WorldWideScience

Sample records for air cargo containers

  1. Air Cargo Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-30

    passenger and all-cargo aircraft. The air cargo system consists of a large, complex distribution network linking manufacturers and shippers to freight...free transportation to San Jose, California. His only luggage was a guitar case that concealed hammers, mallets, a knife, and a spear gun. At the...authorities and airplane manufacturers study methods to mitigate the effects of in-flight explosions.76 The FAA has had a active research program in blast

  2. 76 FR 51847 - Air Cargo Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... Exporters and Importers, Cargo Airline Association, Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals... the air cargo supply chain. TSA Response: The 9/11 Act required the Secretary of Homeland Security to... conduct screening at stages earlier within the cargo supply chain and off-airport. Thus, the CCSP...

  3. Port Security: Container Cargo Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladivoj Vlaković

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available illicittrafficking of threat materials, especially explosives, chemicalsubstances and radioactive or nuclear material. The transportof the threat materials by using sea routes is an advantageto te"orists especially because of the possible use of ship containers.The container is the basis of world trade. It is assumed thatthe world total movement in containers is about 200 millionTEUs ("20-foot equivalent units" per year. The list of materialstransported by containers which should be subject to inspectionwith the aim of reducing the acts of te"orism includes explosives,narcotics, chemical weapons, hazardous chemicalsand radioactive materials.Of special interest is nuclear te"orism. The risk of nuclearte"orism carried out by sub-national groups should be considerednot only in the construction and/or use of nuclear device,but also in possible radioactive contamination of large urbanareas.The system of ship containers control is an essential componentof «smart border» concept. Modem personnel, parcel,vehicle and cargo inspection systems are non-invasive imagingtechniques based on the use of nuclear analytical techniques.The inspection systems use penetrating radiations: hard x-rays(300 keV or more or gamma-rays from radioactive sources(137Cs and 60Co with energies from 600 to 1300 keV that producea high resolution radiograph of the load. Unfortunately,this information is "non-specific" in that it gives no informationon the nature of objects that do not match_ the travel documentsand are not recognized by a visual analysis of the radiographicpicture. Moreover, there are regions of the containerwherex and gamma-ray systems are "blind" due to the high averageatomic number of the objects i"adiated that appear asblack spots in the radiographic image.The systems being developed are based on the use of fast, 14Me V, neutrons with detection of associated a-particle from nuclearreactionbywhichneutrons are produced (d+t>a+n.Jnsuch a way the possibility to

  4. OPTIMAL GOODS STOWAGE IN AIR CARGO TERMINALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadiy Yun

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Lack of system research done by domestic and foreign scientists in the field of optimal cargostraffic distribution problem in Air Cargo Terminal, proves necessity of investigation and optimization of thisprocess. Mathematical models and algorithms of optimal problem solving for air cargos distribution inwarehouses on the basis of established functional dependence between freight flow stowage in warehousesand transport vehicle loading (unloading processes are presented in the article.Keywords:algorithms, dimensions of air cargo terminal, effectiveness of loading-unloading processes,freight flow, models.

  5. OPTIMAL GOODS STOWAGE IN AIR CARGO TERMINALS

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Gennadiy; Gyrych, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. Lack of system research done by domestic and foreign scientists in the field of optimal cargostraffic distribution problem in Air Cargo Terminal, proves necessity of investigation and optimization of thisprocess. Mathematical models and algorithms of optimal problem solving for air cargos distribution inwarehouses on the basis of established functional dependence between freight flow stowage in warehousesand transport vehicle loading (unloading) processes are presented in the articl...

  6. Optimization of the air cargo supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pérez Bernal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper aims to evaluate and optimize the various operations within the air cargo chain. It pursues to improve the efficiency of the air cargo supply chain and to provide more information to the decision-makers to optimize their fields.Design/methodology/approach: The method used is a process simulation modelling software, WITNESS, which provides information to the decision-makers about the most relevant parameters subject to optimization. The input for the simulation is obtained from a qualitative analysis of the air cargo supply chain with the involved agents and from a study of the external trade by air mode, given that their behaviour depend on the location. The case study is focused on a particular location, the Case of Zaragoza Airport (Spain.Findings: This paper demonstrates that efficiency of the air cargo supply chain can increase by leveraging several parameters such as bottlenecks, resources or warehouses.Originality/value: It explores the use of a simulation modeling software originally intended for manufacturing processes and extended to support decision making processes in the area of air cargo.

  7. Aviation System Analysis Capability Air Carrier Investment Model-Cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jesse; Santmire, Tara

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC) Air Cargo Investment Model-Cargo (ACIMC), is to examine the economic effects of technology investment on the air cargo market, particularly the market for new cargo aircraft. To do so, we have built an econometrically based model designed to operate like the ACIM. Two main drivers account for virtually all of the demand: the growth rate of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and changes in the fare yield (which is a proxy of the price charged or fare). These differences arise from a combination of the nature of air cargo demand and the peculiarities of the air cargo market. The net effect of these two factors are that sales of new cargo aircraft are much less sensitive to either increases in GDP or changes in the costs of labor, capital, fuel, materials, and energy associated with the production of new cargo aircraft than the sales of new passenger aircraft. This in conjunction with the relatively small size of the cargo aircraft market means technology improvements to the cargo aircraft will do relatively very little to spur increased sales of new cargo aircraft.

  8. SIMULATIONS FOR ACTIVE INTERROGATION OF HEU IN CARGO CONTAINERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LEE, SANG Y. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; BEDDINGFIELD, DAVID H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; PARK, JAEYOUNG [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-22

    We describe the results of a Monte Carlo simulation 10 investigate the feasibility of using a pulsed deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron technique for active interrogation of special nuclear material in cargo containers. Time distributions of fission neutrons from highly enriched uranium induced by a pulsed D-T neutron source were calculated for cargo containers with different hydrogen contents. A simple detector system with polyethylene and cadmium was modeled to calculate the two-group neutron flux at the detector.

  9. Domestic & International Air Cargo Activity: National and Selected Hub Forecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    world regional models. These six world regions are: North America excluding U.S., South America, Europe, Asia, Australia and Oceania, and Africa . For each...1 I et p(B) p(B) = (I- PIB - P2B 2,---, PpB ) and B is a backward shift operator. The part f (Xt’s 1 ) is a predictable component, which contains the...world regions are: North America excluding U.S., South America, Europe, Asia, Australia and Oceania and Africa . Statistics of air cargo flow for these

  10. Neutron and Photon Transport in Sea-Going Cargo Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruet, J; Descalle, M; Hall, J; Pohl, B; Prussin, S G

    2005-02-09

    Factors affecting sensing of small quantities of fissionable material in large sea-going cargo containers by neutron interrogation and detection of {beta}-delayed photons are explored. The propagation of variable-energy neutrons in cargos, subsequent fission of hidden nuclear material and production of the {beta}-delayed photons, and the propagation of these photons to an external detector are considered explicitly. Detailed results of Monte Carlo simulations of these stages in representative cargos are presented. Analytical models are developed both as a basis for a quantitative understanding of the interrogation process and as a tool to allow ready extrapolation of the results to cases not specifically considered here.

  11. Comparative International Air Cargo Solutions: The Pathway to a Resilient, Adaptable, Balanced and Sustainable Secure Global Air Cargo Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    systems. Dr. Gerald L. Dillinham, the Director of Physical Infrastructure Issues, GAO noted during his testimony that securing the nation’s aviation...9697. Karp , Aaron. “Air Cargo Flattens Out.” Air Transport World 46, no. 1 (2009): 37–39. 74 Kersey, J. W. “The Economics of Air Cargo (Analysis of...Transportation, U.S. Senate. Aviation Security: Progress since September 11, 2001, and the Challenges Ahead. Statement of Gerald L. Dillingham

  12. Aggregating Secondary Source Data for Air Cargo Prescreening Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to improve the effectiveness of air cargo prescreening by enabling background knowledge about companies and products to be used for threat assessment. The...

  13. 19 CFR 122.117 - Requirements for transit air cargo transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for transit air cargo transport. 122... Requirements for transit air cargo transport. (a) Transportation—(1) Port to port. Transit air cargo may be... cargo, a receipt shall be given. The receipt shall be made by the airline responsible for transport...

  14. Screening Cargo Containers to Remove a Terrorist Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A

    2005-09-20

    Each year some 48 million cargo containers move between the world's ports. More than 6 million of these enter the U.S., but only about 2 percent are opened and inspected when they arrive at U.S. seaports. The West Coast ports of Los Angeles-Long Beach, Oakland, and Seattle alone process 11,000 containers per day, or about 8 containers per minute. Because of this high traffic volume, U.S. seaports are especially vulnerable to a terrorist attack. Illicit radioactive materials could be hidden in any one of the cargo-filled containers that arrive at U.S. ports. Yet, searching every shipment would be bring legitimate commercial activities to a halt. Improving security at U.S. ports is thus one of the nation's most difficult technical and practical challenges because the systems developed for screening cargo must operate in concert with ongoing seaport activities. Working at this intersection of commerce and national security, Lawrence Livermore researchers are applying their expertise in radiation science and detection to develop improved technologies for detecting hidden radioactive materials. One new technology being designed and tested at the Laboratory is a neutron interrogation system for cargo containers. This system will quickly screen incoming shipments to ensure that nuclear materials such as plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU) are not smuggled into the U.S.

  15. 19 CFR 122.48 - Air cargo manifest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air cargo manifest. 122.48 Section 122.48 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements...

  16. Optimisation of key performance measures in air cargo demand management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander May

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article sought to facilitate the optimisation of key performance measures utilised for demand management in air cargo operations. The focus was on the Revenue Management team at Virgin Atlantic Cargo and a fuzzy group decision-making method was used. Utilising intelligent fuzzy multi-criteria methods, the authors generated a ranking order of ten key outcome-based performance indicators for Virgin Atlantic air cargo Revenue Management. The result of this industry-driven study showed that for Air Cargo Revenue Management, ‘Network Optimisation’ represents a critical outcome-based performance indicator. This collaborative study contributes to existing logistics management literature, especially in the area of Revenue Management, and it seeks to enhance Revenue Management practice. It also provides a platform for Air Cargo operators seeking to improve reliability values for their key performance indicators as a means of enhancing operational monitoring power.

  17. 77 FR 65006 - Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ..., such as the ACAS pilot, in 19 CFR 101.9. Advance Electronic Air Cargo Information Required by 19 CFR... need to sign an Interconnection Security Agreement (ISA) or amend their existing ISA, if necessary, and... connection covered by a valid and up to date ISA will have already met these requirements. ACAS...

  18. Shift designs for freight handling personnel at air cargo terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Aiying; Grunow, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model for determining manpower requirements and related personnel shift designs for the build-up and break-down of the unit load devices (ULDs) at the air cargo terminal to minimize manpower costs. To utilize the manpower...

  19. 77 FR 65395 - Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program Correction In notice document 2012-26031 appearing on pages 65006-65009 in the issue of October 24, 2012 make...

  20. 77 FR 21577 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Container and Road Vehicle Certification for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Container and... collection requirement concerning the Cargo Container and Road Vehicle for Transport under Customs Seal. This...: Title: Cargo Container and Road Vehicle for Transport under Customs Seal. OMB Number: 1651-0124....

  1. 77 FR 3487 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... Information Collection Activities: Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... information collection requirement concerning Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station. This request for...: Title: Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station. OMB Number: 1651-0096. Form Number: None....

  2. Compressed Sensing Techniques Applied to Ultrasonic Imaging of Cargo Containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Yuri Álvarez; Lorenzo, José Ángel Martínez

    2017-01-15

    One of the key issues in the fight against the smuggling of goods has been the development of scanners for cargo inspection. X-ray-based radiographic system scanners are the most developed sensing modality. However, they are costly and use bulky sources that emit hazardous, ionizing radiation. Aiming to improve the probability of threat detection, an ultrasonic-based technique, capable of detecting the footprint of metallic containers or compartments concealed within the metallic structure of the inspected cargo, has been proposed. The system consists of an array of acoustic transceivers that is attached to the metallic structure-under-inspection, creating a guided acoustic Lamb wave. Reflections due to discontinuities are detected in the images, provided by an imaging algorithm. Taking into consideration that the majority of those images are sparse, this contribution analyzes the application of Compressed Sensing (CS) techniques in order to reduce the amount of measurements needed, thus achieving faster scanning, without compromising the detection capabilities of the system. A parametric study of the image quality, as a function of the samples needed in spatial and frequency domains, is presented, as well as the dependence on the sampling pattern. For this purpose, realistic cargo inspection scenarios have been simulated.

  3. Compressed Sensing Techniques Applied to Ultrasonic Imaging of Cargo Containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Álvarez López

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key issues in the fight against the smuggling of goods has been the development of scanners for cargo inspection. X-ray-based radiographic system scanners are the most developed sensing modality. However, they are costly and use bulky sources that emit hazardous, ionizing radiation. Aiming to improve the probability of threat detection, an ultrasonic-based technique, capable of detecting the footprint of metallic containers or compartments concealed within the metallic structure of the inspected cargo, has been proposed. The system consists of an array of acoustic transceivers that is attached to the metallic structure-under-inspection, creating a guided acoustic Lamb wave. Reflections due to discontinuities are detected in the images, provided by an imaging algorithm. Taking into consideration that the majority of those images are sparse, this contribution analyzes the application of Compressed Sensing (CS techniques in order to reduce the amount of measurements needed, thus achieving faster scanning, without compromising the detection capabilities of the system. A parametric study of the image quality, as a function of the samples needed in spatial and frequency domains, is presented, as well as the dependence on the sampling pattern. For this purpose, realistic cargo inspection scenarios have been simulated.

  4. Compressed Sensing Techniques Applied to Ultrasonic Imaging of Cargo Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez López, Yuri; Martínez Lorenzo, José Ángel

    2017-01-01

    One of the key issues in the fight against the smuggling of goods has been the development of scanners for cargo inspection. X-ray-based radiographic system scanners are the most developed sensing modality. However, they are costly and use bulky sources that emit hazardous, ionizing radiation. Aiming to improve the probability of threat detection, an ultrasonic-based technique, capable of detecting the footprint of metallic containers or compartments concealed within the metallic structure of the inspected cargo, has been proposed. The system consists of an array of acoustic transceivers that is attached to the metallic structure-under-inspection, creating a guided acoustic Lamb wave. Reflections due to discontinuities are detected in the images, provided by an imaging algorithm. Taking into consideration that the majority of those images are sparse, this contribution analyzes the application of Compressed Sensing (CS) techniques in order to reduce the amount of measurements needed, thus achieving faster scanning, without compromising the detection capabilities of the system. A parametric study of the image quality, as a function of the samples needed in spatial and frequency domains, is presented, as well as the dependence on the sampling pattern. For this purpose, realistic cargo inspection scenarios have been simulated. PMID:28098841

  5. National Security Science and Technology Initiative: Air Cargo Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, Philip R [ORNL; White, Tim [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Cespedes, Ernesto [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Bowerman, Biays [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Bush, John [Battelle

    2010-11-01

    The non-intrusive inspection (NII) of consolidated air cargo carried on commercial passenger aircraft continues to be a technically challenging, high-priority requirement of the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate (DHS S&T), the Transportation Security Agency and the Federal Aviation Administration. The goal of deploying a screening system that can reliably and cost-effectively detect explosive threats in consolidated cargo without adversely affecting the flow of commerce will require significant technical advances that will take years to develop. To address this critical National Security need, the Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle), under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with four of its associated US Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, Idaho, and Brookhaven), conducted a research and development initiative focused on identifying, evaluating, and integrating technologies for screening consolidated air cargo for the presence of explosive threats. Battelle invested $8.5M of internal research and development funds during fiscal years 2007 through 2009. The primary results of this effort are described in this document and can be summarized as follows: (1) Completed a gap analysis that identified threat signatures and observables, candidate technologies for detection, their current state of development, and provided recommendations for improvements to meet air cargo screening requirements. (2) Defined a Commodity/Threat/Detection matrix that focuses modeling and experimental efforts, identifies technology gaps and game-changing opportunities, and provides a means of summarizing current and emerging capabilities. (3) Defined key properties (e.g., elemental composition, average density, effective atomic weight) for basic commodity and explosive benchmarks, developed virtual models of the physical distributions (pallets) of three commodity types and three

  6. Rapid response calculation of LNG cargo containment system under sloshing load using wavelet transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yooil

    2013-06-01

    Reliable strength assessment of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) cargo containment system under the sloshing impact load is very difficult task due to the complexity of the physics involved in, both in terms of the hydrodynamics and structural mechanics. Out of all those complexities, the proper selection of the design sloshing load which is applied to the structural model of the LNG cargo containment system, is one of the most challenging one due to its inherent randomness as well as the statistical analysis which is tightly linked to the design sloshing load selection. In this study, the response based strength assessment procedure of LNG cargo containment system has been developed and proposed as an alternative design methodology. Sloshing pressure time history, measured from the model test, is decomposed into wavelet basis function targeting the minimization of the number of the basis function together with the maximization of the numerical efficiency. Then the response of the structure is obtained using the finite element method under each wavelet basis function of different scale. Finally, the response of the structure under entire sloshing impact time history is rapidly calculated by synthesizing the structural response under wavelet basis function. Through this analysis, more realistic response of the system under sloshing impact pressure can be obtained without missing the details of pressure time history such as rising pattern, oscillation due to air entrapment and decay pattern and so on. The strength assessment of the cargo containment system is then performed based on the statistical analysis of the stress peaks selected out of the obtained stress time history.

  7. 75 FR 63192 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Air Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... Collection of Information: Air Cargo Security Requirements AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration... under a security program, and all-cargo carriers: Security programs, security threat assessments (STA), known shipper data via the Known Shipper Management System (KSMS), cargo screening reporting,...

  8. 77 FR 21579 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... a Container Station AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station... forms of information. Title: Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station. OMB Number: 1651-0096....

  9. Optimization of the imported air express cargo distribution problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang, T.L.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the delivering network of imported air express cargo as an integrated multi-depot vehicle routing problem. Integrated multi-depot vehicle routing problem attempts to decide which service centers should be used and how much freight should be unloaded in each service center. The role of an exchange point which is allowing the delivery vans and shuttles to exchange imported and exported goods is also addressed. Test results demonstrate the feasibility of the four models so these are highly promising for use in a diverse array of applications, such as in home delivery and reverse logistics.

  10. 19 CFR 122.49 - Correction of air cargo manifest or air waybill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Correction of air cargo manifest or air waybill. 122.49 Section 122.49 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard...

  11. 46 CFR 154.1710 - Exclusion of air from cargo tank vapor spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exclusion of air from cargo tank vapor spaces. 154.1710... Operating Requirements § 154.1710 Exclusion of air from cargo tank vapor spaces. When a vessel is carrying acetaldehyde, butadiene, ethylene oxide, or vinyl chloride, the master shall ensure that air is: (a)...

  12. 77 FR 35993 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Container and Road Vehicle Certification for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... affected agencies. This information collection was previously published in the Federal Register (77 FR... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Container and... Budget (OMB) for review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Cargo Container...

  13. 46 CFR 154.1210 - Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing... Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1210 Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping. (a) Each hold space, void space, cofferdam,...

  14. Diffusion-Limited Cargo Loading of an Engineered Protein Container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschoche, Reinhard; Hilvert, Donald

    2015-12-30

    The engineered bacterial nanocompartment AaLS-13 is a promising artificial encapsulation system that exploits electrostatic interactions for cargo loading. In order to study its ability to take up and retain guests, a pair of fluorescent proteins was developed which allows spectroscopic determination of the extent of encapsulation by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). The encapsulation process is generally complete within a second, suggesting low energetic barriers for proteins to cross the capsid shell. Formation of intermediate aggregates upon mixing host and guest in vitro complicates capsid loading at low ionic strength, but can be sidestepped by increasing salt concentrations or diluting the components. Encapsulation of guests is completely reversible, and the position of the equilibrium is easily tuned by varying the ionic strength. These results, which challenge the notion that AaLS-13 is a continuous rigid shell, provide valuable information about cargo loading that will guide ongoing efforts to engineer functional host-guest complexes. Moreover, it should be possible to adapt the protein FRET pair described in this report to characterize functional capsid-cargo complexes generated by other encapsulation systems.

  15. 77 FR 6135 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Manifest/Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    .../ Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status Messages and Importer Security Filing AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... Manifest/Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status Messages and Importer Security Filing. This is a proposed... forms of information. Title: Cargo Manifest/Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status Messages...

  16. 49 CFR 175.702 - Separation distance requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in cargo aircraft. 175.702 Section 175.702 Transportation Other... (radioactive) materials in cargo aircraft. (a) No person may carry in a cargo aircraft any package required by... separation distance between the surfaces of the radioactive materials packages, overpacks or...

  17. Air cargo: An Integrated Systems View. 1978 Summer Faculty Fellowship Program in Engineering Systems Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaton, A. (Editor); Eastman, R. (Editor); Hargrove, A. (Editor); Rabiega, W. (Editor); Olsen, R. (Editor); Soberick, M. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The national air cargo system is analyzed and how it should be in 1990 is prescribed in order to operate successfully through 2015; that is through one equipment cycle. Elements of the system which are largely under control of the airlines and the aircraft manufacturers are discussed. The discussion deals with aircraft, networks, facilities, and procedures. The regulations which govern the movement of air freight are considered. The larger public policy interests which must be served by the kind of system proposed, the air cargo integrated system (ACIS), are addressed. The possible social, economical, political, and environment impacts of the system are considered. Recommendations are also given.

  18. 19 CFR 122.48a - Electronic information for air cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic information for air cargo required in... OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members...

  19. The Arteries of Global Trade: Industrial Restructuring and Technological Change in the Transatlantic Air Cargo Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Guido

    2010-01-01

    Air cargo enjoys a special importance: together with maritime transport it is the backbone of global trade and is indispensable for contemporary globalization. Air transport is the only mode that combines worldwide reach with high speed. Nonetheless there is a dearth of geographic research that analyzes the current restructuring affecting the air…

  20. 15 CFR 30.26 - Reporting of vessels, aircraft, cargo vans, and other carriers and containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... vehicles, trailers, pallets, cargo vans, lift vans, or similar shipping containers are not considered... transfer of ownership or title, in their capacity as carriers of goods or as instruments of such carriers... to sale or other transfer from ownership in the United States to ownership abroad. If a vessel,...

  1. Air cargo market outlook and impact via the NASA CLASS project. [Cargo/Logistics Airlift Systems Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, M. M.; Conner, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is given of the Cargo/Logistics Airlift Systems Study (CLASS) project which was a 10 man-year effort carried out by two contractor teams, aimed at defining factors impacting future system growth and obtaining market requirements and design guidelines for future air freighters. Growth projection was estimated by two approaches: one, an optimal systems approach with a more efficient and cost effective system considered as being available in 1990; and the other, an evolutionary approach with an econometric behavior model used to predict long term evolution from the present system. Both approaches predict significant growth in demand for international air freighter services and less growth for U.S. domestic services. Economic analysis of air freighter fleet options indicate very strong market appeal of derivative widebody transports in 1990 with little incentive to develop all new dedicated air freighters utilizing the 1990's technology until sometime beyond the year 2000. Advanced air freighters would be economically attractive for a wide range of payload sizes (to 500 metric tons), however, if a government would share in the RD and T costs by virtue of its needs for a slightly modified version of a civil air freighter design (a.g. military airlifter).

  2. The Influence of Freight Trains on the Air Cargo in Kuwait International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadala Hassan Alfadala

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Surrounded by countries who are moving continually towards economic development and stability, Kuwait has moved to establishing freight trains on the Air Cargo in Kuwait International Airport to meet the ever changing and increasing number of both passenger and cargoes going in and out of the country. As a member of the Gulf Cooperation Council or GCC it is clearly seen that as most of its member countries drive towards a collective effort to connect together by means of railroad networks, Kuwait’s effort to move transportation of cargoes to and from the Kuwait International Airport by linking with the GCC’s project to create railroad networks, the proposed ―Cargo City‖ becomes a major part of the realization of the development of the KIA which shall help with the aim to widen trade within and across GCC countries.

  3. Overview of Crane Control Systems and the Related Problems: Analysis of Container Oscillation Using Different Types of Cargoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Eglynas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Growing international trading increased cargo transportation in containers, therefore the port cranes have higher loads. Increased cargo flows can influence transportation safety. It is therefore necessary to review the crane systems and determine what factors might influence the volatility of the container and its cargo during transportation. The paper includes consideration and analysis of crane control systems and related problems. The authors consider the reasons of problems, probable damage and solution methods. The paper also provides the analysis of the relationship between different container cargoes and container oscillations occurring during handling operations using a container crane prototype. The analysis of the effect of different cargoes in containers on loading process and the results of occurring oscillations are presented.

  4. 77 FR 11145 - Intent to Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Air Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Collection of Information: Air Cargo Security Requirements AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration...-cargo carriers. The collections of information that make up this ICR are security programs, security threat assessments (STA), known shipper data via the Known Shipper Management System (KSMS), Air...

  5. Model of Optimal Cargo Transport Structure by Full Container Ship on Predefined Sailing Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serđo Kos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mathematical model for solving theproblem of defining optimal cargo transport structure, occurringwhen, on a predefined sailing route, adequate number ofcontainers of various types, masses and sizes, possibly includingRO!RO cargo, is to be selected, i.e., a "container lot" is to beestablished in loading ports with the aim of gaining maximumship profit and, at the same time, of exploiting useful load andtransport capacity of container ship as much as possible. Theimplementation of the proposed model enables considerableincrease in the efficiency of container ship operations. Themodel was tested using a numerical example with real data.The applied post-optimal analysis examines the influence ofchange in some values of the mathematical model on the resultingoptimal program.

  6. Detection of Special Nuclear Material in Cargo Containers Using Neutron Interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaughter, D; Accatino, M; Bernstein, A; Candy, J; Dougan, A; Hall, J; Loshak, A; Manatt, D; Meyer, A; Pohl, B; Prussin, S; Walling, R; Weirup, D

    2003-08-01

    The goal of the work reported here is to develop a concept for an active neutron interrogation system that can detect small targets of SNM contraband in cargo containers, roughly 5 kg HEU or 1 kg Pu, even when well shielded by a thick cargo. It is essential that the concept be reliable and have low false-positive and false-negative error rates. It also must be rapid to avoid interruption of commerce, completing the analysis in minutes. A new radiation signature unique to SNM has been identified that utilizes high-energy (E{sub {gamma}} = 3-7 MeV) fission product {gamma}-ray emission. Fortunately, this high-energy {gamma}-ray signature is robust in that it is very distinct compared to normal background radiation where there is no comparable high-energy {gamma}-ray radiation. Equally important, it has a factor of 10 higher yield than delayed neutrons that are the basis of classical interrogation technique normally used on small unshielded specimens of SNM. And it readily penetrates two meters of low-Z and high-Z cargo at the expected density of {approx} 0.5 gm/cm{sup 3}. Consequently, we expect that in most cases the signature flux at the container wall is at least 2-3 decades more intense than delayed neutron signals used historically and facilitates the detection of SNM even when shielded by thick cargo. Experiments have verified this signature and its predicted characteristics. However, they revealed an important interference due to the activation of {sup 16}O by the {sup 16}O(n,p){sup 16}N reaction that produces a 6 MeV {gamma}-ray following a 7-sec {beta}-decay of the {sup 16}N. This interference is important when irradiating with 14 MeV neutrons but is eliminated when lower energy neutron sources are utilized since the reaction threshold for {sup 16}O(n,p){sup 16}N is 10 MeV. The signature {gamma}-ray fluxes exiting a thick cargo can be detected in large arrays of scintillation detectors to produce useful signal count rates of 2-4 x 10{sup 4} cps. That is high

  7. 19 CFR 103.31a - Advance electronic information for air, truck, and rail cargo; Importer Security Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advance electronic information for air, truck, and rail cargo; Importer Security Filing information for vessel cargo. 103.31a Section 103.31a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  8. An Optimization Model of the Single-Leg Air Cargo Space Control Based on Markov Decision Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-rong Qin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the single-leg air cargo issues, we establish a dynamic programming model to consider the overbooking and space inventory control problem. We analyze the structure of optimal booking policy for every kind of booking requests and show that the optimal booking decision is of threshold type (known as booking limit policy. Our research provides a theoretical support for the air cargo space control.

  9. Development of Decision Making Algorithm for Control of Sea Cargo Containers by ``TAGGED'' Neutron Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan'ev, A. A.; Belichenko, S. G.; Bogolyubov, E. P.; Bochkarev, O. V.; Petrov, E. V.; Polishchuk, A. M.; Udaltsov, A. Yu.

    2009-12-01

    Nowadays in Russia and abroad there are several groups of scientists, engaged in development of systems based on "tagged" neutron method (API method) and intended for detection of dangerous materials, including high explosives (HE). Particular attention is paid to possibility of detection of dangerous objects inside a sea cargo container. Energy gamma-spectrum, registered from object under inspection is used for determination of oxygen/carbon and nitrogen/carbon chemical ratios, according to which dangerous object is distinguished from not dangerous one. Material of filled container, however, gives rise to additional effects of rescattering and moderation of 14 MeV primary neutrons of generator, attenuation of secondary gamma-radiation from reactions of inelastic neutron scattering on objects under inspection. These effects lead to distortion of energy gamma-response from examined object and therefore prevent correct recognition of chemical ratios. These difficulties are taken into account in analytical method, presented in the paper. Method has been validated against experimental data, obtained by the system for HE detection in sea cargo, based on API method and developed in VNIIA. Influence of shielding materials on results of HE detection and identification is considered. Wood and iron were used as shielding materials. Results of method application for analysis of experimental data on HE simulator measurement (tetryl, trotyl, hexogen) are presented.

  10. Detection of explosives, shielded nuclear materials and other hazardous substances in cargo containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Andrey; Evsenin, Alexey; Vakhtin, Dmitry; Gorshkov, Igor; Osetrov, Oleg; Kalinin, Valery

    2006-05-01

    Nanosecond Neutron Analysis / Associated Particles Technique (NNA/APT) has been used to create devices for detection of explosives, radioactive and heavily shielded nuclear materials in cargo containers. Explosives and other hazardous materials are detected by analyzing secondary high-energy gamma-rays form reactions of fast neutrons with the materials inside the container. Depending on the dimensions of the inspected containers, the detecting system consists of one or several detection modules, each of which contains a small neutron generator with built-in position sensitive detector of associated alpha-particles and several scintillator-based gamma-ray detectors. The same gamma-ray detectors are used to detect unshielded radioactive and nuclear materials. Array of several detectors of fast neutrons is used to detect neutrons from spontaneous and induced fission of nuclear materials. These neutrons can penetrate thick layers of lead shielding, which can be used to conceal gamma-radioactivity from nuclear materials. Coincidence and timing analysis allows one to discriminate between fission neutrons and scattered probing neutrons. Mathematical modeling by MCNP5 code was used to estimate the sensitivity of the device and its optimal configuration. Capability of the device to detect 1 kg of explosive imitator inside container filled with suitcases and other baggage items has been confirmed experimentally. First experiments with heavily shielded nuclear materials have been carried out.

  11. Analysis and Design of a Long Range PTFE Substrate UHF RFID Tag for Cargo Container Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrariu, Adrian-Ioan; Popa, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a high-performances microstrip antenna for UHF (ultra high frequency) RFID (radio frequency identification) tag is designed, prototyped and tested. The antenna consists of two main components: a 1.52 mm RT/duroid 5880 laminate substrate on which the antenna is designed and a 10 mm polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) dielectric material placed as a separator between the antenna and the reference ground plane for the microstrip antenna. With this structure, the RFID tag can reach a maximum reading distance of 19 m, although the antenna has a compact size of 80 mm × 50 mm. The long reading distance is obtained by attaching to the antenna an RFID chip that can provide a reading sensitivity of -20.5 dBm. The high bandwidth from 677 MHz to 947 MHz measured at -10 dB, makes the tag being usable worldwide especially for cargo container identification, the main purpose of this research.

  12. Analysis of a Gross Counting Decision Metric for use in Threat Detection During Cargo Container Inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, J

    2006-04-28

    LLNL is actively engaged in the development of a variety of advanced technologies for use in detecting potential threats in sea-going cargo containers, particularly the presence of hidden special nuclear materials (SNM). One such project is the so-called ''Nuclear Car Wash'' (NCW), which uses a high-energy neutron probe to scan the container. High-energy, {beta}-delayed {gamma}-rays emitted during the decay of short-lived, neutron-induced fission products are then taken as a signature of fissionable material. There are a number of different threat decision metrics that one could imagine using in conjunction with an inspection system such as the NCW; however, the most straightforward approach might be to simply compare the total number of counts that our detector records during some suitably chosen time interval to the average background signal that one would expect from a ''clean'' container during the same interval. The purpose of this report is to describe the basic statistical properties of a decision metric of this sort and outline the procedures for using it in experimental practice.

  13. Device for Detection of Explosives, Nuclear and Other Hazardous Materials in Luggage and Cargo Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Andrey; Evsenin, Alexey; Gorshkov, Igor; Osetrov, Oleg; Vakhtin, Dmitry

    2009-12-01

    Device for detection of explosives, radioactive and heavily shielded nuclear materials in luggage and cargo containers based on Nanosecond Neutron Analysis/Associated Particles Technique (NNA/APT) is under construction. Detection module consists of a small neutron generator with built-in position-sensitive detector of associated alpha-particles, and several scintillator-based gamma-ray detectors. Explosives and other hazardous chemicals are detected by analyzing secondary high-energy gamma-rays from reactions of fast neutrons with materials inside a container. The same gamma-ray detectors are used to detect unshielded radioactive and nuclear materials. An array of several neutron detectors is used to detect fast neutrons from induced fission of nuclear materials. Coincidence and timing analysis allows one to discriminate between fission neutrons and scattered probing neutrons. Mathematical modeling by MCNP5 and MCNP-PoliMi codes was used to estimate the sensitivity of the device and its optimal configuration. Comparison of the features of three gamma detector types—based on BGO, NaI and LaBr3 crystals is presented.

  14. Monte Carlo parametric studies of neutron interrogation with the Associated Particle Technique for cargo container inspections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyglun, Clément; Carasco, Cédric; Pérot, Bertrand

    2014-06-01

    The detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) by neutron interrogation is extensively studied by Monte Carlo simulation at the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory of CEA Cadarache (French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission). The active inspection system is based on the Associated Particle Technique (APT). Fissions induced by tagged neutrons (i.e. correlated to an alpha particle in the DT neutron generator) in SNM produce high multiplicity coincidences which are detected with fast plastic scintillators. At least three particles are detected in a short time window following the alpha detection, whereas nonnuclear materials mainly produce single events, or pairs due to (n,2n) and (n,n'γ) reactions. To study the performances of an industrial cargo container inspection system, Monte Carlo simulations are performed with the MCNP-PoliMi transport code, which records for each neutron history the relevant information: reaction types, position and time of interactions, energy deposits, secondary particles, etc. The output files are post-processed with a specific tool developed with ROOT data analysis software. Particles not correlated with an alpha particle (random background), counting statistics, and time-energy resolutions of the data acquisition system are taken into account in the numerical model. Various matrix compositions, suspicious items, SNM shielding and positions inside the container, are simulated to assess the performances and limitations of an industrial system.

  15. Primary Beam Air Kerma Dependence on Distance from Cargo and People Scanners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, Daniel J.; Cerra, Frank

    2016-06-01

    The distance dependence of air kerma or dose rate of the primary radiation beam is not obvious for security scanners of cargo and people in which there is relative motion between a collimated source and the person or object being imaged. To study this problem, one fixed line source and three moving-source scan-geometry cases are considered, each characterized by radiation emanating perpendicular to an axis. The cases are 1) a stationary line source of radioactive material, e.g., contaminated solution in a pipe; 2) a moving, uncollimated point source of radiation that is shuttered or off when it is stationary; 3) a moving, collimated point source of radiation that is shuttered or off when it is stationary; and 4) a translating, narrow “pencil” beam emanating in a flying-spot, raster pattern. Each case is considered for short and long distances compared to the line source length or path traversed by a moving source. The short distance model pertains mostly to dose to objects being scanned and personnel associated with the screening operation. The long distance model pertains mostly to potential dose to bystanders. For radionuclide sources, the number of nuclear transitions that occur a) per unit length of a line source, or b) during the traversal of a point source, is a unifying concept. The “universal source strength” of air kerma rate at a meter from the source can be used to describe x-ray machine or radionuclide sources. For many cargo and people scanners with highly collimated fan or pencil beams, dose varies as the inverse of the distance from the source in the near field and with the inverse square of the distance beyond a critical radius. Ignoring the inverse square dependence and using inverse distance dependence is conservative in the sense of tending to overestimate dose.

  16. A Proposal for High-resolution X-ray Imaging of Intermodal Cargo Containers for Fissionable Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiter, B J; Prussin, S G; Pohl, B; Hall, J; Trebes, J; Stone, G; Descalle, M

    2007-07-05

    The sensitivity for identification of high-Z objects in elemental form in the massive cargo of intermodal containers with continuous bremsstrahlung radiation depends critically on discriminating the weak signal from uncollided photons from the very intense flux of scattered radiations that penetrate the cargo. We propose that this might be accomplished by rejection of detected events with E {le} 2-3 MeV that contain the majority of multiply-scattered photons along with a correction for single-scattered photons at higher energies. Monte Carlo simulations of radiographs with a 9-MeV bremsstrahlung spectrum demonstrate that rejection of detected events with E {le} 3 MeV removes the majority of signals from scattered photons emerging through cargo with Z {le} 30 and areal densities of at least 145 g cm{sup -2}. With analytical estimates of the single-scattered intensity at higher energies, accurate estimates of linear attenuation coefficients for shielded and unshielded uranium spheres with masses as small as 0.08 kg are found. The estimated maximum dose is generally so low that reasonable order tomography of interesting portions of a container should be possible.

  17. United States Seaport Security: Protection Against a Nuclear Device Attack Delivered in a Shipping Cargo Container

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    phone, laptop, airline mechanic’s certificate, and security passes for airports in Egypt, Thailand , and Canada. The following year, in March 2002...major operation areas for federal crime, including drug trafficking , cargo theft, and smuggling of contraband and aliens. 3. Ports are open and...container’s latch and continuously collects and transmits data without human intervention. This procedure is concurrently utilized as part of the C-TPAT

  18. Cargo work for maritime operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    House, D.

    2005-07-01

    Previously published as Kemp & Young's Cargo Work, this new edition has been revised and expanded to reflect unit load containerised systems that are now used in the majority of cargo shipping, while retaining the necessary detail on transporting key classes of cargoes safely, efficiently and profitably. The book covers general principles and the latest international regulations that affect all cargo work, including cargo types and key characteristics of a wide range of cargo classes. It also details Roll On-Roll Off cargo handling, containerisation, equipment and offshore supply. Chapter 4 on bulk cargoes contains a section headed: Coal, characteristics, categories and procedures, precautions.

  19. Design and model selection for unit cargo handling system at air cargo terminal%航空货运站集装货处理系统设计选型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅宝兴

    2012-01-01

    航空货运站是专门处理航空货物的地面设施.根据近年来国内航空货运发展的新趋势,分析了集装货处理系统设计选型阶段需重点考虑的问题,并对存储容量、堆垛机数量等关键参数的确定进行了较为深入的研究,为航空货运集装货处理系统的设计优化提供了思路.%The air cargo terminal is the ground-level facility to specifically handle air cargoes. Based on the new trend of domestic air cargo market in recent years, certain key necessary problems jegarding design and model selection of unit cargo handling system are analyzed, with further research on determination of key parameters such as storage capacity and quantity of stackers, etc. , which provides ideas for design optimization of unit cargo handling system.

  20. Waste Crate and Container Imaging Using the Vehicle and Cargo Inspection System. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-07-01

    The Vehicle and Cargo Inspection System (VACIS) is a highly penetrating gamma ray imaging system that provides a means to non-invasively image crate contents prior to crate disassembly. The VACIS unit uses a 1.6 Curie collimated source (Cesium-137) aimed at a linear detector to create an image as the unit passes by the crate. In the demonstrated mobile unit, the source and detector were mounted on a boom truck. As the crate passed between the source and detector, a near real-time composite image of the contents was constructed from the linear image of the VACIS unit's on board computer and recorded on disk.

  1. National Security Science and Technology Initiative: Air Cargo Screening, Final Report for CRADA Number NFE-07-01081

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, Philip [ORNL; Bush, John [Battelle Memorial Institute; Bowerman, Biays [Brookhaven National Laboratory; Cespedes, Ernesto [Idaho National Laboratory; White, Timothy [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2004-12-01

    The non-intrusive inspection (NII) of consolidated air cargo carried on commercial passenger aircraft continues to be a technically challenging, high-priority requirement of the Department of Homeland Security’s Science and Technology Directorate (DHS S&T), the Transportation Security Agency and the Federal Aviation Administration. The goal of deploying a screening system that can reliably and cost-effectively detect explosive threats in consolidated cargo without adversely affecting the flow of commerce will require significant technical advances that will take years to develop. To address this critical National Security need, the Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle), under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with four of its associated US Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, Idaho, and Brookhaven), conducted a research and development initiative focused on identifying, evaluating, and integrating technologies for screening consolidated air cargo for the presence of explosive threats. Battelle invested $8.5M of internal research and development funds during fiscal years 2007 through 2009.

  2. Investigation of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Boarded search of a cargo container ship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grogan, Brandon R., E-mail: groganbr@ornl.gov; Henkel, James J.; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Mihalczo, John T.; Miller, Thomas M.; Patton, Bruce W.

    2013-12-01

    The detonation of a terrorist nuclear weapon in the United States would result in the massive loss of life and grave economic damage. Even if a device was not detonated, its known or suspected presence aboard a cargo container ship in a U.S. port would have major economic and political consequences. One possible means to prevent this threat would be to board a ship at sea and search for the device before it reaches port. The scenario considered here involves a small Coast Guard team with strong intelligence boarding a container ship to search for a nuclear device. Using active interrogation, the team would nonintrusively search a block of shipping containers to locate the fissile material. Potential interrogation source and detector technologies for the team are discussed. The methodology of the scan is presented along with a technique for calculating the required interrogation source strength using computer simulations. MCNPX was used to construct a computer model of a container ship, and several search scenarios were simulated. The results of the simulations are presented in terms of the source strength required for each interrogation scenario. Validation measurements were performed in order to scale these simulation results to expected performance. Interrogations through the short (2.4 m) axis of a standardized shipping container appear to be feasible given the entire range of container loadings tested. Interrogations through several containers at once or a single container through its long (12.2 m) axis do not appear to be viable with a portable interrogation system.

  3. Role of Air Cargo and Road Feeder Services for Regional Airports – Case Studies from the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beifert Anatoli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although airports play an important role the global and European economies, according to the new guidelines of the EU Commission on the new state aid rules for a competitive aviation industry (EC, 2014, it will be more difficult for unprofitable airports, to get financial public subsidies in the future. The Commission noted that the majority of regional airports experience severe problems to cover their operative costs, resulting from among other things from overlapping of airports’ catchment areas. The main objective of the above mentioned measures is not to close the regional airports, but to motivate them to operate on cost efficient, profitable and more flexible basis, stating however that and that the most inefficient airports will be still closed. In order face upcoming challenges, the regional airports shall reconsider their future development plans. Traditionally, the airports including small and regional airports focus on the passenger traffic and thus, the possible benefits and opportunities of the air cargo market are totally underestimated or even completely ignored. Most regional airports in the Baltic Sea region act totally isolated and do not have a clear picture of the current situation on the international air cargo market today, its future perspectives and sustainable development plans remain basically hidden. There are some examples when trying to meet the market demand, the regional airports have made huge, but unfortunately unjustified investments, e.g. improving airport infrastructure, runways, etc. However, the airports’ infrastructural investments alone cannot fulfil the expected “remedy” role for the airports’ sustainability. This paper aims at investigating the positioning and the role of the regional airports in the current hub-and-spoke network, focusing on the relevance and potential of the air cargo sector for the regional airports development. The optional freight value proposition for the development of

  4. 我国航空货运信息化发展现状与对策%The Status and Countermeasures of Development of Chinese Air Cargo Informatization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾小林

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of the air cargo market. The role of the information technology becomes more and more important. This article points out the development status of our air cargo informatization by introducing the development of the world air cargo informatization. It comprehensively analyzes the main problems of the air cargo informatization in our country and puts forward countermeasures and suggestions to speed up the air cargo informatization construction in China on the basis of learning from foreign advanced experience and summing up the experience itself.%随着航空货运市场的快速发展,信息技术的作用越来越重要。本文通过介绍我国航空货运信息化的发展历程和现状,全面剖析了我国航空货运信息化存在的主要问题,在学习借鉴国外先进经验和总结自身经验教训的基础上,系统提出加快我国航空货运信息化建设的对策措施建议。

  5. 76 FR 72715 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Manifest/Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    .../ Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status Messages and Importer Security Filing AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border..., Container Status Messages and Importer Security Filing. This request for comment is being made pursuant to.../Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status Messages and Importer Security Filing. OMB Number: 1651-0001....

  6. 75 FR 1070 - Cargo Securing Methods for Packages in Transport Vehicles or Freight Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... must be braced and dunnaged within a container so that they are not likely to be pierced or crushed and... equivalent material laid over or against structures such as tank tops, decks, bulkheads, frames, plating,...

  7. Unexpected hazard of illegal immigration: Outbreak of viral myocarditis exacerbated by confinement and deprivation in a shipboard cargo container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Melissa K; Beck, Melinda A; Shi, Qing; Harruff, Richard C

    2004-06-01

    We present a group of 18 illegal immigrant stowaways who arrived in a shipboard cargo container suffering from gastroenteritis, dehydration, and malnutrition and showing evidence of viral myocarditis in 3 of 4 fatalities. Our investigation included an evaluation of the 2-week ocean voyage, analysis of medical records and laboratory results of the survivors, autopsies on the decedents, and viral studies on their heart tissue. Of 3 stowaways who died shipboard, 2 showed lymphocytic myocarditis and 1 could not be evaluated histologically due to decomposition. A fourth stowaway died 4 months after arrival with dilated cardiomyopathy and lymphocytic myocarditis. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing of viral isolates from the decedents' heart tissues demonstrated Coxsackie virus B3 genome. We believe that these cases represent an outbreak of viral myocarditis, exacerbated by acute dehydration and malnutrition, due to confinement within the shipping container. Our evidence indicates that close confinement promoted the spread of the virus, and nutritional deprivation increased the stowaways' vulnerability. Furthermore, our observations support the conclusion, based on experimental studies, that nutritionally induced oxidative stress increased the virulence of the etiologic viral agent. In summary, these cases represent a potential infectious disease hazard of illegal immigration.

  8. Health risks in international container and bulk cargo transport due to volatile toxic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baur, Xaver; Budnik, Lygia T; Zhao, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    on the toxic substance, its chemical reactivity, concentration, the temperature, the contaminated matrix (goods and packing materials), and the packing density in the transport units. Regulations on declaration and handling dangerous goods are mostly not followed. It is obvious that this hazardous situation...... shown to contain volatile toxic substances above the exposure limit values. Possible exposure to these toxic chemicals may occur not only for the applicators but also the receiver by off gassing from products, packing materials or transport units like containers. A number of intoxications, some...... with lethal outcome, occur not only during the fumigation, but also during freight transport (on bulk carriers and other transport vessels), as well as in the logistic lines during loading and unloading. Risk occupations include dock-workers, seafarers, inspectors, as well as the usually uninformed workers...

  9. Scatter in cargo radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Erin A; Caggiano, Joseph A; Runkle, Robert C; White, Timothy A; Bevill, Aaron M

    2011-03-01

    As a complement to passive detection systems, radiographic inspection of cargo is an increasingly important tool for homeland security because it has the potential to detect highly attenuating objects associated with special nuclear material or surrounding shielding, in addition to screening for items such as drugs or contraband. Radiographic detection of such threat objects relies on high image contrast between regions of different density and atomic number (Z). Threat detection is affected by scatter of the interrogating beam in the cargo, the radiographic system itself, and the surrounding environment, which degrades image contrast. Here, we estimate the extent to which scatter plays a role in radiographic imaging of cargo containers. Stochastic transport simulations were performed to determine the details of the radiography equipment and surrounding environment, which are important in reproducing measured data and to investigate scatter magnitudes for typical cargo. We find that scatter plays a stronger role in cargo radiography than in typical medical imaging scenarios, even for low-density cargo, with scatter-to-primary ratios ranging from 0.14 for very low density cargo, to between 0.20 and 0.40 for typical cargo, and higher yet for dense cargo.

  10. Cargo delivery to adhering myoblast cells from liposome-containing poly(dopamine) composite coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Martin Elias Lynge; Mian Teo, Boon; Laursen, Marie Bækgaard;

    2013-01-01

    Designing surfaces to deliver therapeutic compounds to adhering cells is of paramount importance for both implantable devices and tissue engineering. We report the assembly of composite films consisting of liposomes as drug deposits in a poly(dopamine) matrix. We monitor the film assembly using...... a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation. We assess the response of adhering myoblast cells to these films containing fluorescent lipids in terms of uptake efficiency and cell mean fluorescence using flow cytometry. The viability of adhering myoblast cells, when the hydrophobic cytotoxic compound...... thiocoraline is entrapped in the lipid membrane, is assessed for different films. Coatings with one or two liposome deposition steps are considered. Further, the effect of the polymer separation layers between the liposome layers is determined. We found that it is possible to use the different nano...

  11. Cargo and Container X-Ray Inspection with Intra-Pulse Multi-Energy Method for Material Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saverskiy, Aleksandr Y.; Dinca, Dan-Cristian; Rommel, J. Martin

    The Intra-Pulse Multi-Energy (IPME) method of material discrimination mitigates main disadvantages of the traditional "interlaced" approach: ambiguity caused by sampling different regions of cargo and reduction of effective scanning speed. A novel concept of creating multi-energy probing pulses using a standing-wave structure allows maintaining a constant energy spectrum while changing the time duration of each sub-pulse and thus enables adaptive cargo inspection. Depending on the cargo density, the dose delivered to the inspected object is optimized for best material discrimination, maximum material penetration, or lowest dose to cargo. A model based on Monte-Carlo simulation and experimental reference points were developed for the optimization of inspection conditions.

  12. The concept of the development of cargo container transport system within airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Hentschel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The transport of luggage units between the check-in terminal and airplanes is realized by the use of very simple transport solutions and manual reloading of the luggage. The luggage trolleys are used for the transport purposes, which are hitched to the mover and moved directly to the surroundings of the airplane. The loading and unloading of luggage is performed manually. Regarding actual safety requirements there was a need to create a new transport system, working in a closed cycle and based on the device for automatic loading and unloading of luggage units. Methods: Various potential variants of the device were generated based on results of analytical researches by the use of the morphological schema. The detail evaluation and the optimization of individual variants allow to prepare the concept of the complex method to solve problems of the reliable transport of luggage units within an airport. Results: The closed transport system was created as a result of the innovative project. The main element of this system is a container trolley, which is equipped in five storage layers. By the use of the special mover and gravitational forces, luggage units can be transported and placed inside this trolley as well as being loaded and unloaded. This solution enables to move 200 pieces of luggage in one transport cycle from the check-in terminal to the hatchway of the airplane.

  13. Cargo Logistics Airlift Systems Study (CLASS). Volume 3: Cross impact between the 1990 market and the air physical distribution systems, book 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burby, R. J.; Kuhlman, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    Book 2 of this volume is divided into the following sections: (1) commodities and system networks; (2) future mode choice decisions and commodity air eligibility; (3) comparative cargo transportation costs - air, truck, rail and water; (4) elasticities of demand; (5) operating cost; (6) operating profit, rate making, and returns; (7) importance of rate and service on future aircraft; (8) potential market demand for new aircraft; (9) scenario of events affecting system/market growth; and (10) future study and technology requirements.

  14. 19 CFR 122.73 - General declaration and air cargo manifest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard...

  15. 19 CFR 122.115 - Labeling of cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of cargo. 122.115 Section 122.115 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Transit Air Cargo Manifest (TACM) Procedures § 122.115 Labeling of cargo. A warning label, as required by § 18.4(e) of this chapter, shall be attached to all transit air cargo...

  16. Logistics Image of Outsourcing Clients to The Wireless Telecommunications Industry: How is it related to The Service Value of Air Cargo Logistics Providers?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between aspects of the logistics image of an outsourcing client and the service value of air cargo logistics providers (ACLPs). Given the range of client groups served by the electronics industry in Taiwan, we focused on telecommunication industries to analyze the correlation between the service value of ACLPs and the logistics image of telecommunication clients. The research subjects in this study were actual outsourcing logistics decision makers in the t...

  17. Analysis of Air Cargo Transfer Service Chain at Pudong International Airport%浦东国际机场货运中转服务链分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘锐; 崔诚靓; 陈川

    2015-01-01

    Air cargo transfer involves several participants in its operation process, including ship pers, freight forwarders, airport cargo terminal, airlines, customs and other regulatory agencies. All of the related participants constitute the entire service chain of air cargo transfer, making the air transport continuous and convenient. Based on field research into the related enterprises, this study summarizes the developing situation about the air cargo transfer at Pudong International Airport as well as the related appeals proposed by the relevant partici pants, points out the problems at Pudong International Airport and presents some suggestions from the perspec tive of service chain.%现代航空货物中转运输在其运营过程中涉及到许多参与方,包括货主、货代、机场货站、航空公司以及海关等监管机构,所有这一系列参与方构成了整个货运中转服务链条,维系着航空运输的连续性和快捷性. 在立足对浦东机场各个货运相关参与方的实地调研的基础上,通过收集整理国外枢纽机场和相关企业的资料,分析总结浦东机场各个参与方的发展现状,梳理了参与方对中转联程运输的相关诉求,指出了浦东机场货运中转服务链中所存在的相关问题,最后从服务链的角度提出改善浦东机场货运中转的建议.

  18. Biotreatment of air containing triethylamine (TEA vapor in biotrickling filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Safari Variani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of waste air containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs using cheap and environmentally friendly methods is one of active fields in air pollution control. Objective: The aim of this study was to treat air containing triethylamine (TEA vapor using biotrickling filter inoculated with microbial species decomposing TEA. Methods: This experimental study was conducted in the School of Health affiliated to Qazvin University of Medical Sciences in 2014. Biotreatment was performed with biotrickling filter inoculated with microbial species decomposing TEA for two months. The biotrickling filter was set up with air containing TEA as the sole source of carbon, at Empty Bed Residence Times (EBRT of 36 sec, and inlet concentration of 84 ppm. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Findings: Treatment of TEA contaminated air was made after an adaptation period of 11 days. Despite an increase in mass loading to 111 g/m3/h, TEA was eliminated with 109 g/m3/h capacity and 94-100% removal efficiency by zero order kinetics.Elimination capacity and removal efficiency were close to each other and confirmed109 g/m3/h as loading region with critical elimination capacity. Conclusion: With regards to the results, it is possible to treat air containing TEA vapor in biotrickling filter.

  19. Recent Development of Air-Cooled Bainitic Steels Containing Manganese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Hong-sheng; YANG Fu-bao; BAI Bing-zhe; YANG Zhi-gang; YIN Jiang

    2005-01-01

    The superiorities of air-cooled bainitic steels were described.A series of air-cooled bainitic steels containing manganese were developed and presented,which include low carbon granular bainitic steels,low carbon grain-boundary allotriomorphic ferrite/granular bainite dual phase steels,medium and medium high carbon bainite/martensite dual phase steels and casting bainitic steels.The development of ultra-low carbon bainitic steels in China was also introduced.

  20. The Cargo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Thomas; Charlton, Michael F.; Biggs, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    The Gresham ship was carrying a substantial cargo of different metals when she sank, representing a considerable financial loss. Reports record that some of that material recovered in 1846 included 2700 tin ingots, lead pigs and iron bars (British Archaeological Association, 1847, 361). The excav...

  1. Monte Carlo analysis of megavoltage x-ray interaction-induced signal and noise in cadmium tungstate detectors for cargo container inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Park, J.; Kim, J.; Kim, D. W.; Yun, S.; Lim, C. H.; Kim, H. K.

    2016-11-01

    For the purpose of designing an x-ray detector system for cargo container inspection, we have investigated the energy-absorption signal and noise in CdWO4 detectors for megavoltage x-ray photons. We describe the signal and noise measures, such as quantum efficiency, average energy absorption, Swank noise factor, and detective quantum efficiency (DQE), in terms of energy moments of absorbed energy distributions (AEDs) in a detector. The AED is determined by using a Monte Carlo simulation. The results show that the signal-related measures increase with detector thickness. However, the improvement of Swank noise factor with increasing thickness is weak, and this energy-absorption noise characteristic dominates the DQE performance. The energy-absorption noise mainly limits the signal-to-noise performance of CdWO4 detectors operated at megavoltage x-ray beam.

  2. Determinan Pilihan Pelanggan Terhadap Layanan Cargo Pada PT. Garuda Indonesia Cabang Makassar

    OpenAIRE

    RESPATI., TRIADHI

    2012-01-01

    2012 Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis perbedaan pilihan pelanggan terhadap layanan cargo dan memperoleh faktor perbedaan dalam keputusan pilihan pelanggan terhadap layanan cargo. Sedangkan metode analisis yang digunakan adalah analisis deskriptif, analisis kuantitatif dan uji hipotesis. Berdasarkan hasil analisis perbedaan pilihan pelanggan layanan cargo dari masing-masing perusahaan cargo (GIA, Lion Air, Sriwijaya Air dan PT. Wings Air) ternyata ada perbedaan yang signifikan...

  3. 46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154.412... Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion...) carries a cargo that corrodes the tank material. Note: Corrosion allowance for independent tank type C...

  4. Modelling the impact of liner shipping network perturbations on container cargo routing: Southeast Asia to Europe application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achurra-Gonzalez, Pablo E; Novati, Matteo; Foulser-Piggott, Roxane; Graham, Daniel J; Bowman, Gary; Bell, Michael G H; Angeloudis, Panagiotis

    2016-06-03

    Understanding how container routing stands to be impacted by different scenarios of liner shipping network perturbations such as natural disasters or new major infrastructure developments is of key importance for decision-making in the liner shipping industry. The variety of actors and processes within modern supply chains and the complexity of their relationships have previously led to the development of simulation-based models, whose application has been largely compromised by their dependency on extensive and often confidential sets of data. This study proposes the application of optimisation techniques less dependent on complex data sets in order to develop a quantitative framework to assess the impacts of disruptive events on liner shipping networks. We provide a categorization of liner network perturbations, differentiating between systemic and external and formulate a container assignment model that minimises routing costs extending previous implementations to allow feasible solutions when routing capacity is reduced below transport demand. We develop a base case network for the Southeast Asia to Europe liner shipping trade and review of accidents related to port disruptions for two scenarios of seismic and political conflict hazards. Numerical results identify alternative routing paths and costs in the aftermath of port disruptions scenarios and suggest higher vulnerability of intra-regional connectivity.

  5. 46 CFR 154.1866 - Cargo hose connection: Transferring cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose connection: Transferring cargo. 154.1866... CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1866 Cargo hose connection: Transferring cargo. No person may transfer cargo through a cargo hose...

  6. 46 CFR 154.534 - Cargo pumps and cargo compressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pumps and cargo compressors. 154.534 Section 154.534 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES... Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.534 Cargo pumps and cargo compressors. Cargo pumps...

  7. Cargo-cult training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magueijo, João

    2009-12-01

    Richard Feynman, in one of his famous rants, evoked as a metaphor what he called "cargo-cult science". During the Second World War, the indigenous people of the South Pacific became accustomed to US Air Force planes landing on their islands, invariably bringing a profusion of desirable goods and tasty foods. When the war ended, they were distressed by the discontinuation of this popular service. So, they decided to take action. They cleared elongated patches of land to make them look like runways. They lit wood fires where they had seen electric floodlights guiding in the planes. They built a wooden shack and made a man sit inside with two halves of a coconut on each ear and bamboo bars sticking out like antennas: he was the "air controller". And they waited for the planes to return.

  8. 46 CFR 151.15-10 - Cargo gauging devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo gauging devices. 151.15-10 Section 151.15-10... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Tanks § 151.15-10 Cargo gauging devices. This section contains definitions and requirements for types of gauging devices specified in Table 151.05. (a)...

  9. Complexity in human transportation networks: A comparative analysis of worldwide air transportation and global cargo ship movements

    CERN Document Server

    O'Danleyman, Grastivia; Seebens, Hanno; Blasius, Bernd; Brockmann, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    We present a comparative network theoretic analysis of the two largest global transportation networks: The worldwide air-transportation network (WAN) and the global cargoship network (GCSN). We show that both networks exhibit striking statistical similarities despite significant differences in topology and connectivity. Both networks exhibit a discontinuity in node and link betweenness distributions which implies that these networks naturally segragate in two different classes of nodes and links. We introduce a technique based on effective distances, shortest paths and shortest-path trees for strongly weighted symmetric networks and show that in a shortest-path-tree representation the most significant features of both networks can be readily seen. We show that effective shortest-path distance, unlike conventional geographic distance measures, strongly correlates with node centrality measures. Using the new technique we show that network resilience can be investigated more precisely than with contemporary tech...

  10. Technical and economic assessment of swept-wing span-distributed load concepts for civil and military air cargo transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of large freighter aircraft was assessed, including the impact of military requirements on the performance, economics, and fuel consumption characteristics. Only configurations having net payloads of 272,155 to 544,311 kilograms contained within swept wings of constant chord were studied. These configurations were of advanced composite construction with controllable winglets and full-span digitally-controlled trailing-edge surfaces. Civil, military, and joint civil/military production programs were considered.

  11. Simulation and Optimization of Air Cargo Export Handling System Based on Physical Flow Diagram and Witness Software%基于实体流程图和Witness仿真的航空货运离港系统仿真分析与优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔华春; 尹纯建; 贾焜; 石学刚

    2016-01-01

    The air cargo export handling operation is the most important system of the airport ground operations to airlines. And the optimization of the air cargo export handling system is crucial to improve the operation efficiency of air cargo sys-tem. Taking a typical domestic airline hub's air cargo as an example, establishes physical flow diagram based on the work flow of air cargo export handling system, which intuitively ex-hibits the flow of air cargo export handling. On this basis, the bottleneck segment resulting in the low efficiency of air cargo export handling system was obtained by simulation using the Witness software, followed by an optimization to enhance the efficiency of air cargo export handling system. This study plays a significant role to improve the overall operational effi-ciency of the air cargo export handling system. There is a great reference to many other emerging hub airport and small and medium sized airports to optimize their air cargo export handling system.%航空货运离港作业是航空公司地面作业中最重要的环节,航空公司货运离港系统的优化对提高航空货运系统的运作效率至关重要。以国内某典型枢纽机场航空货站为例,根据航空货运离港流程,利用实体流程图对航空货运离港系统流程进行建模,直观地展现货物离港的作业流程。在此基础上,运用Witness软件进行仿真,得到离港系统流程中的瓶颈环节,并对其进行优化,从而提高了航空货运离港系统的效率。以期对其他新兴的枢纽机场以及中小型机场的航空货运离港作业有些许借鉴意义。

  12. 19 CFR 192.14 - Electronic information for outward cargo required in advance of departure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... vessel cargo is to be laden; (ii) For air cargo, including cargo being transported by Air Express.... The AES Commodity Module already captures the requisite export data, so no new data elements for...-ment (low-risk exporter or other exemption) for any export shipment laden that is not subject to...

  13. Prácticas y representaciones bibliotecarias en la Biblioteca Pública de Buenos Aires: Una lectura del libro de "Cargo y data" (1810-1818 Library practices and representations in the public library of Buenos Aires: a reading of the book of "Cargo y data" (1810-1818

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro E. Parada

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo estudia, brevemente, las prácticas de gestión bibliotecaria en la Biblioteca Pública de Buenos Aires durante el período 1810-1818. El mismo se basa en un documento existente en el Archivo General de la Nación: el "Libro de cargo y data, o de cuenta corriente de los encargados de los gastos de la Biblioteca Pública formado por el Director de ella Dr. Dn. Luis José Chorroarín en el año 1812". Gracias a esta fuente es posible rastrear la administración y los diversos procesos que permitieron administrar a ese importante establecimiento, una de las primeras creaciones de política cultural de la Revolución de Mayo. De este modo, se abordan varios tópicos de particular interés: ingresos y gastos, personal, venta de ejemplares duplicados y deteriorados, encuadernación de obras, adquisición de libros, mantenimiento edilicio, etc. Entre otras conclusiones se señala la importancia de este tipo de documentos administrativos y burocráticos para conocer la variedad de las prácticas bibliotecarias dentro del marco de la Historia de la Bibliotecología en la Argentina.The article briefly studies the library management practices in the Public Library of Buenos Aires from 1810 to 1818. It is based on a document from the General Archive of the Nation: the "Libro de cargo y data, o de cuenta corriente de los encargados de los gastos de la Biblioteca Pública formado por el Director de ella Dr. Dn. Luis José Chorroarín en el año 1812". Thanks to that source it is possible to track the administration and the different processes that allowed to manage that important place, one of the first creations of cultural politics of the Revolution of May. Thus, several subjects of particular interest are seen here: incomes and expenditures; personnel; selling of duplicate or damaged material; bookbinding; book acquisition; building maintenance; etc. Among several conclusions, the relevance of this type of administrative and bureaucratic

  14. 33 CFR 401.32 - Cargo booms-deck cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cargo booms-deck cargo. 401.32... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.32 Cargo booms—deck cargo. (a) Every vessel shall have cargo booms secured in a manner that affords maximum...

  15. Inactivation of the biofilm by the air plasma containing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganuma, Ryota; Yasuoka, Koichi; Yasuoka Takeuchi lab Team

    2014-10-01

    Biofilms are caused by environmental degradation in food factory and medical facilities. Inactivation of biofilm has the method of making it react to chemicals including chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, and ozone. Although inactivation by chemicals has the problem that hazardous property of a residual substance and hydrogen peroxide have slow reaction velocity. We achieved advanced oxidation process (AOP) with air plasma. Hydrogen peroxide and ozone, which were used for the formation of OH radicals in our experiment, were able to be generated selectively by adjusting the amount of water supplied to the plasma. We inactivated Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm in five minutes with OH radicals generated by using hydrogen peroxide and ozone.

  16. Wet air oxidation of seedcorn wastes containing pesticides and insecticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sievers, M.; Schlaefer, O.; Onyeche, T.I.; Schroeder, C.; Bormann, H.; Schaefer, S. [CUTEC-Inst. GmbH (Clausthal Environment Technology Inst.), Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Wet air oxidation as an alternative treatment process to pyrolysis and combustion of seedcorn wastes was investigated in lab-scale experiments. Due to solid condition of the seed corn waste, the process has been adapted by repeated spraying of water on the seed corn bulk to avoid the production of sludge and its subsequent dewatering. Original seed corns from industrial production plants were used for a degradation kinetic study under smooth wet air oxidation conditions. The temperatures were between 80 and 150 C, the pressure from 1 to 4.5 bar and the pH at different values from 3 to 13. Degradation rates for five different compounds of pesticides and insecticides, namely Imidacloprid, Thiram, Hymexazol, Carbofuran and Tefluthrin were conducted. These compounds represent the recently used in agricultural seedcorn applications. The degradation rate depends linearly on temperature between 80 and 150 C. At 120 C the lowest degradation rate was found for Tefluthrin by 25 mg/h per L reaction volume while the highest degradation rate to be conducted was for Imidacloprid at 363 mg/h L. (orig.)

  17. Cargo recognition and cargo-mediated regulation of unconventional myosins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qing; Li, Jianchao; Zhang, Mingjie

    2014-10-21

    in determining the motor properties. Dab2, an adaptor protein linking endocytic vesicles with actin-filament-bound myosin-VI, can induce the motor to form a transport competent dimer. Such a cargo-mediated dimerization mechanism has also been observed in other myosins including myosin-V and myosin-VIIa. The tail domains of myosins are very diverse both in their lengths and protein domain compositions and thus enable motors to engage a broad range of different cellular cargoes. Remarkably, the cargo binding tail of one myosin alone often can bind to multiple distinct target proteins. A series of atomic structures of myosin-V/cargo complexes solved recently reveals that the globular cargo binding tail of the motor contains a number of nonoverlapping target recognition sites for binding to its cargoes including melanophilin, vesicle adaptors RILPL2, and vesicle-bound GTPase Rab11. The structures of the MyTH4-FERM tandems from myosin-VIIa and myosin-X in complex with their respective targets reveal that MyTH4 and FERM domains extensively interact with each other forming structural and functional supramodules in both motors and demonstrate that the structurally similar MyTH4-FERM tandems of the two motors display totally different target binding modes. These structural studies have also shed light on why numerous mutations found in these myosins can cause devastating human diseases such as deafness and blindness, intellectual disabilities, immune disorders, and diabetes.

  18. Patterns of a slow air-water flow in a semispherical container

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balci, Adnan; Brøns, Morten; Herrada, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    This numerical study analyzes the development of eddies in a slow steady axisymmetric air-water flow in a sealed semispherical container, driven by a rotating top disk. As the water height, Hw, increases, new flow cells emerge in both water and air. First, an eddy emerges near the axis-bottom int......This numerical study analyzes the development of eddies in a slow steady axisymmetric air-water flow in a sealed semispherical container, driven by a rotating top disk. As the water height, Hw, increases, new flow cells emerge in both water and air. First, an eddy emerges near the axis...... on the air flow. In contrast to flows in cylindrical and conical containers, there is no interaction with Moffatt corner vortices here....

  19. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyan, James; Baccus, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag, the suitcase-shaped common logistics carrying bag for Shuttle and the International Space Station. After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unzipped, unsnapped, and unfolded to be reused. Reuse ideas that have been investigated include partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing.

  20. 33 CFR 126.27 - General permit for handling dangerous cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) in bulk, portable tanks, containers, or packagings, at designated waterfront facilities, conditioned... cargo in limited-quantity packaging. (e) Transport units and portable tanks containing dangerous cargo... in the event of an accident. Cargo not required to be segregated, when in break-bulk form, is...

  1. 49 CFR 178.347 - Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.347 Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle....

  2. 49 CFR 178.346 - Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.346 Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle....

  3. 49 CFR 178.348 - Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.348 Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle....

  4. 76 FR 4709 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Certified Cargo Screening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... off- airport and includes facilities upstream in the air cargo supply chain, such as shippers, manufacturers, warehousing entities, distributors, third party logistics companies, and Indirect Air Carriers... supply chain to accept, screen, and transport air cargo. The uninterrupted collection of this...

  5. Treatment of Wastewater Containing Heavy Metals Using Dissolved Air Released Flotation Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new type of dissolved air released flotation column is developed to treat wastewater containing Cr(Ⅵ) based on advantages of both dissolved air floatation and column floatation. By using a column with a diameter of 50 mm and a specially made dissolved air releaser, micro-bubbles inside the column can be formed. N2H4.H2O was used as reductant, AlCl3 as flocculant, C12H25SO3Na(SDS) as surfactant in the experiment. The effects of pH of wastewater, pressure of dissolved air, ratio of return water, and concentration of flocculant and surfactant on the removal efficiency are studied. The results show that the efficiency of dissolved air released flotation column is much higher than that of other approaches after the operation parameters are optimized, with the reduction ratio of Cr(Ⅵ) in wastewater reaching 98%. So this technique can be widely used in wastewater treatment.

  6. Flow and containment characteristics of an air-curtain fume hood operated at high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Kun; Huang, Rong Fung; Hsin, Pei-Yi; Hsu, Ching Min; Chen, Chun-Wann

    2012-01-01

    The flow and leakage characteristics of the air-curtain fume hood under high temperature operation (between 100°C and 250°C) were studied. Laser-assisted flow visualization technique was used to reveal the hot plume movements in the cabinet and the critical conditions for the hood-top leakage. The sulfur hexafluoride tracer-gas concentration test method was employed to examine the containment spillages from the sash opening and the hood top. It was found that the primary parameters dominating the behavior of the flow field and hood performance are the sash height and the suction velocity as an air-curtain hood is operated at high temperatures. At large sash height and low suction velocity, the air curtain broke down and accompanied with three-dimensional flow in the cabinet. Since the suction velocity was low and the sash opening was large, the makeup air drawn down from the hood top became insufficient to counter act the rising hot plume. Under this situation, containment leakage from the sash opening and the hood top was observed. At small sash opening and high suction velocity, the air curtain presented robust characteristics and the makeup air flow from the hood top was sufficiently large. Therefore the containment leakages from the sash opening and the hood top were not observed. According to the results of experiments, quantitative operation sash height and suction velocity corresponding to the operation temperatures were suggested.

  7. Experimental and numerical investigations on reliability of air barrier on oil containment in flowing water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jinshu; Xu, Zhenfeng; Xu, Song; Xie, Sensen; Wu, Haoxiao; Yang, Zhenbo; Liu, Xueqiang

    2015-06-15

    Air barriers have been recently developed and employed as a new type of oil containment boom. This paper presents systematic investigations on the reliability of air barriers on oil containments with the involvement of flowing water, which represents the commonly-seen shearing current in reality, by using both laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. Both the numerical and experimental investigations are carried out in a model scale. In the investigations, a submerged pipe with apertures is installed near the bottom of a tank to generate the air bubbles forming the air curtain; and, the shearing water flow is introduced by a narrow inlet near the mean free surface. The effects of the aperture configurations (including the size and the spacing of the aperture) and the location of the pipe on the effectiveness of the air barrier on preventing oil spreading are discussed in details with consideration of different air discharges and velocities of the flowing water. The research outcome provides a foundation for evaluating and/or improve the reliability of a air barrier on preventing spilled oil from further spreading.

  8. Second Line of Defense, Port of Buenos Aires and Exolgan Container Terminal Operational Testing and Evaluation Plan, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Bryan W.

    2012-08-23

    The Office of the Second Line of Defense (SLD) Megaports project team for Argentina will conduct operational testing and evaluation (OT&E) at Exolgan Container Terminal at the Port of Dock Sud from July 16-20, 2012; and at the Port of Buenos Aires from September 3-7, 2012. SLD is installing radiation detection equipment to screen export, import, and transshipment containers at these locations. The purpose of OT&E is to validate and baseline an operable system that meets the SLD mission and to ensure the system continues to perform as expected in an operational environment with Argentina Customs effectively adjudicating alarms.

  9. Monte-Carlo Simulations of Radiation-Induced Activation in a Fast-Neutron and Gamma- Based Cargo Inspection System

    CERN Document Server

    Bromberger, B; Brandis, M; Dangendorf, V; Goldberg, M B; Kaufmann, F; Mor, I; Nolte, R; Schmiedel, M; Tittelmeier, K; Vartsky, D; Wershofen, H

    2012-01-01

    An air cargo inspection system combining two nuclear reaction based techniques, namely Fast-Neutron Resonance Radiography and Dual-Discrete-Energy Gamma Radiography is currently being developed. This system is expected to allow detection of standard and improvised explosives as well as special nuclear materials. An important aspect for the applicability of nuclear techniques in an airport inspection facility is the inventory and lifetimes of radioactive isotopes produced by the neutron and gamma radiation inside the cargo, as well as the dose delivered by these isotopes to people in contact with the cargo during and following the interrogation procedure. Using MCNPX and CINDER90 we have calculated the activation levels for several typical inspection scenarios. One example is the activation of various metal samples embedded in a cotton-filled container. To validate the simulation results, a benchmark experiment was performed, in which metal samples were activated by fast-neutrons in a water-filled glass jar. T...

  10. Assembly and Mechanical Properties of the Cargo-Free and Cargo-Loaded Bacterial Nanocompartment Encapsulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijder, Joost; Kononova, Olga; Barbu, Ioana M; Uetrecht, Charlotte; Rurup, W Frederik; Burnley, Rebecca J; Koay, Melissa S T; Cornelissen, Jeroen J L M; Roos, Wouter H; Barsegov, Valeri; Wuite, Gijs J L; Heck, Albert J R

    2016-08-08

    Prokaryotes mostly lack membranous compartments that are typical of eukaryotic cells, but instead, they have various protein-based organelles. These include bacterial microcompartments like the carboxysome and the virus-like nanocompartment encapsulin. Encapsulins have an adaptable mechanism for enzyme packaging, which makes it an attractive platform to carry a foreign protein cargo. Here we investigate the assembly pathways and mechanical properties of the cargo-free and cargo-loaded nanocompartments, using a combination of native mass spectrometry, atomic force microscopy and multiscale computational molecular modeling. We show that encapsulin dimers assemble into rigid single-enzyme bacterial containers. Moreover, we demonstrate that cargo encapsulation has a mechanical impact on the shell. The structural similarity of encapsulins to virus capsids is reflected in their mechanical properties. With these robust mechanical properties encapsulins provide a suitable platform for the development of nanotechnological applications.

  11. 46 CFR 153.935 - Opening of tanks and cargo sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., except: (1) To clean a tank; (2) To transfer a cargo that Table 1 allows in a containment system having... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opening of tanks and cargo sampling. 153.935 Section 153... Vessel Safety § 153.935 Opening of tanks and cargo sampling. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b)...

  12. Groupage Cargo Transportation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksejevs Ruslans

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we consider a specific problem of optimal planning of maritime transportation of multiproduct cargo by ships of one (corporate strategy or several (partially corporate strategy companies: the core of the problem consists of the existence of the network of intermediate seaports (i.e. transitional seaports, where for every ship arrived the cargo handling is done, and which are situated between the starting and the finishing seaports. In this work, there are mathematical models built from scratch in the form of multicriteria optimization problem; then the goal attainment method of Gembicki is used for reducing the built models to a one-criterion problem of linear programming.

  13. Push-Pull Air Curtain Performances for VOCs Containment in an Industrial Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aubert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the efficiency of a Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs containment system using an air curtain (push-pull type on a manual workstation. This work combines CFD numerical simulations of the air curtain system and experimental studies on a real scale test bench. The point is to evaluate whether the actual worker protection can be replaced by an air curtain system, without weakening human safety. The new system could considerably reduce energetic consumption (ventilation, heating and VOCs emissions into the atmosphere. Experimental studies of the flow using a Particle Image Velocimetry anemometer (PIV have been carried out to validate the numerical model kinematics. The containment quality obtained by the model has been validated with experimental concentration fields given by a gaseous analyzer using flame ionization (FID. Numerical simulation provides an overview of the containment efficiency in the global area of the system. Thus, it is possible to evaluate numerically, but accurately, the quality of the containment of the system. Moreover, an energetic study proves the economic benefit of the push-pull system.

  14. Environment corrosion behavior of cargo oil tank deck made of Cr-contained low-alloy steel%含Cr低合金钢货油舱上甲板环境腐蚀行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁金明; 唐荻; 武会宾; 王立东

    2013-01-01

    In order to develop a low-alloy anti-corrosion steel for the deck of cargo oil tank and understand the corrosion mechanism, the corrosion behavior of low-alloy steels containing different levels of Cr in a moisture gas of O2-CO2-SO2-H2S were investigated using cargo oil tank corrosion simulation device. After the corrosion test, corrosion rate was measured firstly, then the morphology of corrosion product films was observed by SEM(scanning electron microscope). The phase composition and structure of corrosion product film were analyzed by EDS (energy dispersive spectroscopy) and XRD(X-ray diffraction). EBSD(electron backscattered diffraction) was used to analyze the effect of the size of grain boundary angle on corrosion property. The results show that moisture corrosion product film of cargo oil tanks on the upper deck is composed of α-FeOOH,γ-FeOOH, element S, FeS2, Fe1-xS and FeS, displaying a multi-layered structure. Compared with l%Cr steel, the corrosion rate of 3%Cr steel decreases significantly. When the Cr content reaches 3% , Cr enrichment forms in the inner layer of corrosion product film. In addition, the proportion of large angle grain boundary in 3% Cr steel is lower. With the increase of Cr content in a certain range, low-alloy steel may show good corrosion resistance.%为了研制货油舱上甲板用低合金耐蚀钢和了解该环境下的腐蚀机理,采用自制的O2-CO2-SO2-H2S湿气腐蚀模拟装置,对不同Cr含量的低合金钢进行腐蚀行为研究.在进行腐蚀试验后,首先测量了腐蚀速率,然后应用SEM对腐蚀产物膜的微观形貌及结构进行分析,并通过EDS和XRD确定腐蚀产物膜的物相组成,采用EBSD手段分析大小角度晶界对腐蚀性能的影响.结果表明:模拟湿气腐蚀的腐蚀产物膜主要由α-FeOOH,γ-FeOOH,S,FeS2,Ee1-xS,FeS组成,且呈分层结构;3% Cr较1% Cr腐蚀速率显著下降;Cr含量上升到3%时,腐蚀产物膜内层出现明显的Cr富集;3% Cr较1

  15. LOCA air-injection loads in BWR Mark II pressure suppression containment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukita, Y.; Shiba, M. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki); Namatame, K. (Institute of Nuclear Safety, Tokyo (Japan))

    1984-02-01

    Large-scale blowdown tests were conducted to investigate the thermal-hydrodynamic response of a boiling-water reactor (BWR) Mark II pressure suppression containment system to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident. This paper presents the test results on the early blowdown transients, where air in the drywell is injected into the pressure suppression pool and induces various hydrodynamic loads onto the containment pressure boundary and internal structures. The test data are compared to predictions by analytical models used for the licensing evaluation of the hydrodynamic loads to assess these models.

  16. Bifurcations of a creeping air-water flow in a conical container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Adnan; Brøns, Morten; Herrada, Miguel A.; Shtern, Vladimir N.

    2016-10-01

    This numerical study describes the eddy emergence and transformations in a slow steady axisymmetric air-water flow, driven by a rotating top disk in a vertical conical container. As water height Hw and cone half-angle β vary, numerous flow metamorphoses occur. They are investigated for β =30°, 45°, and 60°. For small Hw, the air flow is multi-cellular with clockwise meridional circulation near the disk. The air flow becomes one cellular as Hw exceeds a threshold depending on β . For all β , the water flow has an unbounded number of eddies whose size and strength diminish as the cone apex is approached. As the water level becomes close to the disk, the outmost water eddy with clockwise meridional circulation expands, reaches the interface, and induces a thin layer with anticlockwise circulation in the air. Then this layer expands and occupies the entire air domain. The physical reasons for the flow transformations are provided. The results are of fundamental interest and can be relevant for aerial bioreactors.

  17. 14 CFR 121.287 - Carriage of cargo in cargo compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of cargo in cargo compartments....287 Carriage of cargo in cargo compartments. When cargo is carried in cargo compartments that are..., the cargo must be loaded so as to allow a crewmember to effectively reach all parts of the...

  18. 14 CFR 125.185 - Carriage of cargo in cargo compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of cargo in cargo compartments... Requirements § 125.185 Carriage of cargo in cargo compartments. When cargo is carried in cargo compartments... during flight, the cargo must be loaded so as to allow a crewmember to effectively reach all parts of...

  19. 49 CFR 1548.9 - Acceptance of cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance of cargo. 1548.9 Section 1548.9..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY INDIRECT AIR CARRIER SECURITY § 1548.9 Acceptance of... program. (b) Refusal to transport. Each indirect air carrier must refuse to offer for transport on...

  20. Radial-firing optical fiber tip containing conical-shaped air-pocket for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Ho; Ryu, Yong-Tak; Son, Dong Hoon; Jeong, Seongmook; Kim, Youngwoong; Ju, Seongmin; Kim, Bok Hyeon; Han, Won-Taek

    2015-08-10

    We report a novel radial-firing optical fiber tip containing a conical-shaped air-pocket fabricated by deforming a hollow optical fiber using electric arc-discharge process. The hollow optical fiber was fusion spliced with a conventional optical fiber, simultaneously deforming into the intagliated conical-shaped region along the longitudinal fiber-axis of the fiber due to the gradual collapse of the cavity of the hollow optical fiber. Then the distal-end of the hollow optical fiber was sealed by the additional arc-discharge in order to obstruct the inflow of an external bio-substance or liquid to the inner air surface during the surgical operations, resulting in the formation of encased air-pocket in the silica glass fiber. Due to the total internal reflection of the laser beam at the conical-shaped air surface, the laser beam (λ = 632.8 nm) was deflected to the circumferential direction up to 87 degree with respect to the fiber-axis.

  1. Dynamic effects on containment of air-curtain fume hood operated with heat source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Kun; Huang, Rong Fung; Hsin, Pei-Yi

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the leakage characteristics of the air-curtain fume hood that are subject to the influences of sash movement and walk-by motion while a high temperature heat source was operated in the hood. The flow visualization and trace gas test method were used to investigate the performance of the air-curtain fume hood. An electric heater was placed in the hood to simulate the heat source. The temperature of the heat source installed inside the air-curtain fume hood varied between 180°C and 300°C. Trace gas tests following the dynamic test methods of EN-14175 protocol were employed to measure the spillages of sulfur hexafluoride gas that were released in the hood. When subject to the influence of sash movement at a heat source temperature lower than 260°C, the leakage level was high at the suction velocity V(s) 10 m/sec. When subject to the influence of people walk-by, the leakage level was relatively low at the suction velocity larger than 8 m/sec at sash height H = 50 cm. The height of the sash opening was a crucial parameter for the containment of the air-curtain fume hood. At the sash opening lower than about 25 cm, suction velocity less than or equal to 6 m/sec was enough to make the sulfur hexafluoride leakage less than the threshold value, 0.65 ppm, suggested by the BG Chemie. The air-curtain fume hood presented a great performance to resist the effect of drafts even though there was a high temperature heat source working in the hood.

  2. Acoustic Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) are designed to be the same external volume as a regular cargo transfer bag, the common logistics carrier for the International Space Station. After use as a cargo bag, the MCTB can be unzipped and unfolded to be reused. This Acoustic MCTBs transform into acoustic blankets after the initial logistics carrying objective is complete.

  3. 46 CFR 154.315 - Cargo pump and cargo compressor rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pump and cargo compressor rooms. 154.315 Section... CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.315 Cargo pump and cargo compressor rooms. (a) Cargo pump rooms and...

  4. 46 CFR 154.1826 - Opening of cargo tanks and cargo sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opening of cargo tanks and cargo sampling. 154.1826... CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1826 Opening of cargo tanks and cargo sampling. (a) The master shall ensure that each cargo tank opening...

  5. A consolidation model for cargo-driven intermodal transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behdani, B.; Zuidwijk, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Accessibility of main sea ports by road has become increasingly difficult due to rapid growth in container throughput. To deal with this challenge, new ways for handling containers and distribution of cargo flows are needed to define and implement. One possibility is going beyond container transport

  6. Northwest passage: Trade route for large air cushion vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    A conceptual vehicle and powerplant (10,000-ton) nuclear-powered air-cushion vehicle (ACV) that could open the Northwest Passage and other Arctic passages to commercial traffic is identified. The report contains a description of the conceptual vehicle, including the powerplant and operations, an assessment of technical feasibility, estimates of capital and operating costs, and identification of eligible cargo and markets. A comparison of the nuclear ACV freighter with nuclear container ships shows that for containerized or roll-on/roll-off cargo the ACV would provide greatly reduced transit time between North Atlantic and North Pacific ports at a competitive cost.

  7. A crystal detector for measuring beta and internal conversion electrons in flowing air containing fission gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, W. R.; Vives-Batlle, J.; Yoon, S. R.; Tobin, M. J.

    1999-02-01

    Low levels of radioactive gases are released from nuclear electric power generation, nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, nuclear weapons tests and from diagnostic medical uses of radioactive gas tracers. A prototype model of an inorganic scintillator - Crystal Gas Electron Detector (CGED) - was built for measurements of xenon isotopes in-line by detecting the beta and internal conversion (IC) electrons present in atmospheric samples. The detection and quantification of the radionuclide spectra are accomplished, during air flow, without complete purification of the fission gases. Initial operational tests and calibrations made permit the integration of the CGED into a portable Gas Analysis, Separation and Purification (GASP) system [1-3]. The CGED detector, Pulse Shaping and Timing (PSA) electronics, and mathematical treatment of the accumulated spectra are used to resolve the K and LMNO-IC electrons and beta continuum. These data are used, in-line, for dating the age of an air parcel containing fission gases released from nuclear reactors and/or from nuclear weapons tests, as part of the monitoring equipment required to enforce the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, CTBT. This report is one of a series of papers providing the design features, operational methods, calibration, and applications of radioactive gas analysis system to the International CTBT.

  8. Survey of RFID and Its Application to International Ocean/Air Container Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Minoru; Nakada, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Hitoshi; Shimizu, Masashi

    “Internet of Things” (IoT) requires information to be collected from “anything”, “anytime”, and “anywhere”. In order to achieve this, wireless devices are required that have (1) automatic data acquisition capability, (2) small size, (3) long life, and (4) long range communication capability. One way to meet these requirements is to adopt active Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems. Active RFID is more advantageous than passive RFID and enables higher data reading performance over longer distances. This paper surveys active RFID systems, the services they currently promise to provide, technical problems common to these services, and the direction in which research should head in the future. It also reports the results of EPCglobal (EPC: Electronic Product Code) pilot tests conducted on global logistics for tracking ocean/air container transportation using active RFID systems for which we developed several new types of active RFID tags. The test results confirm that our active RFID tags have sufficient capability and low power consumption to well support ocean/air transportation and logistics service.

  9. 29 CFR 1918.84 - Bulling cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bulling cargo. 1918.84 Section 1918.84 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.84 Bulling cargo. (a) Bulling cargo shall be done with the bull line led directly from the heel block. However, bulling may be done from...

  10. 78 FR 68784 - Cargo Securing Manuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 97 and 160, and 46 CFR Part 97 RIN 1625-AA25 Cargo Securing Manuals... proposes requiring cargo securing manuals (CSMs) on vessels of 500 gross tons or more traveling on... Code of Federal Regulations CSAP Cargo safe access plan CSM Cargo Securing Manual CSS Code Code of...

  11. 46 CFR 153.930 - Cargo antidotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo antidotes. 153.930 Section 153.930 Shipping COAST... Cargo antidotes. No person may operate a tankship that carries a cargo listed in Table 1 unless the tankship has on board the antidotes described for the cargo in the Medical First Aid Guide for Use...

  12. 46 CFR 64.97 - Cargo hose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose. 64.97 Section 64.97 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.97 Cargo hose. Each hose assembly, consisting of couplings and a...

  13. 46 CFR 151.03-9 - Cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo. 151.03-9 Section 151.03-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-9 Cargo. This term means any liquid, gas or solid having...

  14. 29 CFR 1918.53 - Cargo winches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cargo winches. 1918.53 Section 1918.53 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Vessel's Cargo Handling Gear § 1918.53 Cargo winches. (a...) There shall be no load other than the fall and cargo hook assembly on the winch when changing gears on...

  15. Proteomics Characterization of Exosome Cargo

    OpenAIRE

    Schey, Kevin L.; Luther, J. Matthew; Rose, Kristie L

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of exosomal cargo is of significant interest because this cargo can provide clues to exosome biogenesis, targeting, and cellular effects and may be a source of biomarkers for disease diagnosis, prognosis and response to treatment. With recent improvements in proteomics technologies, both qualitative and quantitative characterization of exosomal proteins is possible. Here we provide a brief review of exosome proteomics studies and provide detailed protocols for global qualitat...

  16. 77 FR 30542 - Air Cargo Screening Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... Security Identification Display Area (SIDA) IDs. Another commenter requested that if TSA intends to limit... obtain SIDA IDs were not included in the fee models for this rulemaking because STAs for holders of SIDA... appreciated TSA's recognition that the STAs performed under the SIDA, Commercial Driver's...

  17. Lignite air-steam gasification in the fluidized bed of iron-containing slag catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, B.N.; Shchipko, M.L.; Golovin, Yu. [Inst. of Chemistry of Natural Organic Materials, Academgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    The influence of fluidized bed of iron-containing slag particles on air-steam gasification of powdered Kansk-Achinsk lignite in entrained flow was studied in pilot installation with productivity about 60 kg per hour. Slag of Martin process and boiler slag were used as catalytic active materials until their complete mechanical attrition. Two following methods of catalytic gasification of lignite were compared: the partial gasification in stationary fluidized bed of slag particles with degree of fuel conversion 40-70% and complete gasification in circulating bed of slag particles. In the first case only the most reactive part of fuel is gasified with the simultaneously formation of porous carbon residue with good sorption ability. It was found the catalytic fluidized bed improves heat transfer from combustion to reduction zone of gas-generator and increases the rate of fuel conversion at the temperature range 900-1000{degrees}C. At these temperatures the degree of conversion is depended considerably on the duration time of fuel particles in the catalytic fluidized bed. The influence of catalytic fluidized bed height and velocity of reaction mixture on the temperature profiles in the gas-generator was studied. The optimal relationship was found between the fluidized bed height and velocity of flow which makes possible to produce the gas with higher calorific value at maximum degree of fuel conversion.

  18. Acoustic localization in weakly compressible elastic media containing random air bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bin; Cheng, Jian-chun

    2007-01-01

    We study theoretically the propagation of longitudinal wave in weakly compressible elastic media containing random air bubbles by using a self-consistent method. By inspecting the scattering cross section of an individual bubble and estimating the mean free paths of the elastic wave propagating in the bubbly weakly compressible media, the mode conversion is numerically proved negligible as the longitudinal wave is scattered by the bubbles. On the basis of the bubble dynamic equation, the wave propagation is solved rigorously with the multiple scattering effects incorporated. In a range of frequency slightly above the bubble resonance frequency, the acoustic localization in such a class of media is theoretically identified with even a very small volume fraction of bubbles. We present a method by analyzing the spatial correlation of wave field to identify the phenomenon of localization, which turns out to be effective. The sensibility of the features of localization to the structure parameters is numerically investigated. The spatial distribution of acoustic energy is also studied and the results show that the waves are trapped within a spatial domain adjacent to the source when localization occurs.

  19. Shared Value Potential of Transporting Cargo via Hyperloop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Werner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research estimates the shared value created by constructing a hypothetical Hyperloop to transport cargo along 300 km in Northern Germany. Following Porter-Kramer (2011, we identified and evaluated eight factors that create shared value: travel speed, operating costs, safety, noise pollution, air pollution, climate effect/carbon footprint, separation effect/ property efficiency, and maintenance. Using official data compiled by several German institutes and organizations, we conducted comparative analysis to quantify and compare the abovementioned factors for Hyperloop and over-the-road cargo transport in Germany. Then, we monetized the individual and collective benefits of the shared value created by Hyperloop replacing a significant share of cargo transported by truck. Our findings indicate that the hypothetical Hyperloop project in Northern Germany would create €660 to €900 million of shared value annually. Our research method establishes a framework for assessing future transportation projects like Hyperloop, and our findings can be generalized to industrialized nations beyond Germany.

  20. Opportunity of Constructing a Cargo Terminal – Case Study Brașov International Airport, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel BRĂTUCU

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Air transport and especially air cargo transport became ever more important during the last 25 years, with a signifi cant impact upon economic development. Air cargo transport supports regional economic development, provided there is suffi cient local demand for its services. In our study, we have identifi ed signifi cant elements of the impact a cargo terminal at the International Brașov-Ghimbav Airport would have upon local economic development. For this purpose, we have conducted a quantitative market research. We have reached the conclusion that constructing a cargo terminal at the Brașov-Ghimbav Airport is a necessary investment in the current economic context, with an important contribution to the economic development of its surrounding counties. The positive results registered in our study could contribute to improving the economic and fi nancial prospects of Brașov-Ghimbav Airport and attract investors in this project.

  1. A systematic approach to pair secretory cargo receptors with their cargo suggests a mechanism for cargo selection by Erv14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, Yonatan; Sharpe, Hayley J; Elbaz, Yael; Munro, Sean; Schuldiner, Maya

    2012-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of synthesis of secreted and membrane proteins. To exit the ER, proteins are packaged into COPII vesicles through direct interaction with the COPII coat or aided by specific cargo receptors. Despite the fundamental role of such cargo receptors in protein traffic, only a few have been identified; their cargo spectrum is unknown and the signals they recognize remain poorly understood. We present here an approach we term "PAIRS" (pairing analysis of cargo receptors), which combines systematic genetic manipulations of yeast with automated microscopy screening, to map the spectrum of cargo for a known receptor or to uncover a novel receptor for a particular cargo. Using PAIRS we followed the fate of ∼150 cargos on the background of mutations in nine putative cargo receptors and identified novel cargo for most of these receptors. Deletion of the Erv14 cargo receptor affected the widest range of cargo. Erv14 substrates have a wide array of functions and structures; however, they are all membrane-spanning proteins of the late secretory pathway or plasma membrane. Proteins residing in these organelles have longer transmembrane domains (TMDs). Detailed examination of one cargo supported the hypothesis that Erv14 dependency reflects the length rather than the sequence of the TMD. The PAIRS approach allowed us to uncover new cargo for known cargo receptors and to obtain an unbiased look at specificity in cargo selection. Obtaining the spectrum of cargo for a cargo receptor allows a novel perspective on its mode of action. The rules that appear to guide Erv14 substrate recognition suggest that sorting of membrane proteins at multiple points in the secretory pathway could depend on the physical properties of TMDs. Such a mechanism would allow diverse proteins to utilize a few receptors without the constraints of evolving location-specific sorting motifs.

  2. Toxicological Assessment of ISS Air Quality: SpaceX-2 First Ingress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    One mini-grab sample container (M-GSC) was collected by crew members onboard ISS during first ingress into SpaceX-2 on March 3, 2013, three days after late cargo loading and a pre-launch clean air purge. Recoveries of the three surrogate standards from the m-GSC were: 13C-acetone, 97%; fluorobenzene, 95%; and chlorobenzene, 68%.

  3. 77 FR 22550 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Small Container...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... Container Exemption From VOC Coating Rules AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed... of amendments to the Illinois Administrative Code by adding ] a ``small container exemption''...

  4. 77 FR 31727 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Small Container...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... Container Exemption From VOC Coating Rules AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Withdrawal... Illinois SIP that added a ``small container exemption'' for pleasure craft surface coating operations...

  5. Spectroscopic neutron radiography for a cargo scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahon, Jill; Danagoulian, Areg; MacDonald, Thomas D.; Hartwig, Zachary S.; Lanza, Richard C.

    2016-06-01

    Detection of cross-border smuggling of illicit materials and contraband is a challenge that requires rapid, low-dose, and efficient radiographic technology. The work we describe here is derived from a technique which uses monoenergetic gamma rays from low energy nuclear reactions, such as 11B(d,nγ)12C, to perform radiographic analysis of shipping containers. Transmission ratios of multiple monoenergetic gamma lines resulting from several gamma producing nuclear reactions can be employed to detect materials of high atomic number (Z), the details of which will be described in a separate paper. Inherent in this particular nuclear reaction is the production of fast neutrons which could enable neutron radiography and further characterization of the effective-Z of the cargo, especially within the range of lower Z. Previous research efforts focused on the use of total neutron counts in combination with X-ray radiography to characterize the hydrogenous content of the cargo. We present a technique of performing transmitted neutron spectral analysis to reconstruct the effective Z and potentially the density of the cargo. This is made possible by the large differences in the energy dependence of neutron scattering cross-sections between hydrogenous materials and those of higher Z. These dependencies result in harder transmission spectra for hydrogenous cargoes than those of non-hydrogenous cargoes. Such observed differences can then be used to classify the cargo based on its hydrogenous content. The studies presented in this paper demonstrate that such techniques are feasible and can provide a contribution to cargo security, especially when used in concert with gamma radiography.

  6. Spectroscopic neutron radiography for a cargo scanning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahon, Jill [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Danagoulian, Areg, E-mail: aregjan@mit.edu [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); MacDonald, Thomas D. [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Hartwig, Zachary S. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Lanza, Richard C. [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Detection of cross-border smuggling of illicit materials and contraband is a challenge that requires rapid, low-dose, and efficient radiographic technology. The work we describe here is derived from a technique which uses monoenergetic gamma rays from low energy nuclear reactions, such as {sup 11}B(d,nγ){sup 12}C, to perform radiographic analysis of shipping containers. Transmission ratios of multiple monoenergetic gamma lines resulting from several gamma producing nuclear reactions can be employed to detect materials of high atomic number (Z), the details of which will be described in a separate paper. Inherent in this particular nuclear reaction is the production of fast neutrons which could enable neutron radiography and further characterization of the effective-Z of the cargo, especially within the range of lower Z. Previous research efforts focused on the use of total neutron counts in combination with X-ray radiography to characterize the hydrogenous content of the cargo. We present a technique of performing transmitted neutron spectral analysis to reconstruct the effective Z and potentially the density of the cargo. This is made possible by the large differences in the energy dependence of neutron scattering cross-sections between hydrogenous materials and those of higher Z. These dependencies result in harder transmission spectra for hydrogenous cargoes than those of non-hydrogenous cargoes. Such observed differences can then be used to classify the cargo based on its hydrogenous content. The studies presented in this paper demonstrate that such techniques are feasible and can provide a contribution to cargo security, especially when used in concert with gamma radiography.

  7. A novel architecture for cargos location and safety in networked RFID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Dong-li; YUAN Zheng-wu; Byeong-Seob You; Sook-Kyung Cho; Hae-Young Bae

    2007-01-01

    Using Networked RFID equipped in warehouse or supermarket distribution, Enterprise information system (EIS) can gather and deal with cargos information. Nevertheless, when cargos are in traffic, the Networked RFID can't monitor the cargos any more as the products tagged aren't within range of a reader. This paper proposes a solution framework which combines Networked RFID and GPS tracking, and then equip with this system in container to make the cargos monitored even if the cargos are in traffic. This solution can solve the accurate consignments, position tracking and advanced theft happening through drilling holes in container. In addition, customhouse and checkpoint can get an electronic shipment manifest rapidly and safely when a vehicle gets through a checkpoint.

  8. 29 CFR 1918.85 - Containerized cargo operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hookup, anchoring and tie-off techniques, methods of use, and proper methods of equipment inspection and... such container is empty. Methods of identification may include cargo plans, manifests, or markings on... the method of calculation described in paragraph (b)(4)(ii) of this section or by shipping...

  9. 49 CFR 175.75 - Quantity limitations and cargo location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR 25.857(b) or for a Class C aircraft cargo compartment in 14 CFR 25.857(c). A package bearing a KEEP AWAY FROM HEAT handling marking must be protected from direct sunshine and stored in a cool and ventilated place, away from sources of heat. (c) For each package containing a hazardous material...

  10. A matheuristic for the Cargo Mix Problem with Block Stowage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jonas Mark; Pacino, Dario

    2017-01-01

    The cargo-mix problem aims at selecting the amount of containers of a given type to load on a vessel. In this article we present an extended definition that includes the analysis of a circular route with draft restrictions, limitations on expected cargo and the use of a block stowage strategy. A ....... A compact formulation of the problem based on the state-of-the-art heuristic decomposition is shown not to be able to solve the extended problem, thus a matheuristic approach is presented that can achieve high quality results in a matter of seconds....

  11. Cooperative behavior of molecular motors: Cargo transport and traffic phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowsky, Reinhard; Beeg, Janina; Dimova, Rumiana; Klumpp, Stefan; Müller, Melanie J. I.

    2010-01-01

    All eukaryotic cells including those of our own body contain complex transport systems based on molecular motors which walk along cytoskeletal filaments. These motors are rather small and make discrete mechanical steps with a step size of the order of 10 nm but are able to pull cargo particles over much larger distances, from micrometers up to meters. In vivo, the intracellular cargos include large membrane-bounded organelles, smaller vesicles, a subset of mRNAs, cytoskeletal filaments, and various protein building blocks, which are transported between different cell compartments. This cargo transport is usually performed by teams of motors. If all motors belong to the same molecular species, the cooperative action of the motors leads to uni-directional transport with a strongly increased run length and with a characteristic force dependence of the velocity distributions. If two antagonistic teams of motors pull on the same cargo particle, they perform a stochastic tug-of-war, which is characterized by a subtle force balance between the two motor teams and leads to several distinct patterns of bi-directional transport. So far, all experimental observations on bi-directional transport are consistent with such a tug-of-war. If many motors and/or cargo particles are transported along the filaments, one encounters various traffic phenomena. Depending on their mutual interactions and the compartment geometry, the motors form various spatio-temporal patterns such as traffic jams, and undergo nonequilibrium phase transitions between different patterns of transport.

  12. Effect of aluminum-containing additives on the reactivity in air and CO2 of carbon anode for aluminum electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Yanqing; LI Jie; LI Qingyu; DING Fengqi

    2004-01-01

    Airbum reaction and carboxy reaction result in the excess consumption of carbon anode in aluminum electrolysis.To reduce the excess carbon consumption, carbon anode was doped with aluminum-containing additives, such as Al, Al4C3,AlF3 and Al2O3. Their reactivity in air and CO2 was determined with an isothermal-gravimetric method to study the effect of aluminum-containing additives on the reactivity in air and CO2 of carbon anode. Results shown that the airburn reactivity at 450℃ and carboxy reactivity at 970 ℃ of carbon anode both decreased with Al-containing additives adding, while shown a minimutn with the amount of Al4C3, AlF3 and Al2O3 increasing. However, all Al-containing additives increase the airbum reactivity at 550℃ of carbon anodes. Coke yield measurement and XRD examination with aluminum containing additives doped pitch cokes revealed that the effect of Al-containing additives on the airbum reactivity and carboxy reactivity of carbon anode would result from chemical factors and structural factors.

  13. 46 CFR 153.908 - Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring..., LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations Documents and Cargo Information § 153.908 Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge:...

  14. 77 FR 22497 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Small Container...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... Container Exemption From VOC Coating Rules AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ] ACTION: Direct... container exemption'' for pleasure craft surface coating operations in the Chicago and Metro-East St. Louis... nonattainment area) by adding a ``small container exemption'' for pleasure craft surface coating operations....

  15. 78 FR 23495 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Small Container...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... Container Exemption from VOC Coating Rules AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule... amendments to the Illinois Administrative Code (Ill. Adm. Code) by adding a ``small container exemption'' for... regulations include a small container exemption not to exceed a liter or a quart. The ACA stated that...

  16. 46 CFR 154.1810 - Cargo manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo manual. 154.1810 Section 154.1810 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1810 Cargo manual. (a) No person... navigable waters of the United States, or a U.S. flag vessel, unless the vessel has on board a cargo...

  17. 46 CFR 153.907 - Cargo information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo information. 153.907 Section 153.907 Shipping... Information § 153.907 Cargo information. (a) The master shall ensure that the following information for each... process for the vessel. (b) The master shall make sure that the following information for cargoes...

  18. 46 CFR 154.1858 - Cargo hose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose. 154.1858 Section 154.1858 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1858 Cargo hose. The person...

  19. 46 CFR 45.137 - Cargo ports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo ports. 45.137 Section 45.137 Shipping COAST GUARD....137 Cargo ports. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Commandant, the lower edge of any opening for cargo, personnel, machinery access, or similar opening in the side of a ship must be above a line...

  20. 29 CFR 1917.114 - Cargo doors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cargo doors. 1917.114 Section 1917.114 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.114 Cargo doors. (a) Mechanically operated. (1) Cargo...

  1. 46 CFR 28.885 - Cargo gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo gear. 28.885 Section 28.885 Shipping COAST GUARD... Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.885 Cargo gear. (a) The safe working load (SWL) for the assembled gear shall be marked on the heel of each cargo boom, crane, or derrick. These letters and figures are to...

  2. 49 CFR 172.328 - Cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tanks. 172.328 Section 172.328... SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.328 Cargo tanks. (a) Providing and affixing identification numbers. Unless a cargo tank is already marked with the identification numbers required by this subpart,...

  3. Cargo transport by several motors

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yunxin

    2010-01-01

    In cells, organelles and vesicles are usually transported by cooperation of several motor proteins, including plus-end directed motor kinesin and minus-end directed motor dynein. Many biophysical models have been constructed to understand the mechanism of this motion. However, so far, the basic principle about it remains unclosed. In this paper, based on the recent experimental results and existing theoretical models, a spider-like model is provided. In this model, each motor is regarded as a bead-spring system. The bead can bind to or unbind from the track stochastically, and step forward or backward with fixed step size L and force dependent transition rates. The spring connects the bead to cargo tightly. At any time, the position of cargo is determined by force balance condition. The obvious characteristics of our model are that, the motors interact with each other and they do not share the external load equally. Our results indicate, the stall force of cargo, under which the mean velocity of cargo vanishe...

  4. Cargo-shell and cargo-cargo couplings govern the mechanics of artificially loaded virus-derived cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llauró, Aida; Luque, Daniel; Edwards, Ethan; Trus, Benes L.; Avera, John; Reguera, David; Douglas, Trevor; Pablo, Pedro J. De; Castón, José R.

    2016-04-01

    Nucleic acids are the natural cargo of viruses and key determinants that affect viral shell stability. In some cases the genome structurally reinforces the shell, whereas in others genome packaging causes internal pressure that can induce destabilization. Although it is possible to pack heterologous cargoes inside virus-derived shells, little is known about the physical determinants of these artificial nanocontainers' stability. Atomic force and three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy provided mechanical and structural information about the physical mechanisms of viral cage stabilization beyond the mere presence/absence of cargos. We analyzed the effects of cargo-shell and cargo-cargo interactions on shell stability after encapsulating two types of proteinaceous payloads. While bound cargo to the inner capsid surface mechanically reinforced the capsid in a structural manner, unbound cargo diffusing freely within the shell cavity pressurized the cages up to ~30 atm due to steric effects. Strong cargo-cargo coupling reduces the resilience of these nanocompartments in ~20% when bound to the shell. Understanding the stability of artificially loaded nanocages will help to design more robust and durable molecular nanocontainers.Nucleic acids are the natural cargo of viruses and key determinants that affect viral shell stability. In some cases the genome structurally reinforces the shell, whereas in others genome packaging causes internal pressure that can induce destabilization. Although it is possible to pack heterologous cargoes inside virus-derived shells, little is known about the physical determinants of these artificial nanocontainers' stability. Atomic force and three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy provided mechanical and structural information about the physical mechanisms of viral cage stabilization beyond the mere presence/absence of cargos. We analyzed the effects of cargo-shell and cargo-cargo interactions on shell stability after encapsulating two

  5. 46 CFR 153.970 - Cargo transfer piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo transfer piping. 153.970 Section 153.970 Shipping... § 153.970 Cargo transfer piping. The person in charge of cargo transfer shall ensure that: (a) Cargo is transferred to or from a cargo tank only through the tankship's cargo piping system; (b) Vapor not returned...

  6. Fungal spore concentrations in two haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) units containing distinct air control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, C P; Miron, D; Silla, L M R; Pasqualotto, A C

    2013-04-01

    Invasive fungal diseases have emerged as important causes of morbidity and mortality in haematological patients. In this study air samples were collected in two haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) units, in which distinct air-control systems were in place. In hospital 1 no high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter was available whereas in hospital 2 HSCT rooms were equipped with HEPA filters, with positive air pressure in relation to the corridor. A total of 117 samples from rooms, toilets and corridors were obtained during December 2009 to January 2011, using a six-stage Andersen sampler. In both hospitals, the concentration of potentially pathogenic fungi in the air was reduced in patients' rooms compared to corridors (P < 0·0001). Despite the presence of a HEPA filter in hospital 2, rooms in both hospitals showed similar concentrations of potentially pathogenic fungi (P = 0·714). These findings may be explained by the implementation of additional protective measures in hospital 1, emphasizing the importance of such measures in protected environments.

  7. A methodology for the evaluation of the turbine jet engine fragment threat to generic air transportable containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, D.C.; Pierce, J.D.

    1993-06-01

    Uncontained, high-energy gas turbine engine fragments are a potential threat to air-transportable containers carried aboard jet aircraft. The threat to a generic example container is evaluated by probability analyses and penetration testing to demonstrate the methodology to be used in the evaluation of a specific container/aircraft/engine combination. Fragment/container impact probability is the product of the uncontained fragment release rate and the geometric probability that a container is in the path of this fragment. The probability of a high-energy rotor burst fragment from four generic aircraft engines striking one of the containment vessels aboard a transport aircraft is approximately 1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} strikes/hour. Finite element penetration analyses and tests can be performed to identify specific fragments which have the potential to penetrate a generic or specific containment vessel. The relatively low probability of engine fragment/container impacts is primarily due to the low release rate of uncontained, hazardous jet engine fragments.

  8. Tackling the x-ray cargo inspection challenge using machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaccard, Nicolas; Rogers, Thomas W.; Morton, Edward J.; Griffin, Lewis D.

    2016-05-01

    The current infrastructure for non-intrusive inspection of cargo containers cannot accommodate exploding com-merce volumes and increasingly stringent regulations. There is a pressing need to develop methods to automate parts of the inspection workflow, enabling expert operators to focus on a manageable number of high-risk images. To tackle this challenge, we developed a modular framework for automated X-ray cargo image inspection. Employing state-of-the-art machine learning approaches, including deep learning, we demonstrate high performance for empty container verification and specific threat detection. This work constitutes a significant step towards the partial automation of X-ray cargo image inspection.

  9. Shared Value Potential of Transporting Cargo via Hyperloop

    OpenAIRE

    Max Werner; Klaus Eissing; Sebastian Langton

    2016-01-01

    This research estimates the shared value created by constructing a hypothetical Hyperloop to transport cargo along 300 km in Northern Germany. Following Porter-Kramer (2011), we identified and evaluated eight factors that create shared value: travel speed, operating costs, safety, noise pollution, air pollution, climate effect/carbon footprint, separation effect/ property efficiency, and maintenance. Using official data compiled by several German institutes and organizations, we conducted com...

  10. 46 CFR 153.957 - Persons in charge of transferring liquid cargo in bulk or cleaning cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... safely transfer liquid cargo in bulk or to safely clean cargo tanks; (2) Each transfer of liquid cargo in... or cleaning cargo tanks. 153.957 Section 153.957 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... transferring liquid cargo in bulk or cleaning cargo tanks. (a) The owner and operator of the vessel, and his...

  11. Spatial partitioning of secretory cargo from Golgi resident proteins in live cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Jamie

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To maintain organelle integrity, resident proteins must segregate from itinerant cargo during secretory transport. However, Golgi resident enzymes must have intimate access to secretory cargo in order to carry out glycosylation reactions. The amount of cargo and associated membrane may be significant compared to the amount of Golgi membrane and resident protein, but upon Golgi exit, cargo and resident are efficiently sorted. How this occurs in live cells is not known. Results We observed partitioning of the fluorescent Golgi resident T2-CFP and fluorescent cargo proteins VSVG3-YFP or VSVG3-SP-YFP upon Golgi exit after a synchronous pulse of cargo was released from the ER. Golgi elements remained stable in overall size, shape and relative position as cargo emptied. Cargo segregated from resident rapidly by blebbing into micron-sized domains that contained little or no detectable resident protein and that appeared to be continuous with the parent Golgi element. Post-Golgi transport carriers (TCs exited repeatedly from these domains. Alternatively, entire cargo domains exited Golgi elements, forming large TCs that fused directly with the plasma membrane. However, domain formation did not appear to be an absolute prerequisite for TC exit, since TCs also exited directly from Golgi elements in the absence of large domains. Quantitative cargo-specific photobleaching experiments revealed transfer of cargo between Golgi regions, but no discrete intra-Golgi TCs were observed. Conclusions Our results establish domain formation via rapid lateral partitioning as a general cellular strategy for segregating different transmembrane proteins along the secretory pathway and provide a framework for consideration of molecular mechanisms of secretory transport.

  12. Flow and containment characteristics of a sash-less, variable-height inclined air-curtain fume hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Jia-Kun; Hung, Wei-Lun

    2013-08-01

    To increase containment efficiency and reduce energy consumption, a sash-less, variable-height inclined air-curtain fume hood (sIAC hood) was developed and tested by a laser-assisted flow visualization technique and tracer-gas detection method. This novel design requires neither sash nor baffle. The sIAC hood employed the inclined push-pull air-curtain technique and two deflection plates installed on the side walls of the hood to induce a tetra-vortex flow structure. The results of flow visualization showed that the slot for suction flow, offset from the slot for the up-blowing jet, caused the air curtain to incline towards the rear wall, thus enhancing the robustness of the tetra-vortex flow structure. Such a flow structure could reduce the influence of draught and human walk-by across the hood face. The containment around the central area of the hood was isolated by the inclined push-pull air curtain. The pollutants carried by the reverse flow induced by the flow separation were guided by the deflection plates from the side walls towards the rear, thus contributing to the formation of the tetra-vortex flow structure. The up/down movable ceiling positioned the suction slot close to the device's pollutant emission opening, but left room (less than 50 cm) for unrestricted hand movement. Testing was carried out based on the methodology described in EN14175. The results of a static test showed that small face velocities of 0.25 and 0.16 m s(-1) were enough to obtain nearly null leakage levels for low and tall pollutant sources. The results of a traversing plate test showed that the face velocity, 0.32 m s(-1), would cause negligibly small leakage levels. The sIAC hood could obtain significantly higher containment efficiency than a conventional hood by operating at a face velocity significantly lower than that of conventional hoods.

  13. Cargo-shell and cargo-cargo couplings govern the mechanics of artificially loaded virus-derived cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llauró, Aida; Luque, Daniel; Edwards, Ethan; Trus, Benes L; Avera, John; Reguera, David; Douglas, Trevor; Pablo, Pedro J de; Castón, José R

    2016-04-28

    Nucleic acids are the natural cargo of viruses and key determinants that affect viral shell stability. In some cases the genome structurally reinforces the shell, whereas in others genome packaging causes internal pressure that can induce destabilization. Although it is possible to pack heterologous cargoes inside virus-derived shells, little is known about the physical determinants of these artificial nanocontainers' stability. Atomic force and three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy provided mechanical and structural information about the physical mechanisms of viral cage stabilization beyond the mere presence/absence of cargos. We analyzed the effects of cargo-shell and cargo-cargo interactions on shell stability after encapsulating two types of proteinaceous payloads. While bound cargo to the inner capsid surface mechanically reinforced the capsid in a structural manner, unbound cargo diffusing freely within the shell cavity pressurized the cages up to ∼30 atm due to steric effects. Strong cargo-cargo coupling reduces the resilience of these nanocompartments in ∼20% when bound to the shell. Understanding the stability of artificially loaded nanocages will help to design more robust and durable molecular nanocontainers.

  14. Proteomics characterization of exosome cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schey, Kevin L; Luther, J Matthew; Rose, Kristie L

    2015-10-01

    Characterization of exosomal cargo is of significant interest because this cargo can provide clues to exosome biogenesis, targeting, and cellular effects and may be a source of biomarkers for disease diagnosis, prognosis and response to treatment. With recent improvements in proteomics technologies, both qualitative and quantitative characterization of exosomal proteins is possible. Here we provide a brief review of exosome proteomics studies and provide detailed protocols for global qualitative, global quantitative, and targeted quantitative analysis of exosomal proteins. In addition, we provide an example application of a standard global quantitative analysis followed by validation via a targeted quantitative analysis of urine exosome samples from human patients. Advantages and limitations of each method are discussed as well as future directions for exosome proteomics analysis.

  15. Competitiveness of Slovenian Cargo Shipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojka Počuča

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents Slovenian cargo shipping, its system oforganisation, ownership, age and value stntcture. It shows theimportance of shipping in the Slovenian overseas trade and itsimpact on the state's balance of payments. The analysis of thecompetitiveness of shipping was made from the viewpoint ofoperation costs and in comparison with the competitiveness ofEU shippers. The paper concludes with a proposal of possiblesystemic solutions which improve the competitiveness of Slovenianshipping.

  16. A Comprehensive Assessment of Biologicals Contained Within Commercial Airliner Cabin Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDuc, Myron T.; Osman, Shariff; Dekas, Anne; Stuecker, Tara; Newcombe, Dave; Piceno, Yvette; Fuhrman, J.; Andersen, Gary; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Bearman, Greg

    2006-01-01

    Both culture-based and culture-independent, biomarker-targeted microbial enumeration and identification technologies were employed to estimate total microbial and viral burden and diversity within the cabin air of commercial airliners. Samples from each of twenty flights spanning three commercial carriers were collected via air-impingement. When the total viable microbial population was estimated by assaying relative concentrations of the universal energy carrier ATP, values ranged from below detection limits (BDL) to 4.1 x 106 cells/cubic m of air. The total viable microbial population was extremely low in both of Airline A (approximately 10% samples) and C (approximately 18% samples) compared to the samples collected aboard flights on Airline A and B (approximately 70% samples). When samples were collected as a function of time over the course of flights, a gradual accumulation of microbes was observed from the time of passenger boarding through mid-flight, followed by a sharp decline in microbial abundance and viability from the initiation of descent through landing. It is concluded in this study that only 10% of the viable microbes of the cabin air were cultivable and suggested a need to employ state-of-the art molecular assay that measures both cultivable and viable-but-non-cultivable microbes. Among the cultivable bacteria, colonies of Acinetobacter sp. were by far the most profuse in Phase I, and Gram-positive bacteria of the genera Staphylococcus and Bacillus were the most abundant during Phase II. The isolation of the human pathogens Acinetobacter johnsonii, A. calcoaceticus, Janibacter melonis, Microbacterium trichotecenolyticum, Massilia timonae, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Corynebacterium lipophiloflavum is concerning, as these bacteria can cause meningitis, septicemia, and a handful of sometimes fatal diseases and infections. Molecular microbial community analyses exhibited presence of the alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta- proteobacteria, as well as

  17. FIRST OF ITS KIND:THE PARA GON TERMINALIN AMSTERDAM A Terminal That Can Handle Cargo on Both Sides of a Container Ship%阿姆斯特丹港的PARAGON码头

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘有钟

    2001-01-01

    @@ The Paragon Terminal constructed by CERES Terminal and Stevedores Inc. of the USA will be completed in July 2001. This dock-type terminal (or to be called indented berth, or slip berth)can enable simultaneous handling of containers on both the portside and the starboard side of a huge container ship. Therefore it can suit the container transport development in this new century.

  18. X-Ray Scan Detection for Cargo Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valencia, Juan D.; Miller, Steven D.

    2011-04-18

    ABSTRACT The increase of terrorism and its global impact has made the determination of the contents of cargo containers a necessity. Existing technology allows non-intrusive inspections to determine the contents of a container rapidly and accurately. However, some cargo shipments are exempt from such inspections. Hence, there is a need for a technology that enables rapid and accurate means of detecting whether such containers were non-intrusively inspected. Non-intrusive inspections are most commonly performed utilizing high powered X-ray equipment. The challenge is creating a device that can detect short duration X-ray scans while maintaining a portable, battery powered, low cost, and easy to use platform. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a methodology and prototype device focused on this challenge. The prototype, developed by PNNL, is a battery powered electronic device that continuously measures its X-ray and Gamma exposure, calculates the dose equivalent rate, and makes a determination of whether the device has been exposed to the amount of radiation experienced during an X-ray inspection. Once an inspection is detected, the device will record a timestamp of the event and relay the information to authorized personnel via a visual alert, USB connection, and/or wireless communication. The results of this research demonstrate that PNNL’s prototype device can be effective at determining whether a container was scanned by X-ray equipment typically used for cargo container inspections. This paper focuses on laboratory measurements and test results acquired with the PNNL prototype device using several X-ray radiation levels. Keywords: Radiation, Scan, X-ray, Gamma, Detection, Cargo, Container, Wireless, RF

  19. NWA Cargo Is Granted Additional Cargo Frequencies to China Four all-cargo frequencies per week granted by U.S. Department of Transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ NWA Cargo, the cargo division of Northwest Airlines, will expand its all-cargo freighter service between the United States and China after being awarded four additional frequencies per week by the U.S. Department of Transportation.

  20. Elastic airtight container for the compaction of air-sensitive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoulders, W Taylor; Locke, Richard; Gaume, Romain M

    2016-06-01

    We report on the design and fabrication of a simple and versatile elastic canister for the compaction and hot-pressing of air-sensitive materials. This device consists of a heated double-ended floating die assembly, enclosed in a compressible stainless steel bellows that allows the action of an external hydraulic press in a uniaxial motion. The enclosure is fitted with vacuum, gas, and electrical feedthroughs to allow for atmosphere control, heating, and in situ process monitoring. The overall chamber is compact enough to be portable and transferrable into and out of a standard laboratory glovebox, thus eliminating the problem of exposing samples to ambient atmosphere during loading and unloading. Our design has been tested up to 600 °C and 7500 kg-force applied load, conditions within which transparent ceramics of anhydrous halides can be produced.

  1. The Development of Nanofibrous Media Filter Containing Nanoparticles for Removing Particles from Air Stream

    OpenAIRE

    S. Farhang Dehghan; B Maddah; F Golbabaei

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The goal of the present study was to develop nanofibrous media filters containing MgO nanoparticles for future application in removing particles from gas stream. Materials and Methods: Electrospun nanofibers were fabricated using experimental design prepared by Response Surface Methodology. Optimization of electrospinning parameters was conducted for achieving the desired filter properties including fiber diameter, porosity, and bead number. ...

  2. Communication: Cargo towing by artificial swimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Debajyoti; Ghosh, Pulak K.; Li, Yunyun; Marchesoni, Fabio; Li, Baowen

    2016-11-01

    An active swimmer can tow a passive cargo by binding it to form a self-propelling dimer. The orientation of the cargo relative to the axis of the active dimer's head is determined by the hydrodynamic interactions associated with the propulsion mechanism of the latter. We show how the tower-cargo angular configuration greatly influences the dimer's diffusivity and, therefore, the efficiency of the active swimmer as a micro-towing motor.

  3. Development of a Cargo Screening Process Simulator: A First Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Siebers, Peer-Olaf; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    The efficiency of current cargo screening processes at sea and air ports is largely unknown as few benchmarks exists against which they could be measured. Some manufacturers provide benchmarks for individual sensors but we found no benchmarks that take a holistic view of the overall screening procedures and no benchmarks that take operator variability into account. Just adding up resources and manpower used is not an effective way for assessing systems where human decision-making and operator compliance to rules play a vital role. Our aim is to develop a decision support tool (cargo-screening system simulator) that will map the right technology and manpower to the right commodity-threat combination in order to maximise detection rates. In this paper we present our ideas for developing such a system and highlight the research challenges we have identified. Then we introduce our first case study and report on the progress we have made so far.

  4. 46 CFR 151.45-4 - Cargo-handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cargo hose connections. (4) Cargo transfer operations for any cargo requiring a PV or safety relief...) All connections for cargo transfer have been made to the vessel's fixed pipeline system. (7) In... control the operations as follows: (1) Supervise the operation of the cargo system valves. (2)...

  5. 46 CFR 154.1834 - Cargo transfer piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo transfer piping. 154.1834 Section 154.1834... piping. The person in charge of cargo transfer shall ensure that cargo is transferred to or from a cargo tank only through the cargo piping system....

  6. 46 CFR 153.910 - Cargo piping plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo piping plan. 153.910 Section 153.910 Shipping... Information § 153.910 Cargo piping plan. No person may operate a tankship unless the tankship has a cargo piping plan that: (a) Shows all cargo piping on the tankship; (b) Shows all cargo valving, pumps,...

  7. Fully self-contained vision-aided navigation and landing of a micro air vehicle independent from external sensor inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockers, Roland; Susca, Sara; Zhu, David; Matthies, Larry

    2012-06-01

    Direct-lift micro air vehicles have important applications in reconnaissance. In order to conduct persistent surveillance in urban environments, it is essential that these systems can perform autonomous landing maneuvers on elevated surfaces that provide high vantage points without the help of any external sensor and with a fully contained on-board software solution. In this paper, we present a micro air vehicle that uses vision feedback from a single down looking camera to navigate autonomously and detect an elevated landing platform as a surrogate for a roof top. Our method requires no special preparation (labels or markers) of the landing location. Rather, leveraging the planar character of urban structure, the landing platform detection system uses a planar homography decomposition to detect landing targets and produce approach waypoints for autonomous landing. The vehicle control algorithm uses a Kalman filter based approach for pose estimation to fuse visual SLAM (PTAM) position estimates with IMU data to correct for high latency SLAM inputs and to increase the position estimate update rate in order to improve control stability. Scale recovery is achieved using inputs from a sonar altimeter. In experimental runs, we demonstrate a real-time implementation running on-board a micro aerial vehicle that is fully self-contained and independent from any external sensor information. With this method, the vehicle is able to search autonomously for a landing location and perform precision landing maneuvers on the detected targets.

  8. Suppression of methane/air explosion by ultrafine water mist containing sodium chloride additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xingyan; Ren, Jingjie; Zhou, Yihui; Wang, Qiuju; Gao, Xuliang; Bi, Mingshu

    2015-03-21

    The suppression effect of ultrafine mists on methane/air explosions with methane concentrations of 6.5%, 8%, 9.5%, 11%, and 13.5% were experimentally studied in a closed visual vessel. Ultrafine water/NaCl solution mist as well as pure water mist was adopted and the droplet sizes of mists were measured by phase doppler particle analyzer (PDPA). A high speed camera was used to record the flame evolution processes. In contrast to pure water mist, the flame propagation speed, the maximum explosion overpressure (ΔP(max)), and the maximum pressure rising rate ((dP/dt)max) decreased significantly, with the "tulip" flame disappearing and the flame getting brighter. The results show that the suppressing effect on methane explosion by ultrafine water/NaCl solution mist is influenced by the mist amount and methane concentration. With the increase of the mist amount, the pressure, and the flame speed both descended significantly. And when the mist amount reached 74.08 g/m(3) and 37.04 g/m(3), the flames of 6.5% and 13.5% methane explosions can be absolutely suppressed, respectively. All of results indicate that addition of NaCl can improve the suppression effect of ultrafine pure water mist on the methane explosions, and the suppression effect is considered due to the combination effect of physical and chemical inhibitions.

  9. Systems Analysis and Structural Design of an Unpressurized Cargo Delivery Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Cruz, Jonathan N.; Antol, Jeffrey; Sasamoto, Washito A.

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station will require a continuous supply of replacement parts for ongoing maintenance and repair after the planned retirement of the Space Shuttle in 2010. These parts are existing line-replaceable items collectively called Orbital Replacement Units, and include heavy and oversized items such as Control Moment Gyroscopes and stowed radiator arrays originally intended for delivery aboard the Space Shuttle. Current resupply spacecraft have limited to no capability to deliver these external logistics. In support of NASA's Exploration Systems Architecture Study, a team at Langley Research Center designed an Unpressurized Cargo Delivery Vehicle to deliver bulk cargo to the Space Station. The Unpressurized Cargo Delivery Vehicle was required to deliver at least 13,200 lbs of cargo mounted on at least 18 Flight Releasable Attachment Mechanisms. The Crew Launch Vehicle design recommended in the Exploration Systems Architecture Study would be used to launch one annual resupply flight to the International Space Station. The baseline vehicle design developed here has a cargo capacity of 16,000 lbs mounted on up to 20 Flight Releasable Attachment Mechanisms. Major vehicle components are a 5.5m-diameter cargo module containing two detachable cargo pallets with the payload, a Service Module to provide propulsion and power, and an aerodynamic nose cone. To reduce cost and risk, the Service Module is identical to the one used for the Crew Exploration Vehicle design.

  10. Response of acid mobilization of iron-containing mineral dust to improvement of air quality projected in the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ito

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Acidification of dust aerosols may increase aerosol iron (Fe solubility, which is linked to mineral properties. Combustion aerosols can also elevate aerosol iron solubility when aerosol loading is low. Here, we use an atmospheric chemical transport model to investigate the deposition of filterable iron and its response to changes in anthropogenic emissions of both combustion aerosols and precursor gases. By introducing three classes of iron-containing minerals into the detailed aerosol chemistry model, we provide a theoretical examination of the effects of different dissolution behaviors on the acid mobilization of iron. Comparisons of modeled Fe dissolution curves with the measured dissolution rates for African (Tibesti and Asian (Beijing dust samples show overall good agreement under acidic conditions. The improved treatment of Fe in mineral dust and its dissolution scheme results in reasonable predictive capability for iron solubility over the oceans in the Northern Hemisphere. Our model results suggest that the improvement of air quality projected in the future will lead to a decrease of the filterable iron deposition from iron-containing mineral dust to the northeastern Pacific due to less acidification in Asian dust, which is mainly associated with the reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx emissions. These results could have important implications for iron fertilization of phytoplankton growth, and highlight the necessity of improving the process-based quantitative understanding of the response of the chemical modification in iron-containing minerals to environmental changes.

  11. Redox-regulated cargo binding and release by the peroxisomal targeting signal receptor, Pex5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Changle; Hagstrom, Danielle; Polley, Soumi Guha; Subramani, Suresh

    2013-09-20

    In its role as a mobile receptor for peroxisomal matrix cargo containing a peroxisomal targeting signal called PTS1, the protein Pex5 shuttles between the cytosol and the peroxisome lumen. Pex5 binds PTS1 proteins in the cytosol via its C-terminal tetratricopeptide domains and delivers them to the peroxisome lumen, where the receptor·cargo complex dissociates. The cargo-free receptor is exported to the cytosol for another round of import. How cargo release and receptor recycling are regulated is poorly understood. We found that Pex5 functions as a dimer/oligomer and that its protein interactions with itself (homo-oligomeric) and with Pex8 (hetero-oligomeric) control the binding and release of cargo proteins. These interactions are controlled by a redox-sensitive amino acid, cysteine 10 of Pex5, which is essential for the formation of disulfide bond-linked Pex5 forms, for high affinity cargo binding, and for receptor recycling. Disulfide bond-linked Pex5 showed the highest affinity for PTS1 cargo. Upon reduction of the disulfide bond by dithiothreitol, Pex5 transitioned to a noncovalent dimer, concomitant with the partial release of PTS1 cargo. Additionally, dissipation of the redox balance between the cytosol and the peroxisome lumen caused an import defect. A hetero-oligomeric interaction between the N-terminal domain (amino acids 1-110) of Pex5 and a conserved motif at the C terminus of Pex8 further facilitates cargo release, but only under reducing conditions. This interaction is also important for the release of PTS1 proteins. We suggest a redox-regulated model for Pex5 function during the peroxisomal matrix protein import cycle.

  12. Heat transfer analyses using computational fluid dynamics in the air blast freezing of guava pulp in large containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. M. Okita

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Heat transfer during the freezing of guava pulp conditioned in large containers such as in stacked boxes (34 L and buckets (20 L and unstacked drums (200 L is discussed. The air velocities across the cross-section of the tunnel were measured, and the values in the outlet of the evaporator were used as the initial conditions in computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations. The model tested was turbulent standard k-ε. The CFD-generated convective heat transfer coefficients were mapped on the surfaces for each configuration and used in procedures for the calculation of freezing-time estimates. These estimates were compared with the experimental results for validation. The results showed that CFD determined representative coefficients and produced good correlations between the predicted and experimental values when applied to the freezing-time estimates for the box and drum configurations. The errors depended on the configuration and the adopted mesh (3-D grid construction.

  13. Demonstration of oxygen-enriched air staging at Owens-Brockway glass containers. Quarterly technical progress report for the period August 1, 1996--October 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rue, D.; Abbasi, H.

    1997-03-01

    The objective of the program is to demonstrate the use of a previously developed combustion modification technology to reduce NO, emissions from sideport regenerative container glass melters. This technology, known as oxygen-enriched air staging (OEAS), has been demonstrated, and is now being commercialized for endport container glass furnaces. This report focuses on full furnace parametric and long-term testing.

  14. Optimizing Time Windows For Managing Export Container Arrivals At Chinese Container Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Gang; Yang, Zhongzhen

    2010-01-01

    waiting time, fuel consumption associated with truck idling, storage time of the containerized cargos and yard fee. Secondly, to minimize the total cost, a heuristic is developed based on a genetic algorithm to find a near optimal time window arrangement. The optimized solution involves the position......Management of truck transport in a port area is important for Chinese container ports as heavy traffic congestion not only limits the terminal capacity but also generates serious air pollution. This paper explores an effective way to manage the truck traffic of export containers based on a time...... and the length of each time window. Finally, the model and the heuristic are tested using real data from a Chinese container terminal, and the result indicates that optimization of the time window can effectively flatten the peak traffic of export container trucks - one of the primary causes of road traffic...

  15. Nonradioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC) Application for the Central Waste Complex (CSC) for Storage of Vented Waste Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KAMBERG, L.D.

    2000-04-01

    This Notice of Construction (NOC) application is submitted for the storage and management of waste containers at the Central Waste Complex (CWC) stationary source. The CWC stationary source consists of multiple sources of diffuse and fugitive emissions, as described herein. This NOC is submitted in accordance with the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-400-110 (criteria pollutants) and 173-460-040 (toxic air pollutants), and pursuant to guidance provided by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). Transuranic (TRU) mixed waste containers at CWC are vented to preclude the build up of hydrogen produced as a result of radionuclide decay, not as safety pressure releases. The following activities are conducted within the CWC stationary source: Storage and inspection; Transfer and staging; Packaging; Treatment; and Sampling. This NOC application is intended to cover all existing storage structures within the current CWC treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) boundary, as well as any storage structures, including waste storage pads and staging areas, that might be constructed in the future within the existing CWC boundary.

  16. Characterizing the composition of molecular motors on moving axonal cargo using "cargo mapping" analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Sylvia; Campbell, George E; Szpankowski, Lukasz; Goldstein, Lawrence S B; Encalada, Sandra E

    2014-10-30

    Understanding the mechanisms by which molecular motors coordinate their activities to transport vesicular cargoes within neurons requires the quantitative analysis of motor/cargo associations at the single vesicle level. The goal of this protocol is to use quantitative fluorescence microscopy to correlate ("map") the position and directionality of movement of live cargo to the composition and relative amounts of motors associated with the same cargo. "Cargo mapping" consists of live imaging of fluorescently labeled cargoes moving in axons cultured on microfluidic devices, followed by chemical fixation during recording of live movement, and subsequent immunofluorescence (IF) staining of the exact same axonal regions with antibodies against motors. Colocalization between cargoes and their associated motors is assessed by assigning sub-pixel position coordinates to motor and cargo channels, by fitting Gaussian functions to the diffraction-limited point spread functions representing individual fluorescent point sources. Fixed cargo and motor images are subsequently superimposed to plots of cargo movement, to "map" them to their tracked trajectories. The strength of this protocol is the combination of live and IF data to record both the transport of vesicular cargoes in live cells and to determine the motors associated to these exact same vesicles. This technique overcomes previous challenges that use biochemical methods to determine the average motor composition of purified heterogeneous bulk vesicle populations, as these methods do not reveal compositions on single moving cargoes. Furthermore, this protocol can be adapted for the analysis of other transport and/or trafficking pathways in other cell types to correlate the movement of individual intracellular structures with their protein composition. Limitations of this protocol are the relatively low throughput due to low transfection efficiencies of cultured primary neurons and a limited field of view available for

  17. Water spray interaction with air-steam mixtures under containment spray conditions: experimental study in the TOSQAN facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcheron, E.; Lemaitre, P.; Malet, J.; Nuboer, A.; Brun, P.; Bouilloux, L.; Vendel, J. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Direction de la Surete des Usines, des laboratoires, des transports et des dechets, Saclay, BP 68 - 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: During the course of an hypothetical severe accident in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), hydrogen can be produced by the reactor core oxidation and distributed into the reactor containment according to convection flows and steam wall condensation. In order to assess the risk of detonation generated by a high local hydrogen concentration, hydrogen distribution in the containment has to be known. The TOSQAN experimental program has been created to simulate typical accidental thermal hydraulic flow conditions in the reactor containment. The present work is devoted to study the interaction of a water spray injection used as a mitigation mean in order to reduce containment pressure and to produce a mixing of air, steam and hydrogen induced by spray entrainment and condensation on droplet. In order to have a better understanding of physical phenomena, we need to make a detailed characterization of the spray and the gas. The TOSQAN facility that is highly instrumented with non-intrusive diagnostics consists in a closed cylindrical vessel (7 m{sup 3} volume, 4 m high, 1.5 m i.d.) into which steam is injected. Water droplets size is measured in the vessel by the Interferometric Laser Imaging for Droplet Sizing technique. Droplet velocity is obtained by Particle Image Velocimetry and Laser Doppler Velocimetry, and droplet temperature is measured by global rainbow refractometry. Gas concentration measurements are performed by Spontaneous Raman Scattering. The walls of the vessel are thermostatically controlled by heated oil circulation. Inner spray system that is located on the top of the enclosure on the vertical axis, is composed of a single nozzle producing a full cone water spray. Spray test scenario consists of water spray injection in TOSQAN that is first pressurized with a steam injection (steam injection is stopped before spray injection). Water spray falling into the sump is removed to avoid accumulation and evaporation

  18. 49 CFR 1544.202 - Persons and property onboard an all-cargo aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Persons and property onboard an all-cargo aircraft. 1544.202 Section 1544.202 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.202 Persons and property onboard an...

  19. 49 CFR 1549.101 - Acceptance, screening, and transfer of cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... approved by TSA, an indirect air carrier under 49 CFR part 1548, an aircraft operator under part 1544, or a... onboard an aircraft of any unauthorized explosives, incendiaries, and other destructive substances or items in cargo onboard an aircraft, as provided in the facility's security program. (b) Screening...

  20. 76 FR 5586 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Mobile Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... Equipment). CARB's Mobile Cargo Handling Equipment requirements are designed to use best available control... Alexander at (202) 343-9540, to learn if a hearing will be held or may check the following webpage for an... restricted by statute. EPA's Office of Transportation and Air Quality also maintains a webpage that...

  1. 46 CFR 153.977 - Supervision of cargo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supervision of cargo transfer. 153.977 Section 153.977 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS... Procedures § 153.977 Supervision of cargo transfer. The person in charge of cargo transfer shall:...

  2. 46 CFR 154.552 - Cargo hose: Compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose: Compatibility. 154.552 Section 154.552 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Hose § 154.552 Cargo hose: Compatibility. Liquid and vapor cargo hoses must: (a) Not chemically...

  3. 46 CFR 153.935a - Storage of cargo samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storage of cargo samples. 153.935a Section 153.935a Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS... § 153.935a Storage of cargo samples. (a) The master shall make sure that any cargo samples are stored...

  4. 19 CFR 4.38 - Release of cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Release of cargo. 4.38 Section 4.38 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Landing and Delivery of Cargo § 4.38 Release of cargo. (a) No... report which lists those shipments which have been authorized for release. This alternative cargo...

  5. 49 CFR 1548.21 - Screening of cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Screening of cargo. 1548.21 Section 1548.21... cargo. An IAC may only screen cargo for transport on a passenger aircraft under §§ 1544.205 and 1546.205 if the IAC is a certified cargo screening facility as provided in part 1549....

  6. 46 CFR 151.45-6 - Maximum amount of cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum amount of cargo. 151.45-6 Section 151.45-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-6 Maximum amount of cargo. (a)...

  7. 19 CFR 4.33 - Diversion of cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diversion of cargo. 4.33 Section 4.33 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Landing and Delivery of Cargo § 4.33 Diversion of cargo. (a) Unlading at other than original port of destination. A vessel may unlade cargo or baggage at an...

  8. 46 CFR 98.30-11 - Cargo pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pumps. 98.30-11 Section 98.30-11 Shipping COAST..., ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Portable Tanks § 98.30-11 Cargo pumps. No person may operate a cargo pump to transfer a product to or from a portable tank unless the...

  9. 46 CFR 154.500 - Cargo and process piping standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo and process piping standards. 154.500 Section 154... Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.500 Cargo and process piping standards. The cargo liquid and vapor piping and process piping systems must meet the requirements in §§ 154.503 through...

  10. 46 CFR 153.251 - Independent cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Independent cargo tanks. 153.251 Section 153.251... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Tanks § 153.251 Independent cargo tanks. All independent cargo tank must meet § 38.05-10 (a)(1), (b), (d),...

  11. 46 CFR 151.13-5 - Cargo segregation-tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo segregation-tanks. 151.13-5 Section 151.13-5... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Cargo Segregation § 151.13-5 Cargo segregation—tanks. (a... symbols used in lines 1 and 2, in order, under the tank segregation column of Table 151.05....

  12. 46 CFR 105.20-3 - Cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tanks. 105.20-3 Section 105.20-3 Shipping COAST... VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Specific Requirements-Cargo Tanks § 105.20-3 Cargo tanks. (a) Construction and Materials. (1) The cargo tanks must be constructed of iron, steel, copper, nickel...

  13. Cargo transport by cytoplasmic Dynein can center embryonic centrosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A Longoria

    Full Text Available To complete meiosis II in animal cells, the male DNA material needs to meet the female DNA material contained in the female pronucleus at the egg center, but it is not known how the male pronucleus, deposited by the sperm at the periphery of the cell, finds the cell center in large eggs. Pronucleus centering is an active process that appears to involve microtubules and molecular motors. For small and medium-sized cells, the force required to move the centrosome can arise from either microtubule pushing on the cortex, or cortically-attached dynein pulling on microtubules. However, in large cells, such as the fertilized Xenopus laevis embryo, where microtubules are too long to support pushing forces or they do not reach all boundaries before centrosome centering begins, a different force generating mechanism must exist. Here, we present a centrosome positioning model in which the cytosolic drag experienced by cargoes hauled by cytoplasmic dynein on the sperm aster microtubules can move the centrosome towards the cell's center. We find that small, fast cargoes (diameter ∼100 nm, cargo velocity ∼2 µm/s are sufficient to move the centrosome in the geometry of the Xenopus laevis embryo within the experimentally observed length and time scales.

  14. Design of heavy lift cargo aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the bird of the skies of the future. The heavy lift cargo aircraft which is currently being developed by me has twice the payload capacity of an Antonov...

  15. Characterizing X-ray Attenuation of Containerized Cargo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birrer, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Divin, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glenn, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martz, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wang, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-02

    X-ray inspection systems can be used to detect radiological and nuclear threats in imported cargo. In order to better understand performance of these systems, the attenuation characteristics of imported cargo need to be determined. This project focused on developing image processing algorithms for segmenting cargo and using x-ray attenuation to quantify equivalent steel thickness to determine cargo density. These algorithms were applied to over 450 cargo radiographs. The results are summarized in this report.

  16. Containment Performance Evaluation of a Sodium Fire Event Due to Air Ingress into the Cover Gas Region of the Reactor Vessel in the PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sang June; Chang, Won-Pyo; Kang, Seok Hun; Choi, Chi-Woong; Yoo, Jin; Lee, Kwi Lim; Jeong, Jae-Ho; Lee, Seung Won; Jeong, Taekyeong; Ha, Kwi-Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Comparing with the light water reactor, sodium as a reactor coolant violently reacts with oxygen in the containment atmosphere. Due to this chemical reaction, heat generated from the combustion heat increases the temperature and pressure in the containment atmosphere. The structural integrity of the containment building which is a final radiological defense barrier is threaten. A sodium fire event in the containment due to air ingress into the cover gas region in the reactor vessel is classified as one of the design basis events in the PGSFR. This event comes from a leak or crack on the reactor upper closure header surface. It accompanys an event of the radiological fission products release to the inside the containment. In this paper, evaluation for the sodium fire and radiological influence due to air ingress into the cover gas region of the reactor vessel is described. To evaluate this event, the CONTAIN-LMR, MACCS-II and OR-IGEN-II codes are used. For the sodium pool fire event in the containment, the performance evaluation and radiological influence are carried out. In the thermal hydraulic aspects, the 1 cell containment yields the most conservative result. In this event, the maximum temperature and pressure in the containment are calculated 0.185 MPa, 280.0 .deg. C, respectively. The radiological dose at the EAB and LPZ are below the acceptance criteria specified in the 10CFR100.

  17. Naphthalene contamination of sterilized milk drinks contained in low-density polyethylene bottles. Part 2. Effect of naphthalene vapour in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, O W; Wong, S K; Leung, K S

    1995-04-01

    A survey on naphthalene vapour in air was conducted, revealing that the ambient atmosphere contained concentrations of naphthalene in the range of 0.005-0.100 mg m-3. The level of naphthalene vapour in air increased to 0.35 and 4.00 mg m-3 in places exposed to lacquer paint and naphthalene-based moth-repellent, respectively. The effect of naphthalene vapour in air on milk drinks contained in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) bottles was assessed. A mathematical model was suggested to describe the migration of naphthalene from the atmosphere into milk. The model was proved to be valid for milk drinks exposed to naphthalene-based moth-repellent during storage. Moreover, the extent of migration was found to increase with the fat content of foods, which might be ascribed to an increase in diffusion, in addition to the kinetic factor, that affects naphthalene migration.

  18. In situ IR-RAS investigation of corrosion of tin in air containing H2O, NO2 and SO2 at room temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sasaki Takeshi; Kanagawa Ryoji; Ohtsuka Toshiaki

    2003-01-01

    In order to obtain a fundamental understanding of the corrosion behavior of tin in atmosphere, in situ IR-RAS (infrared re-flection absorption spectroscopy) measurements were performed on tin in humid air containing SO2 and NO2 at room temperature.Time-resolved in situ IR spectra in air of 90% RH (relative humidity) containing 1×10-5-2.2×10-5 SO2 suggested that the tin oxidelayers worked as a protective film and no significant corrosion occurred. The conosion products in air of 80%-90% RH containing1×10-5-2.2×10-5 NO2 were SnO2, SnO, nitrate and hyponitrite. The synergistic effect of SO2 and NO2 on corrosion of tin was not ob-served in air of 90% RH containing 0.84×10-6 SO2 and 1.8×10-6 NO2.

  19. Photochemical ozone and nitric oxide formation in air-nitrogen dioxide mixtures containing sulfur dioxide or chlorine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, J.S.; Springer, G.S.; Stedman, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of sulfur dioxide and chlorine on ozone and nitric oxide concentrations in nitrogen dioxide-air mixtures were studied. The presence of 0-10 ppM SO/sub 2/ produced no change in the air mixture. Addition of 1-15 ppm chlorine increased the ozone concentration in the air mixture. A reaction model describing the interactions of chlorine and NO/sub 2/ is presented. (1 diagram, 6 graphs, 30 references, 3 tables)

  20. Survey of Modified Clinoptilolite Zeolite and Cooper Oxide Nanoparticles-Containing Modified Clinoptilolite Efficiency for Polluted Air BTX Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhollah Rostami

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Background and Objectives:Benzene, toluene and Xylenes (BTX are organic pollutants, which are mainly associated with oil and its derivatives. BTX is environmental contaminants and considered harmful to human health. Application of surface absorbents such as zeolite is one of several methods for the removal of these compounds. In this study, BTX compounds' removal efficiencies were investigated and compared by using clinoptilolite type zeolite and zeolite with copper oxide nanoparticles.Materials and Methods: In this study, the modified zeolite by hydrochloric acid in the grain size 1-2 mm and modified zeolite with nano particle of copper oxide were used.  Artificially- Contaminated Air flow was used continuously .To determine BTX concentrations, samplings were done by charcoal tube in current input and output. The concentrations of contaminants were determined by gas chromatography with FID detector.Results: Removal efficiency of benzene, toluene, p-xylene, m-xylene and o-xylene by clinoptilolite were 78.3%, 62.1%, 32.2% 32.15% and 18.8%, respectively. For the clinoptilolite containing copper oxide nano particles efficiency were 25.42%, 35.65%, 36.33%, 33.24% and 29.39%, respectively. Average removal efficiency of BTX compounds observed when the zeolite without nanoparticles used (43.31% was more than zeolite with nanoparticles (32%. The results showed that the concentration of CO2 in the outlet air of the zeolite-containing nanoparticle (550 ppm was more than the zeolite without nanoparticle (525 ppm.Conclusion: Results showed that adding nanoparticles to the zeolite, although the removal efficiency of benzene and toluene can be reduced. The results showed that adding nanoparticles to the zeolite, although can be reduced removal efficiency of benzene and toluene, which may be due to occupying or blocking of the pollution absorption sites by the nanoparticles on the

  1. Research on probability distribution of port cargo throughput

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Liang; TAN De-rong

    2008-01-01

    In order to more accurately examine developing trends in gross cargo throughput, we have modeled the probability distribution of cargo throughput. Gross cargo throughput is determined by the time spent by cargo ships in the port and the operating efficiency of handling equipment. Gross cargo throughput is the sum of all compound variables determining each aspect of cargo throughput for every cargo ship arriving at the port. Probability distribution was determined using the Wald equation. The results show that the variability of gross cargo throughput primarily depends on the different times required by different cargo ships arriving at the port. This model overcomes the shortcoming of previous models: inability to accurately determine the probability of a specific value of future gross cargo throughput. Our proposed model of cargo throughput depends on the relationship between time required by a cargo ship arriving at the port and the operational capacity of handling equipment at the port. At the same time, key factors affecting gross cargo throughput are analyzed. In order to test the efficiency of the model, the cargo volume of a port in Shandong Province was used as an example. In the case study the actual results matched our theoretical analysis.

  2. Uncertainty Quantification for Cargo Hold Fires

    CERN Document Server

    DeGennaro, Anthony M; Martinelli, Luigi; Rowley, Clarence W

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold -- first, to introduce the application of high-order discontinuous Galerkin methods to buoyancy-driven cargo hold fire simulations, second, to explore statistical variation in the fluid dynamics of a cargo hold fire given parameterized uncertainty in the fire source location and temperature. Cargo hold fires represent a class of problems that require highly-accurate computational methods to simulate faithfully. Hence, we use an in-house discontinuous Galerkin code to treat these flows. Cargo hold fires also exhibit a large amount of uncertainty with respect to the boundary conditions. Thus, the second aim of this paper is to quantify the resulting uncertainty in the flow, using tools from the uncertainty quantification community to ensure that our efforts require a minimal number of simulations. We expect that the results of this study will provide statistical insight into the effects of fire location and temperature on cargo fires, and also assist in the optimization of f...

  3. DNA hairpins promote temperature controlled cargo encapsulation in a truncated octahedral nanocage structure family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franch, Oskar; Iacovelli, Federico; Falconi, Mattia; Juul, Sissel; Ottaviani, Alessio; Benvenuti, Claudia; Biocca, Silvia; Ho, Yi-Ping; Knudsen, Birgitta R.; Desideri, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    In the present study we investigate the mechanism behind temperature controlled cargo uptake using a truncated octahedral DNA cage scaffold functionalized with one, two, three or four hairpin forming DNA strands inserted in one corner of the structure. This investigation was inspired by our previous demonstration of temperature controlled reversible encapsulation of the cargo enzyme, horseradish peroxidase, in the cage with four hairpin forming strands. However, in this previous study the mechanism of cargo uptake was not directly addressed (Juul, et al., Temperature-Controlled Encapsulation and Release of an Active Enzyme in the Cavity of a Self-Assembled DNA Nanocage, ACS Nano, 2013, 7, 9724-9734). In the present study we use a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and in vitro analyses to unravel the mechanism of cargo uptake in hairpin containing DNA cages. We find that two hairpin forming strands are necessary and sufficient to facilitate efficient cargo uptake, which argues against a full opening-closing of one corner of the structure being responsible for encapsulation. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to evaluate the atomistic motions responsible for encapsulation and showed that the two hairpin forming strands facilitated extension of at least one of the face surfaces of the cage scaffold, allowing entrance of the cargo protein into the cavity of the structure. Hence, the presented data demonstrate that cargo uptake does not involve a full opening of the structure. Rather, the uptake mechanism represents a feature of increased flexibility integrated in this nanocage structure upon the addition of at least two hairpin-forming strands.In the present study we investigate the mechanism behind temperature controlled cargo uptake using a truncated octahedral DNA cage scaffold functionalized with one, two, three or four hairpin forming DNA strands inserted in one corner of the structure. This investigation was inspired by our previous

  4. Cargo binding to Atg19 unmasks additional Atg8 binding sites to mediate membrane-cargo apposition during selective autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawa-Makarska, Justyna; Abert, Christine; Romanov, Julia; Zens, Bettina; Ibiricu, Iosune; Martens, Sascha

    2014-05-01

    Autophagy protects cells from harmful substances such as protein aggregates, damaged mitochondria and intracellular pathogens, and has been implicated in a variety of diseases. Selectivity of autophagic processes is mediated by cargo receptors that link cargo to Atg8 family proteins on the developing autophagosomal membrane. To avoid collateral degradation during constitutive autophagic pathways, the autophagic machinery must not only select cargo but also exclude non-cargo material. Here we show that cargo directly activates the cargo receptor Atg19 by exposing multiple Atg8 binding sites. Furthermore, Atg19 mediates tight apposition of the cargo and Atg8-coated membranes in a fully reconstituted system. These properties are essential for the function of Atg19 during selective autophagy in vivo. Our results suggest that cargo receptors contribute to tight membrane bending of the isolation membrane around the cargo.

  5. Characterizing Complexity of Containerized Cargo X-ray Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guangxing [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martz, Harry [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glenn, Steven [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Divin, Charles [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Birrer, Nat [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-19

    X-ray imaging can be used to inspect cargos imported into the United States. In order to better understand the performance of X-ray inspection systems, the X-ray characteristics (density, complexity) of cargo need to be quantified. In this project, an image complexity measure called integrated power spectral density (IPSD) was studied using both DNDO engineered cargos and stream-of-commerce (SOC) cargos. A joint distribution of cargo density and complexity was obtained. A support vector machine was used to classify the SOC cargos into four categories to estimate the relative fractions.

  6. Motility states in bidirectional cargo transport

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Sarah; Santen, Ludger

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular cargos which are transported by molecular motors move stochastically along cytoskeleton filaments. In particular for bidirectionally transported cargos it is an open question whether the characteristics of their motion can result from pure stochastic fluctuations or whether some coordination of the motors is needed. The results of a mean-field model of cargo-motors dynamics, which was proposed by M\\"uller et al.[1] suggest the existence of high motility states which would result from a stochastic tug-of-war. Here we analyze a non-mean field extension of their model, that takes explicitly the position of each motor into account. We find that high motility states then disappear. We consider also a mutual motor-motor activation, as an explicit mechanism of motor coordination. We show that the results of the mean-field model are recovered only in case of a strong motor-motor activation in the limit of a high number of motors.

  7. Fluctuation effects in bidirectional cargo transport

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Sarah; Santen, Ludger

    2014-01-01

    We discuss a theoretical model for bidirectional cargo transport in biological cells, which is driven by teams of molecular motors and subject to thermal fluctuations. The model describes explicitly the directed motion of the molecular motors on the filament. The motor-cargo coupling is implemented via linear springs. By means of extensive Monte Carlo simulations we show that the model describes the experimentally observed regimes of anomalous diffusion, i.e. subdiffusive behavior at short times followed by superdiffusion at intermediate times. The model results indicate that subdiffuse regime is induced by thermal fluctuations while the superdiffusive motion is generated by correlations of the motors' activity. We also tested the efficiency of bidirectional cargo transport in crowded areas by measuring its ability to pass barriers with increased viscosity. Our results show a remarkable gain of efficiency for high viscosities.

  8. Development of nanoparticles incorporating a novel liposomal membrane destabilization peptide for efficient release of cargos into cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoko Itakura

    Full Text Available In anti-cancer therapy mediated by a nanoparticle-based drug delivery system (DDS, overall efficacy depends on the release efficiency of cargos from the nanoparticles in the cancer cells as well as the specificity of delivery to tumor tissue. However, conventional liposome-based DDS have no mechanism for specifically releasing the encapsulated cargos inside the cancer cells. To overcome this barrier, we developed nanoparticles containing a novel liposomal membrane destabilization peptide (LMDP that can destabilize membranes by cleavage with intramembranous proteases on/in cancer cells. Calcein encapsulated in liposomes modified with LMDP (LMDP-lipo was effectively released in the presence of a membrane fraction containing an LMDP-cleavable protease. The release was inhibited by a protease inhibitor, suggesting that LMDP-lipo could effectively release its cargo into cells in response to a cancer-specific protease. Moreover, when LMDP-lipo contained fusogenic lipids, the release of cargo was accelerated, suggesting that the fusion of LMDP-lipo with cellular membranes was the initial step in the intracellular delivery. Time-lapse microscopic observations showed that the release of cargo from LMDP-lipo occurred immediately after association of LMDP-lipo with target cells. Consequently, LMDP-lipo could be a useful nanoparticle capable of effective release of cargos specifically into targeted cancer cells.

  9. Zinc-air cell with KOH-treated agar layer between electrode and electrolyte containing hydroponics gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otham, R. [International Islamic University, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Yahaya, A. H. [University of Malaya, Dept. of Chemistry, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Arof, A. K. [University of Malaya, Dept. of Physics, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2002-07-01

    Zinc-air electrochemical power sources possess the highest density compared to other zinc anode batteries, due their free and unlimited supply from the ambient air. In this experiment zinc-air cells have been fabricated employing hydroponics gel as an alternative alkaline electrolyte gelling agent. Thin KOH-treated agar layer was applied between the electrode-electrolyte interfaces which produced significant enhancement of the cells' capacities, indicating that the application of thin agar layer will improve the electrode-gelled electrolyte interfaces. Promising results have been achieved with porous zinc anode prepared from dried zinc-graphite-gelatinized agar paste; e g. a zinc-air cell employing a porous zinc anode has demonstrated a capacity of 1470 mAh rated at 0.1 A continuous discharge. 32 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Design and development of a focusing electromagnet for RF linac of a cargo scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, B., E-mail: biswaranjan.nayak1@gmail.com; Acharya, S.; Bhattacharjee, D.; Chandan, Shiv; Choudhury, N.; Sharma, V.; Mittal, K.C.; Gantayet, L.M.

    2014-11-11

    Cargo scanning of contraband objects by high energetic X-rays requires compact and self-contained RF linacs. To achieve this goal, a 6 MeV, 700 W standing wave RF electron linac has been developed at Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, BARC. To obtain the image of scanned objects with good resolution requires a focused electron beam at the target. This paper presents the design, development and integration of a solenoid magnet with a compact RF linac and its performance with electron beam for cargo scanning applications.

  11. DNA hairpins promote temperature controlled cargo encapsulation in a truncated octahedral nanocage structure family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franch, Oskar; Iacovelli, Federico; Falconi, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    and Release of an Active Enzyme in the Cavity of a Self-Assembled DNA Nanocage, ACS Nano, 2013, 7, 9724–9734). In the present study we use a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and in vitro analyses to unravel the mechanism of cargo uptake in hairpin containing DNA cages. We find that two hairpin...... forming strands are necessary and sufficient to facilitate efficient cargo uptake, which argues against a full opening–closing of one corner of the structure being responsible for encapsulation. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to evaluate the atomistic motions responsible for encapsulation...

  12. 46 CFR 153.440 - Cargo temperature sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo temperature sensors. 153.440 Section 153.440 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS... Temperature Control Systems § 153.440 Cargo temperature sensors. (a) Except as prescribed in paragraph (c)...

  13. 33 CFR 157.23 - Cargo and ballast system information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.23 Cargo and ballast system information. (a... automatic and manual operation of the cargo and ballast system in the vessel. (b) The format and information... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cargo and ballast...

  14. 49 CFR 176.39 - Inspection of cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection of cargo. 176.39 Section 176.39... Requirements § 176.39 Inspection of cargo. (a) Manned vessels. The carrier, its agents, and any person... thereafter, weather permitting, in order to ensure that the cargo is in a safe condition and that no...

  15. 46 CFR 153.972 - Connecting a cargo hose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Connecting a cargo hose. 153.972 Section 153.972 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations Cargo...

  16. 19 CFR 4.36 - Delayed discharge of cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delayed discharge of cargo. 4.36 Section 4.36... TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Landing and Delivery of Cargo § 4.36 Delayed discharge of cargo. (a) When pursuant to section 457, Tariff Act of 1930, customs officers are placed on a...

  17. 46 CFR 98.25-80 - Cargo hose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose. 98.25-80 Section 98.25-80 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk §...

  18. 46 CFR 154.310 - Cargo piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo piping systems. 154.310 Section 154.310 Shipping... Arrangements § 154.310 Cargo piping systems. Cargo liquid or vapor piping must: (a) Be separated from other piping systems, except where an interconnection to inert gas or purge piping is required by §...

  19. 46 CFR 153.283 - Valving for cargo piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valving for cargo piping. 153.283 Section 153.283... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.283 Valving for cargo piping. (a) Except as described in...

  20. 46 CFR 154.356 - Cargo emergency jettisoning piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo emergency jettisoning piping. 154.356 Section 154.356 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.356 Cargo emergency jettisoning piping. Emergency jettisoning piping...

  1. 46 CFR 154.1844 - Cargo tanks: Filling limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tanks: Filling limits. 154.1844 Section 154.1844... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1844 Cargo tanks... cargo tank is not loaded: (1) More than 98 percent liquid full; or (2) In excess of the...

  2. 46 CFR 151.50-5 - Cargoes having toxic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargoes having toxic properties. 151.50-5 Section 151.50... BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-5 Cargoes having... transporting liquids having a Reid vapor pressure exceeding 14 pounds per square inch absolute or vented at...

  3. 46 CFR 151.25-2 - Cargo handling space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo handling space. 151.25-2 Section 151.25-2 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Environmental Control § 151.25-2 Cargo handling space. Pump rooms, compressor rooms, refrigeration rooms, heating rooms, instrument rooms or other closed...

  4. Stochastic Movement of Multiple Motor Transported Cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, David; Gopinathan, Ajay; Xu, Jing

    2015-03-01

    Experimental observations of cargo position during transport by multiple motors are determined by several coupled stochastic processes. During collective transport, each motor can transition between multiple kinetic states, with the state of each motor influencing the states of the others via mechanical coupling through a common cargo. We measured the motion of a micron sized bead as it is transported by two kinesin motors along a single microtubule track, focusing on cargo displacements which are both axial and transverse to the microtubule. We model the effects of inter-motor interference and the state of each motor throughout time, and back out motor properties using a systematic comparison of experimental observations with simulated model traces over a wide parameter space. Our model captures a surface-associated mode of kinesin, which is only accessible via inter-motor interference in groups, in which kinesin diffuses along the microtubule surface and rapidly ``hops'' between protofilaments without dissociating from the microtubule. This enhances local exploration of the microtubule surface, possibly enabling cellular cargos to overcome macromolecular crowding and to navigate obstacles along micro- tubule tracks without sacrificing overall travel distance.

  5. Linking molecular motors to membrane cargo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Akhmanova (Anna); J.A. Hammer (John)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThree types of motors, myosins, kinesins, and cytoplasmic dynein, cooperate to transport intracellular membrane organelles. Transport of each cargo is determined by recruitment of specific sets of motors and their regulation. Targeting of motors to membranes often depends on the formatio

  6. Cargo Integration Products for External Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, Joel W.

    2008-01-01

    This document consists of a listing of integration products by function: Reconfiguration Engineering, Payload Interface Requirements, and Cargo Integration Analysis. The products may be accessed from, the Flight Operation and Integration Office page, i.e. http://sspweb.jsc.nasa.gov/.

  7. Effects of hydraulic retention time and nitrobenzene concentration on the performance of sequential upflow anaerobic filter and air lift reactors in treating nitrobenzene-containing wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jinhua; Chen, Guocai; Gu, Jingjing;

    2014-01-01

    Sequential upflow anaerobic filter (UAF)/air lift (ALR) reactors were employed to investigate the effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and nitrobenzene (NB) concentration on treatment of NB-containing wastewater. The results showed that NB was effectively reduced to aniline (AN) with glucose...... and the influent NB concentration increased from 400 to 800 mg l super(-1), respectively. The results showed that sequential UAF/ALR system can be operated at low HRTs and high NB concentrations without significantly affecting the removal efficiency of NB in the reactor system. The UAF/ALR system can provide...... an effective yet low cost method for treatment of NB-containing industrial wastewater....

  8. PINS Measurements of Explosive Simulants for Cargo Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.H. Seabury

    2008-06-01

    As part of its efforts to prevent the introduction of explosive threats on commercial flights, the Transportation Security Administration (TSL) is evaluating new explosives detection systems (EDSs) for use in air cargo inspection. The TSL has contracted Battelle to develop a new type of explosives simulant to assist in this development. These are designed to mimic the elemental profile (C, H, N, O, etc.) of explosives as well as their densities. Several “neutron in—gamma out” (n,?) techniques have been considered to quantify the elemental profile in these new simulants and the respective explosives. The method chosen by Battelle is Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy (PINS), developed by Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Battelle wishes to validate that the simulants behave like the explosive threats with this technology. The results of the validation measurements are presented in this report.

  9. Significant air embolism: A possibility even with collapsible intravenous fluid containers when used with rapid infuser system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepanjali Pant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant venous air embolism may develop acutely during the perioperative period due to a number of causes such as during head and neck surgery, spinal surgery, improper central venous and haemodialysis catheter handling, etc. The current trend of using self collapsible intravenous (IV infusion bags instead of the conventional glass or plastic bottles has several advantages, one of thaem being protection against air embolism. We present a 56-year-old man undergoing kidney transplantation, who developed a near fatal venous air embolism during volume resuscitation with normal saline in collapsible IV bags used with rapid infuser system. To our knowledge, this problem with collapsible infusion bags has not been reported earlier.

  10. Traffic-related air pollutants induce the release of allergen-containing cytoplasmic granules from grass pollen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motta, A C; Marliere, M; Peltre, G; Sterenberg, P A; Lacroix, G

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: Pollen cytoplasmic granules (PCG) are loaded with allergens. They are released from grass pollen grains following contact with water and can form a respirable allergenic aerosol. On the other hand, the traffic-related air pollutants NO2 and O3 are known to be involved in the current

  11. Mark I Containment Program. Scaling analysis for modeling initial air clearing caused by reactor safety/relief valve discharge. [BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrum, R.W.

    1978-02-01

    A generalized method of similitude is introduced and applied to develop scaling relationships for a General Electric Mark I suppression pool. A scale model is proposed to model suppression pool wall loads due to air flow through a T-quencher discharge device. The scaling relationships developed provide the means for relating scale model parameters (i.e., pressure, velocity,) to full scale.

  12. Traffic-related air pollutants induce the release of allergen-containing cytoplasmic granules from grass pollen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motta, AC; Marliere, M; Peltre, G; Sterenberg, PA; Lacroix, G

    2006-01-01

    Background/Aim: Pollen cytoplasmic granules (PCG) are loaded with allergens. They are released from grass pollen grains following contact with water and can form a respirable allergenic aerosol. On the other hand, the traffic-related air pollutants NO2 and O-3 are known to be involved in the current

  13. Discharging Part of LNG Liquid Cargo Handling Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Zhou Yang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the national economy, it is important to develop LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas liquid cargo handling simulator. In this paper, the discharging part of Liquid Cargo Handling Simulator of LNG Carriers is developed by Visual Basic. The system includes 5 major forms and 3 mathematical models such as cargo pump model, the pressure and temperature model of the LNG vapour in the cargo tank and the liquid level model. The system can complete the unloading task. The system has become a preliminary model of LNG liquid cargo handlings simulator training.

  14. Cargo adaptors: structures illuminate mechanisms regulating vesicle biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paczkowski, Jon E; Richardson, Brian C; Fromme, J Christopher

    2015-07-01

    Cargo adaptors sort transmembrane protein cargos into nascent vesicles by binding directly to their cytosolic domains. Recent studies have revealed previously unappreciated roles for cargo adaptors and regulatory mechanisms governing their function. The adaptor protein (AP)-1 and AP-2 clathrin adaptors switch between open and closed conformations that ensure they function at the right place at the right time. The exomer cargo adaptor has a direct role in remodeling the membrane for vesicle fission. Several different cargo adaptors functioning in distinct trafficking pathways at the Golgi are similarly regulated through bivalent binding to the ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1) GTPase, potentially enabling regulation by a threshold concentration of Arf1. Taken together, these studies highlight that cargo adaptors do more than just adapt cargos.

  15. Cargo transportation by two species of motor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunxin

    2013-05-01

    The cargo motion in living cells transported by two species of motor protein with different intrinsic directionalities is discussed in this study. Similarly to single motor movement, the cargo steps forward and backward along a microtubule stochastically. Recent experiments found that cargo transportation by two motor species has a memory; it does not change its direction as frequently as expected, which means that its forward and backward step rates depend on its previous motion trajectory. By assuming that the cargo has only the least possible memory, i.e., its step direction depends only on the direction of its last step, two cases of cargo motion are analyzed in detail in this study: (I) cargo motion under constant external load, and (II) cargo motion in one fixed optical trap. Due to the existence of memory, in the first case, the cargo can keep moving in the same direction for a long distance. In the second case, the cargo will oscillate in the trap. The oscillation period decreases and the oscillation amplitude increases with increasing forward step rate of the motor, but both of them decrease with increasing trap stiffness. The most likely location of the cargo, where the probability of finding the oscillating cargo is maximum, may be the same as or may be different from the trap center, which depends on the step rates of the two motor species. Meanwhile, if the motors are robust, i.e., their forward to backward step rate ratios are high, there may be two such most likely locations, located one on each side of the trap center. The probability of finding the cargo in a given location, the probability of the cargo being in forward or backward motion, and various mean first passage times of the cargo to a given location or a given state are also analyzed.

  16. Microwave drying of granules containing a moisture-sensitive drug: a promising alternative to fluid bed and hot air oven drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Sze Nam; Johansen, Anne Lene; Gu, Li; Karlsen, Jan; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2005-07-01

    The impact of microwave drying and binders (copolyvidone and povidone) on the degradation of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and physical properties of granules were compared with conventional drying methods. Moist granules containing ASA were prepared using a high shear granulator and dried with hot air oven, fluid bed or microwave (static or dynamic bed) dryers. Percent ASA degradation, size and size distribution, friability and flow properties of the granules were determined. Granules dried with the dynamic bed microwave dryer showed the least amount of ASA degradation, followed by fluid bed dryer, static bed microwave oven and hot air oven. The use of microwave drying with a static granular bed adversely affected ASA degradation and drying capability. Dynamic bed microwave dryer had the highest drying capability followed by fluid bed, static bed microwave dryer and conventional hot air oven. The intensity of microwave did not affect ASA degradation, size distribution, friability and flow properties of the granules. Mixing/agitating of granules during drying affected the granular physical properties studied. Copolyvidone resulted in lower amount of granular residual moisture content and ASA degradation on storage than povidone, especially for static bed microwave drying. In conclusion, microwave drying technology has been shown to be a promising alternative for drying granules containing a moisture-sensitive drug.

  17. Comparing the Air Abrasion Cutting Efficacy of Dentine Using a Fluoride-Containing Bioactive Glass versus an Alumina Abrasive: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Melissa H X; Hill, Robert G; Anderson, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Air abrasion as a caries removal technique is less aggressive than conventional techniques and is compatible for use with adhesive restorative materials. Alumina, while being currently the most common abrasive used for cutting, has controversial health and safety issues and no remineralisation properties. The alternative, a bioactive glass, 45S5, has the advantage of promoting hard tissue remineralisation. However, 45S5 is slow as a cutting abrasive and lacks fluoride in its formulation. The aim of this study was to compare the cutting efficacy of dentine using a customised fluoride-containing bioactive glass Na0SR (38-80 μm) versus the conventional alumina abrasive (29 μm) in an air abrasion set-up. Fluoride was incorporated into Na0SR to enhance its remineralisation properties while strontium was included to increase its radiopacity. Powder outflow rate was recorded prior to the cutting tests. Principal air abrasion cutting tests were carried out on pristine ivory dentine. The abrasion depths were quantified and compared using X-ray microtomography. Na0SR was found to create deeper cavities than alumina (p cutting efficiency. In conclusion, Na0SR was more efficacious than alumina for air abrasion cutting of dentine.

  18. Comparing the Air Abrasion Cutting Efficacy of Dentine Using a Fluoride-Containing Bioactive Glass versus an Alumina Abrasive: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa H. X. Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Air abrasion as a caries removal technique is less aggressive than conventional techniques and is compatible for use with adhesive restorative materials. Alumina, while being currently the most common abrasive used for cutting, has controversial health and safety issues and no remineralisation properties. The alternative, a bioactive glass, 45S5, has the advantage of promoting hard tissue remineralisation. However, 45S5 is slow as a cutting abrasive and lacks fluoride in its formulation. The aim of this study was to compare the cutting efficacy of dentine using a customised fluoride-containing bioactive glass Na0SR (38–80 μm versus the conventional alumina abrasive (29 μm in an air abrasion set-up. Fluoride was incorporated into Na0SR to enhance its remineralisation properties while strontium was included to increase its radiopacity. Powder outflow rate was recorded prior to the cutting tests. Principal air abrasion cutting tests were carried out on pristine ivory dentine. The abrasion depths were quantified and compared using X-ray microtomography. Na0SR was found to create deeper cavities than alumina (p<0.05 despite its lower powder outflow rate and predictably reduced hardness. The sharper edges of the Na0SR glass particles might improve the cutting efficiency. In conclusion, Na0SR was more efficacious than alumina for air abrasion cutting of dentine.

  19. Cargo-mix optimization in Liner Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jonas Mark; Pacino, Dario; Fonseca, Joao Filipe Paiva

    , it is hard tomotivate companies to pay for cleaner transport since transportation is not visible to end customers,and therefore cannot justify a higher cost. Hence, optimization may be one of the few options forlimiting CO2 emission of international trade. A possible direction is to focus on vessels...... composition available in the different portsmight not be suitable for the full utilization of the vessel. The focus of our work is the analysis ofvessels’ cargo-mix, in particular finding what cargo composition is needed for a vessel to maximizeits utilization on a given service. Such a model can have various...... applications ranging from drivingrate prices, improving fleet composition and network design ((Christiansen et al., 2007; Reinhardtand Pisinger, 2012; Brouer et al., 2014))....

  20. A Review of Cargo Handling Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-10-01

    surge, and sway). If, for example, only heave compensation is employed, i.e., one constraint, then the cargo may swing in a pendulous manner and the...pendulous mass as well as lack of heave compensation . One proposed method for overcoming the heave compensation problem is to tie the helicopter to the...deck. Further, any method which does not use the ship as a reference (i.e., not mounted on the ship) must also provide for some type of heave

  1. Design and application of radiation apparatus for sup 6 sup 0 Co cargo train on-line inspection system

    CERN Document Server

    Wu Zhi Fang; Zhang Yuai

    2002-01-01

    Based on the special requirement for radiation apparatus of sup 6 sup 0 Co cargo train on-line inspection system, a radiation apparatus including two-level shutter, working container, storing container and electromagnetism are designed. The makeup, working mode and functional realization of the radiation apparatus are introduced. The system is used in Manzhouli customs cargo train on-line inspection system. The practice shows that the radiation apparatus is reliable to work steadily and the operating speed of the main shutter can reach 0.1 s open and 0.15 s close

  2. Basic mechanisms for recognition and transport of synaptic cargos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlager Max A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Synaptic cargo trafficking is essential for synapse formation, function and plasticity. In order to transport synaptic cargo, such as synaptic vesicle precursors, mitochondria, neurotransmitter receptors and signaling proteins to their site of action, neurons make use of molecular motor proteins. These motors operate on the microtubule and actin cytoskeleton and are highly regulated so that different cargos can be transported to distinct synaptic specializations at both pre- and post-synaptic sites. How synaptic cargos achieve specificity, directionality and timing of transport is a developing area of investigation. Recent studies demonstrate that the docking of motors to their cargos is a key control point. Moreover, precise spatial and temporal regulation of motor-cargo interactions is important for transport specificity and cargo recruitment. Local signaling pathways – Ca2+ influx, CaMKII signaling and Rab GTPase activity – regulate motor activity and cargo release at synaptic locations. We discuss here how different motors recognize their synaptic cargo and how motor-cargo interactions are regulated by neuronal activity.

  3. Response of acid mobilization of iron-containing mineral dust to improvement of air quality projected in the future

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Acidification of dust aerosols may increase aerosol iron (Fe) solubility, which is linked to mineral properties. Combustion aerosols can also elevate aerosol iron solubility when aerosol loading is low. Here, we use an atmospheric chemical transport model to investigate the deposition of filterable iron and its response to changes in anthropogenic emissions of both combustion aerosols and precursor gases. By introducing three classes of iron-containing minerals into the deta...

  4. Response of acid mobilization of iron-containing mineral dust to improvement of air quality projected in the future

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, A.; Xu, L.

    2013-01-01

    Acidification of dust aerosols may increase aerosol iron (Fe) solubility, which is linked to mineral properties. Combustion aerosols can also elevate aerosol iron solubility when aerosol loading is low. Here, we use an atmospheric chemical transport model to investigate the deposition of filterable iron and its response to changes in anthropogenic emissions of both combustion aerosols and precursor gases. By introducing three classes of iron-containing minerals into the detailed aeroso...

  5. A mechanism for retromer endosomal coat complex assembly with cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Megan S; Hung, Chia-Sui; Liu, Ting-ting; Christiano, Romain; Walther, Tobias C; Burd, Christopher G

    2014-01-07

    Retromer is an evolutionarily conserved protein complex composed of the VPS26, VPS29, and VPS35 proteins that selects and packages cargo proteins into transport carriers that export cargo from the endosome. The mechanisms by which retromer is recruited to the endosome and captures cargo are unknown. We show that membrane recruitment of retromer is mediated by bivalent recognition of an effector of PI3K, SNX3, and the RAB7A GTPase, by the VPS35 retromer subunit. These bivalent interactions prime retromer to capture integral membrane cargo, which enhances membrane association of retromer and initiates cargo sorting. The role of RAB7A is severely impaired by a mutation, K157N, that causes Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy 2B. The results elucidate minimal requirements for retromer assembly on the endosome membrane and reveal how PI3K and RAB signaling are coupled to initiate retromer-mediated cargo export.

  6. Installation of the Canadian Muon Cargo Inspection System at CRL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Installation of the Canadian Muon Cargo Inspection System at CRL Prepared by: Guy Jonkmans Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Chalk River ON...INSTALLATION OF THE CANADIAN MUON CARGO INSPECTION SYSTEM AT CRL 153-30100-REPT-001 Revision 0 2013/02/19 UNRESTRICTED 2013/02/19 ILLIMITÉ 153...30100-REPT-001 2013/02/19 Report, General Installation of the Canadian Muon Cargo Inspection System at CRL Research and Development 153-30100

  7. 46 CFR 150.160 - Carrying a cargo as an exception to the compatibility chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carrying a cargo as an exception to the compatibility... BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES § 150.160 Carrying a cargo as an exception to the compatibility chart. The Operator of a vessel having on board a cargo carried as an exception under §...

  8. 46 CFR 308.517 - Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-300.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-300. 308.517 Section 308.517... Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.517 Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-300. The standard form of War Risk Open Cargo, Form MA-300, may be obtained from the American War...

  9. PCB-containing wood floor finish is a likely source of elevated PCBs in residents' blood, household air and dust: a case study of exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seryak Liesel M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are persistent pollutants identified worldwide as human blood and breast milk contaminants. Because they bioaccumulate, consumption of meat, fish, and dairy products predicts human blood concentrations. PCBs were also used widely in building materials, including caulks and paints, but few studies have evaluated the contribution of these exposures to body burden. Methods In an earlier study, we detected PCBs in indoor air in 31% of 120 homes on Cape Cod, MA. Two of the homes had much higher concentrations than the rest, so we retested to verify the initial finding, evaluate blood PCB concentrations of residents, and identify the PCB source. Results Air and dust concentrations remained elevated over 5 years between initial and follow-up sampling. Blood serum concentrations of PCBs in residents of the homes were generally elevated above the 95th percentile of a representative sample of the US population. Serum concentrations in residents and air and dust concentrations were especially high in a home where a resident reported use of PCB-containing floor finish in the past, and where the floor of one room was sanded and refinished just prior to sample collection. Conclusion This case-study suggests that PCB residues in homes may be more significant contributors to overall exposure than diet for some people, and that use of a commercially-available PCB-containing wood floor finish in residences during the 1950s and 1960s is an overlooked but potentially important source of current PCB exposure in the general population.

  10. Cargo transportation by two species of motor protein

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yunxin

    2012-01-01

    The cargo motion in living cells transported by two species of motor protein with different intrinsic directionality is discussed in this study. Similar to single motor movement, cargo steps forward and backward along microtubule stochastically. Recent experiments found that, cargo transportation by two motor species has a memory, it does not change its direction as frequently as expected, which means that its forward and backward step rates depends on its previous motion trajectory. By assuming cargo has only the least memory, i.e. its step direction depends only on the direction of its last step, two cases of cargo motion are detailed analyzed in this study: {\\bf (I)} cargo motion under constant external load; and {\\bf (II)} cargo motion in one fixed optical trap. Due to the existence of memory, for the first case, cargo can keep moving in the same direction for a long distance. For the second case, the cargo will oscillate in the trap. The oscillation period decreases and the oscillation amplitude increase...

  11. Column generation approaches to ship scheduling with flexible cargo sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønmo, Geir; Nygreen, Bjørn; Lysgaard, Jens

    2010-01-01

    We present a Dantzig-Wolfe procedure for the ship scheduling problem with flexible cargo sizes. This problem is similar to the well-known pickup and delivery problem with time windows, but the cargo sizes are defined by intervals instead of by fixed values. The flexible cargo sizes have...... consequences for the times used in the ports because both the loading and unloading times depend on the cargo sizes. We found it computationally hard to find exact solutions to the subproblems, so our method does not guarantee to find the optimum over all solutions. To be able to say something about how good...

  12. Microsatellite DNA mutations in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) associated with exposure to PAH-containing industrial air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L E; de Solla, S R; Small, J M; Sverko, E; Quinn, J S

    2014-10-01

    Hamilton Harbour, Ontario, Canada is one of the most polluted sites on the Great Lakes, and is subject to substantial airborne pollution due to emissions from both heavy industry and intense vehicle traffic. Mutagenic Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present at very high concentrations in the air and sediment of Hamilton Harbour. We used five variable DNA microsatellites to screen for mutations in 97 families of Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) from three wild colonies, two in Hamilton Harbour and one in cleaner northeastern Lake Erie. Mutations were identified in all five microsatellites at low frequencies, with the majority of mutations found in chicks from the Hamilton Harbour site closest to industrial sources of PAH contamination. Microsatellite mutation rates were 6-fold higher at the Hamilton Harbour site closest to the industrial sources of PAH contamination than the other Hamilton Harbour site, and both were higher than the reference colony. A Phase I metabolite of the PAH benzo[a]pyrene identified by LC-MS/MS in bile and liver from Hamilton Harbour cormorant chicks suggests that these cormorants are exposed to and metabolizing PAHs, highlighting their potential to have caused the observed mutations.

  13. Modeling of experimental treatment of acetaldehyde-laden air and phenol-containing water using corona discharge technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faungnawakij, Kajornsak; Sano, Noriaki; Charinpanitkul, Tawatchai; Tanthapanichakoon, Wiwut

    2006-03-01

    Acetaldehyde-laden air and phenol-contaminated water were experimentally treated using corona discharge reactions and gas absorption in a single water-film column. Mathematical modeling of the combined treatment was developed in this work. Efficient removal of the gaseous acetaldehyde was achieved while the corona discharge reactions produced short-lived species such as O and O- as well as ozone. Direct contact of the radicals and ions with water was known to produce aqueous OH radical, which contributes to the decomposition of organic contaminants: phenol, absorbed acetaldehyde, and intermediate byproducts in the water. The influence of initial phenol concentration ranging from 15 to 50 mg L(-1) and that of influent acetaldehyde ranging from 0 to 200 ppm were experimentally investigated and used to build the math model. The maximum energetic efficiency of TOC, phenol, and acetaldehyde were obtained at 25.6 x 10(-9) mol carbon J(-1), 25.0 x 10(-9) mol phenol J(-1), and 2.0 x 10(-9) mol acetaldehyde J(-1), respectively. The predictions for the decomposition of acetaldehyde, phenol, and their intermediates were found to be in good agreement with the experimental results.

  14. Collapsing Containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justina L.; Battino, Rubin

    1994-01-01

    Describes variations on atmospheric pressure demonstrations and some systematic studies. Demonstrations use steam, generated either externally or internally to the container, to sweep out residual air. Preferred vessels collapsed slowly. Demonstrations use plastic milk jugs set in layers of aluminum foil, pop bottles immersed in 4-L beakers…

  15. The hemopexin and O-glycosylated domains tune gelatinase B/MMP-9 bioavailability via inhibition and binding to cargo receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van den Steen, Philippe E; Van Aelst, Ilse; Hvidberg, Vibeke;

    2006-01-01

    with a compact three-dimensional structure. The OG and hemopexin domains have no influence on the cleavage efficiency of MMP-9 substrates. In contrast, the hemopexin domain contains a binding site for the cargo receptor low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1). Furthermore, megalin/LRP-2...... domains down-regulate the bioavailability of active MMP-9 and the interactions with the cargo receptors are proposed to be the original function of hemopexin domains in MMPs....

  16. 46 CFR 151.20-10 - Cargo system instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo system instrumentation. 151.20-10 Section 151.20-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES... instrumentation. (a) Each tank operated at other than ambient temperature shall be provided with at least...

  17. 46 CFR 154.548 - Cargo piping: Flow capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo piping: Flow capacity. 154.548 Section 154.548... and Process Piping Systems § 154.548 Cargo piping: Flow capacity. Piping with an excess flow valve must have a vapor or liquid flow capacity that is greater than the rated closing flow under § 154.546....

  18. 49 CFR 175.78 - Stowage compatibility of cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage compatibility of cargo. 175.78 Section 175... Loading, Unloading and Handling § 175.78 Stowage compatibility of cargo. (a) For stowage on an aircraft..., Compatibility Group S, explosives are permitted to be transported aboard a passenger aircraft. Only...

  19. 49 CFR 180.405 - Qualification of cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... protection or other appropriate accident damage protection device. (v) A cargo tank may be constructed of.... (l) MC 300, MC 301, MC 302, MC 303, MC 305, MC 306 cargo tank—Rear accident damage protection. (1... accident damage protection device to protect the tank and piping in the event of a rear-end collision...

  20. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... published in “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981. (c) The steel cover for the aluminum... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction...

  1. Information tecnology and its impact on port cargo distribution businness

    OpenAIRE

    Trampus, Francesca

    2002-01-01

    The IT revolution has dynamised the port cargo business: up-to-date software is needed to optimize operations such as vessel loading, yard planning, equipment flow, gate handling, administration and invoicing and it is also essential for vessel tracking, electronic declaration of cargo and passengers and as a communication platform to all port users.

  2. 76 FR 41278 - Cargo Security Risk Reduction; Public Listening Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Cargo Security Risk Reduction; Public Listening Sessions AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS..., transfer, and storage of Certain Dangerous Cargo (CDC) in bulk within the U.S. Marine Transportation System....Bergan@uscg.mil . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background In September 2009, the Coast Guard held a...

  3. 46 CFR 98.25-55 - Cargo piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo piping. 98.25-55 Section 98.25-55 Shipping COAST... Cargo piping. (a) Piping shall be of seamless steel meeting the requirements of § 56.60-1 of subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. The piping shall be of not less than Schedule 40...

  4. Intentional cargo disruption by nefarious means: Examining threats, systemic vulnerabilities and securitisation measures in complex global supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Conor; Harrop, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Global trade and commerce requires products to be securely contained and transferred in a timely way across great distances and between national boundaries. Throughout the process, cargo and containers are stored, handled and checked by a range of authorities and authorised agents. Intermodal transportation involves the use of container ships, planes, railway systems, land bridges, road networks and barges. This paper examines the the nefarious nature of intentional disruption and nefarious risks associated with the movement of cargo and container freight. The paper explores main threats, vulnerabilities and security measures relevant to significant intermodal transit risk issues such as theft, piracy, terrorism, contamination, counterfeiting and product tampering. Three risk and vulnerability models are examined and basic standards and regulations that are relevant to safe and secure transit of container goods across international supply networks are outlined.

  5. Environmental control of microtubule-based bidirectional cargo-transport

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Sarah; Santen, Ludger

    2014-01-01

    Inside cells, various cargos are transported by teams of molecular motors. Intriguingly, the motors involved generally have opposite pulling directions, and the resulting cargo dynamics is a biased stochastic motion. It is an open question how the cell can control this bias. Here we develop a model which takes explicitly into account the elastic coupling of the cargo with each motor. We show that bias can be simply controlled or even reversed in a counterintuitive manner via a change in the external force exerted on the cargo or a variation of the ATP binding rate to motors. Furthermore, the superdiffusive behavior found at short time scales indicates the emergence of motor cooperation induced by cargo-mediated coupling.

  6. 46 CFR 150.130 - Loading a cargo on vessels carrying cargoes with which it is incompatible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... it is incompatible. 150.130 Section 150.130 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... carrying cargoes with which it is incompatible. Except as described in § 150.160, the person in charge of a... any cargo in table I with which it is incompatible by two barriers such as formed by a: (1)...

  7. Vacuolar transport in tobacco leaf epidermis cells involves a single route for soluble cargo and multiple routes for membrane cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottanelli, Francesca; Foresti, Ombretta; Hanton, Sally; Denecke, Jürgen

    2011-08-01

    We tested if different classes of vacuolar cargo reach the vacuole via distinct mechanisms by interference at multiple steps along the transport route. We show that nucleotide-free mutants of low molecular weight GTPases, including Rab11, the Rab5 members Rha1 and Ara6, and the tonoplast-resident Rab7, caused induced secretion of both lytic and storage vacuolar cargo. In situ analysis in leaf epidermis cells indicates a sequential action of Rab11, Rab5, and Rab7 GTPases. Compared with Rab5 members, mutant Rab11 mediates an early transport defect interfering with the arrival of cargo at prevacuoles, while mutant Rab7 inhibits the final delivery to the vacuole and increases cargo levels in prevacuoles. In contrast with soluble cargo, membrane cargo may follow different routes. Tonoplast targeting of an α-TIP chimera was impaired by nucleotide-free Rha1, Ara6, and Rab7 similar to soluble cargo. By contrast, the tail-anchored tonoplast SNARE Vam3 shares only the Rab7-mediated vacuolar deposition step. The most marked difference was observed for the calcineurin binding protein CBL6, which was insensitive to all Rab mutants tested. Unlike soluble cargo, α-TIP and Vam3, CBL6 transport to the vacuole was COPII independent. The results indicate that soluble vacuolar proteins follow a single route to vacuoles, while membrane spanning proteins may use at least three different transport mechanisms.

  8. Evaluation of Batteries for Safe Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Williard

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion batteries are shipped worldwide with many limitations implemented to ensure safety and to prevent loss of cargo. Many of the transportation guidelines focus on new batteries; however, the shipment requirements for used or degraded batteries are less clear. Current international regulations regarding the air transport of lithium-ion batteries are critically reviewed. The pre-shipping tests are outlined and evaluated to assess their ability to fully mitigate risks during battery transport. In particular, the guidelines for shipping second-use batteries are considered. Because the electrochemical state of previously used batteries is inherently different from that of new batteries, additional considerations must be made to evaluate these types of cells. Additional tests are suggested that evaluate the risks of second-use batteries, which may or may not contain incipient faults.

  9. Attenuation Characteristic Modeling of Power-line Channel in Cargo Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Shinji; Ishii, Seiichiro; Nishioka, Jun; Yamada, Yoshio

    Power-line communication (PLC) based local area network (LAN) in cargo ships is one of the promising applications of the PLC technology. In this paper, the signal attenuation characteristic when transmitting with the differential-mode (DIF) and the common-mode (COM) has been modeled respectively to design the PLC network in a cargo ship. The characteristic has been analyzed from the measured transfer function of 440V power-line channels for reefer containers in two typical ships. The measured transfer function was averaged from 2M to 30MHz (or until the measurement limit frequency) and approximated by the number of branches and the length of a signal propagating route. The mean accuracy of the obtained approximation equations was ±4dB. The area where the signal attenuation of COM transmission is less than that of DIF transmission has been studied from the equations.

  10. Transporting "exceptional cargo" on the CERN sites

    CERN Multimedia

    EN Department

    2012-01-01

    When the Transport Service is managing "exceptional cargo", the driver and the escort are often in charge of an operation involving equipment worth many hundred thousand francs. Equipment that may well be irreplaceable for a facility or an experiment.   The members of the Transport Service who carry out these tasks are very professional and are – needless to say – highly concentrated on the job. They count on your understanding and support in the traffic on site. Their convoys are – for good reasons – moving slowly. Kindly do not overtake, do not cut in in front of them and do not drive too closely. Respect the escort and do not position yourself between the truck and the escort vehicles. The EN department counts on your courtesy on the road.  

  11. Estimating Cargo Airdrop Collateral Damage Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Acronyms AGU: Airborne Guidance Unit AFI: Air Force Instruction AMC: Air Mobility Command API: Actual Point of Impact ARVN: The Army of the Republic...describe the two-dimensional distribution of current airdrop errors through research and analyzing recent operational airdrop score data. Air Mobility ...20System%20Advanced%20Concept%20T echnology %20Demonstration.pdf Berry, William G. and Leon W. Laugginger. A Computer Simulation of Release

  12. Accident resistant transport container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, John A.; Cole, James K.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  13. AIR CANADA:A REAL HOME IN THE SKY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Air Canada, together with its regional airline subsidiary, Air Canada Jazz, provides scheduled and charter air transportation for passengers and cargo to more than 150 destinations,vacation packages to over 90 destinations, as well as maintenance, ground handling and train ing services to other airlines.

  14. 49 CFR 178.320 - General requirements applicable to all DOT specification cargo tank motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Each cargo tank or cargo tank motor vehicle design type, including its required accident damage... specification cargo tank motor vehicles. 178.320 Section 178.320 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Transportation § 178.320 General requirements applicable to all DOT specification cargo tank motor vehicles....

  15. 46 CFR 153.436 - Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo. 153.436... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.436 Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo. A heat transfer fluid separated from the cargo by only one wall (for example, the heat transfer fluid in a...

  16. Book Review: Radiation protection and measurement issues related to cargo scanning with accelerator-produced high-energy X rays, NCRP Commentary No. 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert May

    2008-11-01

    Having spent roughly the first third of his health physics career on the Norfolk, VA waterfront area, the reviewer was excited to see the NCRP Commentary 20, 'Radiation Protection and Measurements Issues Related to Cargo Scanning with Accelerator Technology'. It signals the advent of the Cargo Advanced Automated Radiography System (CAARS). The waterfront is a border that challenges physical security programs and technology. As Commentary 20 provides in the introduction, waterfront cargo terminals and land border crossings together represent over 300 ports of entry in the USA. Every year, the USA receives over 10 million cargo containers from commercial shipping and a roughly equal amount from land border crossings. While rapidly processing containerized cargo, CAARS will be able to detect small quantities of high atomic number radioactive materials and dense shielding materials used for radioactive gamma ray sources and even illicit human cargo - important concerns for homeland security. It will also be able to detect other contraband such as explosives, weapons and drugs. Section 1 of the Commentary presents an executive summary with NCRP's radiation dose management recommendations and related operational recommendations for effective implementation of CAARS technology in the current regulatory environment.

  17. Bidirectionality From Cargo Thermal Fluctuations in Motor-Mediated Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Christopher E

    2016-01-01

    Molecular motor proteins serve as an essential component of intracellular transport by generating forces to haul cargoes along cytoskeletal filaments. In some circumstances, two species of motors that are directed oppositely (e.g. kinesin, dynein) can be attached to the same cargo. The resulting net motion is known to be bidirectional, but the mechanism of switching remains unclear. In this work, we propose a mean-field mathematical model of the mechanical interactions of two populations of molecular motors with diffusion of the cargo (thermal fluctuations) as the fundamental noise source. By studying a simplified model, the delayed response of motors to rapid fluctuations in the cargo is quantified, allowing for the reduction of the full model to two "characteristic positions" of each of the motor populations. The system is then found to be "metastable", switching between two distinct directional transport states, or bidirectional motion. The time to switch between these states is then investigated using WKB...

  18. Stochastic modeling of cargo transport by teams of molecular motors

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Sarah; Santen, Ludger

    2014-01-01

    Many different types of cellular cargos are transported bidirectionally along microtubules by teams of molecular motors. The motion of this cargo-motors system has been experimentally characterized in vivo as processive with rather persistent directionality. Different theoretical approaches have been suggested in order to explore the origin of this kind of motion. An effective theoretical approach, introduced by M\\"uller et al., describes the cargo dynamics as a tug-of-war between different kinds of motors. An alternative approach has been suggested recently by Kunwar et al., who considered the coupling between motor and cargo in more detail. Based on this framework we introduce a model considering single motor positions which we propagate in continuous time. Furthermore, we analyze the possible influence of the discrete time update schemes used in previous publications on the system's dynamic.

  19. Cargo Loading Facilities, Published in unknown, Arizona Department of Transportation.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cargo Loading Facilities dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane coordinate system; in a Transverse Mercator projection;...

  20. Cargo/Weapons Elevator Land Based Engineering Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Cargo and Weapons Facility consists of a suite of full scale and component test facilities contiguously located in building 77H. The site was constructed in 1987...

  1. Cargo proteins of plasma astrocyte-derived exosomes in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetzl, Edward J; Mustapic, Maja; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios; Eitan, Erez; Lobach, Irina V; Goetzl, Laura; Schwartz, Janice B; Miller, Bruce L

    2016-11-01

    Efficient intercellular transfer of RNAs, proteins, and lipids as protected exosomal cargo has been demonstrated in the CNS, but distinct physiologic and pathologic roles have not been well defined for this pathway. The capacity to isolate immunochemically human plasma neuron-derived exosomes (NDEs), containing neuron-specific cargo, has permitted characterization of CNS-derived exosomes in living humans. Constituents of the amyloid β-peptide (Aβ)42-generating system now are examined in 2 distinct sets of human neural cells by quantification in astrocyte-derived exosomes (ADEs) and NDEs, enriched separately from plasmas of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and matched cognitively normal controls. ADE levels of β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE-1), γ-secretase, soluble Aβ42, soluble amyloid precursor protein (sAPP)β, sAPPα, glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), P-T181-tau, and P-S396-tau were significantly (3- to 20-fold) higher than levels in NDEs for patients and controls. BACE-1 levels also were a mean of 7-fold higher in ADEs than in NDEs from cultured rat type-specific neural cells. Levels of BACE-1 and sAPPβ were significantly higher and of GDNF significantly lower in ADEs of patients with AD than in those of controls, but not significantly different in patients with FTD than in controls. Abundant proteins of the Aβ42 peptide-generating system in ADEs may sustain levels in neurons. ADE cargo proteins may be useful for studies of mechanisms of cellular interactions and effects of BACE-1 inhibitors in AD.-Goetzl, E. J., Mustapic, M., Kapogiannis, D., Eitan, E., Lobach, I. V., Goetzl, L., Schwartz, J. B., Miller, B. L. Cargo proteins of plasma astrocyte-derived exosomes in Alzheimer's disease.

  2. Combining Radiography and Passive Measurements for Radiological Threat Localization in Cargo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Erin A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); White, Timothy A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jarman, Kenneth D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kouzes, Richard T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kulisek, Jonathan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Robinson, Sean M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Seattle, WA (United States); Wittman, Richard A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Detecting shielded special nuclear material (SNM) in a cargo container is a difficult problem, since shielding reduces the amount of radiation escaping the container. Radiography provides information that is complementary to that provided by passive gamma-ray detection systems: while not directly sensitive to radiological materials, radiography can reveal highly shielded regions that may mask a passive radiological signal. Combining these measurements has the potential to improve SNM detection, either through improved sensitivity or by providing a solution to the inverse problem to estimate source properties (strength and location). We present a data-fusion method that uses a radiograph to provide an estimate of the radiation-transport environment for gamma rays from potential sources. This approach makes quantitative use of radiographic images without relying on image interpretation, and results in a probabilistic description of likely source locations and strengths. We present results for this method for a modeled test case of a cargo container passing through a plastic-scintillator-based radiation portal monitor and a transmission-radiography system. We find that a radiograph-based inversion scheme allows for localization of a low-noise source placed randomly within the test container to within 40 cm, compared to 70 cm for triangulation alone, while strength estimation accuracy is improved by a factor of six. Improvements are seen in regions of both high and low shielding, but are most pronounced in highly shielded regions. The approach proposed here combines transmission and emission data in a manner that has not been explored in the cargo-screening literature, advancing the ability to accurately describe a hidden source based on currently-available instrumentation.

  3. Design and Inspection of Liquid Cargo Piping of Chemical Tanker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Sheng; Jiang Chengsong

    2012-01-01

    There is a great variety of liquid chemicals, and many shipowners are not clear about the cargos their ships will carry at the early stage of the design and construction of chemical tankers. In addition, because of the inclination to choose low cost construction material due to cost concern, the sources of cargos that ships can carry are greatly limited and the operation efficiency will be influenced. What should we do to avoid such situations?

  4. Reducing Aerodynamic Drag on Empty Open Cargo Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, James C.; Storms, Bruce L.; Dzoan, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Some simple structural modifications have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing aerodynamic drag on vehicles that have empty open cargo bays. The basic idea is to break up the airflow in a large open cargo bay by inserting panels to divide the bay into a series of smaller bays. In the case of a coal car, this involves inserting a small number (typically between two and four) of vertical full-depth or partial-depth panels.

  5. Modern approaches to cargo protection of rail transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Денис Викторович Ломотько

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the study we have proposed a number of measures to improve the cargo protection during rail transportation. The economic impact of some of them is estimated. The legal relations of railways and cargo owners in terms of liability for failure to preserve are considered and proposed the management model of insurance risks of failure to preserve in transportation.

  6. Vibration and acoustic environments for payload/cargo integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, R. E.; Coody, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    Shuttle orbiter launch vibration and acoustic environments for cargo bay/payload interfaces are predicted. Data acquired during Shuttle flight tests are compared with the preflight estimates. Vibration response data for payload attachment locations are presented, along with acoustic data in the form of noise-level spectra measured at various locations in the cargo bay and space averages of the noise levels. It is shown that the payload-bay vibration and acoustic environments are generally less severe than predicted.

  7. Phototriggered cargo release from virus-like assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasch, Melanie; Voets, Ilja K; Koay, Melissa S T; Cornelissen, Jeroen J L M

    2013-01-01

    There has been tremendous progress towards the development of responsive polymers that are programmed to respond to an external stimulus such as light, pH and temperature. The unique combination of molecular packaging followed by slow, controlled release of molecular cargo is of particular importance for self-healing materials and the controlled release of drugs. While much focus and progress remains centred around synthetic carriers, viruses and virus-like particles can be considered ideal cargo carriers as they are intrinsically designed to package, protect and deliver nucleic acid cargo to host cells. Here, we report the encapsulation of a stimuli-responsive self-immolative polymer within virus-like assemblies of Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus. Upon photo-irradiation, the self-immolative polymer undergoes a head-to-tail depolymerization into its monomeric subunits, resulting in the slow release of the molecular cargo. We propose that the liberated monomers are small enough to diffuse through the pores of the virus capsid shell and offer an alternative strategy for the controlled loading and unloading of the molecular cargo using viruses as cargo carriers.

  8. SpaceX Dragon Air Circulation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Brenda; Piatrovich, Siarhei; Prina, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    The Dragon capsule is a reusable vehicle being developed by Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) that will provide commercial cargo transportation to the International Space Station (ISS). Dragon is designed to be a habitable module while it is berthed to ISS. As such, the Dragon Environmental Control System (ECS) consists of pressure control and pressure equalization, air sampling, fire detection, illumination, and an air circulation system. The air circulation system prevents pockets of stagnant air in Dragon that can be hazardous to the ISS crew. In addition, through the inter-module duct, the air circulation system provides fresh air from ISS into Dragon. To utilize the maximum volume of Dragon for cargo packaging, the Dragon ECS air circulation system is designed around cargo rack optimization. At the same time, the air circulation system is designed to meet the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) inter-module and intra-module ventilation requirements and acoustic requirements. A flight like configuration of the Dragon capsule including the air circulation system was recently assembled for testing to assess the design for inter-module and intra-module ventilation and acoustics. The testing included the Dragon capsule, and flight configuration in the pressure section with cargo racks, lockers, all of the air circulation components, and acoustic treatment. The air circulation test was also used to verify the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the Dragon capsule. The CFD model included the same Dragon internal geometry that was assembled for the test. This paper will describe the Dragon air circulation system design which has been verified by testing the system and with CFD analysis.

  9. Use of air-assisted electrostatic spraying system (ESS)or the sprayed lethality in container(SLIC) method to deliver anticmicrobials onto the surface of beef subprimals to ... shiga toxin-producing cells of Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the efficacy of an air-assisted electrostatic spraying system (ESS) and/or the Sprayed Lethality in Container (SLIC) method to deliver antimicrobials onto the surface of beef subprimals to reduce levels of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Beef subprimals were surface inocu...

  10. Effect of antimicrobials applied on the surface of beef subprimals via an air-assisted electrostatic spraying system(ESS)or the Sprayed Lethality in Container(SLIC)method to control Shiga toxin-producing cells of Escherichia

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the efficacy of an air-assisted electrostatic spraying system (ESS) and/or the Sprayed Lethality in Container (SLIC®) method to deliver antimicrobials onto the surface of beef subprimals to reduce levels of Shiga toxin-producing cells of Escherichia coli (STEC). In brief, beef subprimal...

  11. Air Shipment of Spent Nuclear Fuel from Romania to Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Lucian Biro; Alexander Buchelnikov

    2010-10-01

    Romania successfully completed the world’s first air shipment of spent nuclear fuel transported in Type B(U) casks under existing international laws and without shipment license special exceptions when the last Romanian highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel was transported to the Russian Federation in June 2009. This air shipment required the design, fabrication, and licensing of special 20 foot freight containers and cask tiedown supports to transport the eighteen TUK 19 shipping casks on a Russian commercial cargo aircraft. The new equipment was certified for transport by road, rail, water, and air to provide multi modal transport capabilities for shipping research reactor spent fuel. The equipment design, safety analyses, and fabrication were performed in the Russian Federation and transport licenses were issued by both the Russian and Romanian regulatory authorities. The spent fuel was transported by truck from the VVR S research reactor to the Bucharest airport, flown by commercial cargo aircraft to the airport at Yekaterinburg, Russia, and then transported by truck to the final destination in a secure nuclear facility at Chelyabinsk, Russia. This shipment of 23.7 kg of HEU was coordinated by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR), as part of the U.S. Department of Energy Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), in close cooperation with the Rosatom State Atomic Energy Corporation and the International Atomic Energy Agency, and was managed in Romania by the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN). This paper describes the planning, shipment preparations, equipment design, and license approvals that resulted in the safe and secure air shipment of this spent nuclear fuel.

  12. Failure of cargo aileron’s actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zucca

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During a ferry flight, in a standard operation condition and at cruising level, a military cargo experienced a double hydraulic system failure due to a structural damage of the dual booster actuator. The booster actuator is the main component in mechanism of aileron’s deflection. The crew was able to arrange an emergency landing thanks to the spare oil onboard: load specialists refilled the hydraulic reservoirs. Due to safety concerns and in order to prevent the possibility of other similar incidents, a technical investigation took place. The study aimed to carry out the analysis of root causes of the actuator failure. The Booster actuator is composed mainly by the piston rod and its aluminum external case (AA7049. The assembly has two bronze caps on both ends. These are fixed in position by means of two retainers. At one end of the actuator case is placed a trunnion: a cylindrical protrusion used as a pivoting point on the aircraft. The fracture was located at one end of the case, on the trunnion side, in correspondence to the cap and over the retainer. One of the two fracture surfaces was found separated to the case and with the cap entangled inside. The fracture surfaces of the external case indicated fatigue crack growth followed by ductile separation. The failure analysis was performed by means of optical, metallographic, digital and electronic microscopy. The collected evidences showed a multiple initiation fracture mechanism. Moreover, 3D scanner reconstruction and numerical simulation demonstrated that dimensional non conformances and thermal loads caused an abnormal stress concentration. Stress concentration was located along the case assy outer surface where the fatigue crack originated. The progressive rupture mechanism grew under cyclical axial load due to the normal operations. Recommendations were issued in order to improve dimensional controls and assembly procedures during production and overhaul activities.

  13. Significant role of PB1 and UBA domains in multimerization of Joka2, a selective autophagy cargo receptor from tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna eZientara-Rytter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco Joka2 protein is a hybrid homolog of two mammalian selective autophagy cargo receptors, p62 and NBR1. These proteins can directly interact with the members of ATG8 family and the polyubiquitinated cargoes designed for degradation. Function of the selective autophagy cargo receptors relies on their ability to form protein aggregates. It has been shown that the N-terminal PB1 domain of p62 is involved in formation of aggregates, while the UBA domains of p62 and NBR1 have been associated mainly with cargo binding. Here we focus on roles of PB1 and UBA domains in localization and aggregation of Joka2 in plant cells. We show that Joka2 can homodimerize not only through its N-terminal PB1-PB1 interactions but also via interaction between N-terminal PB1 and C-terminal UBA domains. We also demonstrate that Joka2 co-localizes with recombinant ubiquitin and sequestrates it into aggregates and that C-terminal part (containing UBA domains is sufficient for this effect. Our results indicate that Joka2 accumulates in cytoplasmic aggregates and suggest that in addition to these multimeric forms it also exists in the nucleus and cytoplasm in a monomeric form.

  14. Health risk assessment of exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) contained in residential air particulate and dust in Guangzhou and Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zheng, Jinshu; Chan, Chuen-Yu; Huang, Min-juan; Cheung, Kwai Chung; Wong, Ming Hung

    2014-06-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in air particulate PM2.5 (less than 2.5 μm), TSP (Total Suspend Particle) and dust samples from different households of two major urban centers of Pearl River Delta (PRD). ∑PBDEs in PM2.5 of households in Guangzhou (GZ) (52.9-2.03 × 103 pg m-3 mean 239 pg m-3) were significantly higher than Hong Kong (HK) (0.25-160 pg m-3, mean 43.8 pg m-3). Higher ∑PBDEs occurred in indoor TSP, ranging between 117 and 1.14 × 103 pg m-3, with a median of 333 pg m-3. BDE-209 was the largest contributor to PBDEs contained in household dust, PM2.5 and TSP samples of GZ. Among the particles in household environment, PM2.5 accumulated the highest PBDEs, especially BDE-209. The constant Cparticle/Cdust values suggested that sorption is the dominant mechanism through which PBDEs are associated with settled dust and airborne particles. PBDEs were fairly uniform from urban sites to suburban sites, indicating the predominant indoor sources of PBDEs. Compared with indoor PM2.5, indoor dust ingestion made an important contribution of particle associated PBDEs exposure for adults (25 years old) and toddlers (1-2 years old). Non-dietary exposure dominated total PBDEs exposure, accounting for 91.8-99.0% exposure dose for toddlers and 45.1-82.2% for adults. Dust ingestion (69.3-96.1%) was the predominant PBDEs exposure route for toddlers.

  15. Cargo binding activates myosin VIIA motor function in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tsuyoshi; Umeki, Nobuhisa; Ikebe, Reiko; Ikebe, Mitsuo

    2011-04-26

    Myosin VIIA, thought to be involved in human auditory function, is a gene responsible for human Usher syndrome type 1B, which causes hearing and visual loss. Recent studies have suggested that it can move processively if it forms a dimer. Nevertheless, it exists as a monomer in vitro, unlike the well-known two-headed processive myosin Va. Here we studied the molecular mechanism, which is currently unknown, of activating myosin VIIA as a cargo-transporting motor. Human myosin VIIA was present throughout cytosol, but it moved to the tip of filopodia upon the formation of dimer induced by dimer-inducing reagent. The forced dimer of myosin VIIA translocated its cargo molecule, MyRip, to the tip of filopodia, whereas myosin VIIA without the forced dimer-forming module does not translocate to the filopodial tips. These results suggest that dimer formation of myosin VIIA is important for its cargo-transporting activity. On the other hand, myosin VIIA without the forced dimerization module became translocated to the filopodial tips in the presence of cargo complex, i.e., MyRip/Rab27a, and transported its cargo complex to the tip. Coexpression of MyRip promoted the association of myosin VIIA to vesicles and the dimer formation. These results suggest that association of myosin VIIA monomers with membrane via the MyRip/Rab27a complex facilitates the cargo-transporting activity of myosin VIIA, which is achieved by cluster formation on the membrane, where it possibly forms a dimer. Present findings support that MyRip, a cargo molecule, functions as an activator of myosin VIIA transporter function.

  16. Project CarGO tram at Dresden; Projekt CarGo Tram in Dresden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Eberstein, F.; Franke, M. [Dresdner Verkehrsbetriebe AG, Dresden (Germany)

    2000-05-01

    Next year, the Glassen Volkswagen Factory, which is currently under construction, will commence the production of luxury class automobiles. Already buying a car is meant to be a special event; thus the factory is set in a baroque environment, near the famous Semper Opera and Picture Gallery. This arrangement, hitherto without example, will be accompanied by another, equally remarkable project. The factory, which is situated in a central city area being very sensitive in terms of urban development and traffic installations, will be delivered raw materials and parts using a CarGo Tram. Two bi-directionally operated, 60 metres long five-car trains will transport the parts from the railway cargo hub at Dresden Friedrichstadt to the factory in cycles of 40 minutes. There and at the Glassen Factory in Grosser Garten, separate track terminals will be built. In addition to the historic past and the charming scenery of the Elbe metropolis Dresden and its environs, soon also the CarGo Tram and the Glassen Factory will attract guests from all over the world to visit this innovative and culturally important city in the centre of Europe. (orig.) [German] Im Jahr 2001 beginnt die Produktion von Automobilen der Oberklasse in der derzeit noch im Bau befindlichen Glaesernen Manufaktur der Volkswagen Automobil-Manufaktur Dresden GmbH. In einem barocken Umfeld, mit raeumlicher Naehe zur Semperoper und Gemaeldegalerie, soll bereits der Verkauf dieser Fahrzeuge zu einem Erlebnis werden. Dieses bisher einmalige Vorhaben wird von einem zweiten, ebenso einzigartigen Vorhaben begleitet. Die Belieferung der in einem staedtebaulich und verkehrlich sensiblen Innenstadtbereich gelegenen Manufaktur erfolgt mit einer Gueterstrassenbahn. Zwei 60 Meter lange, fuenfteilige Zweirichtungsfahrzeuge werden ab Maerz 2001 etwa im 40-Minutentakt die Anlieferung der Zulieferteile aus dem Gueterverkehrszentrum Dresden-Friedrichstadt uebernehmen. Hier und an der Glaesernen Manufaktur im Grossen Garten werden

  17. Air; Air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-09-01

    The regulation (CE/2037/2000) of the Parliament and Council of Europe of the 29. of June 2000 amends and replaces the regulation (CE/3093/94) relative to substances impoverishing the ozone layer. It applies to the production, the import, the export, the marketing, the use, the recovery, the recycling, the regeneration and the destruction of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC), other CFC (entirely halogenated), halons, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1,1-tri-chloro-ethane, methyl bromide, hydro-bromo-fluorocarbons and hydro-chlorofluorocarbons (HCFC) and of all products which contain these substances. It applies too to data to be reported on these substances. (O.M.)

  18. Stokes Efficiency of Molecular Motor-Cargo Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyun Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A molecular motor utilizes chemical free energy to generate a unidirectional motion through the viscous fluid. In many experimental settings and biological settings, a molecular motor is elastically linked to a cargo. The stochastic motion of a molecular motor-cargo system is governed by a set of Langevin equations, each corresponding to an individual chemical occupancy state. The change of chemical occupancy state is modeled by a continuous time discrete space Markov process. The probability density of a motor-cargo system is governed by a two-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation. The operation of a molecular motor is dominated by high viscous friction and large thermal fluctuations from surrounding fluid. The instantaneous velocity of a molecular motor is highly stochastic: the past velocity is quickly damped by the viscous friction and the new velocity is quickly excited by bombardments of surrounding fluid molecules. Thus, the theory for macroscopic motors should not be applied directly to molecular motors without close examination. In particular, a molecular motor behaves differently working against a viscous drag than working against a conservative force. The Stokes efficiency was introduced to measure how efficiently a motor uses chemical free energy to drive against viscous drag. For a motor without cargo, it was proved that the Stokes efficiency is bounded by 100% [H. Wang and G. Oster, (2002]. Here, we present a proof for the general motor-cargo system.

  19. Anomalous motor mediated cargo transport in microtubule networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandal, Steven; Macveigh-Fierro, Daniel; Shen, Zhiyuan; Lemoi, Kyle; Vidali, Luis; Ross, Jennifer; Tuzel, Erkan

    Cargo transport is an important biological mechanism by which cells locomote, self-organize, and actively transport organelles. This transport is mediated by the cytoskeletal network and molecular motors; however, it is not known how network self-organization and dynamics affect these transport processes. In order to develop a mechanistic understanding of cargo transport, we use a coarse-grained Brownian dynamics model that incorporates the dynamics of these networks, as well as experimentally determined motor properties. We will test these models with two experimental systems: (1) in vitro microtubule networks with kinesin-1 motors, and quantum dot cargos on recreated microtubule networks, and (2) an excellent model organism, the moss Physcomitrella patens, in which chloroplasts are transported via the microtubule network by means of kinesin-like proteins. Phenomenological network characterizations are made, both in vivo and in vitro, and cargo motility is characterized using Mean Squared Displacement (MSD) measurements. Our simulations shed light on the role of network density and motor properties on the observed transport behavior, and improve our understanding of cargo transport in cells.

  20. Large area x-ray detectors for cargo radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, C.; Albagli, D.; Bendahan, J.; Castleberry, D.; Gordon, C.; Hopkins, F.; Ross, W.

    2007-04-01

    Large area x-ray detectors based on phosphors coupled to flat panel amorphous silicon diode technology offer significant advances for cargo radiologic imaging. Flat panel area detectors provide large object coverage offering high throughput inspections to meet the high flow rate of container commerce. These detectors provide excellent spatial resolution when needed, and enhanced SNR through low noise electronics. If the resolution is reduced through pixel binning, further advances in SNR are achievable. Extended exposure imaging and frame averaging enables improved x-ray penetration of ultra-thick objects, or "select-your-own" contrast sensitivity at a rate many times faster than LDAs. The areal coverage of flat panel technology provides inherent volumetric imaging with the appropriate scanning methods. Flat panel area detectors have flexible designs in terms of electronic control, scintillator selection, pixel pitch, and frame rates. Their cost is becoming more competitive as production ramps up for the healthcare, nondestructive testing (NDT), and homeland protection industries. Typically used medical and industrial polycrystalline phosphor materials such as Gd2O2S:Tb (GOS) can be applied to megavolt applications if the phosphor layer is sufficiently thick to enhance x-ray absorption, and if a metal radiator is used to augment the quantum detection efficiency and reduce x-ray scatter. Phosphor layers ranging from 0.2-mm to 1-mm can be "sandwiched" between amorphous silicon flat panel diode arrays and metal radiators. Metal plates consisting of W, Pb or Cu, with thicknesses ranging from 0.25-mm to well over 1-mm can be used by covering the entire area of the phosphor plate. In some combinations of high density metal and phosphor layers, the metal plate provides an intensification of 25% in signal due to electron emission from the plate and subsequent excitation within the phosphor material. This further improves the SNR of the system.

  1. A Heuristic Approach to Determining Cargo Flow and Scheduling for Air Mobility Command’s Channel Cargo System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Hillier, and Floyd ( Bazaraa et al., 1990:625). Chapter IV discusses the selection of the specific S-P algorithm in more detail. 12 11.4.2 Schedule...July 8-12, 1991. Bazaraa , Mokhtar S., John J. Jarvis and Hanif D. Sherali. Linear Programming and Network Flows. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1990

  2. Salt effects on the air/solution interfacial properties of PEO-containing copolymers: equilibrium, adsorption kinetics and surface rheological behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas, Sara; Mendoza, Alma J; Guzmán, Eduardo; Ortega, Francisco; Rubio, Ramón G

    2013-06-15

    Lithium cations are known to form complexes with the oxygen atoms of poly(oxyethylene) chains. The effect of Li(+) on the surface properties of three block-copolymers containing poly(oxyethylene) (PEO) have been studied. Two types of copolymers have been studied, a water soluble one of the pluronic family, PEO-b-PPO-b-PEO, PPO being poly(propyleneoxyde), and two water insoluble ones: PEO-b-PS and PEO-b-PS-b-PEO, PS being polystyrene. In the case of the pluronic the adsorption kinetics, the equilibrium surface tension isotherm and the aqueous/air surface rheology have been measured, while for the two insoluble copolymers only the surface pressure and the surface rheology have been studied. In all the cases two different Li(+) concentrations have been used. As in the absence of lithium ions, the adsorption kinetics of pluronic solutions shows two processes, and becomes faster as [Li(+)] increases. The kinetics is not diffusion controlled. For a given pluronic concentration the equilibrium surface pressure increases with [Li(+)], and the isotherms show two surface phase transitions, though less marked than for [Li(+)]=0. A similar behavior was found for the equilibrium isotherms of PEO-b-PS and PEO-b-PS-b-PEO. The surface elasticity of these two copolymers was found to increase with [Li(+)] over the whole surface concentration and frequency ranges studied. A smaller effect was found in the case of the pluronic solutions. The results of the pluronic solutions were modeled using a recent theory that takes into account that the molecules can be adsorbed at the surface in two different states. The theory gives a good fit for the adsorption kinetics and a reasonably good prediction of the equilibrium isotherms for low and intermediate concentrations of pluronic. However, the theory is not able to reproduce the isotherm for [Li(+)]=0. Only a semi-quantitative prediction of the surface elasticity is obtained for [pluronic]≤1×10(-3) mM.

  3. Reducing Mission Logistics with Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep-out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  4. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags fro Reducing Exploration Mission Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) division is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  5. Coupling of Active Motion and Advection Shapes Intracellular Cargo Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Trong, P Khuc; Goldstein, R E; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.028104

    2012-01-01

    Intracellular cargo transport can arise from passive diffusion, active motor-driven transport along cytoskeletal filament networks, and passive advection by fluid flows entrained by such motor/cargo motion. Active and advective transport are thus intrinsically coupled as related, yet different representations of the same underlying network structure. A reaction-advection-diffusion system is used here to show that this coupling affects the transport and localization of a passive tracer in a confined geometry. For sufficiently low diffusion, cargo localization to a target zone is optimized either by low reaction kinetics and decoupling of bound and unbound states, or by a mostly disordered cytoskeletal network with only weak directional bias. These generic results may help to rationalize subtle features of cytoskeletal networks, for example as observed for microtubules in fly oocytes.

  6. Optimizing an undulating magnetic microswimmer for cargo towing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Emiliya; Or, Yizhar

    2016-06-01

    One of the promising capabilities of magnetic microswimmers is towing a cargo, which can be used for targeted drug delivery or performing tissue biopsy. A key question is what should be the optimal size ratio between the cargo and the swimmer's flexible tail. This question is addressed here for the simplest theoretical model of a magnetic microswimmer undergoing planar undulations—a spherical load connected by a torsion spring to a rigid slender link. The swimmer's dynamic is formulated and leading-order expressions for its motion are obtained explicitly under small-amplitude approximation. Optimal combinations of magnetic actuation frequency, torsion stiffness, and tail length for maximizing displacement, average speed, or energetic efficiency are obtained. The theoretical results are compared with reported experiments in several types of cargo-towing magnetic microswimmers.

  7. Solving the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Askelsdottir, Björg; Jensen, Rune Møller;

    2015-01-01

    to reposition vessels as cheaply as possible without disrupting cargo flows. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities with a multicommodity flow over paths defined by the activities chosen. Despite its industrial importance, the LSFRP has received little attention in the literature. We...... introduce a novel mathematical model and a simulated annealing algorithm for the LSFRP with cargo flows that makes use of a carefully constructed graph; we evaluate these approaches using real-world data from our industrial collaborator. Additionally, we compare the performance of our approach against...

  8. Column generation approaches to ship scheduling with flexible cargo sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønmo, Geir; Nygreen, Bjørn; Lysgaard, Jens

    cargo sizes to the column generation framework is not straightforward, and we handle the flexible cargo sizes heuristically when solving the subproblems. This leads to convergence issues in the branch-and-price search tree, and the optimal solution cannot be guaranteed. Hence we have introduced a method...... that generates an upper bound on the optimal objective. We have compared our method with an a priori column generation approach, and our computational experiments on real world cases show that the Dantzig-Wolfe approach is faster than the a priori generation of columns, and we are able to deal with larger...

  9. Targeting immunoliposomes to transferrin receptors on brain capillary endothelial cells as a mean for cargo transport across the blood-brain barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kasper Bendix; Larsen, Annette Burkhart; Bruun, Jonas;

    2016-01-01

    transport further into the CNS. We studied transferrin receptor-targeted (OX26) immunoliposomes containing oxaliplatin with the aim of quantifying the uptake of OX26, liposomes and oxaliplatin in BCECs and the remaining CNS. The uptake of the immunoliposomes and their cargo was studied in 18-dayold rats...... higher both in vitro and in vivo when compared to isotypic IgG-conjugated liposomes. Quantitative analyses after capillary depletion revealed cargo transport from BCECs to the remaining CNS, but not differences could be detected between OX26- conjugated and isotype IgG control liposomes in vivo, whereas...

  10. Simultaneous Optimization of Container Ship Sailing Speed and Container Routing with Transit Time Restrictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Røpke, Stefan; Pisinger, David

    We introduce a decision support tool for liner shipping companies to optimally determine the sailing speed and needed fleet for a global network. As a novelty we incorporate cargo routing decisions with tight transit time restrictions on each container such that we get a realistic picture...

  11. Flow and leakage characteristics of a sashless inclined air-curtain (sIAC) fume hood containing tall pollutant-generation tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Kun; Huang, Rong Fung; Hung, Wei-Lun

    2013-01-01

    In many fume hood applications, pollutant-generation devices are tall. Human operators of a fume hood must stand close to the front of the hood and lift up their hands to reach the top opening of the tall tank. In this situation, it is inconvenient to access the conventional hood because the sash acts as a barrier. Also, the bluff-body wake in front of the operator's chest causes a problem. By using laser-assisted smoke flow visualization and tracer-gas test methods, the present study examines a sashless inclined air-curtain (sIAC) fume hood for tall pollutant-generation tanks, with a mannequin standing in front of the hood face. The configuration of the sIAC fume hood, which had the important element of a backward-inclined push-pull air curtain, was different from conventional configurations. Depending on suction velocity, the backward-inclined air curtain had three characteristic modes: straight, concave, and attachment. A large recirculation bubble covering the area--from the hood ceiling to the work surface--was formed behind the inclined air curtain in the straight and concave modes. In the attachment mode, the inclined air curtain was attached to the rear wall of the hood, about 50 cm from the hood ceiling, and bifurcated into up and down streams. Releasing the pollutants at an altitude above where the inclined air curtain was attached caused the suction slot to directly draw up the pollutants. Releasing pollutants in the rear recirculation bubble created a risk of pollutants' leaking from the hood face. The tracer-gas (SF6) test results showed that operating the sIAC hood in the attachment mode, with the pollutants being released high above the critical altitude, could guarantee almost no leakage, even though a mannequin was standing in front of the sashless hood face.

  12. 29 CFR 1918.83 - Stowed cargo; tiering and breaking down.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stowed cargo; tiering and breaking down. 1918.83 Section... cargo; tiering and breaking down. (a) When necessary to protect personnel working in a hold, the employer shall secure or block stowed cargo that is likely to shift or roll. (b) In breaking down...

  13. 46 CFR 153.1000 - Special operating requirements for cargoes reactive with water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special operating requirements for cargoes reactive with water. 153.1000 Section 153.1000 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... MATERIALS Operations Special Cargo Procedures § 153.1000 Special operating requirements for cargoes...

  14. Safety evaluation for packaging transport of LSA-II liquids in MC-312 cargo tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlstrom, R.F.

    1996-09-11

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes the onsite transfer of bulk LSA-II radioactive liquids in the 222-S Laboratory Cargo Tank and Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility Cargo Tanks (which are U.S. Department of Transportation MC-312 specification cargo tanks) from their operating facilities to tank farm facilities.

  15. 46 CFR 308.521 - Application for Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-301.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-301. 308.521 Section 308.521 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR... for Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-301. The standard form of application for a War Risk Open Cargo...

  16. 46 CFR 154.650 - Cargo tank and process pressure vessel welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank and process pressure vessel welding. 154.650... Equipment Construction § 154.650 Cargo tank and process pressure vessel welding. (a) Cargo tank and process pressure vessel welding must meet Subpart 54.05 and Part 57 of this chapter. (b) Welding consumables...

  17. 76 FR 4847 - Hazardous Materials: Safety Requirements for External Product Piping on Cargo Tanks Transporting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ...: Safety Requirements for External Product Piping on Cargo Tanks Transporting Flammable Liquids AGENCY... flammable liquids in unprotected external product piping on DOT specification cargo tank motor vehicles. If... specification cargo tank motor vehicle (CTMV), unless the vehicle is equipped with bottom damage...

  18. Study on Alternative Cargo Launch Options from the Lunar Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheryl A. Blomberg; Zamir A. Zulkefli; Spencer W. Rich; Steven D. Howe

    2013-07-01

    In the future, there will be a need for constant cargo launches from Earth to Mars in order to build, and then sustain, a Martian base. Currently, chemical rockets are used for space launches. These are expensive and heavy due to the amount of necessary propellant. Nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) are the next step in rocket design. Another alternative is to create a launcher on the lunar surface that uses magnetic levitation to launch cargo to Mars in order to minimize the amount of necessary propellant per mission. This paper investigates using nuclear power for six different cargo launching alternatives, as well as the orbital mechanics involved in launching cargo to a Martian base from the moon. Each alternative is compared to the other alternative launchers, as well as compared to using an NTR instead. This comparison is done on the basis of mass that must be shipped from Earth, the amount of necessary propellant, and the number of equivalent NTR launches. Of the options, a lunar coil launcher had a ship mass that is 12.7% less than the next best option and 17 NTR equivalent launches, making it the best of the presented six options.

  19. 49 CFR 173.318 - Cryogenic liquids in cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... temperature (one pound of water=27.737 cubic inches at 60 °F., or one gallon of water = 231 cubic inches at 60... density following partial unloading. Multiple OWTT markings for different pressure levels are permitted... the design service temperature of the packaging. (2) A cargo tank may not be loaded with any...

  20. 19 CFR 4.62 - Accounting for inward cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounting for inward cargo. 4.62 Section 4.62 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.62 Accounting for inward...

  1. Bicaudal-D: Switching motors, cargo and direction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.D. Splinter (Daniël)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractScope of this thesis Transport of vesicles and organelles is an essential cellular process. Proteins like Rab GTPases, specialized adaptor proteins and motor proteins are involved in targeting and movement of cargos to their destination. This thesis describes the function of the mammalia

  2. 33 CFR 157.132 - Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...(a)(2) or § 157.10c(b)(2) without sufficient segregated ballast tanks or dedicated clean ballast... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK...

  3. 33 CFR 157.35 - Ballast added to cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... segregated ballast tanks or dedicated clean ballast tanks under § 157.09, § 157.10, § 157.10a(a)(1), § 157...; (b) More ballast water than can be carried in segregated ballast tanks or dedicated clean ballast... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ballast added to cargo tanks....

  4. Integrated cargo routing and ship scheduling in liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    The problem consists of creating routes and schedules for a heterogeneous fleet of ships while determining the cargo routing and the speed for all relevant port pair/ship combinations. Transshipment is allowed in ports with transshipment capabilities. The service frequency is fixed at one week...

  5. CH-47F Improved Cargo Helicopter (CH-47F)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    supply chain and industrial base. Nuclear Costs None CH-47F December 2015 SAR March 21, 2016 18:18:21 UNCLASSIFIED 22 Unit Cost Unit Cost Report...mission is transportation of ground forces, Class III/Class V supplies , and other battle critical cargo in support of all future contingencies. The CH

  6. Mars Hybrid Propulsion System Trajectory Analysis. Part II; Cargo Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and electric propulsion systems are used to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By combining chemical and electrical propulsion into a single spaceship and applying each where it is more effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper shows the feasibility of the hybrid transportation architecture to pre-deploy cargo to Mars and Phobos in support of the Evolvable Mars Campaign crew missions. The analysis shows that the hybrid propulsion stage is able to deliver all of the current manifested payload to Phobos and Mars through the first three crew missions. The conjunction class trajectory also allows the hybrid propulsion stage to return to Earth in a timely fashion so it can be reused for additional cargo deployment. The 1,100 days total trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to deliver cargo to Mars every other Earth-Mars transit opportunity. For the first two Mars surface mission in the Evolvable Mars Campaign, the short trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to be reused for three round-trip journeys to Mars, which matches the hybrid propulsion stage's designed lifetime for three round-trip crew missions to the Martian sphere of influence.

  7. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  8. Bridging Small Molecules to Modified Bacterial Microparticles Using a Disulphide Linkage: MIS416 as a Cargo Delivery System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Mainini

    Full Text Available MIS416 is an intact minimal cell wall skeleton derived from Proprionibacterium acnes that is phagocytosed by antigen presenting cells, including dendritic cells (DCs. This property allows MIS416 to be exploited as a vehicle for the delivery of peptide antigens or other molecules (for example, nucleic acids to DCs. We previously showed that covalent (non-cleavable conjugation of OVA, a model antigen derived from ovalbumin, to MIS416 enhanced immune responses in DCs in vivo, compared to unconjugated MIS416 and OVA. Intracellular trafficking promotes the lysosomal degradation of MIS416, leading to the destruction of MIS416 plus the associated cargos conjugated to MIS416. However, lysosomal degradation of cargo may not be desired for some MIS416 conjugates. Here we have investigated whether a cleavable linkage could facilitate release of the cargo in the cytoplasm of DCs to avoid lysosomal degradation. DCs were treated in vitro with disulfide-containing conjugates, and as hypothesised faster release of SIINFEKL peptide in the cytoplasm of DCs was observed with the inclusion of a disulfide bond between MIS416 and cargo. The inclusion of a cleavable disulfide bond in the conjugates did not significantly alter the amount of SIINFEKL antigens presented on MHC I molecules on DCs as compared with conjugates without a disulfide bond. However, the conjugates containing disulfide-linkages performed either slightly better (p<0.05 than, or the same as conjugates without a disulfide bond with respect to in vitro OT-1 T-cell proliferation induced by the presentation of SIINFEKL antigens on DCs, or DC activation studies, respectively. However, disulfide-containing conjugates were less effective than conjugates without a disulfide bond in in vivo cytotoxicity assays. In conclusion, inclusion of a disulfide bond in MIS416-peptide conjugates was associated with efficient release of peptides in the cytoplasm of DCs, an important consideration for MIS416-mediated

  9. Mechanized silica nanoparticles based on pillar[5]arenes for on-command cargo release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Long; Yang, Ying-Wei; Chen, Dai-Xiong; Wang, Guan; Zhou, Yue; Wang, Chun-Yu; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2013-10-11

    Mechanized silica nanoparticles, equipped with pillar[5]arene-[2]pseudorotaxane nanovalves, operate in biological media to trap cargos within their nanopores, but release them when the pH is lowered or a competitive binding agent is added. Although cargo size plays an important role in cargo loading, cargo charge-type does not appear to have any significant influence on the amount of cargo loading or its release. These findings open up the possibility of using pillar[n]arene and its derivatives for the formation of robust and dynamic nanosystems that are capable of performing useful functions.

  10. Engineering advanced capsosomes: maximizing the number of subcompartments, cargo retention, and temperature-triggered reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrawati, Rona; Hosta-Rigau, Leticia; Vanderstraaten, Dirk; Lokuliyana, Shalitha A; Städler, Brigitte; Albericio, Fernando; Caruso, Frank

    2010-03-23

    Advanced mimics of cells require a large yet controllable number of subcompartments encapsulated within a scaffold, equipped with a trigger to initiate, terminate, and potentially restart an enzymatic reaction. Recently introduced capsosomes, polymer capsules containing thousands of liposomes, are a promising platform for the creation of artificial cells. Capsosomes are formed by sequentially layering liposomes and polymers onto particle templates, followed by removal of the template cores. Herein, we engineer advanced capsosomes and demonstrate the ability to control the number of subcompartments and hence the degree of cargo loading. To achieve this, we employ a range of polymer separation layers and liposomes to form functional capsosomes comprising multiple layers of enzyme-loaded liposomes. Differences in conversion rates of an enzymatic assay are used to verify that multilayers of intact enzyme-loaded liposomes are assembled within a polymer hydrogel capsule. The size-dependent retention of the cargo encapsulated within the liposomal subcompartments during capsosome assembly and its dependence on environmental pH changes are also examined. We further show that temperature can be used to trigger an enzymatic reaction at the phase transition temperature of the liposomal subcompartments, and that the encapsulated enzymes can be utilized repeatedly in several subsequent conversions. These engineered capsosomes with tailored properties present new opportunities en route to the development of functional artificial cells.

  11. The Complete Exosome Workflow Solution: From Isolation to Characterization of RNA Cargo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeoffrey Schageman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are small (30–150 nm vesicles containing unique RNA and protein cargo, secreted by all cell types in culture. They are also found in abundance in body fluids including blood, saliva, and urine. At the moment, the mechanism of exosome formation, the makeup of the cargo, biological pathways, and resulting functions are incompletely understood. One of their most intriguing roles is intercellular communication—exosomes function as the messengers, delivering various effector or signaling macromolecules between specific cells. There is an exponentially growing need to dissect structure and the function of exosomes and utilize them for development of minimally invasive diagnostics and therapeutics. Critical to further our understanding of exosomes is the development of reagents, tools, and protocols for their isolation, characterization, and analysis of their RNA and protein contents. Here we describe a complete exosome workflow solution, starting from fast and efficient extraction of exosomes from cell culture media and serum to isolation of RNA followed by characterization of exosomal RNA content using qRT-PCR and next-generation sequencing techniques. Effectiveness of this workflow is exemplified by analysis of the RNA content of exosomes derived from HeLa cell culture media and human serum, using Ion Torrent PGM as a sequencing platform.

  12. Indications of marine bioinvasion from network theory. An analysis of the global cargo ship network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölzsch, A.; Blasius, B.

    2011-12-01

    The transport of huge amounts of small aquatic organisms in the ballast tanks and at the hull of large cargo ships leads to ever increasing rates of marine bioinvasion. In this study, we apply a network theoretic approach to examine the introduction of invasive species into new ports by global shipping. This is the first stage of the invasion process where it is still possible to intervene with regulating measures. We compile a selection of widely used and newly developed network properties and apply these to analyse the structure and spread characteristics of the directed and weighted global cargo ship network (GCSN). Our results reveal that the GCSN is highly efficient, shows small world characteristics and is positive assortative, indicating that quick spread of invasive organisms between ports is likely. The GCSN shows strong community structure and contains two large communities, the Atlantic and Pacific trading groups. Ports that appear as connector hubs and are of high centralities are the Suez and Panama Canal, Singapore and Shanghai. Furthermore, from robustness analyses and the network's percolation behaviour, we evaluate differences of onboard and in-port ballast water treatment, set them into context with previous studies and advise bioinvasion management strategies.

  13. Defective nuclear import of Tpr in Progeria reflects the Ran sensitivity of large cargo transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Chelsi J; Dar, Ashraf; Dutta, Anindya; Kehlenbach, Ralph H; Paschal, Bryce M

    2013-05-13

    The RanGTPase acts as a master regulator of nucleocytoplasmic transport by controlling assembly and disassembly of nuclear transport complexes. RanGTP is required in the nucleus to release nuclear localization signal (NLS)-containing cargo from import receptors, and, under steady-state conditions, Ran is highly concentrated in the nucleus. We previously showed the nuclear/cytoplasmic Ran distribution is disrupted in Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome (HGPS) fibroblasts that express the Progerin form of lamin A, causing a major defect in nuclear import of the protein, translocated promoter region (Tpr). In this paper, we show that Tpr import was mediated by the most abundant import receptor, KPNA2, which binds the bipartite NLS in Tpr with nanomolar affinity. Analyses including NLS swapping revealed Progerin did not cause global inhibition of nuclear import. Rather, Progerin inhibited Tpr import because transport of large protein cargoes was sensitive to changes in the Ran nuclear/cytoplasmic distribution that occurred in HGPS. We propose that defective import of large protein complexes with important roles in nuclear function may contribute to disease-associated phenotypes in Progeria.

  14. AirCompare

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — AirCompare contains air quality information that allows a user to compare conditions in different localities over time and compare conditions in the same location...

  15. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements...

  16. Effect of surface radiation on the breakdown of steady natural convection flows in a square, air-filled cavity containing a centered inner body

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, H; Chénier, Eric; Lauriat, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The physical model considered in the present numerical work is a square air-filled cavity cooled from below and above, with a heated square body located at the cavity center. The aim is to establish the effects of radiation interchanges amongst surfaces on the transition from steady, symmetric flows about the cavity centerline to complex periodic flows. Owing to the low temperature differences involved (1 K ? ?T ? 5 K), the two-dimensional model is based on the Boussinesq ...

  17. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation??s (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  18. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  19. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air....... These contradictions should motivate manufacturers and researchers to develop new efficient filtration techniques and/or improve the existing ones. Development of low polluting filtration techniques, which are at the same time easy and inexpensive to maintain is the way forward in the future....

  20. Advanced propulsion options for the Mars cargo mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisbee, Robert H.; Blandino, John J.; Sercel, Joel C.; Sargent, Mark S.; Gowda, Nandini

    1990-01-01

    Several advanced propulsion options for a split-mission piloted Mars exploration scenario are presented. The primary study focus is on identifying concepts that can reduce total initial mass in low earth orbit (IMLEO) for the cargo delivery portion of the mission; in addition, concepts that can reduce the trip time of the piloted option are assessed. The propulsion options considered are nuclear thermal propulsion, solar sails, multimegawatt-class nuclear electric propulsion, solar electric propulsion, magnetic sails, mass drivers, rail guns, solar thermal rockets, beamed-energy propulsion systems, and tethers. For the cargo mission, solar sails are found to provide the greatest mass savings over the baseline chemical system, although they suffer from having very long trip times; a good performance compromise between a low IMLEO and a short trip time can be obtained using multimegawatt-class nuclear electric propulsion systems.

  1. Implementation of cargo MagLev in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Chris R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Peterson, Dean E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leung, Eddie M [MAGTEC ENGINEERING

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have been completed in the United States, but no commercial MagLev systems have been deployed. Outside the U.S., MagLev continues to attract funding for research, development and implementation. A brief review of recent global developments in MagLev technology is given followed by the status of MagLev in the U.S. The paper compares the cost of existing MagLev systems with other modes of transport, notes that the near-term focus of MagLev development in the U.S. should be for cargo, and suggests that future MagLev systems should be for very high speed cargo. The Los Angeles to Port of Los Angeles corridor is suggested as a first site for implementation. The benefits of MagLev are described along with suggestions on how to obtain funding.

  2. Variable Structure Control of Catastrophic Course in Airdropping Heavy Cargo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Huiyuan; Shi Zhongke

    2009-01-01

    The mathematical model of a transport aircraft would be subjected to a sudden change when heavy cargo is dropped off in airdropping, which exerts serious influences upon the safety of the aircraft. A variable structure controller is specially designed for handling the airdrop process. The nonlinear system is linearized by input-output feedback linearization using differential geometry theories. On this basis, an inner loop system for velocity and attitude tracking control is designed by using the exponentially approaching rule of the variable structure theory. The whole flight control system is integrated with the outer loop flight altitude control. Digital simulation evidences the applicability of the system to potentially catastrophic course in airdropping heavy cargo and provides robustness against system parameter perturbation.

  3. Catalytic Propulsion and Magnetic Steering of Soft, Patchy Microcapsules: Ability to Pick-Up and Drop-Off Microscale Cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Annie Xi; Liu, Yijing; Oh, Hyuntaek; Gargava, Ankit; Kendall, Eric; Nie, Zhihong; DeVoe, Don L; Raghavan, Srinivasa R

    2016-06-22

    We describe the creation of polymeric microcapsules that can exhibit autonomous motion along defined trajectories. The capsules are made by cross-linking aqueous microdroplets of the biopolymer chitosan using glutaraldehyde. A coflow microfluidic tubing device is used to generate chitosan droplets containing nanoparticles (NPs) with an iron (Fe) core and a platinum (Pt) shell. The droplets are then incubated in a Petri dish with the cross-linking solution, and an external magnet is placed below the Petri dish to pull the NPs together as a collective "patch" on one end of each droplet. This results in cross-linked capsules (∼150 μm in diameter) with an anisotropic (patchy) structure. When these capsules are placed in a solution of H2O2, the Pt shell of the NPs catalyzes the decomposition of H2O2 into O2 gas, which is ejected from the patchy end in the form of bubbles. As a result, the capsules (which are termed micromotors) move in a direction opposite to the bubbles. Furthermore, the micromotors can be steered along specific paths by an external magnet (the magnetic response arises due to the Fe in the core of the NPs). A given micromotor can thus be directed to meet with and adhere to an inert capsule, i.e., a model cargo. Adhesion occurs due to the soft nature of the two structures. Once the cargo is picked up, the micromotor-cargo pair can be moved along a specific path to a destination, whereupon the cargo can be released from the micromotor. We believe these soft micromotors offer significant benefits over their existing hard counterparts because of their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and ability to encapsulate a variety of payloads.

  4. The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2012-01-01

    We solve an important problem for the liner shipping industry called the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. Shippers wish...... in the literature. We introduce a novel mathematical model of the LSFRP with cargo flows based on a carefully constructed graph and evaluate it on real world data from our industrial collaborator....

  5. August Passenger and Cargo Numbers Set New Highs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Passenger and cargo numbers set new highs in August, the second consecutive month that both areas of operation at Dragonair posted record figures. The airline flew 444,498 passengers in August to record its third consecutive monthly record. The number was 7.7%higher than in July, with travel in both months driven by holiday traffic. August 15 saw a new daily mark set, with 17,220passengers carried on the day.

  6. Stokes Efficiency of Molecular Motor-Cargo Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    2655, 1994. 11 F. Reif , Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 1985. 12 H. Kleinert, Path Integrals in...Quantum Mechanics , Statistics , Polymer Physics, and Financial Markets, World Scientific, River Edge, NJ, USA, 3rd edition, 2004. 13 A. Einstein...Efficiency of Molecular Motor-Cargo Systems Hongyun Wang1 and Hong Zhou2 1Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics , University of California

  7. The Application Model of Moving Objects in Cargo Delivery System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Feng-li; ZHOU Ming-tian; XU Bo

    2004-01-01

    The development of spatio-temporal database systems is primarily motivated by applications which track and present mobile objects. In this paper, solutions for establishing the moving object database based on GPS/GIS environment are presented, and a data modeling of moving object is given by using Temporal logical to extent the query language, finally the application model in cargo delivery system is shown.

  8. Radioactive material air transportation; Transporte aereo de material radioativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pader y Terry, Claudio Cosme [Varig Logistica (VARIGLOG), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation.

  9. How molecular motors are arranged on a cargo is important for vesicular transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Robert P; Jia, Zhiyuan; Gross, Steven P; Yu, Clare C

    2011-05-01

    The spatial organization of the cell depends upon intracellular trafficking of cargos hauled along microtubules and actin filaments by the molecular motor proteins kinesin, dynein, and myosin. Although much is known about how single motors function, there is significant evidence that cargos in vivo are carried by multiple motors. While some aspects of multiple motor function have received attention, how the cargo itself--and motor organization on the cargo--affects transport has not been considered. To address this, we have developed a three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation of motors transporting a spherical cargo, subject to thermal fluctuations that produce both rotational and translational diffusion. We found that these fluctuations could exert a load on the motor(s), significantly decreasing the mean travel distance and velocity of large cargos, especially at large viscosities. In addition, the presence of the cargo could dramatically help the motor to bind productively to the microtubule: the relatively slow translational and rotational diffusion of moderately sized cargos gave the motors ample opportunity to bind to a microtubule before the motor/cargo ensemble diffuses out of range of that microtubule. For rapidly diffusing cargos, the probability of their binding to a microtubule was high if there were nearby microtubules that they could easily reach by translational diffusion. Our simulations found that one reason why motors may be approximately 100 nm long is to improve their 'on' rates when attached to comparably sized cargos. Finally, our results suggested that to efficiently regulate the number of active motors, motors should be clustered together rather than spread randomly over the surface of the cargo. While our simulation uses the specific parameters for kinesin, these effects result from generic properties of the motors, cargos, and filaments, so they should apply to other motors as well.

  10. How molecular motors are arranged on a cargo is important for vesicular transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P Erickson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial organization of the cell depends upon intracellular trafficking of cargos hauled along microtubules and actin filaments by the molecular motor proteins kinesin, dynein, and myosin. Although much is known about how single motors function, there is significant evidence that cargos in vivo are carried by multiple motors. While some aspects of multiple motor function have received attention, how the cargo itself--and motor organization on the cargo--affects transport has not been considered. To address this, we have developed a three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation of motors transporting a spherical cargo, subject to thermal fluctuations that produce both rotational and translational diffusion. We found that these fluctuations could exert a load on the motor(s, significantly decreasing the mean travel distance and velocity of large cargos, especially at large viscosities. In addition, the presence of the cargo could dramatically help the motor to bind productively to the microtubule: the relatively slow translational and rotational diffusion of moderately sized cargos gave the motors ample opportunity to bind to a microtubule before the motor/cargo ensemble diffuses out of range of that microtubule. For rapidly diffusing cargos, the probability of their binding to a microtubule was high if there were nearby microtubules that they could easily reach by translational diffusion. Our simulations found that one reason why motors may be approximately 100 nm long is to improve their 'on' rates when attached to comparably sized cargos. Finally, our results suggested that to efficiently regulate the number of active motors, motors should be clustered together rather than spread randomly over the surface of the cargo. While our simulation uses the specific parameters for kinesin, these effects result from generic properties of the motors, cargos, and filaments, so they should apply to other motors as well.

  11. Process Analysis in Container Shipping Network Structure Form Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Being aimed at the influence of ship-size and cargo-demand changes on container shipping networks, to reveal the evolution process of container shipping networks structure form, this paper respectively designed the operation models for two major container shipping networks structure forms: Multi-port-calling network and Hub-and-spoke network, to maximizing the investment efficiency. Based on the above models, a comprehensively integrated operation model of container shipping networks is built and the evolution process of container shipping networks structure form with changing of both ship-size and cargo demands is analyzed. Finally, through a case study, results show that the comprehensive integrated operation model is very effective in the analysis of evolution process of container shipping networks structure forms.

  12. Modular Modeling of a Refrigeration Container

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær Sørensen, Kresten; Juel Skovrup, Morten; M. Jessen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling of a refrigeration container for use as a reference for energy-optimizing controller design. The model is based on first principles in order to conserve mass and energy, but various assumptions are used to simplify the equations, resulting in a unified model...... for the Star Cool refrigeration unit, the container and the cargo. Comparisons between simulations using the model and measurements from a real container show an average error of less than ±1K on the states important for control....

  13. Cargo Loading--A Proposed Approach for Maximizing Space Utilization of Containers Loaded with Palletized Loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    HOVER and select pattern J such that, for all I, 0 < HTTIER(N,J) - HOV(N) < HTTIER(N,I) - HOV(N). If J is void , then an underfill cannot be...x2SMALL is void , go to Step 8. Otherwise, set n2 = n 2 + 1 and go to Step 4. Step 4: Test if nl, n2 satisfy X - nl x < X2SMALL where x2SMALL denotes...x2LOWER =X T n n 2 and x X n nx 1 2UPPER 21 Let 1x2 1 denote set of available sizes which satisfy x < x <(x x2LOWER - 2 - 2UPPER. If 1x2I is void , go

  14. Rossiiskim gruzam - rossiiskije konteinerõ = Russian containers for Russian cargoes / Alla Petrova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Petrova, Alla

    2004-01-01

    Autor teeb ülevaate transpordisüsteemi arengust, konteinerite tootmisest ja konteinervedude korraldusest NSV Liidus alates 1970ndatest ning analüüsib põhjuseid, miks käesoleval ajal tegelevad Venemaal konteinervedudega valdavalt välisfirmad kasutades läänes toodetud konteinereid

  15. The Analysis of Significance of the Establishment of Cathay Pacific Cargo New Terminal%国泰航空新货运站建成的意义分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施磊

    2015-01-01

    2013年2月,备受货运界瞩目的国泰航空公司新货运站正式启用。新货运站集尖端设备于一身,年货物处理量达260万吨,预示着香港国际机场的货物处理能力更上一层楼。与此同时,新货运站的建立可降低成本,平摊风险,不失为新的利润增长点。航空运输仅仅是航空货运价值链中的一个环节,新货运站是国泰货运价值链的延伸,只有对众多的环节进行有效控制,才能满足客户对完整货物运输产品的需求。未来的航空货运界将更加激烈,筹建货运站将是航空公司抢占先机的突破口。文章具体分析了国泰航空新货运站建成的意义。%In February of 2013, the high-profile cargo terminal of Cathay Pacific Airways was put into service, with a set of sophisticated equipment, the new cargo terminal has the handling capacity of 2600000 tons, which indicates that the cargo handling capacity of Hong Kong International Airport reaches a higher level. At the same time, the establishment of the new cargo terminal can reduce cost, share risk, and also can be regarded as a new profit growth point. Air transportation is only a link in the value chain of air transportation, and the new cargo terminal is the extension of Cathay Pacific cargo value chain, only if the links is being controlled effectively, customer demand for complete freight transport can be met. The future of the air cargo industry will become more intense, the establishment of cargo terminal will be a breakthrough to win the opportunity.

  16. Development of sup 6 sup 0 Co cargo train inspection system

    CERN Document Server

    Wu Zhi Fang

    2002-01-01

    The author introduces the research and development of sup 6 sup 0 Co cargo train inspection system. With the use of radiography principle, every car image is acquired when the cargo train runs through the inspection channel. It is evaluated whether the cargo in car matches the corresponding customs declaration information with digital image processing techniques. The system has been installed in railway port at Manzhouli Customs

  17. 49 CFR 180.413 - Repair, modification, stretching, rebarrelling, or mounting of specification cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... carbon dioxide, service are excepted from these testing requirements, but must be tested in accordance... rebuilt cargo tank's structural integrity, venting, and accident damage protection with the...

  18. 75 FR 64585 - Bulk Solid Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... nonsubstantive changes, however, to correct grammar, internal paragraph references, and a temperature conversion... means the English version of the ``International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes Code'' published by...

  19. Demonstration of oxygen-enriched air staging at Owens-Brockway glass containers. Final technical report for the period April 1, 1995--February 28, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rue, D.; Abbasi, H.

    1997-10-01

    The overall objective of this program was to demonstrate the use of a previously developed combustion modification technology to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from sideport regenerative container glass melters. Specific objectives were to: acquire baseline operating data on the host sideport furnace, evaluate secondary oxidant injection strategies based on earlier endport furnace results and through modeling of a single port pair, retrofit and test one port pair (the test furnace has six port pairs) with a flexible OEAS system, and select the optimal system configuration, use the results from tests with one port pair to design, retrofit, and test OEAS on the entire furnace (six port pairs), and analyze test results, prepare report, and finalize the business plan to commercialize OEAS for sideport furnaces.

  20. ATHLETE: Lunar Cargo Handling for International Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the Human-Robot Systems Project within the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is developing a vehicle called ATHLETE: the All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer. The basic idea of ATHLETE is to have six relatively small wheels on the ends of legs. The small wheels and associated drive actuators are much less massive than the larger wheels and gears needed for an "all terrain" vehicle that cannot "walk" out of extreme terrain. The mass savings for the wheels and wheel actuators is greater than the mass penalty of the legs, for a net mass savings. Starting in 2009, NASA became engaged in detailed architectural studies for international discussions with the European Space Agency (ESA), the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA), and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) under the auspices of the International Architecture Working Group (IAWG). ATHLETE is considered in most of the campaign options considered, providing a way to offload cargo from large Altair-class landers (having a cargo deck 6+ meters above the surface) as well as offloading international landers launched on Ariane-5 or H-2 launch vehicles. These international landers would carry provisions as well as scientific instruments and/or small rovers that would be used by international astronauts as part of an international effort to explore the moon.Work described in this paper includes architectural studies in support of the international missions as well as field testing of a half-scale ATHLETE prototype performing cargo offloading from a lander mockup, along with multi-kilometer traverse, climbing over greater than 1 m rocks, tool use, etc.

  1. Solving the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Askelsdottir, Björg; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2015-01-01

    We solve a central problem in the liner shipping industry called the liner shipping fleet repositioning problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between routes in a liner shipping network. Liner carriers wish...... introduce a novel mathematical model and a simulated annealing algorithm for the LSFRP with cargo flows that makes use of a carefully constructed graph; we evaluate these approaches using real-world data from our industrial collaborator. Additionally, we compare the performance of our approach against...

  2. Collinear swimmer propelling a cargo sphere at low Reynolds number

    CERN Document Server

    Felderhof, B U

    2014-01-01

    The swimming velocity and rate of dissipation of a linear chain consisting of two or three little spheres and a big sphere is studied on the basis of low Reynolds number hydrodynamics. The big sphere is treated as a passive cargo, driven by the tail of little spheres via hydrodynamic and direct elastic interaction. The fundamental solution of Stokes' equations in the presence of a sphere with no-slip boundary condition, as derived by Oseen, is used to model the hydrodynamic interactions between the big sphere and the little spheres.

  3. C-C chemokine receptor-7 mediated endocytosis of antibody cargoes into intact cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier eCharest-Morin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The C-C chemokine receptor-7 (CCR7 is a G protein coupled receptor that has a role in leukocyte homing, but that is also expressed in aggressive tumor cells. Preclinical research supports that CCR7 is a valid target in oncology. In view of the increasing availability of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies that carry cytotoxic cargoes, we studied the feasibility of forcing intact cells to internalize known monoclonal antibodies by exploiting the cycle of endocytosis and recycling triggered by the CCR7 agonist CCL19. Firstly, an anti-CCR7 antibody (CD197; clone 150503 labeled surface recombinant CCR7 expressed in intact HEK 293a cells and the fluorescent antibody was internalized following CCL19 treatment. Secondly, a recombinant myc-tagged CCL19 construction was exploited along the anti-myc monoclonal antibody 4A6. The myc-tagged ligand was produced as a conditioned medium of transfected HEK 293a cells that contained the equivalent of 430 ng/ml of immunoreactive CCL19 (average value, ELISA determination. CCL19-myc, but not authentic CCL19, carried the fluorophore-labeled antibody 4A6 into other recipient cells that expressed recombinant CCR7 (microscopy, cytofluorometry. The immune complexes were apparent in endosomal structures, colocalized well with the small GTPase Rab5 and progressed toward Rab7-positive endosomes. A dominant negative form of Rab5 (GDP-locked inhibited this endocytosis. Further, endosomes in CCL19-myc- or CCL19-stimulated cells were positive for β-arrestin2, but rarely for β-arrestin1. Following treatment with CCL19-myc and the 4A6 antibody, the melanoma cell line A375 that expresses endogenous CCR7 was specifically stained using a secondary peroxidase-conjugated antibody. Agonist-stimulated CCR7 can transport antibody-based cargoes, with possible therapeutic applications in oncology.

  4. Simulations and imaging algorithm development for a cosmic ray muon tomography system for the detection of special nuclear material in transport containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewett, C.; Anghel, V.N.P. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Armitage, J.; Boudjemline, K.; Botte, J. [Carleton Univ., Dept. of Physics, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Bryman, D. [Advanced Applied Physics Solutions, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Bueno, J. [Advanced Applied Physics Solutions, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Charles, E. [Canada Border Services Agency, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Cousins, T. [International Safety Research, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Didsbury, R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Erhardt, L. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Erlandson, A. [Carleton Univ., Dept. of Physics, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Gallant, G. [Canada Border Services Agency, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Jason, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos (United States); Jonkmans, G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Liu, Z. [Advanced Applied Physics Solutions, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); McCall, M.; Noel, S. [International Safety Research, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Oakham, F.G. [Carleton Univ., Dept. of Physics, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia, (Canada); Ong, D.; Stocki, T. [Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Thompson, M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Waller, D. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The Cosmic Ray Inspection and Passive Tomography (CRIPT) collaboration is developing a cosmic ray muon tomography system to identify Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) in cargo containers. In order to gauge the viability of the technique, and to determine the best detector type, GEANT4 was used to simulate the passage of cosmic ray muons through a cargo container. The scattering density estimation (SDE) algorithm was developed and tested with data from these simulations to determine how well it could reconstruct the interior of a container. The simulation results revealed the ability of cosmic ray muon tomography techniques to image spheres of lead-shielded Special Nuclear Materials (SNM), such as uranium or plutonium, in a cargo container, containing a cargo of granite slabs. (author)

  5. Evaluation of caries progression in dentin treated by fluoride-containing materials using an in-air micro-PIGE and micro-PIXE measurement system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H., E-mail: yhiroko@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamada-Oka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Iwami, Y.; Yagi, K.; Hayashi, M. [Department of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamada-Oka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Komatsu, H.; Okuyama, K.; Matsuda, Y. [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Yasuda, K. [The Wakasa Wan Energy Research Center, 64-52-1 Nagatani, Tsuruga 914-0192 (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    It is well-known that fluorine (F) is involved in the progression of caries. The evaluation of caries progression has conventionally been based on the change in mineral content using transverse microradiography (TMR). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the progression of dentinal caries by the change in calcium (Ca) content using Particle-Induced Gamma-ray Emission/Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIGE/PIXE) techniques at the Wakasa Wan Energy Research Center. We also assessed the relationship between caries progression rate and the concentration of F penetration into dentin from dental fluoride-containing materials (FCMs). Dentin sections of six extracted human teeth were prepared to obtain various amounts of F uptake using three types of FCMs. F and Ca distribution of specimens were obtained using PIGE/PIXE techniques. After evaluation, the specimens were immersed in 10 ml of demineralizing solution (pH 4.5) to simulate caries attack. To estimate caries progression rates, the same portions of the specimens were evaluated after caries attack treatment using PIGE/PIXE. A negative correlation between the F uptake in dentin and the rate of caries progression was observed. Therefore, caries progression in dentin was reduced by increasing the amount of F uptake from FCMs. This demonstrates that PIGE/PIXE techniques are valuable for estimating caries progression rates.

  6. Effect of fuel concentration on cargo transport by a team of Kinesin motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takshak, Anjneya; Mishra, Nirvantosh; Kulkarni, Aditi; Kunwar, Ambarish

    2017-02-01

    Eukaryotic cells employ specialized proteins called molecular motors for transporting organelles and vesicles from one location to another in a regulated and directed manner. These molecular motors often work collectively in a team while transporting cargos. Molecular motors use cytoplasmic ATP as fuel, which is hydrolyzed to generate mechanical force. While the effect of ATP concentration on cargo transport by single Kinesin motor function is well understood, it is still unexplored, both theoretically and experimentally, how ATP concentration would affect cargo transport by a team of Kinesin motors. For instance, how does fuel concentration affect the travel distances and travel velocities of cargo? How cooperativity of Kinesin motors engaged on a cargo is affected by ATP concentration? To answer these questions, here we develop mechano-chemical models of cargo transport by a team of Kinesin motors. To develop these models we use experimentally-constrained mechano-chemical model of a single Kinesin motor as well as earlier developed mean-field and stochastic models of load sharing for cargo transport. Thus, our new models for cargo transport by a team of Kinesin motors include fuel concentration explicitly, which was not considered in earlier models. We make several interesting predictions which can be tested experimentally. For instance, the travel distances of cargos are very large at limited ATP concentrations in spite of very small travel velocity. Velocities of cargos driven by multiple Kinesin have a Michaelis-Menten dependence on ATP concentration. Similarly, cooperativity among the engaged Kinesin motors on the cargo shows a Michaelis-Menten type dependence, which attains a maximum value near physiological ATP concentrations. Our new results can be potentially useful in controlling artificial nano-molecular shuttles precisely for targeted delivery in various nano-technological applications.

  7. "Cargo-mooring" as an operating principle for molecular motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisowski, Bartosz; Kuśmierz, Łukasz; Żabicki, Michał; Bier, Martin

    2015-06-07

    Navigating through an ever-changing and unsteady environment, and utilizing chemical energy, molecular motors transport the cell׳s crucial components, such as organelles and vesicles filled with neurotransmitter. They generate force and pull cargo, as they literally walk along the polymeric tracks, e.g. microtubules. What we suggest in this paper is that the motor protein is not really pulling its load. The load is subject to diffusion and the motor may be doing little else than rectifying the fluctuations, i.e. ratcheting the load׳s diffusion. Below we present a detailed model to show how such ratcheting can quantitatively account for observed data. The consequence of such a mechanism is the dependence of the transport׳s speed and efficacy not only on the motor, but also on the cargo (especially its size) and on the environment (i.e. its viscosity and structure). Current experimental works rarely provide this type of information for in vivo studies. We suggest that even small differences between assays can impact the outcome. Our results agree with those obtained in wet laboratories and provide novel insight in a molecular motor׳s functioning.

  8. Achieving integrated convoys: cargo unmanned ground vehicle development and experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zych, Noah; Silver, David; Stager, David; Green, Colin; Pilarski, Thomas; Fischer, Jacob

    2013-05-01

    The Cargo UGV project was initiated in 2010 with the aim of developing and experimenting with advanced autonomous vehicles capable of being integrated unobtrusively into manned logistics convoys. The intent was to validate two hypotheses in complex, operationally representative environments: first, that unmanned tactical wheeled vehicles provide a force protection advantage by creating standoff distance to warfighters during ambushes or improvised explosive device attacks; and second, that these UGVs serve as force multipliers by enabling a single operator to control multiple unmanned assets. To assess whether current state-of-the-art autonomous vehicle technology was sufficiently capable to permit resupply missions to be executed with decreased risk and reduced manpower, and to assess the effect of UGVs on customary convoy tactics, the Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory and the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise sponsored Oshkosh Defense and the National Robotics Engineering Center to equip two standard Marine Corps cargo trucks for autonomous operation. This paper details the system architecture, hardware implementation, and software modules developed to meet the vehicle control, perception, and planner requirements compelled by this application. Additionally, the design of a custom human machine interface and an accompanying training program are described, as is the creation of a realistic convoy simulation environment for rapid system development. Finally, results are conveyed from a warfighter experiment in which the effectiveness of the training program for novice operators was assessed, and the impact of the UGVs on convoy operations was observed in a variety of scenarios via direct comparison to a fully manned convoy.

  9. Functional architecture of the retromer cargo-recognition complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hierro, Aitor; Rojas, Adriana L.; Rojas, Raul; Murthy, Namita; Effantin, Grégory; Kajava, Andrey V.; Steven, Alasdair C.; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Hurley, James H.

    2008-01-01

    The retromer complex 1, 2 is required for the sorting of acid hydrolases to lysosomes 3-7, transcytosis of the polymeric Ig receptor 8, Wnt gradient formation 9, 10, iron transporter recycling 11, and processing of the amyloid precursor protein 12. Human retromer consists of two smaller complexes, the cargo recognition Vps26:Vps29:Vps35 heterotrimer, and a membrane-targeting heterodimer or homodimer of SNX1 and/or SNX2 13. The crystal structure of a Vps29:Vps35 subcomplex shows how the metallophosphoesterase-fold subunit Vps29 14, 15 acts as a scaffold for the C-terminal half of Vps35. Vps35 forms a horseshoe-shaped right-handed α-helical solenoid whose concave face completely covers the metal-binding site of Vps29 and whose convex face exposes a series of hydrophobic interhelical grooves. Electron microscopy shows that the intact Vps26:Vps29:Vps35 complex is a stick-shaped, somewhat flexible, structure, ∼ 21 nm long. A hybrid structural model derived from crystal structures, electron microscopy, interaction studies, and bioinformatics shows that the α-solenoid fold extends the full length of Vps35, and that Vps26 is bound at the opposite end from Vps29. This extended structure presents multiple binding sites for the SNX complex and receptor cargo, and appears capable of flexing to conform to curved vesicular membranes. PMID:17891154

  10. 结构设计及气泡型填料对水声吸声材料的影响综述%Review for influence of structure design and packings containing air bubble on underwater acoustic absorption materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙卫红; 晏欣

    2012-01-01

    The status of structure design of the underwater acoustic absorption materials and the research survey of the materials modified with packings containing air bubble were summarized, the progress in the research of synthetic resin micro-particles which was expected to be an acoustic absorption ma- terials was introduced with 54 references. The trend of novel underwater acoustic absorption materials was pointed out.%综述了水声吸声材料的结构设计现状以及气泡型填科改性水声吸声材料的研究概况,介绍了有望作为水声吸声材料的高分子树脂颗粒吸声材料的研究进展,指出了新型水下吸声材料的发展趋势.

  11. Maglev Launch: Ultra-low Cost, Ultra-high Volume Access to Space for Cargo and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, James; Maise, George; Rather, John

    2010-01-01

    Despite decades of efforts to reduce rocket launch costs, improvements are marginal. Launch cost to LEO for cargo is ~$10,000 per kg of payload, and to higher orbit and beyond much greater. Human access to the ISS costs $20 million for a single passenger. Unless launch costs are greatly reduced, large scale commercial use and human exploration of the solar system will not occur. A new approach for ultra low cost access to space-Maglev Launch-magnetically accelerates levitated spacecraft to orbital speeds, 8 km/sec or more, in evacuated tunnels on the surface, using Maglev technology like that operating in Japan for high speed passenger transport. The cost of electric energy to reach orbital speed is less than $1 per kilogram of payload. Two Maglev launch systems are described, the Gen-1System for unmanned cargo craft to orbit and Gen-2, for large-scale access of human to space. Magnetically levitated and propelled Gen-1 cargo craft accelerate in a 100 kilometer long evacuated tunnel, entering the atmosphere at the tunnel exit, which is located in high altitude terrain (~5000 meters) through an electrically powered ``MHD Window'' that prevents outside air from flowing into the tunnel. The Gen-1 cargo craft then coasts upwards to space where a small rocket burn, ~0.5 km/sec establishes, the final orbit. The Gen-1 reference design launches a 40 ton, 2 meter diameter spacecraft with 35 tons of payload. At 12 launches per day, a single Gen-1 facility could launch 150,000 tons annually. Using present costs for tunneling, superconductors, cryogenic equipment, materials, etc., the projected construction cost for the Gen-1 facility is 20 billion dollars. Amortization cost, plus Spacecraft and O&M costs, total $43 per kg of payload. For polar orbit launches, sites exist in Alaska, Russia, and China. For equatorial orbit launches, sites exist in the Andes and Africa. With funding, the Gen-1 system could operate by 2020 AD. The Gen-2 system requires more advanced technology

  12. Strong Interest In China’s Cargo Market——An interview with Jean-Peter Jansen, chairman of the Executive Board of Lufthansa Cargo AG.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>Lufthansa Cargo AG ranks top among European airlines in the flights bound for China. It has 14 weekly flights for Hong Kong to transport 720 tons of cargo and mails, nine weekly services for Shanghai to carry 450 tons and four weekly flights for Beijing to handle 250 tons.The carrier is showing strong interest in the Chinese market, for 11 per cent of its sales in 2003, 2.16 billion euro came from China.

  13. A hopping mechanism for cargo transport by molecular motors in crowded microtubules

    CERN Document Server

    Goldman, Carla

    2010-01-01

    Most models designed to study the bidirectional movement of cargos as they are driven by molecular motors rely on the idea that motors of different polarities can be coordinated by external agents if arranged into a motor-cargo complex to perform the necessary work [gross04]. Although these models have provided us with important insights into these phenomena, there are still many unanswered questions regarding the mechanisms through which the movement of the complex takes place on crowded microtubules. For example (i) how does cargo-binding affect motor motility? and in connection with that - (ii) how does the presence of other motors (and also other cargos) on the microtubule affect the motility of the motor-cargo complex? We discuss these questions from a different perspective. The movement of a cargo is conceived here as a hopping process resulting from the transference of cargo between neighboring motors. In the light of this, we examine the conditions under which cargo might display bidirectional movemen...

  14. 33 CFR 126.29 - Supervision and control of dangerous cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supervision and control of... Supervision and control of dangerous cargo. (a) Authority. The Captain of the Port is authorized to require... cargo covered by this subchapter shall be undertaken and continued only under the immediate...

  15. Co-operative versus independent transport of different cargoes by Kinesin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Jennetta W; Griffin, Kelly; Jih, Gloria T; Stuckey, Jeanne; Verhey, Kristen J

    2008-05-01

    Kinesin motors drive the intracellular transport of multiple cargoes along microtubule tracks; yet, how kinesins discriminate among their many potential cargoes is unknown. We tested whether Kinesin-1 cargoes compete, co-operate or are transported independently of each other. We focused on Kinesin-1 cargoes that bind directly to the kinesin light chain (KLC) subunit, namely the c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase-interacting proteins (JIPs) 1 and 3, Kidins220/ARMS and PAT1. Overexpression of individual cargo proteins in differentiated CAD cells resulted in mislocalization of the endogenous protein but had no effect on localization of other cargo proteins to neurite tips. Thus, while transport of distinct cargoes is saturable, they do not compete with each other. Interestingly, we found that low expression of JIP1 or JIP3 enhanced the transport of the other JIP to neurite tips. Moreover, JIP1 and JIP3 require each other for transport. Co-operative transport is due to an interaction between JIP1 and JIP3 as well as distinct binding sites on the KLC tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) bundle: the TPR groove binds to C-terminal residues of JIP1, whereas the TPR surface binds to internal residues in JIP3. Formation of a JIP1/JIP3/KLC complex is necessary for efficient JIP1 or JIP3 transport in neuronal cells. Thus, JIP scaffolding proteins are transported in a co-operative manner, despite the independent transport of other Kinesin-1 cargoes.

  16. 75 FR 59617 - Notification of Arrival in U.S. Ports; Certain Dangerous Cargoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... requirements. The 2005 definition of CDC residue only included residue quantities of bulk ammonium nitrate or ammonium nitrate fertilizer that remained onboard after the vessel discharges all saleable cargo; no other... until the removal of all bulk liquid and liquefied gas CDC cargoes, including residue quantities of...

  17. 46 CFR 308.551 - War risk insurance clearing agency agreement for cargo, Form MA-321.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false War risk insurance clearing agency agreement for cargo... EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Iv-General § 308.551 War risk insurance... American War Risk Agency or MARAD....

  18. 46 CFR 153.981 - Leaving room in tank for cargo expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Leaving room in tank for cargo expansion. 153.981 Section 153.981 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Transfer Procedures § 153.981 Leaving room in tank for cargo expansion. The person in charge of...

  19. 46 CFR 153.602 - Special requirements for cargoes reactive with water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special requirements for cargoes reactive with water. 153.602 Section 153.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK... and Equipment Special Requirements § 153.602 Special requirements for cargoes reactive with...

  20. 77 FR 19030 - Automated Commercial Environment Required for the Transmission of Advance Ocean and Rail Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    .... 12-06] Automated Commercial Environment Required for the Transmission of Advance Ocean and Rail Cargo... Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) for the transmission of advance ocean and rail cargo information... controlled environment.\\3\\ M1 test participants were chosen based on the specific type of software...

  1. 78 FR 50134 - Altus Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Blackhawk Capital Group BDC, Inc., Cargo Connection Logistics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Altus Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Blackhawk Capital Group BDC, Inc., Cargo Connection Logistics Holding... securities of Cargo Connection Logistics Holding, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports...

  2. CargoVibes: human response to vibration due to freight rail traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waddington, D.; Woodcock, J.; Smith, M.G.; Janssen, S.A.; Persson Waye, K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the research concerning human response to vibration conducted in the EU FP7 CargoVibes project. The European Union-funded project CargoVibes involved 10 partners from 8 nations and ran from April 2011 to April 2014. The project was concerned with ra

  3. Neutron interrogation system using high gamma ray signature to detect contraband special nuclear materials in cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Dennis R.; Pohl, Bertram A.; Dougan, Arden D.; Bernstein, Adam; Prussin, Stanley G.; Norman, Eric B.

    2008-04-15

    A system for inspecting cargo for the presence of special nuclear material. The cargo is irradiated with neutrons. The neutrons produce fission products in the special nuclear material which generate gamma rays. The gamma rays are detecting indicating the presence of the special nuclear material.

  4. Extensive cargo identification reveals distinct biological roles of the 12 importin pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Makoto; Morinaka, Yuriko; Imai, Kenichiro; Kose, Shingo; Horton, Paul; Imamoto, Naoko

    2017-01-01

    Vast numbers of proteins are transported into and out of the nuclei by approximately 20 species of importin-β family nucleocytoplasmic transport receptors. However, the significance of the multiple parallel transport pathways that the receptors constitute is poorly understood because only limited numbers of cargo proteins have been reported. Here, we identified cargo proteins specific to the 12 species of human import receptors with a high-throughput method that employs stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture, an in vitro reconstituted transport system, and quantitative mass spectrometry. The identified cargoes illuminated the manner of cargo allocation to the receptors. The redundancies of the receptors vary widely depending on the cargo protein. Cargoes of the same receptor are functionally related to one another, and the predominant protein groups in the cargo cohorts differ among the receptors. Thus, the receptors are linked to distinct biological processes by the nature of their cargoes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21184.001 PMID:28117667

  5. 46 CFR 308.523 - Application for revision of Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-303.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for revision of Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-303. 308.523 Section 308.523 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY... Application for revision of Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-303. An application for the revision of an Open...

  6. 46 CFR 308.548 - Standard form of underwriting agency agreement for cargo, Form MA-318.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard form of underwriting agency agreement for cargo, Form MA-318. 308.548 Section 308.548 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... underwriting agency agreement for cargo, Form MA-318. This form, which may be obtained from the American...

  7. 46 CFR 308.545 - Facultative cargo policy, Form MA-316.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facultative cargo policy, Form MA-316. 308.545 Section 308.545 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK... policy, Form MA-316. The standard form of War Risk Facultative Cargo Policy, Form MA-316, may be...

  8. 46 CFR 308.524 - Application for cancellation of Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-304.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MA-304. 308.524 Section 308.524 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 308.524 Application for cancellation of Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-304. The standard form of application for cancellation of an Open Cargo Policy Form MA-304 may be obtained from the American War...

  9. 46 CFR 38.10-10 - Cargo piping-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo piping-TB/ALL. 38.10-10 Section 38.10-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-10 Cargo piping—TB/ALL. (a) The piping shall be designed for...

  10. 76 FR 14643 - Hazardous Materials: Safety Requirements for External Product Piping on Cargo Tanks Transporting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ...: Safety Requirements for External Product Piping on Cargo Tanks Transporting Flammable Liquids AGENCY... external product piping (wetlines) on a cargo tank motor vehicle (CTMV) unless the CTMV is equipped with... National Tank Truck Carriers, Inc., and the Tank Truck Manufacturers Association requesting an extension...

  11. 29 CFR Appendix III to Part 1918 - The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory.... 1918, App. III Appendix III to Part 1918—The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory) Note: This appendix is non-mandatory and provides an explanation of the mechanics in the correct spotting...

  12. Screening of Maritime Containers to Intercept Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manatt, D R; Sleaford, B; Schaffer, T; Accatino, M R; Slaughter, D; Mauger, J; Newmark, R; Prussin, S; Luke, J; Frank, M; Bernstein, A; Alford, O; Mattesich, G; Stengel, J; Hall, J; Descalle, M A; Wolford, J; Hall, H; Loshak, A; Sale, K; Trombino, D; Dougan, A D; Pohl, B; Dietrich, D; Weirup, D; Walling, R; Rowland, M; Johnson, D; Hagmann, C; Hankins, D

    2004-02-18

    The goal of our research was to address the problem of detection of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) materials within containers in common use on commercial cargo trafficking. LLNL has created an experimental test bed for researching potential solutions using (among other techniques) active interrogation with neutrons. Experiments and computational modeling were used to determine the effectiveness of the technique. Chemical weapons materials and high explosives can be detected using neutron activation and simple geometries with little or no intervening material. However in a loaded container there will be nuisance alarms from conflicting signatures resulting from the presence of material between the target and the detector (and the interrogation source). Identifying some elements may require long counting times because of the increased background. We performed some simple signature measurements and simulations of gamma-ray spectra from several chemical simulants. We identified areas where the nuclear data was inadequate to perform detailed computations. We concentrated on the detection of SNM in cargo containers, which will be emphasized here. The goal of the work reported here is to develop a concept for an active neutron interrogation system that can detect small targets of SNM contraband in cargo containers, roughly 5 kg HEU or 1 kg Pu, even when well shielded by a thick cargo. It is essential that the concept be reliable and have low false-positive and false-negative error rates. It also must be rapid to avoid interruption of commerce, completing the analysis in minutes. A potentially viable concept for cargo interrogation has been developed and its components have been evaluated experimentally. A new radiation signature unique to SNM has been identified that utilizes high-energy, fission-product gamma rays. That signature due to {gamma}-radiation in the range 3-6 MeV is distinct from normal background radioactivity that does not extend above 2.6 MeV. It

  13. VAMP4 Is an Essential Cargo Molecule for Activity-Dependent Bulk Endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson-Fish, Jessica C; Kokotos, Alexandros C; Gillingwater, Thomas H; Smillie, Karen J; Cousin, Michael A

    2015-12-02

    The accurate formation of synaptic vesicles (SVs) and incorporation of their protein cargo during endocytosis is critical for the maintenance of neurotransmission. During intense neuronal activity, a transient and acute accumulation of SV cargo occurs at the plasma membrane. Activity-dependent bulk endocytosis (ADBE) is the dominant SV endocytosis mode under these conditions; however, it is currently unknown how ADBE mediates cargo retrieval. We examined the retrieval of different SV cargo molecules during intense stimulation using a series of genetically encoded pH-sensitive reporters in neuronal cultures. The retrieval of only one reporter, VAMP4-pHluorin, was perturbed by inhibiting ADBE. This selective recovery was confirmed by the enrichment of endogenous VAMP4 in purified bulk endosomes formed by ADBE. VAMP4 was also essential for ADBE, with a cytoplasmic di-leucine motif being critical for this role. Therefore, VAMP4 is the first identified ADBE cargo and is essential for this endocytosis mode to proceed.

  14. Structural Basis of Cargo Recognition by Unconventional Myosins in Cellular Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianchao; Lu, Qing; Zhang, Mingjie

    2016-08-01

    Unconventional myosins are a superfamily of actin-based molecular motors playing diverse roles including cellular trafficking, mechanical supports, force sensing and transmission, etc. The variable neck and tail domains of unconventional myosins function to bind to specific cargoes including proteins and lipid vesicles and thus are largely responsible for the diverse cellular functions of myosins in vivo. In addition, the tail regions, together with their cognate cargoes, can regulate activities of the motor heads. This review outlines the advances made in recent years on cargo recognition and cargo binding-induced regulation of the activity of several unconventional myosins including myosin-I, V, VI and X in cellular trafficking. We approach this topic by describing a series of high-resolution structures of the neck and tail domains of these unconventional myosins either alone or in complex with their specific cargoes, and by discussing potential implications of these structural studies on cellular trafficking of these myosin motors.

  15. Explosion impacts during transport of hazardous cargo: GIS-based characterization of overpressure impacts and delineation of flammable zones for ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inanloo, Bahareh; Tansel, Berrin

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate accidental releases of ammonia followed by an en-route incident in an attempt to further predict the consequences of hazardous cargo accidents. The air dispersion model Areal Locations of Hazardous Atmospheres (ALOHA) was employed to track the probable outcomes of a hazardous material release of a tanker truck under different explosion scenarios. The significance of identification of the flammable zones was taken into consideration; in case the flammable vapor causes an explosion. The impacted areas and the severity of the probable destructions were evaluated for an explosion by considering the overpressure waves. ALOHA in conjunction with ArcGIS was used to delineate the flammable and overpressure impact zones for different scenarios. Based on the results, flammable fumes were formed in oval shapes having a chief axis along the wind direction at the time of release. The expansions of the impact areas under the overpressure value which can lead to property damage for 2 and 20 tons releases, under very stable and unstable atmospheric conditions were estimated to be around 1708, 1206; 3742, 3527 feet, respectively, toward the wind direction. A sensitivity analysis was done to assess the significance of wind speed on the impact zones. The insight provided by this study can be utilized by decision makers in transportation of hazardous materials as a guide for possible rerouting, rescheduling, or limiting the quantity of hazardous cargo to reduce the possible impacts after hazardous cargo accidents during transport.

  16. Discussion on the Logistics Construction of Railway Container Freight Stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟永林; 张锦

    2002-01-01

    From the perspective of logistics, the article discusses some essential functions and service functions of railway container freight stations. Then it plans the construction of the logistics operation system of container freight stations, and designs five main operating yards such as deconsolidation and groupage yard, storage and distribution yard, container receiving-departure yard, container stack yard, and special cargo yard. The management pattern is discussed under the direction of modern business management theory. The ideas presented in this article is significant to the construction of railway container freight stations.

  17. A container

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    A container assembly for the containment of fluids or solids under a pressure different from the ambient pressure comprising a container (2) comprising an opening and an annular sealing, a lid (3) comprising a central portion (5) and engagement means (7) for engaging the annular flange, and seali...

  18. 46 CFR 38.05-3 - Design and construction of pressure vessel type cargo tanks-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design and construction of pressure vessel type cargo... LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Design and Installation § 38.05-3 Design and construction of pressure vessel type cargo tanks—TB/ALL. (a) Cargo tanks of pressure vessel configuration (e.g. cylindrical, spherical,...

  19. 78 FR 21037 - Special Conditions: Airbus Model A330-200 Airplanes; Bulk Cargo Lower Deck Crew Rest Compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... Cargo Lower Deck Crew Rest Compartments AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... unusual design feature associated with the installation of bulk cargo lower deck crew rest compartments... supplemental type certificate to install a bulk cargo lower deck crew rest compartment in the Airbus Model...

  20. 49 CFR 176.84 - Other requirements for stowage and segregation for cargo vessels and passenger vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... May be stowed in portable magazine or metal locker. 16 No other cargo may be stowed in the same hold... solids. 101 Stow “separated from” iron oxide. 102 Stow “separated from” all odor absorbing cargoes. 103... must be steel. 15E On deck, cargo transport unit must be leakproof. 17E On deck stowage is...

  1. A Dual-Purpose Ion-Accelerator for Nuclear-Reaction-Based Explosives-and SNM-Detection in Massive Cargo

    CERN Document Server

    Goldberg, M B; Vartsky, D; Bar, D; Böttger, R; Brandis, M; Bromberger, B; Feldman, G; Friedman, E; Heflinger, D; Lauck, R; Löb, S; Maier-Komor, P; Mardor, I; Mor, I; Speidel, K -H; Tittelmeier, K; Weierganz, M

    2010-01-01

    A dual-purpose ion-accelerator concept, capable of serving as radiation source in a versatile, nuclear-reaction-based cargo inspection system, is presented. The system will automatically and reliably detect small, operationally-relevant quantities of concealed explosives and special nuclear materials (SNM). It will be cost-effective, employing largely-common hardware, but different reactions/DAQ-modes. Typical expected throughput is 10-20 aviation containers/hr. PACS: 25.20.Dc; 25.40.Ny; 27.20.+n; 29.27.Fh; 79.77.+g; 89.20.Bb; 89.20.Dd Keywords: Cargo inspection; Nuclear-reaction-based methods; Explosives detection; SNM detection

  2. ATHLETE: A Cargo-Handling Vehicle for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is developing a vehicle called ATHLETE: the All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer. Each vehicle is based on six wheels at the ends of six multi-degree-of-freedom limbs. Because each limb has enough degrees of freedom for use as a general-purpose leg, the wheels can be locked and used as feet to walk out of excessively soft or other extreme terrain. Since the vehicle has this alternative mode of traversing through or at least out of extreme terrain, the wheels and wheel actuators can be sized for nominal terrain. There are substantial mass savings in the wheel and wheel actuators associated with designing for nominal instead of extreme terrain. These mass savings are comparable-to or larger-than the extra mass associated with the articulated limbs. As a result, the entire mobility system, including wheels and limbs, can be about 25% lighter than a conventional mobility chassis. A side benefit of this approach is that each limb has sufficient degrees-of-freedom to use as a general-purpose manipulator (hence the name "limb" instead of "leg"). Our prototype ATHLETE vehicles have quick-disconnect tool adapters on the limbs that allow tools to be drawn out of a "tool belt" and maneuvered by the limb. A power-take-off from the wheel actuates the tools, so that they can take advantage of the 1+ horsepower motor in each wheel to enable drilling, gripping or other power-tool functions. Architectural studies have indicated that one useful role for ATHLETE in planetary (moon or Mars) exploration is to "walk" cargo off the payload deck of a lander and transport it across the surface. Recent architectural approaches are focused on the concept that the lander descent stage will use liquid hydrogen as a propellant. This is the highest performance chemical fuel, but it requires very large tanks. A natural geometry for the lander is to have a single throttleable rocket engine on

  3. 29 CFR 1917.71 - Terminals handling intermodal containers or roll-on roll-off operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or by grappling arms from above or from one side may be done only if the container is designed for... equipment used to transport containers shall be marked with their cargo capacities and shall not be...) Transporting vertically coupled containers. (1) Equipment other than cranes used to transport...

  4. Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory contains measured and estimated data on ambient air pollution for use in assessing air quality, assisting in...

  5. Advanced analysis of the transverse bulkhead of the a general cargo ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axinte, T.; Nutu, C.; Stanca, C.; Cupsa, O.; Carp, A.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents the main strength factors stressing the transverse bulkhead of a cargo ship. The transverse bulkhead is one of the main components of the hull for a general cargo vessel. There are presented the role and the importance of the general cargo vessel's type using an original drawing made in NX 8.0 Software from Siemens. Further on, we are presented the importance of the transverse bulkhead of the general cargo ship's hull. Next there are analysed the formability of the transverse bulkhead's material and then we are determining the shear, normal and von Mises stresses in the traverse bulkhead, using the finite element method. Once the stresses are computed, there are also determined the fatigue life, strength safety factor and fatigue safety factor. The analysis of the transverse bulkhead is important for the safety of the general cargo vessel type because if this component of the ship does not resist to the various stresses and high deformations during bad storms on the sea or if the cargo is stored inappropriately, deformations or even breakage of the transverse bulkhead can occur, thus causing damages of the cargo ship, especially under heavy storm.

  6. Mechanisms for exporting large-sized cargoes from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kota; Katada, Toshiaki

    2015-10-01

    Cargo proteins exported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus are typically transported in coat protein complex II (COPII)-coated vesicles of 60-90 nm diameter. Several cargo molecules including collagens and chylomicrons form structures that are too large to be accommodated by these vesicles, but their secretion still requires COPII proteins. Here, we first review recent progress on large cargo secretions derived especially from animal models and human diseases, which indicate the importance of COPII proteins. We then discuss the recent isolation of specialized factors that modulate the process of COPII-dependent cargo formation to facilitate the exit of large-sized cargoes from the endoplasmic reticulum. Based on these findings, we propose a model that describes the importance of the GTPase cycle for secretion of oversized cargoes. Next, we summarize reports that describe the structures of COPII proteins and how these results provide insight into the mechanism of assembly of the large cargo carriers. Finally, we discuss what issues remain to be solved in the future.

  7. A propagating ATPase gradient drives transport of surface-confined cellular cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiarelli, Anthony G; Neuman, Keir C; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi

    2014-04-01

    The faithful segregation of duplicated genetic material into daughter cells is critical to all organisms. In many bacteria, the segregation of chromosomes involves transport of "centromere-like" loci over the main body of the chromosome, the nucleoid, mediated by a two-protein partition system: a nonspecific DNA-binding ATPase, ParA, and an ATPase stimulator, ParB, which binds to the centromere-like loci. These systems have previously been proposed to function through a filament-based mechanism, analogous to actin- or microtubule-based movement. Here, we reconstituted the F-plasmid partition system using a DNA-carpeted flow cell as an artificial nucleoid surface and magnetic beads coated with plasmid partition complexes as surface-confined cargo. This minimal system recapitulated directed cargo motion driven by a surface ATPase gradient that propagated with the cargo. The dynamics are consistent with a diffusion-ratchet model, whereby the cargo dynamically establishes, and interacts with, a concentration gradient of the ATPase. A chemophoresis force ensues as the cargo perpetually chases the ATPase gradient, allowing the cargo to essentially "surf" the nucleoid on a continuously traveling wave of the ATPase. Demonstration of this non-filament-based motility mechanism in a biological context establishes a distinct class of motor system used for the transport and positioning of large cellular cargo.

  8. Early endosomal escape of a cyclic cell-penetrating peptide allows effective cytosolic cargo delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ziqing; LaRochelle, Jonathan R; Jiang, Bisheng; Lian, Wenlong; Hard, Ryan L; Selner, Nicholas G; Luechapanichkul, Rinrada; Barrios, Amy M; Pei, Dehua

    2014-06-24

    Cyclic heptapeptide cyclo(FΦRRRRQ) (cFΦR4, where Φ is l-2-naphthylalanine) was recently found to be efficiently internalized by mammalian cells. In this study, its mechanism of internalization was investigated by perturbing various endocytic events through the introduction of pharmacologic agents and genetic mutations. The results show that cFΦR4 binds directly to membrane phospholipids, is internalized into human cancer cells through endocytosis, and escapes from early endosomes into the cytoplasm. Its cargo capacity was examined with a wide variety of molecules, including small-molecule dyes, linear and cyclic peptides of various charged states, and proteins. Depending on the nature of the cargos, they may be delivered by endocyclic (insertion of cargo into the cFΦR4 ring), exocyclic (attachment of cargo to the Gln side chain), or bicyclic approaches (fusion of cFΦR4 and cyclic cargo rings). The overall delivery efficiency (i.e., delivery of cargo into the cytoplasm and nucleus) of cFΦR4 was 4-12-fold higher than those of nonaarginine, HIV Tat-derived peptide, or penetratin. The higher delivery efficiency, coupled with superior serum stability, minimal toxicity, and synthetic accessibility, renders cFΦR4 a useful transporter for intracellular cargo delivery and a suitable system for investigating the mechanism of endosomal escape.

  9. ATMOSPHERE PROTECTION IN CASE OF EMERGENCY DURING TRANSPORTATION OF DANGEROUS CARGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Berlov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper highlights the development of numerical models for prediction of atmospheric pollution in case of burning of the solid rocket propellant in a railway car, situated near the building on railway territory. These models can be used in predicting the effectiveness of neutralization upon the atmosphere protection for this type of accidents. Methodology.To solve this problem the numerical models based on the use of Navier-Stokes equations, to determine the velocity field of the wind flow near cars and buildings, and contaminants-transfer equations in the atmosphere were developed. For the numerical integration of pollutant transport equation was used implicit «change – triangle» difference scheme. When constructing a difference scheme physical and geometric cleavage of the transfer equation is carried out in four steps. Unknown value of pollutant concentration at each step of cleavage is determined by the explicit scheme – the method of «point-to-point computation». For the numerical integration of the Navier-Stokes equations are used implicit difference schemes. When carrying out computing experiment also takes into account: the velocity profile of wind flow; interaction between the building and the wind flow and flame jet of solid rocket propellant; the presence of a railroad car; inside which there is a source of pollution; instability of pollutant emissions. On the basis of constructed numerical models was performed the computer experiment for assessing the level of air pollution at dangerous cargo rail transportation in case of emergency at railway territory.The application calculations for the timely combustion products neutralization of solid rocket propellant were carried out. Findings. The numerical models that let promptly calculate air contamination in case of emergency during solid rocket propellant transportation, as well as calculate the rational parameters of pollutant neutralization process were developed by

  10. The Extracellular Vesicles of the Helminth Pathogen, Fasciola hepatica: Biogenesis Pathways and Cargo Molecules Involved in Parasite Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwiklinski, Krystyna; de la Torre-Escudero, Eduardo; Trelis, Maria; Bernal, Dolores; Dufresne, Philippe J; Brennan, Gerard P; O'Neill, Sandra; Tort, Jose; Paterson, Steve; Marcilla, Antonio; Dalton, John P; Robinson, Mark W

    2015-12-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by parasites have important roles in establishing and maintaining infection. Analysis of the soluble and vesicular secretions of adult Fasciola hepatica has established a definitive characterization of the total secretome of this zoonotic parasite. Fasciola secretes at least two subpopulations of EVs that differ according to size, cargo molecules and site of release from the parasite. The larger EVs are released from the specialized cells that line the parasite gastrodermus and contain the zymogen of the 37 kDa cathepsin L peptidase that performs a digestive function. The smaller exosome-like vesicle population originate from multivesicular bodies within the tegumental syncytium and carry many previously described immunomodulatory molecules that could be delivered into host cells. By integrating our proteomics data with recently available transcriptomic data sets we have detailed the pathways involved with EV biogenesis in F. hepatica and propose that the small exosome biogenesis occurs via ESCRT-dependent MVB formation in the tegumental syncytium before being shed from the apical plasma membrane. Furthermore, we found that the molecular "machinery" required for EV biogenesis is constitutively expressed across the intramammalian development stages of the parasite. By contrast, the cargo molecules packaged within the EVs are developmentally regulated, most likely to facilitate the parasites migration through host tissue and to counteract host immune attack.

  11. Air Cargo Development in the Regional Airports of the Baltic Sea Region Through Road Feeder Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beifert Anatoli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As issued in the Competition Policy Brief on the new state aid rules for a competitive aviation industry by the Competition Directorate-General of the European Commission in February 20141, it will be more difficult for unprofitable airports, to obtain financial public subsidies on EU, national or regional level. Although the positive impact of small airports on the regional development and general accessibility was mentioned, still the operating aid to the airports shall be cut out over a maximum of 10 years. It has been further stated that the vast majority of small and regional airports experience problems to cover their running operative costs, as a result from an intensive market competition and overlapping of airports’ catchment areas preventing even some promising airports from growth. Public subsidies are mostly used by the airport management for infrastructural investments, to cover operating losses or to attract price-sensitive airlines. Herewith, among other things, the EU Commission is pointing out at the lack of cooperation structures and network strategies among the regional airports and at rather isolated and individual approach during elaboration of the airport development scenarios. However, the Competition Policy Brief permits public aid to regional airports, among other things if there is sufficient transports need to establish transition periods for small airports; the need for more flexibility of the regional airports in the remote areas has been underlined. The EU Commission is expecting herewith not to close the regional airports, but to stimulate them to operate on cost efficient and profitable basis, and that only the most inefficient airports will be closed.

  12. Aviation Security: Background and Policy Options for Screening and Securing Air Cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-25

    Available at [http://www.ntsb.gov]. 26 See 49 CFR §1544.202. California. His only luggage was a guitar case that concealed hammers, mallets, a knife, and a...Nonetheless, commercial products using millimeter wave imaging are currently available for application in standoff scanning of a wide variety of objects...identifier technology in airport access control systems; a list of products and vendors meeting these specifications; and specific procedures for

  13. Sugar exported: sugar packed in containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Yemal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study in the port sector specialized in handling of bagged sugar. Sugar has always been exported in bags of 50 kg, placed directly in the holds of ships for general cargo. It appears that this form of transport has become obsolete now, the market for the direct form of transport of sugar packed in containers. Companies involved in this type of port handling need understand the reasons that are influencing this new mode of transportation as a way to fit and remain active and competitive in the industry.

  14. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  15. Air/liquid collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Østergaard; Olesen, Ole; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    1997-01-01

    This report determine efficiency equations for combined air/liquid solar collectors by measurements on to different air/liquid collectors. Equations which contain all relevant informations on the solar collectors. A simulation program (Kviksol) has been modified in order to be able to handle...

  16. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  17. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  18. Accessory Interaction Motifs in the Atg19 Cargo Receptor Enable Strong Binding to the Clustered Ubiquitin-related Atg8 Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abert, Christine; Kontaxis, Georg; Martens, Sascha

    2016-09-02

    Selective autophagy contributes to cellular homeostasis by delivering harmful material into the lysosomal system for degradation via vesicular intermediates referred to as autophagosomes. The cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting pathway is a variant of selective autophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during which hydrolases such as prApe1 are transported into the vacuole. In general, selectivity is achieved by autophagic cargo receptors that link the cargo to autophagosomal membranes because of their ability to simultaneously interact with the cargo and Atg8 proteins that coat the membrane. The Atg19 receptor contains multiple Atg8 interaction sites in its C terminus in addition to a canonical Atg8-interacting LC3-interacting region (LIR, with LC3 being a homolog of Atg8) motif, but their mode of interaction with Atg8 is unclear. Here we show, using a combination of NMR, microscopy-based interaction assays, and prApe1 processing experiments, that two additional sites interact with Atg8 in a LIR-like and thus mutually exclusive manner. We term these motifs accessory LIR motifs because their affinities are lower than that of the canonical LIR motif. Thus, one Atg19 molecule has the ability to interact with multiple Atg8 proteins simultaneously, resulting in a high-avidity interaction that may confer specific binding to the Atg8-coated autophagosomal membrane on which Atg8 is concentrated.

  19. Polymeric nanocapsules with up-converting nanocrystals cargo make ideal fluorescent bioprobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazylińska, U.; Wawrzyńczyk, D.; Kulbacka, J.; Frąckowiak, R.; Cichy, B.; Bednarkiewicz, A.; Samoć, M.; Wilk, K. A.

    2016-07-01

    An innovative approach for up-converting nanoparticles adaptation for bio-related and theranostic applications is presented. We have successfully encapsulated multiple, ~8 nm in size NaYF4 nanoparticles inside the polymeric nanocarriers with average size of ~150 nm. The initial coating of nanoparticles surfaces was preserved due to the hydrophobic environment inside the nanocapsules, and thus no single nanoparticle surface functionalization was necessary. The selection of biodegradable and sugar-based polyelectrolyte shells ensured biocompatibility of the nanostructures, while the choice of Tm3+ and Yb3+ NaYF4 nanoparticles co-doping allowed for near-infrared to near-infrared bioimaging of healthy and cancerous cell lines. The protective role of organic shell resulted in not only preserved high up-converted emission intensity and long luminescence lifetimes, without quenching from water environment, but also ensured low cytotoxicity and high cellular uptake of the engineered nanocapsules. The multifunctionality of the proposed nanocarriers is a consequence of both the organic exterior part that is accessible for conjugation with biologically important molecules, and the hydrophobic interior, which in future application may be used as a container for co-encapsulation of inorganic nanoparticles and anticancer drug cargo.

  20. 考虑货舱绝热层压力的薄膜型LNG 船相关操作要领%Related Operation Essentials of Membrane Types LNG Carriers on Considering the Pressure of Cargo Tank and Insulation Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何庆华; 尹建川; 章文俊

    2015-01-01

    针对No 96和Mark III两种薄膜型LNG船的屏壁非常薄,承受压力的范围有限的问题,为保证货舱安全,比较分析这两种船型的货物围护系统、货舱和主次绝热层正常压力范围,以及引起压力过高和过低的原因,介绍货舱压力升高、降低可能触发的报警,总结薄膜型LNG船货物操作过程中应注意的问题。%Considering the pressure of cargo tanks of membrane type LNG carrier including No 96 and Mark III can bear is limited due to their very thin barriers, in order to protect cargo tanks, cargo containment systems of the two types of LNG carriers are interpreted, as well as the routine working pressure range of cargo tanks and insulation spaces of these two membrane types LNG carrier.The reasons of over pressure and under pressure are also presented.The alarms may be activated due to high or low pressure of cargo tanks are specified, and the precautions to be paid during cargo operations for LNG carrier are summarized.

  1. Container II

    OpenAIRE

    Baraklianou, Stella

    2016-01-01

    Container II, self-published artists book.\\ud The book was made on the occasion of the artists residency at the Banff Arts Centre, in Alberta Canada. \\ud \\ud Container II is a performative piece, it worked in conjunction with the photographic installation "Stage Set: Cool Tone" . (photographic floor installation, Reclaimed wood, frames, 130x145cm, 2016) \\ud The photographic installation was also part of the artists residency titled "New Materiality" at the Banff Arts Centre. \\ud \\ud Limited E...

  2. 49 CFR 180.407 - Requirements for test and inspection of specification cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... appurtenances and structural attachments on the cargo tank including, but not limited to, suspension system...; (vii) Areas near upper coupler (fifth wheel) assembly attachments; (viii) Areas near suspension system... PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS...

  3. Bidirectional transport of motor-driven cargoes in cell: A random walk with memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Deepak; Gopalakrishnan, Manoj

    2013-02-01

    Motor-driven bidirectional transport inside a cell is an intriguing phenomenon where multiple dyneins and kinesins drag cargoes and deliver them to specific locations. Quite often, both anterograde (plus) and retrograde (minus) directed motors reside simultaneously on the cargo and co-ordinate their activity such that the motion of the cargo looks like spells of plus directed and minus directed segments, with pauses in between. The stochastic tug-of-war model is widely used to analyze this motion, largely studied by computer simulations. Here, we present some analytical results for this model, such as the average durations of plus and minus-run segments and tug-of-war events as well as probabilities of persistence and reversal of directions following a tug-of-war. We show that cargo motion has memory in case of 2 dyneins and 1 kinesin driving together, while it is absent when only a dynein and a kinesin is involved.

  4. 46 CFR 38.05-10 - Installation of cargo tanks-general-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... including testing for the hull and integral tanks. In the application of the requirements for the hydrostatic test of the cargo tanks, the hydrostatic test shall in no case be less severe than the...

  5. Hybridization of General Cargo Ships to meet the Required Energy Efficiency Design Index

    OpenAIRE

    Øverleir, Magnus Anders

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis a hybrid propulsion system is proposed for a general cargo ship with the aim to meet the required Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI). The study has investigated how a hybrid propulsion system will influence the ship s EEDI value and fuel economy. The central problem is the coming challenge for the general cargo segment meeting the required efficiency value. Especially small vessels (3 000-15 000 DWT) with high speed will have troubles complying with the stricter regulations....

  6. Experimental Research on Influence of Some Factors on Ejection Height of Cargo Projectile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郁浩; 王晓天; 李欣; 李纪敏

    2012-01-01

    Some factors influencing the cargo projectile's ejection height in different conditions were analyzed by using harmonic curve diagram and cluster method.The test results of the ejection height for a certain cargo projectile show that the wind speed and direction are the main influence factors.For given meteorological conditions,the applied environmental stress becomes the main cause,while the launching angle does not influence the ejection height.

  7. Design of a Large Span-Distributed Load Flying-Wing Cargo Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernell, L. S.; Quartero, C. B.

    1977-01-01

    The design and operation of very large, long-range, subsonic cargo aircraft are considered. A design concept which distributes the payload along the wingspan to counterbalance the aerodynamic loads, with a resultant decrease in the in-flight wing bending moments and shear forces, is described. The decreased loading of the wing structure, coupled with the very thick wing housing the cargo, results in a relatively low overall structural weight in comparison to that of conventional aircraft.

  8. Underwater Photogrammetry and 3d Reconstruction of Marble Cargos Shipwreck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balletti, C.; Beltrame, C.; Costa, E.; Guerra, F.; Vernier, P.

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays archaeological and architectural surveys are based on the acquisition and processing of point clouds, allowing a high metric precision, essential prerequisite for a good documentation. Digital image processing and laser scanner have changed the archaeological survey campaign, from manual and direct survey to a digital one and, actually, multi-image photogrammetry is a good solution for the underwater archaeology. This technical documentation cannot operate alone, but it has to be supported by a topographical survey to georeference all the finds in the same reference system. In the last years the Ca' Foscari and IUAV University of Venice are conducting a research on integrated survey techniques to support underwater metric documentation. The paper will explain all the phases regarding the survey's design, images acquisition, topographic measure and the data processing of two Roman shipwrecks in south Sicily. The cargos of the shipwrecks are composed by huge marble blocks, but they are different for morphological characteristic of the sites, for the depth and for their distribution on the seabed. Photogrammetrical and topographical surveys were organized in two distinct methods, especially for the second one, due to the depth that have allowed an experimentation of GPS RTK's measurements on one shipwreck. Moreover, this kind of three-dimensional documentation is useful for educational and dissemination aspect, for the ease of understanding by wide public.

  9. Mulheres em cargos profissionais de chefia: o paradoxo da igualdade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabia Alberton de Silva Galvane

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O artigo aqui apresentado foi construído a partir de informações obtidas em uma pesquisa realizada no ano de 2009, apresentada como Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso da Psicologia, ao Centro Universitário Barriga Verde - UNIBAVE (GALVANE, 2009. A pesquisa teve como objetivo geral verificar os sentidos produzidos por mulheres que ocupam cargos de chefia em indústrias de uma cidade do sul de Santa Catarina, Brasil. O modelo de pesquisa foi o qualitativo proposto por González Rey (2005. Os sujeitos da pesquisa foram sete mulheres e as informações obtidas por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas. Neste artigo, propõe-se revisar informações obtidas e ampliar discussões outrora realizadas, utilizando-se das contribuições teóricas de Joan Scott e Judith Butler. Entre outras questões relevantes, o estudo sugere que as entrevistadas utilizam concepções baseadas em “certa essência feminina” como estratégia de visibilidade, permanência e poder no mercado de trabalho.

  10. Stochastic simulations of cargo transport by processive molecular motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Christian B; Klumpp, Stefan; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Schwarz, Ulrich S

    2009-12-28

    We use stochastic computer simulations to study the transport of a spherical cargo particle along a microtubule-like track on a planar substrate by several kinesin-like processive motors. Our newly developed adhesive motor dynamics algorithm combines the numerical integration of a Langevin equation for the motion of a sphere with kinetic rules for the molecular motors. The Langevin part includes diffusive motion, the action of the pulling motors, and hydrodynamic interactions between sphere and wall. The kinetic rules for the motors include binding to and unbinding from the filament as well as active motor steps. We find that the simulated mean transport length increases exponentially with the number of bound motors, in good agreement with earlier results. The number of motors in binding range to the motor track fluctuates in time with a Poissonian distribution, both for springs and cables being used as models for the linker mechanics. Cooperativity in the sense of equal load sharing only occurs for high values for viscosity and attachment time.

  11. Multivalent viral capsids with internal cargo for fibrin imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allie C Obermeyer

    Full Text Available Thrombosis is the cause of many cardiovascular syndromes and is a significant contributor to life-threatening diseases, such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Thrombus targeted imaging agents have the capability to provide molecular information about pathological clots, potentially improving detection, risk stratification, and therapy of thrombosis-related diseases. Nanocarriers are a promising platform for the development of molecular imaging agents as they can be modified to have external targeting ligands and internal functional cargo. In this work, we report the synthesis and use of chemically functionalized bacteriophage MS2 capsids as biomolecule-based nanoparticles for fibrin imaging. The capsids were modified using an oxidative coupling reaction, conjugating ∼90 copies of a fibrin targeting peptide to the exterior of each protein shell. The ability of the multivalent, targeted capsids to bind fibrin was first demonstrated by determining the impact on thrombin-mediated clot formation. The modified capsids out-performed the free peptides and were shown to inhibit clot formation at effective concentrations over ten-fold lower than the monomeric peptide alone. The installation of near-infrared fluorophores on the interior surface of the capsids enabled optical detection of binding to fibrin clots. The targeted capsids bound to fibrin, exhibiting higher signal-to-background than control, non-targeted MS2-based nanoagents. The in vitro assessment of the capsids suggests that fibrin-targeted MS2 capsids could be used as delivery agents to thrombi for diagnostic or therapeutic applications.

  12. Regulation of cargo-selective endocytosis by dynamin 2 GTPase-activating protein girdin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Liang; Enomoto, Atsushi; Miyoshi, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kiyofumi; Asai, Naoya; Morone, Nobuhiro; Jiang, Ping; An, Jian; Kato, Takuya; Kuroda, Keisuke; Watanabe, Takashi; Asai, Masato; Ishida-Takagishi, Maki; Murakumo, Yoshiki; Nakashima, Hideki; Kaibuchi, Kozo; Takahashi, Masahide

    2014-09-17

    In clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), specificity and selectivity for cargoes are thought to be tightly regulated by cargo-specific adaptors for distinct cellular functions. Here, we show that the actin-binding protein girdin is a regulator of cargo-selective CME. Girdin interacts with dynamin 2, a GTPase that excises endocytic vesicles from the plasma membrane, and functions as its GTPase-activating protein. Interestingly, girdin depletion leads to the defect in clathrin-coated pit formation in the center of cells. Also, we find that girdin differentially interacts with some cargoes, which competitively prevents girdin from interacting with dynamin 2 and confers the cargo selectivity for CME. Therefore, girdin regulates transferrin and E-cadherin endocytosis in the center of cells and their subsequent polarized intracellular localization, but has no effect on integrin and epidermal growth factor receptor endocytosis that occurs at the cell periphery. Our results reveal that girdin regulates selective CME via a mechanism involving dynamin 2, but not by operating as a cargo-specific adaptor.

  13. El sistema de cargos en San Bernardino de Milpillas Chico, Durango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Cramaussel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La principal estructura política de los tepehuanos es el sistema de cargos. En San Bernardino de Milpillas, Durango, los cargos de la Iglesia son diferentes a los del gobierno tradicional. Los segundos parecen apegarse más a las culturales locales, aunque los cargos de la Iglesia han sido objeto de transformaciones significativas para excluir a los ministros católicos en las ceremonias cristianas. La fiesta de la Candelaria, que precede a la toma de posesión de los nuevos “empleados”, muestra que los aspectos civiles de los cargos son indisociables de los rituales religiosos. Los cargos reunían funciones militares, judiciales y económicas, pero éstas han ido perdiendo vigencia por la violencia y por la compañía forestal, una notable fuente de recursos. Sin embargo, por el sistema de cargos los mestizos de Milpillas se han integrado a la organización política y la cultura de los tepehuanos.

  14. External forces influence the elastic coupling effects during cargo transport by molecular motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Florian; Keller, Corina; Klumpp, Stefan; Lipowsky, Reinhard

    2015-02-01

    Cellular transport is achieved by the cooperative action of molecular motors which are elastically linked to a common cargo. When the motors pull on the cargo at the same time, they experience fluctuating elastic strain forces induced by the stepping of the other motors. These elastic coupling forces can influence the motors' stepping and unbinding behavior and thereby the ability to transport cargos. Based on a generic single motor description, we introduce a framework that explains the response of two identical molecular motors to a constant external force. In particular, we relate the single motor parameters, the coupling strength and the external load force to the dynamics of the motor pair. We derive four distinct transport regimes and determine how the crossover lines between the regimes depend on the load force. Our description of the overall cargo dynamics takes into account relaxational displacements of the cargo caused by the unbinding of one motor. For large forces and weak elastic coupling these back-shifts dominate the displacements. To develop an intuitive understanding about motor cooperativity during cargo transport, we introduce a time scale for load sharing. This time scale allows us to predict how the regulation of single motor parameters influences the cooperativity. As an example, we show that up-regulating the single motor processivity enhances load sharing of the motor pair.

  15. Irradiation Effects for the Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA) Cargo Interrogation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, C.O.

    2001-02-02

    At the request of Safety and Ecology Corporation of Tennessee, radiation effects of the proposed Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA) Cargo Interrogation System have been examined. First, fissile cargo were examined to determine if a significant neutron signal would be observable during interrogation. Results indicated that ample multiplication would be seen for near critical bare targets. The water-reflected sphere showed relatively little multiplication. By implication, a fissile target shielded by hydrogenous cargo might not be detectable by neutron interrogation, particularly if reliance is placed on the neutron signal. The cargo may be detectable if use can be made of the ample increase in the photon signal. Second, dose rates were calculated at various locations within and just outside the facility building. These results showed that some dose rates may be higher than the target dose rate of 0.05 mrem/h. However, with limited exposure time, the total dose may be well below the allowed total dose. Lastly, estimates were made of the activation of structures and typical cargo. Most cargo will not be exposed long enough to be activated to levels of concern. On the other hand, portions of the structure may experience buildup of some radionuclides to levels of concern.

  16. Cargo-towing synthetic nanomachines: towards active transport in microchip devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joseph

    2012-05-08

    This review article discusses the use of synthetic catalytic nano motors for cargo manipulations and for developing miniaturized lab-on-chip systems based on autonomous transport. The ability of using chemically-powered artificial nanomotors to capture, transport and release therapeutic payloads or nanostructured biomaterials represents one of the next major prospects for nanomotor development. The increased cargo-towing force of such self-propelled nanomotors, along with their precise motion control within microchannel networks, versatility and facile functionalization, pave the way to new integrated functional lab-on-a-chip powered by active transport and perform a series of tasks. Such use of cargo-towing artificial nanomotors has been inspired by on-chip kinesin molecular shuttles. Functionalized nano/microscale motors can thus be used to pick a selected nano/microscale chemical or biological payload target at the right place, transport and deliver them to a target location in a timely manner. Key challenges for using synthetic nanomachines for driving transport processes along microchannel networks are discussed, including loading and unloading of cargo and precise motion control, along with recent examples of related cargo manipulation processes and guided transport in lab-on-a-chip formats. The exciting research area of cargo-carrying catalytic man-made nanomachines is expected to grow rapidly, to lead to new lab-on-a-chip formats and to provide a wide range of future microchip opportunities.

  17. 46 CFR 151.25-1 - Cargo tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... continuously swept with air by means of blowers or other mechanical devices requiring power. (d) Ventilated... without the use of blowers or other mechanical devices requiring power (e.g., “chimney-effect”...

  18. Shipboard monitoring of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in Asia and Oceania using commercially cargo vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, H.; Tanimoto, H.; Mukai, H.; Nojiri, Y.; Tohjima, Y.; Machida, T.; Hashimoto, S.

    2011-12-01

    The National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) has been performing a long-term program for monitoring trace gases of atmospheric importance over the Pacific Ocean since 1995. The NIES Voluntary Observing Ships (NIES-VOS) program currently makes use of commercial cargo vessels because they operate regularly over fixed routes for long periods and sail over a wide area between various ports (e.g., between Japan and the United States, between Japan and Australia/New Zealand, and between Japan and southeast Asia). This program allows systematic and continuous measurements of non-CO2 greenhouse gases, providing long-term datasets for background air over the Pacific Ocean and regionally polluted air around east Asia. We observe both long-lived greenhouse gases (e.g., carbon dioxide) and short-lived air pollutants (e.g., tropospheric ozone, carbon monoxide) on a continuous basis. Flask samples are collected for later laboratory analysis of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon monoxide by using gas chromatographic techniques. In addition, we recently installed cavity ringdown spectrometers for high-resolution measurement of methane and carbon dioxide to capture their highly variable features in regionally polluted air around southeast Asia (e.g., Hong Kong, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and Philippine), which is now thought to be a large source due to expanding socioeconomic activities as well as biomass burnings. Contrasting the Japan-Australia/New Zealand and Japan-southeast Asia cruises revealed regional characteristics of sources and sinks of these atmospherically important species, suggesting the existence of additional sources for methane, nitrous oxides, and carbon monoxide in this tropical Asian region.

  19. FAM21 directs SNX27-retromer cargoes to the plasma membrane by preventing transport to the Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seongju; Chang, Jaerak; Blackstone, Craig

    2016-03-09

    The endosomal network maintains cellular homeostasis by sorting, recycling and degrading endocytosed cargoes. Retromer organizes the endosomal sorting pathway in conjunction with various sorting nexin (SNX) proteins. The SNX27-retromer complex has recently been identified as a major endosomal hub that regulates endosome-to-plasma membrane recycling by preventing lysosomal entry of cargoes. Here, we show that SNX27 directly interacts with FAM21, which also binds retromer, within the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein and SCAR homologue (WASH) complex. This interaction is required for the precise localization of SNX27 at an endosomal subdomain as well as for recycling of SNX27-retromer cargoes. Furthermore, FAM21 prevents cargo transport to the Golgi apparatus by controlling levels of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, which facilitates cargo dissociation at the Golgi. Together, our results demonstrate that the SNX27-retromer-WASH complex directs cargoes to the plasma membrane by blocking their transport to lysosomes and the Golgi.

  20. 76 FR 10085 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and..., 2011 The following Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air... Airlines, Inc., d/b/a Alpha Cargo, and for reissuance of its certificate of public convenience...

  1. A Systems Engineering Approach to Analyzing Weather Input Sensitivities of the Joint Precision Air Drop System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    British airborne troops “watched in despair as thirty-five Stirling bomber-cargo planes dropped supplies everywhere but on the [drop] zones. Of eighty...must fly the aircraft to a specific point in the sky , known as the Computed Air Release Point (CARP). The CARP is calculated using variables such as

  2. Airborne microorganisms from waste containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, Sabrina S; Stravitz, David M; Lyman, Charles E

    2012-01-01

    In physician's offices and biomedical labs, biological waste is handled every day. This waste is disposed of in waste containers designed for holding red autoclave bags. The containers used in these environments are closed hands-free containers, often with a step pedal. While these containers protect the user from surface-borne microorganisms, the containers may allow airborne microorganisms to escape via the open/close mechanism because of the air current produced upon open/close cycles. In this study, the air current was shown to be sufficient to allow airborne escape of microorganisms held in the container, including Aspergillus niger. However, bacterial cultures, such as Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis did not escape. This may be due to the choice of bacterial cultures and the absence of solid waste, such as dust or other particulate matter in the waste containers, that such strains of bacteria could travel on during aerosolization. We compared these results to those obtained using a re-designed receptacle, which mimimizes air currents, and detected no escaping microorganisms. This study highlights one potential source of airborne contamination in labs, hospitals, and other environments that dispose of biological waste.

  3. The iTRAPs: Guardians of Synaptic Vesicle Cargo Retrieval During Endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sarah L; Cousin, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    The reformation of synaptic vesicles (SVs) during endocytosis is essential for the maintenance of neurotransmission in central nerve terminals. Newly formed SVs must be generated with the correct protein cargo in the correct stoichiometry to be functional for exocytosis. Classical clathrin adaptor protein complexes play a key role in sorting and clustering synaptic vesicle cargo in this regard. However it is becoming increasingly apparent that additional "fail-safe" mechanisms exist to ensure the accurate retrieval of essential cargo molecules. For example, the monomeric adaptor proteins AP180/CALM and stonin-2 are required for the efficient retrieval of synaptobrevin II (sybII) and synaptotagmin-1 respectively. Furthermore, recent studies have revealed that sybII and synaptotagmin-1 interact with other SV cargoes to ensure a high fidelity of retrieval. These cargoes are synaptophysin (for sybII) and SV2A (for synaptotagmin-1). In this review, we summarize current knowledge regarding the retrieval mechanisms for both sybII and synaptotagmin-1 during endocytosis. We also define and set criteria for a new functional group of SV molecules that facilitate the retrieval of their interaction partners. We have termed these molecules intrinsic trafficking partners (iTRAPs) and we discuss how the function of this group impacts on presynaptic performance in both health and disease.

  4. Spiders (Araneae) Found in Bananas and Other International Cargo Submitted to North American Arachnologists for Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S; Crawford, Rodney L; Buckle, Donald J

    2014-11-01

    Spiders found in international cargo brought into North America are sometimes submitted to arachnologists for identification. Often, these spiders are presumed to be of medical importance because of size or a submitter's familiarity with a toxic spider genus from the continent of origin. Starting in 2006, requests were made for spiders found in international cargo brought into North America, in addition to the specimens from similar cargo shipments already in our museum collections. This was an ad hoc study that allowed us to focus on spiders of concern to the discoverer. We identified 135 spiders found in international cargo. A key for the most common species is provided. The most frequently submitted spiders were the pantropical huntsman spider, Heteropoda venatoria (L.) (Sparassidae), and the redfaced banana spider, Cupiennius chiapanensis Medina Soriano (Ctenidae). Spiders of medical importance were rare. The most common cargo from which spiders were submitted was bananas with most specimens coming from Central America, Ecuador, or Colombia. Lack of experience with nonnative fauna caused several experienced American arachnologists to misidentify harmless ctenid spiders (C. chiapanensis, spotlegged banana spider, Cupiennius getazi Simon) as highly toxic Phoneutria spiders. These misidentifications could have led to costly, unwarranted prophylactic eradication measures, unnecessary employee health education, heightened employee anxiety and spoilage when perishable goods are left unloaded due to safety concerns.

  5. LUCID: A Quantitative Assay of ESCRT-Mediated Cargo Sorting into Multivesicular Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Daniel P; Merz, Alexey J

    2015-12-01

    Endosomes are transportation nodes, mediating selective transport of soluble and transmembrane cargos to and from the Golgi apparatus, plasma membrane and lysosomes. As endosomes mature to become multivesicular bodies (MVBs), Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport (ESCRTs) selectively incorporate transmembrane cargos into vesicles that bud into the endosome lumen. Luminal vesicles and their cargoes are targeted for destruction when MVBs fuse with lysosomes. Common assays of endosomal luminal targeting, including fluorescence microscopy and monitoring of proteolytic cargo maturation, possess significant limitations. We present a quantitative assay system called LUCID (LUCiferase reporter of Intraluminal Deposition) that monitors exposure of chimeric luciferase-cargo reporters to cytosol. Luciferase-chimera signal increases when sorting to the endosome lumen is disrupted, and silencing of signal from the chimera depends upon luminal delivery of the reporter rather than proteolytic degradation. The system presents several advantages, including rapidity, microscale operation and a high degree of reproducibility that enables detection of subtle phenotypic differences. Luciferase reporters provide linear signal over an extremely broad dynamic range, allowing analysis of reporter traffic even at anemic levels of expression. Furthermore, LUCID reports transport kinetics when applied to inducible trafficking reporters.

  6. Molecular motors pulling cargos in the viscoelastic cytosol: how power strokes beat subdiffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goychuk, Igor; Kharchenko, Vasyl O; Metzler, Ralf

    2014-08-21

    The discovery of anomalous diffusion of larger biopolymers and submicron tracers such as endogenous granules, organelles, or virus capsids in living cells, attributed to the viscoelastic nature of the cytoplasm, provokes the question whether this complex environment equally impacts the active intracellular transport of submicron cargos by molecular motors such as kinesins: does the passive anomalous diffusion of free cargo always imply its anomalously slow active transport by motors, the mean transport distance along microtubule growing sublinearly rather than linearly in time? Here we analyze this question within the widely used two-state Brownian ratchet model of kinesin motors based on the continuous-state diffusion along microtubules driven by a flashing binding potential, where the cargo particle is elastically attached to the motor. Depending on the cargo size, the loading force, the amplitude of the binding potential, the turnover frequency of the molecular motor enzyme, and the linker stiffness we demonstrate that the motor transport may turn out either normal or anomalous, as indeed measured experimentally. We show how a highly efficient normal active transport mediated by motors may emerge despite the passive anomalous diffusion of the cargo, and study the intricate effects of the elastic linker. Under different, well specified conditions the microtubule-based motor transport becomes anomalously slow and thus significantly less efficient.

  7. Drive the Car(go)s—New Modalities to Control Cargo Trafficking in Live Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Payel; Khamo, John S.; Krishnamurthy, Vishnu V.; Cai, Qi; Zhang, Kai

    2017-01-01

    Synaptic transmission is a fundamental molecular process underlying learning and memory. Successful synaptic transmission involves coupled interaction between electrical signals (action potentials) and chemical signals (neurotransmitters). Defective synaptic transmission has been reported in a variety of neurological disorders such as Autism and Alzheimer’s disease. A large variety of macromolecules and organelles are enriched near functional synapses. Although a portion of macromolecules can be produced locally at the synapse, a large number of synaptic components especially the membrane-bound receptors and peptide neurotransmitters require active transport machinery to reach their sites of action. This spatial relocation is mediated by energy-consuming, motor protein-driven cargo trafficking. Properly regulated cargo trafficking is of fundamental importance to neuronal functions, including synaptic transmission. In this review, we discuss the molecular machinery of cargo trafficking with emphasis on new experimental strategies that enable direct modulation of cargo trafficking in live cells. These strategies promise to provide insights into a quantitative understanding of cargo trafficking, which could lead to new intervention strategies for the treatment of neurological diseases. PMID:28163671

  8. Cargo binding promotes KDEL receptor clustering at the mammalian cell surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Björn; Shaebani, M Reza; Rammo, Domenik; Bubel, Tobias; Santen, Ludger; Schmitt, Manfred J

    2016-06-29

    Transmembrane receptor clustering is a ubiquitous phenomenon in pro- and eukaryotic cells to physically sense receptor/ligand interactions and subsequently translate an exogenous signal into a cellular response. Despite that receptor cluster formation has been described for a wide variety of receptors, ranging from chemotactic receptors in bacteria to growth factor and neurotransmitter receptors in mammalian cells, a mechanistic understanding of the underlying molecular processes is still puzzling. In an attempt to fill this gap we followed a combined experimental and theoretical approach by dissecting and modulating cargo binding, internalization and cellular response mediated by KDEL receptors (KDELRs) at the mammalian cell surface after interaction with a model cargo/ligand. Using a fluorescent variant of ricin toxin A chain as KDELR-ligand (eGFP-RTA(H/KDEL)), we demonstrate that cargo binding induces dose-dependent receptor cluster formation at and subsequent internalization from the membrane which is associated and counteracted by anterograde and microtubule-assisted receptor transport to preferred docking sites at the plasma membrane. By means of analytical arguments and extensive numerical simulations we show that cargo-synchronized receptor transport from and to the membrane is causative for KDELR/cargo cluster formation at the mammalian cell surface.

  9. The iTRAPs: guardians of synaptic vesicle cargo retrieval during endocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Louise Gordon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The reformation of synaptic vesicles during endocytosis is essential for the maintenance of neurotransmission in central nerve terminals. Newly formed synaptic vesicles must be generated with the correct protein cargo in the correct stoichiometry to be functional for exocytosis. Classical clathrin adaptor protein complexes play a key role in sorting and clustering synaptic vesicle cargo in this regard. However it is becoming increasingly apparent that additional fail-safe mechanisms exist to ensure the accurate retrieval of essential cargo molecules. For example, the monomeric adaptor proteins AP180/CALM and stonin-2 are required for the efficient retrieval of synaptobrevin II and synaptotagmin-1 respectively. Furthermore, recent studies have revealed that synaptobrevin II and synaptotagmin-1 interact with other synaptic vesicle cargoes to ensure a high fidelity of retrieval. These cargoes are synaptophysin (for synaptobrevin II and SV2A (for synaptotagmin-1. In this review we summarise current knowledge regarding the retrieval mechanisms for both synaptobrevin II and synaptotagmin-1 during endocytosis. We also define and set criteria for a new functional group of synaptic vesicle molecules that facilitate the retrieval of their interaction partners. We have termed these molecules intrinsic trafficking partners (iTRAPs and we discuss how the function of this group impacts on presynaptic performance in both health and disease.

  10. Analysis on Combined Ventilation System Containing Both Jet Fan and Air Duct Used for Railway Tunnel%铁路隧道射流与洞口风道组合式通风效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾艳华; 周小涵; 袁建刚

    2013-01-01

    Consisting of both jet fan and portal air duct,the combined ventilation system is a critical scientific subject which is focused on all the time by both academic circle and engineering circle.In an internal combustion traction tunnel of more than 5 km long,it is impossible to achieve ideal designed ventilation efficiency only by using jet fans,because the jet fans cannot effectively stop the outflow of the air current from tunnel portal.For this reason,through establishing three-dimensional mechanical model by using FLUENT software of CFD series,this paper researched the influences of critical factors,including the connection ways of jet fans installed at the portal cross-section,the wind velocity of air supply outlet of axial flow fan,and the number of jet fans.The research shows that,after setting up a transition section at the place where the jet fans are,the air current blown from the jet fans can enter into the tunnel smoothly,that is to say,the fresh air can be effectively led into tunnel from the portal.On condition of the same air supply volume,the wind resistance will change with the change of wind velocity at the air supply outlet,which has effect on the fresh air importing from the portal,so the wind velocity should be appropriately weakened at the air supply outlet during design.On condition of the same jet fans,the situation of air current within tunnel portal is different when air supply volume from axial-flow air duct is different; and when the air supply volume rises up to a certain extent,the air current will outflow from the tunnel portal,so the number of jet fans at the portal should be adjusted according to the air supply volume of air duct during design.%射流风机与洞口风道组合通风效果一直是学术界和工程界关注的关键科学问题,在长度超过5km的内燃牵引隧道中,射流风机并未有效阻止风流从洞口隧道内流出,未达到设计通风效果.采用CFD计算软件FLUENT建立三维非线性力学模

  11. Cargo response to railcar impact and tiedown load analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew, R.J.

    1978-09-01

    An analytical study of the loads produced during coupling of railcars carrying heavy shipping containers is presented. The structural model of the impact event is represented by a lumped-parameter technique. Each discrete mass lump possesses longitudinal, vertical, and rotational degrees of freedom. The resulting computer simulation provides for nonlinear railcar coupler stiffness and linear damping forces in the coupler and container tiedowns. Results include response to parametric variations in container weight, impact speed, and tiedown stiffness. Container dynamic response and tiedown loads are found to depend heavily on these parameters. Also, railcar bending and subsequent vertical motion are shown to be important contributors to these responses. When experimentally substantiated, the model developed can serve as a useful tool in the design and evaluation of shipping container tiedown structures.

  12. Cargo response to railcar impact and tiedown load analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical study that investigated the loads produced during coupling of railcars carrying heavy shipping containers is described. The structural model of the impact event is represented by a lumped parameter technique. Each discrete mass lump possesses longitudinal, vertical, and rotational degrees of freedom. The resulting computer simulation provides for nonlinear railcar coupler stiffness and linear damping forces in the coupler and container tiedowns. Results include response to parametric variations in container weight, impact speed, and tiedown stiffness. Container dynamic response and tiedown loads are found to depend heavily on these parameters. Also, railcar bending and subsequent vertical motion are shown to be important contributors to these responses. When experimentally substantiated, the model can serve as a useful tool in the design and evaluation of shipping container tiedown structures.

  13. Defining freight rates as a contribution to the successful operation of container shipping companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Oblak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the world market and the flexibility of containerization to adjust to the constant changes in supply and demand of the international goods market, has led to a continuous increase in the portion of the container transport within the international maritime cargo transport. By the increase of the container transport level, the impact and importance of container freight rates have been growing, the variability of which directly reflects on the world economy. The aim of this paper is to analyze the efficiency of actual methods in establishing the container freight rates according to the problems which appear in the container shipping operation and refer to large differences in the weights of the actual transported cargo and the declared cargo in containers. The consequence of is lower freight rates and higher costs of the vessels exploitation, concerning the increase of the bunker oil consumption. The conducted research is based on actual data that have been collected and analyzed from particular container vessel liner services within period of 90 days and casting off from 16 container ports. The proposed measures could increase the level of usability of the transporting ships capacities and enable a more accurate and correct account of sea freight rates. The results of the research have shown that by increasing the control of accuracy of the cargo weight in containers and by improving the model of accounting, the freight rates can increase the incomes of shipping companies maintaining the same level of container traffic, which can have a direct influence on the efficiency of their successful operation.

  14. Electrostatic assembly/disassembly of nanoscaled colloidosomes for light-triggered cargo release

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song

    2015-04-27

    Colloidosome capsules possess the potential for the encapsulation and release of molecular and macromolecular cargos. However, the stabilization of the colloidosome shell usually requires an additional covalent crosslinking which irreversibly seals the capsules, and greatly limits their applications in large-cargos release. Herein we report nanoscaled colloidosomes designed by the electrostatic assembly of organosilica nanoparticles (NPs) with oppositely charged surfaces (rather than covalent bonds), arising from different contents of a bridged nitrophenylene-alkoxysilane [NB; 3-nitro-N-(3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl)-4-(((3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl)-amino)methyl)benzamid] derivative in the silica. The surface charge of the positively charged NPs was reversed by light irradiation because of a photoreaction in the NB moieties, which impacted the electrostatic interactions between NPs and disassembled the colloidosome nanosystems. This design was successfully applied for the encapsulation and light-triggered release of cargos. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Binding to any ESCRT can mediate ubiquitin-independent cargo sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageswaran, Shrawan Kumar; Dixon, Megan Gorringe; Curtiss, Matt; Keener, James P.; Babst, Markus

    2013-01-01

    The ESCRT machinery is known to sort ubiquitinated transmembrane proteins into vesicles that bud into the lumen of multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Although the ESCRTs themselves are ubiquitinated they are excluded from the intraluminal vesicles and recycle back to the cytoplasm for further rounds of sorting. To obtain insights into the rules that distinguish ESCRT machinery from cargo we analyzed the trafficking of artificial ESCRT-like protein fusions. These studies showed that lowering ESCRT-binding affinity converts a protein from behaving like ESCRT machinery into cargo of the MVB pathway, highlighting the close relationship between machinery and the cargoes they sort. Furthermore, our findings give insights into the targeting of soluble proteins into the MVB pathway and show that binding to any of the ESCRTs can mediate ubiquitin-independent MVB sorting. PMID:24148098

  16. Dry bulk cargo shipping - An overlooked threat to the marine environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Matthias; Mazurek, Nicole; Gräbsch, Carolin; Zeilinger, Jana; Le Floch, Stéphane; Wahrendorf, Dierk-Steffen; Höfer, Thomas

    2016-09-15

    Approximately 9.5billiontonnes of goods is transported over the world oceans annually with dry bulk representing the largest cargo group. This paper aims to analyse whether the transport and associated inputs of dry bulks into the sea create a risk for the marine environment. For this purpose, we analyse the international regulatory background concerning environmental protection (MARPOL), estimate quantities and identify inputs of such cargoes into the oceans (accidental and operational), and use available information for hazard assessment. Annually, more than 2.15milliontonnes of dry bulk cargoes are likely to enter the oceans, of which 100,000tonnes are potentially harmful to the marine environment according to the definition included in draft maritime regulation. The assessment of the threat to the marine environment is hampered by a lack of available information on chemical composition, bioavailability and toxicity. Perspectives for amendments of the unsatisfying pollution prevention regulations are discussed.

  17. Mechanized azobenzene-functionalized zirconium metal-organic framework for on-command cargo release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangshi; Gui, Bo; Yuan, Daqiang; Zeller, Matthias; Wang, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Stimuli-responsive metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have gained increasing attention recently for their potential applications in many areas. We report the design and synthesis of a water-stable zirconium MOF (Zr-MOF) that bears photoresponsive azobenzene groups. This particular MOF can be used as a reservoir for storage of cargo in water, and the cargo-loaded MOF can be further capped to construct a mechanized MOF through the binding of β-cyclodextrin with the azobenzene stalks on the MOF surface. The resulting mechanized MOF has shown on-command cargo release triggered by ultraviolet irradiation or addition of competitive agents without premature release. This study represents a simple approach to the construction of stimuli-responsive mechanized MOFs, and considering mechanized UiO-68-azo made from biocompatible components, this smart system may provide a unique MOF platform for on-command drug delivery in the future. PMID:27493996

  18. Solar-electric-propulsion cargo vehicles for split/sprint Mars mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Christopher E.; Crowe, Michael D.; Swis, Matthew J.; Mickney, Marcus R.; Montgomery, C. Keith; Walters, Robert; Thoden, Scott

    1991-01-01

    In support of the proposed exploration of Mars, an unmanned cargo ferry SEMM1 (Solar Electric Mars Mission) was designed. The vehicle is based on solar electric propulsion, and required to transport a cargo of 61,000 kg. The trajectory is a combination of spirals; first, out from LEO, then around the sun, then spiral down to low Mars orbit. The spacecraft produces 3.03 MWe power using photovoltaic flexible blanket arrays. Ion thrusters using argon as a propellant were selected to drive the ship, providing about 60 Newtons of thrust in low Earth orbit. The configuration is based on two long truss beams to which the 24 individual, self-deployable, solar arrays are attached. The main body module supports the two beams and houses the computers, electrical, and control equipment. The thruster module is attached to the rear of the main body, and the cargo to the front.

  19. An effector of the Irish potato famine pathogen antagonizes a host autophagy cargo receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagdas, Yasin F; Belhaj, Khaoula; Maqbool, Abbas; Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Pandey, Pooja; Petre, Benjamin; Tabassum, Nadra; Cruz-Mireles, Neftaly; Hughes, Richard K; Sklenar, Jan; Win, Joe; Menke, Frank; Findlay, Kim; Banfield, Mark J; Kamoun, Sophien; Bozkurt, Tolga O

    2016-01-01

    Plants use autophagy to safeguard against infectious diseases. However, how plant pathogens interfere with autophagy-related processes is unknown. Here, we show that PexRD54, an effector from the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans, binds host autophagy protein ATG8CL to stimulate autophagosome formation. PexRD54 depletes the autophagy cargo receptor Joka2 out of ATG8CL complexes and interferes with Joka2's positive effect on pathogen defense. Thus, a plant pathogen effector has evolved to antagonize a host autophagy cargo receptor to counteract host defenses. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10856.001 PMID:26765567

  20. Enabling a viable technique for the optimization of LNG carrier cargo operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaba, Onakoya Rasheed; Nwaoha, T. C.; Okwu, M. O.

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we optimize the loading and discharging operations of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) carrier. First, we identify the required precautions for LNG carrier cargo operations. Next, we prioritize these precautions using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and experts' judgments, in order to optimize the operational loading and discharging exercises of the LNG carrier, prevent system failure and human error, and reduce the risk of marine accidents. Thus, the objective of our study is to increase the level of safety during cargo operations.

  1. Enabling a Viable Technique for the Optimization of LNG Carrier Cargo Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Onakoya Rasheed Alaba; T C Nwaoha; M O Okwu

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we optimize the loading and discharging operations of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) carrier. First, we identify the required precautions for LNG carrier cargo operations. Next, we prioritize these precautions using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and experts’ judgments, in order to optimize the operational loading and discharging exercises of the LNG carrier, prevent system failure and human error, and reduce the risk of marine accidents. Thus, the objective of our study is to increase the level of safety during cargo operations.

  2. Dynamics modeling and control of large transport aircraft in heavy cargo extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,a novel version of six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear model for transport aircraft motion in cargo extraction is developed and validated by the theoretical mechanics and flight mechanics.In this model constraint force and moment reflecting the flight dynamic effects of inner moving cargo are formulated.A methodology for a control law design in this phase is presented,which linearizes the aircraft dynamics making use of piecewise linearization and utilizes robust control technique for interval sys...

  3. Protocells and their use for targeted delivery of multicomponent cargos to cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinker, Jeffrey C.; Ashley, Carlee Erin; Jiang, Xingmao; Liu, Juewen; Peabody, David S.; Wharton, Walker Richard; Carnes, Eric; Chackerian, Bryce; Willman, Cheryl L.

    2016-11-01

    Various embodiments provide materials and methods for synthesizing protocells for use in targeted delivery of cargo components to cancer cells. In one embodiment, the lipid bilayer can be fused to the porous particle core to form a protocell. The lipid bilayer can be modified with targeting ligands or other ligands to achieve targeted delivery of cargo components that are loaded within the protocell to a target cell, e.g., a type of cancer. Shielding materials can be conjugated to the surface of the lipid bilayer to reduce undesired non-specific binding.

  4. Boeing and EGAT Unveil World's First Large Cargo Freighter——Evergreen Aviation Technologies transforms Boeing747-400 for 787 Dreamliner cargo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Evergreen Aviation Technologies Corporation (EGAT), a subsidiary of the Evergreen Group, and The Boeing Company unveiled the first of three Boeing 747-400 Large Cargo Freighters (LCF) modified to exacting specifications to transport giant-sized Boeing 787 "Dreamliner" assemblages.Boeing selected EGAT to perform the specialized aircraft conversions and work began in 2005. The three-aircraft conversion program will be completed in 2007.

  5. Triple Emulsion Drops with An Ultrathin Water Layer: High Encapsulation Efficiency and Enhanced Cargo Retention in Microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chang-Hyung; Lee, Hyomin; Abbaspourrad, Alireza; Kim, June Hwan; Fan, Jing; Caggioni, Marco; Wesner, Chris; Zhu, Taotao; Weitz, David A

    2016-05-01

    Triple emulsion drops with an ultrathin water layer are developed to achieve high encapsulation efficiency of hydrophobic cargo in a hydrophobic polymeric shell, directly dispersed in water. Furthermore, enhanced retention of volatile hydrophobic cargo is achieved by forming a hydrogel network within this water layer that serves as a physical barrier.

  6. PDE6δ-mediated sorting of INPP5E into the cilium is determined by cargo-carrier affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fansa, Eyad Kalawy; Kösling, Stefanie Kristine; Zent, Eldar; Wittinghofer, Alfred; Ismail, Shehab

    2016-04-11

    The phosphodiesterase 6 delta subunit (PDE6δ) shuttles several farnesylated cargos between membranes. The cargo sorting mechanism between cilia and other compartments is not understood. Here we show using the inositol polyphosphate 5'-phosphatase E (INPP5E) and the GTP-binding protein (Rheb) that cargo sorting depends on the affinity towards PDE6δ and the specificity of cargo release. High-affinity cargo is exclusively released by the ciliary transport regulator Arl3, while low-affinity cargo is released by Arl3 and its non-ciliary homologue Arl2. Structures of PDE6δ/cargo complexes reveal the molecular basis of the sorting signal which depends on the residues at the -1 and -3 positions relative to farnesylated cysteine. Structure-guided mutation allows the generation of a low-affinity INPP5E mutant which loses exclusive ciliary localization. We postulate that the affinity to PDE6δ and the release by Arl2/3 in addition to a retention signal are the determinants for cargo sorting and enrichment at its destination.

  7. Solid-Sorbent Air Sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galen, T. J.

    1986-01-01

    Portable unit takes eight 24-hour samples. Volatile organic compounds in air collected for analysis by portable, self-contained sampling apparatus. Sampled air drawn through sorbent material, commercial porous polymer of 2, 3-diphenyl-p-phenylene oxide. High-boiling-point organic compounds adsorbed onto polymer, while low-boiling-point organics pass through and returned to atmosphere. Sampler includes eight sample tubes filled with polymeric sorbent. Organic compounds in atmosphere absorbed when air pumped through sorbent. Designed for checking air in spacecraft, sampler adaptable to other applications as leak detection, gas-mixture analysis, and ambient-air monitoring.

  8. 46 CFR 32.50-1 - Cargo pumps for tank vessels constructed on or after November 10, 1936-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pumps for tank vessels constructed on or after... TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Pumps, Piping, and Hose for Cargo Handling § 32.50-1 Cargo pumps for tank vessels constructed on or after November 10, 1936—TB/ALL. On...

  9. 46 CFR 32.50-25 - Cargo pumps and piping on tank vessels constructed prior to November 10, 1936-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pumps and piping on tank vessels constructed prior... SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Pumps, Piping, and Hose for Cargo Handling § 32.50-25 Cargo pumps and piping on tank vessels constructed prior to November 10,...

  10. Analysis of VGH data from two types of four-engine airplanes in commercial cargo service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, F. M.

    1972-01-01

    Data are presented for derived gust velocities and for incremental normal accelerations due to gusts, maneuvers, and landing impacts. The data were obtained from NASA VGH recorders installed on three four-engine cargo airplanes operated by three airlines. Continental United States and trans-Pacific routes were covered.

  11. 49 CFR 173.33 - Hazardous materials in cargo tank motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... is marked and used exclusively to transport carbon dioxide, or except when an MC 338 is used to transport argon, carbon dioxide, helium, krypton, neon, nitrogen, and xenon. However, if the cargo tank... that provides the venting capacity prescribed in § 178.345-10(e) of this subchapter. The...

  12. 76 FR 57941 - Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563: Cargo Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... public meeting will be broadcast live via Web streaming and a listen-only telephone line. The public may access the live Web streaming by a link from http://www.marad.dot.gov . Listen-only telephone line... assessing the cargo preference regulatory process. The recorded webcast video will remain...

  13. 14 CFR 23.855 - Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.855 Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. (a... protection. 23.855 Section 23.855 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... the contents of a hand held fire extinguisher, or (2) Be equipped with a smoke or fire detector...

  14. 76 FR 13313 - Hazardous Materials: Cargo Tank Motor Vehicle Loading and Unloading Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... cargo transfer hoses on an adjacent tank car resulted in the release of chlorine. Three plant employees... of the explosion propelled a 300-pound tank car dome housing about \\1/3\\ mile away from the tank car... repaired fill hose and began to unload the gas from his 8,000-gallon tanker truck. In less than a...

  15. Local synaptic signaling enhances the stochastic transport of motor-driven cargo in neurons

    KAUST Repository

    Newby, Jay

    2010-08-23

    The tug-of-war model of motor-driven cargo transport is formulated as an intermittent trapping process. An immobile trap, representing the cellular machinery that sequesters a motor-driven cargo for eventual use, is located somewhere within a microtubule track. A particle representing a motor-driven cargo that moves randomly with a forward bias is introduced at the beginning of the track. The particle switches randomly between a fast moving phase and a slow moving phase. When in the slow moving phase, the particle can be captured by the trap. To account for the possibility that the particle avoids the trap, an absorbing boundary is placed at the end of the track. Two local signaling mechanisms-intended to improve the chances of capturing the target-are considered by allowing the trap to affect the tug-of-war parameters within a small region around itself. The first is based on a localized adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration gradient surrounding a synapse, and the second is based on a concentration of tau-a microtubule-associated protein involved in Alzheimer\\'s disease-coating the microtubule near the synapse. It is shown that both mechanisms can lead to dramatic improvements in the capture probability, with a minimal increase in the mean capture time. The analysis also shows that tau can cause a cargo to undergo random oscillations, which could explain some experimental observations. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  16. 77 FR 9916 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Mobile Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Mobile Cargo... to the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines ] EPA is, pursuant... standards relating to the control of emissions for new motor vehicles and new motor vehicle...

  17. Indications of marine bioinvasion from network theory. An analysis of the global cargo ship network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kölzsch, A.; Blasius, B.

    2011-01-01

    The transport of huge amounts of small aquatic organisms in the ballast tanks and at the hull of large cargo ships leads to ever increasing rates of marine bioinvasion. In this study, we apply a network theoretic approach to examine the introduction of invasive species into new ports by global shipp

  18. Cargo Revenue Management: Bid-Prices for a 0-1 Multi Knapsack Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Pak; R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractRevenue management is the practice of selecting those customers that generate the maximum revenue from a fixed and perishable capacity. Cargo revenue management differs from the well-known passenger revenue management problem by the fact that its capacity constraint is 2-dimensional, i.e

  19. Rail freight vibration impact sleep and community response: An overview of CargoVibes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persson Waye, K.; Janssen, S.A.; Waddington, D.; Groll, W.; Croy, I.; Hammar, O.; Koopman, A.; Moorhouse, A.; Peris, E.; Sharp, C.; Sica, G.; Smith, M.G.; Vos, H.; Woodcock, J.; Ogren, M.

    2014-01-01

    The European Union funded project: CargoVibes involving ten partners from eight nations has aimed to examine ground-borne vibration affecting residents close to freight railway lines. The paper presents an overview of the work package investigating human response to vibration, with particular focus

  20. Plasmodium falciparum Sec24 marks transitional ER that exports a model cargo via a diacidic motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Marcus C S; Moura, Pedro A; Miller, Elizabeth A; Fidock, David A

    2008-06-01

    Exit from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) often occurs at distinct sites of vesicle formation known as transitional ER (tER) that are enriched for COPII vesicle coat proteins. We have characterized the organization of ER export in the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, by examining the localization of two components of the COPII machinery, PfSec12 and PfSec24a. PfSec12 was found throughout the ER, whereas the COPII cargo adaptor, PfSec24a, was concentrated at distinct foci that likely correspond to tER sites. These foci were closely apposed to cis-Golgi sites marked by PfGRASP-GFP, and upon treatment with brefeldin A they accumulated a model cargo protein via a process dependent on the presence of an intact diacidic export motif. Our data suggest that the cargo-binding function of PfSec24a is conserved and that accumulation of cargo in discrete tER sites depends upon positive sorting signals. Furthermore, the number and position of tER sites with respect to the cis-Golgi suggests a co-ordinated biogenesis of these domains.