused by a several cases, such as human error, natural disaster, technical errors, missed communication, poor condition of the ship, and many more. Ship wreckage have huge impact for ship navigation, environment, economics, and others. Those impact have many disadvantages for the shipowners, and also for environment. For examples the fuel spills that pollute the environment, make disturbance to sailing ship because the track for those navigation is blocked by the ship wreck and their cargo especially on shallow location (<50 m. These research will discuss the effect the container when it is floats on the sea and its interference other ships. The main objective of this study is to present a risk assessment on the environmental impact of the wreck and container cargo. Wrecks on the seabed is likely to pose a risk to passing ships. container and its contents as well as the possibility of refloat, and also their environmental risks emanating from the wreck and container cargo, such as fuels, lubricants, and chemical cargo. Variations scenario is a collision between ships that pass by floating containers. The frequency of refloating container, and the consequences of the passing ship depends on several factors, which will be the subject of research. However, because of the frequency of refloating containers is unlikely, then the risk is low and does not pose a danger to navigation. These risk assessment using risk matrix 5x5 which is the combined value of the frequency and consequences of the incident. The results of this study indicate the level of risk, whether the risk is accepted, not accepted or received by considering the costs and benefits (ALARP. To consequence, there are two parameters which energy is absorbed and the penetration occurs. The absorbed energy is divided into two, namely the energy absorbed by ship and the energy absorbed by containers. In this

  20. Regulations and control of in-transit fumigated containers as well as of fumigated cargo ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Anthony; Hüsing, Ulf-Peter; Preisser, Alexandra; Baur, Xaver

    2003-01-01

    According to IMO's international regulations, e.g. "Recommendations on the safe use of pesticides in ships", fumigated containers and ship cargoes must be labeled giving specifications about dates of fumigation and the fumigation gas used. Furthermore, appropriate certificates are necessary and these records have to be forwarded to the Port Health Authorities without their explicitly asking for them. According to IMO (DSC/Circ.8.24.7.2001) a recent inspection of containers unloaded in ports showed that some were under fumigation, but not declared as such and in a few cases these ventilated containers arrive with "Degas Certificates" stating that fumigant has been removed, but still have a high fumigant concentration inside when opened. There are similar reports from The Netherlands, where 21% of the fumigated containers had missing or false declarations and contained measurable amounts of toxic gas. In England 6% were mentioned to be allegedly false. Reports exist of a number of other incidents with containers under fumigation arriving in English ports with no accompanying documents on the ship or at the port of discharge as to the type of cargo. In one case several people were hospitalized after exposure to phosphine gas because the fumigant tablets were not yet totally decomposed before the ship arrived at its destination port. In Bavaria, Germany, a bad accident recently occurred through a non declared fumigated container (see press release). Our sample: a large container ship in the Port of Hamburg where 27 of the cargo's containers were found fumigated with 27 non/incomplete/false declarations. These examples show that missing/false labelling is frequent. Clearance of in-transit fumigated containers in ports is complicated and time-consuming for the captain and shipping company. The above mentioned accident and also the results of our spot check prove, as do the experiences in The Netherlands and England, that false declarations of fumigated containers seem

  1. Design of an experiment to measure the fire exposure of radioactive materials packages aboard container cargo ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.

    1997-11-01

    The test described in this paper is intended to measure the typical accident environment for a radioactive materials package in a fire aboard a container cargo ship. A stack of nine used standard cargo containers will be variously loaded with empty packages, simulated packages and combustible cargo and placed over a large hydrocarbon pool fire of one hour duration. Both internal and external fire container fire environments typical of on-deck stowage will be measured as well as the potential for container to container fire spread. With the use of the inverse heat conduction calculations, the local heat transfer to the simulated packages can be estimated from thermocouple data. Data recorded will also provide information on fire durations in each container, fire intensity and container to container fire spread characteristics

  2. Containment air cleaning for LMFBRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.; McCormack, J.D.; Owen, R.K.; Postma, A.K.

    1979-01-01

    A variety of air cleaning concepts was evaluated for potential use in future sodium-cooled breeder reactors. A 3-stage aqueous scrubber system was selected for large-scale demonstration testing under conditions similar to those postulated for containment venting and purging during reactor melt-through accidents. Two tests were performed in the Containment Systems Test Facility using a quench tank, a jet venturi scrubber and a high efficiency fibrous scrubber in series. The results of two tests with Na/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and NaOH aerosol and NaI vapor are presented showing >99.9% removal of Na/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and NaOH and >99.7% for NaI. 7 refs

  3. 75 FR 63192 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Air Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... carriers, indirect air carriers operating under a security program, and all-cargo carriers: Security programs, security threat assessments (STA), known shipper data via the Known Shipper Management System... system to screen, inspect, report, or otherwise ensure the security of all cargo that is to be...

  4. Comparison of neutron and high-energy X-ray dual-beam radiography for air cargo inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Sowerby, B.D.; Tickner, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Dual-beam radiography techniques utilising various combinations of high-energy X-rays and neutrons are attractive for screening bulk cargo for contraband such as narcotics and explosives. Dual-beam radiography is an important enhancement to conventional single-beam X-ray radiography systems in that it provides additional information on the composition of the object being imaged. By comparing the attenuations of transmitted dual high-energy beams, it is possible to build a 2D image, colour coded to indicate material. Only high-energy X-rays, gamma-rays and neutrons have the required penetration to screen cargo containers. This paper reviews recent developments and applications of dual-beam radiography for air cargo inspection. These developments include dual high-energy X-ray techniques as well as fast neutron and gamma-ray (or X-ray) radiography systems. High-energy X-ray systems have the advantage of generally better penetration than neutron systems, depending on the material being interrogated. However, neutron systems have the advantage of much better sensitivity to material composition compared to dual high-energy X-ray techniques. In particular, fast neutron radiography offers the potential to discriminate between various classes of organic material, unlike dual energy X-ray techniques that realistically only offer the ability to discriminate between organic and metal objects

  5. Trace detection of explosive materials in air cargo containers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jezierska, M.M.; Spreen, J.S.; Ruiter, J.C. de; Koomen, G.C.M.; Slegt, M.

    2011-01-01

    At the request of the National Coordinator for Counterterrorism in the Netherlands a research project called “Security through innovation - risk-oriented detection in a drive-through set-up” has been carried out by TNO Defense, Security and Safety (TNO) and by Dutch Customs. In 2009 and 2010, a

  6. Domestic & International Air Cargo Activity: National and Selected Hub Forecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    111371 1991 1887811 2?. 768 :297968 Forecast utilizes 1972 dollar GNP from Wharton’s annual model, December 6, 1978, Post-Meeting Control Solution...mile based on 1973 revenue ton-miles reported in the DOT/CAB, Air Carrier Traffic Statistics. South America - RSA - simple average of American (Latin...9518 F (2/11) = 129.347 DW = 1.41 (b) South America (ESA) 4 = 11.8926 + 18.2908* (GDPSA.C) - 8.94307* ( RSA ) 4 (0.14) (6.08) (-0.46) R2 .8717 F (2/11

  7. Design of Air Ventilation System for Cargo Hold Vessels Using Solar Desiccant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Baheramsyah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the facilities and infrastructure of the vessel is the ventilation system in the cargo hold to maintain the quality. One attempt to avoid high moisture ratios is to provide a dry air supply by using desiccants. The purpose of this thesis is to design the system of air ventilation with solar desiccant by analysis the calculation with decrease air humidity ratio after passing desiccant rotor as well as fulfillment needs of heater and cooling system using heat of exhaust gas and seawater as well as fulfillment of electricity need using solar energy. From the result of analysis obtain to provide air supply in the cargo hold of 437.5 m3 / hour, the specification of rotor desiccant has a diameter of 550 mm with thickness 200 mm to decrease ratio of outside air humidity equal to 83.1% become 46.5%. Dehumidification air temperature of 47.7oC will be lowered to 35oC by using the sea water cooling media. As for the reactivation air heater requirement of 24.292 kW would be to fulfilled by utilizing the exhaust power of 498.12 kW. And for the electric power needs of the syetm is 34,488 wp will be supplied from the total solar module is 33 units with 345 wp per-capacity.

  8. Multi-energy x-ray detectors to improve air-cargo security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Caroline; Moulin, Vincent; Perion, Didier; Radisson, Patrick; Verger, Loïck

    2017-05-01

    X-ray based systems have been used for decades to screen luggage or cargo to detect illicit material. The advent of energy-sensitive photon-counting x-ray detectors mainly based on Cd(Zn)Te semi-conductor technology enables to improve discrimination between materials compared to single or dual energy technology. The presented work is part of the EUROSKY European project to develop a Single European Secure Air-Cargo Space. "Cargo" context implies the presence of relatively heavy objects and with potentially high atomic number. All the study is conducted on simulations with three different detectors: a typical dual energy sandwich detector, a realistic model of the commercial ME100 multi-energy detector marketed by MULTIX, and a ME100 "Cargo": a not yet existing modified multi-energy version of the ME100 more suited to air freight cargo inspection. Firstly, a comparison on simulated measurements shows the performances improvement of the new multi-energy detectors compared to the current dual-energy one. The relative performances are evaluated according to different criteria of separability or contrast-to-noise ratio and the impact of different parameters is studied (influence of channel number, type of materials and tube voltage). Secondly, performances of multi-energy detectors for overlaps processing in a dual-view system is accessed: the case of orthogonal projections has been studied, one giving dimensional values, the other one providing spectral data to assess effective atomic number. A method of overlap correction has been proposed and extended to multi-layer objects case. Therefore, Calibration and processing based on bi-material decomposition have been adapted for this purpose.

  9. The Nuclear Car Wash: Neutron interrogation of cargo containers to detect hidden SNM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. M.; Asztalos, S.; Biltoft, P.; Church, J.; Descalle, M.-A.; Luu, T.; Manatt, D.; Mauger, G.; Norman, E.; Petersen, D.; Pruet, J.; Prussin, S.; Slaughter, D.

    2007-08-01

    LLNL is actively involved in the development of advanced technologies for use in detecting threats in sea-going cargo containers, particularly the presence of hidden special nuclear materials (SNM). The "Nuclear Car Wash" (NCW) project presented here uses a high-energy (En ≈ 3.5-7.0 MeV) neutron probe to scan a container and then takes high-energy (Eγ ⩾ 2.5 MeV), β-delayed γ-rays emitted during the subsequent decay of any short-lived, neutron-induced fission products as a signature of fissionable material. The components of the proposed system (e.g. neutron source, gamma detectors, etc.) will be discussed along with data processing schemes, possible threat detection metrics and potential interference signals. Results from recent laboratory experiments using a prototype system at LLNL will also be presented.

  10. The Nuclear Car Wash: Neutron interrogation of cargo containers to detect hidden SNM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.M.; Asztalos, S.; Biltoft, P.; Church, J.; Descalle, M.-A.; Luu, T.; Manatt, D.; Mauger, G.; Norman, E.; Petersen, D.; Pruet, J.; Prussin, S.; Slaughter, D.

    2007-01-01

    LLNL is actively involved in the development of advanced technologies for use in detecting threats in sea-going cargo containers, particularly the presence of hidden special nuclear materials (SNM). The 'Nuclear Car Wash' (NCW) project presented here uses a high-energy (E n ∼ 3.5-7.0 MeV) neutron probe to scan a container and then takes high-energy (E γ ≥ 2.5 MeV), β-delayed γ-rays emitted during the subsequent decay of any short-lived, neutron-induced fission products as a signature of fissionable material. The components of the proposed system (e.g. neutron source, gamma detectors, etc.) will be discussed along with data processing schemes, possible threat detection metrics and potential interference signals. Results from recent laboratory experiments using a prototype system at LLNL will also be presented

  11. Large panel design for containment air baffle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    The movable air baffle shield means in accordance with the present invention provides an efficient method of cooling the space surrounding the containment vessel while also providing the capability of being moved away from the containment vessel during inspection. The containment apparatus comprises a generally cylindrical sealed containment vessel for containing at least a portion of a nuclear power generation plant, a disparate shield building surrounding and housing the containment vessel therein and spaced outwardly thereof so as to form an air annulus in the space between the shield building and the containment vessel, a shield baffle means positioned in the air annulus around at least a portion of the sides of the containment vessel providing a coolant path between the baffle means and the containment vessel to permit cooling of the containment vessel by air, the shield baffle means being movable to afford access to the containment vessel. 9 figs

  12. Ventilation air conditioner for a reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegame, Noboru; Nakagawa, Takeshi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress the variations in the internal pressure of a reactor container and smoothly ventilate the reactor container. Constitution: The air conditioner provides an air-flow-rate-control damper, a purge-air supply fan, and a filter device in the air-supply pipe of a reactor container. Furthermore, it provides a pressure difference detector at a part of the container. The air-flow-rate-control damper is connected electrically through a position-modulator-comparison amplifier to the pressure difference detector. When the filtration becomes insufficient by clogging of the filter device and the internal pressure increased abruptly in the container, the pressure-difference detector can detect it, and the damper is operated by a pressure regulator and the comparator so as to control the air flow to the container. Thus, the internal pressure variation is controlled so as to easily ventilate the container. (J.P.N.)

  13. Analysis of the crush environment for lightweight air-transportable accident-resistant containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, J.D.; Hartman, W.F.

    1981-12-01

    This report describes the longitudinal dynamic crush environment for a Lightweight Air-Transportable Accident-Resistant Container (LAARC, now called PAT-2) that can be used to transport small quantities of radioactive material. The analysis of the crush environment involves evaluation of the forces imposed upon the LAARC package during the crash of a large, heavily loaded, cargo aircraft. To perform the analysis, a cargo load column was defined which consisted of a longitudinal prism of cargo of cross-sectional area equal to the projected area of the radioactive-material package and length equal to the longitudinal extent of the cargo compartment in a commercial cargo jet aircraft. To bound the problem, two analyses of the cargo load column were performed, a static stability analysis and a dynamic analysis. The results of these analyses can be applied to other packaging designs and suggest that the physical limits or magnitude of the longitudinal crush forces, which are controlled in part by the yield strength of the cargo and the package size, are much smaller than previously estimated

  14. Analysis of a Gross Counting Decision Metric for use in Threat Detection During Cargo Container Inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J

    2006-01-01

    LLNL is actively engaged in the development of a variety of advanced technologies for use in detecting potential threats in sea-going cargo containers, particularly the presence of hidden special nuclear materials (SNM). One such project is the so-called ''Nuclear Car Wash'' (NCW), which uses a high-energy neutron probe to scan the container. High-energy, β-delayed γ-rays emitted during the decay of short-lived, neutron-induced fission products are then taken as a signature of fissionable material. There are a number of different threat decision metrics that one could imagine using in conjunction with an inspection system such as the NCW; however, the most straightforward approach might be to simply compare the total number of counts that our detector records during some suitably chosen time interval to the average background signal that one would expect from a ''clean'' container during the same interval. The purpose of this report is to describe the basic statistical properties of a decision metric of this sort and outline the procedures for using it in experimental practice

  15. Device for Detection of Explosives, Nuclear and Other Hazardous Materials in Luggage and Cargo Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Andrey; Evsenin, Alexey; Gorshkov, Igor; Osetrov, Oleg; Vakhtin, Dmitry

    2009-12-01

    Device for detection of explosives, radioactive and heavily shielded nuclear materials in luggage and cargo containers based on Nanosecond Neutron Analysis/Associated Particles Technique (NNA/APT) is under construction. Detection module consists of a small neutron generator with built-in position-sensitive detector of associated alpha-particles, and several scintillator-based gamma-ray detectors. Explosives and other hazardous chemicals are detected by analyzing secondary high-energy gamma-rays from reactions of fast neutrons with materials inside a container. The same gamma-ray detectors are used to detect unshielded radioactive and nuclear materials. An array of several neutron detectors is used to detect fast neutrons from induced fission of nuclear materials. Coincidence and timing analysis allows one to discriminate between fission neutrons and scattered probing neutrons. Mathematical modeling by MCNP5 and MCNP-PoliMi codes was used to estimate the sensitivity of the device and its optimal configuration. Comparison of the features of three gamma detector types—based on BGO, NaI and LaBr3 crystals is presented.

  16. Device for Detection of Explosives, Nuclear and Other Hazardous Materials in Luggage and Cargo Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Andrey; Evsenin, Alexey; Osetrov, Oleg; Vakhtin, Dmitry; Gorshkov, Igor

    2009-01-01

    Device for detection of explosives, radioactive and heavily shielded nuclear materials in luggage and cargo containers based on Nanosecond Neutron Analysis/Associated Particles Technique (NNA/APT) is under construction. Detection module consists of a small neutron generator with built-in position-sensitive detector of associated alpha-particles, and several scintillator-based gamma-ray detectors. Explosives and other hazardous chemicals are detected by analyzing secondary high-energy gamma-rays from reactions of fast neutrons with materials inside a container. The same gamma-ray detectors are used to detect unshielded radioactive and nuclear materials. An array of several neutron detectors is used to detect fast neutrons from induced fission of nuclear materials. Coincidence and timing analysis allows one to discriminate between fission neutrons and scattered probing neutrons. Mathematical modeling by MCNP5 and MCNP-PoliMi codes was used to estimate the sensitivity of the device and its optimal configuration. Comparison of the features of three gamma detector types--based on BGO, NaI and LaBr 3 crystals is presented.

  17. THE ASSESSMENT MODELS OF AIR POLLUTION DURING TRANSPORTATION OF BULK CARGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Biliaiev

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The scientific work is concentrated on development of 3D, 2D numerical models for the prediction of atmospheric pollution during transport of bulk cargo in the railway car. Methodology. To solve this problem numerical models were developed, based on the use of the motion equations of inviscid incompressible fluid and mass transfer, to determine the field of wind velocity near the cars and dispersion of dust in the atmosphere. For the numerical integration of the pollutant transport equation implicit alternating-triangular difference scheme was used. When constructing a difference scheme splitting of the transport equation is carried out that allows us to construct an efficient algorithm for solving a differential problem. Unknown value of the pollutant concentration at every step of splitting is determined by the explicit scheme – the method of point-to-point computation, which provides a simple numerical implementation of splitting equations. For numerical integration of the 3D equation for the velocity potential method of Richardson is applied. For numerical integration of the 2D equation for the velocity potential the method of total approximation is applied. The developed numerical models are the basis of established software package. On the basis of the constructed numerical models a computational experiment to assess the level of air pollution when demolition of coal dust from the gondola car was carried out. Findings. 3D, 2D numerical models that belong to the class «diagnostic models» were developed. These models take into account the main physical factors affecting the process of dust pollution dispersion in the atmosphere during transportation of bulk cargo, but require small costs of the computer time in the practice at the low and medium power machines. These models are used for serial calculations of various situations of scenarios related to issues of environmental protection and pollution intensity diagnostics for

  18. Examination of imaging detectors for combined radiography procedures in the ACCIS joint project. Automatic cargo container inspection system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dangendorf, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Currently used screening systems of air cargo are based on X-ray radiation from bremsstrahlung generators. Thus, different substances from light elements of approximately the same density are difficult to distinguish, e.g. the image contrast between explosives and drugs is low compared to harmless organic substances, such as plastic parts or foodstuffs, and requires extensive follow-up investigations. On the other hand, the image contrast is also low in the case of heavy elements with X-ray methods, e.g. Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) such as Pu and.U, which are also transported in a container of lead for camouflage and mixed with goods from other heavy metals, makes it very difficult. Within the framework of the ACCIS Collaborative Project, a new inspection system for airfreight based on neutron and gamma irradiation was researched. Within this framework, the PTB subproject covered the following tasks: 1. Research and development of laboratory prototypes of imaging radiation detectors; 2. Development of a measuring station for the evaluation of the screening method at the PTB accelerator system, 3. Cooperation in the development of a concept for a pulsed radiation source, in particular design and investigation of the beam-producing target. 4. Determination of the physical and dosimetric parameters relevant to radiation protection. Examination of the conditions of application, requirement of operational facility, end user contacts; 6. Coordination of the German partners, in particular organization of the project meetings of the German and Israeli partners. [de

  19. Structural response of cargo containment systems in LNG carriers under ice loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, B.; Yu, H.; Basu, R.; Lee, H.; Kwon, J.C.; Jeon, B.Y.; Kim, J.H.; Daley, C.; Kendrick, A.

    2008-01-01

    Gas exploration has been extended into the Arctic region such as in the Russian Arctic area, because of the increasing demand for energy resources. As a result, shipping in ice-covered seas is also increasing. Many technical issues are involved in ensuring the safety of liquefied natural gas (LNG) ships during the transportation. This paper discussed an investigation of ship-ice interaction scenarios for possible operation routes in Arctic areas. Six scenarios were selected to study the structural response of cargo containment systems (CCS) in both membrane and spherical types of LNG ships. For selected ship-ice interaction scenarios, ice loads and loading areas in the hull structure were determined based on the energy theory. The configurations of LNG carriers were discussed and illustrated. The paper also outlined the assessment criteria and structure analysis procedures. It was concluded that the strength of the CCS of membrane-type LNG carrier and the strength of the skirt structure of spherical-type LNG carrier were strong enough under the design ice loads. 13 refs., 9 tabs., 18 figs

  20. Evaluation of Burning Test Rate Method for Flammable Solids to Increase air-Cargo Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukežič, Marjan; Marinšek, Marjan; Faganeli, Jadran

    2010-03-01

    This paper deals with a standard classification procedure for readily combustible solids and their assignment to the relevant packing groups according to international air-cargo legislation and regulations. The current International Air Transport Association and United Nations Orange Book regulations were used on chemically similar substances: hexamethylenetetramine and Dancook ignition briquettes, which are both assigned into the same Packing Group III. To critically evaluate the degree of hazard both chemicals present, a standard burning test rate as well as thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and evolved gas analysis measurements were performed. It was shown that relatively small changes in the chemical composition of the material may have essential influence on the package group determination. Taking into account all the facts collected in the experimental work, it was concluded that ignition briquettes will undergo spontaneous combustion if exposed to elevated temperatures and, from this point of view, represent higher risk than hexamethylenetetramine during air transportation. Therefore, ignition briquettes should be classified into Packing Group II.

  1. Public announcement of guidelines for the packing and safe stowing of cargo in freight containers and vehicles for ocean transport (Container Stowage Guidelines)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The IMO and ILO guidelines are given, which help to meet the requirements of the Maritime Safety Ordinance and the Ordinance on Ocean Transport of Dangerous Goods. The guidelines explain the principles of safe packing and stowing of cargo in freight containers and vehicles for ocean transports. Further information and practical hints are given in international publications referred to in the annex. The guidelines are also meant for training purposes. (orig./HSCH) [de

  2. System to detect contraband in cargo containers using fast and slow neutron irradiation and collimated gamma detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.C.; Hurwitz, M.J.; Tran, K.C.

    1995-01-01

    We have produced a product design concept for an automatic, shipping-container inspection system to be used for detection of contraband, including illicit drugs, and for trade regulation enforcement via shipping manifest confirmation. Using nondestructive nuclear techniques the system can see deeply into the cargo and generate a 3-D spatial image of an entire container's contents automatically and in real time. A pulsed, sealed-tube, neutron generator is employed. The approach divides a container into numerous, small, volume elements that are individually interrogated using concurrent fast and slow neutron activation and gamma detection by collimated scintillators. We have designed, built, and operated a laboratory apparatus which has demonstrated the attractiveness of this approach. Experimental data were found to agree with design expectations derived from computer modeling. By combining selected element signatures and phenomenological measures, together with discrimination algorithms, we have demonstrated that a full-scale inspection system would need from less than 5 min to 30 min (depending on cargo type) to process an 8 ftx8 ftx40 ft container in order to detect hidden contraband. (orig.)

  3. Specification of test criteria for containers to be used in the air transport of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.L.; Edwards, A.R.; Hall, S.F.

    1980-01-01

    Potential accidents in the transport by aeroplane of plutonium are considered. Past literature on the subject is reviewed. Civilian air accident statistics are surveyed: impact and fire are shown to be the major threats. Probabilities (given an accident) are derived for encountering and impact of above any given speed as a function of speed, and a fire of above any given duration, as a function of duration. The crash of two typical jet cargo aircraft (BAC-111, Boeing-707) against a rigid normal surface is considered and cargo hold decelerations derived from a one-dimensional model. The response of a cargo to such decelerations is calculated for loads of two typical containers, and related to the velocity of impact into a hard target necessary to produce similar damage in single containers. Free fall of containers and the effect on the surface struck are discussed. The response of two typical containers to a fire is calculated, allowing for the charring of insulating/shock absorbing material. Calculations without charring appear pessimistic. The consequences of plutonium release are estimated and risk spectra derived for two failure assumptions. The implications for container test criteria are discussed, and recommendations made

  4. Investigation of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Boarded search of a cargo container ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grogan, Brandon R.; Henkel, James J.; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Mihalczo, John T.; Miller, Thomas M.; Patton, Bruce W.

    2013-01-01

    The detonation of a terrorist nuclear weapon in the United States would result in the massive loss of life and grave economic damage. Even if a device was not detonated, its known or suspected presence aboard a cargo container ship in a U.S. port would have major economic and political consequences. One possible means to prevent this threat would be to board a ship at sea and search for the device before it reaches port. The scenario considered here involves a small Coast Guard team with strong intelligence boarding a container ship to search for a nuclear device. Using active interrogation, the team would nonintrusively search a block of shipping containers to locate the fissile material. Potential interrogation source and detector technologies for the team are discussed. The methodology of the scan is presented along with a technique for calculating the required interrogation source strength using computer simulations. MCNPX was used to construct a computer model of a container ship, and several search scenarios were simulated. The results of the simulations are presented in terms of the source strength required for each interrogation scenario. Validation measurements were performed in order to scale these simulation results to expected performance. Interrogations through the short (2.4 m) axis of a standardized shipping container appear to be feasible given the entire range of container loadings tested. Interrogations through several containers at once or a single container through its long (12.2 m) axis do not appear to be viable with a portable interrogation system

  5. Investigation of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Boarded search of a cargo container ship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grogan, Brandon R., E-mail: groganbr@ornl.gov; Henkel, James J.; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Mihalczo, John T.; Miller, Thomas M.; Patton, Bruce W.

    2013-12-01

    The detonation of a terrorist nuclear weapon in the United States would result in the massive loss of life and grave economic damage. Even if a device was not detonated, its known or suspected presence aboard a cargo container ship in a U.S. port would have major economic and political consequences. One possible means to prevent this threat would be to board a ship at sea and search for the device before it reaches port. The scenario considered here involves a small Coast Guard team with strong intelligence boarding a container ship to search for a nuclear device. Using active interrogation, the team would nonintrusively search a block of shipping containers to locate the fissile material. Potential interrogation source and detector technologies for the team are discussed. The methodology of the scan is presented along with a technique for calculating the required interrogation source strength using computer simulations. MCNPX was used to construct a computer model of a container ship, and several search scenarios were simulated. The results of the simulations are presented in terms of the source strength required for each interrogation scenario. Validation measurements were performed in order to scale these simulation results to expected performance. Interrogations through the short (2.4 m) axis of a standardized shipping container appear to be feasible given the entire range of container loadings tested. Interrogations through several containers at once or a single container through its long (12.2 m) axis do not appear to be viable with a portable interrogation system.

  6. National Security Science and Technology Initiative: Air Cargo Screening, Final Report for CRADA Number NFE-07-01081

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, Philip [ORNL; Bush, John [Battelle Memorial Institute; Bowerman, Biays [Brookhaven National Laboratory; Cespedes, Ernesto [Idaho National Laboratory; White, Timothy [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2004-12-01

    The non-intrusive inspection (NII) of consolidated air cargo carried on commercial passenger aircraft continues to be a technically challenging, high-priority requirement of the Department of Homeland Security’s Science and Technology Directorate (DHS S&T), the Transportation Security Agency and the Federal Aviation Administration. The goal of deploying a screening system that can reliably and cost-effectively detect explosive threats in consolidated cargo without adversely affecting the flow of commerce will require significant technical advances that will take years to develop. To address this critical National Security need, the Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle), under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with four of its associated US Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, Idaho, and Brookhaven), conducted a research and development initiative focused on identifying, evaluating, and integrating technologies for screening consolidated air cargo for the presence of explosive threats. Battelle invested $8.5M of internal research and development funds during fiscal years 2007 through 2009.

  7. Containment air circulation for optimal hydrogen recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinks, N.; Krause, M.

    1997-01-01

    An accepted first-line defense for hydrogen mitigation is to design for the hydrogen to be rapidly mixed with the containment atmosphere and diluted to below flammability concentrations. Then, as hydrogen continues to be produced in the longer term, recombiners can be used to remove hydrogen: recombiners can be located in forced-air ducts or passive recombiners can be distributed within containment and the heat of recombination used to promote local air circulation. However, this principle does not eliminate the possibility of high hydrogen concentrations at locations removed from the recombiners. An improvement on this strategy is to arrange for a specific, buoyancy-driven, overall circulation of the containment atmosphere such that the recombiners can be located within the recirculation flow, immediately downstream of the hydrogen source. This would make the mixing process more predictable and solve the mass-transfer problem associated with distributed recombiners. Ideally, the recombiners would be located just above the hydrogen source so that the heat of recombination would assist the overall circulation. In this way, the hydrogen would be removed as close as possible to the source, thereby minimizing the amount of hydrogen immediately downstream of the source and reducing the hydrogen concentration to acceptable levels at other locations. Such a strategy requires the containment volume to be divided into an upflow path, past the hydrogen source and the recombiner, and a downflow path to complete the circuit. The flow could be generated actively using fans or passively using buoyancy forces arising from the difference in density of gases in the upfiow and downflow paths; the gases in the downflow path being cooled at an elevated heat sink. (author)

  8. Examination of imaging detectors for combined radiography procedures in the ACCIS joint project. Automatic cargo container inspection system. Final report; Untersuchung von bildgebenden Detektoren fuer kombinierte Radiographieverfahren im Verbundprojekt ACCIS. Automatisches Cargo-Container Inspektionssystem. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dangendorf, Volker

    2014-06-09

    Currently used screening systems of air cargo are based on X-ray radiation from bremsstrahlung generators. Thus, different substances from light elements of approximately the same density are difficult to distinguish, e.g. the image contrast between explosives and drugs is low compared to harmless organic substances, such as plastic parts or foodstuffs, and requires extensive follow-up investigations. On the other hand, the image contrast is also low in the case of heavy elements with X-ray methods, e.g. Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) such as Pu and.U, which are also transported in a container of lead for camouflage and mixed with goods from other heavy metals, makes it very difficult. Within the framework of the ACCIS Collaborative Project, a new inspection system for airfreight based on neutron and gamma irradiation was researched. Within this framework, the PTB subproject covered the following tasks: 1. Research and development of laboratory prototypes of imaging radiation detectors; 2. Development of a measuring station for the evaluation of the screening method at the PTB accelerator system, 3. Cooperation in the development of a concept for a pulsed radiation source, in particular design and investigation of the beam-producing target. 4. Determination of the physical and dosimetric parameters relevant to radiation protection. Examination of the conditions of application, requirement of operational facility, end user contacts; 6. Coordination of the German partners, in particular organization of the project meetings of the German and Israeli partners. [German] Derzeitig eingesetzte Durchleuchtungssysteme von Luftfrachtcontainern basieren auf Roentgenstrahlung aus Bremsstrahlungsgeneratoren. Damit lassen sich unterschiedliche Stoffe aus leichten Elementen annaehernd gleicher Dichte nur schwer unterscheiden, z.B. ist der Bildkontrast zwischen Sprengstoffen und Drogen gegenueber harmlosen organischen Stoffen wie Kunststoffteilen oder Lebensmitteln gering und

  9. Role of Air Cargo and Road Feeder Services for Regional Airports – Case Studies from the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beifert Anatoli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although airports play an important role the global and European economies, according to the new guidelines of the EU Commission on the new state aid rules for a competitive aviation industry (EC, 2014, it will be more difficult for unprofitable airports, to get financial public subsidies in the future. The Commission noted that the majority of regional airports experience severe problems to cover their operative costs, resulting from among other things from overlapping of airports’ catchment areas. The main objective of the above mentioned measures is not to close the regional airports, but to motivate them to operate on cost efficient, profitable and more flexible basis, stating however that and that the most inefficient airports will be still closed. In order face upcoming challenges, the regional airports shall reconsider their future development plans. Traditionally, the airports including small and regional airports focus on the passenger traffic and thus, the possible benefits and opportunities of the air cargo market are totally underestimated or even completely ignored. Most regional airports in the Baltic Sea region act totally isolated and do not have a clear picture of the current situation on the international air cargo market today, its future perspectives and sustainable development plans remain basically hidden. There are some examples when trying to meet the market demand, the regional airports have made huge, but unfortunately unjustified investments, e.g. improving airport infrastructure, runways, etc. However, the airports’ infrastructural investments alone cannot fulfil the expected “remedy” role for the airports’ sustainability. This paper aims at investigating the positioning and the role of the regional airports in the current hub-and-spoke network, focusing on the relevance and potential of the air cargo sector for the regional airports development. The optional freight value proposition for the development of

  10. A Study of Fatigue and Performance Considerations in Air Mobility Cargo Aircrews Flying Transatlantic Missions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levin, Julian

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force Air Mobility Command (AMC) is responsible for movement of supplies and personnel, air refueling operations and air evacuation operations throughout the world in support of the United States' national interest...

  11. The Cargo Fare Class Mix problem for an intermodal corridor : revenue management in synchromodal container transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Riessen, B.; Negenborn, R.R.; Dekker, Rommert

    2017-01-01

    The intermodal hinterland transportation of maritime containers is under pressure from port authorities and shippers to achieve a more integrated, efficient network operation. Current optimisation methods in literature yield limited results in practice, though, as the transportation product

  12. The Cargo Fare Class Mix problem for an intermodal corridor: revenue management in synchromodal container transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van Riessen (Bart); R.R. Negenborn (Rudy); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe intermodal hinterland transportation of maritime containers is under pressure from port authorities and shippers to achieve a more integrated, efficient network operation. Current optimisation methods in literature yield limited results in practice, though, as the transportation

  13. Radiation Scanning Methods for Ship-to-Rail Intermodal Cargo Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichmuth, Barbara A.; Stansbury, Paul S.; Taira, Randal Y.; Sanquist, Thomas F.; Collins, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security's (DHS) Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) runs the Rail Test Center (RTC) at the Port of Tacoma (POT). The RTC affords DNDO with the opportunity to test radiological and nuclear threat detection systems associated with the unique on-dock rail environment while in an operational seaport. DNDO selected the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to manage the RTC. The RTC is conducting various evaluation studies to assess scanning opportunities in terms of their affects on the number of container moves required and the affect that the scanning opportunity has on the time it takes to move a container through the on-dock transfer process from ship to rail. The velocity and the number of container moves are directly associated with incremental costs to the terminal operators; increases in either of these parameters help in-form the potential for incremental costs that would result from the implementation of the opportunity.

  14. 77 FR 3487 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... International Trade, 799 9th Street NW., 5th Floor, Washington, DC 20229-1177. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Protection, Regulations and Rulings, Office of International Trade, 799 9th Street NW., 5th Floor, Washington... may be moved from the place of unlading or may be received directly at the container station from a...

  15. Health risks in international container and bulk cargo transport due to volatile toxic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Xaver; Budnik, Lygia Therese; Zhao, Zhiwei; Bratveit, Magne; Djurhuus, Rune; Verschoor, Louis; Rubino, Federico Maria; Colosio, Claudio; Jepsen, Jorgen R

    2015-01-01

    To ensure the preservation and quality of the goods, physical (i.e. radiation) or chemical pest control is needed. The dark side of such consents may bear health risks in international transport and production sharing. In fact, between 10% and 20% of all containers arriving European harbors were shown to contain volatile toxic substances above the exposure limit values. Possible exposure to these toxic chemicals may occur not only for the applicators but also the receiver by off gassing from products, packing materials or transport units like containers. A number of intoxications, some with lethal outcome, occur not only during the fumigation, but also during freight transport (on bulk carriers and other transport vessels), as well as in the logistic lines during loading and unloading. Risk occupations include dock-workers, seafarers, inspectors, as well as the usually uninformed workers of importing enterprises that unload the products. Bystanders as well as vulnerable consumers may also be at risk. Ongoing studies focus on the release of these toxic volatile substances from various goods. It was shown that the half-lives of the off-gassing process range between minutes and months, depending on the toxic substance, its chemical reactivity, concentration, the temperature, the contaminated matrix (goods and packing materials), and the packing density in the transport units. Regulations on declaration and handling dangerous goods are mostly not followed. It is obvious that this hazardous situation in freight transport urgently requires preventive steps. In order to improve awareness and relevant knowledge there is a need for more comprehensive information on chemical hazards and a broader implementation of the already existing regulations and guidelines, such as those from ILO, IMO, and national authorities. It is also necessary to have regular controls by the authorities on a worldwide scale, which should be followed by sanctions in case of disregarding regulations

  16. Health risks in international container and bulk cargo transport due to volatile toxic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baur, Xaver; Budnik, Lygia T; Zhao, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    To ensure the preservation and quality of the goods, physical (i.e. radiation) or chemical pest control is needed. The dark side of such consents may bear health risks in international transport and production sharing. In fact, between 10% and 20% of all containers arriving European harbors were...... with lethal outcome, occur not only during the fumigation, but also during freight transport (on bulk carriers and other transport vessels), as well as in the logistic lines during loading and unloading. Risk occupations include dock-workers, seafarers, inspectors, as well as the usually uninformed workers...... of importing enterprises that unload the products. Bystanders as well as vulnerable consumers may also be at risk. Ongoing studies focus on the release of these toxic volatile substances from various goods. It was shown that the half-lives of the off-gassing process range between minutes and months, depending...

  17. Toward a RPC-based muon tomography system for cargo containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baesso, P.; Cussans, D.; Thomay, C.; Velthuis, J.

    2014-10-01

    A large area scanner for cosmic muon tomography is currently being developed at University of Bristol. Thanks to their abundance and penetrating power, cosmic muons have been suggested as ideal candidates to scan large containers in search of special nuclear materials, which are characterized by high-Z and high density. The feasibility of such a scanner heavily depends on the detectors used to track the muons: for a typical container, the minimum required sensitive area is of the order of 100 2. The spatial resolution required depends on the geometrical configuration of the detectors. For practical purposes, a resolution of the order of 1 mm or better is desirable. A good time resolution can be exploited to provide momentum information: a resolution of the order of nanoseconds can be used to separate sub-GeV muons from muons with higher energies. Resistive plate chambers have a low cost per unit area and good spatial and time resolution; these features make them an excellent choice as detectors for muon tomography. In order to instrument a large area demonstrator we have produced 25 new readout boards and 30 glass RPCs. The RPCs measure 1800 mm× 600 mm and are read out using 1.68 mm pitch copper strips. The chambers were tested with a standardized procedure, i.e. without optimizing the working parameters to take into account differences in the manufacturing process, and the results show that the RPCs have an efficiency between 87% and 95%. The readout electronics show a signal to noise ratio greater than 20 for minimum ionizing particles. Spatial resolution better than 500 μm can easily be achieved using commercial read out ASICs. These results are better than the original minimum requirements to pass the tests and we are now ready to install the detectors.

  18. X-ray and neutron interrogation of air cargo for mobile applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Liew, Seth

    2015-06-01

    A system for scanning break-bulk cargo for mobile applications is presented. This combines a 140 kV multi-view, multi-energy X-ray system with 2.5 MeV neutrons. The system uses dual energy X-ray radiography with neutron radiography. The X-ray and neutron systems were designed to be collocated in a mobile environment. Various materials were interrogated with the intent of distinguishing threat materials such as explosives from similar benign materials. In particular, the identification of threats and bengins with nearly identical effective atomic numbers has been demonstrated.

  19. X-ray and neutron interrogation of air cargo for mobile applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Liew, Seth

    2015-01-01

    A system for scanning break-bulk cargo for mobile applications is presented. This combines a 140 kV multi-view, multi-energy X-ray system with 2.5 MeV neutrons. The system uses dual energy X-ray radiography with neutron radiography. The X-ray and neutron systems were designed to be collocated in a mobile environment. Various materials were interrogated with the intent of distinguishing threat materials such as explosives from similar benign materials. In particular, the identification of threats and bengins with nearly identical effective atomic numbers has been demonstrated

  20. The concept of the development of cargo container transport system within airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Hentschel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The transport of luggage units between the check-in terminal and airplanes is realized by the use of very simple transport solutions and manual reloading of the luggage. The luggage trolleys are used for the transport purposes, which are hitched to the mover and moved directly to the surroundings of the airplane. The loading and unloading of luggage is performed manually. Regarding actual safety requirements there was a need to create a new transport system, working in a closed cycle and based on the device for automatic loading and unloading of luggage units. Methods: Various potential variants of the device were generated based on results of analytical researches by the use of the morphological schema. The detail evaluation and the optimization of individual variants allow to prepare the concept of the complex method to solve problems of the reliable transport of luggage units within an airport. Results: The closed transport system was created as a result of the innovative project. The main element of this system is a container trolley, which is equipped in five storage layers. By the use of the special mover and gravitational forces, luggage units can be transported and placed inside this trolley as well as being loaded and unloaded. This solution enables to move 200 pieces of luggage in one transport cycle from the check-in terminal to the hatchway of the airplane.

  1. Self contained compressed air breathing apparatus to facilitate personnel decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, C W [Radiological and Safety Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1963-11-15

    This report describes the modification of a Self Contained Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus to provide extended respiratory protection to grossly contaminated personnel during a decontamination period which may exceed the duration of the Breathing Apparatus air supply. (author)

  2. Self contained compressed air breathing apparatus to facilitate personnel decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.W.

    1963-11-01

    This report describes the modification of a Self Contained Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus to provide extended respiratory protection to grossly contaminated personnel during a decontamination period which may exceed the duration of the Breathing Apparatus air supply. (author)

  3. FFTF-containment air-cleaning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaffey, M.K.; Stepnewski, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    The FFTF Containment can accommodate all design basis events and the hypothetical core disruptive accident with adequate margin without a venting or purging system; however, in concert with the development objective, a system was designed and constructed to evaluate technology related to containment atmosphere venting and cleanup functions. The system can be used to purge high H 2 concentrations or to vent excessive containment pressure. In either case containment atmosphere is exhausted through an aqueous scrubber system consisting of a venturi scrubber and fibrous filter bank

  4. Pressurized solid oxide fuel cell integral air accumular containment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, James E.; Zafred, Paolo R.; Basel, Richard A.

    2004-02-10

    A fuel cell generator apparatus contains at least one fuel cell subassembly module in a module housing, where the housing is surrounded by a pressure vessel such that there is an air accumulator space, where the apparatus is associated with an air compressor of a turbine/generator/air compressor system, where pressurized air from the compressor passes into the space and occupies the space and then flows to the fuel cells in the subassembly module, where the air accumulation space provides an accumulator to control any unreacted fuel gas that might flow from the module.

  5. Complexity in human transportation networks: a comparative analysis of worldwide air transportation and global cargo-ship movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley-Meza, O.; Thiemann, C.; Grady, D.; Lee, J. J.; Seebens, H.; Blasius, B.; Brockmann, D.

    2011-12-01

    We present a comparative network-theoretic analysis of the two largest global transportation networks: the worldwide air-transportation network (WAN) and the global cargo-ship network (GCSN). We show that both networks exhibit surprising statistical similarities despite significant differences in topology and connectivity. Both networks exhibit a discontinuity in node and link betweenness distributions which implies that these networks naturally segregate into two different classes of nodes and links. We introduce a technique based on effective distances, shortest paths and shortest path trees for strongly weighted symmetric networks and show that in a shortest path tree representation the most significant features of both networks can be readily seen. We show that effective shortest path distance, unlike conventional geographic distance measures, strongly correlates with node centrality measures. Using the new technique we show that network resilience can be investigated more precisely than with contemporary techniques that are based on percolation theory. We extract a functional relationship between node characteristics and resilience to network disruption. Finally we discuss the results, their implications and conclude that dynamic processes that evolve on both networks are expected to share universal dynamic characteristics.

  6. Biotreatment of air containing triethylamine (TEA vapor in biotrickling filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Safari Variani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of waste air containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs using cheap and environmentally friendly methods is one of active fields in air pollution control. Objective: The aim of this study was to treat air containing triethylamine (TEA vapor using biotrickling filter inoculated with microbial species decomposing TEA. Methods: This experimental study was conducted in the School of Health affiliated to Qazvin University of Medical Sciences in 2014. Biotreatment was performed with biotrickling filter inoculated with microbial species decomposing TEA for two months. The biotrickling filter was set up with air containing TEA as the sole source of carbon, at Empty Bed Residence Times (EBRT of 36 sec, and inlet concentration of 84 ppm. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Findings: Treatment of TEA contaminated air was made after an adaptation period of 11 days. Despite an increase in mass loading to 111 g/m3/h, TEA was eliminated with 109 g/m3/h capacity and 94-100% removal efficiency by zero order kinetics.Elimination capacity and removal efficiency were close to each other and confirmed109 g/m3/h as loading region with critical elimination capacity. Conclusion: With regards to the results, it is possible to treat air containing TEA vapor in biotrickling filter.

  7. Evaluation of an air drilling cuttings containment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westmoreland, J.

    1994-04-01

    Drilling at hazardous waste sites for environmental remediation or monitoring requires containment of all drilling fluids and cuttings to protect personnel and the environment. At many sites, air drilling techniques have advantages over other drilling methods, requiring effective filtering and containment of the return air/cuttings stream. A study of. current containment methods indicated improvements could be made in the filtering of radionuclides and volatile organic compounds, and in equipment like alarms, instrumentation or pressure safety features. Sandia National Laboratories, Dept. 61 11 Environmental Drilling Projects Group, initiated this work to address these concerns. A look at the industry showed that asbestos abatement equipment could be adapted for containment and filtration of air drilling returns. An industry manufacturer was selected to build a prototype machine. The machine was leased and put through a six-month testing and evaluation period at Sandia National Laboratories. Various materials were vacuumed and filtered with the machine during this time. In addition, it was used in an actual air drive drilling operation. Results of these tests indicate that the vacuum/filter unit will meet or exceed our drilling requirements. This vacuum/filter unit could be employed at a hazardous waste site or any site where drilling operations require cuttings and air containment.

  8. Emergency air cleaning system development for LMFBR containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, J.D.; Hilliard, R.K.; Postma, A.K.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1975-01-01

    Criteria for evaluating the various types of Emergency Air Cleaning Systems which may be used in LMFBR plants have been established for both single containment and containment-confinement arrangements. These two plant arrangements have quite different air cleaning requirements for postulated design base accident conditions. Work is currently in progress to select from a list of candidate air cleaning systems those which best meet the criteria requirements. By means of a weighted rating system, areas of strength or weakness can be found and the conceptual system design then optimized. The final system arrangements will be ranked and several of the most promising systems selected for large-scale tests in the former CSE vessel at Hanford. 8 references. (U.S.)

  9. Study of containment air cooler capacity in steam air environment during accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kansal, M.; Mohan, N.; Bhawal, R.N.; Bajaj, S.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The air coolers are provided for controlling the temperature in the reactor building during normal operation. These air coolers also serve as the main heat sink for the removal of energy from high enthalpy air-steam mixture expected in reactor building under accident conditions. A subroutine COOLER has been developed to estimate the heat removal rate of the air coolers at high temperature and steam conditions. The subroutine COOLER has been attached with the code PACSR (post accident containment system response) used for containment pressure temperature calculation. The subroutine was validated using design parameters at normal operating condition. A study was done to estimate the heat removal rate for some postulated accident conditions. The study reveals that, under accident conditions, the heat removal rate of air coolers increases several times compared with normal operating conditions

  10. The Cargo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Thomas; Charlton, Michael F.; Biggs, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    The Gresham ship was carrying a substantial cargo of different metals when she sank, representing a considerable financial loss. Reports record that some of that material recovered in 1846 included 2700 tin ingots, lead pigs and iron bars (British Archaeological Association, 1847, 361......). The excavations in 2003–4 found a further three stamped lead ingots, five tin ingots and 42 iron bars from the hull area of the ship. The size of the original cargo remains unknown, though the estimated capacity of the ship, perhaps some 150 tons, provides an indication. In this chapter, the assemblage of lead...... and tin ingots and the bar iron will be described, the production processes established and the innovative analytical evidence for the provenance of the metals discussed. The research presented here suggests that lead ingots were from Derbyshire, the tin from Cornwall, but the bar iron seems...

  11. Air and gas cleaning methods for reactor containment vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, L.

    1963-11-15

    In this paper, a survey is made of the existing and some proposed new methods for the control and purification of air and gases which might be released from a reactor contained or confined for protection of the health and safety of the public from potential accidents. The difference between confinement and containment concepts must be considered. The problems involved and the need for decontamination, site selection, exclusion area, population density, distance, etc., have been discussed elsewhere. We propose to discuss here the safety measures necessary to control the release of radioactive materials to the environment. This requires special systems which must function effectively to minimize loss of fission products such as halogens and particulates. These can penetrate the confinement filters or the containment vessel to a limited extent even after cleaning.

  12. Air-cleaning devices for vented filtered LMFBR containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhlestein, L.D.; Hilliard, R.K.

    1982-07-01

    An effort lasting several years is summarized which evaluated, developed and tested air cleaning devices for potential use in breeder reactor containment venting applications. State-of-technology evaluations were completed for both a hypothetical head release accident and a primary vessel melt-through accident. Commercially available systems or components were tested which included HEPA filters, sand and gravel beds, and aqueous scrubbers. Large-scale demonstration tests were completed and results are presented for two- and three-stage conventional aqueous scrubber systems; and for a newly developed passive, submerged gravel scrubber

  13. Surface charge accumulation of particles containing radionuclides in open air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Ha; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2015-05-01

    Radioactivity can induce charge accumulation on radioactive particles. However, electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are typically neglected in transport modeling of radioactive plumes because it is assumed that ionizing radiation leads to charge neutralization. The assumption that electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are negligible is evaluated here by examining charge accumulation and neutralization on particles containing radionuclides in open air. A charge-balance model is employed to predict charge accumulation on radioactive particles. It is shown that particles containing short-lived radionuclides can be charged with multiple elementary charges through radioactive decay. The presence of radioactive particles can significantly modify the particle charge distribution in open air and yield an asymmetric bimodal charge distribution, suggesting that strong electrostatic particle interactions may occur during short- and long-range transport of radioactive particles. Possible effects of transported radioactive particles on electrical properties of the local atmosphere are reported. The study offers insight into transport characteristics of airborne radionuclides. Results are useful in atmospheric transport modeling of radioactive plumes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 46 CFR 154.1810 - Cargo manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... with inert gas and air. (13) A description of hull and cargo tank temperature monitoring systems. (14... vaporization system. (v) Gas main system. (vi) Cargo tank or compressor relief system and blocked liquid or gas relief system. (vii) Inerting system. (viii) Boil-off gas compressor or reliquefaction system. (ix) Gas...

  15. 46 CFR 154.534 - Cargo pumps and cargo compressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pumps and cargo compressors. 154.534 Section 154.534 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES... Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.534 Cargo pumps and cargo compressors. Cargo pumps and...

  16. Process for contamination containment of a workplace by means of an air jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meline, F.

    1984-01-01

    Containment of pollution in an area, for example the room where nuclear fuel elements are cut, is obtained by an air curtain directed by a second air jet to improve the containment of pollutants. Contamined air is extracted by a cyclone and filtered [fr

  17. Understanding X-ray cargo imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Gongyin

    2005-01-01

    Cargo imaging is the field of imaging large objects, usually cargo containers, trains, trucks or boats. Transmission imaging with photons, especially X-rays of up to 9 MV is the dominant current technique, providing compelling details of the contents of objects this large. This paper discusses the physics aspects of a good X-ray cargo imaging system. The basic performance requirements, such as penetration, contrast and resolution and the components of a cargo imaging system are introduced. The imaging process is divided in this paper into three stages: forming information (probing the object), recording information and presenting information (image display). Their impact on performance is analyzed

  18. 78 FR 68784 - Cargo Securing Manuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    .../Circ.) 1352 (``Cargo Stowage and Securing (CSS Code) Annex 14 Guidance on Providing Safe Working... Providing Safe Working Conditions for the Securing of Containers'') of the IMO 2010 CSS Code. A cargo safe.... Indian Tribal Governments K. Energy Effects L. Technical Standards M. Environment I. Public Participation...

  19. An experimental investigation of natural circulated air flow in the passive containment cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, S.H.; Oh, S.M.; Park, G.C.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of air inlet position and external conditions on the natural circulated air flow rate in a passive containment cooling system of the advanced passive reactor. Experiments have been performed with 1/36 scaled segment type passive containment test facility. The air velocities and temperatures are measured through the air flow path. Also, the experimental results are compared with numerical calculations and show good agreement. (author)

  20. Network planning for scheduling operations in air cargo handling : a tool in medium term goods flow control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwijmeren, M.A.A.P.; Tilanus, C.B.

    1993-01-01

    In the hub of a hub-and-spokes network for airfreight transportation, the main part of the incoming and outgoing goodsflow is in special loading units for airfreight. These loading units are metal pallets and containers up to eighteen cubic meters in size. The key part of operations in the hub is

  1. Investigating a Random Walk in Air Cargo Exports of Fresh Agricultural Products: Evidence from a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawanga Freddie Festo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s exports of fresh agricultural products by air from Uganda have been increasing and making a significant contribution to her International trade. Products include mostly fish, flowers, papain, and vanilla constituting over 95% of all air exports. Farming of the items is mainly by small scale farmers who depend on the natural climate of the country. Consequently, monthly yields are also climate dependent making individual export volumes unpredictable. In spite of these uncertainties, this study was intended to investigate possible existence of a model in the trends. Monthly data were collected from Uganda Civil Aviation Authority from 2009 to 2012. Analysis was by using ARIMA Approach with the help of Eviews 8. Visually the data exhibited irregular patterns and without a trend or seasonality. First order differencing stationarised the data and the residuals had a random non-significant noise suggesting a Random Walk Model expressed as ARIMA (0, 1, 0 and a negative drift. The model shows a link between current and one lag export volumes and the negative drift is a convergence of successive differences in export volumes. These findings have policy implications in expansion and forecasting of the exports potential of applicability of Random Walk Theory in practice.

  2. Safety of Cargo Aircraft Handling Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hlavatý

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to get acquainted with the ways how to improve the safety management system during cargo aircraft handling. The first chapter is dedicated to general information about air cargo transportation. This includes the history or types of cargo aircraft handling, but also the means of handling. The second part is focused on detailed description of cargo aircraft handling, including a description of activities that are performed before and after handling. The following part of this paper covers a theoretical interpretation of safety, safety indicators and legislative provisions related to the safety of cargo aircraft handling. The fourth part of this paper analyzes the fault trees of events which might occur during handling. The factors found by this analysis are compared with safety reports of FedEx. Based on the comparison, there is a proposal on how to improve the safety management in this transportation company.

  3. 46 CFR 154.1850 - Entering cargo handling spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., compressors, and compressor motors. (2) Gas-dangerous cargo control spaces. (3) Other spaces containing cargo... cargo handling spaces. (a) The master shall ensure that the ventilation system under § 154.1200 is in... ventilation system, is posted outside of each space under paragraph (a) of this section. (c) The master shall...

  4. Passive filtration of air egressing from nuclear containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malloy, III, John D

    2017-09-26

    A nuclear reactor includes a reactor core comprising fissile material disposed in a reactor pressure vessel. A radiological containment contains the nuclear reactor. A containment compartment contains the radiological containment. A heat sink includes a chimney configured to develop an upward-flowing draft in response to heated fluid flowing into a lower portion of the chimney. A fluid conduit is arranged to receive fluid from the containment compartment and to discharge into the chimney. A filter may be provided, with the fluid conduit including a first fluid conduit arranged to receive fluid from the containment compartment and to discharge into an inlet of the filter, and a second fluid conduit arranged to receive fluid from an outlet of the filter and to discharge into the chimney. As the draft is developed passively, there is no need for a blower or pump configured to move fluid through the fluid conduit.

  5. Aviation security : preliminary observations on TSA's progress and challenges in meeting the statutory mandate for screening air cargo on passenger aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    The Implementing : Recommendations of the 9/11 : Commission Act of 2007 mandates : the Department of Homeland : Security (DHS) to establish a : system to physically screen 50 : percent of cargo transported on : passenger aircraft by February : 2009 a...

  6. Light Scattering by Ice Crystals Containing Air Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Panetta, R. L.; Yang, P.; Bi, L.

    2014-12-01

    The radiative effects of ice clouds are often difficult to estimate accurately, but are very important for interpretation of observations and for climate modeling. Our understanding of these effects is primarily based on scattering calculations, but due to the variability in ice habit it is computationally difficult to determine the required scattering and absorption properties, and the difficulties are only compounded by the need to include consideration of air and carbon inclusions of the sort frequently observed in collected samples. Much of the previous work on effects of inclusions in ice particles on scattering properties has been conducted with variants of geometric optics methods. We report on simulations of scattering by ice crystals with enclosed air bubbles using the pseudo-spectral time domain method (PSTD) and improved geometric optics method (IGOM). A Bouncing Ball Model (BBM) is proposed as a parametrization of air bubbles, and the results are compared with Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations. Consistent with earlier studies, we find that air inclusions lead to a smoothing of variations in the phase function, weakening of halos, and a reduction of backscattering. We extend these studies by examining the effects of the particular arrangement of a fixed number of bubbles, as well as the effects of splitting a given number of bubbles into a greater number of smaller bubbles with the same total volume fraction. The result shows that the phase function will not change much for stochastic distributed air bubbles. It also shows that local maxima of phase functions are smoothed out for backward directions, when we break bubbles into small ones, single big bubble scatter favors more forward scattering than multi small internal scatters.

  7. Product development of Indian cargo scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    A cargo scanner is required for nonintrusive screening of suspected cargo containers in trade, using high energy X-ray, to detect any mis-declarations, contraband goods concealment or hidden ammunition or explosives. The cargo scanners help authorities to process large number of suspected cargo with a high level of confidence with other additional benefit of faster clearance, minimised intrusive inspection and generating secured digital record of the process. BARC is in process of developing Indian Cargo Scanner with indigenous X-ray source. Proof of concept and conformance of the results to the international standards has been demonstrated in laboratory. Full scale equipment named as Portal scanner shall be demonstrated at Gamma field Trombay in year 2017. Subsequently the technology transfer may be done to a suitable Indian vendor

  8. Prácticas y representaciones bibliotecarias en la Biblioteca Pública de Buenos Aires: Una lectura del libro de "Cargo y data" (1810-1818 Library practices and representations in the public library of Buenos Aires: a reading of the book of "Cargo y data" (1810-1818

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro E. Parada

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo estudia, brevemente, las prácticas de gestión bibliotecaria en la Biblioteca Pública de Buenos Aires durante el período 1810-1818. El mismo se basa en un documento existente en el Archivo General de la Nación: el "Libro de cargo y data, o de cuenta corriente de los encargados de los gastos de la Biblioteca Pública formado por el Director de ella Dr. Dn. Luis José Chorroarín en el año 1812". Gracias a esta fuente es posible rastrear la administración y los diversos procesos que permitieron administrar a ese importante establecimiento, una de las primeras creaciones de política cultural de la Revolución de Mayo. De este modo, se abordan varios tópicos de particular interés: ingresos y gastos, personal, venta de ejemplares duplicados y deteriorados, encuadernación de obras, adquisición de libros, mantenimiento edilicio, etc. Entre otras conclusiones se señala la importancia de este tipo de documentos administrativos y burocráticos para conocer la variedad de las prácticas bibliotecarias dentro del marco de la Historia de la Bibliotecología en la Argentina.The article briefly studies the library management practices in the Public Library of Buenos Aires from 1810 to 1818. It is based on a document from the General Archive of the Nation: the "Libro de cargo y data, o de cuenta corriente de los encargados de los gastos de la Biblioteca Pública formado por el Director de ella Dr. Dn. Luis José Chorroarín en el año 1812". Thanks to that source it is possible to track the administration and the different processes that allowed to manage that important place, one of the first creations of cultural politics of the Revolution of May. Thus, several subjects of particular interest are seen here: incomes and expenditures; personnel; selling of duplicate or damaged material; bookbinding; book acquisition; building maintenance; etc. Among several conclusions, the relevance of this type of administrative and bureaucratic

  9. Wet air oxidation of seedcorn wastes containing pesticides and insecticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sievers, M.; Schlaefer, O.; Onyeche, T.I.; Schroeder, C.; Bormann, H.; Schaefer, S. [CUTEC-Inst. GmbH (Clausthal Environment Technology Inst.), Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Wet air oxidation as an alternative treatment process to pyrolysis and combustion of seedcorn wastes was investigated in lab-scale experiments. Due to solid condition of the seed corn waste, the process has been adapted by repeated spraying of water on the seed corn bulk to avoid the production of sludge and its subsequent dewatering. Original seed corns from industrial production plants were used for a degradation kinetic study under smooth wet air oxidation conditions. The temperatures were between 80 and 150 C, the pressure from 1 to 4.5 bar and the pH at different values from 3 to 13. Degradation rates for five different compounds of pesticides and insecticides, namely Imidacloprid, Thiram, Hymexazol, Carbofuran and Tefluthrin were conducted. These compounds represent the recently used in agricultural seedcorn applications. The degradation rate depends linearly on temperature between 80 and 150 C. At 120 C the lowest degradation rate was found for Tefluthrin by 25 mg/h per L reaction volume while the highest degradation rate to be conducted was for Imidacloprid at 363 mg/h L. (orig.)

  10. 77 FR 22497 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Small Container...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Small Container Exemption From VOC Coating Rules... Illinois Administrative Code (Ill. Adm. Code) by adding a ``small container exemption'' for pleasure craft... ``small container exemption'' for pleasure craft surface coating operations. EPA previously approved...

  11. Patterns of a slow air-water flow in a semispherical container

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balci, Adnan; Brøns, Morten; Herrada, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    This numerical study analyzes the development of eddies in a slow steady axisymmetric air-water flow in a sealed semispherical container, driven by a rotating top disk. As the water height, Hw, increases, new flow cells emerge in both water and air. First, an eddy emerges near the axis-bottom int......This numerical study analyzes the development of eddies in a slow steady axisymmetric air-water flow in a sealed semispherical container, driven by a rotating top disk. As the water height, Hw, increases, new flow cells emerge in both water and air. First, an eddy emerges near the axis...... on the air flow. In contrast to flows in cylindrical and conical containers, there is no interaction with Moffatt corner vortices here....

  12. A Long-Life Lithium-Air Battery in Ambient Air with a Polymer Electrolyte Containing a Redox Mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ziyang; Li, Chao; Liu, Jingyuan; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2017-06-19

    Lithium-air batteries when operated in ambient air generally exhibit poor reversibility and cyclability, because of the Li passivation and Li 2 O 2 /LiOH/Li 2 CO 3 accumulation in the air electrode. Herein, we present a Li-air battery supported by a polymer electrolyte containing 0.05 m LiI, in which the polymer electrolyte efficiently alleviates the Li passivation induced by attacking air. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that I - /I 2 conversion in polymer electrolyte acts as a redox mediator that facilitates electrochemical decomposition of the discharge products during recharge process. As a result, the Li-air battery can be stably cycled 400 times in ambient air (relative humidity of 15 %), which is much better than previous reports. The achievement offers a hope to develop the Li-air battery that can be operated in ambient air. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. The Winfrith portable self-contained air samplers, type W.A.S. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavell, I.W.

    1961-11-01

    This memorandum describes a self-contained air sampler for collecting samples of airborne particulates on a standard 6 centimetre filter paper. Its construction, use and performance are discussed. (author)

  14. Evaluation of Triple Containment Method for Air Transport of Contaminated Human

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neville, J

    2003-01-01

    A triple containment system intended for transport of biologically contaminated human remains was tested for its ability to maintain integrity during exposure to altitude changes representative of air transport...

  15. Indirect estimation of radioactivity in containerized cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarman, K.D.; Scherrer, C.; Smith, L.E.; Chilton, L.K.; Anderson, K.K.; Ressler, J.J.; Trease, L.L.

    2011-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material in containerized cargo challenges the state of the art in national and international efforts to detect illicit nuclear and radiological material in transported containers. Current systems are being evaluated and new systems envisioned to provide the high probability of detection necessary to thwart potential threats, combined with extremely low nuisance and false alarm rates necessary to maintain the flow of commerce impacted by the enormous volume of commodities imported in shipping containers. Maintaining flow of commerce also means that inspection must be rapid, requiring relatively non-intrusive, indirect measurements of cargo from outside containers to the extent possible. With increasing information content in such measurements, it is natural to ask how the information might be combined to improve detection. Toward this end, we present an approach to estimating isotopic activity of naturally occurring radioactive material in cargo grouped by commodity type, combining container manifest data with radiography and gamma-ray spectroscopy aligned to location along the container. The heart of this approach is our statistical model of gamma-ray counts within peak regions of interest, which captures the effects of background suppression, counting noise, convolution of neighboring cargo contributions, and down-scattered photons to provide estimates of counts due to decay of specific radioisotopes in cargo alone. Coupled to that model, we use a mechanistic model of self-attenuated radiation flux to estimate the isotopic activity within cargo, segmented by location within each container, that produces those counts. We test our approach by applying it to a set of measurements taken at the Port of Seattle in 2006. This approach to synthesizing disparate available data streams and extraction of cargo characteristics, while relying on several simplifying assumptions and approximations, holds the potential to support improvement of

  16. Effect of air condition on AP-1000 containment cooling performance in station black out accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendro Tjahjono

    2015-01-01

    AP1000 reactor is a nuclear power plant generation III+ 1000 MWe which apply passive cooling concept to anticipate accidents triggered by the extinction of the entire supply of electrical power or Station Black Out (SBO). In the AP1000 reactor, decay heat disposal mechanism conducted passively through the PRHR-IRWST and subsequently forwarded to the reactor containment. Containment externally cooled through natural convection in the air gap and through evaporation cooling water poured on the outer surface of the containment wall. The mechanism of evaporation of water into the air outside is strongly influenced by the conditions of humidity and air temperature. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of the influence of the air condition on cooling capabilities of the AP1000 containment. The method used is to perform simulations using Matlab-based analytical calculation model capable of estimating the power of heat transferred. The simulation results showed a decrease in power up to 5% for relative humidity rose from 10% to 95%, while the variation of air temperature of 10°C to 40°C, the power will decrease up to 15%. It can be concluded that the effect of air temperature increase is much more significant in lowering the containment cooling ability compared with the increase of humidity. (author)

  17. 77 FR 31727 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Small Container...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R05-OAR-2012-0073; FRL 9677-3] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Small Container Exemption From VOC Coating Rules...), direct final rule approving a revision to the Illinois SIP that added a ``small container exemption'' for...

  18. 49 CFR 1546.205 - Acceptance and screening of cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance and screening of cargo. 1546.205... SECURITY Operations § 1546.205 Acceptance and screening of cargo. (a) Preventing or deterring the carriage... aircraft. (2) Prevents access by unauthorized persons other than an authorized foreign air carrier employee...

  19. A method for purifying air containing radioactive substances resulting from the disintegration of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringer, C.W.

    1974-01-01

    The invention relates to the extraction of radioactive isotopes from air. It refers to a method for withdrawing the radioactive substances resulting from the disintegration of radon from air, said method of the type comprising filtrating the air contaminated by the radon daughter products in a filter wetted with water in order to trap said substances in water. It is characterized in that it comprises the steps of causing the water contaminated by the radon daughter products to flow through a filtrating substance containing a non hydrosoluble granular substrate, the outer surface of which has been dried then wetted by a normally-liquid hydrocarbon, and of returning then wetted by a normally-liquid hydrocarbon, and of returning the thus filtrated water so that it wets again the air filter and entraps further radon daughter products. This can be applied to the purification of the air in uranium mines [fr

  20. 49 CFR 178.348 - Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.348 Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle. ...

  1. 49 CFR 178.347 - Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.347 Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle. ...

  2. 49 CFR 178.346 - Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.346 Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle. ...

  3. Second Line of Defense, Port of Buenos Aires and Exolgan Container Terminal Operational Testing and Evaluation Plan, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Bryan W.

    2012-08-23

    The Office of the Second Line of Defense (SLD) Megaports project team for Argentina will conduct operational testing and evaluation (OT&E) at Exolgan Container Terminal at the Port of Dock Sud from July 16-20, 2012; and at the Port of Buenos Aires from September 3-7, 2012. SLD is installing radiation detection equipment to screen export, import, and transshipment containers at these locations. The purpose of OT&E is to validate and baseline an operable system that meets the SLD mission and to ensure the system continues to perform as expected in an operational environment with Argentina Customs effectively adjudicating alarms.

  4. Hydroelastic response of 19,000 TEU class ultra large container ship with novel mobile deckhouse for maximizing cargo capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Il Im

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is related to structural design evaluation of 19,000 TEU ultra large container ship, dealing with hydroelastic response, i.e. springing and whipping. It illustrates application of direct calculation tools and methodologies to both fatigue and ultimate strength assessment, simultaneously taking into account ship motions and her elastic deformations. Methodology for springing and whipping assessment within so called WhiSp notation is elaborated in details, and in order to evaluate innovative container ship design with increased loading capacity, a series of independent hydroelastic computations for container ship with mobile deckhouse and conventional one are performed with the same calculation setup. Fully coupled 3D FEM – 3D BEM model is applied, while the ultimate bending capacity of hull girder is determined by means of MARS software. Beside comparative analysis of representative quantities for considered ships, relative influence of hydroelasticity on ship response is addressed.

  5. Conceptual design of passive containment cooling system with air holdup tanks of improved APR+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Byong Guk; Cheon No, Hee

    2014-01-01

    In Korea, after the successful validation of passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS), a passive containment cooling system (PCCS) gets attention for future development. We suggested PCCS design based on APR+, an advanced PWR developed in Korea, and performed scoping analysis. On the extension of the simple scoping analysis, MARS simulation is performed to incorporate the behavior of water pool outside the containment as well as steam-air mixture inside the containment. Through the simulation we demonstrated the effectiveness of the air holdup tank (AHT). Also we investigated the effect of the models of heat transfer coefficients between steam-air mixture side and water side, and flow instability inside HX tubes. The presence of AHT enables us to reduce the number of required HX tubes more than half through an increase in the heat transfer coefficients due to the reduction of air fraction in the containment. Finally flow instability was observed and mitigated by putting orifice plates at the inlet of tubes, increasing height of return nozzle, and increasing a tube angle. (authors)

  6. 77 FR 22550 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Small Container...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R05-OAR-2012-0073; FRL-9651-6] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Small Container Exemption From VOC Coating Rules... Administrative Code by adding [[Page 22551

  7. A matheuristic for the Cargo Mix Problem with Block Stowage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jonas Mark; Pacino, Dario

    2017-01-01

    The cargo-mix problem aims at selecting the amount of containers of a given type to load on a vessel. In this article we present an extended definition that includes the analysis of a circular route with draft restrictions, limitations on expected cargo and the use of a block stowage strategy...

  8. Effect of air content and mass inflow on the pressure rise in a containment during blowdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.; Holland, P.G.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments were made to investigate conditions arising during blowdown of a vessel filled with saturated steam/water at 7 MPa pressure into a containment vessel. The initial air pressure in the containment vessel was varied from one atmosphere to near vacuum. The initial water content of the high pressure vessel was varied. Pressure and temperature distributions were measured during the blowdown transient and compared with calculations based on a simple lumped-parameter model. The effect of condensation heat transfer on the containment pressure is discussed and attention drawn to the inadequacy of most available data. (Author)

  9. METHODS OF DIAGNOSTIC EFFECTIVENESS ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGES IN CARGO MOTOR TRANSPORTATION ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Sergeevich Antipov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article propose methods of diagnostic effectiveness organizational changes in cargo motor transportation organizations. The article contain the main results approbation of the developed methods of diagnostic effectiveness organizational changes in cargo motor transportation organizations in 37 cargo motor transportation organizations of Saint-Petersburg and the Leningrad Region. Constructed diagrams of conformity specific weights resulting from organizational changes in cargo motor transportation organizations. Presents diagrams effectiveness organizational changes in cargo motor transportation organizations at every stages of the life cycle. The goal of the present paper is to development methods of diagnostic effectiveness organizational changes in cargo motor transportation organizations.

  10. Cargo Data Management Demonstration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-02-01

    Delays in receipt and creation of cargo documents are a problem in international trade. The work described demonstrates some of the advantages and capabilities of a computer-based cargo data management system. A demonstration system for data manageme...

  11. Cargo liability regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    There are at present at least three international regimes of maritime cargo liability in force in different countries of the world - the original Hague rules (1924), the updated version known as the Hague-Visby rules (1968, further amended 1979), and...

  12. Postulated accident conditions for air cleaning systems and radiological dose assessments for containment options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.; Postma, A.K.

    1975-01-01

    Ambient conditions and performance requirements for emergency air cleaning systems applicable to commercial LMFBR plants were studied. The focus of this study centered on aerosol removal under hypothetical core disruptive accident conditions. Effort completed includes a review of air cleaning systems related to LMFBR plants, selection of three reference containment system designs, postulation of the EACS design basis accident (EACS-DBA), analysis of thermal conditions resulting from the DBA, analysis of aerosol transport behavior following the DBA, and an estimate of bone dose at the site boundary for each of the reference plant designs. Reference plant concepts were a single containment system (e.g., FFTF), a double containment system (e.g., CRBRP with closed head compartment), and a containment-confinement design in which an inerted, sealed primary volume was located within a ventilated building whose exhaust was filtered. The reference design basis accident selected here involved release to the inner containment system of 1 percent of non-volatile solids and plutonium, 25 percent of core halogens, 25 percent of core volatile solids, 100 percent of core noble gases, 68 lbs of sodium vapor and 5000 lbs of liquid sodium. 13 references. (U.S.)

  13. Tracking 800-year-old Shipments: An Archaeological Investigation of the Mado Shipwreck Cargo, Taean, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkoo; Moon, Whan Suk

    2011-12-01

    This paper examines cargo from an 800-year-old shipwreck and discusses its implications in relation to the exchange networks and maritime transportation of the Goryeo period (A.D. 918-1392) in Korea. In 2007, two local fishermen fortuitously discovered porcelain vessels from a Goryeo-period shipwreck off the mid-western coast of the Korean peninsula. Underwater excavation conducted by the National Research Institute of Maritime Cultural Heritage (NRIMCH) revealed that the ship was carrying a myriad of cargoes destined for Gaegyeong, the capital of the Goryeo dynasty. Excavation indicates that the main body of the cargo was porcelain vessels produced in the southern part of the peninsula. Archaeobotanical investigation of the wreck deposits revealed that the ship was carrying crops such as rice ( Oryza sativa L.), broomcorn millet ( Panicum miliaceum L.), foxtail millet ( Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.), and buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) bound for the capital. Among the recovered objects were 73 wooden cargo tags with Chinese letters. These tags, equivalent to the modern day air bill, contained detailed information about the senders, recipients, and shipped goods. These findings indicate that during the Goryeo period maritime transportation played an important role in the interpersonal exchange of products over long distances.

  14. Optimization of the velocity of air providing dynamic containment at openings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laborde, J.C.; Berne, P.; Dupoux, N.

    1992-01-01

    The handling of toxic, radioactive or dangerous substances in industry of research laboratories necessitates the use of techniques for protecting the workers involved. The risks arise from these substances being airborne particles and from their transfer, essentially through turbulent diffusion. One way of limiting this risk is to employ the principle of dynamic containment, whereby a particular direction of air flow is imposed at inlets and outlets in order to prevent the back flow of the pollutant to areas where it may be breathed by the operators. The air velocity normally used to prevent back flow of pollutant is 0.5 m.s. The 'Service d'Etudes et de Recherches en Aerocontamination et en Confinement' (SERAC) has begun an evaluation of the effect of a reduction in air inlet velocity on the risk of pollutant back diffusion. This should lead to energy savings through the use of a minimum air flow rate concomitant with appropriate protection. The paper gives the results obtained with openings of different geometries and shapes. It is also proposed a simulation of this phenomenon using a calculation code of air flow in a ventilated room (the TRIO code), so that the results may be compared with the experimental data. (author). 5 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  15. Field performance of Quercus bicolor established as repeatedly air-root-pruned container and bareroot planting stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.W." Jerry" Van Sambeek; Larry D. Godsey; William D. Walter; Harold E. Garrett; John P. Dwyer

    2016-01-01

    Benefits of repeated air-root-pruning of seedlings when stepping up to progressively larger containers include excellent lateral root distribution immediately below the root collar and an exceptionally fibrous root ball. To evaluate long-term field performance of repeatedly air-root-pruned container stock, three plantings of swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor...

  16. 76 FR 4709 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Certified Cargo Screening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... facilities upstream in the air cargo supply chain, such as shippers, manufacturers, warehousing entities... enable aircraft operators and other entities upstream in the air cargo supply chain to accept, screen... Request (ICR), OMB control number 1652-0053, abstracted below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB...

  17. Determinants of Operational Efficiency at Chemical Cargo Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Gúlcan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s globalized world, one of the requirements of global supply chains is efficient transportation systems. Approximately 80 per cent of world merchandise trade carried by sea and handled by ports worldwide. For this reason, maritime transport has the strategic economic importance. Loading of oil and gas has the biggest share (%30 in commodities carried by sea and 2.9 billion tons oil and gas loaded to ship in 2013. This study is focus on chemical cargo terminals which is a special terminal form where high and international levels of safety and quality elements applied. Unlike conventional bulk cargo and container cargo operations, chemical cargo operations include own priorities, applications, and the evaluation criteria. The aim of this study is to perform a qualitative research to determine the factors affecting the operational efficiency of ship, berth and warehousing operations in chemical cargo terminals.

  18. Radial-firing optical fiber tip containing conical-shaped air-pocket for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Ho; Ryu, Yong-Tak; Son, Dong Hoon; Jeong, Seongmook; Kim, Youngwoong; Ju, Seongmin; Kim, Bok Hyeon; Han, Won-Taek

    2015-08-10

    We report a novel radial-firing optical fiber tip containing a conical-shaped air-pocket fabricated by deforming a hollow optical fiber using electric arc-discharge process. The hollow optical fiber was fusion spliced with a conventional optical fiber, simultaneously deforming into the intagliated conical-shaped region along the longitudinal fiber-axis of the fiber due to the gradual collapse of the cavity of the hollow optical fiber. Then the distal-end of the hollow optical fiber was sealed by the additional arc-discharge in order to obstruct the inflow of an external bio-substance or liquid to the inner air surface during the surgical operations, resulting in the formation of encased air-pocket in the silica glass fiber. Due to the total internal reflection of the laser beam at the conical-shaped air surface, the laser beam (λ = 632.8 nm) was deflected to the circumferential direction up to 87 degree with respect to the fiber-axis.

  19. Radiometric evaluation of cargo and container inspection systems with X-ray emitting accelerators; Avaliação radiométrica de sistemas de inspeção de cargas e contêineres com aceleradores emissores de raios-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fideles, L.; Costa, J., E-mail: lazarofideles@gmail.com [Faculdade Casa Branca, SP (Brazil). Pós-Graduação de Proteção Radiológica em Aplicações Médicas, Industriais e Nucleares; Pelegrineli, S.Q. [MAXIM Cursos, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Lima, A.R. [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In X-ray scanners for non-invasive safety inspection of vehicles, cargoes and containers from linear accelerators, installed at borders, boundaries and port terminals, the exposure rates in the supervised and controlled areas of the facility may vary considerably, depending on the type of body of the inspected vehicle. The study emerges as a way to reassess safety insulation and create additional shielding means as increased radiation levels during inspections can increase the likelihood of stochastic effects for occupationally exposed individuals and public individuals. The objective of the study is to measure and analyze the variation of the radiation exposure rate in the installation, considering trucks with metal and canvas bodies, which are inspected in these scanners. This is an experimental field study in X-ray scanners for inspection of cargoes and containers, the exposure rates being obtained by means of a radiation detector type ionization chamber.

  20. Containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The primary mission of the Containment Group is to ensure that underground nuclear tests are satisfactorily contained. The main goal is the development of sound technical bases for containment-related methodology. Major areas of activity include siting, geologic description, emplacement hole stemming, and phenomenological predictions. Performance results of sanded gypsum concrete plugs on the Jefferson, Panamint, Cornucopia, Labquark, and Bodie events are given. Activities are also described in the following areas: computational capabilities site description, predictive modeling, and cavity-pressure measurement. Containment publications are listed. 8 references

  1. Reliability analysis of air recirculation and-refrigeration systems of Angra-1 reactor containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes Filho, T.L.

    1982-10-01

    A reliability analysis of the air refrigeration and recirculation containment systems (ARRCS) of Angra-1 nuclear power plants, were done. The fault tree analysis was used. The failure primary data were taken out of Wash-1400 and IEEE. These data were processed by these following computer codes : Prep-Kitt, Sample, Trebil, Cressex and Streusl for the two stages of ARRCS operation. The design bases accident studied was a LOCA (loss of coolant). The component that more contribution give to the non-availability of ARRCS is the motor of the ARRCS. (E.G.) [pt

  2. Acoustic Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) are designed to be the same external volume as a regular cargo transfer bag, the common logistics carrier for the International Space Station. After use as a cargo bag, the MCTB can be unzipped and unfolded to be reused. This Acoustic MCTBs transform into acoustic blankets after the initial logistics carrying objective is complete.

  3. PA171 Containers on a Wood Pallet with Metal Top Adapter, Air Pressure Tests During MIL-STD-1660 Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    ... (PM-MAS) to conduct Air Pressure Tests during MIL-STD-1660, "Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads" testing on the PA171 containers on a wood pallet with metal top adapter as manufactured by Alliant Tech...

  4. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... generant and, in some cases, a pressure vessel (cylinder)) is a gas generator used to inflate an air bag in... domestic transportation by highway, rail freight, cargo vessel or cargo aircraft, a serviceable air bag...

  5. 46 CFR 153.907 - Cargo information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Information § 153.907 Cargo information. (a) The master shall ensure that the following information for each cargo carried under this part is readily available to those on the tankship engaged in cargo operations... exposed to the cargo. (7) A list of fire fighting procedures and extinguishing agents effective with cargo...

  6. Thermohydraulic modeling of the dry air passive containment cooling system process in the Westinghouse AP-600 ALWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harari, R; Weis, Y; Barnea, Y [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Beersheba (Israel). Nuclear Research Center-Negev

    1996-12-01

    Following postulated events of a LOCA, the passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) uses dry air to transfer the residual heat by natural circulation. The air flow path, designed between the steel reactor containment hot shell and the concrete shield building, creates an open thermosyphon. The purpose of this inherently safe process is to assure the long term steady-state cooling of the nuclear core after an emergency shutdown (authors).

  7. 29 CFR 1918.85 - Containerized cargo operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...” (activated) container gantry crane lifting beams or attached devices are used as anchorage points, the... maximum cargo weight, in pounds. (b) Container weight. No container shall be hoisted by any lifting... of loading or discharging, or every crane or other hoisting equipment operator and signalman, that...

  8. Monitoring tritium in air containing other beta-emitters using ion chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalbert, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A flow-through ionization chamber instrument is described which is capable of measuring tritium in air containing high concentrations of other beta emitters. The instrument employs a separate concentric chamber with a thin common wall opaque only to tritium betas. Currents produced in the two chambers are subtracted leaving only the current due to tritium. With a 1.6-l sampling chamber and an 18-s time constant, tritium concentrations of 10 -6 μCi/ml to 10 -4 μCi/ml are measured with 2 sigma confidence in background beta concentrations of 4 x 10 -5 μCi/ml to 0.4 muCi/ml, respectively. (auth)

  9. Survey of RFID and Its Application to International Ocean/Air Container Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Minoru; Nakada, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Hitoshi; Shimizu, Masashi

    “Internet of Things” (IoT) requires information to be collected from “anything”, “anytime”, and “anywhere”. In order to achieve this, wireless devices are required that have (1) automatic data acquisition capability, (2) small size, (3) long life, and (4) long range communication capability. One way to meet these requirements is to adopt active Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems. Active RFID is more advantageous than passive RFID and enables higher data reading performance over longer distances. This paper surveys active RFID systems, the services they currently promise to provide, technical problems common to these services, and the direction in which research should head in the future. It also reports the results of EPCglobal (EPC: Electronic Product Code) pilot tests conducted on global logistics for tracking ocean/air container transportation using active RFID systems for which we developed several new types of active RFID tags. The test results confirm that our active RFID tags have sufficient capability and low power consumption to well support ocean/air transportation and logistics service.

  10. Radon in air concentrations arising from storage of articles containing radium or thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, M.; Gooding, M.

    2006-01-01

    A major component of public and occupational radiation exposure worldwide arises from the inhalation of radon and thoron gases, produced during the decay of naturally occurring uranium and thorium respectively. Whilst radon and thoron exposures are normally associated with the natural environment, there may also be a risk associated with sources, manufactured articles and waste produced through refining and concentration of naturally occurring radioactive material. Sources and articles manufactured from refined uranium do not normally give rise to the release of radon as the uranium progeny are largely removed during production and, if removed, will take thousands of years to reach full equilibrium with the uranium parent isotopes. Exposure to radon -222 ( 222 Rn) may, however, arise in areas where the uranium-238 ( 238 U) daughter radium-226 ( 226 Ra) is concentrated, for example in the form of sources, luminous articles or low-specific activity (LSA) scale. Exposure to radon- 220 ( 220 Rn), otherwise known as thoron, may occur in areas where thorium isotopes are concentrated, for example as manufactured laboratory thorium compounds. This paper explores the issues affecting radon and thoron release from manufactured articles containing uranium and thorium and their progeny. A methodology is provided for the calculation of 222 Rn and 220 Rn in air concentrations likely to arise as a result of the storage and use of articles containing radium-226 ( 226 Ra) or thorium-232 ( 232 Th). The methodology provided in the document allows derivation of the equilibrium equivalent radon concentration and the radon exposure rate in circumstances where the ventilation rate and volume of the facility can be reliably estimated and the quantities of 226 Ra or 232 Th held are known. A critical variable in the calculation is the release fraction (i.e. the proportion of radon generated that is release to atmosphere), and this paper considers methods for estimating this parameter

  11. 29 CFR 1918.84 - Bulling cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bulling cargo. 1918.84 Section 1918.84 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.84 Bulling cargo. (a) Bulling cargo shall be done with the bull line led directly from the heel block. However, bulling may be done from the...

  12. Lignite air-steam gasification in the fluidized bed of iron-containing slag catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, B.N.; Shchipko, M.L.; Golovin, Yu. [Inst. of Chemistry of Natural Organic Materials, Academgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    The influence of fluidized bed of iron-containing slag particles on air-steam gasification of powdered Kansk-Achinsk lignite in entrained flow was studied in pilot installation with productivity about 60 kg per hour. Slag of Martin process and boiler slag were used as catalytic active materials until their complete mechanical attrition. Two following methods of catalytic gasification of lignite were compared: the partial gasification in stationary fluidized bed of slag particles with degree of fuel conversion 40-70% and complete gasification in circulating bed of slag particles. In the first case only the most reactive part of fuel is gasified with the simultaneously formation of porous carbon residue with good sorption ability. It was found the catalytic fluidized bed improves heat transfer from combustion to reduction zone of gas-generator and increases the rate of fuel conversion at the temperature range 900-1000{degrees}C. At these temperatures the degree of conversion is depended considerably on the duration time of fuel particles in the catalytic fluidized bed. The influence of catalytic fluidized bed height and velocity of reaction mixture on the temperature profiles in the gas-generator was studied. The optimal relationship was found between the fluidized bed height and velocity of flow which makes possible to produce the gas with higher calorific value at maximum degree of fuel conversion.

  13. 77 FR 30542 - Air Cargo Screening Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... Security Identification Display Area (SIDA) IDs. Another commenter requested that if TSA intends to limit... obtain SIDA IDs were not included in the fee models for this rulemaking because STAs for holders of SIDA... FR 51854. Comment: One commenter appreciated TSA's recognition that the STAs performed under the SIDA...

  14. Hygienic assessment of asbestos containing dust in the air of the working zone at thermal power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshkovskiy V.E.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Asbestos and artificial mineral fibers were used actively at thermal power plants (TPP as heat insulation of pipes, seal plates, electrical insulation, etc. But content of asbestos fibers in the air of working zone at TPP was not registered to date. Therefore, aim of the work was to assess asbestos containing dust in the air of working zone at steam turbine and gas turbine TPP in the east region of the country. It was found that old insulation at TPP is mixture of asbestoses that contains chrysotile asbestos and traces of amphibole asbestoses – crocidolite and anthophyllite. In the majority of investigated workplaces at the steam turbine TPP significant dust generation with exceed of maximum one-time exposure limits (2 mg/m3 was observed. Concentration of respirable fibers in the air of working zone in all workplaces did not exceed actual hygienic standard (1 fiber/cm3.

  15. Shared Value Potential of Transporting Cargo via Hyperloop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Werner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research estimates the shared value created by constructing a hypothetical Hyperloop to transport cargo along 300 km in Northern Germany. Following Porter-Kramer (2011, we identified and evaluated eight factors that create shared value: travel speed, operating costs, safety, noise pollution, air pollution, climate effect/carbon footprint, separation effect/ property efficiency, and maintenance. Using official data compiled by several German institutes and organizations, we conducted comparative analysis to quantify and compare the abovementioned factors for Hyperloop and over-the-road cargo transport in Germany. Then, we monetized the individual and collective benefits of the shared value created by Hyperloop replacing a significant share of cargo transported by truck. Our findings indicate that the hypothetical Hyperloop project in Northern Germany would create €660 to €900 million of shared value annually. Our research method establishes a framework for assessing future transportation projects like Hyperloop, and our findings can be generalized to industrialized nations beyond Germany.

  16. A review of the interference of carbon containing fly ash with air entrainment in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Hougaard; Jensen, Anker Degn; Skjøth-Rasmussen, Martin Skov

    2008-01-01

    may interfere with air entraining admixtures (AEAs) added to enhance air entrainment in concrete in order to increase its workability and resistance toward freezing and thawing conditions. The problem has increased with implementation of low-NOx combustion technologies. This review presents the past...

  17. Opportunity of Constructing a Cargo Terminal – Case Study Brașov International Airport, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel BRĂTUCU

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Air transport and especially air cargo transport became ever more important during the last 25 years, with a signifi cant impact upon economic development. Air cargo transport supports regional economic development, provided there is suffi cient local demand for its services. In our study, we have identifi ed signifi cant elements of the impact a cargo terminal at the International Brașov-Ghimbav Airport would have upon local economic development. For this purpose, we have conducted a quantitative market research. We have reached the conclusion that constructing a cargo terminal at the Brașov-Ghimbav Airport is a necessary investment in the current economic context, with an important contribution to the economic development of its surrounding counties. The positive results registered in our study could contribute to improving the economic and fi nancial prospects of Brașov-Ghimbav Airport and attract investors in this project.

  18. Spectroscopic neutron radiography for a cargo scanning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahon, Jill [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Danagoulian, Areg, E-mail: aregjan@mit.edu [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); MacDonald, Thomas D. [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Hartwig, Zachary S. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Lanza, Richard C. [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Detection of cross-border smuggling of illicit materials and contraband is a challenge that requires rapid, low-dose, and efficient radiographic technology. The work we describe here is derived from a technique which uses monoenergetic gamma rays from low energy nuclear reactions, such as {sup 11}B(d,nγ){sup 12}C, to perform radiographic analysis of shipping containers. Transmission ratios of multiple monoenergetic gamma lines resulting from several gamma producing nuclear reactions can be employed to detect materials of high atomic number (Z), the details of which will be described in a separate paper. Inherent in this particular nuclear reaction is the production of fast neutrons which could enable neutron radiography and further characterization of the effective-Z of the cargo, especially within the range of lower Z. Previous research efforts focused on the use of total neutron counts in combination with X-ray radiography to characterize the hydrogenous content of the cargo. We present a technique of performing transmitted neutron spectral analysis to reconstruct the effective Z and potentially the density of the cargo. This is made possible by the large differences in the energy dependence of neutron scattering cross-sections between hydrogenous materials and those of higher Z. These dependencies result in harder transmission spectra for hydrogenous cargoes than those of non-hydrogenous cargoes. Such observed differences can then be used to classify the cargo based on its hydrogenous content. The studies presented in this paper demonstrate that such techniques are feasible and can provide a contribution to cargo security, especially when used in concert with gamma radiography.

  19. Combining technologies - radiography and neutron based - for cargo security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozani, T.; Liu, F.; Sivakumar, M.; Brown, D.

    2004-01-01

    Inspection of air and sea cargo has traditionally been done by X-ray systems of various energies relying on operators to analyze images looking for anomalies in the image of cargo that may signify a threat. This has shown only limited success in detecting explosives and other threats, which do not have any distinctive shapes. OSI Systems, through its subsidiaries Rapiscan and Ancore, has combined high-energy x-ray radiography with thermal neutron analysis (TNA) to create the combined system-''TNX''. The system provides automatic material specific detection of bulk threat items, like explosives, while furnishing the operator with a high-resolution image for weapons detection and also to identify anomalies for the TNA to inspect. Similarly the Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA) can be combined with high-energy x-ray to create a ''FNX'' system for both air and sea cargo applications. This enables the operator obtain a three dimensional image of the material composition of the cargo under inspection and remove the clutter from the image leaving only the potentially hazardous material(s) automatically while viewing a high resolution image for manifest verification and weapons. The current status of the technology will be discussed and data be presented

  20. Dangers of releasing CO₂ to fight fires in the cargo hold of seagoing bulk carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess; Jarleivson Hilduberg, Øssur

    the application of CO₂ to deep-seated fires involving solids subject to smoldering, but without identifying or alerting the reader to the potential presence of explosive pyrolysis gases. NFPA 12 appears to presume that electrostatic discharges will dissipate safety if metal nozzles are used and the entire system......On seagoing general cargo vessels, the cargo is stored in bulk in the holds. Fire protection for cargo holds comprises detection and firefighting capability. Detection normally incorporates a smoke sampling system that continuously draws air from each cargo hold and passes it to a smoke detector...... cabinet. The fire can be fought by flooding the cargo hold with inert carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is stored in its liquid form at pressures in excess of 50 bar and kept in multiple vertical steel cylinders arranged in a battery. For firefighting to be effective, SOLAS regulations require...

  1. Containing air pollution and traffic congestion: Transport policy and the environment in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Anthony T. H.

    Land transportation remains one of the main contributors of noise and air pollution in urban areas. This is in addition to traffic congestion and accidents which result in the loss of productive activity. While there is a close relationship between traffic volumes and levels of noise and air pollution, transport authorities often assume that solving traffic congestion would reduce noise and air pollutant levels. Tight control over automobile ownership and use in Singapore has contributed in improving traffic flows, travel speeds and air quality. The adoption of internationally accepted standards on automobile emissions and gasoline have been effective in reducing air pollution from motor vehicles. Demand management measures have largely focused on controlling the source of traffic congestion, i.e. private automobile ownership and its use especially within the Central Business District during the day. This paper reviews and analyzes the effectiveness of two measures which are instrumental in controlling congestion and automobile ownership, i.e. road pricing and the vehicle quota scheme (VQS). While these measures have been successful in achieving desired objectives, it has also led to the spreading of traffic externalities to other roads in the network, loss in consumer welfare and rent seeking by automobile traders.

  2. A methodology for the evaluation of the turbine jet engine fragment threat to generic air transportable containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, D.C.; Pierce, J.D.

    1993-06-01

    Uncontained, high-energy gas turbine engine fragments are a potential threat to air-transportable containers carried aboard jet aircraft. The threat to a generic example container is evaluated by probability analyses and penetration testing to demonstrate the methodology to be used in the evaluation of a specific container/aircraft/engine combination. Fragment/container impact probability is the product of the uncontained fragment release rate and the geometric probability that a container is in the path of this fragment. The probability of a high-energy rotor burst fragment from four generic aircraft engines striking one of the containment vessels aboard a transport aircraft is approximately 1.2 x 10 -9 strikes/hour. Finite element penetration analyses and tests can be performed to identify specific fragments which have the potential to penetrate a generic or specific containment vessel. The relatively low probability of engine fragment/container impacts is primarily due to the low release rate of uncontained, hazardous jet engine fragments

  3. Responses of plants to sulfur containing air pollutants (H2S and SO2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, Franciscus Marie

    1987-01-01

    Effects of air pollution by hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were already reported more than half a century ago. The wider range of pollution by SO2 is reflected in the number of publications concerning effects of SO2 on plants. The major part of the reported studies effects of SO2

  4. Stereo imaging and random array stratified imaging for cargo radiation inspecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jingjin; Zeng Yu

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a Stereo Imaging and Random Array Stratified Imaging for cargo container radiation Inspecting. By using dual-line vertical detector array scan, a stereo image of inspected cargo can be obtained and watched with virtual reality view. The random detector array has only one-row of detectors but distributed in a certain horizontal dimension randomly. To scan a cargo container with this random array detector, a 'defocused' image is obtained. By using 'anti-random focusing', one layer of the image can be focused on the background of all defocused images from other layers. A stratified X-ray image of overlapped bike wheels is presented

  5. Shared Value Potential of Transporting Cargo via Hyperloop

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Max; Eissing, Klaus; Langton, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    This research estimates the shared value created by constructing a hypothetical Hyperloop to transport cargo along 300 km in Northern Germany. Following Porter and Kramer (2011, 2012), we identified and evaluated eight factors that create shared value: travel speed, operating costs, safety, noise pollution, air pollution, climate effect/carbon footprint, separation effect/property efficiency, and maintenance. Using official data compiled by several German institutes and organizations, we cond...

  6. A Comprehensive Assessment of Biologicals Contained Within Commercial Airliner Cabin Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDuc, Myron T.; Osman, Shariff; Dekas, Anne; Stuecker, Tara; Newcombe, Dave; Piceno, Yvette; Fuhrman, J.; Andersen, Gary; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Bearman, Greg

    2006-01-01

    Both culture-based and culture-independent, biomarker-targeted microbial enumeration and identification technologies were employed to estimate total microbial and viral burden and diversity within the cabin air of commercial airliners. Samples from each of twenty flights spanning three commercial carriers were collected via air-impingement. When the total viable microbial population was estimated by assaying relative concentrations of the universal energy carrier ATP, values ranged from below detection limits (BDL) to 4.1 x 106 cells/cubic m of air. The total viable microbial population was extremely low in both of Airline A (approximately 10% samples) and C (approximately 18% samples) compared to the samples collected aboard flights on Airline A and B (approximately 70% samples). When samples were collected as a function of time over the course of flights, a gradual accumulation of microbes was observed from the time of passenger boarding through mid-flight, followed by a sharp decline in microbial abundance and viability from the initiation of descent through landing. It is concluded in this study that only 10% of the viable microbes of the cabin air were cultivable and suggested a need to employ state-of-the art molecular assay that measures both cultivable and viable-but-non-cultivable microbes. Among the cultivable bacteria, colonies of Acinetobacter sp. were by far the most profuse in Phase I, and Gram-positive bacteria of the genera Staphylococcus and Bacillus were the most abundant during Phase II. The isolation of the human pathogens Acinetobacter johnsonii, A. calcoaceticus, Janibacter melonis, Microbacterium trichotecenolyticum, Massilia timonae, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Corynebacterium lipophiloflavum is concerning, as these bacteria can cause meningitis, septicemia, and a handful of sometimes fatal diseases and infections. Molecular microbial community analyses exhibited presence of the alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta- proteobacteria, as well as

  7. Green channel cargo inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yuanping; Yu Jingsheng; Sun Hongqiang; Hao Pu; Cai Wenxia

    2011-01-01

    A radiation detection device was installed in the lanes of a highway toll station, radioactive rays which was collimated emitted through the measured, and arrived the detector. The average density of the fresh agricultural products belonged to Green channel and other prohibited items vary greatly, the absorption of radiation are different between the Green Channel Cargo and other substances. Prior to the experimental group, different standard samples which represent different models and goods were measured, the different standard samples were stored in a computer database. When the trucks get through the Green Channel, the detector will detect the radiation signal and bring to the computer, the computer will process the measured data, and make a conclusion whether the goods are Green Channel cargo. (authors)

  8. Empty Container Logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Jakov Karmelić; Čedomir Dundović; Ines Kolanović

    2012-01-01

    Within the whole world container traffic, the largest share of containers is in the status of repositioning. Container repositioning results from the need for harmonization between the point of empty container accumulation and the point of demand, and waiting time for the availability of the first next transport of cargo. This status of containers on the container market is the consequence of imbalances in the worldwide trade distribution on most important shipping routes. The need for fast a...

  9. Mortality among population with exposure to industrial air pollution containing nickel and other toxic metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasanen, Kari; Pukkala, Eero; Turunen, Anu W; Patama, Toni; Jussila, Ilkka; Makkonen, Sari; Salonen, Raimo O; Verkasalo, Pia K

    2012-05-01

    To assess disease mortality among people with exposure to metal-rich particulate air pollution. We conducted a cohort study on mortality from 1981 to 2005 among 33,573 people living near a nickel/copper smelter in Harjavalta, Finland. Nickel concentration in soil humus was selected as an indicator for long-term exposure. Relative risks--adjusted for age, socioeconomic status, and calendar period--were calculated for three exposure zones. The relative risks for diseases of the circulatory system by increasing exposure were 0.93 (95% confidence interval = 0.79 to 1.09), 1.20 (1.04 to 1.39), and 1.18 (1.00 to 1.39) among men and 1.01 (0.88 to 1.17), 1.20 (1.04 to 1.38), and 1.14 (0.97 to 1.33) among women. Exclusion of smelter workers from the cohort did not materially change the results. Long-term environmental exposure to metal-rich air pollution was associated with increased mortality from circulatory diseases.

  10. Damage evaluation of 500 MWe Indian pressurized heavy water reactor nuclear containment for air craft impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukreja, Mukesh; Singh, R.K; Vaze, K.K; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2003-01-01

    Non-linear transient dynamic analysis of 500 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) nuclear containment has been carried out for the impact of Boeing and Airbus category of aircraft operated in India. The impulsive load time history is generated based on the momentum transfer of the crushable aircraft (soft missiles) of Boeing and Airbus families on the containment structure. The case studies include the analyses of outer containment wall (OCW) single model and the combined model with outer and inner containment wall (ICW) for impulsive loading due to aircraft impact. Initially the load is applied on OCW single model and subsequently the load is transferred to ICW after the local perforation of the OCW is noticed in the transient simulation. In the first stage of the analysis it is demonstrated that the OCW would suffer local perforation with a peak local deformation of 117 mm for impact due to B707-320 and 196 mm due to impact of A300B4 without loss of the overall integrity. However, this first barrier (OCW) cannot absorb the full impulsive load. In the second stage of the analysis of the combined model, the ICW is subjected to lower impulse duration as the load is transferred after 0.19 sec for B707-320 and 0.24 sec for A300B4 due to the local perforation of OCW. This results in the local deformation of approx. 115 mm for B707-320 and 124 mm for A300B4 in ICW and together both the structures (OCW and ICW) are capable of absorbing the full impulsive load. The analysis methodology evolved in the present work would be useful for studying the behaviour of double containment walls and multi barrier structural configurations for aircraft impact with higher energies. The present analysis illustrates that with the provision of double containments for Indian nuclear power plants, adequate reserve strength is available for the case of an extremely low probability event of missile impact generated due commercial aircraft operated in India. (author)

  11. Fully self-contained vision-aided navigation and landing of a micro air vehicle independent from external sensor inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockers, Roland; Susca, Sara; Zhu, David; Matthies, Larry

    2012-06-01

    Direct-lift micro air vehicles have important applications in reconnaissance. In order to conduct persistent surveillance in urban environments, it is essential that these systems can perform autonomous landing maneuvers on elevated surfaces that provide high vantage points without the help of any external sensor and with a fully contained on-board software solution. In this paper, we present a micro air vehicle that uses vision feedback from a single down looking camera to navigate autonomously and detect an elevated landing platform as a surrogate for a roof top. Our method requires no special preparation (labels or markers) of the landing location. Rather, leveraging the planar character of urban structure, the landing platform detection system uses a planar homography decomposition to detect landing targets and produce approach waypoints for autonomous landing. The vehicle control algorithm uses a Kalman filter based approach for pose estimation to fuse visual SLAM (PTAM) position estimates with IMU data to correct for high latency SLAM inputs and to increase the position estimate update rate in order to improve control stability. Scale recovery is achieved using inputs from a sonar altimeter. In experimental runs, we demonstrate a real-time implementation running on-board a micro aerial vehicle that is fully self-contained and independent from any external sensor information. With this method, the vehicle is able to search autonomously for a landing location and perform precision landing maneuvers on the detected targets.

  12. Binding CO2 from Air by a Bulky Organometallic Cation Containing Primary Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yang-Hui; Chen, Chen; Hong, Dan-Li; He, Xiao-Tong; Wang, Jing-Wen; Ding, Ting; Wang, Bo-Jun; Sun, Bai-Wang

    2018-03-21

    The organometallic cation 1 (Fe(bipy-NH 2 ) 3 2+ , bipy-NH 2 = 4,4'-diamino-2,2'-bipyridine), which was constructed in situ in solution, can bind CO 2 from air effectively with a stoichiometric ratio of 1:4 (1/CO 2 ), through the formation of "H-bonded CO 2 " species: [CO 2 -OH-CO 2 ] - and [CO 2 -CO 2 -OH] - . These two species, along with the captured individual CO 2 molecules, connected 1 into a novel 3D (three-dimensional) architecture, that was crystal 1·2(OH - )·4(CO 2 ). The adsorption isotherms, recycling investigations, and the heat capacity of 1 have been investigated; the results revealed that the organometallic cation 1 can be recycled at least 10 times for the real-world CO 2 capture applications. The strategies presented here may provide new hints for the development of new alkanolamine-related absorbents or technologies for CO 2 capture and sequestration.

  13. GOTHIC-IST 6.1b code validation exercises relating to heat removal by dousing and air coolers in CANDU containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, S.; Krause, M.; Nguyen, T.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents validation results relating to the use of the GOTHIC containment analysis code for CANDU safety analysis. The validation results indicate that GOTHIC predicts heat removal by dousing and air cooler heat transfer with reasonable accuracy. (author)

  14. Characterizing Density and Complexity of Imported Cargos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birrer, Nathaniel [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Divin, Charles [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glenn, Steven [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martz, Harry [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-01

    X-ray inspection systems are used to detect radiological and nuclear threats in imported cargo. In order to better understand performance of these systems, system imaging capabilities and the characteristics of imported cargo need to be determined. This project involved calculation of the modulation transfer function as a metric of system imaging performance and a study of the density and inhomogeneity of imported cargos, which have been shown to correlate with human analysts, threat detection performance.

  15. 46 CFR 154.235 - Cargo tank location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank location. 154.235 Section 154.235 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Survival Capability and Cargo Tank Location § 154.235 Cargo tank location. (a) For type IG hulls, cargo...

  16. Burning rates of hydrogen-air mixtures in containment buildings and the consequent pressure transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennankore, K.N.; Kumar, R.K.; Razzaghi, M.

    1987-01-01

    One-dimensional flame models are often used to predict the pressure transients caused by hydrogen combustion in containments during postulated severe accidents. In the absence of data, these models account for prevailing flame acceleration mechanisms, such as initial turbulence, venting and obstacle-induced turbulence, by using arbitrarily large burning velocities that are much higher than laminar burning velocities. Using an intermediate-scale test facility at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment we have obtained necessary data on the effects of flame acceleration mechanisms, to estimate the safety margin in the buring velocities used in the models. So far, data have been analyzed, with a one-dimensional model, to determine effective burning velocities and burning-rate enhancement factors. The results of the analyses indicate that the effect of initial turbulence on the burning rate can be bounded only if the effect of flame-generated turbulence is included. The effect of venting can be accounted for by using two burning velocities, one for the pre-vent duration and a second increased value during the vented-combustion stage. The enhancement factors due to these two mechanisms, for the different conditions analyzed, varied up to 5.4, and the effective burning velocities varied up to 8.4 m/s

  17. Heat transfer analyses using computational fluid dynamics in the air blast freezing of guava pulp in large containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. M. Okita

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Heat transfer during the freezing of guava pulp conditioned in large containers such as in stacked boxes (34 L and buckets (20 L and unstacked drums (200 L is discussed. The air velocities across the cross-section of the tunnel were measured, and the values in the outlet of the evaporator were used as the initial conditions in computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations. The model tested was turbulent standard k-ε. The CFD-generated convective heat transfer coefficients were mapped on the surfaces for each configuration and used in procedures for the calculation of freezing-time estimates. These estimates were compared with the experimental results for validation. The results showed that CFD determined representative coefficients and produced good correlations between the predicted and experimental values when applied to the freezing-time estimates for the box and drum configurations. The errors depended on the configuration and the adopted mesh (3-D grid construction.

  18. 46 CFR 28.885 - Cargo gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo gear. 28.885 Section 28.885 Shipping COAST GUARD... Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.885 Cargo gear. (a) The safe working load (SWL) for the assembled gear... the load the gear is approved to lift, excluding the weight of the gear itself. (b) All wire rope...

  19. Nonradioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC) Application for the Central Waste Complex (CSC) for Storage of Vented Waste Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAMBERG, L.D.

    2000-01-01

    This Notice of Construction (NOC) application is submitted for the storage and management of waste containers at the Central Waste Complex (CWC) stationary source. The CWC stationary source consists of multiple sources of diffuse and fugitive emissions, as described herein. This NOC is submitted in accordance with the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-400-110 (criteria pollutants) and 173-460-040 (toxic air pollutants), and pursuant to guidance provided by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). Transuranic (TRU) mixed waste containers at CWC are vented to preclude the build up of hydrogen produced as a result of radionuclide decay, not as safety pressure releases. The following activities are conducted within the CWC stationary source: Storage and inspection; Transfer and staging; Packaging; Treatment; and Sampling. This NOC application is intended to cover all existing storage structures within the current CWC treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) boundary, as well as any storage structures, including waste storage pads and staging areas, that might be constructed in the future within the existing CWC boundary

  20. Water spray interaction with air-steam mixtures under containment spray conditions: experimental study in the TOSQAN facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcheron, E.; Lemaitre, P.; Malet, J.; Nuboer, A.; Brun, P.; Bouilloux, L.; Vendel, J. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Direction de la Surete des Usines, des laboratoires, des transports et des dechets, Saclay, BP 68 - 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: During the course of an hypothetical severe accident in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), hydrogen can be produced by the reactor core oxidation and distributed into the reactor containment according to convection flows and steam wall condensation. In order to assess the risk of detonation generated by a high local hydrogen concentration, hydrogen distribution in the containment has to be known. The TOSQAN experimental program has been created to simulate typical accidental thermal hydraulic flow conditions in the reactor containment. The present work is devoted to study the interaction of a water spray injection used as a mitigation mean in order to reduce containment pressure and to produce a mixing of air, steam and hydrogen induced by spray entrainment and condensation on droplet. In order to have a better understanding of physical phenomena, we need to make a detailed characterization of the spray and the gas. The TOSQAN facility that is highly instrumented with non-intrusive diagnostics consists in a closed cylindrical vessel (7 m{sup 3} volume, 4 m high, 1.5 m i.d.) into which steam is injected. Water droplets size is measured in the vessel by the Interferometric Laser Imaging for Droplet Sizing technique. Droplet velocity is obtained by Particle Image Velocimetry and Laser Doppler Velocimetry, and droplet temperature is measured by global rainbow refractometry. Gas concentration measurements are performed by Spontaneous Raman Scattering. The walls of the vessel are thermostatically controlled by heated oil circulation. Inner spray system that is located on the top of the enclosure on the vertical axis, is composed of a single nozzle producing a full cone water spray. Spray test scenario consists of water spray injection in TOSQAN that is first pressurized with a steam injection (steam injection is stopped before spray injection). Water spray falling into the sump is removed to avoid accumulation and evaporation

  1. Final Report, Next-Generation Mega-Voltage Cargo-Imaging System for Cargo Conainer Inspection, March 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. James Clayton, Ph.D., Varian Medical Systems-Security & Inspection Products; Dr. Emma Regentova, Ph.D, University of Nevada Las Vegas; Dr. Evangelos Yfantis, Ph.D., University of Nevada, Las Vegas

    2007-03-27

    The UNLV Research Foundation, as the primary award recipient, teamed with Varian Medical Systems-Security & Inspection Products and the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV) for the purpose of conducting research and engineering related to a "next-generation" mega-voltage imaging (MVCI) system for inspection of cargo in large containers. The procurement and build-out of hardware for the MVCI project has been completed. The K-9 linear accelerator and an optimized X-ray detection system capable of efficiently detecting X-rays emitted from the accelerator after they have passed through the device is under test. The Office of Science financial assistance award has made possible the development of a system utilizing a technology which will have a profound positive impact on the security of U.S. seaports. The proposed project will ultimately result in critical research and development advances for the "next-generation" Linatron X-ray accelerator technology, thereby providing a safe, reliable and efficient fixed and mobile cargo inspection system, which will very significantly increase the fraction of cargo containers undergoing reliable inspection as the enter U.S. ports. Both NNSA/NA-22 and the Department of Homeland Security's Domestic Nuclear Detection Office are collaborating with UNLV and its team to make this technology available as soon as possible.

  2. 78 FR 21037 - Special Conditions: Airbus Model A330-200 Airplanes; Bulk Cargo Lower Deck Crew Rest Compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... are no seats, at least one means must be provided to cover anticipated turbulence (e.g., sufficient... intervening cargo compartment wall, the following applies: (a) Any wall of the module (container) forming part...

  3. Effects of secondary containment air cleanup system leakage on the accident offsite dose as determined during preop tests of the Sequoyah Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaes, L.J.; Nass, S.A.; Proctor, L.D.

    1981-01-01

    The Sequoyah Nuclear Plant has two secondary containments. One is the annular region between the primary containment and the shield building surrounding the primary containment. The second is the auxiliary building secondary containment enclosure which is potentially subject to direct airborne radioactivity. Two air cleanup systems are provided to serve these areas. The emergency gas treatment system (EGTS) serves the annulus between the primary containment and the shield building, and the auxiliary building gas treatment system (ABGTS) serves the area inside of the auxiliary building secondary containment enclosure. The major function served by these air cleanup systems is that of controlling and processing airborne contamination released in these areas during any accident up to a design basis accident. This is accomplished by (1) creating a negative pressure in the areas served to ensure that no unprocessed air is released to the atmosphere, (2) providing filtration units to process all air exhausted from the secondary containment spaces, and (3) providing a low-leakage enclosure to limit exhaust flows. Offsite dose effects due to secondary containment release rates, bypass leakage, and duct and damper leakages are presented and parameter variations are considered. For the EGTS, a recirculation system, the most important parameter is the total inleakage of the system which causes an increase in both whole body (gamma) and thyroid (iodine) doses. For the ABGTS, a once-through system, the most important paramter is the inleakage which bypasses the filters resulting in an increase in the thyroid dose only. Actual preoperational test data are utilized. Problems encountered during the preop test are summarized. Solutions incorporated to bring the EGTS and ABGTS air cleanup systems within the test acceptance criteria required to meet offsite dose limitations are discussed and the resultant calculated offsite dose is presented

  4. X-ray scan detection for cargo integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Juan; Miller, Steve

    2011-04-01

    The increase of terrorism and its global impact has made the determination of the contents of cargo containers a necessity. Existing technology allows non-intrusive inspections to determine the contents of a container rapidly and accurately. However, some cargo shipments are exempt from such inspections. Hence, there is a need for a technology that enables rapid and accurate means of detecting whether such containers were non-intrusively inspected. Non-intrusive inspections are most commonly performed utilizing high powered X-ray equipment. The challenge is creating a device that can detect short duration X-ray scans while maintaining a portable, battery powered, low cost, and easy to use platform. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a methodology and prototype device focused on this challenge. The prototype, developed by PNNL, is a battery powered electronic device that continuously measures its X-ray and Gamma exposure, calculates the dose equivalent rate, and makes a determination of whether the device has been exposed to the amount of radiation experienced during an X-ray inspection. Once an inspection is detected, the device will record a timestamp of the event and relay the information to authorized personnel via a visual alert, USB connection, and/or wireless communication. The results of this research demonstrate that PNNL's prototype device can be effective at determining whether a container was scanned by X-ray equipment typically used for cargo container inspections. This paper focuses on laboratory measurements and test results acquired with the PNNL prototype device using several X-ray radiation levels.

  5. 75 FR 9915 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Certified Cargo Screening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ...-airport and includes facilties upstream in the air cargo supply chain, such as shippers, manufacturers... Request (ICR), OMB control number 1652-0053, abstracted below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB... Management and Budget. Comments should be addressed to Desk Officer, Department of Homeland Security/TSA, and...

  6. Design of heavy lift cargo aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the bird of the skies of the future. The heavy lift cargo aircraft which is currently being developed by me has twice the payload capacity of an Antonov...

  7. 46 CFR 98.30-11 - Cargo pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pumps. 98.30-11 Section 98.30-11 Shipping COAST..., ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Portable Tanks § 98.30-11 Cargo pumps. No person may operate a cargo pump to transfer a product to or from a portable tank unless the pump...

  8. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.195 Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. (a) An aluminum cargo tank and its... the aluminum cargo tank must meet the steel structural standards of the American Bureau of Shipping...

  9. 46 CFR 154.562 - Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. 154.562 Section 154.562 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Hose § 154.562 Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. Each cargo hose must pass a hydrostatic pressure test at...

  10. Containment Performance Evaluation of a Sodium Fire Event Due to Air Ingress into the Cover Gas Region of the Reactor Vessel in the PGSFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sang June; Chang, Won-Pyo; Kang, Seok Hun; Choi, Chi-Woong; Yoo, Jin; Lee, Kwi Lim; Jeong, Jae-Ho; Lee, Seung Won; Jeong, Taekyeong; Ha, Kwi-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Comparing with the light water reactor, sodium as a reactor coolant violently reacts with oxygen in the containment atmosphere. Due to this chemical reaction, heat generated from the combustion heat increases the temperature and pressure in the containment atmosphere. The structural integrity of the containment building which is a final radiological defense barrier is threaten. A sodium fire event in the containment due to air ingress into the cover gas region in the reactor vessel is classified as one of the design basis events in the PGSFR. This event comes from a leak or crack on the reactor upper closure header surface. It accompanys an event of the radiological fission products release to the inside the containment. In this paper, evaluation for the sodium fire and radiological influence due to air ingress into the cover gas region of the reactor vessel is described. To evaluate this event, the CONTAIN-LMR, MACCS-II and OR-IGEN-II codes are used. For the sodium pool fire event in the containment, the performance evaluation and radiological influence are carried out. In the thermal hydraulic aspects, the 1 cell containment yields the most conservative result. In this event, the maximum temperature and pressure in the containment are calculated 0.185 MPa, 280.0 .deg. C, respectively. The radiological dose at the EAB and LPZ are below the acceptance criteria specified in the 10CFR100

  11. Containment Performance Evaluation of a Sodium Fire Event Due to Air Ingress into the Cover Gas Region of the Reactor Vessel in the PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sang June; Chang, Won-Pyo; Kang, Seok Hun; Choi, Chi-Woong; Yoo, Jin; Lee, Kwi Lim; Jeong, Jae-Ho; Lee, Seung Won; Jeong, Taekyeong; Ha, Kwi-Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Comparing with the light water reactor, sodium as a reactor coolant violently reacts with oxygen in the containment atmosphere. Due to this chemical reaction, heat generated from the combustion heat increases the temperature and pressure in the containment atmosphere. The structural integrity of the containment building which is a final radiological defense barrier is threaten. A sodium fire event in the containment due to air ingress into the cover gas region in the reactor vessel is classified as one of the design basis events in the PGSFR. This event comes from a leak or crack on the reactor upper closure header surface. It accompanys an event of the radiological fission products release to the inside the containment. In this paper, evaluation for the sodium fire and radiological influence due to air ingress into the cover gas region of the reactor vessel is described. To evaluate this event, the CONTAIN-LMR, MACCS-II and OR-IGEN-II codes are used. For the sodium pool fire event in the containment, the performance evaluation and radiological influence are carried out. In the thermal hydraulic aspects, the 1 cell containment yields the most conservative result. In this event, the maximum temperature and pressure in the containment are calculated 0.185 MPa, 280.0 .deg. C, respectively. The radiological dose at the EAB and LPZ are below the acceptance criteria specified in the 10CFR100.

  12. Cargo Release from Polymeric Vesicles under Shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Guo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the release of cargo from polymeric nano-carriers under shear. Vesicles formed by two star block polymers— A 12 B 6 C 2 ( A B C and A 12 B 6 A 2 ( A B A —and one linear block copolymer— A 14 B 6 ( A B , are investigated using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD simulations. A - and C -blocks are solvophobic and B -block is solvophilic. The three polymers form vesicles of different structures. The vesicles are subjected to shear both in bulk and between solvophobic walls. In bulk shear, the mechanisms of cargo release are similar for all vesicles, with cargo travelling through vesicle membrane with no preferential release location. When sheared between walls, high cargo release rate is only observed with A B C vesicle after it touches the wall. For A B C vesicle, the critical condition for high cargo release rate is the formation of wall-polymersome interface after which the effect of shear rate in promoting cargo release is secondary. High release rate is achieved by the formation of solvophilic pathway allowing cargo to travel from the vesicle cavity to the vesicle exterior. The results in this paper show that well controlled target cargo release using polymersomes can be achieved with polymers of suitable design and can potentially be very useful for engineering applications. As an example, polymersomes can be used as carriers for surface active friction reducing additives which are only released at rubbing surfaces where the additives are needed most.

  13. A cargo-sorting DNA robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thubagere, Anupama J; Li, Wei; Johnson, Robert F; Chen, Zibo; Doroudi, Shayan; Lee, Yae Lim; Izatt, Gregory; Wittman, Sarah; Srinivas, Niranjan; Woods, Damien; Winfree, Erik; Qian, Lulu

    2017-09-15

    Two critical challenges in the design and synthesis of molecular robots are modularity and algorithm simplicity. We demonstrate three modular building blocks for a DNA robot that performs cargo sorting at the molecular level. A simple algorithm encoding recognition between cargos and their destinations allows for a simple robot design: a single-stranded DNA with one leg and two foot domains for walking, and one arm and one hand domain for picking up and dropping off cargos. The robot explores a two-dimensional testing ground on the surface of DNA origami, picks up multiple cargos of two types that are initially at unordered locations, and delivers them to specified destinations until all molecules are sorted into two distinct piles. The robot is designed to perform a random walk without any energy supply. Exploiting this feature, a single robot can repeatedly sort multiple cargos. Localization on DNA origami allows for distinct cargo-sorting tasks to take place simultaneously in one test tube or for multiple robots to collectively perform the same task. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Specialization and Flexibility in Port Cargo Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakkı KİŞİ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cargo handling appears to be the fundamental function of ports. In this context, the question of type of equipment and capacity rate need to be tackled with respect to cargo handling principles. The purpose of this study is to discuss the types of equipment to be used in ports, relating the matter to costs and capacity. The question is studied with a basic economic theoretical approach. Various conditions like port location, size, resources, cargo traffic, ships, etc. are given parameters to dictate the type and specification of the cargo handling equipment. Besides, a simple approach in the context of cost capacity relation can be useful in deciding whether to use specialized or flexible equipment. Port equipment is sometimes expected to be flexible to handle various types of cargo as many as possible and sometimes to be specialized to handle one specific type of cargo. The cases that might be suitable for those alternatives are discussed from an economic point of view in this article. Consequently, effectiveness and efficiency criteria play important roles in determining the handling equipment in ports.

  15. Characterizing X-ray Attenuation of Containerized Cargo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birrer, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Divin, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glenn, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martz, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wang, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-02

    X-ray inspection systems can be used to detect radiological and nuclear threats in imported cargo. In order to better understand performance of these systems, the attenuation characteristics of imported cargo need to be determined. This project focused on developing image processing algorithms for segmenting cargo and using x-ray attenuation to quantify equivalent steel thickness to determine cargo density. These algorithms were applied to over 450 cargo radiographs. The results are summarized in this report.

  16. A Benchmarking of Operational Efficiency in Asia Pacific International Cargo Airports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-won Chung

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares operational efficiency of major cargo airports in the Asia Pacific region. The multi-dimensional scaling cluster analysis by R-square method was used as the benchmarking tool to provide airport management with a means to examine various aspects of their operational efficiency against those of other airports. Ten operational efficiency factors for the clustering and efficiency estimation of airports in the Asia Pacific region were used in a regression model to overcome the complexity of multi-dimensional scaling approach. The resulting classification is used to identify the efficiency benchmarks of leading air cargo airports which have implications for Incheon airport in Korea.

  17. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugele, B.; Scheider, J.; Spangl, W.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  18. Water bath and air bath calorimeter qualification for measuring 3013 containers of plutonium oxide at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WELSH, T.L.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present qualification data generated from water and air-bath calorimeters measuring radioactive decay heat from plutonium oxide in DOE STD-3013-2000 (3013) containers at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Published data concerning air and water bath calorimeters and especially 3013-qualified calorimeters is minimal at best. This paper will address the data from the measurement/qualification test plan, the heat standards used, and the calorimeter precision and accuracy results. The 3013 package is physically larger than earlier plutonium oxide storage containers, thereby necessitating a larger measurement chamber. To accommodate the measurements of the 3013 containers at PFP, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) supplied a water bath dual-chambered unit and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) provided two air-bath calorimeters. Both types of Calorimeters were installed in the analytical laboratory at PFP. The larger 3013 containers presented a new set of potential measurement problems: longer counting times, heat conductivity through a much larger container mass and wall thickness, and larger amounts of copper shot to assist sample thermal conductivity. These potential problems were addressed and included in the measurement/qualification test plan

  19. Empty Container Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakov Karmelić

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the whole world container traffic, the largest share of containers is in the status of repositioning. Container repositioning results from the need for harmonization between the point of empty container accumulation and the point of demand, and waiting time for the availability of the first next transport of cargo. This status of containers on the container market is the consequence of imbalances in the worldwide trade distribution on most important shipping routes. The need for fast and effective reallocation of empty containers causes high costs and often represents an obstacle affecting the efficiency of port container terminals and inland carriers.In accordance with the above issue, this paper is mainly focused on the analysis of the data concerning global container capacities and the roots of container equipment imbalances, with the aim of determining the importance of empty container management and the need for empty container micro-logistic planning at the spread port area.

  20. The salvaging of the Mont Louis cargo ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vastel, D.

    1985-01-01

    On Saturday the 25th of August 1984, at 2:20 P.M., the German car ferry Olau Britannia with 800 passengers aboard rammed the rear starboard side of the French cargo ship Mont Louis. The collision occurred in the English Channel at a point 18 kilometers north of Ostend. At 7:00 P.M. the Mont Louis sank to a depth of 15 meters at a distance of several miles by rail from Antwerp. Half the ship's hull lay uncovered at low tide. The cargo included 30 type 48-Y containers, each filled with 12 tons of UF 6 , and 22 empty type 30-B containers for return of the enriched uranium. The UF 6 was to be enriched to 4% in the Soviet Union for use as fuel in nuclear power plants. The table below details the nature of the UF 6 . After salvaging operation the containers have been inspected and no damage or leaks have been detected. The accident involved no risk of radioactive or chemical contamination of the sea water. The systematic misinformation campaign by Greenpeace and news media is briefly described. (orig./HP)

  1. A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE MILITARY TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT MOVEMENT AT CARGO ITEM DROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The controllability of military transport aircraft deteriorates at heavy single piece landing. To solve this problem and a specific methodology for pilotage of the pre-emption, and automation tools are being developed. Preliminary study ofpilotage technique and authomatic control algorythm demand a reliable mathematical model of aircraft dynamics at cargo item drop. Such model should take into account significant change in the position of the aircraft center of mass and aircraft inertia tensor. Simplified models were based on modeling the movement of the center of mass and rotation around the cen- ter of mass of the aircraft. Such models do not take into account the inertial forces and moments of moving a cargo item. This circumstance does not allow to obtain reliable results in the simulation. The article presents the description of the complete mathematical model of the movement of military transport aircraft in landing of a cargo item. Examines the com- plex material system of solids and a detailed description of the properties of its components. The equations of motion of the aircraft as a system carrier (aircraft without a cargo item and wear (of moving a cargo item bodies to reflect the changes in the inertia tensor. The functioning of the power plant, steering actuators, flight control system, an exhaust chute, the sen- sors of the primary information are taken into account. The equations of motion for systems of bodies projected on the air- craft reference plane are being recorded. This approach takes into account changes of the inertia tensor and the position of the main central axes of inertia in the process of landing of a cargo item. It allows us to simulate the condition of the air- craft at all speeds of the pitch, normal overload, and masses of single piece and placement, as evidenced by the high con- vergence of modeling results with data from flight tests.

  2. Thermoelastic/plastic analysis of waste-container sleeve: IV. Air gap influence on hole closure. Technical memorandum report (RSI-0019)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pariseau, W.G.

    1975-01-01

    A thermoelastic/plastic finite element analysis of the influence of an air-gap on hole closure about a waste-container/sleeve assembly emplaced in a typical repository room (SALT/4T Model) indicates that hole closure would be of the order of hundredths of an inch. Acceptable air-gap width is thus governed by the hole size required for emplacement efficiency. A refined mesh analysis and laboratory testing is suggested in order to further explore the possibility of eliminating the engineering necessity of the sleeve

  3. Characterizing Complexity of Containerized Cargo X-ray Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guangxing; Martz, Harry; Glenn, Steven; Divin, Charles; Birrer, Nat

    2016-01-01

    X-ray imaging can be used to inspect cargos imported into the United States. In order to better understand the performance of X-ray inspection systems, the X-ray characteristics (density, complexity) of cargo need to be quantified. In this project, an image complexity measure called integrated power spectral density (IPSD) was studied using both DNDO engineered cargos and stream-of-commerce (SOC) cargos. A joint distribution of cargo density and complexity was obtained. A support vector machine was used to classify the SOC cargos into four categories to estimate the relative fractions.

  4. Characterizing Complexity of Containerized Cargo X-ray Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guangxing [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martz, Harry [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glenn, Steven [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Divin, Charles [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Birrer, Nat [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-19

    X-ray imaging can be used to inspect cargos imported into the United States. In order to better understand the performance of X-ray inspection systems, the X-ray characteristics (density, complexity) of cargo need to be quantified. In this project, an image complexity measure called integrated power spectral density (IPSD) was studied using both DNDO engineered cargos and stream-of-commerce (SOC) cargos. A joint distribution of cargo density and complexity was obtained. A support vector machine was used to classify the SOC cargos into four categories to estimate the relative fractions.

  5. Zinc-air cell with KOH-treated agar layer between electrode and electrolyte containing hydroponics gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otham, R. [International Islamic University, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Yahaya, A. H. [University of Malaya, Dept. of Chemistry, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Arof, A. K. [University of Malaya, Dept. of Physics, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2002-07-01

    Zinc-air electrochemical power sources possess the highest density compared to other zinc anode batteries, due their free and unlimited supply from the ambient air. In this experiment zinc-air cells have been fabricated employing hydroponics gel as an alternative alkaline electrolyte gelling agent. Thin KOH-treated agar layer was applied between the electrode-electrolyte interfaces which produced significant enhancement of the cells' capacities, indicating that the application of thin agar layer will improve the electrode-gelled electrolyte interfaces. Promising results have been achieved with porous zinc anode prepared from dried zinc-graphite-gelatinized agar paste; e g. a zinc-air cell employing a porous zinc anode has demonstrated a capacity of 1470 mAh rated at 0.1 A continuous discharge. 32 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Delivery of Cargo to Lysosomes Using GNeosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, Kristina M; Wexselblatt, Ezequiel; Tong, Wenyong; Esko, Jeffrey D; Tor, Yitzhak

    2017-01-01

    Liposomes have been used to improve the intracellular delivery of a variety of cargos. Encapsulation of cargos in liposomes leads to improved plasma half-lives and minimized degradation. Here, we present a method for improving the selective delivery of liposomes to the lysosomes using a guanidinylated neomycin (GNeo) transporter. The method for synthesizing GNeo-lipids, incorporating them into liposomes, and the enhanced lysosomal delivery of encapsulated cargo are presented. GNeo-liposomes, termed GNeosomes, are capable of delivering a fluorescent dye to the lysosomes of Chinese hamster ovary cells as shown using confocal microscopy. GNeosomes can also be used to deliver therapeutic quantities of lysosomal enzymes to fibroblasts isolated from patients with a lysosomal storage disorder.

  7. Suitability of containers from different sources as breeding sites of Aedes aegypti (L. in a cemetery of Buenos Aires City, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Vezzani

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Cemeteries are ideal urban areas to study the importance of different types of containers as breeding sites of Aedes aegypti (L.. In the present study, the suitability of plastic, glass, ceramic and metal containers was evaluated in four patches within a cemetery of Buenos Aires City, Argentina. Between October 1998 and May 2000, we found 215 breeding sites of Ae. aegypti out of 13,022 water-filled containers examined. In two patches containing microenvironments sheltered from the sun, the use of the different types of containers was proportional to the offer (correlation coefficient = 0.99, P < 0.05 in both cases. In the remaining patches, plastic and metal containers were the most and less frequent breeding sites, respectively (P < 0.001 in both cases. The number of immatures per breeding site (median = 4.5 did not show significant differences among the four types of containers examined (H3, 215 = 1.216, P = 0.749. Differences found in patches from a same cemetery suggest that different microenvironmental conditions affect the suitability of each type of container for Ae. aegypti breeding. Plastic containers appeared as key breeding sites that should be removed to reduce the Ae. aegypti population in the study area.

  8. Cargo-mix optimization in Liner Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jonas Mark; Pacino, Dario; Fonseca, Joao Filipe Paiva

    International transportation constitutes one of the biggest challenges in limiting CO2 emission in theworld: it is technically hard to find viable alternatives to fossil fuels, and due to the internationalnature, it is very difficult to regulate CO2 emission of intercontinental trade. Moreover...... and have to find a load configuration (stowage plan)that both suits the current cargo to be loaded but also guarantees that the vessel can be utilizedto its maximum in future ports. The size of nowadays vessels is, however, making this work harderand harder (Pacino et al. (2011)). Moreover, the cargo...

  9. Determining Cargo Flow for Air Mobility Command’s Channel Cargo System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    1.78 2.08 EDAR LICZ 0.18 0,36 0.54 0.72 0.90 1.08 1.26 EDAR LIRN 0.18 0.37 0.55 0.73 0.92 1.10 1.28 EDAR OEDR 0.85 1.69 2.54 3.39 4.23 5.08 5.93 EGUN ...KNGU 0.78 1.56 2.34 3.12 3.90 4.68 5.46 EGUN LTAG 1.68- 3.36 5.04 6.72 8.40 10.08 11.76 KCHS EDAF 0.16 0.20 0.22 0.46 0.75 1.01 1.24 KDOV LGIR 0.31...AMC study (Robinson, 22 Sep 92). BIKF CYQX EDAF EDAR EGUN EXXX FTTJ FZAA GLRB GOOY HKNA HSSS KCHS KDOV KNGU KSUU KTIK KWRI KXXX LCRA LERT LETO LGIR LICZ

  10. Radioactive material air transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pader y Terry, Claudio Cosme

    2002-01-01

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation

  11. Accelerator requirements for fast-neutron interrogation of luggage and cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micklich, B.J.; Fink, C.L.; Yule, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Several different fast-neutron based techniques are being studied for the detection of contraband substances in luggage and cargo containers. The present work discusses the accelerator requirements for fast-neutron transmission spectroscopy (FNTS), pulsed fast-neutron analysis (PFNA), and 14-MeV neutron interrogation. These requirements are based on the results of Monte-Carlo simulations of neutron or gamma detection rates. Accelerator requirements are driven by count-rate considerations, spatial resolution and acceptable uncertainties in elemental compositions. The authors have limited their analyses to luggage inspection with FNTS and to cargo inspection with PFNA or 14-MeV neutron interrogation

  12. Significant air embolism: A possibility even with collapsible intravenous fluid containers when used with rapid infuser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Deepanjali; Narani, Krishan Kumar; Sood, Jayashree

    2010-01-01

    Significant venous air embolism may develop acutely during the perioperative period due to a number of causes such as during head and neck surgery, spinal surgery, improper central venous and haemodialysis catheter handling, etc. The current trend of using self collapsible intravenous (IV) infusion bags instead of the conventional glass or plastic bottles has several advantages, one of thaem being protection against air embolism. We present a 56-year-old man undergoing kidney transplantation, who developed a near fatal venous air embolism during volume resuscitation with normal saline in collapsible IV bags used with rapid infuser system. To our knowledge, this problem with collapsible infusion bags has not been reported earlier. PMID:20532073

  13. Significant air embolism: A possibility even with collapsible intravenous fluid containers when used with rapid infuser system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepanjali Pant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant venous air embolism may develop acutely during the perioperative period due to a number of causes such as during head and neck surgery, spinal surgery, improper central venous and haemodialysis catheter handling, etc. The current trend of using self collapsible intravenous (IV infusion bags instead of the conventional glass or plastic bottles has several advantages, one of thaem being protection against air embolism. We present a 56-year-old man undergoing kidney transplantation, who developed a near fatal venous air embolism during volume resuscitation with normal saline in collapsible IV bags used with rapid infuser system. To our knowledge, this problem with collapsible infusion bags has not been reported earlier.

  14. Automated X-ray image analysis for cargo security: Critical review and future promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Thomas W; Jaccard, Nicolas; Morton, Edward J; Griffin, Lewis D

    2017-01-01

    We review the relatively immature field of automated image analysis for X-ray cargo imagery. There is increasing demand for automated analysis methods that can assist in the inspection and selection of containers, due to the ever-growing volumes of traded cargo and the increasing concerns that customs- and security-related threats are being smuggled across borders by organised crime and terrorist networks. We split the field into the classical pipeline of image preprocessing and image understanding. Preprocessing includes: image manipulation; quality improvement; Threat Image Projection (TIP); and material discrimination and segmentation. Image understanding includes: Automated Threat Detection (ATD); and Automated Contents Verification (ACV). We identify several gaps in the literature that need to be addressed and propose ideas for future research. Where the current literature is sparse we borrow from the single-view, multi-view, and CT X-ray baggage domains, which have some characteristics in common with X-ray cargo.

  15. Marine cargo imports and forest pest introductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank H. Koch

    2009-01-01

    A major pathway for the introduction of nonindigenous forest pests is accidental transport on cargo imported from overseas. Diseases may be brought into the United States via commercial trade of nursery stock or other live plant material, as has been suggested for Phytophthora ramorum, the pathogen that causes sudden oak death (Ivors and others 2006). Insects may...

  16. An illustrative application example: cargo state monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, C.; Diaz, V.C.; Kotian, R.; del Toro Matamoros, R.; Papp, Z.; Rieter-Barrel, Y.; Papp, Z.; Exarchakos, G.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes a real self-adaptive system carried out using the DEMANES tool chain. This chapter focuses on the design and implementation stages of a real use case development. The use case under study is a subsystem, called Cargo Monitoring System (CMS) , that monitors the state of the

  17. An Analysis of Air Transportation in Nigeria | Ladan | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Air Transportation is the transportation of passengers and cargo by aircraft and helicopters. An efficient air transport contributes to economic growth and development. However in Nigeria,lt ... Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  18. Traffic-related air pollutants induce the release of allergen-containing cytoplasmic granules from grass pollen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motta, A C; Marliere, M; Peltre, G; Sterenberg, P A; Lacroix, G

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: Pollen cytoplasmic granules (PCG) are loaded with allergens. They are released from grass pollen grains following contact with water and can form a respirable allergenic aerosol. On the other hand, the traffic-related air pollutants NO2 and O3 are known to be involved in the current

  19. Traffic-related air pollutants induce the release of allergen-containing cytoplasmic granules from grass pollen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motta, AC; Marliere, M; Peltre, G; Sterenberg, PA; Lacroix, G

    2006-01-01

    Background/Aim: Pollen cytoplasmic granules (PCG) are loaded with allergens. They are released from grass pollen grains following contact with water and can form a respirable allergenic aerosol. On the other hand, the traffic-related air pollutants NO2 and O-3 are known to be involved in the current

  20. 46 CFR 154.560 - Cargo hose: Prototype test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose: Prototype test. 154.560 Section 154.560... Hose § 154.560 Cargo hose: Prototype test. (a) Each cargo hose must be of a type that passes a prototype test at a pressure of at least five times its maximum working pressure at or below the minimum...

  1. 46 CFR 153.440 - Cargo temperature sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo temperature sensors. 153.440 Section 153.440 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS... Temperature Control Systems § 153.440 Cargo temperature sensors. (a) Except as prescribed in paragraph (c) of...

  2. 46 CFR 154.1816 - Cargo location plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo location plan. 154.1816 Section 154.1816 Shipping... FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1816 Cargo location plan. The master shall ensure that: (a) A cargo location plan is prepared that gives: (1) The location and...

  3. 29 CFR 1918.87 - Ship's cargo elevators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's cargo elevators. 1918.87 Section 1918.87 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.87 Ship's cargo elevators. (a) Safe working load. The safe workin...

  4. 46 CFR 151.25-2 - Cargo handling space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo handling space. 151.25-2 Section 151.25-2 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Environmental Control § 151.25-2 Cargo handling space. Pump rooms, compressor rooms, refrigeration rooms, heating rooms, instrument rooms or other closed spaces...

  5. 46 CFR 154.1814 - Cargo information cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo information cards. 154.1814 Section 154.1814... cards. (a) No person may operate a vessel unless a cargo information card for each cargo being... accessible to the person in charge of the watch. (b) When a vessel is moored at a terminal, the master shall...

  6. Multirole cargo aircraft options and configurations. [economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, D. W.; Vaughan, J. C., III

    1979-01-01

    A future requirements and advanced market evaluation study indicates derivatives of current wide-body aircraft, using 1980 advanced technology, would be economically attractive through 2008, but new dedicated airfreighters incorporating 1990 technology, would offer little or no economic incentive. They would be economically attractive for all payload sizes, however, if RD and T costs could be shared in a joint civil/military arrangement. For the 1994-2008 cargo market, option studies indicate Mach 0.7 propfans would be economically attractive in trip cost, aircraft price and airline ROI. Spanloaders would have an even lower price and higher ROI but would have a relatively high trip cost because of aerodynamic inefficiencies. Dedicated airfreighters using propfans at Mach 0.8 cruise, laminar flow control, or cryofuels, would not provide any great economic benefits. Air cushion landing gear configurations are identified as an option for avoiding runway constraints on airport requirements and/or operational constraints are noted.

  7. Effect of bedside shielding on air-kerma rates around gynecologic intracavitary brachytherapy patients containing 226Ra or 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papin, P.J.; Ramsey, M.J.; LaFontaine, R.L.; LePage, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    An anthropomorphic phantom was implanted with 226Ra or 137Cs gynecologic intracavitary brachytherapy sources. Air-kerma rate measurements were taken at 10-cm increments along a horizontal plane from the side of the bed at 50 cm, 87 cm, and 136 cm heights above the floor. Five portable lead shields were placed at the head, at the foot and along one side of the bed and readings were taken again at the corresponding heights above, below and behind the shields. The readings were normalized to 100-mg Ra equivalence, and air-kerma rate curves were drawn allowing for the comparison of 226Ra and 137Cs with and without lead shields. The data demonstrated that the air-kerma rates for 137Cs were reduced more than those for 226Ra with the use of the portable lead shields. There was four times the transmission with 226Ra than with 137Cs. The optimal placement was with the lateral bedside shields proximal to the head and foot closest to the bed, with the middle shield overlapping in back. The shields at the head and foot should extend out and overlap the bedside shields. The level of the sources should be positioned near the bottom of the shields. This information will provide the medical health physicist with an estimate of air-kerma rates for both 226Ra and 137Cs with and without shielding for evaluating personnel exposures as well as the effectiveness of current shielding in relation to radiation protection requirements in adjacent rooms or hallways

  8. Relocatable cargo x-ray inspection systems utilizing compact linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapp, W. Wade; Adams, William L.; Callerame, Joseph; Grodzins, Lee; Rothschild, Peter J.; Schueller, Richard; Mishin, Andrey V.; Smith, Gerald J.

    2001-01-01

    Magnetron-powered, X-band linacs with 3-4 MeV capability are compact enough to be readily utilized in relocatable high energy cargo inspection systems. Just such a system is currently under development at AS and E trade mark sign using the commercially available ISOSearch trade mark sign cargo inspection system as the base platform. The architecture permits the retention of backscatter imaging, which has proven to be an extremely valuable complement to the more usual transmission images. The linac and its associated segmented detector will provide an additional view with superior penetration and spatial resolution. The complete system, which is housed in two standard 40 ' ISO containers, is briefly described with emphasis on the installation and operating characteristics of the portable linac. The average rf power delivered by the magnetron to the accelerator section can be varied up to the maximum of about 1 kW. The projected system performance, including radiation dose to the environment, will be discussed and compared with other high energy systems

  9. Wendy J. Goodson, Microbiomes of Military Cargo Aircraft and their Connection to Biocorrosion

    OpenAIRE

    Schriml, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Wendy J. Goodson, Air Force Research Laboratory Microbiomes of Military Cargo Aircraft and their Connection to BiocorrosionOn October 10-12th, 2017 the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine co-hosting MoBE 2017 (Microbiology of the Built Environment Research and Applications Symposium) at the National Academy of Sciences Building to present the current state-of-the-science in understanding the formation and function of microbial communitie...

  10. Comparing the Air Abrasion Cutting Efficacy of Dentine Using a Fluoride-Containing Bioactive Glass versus an Alumina Abrasive: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa H. X. Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Air abrasion as a caries removal technique is less aggressive than conventional techniques and is compatible for use with adhesive restorative materials. Alumina, while being currently the most common abrasive used for cutting, has controversial health and safety issues and no remineralisation properties. The alternative, a bioactive glass, 45S5, has the advantage of promoting hard tissue remineralisation. However, 45S5 is slow as a cutting abrasive and lacks fluoride in its formulation. The aim of this study was to compare the cutting efficacy of dentine using a customised fluoride-containing bioactive glass Na0SR (38–80 μm versus the conventional alumina abrasive (29 μm in an air abrasion set-up. Fluoride was incorporated into Na0SR to enhance its remineralisation properties while strontium was included to increase its radiopacity. Powder outflow rate was recorded prior to the cutting tests. Principal air abrasion cutting tests were carried out on pristine ivory dentine. The abrasion depths were quantified and compared using X-ray microtomography. Na0SR was found to create deeper cavities than alumina (p<0.05 despite its lower powder outflow rate and predictably reduced hardness. The sharper edges of the Na0SR glass particles might improve the cutting efficiency. In conclusion, Na0SR was more efficacious than alumina for air abrasion cutting of dentine.

  11. Studies of heat transfer having relevance to nuclear reactor containment cooling by buoyancy-driven air flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, J. D.; Li, J.; Wang, J. [The Univ., of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    Two separate effects experiments concerned with buoyancy-influenced convective heat transfer in vertical passages which have relevance to the problem of nuclear reactor containment cooling by means of buoyancy-driven airflow are described. A feature of each is that local values of heat transfer coefficient are determined on surfaces maintained at uniform temperature. Experimental results are presented which highlight the need for buoyancy-induced impairment of turbulent convective heat transfer to be accounted for in the design of such passive cooling systems. A strategy is presented for predicting the heat removal by combined convective and radiative heat transfer from a full scale nuclear reactor containment shell using such experimental results.

  12. The use of x-ray imaging technology in cargo inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palgan, Renato D.

    2009-01-01

    The aftermath of the September 11,2001 terrorist attack in the United States has brought a significant change in the conduct of trade and commerce among nations. The introduction on non-intrusive cargo inspection equipment, most x-ray and gamma ray scanners, among customs administrations worldwide has been widely employed and incorporated in their respective cargo examination procedures as part of their security initiative to deter terrorist threats. In compliance with our international commitment and agreement passed by the World Customs Organization which required the use of modern technology in cargo inspection, the Bureau of Customs had acquired 30 units of container x-ray scanners in 2006 from China that became operational in 2007 and the acquisition of which was guided by the following objectives: maximize collection of government revenues,facilitate trade and commerce, prevent smuggling, and safeguard the public and environment against the entry of hazardous and harmful substance. In this light, this paper discusses the brief background of the non-intrusive container inspection system project of the Bureau of Customs, an overview of the technical features of x-ray imaging technology acquired, the procedures in the application of x-ray inspection in containerized cargo, the radiation safety infrastructures and considerations, and a review of some major accomplishments after its two years of existence. (author)

  13. Design and application of radiation apparatus for sup 6 sup 0 Co cargo train on-line inspection system

    CERN Document Server

    Wu Zhi Fang; Zhang Yuai

    2002-01-01

    Based on the special requirement for radiation apparatus of sup 6 sup 0 Co cargo train on-line inspection system, a radiation apparatus including two-level shutter, working container, storing container and electromagnetism are designed. The makeup, working mode and functional realization of the radiation apparatus are introduced. The system is used in Manzhouli customs cargo train on-line inspection system. The practice shows that the radiation apparatus is reliable to work steadily and the operating speed of the main shutter can reach 0.1 s open and 0.15 s close

  14. SUBMERGED GRAVEL SCRUBBER DEMONSTRATION AS A PASSIVE AIR CLEANER FOR CONTAINMENT VENTING AND PURGING WITH SODIUM AEROSOLS -- CSTF TESTS AC7 - AC10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HILLIARD, R K.; MCCORMACK, J D.; POSTMA, A K.

    1981-11-01

    Four large-scale air cleaning tests (AC7 - AC10) were performed in the Containment Systems Test Facility (CS'lF) to demonstrate the performance of a Submerged Gravel Scrubber for cleaning the effluent gas from a vented and purged breeder reactor containment vessel. The test article, comprised of a Submerged Gravel Scrubber (SGS) followed by a high efficiency fiber demister, had a design gas flow rate of 0.47 m{sup 3}/s (1000 ft{sup 3}/min) at a pressure drop of 9.0 kPa (36 in. H{sub 2}O). The test aerosol was sodium oxide, sodium hydroxide, or sodium carbonate generated in the 850-m{sup 3} CSTF vessel by continuously spraying sodium into the air-filled vessel while adding steam or carbon dioxide. Approximately 4500 kg (10,000 lb) of sodium was sprayed over a total period of 100 h during the tests. The SGS/Demister system was shown to be highly efficient (removing ~99.98% of the entering sodium aerosol mass), had a high mass loading capacity, and operated in a passive manner, with no electrical requirement. Models for predicting aerosol capture, gas cooling, and pressure drop are developed and compared with experimental results.

  15. Modeling of experimental treatment of acetaldehyde-laden air and phenol-containing water using corona discharge technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faungnawakij, Kajornsak; Sano, Noriaki; Charinpanitkul, Tawatchai; Tanthapanichakoon, Wiwut

    2006-03-01

    Acetaldehyde-laden air and phenol-contaminated water were experimentally treated using corona discharge reactions and gas absorption in a single water-film column. Mathematical modeling of the combined treatment was developed in this work. Efficient removal of the gaseous acetaldehyde was achieved while the corona discharge reactions produced short-lived species such as O and O- as well as ozone. Direct contact of the radicals and ions with water was known to produce aqueous OH radical, which contributes to the decomposition of organic contaminants: phenol, absorbed acetaldehyde, and intermediate byproducts in the water. The influence of initial phenol concentration ranging from 15 to 50 mg L(-1) and that of influent acetaldehyde ranging from 0 to 200 ppm were experimentally investigated and used to build the math model. The maximum energetic efficiency of TOC, phenol, and acetaldehyde were obtained at 25.6 x 10(-9) mol carbon J(-1), 25.0 x 10(-9) mol phenol J(-1), and 2.0 x 10(-9) mol acetaldehyde J(-1), respectively. The predictions for the decomposition of acetaldehyde, phenol, and their intermediates were found to be in good agreement with the experimental results.

  16. PCB-containing wood floor finish is a likely source of elevated PCBs in residents' blood, household air and dust: a case study of exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seryak Liesel M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are persistent pollutants identified worldwide as human blood and breast milk contaminants. Because they bioaccumulate, consumption of meat, fish, and dairy products predicts human blood concentrations. PCBs were also used widely in building materials, including caulks and paints, but few studies have evaluated the contribution of these exposures to body burden. Methods In an earlier study, we detected PCBs in indoor air in 31% of 120 homes on Cape Cod, MA. Two of the homes had much higher concentrations than the rest, so we retested to verify the initial finding, evaluate blood PCB concentrations of residents, and identify the PCB source. Results Air and dust concentrations remained elevated over 5 years between initial and follow-up sampling. Blood serum concentrations of PCBs in residents of the homes were generally elevated above the 95th percentile of a representative sample of the US population. Serum concentrations in residents and air and dust concentrations were especially high in a home where a resident reported use of PCB-containing floor finish in the past, and where the floor of one room was sanded and refinished just prior to sample collection. Conclusion This case-study suggests that PCB residues in homes may be more significant contributors to overall exposure than diet for some people, and that use of a commercially-available PCB-containing wood floor finish in residences during the 1950s and 1960s is an overlooked but potentially important source of current PCB exposure in the general population.

  17. Reactor containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabe, Ryuhei; Yamaki, Rika.

    1990-01-01

    A water vessel is disposed and the gas phase portion of the water vessel is connected to a reactor container by a pipeline having a valve disposed at the midway thereof. A pipe in communication with external air is extended upwardly from the liquid phase portion to a considerable height so as to resist against the back pressure by a waterhead in the pipeline. Accordingly, when the pressure in the container is reduced to a negative level, air passes through the pipeline and uprises through the liquid phase portion in the water vessel in the form of bubbles and then flows into the reactor container. When the pressure inside of the reactor goes higher, since the liquid surface in the water vessel is forced down, water is pushed up into the pipeline. Since the waterhead pressure of a column of water in the pipeline and the pressure of the reactor container are well-balanced, gases in the reactor container are not leaked to the outside. Further, in a case if a great positive pressure is formed in the reactor container, the inner pressure overcomes the waterhead of the column of water, so that the gases containing radioactive aerosol uprise in the pipeline. Since water and the gases flow being in contact with each other, this can provide the effect of removing aerosol. (T.M.)

  18. Radiological risks from irradiation of cargo contents with EURITRACK neutron inspection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giroletti, E.; Bonomi, G.; Donzella, A.; Viesti, G.; Zenoni, A.

    2012-01-01

    The radiological risk for the population related to the neutron irradiation of cargo containers with a tagged neutron inspection system has been studied. Two possible effects on the public health have been assessed: the modification of the nutritional and organoleptic properties of the irradiated materials, in particular foodstuff, and the neutron activation of consumer products (i.e. food and pharmaceuticals). The result of this study is that irradiation of food and foodstuff, pharmaceutical and medical devices in container cargoes would neither modify the properties of the irradiated material nor produce effective doses of concern for public health. Furthermore, the dose received by possible stowaways present inside the container during the inspection is less than the annual effective dose limit defined by European Legislation for the public. - Highlights: ► Neutron irradiation of cargo containers implies a radiological risk. ► The risk is about the modification of food properties and the products activation. ► Assessment is made about the EURITRACK neutron irradiation system. ► Results show that the EURITRACK scanning is not dangerous for the population.

  19. Predicting the Room Air Temperature of the Containment Spray Pump Room for the Loss of HVAC Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Churl; Park, Jin Hee; Lim, Ho Gon; Han, Sang Hoon

    2007-01-01

    In PSA Models, the HVAC system is essential for the various vital mitigation safety systems operating during a mission time. So far, the unavailability of the safety system when the HVAC system is unavailable, has been applied conservatively or optimistically based on operating experience and expert judgment, so the total core damage frequency could be unrealistic. In this paper, we performed a heat up calculation for the Containment Spray Pump Room at Kori 3 and 4 Units using a CFD code to estimate the operability of the CS pump and its support systems in the pump room under the situation of a loss of the HVAC. The result of this calculation could be applied the PSA Model for Risk Informed Regulation for Kori Units 3 and 4

  20. In vitro selection of shape-changing DNA nanostructures capable of binding-induced cargo release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung Soo; Plakos, Kory; Xiao, Yi; Eisenstein, Michael; Soh, H Tom

    2013-11-26

    Many biological systems employ allosteric regulatory mechanisms, which offer a powerful means of directly linking a specific binding event to a wide spectrum of molecular functionalities. There is considerable interest in generating synthetic allosteric regulators that can perform useful molecular functions for applications in diagnostics, imaging and targeted therapies, but generating such molecules through either rational design or directed evolution has proven exceptionally challenging. To address this need, we present an in vitro selection strategy for generating conformation-switching DNA nanostructures that selectively release a small-molecule payload in response to binding of a specific trigger molecule. As an exemplar, we have generated a DNA nanostructure that hybridizes with a separate 'cargo strand' containing an abasic site. This abasic site stably sequesters a fluorescent cargo molecule in an inactive state until the DNA nanostructure encounters an ATP trigger molecule. This ATP trigger causes the nanostructure to release the cargo strand, thereby liberating the fluorescent payload and generating a detectable fluorescent readout. Our DNA nanostructure is highly sensitive, with an EC50 of 30 μM, and highly specific, releasing its payload in response to ATP but not to other chemically similar nucleotide triphosphates. We believe that this selection approach could be generalized to generate synthetic nanostructures capable of selective and controlled release of other small-molecule cargos in response to a variety of triggers, for both research and clinical applications.

  1. Cargo distributions differentiate pathological axonal transport impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cassie S; Lee, Robert H

    2012-05-07

    Axonal transport is an essential process in neurons, analogous to shipping goods, by which energetic and cellular building supplies are carried downstream (anterogradely) and wastes are carried upstream (retrogradely) by molecular motors, which act as cargo porters. Impairments in axonal transport have been linked to devastating and often lethal neurodegenerative diseases, such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Huntington's, and Alzheimer's. Axonal transport impairment types include a decrease in available motors for cargo transport (motor depletion), the presence of defective or non-functional motors (motor dilution), and the presence of increased or larger cargos (protein aggregation). An impediment to potential treatment identification has been the inability to determine what type(s) of axonal transport impairment candidates that could be present in a given disease. In this study, we utilize a computational model and common axonal transport experimental metrics to reveal the axonal transport impairment general characteristics or "signatures" that result from three general defect types of motor depletion, motor dilution, and protein aggregation. Our results not only provide a means to discern these general impairments types, they also reveal key dynamic and emergent features of axonal transport, which potentially underlie multiple impairment types. The identified characteristics, as well as the analytical method, can be used to help elucidate the axonal transport impairments observed in experimental and clinical data. For example, using the model-predicted defect signatures, we identify the defect candidates, which are most likely to be responsible for the axonal transport impairments in the G93A SOD1 mouse model of ALS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF TRANSPORT CARGO COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Okorokov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Making the qualitative administrative decisions defining strategy and tactics of transport cargo complexes development, and also its subsystems, is possible only in the presence of flexible optimization model. This model has to consider multiparametricity and multicriteriality of the given task, uncertainty and vagueness of input information, and also to provide process automation of searching the best parameters of the given production facility. The purpose of the research is to develop procedures for the strategic management of complex with view of the most important factors and their stochastic nature, which will execute the improvement of technical equipment of TCC. Methodology. The problem of strategic management is based on solving the complex of issues of the optimal number of shunting locomotives, optimal processing capability of handling the front and rational capacity of warehouses. The problem is solved on the basis of the proposed optimality criterion – the specific set of profit per unit of capital assets of freight industry. The listed problems are solved using simulation modeling of the freight industry. Findings. The use of developed procedure allows one to improve the technical equipment of the freight stations and complexes. Originality. For the first time it was developed the procedure of strategic management of development. This procedure allows taking into account the probabilistic nature of demand for services of transport freight complexes and technological processes of client services on the complex stations. The proposed procedure can be applied during when planning the investments in the creation of transport freight complexes. Practical value. Use as a basic tool of simulation models of complex cargo operation allows estimating the effectiveness of the capital investments, the level of operating costs, as well as the quality of meeting the demands of potential customers in transportations at the stage of

  3. The carriage of dangerous and nuclear cargoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    In an area of real public concern it is regrettable that the applicable principles of legal liability at common law are not certain nor readily adaptable to admittedly remarkable technological change. Whilst the ever-flexible principle of negligence suggests a way forward, in the case of totally destructive cargoes or where evidence of fault may be scarce, principles of strict liability find a necessary operation. This is the approach reflected in the international codes referred to, especially in the area of uranium-related activities which Australia has not yet adopted

  4. 46 CFR 308.521 - Application for Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-301.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-301. 308.521... RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.521 Application for Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-301. The standard form of application for a War Risk Open Cargo Policy...

  5. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements include both criteria air pollutants and hazardous air pollutants.

  6. 9 CFR 3.114 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air and marine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., rail, air and marine). 3.114 Section 3.114 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in.... (e) The interiors of animal cargo spaces in primary conveyances must be kept clean. (f) Live marine...

  7. The standardised freight container: vector of vectors and vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, P

    2010-04-01

    The standardised freight container was one of the most important innovations of the 20th Century. Containerised cargoes travel from their point of origin to their destination by ship, road and rail as part of a single journey, without unpacking. This simple concept is the key element in cheap, rapid transport by land and sea, and has led to a phenomenal growth in global trade. Likewise, containerised air cargo has led to a remarkable increase in the inter-continental transportation of goods, particularly perishable items such as flowers, fresh vegetables and live animals. In both cases, containerisation offers great advantages in speed and security, but reduces the opportunity to inspect cargoes in transit. An inevitable consequence is the globalisation of undesirable species of animals, plants and pathogens. Moreover, cheap passenger flights offer worldwide travel for viral and parasitic pathogens in infected humans. The continued emergence of exotic pests, vectors and pathogens throughout the world is an unavoidable consequence of these advances in transportation technology.

  8. 19 CFR 4.62 - Accounting for inward cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounting for inward cargo. 4.62 Section 4.62 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.62 Accounting for inward cargo...

  9. 33 CFR 401.76 - In-transit cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In-transit cargo. 401.76 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Toll Assessment and Payment § 401.76 In-transit cargo... the Seaway Transit Declaration Form, but is deemed to be ballast and not subject to toll assessment. ...

  10. Column generation approaches to ship scheduling with flexible cargo sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønmo, Geir; Nygreen, Bjørn; Lysgaard, Jens

    We present a Dantzig-Wolfe procedure for the ship scheduling problem with flexible cargo sizes. This problem is similar to the well-known pickup and delivery problem with time windows, but the cargo sizes are defined by an interval instead of a fixed value. We show that the introduction of flexible...

  11. Intentional cargo disruption by nefarious means: Examining threats, systemic vulnerabilities and securitisation measures in complex global supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Conor; Harrop, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Global trade and commerce requires products to be securely contained and transferred in a timely way across great distances and between national boundaries. Throughout the process, cargo and containers are stored, handled and checked by a range of authorities and authorised agents. Intermodal transportation involves the use of container ships, planes, railway systems, land bridges, road networks and barges. This paper examines the the nefarious nature of intentional disruption and nefarious risks associated with the movement of cargo and container freight. The paper explores main threats, vulnerabilities and security measures relevant to significant intermodal transit risk issues such as theft, piracy, terrorism, contamination, counterfeiting and product tampering. Three risk and vulnerability models are examined and basic standards and regulations that are relevant to safe and secure transit of container goods across international supply networks are outlined.

  12. A simplified tether model for molecular motor transporting cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang-Zhen, Li; Li-Chun, Jiang

    2010-01-01

    Molecular motors are proteins or protein complexes which function as transporting engines in biological cells. This paper models the tether between motor and its cargo as a symmetric linear potential. Different from Elston and Peskin's work for which performance of the system was discussed only in some limiting cases, this study produces analytic solutions of the problem for general cases by simplifying the transport system into two physical states, which makes it possible to discuss the dynamics of the motor–cargo system in detail. It turns out that the tether strength between motor and cargo should be greater than a threshold or the motor will fail to transport the cargo, which was not discussed by former researchers yet. Value of the threshold depends on the diffusion coefficients of cargo and motor and also on the strength of the Brownian ratchets dragging the system. The threshold approaches a finite constant when the strength of the ratchet tends to infinity. (general)

  13. The complex network of global cargo ship movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluza, Pablo; Kölzsch, Andrea; Gastner, Michael T; Blasius, Bernd

    2010-07-06

    Transportation networks play a crucial role in human mobility, the exchange of goods and the spread of invasive species. With 90 per cent of world trade carried by sea, the global network of merchant ships provides one of the most important modes of transportation. Here, we use information about the itineraries of 16 363 cargo ships during the year 2007 to construct a network of links between ports. We show that the network has several features that set it apart from other transportation networks. In particular, most ships can be classified into three categories: bulk dry carriers, container ships and oil tankers. These three categories do not only differ in the ships' physical characteristics, but also in their mobility patterns and networks. Container ships follow regularly repeating paths whereas bulk dry carriers and oil tankers move less predictably between ports. The network of all ship movements possesses a heavy-tailed distribution for the connectivity of ports and for the loads transported on the links with systematic differences between ship types. The data analysed in this paper improve current assumptions based on gravity models of ship movements, an important step towards understanding patterns of global trade and bioinvasion.

  14. Accident resistant transport container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  15. Accident resistant transport container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.; Cole, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident

  16. Water spray interaction with air-steam mixtures under containment spray conditions: comparison of heat and mass transfer modelling with the TOSQAN spray tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.; Lemaitre, P.; Porcheron, E.; Vendel, J.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: During the course of a hypothetical severe accident in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), hydrogen can be produced by the reactor core oxidation and distributed into the reactor containment according to convection flows and water steam wall condensation. In order to mitigate the risk of detonation generated by a high local hydrogen concentration, spray systems are used in the containment. The TOSQAN programme has been created to simulate separate-effect tests representative of typical accidental thermal-hydraulic flow conditions in the reactor containment. The present work concerns the interaction of a water spray, used at the top of the containment in order to reduce the steam partial pressure, with air-steam mixtures. The main phenomena occurring when water spray is used are the mixing induced by spray entrainment and the condensation on droplets. In order to improve the latter phenomena, different levels of modelling can be used. The objective of this paper is to analyze experimental results obtained for water spray interaction with air-steam mixtures using different heat and mass transfer modelling. For this purpose, two modelling issues have been used: the first one is devoted for the determination of the gas thermodynamical properties, and the second one concerns the droplets characterization. In the first one, the gas thermodynamical analysis is performed using depressurization, gas temperature variation and humidity decrease during the spray injection. In this modelling, heat and mass transfer between the spray and the surrounding gas is treated in a global way by energy balance between the total amount of water and the gas. In the second one, droplets characterization is obtained by means of droplet size, temperature and velocities evolutions. In this modelling, the spray is considered as a single droplet falling with an initial velocity. Droplet interactions are neglected. Assessment of these two modelling is performed

  17. Transporting "exceptional cargo" on the CERN sites

    CERN Multimedia

    EN Department

    2012-01-01

    When the Transport Service is managing "exceptional cargo", the driver and the escort are often in charge of an operation involving equipment worth many hundred thousand francs. Equipment that may well be irreplaceable for a facility or an experiment.   The members of the Transport Service who carry out these tasks are very professional and are – needless to say – highly concentrated on the job. They count on your understanding and support in the traffic on site. Their convoys are – for good reasons – moving slowly. Kindly do not overtake, do not cut in in front of them and do not drive too closely. Respect the escort and do not position yourself between the truck and the escort vehicles. The EN department counts on your courtesy on the road.  

  18. Dose to drivers during drive-through cargo scanning using GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Rogerio S.; Gomes, Joana D'Arc R.L.; Costa, Mara Lucia L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of radiation technologies to perform screening for cargo containers has been increased due to security issues, mainly, as a consequence of the United States (US) legislation which requires, from 2013, the scanning of all intermodal cargo containers which arrive at US ports. Currently, systems to cargo inspections, using accelerator-driven high energy X-rays, between 4 and 9 MeV, are available for scanning operations. It is expected that, in the future, the use of these systems will be widely spread on roads, ports and airports in Brazil. However, in order to improve the productivity and reduce the costs of acquisition, operation and maintenance these systems require that the driver drives its vehicle through irradiation area, in a situation where members of the public (the truck drivers) enter in controlled area and are deliberately exposed to high-energy beam. Some manufacturers justifies this procedure arguing that the drivers are exposed briefly, and only to the scattered beam, since there are safety systems in order to avoid that the drivers are exposed to direct beam. In this work, it is presented the preliminary results of Monte Carlo simulations concerning the dose of drivers during scanning operations, including the dose due to a failure of safety system, producing an exposure of drivers to the direct beam, as well as, an analysis of the justification of practice, mainly related to the drive-through operational procedure. (author)

  19. Microbial behaviour and cross contamination between cargoes in containerized transportation of food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abban, Stephen

    Transportation is central to the global food and feed supply chain. Thus issues of safety, especially cross contamination with pathogens during food transit should be important in food handling operations. A large proportion of the worlds’ food cargo is moved using intermodal cargo containers...... chain, its role in food safety cannot be ignored. Unfortunately not much effort has been put, scientifically, into understanding the role of the various features of the transportation links in food cross contamination (compared to studies for homes, processing factories and farm yards). The PhD project...... has attempted to shed light on containerized food transport and some of its important attributes as regards hygiene and cross contamination. The overall aim of the study was to ‘identify possible microbial hazards and ways of cross contamination during containerized transportation of foods...

  20. Shock and vibration environments encountered during normal rail transportation of heavy cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnuson, C.F.

    1982-08-01

    This study was conducted to obtain vibration and superimposed shock data during normal rail shipment of heavy cargo. The data were obtained during a regularly scheduled rail shipment of a 45-tonne (50-ton) cargo which consisted of an empty spent-fuel container, its supporting structure, and associated hoisting devices. The shipment was made over rail lines which are operated by the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway Company between Denver, Colorado and Albuquerque, New Mexico. The instrumented rail car was equipped with 0.38-m (15-in.) hydraulic end-of-car coupling devices. The 99 percentile levels of vibration acceleration amplitudes and single degree-of-freedom superimposed shock response spectra for the longitudinal, transverse, and vertical axes are presented

  1. Military Readiness: Air Transport Capability Falls Short of Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ..., For example, during fiscal years 1997 through 1999, on average only 55 percent of the C-5 fleet, the Air Force's largest cargo aircraft, was mission capable-significantly short of the 75 percent expected for wartime...

  2. 19 CFR 115.9 - Certifying Authorities responsibilities-containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certifying Authorities responsibilities-containers...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARGO CONTAINER AND ROAD VEHICLE CERTIFICATION PURSUANT TO INTERNATIONAL CUSTOMS CONVENTIONS Administration § 115.9 Certifying Authorities responsibilities—containers. (a) General. Containers...

  3. Early results utilizing high-energy fission product gamma rays to detect fissionable material in cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaughter, D.R.; Accatino, M.R.; Alford, O.J.; Bernstein, A.; Descalle, M.; Gosnell, T.B.; Hall, J.M.; Loshak, A.; Manatt, D.R.; McDowell, M.R.; Moore, T.L.; Petersen, D.C.; Pohl, B.A.; Pruet, J.A.; Prussin, S.G.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: A concept for detecting the presence of special nuclear material ( 235 U or 239 Pu) concealed in inter modal cargo containers is described. It is based on interrogation with a pulsed beam of 6-8 MeV neutrons and fission events are identified between beam pulses by their β-delayed neutron emission or β -delayed high-energy γ-radiation. The high-energy γ-ray signature is being employed for the first time. Fission product γ-rays above 3 MeV are distinct from natural radioactivity and from nearly all of the induced activity in a normal cargo. High-energy γ-radiation is nearly 10X more abundant than the delayed neutrons and penetrates even thick cargo's readily. The concept employs two large (8x20 ft) arrays of liquid scintillation detectors that have high efficiency for the detection of both delayed neutrons and delayed γ-radiation. Detector backgrounds and potential interferences with the fission signature radiation have been identified and quantified. This information, together with predicted signature strength, has been applied to the estimation of detection probability for the nuclear material and estimation of false alarm rates. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48

  4. Kajian Kinerja Pelayanan General Cargo Terminal Jamrud Di Pelabuhan Tanjung Perak Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Fajar Ulfany

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Terminal Jamrud is a busy terminal among three others terminals run by PT. Pelabuhan Indonesia III branch of Tanjung Perak that serving general goods cargoes and dry bulk both dosmetically and internationally. The source of the problem to increase terminal performance are capacity building, efficiency, productivity and environment. The objectives of this study were to identify the existing performance of loading and unloading of general cargo and to arrange strategies for the development of Terminal Jamrud at Tanjung Perak Port using SWOT analysis. Based on secondary data: 1 the best operational performance of service is the productivity of loading and unloading of general cargo, 2 the best performance is the approach time (AT, 3 the waiting time (TW has not fulfilled the expected achievement as it is stil below the standard, 4 attributes of utility services, non-container terminal dock facilities, SOR and YOR still needs to be improved. The development strategies of Terminal Jamrud at kuadran I i.e grapid rowth strategy.

  5. The nuclear car wash: A system to detect nuclear weapons in commercial cargo shipments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, D. R.; Accatino, M. R.; Bernstein, A.; Biltoft, P.; Church, J. A.; Descalle, M. A.; Hall, J. M.; Manatt, D. R.; Mauger, G. J.; Moore, T. L.; Norman, E. B.; Petersen, D. C.; Pruet, J. A.; Prussin, S. G.

    2007-08-01

    A concept for detecting the presence of special nuclear material ( 235U or 239Pu) concealed in intermodal cargo containers has been developed, studied, and recent performance results are described. It is based on interrogation with a pulsed beam of 3-7 MeV neutrons that produce fission events and subsequent detection of their β-delayed neutron emission or β-delayed high-energy γ-radiation reveals the presence of fissionable material. Fission product β-delayed γ-rays above 3 MeV are nearly 10 times more abundant than β-delayed neutrons and are distinct from natural radioactivity and from nearly all of the induced activity in a normal cargo. Detector backgrounds and potential interferences with the fission signature radiation have been identified and quantified. Their impact on detection sensitivity is relatively minor and can be addressed readily. Components of a simple laboratory prototype have been assembled, tested with the most challenging cargo threat scenarios, and results compared to computer simulations. Preliminary results will be presented.

  6. The nuclear car wash: A system to detect nuclear weapons in commercial cargo shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaughter, D.R.; Accatino, M.R.; Bernstein, A.; Biltoft, P.; Church, J.A.; Descalle, M.A.; Hall, J.M.; Manatt, D.R.; Mauger, G.J.; Moore, T.L.; Norman, E.B.; Petersen, D.C.; Pruet, J.A.; Prussin, S.G.

    2007-01-01

    A concept for detecting the presence of special nuclear material ( 235 U or 239 Pu) concealed in intermodal cargo containers has been developed, studied, and recent performance results are described. It is based on interrogation with a pulsed beam of 3-7 MeV neutrons that produce fission events and subsequent detection of their β-delayed neutron emission or β-delayed high-energy γ-radiation reveals the presence of fissionable material. Fission product β-delayed γ-rays above 3 MeV are nearly 10 times more abundant than β-delayed neutrons and are distinct from natural radioactivity and from nearly all of the induced activity in a normal cargo. Detector backgrounds and potential interferences with the fission signature radiation have been identified and quantified. Their impact on detection sensitivity is relatively minor and can be addressed readily. Components of a simple laboratory prototype have been assembled, tested with the most challenging cargo threat scenarios, and results compared to computer simulations. Preliminary results will be presented

  7. Cargo/Weapons Elevator Land Based Engineering Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Cargo and Weapons Facility consists of a suite of full scale and component test facilities contiguously located in building 77H. The site was constructed in 1987...

  8. 41 CFR 102-117.140 - What is cargo preference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-9US-FLAG e-mail: [email protected] [65 FR 60060, Oct. 6, 2000; 65 FR 81405, Dec. 26, 2000] ...-borne cargo that moves internationally be transported on U.S. flag vessels. Deviations or waivers from...

  9. 19 CFR 4.33 - Diversion of cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the result of a strike or other emergency at a United States port for which inward foreign cargo is... substituted for the domestic port of discharge. If the application is approved, it shall be handled in the...

  10. STATE REGULATION OF CARGO SECURING FOR ROAD TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Anatolievich Atrokhov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the legal documents governing the securing of cargo in road transport, provides an overview of international experience in the safety of road transport of goods by means of securing.

  11. 46 CFR 153.436 - Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo. 153.436... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.436 Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo. A heat transfer fluid separated from the cargo by only one wall (for example, the heat transfer fluid in a coil...

  12. 46 CFR 153.491 - Waiver of certain equipment for dedicated cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and endorses a ship's Certificate of Inspection or Certificate of Compliance allowing a cargo tank to carry a single, specific NLS cargo and no other cargo if the ship's owner— (1) Requests a waiver... DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design...

  13. Reducing Aerodynamic Drag on Empty Open Cargo Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, James C.; Storms, Bruce L.; Dzoan, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Some simple structural modifications have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing aerodynamic drag on vehicles that have empty open cargo bays. The basic idea is to break up the airflow in a large open cargo bay by inserting panels to divide the bay into a series of smaller bays. In the case of a coal car, this involves inserting a small number (typically between two and four) of vertical full-depth or partial-depth panels.

  14. Detection of fissionable materials in cargoes using monochromatic photon radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danagoulian, Areg; Lanza, Richard; O'Day, Buckley; LNSP Team

    2015-04-01

    The detection of Special Nuclear Materials (e.g. Pu and U) and nuclear devices in the commercial cargo traffic is one of the challenges posed by the threat of nuclear terrorism. Radiography and active interrogation of heavily loaded cargoes require ~ 1 - 10MeV photons for penetration. In a proof-of-concept system under development at MIT, the interrogating monochromatic photon beam is produced via a 11B(d , nγ) 12C reaction. To achieve this, a boron target is used along with the 3 MeV d+ RFQ accelerator at MIT-Bates. The reactions results in the emission of very narrow 4.4 MeV and 15.1 MeV gammas lines. The photons, after traversing the cargo, are detected by an array of NaI(Tl) detectors. A spectral analysis of the transmitted gammas allows to independently determine the areal density and the atomic number (Z) of the cargo. The proposed approach could revolutionize cargo inspection, which, in its current fielded form has to rely on simple but high dose bremsstrahlung sources. Use of monochromatic sources would significantly reduce the necessary dose and allow for better determination of the cargo's atomic number. The general methodology will be described and the preliminary results from the proof-of-concept system will be presented and discussed. Supported by NSF/DNDO Collaborative Research ARI-LA Award ECCS-1348328.

  15. Book Review: Radiation protection and measurement issues related to cargo scanning with accelerator-produced high-energy X rays, NCRP Commentary No. 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Having spent roughly the first third of his health physics career on the Norfolk, VA waterfront area, the reviewer was excited to see the NCRP Commentary 20, 'Radiation Protection and Measurements Issues Related to Cargo Scanning with Accelerator Technology'. It signals the advent of the Cargo Advanced Automated Radiography System (CAARS). The waterfront is a border that challenges physical security programs and technology. As Commentary 20 provides in the introduction, waterfront cargo terminals and land border crossings together represent over 300 ports of entry in the USA. Every year, the USA receives over 10 million cargo containers from commercial shipping and a roughly equal amount from land border crossings. While rapidly processing containerized cargo, CAARS will be able to detect small quantities of high atomic number radioactive materials and dense shielding materials used for radioactive gamma ray sources and even illicit human cargo - important concerns for homeland security. It will also be able to detect other contraband such as explosives, weapons and drugs. Section 1 of the Commentary presents an executive summary with NCRP's radiation dose management recommendations and related operational recommendations for effective implementation of CAARS technology in the current regulatory environment.

  16. South Coast Air Quality Management District Truck Testing | Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research | NREL South Coast Air Quality Management District Truck Evaluation South Coast Air Quality Management District Truck Evaluation Photo of heavy-duty truck cab. Electric drayage truck Cargo Transportation project, conducted in partnership with the South Coast Air Quality Management

  17. 46 CFR 308.517 - Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-300.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-300. 308.517 Section 308.517... Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.517 Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-300. The standard form of War Risk Open Cargo, Form MA-300, may be obtained from the American War Risk...

  18. Implementation of gas concentration measurement systems using mass spectrometry in containment thermal-hydraulics test facilities: different approaches for calibration and measurement with steam/air/helium mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auban, O.; Malet, J.; Brun, P.; Brinster, J.; Quillico, J. J.; Studer, E.

    2003-01-01

    . This work concerns measurement of steam-air-helium mixtures of any composition distributed in pressurized vessels. The developed systems provide concentration point measurements at typically a few tens of different locations in the facility vessels. This paper will give an overview of the three different measurement systems and will address the main difficulties encountered to develop these systems such as those related to the sample pressure reduction or to the presence of water vapor. The paper focuses on different attempts and approaches to generate the calibration gas mixtures containing water vapor and calibrate the QMS. Even if the calibration procedures still have to be improved, some recently acquired data are here to prove the promising achievements of the technique

  19. Creep-rupture tests on chromium-containing conventional and ODS steels in oxygen-controlled Pb and air at 650 °C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurechko, Mariya; Schroer, Carsten; Wedemeyer, Olaf; Skrypnik, Aleksandr; Konys, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Generally superior creep performance of ODS steels with 12–14% Cr is indicated. • Strength of 9Cr-ODS at 650°C approaches conventional 9Cr steels at decreasing load. • ODS steels show brittle primary and ductile residual fracture. • Apparent link between secondary creep rate and fracture mode of ODS steels. • Clear impact of liquid Pb at low load, corresponding to long time-to-rupture. - Abstract: Conventional martensitic steels with 9 mass% chromium (Cr), namely T91 and P92, and ODS steels with 9, 12 and 14 mass% Cr, respectively, were subjected to creep-rupture tests in stagnant oxygen-controlled lead (Pb) at 650 °C and c o = 10 −6 mass% dissolved oxygen. The 9Cr conventional steels were tested in the liquid metal at static engineering stress in the range from 75 to 200 MPa. 12 and 14Cr ODS were tested at 190–400 MPa, and 9Cr ODS at 75–300 MPa. Reference tests in stagnant air were carried out in the same stress ranges. The ODS steels with 12 or 14 mass% Cr, mainly tested in oxygen containing Pb, clearly exhibit a change in the stress-dependence of secondary creep rate and appearance of fracture surface at 330–400 MPa. No such change has been observed for 9Cr ODS so far. The conventional martensitic steel P92 shows a significant drop in creep strength accompanied by reduced necking and a change from ductile to brittle fracture when tested in Pb at 75 MPa (time-to-rupture t R = 13,090 h)

  20. 19 CFR 115.40 - Technical requirements for containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Technical requirements for containers. 115.40...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARGO CONTAINER AND ROAD VEHICLE CERTIFICATION PURSUANT TO INTERNATIONAL CUSTOMS CONVENTIONS Procedures for Approval of Containers After Manufacture § 115.40 Technical requirements for...

  1. Failure of cargo aileron’s actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zucca

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During a ferry flight, in a standard operation condition and at cruising level, a military cargo experienced a double hydraulic system failure due to a structural damage of the dual booster actuator. The booster actuator is the main component in mechanism of aileron’s deflection. The crew was able to arrange an emergency landing thanks to the spare oil onboard: load specialists refilled the hydraulic reservoirs. Due to safety concerns and in order to prevent the possibility of other similar incidents, a technical investigation took place. The study aimed to carry out the analysis of root causes of the actuator failure. The Booster actuator is composed mainly by the piston rod and its aluminum external case (AA7049. The assembly has two bronze caps on both ends. These are fixed in position by means of two retainers. At one end of the actuator case is placed a trunnion: a cylindrical protrusion used as a pivoting point on the aircraft. The fracture was located at one end of the case, on the trunnion side, in correspondence to the cap and over the retainer. One of the two fracture surfaces was found separated to the case and with the cap entangled inside. The fracture surfaces of the external case indicated fatigue crack growth followed by ductile separation. The failure analysis was performed by means of optical, metallographic, digital and electronic microscopy. The collected evidences showed a multiple initiation fracture mechanism. Moreover, 3D scanner reconstruction and numerical simulation demonstrated that dimensional non conformances and thermal loads caused an abnormal stress concentration. Stress concentration was located along the case assy outer surface where the fatigue crack originated. The progressive rupture mechanism grew under cyclical axial load due to the normal operations. Recommendations were issued in order to improve dimensional controls and assembly procedures during production and overhaul activities.

  2. A POSSIBLE SOLUTION WITH PASSIVE PROTECTION STRUCTURAL RESISTANCE ELEMENTS TO CARGO SHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNTEANU Ildikó Renata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors are proposing an additional fire protection solution (semi-passive for cargo ships, by inserting in the tubular strength structure (hollow section, some rectangular, thin wall pipes manufactured of copper alloy, filled with cooling fluid, that, once the fire bursts, it will be activated (i.e. will be pumped into a closed circuit; this closed system contains also a well dimensioned radiator. This innovative solution could bring improvements with regard to the classic one, of intumescent paints, by extending the safe period for evacuating people and goods.

  3. Significant role of PB1 and UBA domains in multimerization of Joka2, a selective autophagy cargo receptor from tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna eZientara-Rytter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco Joka2 protein is a hybrid homolog of two mammalian selective autophagy cargo receptors, p62 and NBR1. These proteins can directly interact with the members of ATG8 family and the polyubiquitinated cargoes designed for degradation. Function of the selective autophagy cargo receptors relies on their ability to form protein aggregates. It has been shown that the N-terminal PB1 domain of p62 is involved in formation of aggregates, while the UBA domains of p62 and NBR1 have been associated mainly with cargo binding. Here we focus on roles of PB1 and UBA domains in localization and aggregation of Joka2 in plant cells. We show that Joka2 can homodimerize not only through its N-terminal PB1-PB1 interactions but also via interaction between N-terminal PB1 and C-terminal UBA domains. We also demonstrate that Joka2 co-localizes with recombinant ubiquitin and sequestrates it into aggregates and that C-terminal part (containing UBA domains is sufficient for this effect. Our results indicate that Joka2 accumulates in cytoplasmic aggregates and suggest that in addition to these multimeric forms it also exists in the nucleus and cytoplasm in a monomeric form.

  4. SpaceX Dragon Air Circulation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Brenda; Piatrovich, Siarhei; Prina, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    The Dragon capsule is a reusable vehicle being developed by Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) that will provide commercial cargo transportation to the International Space Station (ISS). Dragon is designed to be a habitable module while it is berthed to ISS. As such, the Dragon Environmental Control System (ECS) consists of pressure control and pressure equalization, air sampling, fire detection, illumination, and an air circulation system. The air circulation system prevents pockets of stagnant air in Dragon that can be hazardous to the ISS crew. In addition, through the inter-module duct, the air circulation system provides fresh air from ISS into Dragon. To utilize the maximum volume of Dragon for cargo packaging, the Dragon ECS air circulation system is designed around cargo rack optimization. At the same time, the air circulation system is designed to meet the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) inter-module and intra-module ventilation requirements and acoustic requirements. A flight like configuration of the Dragon capsule including the air circulation system was recently assembled for testing to assess the design for inter-module and intra-module ventilation and acoustics. The testing included the Dragon capsule, and flight configuration in the pressure section with cargo racks, lockers, all of the air circulation components, and acoustic treatment. The air circulation test was also used to verify the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the Dragon capsule. The CFD model included the same Dragon internal geometry that was assembled for the test. This paper will describe the Dragon air circulation system design which has been verified by testing the system and with CFD analysis.

  5. Shock and vibration environments for large shipping containers on rail cars and trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnuson, C.F.; Wilson, L.T.

    1977-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide definitions of shock and vibration environment to which fissile material shipping containers may be exposed during normal shipment by truck and rail cars. The definitions of vibration, shock superimposed on vibration and rail coupling shock result from existing data. The dependence of shock environment, from rail coupling operations, on parameters like cargo weight and shock attenuation couplers was also studied using spring-mass models. These studies show that for rail cars equipped with standard draft gear, the cargo response decreases with increased cargo weight until the springs bottom out. For rail cars equipped with shock attenuation couplers, cargo weight has little effect on cargo response. The study also shows the importance of matching couplers and tiedown stiffnesses to decrease the cargo response. Vibration and shock data samples have been obtained during truck shipment of heavy cargo and the data will be presented in subsequent reports. Similar data need to be obtained for rail shipment of heavy cargo and during rail coupling operations with heavy cargo

  6. Salt effects on the air/solution interfacial properties of PEO-containing copolymers: equilibrium, adsorption kinetics and surface rheological behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas, Sara; Mendoza, Alma J; Guzmán, Eduardo; Ortega, Francisco; Rubio, Ramón G

    2013-06-15

    Lithium cations are known to form complexes with the oxygen atoms of poly(oxyethylene) chains. The effect of Li(+) on the surface properties of three block-copolymers containing poly(oxyethylene) (PEO) have been studied. Two types of copolymers have been studied, a water soluble one of the pluronic family, PEO-b-PPO-b-PEO, PPO being poly(propyleneoxyde), and two water insoluble ones: PEO-b-PS and PEO-b-PS-b-PEO, PS being polystyrene. In the case of the pluronic the adsorption kinetics, the equilibrium surface tension isotherm and the aqueous/air surface rheology have been measured, while for the two insoluble copolymers only the surface pressure and the surface rheology have been studied. In all the cases two different Li(+) concentrations have been used. As in the absence of lithium ions, the adsorption kinetics of pluronic solutions shows two processes, and becomes faster as [Li(+)] increases. The kinetics is not diffusion controlled. For a given pluronic concentration the equilibrium surface pressure increases with [Li(+)], and the isotherms show two surface phase transitions, though less marked than for [Li(+)]=0. A similar behavior was found for the equilibrium isotherms of PEO-b-PS and PEO-b-PS-b-PEO. The surface elasticity of these two copolymers was found to increase with [Li(+)] over the whole surface concentration and frequency ranges studied. A smaller effect was found in the case of the pluronic solutions. The results of the pluronic solutions were modeled using a recent theory that takes into account that the molecules can be adsorbed at the surface in two different states. The theory gives a good fit for the adsorption kinetics and a reasonably good prediction of the equilibrium isotherms for low and intermediate concentrations of pluronic. However, the theory is not able to reproduce the isotherm for [Li(+)]=0. Only a semi-quantitative prediction of the surface elasticity is obtained for [pluronic]≤1×10(-3) mM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All

  7. Large area x-ray detectors for cargo radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, C.; Albagli, D.; Bendahan, J.; Castleberry, D.; Gordon, C.; Hopkins, F.; Ross, W.

    2007-04-01

    Large area x-ray detectors based on phosphors coupled to flat panel amorphous silicon diode technology offer significant advances for cargo radiologic imaging. Flat panel area detectors provide large object coverage offering high throughput inspections to meet the high flow rate of container commerce. These detectors provide excellent spatial resolution when needed, and enhanced SNR through low noise electronics. If the resolution is reduced through pixel binning, further advances in SNR are achievable. Extended exposure imaging and frame averaging enables improved x-ray penetration of ultra-thick objects, or "select-your-own" contrast sensitivity at a rate many times faster than LDAs. The areal coverage of flat panel technology provides inherent volumetric imaging with the appropriate scanning methods. Flat panel area detectors have flexible designs in terms of electronic control, scintillator selection, pixel pitch, and frame rates. Their cost is becoming more competitive as production ramps up for the healthcare, nondestructive testing (NDT), and homeland protection industries. Typically used medical and industrial polycrystalline phosphor materials such as Gd2O2S:Tb (GOS) can be applied to megavolt applications if the phosphor layer is sufficiently thick to enhance x-ray absorption, and if a metal radiator is used to augment the quantum detection efficiency and reduce x-ray scatter. Phosphor layers ranging from 0.2-mm to 1-mm can be "sandwiched" between amorphous silicon flat panel diode arrays and metal radiators. Metal plates consisting of W, Pb or Cu, with thicknesses ranging from 0.25-mm to well over 1-mm can be used by covering the entire area of the phosphor plate. In some combinations of high density metal and phosphor layers, the metal plate provides an intensification of 25% in signal due to electron emission from the plate and subsequent excitation within the phosphor material. This further improves the SNR of the system.

  8. THE ANALYSIS OF WAYS TO IMPROVE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND TRADE ORGANIZATION OF TRANSPORTATION ON AIR TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Ivanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In transport system of Russia air transport is one of main types of passenger and cargo transport. Demand for air transportation constantly increases that allows to consider reasonably improvement of transportations on air transport as the priority direction of development in civil aviation. The article considers issues of development of the branch air transport.

  9. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags fro Reducing Exploration Mission Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) division is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  10. Reducing Mission Logistics with Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep-out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  11. Hydrogel Walkers with Electro-Driven Motility for Cargo Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Wang, Wei; Yao, Chen; Xie, Rui; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Liu, Zhuang; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2015-08-28

    In this study, soft hydrogel walkers with electro-driven motility for cargo transport have been developed via a facile mould-assisted strategy. The hydrogel walkers consisting of polyanionic poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid-co-acrylamide) exhibit an arc looper-like shape with two "legs" for walking. The hydrogel walkers can reversibly bend and stretch via repeated "on/off" electro-triggers in electrolyte solution. Based on such bending/stretching behaviors, the hydrogel walkers can move their two "legs" to achieve one-directional walking motion on a rough surface via repeated "on/off" electro-triggering cycles. Moreover, the hydrogel walkers loaded with very heavy cargo also exhibit excellent walking motion for cargo transport. Such hydrogel systems create new opportunities for developing electro-controlled soft systems with simple design/fabrication strategies in the soft robotic field for remote manipulation and transportation.

  12. Versatile Loading of Diverse Cargo into Functional Polymer Capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joseph J; Maina, James W; Ejima, Hirotaka; Hu, Ming; Guo, Junling; Choy, Mei Y; Gunawan, Sylvia T; Lybaert, Lien; Hagemeyer, Christoph E; De Geest, Bruno G; Caruso, Frank

    2015-02-01

    Polymer microcapsules are of particular interest for applications including self-healing coatings, catalysis, bioreactions, sensing, and drug delivery. The primary way that polymer capsules can exhibit functionality relevant to these diverse fields is through the incorporation of functional cargo in the capsule cavity or wall. Diverse functional and therapeutic cargo can be loaded into polymer capsules with ease using polymer-stabilized calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) particles. A variety of examples are demonstrated, including 15 types of cargo, yielding a toolbox with effectively 500+ variations. This process uses no harsh reagents and can take less than 30 min to prepare, load, coat, and form the hollow capsules. For these reasons, it is expected that the technique will play a crucial role across scientific studies in numerous fields.

  13. Experimental ship fire measurements with simulated radioactive cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Arviso, M.; Bobbe, J.G.; Wix, S.D.; Cole, J.K.; Hohnstreiter, G.F.; Beene, D.E. Jr.

    1997-10-01

    Results from a series of eight test fires ranging in size from 2.2 to 18.8 MW conducted aboard the Coast Guard fire test ship Mayo Lykes at Mobile, Alabama are presented and discussed. Tests aboard the break bulk type cargo ship consisted of heptane spray fires simulating engine room and galley fires, wood crib fires simulating cargo hold fires, and pool fires staged for comparison to land based regulatory fire results. Primary instrumentation for the tests consisted of two pipe calorimeters that simulated a typical package shape for radioactive materials packages

  14. Experimental ship fire measurements with simulated radioactive cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Arvisol, M.; Bobbe, J.G.; Wix, S.D.; Cole, J.K.; Hohnstreiter, G.F.; Wix, S.D.; Beene, D.E.; Keane, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    Results from a series of eight test fires ranging in size from 2.2 to 18.8 MW conducted aboard the Coast Guard fire test ship Mayo Lykes at Mobile, Alabama are presented and discussed. Tests aboard the break-bulk type cargo ship consisted of heptane spray fires simulating engine room and galley fires, wood crib fires simulating cargo hold fires, and pool fires staged for comparison to land-based regulatory fire results. Primary instrumentation for the tests consisted of two pipe calorimeters that simulated a typical package shape for radioactive materials packages. (authors)

  15. A Ship Cargo Hold Inspection Approach Using Laser Vision Systems

    OpenAIRE

    SHEN Yang; ZHAO Ning; LIU Haiwei; MI Chao

    2013-01-01

    Our paper represents a vision system based on the laser measurement system (LMS) for bulk ship inspection. The LMS scanner with 2-axis servo system is installed on the ship loader to build the shape of the ship. Then, a group of real-time image processing algorithms are implemented to compute the shape of the cargo hold, the inclination angle of the ship and the relative position between the ship loader and the cargo hold. Based on those computed inspection data of the ship, the ship loader c...

  16. Power unit-cargo space link in transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmilović Zoran R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with transportation technology regarding links between power unit and cargo space. These links can be divided into two groups: rigid and flexible. Rigid link, established between power unit and cargo space, is dominant in maritime and road transport (sea ships and trucks, and occasionally in transport on inland waterways (self- propelled barges. Flexible link is used in the railroad transport (systems with trailers and semi trailers, and in inland waterway transport (push - towing and pulling systems, and combinations of the systems. The main goal of this research is determination of possible link types and organization of the means of transportation.

  17. Simultaneous Optimization of Container Ship Sailing Speed and Container Routing with Transit Time Restrictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Røpke, Stefan; Pisinger, David

    We introduce a decision support tool for liner shipping companies to optimally determine the sailing speed and needed fleet for a global network. As a novelty we incorporate cargo routing decisions with tight transit time restrictions on each container such that we get a realistic picture...

  18. 46 CFR 32.50-20 - Cargo piping for tank vessels constructed between November 10, 1936, and July 1, 1951-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Pumps, Piping, and Hose... may be omitted where the pipe is extra heavy, all joints are welded, and bends are installed to provide for expansion and contraction. (b) Cargo piping shall not pass through spaces containing machinery...

  19. 46 CFR 32.50-15 - Cargo piping on tank vessels constructed on or after July 1, 1951-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Pumps, Piping, and Hose for Cargo... heavy, all joints are welded, and bends are installed to provide for expansion and contraction. (2) Tank... shall not pass through spaces containing machinery where sources of vapor ignition are normally present...

  20. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  1. Morintides: cargo-free chitin-binding peptides from Moringa oleifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kini, Shruthi G; Wong, Ka H; Tan, Wei Liang; Xiao, Tianshu; Tam, James P

    2017-03-31

    Hevein-like peptides are a family of cysteine-rich and chitin-binding peptides consisting of 29-45 amino acids. Their chitin-binding property is essential for plant defense against fungi. Based on the number of cysteine residues in their sequences, they are divided into three sub-families: 6C-, 8C- and 10C-hevein-like peptides. All three subfamilies contain a three-domain precursor comprising a signal peptide, a mature hevein-like peptide and a C-terminal domain comprising a hinge region with protein cargo in 8C- and 10C-hevein-like peptides. Here we report the isolation and characterization of two novel 8C-hevein-like peptides, designated morintides (mO1 and mO2), from the drumstick tree Moringa oleifera, a drought-resistant tree belonging to the Moringaceae family. Proteomic analysis revealed that morintides comprise 44 amino acid residues and are rich in cysteine, glycine and hydrophilic amino acid residues such as asparagine and glutamine. Morintides are resistant to thermal and enzymatic degradation, able to bind to chitin and inhibit the growth of phyto-pathogenic fungi. Transcriptomic analysis showed that they contain a three-domain precursor comprising an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) signal sequence, a mature peptide domain and a C-terminal domain. A striking feature distinguishing morintides from other 8C-hevein-like peptides is a short and protein-cargo-free C-terminal domain. Previously, a similar protein-cargo-free C-terminal domain has been observed only in ginkgotides, the 8C-hevein-like peptides from a gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba. Thus, morintides, with a cargo-free C-terminal domain, are a stand-alone class of 8C-hevein-like peptides from angiosperms. Our results expand the existing library of hevein-like peptides and shed light on molecular diversity within the hevein-like peptide family. Our work also sheds light on the anti-fungal activity and stability of 8C-hevein-like peptides.

  2. Evaluating export container pooling options in MN, WI, and MI's Upper Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Research was undertaken to investigate the issues impacting the expansion of containerized cargo in : Wisconsin, Minnesota and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Best practices in container pooling, load matching, : inland ports and electronic tracking...

  3. 46 CFR 56.50-60 - Systems containing oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Systems containing oil. 56.50-60 Section 56.50-60... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-60 Systems containing oil. (a)(1) Oil-piping systems for the transfer or discharge of cargo or fuel oil must be separate from other piping...

  4. 78 FR 50134 - Altus Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Blackhawk Capital Group BDC, Inc., Cargo Connection Logistics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Altus Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Blackhawk Capital Group BDC, Inc., Cargo Connection Logistics Holding, Inc., Diapulse Corporation of America, Globus... lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Cargo Connection Logistics...

  5. 75 FR 6092 - Special Conditions: Model C-27J Airplane; Class E Cargo Compartment Lavatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... envision that a lavatory would be installed inside a Class E cargo compartment. Lavatories, including the... envision that a lavatory would be installed in a Class E cargo compartment. Therefore, special conditions...

  6. The cobalt-60 container scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jigang, A.; Liye, Z.; Yisi, L.; Haifeng, W.; Zhifang, W.; Liqiang, W.; Yuanshi, Z.; Xincheng, X.; Furong, L.; Baozeng, G.; Chunfa, S.

    1997-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology (INET) has successfully designed and constructed a container (cargo) scanner, which uses cobalt-60 of 100-300 Ci as radiation source. The following performances of the Cobalt-60 container scanner have been achieved at INET: a) IQI (Image Quality Indicator) - 2.5% behind 100 mm of steel; b) CI (Contrast Indicator) - 0.7% behind 100 mm of steel; c) SP (Steel Penetration) - 240 mm of steel; d) Maximum Dose per Scanning - 0.02mGy; e) Throughput - twenty 40-foot containers per hour. These performances are equal or similar to those of the accelerator scanners. Besides these nice enough inspection properties, the Cobalt-60 scanner possesses many other special features which are better than accelerator scanners: a) cheap price - it will be only or two tenths of the accelerator scanner's; b) low radiation intensity - the radiation protection problem is much easier to solve and a lot of money can be saved on the radiation shielding building; c) much smaller area for installation and operation; d) simple operation and convenient maintenance; e) high reliability and stability. The Cobalt-60 container (or cargo) scanner is satisfied for boundary customs, seaports, airports and railway stations etc. Because of the nice special features said above, it is more suitable to be applied widely. Its high properties and low price will make it have much better application prospects

  7. Investigating Block-Copolymer Micelle Dynamics for Tunable Cargo Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuli; Kidd, Bryce; Cooksey, Tyler; Robertson, Megan; Madsen, Louis

    Block-copolymer micelles (BCPMs) can carry molecular cargo in a nanoscopic package that is tunable using polymer structure in combination with cargo properties, as well as with external stimuli such as temperature or pH. For example, BCPMs can be used in targeted anticancer drug delivery due to their biocompatibility, in vivo degradability and prolonged circulation time. We are using NMR spectroscopy and diffusometry as well as SANS to investigate BCPMs. Here we study a diblock poly(ethylene oxide)-b-(caprolactone) (PEO-PCL) that forms spherical micelles at 1% (w/v) in the mixed solvent D2O/THF-d8. We quantify the populations and diffusion coefficients of coexisting micelles and free unimers over a range of temperatures and solvent compositions. We use temperature as a stimulus to enhance unimer exchange and hence trigger cargo release, in some cases at a few degrees above body temperature. We present evidence for dominance of the insertion-expulsion mechanism of unimer exchange in these systems, and we map phase diagrams versus temperature and solvent composition. This study sheds light on how intermolecular interactions fundamentally affect cargo release, unimer exchange, and overall micelle tunability.

  8. 46 CFR Table II to Part 150 - Grouping of Cargoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... solution Potassium oleate Potassium salt of polyolefin acid Propyl acetate Propylene carbonate Propylene... lignosulfonate solution Sodium polyacrylate solution 2 Sodium salt of Ferric hydroxyethylethylenediamine... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grouping of Cargoes II Table II to Part 150 Shipping...

  9. 46 CFR 105.20-3 - Cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Construction and Materials. (1) The cargo tanks must be constructed of iron, steel, copper, nickel alloy... inches and gage number 2,3 Nickel copper B127, hot rolled sheet or plate 0.107 (USSG 12). Copper nickel 1... sheet and plate iron and steel. The letters “AWG” stand for “American Wire Gage” (or Brown and Sharpe...

  10. Mars Hybrid Propulsion System Trajectory Analysis. Part II; Cargo Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and electric propulsion systems are used to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By combining chemical and electrical propulsion into a single spaceship and applying each where it is more effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper shows the feasibility of the hybrid transportation architecture to pre-deploy cargo to Mars and Phobos in support of the Evolvable Mars Campaign crew missions. The analysis shows that the hybrid propulsion stage is able to deliver all of the current manifested payload to Phobos and Mars through the first three crew missions. The conjunction class trajectory also allows the hybrid propulsion stage to return to Earth in a timely fashion so it can be reused for additional cargo deployment. The 1,100 days total trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to deliver cargo to Mars every other Earth-Mars transit opportunity. For the first two Mars surface mission in the Evolvable Mars Campaign, the short trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to be reused for three round-trip journeys to Mars, which matches the hybrid propulsion stage's designed lifetime for three round-trip crew missions to the Martian sphere of influence.

  11. 46 CFR 154.1872 - Cargo emergency jettisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... shall ensure that cargo is not jettisoned in a U.S. port. (d) When ethylene oxide is carried, the master.... Sulfur dioxide IG Yes Dry T C 154.660 (b) (3), 154.1345 (c), (d), 154.1400 (c), 154.1405, 154.1410, 154...

  12. Technical means overview of the oversize cargoes customs control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dukhnitskiy P.S.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available this article focuses on the technical means used by the customs authorities when they control oversize cargoes. Customs inspection efficiency improvement as one of the main forms of customs control during the implementation of sampling is possible by the use of technical means of customs control.

  13. Technical means overview of the oversize cargoes customs control

    OpenAIRE

    Dukhnitskiy P.S.

    2016-01-01

    this article focuses on the technical means used by the customs authorities when they control oversize cargoes. Customs inspection efficiency improvement as one of the main forms of customs control during the implementation of sampling is possible by the use of technical means of customs control.

  14. 46 CFR 153.975 - Preparation for cargo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... system to have a fire protection system. (b) Any electrical bonding of the tankship to the transfer... plugged. (m) Smoking is limited to safe places. (n) Fire fighting and safety equipment is ready. (o) He is... or continue cargo transfer unless the following conditions are met: (a) No fires or open flames are...

  15. Bicaudal-D: Switching motors, cargo and direction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.D. Splinter (Daniël)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractScope of this thesis Transport of vesicles and organelles is an essential cellular process. Proteins like Rab GTPases, specialized adaptor proteins and motor proteins are involved in targeting and movement of cargos to their destination. This thesis describes the function of the

  16. Study on Alternative Cargo Launch Options from the Lunar Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheryl A. Blomberg; Zamir A. Zulkefli; Spencer W. Rich; Steven D. Howe

    2013-07-01

    In the future, there will be a need for constant cargo launches from Earth to Mars in order to build, and then sustain, a Martian base. Currently, chemical rockets are used for space launches. These are expensive and heavy due to the amount of necessary propellant. Nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) are the next step in rocket design. Another alternative is to create a launcher on the lunar surface that uses magnetic levitation to launch cargo to Mars in order to minimize the amount of necessary propellant per mission. This paper investigates using nuclear power for six different cargo launching alternatives, as well as the orbital mechanics involved in launching cargo to a Martian base from the moon. Each alternative is compared to the other alternative launchers, as well as compared to using an NTR instead. This comparison is done on the basis of mass that must be shipped from Earth, the amount of necessary propellant, and the number of equivalent NTR launches. Of the options, a lunar coil launcher had a ship mass that is 12.7% less than the next best option and 17 NTR equivalent launches, making it the best of the presented six options.

  17. A newly developed container for safe, easy, and cost-effective overnight transportation of tissues and organs by electrically keeping tissue or organ temperature at 3 to 6°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkawara, H; Kitagawa, T; Fukushima, N; Ito, T; Sawa, Y; Yoshimine, T

    2012-05-01

    As there is only one skin procurement organization in Japan the Japan Skin Bank Network (JSBN), all skin grafts procured in Japan are sent by a commercialized delivery system. Preliminarily, bottles containing saline were transported in a cardboard box using a so-called "cooled home delivery service" using a truck with a refrigerated cargo container. During transportation the temperature in the cardboard box increased to 18°C in summer and decreased to -5°C in winter. For these reasons, we investigated whether a newly developed container "Medi Cube" would be useful to transport skin grafts. Four bottles with a capacity of 300 mL containing 150 mL of saline in a Medi Cube container were transported from Osaka to the JSBN in Tokyo between 4 PM and 10 AM using a commercialized cooled home delivery service. Two bottles were transported in a Medi Cube container without phase change materials (PCM) in winter and summer, respectively. Another two bottles were transported in the Medi Cube with PCMs in winter. The temperatures inside saline, inside a transportation container, and outside the container, and air temperature were monitored continuously with a recordable thermometer. The temperatures inside saline and inside a Medi Cube container were maintained between 3 and 6°C, even when the temperature outside the container increased during parking. The temperature inside a Medi Cube container without PCM decreased to -3°C when the inside of the cargo container was overcooled in winter. However, the temperatures inside saline and inside a Medi Cube container with PCM were between 3 and 6°C, even when the temperature outside the container decreased to below 0°C in winter. A Medi Cube container with PCM provided a safe, easy, and cost-effective method for overnight transportation of skin grafts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Logistics in the cell: cargoes and transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadezhdina, E S

    2014-09-01

    Eukaryotic cells are large and thus require a vesicular transport system. The system involves the formation of membrane transport containers, their short- and long-distance movements, recognition of destination points, and fusion with other membranes. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of these processes is of theoretical and practical significance. This special issue of Biochemistry (Moscow) collects surveys and experimental articles describing various aspects of vesicular transport.

  19. Preliminary results utilizing high-energy fission product γ-rays to detect fissionable material in cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, D. R.; Accatino, M. R.; Bernstein, A.; Church, J. A.; Descalle, M. A.; Gosnell, T. B.; Hall, J. M.; Loshak, A.; Manatt, D. R.; Mauger, G. J.; Moore, T. L.; Norman, E. B.; Pohl, B. A.; Pruet, J. A.; Petersen, D. C.; Walling, R. S.; Weirup, D. L.; Prussin, S. G.; McDowell, M.

    2005-12-01

    A concept for detecting the presence of special nuclear material (235U or 239Pu) concealed in intermodal cargo containers is described. It is based on interrogation with a pulsed beam of 7 MeV neutrons that produce fission events and their β-delayed neutron emission or β-delayed high-energy γ radiation between beam pulses provide the detection signature. Fission product β-delayed γ-rays above 3 MeV are nearly 10 times more abundant than β-delayed neutrons and are distinct from natural radioactivity and from nearly all of the induced activity in a normal cargo. Detector backgrounds and potential interferences with the fission signature radiation have been identified and quantified.

  20. 46 CFR 154.650 - Cargo tank and process pressure vessel welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank and process pressure vessel welding. 154.650... Equipment Construction § 154.650 Cargo tank and process pressure vessel welding. (a) Cargo tank and process pressure vessel welding must meet Subpart 54.05 and Part 57 of this chapter. (b) Welding consumables used...

  1. 46 CFR 153.1000 - Special operating requirements for cargoes reactive with water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special operating requirements for cargoes reactive with water. 153.1000 Section 153.1000 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... MATERIALS Operations Special Cargo Procedures § 153.1000 Special operating requirements for cargoes reactive...

  2. Safety evaluation for packaging transport of LSA-II liquids in MC-312 cargo tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlstrom, R.F.

    1996-09-11

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes the onsite transfer of bulk LSA-II radioactive liquids in the 222-S Laboratory Cargo Tank and Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility Cargo Tanks (which are U.S. Department of Transportation MC-312 specification cargo tanks) from their operating facilities to tank farm facilities.

  3. 46 CFR 153.976 - Transfer of packaged cargo or ship's stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transfer of packaged cargo or ship's stores. 153.976 Section 153.976 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations Cargo Transfer Procedures § 153.976 Transfer of...

  4. 46 CFR 105.25-7 - Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system... Requirements-When Cargo Tanks Are Installed Below Decks § 105.25-7 Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment. (a) Each compartment shall be provided with a mechanical exhaust system...

  5. Investigate existing non-intrusive (NII) technologies for port cargo inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    "The quantity of cargo handled by United States ports has increased significantly in recent years. Based on : 2004 data, almost 2.7 billion tons of cargo passed through the ports in one year. To protect the U.S., all of this : cargo must be inspected...

  6. 77 FR 36008 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Cargo Theft Incident Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Cargo Theft Incident Report, Revision of a Currently Approved... collection: Revision of a currently approved collection. (2) The title of the form/collection: Cargo Theft... enforcement agencies. Brief Abstract: This collection is needed to collect information on cargo theft...

  7. 49 CFR 173.33 - Hazardous materials in cargo tank motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazardous materials in cargo tank motor vehicles... Transportation § 173.33 Hazardous materials in cargo tank motor vehicles. (a) General requirements. (1) No person may offer or accept a hazardous material for transportation in a cargo tank motor vehicle except as...

  8. 46 CFR 308.524 - Application for cancellation of Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-304.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for cancellation of Open Cargo Policy, Form... § 308.524 Application for cancellation of Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-304. The standard form of application for cancellation of an Open Cargo Policy Form MA-304 may be obtained from the American War Risk...

  9. 46 CFR 308.523 - Application for revision of Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-303.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for revision of Open Cargo Policy, Form MA... Application for revision of Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-303. An application for the revision of an Open Cargo Policy shall be filed in duplicate with the Underwriting Agent on a form which may be obtained from the...

  10. Safety evaluation for packaging (Onsite) transport of LSA-II liquids in MC-312 cargo tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlstrom, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes the onsite transfer of bulk LSA-II radioactive liquids in the 222-S Laboratory Cargo Tank and Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility Cargo Tanks (which are U.S. Department of Transportation MC-312 specification cargo tanks) from their operating facilities to tank farm facilities

  11. San Francisco Bay Area Cargo Forecast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    typically moved by container.* Trend line regression equations were developed from this data that show a long and stable history of high growth on...216.7 2 A Mazda 65.4 35.4 50.6 75.3 i56.5 Subaru 41.6 18.4 80.8 103.2 :27.9 Fiat 100.5 51.5 63.5 50.4 53.9 Volvo 60.3 43.9 46.8 50.9 56.) Total 1,577.0

  12. Indications of marine bioinvasion from network theory. An analysis of the global cargo ship network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölzsch, A.; Blasius, B.

    2011-12-01

    The transport of huge amounts of small aquatic organisms in the ballast tanks and at the hull of large cargo ships leads to ever increasing rates of marine bioinvasion. In this study, we apply a network theoretic approach to examine the introduction of invasive species into new ports by global shipping. This is the first stage of the invasion process where it is still possible to intervene with regulating measures. We compile a selection of widely used and newly developed network properties and apply these to analyse the structure and spread characteristics of the directed and weighted global cargo ship network (GCSN). Our results reveal that the GCSN is highly efficient, shows small world characteristics and is positive assortative, indicating that quick spread of invasive organisms between ports is likely. The GCSN shows strong community structure and contains two large communities, the Atlantic and Pacific trading groups. Ports that appear as connector hubs and are of high centralities are the Suez and Panama Canal, Singapore and Shanghai. Furthermore, from robustness analyses and the network's percolation behaviour, we evaluate differences of onboard and in-port ballast water treatment, set them into context with previous studies and advise bioinvasion management strategies.

  13. The bacterial carbon-fixing organelle is formed by shell envelopment of preassembled cargo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna H Chen

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria play a significant role in the global carbon cycle. In Synechococcuselongatus, the carbon-fixing enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO is concentrated into polyhedral, proteinaceous compartments called carboxysomes.Using live cell fluorescence microscopy, we show that carboxysomes are first detected as small seeds of RuBisCO that colocalize with existing carboxysomes. These seeds contain little or no shell protein, but increase in RuBisCO content over several hours, during which time they are exposed to the solvent. The maturing seed is then enclosed by shell proteins, a rapid process that seals RuBisCO from the cytosol to establish a distinct, solvent-protected microenvironment that is oxidizing relative to the cytosol. These closure events can be spatially and temporally coincident with the appearance of a nascent daughter RuBisCO seed.Carboxysomes assemble in a stepwise fashion, inside-to-outside, revealing that cargo is the principle organizer of this compartment's biogenesis. Our observations of the spatial relationship of seeds to previously formed carboxysomes lead us to propose a model for carboxysome replication via sequential fission, polymerization, and encapsulation of their internal cargo.

  14. Assessment of energy performance and air pollutant emissions in a diesel engine generator fueled with water-containing ethanol-biodiesel-diesel blend of fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wen-Jhy; Liu, Yi-Cheng; Mwangi, Francis Kimani; Chen, Wei-Hsin; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Fukushima, Yasuhiro; Liao, Chao-Ning; Wang, Lin-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Biomass based oxygenated fuels have been identified as possible replacement of fossil fuel due to pollutant emission reduction and decrease in over-reliance on fossil fuel energy. In this study, 4 v% water-containing ethanol was mixed with (65-90%) diesel using (5-30%) biodiesel (BD) and 1 v% butanol as stabilizer and co-solvent respectively. The fuels were tested against those of biodiesel-diesel fuel blends to investigate the effect of addition of water-containing ethanol for their energy efficiencies and pollutant emissions in a diesel-fueled engine generator. Experimental results indicated that the fuel blend mix containing 4 v% of water-containing ethanol, 1 v% butanol and 5-30 v% of biodiesel yielded stable blends after 30 days standing. BD1041 blend of fuel, which composed of 10 v% biodiesel, 4 v% of water-containing ethanol and 1 v% butanol demonstrated -0.45 to 1.6% increase in brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC, mL kW -1 h -1 ) as compared to conventional diesel. The better engine performance of BD1041 was as a result of complete combustion, and lower reaction temperature based on the water cooling effect, which reduced emissions to 2.8-6.0% for NO x , 12.6-23.7% particulate matter (PM), 20.4-23.8% total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 30.8-42.9% total BaPeq between idle mode and 3.2 kW power output of the diesel engine generator. The study indicated that blending diesel with water-containing ethanol could achieve the goal of more green sustainability. -- Highlights: → Water-containing ethanol was mixed with diesel using biodiesel and butanol as stabilizer and co-solvent, respectively. → Fuel blends with 4 v% water-containing ethanol, 1 v% butanol, 5-30 v% biodiesel and conventional diesel yielded a stable blended fuel after more than 30 days. → Due to more complete combustion and water quench effect, target fuel BD1041 was gave good energy performance and significant reduction of PM, NO x , total PAH and total BaPeq emissions.

  15. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements...

  16. AirCompare

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — AirCompare contains air quality information that allows a user to compare conditions in different localities over time and compare conditions in the same location at...

  17. Long-range cargo transport on crowded microtubules: The motor jamming mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Lucas W.; Radtke, Paul K.; Goldman, Carla

    2014-05-01

    The hopping model for cargo transport by molecular motors introduced in Goldman and Sena (2009), Goldman (2010) is extended here in order to incorporate the movement of cargo-motor complexes (C-MC). Hopping processes in this context express the possibility for cargo to be exchanged between neighboring motors at a microtubule where the transport takes place. Jamming of motors is essential for cargos to execute long-range movement in this way. Results from computer simulations accompanied by a mean-field analysis of the extended model confirm our previous analytical results and suggests that an interplay between cargo hopping and the movement of the C-MC’s would control the efficiency of cargo transfer and cargo delivery in these model systems.

  18. Contribution to the study of fluids transfers within a concrete wall: application to the case of a containment wall subjected to air tightness tests conditions and to accidental situation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The correlation between the leak rate of a containment wall of nuclear power plants reactor buildings measured during periodic airtightness tests and the leak rate during a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) is a fundamental element in the security analysis of reactor building. The aim of this work is to contribute to the study of the transfers of fluids induced by these two types of loading in the case of a concrete wall integrating inhomogeneities and singularities capable to exist within the containment wall. In a first experimental phase, the development of a test rig allowing to work with concrete specimens having the same height as the thickness of containment wall of future nuclear power plant (1.3 m) permits to develop concrete compositions representative of these high air permeability zones. Their characterization is focused on the types of gaseous flow being able to exist within these high diffuse permeability concretes and on the structuring of their porous network. This step is completed by water vapour sorption measurements and by mercury porosimetry tests in the case of a concrete qualified according a leak flow criterion. In a second experimental phase, this concrete is subjected to air tightness tests conditions and to an accidental situation of LOCA type (141 deg C, effective humid air pressure equal to 4,2 bar) always with a thickness of 1.3 m. The analysis of pressure and temperature fields and the water content distributions is performed by an appropriate instrumentation which also permits the study of kinetics of the mass flux (both gaseous and liquid) crossing to the extrados of the wall. The numerical investigation is carried out with the Thermal-Hydro-Mechanic of non-saturated porous media model, recently implemented in Code Aster (developed by EDF). This model allows to consider all the fluid phases in presence. From a interpretation work of experimental data according to hypotheses of the model, notably towards the particular aspects bound up

  19. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  20. Implementation of cargo MagLev in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Chris R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Peterson, Dean E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leung, Eddie M [MAGTEC ENGINEERING

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have been completed in the United States, but no commercial MagLev systems have been deployed. Outside the U.S., MagLev continues to attract funding for research, development and implementation. A brief review of recent global developments in MagLev technology is given followed by the status of MagLev in the U.S. The paper compares the cost of existing MagLev systems with other modes of transport, notes that the near-term focus of MagLev development in the U.S. should be for cargo, and suggests that future MagLev systems should be for very high speed cargo. The Los Angeles to Port of Los Angeles corridor is suggested as a first site for implementation. The benefits of MagLev are described along with suggestions on how to obtain funding.

  1. Fixing Trailer Hitch for Roof Rack of Cargos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darina Matisková

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new technical solution of fixing trailer hitch which serves as a connection between single track vehicle and cargo, mainly light trailer. They are manufactured from steel girder and nets which are constructed by point welding. They are designed to indicate the necessary solidity and the required load bearing capacity of the cargo. The application of roof racks is universal and these products are in great demand in the field of game management. There are a lot of trailer hitches which the manufacturers tailor to customers´ demands. The stated technical solution is subject of published industrial utility model at the Industrial property office of the Slovak republic.

  2. Exit-strategies - smart ways to release phospholipid vesicle cargo

    OpenAIRE

    Mellal Denia; Zumbuehl Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This highlight describes recent trends in fundamental phospholipid research towards possible future drug delivery technology. In particular it focuses on synthetic phospholipids and their vesicular constructs and describes selected “smart” ways to release cargo from liposomes. Various chemical and physical release triggers are discussed such as temperature changes, application of ultrasound, enzyme degradation, changes in pH, redox reactions, photochemical reactions, as well as the effects of...

  3. K-Rankine systems for piloted and cargo Mars missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, J.C.; Rovang, R.D.; Johnson, G.A.

    1992-03-01

    Studies are performed to demonstrate the attractiveness of potassium-Rankine (K-Rankine) nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems for both piloted and cargo Mars missions. The key results of the piloted mission study are that a full-up piloted mission can be accomplished with a trip time of less than 390 days with an attractive initial mass in low earth orbit (IMLEO) of 700 metric tons. This is achieved by coupling two advanced cermet fuel reactors (1550 K outlet temperature) to K-Rankine power-conversion systems to produce the 46 MWe needed to power advanced ion engines. This design approach offers an alternative to a more risky split-sprint mission where comparable trip times and IMLEO can be achieved with a nearer-term reactor (SP-100 at 1350 K outlet temperature) technology. The results of the cargo-mission study indicate that a lower-power K-Rankine system (5.5 MWe) operating at SP-100 reactor conditions would best perform a representative Mars cargo transport. A round-trip mission (480 days outbound; 600 day return) to Mars requires only 225 metric tons IMLEO and permit possible system reuse. 6 refs

  4. Calcium and cargoes as regulators of myosin 5a activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellers, James R.; Thirumurugan, Kavitha; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Hammer, John A.; Knight, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Myosin 5a is a two-headed actin-dependent motor that transports various cargoes in cells. Its enzymology and mechanochemistry have been extensively studied in vitro. It is a processive motor that takes multiple 36 nm steps on actin. The enzymatic activity of myosin 5 is regulated by an intramolecular folding mechanism whereby its lever arms fold back against the coiled-coil tail such that the motor domains directly bind the globular tail domains. We show that the structure seen in individual folded molecules is consistent with electron density map of two-dimensional crystals of the molecule. In this compact state, the actin-activated MgATPase activity of the molecule is markedly inhibited and the molecule cannot move processively on surface bound actin filaments. The actin-activated MgATPase activity of myosin 5a is activated by increasing the calcium concentration or by binding of a cargo-receptor molecule, melanophilin, in vitro. However, calcium binding to the calmodulin light chains results in dissociation of some of the calmodulin which disrupts the ability of myosin 5a to move on actin filaments in vitro. Thus we propose that the physiologically relevant activation pathway in vivo involves binding of cargo-receptor proteins

  5. Recent advances in fast neutron radiography for cargo inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowerby, B.D.; Tickner, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Fast neutron radiography techniques are attractive for screening cargo for contraband such as narcotics and explosives. Neutrons have the required penetration, they interact with matter in a manner complementary to X-rays and they can be used to determine elemental composition. Compared to neutron interrogation techniques that measure secondary radiation (neutron or gamma-rays), neutron radiography systems are much more efficient and rapid and they are much more amenable to imaging. However, for neutron techniques to be successfully applied to cargo screening, they must demonstrate significant advantages over well-established X-ray techniques. This paper reviews recent developments and applications of fast neutron radiography for cargo inspection. These developments include a fast neutron and gamma-ray radiography system that utilizes a 14 MeV neutron generator as well as fast neutron resonance radiography systems that use variable energy quasi-monoenergetic neutrons and pulsed broad energy neutron beams. These systems will be discussed and compared with particular emphasis on user requirements, sources, detector systems, imaging ability and performance

  6. Method and device for the containment of air-smoke-mixtures contaminated radioactively or with poisonous material in case of fires in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morlock, G.; Wiesemes, J.; Bachner, D.

    1977-01-01

    The devices of this method prevent the emission of radioactive or poisonous polutants to the environment, e.g. of a nuclear power plant, even then if the filters normally designed for this purpose become in effective through the influence of the fire. Smoke alarms and/or temperature sensors guide the contaminated air-smoke mixture through rooms with frothing agents by means of controlled valves and additional ventilators; the foam to be produced absorbes the polutants. The ventilators generate the required flow direction as well as sufficient flow rate. Water pools arranged between the valves and the foam tanks totally or pastly ret din water-soluble or not volatile substances before the foam is applied and/or extinguish glowing particles. (HP) [de

  7. Catalytic Propulsion and Magnetic Steering of Soft, Patchy Microcapsules: Ability to Pick-Up and Drop-Off Microscale Cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Annie Xi; Liu, Yijing; Oh, Hyuntaek; Gargava, Ankit; Kendall, Eric; Nie, Zhihong; DeVoe, Don L; Raghavan, Srinivasa R

    2016-06-22

    We describe the creation of polymeric microcapsules that can exhibit autonomous motion along defined trajectories. The capsules are made by cross-linking aqueous microdroplets of the biopolymer chitosan using glutaraldehyde. A coflow microfluidic tubing device is used to generate chitosan droplets containing nanoparticles (NPs) with an iron (Fe) core and a platinum (Pt) shell. The droplets are then incubated in a Petri dish with the cross-linking solution, and an external magnet is placed below the Petri dish to pull the NPs together as a collective "patch" on one end of each droplet. This results in cross-linked capsules (∼150 μm in diameter) with an anisotropic (patchy) structure. When these capsules are placed in a solution of H2O2, the Pt shell of the NPs catalyzes the decomposition of H2O2 into O2 gas, which is ejected from the patchy end in the form of bubbles. As a result, the capsules (which are termed micromotors) move in a direction opposite to the bubbles. Furthermore, the micromotors can be steered along specific paths by an external magnet (the magnetic response arises due to the Fe in the core of the NPs). A given micromotor can thus be directed to meet with and adhere to an inert capsule, i.e., a model cargo. Adhesion occurs due to the soft nature of the two structures. Once the cargo is picked up, the micromotor-cargo pair can be moved along a specific path to a destination, whereupon the cargo can be released from the micromotor. We believe these soft micromotors offer significant benefits over their existing hard counterparts because of their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and ability to encapsulate a variety of payloads.

  8. 75 FR 1070 - Cargo Securing Methods for Packages in Transport Vehicles or Freight Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ...: Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov . Fax: 202-493-2251. Mail: Docket Management... comments. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: If you have questions on this notice, call or e-mail Morgan Armstrong, telephone 202-372-1419, e-mail: [email protected] . If you have questions on viewing or...

  9. 76 FR 72715 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Manifest/Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... information (a total capital/startup costs and operations and maintenance costs). The comments that are... of total annual responses was lowered from 11,300,000 to 8,100,000. Vessel Stow Plan: the number of... 74 to 60, and the number of total responses was raised from 72,121,193 to 257,100,000. Type of Review...

  10. United States Seaport Security: Protection Against a Nuclear Device Attack Delivered in a Shipping Cargo Container

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    off a radioactive dirty bomb, and on 29 June Moldavian undercover security agents posing as a North African buyer arrested six men trying to sell...military targets in various countries, including the 11 September 2001 attacks, 1998 U.S. Embassy bombings, USS Cole bombings, and 2002 Bali bombings

  11. Rossiiskim gruzam - rossiiskije konteinerõ = Russian containers for Russian cargoes / Alla Petrova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Petrova, Alla

    2004-01-01

    Autor teeb ülevaate transpordisüsteemi arengust, konteinerite tootmisest ja konteinervedude korraldusest NSV Liidus alates 1970ndatest ning analüüsib põhjuseid, miks käesoleval ajal tegelevad Venemaal konteinervedudega valdavalt välisfirmad kasutades läänes toodetud konteinereid

  12. Cargo delivery to adhering myoblast cells from liposome-containing poly(dopamine) composite coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Martin Elias Lynge; Mian Teo, Boon; Laursen, Marie Bækgaard

    2013-01-01

    -engineered composite coatings to impose a corresponding cellular response, e.g., a higher amount of embedded liposomes leads to higher uptake efficiency of the fluorescent lipids and cell mean fluorescence or a higher reduction in the viability of the adhering cells. Assessment of the uptake efficiency and cell mean...

  13. Simulation study into the identification of nuclear materials in cargo containers using cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, T. B.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.

    2015-04-01

    Muon tomography represents a new type of imaging technique that can be used in detecting high-Z materials. Monte Carlo simulations for muon scattering in different types of target materials are presented. The dependence of the detector capability to identify high-Z targets on spatial resolution has been studied. Muon tracks are reconstructed using a basic point of closest approach (PoCA) algorithm. In this article we report the development of a secondary analysis algorithm that is applied to the reconstructed PoCA points. This algorithm efficiently ascertains clusters of voxels with high average scattering angles to identify `areas of interest' within the inspected volume. Using this approach the effect of other parameters, such as the distance between detectors and the number of detectors per set, on material identification is also presented. Finally, false positive and false negative rates for detecting shielded HEU in realistic scenarios with low-Z clutter are presented.

  14. Hypertension and 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in Air Force Veterans of the Vietnam War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dwyer, James H; Jackson, William G; Michalek, Joel E

    2006-01-01

    .... We included a Comparison group of other Air Force veterans who flew or serviced C-130 cargo aircraft in Southeast Asia during the same calendar period that the Ranch Hand unit was active in Vietnam (1962-1971...

  15. A Survey of Empty Container Flow Balance in Turkish Ports

    OpenAIRE

    Ünal ÖZDEMİR; Abdulaziz GUNEROGLU; Süleyman KÖSE; Faruk Buğra DEMİREL

    2015-01-01

    Container transportation is the most preferred maritime commercial freight distribution in entire world except liquefied product transportation by tankers and bulk carriers. Totally 95% volume of general cargo is transported by container ships in the world due to fast, cheap and safe carrying potential of the goods transfer. Containerization has become recent phenomena in the field of maritime transportation and the quantity of goods transported by containers is increasing day by day as...

  16. How molecular motors are arranged on a cargo is important for vesicular transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P Erickson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial organization of the cell depends upon intracellular trafficking of cargos hauled along microtubules and actin filaments by the molecular motor proteins kinesin, dynein, and myosin. Although much is known about how single motors function, there is significant evidence that cargos in vivo are carried by multiple motors. While some aspects of multiple motor function have received attention, how the cargo itself--and motor organization on the cargo--affects transport has not been considered. To address this, we have developed a three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation of motors transporting a spherical cargo, subject to thermal fluctuations that produce both rotational and translational diffusion. We found that these fluctuations could exert a load on the motor(s, significantly decreasing the mean travel distance and velocity of large cargos, especially at large viscosities. In addition, the presence of the cargo could dramatically help the motor to bind productively to the microtubule: the relatively slow translational and rotational diffusion of moderately sized cargos gave the motors ample opportunity to bind to a microtubule before the motor/cargo ensemble diffuses out of range of that microtubule. For rapidly diffusing cargos, the probability of their binding to a microtubule was high if there were nearby microtubules that they could easily reach by translational diffusion. Our simulations found that one reason why motors may be approximately 100 nm long is to improve their 'on' rates when attached to comparably sized cargos. Finally, our results suggested that to efficiently regulate the number of active motors, motors should be clustered together rather than spread randomly over the surface of the cargo. While our simulation uses the specific parameters for kinesin, these effects result from generic properties of the motors, cargos, and filaments, so they should apply to other motors as well.

  17. Radioactive material air transportation; Transporte aereo de material radioativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pader y Terry, Claudio Cosme [Varig Logistica (VARIGLOG), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation.

  18. The Highly Conserved COPII Coat Complex Sorts Cargo from the Endoplasmic Reticulum and Targets It to the Golgi

    OpenAIRE

    Lord, Christopher; Ferro-Novick, Susan; Miller, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Protein egress from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is driven by a conserved cytoplasmic coat complex called the COPII coat. The COPII coat complex contains an inner shell (Sec23/Sec24) that sorts cargo into ER-derived vesicles and an outer cage (Sec13/Sec31) that leads to coat polymerization. Once released from the ER, vesicles must tether to and fuse with the target membrane to deliver their protein and lipid contents. This delivery step also depends on the COPII coat, with coat proteins bin...

  19. Scientific opinion on the evaluation of substances as acceptable previous cargoes for edible fats and oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    Shipping of edible fats and oils into Europe is permitted in bulk tanks, provided that the previous cargo is included in a positive list. The European Commission requested EFSA to evaluate the acceptability as previous cargoes for fats and oils the substances calcium lignosulphonate, methyl acetate...... the criteria for acceptability as previous cargoes. Due to uncertainties, mainly with regard to the composition and toxicity of the low molecular mass fraction, and the fact that the toxicological database is limited to the 40–65 grade and does not cover all grades of calcium lignosulphonate shipped...... as previous cargoes, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel) concluded that calcium lignosulphonate does not meet the criteria for acceptability as a previous cargo. Only food-grade ammonium sulphate meets the criteria for acceptability as a previous cargo due to uncertainties about...

  20. Development of sup 6 sup 0 Co cargo train inspection system

    CERN Document Server

    Wu Zhi Fang

    2002-01-01

    The author introduces the research and development of sup 6 sup 0 Co cargo train inspection system. With the use of radiography principle, every car image is acquired when the cargo train runs through the inspection channel. It is evaluated whether the cargo in car matches the corresponding customs declaration information with digital image processing techniques. The system has been installed in railway port at Manzhouli Customs

  1. Evaluation of caries progression in dentin treated by fluoride-containing materials using an in-air micro-PIGE and micro-PIXE measurement system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H., E-mail: yhiroko@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamada-Oka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Iwami, Y.; Yagi, K.; Hayashi, M. [Department of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamada-Oka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Komatsu, H.; Okuyama, K.; Matsuda, Y. [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Yasuda, K. [The Wakasa Wan Energy Research Center, 64-52-1 Nagatani, Tsuruga 914-0192 (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    It is well-known that fluorine (F) is involved in the progression of caries. The evaluation of caries progression has conventionally been based on the change in mineral content using transverse microradiography (TMR). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the progression of dentinal caries by the change in calcium (Ca) content using Particle-Induced Gamma-ray Emission/Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIGE/PIXE) techniques at the Wakasa Wan Energy Research Center. We also assessed the relationship between caries progression rate and the concentration of F penetration into dentin from dental fluoride-containing materials (FCMs). Dentin sections of six extracted human teeth were prepared to obtain various amounts of F uptake using three types of FCMs. F and Ca distribution of specimens were obtained using PIGE/PIXE techniques. After evaluation, the specimens were immersed in 10 ml of demineralizing solution (pH 4.5) to simulate caries attack. To estimate caries progression rates, the same portions of the specimens were evaluated after caries attack treatment using PIGE/PIXE. A negative correlation between the F uptake in dentin and the rate of caries progression was observed. Therefore, caries progression in dentin was reduced by increasing the amount of F uptake from FCMs. This demonstrates that PIGE/PIXE techniques are valuable for estimating caries progression rates.

  2. Evaluation of caries progression in dentin treated by fluoride-containing materials using an in-air micro-PIGE and micro-PIXE measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, H.; Iwami, Y.; Yagi, K.; Hayashi, M.; Komatsu, H.; Okuyama, K.; Matsuda, Y.; Yasuda, K.

    2015-01-01

    It is well-known that fluorine (F) is involved in the progression of caries. The evaluation of caries progression has conventionally been based on the change in mineral content using transverse microradiography (TMR). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the progression of dentinal caries by the change in calcium (Ca) content using Particle-Induced Gamma-ray Emission/Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIGE/PIXE) techniques at the Wakasa Wan Energy Research Center. We also assessed the relationship between caries progression rate and the concentration of F penetration into dentin from dental fluoride-containing materials (FCMs). Dentin sections of six extracted human teeth were prepared to obtain various amounts of F uptake using three types of FCMs. F and Ca distribution of specimens were obtained using PIGE/PIXE techniques. After evaluation, the specimens were immersed in 10 ml of demineralizing solution (pH 4.5) to simulate caries attack. To estimate caries progression rates, the same portions of the specimens were evaluated after caries attack treatment using PIGE/PIXE. A negative correlation between the F uptake in dentin and the rate of caries progression was observed. Therefore, caries progression in dentin was reduced by increasing the amount of F uptake from FCMs. This demonstrates that PIGE/PIXE techniques are valuable for estimating caries progression rates

  3. ATHLETE: Lunar Cargo Handling for International Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the Human-Robot Systems Project within the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is developing a vehicle called ATHLETE: the All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer. The basic idea of ATHLETE is to have six relatively small wheels on the ends of legs. The small wheels and associated drive actuators are much less massive than the larger wheels and gears needed for an "all terrain" vehicle that cannot "walk" out of extreme terrain. The mass savings for the wheels and wheel actuators is greater than the mass penalty of the legs, for a net mass savings. Starting in 2009, NASA became engaged in detailed architectural studies for international discussions with the European Space Agency (ESA), the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA), and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) under the auspices of the International Architecture Working Group (IAWG). ATHLETE is considered in most of the campaign options considered, providing a way to offload cargo from large Altair-class landers (having a cargo deck 6+ meters above the surface) as well as offloading international landers launched on Ariane-5 or H-2 launch vehicles. These international landers would carry provisions as well as scientific instruments and/or small rovers that would be used by international astronauts as part of an international effort to explore the moon.Work described in this paper includes architectural studies in support of the international missions as well as field testing of a half-scale ATHLETE prototype performing cargo offloading from a lander mockup, along with multi-kilometer traverse, climbing over greater than 1 m rocks, tool use, etc.

  4. Analytical solution of the problem of acceleration of cargo by a bridge crane with constant acceleration at elimination of swings of a cargo rope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korytov, M. S.; Shcherbakov, V. S.; Titenko, V. V.

    2018-01-01

    Limitation of the swing of the bridge crane cargo rope is a matter of urgency, as it can significantly improve the efficiency and safety of the work performed. In order to completely dampen the pendulum swing after the break-up of a bridge or a bridge-crane freight cart to maximum speed, it is necessary, in the normal repulsion control of the electric motor, to split the process of dispersion into a minimum of three gaps. For a dynamic system of swinging of a bridge crane on a flexible cable hanger in a separate vertical plane, an analytical solution was obtained to determine the temporal dependence of the cargo rope angle relative to the gravitational vertical when the cargo suspension point moves with constant acceleration. The resulting analytical dependence of the cargo rope angle and its first derivative can break the process of dispersing the cargo suspension point into three stages of dispersal and braking with various accelerations and enter maximum speed of movement of the cargo suspension point. In doing so, the condition of eliminating the swings of the cargo rope relative to the gravitational vertical is fulfilled. Provides examples of the maximum speed output constraints-to-time when removing the rope swing.

  5. Determinants of Operational Efficiency at Chemical Cargo Terminals

    OpenAIRE

    T.A. Gúlcan; S. Esmer; Y. Zorba; G. Şengónúl

    2014-01-01

    In today’s globalized world, one of the requirements of global supply chains is efficient transportation systems. Approximately 80 per cent of world merchandise trade carried by sea and handled by ports worldwide. For this reason, maritime transport has the strategic economic importance. Loading of oil and gas has the biggest share (%30) in commodities carried by sea and 2.9 billion tons oil and gas loaded to ship in 2013. This study is focus on chemical cargo terminals which is a special ter...

  6. Automatic continuous monitoring system for dangerous sites and cargoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, S.N.

    2009-01-01

    The problems of creation of automatic comprehensive continuous monitoring system for nuclear and radiation sites and cargoes of Rosatom Corporation, which carries out data collecting, processing, storage and transmission, including informational support to decision-making, as well as support to modelling and forecasting functions, are considered. The system includes components of two levels: site and industry. Currently the system is used to monitor over 8000 integrated parameters, which characterise the status of nuclear and radiation safety on Rosatom sites, environmental and fire safety

  7. The legal and documentary aspects of sale of oil cargoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassindale, J.

    1993-01-01

    The paper is divided into three main sections. The first part discusses a number of specific areas where sale contracts in the oil markets differ from traditional CIF or FOB contracts in other trades and where difficulties have therefore arisen which are peculiar to the oil trade. The second part deals with the passing of ownership and risk in oil cargoes. Finally it looks at certain documentary aspects of oil trading transactions, again concentrating on areas such as letters of indemnity, where the oil markets differ from the traditional commodity markets. (author)

  8. Safety of Oversize Cargo in Ports and in the Sea Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw Chmielinski

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Author of the paper analyzes problems related to the safety of the oversize cargo in ports and in the sea transport. Various modes of transport are used to carry oversized units that often include maritime transport. Transport of oversized cargo includes non-standard large and heavy pieces of cargo, such as electric transformers, reactor vessels, wind turbines, airplane fuselage or nuclear power plant components. The above paper is based on results of research oversized cargo in the Elpo Service Company and Pol-Mare Ltd. forwarding consulting agency.

  9. Coal-water slurries containing petrochemicals to solve problems of air pollution by coal thermal power stations and boiler plants: An introductory review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrienko, Margarita A; Strizhak, Pavel A

    2018-02-01

    This introductory study presents the analysis of the environmental, economic and energy performance indicators of burning high-potential coal water slurries containing petrochemicals (CWSP) instead of coal, fuel oil, and natural gas at typical thermal power stations (TPS) and a boiler plant. We focus on the most hazardous anthropogenic emissions of coal power industry: sulfur and nitrogen oxides. The research findings show that these emissions may be several times lower if coal and oil processing wastes are mixed with water as compared to the combustion of traditional pulverized coal, even of high grades. The study focuses on wastes, such as filter cakes, oil sludge, waste industrial oils, heavy coal-tar products, resins, etc., that are produced and stored in abundance. Their deep conversion is very rare due to low economic benefit. Effective ways are necessary to recover such industrial wastes. We present the cost assessment of the changes to the heat and power generation technologies that are required from typical power plants for switching from coal, fuel oil and natural gas to CWSPs based on coal and oil processing wastes. The corresponding technological changes pay off after a short time, ranging from several months to several years. The most promising components for CWSP production have been identified, which provide payback within a year. Among these are filter cakes (coal processing wastes), which are produced as a ready-made coal-water slurry fuel (a mixture of flocculants, water, and fine coal dust). These fuels have the least impact on the environment in terms of the emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides as well as fly ash. An important conclusion of the study is that using CWSPs based on filter cakes is worthwhile both as the main fuel for thermal power stations and boiler plants and as starting fuel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A deep learning framework for the automated inspection of complex dual-energy x-ray cargo imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Thomas W.; Jaccard, Nicolas; Griffin, Lewis D.

    2017-05-01

    Previously, we investigated the use of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) to detect so-called Small Metallic Threats (SMTs) hidden amongst legitimate goods inside a cargo container. We trained a CNN from scratch on data produced by a Threat Image Projection (TIP) framework that generates images with realistic variation to robustify performance. The system achieved 90% detection of containers that contained a single SMT, while raising 6% false positives on benign containers. The best CNN architecture used the raw high energy image (single-energy) and its logarithm as input channels. Use of the logarithm improved performance, thus echoing studies on human operator performance. However, it is an unexpected result with CNNs. In this work, we (i) investigate methods to exploit material information captured in dual-energy images, and (ii) introduce a new CNN training scheme that generates `spot-the-difference' benign and threat pairs on-the-fly. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that CNNs have been applied directly to raw dual-energy X-ray imagery, in any field. To exploit dual-energy, we experiment with adapting several physics-derived approaches to material discrimination from the cargo literature, and introduce three novel variants. We hypothesise that CNNs can implicitly learn about the material characteristics of objects from the raw dual-energy images, and use this to suppress false positives. The best performing method is able to detect 95% of containers containing a single SMT, while raising 0.4% false positives on benign containers. This is a step change improvement in performance over our prior work

  11. Air-water screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopov, O.I.; Kutepov, A.I.

    1980-12-08

    The air-water screen based on inventor's certificate No. 577364 contains horizontal water and air lines with water and air nozzles. The air line is situated inside the water line eccentrically and contracts it in the area of the nozzle, whose orifices are situated along the line of contact, while the orifices of the water nozzle are situated symmetrically relative to the air orifices and are located at an acute angle to them. To raise the protective properties, on the end of the water line is a lateral nozzle water distributor is an additional nozzle, connected to this container.

  12. Passive cooling containment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, J.J.; Iotti, R.C.; Wright, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    Pressure and temperature transients of nuclear reactor containment following postulated loss of coolant accident with a coincident station blackout due to total loss of all alternating current power are studied analytically and experimentally for the full scale NPR (New Production Reactor). All the reactor and containment cooling under this condition would rely on the passive cooling system which removes reactor decay heat and provides emergency core and containment cooling. Containment passive cooling for this study takes place in the annulus between containment steel shell and concrete shield building by natural convection air flow and thermal radiation. Various heat transfer coefficients inside annular air space were investigated by running the modified CONTEMPT code CONTEMPT-NPR. In order to verify proper heat transfer coefficient, temperature, heat flux, and velocity profiles were measured inside annular air space of the test facility which is a 24 foot (7.3m) high, steam heated inner cylinder of three foot (.91m) diameter and five and half foot (1.7m) diameter outer cylinder. Comparison of CONTEMPT-NPR and WGOTHIC was done for reduced scale NPR

  13. Shielding container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darling, K.A.M.

    1981-01-01

    A shielding container incorporates a dense shield, for example of depleted uranium, cast around a tubular member of curvilinear configuration for accommodating a radiation source capsule. A lining for the tubular member, in the form of a close-coiled flexible guide, provides easy replaceability to counter wear while the container is in service. Container life is extended, and maintenance costs are reduced. (author)

  14. The hemopexin and O-glycosylated domains tune gelatinase B/MMP-9 bioavailability via inhibition and binding to cargo receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van den Steen, Philippe E; Van Aelst, Ilse; Hvidberg, Vibeke

    2006-01-01

    Gelatinase B/matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), a key regulator and effector of immunity, contains a C-terminal hemopexin domain preceded by a unique linker sequence of approximately 64 amino acid residues. This linker sequence is demonstrated to be an extensively O-glycosylated (OG) domain with...... domains down-regulate the bioavailability of active MMP-9 and the interactions with the cargo receptors are proposed to be the original function of hemopexin domains in MMPs....

  15. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu; Saba, Kazuhisa.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the earthquake resistance as well as reduce the size of a container for a nuclear reactor with no adverse effects on the decrease of impact shock to the container and shortening of construction step. Constitution: Reinforcing profile steel materials are welded longitudinally and transversely to the inner surface of a container, and inner steel plates are secured to the above profile steel materials while keeping a gap between the materials and the container. Reactor shielding wall planted to the base concrete of the container is mounted to the pressure vessel, and main steam pipeways secured by the transverse beams and led to the outside of container is connected. This can improve the rigidity earthquake strength and the safetiness against the increase in the inside pressure upon failures of the container. (Yoshino, Y.)

  16. Simulations and imaging algorithm development for a cosmic ray muon tomography system for the detection of special nuclear material in transport containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jewett, C.; Anghel, V.N.P.; Armitage, J.; Boudjemline, K.; Botte, J.; Bryman, D.; Bueno, J.; Charles, E.; Cousins, T.; Didsbury, R.; Erhardt, L.; Erlandson, A.; Gallant, G.; Jason, A.; Jonkmans, G.; Liu, Z.; McCall, M.; Noel, S.; Oakham, F.G.; Ong, D.; Stocki, T.; Thompson, M.; Waller, D.

    2011-01-01

    The Cosmic Ray Inspection and Passive Tomography (CRIPT) collaboration is developing a cosmic ray muon tomography system to identify Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) in cargo containers. In order to gauge the viability of the technique, and to determine the best detector type, GEANT4 was used to simulate the passage of cosmic ray muons through a cargo container. The scattering density estimation (SDE) algorithm was developed and tested with data from these simulations to determine how well it could reconstruct the interior of a container. The simulation results revealed the ability of cosmic ray muon tomography techniques to image spheres of lead-shielded Special Nuclear Materials (SNM), such as uranium or plutonium, in a cargo container, containing a cargo of granite slabs. (author)

  17. Simulations and imaging algorithm development for a cosmic ray muon tomography system for the detection of special nuclear material in transport containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewett, C.; Anghel, V.N.P. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Armitage, J.; Boudjemline, K.; Botte, J. [Carleton Univ., Dept. of Physics, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Bryman, D. [Advanced Applied Physics Solutions, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Bueno, J. [Advanced Applied Physics Solutions, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Charles, E. [Canada Border Services Agency, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Cousins, T. [International Safety Research, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Didsbury, R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Erhardt, L. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Erlandson, A. [Carleton Univ., Dept. of Physics, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Gallant, G. [Canada Border Services Agency, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Jason, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos (United States); Jonkmans, G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Liu, Z. [Advanced Applied Physics Solutions, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); McCall, M.; Noel, S. [International Safety Research, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Oakham, F.G. [Carleton Univ., Dept. of Physics, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia, (Canada); Ong, D.; Stocki, T. [Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Thompson, M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Waller, D. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The Cosmic Ray Inspection and Passive Tomography (CRIPT) collaboration is developing a cosmic ray muon tomography system to identify Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) in cargo containers. In order to gauge the viability of the technique, and to determine the best detector type, GEANT4 was used to simulate the passage of cosmic ray muons through a cargo container. The scattering density estimation (SDE) algorithm was developed and tested with data from these simulations to determine how well it could reconstruct the interior of a container. The simulation results revealed the ability of cosmic ray muon tomography techniques to image spheres of lead-shielded Special Nuclear Materials (SNM), such as uranium or plutonium, in a cargo container, containing a cargo of granite slabs. (author)

  18. Achieving integrated convoys: cargo unmanned ground vehicle development and experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zych, Noah; Silver, David; Stager, David; Green, Colin; Pilarski, Thomas; Fischer, Jacob

    2013-05-01

    The Cargo UGV project was initiated in 2010 with the aim of developing and experimenting with advanced autonomous vehicles capable of being integrated unobtrusively into manned logistics convoys. The intent was to validate two hypotheses in complex, operationally representative environments: first, that unmanned tactical wheeled vehicles provide a force protection advantage by creating standoff distance to warfighters during ambushes or improvised explosive device attacks; and second, that these UGVs serve as force multipliers by enabling a single operator to control multiple unmanned assets. To assess whether current state-of-the-art autonomous vehicle technology was sufficiently capable to permit resupply missions to be executed with decreased risk and reduced manpower, and to assess the effect of UGVs on customary convoy tactics, the Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory and the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise sponsored Oshkosh Defense and the National Robotics Engineering Center to equip two standard Marine Corps cargo trucks for autonomous operation. This paper details the system architecture, hardware implementation, and software modules developed to meet the vehicle control, perception, and planner requirements compelled by this application. Additionally, the design of a custom human machine interface and an accompanying training program are described, as is the creation of a realistic convoy simulation environment for rapid system development. Finally, results are conveyed from a warfighter experiment in which the effectiveness of the training program for novice operators was assessed, and the impact of the UGVs on convoy operations was observed in a variety of scenarios via direct comparison to a fully manned convoy.

  19. Columbus stowage optimization by cast (cargo accommodation support tool)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, G.; Saia, D.; Piras, A.

    2010-08-01

    A challenging issue related to the International Space Station utilization concerns the on-board stowage, implying a strong impact on habitability, safety and crew productivity. This holds in particular for the European Columbus laboratory, nowadays also utilized to provide the station with logistic support. The volume exploitation has to be maximized, in compliance with the given accommodation rules. At each upload step, the stowage problem must be solved quickly and efficiently. This leads to the comparison of different scenarios to select the most suitable one. Last minute upgrades, due to possible re-planning, may, moreover arise, imposing the further capability to rapidly readapt the current solution to the updated status. In this context, looking into satisfactory solutions represents a very demanding job, even for experienced designers. Thales Alenia Space Italia has achieved a remarkable expertise in the field of cargo accommodation and stowage. The company has recently developed CAST, a dedicated in-house software tool, to support the cargo accommodation of the European automated transfer vehicle. An ad hoc version, tailored to the Columbus stowage, has been further implemented and is going to be used from now on. This paper surveys the on-board stowage issue, pointing out the advantages of the proposed approach.

  20. Indoor air: Reference bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.; Staves, D.; McDonald, S.

    1989-07-01

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency initially established the indoor air Reference Bibliography in 1987 as an appendix to the Indoor Air Quality Implementation Plan. The document was submitted to Congress as required under Title IV--Radon Gas and Indoor Air Quality Research of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. The Reference Bibliography is an extensive bibliography of reference materials on indoor air pollution. The Bibliography contains over 4500 citations and continues to increase as new articles appear

  1. Acid-Labile Acyclic Cucurbit[n]uril Molecular Containers for Controlled Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Dake; Liang, Yajun; Liu, Yamin; Zhou, Xianhao; Ma, Jiaqi; Jiang, Biao; Liu, Jia; Ma, Da

    2017-10-02

    Stimuli-responsive molecular containers are of great importance for controlled drug delivery and other biomedical applications. A new type of acid labile acyclic cucurbit[n]uril (CB[n]) molecular containers is presented that can degrade and release the encapsulated cargo at accelerated rates under mildly acidic conditions (pH 5.5-6.5). These containers retain the excellent recognition properties of CB[n]-type hosts. A cell culture study demonstrated that the cellular uptake of cargos could be fine-tuned by complexation with different containers. The release and cell uptake of cargo dye was promoted by acidic pH. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. 40 CFR 63.688 - Standards: Containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Containers. 63.688 Section... Standards: Containers. (a) The provisions of this section apply to the control of air emissions from containers for which § 63.683(b)(1)(i) of this subpart references the use of this section for such air...

  3. 40 CFR 265.1087 - Standards: Containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Containers. 265.1087... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Tanks, Surface Impoundments, and Containers § 265.1087 Standards: Containers. (a) The provisions of this section apply to the control of air pollutant emissions...

  4. 40 CFR 264.1086 - Standards: Containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Containers. 264.1086... Air Emission Standards for Tanks, Surface Impoundments, and Containers § 264.1086 Standards: Containers. (a) The provisions of this section apply to the control of air pollutant emissions from...

  5. Containment condensing heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gido, R.G.; Koestel, A.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents a mechanistic heat-transfer model that is valid for large scale containment heat sinks. The model development is based on the determination that the condensation is controlled by mass diffusion through the vapor-air boundary layer, and the application of the classic Reynolds' analogy to formulate expressions for the transfer of heat and mass based on hydrodynamic measurements of the momentum transfer. As a result, the analysis depends on the quantification of the shear stress (momentum transfer) at the interface between the condensate film and the vapor-air boundary layer. In addition, the currently used Tagami and Uchida test observations and their range of applicability are explained

  6. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruse, Yoshihiro.

    1990-01-01

    The thickness of steel shell plates in a reactor container embedded in sand cussions is monitored to recognize the corrosion of the steel shell plates. That is, the reactor pressure vessel is contained in a reactor container shell and the sand cussions are disposed on the lower outside of the reactor container shell to elastically support the shell. A pit is disposed at a position opposing to the sand cussions for measuring the thickness of the reactor container shell plates. The pit is usually closed by a closing member. In the reactor container thus constituted, the closing member can be removed upon periodical inspection to measure the thickness of the shell plates. Accordingly, the corrosion of the steel shell plates can be recognized by the change of the plate thickness. (I.S.)

  7. A container

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    A container assembly for the containment of fluids or solids under a pressure different from the ambient pressure comprising a container (2) comprising an opening and an annular sealing, a lid (3) comprising a central portion (5) and engagement means (7) for engaging the annular flange, and sealing...... means (10) wherein the engagement means (7) is adapted, via the sealing means, to seal the opening when the pressure of the container assembly differs from the ambient pressure in such a way that the central portion (5) flexes in the axial direction which leads to a radial tightening of the engagement...... means (7) to the container, wherein the container further comprises locking means (12) that can be positioned so that the central portion is hindered from flexing in at least one direction....

  8. Shielded container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, B.A.

    1978-01-01

    A shielded container for transportation of radioactive materials is disclosed in which leakage from the container is minimized due to constructional features including, inter alia, forming the container of a series of telescoping members having sliding fits between adjacent side walls and having at least two of the members including machine sealed lids and at least two of the elements including hand-tightenable caps

  9. Screening of Maritime Containers to Intercept Weapons of Mass Destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manatt, D R; Sleaford, B; Schaffer, T; Accatino, M R; Slaughter, D; Mauger, J; Newmark, R; Prussin, S; Luke, J; Frank, M; Bernstein, A; Alford, O; Mattesich, G; Stengel, J; Hall, J; Descalle, M A; Wolford, J; Hall, H; Loshak, A; Sale, K; Trombino, D; Dougan, A D; Pohl, B; Dietrich, D; Weirup, D; Walling, R; Rowland, M; Johnson, D; Hagmann, C; Hankins, D

    2004-01-01

    The goal of our research was to address the problem of detection of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) materials within containers in common use on commercial cargo trafficking. LLNL has created an experimental test bed for researching potential solutions using (among other techniques) active interrogation with neutrons. Experiments and computational modeling were used to determine the effectiveness of the technique. Chemical weapons materials and high explosives can be detected using neutron activation and simple geometries with little or no intervening material. However in a loaded container there will be nuisance alarms from conflicting signatures resulting from the presence of material between the target and the detector (and the interrogation source). Identifying some elements may require long counting times because of the increased background. We performed some simple signature measurements and simulations of gamma-ray spectra from several chemical simulants. We identified areas where the nuclear data was inadequate to perform detailed computations. We concentrated on the detection of SNM in cargo containers, which will be emphasized here. The goal of the work reported here is to develop a concept for an active neutron interrogation system that can detect small targets of SNM contraband in cargo containers, roughly 5 kg HEU or 1 kg Pu, even when well shielded by a thick cargo. It is essential that the concept be reliable and have low false-positive and false-negative error rates. It also must be rapid to avoid interruption of commerce, completing the analysis in minutes. A potentially viable concept for cargo interrogation has been developed and its components have been evaluated experimentally. A new radiation signature unique to SNM has been identified that utilizes high-energy, fission-product gamma rays. That signature due to γ-radiation in the range 3-6 MeV is distinct from normal background radioactivity that does not extend above 2.6 MeV. It's short

  10. 46 CFR 308.551 - War risk insurance clearing agency agreement for cargo, Form MA-321.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false War risk insurance clearing agency agreement for cargo... EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Iv-General § 308.551 War risk insurance... American War Risk Agency or MARAD. ...

  11. The GRIP1/14-3-3 pathway coordinates cargo trafficking and dendrite development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geiger, J.C.; Lipka, Joanna; Hoyer, S.; Schlager, M.A.; Wulf, Phebe; Weinges, S.; Demmers, J.; Hoogenraad, Casper

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of cargo transport via adaptor molecules is essential for neuronal development. However, the role of PDZ scaffolding proteins as adaptors in neuronal cargo trafficking is still poorly understood. Here, we show by genetic deletion in mice that the multi-PDZ domain scaffolding protein

  12. 46 CFR Table I to Part 150 - Alphabetical List of Cargoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cargo name), see Caustic potash solution 5 2 CPS Potassium oleate 34 POE Potassium salt of polyolefin... Sodium polyacrylate solution 43 2 Sodium salt of Ferric hydroxyethylethylenediaminetriacetic acid... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alphabetical List of Cargoes I Table I to Part 150...

  13. 46 CFR 31.40-10 - Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate-T/ALL. 31.40-10 Section 31.40-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 § 31.40-10 Cargo Ship...

  14. 46 CFR 31.40-5 - Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate-T/ALL. 31.40-5 Section 31.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 § 31.40-5 Cargo Ship...

  15. 46 CFR 31.40-15 - Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate-T/ALL. 31.40-15 Section 31.40-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 § 31.40-15 Cargo Ship...

  16. 46 CFR 189.60-15 - Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate. 189.60-15 Section... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 § 189.60-15 Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate. Every vessel equipped with a radio installation...

  17. 46 CFR 91.60-5 - Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. 91.60-5... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 § 91.60-5 Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. (a) All vessels on an international voyage...

  18. 46 CFR 189.60-10 - Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate. 189.60-10... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 § 189.60-10 Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate. (a) All vessels on an international voyage...

  19. 46 CFR 91.60-15 - Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate. 91.60-15 Section 91... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 § 91.60-15 Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate. Every vessel equipped with a radio installation on...

  20. 46 CFR 189.60-5 - Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. 189.60-5... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 § 189.60-5 Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. (a) All vessels on an international voyage...

  1. 46 CFR 91.60-10 - Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate. 91.60-10... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 § 91.60-10 Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate. (a) All vessels on an international voyage are...

  2. Neutron interrogation system using high gamma ray signature to detect contraband special nuclear materials in cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Dennis R [Oakland, CA; Pohl, Bertram A [Berkeley, CA; Dougan, Arden D [San Ramon, CA; Bernstein, Adam [Palo Alto, CA; Prussin, Stanley G [Kensington, CA; Norman, Eric B [Oakland, CA

    2008-04-15

    A system for inspecting cargo for the presence of special nuclear material. The cargo is irradiated with neutrons. The neutrons produce fission products in the special nuclear material which generate gamma rays. The gamma rays are detecting indicating the presence of the special nuclear material.

  3. Scientific opinion on the evaluation of substances as acceptable previous cargoes for edible fats and oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Alexander, Jan; Barregård, Lars; Bignami, Margherita; Brüschweiler, Beat; Ceccatelli, Sandra; Cottrill, Bruce; Dinovi, Michael; Edler, Lutz; Hogstrand, Christer; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Nebbia, Carlo; Oswald, Isabelle; Petersen, Annette; Rose, Martin; Roudot, Alain-Claude; Schwerdtle, Tanja; Vollmer, Günter; Wallace, Heather; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina; Grob, Konrad; Penninks, André; Binaglia, Marco; Roldán Torres, Ruth; Vleminckx, Christiane

    2017-01-01

    Shipping of edible fats and oils into Europe is permitted in bulk tanks, provided that the previous cargo is included in a positive list. The European Commission requested EFSA to evaluate the acceptability as previous cargoes for fats and oils the substances calcium lignosulphonate, methyl acetate,

  4. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... detection systems. 25.858 Section 25.858 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Construction Fire Protection § 25.858 Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If... must be met for each cargo or baggage compartment with those provisions: (a) The detection system must...

  5. 49 CFR 180.416 - Discharge system inspection and maintenance program for cargo tanks transporting liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... section. (v) Stainless steel flexible connectors with damaged reinforcement braid. (vi) Internal self... program for cargo tanks transporting liquefied compressed gases. 180.416 Section 180.416 Transportation... PACKAGINGS Qualification and Maintenance of Cargo Tanks § 180.416 Discharge system inspection and maintenance...

  6. Analysis of forecasting methods of cargo flows in International transportation by land transport

    OpenAIRE

    Ponomareva, N.

    2005-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of the existing forecasting methods of cargo flows are presented. The improvement of cargo flows forecasting method in international transportation by land transport is considered on the basis of a interregional balance model to get more correct and fuller forecast.

  7. 46 CFR 308.545 - Facultative cargo policy, Form MA-316.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facultative cargo policy, Form MA-316. 308.545 Section 308.545 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK... policy, Form MA-316. The standard form of War Risk Facultative Cargo Policy, Form MA-316, may be obtained...

  8. Local synaptic signaling enhances the stochastic transport of motor-driven cargo in neurons

    KAUST Repository

    Newby, Jay; Bressloff, Paul C

    2010-01-01

    The tug-of-war model of motor-driven cargo transport is formulated as an intermittent trapping process. An immobile trap, representing the cellular machinery that sequesters a motor-driven cargo for eventual use, is located somewhere within a

  9. Molecular sleds comprising a positively -charged amino acid sequence and a molecular cargo and uses thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangel, F Walter; Blainey, Paul C; Graziano, Vito; Herrmann, Andreas; McGrath, William J; van Oijen, Antonius Martinus; Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions which may comprise a molecular sled linked to cargo and uses thereof. In particular, the present invention relates to a non-naturally occurring or engineered composition which may comprise a molecular sled, linkers and a molecular cargo connected to the

  10. 29 CFR Appendix III to Part 1918 - The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory.... 1918, App. III Appendix III to Part 1918—The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory) Note: This appendix is non-mandatory and provides an explanation of the mechanics in the correct spotting of...

  11. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CARGO INSURANCE CONTRACT IN CASE OF INTERNATIONAL LAND TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dănilă Ștefan MATEI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cargo international transport is an engine for the development of the economic relations between states involving cross-border movement of goods through the crossing of at least one border of a state (international transport or by crossing at least two border crossing points, in which case we are in the presence of an international cargo transit. During the transit the goods transported may be subject to an insurance. The object of the cargo insurance is, thus, represented by the goods, the items expressly listed in the insurance policy, within the territorial limits specified in the insurance policy, both during the transport and during the storage, in the latter case, at the express request of the insured and with the acceptance of the insurer. This paper analyzes the characteristics of the cargo insurance aiming to present the theoretical and practical aspects of interest with regard to the cargo insurance concluded in case of an international land freight transport.

  12. Analysis of Thermal Behavior in a Cargo Hold of LILW Transport Ship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Unjang; Kim, Dohyung; Lee, Dongkyu; Choi, Kyusup [Korea Nuclear Engineering and Service Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    With determining Kyongju as a repository site for the low and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW), it is time to decide transportation method to bring the waste from NPPs (Nuclear Power Plants) to the site. Now considering transport ship as an alternative, it is important to design cargo compartments in the ship. Especially, it is necessary to ensure thermal criteria in the cargo hold by using natural or forced convection. According to INF Code, there is addressed a technical standard of the cargo that adequate ventilation or refrigeration of enclosed cargo spaces shall be provided so that the average ambient temperature within such spaces does not exceed 55 .deg. C at any time. And many counties which operate LILW transport ships are conformable to the standard, and Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries of Korea also follows it. In this article analytical study of ventilation system in a cargo hold shows to keep the temperature below 55 .deg. C or not.

  13. Reactor containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Toshio; Karita, Moriyuki; Ikeda, Masaomi; Nishioka, Kazuya.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively moderate shock waves resulted in a suppression pool water by the release of air in a discharge pipe upon operation of a safety release valve. Constitution: Pool water in a pressure suppression chamber is divided into two layers by way of a shock absorber plate and volume expansible members are placed in the water of a closed water tank on the bottom side. Upon operation of a safety release valve, air in the discharge pipe is compressed and released in the suppression pool water, which acts as shock waves on the shock absorber plate. While on the other hand, steam is exhausted after the release of the air to produce pulsation by way of expansion and condensation of air bubbles in the water. The pulsation also acts as the shock waves on the shock absorber plate. The shock absorber plate and the volume expansible members absorb the force caused by the shock waves propagating in the water to moderate the force applied to the bottom liner. (Horiuchi, T.)

  14. 9 CFR 3.15 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.15 Section 3.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used to...

  15. 9 CFR 3.138 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.138 Section 3.138 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in...

  16. 9 CFR 3.88 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.88 Section 3.88 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used to...

  17. 9 CFR 3.62 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.62 Section 3.62 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in...

  18. 9 CFR 3.37 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.37 Section 3.37 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in...

  19. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukazawa, Masanori.

    1991-01-01

    A system for controlling combustible gases, it has been constituted at present such that the combustible gases are controlled by exhausting them to the wet well of a reactor container. In this system, however, there has been a problem, in a reactor container having plenums in addition to the wet well and the dry well, that the combustible gases in such plenums can not be controlled. In view of the above, in the present invention, suction ports or exhaust ports of the combustible gas control system are disposed to the wet well, the dry well and the plenums to control the combustible gases in the reactor container. Since this can control the combustible gases in the entire reactor container, the integrity of the reactor container can be ensured. (T.M.)

  20. Column generation approaches to ship scheduling with flexible cargo sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønmo, Geir; Nygreen, Bjørn; Lysgaard, Jens

    2010-01-01

    consequences for the times used in the ports because both the loading and unloading times depend on the cargo sizes. We found it computationally hard to find exact solutions to the subproblems, so our method does not guarantee to find the optimum over all solutions. To be able to say something about how good...... our solution is, we generate a bound on the difference between the true optimal objective and the objective in our solution. We have compared our method with an a priori column generation approach, and our computational experiments on real world cases show that our Dantzig-Wolfe approach is faster...... than the a priori generation of columns, and we are able to deal with larger or more loosely constrained instances. By using the techniques introduced in this paper, a more extensive set of real world cases can be solved either to optimality or within a small deviation from optimality....

  1. 40 CFR 63.922 - Standards-Container Level 1 controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (DOT) regulations on packaging hazardous materials for transportation as specified in paragraph (f) of... on a roll-off box) or may be an integral part of the container structural design (e.g., a bulk cargo...) of this section, containers shall be used that meet the applicable U.S. DOT regulations on packaging...

  2. Megavoltage cargo radiography with dual energy material decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikhaliev, Polad M.

    2018-02-01

    Megavoltage (MV) radiography has important applications in imaging large cargos for detecting illicit materials. A useful feature of MV radiography is the possibility of decomposing and quantifying materials with different atomic numbers. This can be achieved by imaging cargo at two different X-ray energies, or dual energy (DE) radiography. The performance of both single energy and DE radiography depends on beam energy, beam filtration, radiation dose, object size, and object content. The purpose of this work was to perform comprehensive qualitative and quantitative investigations of the image quality in MV radiography depending on the above parameters. A digital phantom was designed including Fe background with thicknesses of 2cm, 6cm, and 18cm, and materials samples of Polyethylene, Fe, Pb, and U. The single energy images were generated at x-ray beam energies 3.5MV, 6MV, and 9MV. The DE material decomposed images were generated using interlaced low and high energy beams 3.5/6MV and 6/9MV. The X-ray beams were filtered by low-Z (Polyethylene) and high-Z (Pb) filters with variable thicknesses. The radiation output of the accelerator was kept constant for all beam energies. The image quality metrics was signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the particular sample over a particular background. It was found that the SNR depends on the above parameters in a complex way, but can be optimized by selecting a particular set of parameters. For some imaging setups increased filter thicknesses, while strongly absorbing the beams, increased the SNR of material decomposed images. Beam hardening due to polyenergetic x-ray spectra resulted in material decomposition errors, but this could be addressed using region of interest decomposition. It was shown that it is not feasible to separate the materials with close atomic numbers using the DE method. Particularly, Pb and U were difficult to decompose, at least at the dose levels allowed by radiation source and safety requirements.

  3. Sharps container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Angelene M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to a system for use in disposing of potentially hazardous items and more particularly a Sharps receptacle for used hypodermic needles and the like. A Sharps container is constructed from lightweight alodined nonmagnetic metal material with a cup member having an elongated tapered shape and length greater than its transverse dimensions. A magnet in the cup member provides for metal retention in the container. A nonmagnetic lid member has an opening and spring biased closure flap member. The flap member is constructed from stainless steel. A Velcro patch on the container permits selective attachment at desired locations.

  4. 46 CFR 35.30-10 - Cargo tank hatches, ullage holes, and Butterworth plates-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank hatches, ullage holes, and Butterworth plates... OPERATIONS General Safety Rules § 35.30-10 Cargo tank hatches, ullage holes, and Butterworth plates—TB/ALL. No cargo tank hatches, ullage holes, or Butterworth plates shall be opened or shall remain open...

  5. Air Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  6. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Yoshihiro; Hosomi, Kenji; Otonari, Jun-ichiro.

    1997-01-01

    In the present invention, a catalyst for oxidizing hydrogen to be disposed in a reactor container upon rupture of pipelines of a reactor primary coolant system is prevented from deposition of water droplets formed from a reactor container spray to suppress elevation of hydrogen concentration in the reactor container. Namely, a catalytic combustion gas concentration control system comprises a catalyst for oxidizing hydrogen and a support thereof. In addition, there is also disposed a water droplet deposition-preventing means for preventing deposition of water droplets in a reactor pressure vessel on the catalyst. Then, the effect of the catalyst upon catalytic oxidation reaction of hydrogen can be kept high. The local elevation of hydrogen concentration can be prevented even upon occurrence of such a phenomenon that various kinds of mobile forces in the container such as dry well cooling system are lost. (I.S.)

  7. ATMOSPHERE PROTECTION IN CASE OF EMERGENCY DURING TRANSPORTATION OF DANGEROUS CARGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Berlov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper highlights the development of numerical models for prediction of atmospheric pollution in case of burning of the solid rocket propellant in a railway car, situated near the building on railway territory. These models can be used in predicting the effectiveness of neutralization upon the atmosphere protection for this type of accidents. Methodology.To solve this problem the numerical models based on the use of Navier-Stokes equations, to determine the velocity field of the wind flow near cars and buildings, and contaminants-transfer equations in the atmosphere were developed. For the numerical integration of pollutant transport equation was used implicit «change – triangle» difference scheme. When constructing a difference scheme physical and geometric cleavage of the transfer equation is carried out in four steps. Unknown value of pollutant concentration at each step of cleavage is determined by the explicit scheme – the method of «point-to-point computation». For the numerical integration of the Navier-Stokes equations are used implicit difference schemes. When carrying out computing experiment also takes into account: the velocity profile of wind flow; interaction between the building and the wind flow and flame jet of solid rocket propellant; the presence of a railroad car; inside which there is a source of pollution; instability of pollutant emissions. On the basis of constructed numerical models was performed the computer experiment for assessing the level of air pollution at dangerous cargo rail transportation in case of emergency at railway territory.The application calculations for the timely combustion products neutralization of solid rocket propellant were carried out. Findings. The numerical models that let promptly calculate air contamination in case of emergency during solid rocket propellant transportation, as well as calculate the rational parameters of pollutant neutralization process were developed by

  8. The Design of Bulk Carrier Cargo Holds State Integrated Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Ru-jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most ship cargo hold Internal uses artificial watch or is unattended. Therefore, it is impossible to know the appropriate information of the cargo holds Internal timely and accurately. Cargo damage and ship accidents occurred frequently. Automation remote processing and monitoring alarm system for the bulk carrier is an important part of the marine automation. The system plays a significant role to guarantee the navigation safety for bulk carriers. The paper introduced the important parts of the integrated monitoring system, structural design, hardware configuration, various modules communication transmission and various data processing software design were included. Based on embedded development, the real time information including the cargo hold internal humidity temperature, oxygen concentration, smoke gas concentration, cold water well level and other data were collected, as well the hatch closed state was detected and the cargo hold internal real time video information was collected. Then the real-time communication between the control display and acquisition modules were assured. By adjusting the corresponding buttons on the bridge according to the monitoring information, so that the cargo hold always in a safe environment, so as to avoid cargo hold accidents.

  9. Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory contains measured and estimated data on ambient air pollution for use in assessing air quality, assisting in...

  10. Air Cargo Development in the Regional Airports of the Baltic Sea Region Through Road Feeder Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beifert Anatoli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As issued in the Competition Policy Brief on the new state aid rules for a competitive aviation industry by the Competition Directorate-General of the European Commission in February 20141, it will be more difficult for unprofitable airports, to obtain financial public subsidies on EU, national or regional level. Although the positive impact of small airports on the regional development and general accessibility was mentioned, still the operating aid to the airports shall be cut out over a maximum of 10 years. It has been further stated that the vast majority of small and regional airports experience problems to cover their running operative costs, as a result from an intensive market competition and overlapping of airports’ catchment areas preventing even some promising airports from growth. Public subsidies are mostly used by the airport management for infrastructural investments, to cover operating losses or to attract price-sensitive airlines. Herewith, among other things, the EU Commission is pointing out at the lack of cooperation structures and network strategies among the regional airports and at rather isolated and individual approach during elaboration of the airport development scenarios. However, the Competition Policy Brief permits public aid to regional airports, among other things if there is sufficient transports need to establish transition periods for small airports; the need for more flexibility of the regional airports in the remote areas has been underlined. The EU Commission is expecting herewith not to close the regional airports, but to stimulate them to operate on cost efficient and profitable basis, and that only the most inefficient airports will be closed.

  11. Fast Generation of Container Vessel Stowage Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacino, Dario

    that the vessel is stable and seaworthy, and at the same time arrange the cargo such that the time at port is minimized. Moreover, stowage coordinators only have a limited amount of time to produce the plan. This thesis addresses the question of whether it is possible to automatically generate stowage plans...... test instances provided by a major liner shipping company. Improvements to the modeling of vessel stability and an analysis of its accuracy together with an analysis of the computational complexity of the container stowage problem are also included in the thesis, resulting in an overall in...

  12. The Extracellular Vesicles of the Helminth Pathogen, Fasciola hepatica: Biogenesis Pathways and Cargo Molecules Involved in Parasite Pathogenesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwiklinski, Krystyna; de la Torre-Escudero, Eduardo; Trelis, Maria; Bernal, Dolores; Dufresne, Philippe J.; Brennan, Gerard P.; O'Neill, Sandra; Tort, Jose; Paterson, Steve; Marcilla, Antonio; Dalton, John P.; Robinson, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by parasites have important roles in establishing and maintaining infection. Analysis of the soluble and vesicular secretions of adult Fasciola hepatica has established a definitive characterization of the total secretome of this zoonotic parasite. Fasciola secretes at least two subpopulations of EVs that differ according to size, cargo molecules and site of release from the parasite. The larger EVs are released from the specialized cells that line the parasite gastrodermus and contain the zymogen of the 37 kDa cathepsin L peptidase that performs a digestive function. The smaller exosome-like vesicle population originate from multivesicular bodies within the tegumental syncytium and carry many previously described immunomodulatory molecules that could be delivered into host cells. By integrating our proteomics data with recently available transcriptomic data sets we have detailed the pathways involved with EV biogenesis in F. hepatica and propose that the small exosome biogenesis occurs via ESCRT-dependent MVB formation in the tegumental syncytium before being shed from the apical plasma membrane. Furthermore, we found that the molecular “machinery” required for EV biogenesis is constitutively expressed across the intramammalian development stages of the parasite. By contrast, the cargo molecules packaged within the EVs are developmentally regulated, most likely to facilitate the parasites migration through host tissue and to counteract host immune attack. PMID:26486420

  13. 14 CFR 291.45 - BTS Schedule T-100, U.S. Air Carrier Traffic and Capacity Data by Nonstop Segment and On-Flight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false BTS Schedule T-100, U.S. Air Carrier... CARGO OPERATIONS IN INTERSTATE AIR TRANSPORTATION Reporting Rules § 291.45 BTS Schedule T-100, U.S. Air... questions about reporting a joint-service operation, contact the BTS Assistant Director—Airline Information...

  14. Containment heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, G.E.; Barbanti, G.; Gou, P.F.; Rao, A.S.; Hsu, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear system of a type including a containment having a nuclear reactor therein, the nuclear reactor including a pressure vessel and a core in the pressure vessel, the system. It comprises a gravity pool of coolant disposed at an elevation sufficient to permit a flow of coolant into the nuclear reactor pressure vessel against a predetermined pressure within the nuclear reactor pressure vessel; means for reducing a pressure of steam in the nuclear reactor pressure vessel to a value less than the predetermined pressure in the event of a nuclear accident, the means including a depressurization valve connected to the pressure vessel, the means further including steam heat dissipating means such dissipating means including a suppression pool; a supply of water in the suppression pool, there being a headspace in the suppression pool above the water supply; a substantial amount of air in the head space; means for feeding pressurized steam from the nuclear reactor pressure vessel to a location under a surface of the supply of water, the supply of water being effective to absorb heat sufficient to reduce steam pressure below the predetermined pressure; and a check valve for communicating the headspace with the containment, the check valve being oriented to vent air in the headspace to the containment when a pressure in the headspace exceeds a pressure in the containment by a predetermined pressure differential

  15. Emergency cooling process and device for nuclear reactor containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, D.

    1985-01-01

    The emergency cooling system of a PWR containment, according to the principal patent, comprises a turbine fed by the humid air of the containment, a condenser in which the air flowing out of the turbine is dryed and cooled by an external coolant and a compressor actuated by the turbine and returning the dryed air in the containment [fr

  16. Improving Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usually the most effective way to improve indoor air quality is to eliminate individual sources of pollution or to reduce their emissions. Some sources, like those that contain asbestos, can be sealed or enclosed.

  17. Study on Developing a System with IP Functionality to Monitor the Status of Containers in Maritime Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hoon Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been increasing demand from consignors and shipping companies for real-time monitoring of maritime cargo due to increases in fresh, dangerous, and high-value cargo. Although larger carriers have developed and integrated their own systems for such real-time monitoring services, small- and medium-sized shippers are struggling with the heavy costs and workforce associated with such capability. This study introduces a system that can do real-time monitoring of the location of shipping containers and their internal status by using IP-RFID that in cludes IP functionality. This system is composed of a tag, a smart point, and a service platform.  The monitoring tags are attached to regular containers to track the opening and closing of the doors, the internal temperature, and humidity. The tags then send the data to the smart point where the GPS information is added. The data packet is then finally transmitted to the service platform for location tracking.  In particular, as the tags in this system have IP functionality like Multicast, they are capable of communicating with the users and also allow users to control them. In order to provide such functionality, the smart points can serve as a gateway between the service platform and the tag. By managing the tag’s connection information and the status of transmission at the smart point, the service platform can directly communicate with tags connected to the respective smart point. This technology could be applied in a diverse range of maritime and non-maritime areas including warehouse management. As for maritime logistics, it also often goes through ground, port, and air transportation phases. Further studies should monitor the actual performance of this equipment across the various phases of maritime logistics to empirically test the systems proposed herein.

  18. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  19. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Hideyasu; Oyamada, Osamu; Uozumi, Hiroto.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a container for a reactor provided with a pressure suppressing chamber pool which can prevent bubble vibrating load, particularly negative pressure generated at the time of starting to release exhaust from a main steam escape-safety valve from being transmitted to a lower liner plate of the container. Constitution: This arrangement is characterized in that a safety valve exhaust pool for main steam escape, in which a pressure suppressing chamber pool is separated and intercepted from pool water in the pressure suppressing chamber pool, a safety valve exhaust pipe is open into said safety valve exhaust pool, and an isolator member, which isolates the bottom liner plate in the pressure suppressing chamber pool from the pool water, is disposed on the bottom of the safety valve exhaust pool. (Nakamura, S.)

  20. Time analysis of the containerized cargo flow in the logistic chain using simulation tools: the case of the Port of Seville (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Aguilar, J.J.; Turias, J.I.; Cerban, M.; Gonzalez, M.J.; Pulido, A.

    2016-07-01

    The logistic chain that connects the capital of Spain (Madrid) with the Canary Islands has the Port of Seville as the port node. This port node makes possible to switch from one transport mode (railway) to another (maritime) at the container terminal of the port. Some constraints, such as the operational time window that restricts the freight train access into the port in a certain time-slot or the need of the reversal of the train before entering into port, lead to generate important time delays in the intermodal chain. A time analysis of the process is necessary in order to check the critical points. A simulation of the whole process from the goods departing the origin station by train until they leave the port of Seville by ship to the Canary Islands is performed. To this aim, a queuing model network was developed in order to simulate the travel time of the cargo. The database is composed of daily departures of goods train and daily departures of vessels (including times of docking, berthing or load/unload cargo). The final objective of this work is twofold: firstly, to provide a validated model of the containerized cargo flow and secondly, to demonstrate that this kind of queuing models can become a powerful supporting tool in making decisions about future investments. (Author)

  1. Modal Testing of Seven Shuttle Cargo Elements for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Kathy O.; Driskill, Timothy C.; Parks, Russel A.; Patterson, Alan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    From December 1996 to May 2001, the Modal and Control Dynamics Team at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) conducted modal tests on seven large elements of the International Space Station. Each of these elements has been or will be launched as a Space Shuttle payload for transport to the International Space Station (ISS). Like other Shuttle payloads, modal testing of these elements was required for verification of the finite element models used in coupled loads analyses for launch and landing. The seven modal tests included three modules - Node, Laboratory, and Airlock, and four truss segments - P6, P3/P4, S1/P1, and P5. Each element was installed and tested in the Shuttle Payload Modal Test Bed at MSFC. This unique facility can accommodate any Shuttle cargo element for modal test qualification. Flexure assemblies were utilized at each Shuttle-to-payload interface to simulate a constrained boundary in the load carrying degrees of freedom. For each element, multiple-input, multiple-output burst random modal testing was the primary approach with controlled input sine sweeps for linearity assessments. The accelerometer channel counts ranged from 252 channels to 1251 channels. An overview of these tests, as well as some lessons learned, will be provided in this paper.

  2. Advanced Solar-propelled Cargo Spacecraft for Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auziasdeturenne, Jacqueline; Beall, Mark; Burianek, Joseph; Cinniger, Anna; Dunmire, Barbrina; Haberman, Eric; Iwamoto, James; Johnson, Stephen; Mccracken, Shawn; Miller, Melanie

    1989-01-01

    Three concepts for an unmanned, solar powered, cargo spacecraft for Mars support missions were investigated. These spacecraft are designed to carry a 50,000 kg payload from a low Earth orbit to a low Mars orbit. Each design uses a distinctly different propulsion system: A Solar Radiation Absorption (SRA) system, a Solar-Pumped Laser (SPL) system and a solar powered magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) arc system. The SRA directly converts solar energy to thermal energy in the propellant through a novel process. In the SPL system, a pair of solar-pumped, multi-megawatt, CO2 lasers in sunsynchronous Earth orbit converts solar energy to laser energy. The MPD system used indium phosphide solar cells to convert sunlight to electricity, which powers the propulsion system. Various orbital transfer options are examined for these concepts. In the SRA system, the mother ship transfers the payload into a very high Earth orbit and a small auxiliary propulsion system boosts the payload into a Hohmann transfer to Mars. The SPL spacecraft and the SPL powered spacecraft return to Earth for subsequent missions. The MPD propelled spacecraft, however, remains at Mars as an orbiting space station. A patched conic approximation was used to determine a heliocentric interplanetary transfer orbit for the MPD propelled spacecraft. All three solar-powered spacecraft use an aerobrake procedure to place the payload into a low Mars parking orbit. The payload delivery times range from 160 days to 873 days (2.39 years).

  3. Simulation for assessment of bulk cargo berths number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, A. L.; Kirichenko, A. V.; Slitsan, A. E.

    2017-10-01

    The world trade volumes of mineral resources have been growing constantly for decades, notwithstanding any economical crises. At the same time, the proximity of the bulk materials as products to the starting point of the integrated value added or logistic supply chain makes their unit price relatively low. This fact automatically causes a strong economic sensitivity of the supply chain to the level of operational expenses in every link. The core of the integrated logistic supply chain is its maritime segment, with the fleet and terminals (i.e. the cargo transportation system) serving as the base platform for it. In its turn, the terminal berths play a role of the interface between the fleet and the land-transportation sub-system. Current development of the maritime transportation technologies, ships and terminal specialization, vessel size growth, rationalization of route patterns, regionalization of trade etc., has made conventional calculation methods inadequate. The solution of the problem is in using object oriented simulation. At the same time, this approch usually assumes only ad hoc models. Thus, it does not provide the generality of its conventional analytical predecessors. The time and labor consumpting procedure of simulation results in a very narrow application domain of the model. This article describes a new simulation instrument, combining the generality of the analytical technoques with the efficiency of the object-oriented simulation. The approach implemented as a software module, which validity and adequacy are proved. The software was tested on several sea terminal design projects and confirmed its efficiency.

  4. CONTAIN calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholtyssek, W.

    1995-01-01

    In the first phase of a benchmark comparison, the CONTAIN code was used to calculate an assumed EPR accident 'medium-sized leak in the cold leg', especially for the first two days after initiation of the accident. The results for global characteristics compare well with those of FIPLOC, MELCOR and WAVCO calculations, if the same materials data are used as input. However, significant differences show up for local quantities such as flows through leakages. (orig.)

  5. Electrostatic assembly/disassembly of nanoscaled colloidosomes for light-triggered cargo release

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song; Moosa, Basem; Croissant, Jonas G.; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2015-01-01

    the capsules, and greatly limits their applications in large-cargos release. Herein we report nanoscaled colloidosomes designed by the electrostatic assembly of organosilica nanoparticles (NPs) with oppositely charged surfaces (rather than covalent bonds

  6. 49 CFR 178.320 - General requirements applicable to all DOT specification cargo tank motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... removed from the motor vehicle; and (3) Is not fabricated under a specification for cylinders... determine leak tightness of the cargo tank when testing with pneumatic pressure. Internal self-closing stop...

  7. Safety evaluation for packaging 222-S laboratory cargo tank for onetime type B material shipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) is to evaluate and document the safety of the onetime shipment of bulk radioactive liquids in the 222-S Laboratory cargo tank (222-S cargo tank). The 222-S cargo tank is a US Department of Transportation (DOT) MC-312 specification (DOT 1989) cargo tank, vehicle registration number HO-64-04275, approved for low specific activity (LSA) shipments in accordance with the DOT Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). In accordance with the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1A, Chapter III (RL 1988), an equivalent degree of safety shall be provided for onsite shipments as would be afforded by the DOT shipping regulations for a radioactive material package. This document demonstrates that this packaging system meets the onsite transportation safety criteria for a onetime shipment of Type B contents

  8. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masami; Nishio, Masahide.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the rupture of the dry well even when the melted reactor core drops into a reactor pedestal cavity. Constitution: In a reactor container in which a dry well disposed above the reactor pedestal cavity for containing the reactor pressure vessel and a torus type suppression chamber for containing pressure suppression water are connected with each other, the pedestal cavity and the suppression chamber are disposed such that the flow level of the pedestal cavity is lower than the level of the pressure suppression water. Further, a pressure suppression water introduction pipeway for introducing the pressure suppression water into the reactor pedestal cavity is disposed by way of an ON-OFF valve. In case if the melted reactor core should fall into the pedestal cavity, the ON-OFF valve for the pressure suppression water introduction pipeway is opened to introduce the pressure suppression water in the suppression chamber into the pedestal cavity to cool the melted reactor core. (Ikeda, J.)

  9. Plasma container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, Katsuyuki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to easily detect that the thickness of material to be abraded is reduced to an allowable limit from the outerside of the plasma container even during usual operation in a plasma vessel for a thermonuclear device. Constitution: A labelled material is disposed to the inside or rear face of constituent members of a plasma container undergoing the irradiation of plasma particles. A limiter plate to be abraded in the plasma container is composed of an armour member and heat removing plate, in which the armour member is made of graphite and heat-removing plate is made of copper. If the armour member is continuously abraded under the effect of sputtering due to plasma particles, silicon nitride embedded so far in the graphite at last appears on the surface of the limiter plate to undergo the impact shocks of the plasma particles. Accordingly, abrasion of the limiter material can be detected by a detector comprising gas chromatography and it can easily be detected from the outside of the plasma content even during normal operation. (Horiuchi, T.)

  10. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Satoru; Kawashima, Hiroaki

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To optimize the temperature distribution of the reactor container so as to moderate the thermal stress distribution on the reactor wall of LMFBR type reactor. Constitution: A good heat conductor (made of Al or Cu) is appended on the outer side of the reactor container wall from below the liquid level to the lower face of a deck plate. Further, heat insulators are disposed to the outside of the good heat conductor. Furthermore, a gas-cooling duct is circumferentially disposed at the contact portion between the good heat conductor and the deck plate around the reactor container. This enables to flow the cold heat from the liquid metal rapidly through the good heat conductor to the cooling duct and allows to maintain the temperature distribution on the reactor wall substantially linear even with the abrupt temperature change in the liquid metal. Further, by appending the good heat conductor covered with inactive metals not only on the outer side but also on the inside of the reactor wall to introduce the heat near the liquid level to the upper portion and escape the same to the cooling layer below the roof slab, the effect can be improved further. (Ikeda, J.)

  11. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  12. Crystal Structures of the Tetratricopeptide Repeat Domains of Kinesin Light Chains: Insight into Cargo Recognition Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Haizhong; Lee, Han Youl; Tong, Yufeng; Hong, Bum-Soo; Kim, Kyung-Phil; Shen, Yang; Lim, Kyung Jik; Mackenzie, Farrell; Tempel, Wolfram; Park, Hee-Won (SGC-Toronto); (PPCS); (Toronto)

    2012-10-23

    Kinesin-1 transports various cargos along the axon by interacting with the cargos through its light chain subunit. Kinesin light chains (KLC) utilize its tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain to interact with over 10 different cargos. Despite a high sequence identity between their TPR domains (87%), KLC1 and KLC2 isoforms exhibit differential binding properties towards some cargos. We determined the structures of human KLC1 and KLC2 tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains using X-ray crystallography and investigated the different mechanisms by which KLCs interact with their cargos. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we attributed the specific interaction between KLC1 and JNK-interacting protein 1 (JIP1) cargo to residue N343 in the fourth TRP repeat. Structurally, the N343 residue is adjacent to other asparagines and lysines, creating a positively charged polar patch within the groove of the TPR domain. Whereas, KLC2 with the corresponding residue S328 did not interact with JIP1. Based on these finding, we propose that N343 of KLC1 can form 'a carboxylate clamp' with its neighboring asparagine to interact with JIP1, similar to that of HSP70/HSP90 organizing protein-1's (HOP1) interaction with heat shock proteins. For the binding of cargos shared by KLC1 and KLC2, we propose a different site located within the groove but not involving N343. We further propose a third binding site on KLC1 which involves a stretch of polar residues along the inter-TPR loops that may form a network of hydrogen bonds to JIP3 and JIP4. Together, these results provide structural insights into possible mechanisms of interaction between KLC TPR domains and various cargo proteins.

  13. Research on combination forecast of port cargo throughput based on time series and causality analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Zhang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a combined model composed of grey-forecast model and Logistic-growth-curve model to improve the accuracy of forecast model of cargo throughput for the port. The authors also use the existing data of a current port to verify the validity of the combined model.Design/methodology/approach: A literature review is undertaken to find the appropriate forecast model of cargo throughput for the port. Through researching the related forecast model, the authors put together the individual models which are significant to study further. Finally, the authors combine two individual models (grey-forecast model and Logistic-growth-curve model into one combined model to forecast the port cargo throughput, and use the model to a physical port in China to testify the validity of the model.Findings: Test by the perceptional data of cargo throughput in the physical port, the results show that the combined model can obtain relatively higher forecast accuracy when it is not easy to find more information. Furthermore, the forecast made by the combined model are more accurate than any of the individual ones.Research limitations/implications: The study provided a new combined forecast model of cargo throughput with a relatively less information to improve the accuracy rate of the forecast. The limitation of the model is that it requires the cargo throughput of the port have an S-shaped change trend.Practical implications: This model is not limited by external conditions such as geographical, cultural. This model predicted the port cargo throughput of one real port in China in 2015, which provided some instructive guidance for the port development.Originality/value: This is the one of the study to improve the accuracy rate of the cargo throughput forecast with little information.

  14. Plutonium accident resistant container project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.

    1978-09-01

    The PARC (plutonium accident resistant container) project resulted in the design, development, and certification testing of a crashworthy air-transportable plutonium package (shipping container) for certification by the USNRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission). This PAT-1 (plutonium air transportable) package survives a very severe sequential test program of impact, crush, puncture, slash, burn, and water immersion. There is also an individual hydrostatic pressure test. The package has a payload mass capacity of 2 kg of PuO 2 and a thermal capacity of 25 watts. The design rationale for very high energy absorption (impact, crush, puncture, and slash protection) with residual high-level fire protection, resulted in a reasonably small air-transportable package, advancing the packaging state-of-art. Optimization design iterations were utilized in the areas of impact energy absorption and stress and thermal analysis. Package test results are presented in relation to radioactive materials containment acceptance criteria, shielding and criticality standards

  15. Plutonium accident resistant container project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.

    1978-05-01

    The PARC (plutonium accident resistant container) project resulted in the design, development, and certification testing of a crashworthy air-transportable plutonium package (shipping container) for certification by the USNRC. This PAT-1 (plutonium air transportable) package survives a very severe sequential test program of impact, crush, puncture, slash, burn, and water immersion. There is also an individual hydrostatic pressure test. The package has a payload mass capacity of 2 kg of PuO2 and a thermal capacity of 25 watts. The design rationale for very high energy absorption (impact, crush, puncture, and slash protection) with residual high-level fire protection, resulted in a reasonalby small air-transportable package, advancing the packaging state-of-art. Optimization design iterations were utilized in the areas of impact energy absorption and stress and thermal analysis. Package test results are presented in relation to radioactive materials containment acceptance criteria, shielding and criticality standards

  16. Reactor containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, Kanehiro; Hayagumo, Sunao; Morikawa, Matsuo.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To safety and simplify the structure in a reactor containment vessel. Constitution: Steam flow channels with steam jetting ports communicating to coolants are provided between a communication channel and coolants in a pressure suppression chamber. Upon loss of coolant accidents, pressure in a dry well will increase, then force downwards water in an annulus portion and further flow out the water through steam jetting ports into a suppression pool. Thus, the steam flow channel is filled with steams or airs present in the dry well, which are released through the steam jetting ports into the pressure suppression chamber. Even though water is violently vibrated owing to the upward movement of air bubbles and condensation of steam bubbles, the annular portion and the steam jetting ports are filled with steams or the like, direct dynamic loads onto the structures such as communication channels can be avoided. (J.P.N.)

  17. Flashback Flame Arrester Devices for Fuel Cargo Tank Vapor Vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    821711ff’erent fuiel/air mixtures: t pr duca-e f-ames with speedis representative :’ th ’se Or cc fuels that c, aid be carried as bulk car , ab atar -i typical...F w Physical Chemistry , Vol. ,o8, pp. 7-101h, 1977. 1 9 . PAPA/Lewis Research Stafl’, Ba.; i(’ si de tr irot tos ’ ly,]rocarbon Fuels with Air, NACA

  18. Improving customs’ border control by creating a reference database of cargo inspection X-ray images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina Kolokytha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Countries’ effective and efficient border security is becoming increasingly important in today’s global world of economy and trade. To ensure these, customs organisations are responsible for the prevention of illicit goods’ transportation across borders, particularly upon entry. The predicament of the customs administrations will soon be aggravated by both the increase of global trade and the trend towards 100% screening. It is therefore a goal to advance inspection methods to enable successful cargo handling, a scope towards which this research was aimed at. This work was carried out as part of the project ACXIS “Automated Comparison of X-ray Images for cargo Scanning” a European research project within the seventh framework programme answering the call SEC-2012.3.4-1: « Research on Automated Comparison of X-ray Images for cargo Scanning », to improve the process with the largest impact to trade flow: the procedures of freight X-ray scanning. As such, this project was focused on to implementing a manufacturer independent reference database for X-ray images of illicit and non-illicit cargo, developing procedures and algorithms in order to uniform X-ray images of different cargo scanners, and developing a training simulator for inspection officers and a toolbox enclosing several assisted and automated identification techniques for potentially illicit cargo.

  19. Nonlinear roll damping of a barge with and without liquid cargo in spherical tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhua Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Damping plays a significant role on the maximum amplitude of a vessel's roll motion, in particular near the resonant frequency. It is a common practice to predict roll damping using a linear radiation–diffraction code and add that to a linearized viscous damping component, which can be obtained through empirical, semi-empirical equations or free decay tests in calm water. However, it is evident that the viscous roll damping is nonlinear with roll velocity and amplitude. Nonlinear liquid cargo motions inside cargo tanks also contribute to roll damping, which when ignored impedes the accurate prediction of maximum roll motions. In this study, a series of free decay model tests is conducted on a barge-like vessel with two spherical tanks, which allows a better understanding of the nonlinear roll damping components considering the effects of the liquid cargo motion. To examine the effects of the cargo motion on the damping levels, a nonlinear model is adopted to calculate the damping coefficients. The liquid cargo motion is observed to affect both the linear and the quadratic components of the roll damping. The flow memory effect on the roll damping is also studied. The nonlinear damping coefficients of the vessel with liquid cargo motions in spherical tanks are obtained, which are expected to contribute in configurations involving spherical tanks.

  20. CONTAIN calculations; CONTAIN-Rechnungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholtyssek, W.

    1995-08-01

    In the first phase of a benchmark comparison, the CONTAIN code was used to calculate an assumed EPR accident `medium-sized leak in the cold leg`, especially for the first two days after initiation of the accident. The results for global characteristics compare well with those of FIPLOC, MELCOR and WAVCO calculations, if the same materials data are used as input. However, significant differences show up for local quantities such as flows through leakages. (orig.)

  1. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidaka, Masataka; Hatamiya, Shigeo; Kawasaki, Terufumi; Fukui, Toru; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Kawabe, Ryuhei; Murase, Michio; Naito, Masanori.

    1990-01-01

    In order to suppress the pressure elevation in a reactor container due to high temperature and high pressure steams jetted out upon pipeway rupture accidents in the reactor container, the steams are introduced to a pressure suppression chamber for condensating them in stored coolants. However, the ability for suppressing the pressure elevation and steam coagulation are deteriorated due to the presence of inactive incondensible gases. Then, there are disposed a vent channel for introducing the steams in a dry well to a pressure suppression chamber in the reactor pressure vessel, a closed space disposed at the position lower than a usual liquid level, a first channel having an inlet in the pressure suppression chamber and an exit in the closed space and a second means connected by way of a backflow checking means for preventing the flow directing to the closed space. The first paths are present by plurality, a portion of which constitutes a syphon. The incondensible gases and the steams are discharged to the dry well at high pressure by using the difference of the water head for a long cooling time after the pipeway rupture accident. Then, safety can be improved without using dynamic equipments as driving source. (N.H.)

  2. Airborne microorganisms from waste containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, Sabrina S; Stravitz, David M; Lyman, Charles E

    2012-01-01

    In physician's offices and biomedical labs, biological waste is handled every day. This waste is disposed of in waste containers designed for holding red autoclave bags. The containers used in these environments are closed hands-free containers, often with a step pedal. While these containers protect the user from surface-borne microorganisms, the containers may allow airborne microorganisms to escape via the open/close mechanism because of the air current produced upon open/close cycles. In this study, the air current was shown to be sufficient to allow airborne escape of microorganisms held in the container, including Aspergillus niger. However, bacterial cultures, such as Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis did not escape. This may be due to the choice of bacterial cultures and the absence of solid waste, such as dust or other particulate matter in the waste containers, that such strains of bacteria could travel on during aerosolization. We compared these results to those obtained using a re-designed receptacle, which mimimizes air currents, and detected no escaping microorganisms. This study highlights one potential source of airborne contamination in labs, hospitals, and other environments that dispose of biological waste.

  3. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.

    2000-01-01

    Australian cites experience a number of current and emerging air pollution problems. Concentrations of traditional primary pollutants such as CO, lead and dust have fallen in recent years as a consequence of air pollutant control measures, and the widespread introduction of lead-free petrol. However, recommended guidelines for ozone, the principal component of photochemical smog, are regularly exceeded in major capital cities in the summer months. In addition, it is predicted that extensive urban expansion will lead to much greater dependence on the motor vehicle as the primary means of transportation. Effects of air pollution are felt at a variety of scales. Traditionally, concerns about gaseous and particulate emissions from industrial and vehicular sources were focused on local impacts due to exposure to toxic species such as CO and lead. As noted above, concentrations of these pollutants have been reduced by a variety of control measures. Pollutants which have effects at a regional scale, such as photochemically-produced ozone, and acidic gases and particles have proved more difficult to reduce. In general, these pollutants arc not the result of direct emissions to atmosphere, but result from complex secondary processes driven by photochemical reactions of species such as NO 2 and aldehydes. In addition, global effects of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere have received significant recent attention, concentrations of atmospheric CO 2 with predicted impacts on global climate, and ozone depletion due to anthropogenic emissions of chlorine-containing chemicals are the two major examples. Combustion processes from petrol- and diesel-fuelled vehicles, make major contributions to air pollution, and the magnitude of this contribution is discussed in this article

  4. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyamada, Osamu; Furukawa, Hideyasu; Uozumi, Hiroto.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To lower the position of an intermediate slab within a reactor container and fitting a heat insulating material to the inner wall of said intermediate slab, whereby a space for a control rod exchanging device and thermal stresses of the inner peripheral wall are lowered. Constitution: In the pedestal at the lower part of a reactor pressure vessel there is formed an intermediate slab at a position lower than diaphragm floor slab of the outer periphery of the pedestal thereby to secure a space for providing automatic exchanging device of a control rod driving device. Futhermore, a heat insulating material is fitted to the inner peripheral wall at the upper side of the intermediate slab part, and the temperature gradient in the wall thickness direction at the time of a piping rupture trouble is made gentle, and thermal stresses at the inner peripheral wall are lowered. (Sekiya, K.)

  5. Containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbirohowski-Koscia, K.F.; Roberts, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    A concrete containment vessel for nuclear reactors is disclosed that is spherical and that has prestressing tendons disposed in first, second and third sets, the tendons of each set being all substantially concentric and centred around a respective one of the three orthogonal axes of the sphere; the tendons of the first set being anchored at each end at a first anchor rib running around a circumference of the vessel, the tendons of the second set being anchored at each end at a second anchor rib running around a circumference of the sphere and disposed at 90 0 to the first rib, and the tendons of the third set being anchored some to the first rib and the remainder to the second rib. (author)

  6. OPTIMIZING TIME WINDOWS FOR MANAGING ARRIVALS OF EXPORT CONTAINERS AT CHINESE CONTAINER TERMINALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Gang; Yang, Zhongzhen

    2009-01-01

    of driver and truck waiting time, the cost of container cargo storage time, the truck idle cost and terminal yard fee. Secondly, to minimize the costs, a heuristic is developed based on a genetic algorithm to optimize the time window arrangement. The optimal solution involves the position and the length...... window management programme that is widely used in Chinese terminals to facilitate the terminal operations and the truck delivery operations. Firstly, the arrangement of time windows is assumed to follow the principle of minimizing the transport costs. A cost function is defined that includes the cost...

  7. FAM21 directs SNX27–retromer cargoes to the plasma membrane by preventing transport to the Golgi apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seongju; Chang, Jaerak; Blackstone, Craig

    2016-01-01

    The endosomal network maintains cellular homeostasis by sorting, recycling and degrading endocytosed cargoes. Retromer organizes the endosomal sorting pathway in conjunction with various sorting nexin (SNX) proteins. The SNX27–retromer complex has recently been identified as a major endosomal hub that regulates endosome-to-plasma membrane recycling by preventing lysosomal entry of cargoes. Here, we show that SNX27 directly interacts with FAM21, which also binds retromer, within the Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome protein and SCAR homologue (WASH) complex. This interaction is required for the precise localization of SNX27 at an endosomal subdomain as well as for recycling of SNX27-retromer cargoes. Furthermore, FAM21 prevents cargo transport to the Golgi apparatus by controlling levels of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, which facilitates cargo dissociation at the Golgi. Together, our results demonstrate that the SNX27–retromer–WASH complex directs cargoes to the plasma membrane by blocking their transport to lysosomes and the Golgi. PMID:26956659

  8. Model predictions and control of conditions in a CA-reefer container

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.; Verdijck, G.J.C.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a concept for energy saving for refrigerated container transport is presented. The concept is based on model-predictive control of the set points of the cooling unit. These models predict energy consumption of the cooling unit, climatic conditions inside the cargo space, and the change

  9. 49 CFR 176.170 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in... REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Cargo Transport Units and Shipborne Barges § 176.170 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers. (a...

  10. 46 CFR 148.01-7 - Permitted cargoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (mixture), containing 6 to 12 pct moisture and no more than 18 pct fat by weight ......do Do. Lead nitrate... cause self heating and the evolution of flammable gas. Aluminum nitrate Oxidizing materials If involved in a fire will greatly intensify the burning of combustible materials. Ammonium nitrate containing...

  11. Air pollution control in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, S.K.

    1995-01-01

    Prior to rapid spurt in industrialization in India, people were used to inhale pure air containing about 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and some carbon dioxide. But afterwards this composition of pure air was disturbed as a result of increased economic activities. Air, now a days also contains sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides etc., etc. which are extremely harmful for human health. Virulence of air pollution was realised in late eighties after Bhopal Gas Tragedy (BGT) and an effective air quality management started taking shape in India afterwards. The basic components of air quality management are legislation and regulations, emission inventory, air quality standards and monitoring, air dispersion models and installation of pollution control equipment which are being discussed in this paper. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs

  12. Cargo response to railcar impact and tiedown load analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomew, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical study that investigated the loads produced during coupling of railcars carrying heavy shipping containers is described. The structural model of the impact event is represented by a lumped parameter technique. Each discrete mass lump possesses longitudinal, vertical, and rotational degrees of freedom. The resulting computer simulation provides for nonlinear railcar coupler stiffness and linear damping forces in the coupler and container tiedowns. Results include response to parametric variations in container weight, impact speed, and tiedown stiffness. Container dynamic response and tiedown loads are found to depend heavily on these parameters. Also, railcar bending and subsequent vertical motion are shown to be important contributors to these responses. When experimentally substantiated, the model can serve as a useful tool in the design and evaluation of shipping container tiedown structures

  13. Spiders (Araneae) Found in Bananas and Other International Cargo Submitted to North American Arachnologists for Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S; Crawford, Rodney L; Buckle, Donald J

    2014-11-01

    Spiders found in international cargo brought into North America are sometimes submitted to arachnologists for identification. Often, these spiders are presumed to be of medical importance because of size or a submitter's familiarity with a toxic spider genus from the continent of origin. Starting in 2006, requests were made for spiders found in international cargo brought into North America, in addition to the specimens from similar cargo shipments already in our museum collections. This was an ad hoc study that allowed us to focus on spiders of concern to the discoverer. We identified 135 spiders found in international cargo. A key for the most common species is provided. The most frequently submitted spiders were the pantropical huntsman spider, Heteropoda venatoria (L.) (Sparassidae), and the redfaced banana spider, Cupiennius chiapanensis Medina Soriano (Ctenidae). Spiders of medical importance were rare. The most common cargo from which spiders were submitted was bananas with most specimens coming from Central America, Ecuador, or Colombia. Lack of experience with nonnative fauna caused several experienced American arachnologists to misidentify harmless ctenid spiders (C. chiapanensis, spotlegged banana spider, Cupiennius getazi Simon) as highly toxic Phoneutria spiders. These misidentifications could have led to costly, unwarranted prophylactic eradication measures, unnecessary employee health education, heightened employee anxiety and spoilage when perishable goods are left unloaded due to safety concerns. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  14. In vivo control mechanisms of motor-cargo movement on microtubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, Shermali

    2014-03-01

    Within axons, molecular motors transport essential components required for neuronal growth and viability. Although many levels of regulation must exist for proper anterograde and retrograde transport of vital proteins, little is known about these mechanisms. Previous work suggested that the amyloid precursor protein (APP) functions as a kinesin-1 receptor during transport. However, how APP vesicle motility is regulated is unclear. Using genetics and in vivo imaging in Drosophila we showed that reduction of presenilin (PS) substantially increased anterograde and retrograde APP vesicle velocities. Strikingly, PS deficiency had no effect on an unrelated cargo vesicle containing synaptotagmin, which is powered by a different kinesin motor. Increased PS-mediated velocities required functional kinesin-1 and dynein motors. We also found that these PS-mediated effects on motor protein function were mediated via a pathway that involves glycogen synthase kinase-3 β (GSK-3 β) . PS genetically interacted with GSK-3 β in an activity dependent manner. Excess of active GSK-3 β perturbed transport by causing axonal blockages, which were enhanced by reduction of kinesin-1 or dynein, while excess of non-functional GSK-3 β had no effect. Strikingly, GSK-3 β-activity dependent transport defects were enhanced by reduction of PS. Collectively, our findings suggest that PS and GSK-3 β are required for normal motor protein function, and we propose a model in which PS likely regulates GSK-3 β activity during transport. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the complex regulatory machinery that must exist in vivo and how this system is coordinated during vesicle motility on microtubules.

  15. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air ... will perform any procedures that use air-abrasion technology. Ask your dentist if he or she uses ...

  16. Shock and vibration environments for a large shipping container during truck transport (Part II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnuson, C.E.

    1978-05-01

    Purpose of this study was to obtain vibration and shock data during truck shipment of heavy cargo. These data were for use in determining any trends of vibration and shock environments with increased cargo weight. The new data were obtained on a ''piggyback'' basis during truck transport of 249 100N (56,000-pound) cargo which consisted of a spent fuel container and its supporting structure. The truck was driven from Mercury, Nevada, to Albuquerque, New Mexico. The routes traveled were US 95 from Mercury, Nevada, to Las Vegas, Nevada; US 93 from Las Vegas to Kingman, Arizona; and I-40/US 66 from Kingman to Albuquerque, New Mexico. Speeds varied from very slow to 88 km/hr (55 mph). A comparison of data from similar experiments with cargo weights varying from no-load to this load shows that the zero-to-peak acceleration amplitude levels of vibration are highest when trucks carry relatively light loads. This is true for the longitudinal and vertical axes of the vehicles in most frequency bands and for the transverse axis above 700 Hz. The shock response acceleration amplitudes for heavier cargo weights were less severe above 3 Hz in the vertical axis and higher between 8 and 20 Hz in the transverse axis. The highest acceleration amplitude of shock response in the longitudinal axis below about 20 Hz was produced in a trailer having a spring suspension system and carrying the 249 100N (56,000 pounds) load

  17. Defining freight rates as a contribution to the successful operation of container shipping companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Oblak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the world market and the flexibility of containerization to adjust to the constant changes in supply and demand of the international goods market, has led to a continuous increase in the portion of the container transport within the international maritime cargo transport. By the increase of the container transport level, the impact and importance of container freight rates have been growing, the variability of which directly reflects on the world economy. The aim of this paper is to analyze the efficiency of actual methods in establishing the container freight rates according to the problems which appear in the container shipping operation and refer to large differences in the weights of the actual transported cargo and the declared cargo in containers. The consequence of is lower freight rates and higher costs of the vessels exploitation, concerning the increase of the bunker oil consumption. The conducted research is based on actual data that have been collected and analyzed from particular container vessel liner services within period of 90 days and casting off from 16 container ports. The proposed measures could increase the level of usability of the transporting ships capacities and enable a more accurate and correct account of sea freight rates. The results of the research have shown that by increasing the control of accuracy of the cargo weight in containers and by improving the model of accounting, the freight rates can increase the incomes of shipping companies maintaining the same level of container traffic, which can have a direct influence on the efficiency of their successful operation.

  18. Would you procure radioactive containers without a supplier quality evaluation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kapoor, A.; Natali, R.B.

    2004-07-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites/contractors purchase several different types of containers (such as boxes, drums, large bulk dump trucks, railcars, cargo containers, burrito wraps, and super sacks) for use in the storage and transportation of low-level waste. These containers are purchased from several suppliers - all of whom must be pre-approved according to DOE rules, orders and guidelines - and the suppliers must manufacture the containers to exact specifications and designs supplied by the DOE site/contractor. DOE studies and qualitative evaluations indicate that the current supplier evaluation process is too costly and inefficient. Therefore, DOE, in coordination with sites/contractors, instituted a corporate approach to centralize the supplier quality evaluation program for the procurement of containers. That effort resulted in the development of this Container Suppler Evaluation Program. The program was implemented when two suppliers were evaluated using this program.

  19. Would you procure radioactive containers without a supplier quality evaluation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawk, M.; Kapoor, A.; Natali, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites/contractors purchase several different types of containers (such as boxes, drums, large bulk dump trucks, railcars, cargo containers, burrito wraps, and super sacks) for use in the storage and transportation of low-level waste. These containers are purchased from several suppliers - all of whom must be pre-approved according to DOE rules, orders and guidelines - and the suppliers must manufacture the containers to exact specifications and designs supplied by the DOE site/contractor. DOE studies and qualitative evaluations indicate that the current supplier evaluation process is too costly and inefficient. Therefore, DOE, in coordination with sites/contractors, instituted a corporate approach to centralize the supplier quality evaluation program for the procurement of containers. That effort resulted in the development of this Container Suppler Evaluation Program. The program was implemented when two suppliers were evaluated using this program

  20. Secondary Containers and Service Containers for Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondary containers and service containers are used by pesticide applicators in the process of applying a pesticide. EPA does not require secondary containers or service containers to be labeled or to meet particular construction standards. Learn more.