WorldWideScience

Sample records for air bases

  1. US Air Force Base Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly observations taken by U.S. Air Force personnel at bases in the United States and around the world. Foreign observations concentrated in the Middle East and...

  2. Enhancing Air Base Defense Through Joint Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Warfare, 258. 40 Tse-Tung, Mao Tse-Tung on Guerrilla Warfare, 27. 41 Maj David P. Briar , USAF, Sharpening the Eagle’s Talons: Assessing Air Base Defense...and Contingency Operations Doctrine 1942-1976, Washington, D.C.: Center ofMilitary History U.S. Army, 2006 (143) Briar , Maj David P., USAF, Sharpening

  3. CATS-based Air Traffic Controller Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callantine, Todd J.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes intelligent agents that function as air traffic controllers. Each agent controls traffic in a single sector in real time; agents controlling traffic in adjoining sectors can coordinate to manage an arrival flow across a given meter fix. The purpose of this research is threefold. First, it seeks to study the design of agents for controlling complex systems. In particular, it investigates agent planning and reactive control functionality in a dynamic environment in which a variety perceptual and decision making skills play a central role. It examines how heuristic rules can be applied to model planning and decision making skills, rather than attempting to apply optimization methods. Thus, the research attempts to develop intelligent agents that provide an approximation of human air traffic controller behavior that, while not based on an explicit cognitive model, does produce task performance consistent with the way human air traffic controllers operate. Second, this research sought to extend previous research on using the Crew Activity Tracking System (CATS) as the basis for intelligent agents. The agents use a high-level model of air traffic controller activities to structure the control task. To execute an activity in the CATS model, according to the current task context, the agents reference a 'skill library' and 'control rules' that in turn execute the pattern recognition, planning, and decision-making required to perform the activity. Applying the skills enables the agents to modify their representation of the current control situation (i.e., the 'flick' or 'picture'). The updated representation supports the next activity in a cycle of action that, taken as a whole, simulates air traffic controller behavior. A third, practical motivation for this research is to use intelligent agents to support evaluation of new air traffic control (ATC) methods to support new Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts. Current approaches that use large, human

  4. U.S.-Portuguese Relations and Lajes Field Air Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    by Manuel Martins entitled Base Aerea das Lajes (contribuicao para a sua historia ) Lajes Air Base11 specifically deals with the historical events...11 Manuel Martins, Base Aerea das Lajes (Contribuição Para a Sua Historia ) [Lajes Air Base (Contribution to its History)] (Azores

  5. Upper limits for air humidity based on human comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Fanger, Povl Ole; Jørgensen, Anette S.

    1998-01-01

    respiratory cooling. Human subjects perceived the condition of their skin to be less acceptable with increasing skin humidity. Inhaled air was rated warmer, more stuffy and less acceptable with increasing air humidity and temperature. Based on the subjects' comfort responses, new upper limits for air humidity...

  6. 77 FR 5781 - Record of Decision for the Air Space Training Initiative Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... Department of the Air Force Record of Decision for the Air Space Training Initiative Shaw Air Force Base... Decision (ROD). SUMMARY: On December 9, 2011, the United States Air Force signed the ROD for the Airspace Training Initiative Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The...

  7. Air Quality Monitoring: Risk-Based Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Air monitoring is secondary to rigid control of risks to air quality. Air quality monitoring requires us to target the credible residual risks. Constraints on monitoring devices are severe. Must transition from archival to real-time, on-board monitoring. Must provide data to crew in a way that they can interpret findings. Dust management and monitoring may be a major concern for exploration class missions.

  8. Evaluation of AirGIS: a GIS-based air pollution and human exposure modelling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketzel, Matthias; Berkowicz, Ruwim; Hvidberg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This study describes in brief the latest extensions of the Danish Geographic Information System (GIS)-based air pollution and human exposure modelling system (AirGIS), which has been developed in Denmark since 2001 and gives results of an evaluation with measured air pollution data. The system...... shows, in general, a good performance for both long-term averages (annual and monthly averages), short-term averages (hourly and daily) as well as when reproducing spatial variation in air pollution concentrations. Some shortcomings and future perspectives of the system are discussed too....

  9. A novel, fuzzy-based air quality index (FAQI) for air quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowlat, Mohammad Hossein; Gharibi, Hamed; Yunesian, Masud; Tayefeh Mahmoudi, Maryam; Lotfi, Saeedeh

    2011-04-01

    The ever increasing level of air pollution in most areas of the world has led to development of a variety of air quality indices for estimation of health effects of air pollution, though the indices have their own limitations such as high levels of subjectivity. Present study, therefore, aimed at developing a novel, fuzzy-based air quality index (FAQI ) to handle such limitations. The index developed by present study is based on fuzzy logic that is considered as one of the most common computational methods of artificial intelligence. In addition to criteria air pollutants (i.e. CO, SO 2, PM 10, O 3, NO 2), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and 1,3-butadiene were also taken into account in the index proposed, because of their considerable health effects. Different weighting factors were then assigned to each pollutant according to its priority. Trapezoidal membership functions were employed for classifications and the final index consisted of 72 inference rules. To assess the performance of the index, a case study was carried out employing air quality data at five different sampling stations in Tehran, Iran, from January 2008 to December 2009, results of which were then compared to the results obtained from USEPA air quality index (AQI). According to the results from present study, fuzzy-based air quality index is a comprehensive tool for classification of air quality and tends to produce accurate results. Therefore, it can be considered useful, reliable, and suitable for consideration by local authorities in air quality assessment and management schemes. Fuzzy-based air quality index (FAQI).

  10. Aluminum-based metal-air batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, Cody A.; Martinez, Jose Antonio Bautista

    2016-01-12

    Provided in one embodiment is an electrochemical cell, comprising: (i) a plurality of electrodes, comprising a fuel electrode that comprises aluminum and an air electrode that absorbs gaseous oxygen, the electrodes being operable in a discharge mode wherein the aluminum is oxidized at the fuel electrode and oxygen is reduced at the air electrode, and (ii) an ionically conductive medium, comprising an organic solvent; wherein during non-use of the cell, the organic solvent promotes formation of a protective interface between the aluminum of the fuel electrode and the ionically conductive medium, and wherein at an onset of the discharge mode, at least some of the protective interface is removed from the aluminum to thereafter permit oxidation of the aluminum during the discharge mode.

  11. Design of Piston Air Compressor Unit Control System based Converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>Based on the running characteristics and high energy consumption of air compressors in coal mines,an air pressure PID closed loop control system has been designed in this paper.The system is composed of PLC, converter and sensors etc and adopts the control method of converter triple-evaporator which makes air supply"need-based".The designed system has been applied in multiple coal mines and the results show its energy saving is remarkable and potential application is widely.

  12. Performance and evaluation of desiccant based air conditioning system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav S. Wani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This Project work presents study and experimental analysis of Desiccant based air conditioning system.The main purpose of this project is to increase the efficency of air conditioning system.In the convenstional air conditioning system cooling coli has two load latent load and sensible load. Cooling has to cool the air and simultaneously to dehumidify it.It increases load on cooling coil and affects performance to the system. To increase the efficiency the air conditioning system desiccant materials are used at the inlet of the air conditioning test rig. Desiccant materials attract moisture based on differences in vapor pressure. Due to their enormous affinity to absorb water and considerable ability to hold water. Due to use of desiccant material load on the cooling coil reduces since moisture is absorbed by desiccant; cooling coil has to take only sensible load. Analysis is done using different desiccant materials and based on the observation, power consumption before and after desiccant is calculated. From this conclusion is made that desiccant material improves the efficiency of air conditioning test rig

  13. Evaluation of Air Quality Zone Classification Methods Based on Ambient Air Concentration Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Brian; McBean, Ed; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Thé, Jesse

    2016-12-14

    Air quality zones are used by regulatory authorities to implement ambient air standards in order to protect human health. Air quality measurements at discrete air monitoring stations are critical tools to determine whether an air quality zone complies with local air quality standards or is noncompliant. This study presents a novel approach for evaluation of air quality zone classification methods by breaking the concentration distribution of a pollutant measured at an air monitoring station into compliance and exceedance probability density functions (PDFs) and then using Monte Carlo analysis with the Central Limit Theorem to estimate long-term exposure. The purpose of this paper is to compare the risk associated with selecting one ambient air classification approach over another by testing the possible exposure an individual living within a zone may face. The chronic daily intake (CDI) is utilized to compare different pollutant exposures over the classification duration of 3 years between two classification methods. Historical data collected from air monitoring stations in Kuwait are used to build representative models of 1-hr NO2 and 8-hr O3 within a zone that meets the compliance requirements of each method. The first method, the "3 Strike" method, is a conservative approach based on a winner-take-all approach common with most compliance classification methods, while the second, the 99% Rule method, allows for more robust analyses and incorporates long-term trends. A Monte Carlo analysis is used to model the CDI for each pollutant and each method with the zone at a single station and with multiple stations. The model assumes that the zone is already in compliance with air quality standards over the 3 years under the different classification methodologies. The model shows that while the CDI of the two methods differs by 2.7% over the exposure period for the single station case, the large number of samples taken over the duration period impacts the sensitivity of

  14. WSN based indoor air quality monitoring in classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. K.; Chew, S. P.; Jusoh, M. T.; Khairunissa, A.; Leong, K. Y.; Azid, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    Indoor air quality monitoring is essential as the human health is directly affected by indoor air quality. This paper presents the investigations of the impact of undergraduate students' concentration during lecture due to the indoor air quality in classroom. Three environmental parameters such as temperature, relative humidity and concentration of carbon dioxide are measured using wireless sensor network based air quality monitoring system. This simple yet reliable system is incorporated with DHT-11 and MG-811 sensors. Two classrooms were selected to install the monitoring system. The level of indoor air quality were measured and students' concentration was assessed using intelligent test during normal lecturing section. The test showed significant correlation between the collected environmental parameters and the students' level of performances in their study.

  15. Air Pollution Simulation based on different seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhaimin

    2017-01-01

    Simulation distribution of pollutants (SOx and NOx) emitted from Cirebon power plant activities have been carried out. Gaussian models and scenarios are used to predict the concentration of pollutant gasses. The purposes of this study were to determine the distribution of the flue gas from the power plant activity and differences pollutant gas concentrations in the wet and dry seasons. The result showed that the concentration of pollutant gasses in the dry season was higher than the wet season. The difference of pollutant concentration because of wind speed, gas flow rate, and temperature of the gas that flows out of the chimney. The maximum concentration of pollutant gasses in wet season for SOx is 30.14 µg/m3, while NOx is 26.35 µg/m3. Then, The simulation of air pollution in the dry season for SOx is 42.38 µg/m3, while NOx is 34.78 µg/m3.

  16. 76 FR 75453 - Restricted Areas and Danger Zones at Eglin Air Force Base, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... follows: Sec. 334.700 Choctawhatchee Bay, aerial gunnery ranges, Air Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base... Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Headquarters Air Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a... Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The areas. (1) The danger zone....

  17. Modelling heat and mass transfer in a membrane-based air-to-air enthalpy exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugaria, S.; Moro, L.; Del, D., Col

    2015-11-01

    The diffusion of total energy recovery systems could lead to a significant reduction in the energy demand for building air-conditioning. With these devices, sensible heat and humidity can be recovered in winter from the exhaust airstream, while, in summer, the incoming air stream can be cooled and dehumidified by transferring the excess heat and moisture to the exhaust air stream. Membrane based enthalpy exchangers are composed by different channels separated by semi-permeable membranes. The membrane allows moisture transfer under vapour pressure difference, or water concentration difference, between the two sides and, at the same time, it is ideally impermeable to air and other contaminants present in exhaust air. Heat transfer between the airstreams occurs through the membrane due to the temperature gradient. The aim of this work is to develop a detailed model of the coupled heat and mass transfer mechanisms through the membrane between the two airstreams. After a review of the most relevant models published in the scientific literature, the governing equations are presented and some simplifying assumptions are analysed and discussed. As a result, a steady-state, two-dimensional finite difference numerical model is setup. The developed model is able to predict temperature and humidity evolution inside the channels. Sensible and latent heat transfer rate, as well as moisture transfer rate, are determined. A sensitive analysis is conducted in order to determine the more influential parameters on the thermal and vapour transfer.

  18. Reptiles and Amphibians of Fairchild Air Force Base, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ER D C/ CE R L TR -1 3 -5 Reptiles and Amphibians of Fairchild Air Force Base, WA C on st ru ct io n E n gi n ee ri n g R es ea rc...online library at http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. ERDC/CERL TR-13-5 May 2013 Reptiles and Amphibians of Fairchild Air Force Base, WA...Washington, DC 20314-1000 ERDC/CERL TR-13-5 ii Abstract Many reptile and amphibian (collectively termed “herpetofauna”) populations are declining at a

  19. Image-based air target identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glais, Thierry; Ayoun, Andre

    1994-09-01

    This paper presents the main results obtained through a study on aircraft identification and attitude estimation conducted by Thomson TRT Defense for the French Ministry of Defense/Direction Generale de l'Armement/Direction des Constructions Aeronautiques. The purpose of this study was automatic assistance to aircraft identification. Indeed, modern fight airplanes are equipped with optronic systems capable of detecting and tracking enemy aircraft. In order to react quickly, the pilot must know at least the target type and possibly its identity. Recognition of the target type and attitude is obtained by matching the observed image with patterns belonging to a database. Two matching algorithms, which have been tested, are presented. The first one, based on the contour Fourier transform, needs the complete target silhouette extraction. The second one, belonging to the class of prediction and verification algorithms, compares the individual parts of the target to the database and is able to recognize the target, even when it is partially occluded or ill-segmented due to the lack of contrast between the target and its environment. An original feature of the algorithm stays in a validation process which increases the reliability of transmitted answers. In case of low confidence, no answer is provided. In addition, successive answers are consolidated. This strategy is interesting especially for image sequences where the tracked airplane achieves attitude evolution or even simply flies over various backgrounds. The main output of this study is the parametric analysis of various factors which influence performance such as contrast, background complexity, distance, attitude and type. The evaluation method, largely based on image synthesis (including image sequences), allows fine interpretation of statistical results. Misclassification errors occur when resolution is not sufficient or when complex backgrounds cause erroneous segmentation. Best results are obtained when the

  20. Environmental Assessment: Multiple Projects at Laughlin Air Force Base, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-17

    Publico sobre el La Evaluation de lmpacto Ambiental de MUltiples Proyectos en Ia Base de Ia Fuerza Aerea Laughlin De acuerdo con el Acta Nacional de 1...EPA Coordinator 4171 North Me~a, Suite C-100 El Paso TX 79902-1441 · · Dear NEP A Coordinator . I I ; The United States Air Force (USAF) is

  1. Lithium air batteries having ether-based electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil; Curtiss, Larry A.; Lu, Jun; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2016-10-25

    A lithium-air battery includes a cathode including a porous active carbon material, a separator, an anode including lithium, and an electrolyte including a lithium salt and polyalkylene glycol ether, where the porous active carbon material is free of a metal-based catalyst.

  2. San Antonio Creek Restoration, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-27

    constrictor Racer Potential Masticophis lateralis Chaparral whipsnake Potential Lampropeltis getula California kingsnake Observed Pituophis catenifer...Unpublished master’s thesis, University of California , Santa Barbara. Grant, C. 1978a. Chumash: Introduction . In California , edited by Robert F. Heizer, pp...Final Draft Environmental Assessment San Antonio Creek Restoration Vandenberg Air Force Base California

  3. A Short History of The Air University, Maxwell AFB, and the 42nd Air Base Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-31

    the nation’s first civilian flying school on an old cotton plantation near Montgomery that subsequently become Maxwell Air Force Base (AFB...on New Guinea, Celebes, and Halmahera, and flew reconnaissance missions. Moved to the Philippines in Feb–Mar 1945. Attacked shipping along the China ...Western Pacific; Leyte; Luzon; Southern Philippines; China Defensive; China Offensive. Southwest Asia: Defense of Saudi Arabia; Liberation and Defense

  4. STEMS-Air: a simple GIS-based air pollution dispersion model for city-wide exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliver, John; Briggs, David

    2011-05-15

    Current methods of air pollution modelling do not readily meet the needs of air pollution mapping for short-term (i.e. daily) exposure studies. The main limiting factor is that for those few models that couple with a GIS there are insufficient tools for directly mapping air pollution both at high spatial resolution and over large areas (e.g. city wide). A simple GIS-based air pollution model (STEMS-Air) has been developed for PM(10) to meet these needs with the option to choose different exposure averaging periods (e.g. daily and annual). STEMS-Air uses the grid-based FOCALSUM function in ArcGIS in conjunction with a fine grid of emission sources and basic information on meteorology to implement a simple Gaussian plume model of air pollution dispersion. STEMS-Air was developed and validated in London, UK, using data on concentrations of PM(10) from routinely available monitoring data. Results from the validation study show that STEMS-Air performs well in predicting both daily (at four sites) and annual (at 30 sites) concentrations of PM(10). For daily modelling, STEMS-Air achieved r(2) values in the range 0.19-0.43 (pmaps either as a screening process in urban air quality planning and management, or as the basis for health risk assessment and epidemiological studies.

  5. Eielson Air Force Base Operable Unit 2 baseline risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, R.E.; Jarvis, T.T.; Jarvis, M.R.; Whelan, G.

    1994-10-01

    Operable Unit 2 at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) near Fairbanks, is one of several operable units characterized by petroleum, oil, and lubricant contamination, and by the presence of organic products floating at the water table, as a result of Air Force operations since the 1940s. The base is approximately 19,270 acres in size, and comprises the areas for military operations and a residential neighborhood for military dependents. Within Operable Unit 2, there are seven source areas. These source areas were grouped together primarily because of the contaminants released and hence are not necessarily in geographical proximity. Source area ST10 includes a surface water body (Hardfill Lake) next to a fuel spill area. The primary constituents of concern for human health include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Monitored data showed these volatile constituents to be present in groundwater wells. The data also showed an elevated level of trace metals in groundwater.

  6. Marin recipientundersøgelse ved Thule Air Base 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glahder, C. M.; Asmund, G.; Mayer, P.;

    I 2002 gennemførte Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser en recipientundersøgelse ud for Thule Air Base (TAB) for at vurdere, om aktiviteterne og specielt de efterladte dumpe på TAB har belastet det marine miljø med forurenende stoffer. Undersøgelsen viser, at der findes flere forurenings-kilder som f. eks...... findes i Wolstenholme Fjord og Bylot Sund området og regionen som helhed. Det væsentligste forureningsproblem i forbindelse med akti-viteterne på Thule Air Base synes at være PCBerne, idet denne kontaminantgruppe viser forhøjede koncentrationer på 2-30 gange både lokalt og regionalt. PCB...

  7. Environmental Assessment: General Plan-Based Environmental Impact Analysis Process, Laughlin Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    BASED ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS LAUGHLIN AIR FORCE BASE, TEXAS AGENCY: 47th Flying Training Wing (FTW), Laughlin Air Force Base (AFB), Texas...activities that take place in a particular area and generally refers to human modification of land, often for residential or economic purposes. It also...is asphaltic and is generally not economical to drill. There are some small natural gas deposits being tapped in the northwest part of the county

  8. Diverse Communications Project at Vandenberg Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-25

    Assessment 37 5.0 LIST OF REFERENCES Arnold, R.A. 1983 Ecological studies of six Endangered butterflies ( Lepidoptera , Lycaenidae): Island...1996 Reptiles and Amphibians of Vandenberg Air Force Base, Santa Barbara County, California. Report No. 4, Museum of Systematics and Ecology...complex: recognition of a species and description of a new subspecies. (Lycaenidae). Journal ofResearch on the Lepidoptera 27: 173-185. Diverse

  9. Drainage Canal Survey, Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    der, The Water Encyclopedia, Second Edition, Chelsea, Michigan, Lewis Publishers, 1990. 4. Manahan , Stanley E., Environmental Chemistry , Fifth...OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH DIRECTORATE L B2402 E Drive ABrooks Air Force Base, TX 78235P1I14 "• B ELECTEO P 0 •p3193 ER March 1993 A T Final...EDWARD F. MAHER, Col, USAF, BSC Environmental Engineer Consultant Chief, Bioenvironmental Engineering Division Form Approved REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE

  10. Wastewater Characterization Survey, Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Water Pollution Control, Second Edition, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1989. 4. Manahan , Stanley E., Environmental Chemistry , Fifth Edition, Chelsea, Michigan...OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH DIRECTORATE 0 BIOENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING DIVISION2402 E Drive Brooks Air Force Base, TX 78235-5114 G March...Royal Road, Springfield VA 22161. DARRIN L. CURTIS, Capt, USAF, BSC EDWARD F. MAHER, Col, USAF, BSC Environmental Engineer Consultant Chief

  11. SAMIRA - SAtellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philipp; Stebel, Kerstin; Ajtai, Nicolae; Diamandi, Andrei; Horalek, Jan; Nicolae, Doina; Stachlewska, Iwona; Zehner, Claus

    2016-04-01

    Here, we present a new ESA-funded project entitled Satellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality (SAMIRA), which aims at improving regional and local air quality monitoring through synergetic use of data from present and upcoming satellites, traditionally used in situ air quality monitoring networks and output from chemical transport models. Through collaborative efforts in four countries, namely Romania, Poland, the Czech Republic and Norway, all with existing air quality problems, SAMIRA intends to support the involved institutions and associated users in their national monitoring and reporting mandates as well as to generate novel research in this area. Despite considerable improvements in the past decades, Europe is still far from achieving levels of air quality that do not pose unacceptable hazards to humans and the environment. Main concerns in Europe are exceedances of particulate matter (PM), ground-level ozone, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). While overall sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions have decreased in recent years, regional concentrations can still be high in some areas. The objectives of SAMIRA are to improve algorithms for the retrieval of hourly aerosol optical depth (AOD) maps from SEVIRI, and to develop robust methods for deriving column- and near-surface PM maps for the study area by combining satellite AOD with information from regional models. The benefit to existing monitoring networks (in situ, models, satellite) by combining these datasets using data fusion methods will be tested for satellite-based NO2, SO2, and PM/AOD. Furthermore, SAMIRA will test and apply techniques for downscaling air quality-related EO products to a spatial resolution that is more in line with what is generally required for studying urban and regional scale air quality. This will be demonstrated for a set of study sites that include the capitals of the four countries and the highly polluted areas along the border of Poland and the

  12. Application of Residual-Based EWMA Control Charts for Detecting Faults in Variable-Air-Volume Air Handling Unit System

    OpenAIRE

    Haitao Wang

    2016-01-01

    An online robust fault detection method is presented in this paper for VAV air handling unit and its implementation. Residual-based EWMA control chart is used to monitor the control processes of air handling unit and detect faults of air handling unit. In order to provide a level of robustness with respect to modeling errors, control limits are determined by incorporating time series model uncertainty in EWMA control chart. The fault detection method proposed was tested and validated using re...

  13. A Singular Perturbation Based Midcourse Guidance Law for Realistic Air-to-Air Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Manickavasagam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a singular perturbation based technique is used for synthesis and analysis of a near optimal midcourse guidance law for realistic air-to-air engagement. After designing the proposed midcourse guidance law using three dimensional point mass formulation it has been validated through detailed realistic six degrees of freedom simulation. During terminal phase only proportional navigation guidance have been used. The calculation of optimal altitude in present guidance law has been carried out using Newton’s method, which needs generally one iteration for convergence and suitable for real-time implementation. Extended Kalman filter based estimator has been used for obtaining evader kinetic information from both radar and seeker noisy measurements available during midcourse and terminal guidance. The data link look angle constraint due to hardware limitation which affects the performance of midcourse guidance has also been incorporated in guidance law design. Robustness of complete simulation has been carried out through Monte Carlo studies. Extension of launch boundary due to singular perturbation over proportional navigation guidance at a given altitude for a typical engagement has also been reported.

  14. Hadoop-Based Distributed System for Online Prediction of Air Pollution Based on Support Vector Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemi, Z.; Farnaghi, M.; Alimohammadi, A.

    2015-12-01

    The critical impact of air pollution on human health and environment in one hand and the complexity of pollutant concentration behavior in the other hand lead the scientists to look for advance techniques for monitoring and predicting the urban air quality. Additionally, recent developments in data measurement techniques have led to collection of various types of data about air quality. Such data is extremely voluminous and to be useful it must be processed at high velocity. Due to the complexity of big data analysis especially for dynamic applications, online forecasting of pollutant concentration trends within a reasonable processing time is still an open problem. The purpose of this paper is to present an online forecasting approach based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the air quality one day in advance. In order to overcome the computational requirements for large-scale data analysis, distributed computing based on the Hadoop platform has been employed to leverage the processing power of multiple processing units. The MapReduce programming model is adopted for massive parallel processing in this study. Based on the online algorithm and Hadoop framework, an online forecasting system is designed to predict the air pollution of Tehran for the next 24 hours. The results have been assessed on the basis of Processing Time and Efficiency. Quite accurate predictions of air pollutant indicator levels within an acceptable processing time prove that the presented approach is very suitable to tackle large scale air pollution prediction problems.

  15. Geothermally Coupled Well-Based Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, C L [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bearden, Mark D [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Horner, Jacob A [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Appriou, Delphine [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGrail, B Peter [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    . This project assessed the technical and economic feasibility of implementing geothermally coupled well-based CAES for grid-scale energy storage. Based on an evaluation of design specifications for a range of casing grades common in U.S. oil and gas fields, a 5-MW CAES project could be supported by twenty to twenty-five 5,000-foot, 7-inch wells using lower-grade casing, and as few as eight such wells for higher-end casing grades. Using this information, along with data on geothermal resources, well density, and potential future markets for energy storage systems, The Geysers geothermal field was selected to parameterize a case study to evaluate the potential match between the proven geothermal resource present at The Geysers and the field’s existing well infrastructure. Based on calculated wellbore compressed air mass, the study shows that a single average geothermal production well could provide enough geothermal energy to support a 15.4-MW (gross) power generation facility using 34 to 35 geothermal wells repurposed for compressed air storage, resulting in a simplified levelized cost of electricity (sLCOE) estimated at 11.2 ¢/kWh (Table S.1). Accounting for the power loss to the geothermal power project associated with diverting geothermal resources for air heating results in a net 2-MW decrease in generation capacity, increasing the CAES project’s sLCOE by 1.8 ¢/kWh.

  16. Geothermally Coupled Well-Based Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Casie L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bearden, Mark D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Horner, Jacob A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cabe, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Appriou, Delphine [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGrail, B. Peter [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-20

    . This project assessed the technical and economic feasibility of implementing geothermally coupled well-based CAES for grid-scale energy storage. Based on an evaluation of design specifications for a range of casing grades common in U.S. oil and gas fields, a 5-MW CAES project could be supported by twenty to twenty-five 5,000-foot, 7-inch wells using lower-grade casing, and as few as eight such wells for higher-end casing grades. Using this information, along with data on geothermal resources, well density, and potential future markets for energy storage systems, The Geysers geothermal field was selected to parameterize a case study to evaluate the potential match between the proven geothermal resource present at The Geysers and the field’s existing well infrastructure. Based on calculated wellbore compressed air mass, the study shows that a single average geothermal production well could provide enough geothermal energy to support a 15.4-MW (gross) power generation facility using 34 to 35 geothermal wells repurposed for compressed air storage, resulting in a simplified levelized cost of electricity (sLCOE) estimated at 11.2 ¢/kWh (Table S.1). Accounting for the power loss to the geothermal power project associated with diverting geothermal resources for air heating results in a net 2-MW decrease in generation capacity, increasing the CAES project’s sLCOE by 1.8 ¢/kWh.

  17. Final Environmental Assessment Nellis Air Force Base School Initiative, Nellis Air Force Base, Clark County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Nevada 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report (SAR) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 141 19a. NAME OF...I for future mission-specific development. The intent is to lease base property to a private sector charter school company to design and construct...community in Area Ill. The lease to the Clark County School District {CC~D) on the antiquated Lomie Gray Heard School in Area I would then be allowed to

  18. A comparison of innovative air pollution control technology demonstrations at McClellan Air Force Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, T.E. [BDM Federal, McClellan AFB, CA (United States); Mook, P.H. Jr.; Wong, K.B. [SM-ALC/EMR, McClellan AFB, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    McClellan Air Force Base (AFB), located near Sacramento, California, is one of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program`s National Environmental Technology Test Sites. As part of the on-going environmental clean-up of McClellan AFB, the US Air Force has evaluated several innovative and conventional technologies for the treatment of vapor phase volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This paper presents an overview and comparison of the cost and performance of seven innovative technologies tested at McClellan AFB. McClellan AFB has found conventional off-gas treatment technologies to be effective but costly. Operation and maintenance (O and M) costs for treatment systems are increasingly becoming a major component of the environmental clean-up budget. The cost and performance of photolytic destruction, titanium dioxide photocatalytic oxidation, advanced polymer absorption media, flameless thermal oxidation, non-thermal plasma destruction, electron-beam destruction, and an advanced regenerative adsorption system are presented. Destruction removal efficiencies for VOCs have ranged from greater than 99.9 percent for flameless thermal oxidation to zero for the advanced polymer absorption media. Like the conventional technologies in use, all of the innovative technologies tested have been shown to be effective for treating a wide range of vapor phase contaminants, but each is only cost effective over limited range of off-gas concentrations. Some of the innovative technologies evaluated were found not to be useful over a wide range of contaminants or too costly to operate at their current stage of development. For example, titanium dioxide photocatalytic oxidation cannot effectively treat chlorinated VOCs in off-gas streams that contain moderate amounts of long-chain hydrocarbons.

  19. Air pollution and stroke - an overview of the evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswaran, Ravi

    2016-08-01

    Air pollution is being increasingly recognized as a significant risk factor for stroke. There are numerous sources of air pollution including industry, road transport and domestic use of biomass and solid fuels. Early reports of the association between air pollution and stroke come from studies investigating health effects of severe pollution episodes. Several daily time series and case-crossover studies have reported associations with stroke. There is also evidence linking chronic air pollution exposure with stroke and with reduced survival after stroke. A conceptual framework linking air pollution exposure and stroke is proposed. It links acute and chronic exposure to air pollution with pathways to acute and chronic effects on stroke risk. Current evidence regarding potential mechanisms mainly relate to particulate air pollution. Whilst further evidence would be useful, there is already sufficient evidence to support consideration of reduction in air pollution as a preventative measure to reduce the stroke burden globally.

  20. Sensor-based navigation of air duct inspection mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kyoungchul; Choi, H. J.; Kim, Jae-Seon; Ko, Kuk Won; Cho, Hyungsuck

    2001-02-01

    12 This paper deals with an image sensor system and its position estimation algorithm for autonomous duct cleaning and inspection mobile robots. For the real application, a hierarchical control structure that consists of robot motion controller and image sensor system is designed considering the efficient and autonomous motion behaviors in narrow space such as air ducts. The sensor's system consists of a CCD camera and two laser sources to generate slit beams. The image of the structured lights is used for calculating the geometric parameters of the air ducts which are usually designed with a rectangular section. With the acquired 3D information about the environment, the mobile robot with two differential driving wheels is able to autonomously navigates along the duct path without any human intervention. For real time navigation, the relative position estimation of the robot are performed from 3D image reconstructed by the sensor system. The calibration and image processing methods used for the sensor system are presented with the experimental data. The experimental results show the possibility of the sensor based navigation which is important for effective duct cleaning by small mobile robots.

  1. In-Well Air Stripping/Bioventing Study at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    GROUND SURFACE " ^TT AIR LINE PIEZOMETER UPPER SCREEN WATER SAMPLING PROBE PACKER CONDUCTOR PIPE/AIR STRIPPING REACTOR LOWER SCREEN |—] SAND...calibrated according to the manufacturer’s directions using the provided calibration sleeve, and the electrolyte and membrane were replaced as needed

  2. Ecoflex: Improving air quality with green dynamic traffic management based on real time air quality measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baalen, J. van; Koning, A. de; Voogt, M.; Stelwagen, U.; Turksma, S.

    2011-01-01

    Across the world, air quality regulations are breached due to localized high pollution episodes in specific locations, or "hotspots". Advances in air pollution monitoring techniques enable hotspots to be identified more effectively; however challenges remain as to how best to reduce the incidence an

  3. Wire-Mesh-Based Sorber for Removing Contaminants from Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay; Roychoudhury, Subir; Walsh, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    A paper discusses an experimental regenerable sorber for removing CO2 and trace components principally, volatile organic compounds, halocarbons, and NH3 from spacecraft cabin air. This regenerable sorber is a prototype of what is intended to be a lightweight alternative to activated-carbon and zeolite-pellet sorbent beds now in use. The regenerable sorber consists mainly of an assembly of commercially available meshes that have been coated with a specially-formulated washcoat containing zeolites. The zeolites act as the sorbents while the meshes support the zeolite-containing washcoat in a configuration that affords highly effective surface area for exposing the sorbents to flowing air. The meshes also define flow paths characterized by short channel lengths to prevent excessive buildup of flow boundary layers. Flow boundary layer resistance is undesired because it can impede mass and heat transfer. The total weight and volume comparison versus the atmosphere revitalization equipment used onboard the International Space Station for CO2 and trace-component removal will depend upon the design details of the final embodiment. However, the integrated mesh-based CO2 and trace-contaminant removal system is expected to provide overall weight and volume savings by eliminating most of the trace-contaminant control equipment presently used in parallel processing schemes traditionally used for spacecraft. The mesh-based sorbent media enables integrating the two processes within a compact package. For the purpose of regeneration, the sorber can be heated by passing electric currents through the metallic meshes combined with exposure to space vacuum. The minimal thermal mass of the meshes offers the potential for reduced regeneration-power requirements and cycle time required for regeneration compared to regenerable sorption processes now in use.

  4. Dehumidifying Air for Cooling & Refrigeration: Nanotechnology Membrane-based Dehumidifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-10-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Dais is developing a product called NanoAir which dehumidifies the air entering a building to make air conditioning more energy efficient. The system uses a polymer membrane that allows moisture but not air to pass through it. A vacuum behind the membrane pulls water vapor from the air, and a second set of membranes releases the water vapor outside. The membrane’s high selectivity translates into reduced energy consumption for dehumidification. Dais’ design goals for NanoAir are the use of proprietary materials and processes and industry-standard installation techniques. NanoAir is also complementary to many other energy saving strategies, including energy recovery.

  5. Probabilistic estimation of residential air exchange rates for population-based human exposure modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residential air exchange rates (AERs) are a key determinant in the infiltration of ambient air pollution indoors. Population-based human exposure models using probabilistic approaches to estimate personal exposure to air pollutants have relied on input distributions from AER meas...

  6. Genetic Algorithms, Neural Networks, and Time Effectiveness Algorithm Based Air Combat Intelligence Simulation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾宪钊; 成冀; 安欣; 方礼明

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces a new Air Combat Intelligence Simulation System (ACISS) in a 32 versus 32 air combat, describes three methods: Genetic Algorithms (GA) in the multi-targeting decision and Evading Missile Rule Base learning, Neural Networks (NN) in the maneuvering decision, and Time Effectiveness Algorithm (TEA) in the adjudicating an air combat and the evaluating evading missile effectiveness.

  7. Sitewide feasibility study Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, G.V.; Lanigan, D.C.; Josephson, G.B.; Bagaasen, L.M.

    1995-09-01

    The Sitewide Feasibility Study (FS) is required under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), the National Contingency Plan (NCP), and the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for Eielson Air Force Base (AFB). It is based on findings presented in the Sitewide Remedial Investigation (RI) Report (USAF 1995a), and the Sitewide Baseline Risk Assessment (BLRA) Report (USAF 1995b). Under the FFA, 64 potential source areas were placed in one of six operable units, based on similar contaminant and environmental characteristics, or were included for evaluation under a Source Evaluation Report (SER). The sitewide RI was directed at contamination that was not confined to an operable unit (OU) or SER source area. The objectives of the sitewide RI were to: Provide information about site characteristics to support individual OU RI/FS efforts and the sitewide RI/FS, including site hydrogeology and determination of background soil and groundwater characteristics; identify and characterize contamination that is not confined or attributable to a specific source area through sitewide monitoring of groundwater and surface water; evaluate cumulative risks to human health and the environment from contamination on a sitewide basis; and provide a mechanism for continued cohesive sitewide monitoring.

  8. United States Air Force F-35A Operational Basing Environmental Impact Statement. Appendix E: Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    neighborhoods which are already being ruined by the F-15s. NO to the noise polution . No to the air polution . No to ruining the environment and ruining...No to the air polut ion . No to ruining the environment and rui ning people’s lives. Thank you for listening to the citizens. Ruth Drake 1...Headquarters Air Combat Command Installations and Mission Support Directorate, Engineering Division (A7N) 129 Andrews Street Langley Air Force Base, VA

  9. Feedback linearization based control of a variable air volume air conditioning system for cooling applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thosar, Archana; Patra, Amit; Bhattacharyya, Souvik

    2008-07-01

    Design of a nonlinear control system for a Variable Air Volume Air Conditioning (VAVAC) plant through feedback linearization is presented in this article. VAVAC systems attempt to reduce building energy consumption while maintaining the primary role of air conditioning. The temperature of the space is maintained at a constant level by establishing a balance between the cooling load generated in the space and the air supply delivered to meet the load. The dynamic model of a VAVAC plant is derived and formulated as a MIMO bilinear system. Feedback linearization is applied for decoupling and linearization of the nonlinear model. Simulation results for a laboratory scale plant are presented to demonstrate the potential of keeping comfort and maintaining energy optimal performance by this methodology. Results obtained with a conventional PI controller and a feedback linearizing controller are compared and the superiority of the proposed approach is clearly established.

  10. Applying Counterinsurgency Theory to Air Base Defense: A New Doctrinal Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    its main responsibility is to engage and defeat forces attacking bases. The TCF 52 David Briar , “Sharpening the Eagle’s Talons: Assessing Air Base...and Simmons, 23. 63 Briar , “Assessing Air Base Defense” 25 defense doctrine is tied to

  11. Environmental Assessment for Construction of Base Training Area, Schriever Air Force Base, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    bed-down, biological/chemical warfare training, and bivouac training. In order to meet air quality standards when smoke grenades/obscurants are used...users of the Base Training Area would be active duty military assigned to SAFB. To ensure that no smoke or dust leave the SAFB boundary, any smoke ...receipt of the above referenced Environmental Assesment and is familiar with the site. Based on the location and type of action being proposed the

  12. System and method for air temperature control in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean M

    2016-09-27

    A system and method for air temperature control in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor is provided. The system and method involves introducing a specific quantity of cooling air or trim air in between stages in a multistage oxygen transport membrane based reactor or furnace to maintain generally consistent surface temperatures of the oxygen transport membrane elements and associated reactors. The associated reactors may include reforming reactors, boilers or process gas heaters.

  13. A Satellite-Based Multi-Pollutant Index of Global Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Mathew J.; Martin, Randall V.; vanDonkelaar, Aaron; Lamsal, Lok; Brauer, Michael; Brook, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is a major health hazard that is responsible formillions of annual excess deaths worldwide. Simpleindicators are useful for comparative studies and to asses strends over time. The development of global indicators hasbeen impeded by the lack of ground-based observations in vast regions of the world. Recognition is growing of the need for amultipollutant approach to air quality to better represent human exposure. Here we introduce the prospect of amultipollutant air quality indicator based on observations from satellite remote sensing.

  14. Environmental Assessment for the Air Force Research Laboratory Security Fence Project, Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    develop air and space vehicle propulsion and power technologies. Areas where turbine and rocket engines and propulsion systems are tested contain valuable...associated with the region. A seismic event and potential damage to the fence would not likely cause injury or death. No adverse geologic or seismic ...3-19 3.3.4 Seismicity .........................................................................................................3

  15. Installation Restoration Program. Phase I. Records Search, Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-05

    GUNN so" a. 105VI A [ads SALIDA to(, A- I Ponce, Tous 50 2 Haswell Creek AP ’all or & Ca , Lm enross Arlington Sargent, 1 10Park IF renc Sugar 6...headquartered at Ent Air Force Base near downtown Colorado Springs, thus reopening the base. When the 15th Air Force moved to California in December 1949

  16. Design of Stiffness for Air Spring Based on ABAQUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongguang Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an axisymmetric finite element (FE model of an air spring was carried out with the software ABAQUS to design its target vertical stiffness. The bellows was simulated by the reinforced surface element. The compressed gas in the cavity of the air spring was represented by the hydrostatic fluid element. The target stiffness is obtained by modifying the valid area of the cross section. At last, the results of experiment coincided well with the simulation data. The study shows that the static stiffness of air spring is sensitive to the effective area of the cross section. The conclusion has certain practical significance for the design and the optimization of the same kind of air spring.

  17. Toluene optical fibre sensor based on air microcavity in PDMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacik, Daniel; Martincek, Ivan

    2017-03-01

    We prepared and demonstrated a compact, simple-to-fabricate, air microcavity in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) placed at the end of a single-mode optical fibre. This microcavity creates a Fabry-Perot interferometer sensor able to measure concentrations of toluene vapour in air. Operation of the sensor is provided by diffusion of the toluene vapour to the PDMS, and the consequent extension of length d of the air microcavity in PDMS. The sensor response for the presence of vapours is fast and occurs within a few seconds. By using the prepared sensor toluene vapour concentration in air can be measured in the range from about 0.833 g.m-3 to saturation, with better sensitivity than 0.15 nm/g.m-3 up to maximal sensitivity 1.4 nm/g.m-3 at around concentration 100 g.m-3 in time 5 s.

  18. F/EF-111 Basing at Cannon Air Force Base, Curry County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    in environmental impact assessment. W.M. Willis Ph.D., Marine Ecology, Old Contractor Project Dominion University; M.S., Manager, Biologica ...martial cases. Therefore, for me, it’s a welcome diversion from the criminal trial arena to preside over an Environmental Impact Hearing such as this. I...Travis Air Force Base, California, and I cover five Western states normally. It is a welcome diversion for me to be away from the criminal trial arena to

  19. Development of carbon-based cathodes for Li-air batteries: Present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hyungsub; Kang, Joonhyeon; Kim, Jaewook; Kim, Chunjoong; Nam, Seunghoon; Park, Byungwoo

    2016-09-01

    Rechargeable lithium-air (Li-air) batteries are regarded as one of the most fascinating energy storage devices for use in the future electric vehicles, since Li-air batteries provide ten-times-higher theoretical capacities than those from current Li-ion batteries. Nonetheless, Li-air batteries have not yet been implemented to the market because of several major drawbacks such as low capacity, poor cycle life, and low round-trip efficiency. These battery performances are highly dependent on the design of air cathodes, thus much effort has been devoted to the development of high performance cathode. Among various materials, carbonaceous materials have been widely studied as the basis of air cathodes especially for non-aqueous Li-O2 cells due to their high electric conductivity, low cost, and ease of fabrication. This review summarizes the history, scientific background, and perspectives of Liair batteries, particularly from the viewpoint of carbon-based air cathodes.

  20. Experimental investigation of the influence of the air jet trajectory on convective heat transfer in buildings equipped with air-based and radiant cooling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dreau, Jerome; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2015-01-01

    -state and dynamic conditions. With the air-based cooling system, a dependency of the convective heat transfer on the air jet trajectory has been observed. New correlations have been developed, introducing a modified Archimedes number to account for the air flow pattern. The accuracy of the new correlations has been...

  1. Paper-based, printed zinc-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilder, M.; Winther-Jensen, B.; Clark, N. B.

    A flexible battery is printed on paper by screen-printing a zinc/carbon/polymer composite anode on one side of the sheet, polymerising a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) cathode on the other side of the sheet, and applying a lithium chloride electrolyte between the two electrodes. The PEDOT cathode is prepared by inkjet printing a pattern of iron(III) p-toluenesulfonate as a solution in butan-1-ol onto paper, followed by vapour phase polymerisation of the monomer. The electrolyte is prepared as a solution of lithium chloride and lithium hydroxide and also applied by inkjet printing on to paper, where it is absorbed into the sheet cross-section. Measurements on a zinc/carbon-PEDOT/air battery in a similar configuration on a polyethylene naphthalate substrate shows a discharge capacity of up to 1.4 mAh cm -2 for an initial load of 2.5 mg zinc, equivalent to almost 70% of the zinc content of the anode, which generates 0.8 V at a discharge current of 500 μA. By comparison, the performance of the paper-based battery is lower, with an open-circuit voltage of about 1.2 V and a discharge capacity of 0.5 mAh cm 2. It appears that the paper/electrolyte combination has a limited ability to take up anode oxidation products before suffering a reduction in ionic mobility. The effects of different zinc/carbon/binder combinations, differences in application method for the zinc/carbon composite and various electrolyte compositions are discussed.

  2. Avian Field guide and checklist for Kunsan Air Base, Korea.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levenson, J. B.; Environmental Assessment

    2005-11-15

    This report summarizes the results of the avian surveys conducted at Kunsan Air Base (AB). This on-going survey is conducted to comply with requirements of the Environmental Governing Standards (EGS) for the Republic of Korea, the Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan (INRMP) for Kunsan AB, and the 8th Fighter Wing's Bird Aircraft Strike Hazard (BASH) Plan. One hundred sixteen bird species representing 34 families were identified and recorded. Seven species are designated as Cultural Property Monuments, and their protection is accorded by the Korean Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Six species appear on the Korean Association for Conservation of Nature's(KACN's) list of Reserved Wild Species and are protected by the Korean Ministry of Environment. Combined, only ten different species are Republic of Korea (ROK)-protected because the Eurasian Spoonbill, Peregrine Falcon, and Eurasian Oystercatcher are listed by both agencies. The primary objective of the avian survey at Kunsan AB was to determine what species of birds are present on the airfield and their respective habitat requirements during the critical seasons of the year. This requirement is specified in Annex C.4.a.(1-4) of the 8th Fighter Wing BASH Plan(8FWOPLAN 91-202). The second objective was to initiate surveys to determine what bird species are present on Kunsan AB throughout the year, and from the survey results determine if threatened, endangered, or other Korean-listed bird species are present on Kunsan AB. This overall census satisfies Criterion 13-3.e of the EGS for Korea. The final objective was to formulate management strategies within Kunsan AB's operational requirements to protect and enhance habitats of known threatened, endangered, and ROK-protected species in accordance with EGS Criterion 13-3.a and also that are favorable for the reproduction of indigenous species in accordance with the EGS Criterion 13-3.h.

  3. Avian survey and field guide for Osan Air Base, Korea.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levenson, J.

    2006-12-05

    This report summarizes the results of the avian surveys conducted at Osan Air Base (AB). This ongoing survey is conducted to comply with requirements of the Environmental Governing Standards (EGS) for the Republic of Korea, the Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan (INRMP) for Osan AB, and the 51st Fighter Wing's Bird Aircraft Strike Hazard (BASH) Plan. One hundred ten bird species representing 35 families were identified and recorded. Seven species are designated as Natural Monuments, and their protection is accorded by the Korean Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Three species appear on the Korean Association for Conservation of Nature's (KACN's) list of Reserved Wild Species and are protected by the Korean Ministry of Environment. Combined, ten different species are Republic of Korea (ROK)-protected. The primary objective of the avian survey at Osan AB was to determine what species of birds are present on the airfield and their respective habitat requirements during the critical seasons of the year. This requirement is specified in Annex J.14.c of the 51st Fighter BASH Plan 91-212 (51 FW OPLAN 91-212). The second objective was to initiate surveys to determine what bird species are present on Osan AB throughout the year and from the survey results, determine if threatened, endangered, or other Korean-listed bird species are present on Osan AB. This overall census satisfies Criterion 13-3.e of the EGS for Korea. The final objective was to formulate management strategies within Osan AB's operational requirements to protect and enhance habitats of known threatened, endangered, and ROK-protected species in accordance with EGS Criterion 13-3.a that are also favorable for the reproduction of indigenous species in accordance with the EGS Criterion 13-3.h.

  4. Carbon-based air electrodes carrying MnO 2 in zinc-air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zidong; Huang, Wenzhang; Zhang, Shengtao; Tan, Jun

    Catalysts prepared from the carbon black impregnated with manganous nitrate solution and then heated at temperature from 270°C to 450°C were investigated. It was found that the impregnated catalysts heated at temperature of 340°C exhibited the best catalytic activity for oxygen reduction in alkaline electrolyte. It was also found that the XRD spectra of pyrolytic MnO 2 from manganous nitrate over 340°C were different from those below 340°C. The enhanced catalysis of air electrodes was ascribed to the formation of MnO 2 crystal with d-value of 2.72 Å as the impregnated-catalysts was heated at temperature of 340°C. The other factors in preparation of air electrodes were also discussed.

  5. Phase 1 Environmental Baseline Survey for Construction of a Wastewater Transmission Pipeline by the City of North Las Vegas on Nellis Air Force Base Clark County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    FACILITY UST NELLIS AIR FORCE BASE - MANCH MANO FINDS NELLIS AIR FORCE BASE - BOOSTER PU FINDS NELLIS AIR FORCE BASE - BOOSTER PU FINDS NELLIS AIR...FORCE BASE - BOOSTER PU FINDS NELLIS AIR FORCE BASE - AREA 3 199 FINDS NELLIS AIR FORCE BASE - AREA 3 199 FINDS NELLIS AIR FORCE BASE - AREA 2 CHL...ReportedOwner no: Not ReportedOwner addr: BUCK , A F & G AOwner current: GLat long acc: NV003Lat long s:-115.063003540039Longitude

  6. Independent air dehumidification with membrane-based total heat recovery: Modeling and experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, C.H.; Zhang, L.Z.; Pei, L.X. [Key Laboratory of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2010-03-15

    Fresh air ventilation is helpful for the control of epidemic respiratory disease like Swine flu (H1N1). Fresh air dehumidification systems with energy recovery measures are the key equipments to realize this goal. As a solution, an independent air dehumidification system with membrane-based total heat recovery is proposed. A prototype is built in laboratory. A detailed model is proposed and a cell-by-cell simulation technique is used in simulation to evaluate performances. The results indicate that the model can predict the system accurately. The effects of varying operating conditions like air-flow rates, temperature, and air relative humidity on the air dehumidification rates, cooling powers, electric power consumption, and thermal coefficient of performance are evaluated. The prototype has a COP of 6.8 under nominal operating conditions with total heat recovery. The performance is rather robust to outside weather conditions with a membrane-based total heat exchanger. (author)

  7. CV or not to be? alternatives to U.S. sea-based air power

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Yniol A.

    2008-01-01

    The thesis focuses on aircraft carriers and identifying an appropriate path towards the future of U.S. sea-based air power by studying historical cases of air power integration into the war fighting capabilities of the fleet. It analyzes current utilization and effectiveness of the aircraft carrier, given its operational requirements with respect to identified threats as described in security and strategy statements. It can be agreed upon that the U.S. Navy requires air cover; but wheth...

  8. The system of thermoelectric air conditioning based on permeable thermoelements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherkez R. G.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available There is thermoelectric air conditioner unit on the basis of permeable cooling thermoelements presented. In thermoelectric air conditioner unit the thermoelectric effects and the Joule–Thomson effect have been used for the air stream cooling. There have been described the method of temperature distribution analysis, the determinations of energy conversion power characteristics and design style of permeable thermoelement with maximum coefficient of performance described. The results of computer analysis concerning the application of the thermoelement legs material on the basis of Bi2Te3 have shown the possibility of coefficient of performance increase by a factor of 1,6—1,7 as compared with conventional thermoelectric systems.

  9. Environmental Assessment - Construct a Ground-to-Air Transmitter and Receiver (GATR) Facility at Grand Forks Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-06

    herbaceous plants. Included in the grasses and legumes vegetation species are tall wheat grass, brome grass, Kentucky bluegrass, sweet clover, and...grass, switchgrass, blue gramma, buffalo grass, and many native wildflower species. The Grand Forks AFB Natural Resources Manager and volunteers...Inventory and the BS Bioserve biological inventory update for Grand Forks Air Force Base. Two rare orchid species are known to exist on Grand Forks

  10. Vandenberg Air Force Base Upper Level Wind Launch Weather Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Jaclyn A.; Wheeler, Mark M.

    2012-01-01

    The 30th Operational Support Squadron Weather Flight (30 OSSWF) provides comprehensive weather services to the space program at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. One of their responsibilities is to monitor upper-level winds to ensure safe launch operations of the Minuteman III ballistic missile. The 30 OSSWF tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to analyze VAFB sounding data with the goal of determining the probability of violating (PoV) their upper-level thresholds for wind speed and shear constraints specific to this launch vehicle, and to develop a tool that will calculate the PoV of each constraint on the day of launch. In order to calculate the probability of exceeding each constraint, the AMU collected and analyzed historical data from VAFB. The historical sounding data were retrieved from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory archive for the years 1994-2011 and then stratified into four sub-seasons: January-March, April-June, July-September, and October-December. The maximum wind speed and 1000-ft shear values for each sounding in each subseason were determined. To accurately calculate the PoV, the AMU determined the theoretical distributions that best fit the maximum wind speed and maximum shear datasets. Ultimately it was discovered that the maximum wind speeds follow a Gaussian distribution while the maximum shear values follow a lognormal distribution. These results were applied when calculating the averages and standard deviations needed for the historical and real-time PoV calculations. In addition to the requirements outlined in the original task plan, the AMU also included forecast sounding data from the Rapid Refresh model. This information provides further insight for the launch weather officers (LWOs) when determining if a wind constraint violation will occur over the next few hours on day of launch. The interactive graphical user interface (GUI) for this project was developed in

  11. Design and Fabrication of Air-Based 1-3 Piezoelectric Composite Transducer for Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunfu He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The air-based 1-3 piezoelectric composite transducers are designed and fabricated in order to solve the acoustic impedance matching problem. Firstly, a finite element model using honeycomb structure as the piezoelectric composite matrix is built to reduce the acoustic impedance of the sensitive element. Three important factors, volume fraction of piezoelectric materials φ, the thickness h, and the size s of the square cross section of piezoelectric column, are examined and verified in simulation. Then, according to the result of simulation, the piezoelectric composites and the air-coupled transducers are fabricated. The honeycomb structures of resin are produced by the method of 3D printing technology, with the volume fraction of air being 30%. The impedance characteristics and the excitation/reception performance of the air-coupled transducers are measured and optimized. Meanwhile, a scanning experiment is carried out to demonstrate the crack detection process in monocrystalline silicon. A0 mode of Lamb waves is excited and collected. The location and size of the defect will be determined by calculating the correlation coefficients of the received signals and reference signals. Finally, a 15 mm × 0.5 mm × 0.5 mm scratch is clearly distinguished.

  12. Air Base Defense: Different Times Call for Different Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    54 Fox, 8. 55 Ibid., 9 56 General Curtis E. Lemay, Air Force Chief of Staff “approved a plan...into areas unrelated to counterterrorism, pervading individual expected rights of privacy. 138 Helena Independent Record, “200,000 People in U.S...in enhancing and executing the IBD mission. 139 Helena Independent Record, 1. 140 Elaine

  13. Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration. Competency-Based Curriculum Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourley, Frank A., Jr.

    This manual was developed to serve as an aid to administrators and instructors involved with postsecondary air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration programs. The first of six chapters contains general information on program implementation, the curriculum design, facilities and equipment requirements, and textbooks and references. Chapter 2…

  14. Shaw Air Force Base Infrastructure Project Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    various sunfish, bullhead catfish , and largemouth bass and birds such as resident Canada geese, mallards, and kingfishers (Air Force, 2004a...Reptiles Micrurus fulvius Eastern coral snake ─ SC Hardwood forest; pine flatwoods; marshes Mammals Corynorhinus rafinesquii Rafinesque’s big-eared

  15. Environmental Assessment, Project MOUNTAINVIEW Facility, Buckley Air Force Base, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    by East 40th Avenue. The undeveloped parcel is part of the Gateway Park development, which is composed of 1,300 acres of office, hotel , retail...60 Air conditioning unit (20 feet) Intrusive 70 Noisy restaurant or freeway traffic Telephone use difficult 80 Alarm clock (2 feet) Annoying 90

  16. Polymer membrane-based thermo-pneumatic actuation for distributed air-jet planar micromanipulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapuis, Y.-A.; Jalabert, L.; Sarajlic, E.; Vermeer, R.; Collard, D.; Fujita, H.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present latest results of a thermopneumatic microactuator based on polymer membrane and silicon technology. This device has application in distributed air-jet planar micromanipulation to levitate and convey small objects by changing air-flow direction on the surface. Our technology

  17. Simulation of C-CP Fiber-Based Air Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L. Cox, Ph.D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The overall goal of this project is to develop High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA filter media, using conventional fiber spinning techniques, with lower pressure drop than current media through the use of shaped fibers. Capillary-channeled polymer (C-CP fibers are gaining interest for use in a range of separations applications. This paper focuses on modeling air filtration where the filter consists of C-CP fibers. A variety of numerical tools are being used in this effort, including a finite element flow solver and Brownian dynamics simulation. Aspects of these techniques in relation to the problem at hand will be described, and simulation results including comparisons to round-fiber filters will be presented. The primary result presented here is the significant difference in predicted pressure drop between a prototype C-CP filter and a round-fiber filter with equal total cross-sectional area.

  18. Environmental Assessment: Proposed Consolidated Warehouse, Hill Air Force Base, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    pavements are identified, they would be properly handled during the demolition and construction process. Operational activities would generate the same...historic properties is extremely low . However, if any such properties are found during construction, ground-disturbing activities in the immediate...gas, and improve the capture of particulates during painting and abrasive blasting operations (in compliance with the base’s Title V air quality

  19. Land-Based Air Power in Third World Crises

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    Western European includes France , United Kingdom, West Germany, and Italy totals as an aggregate figure. ’Armored personnel carrier...Vietnamese civil struggle-and that with France and the United States- which had gone on then for 50 years. Cambodia had been directly and indirectly...Castro’s air force, in Amanecer en Giron (Havana, Cuba : Institutio del Libro , 1969), 87, says that two T-33s were destroyed on the 15th but makes no

  20. Nowhere to Hide: The Growing Threat to Air Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    revealed the destruc- tion of six AV-8B Harrier jets and damage to two other aircraft; addi- tionally, “six aircraft hangers [sic] suffered damage,” and...seam that a technologically savvy enemy could exploit. We must develop modeling, simulation , and defenses to ac- count for these new threats before a...aircraft worthless or can wipe out a barracks occupied by essential personnel such as pilots or aircraft technicians. The Air Force and coalition

  1. Environmental Assessment: Installation Development at Lackland Air Force Base, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Residential Area (South Leon Valley) 67.5 SD08 Residential Area (Huebner and Bandera Roads) 64.5 SD09 Residential Area (South O.P. Schnabel Park) 62.3...most of the winter. Southeasterly winds from the Gulf of Mexico are predominant in the summer but also occur frequently during the winter. The...Air Quality Control Region (AQCR Number 217), which includes Atascosa, Bandera , Bexar, Comal, Dimmit, Edwards, Frio, Gillespie, Guadalupe, Karnes

  2. Myrtle Beach Air Force Base Community Redevelopment Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    senior citizen cultural programs and uses. " The opportunity exists at MBAFB to encourage a high-quality destination resort with first-class lodging...one which has several subareas within the entire facility which are built up around themes. As an example, Disneyland has areas such as Fantasyland and...Archaeological Historic Sites ’-- ( Cultural Resources Analysis, May, 1980) fo,,2 Installation Restoration Program Sites (Source: Myrtle Beach Air

  3. Particulate air pollution in urban areas of Shanghai, China: health-based economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Haidong; Chen, Bingheng

    2004-04-25

    Urban air quality is becoming a serious public health concern in China. To obtain the quantitative result of the impact of particulate air pollution on human health and the subsequent economic costs in Shanghai, we used epidemiology-based exposure-response functions to calculate the attributable number of cases due to particulate air pollution in urban areas of Shanghai in 2001, and then we estimated the corresponding economic costs of the health damage based on unit values of the health outcomes. It was estimated that the total economic cost of health impacts due to particulate air pollution in urban areas of Shanghai in 2001 was approximately 625.40 million US dollars, accounting for 1.03% of gross domestic product of the city. The results suggest that the impact of particulate air pollution on human health could be substantial in urban Shanghai, whether in physical and economic terms.

  4. Recent development of VUV-based processes for air pollutants degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibao eHuang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As air pollution become more and more serious nowadays, it is essential to find out a way to efficiently degrade the air pollutants. Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV-based processes are an emerging and promising technologies for environmental remediation such as air cleaning, wastewater treatment and air/water disinfection. With VUV irradiation, photolysis, photocatalyst is and ozone-assisted oxidation are involved at the same time, resulting in the fast degradation of air pollutants because of their strong oxidizing capacity. The mechanisms of how the oxidants are produced and reacted are discussed in this review. This paper mainly focuses on the three VUV-based oxidation processes including VUV photolysis, VUV combined with ozone-assisted oxidation and VUV-PCO with emphasis on their mechanisms and applications. Also, the outlooks of these processes are outlined in this paper.

  5. Performance and cycle life of carbon- and conductive-based air electrodes for rechargeable Zn-air battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellapandi Velraj, Samgopiraj

    The development of high-performance, cyclically stable bifunctional air electrodes are critical to the commercial deployment of rechargeable Zn-air batteries. The carbon material predominantly used as support material in the air electrodes due to its higher surface area and good electrical conductivity suffers from corrosion at high oxygen evolution overpotentials. This study addresses the carbon corrosion issues and suggests alternate materials to replace the carbon as support in the air electrode. In this study, Sm0.5Sr0.5CoO3-delta with good electrochemical performance and cyclic lifetime was identified as an alternative catalyst material to the commonly used La0.4Ca 0.6CoO3 catalyst for the carbon-based bifunctional electrodes. Also, a comprehensive study on the effects of catalyst morphology, testing conditions on the cycle life as well as the relevant degradation mechanism for the carbon-based electrode was conducted in this dissertation. The cyclic life of the carbon-based electrodes was strongly dependent on the carbon support material, while the degradation mechanisms were entirely controlled by the catalyst particle size/morphology. Some testing conditions like resting time and electrolyte concentration did not change the cyclic life or degradation mechanism of the carbon-based electrode. The current density used for cyclic testing was found to dictate the degradation mechanism leading to the electrode failure. An alternate way to circumvent the carbon corrosion is to replace the carbon support with a suitable electrically-conductive ceramic material. In this dissertation, LaNi0.9Mn0.1O3, LaNi 0.8Co0.2O3, and NiCo2O4 were synthesized and evaluated as prospective support materials due to their good electrical conductivity and their ability to act as the catalyst needed for the bifunctional electrode. The carbon-free electrodes had remarkably higher catalytic activity for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) when compared to the carbon-based electrode. However

  6. 2008 Northwest Florida Water Management District (NWFWMD) Lidar: Eglin Air Force Base, Walton County, FL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the summer of 2008, the Northwest Florida Water Management District collected lidar data over a portion of Walton County, FL (Eglin Air force Base) to support...

  7. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This report presents information concerning field procedures employed during the monitoring, well construction, well purging, sampling, and well logging at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Activities were conducted in an effort to evaluate ground water contamination.

  8. Temporal Geophysical Investigations of the FT-2-Plume at the Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Oscoda, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The decommissioned Wurtsmith Air Force Base former Fire Training Cell (FT-02) facility has been the focus of several geophysical investigations. After several decades of fire training exercises, significant amounts of hydrocarbons and some solvents seeped into the subsurface cont...

  9. Characterization of Air-Based Photovoltaic Thermal Panels with Bifacial Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    P. Ooshaksaraei; K. Sopian; R. Zulkifli; Saleem H. Zaidi

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) panels account for a majority of the cost of photovoltaic thermal (PVT) panels. Bifacial silicon solar panels are attractive for PVT panels because of their potential to enhance electrical power generation from the same silicon wafer compared with conventional monofacial solar panels. This paper examines the performance of air-based bifacial PVT panels with regard to the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Four air-based bifacial PVT panels were designed. The maximum ef...

  10. Time-based air traffic management using expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, L.; Scoggins, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    A prototype expert system was developed for the time scheduling of aircraft into the terminal area. The three functions of the air traffic control schedule advisor are as follows: first, for each new arrival, it develops an admissible flight plan for that aircraft. Second, as the aircraft progresses through the terminal area, it monitors deviations from the flight plan and provides advisories to return the aircraft to its assigned schedule. Third, if major disruptions such as missed approaches occur, it develops a revised plan. The advisor is operational on a Symbolics 3600, and is programed in MRS (a logic programming language), Lisp, and FORTRAN.

  11. Web-based GIS: the vector-borne disease airline importation risk (VBD-AIR tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Zhuojie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past century, the size and complexity of the air travel network has increased dramatically. Nowadays, there are 29.6 million scheduled flights per year and around 2.7 billion passengers are transported annually. The rapid expansion of the network increasingly connects regions of endemic vector-borne disease with the rest of the world, resulting in challenges to health systems worldwide in terms of vector-borne pathogen importation and disease vector invasion events. Here we describe the development of a user-friendly Web-based GIS tool: the Vector-Borne Disease Airline Importation Risk Tool (VBD-AIR, to help better define the roles of airports and airlines in the transmission and spread of vector-borne diseases. Methods Spatial datasets on modeled global disease and vector distributions, as well as climatic and air network traffic data were assembled. These were combined to derive relative risk metrics via air travel for imported infections, imported vectors and onward transmission, and incorporated into a three-tier server architecture in a Model-View-Controller framework with distributed GIS components. A user-friendly web-portal was built that enables dynamic querying of the spatial databases to provide relevant information. Results The VBD-AIR tool constructed enables the user to explore the interrelationships among modeled global distributions of vector-borne infectious diseases (malaria. dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya and international air service routes to quantify seasonally changing risks of vector and vector-borne disease importation and spread by air travel, forming an evidence base to help plan mitigation strategies. The VBD-AIR tool is available at http://www.vbd-air.com. Conclusions VBD-AIR supports a data flow that generates analytical results from disparate but complementary datasets into an organized cartographical presentation on a web map for the assessment of vector-borne disease movements

  12. Environmental Assessment Distributed Common Ground System (DCGS) Operations Facility, Beale Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    to: USAF_2014_0410_001 Gregory S. Capra , P.E., LEED AP Deputy Base Civil Engineer Department of the Air Force Headquarters 9th Mission Support...Facility, Main Base District, Beale Air Force Base, Yuba County Dear Mr. Capra : Thank you for initiating consultation regarding the United States...Reply Refer lo: 08ESM.l󈧄- 20l4-I-0371 Gregory S. Capra Deputy Base Civil Engineer 9 CES/CD 6601 B Street FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE Sacramento

  13. Environmental Assessment for the Hercules Tanker Plane Recapitalization at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    377TH AIR BASE WING (AFMC) 2000 Wyoming Blvd SE Suite E-3 Kirtland AFB NM 87117-5000 Governor Michael Toledo Pueblo of Jemez P.O. Box 100 Jemez...Pueblo NM 87024 RE: Recapitalization of the Hercules Tanker Fleet Dear Governor Toledo APR ’"I 2011 The United States Air Force’s Air Combat Command...violations, please contact one or more of the following: the City of Albuquerque ( Victor Bessrra) at 505- 768-2629, email at RPOrtega@cabq.gov; FAA

  14. Flow measurement in base cooling air passages of a rotating turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, C. H.; Pollack, F. G.

    1974-01-01

    The operational performance is decribed of a shaft-mounted system for measuring the air mass flow rate in the base cooling passages of a rotating turbine blade. Shaft speeds of 0 to 9000 rpm, air mass flow rates of 0.0035 to 0.039 kg/sec (0.0077 to 0.085 lbm/sec), and blade air temperatures of 300 to 385 K (80 to 233 F) were measured. Comparisons of individual rotating blade flows and corresponding stationary supply orifice flows agreed to within 10 percent.

  15. A Capabilities Based Assessment of the United States Air Force Critical Care Air Transport Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    centers the dialogue on a demonstration of how specific tasks are completed using the actual system, prototype, or mockup (Kirwan & Ainsworth, 1992... web -based collaborative portal hosted on the NPS server, was used when documents were too large to send via email. Another method for file sharing...Walk Through A demonstration of how specific tasks are completed using the actual system, prototype, or mockup . These can be in real-time or a

  16. Range Environmental Assessment Overland Air Operations, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-12

    the total area of the Base. This upland community has a canopy dominated by longleaf pine , a sparse midstory of oaks and other hardwoods, and a ground...Picoides borealis) is listed as a state and federally endangered bird species. The RCW excavates cavities in live longleaf pine trees that are at least 85...years old. Due to the preservation of continuous longleaf pine forests on Eglin, the Eglin Range has one of the largest remaining populations of

  17. Environmental Assessment for BRAC Facilities and Remote Field Training Site, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Pensacola Naval Air Station , Florida 5. Sensors Directorate (AFRL/SN) presently located at Rome Laboratories, New York, and Hanscom Air Force Base (AFB...A water bladder would be used in warm weather and stored empty in the storage building during cold weather . At least 12 storage lockers would be...Facilities EA WPAFB Affected Environment March 2008 32 raspberry (Rubus spp.), multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora), and sumac (Rhus spp.). Areas

  18. Reducing the cost of Ca-based direct air capture of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, Frank

    2014-10-07

    Direct air capture, the chemical removal of CO2 directly from the atmosphere, may play a role in mitigating future climate risk or form the basis of a sustainable transportation infrastructure. The current discussion is centered on the estimated cost of the technology and its link to "overshoot" trajectories, where atmospheric CO2 levels are actively reduced later in the century. The American Physical Society (APS) published a report, later updated, estimating the cost of a one million tonne CO2 per year air capture facility constructed today that highlights several fundamental concepts of chemical air capture. These fundamentals are viewed through the lens of a chemical process that cycles between removing CO2 from the air and releasing the absorbed CO2 in concentrated form. This work builds on the APS report to investigate the effect of modifications to the air capture system based on suggestions in the report and subsequent publications. The work shows that reduced carbon electricity and plastic packing materials (for the contactor) may have significant effects on the overall price, reducing the APS estimate from $610 to $309/tCO2 avoided. Such a reduction does not challenge postcombustion capture from point sources, estimated at $80/tCO2, but does make air capture a feasible alternative for the transportation sector and a potential negative emissions technology. Furthermore, air capture represents atmospheric reductions rather than simply avoided emissions.

  19. Humidifying system design of PEMFC test platform based on the mixture of dry and wet air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiancai Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the present humidifying system of PEMFC test platform, a novel design based on dry and wet air mixture is proposed. Key parameters are calculated, and test platform is built. Three experiments are implemented to test the performance of proposed design. Results show that the new design can meet the requirements, and realize the quick response and accurate control.

  20. Preliminary verification of instantaneous air temperature estimation for clear sky conditions based on SEBAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shanyou; Zhou, Chuxuan; Zhang, Guixin; Zhang, Hailong; Hua, Junwei

    2017-02-01

    Spatially distributed near surface air temperature at the height of 2 m is an important input parameter for the land surface models. It is of great significance in both theoretical research and practical applications to retrieve instantaneous air temperature data from remote sensing observations. An approach based on Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) to retrieve air temperature under clear sky conditions is presented. Taking the meteorological measurement data at one station as the reference and remotely sensed data as the model input, the research estimates the air temperature by using an iterative computation. The method was applied to the area of Jiangsu province for nine scenes by using MODIS data products, as well as part of Fujian province, China based on four scenes of Landsat 8 imagery. Comparing the air temperature estimated from the proposed method with that of the meteorological station measurement, results show that the root mean square error is 1.7 and 2.6 °C at 1000 and 30 m spatial resolution respectively. Sensitivity analysis of influencing factors reveals that land surface temperature is the most sensitive to the estimation precision. Research results indicate that the method has great potentiality to be used to estimate instantaneous air temperature distribution under clear sky conditions.

  1. Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment for Base-Wide Military Construction Planning at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    whiptail lizard (Aspidoscelis inornata), short- horned lizard (Phrynosoma douglassi), lesser earless lizard (Holbrookia maculata), bull snake (Pituophis...Peterson Field Guide to Western Birds. Houghton Mifflin Pub: Boston. pp. 432. Reid, F.A. 2006. Mammals of North America . Houghton Mifflin...ASSESSMENT FOR BASE-WIDE MILITARY CONSTRUCTION PLANNING AT KIRTLAND AIR FORCE BASE, NEW MEXICO Introduction : In accordance with the National

  2. Air filtration in the free molecular flow regime: a review of high-efficiency particulate air filters based on carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Wang, Chunya; Zhang, Yingying; Wei, Fei

    2014-11-01

    Air filtration in the free molecular flow (FMF) regime is important and challenging because a higher filtration efficiency and lower pressure drop are obtained when the fiber diameter is smaller than the gas mean free path in the FMF regime. In previous studies, FMF conditions have been obtained by increasing the gas mean free path through reducing the pressure and increasing the temperature. In the case of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with nanoscale diameters, it is possible to filtrate in the FMF regime under normal conditions. This paper reviews recent progress in theoretical and experimental studies of air filtration in the FMF regime. Typical structure models of high-efficiency particulate (HEPA) air filters based on CNTs are introduced. The pressure drop in air filters operated in the FMF regime is less than that predicted by the conventional air filtration theory. The thinnest HEPA filters fabricated from single-walled CNT films have an extremely low pressure drop. CNT air filters with a gradient nanostructure are shown to give a much better filtration performance in dynamic filtration. CNT air filters with a hierarchical structure and an agglomerated CNT fluidized bed air filter are also introduced. Finally, the challenges and opportunities for the application of CNTs in air filtration are discussed.

  3. Evaluation of Inventory Reduction Strategies: Balad Air Base Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    the USAF supply system amounts to basic ABC inventory management methods in that backorders are managed in a fashion where certain parts are given...M., & North, M. J. (2008). Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation: ABMS Examples. Proceedings of the 2008 Winter Simulation Conference (pp. 101-112

  4. Environmental Assessment of the Realignment of Units at McChord Air Force Base, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    McChord AFB (Department of the Air Force 1986). 3.2.4 Water Resources Clovis Creek and Morey Creek are the primary surface water features at McChord AFB...Morey Creek originates at Spanaway Lake east of the base and merges Swith Clovis Creek at n the eastern portion of the base. Clovis Creek has been...estimated at $166.5 million (Department of the Air Force 1988). 3.2.8 Cultura - Resources In the area within and adjacent to McChord AFB, there is evidence

  5. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  6. Environmental Impact Statement. Disposal and Reuse of George Air Force Base, California. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    Agriculture, 1986) has mapped sols on and around George AFB. Most of the on-base soils consist of the Bryman loamy fine sand that forms on terraces and...The Bryman loamy fine sand, when Irrigated, meets the soil requirements for prime farmland; however, the area surrounding the base is not Irrigated...110, 4-185 Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC), 3-32, Bryman loamy fine sand, 3-84 4-34 Bureau of Land Management (BLM), 3-50, 3-112, Air traffic

  7. A method based on potential theory for calculating air cavity formation of an air cavity resistance reduction ship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yun-bo; WU Xiao-yu; MA Yong; WANG Jin-guang

    2008-01-01

    This research is intended to provide academic reference and design guidance for further studies to determine the most effective means to reduce a ship's resistance through an air-cavity.On the basis of potential theory and on the assumption of an ideal and irrotational fluid,this paper drives a method for calculating air cavity formation using slender ship theory then points out the parameters directly related to the formation of air cavities and their interrelationships.Simulations showed that the formation of an air cavity is affected by cavitation number,velocity,groove geometry and groove size.When the ship's velocity and groove structure are given,the cavitation number must be within range to form a steady air cavity.The interface between air and water forms a wave shape and could be adjustedby an air injection system.

  8. Development of an ICT-Based Air Column Resonance Learning Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purjiyanta, Eka; Handayani, Langlang; Marwoto, Putut

    2016-08-01

    Commonly, the sound source used in the air column resonance experiment is the tuning fork having disadvantage of unoptimal resonance results due to the sound produced which is getting weaker. In this study we made tones with varying frequency using the Audacity software which were, then, stored in a mobile phone as a source of sound. One advantage of this sound source is the stability of the resulting sound enabling it to produce the same powerful sound. The movement of water in a glass tube mounted on the tool resonance and the tone sound that comes out from the mobile phone were recorded by using a video camera. Sound resonances recorded were first, second, and third resonance, for each tone frequency mentioned. The resulting sound stays longer, so it can be used for the first, second, third and next resonance experiments. This study aimed to (1) explain how to create tones that can substitute tuning forks sound used in air column resonance experiments, (2) illustrate the sound wave that occurred in the first, second, and third resonance in the experiment, and (3) determine the speed of sound in the air. This study used an experimental method. It was concluded that; (1) substitute tones of a tuning fork sound can be made by using the Audacity software; (2) the form of sound waves that occured in the first, second, and third resonance in the air column resonance can be drawn based on the results of video recording of the air column resonance; and (3) based on the experiment result, the speed of sound in the air is 346.5 m/s, while based on the chart analysis with logger pro software, the speed of sound in the air is 343.9 ± 0.3171 m/s.

  9. Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Phase 2. Confirmation/Quantification. Stage 1. Buckley Air National Guard Base, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-21

    UNLIMITED PREPARED FOR HEADQUARTERS AIR NATIONAL GUARD COMMAND SURGEON’S OFFICE (ANGSC/ SGB ) BIOENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING DIVISION C ANDREWS AIR FORCE...FOR BUCKIEY AIR NATIONAL GUARD BASE COLORADO HEADQUARTERS AIR NATIONAL GUARD COMMAND SURGEON’S OFFICE (ANGSC/ SGB ) BIOENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING...was at the standard. Verification should be done with a more sensitive analysis. , In order to determine whether ground water contamination is

  10. 2017 Annual Terrestrial Sampling Plan for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico on Kirtland Air Force Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Stacy R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The 2017 Annual Terrestrial Sampling Plan for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico on Kirtland Air Force Base has been prepared in accordance with the “Letter of Agreement Between Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Sandia Field Office (DOE/NNSA/SFO) and 377th Air Base Wing (ABW), Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) for Terrestrial Sampling” (signed January 2017), Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The Letter of Agreement requires submittal of an annual terrestrial sampling plan.

  11. Study on an air quality evaluation model for Beijing City under haze-fog pollution based on new ambient air quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liu, Dong-Jun

    2014-08-28

    Since 2012, China has been facing haze-fog weather conditions, and haze-fog pollution and PM2.5 have become hot topics. It is very necessary to evaluate and analyze the ecological status of the air environment of China, which is of great significance for environmental protection measures. In this study the current situation of haze-fog pollution in China was analyzed first, and the new Ambient Air Quality Standards were introduced. For the issue of air quality evaluation, a comprehensive evaluation model based on an entropy weighting method and nearest neighbor method was developed. The entropy weighting method was used to determine the weights of indicators, and the nearest neighbor method was utilized to evaluate the air quality levels. Then the comprehensive evaluation model was applied into the practical evaluation problems of air quality in Beijing to analyze the haze-fog pollution. Two simulation experiments were implemented in this study. One experiment included the indicator of PM2.5 and was carried out based on the new Ambient Air Quality Standards (GB 3095-2012); the other experiment excluded PM2.5 and was carried out based on the old Ambient Air Quality Standards (GB 3095-1996). Their results were compared, and the simulation results showed that PM2.5 was an important indicator for air quality and the evaluation results of the new Air Quality Standards were more scientific than the old ones. The haze-fog pollution situation in Beijing City was also analyzed based on these results, and the corresponding management measures were suggested.

  12. Installation Restoration Program. Phase II, Stage 1. Problem Confirmation Study, Luke Air Force Base, Glendale, Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    potable water in LAFB. Surface water from the Central Arizona Project (CAP) is available to the Base, but at a significantly higher cost than that of...available supplies of potable water which currently support the Base mission at LAFB. 1-16 1-16 SECTION 2 ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING 2.1 REGIONAL GEOLOGY Luke Air...the northern portion of the Base discharges toward the nearest natural surface water feature, the Agua Fria River. Figure 2-1 summarizes surface

  13. Environmental Assessment: Proposed Photovoltaic Array, Hill Air Force Base, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-28

    AFB tree removal and replacement plan (Hill 2006). The tree replacement policy is based on each tree’s diameter at breast height ( DBH ). For example...if a tree with a DBH of 10 inches was removed, it would be replaced with 10 trees each with a one-inch DBH , or any combination of trees equivalent...would not create solid or hazardous waste. Biological No effects Attempts to preserve trees could be unsuccessfuL Up to 62 trees could be Resources

  14. Long-term air pollution exposure and diabetes in a population-based Swiss cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Ikenna C; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Fischer, Evelyn; Schikowski, Tamara; Adam, Martin; Imboden, Medea; Tsai, Ming; Carballo, David; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Künzli, Nino; Schindler, Christian; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2014-09-01

    Air pollution is an important risk factor for global burden of disease. There has been recent interest in its possible role in the etiology of diabetes mellitus. Experimental evidence is suggestive, but epidemiological evidence is limited and mixed. We therefore explored the association between air pollution and prevalent diabetes, in a population-based Swiss cohort. We did cross-sectional analyses of 6392 participants of the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults [SAPALDIA], aged between 29 and 73 years. We used estimates of average individual home outdoor PM10 [particulate matter pollutant model. There was some indication that beta blockers mitigated the effect of PM10. The associations remained stable across different sensitivity analyses. Our study adds to the evidence that long term air pollution exposure is associated with diabetes mellitus. PM10 appears to be a useful marker of aspects of air pollution relevant for diabetes. This association can be observed at concentrations below air quality guidelines.

  15. Performance Assessment of a Solar-Assisted Desiccant-Based Air Handling Unit Considering Different Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Angrisani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, three alternative layouts (scenarios of an innovative solar-assisted hybrid desiccant-based air handling unit (AHU are investigated through dynamic simulations. Performance is evaluated with respect to a reference system and compared to those of the innovative plant without modifications. For each scenario, different collector types, surfaces and tilt angles are considered. The effect of the solar thermal energy surplus exploitation for other low-temperature uses is also investigated. The first alternative scenario consists of the recovery of the heat rejected by the condenser of the chiller to pre-heat the regeneration air. The second scenario considers the pre-heating of regeneration air with the warmer regeneration air exiting the desiccant wheel (DW. The last scenario provides pre-cooling of the process air before entering the DW. Results reveal that the plants with evacuated solar collectors (SC can ensure primary energy savings (15%–24% and avoid equivalent CO2 emissions (14%–22%, about 10 percentage points more than those with flat-plate collectors, when the solar thermal energy is used only for air conditioning and the collectors have the best tilt angle. If all of the solar thermal energy is considered, the best results with evacuated tube collectors are approximately 73% in terms of primary energy saving, 71% in terms of avoided equivalent CO2 emissions and a payback period of six years.

  16. Prediction of Air Pollutants Concentration Based on an Extreme Learning Machine: The Case of Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangshe Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the economy and society all over the world, most metropolitan cities are experiencing elevated concentrations of ground-level air pollutants. It is urgent to predict and evaluate the concentration of air pollutants for some local environmental or health agencies. Feed-forward artificial neural networks have been widely used in the prediction of air pollutants concentration. However, there are some drawbacks, such as the low convergence rate and the local minimum. The extreme learning machine for single hidden layer feed-forward neural networks tends to provide good generalization performance at an extremely fast learning speed. The major sources of air pollutants in Hong Kong are mobile, stationary, and from trans-boundary sources. We propose predicting the concentration of air pollutants by the use of trained extreme learning machines based on the data obtained from eight air quality parameters in two monitoring stations, including Sham Shui Po and Tap Mun in Hong Kong for six years. The experimental results show that our proposed algorithm performs better on the Hong Kong data both quantitatively and qualitatively. Particularly, our algorithm shows better predictive ability, with R 2 increased and root mean square error values decreased respectively.

  17. Investigation of solar energy utilization in a novel desiccant based air conditioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurdodan, Ertac; Buyukalaca, Orhan [Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Osmaniye Korkut Ata University (Turkey)], email: ehurdogan@osmaniye.edu.tr, email: obuyukalaca@osmaniye.edu.tr; Yilmaz, Tuncay; Uckan, Irfan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Cukurova University (Turkey)], email: tunyil@cu.edu.tr, email: iuckan@cu.edu.tr; Hepbasli, Arif [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, King Saud University (Saudi Arabia)], email: ahepbasli.c@ksu.edu.sa

    2011-07-01

    Desiccant-based air-conditioning systems are an alternative to traditional air conditioning units. They have superior humidity control and are usually used in health care facilities to reduce the airborne transmission of disease. In the present study, an innovative, desiccant-based air-conditioning system was designed and tested in Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey. A model for investigating the use of solar energy in the system was developed. Experimental temperatures throughout the cooling season of 2008 and solar radiation data, measured by the State Meteorological Affairs (DMI) over the period 1986-2006, were utilized in the model. A comparison was made between the results obtained from the model and those from the experiments and it was concluded that solar energy could be utilized in the system. Solar energy also increased the coefficient of performance (COP) of the system by between 50% and 120% and was shown to be a cost-effective way of regenerating the desiccant.

  18. Performance Evaluation of Air-Based Heat Rejection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Fugmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the Number of Transfer Units (NTU method a functional relation between electric power for fans/pumps and effectiveness in dry coolers and wet cooling towers is developed. Based on this relation, a graphical presentation method of monitoring and simulation data of heat rejection units is introduced. The functional relation allows evaluating the thermodynamic performance of differently sized heat rejection units and comparing performance among them. The method is used to evaluate monitoring data of dry coolers of different solar cooling field projects. The novelty of this approach is that performance rating is not limited by a design point or standardized operating conditions of the heat exchanger, but is realizable under flexible conditions.

  19. High capacity for extracellular acid-base regulation in the air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsgaard, Christian; Gam, Le Thi Hong; Tuong, Dang Diem; Thinh, Phan Vinh; Huong Thanh, Do Thi; Wang, Tobias; Bayley, Mark

    2015-05-01

    The evolution of accessory air-breathing structures is typically associated with reduction of the gills, although branchial ion transport remains pivotal for acid-base and ion regulation. Therefore, air-breathing fishes are believed to have a low capacity for extracellular pH regulation during a respiratory acidosis. In the present study, we investigated acid-base regulation during hypercapnia in the air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus in normoxic and hypoxic water at 28-30°C. Contrary to previous studies, we show that this air-breathing fish has a pronounced ability to regulate extracellular pH (pHe) during hypercapnia, with complete metabolic compensation of pHe within 72 h of exposure to hypoxic hypercapnia with CO2 levels above 34 mmHg. The high capacity for pHe regulation relies on a pronounced ability to increase levels of HCO3(-) in the plasma. Our study illustrates the diversity in the physiology of air-breathing fishes, such that generalizations across phylogenies may be difficult.

  20. Wavelets-based clustering of air quality monitoring sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Sónia; Scotto, Manuel G; Monteiro, Alexandra; Alonso, Andres M

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims at providing a variance/covariance profile of a set of 36 monitoring stations measuring ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) hourly concentrations, collected over the period 2005-2013, in Portugal mainland. The resulting individual profiles are embedded in a wavelet decomposition-based clustering algorithm in order to identify groups of stations exhibiting similar profiles. The results of the cluster analysis identify three groups of stations, namely urban, suburban/urban/rural, and a third group containing all but one rural stations. The results clearly indicate a geographical pattern among urban stations, distinguishing those located in Lisbon area from those located in Oporto/North. Furthermore, for urban stations, intra-diurnal and daily time scales exhibit the highest variance. This is due to the more relevant chemical activity occurring in high NO2 emissions areas which are responsible for high variability on daily profiles. These chemical processes also explain the reason for NO2 and O3 being highly negatively cross-correlated in suburban and urban sites as compared with rural stations. Finally, the clustering analysis also identifies sites which need revision concerning classification according to environment/influence type.

  1. UNMANNED AIR VEHICLE STABILIZATION BASED ON NEURAL NETWORK REGULATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Andropov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A problem of stabilizing for the multirotor unmanned aerial vehicle in an environment with external disturbances is researched. A classic proportional-integral-derivative controller is analyzed, its flaws are outlined: inability to respond to changing of external conditions and the need for manual adjustment of coefficients. The paper presents an adaptive adjustment method for coefficients of the proportional-integral-derivative controller based on neural networks. A neural network structure, its input and output data are described. Neural networks with three layers are used to create an adaptive stabilization system for the multirotor unmanned aerial vehicle. Training of the networks is done with the back propagation method. Each neural network produces regulator coefficients for each angle of stabilization as its output. A method for network training is explained. Several graphs of transition process on different stages of learning, including processes with external disturbances, are presented. It is shown that the system meets stabilization requirements with sufficient number of iterations. Described adjustment method for coefficients can be used in remote control of unmanned aerial vehicles, operating in the changing environment.

  2. 33 CFR 334.560 - Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.560 Section 334.560 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.560...

  3. Model Based Sensor System for Temperature Measurement in R744 Air Conditioning Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Reitz, Sven; Schneider, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The goal is the development of a novel principle for the temperature acquisition of refrigerants in CO2 air conditioning systems. The new approach is based on measuring the temperature inside a pressure sensor, which is also needed in the system. On the basis of simulative investigations of different mounting conditions functional relations between measured and medium temperature will be derived.

  4. Environmental Assessment. Increase Fuel Storage Capacity, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    in 1998. Grasshopper Sparrow 2 Observed on Bergold Farm 16 July 2003 and in 1998. Great blue heron 2 Observed many times foraging along both Pipe...ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES Increase Fuels Capacity Dover Air Force Base, Delaware 28 calculations were derived from the same EPA software utilized to

  5. Air-stable complementary-like circuits based on organic ambipolar transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anthopoulos, Thomas D.; Setayesh, Sepas; Smits, Edsger; Colle, Michael; Cantatore, Eugenio; de Boer, Bert; Blom, Paul W. M.; de Leeuw, Dago M.; Cölle, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Air stable complementary-like circuits, such as voltage inverters (see figure) and ring oscillators, are fabricated using ambipolar organic transistors based on a nickel dithiolene derivative. In addition to the complementary-like character of the circuits, the technology is very simple and fully co

  6. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Environmental Impact Statement for the Closure of Mather Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    the California Health and Safety Code). The Department would like to be informed of future activities and use plans associated with the Muther AFB...Page 2 cc: Lt. Col Richard Blank Chief, Environmental Management 323rd Flying Training Wing Mather Air Force Base, CA 95655-5000 Lt. Col. Jose Saenz

  7. Environmental Assessment: 13th Street Bridge Emergency Repair and Retrofit Vandenberg Air Force Base California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-23

    23-1 Acres on Vandenberg Air Force Base. Robert 0. Gibson, Archaeologist, Paso Robles, California. Submitted toURS Corporation, Santa Barbara...Timbrook (editors). 1977. The Eye (?f the Flute: Chwnash Traditional History and Ritual, as told by Fernando Librado Kitsepmvit to John P. Harrington

  8. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This report presents information related to the sampling of ground water at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It is part of an investigation into possible ground water contamination. Information concerns well drilling/construction; x-ray diffraction and sampling; soil boring logs; and chain-of-custody records.

  9. STEAM ENHANCED REMEDIATION RESEARCH FOR DNAPL IN FRACTURED ROCK, LORING AIR FORCE BASE, LIMESTONE, MAINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report details a research project on Steam Enhanced Remediation (SER) for the recovery of volatile organic compounds from fractured limestone that was carried out at the Quarry at the former Loring Air Force Base in Limestone, Maine. This project was carried out by USEPA, Ma...

  10. Final A Street Pond Expansion Environmental Assessment at Beale Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Ms. Jennifer Marchek B.S. Engineering Years of Experience: 12 Mr. Matt Brown – GIS B.S. Art Years of Experience: 5 Beale Air Force Base Draft...information, call Cubmaster Shane Griego at 632-8968. Available NAF positions The following Non-Appropriated Fund positions are currently

  11. Eielson Air Force Base Infrastructure Development in Support of RED FLAG-Alaska Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    MAAS Colonel, USAF Vice Commander Date EIELSON AIR FORCE BASE INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT IN SUPPORT OF RED FLAG-ALASKA...Name Address1 Address2 Address3 City State Zip Governor of Alaska Palin The Honorable Sarah 240 Main St., Ste. 300 Court Plaza Bldg. Juneau AK 99801

  12. The development of a shock-tube based characterization technique for air-coupled ultrasonic probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revel, G M; Pandarese, G; Cavuto, A

    2014-08-01

    The present paper proposes a new characterization technique for air-coupled ultrasound probes. The technique is based on a shock tube to generate a controlled pressure wave to calibrate transducers within their operating frequency range. The aim is to generate a high frequency pressure wave (at least up to 200 kHz) with the low energy levels typical of commonly used air-coupled ultrasound probes. A dedicated shock-tube has been designed and tested to assess calibration performances. The sensor transfer function has been measured by using a pressure transducer as reference.

  13. Corrosion of copper-based materials in irradiated moist air systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, D.T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (USA); Van Konynenburg, R.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)

    1991-06-01

    The atmospheric corrosion of oxygen-free copper (CDA-102), 70/30 copper-nickel (CDA-715), and 7% aluminum bronze (CDA-613) in an irradiated moist air environment was investigated. Experiments were performed in both dry and 40% RH (@90{degree}C) air at temperatures of 90 and 150{degree}C. Initial corrosion rates were determined based on a combination of weight gain and weight loss measurements. Corrosion products observed were identified. These experiments support efforts by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) to evaluate possible metallic barrier materials for nuclear waste containers. 8 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  14. An All Fiber Intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer Based on an Air-Microcavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth I. Mata-Chávez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work an Intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (IFPI based on an air-microcavity is presented. Here the air microcavity, with silica walls, is formed at a segment of a hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF, which is fusion spliced with a single mode fiber (SMF. Moreover, the spectral response of the IFPI is experimentally characterized and some results are provided. Finally, the viability to use the IFPI to implement a simple, compact size, and low cost refractive index sensor is briefly analyzed.

  15. Environmental Assessment: Construction of Consolidated Fuel Overhaul and Repair Facility at Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    Historic Preservation Officer MH:bh Oklahoma Archeological Survey March 23, 2007 Trudi Logan Department of the Air Force 72 Air Base Wing (AFMC...Fox Larry Ci’l AETC CONS/LGCK; McKee John M Civ OC-ALC/FMA; King Thelma J Civ OC-ALC/FMC; Powell Paul A Civ 72 ABW/CECED; Powell Paul A Civ 72 ABW...L CIV OC-ALC/FMC Grimes Jim D Civ OC-ALC/FMC; Tomlinson Deborah L Civ OC-ALC/FMC; Fox Larry Civ AETC CONS/LGCK; McKee John M Civ OC-ALC/FMA; King

  16. Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho Geothermal Resource Assessment and Future Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph C. Armstrong; Robert P. Breckenridge; Dennis L. Nielson; John W. Shervais; Thomas R. Wood

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Air Force is facing a number of challenges as it moves into the future, one of the biggest being how to provide safe and secure energy to support base operations. A team of scientists and engineers met at Mountain Home Air Force Base in early 2011 near Boise, Idaho, to discuss the possibility of exploring for geothermal resources under the base. The team identified that there was a reasonable potential for geothermal resources based on data from an existing well. In addition, a regional gravity map helped identify several possible locations for drilling a new well. The team identified several possible sources of funding for this well—the most logical being to use U.S. Department of Energy funds to drill the upper half of the well and U.S. Air Force funds to drill the bottom half of the well. The well was designed as a slimhole well in accordance with State of Idaho Department of Water Resources rules and regulations. Drilling operations commenced at the Mountain Home site in July of 2011 and were completed in January of 2012. Temperatures increased gradually, especially below a depth of 2000 ft. Temperatures increased more rapidly below a depth of 5500 ft. The bottom of the well is at 5976 ft, where a temperature of about 140°C was recorded. The well flowed artesian from a depth below 5600 ft, until it was plugged off with drilling mud. Core samples were collected from the well and are being analyzed to help understand permeability at depth. Additional tests using a televiewer system will be run to evaluate orientation and directions at fractures, especially in the production zone. A final report on the well exploitation will be forthcoming later this year. The Air Force will use it to evaluate the geothermal resource potential for future private development options at Mountain Home Air Force Base. In conclusion, Recommendation for follow-up efforts include the following:

  17. A Rechargeable Li-Air Fuel Cell Battery Based on Garnet Solid Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiyang; Zhao, Ning; Li, Yiqiu; Guo, Xiangxin; Feng, Xuefei; Liu, Xiaosong; Liu, Zhi; Cui, Guanglei; Zheng, Hao; Gu, Lin; Li, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Non-aqueous Li-air batteries have been intensively studied in the past few years for their theoretically super-high energy density. However, they cannot operate properly in real air because they contain highly unstable and volatile electrolytes. Here, we report the fabrication of solid-state Li-air batteries using garnet (i.e., Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12, LLZTO) ceramic disks with high density and ionic conductivity as the electrolytes and composite cathodes consisting of garnet powder, Li salts (LiTFSI) and active carbon. These batteries run in real air based on the formation and decomposition at least partially of Li2CO3. Batteries with LiTFSI mixed with polyimide (PI:LiTFSI) as a binder show rechargeability at 200 °C with a specific capacity of 2184 mAh g−1carbon at 20 μA cm−2. Replacement of PI:LiTFSI with LiTFSI dissolved in polypropylene carbonate (PPC:LiTFSI) reduces interfacial resistance, and the resulting batteries show a greatly increased discharge capacity of approximately 20300 mAh g−1carbon and cycle 50 times while maintaining a cutoff capacity of 1000 mAh g−1carbon at 20 μA cm−2 and 80 °C. These results demonstrate that the use of LLZTO ceramic electrolytes enables operation of the Li-air battery in real air at medium temperatures, leading to a novel type of Li-air fuel cell battery for energy storage. PMID:28117359

  18. Development and Validation of a UAV Based System for Air Pollution Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Francesco Villa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Air quality data collection near pollution sources is difficult, particularly when sites are complex, have physical barriers, or are themselves moving. Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs offer new approaches to air pollution and atmospheric studies. However, there are a number of critical design decisions which need to be made to enable representative data collection, in particular the location of the air sampler or air sensor intake. The aim of this research was to establish the best mounting point for four gas sensors and a Particle Number Concentration (PNC monitor, onboard a hexacopter, so to develop a UAV system capable of measuring point source emissions. The research included two different tests: (1 evaluate the air flow behavior of a hexacopter, its downwash and upwash effect, by measuring air speed along three axes to determine the location where the sensors should be mounted; (2 evaluate the use of gas sensors for CO2, CO, NO2 and NO, and the PNC monitor (DISCmini to assess the efficiency and performance of the UAV based system by measuring emissions from a diesel engine. The air speed behavior map produced by test 1 shows the best mounting point for the sensors to be alongside the UAV. This position is less affected by the propeller downwash effect. Test 2 results demonstrated that the UAV propellers cause a dispersion effect shown by the decrease of gas and PN concentration measured in real time. A Linear Regression model was used to estimate how the sensor position, relative to the UAV center, affects pollutant concentration measurements when the propellers are turned on. This research establishes guidelines on how to develop a UAV system to measure point source emissions. Such research should be undertaken before any UAV system is developed for real world data collection.

  19. A Rechargeable Li-Air Fuel Cell Battery Based on Garnet Solid Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiyang; Zhao, Ning; Li, Yiqiu; Guo, Xiangxin; Feng, Xuefei; Liu, Xiaosong; Liu, Zhi; Cui, Guanglei; Zheng, Hao; Gu, Lin; Li, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Non-aqueous Li-air batteries have been intensively studied in the past few years for their theoretically super-high energy density. However, they cannot operate properly in real air because they contain highly unstable and volatile electrolytes. Here, we report the fabrication of solid-state Li-air batteries using garnet (i.e., Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12, LLZTO) ceramic disks with high density and ionic conductivity as the electrolytes and composite cathodes consisting of garnet powder, Li salts (LiTFSI) and active carbon. These batteries run in real air based on the formation and decomposition at least partially of Li2CO3. Batteries with LiTFSI mixed with polyimide (PI:LiTFSI) as a binder show rechargeability at 200 °C with a specific capacity of 2184 mAh g‑1carbon at 20 μA cm‑2. Replacement of PI:LiTFSI with LiTFSI dissolved in polypropylene carbonate (PPC:LiTFSI) reduces interfacial resistance, and the resulting batteries show a greatly increased discharge capacity of approximately 20300 mAh g‑1carbon and cycle 50 times while maintaining a cutoff capacity of 1000 mAh g‑1carbon at 20 μA cm‑2 and 80 °C. These results demonstrate that the use of LLZTO ceramic electrolytes enables operation of the Li-air battery in real air at medium temperatures, leading to a novel type of Li-air fuel cell battery for energy storage.

  20. Development and Validation of a UAV Based System for Air Pollution Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Tommaso Francesco; Salimi, Farhad; Morton, Kye; Morawska, Lidia; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2016-12-21

    Air quality data collection near pollution sources is difficult, particularly when sites are complex, have physical barriers, or are themselves moving. Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) offer new approaches to air pollution and atmospheric studies. However, there are a number of critical design decisions which need to be made to enable representative data collection, in particular the location of the air sampler or air sensor intake. The aim of this research was to establish the best mounting point for four gas sensors and a Particle Number Concentration (PNC) monitor, onboard a hexacopter, so to develop a UAV system capable of measuring point source emissions. The research included two different tests: (1) evaluate the air flow behavior of a hexacopter, its downwash and upwash effect, by measuring air speed along three axes to determine the location where the sensors should be mounted; (2) evaluate the use of gas sensors for CO₂, CO, NO₂ and NO, and the PNC monitor (DISCmini) to assess the efficiency and performance of the UAV based system by measuring emissions from a diesel engine. The air speed behavior map produced by test 1 shows the best mounting point for the sensors to be alongside the UAV. This position is less affected by the propeller downwash effect. Test 2 results demonstrated that the UAV propellers cause a dispersion effect shown by the decrease of gas and PN concentration measured in real time. A Linear Regression model was used to estimate how the sensor position, relative to the UAV center, affects pollutant concentration measurements when the propellers are turned on. This research establishes guidelines on how to develop a UAV system to measure point source emissions. Such research should be undertaken before any UAV system is developed for real world data collection.

  1. Simplified Atmospheric Dispersion Model andModel Based Real Field Estimation System ofAir Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The atmospheric dispersion model has been well developed and applied in pollution emergency and prediction. Based on thesophisticated air diffusion model, this paper proposes a simplified model and some optimization about meteorological andgeological conditions. The model is suitable for what is proposed as Real Field Monitor and Estimation system. The principle ofsimplified diffusion model and its optimization is studied. The design of Real Field Monitor system based on this model and itsfundamental implementations are introduced.

  2. Installation Restoration Program Records Search for March Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-28

    which is bounded by the Jacinto Fault on the east and the Elsinore Fault on the west. Ground surface elevations within the March AFB bound- Z aries...approx- imately one mile south of the base. Lake Mathews, located approximately 10 miles west of the baze, is the terminal reservoir of this aqueduct...State Project water is brought into the Perris Valley via the California Aqueduct, which runs north and east of March Air Force Base. Lake Perris

  3. Final Environmental Assessment Addressing New Construction and Demolition at Beale Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    S. Capra , P.E., LEED AP Deputy Base Civil Engineer Department of the Air Force Headquarters 9th Mission Support Group (ACC) 6601 B Street Beale... Capra : Thank you for your letter dated August 15, 2013, requesting my review and comment with regard to the proposed undertaking to construct a...In reply refer to: USAF_2014_0224_002 Gregory S. Capra , P.E., LEED AP Deputy Base Civil

  4. A MEMS-based Air Flow Sensor with a Free-standing Micro-cantilever Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Ming Chiang

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a micro-scale air flow sensor based on a free-standingcantilever structure. In the fabrication process, MEMS techniques are used to deposit asilicon nitride layer on a silicon wafer. A platinum layer is deposited on the silicon nitridelayer to form a piezoresistor, and the resulting structure is then etched to create afreestanding micro-cantilever. When an air flow passes over the surface of the cantileverbeam, the beam deflects in the downward direction, resulting in a small variation in theresistance of the piezoelectric layer. The air flow velocity is determined by measuring thechange in resistance using an external LCR meter. The experimental results indicate that theflow sensor has a high sensitivity (0.0284 ω/ms-1, a high velocity measurement limit (45ms-1 and a rapid response time (0.53 s.

  5. Client Server Model Based DAQ System for Real-Time Air Pollution Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetrivel. P

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The proposed system consists of client server model based Data-Acquisition Unit. The Embedded Web Server integrates Pollution Server and DAQ that collects air Pollutants levels (CO, NO2, and SO2. The Pollution Server is designed by considering modern resource constrained embedded systems. In contrast, an application server is designed to the efficient execution of programs and scripts for supporting the construction of various applications. While a pollution server mainly deals with sending HTML for display in a web browser on the client terminal, an application server provides access to server side logic for pollutants levels to be use by client application programs. The Embedded Web Server is an arm mcb2300 board with internet connectivity and acts as air pollution server as this standalone device gathers air pollutants levels and as a Server. Embedded Web server is accessed by various clients.

  6. Automatic Kappa Angle Estimation for Air Photos Based on Phase Only Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Z.; Stanley, D.; Xin, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The approximate value of exterior orientation parameters is needed for air photo bundle adjustment. Usually the air borne GPS/IMU can provide the initial value for the camera position and attitude angle. However, in some cases, the camera's attitude angle is not available due to lack of IMU or other reasons. In this case, the kappa angle needs to be estimated for each photo before bundle adjustment. The kappa angle can be obtained from the Ground Control Points (GCPs) in the photo. Unfortunately it is not the case that enough GCPs are always available. In order to overcome this problem, an algorithm is developed to automatically estimate the kappa angle for air photos based on phase only correlation technique. This function has been embedded in PCI software. Extensive experiments show that this algorithm is fast, reliable, and stable.

  7. Verification of Spin Magnetic Attitude Control System using air-bearing-based attitude control simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousaloo, H. S.; Nodeh, M. T.; Mehrabian, R.

    2016-09-01

    This paper accomplishes one goal and it was to verify and to validate a Spin Magnetic Attitude Control System (SMACS) program and to perform Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) air-bearing experiments. A study of a closed-loop magnetic spin controller is presented using only magnetic rods as actuators. The magnetic spin rate control approach is able to perform spin rate control and it is verified with an Attitude Control System (ACS) air-bearing MATLAB® SIMULINK® model and a hardware-embedded LABVIEW® algorithm that controls the spin rate of the test platform on a spherical air bearing table. The SIMULINK® model includes dynamic model of air-bearing, its disturbances, actuator emulation and the time delays caused by on-board calculations. The air-bearing simulator is employed to develop, improve, and carry out objective tests of magnetic torque rods and spin rate control algorithm in the experimental framework and to provide a more realistic demonstration of expected performance of attitude control as compared with software-based architectures. Six sets of two torque rods are used as actuators for the SMACS. It is implemented and simulated to fulfill mission requirement including spin the satellite up to 12 degs-1 around the z-axis. These techniques are documented for the full nonlinear equations of motion of the system and the performances of these techniques are compared in several simulations.

  8. A Survey of Wireless Sensor Network Based Air Pollution Monitoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Wei Ying; Lo, Kin Ming; Mak, Terrence; Leung, Kwong Sak; Leung, Yee; Meng, Mei Ling

    2015-12-12

    The air quality in urban areas is a major concern in modern cities due to significant impacts of air pollution on public health, global environment, and worldwide economy. Recent studies reveal the importance of micro-level pollution information, including human personal exposure and acute exposure to air pollutants. A real-time system with high spatio-temporal resolution is essential because of the limited data availability and non-scalability of conventional air pollution monitoring systems. Currently, researchers focus on the concept of The Next Generation Air Pollution Monitoring System (TNGAPMS) and have achieved significant breakthroughs by utilizing the advance sensing technologies, MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). However, there exist potential problems of these newly proposed systems, namely the lack of 3D data acquisition ability and the flexibility of the sensor network. In this paper, we classify the existing works into three categories as Static Sensor Network (SSN), Community Sensor Network (CSN) and Vehicle Sensor Network (VSN) based on the carriers of the sensors. Comprehensive reviews and comparisons among these three types of sensor networks were also performed. Last but not least, we discuss the limitations of the existing works and conclude the objectives that we want to achieve in future systems.

  9. CAN SORBENT-BASED GAS PHASE AIR CLEANING FOR VOCS SUBSTITUTE FOR VENTILATION IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William; Fisk, William J.

    2007-08-01

    This paper reviews current knowledge about the suitability of sorbent-based air cleaning for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the air in commercial buildings, as needed to enable reductions in ventilation rates and associated energy savings. The principles of sorbent air cleaning are introduced, criteria are suggested for sorbent systems that can counteract indoor VOC concentration increases from reduced ventilation, major findings from research on sorbent performance for this application are summarized, and related priority research needs are identified. Major conclusions include: sorbent systems can remove a broad range of VOCs with moderate to high efficiency, sorbent technologies perform effectively when challenged with VOCs at the low concentrations present indoors, and there is a large uncertainty about the lifetime and associated costs of sorbent air cleaning systems when used in commercial buildings for indoor VOC control. Suggested priority research includes: experiments to determine sorbent system VOC removal efficiencies and lifetimes considering the broad range and low concentration of VOCs indoors; evaluations of in-situ regeneration of sorbents; and an updated analysis of the cost of sorbent air cleaning relative to the cost of ventilation.

  10. AirLab: a cloud-based platform to manage and share antibody-based single-cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catena, Raúl; Özcan, Alaz; Jacobs, Andrea; Chevrier, Stephane; Bodenmiller, Bernd

    2016-06-29

    Single-cell analysis technologies are essential tools in research and clinical diagnostics. These methods include flow cytometry, mass cytometry, and other microfluidics-based technologies. Most laboratories that employ these methods maintain large repositories of antibodies. These ever-growing collections of antibodies, their multiple conjugates, and the large amounts of data generated in assays using specific antibodies and conditions makes a dedicated software solution necessary. We have developed AirLab, a cloud-based tool with web and mobile interfaces, for the organization of these data. AirLab streamlines the processes of antibody purchase, organization, and storage, antibody panel creation, results logging, and antibody validation data sharing and distribution. Furthermore, AirLab enables inventory of other laboratory stocks, such as primers or clinical samples, through user-controlled customization. Thus, AirLab is a mobile-powered and flexible tool that harnesses the capabilities of mobile tools and cloud-based technology to facilitate inventory and sharing of antibody and sample collections and associated validation data.

  11. Removal of mercury vapor from ambient air of dental clinics using an air cleaning system based on silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiman Saeidi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objective: Mercury is a toxic and bio-accumulative pollutant that has adverse effects on environmental and human health. There have been a number of attempts to regulate mercury emissions tothe atmosphere. Silver nanoparticles are a number of materials that have highly potential to absorb mercury and formation of mercury amalgam.The aim of this study is removal of mercury vapors in the dental clinic using a n a ir cleaning system based on silver nanoparticles. Methods: In this study, silver nanoparticles coated on the bed of foam and chemical and structural properties were determined using a number of methods such as UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM connected the X-ray Emission Spectroscopy Energy (EDS. The a ir cleaning system efficiency to remove of the mercury vapor in simulated conditions in the laboratory and real conditions in the dental clinicwere measured by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (CVAAS. Results: The images of SEM, showed that average sizeof silver nanoparticles in colloidal solution was ∼ 30nm and distribution of silver nanoparticles coated on foam was good. EDS spectrum confirmed associated the presence of silver nanoparticles coated on foam. The significantly difference observed between the concentration of mercury vapor in the off state (9.43 ± 0.342 μg.m-3 and on state (0.51 ± 0.031μg.m-3 of the a ir cleaning system. The mercury vapor removal efficiencyof the a ir cleaning system was calculated 95%. Conclusion : The air cleaning system based on foam coated by silver nanoparticles, undertaken to provide the advantages such as use facilitating, highly efficient operational capacity and cost effective, have highly sufficiency to remove mercury vapor from dental clinics.

  12. A safety assessment methodology applied to CNS/ATM-based air traffic control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vismari, Lucio Flavio, E-mail: lucio.vismari@usp.b [Safety Analysis Group (GAS), School of Engineering at University of Sao Paulo (Poli-USP), Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, Trav.3, n.158, Predio da Engenharia de Eletricidade, Sala C2-32, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Batista Camargo Junior, Joao, E-mail: joaocamargo@usp.b [Safety Analysis Group (GAS), School of Engineering at University of Sao Paulo (Poli-USP), Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, Trav.3, n.158, Predio da Engenharia de Eletricidade, Sala C2-32, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    In the last decades, the air traffic system has been changing to adapt itself to new social demands, mainly the safe growth of worldwide traffic capacity. Those changes are ruled by the Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) paradigm , based on digital communication technologies (mainly satellites) as a way of improving communication, surveillance, navigation and air traffic management services. However, CNS/ATM poses new challenges and needs, mainly related to the safety assessment process. In face of these new challenges, and considering the main characteristics of the CNS/ATM, a methodology is proposed at this work by combining 'absolute' and 'relative' safety assessment methods adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in ICAO Doc.9689 , using Fluid Stochastic Petri Nets (FSPN) as the modeling formalism, and compares the safety metrics estimated from the simulation of both the proposed (in analysis) and the legacy system models. To demonstrate its usefulness, the proposed methodology was applied to the 'Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcasting' (ADS-B) based air traffic control system. As conclusions, the proposed methodology assured to assess CNS/ATM system safety properties, in which FSPN formalism provides important modeling capabilities, and discrete event simulation allowing the estimation of the desired safety metric.

  13. Validity of diagnostic computer-based air and forehead bone conduction audiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, De Wet; Biagio, Leigh

    2011-04-01

    Computer-based audiometry allows for novel applications, including remote testing and automation, that may improve the accessibility and efficiency of hearing assessment in various clinical and occupational health settings. This study describes the validity of computer-based, diagnostic air and forehead bone conduction audiometry when compared wtih conventional industry standard audiometry in a sound booth environment. A sample of 30 subjects (19 to 77 years of age) was assessed with computer-based (KUDUwave 5000) and industry standard conventional audiometers (GSI 61) to compare air and bone conduction thresholds and test-retest reliability. Air conduction thresholds for the two audiometers corresponded within 5 dB or less in more than 90% of instances, with an average absolute difference of 3.5 dB (3.8 SD) and a 95% confidence interval of 2.6 to 4.5 dB. Bone conduction thresholds for the two audiometers corresponded within 10 dB or less in 92% of instances, with an average absolute difference of 4.9 dB (4.9 SD) and a 95% confidence interval of 3.6 to 6.1 dB. The average absolute test-retest threshold difference for bone conduction on the industry standard audiometer was 5.1 dB (5.3 SD) and for the computer-based audiometer 7.1 dB (6.4 SD). Computer-based audiometry provided air and bone conduction thresholds within the test-retest reliability limits of industry standard audiometry.

  14. Fisk-based criteria to support validation of detection methods for drinking water and air.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonell, M.; Bhattacharyya, M.; Finster, M.; Williams, M.; Picel, K.; Chang, Y.-S.; Peterson, J.; Adeshina, F.; Sonich-Mullin, C.; Environmental Science Division; EPA

    2009-02-18

    This report was prepared to support the validation of analytical methods for threat contaminants under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) program. It is designed to serve as a resource for certain applications of benchmark and fate information for homeland security threat contaminants. The report identifies risk-based criteria from existing health benchmarks for drinking water and air for potential use as validation targets. The focus is on benchmarks for chronic public exposures. The priority sources are standard EPA concentration limits for drinking water and air, along with oral and inhalation toxicity values. Many contaminants identified as homeland security threats to drinking water or air would convert to other chemicals within minutes to hours of being released. For this reason, a fate analysis has been performed to identify potential transformation products and removal half-lives in air and water so appropriate forms can be targeted for detection over time. The risk-based criteria presented in this report to frame method validation are expected to be lower than actual operational targets based on realistic exposures following a release. Note that many target criteria provided in this report are taken from available benchmarks without assessing the underlying toxicological details. That is, although the relevance of the chemical form and analogues are evaluated, the toxicological interpretations and extrapolations conducted by the authoring organizations are not. It is also important to emphasize that such targets in the current analysis are not health-based advisory levels to guide homeland security responses. This integrated evaluation of chronic public benchmarks and contaminant fate has identified more than 200 risk-based criteria as method validation targets across numerous contaminants and fate products in drinking water and air combined. The gap in directly applicable values is

  15. Air quality assessment based on road traffic pollutants dispersion modelling: Giurgiu – Ruse Bridge Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos MIHAI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a case study related to air quality assessment along an important high traffic bridge (Giurgiu - Ruse, by dispersion modelling of the main pollutants. In order to estimate the level of pollution caused by bridge road traffic in the closest urban areas, Giurgiu and Ruse and based on the traffic data, four scenarios for the air quality assessment have been carried out according to different meteorological conditions. The dispersion modeling was realized on specialized environmental pollution software, which features a fully operational Gauss model in its base module. There are presented dispersion maps for the main road traffic pollutants (NOx, CO, SO2, THC, aiming to evaluate their impact on the urban areas vicinity, in four different wind directions scenarios, at a constant temperature. Conclusions are presented according to available European Legislation and future scenarios are proposed, for other different meteorological conditions.

  16. GaAs-based air-slot photonic crystal nanocavity for optomechanical oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Masahiro

    2012-02-27

    We theoretically investigate an optomechanical structure consisting of two parallel GaAs membranes with an air-slot type photonic crystal nanocavity. The optical cavity has a quality factor of 4.8 × 106 at 1.52 μm and an extremely small modal volume of 0.015 of a cubic wavelength for the fundamental mode in a vacuum. The localized electric field near the air/dielectric-object boundary provides a large optomechanical coupling factor of ~990 GHz/nm. The fundamental mechanical mode resonance is 95 MHz and a quality factor is 83,800 at room temperature, nearly seven times higher than that for a similar Si-based structure. This high mechanical quality factor of a GaAs-based structure stems from low thermoelastic loss and leads to more effective optical control of nanomechanical oscillators.

  17. Environmental Assessment for Multiple Projects at Laughlin Air Forc Base, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    accomplishment. 20 Outside the range’s designated safety berms is evidence of ricochet debris, the result of having used full-21 metal- jacket ...Fault Zone, but no recent seismic activity has occurred in the area 16 FINAL - Environmental Assessment for Multiple Projects Laughlin Air Force Base...resources, such as top soils, mineral 32 reserves, seismic activity, or unique or important land forms. The potential for large, uncontrolled 33

  18. Snakes in the Eagle’s Nest: A History of Ground Attacks on Air Bases,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    the Macheteros, slipped through a hole in the fence at Muniz Air National Guard Base (San Juan , Puerto Rico) on January 12, 1981, and planted satchel...was overrun. 22nd Battalion’s forward companies lacked ra- dios , and, as the intensity of the fighting increased, runners had in- creasing...attack Heraklion, but their Cretan guide warned them that the airfield was rarely used, recommending instead that they blow up a fuel dump at Peza

  19. Environmental Assessment: Construct Airfield Lighting Vault and Demolish Building 531 at Grand Forks Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    in the grasses and legumes vegetation species are tall wheat grass, brome grass, Kentucky bluegrass, sweet clover, and alfalfa. Herbaceous plants...gramma, buffalo grass, and many native wildflower species. The Grand Forks AFB Natural Resources Manager and volunteers installed a butterfly garden in...Bioserve biological inventory update for Grand Forks Air Force Base. Two rare orchid species are known to exist on Grand Forks AFB, the Large and

  20. Environmental Assessment: Construct a CDC Main Entry Addition at Grand Forks Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Included in the grasses and legumes vegetation species are tall wheat grass, brome grass, Kentucky bluegrass, sweet clover, and alfalfa. Herbaceous...gramma, buffalo grass, and many native wildflower species. The Grand Forks AFB Natural Resources Manager and volunteers installed a butterfly garden...Bioserve biological inventory update for Grand Forks Air Force Base. Two rare orchid species are known to exist on Grand Forks AFB, the Large and

  1. Final Environmental Assessment for the California Space Center at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    Cultural Resources Inventory, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Santa Barbara County, California Hodges et al. (2000) 2000-04 Archaeological Survey of the...VAFB Nick Pelster, Technical Director, California Space Authority Roger Root, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ventura Field Office Chris Ryan...Heritage Program. California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento. Hodges , C.M., C.G. Lebow, and R.L. McKim. 2000. Archaeological Survey of the

  2. Environmental Assessment for the California Space Center at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    Cultural Resources Inventory, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Santa Barbara County, California Hodges et al. (2000) 2000-04 Archaeological Survey of the...Review Laura Ornelaz, Attorney Advisor, 30 SW/JA, VAFB Nick Pelster, Technical Director, California Space Authority Roger Root, U.S. Fish and Wildlife...the terrestrial natural communities of California. Nongame Heritage Program. California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento. Hodges , C.M., C.G

  3. Environmental Assessment for Proposed Utility Corridors at Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    designates certain chemicals as “imminently hazardous;”  Clean Air Act which identifies toxic and hazardous pollutants and substances;  Clean Water ...Base, California SO4 Sulfates SR California State Route SSC California Species of Special Concern SWPPP Storm Water Pollution Prevention...106 3.9.2 Socioeconomic Setting for Each Corridor…..………..…………….…………..….109 3.10 WATER RESOURCES

  4. Environmental Assessment for Mill Creek Restoration Project, Eglin Air Force Base, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-28

    Persons Contacted Mr. Chris Metcalf , U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Mr Bob Miller, 96 CEG/CEVSN, Endangered Species Biologist Mr Mike Nunley, 96 CEG...currents into the center of the channel, and preventing back eddy erosion. In addition, these structures provide excellent fish habitat, maintain...bank protection and limit any back eddy erosion. 05/06 Biological Assessment Page A-13 for Mill Creek Restoration Project Eglin Air Force Base

  5. Geothermal exploration program, Hill Air Force Base, Davis and Weber Counties, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, W.E.; Chapman, D.S.; Foley, D.; Capuano, R.M.; Cole, D.; Sibbett, B.; Ward, S.H.

    1980-03-01

    Results obtained from a program designed to locate a low- or moderate-temperature geothermal resource that might exist beneath Hill Air Force Base (AFB), Ogden, Utah are discussed. A phased exploration program was conducted at Hill AFB. Published geological, geochemical, and geophysical reports on the area were examined, regional exploration was conducted, and two thermal gradient holes were drilled. This program demonstrated that thermal waters are not present in the shallow subsurface at this site. (MHR)

  6. Energy-Based Design of Reconfigurable Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) Flight Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    wingspan, taper ratio, and sweep angle are free to vary independently of each other. Clearly, a wing capable of telescoping , chord extension, and...that can substantially change shape to adapt to changing mission environments. Morphing wings with planform capabilities of telescoping , chord...This report was cleared for public release by the USAF 88th Air Base Wing (88 ABW) Public Affairs Office (PAO) and is available to the general

  7. Research of Air-Magnet Active Vibration Isolation System Based on H∞ Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Xianglong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the uncertainty of air-magnet active vibration isolation system (AMAVIS, passive vibration isolation was combined with active vibration isolation, which adopted H∞ control strategies. System identification method was used to get the channel model. By adopting mixed sensitivity design strategy, weighting functions were chosen and H∞ controller was designed. Both simulation results and experimental results show AMAVIS based on H∞ control had satisfying effect of vibration reduction in assigned frequency band.

  8. Case-Based Behavior Recognition in Beyond Visual Range Air Combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Case-Based Behavior Recognition in Beyond Visual Range Air Combat Hayley Borck 1 , Justin Karneeb 1 , Ron Alford 2 & David W. Aha 3 1Knexus...understanding the behaviors of hostile agents, which is challenging in partially observable environments such as the one we study. In particular, unobserved...hostile behaviors in our domain may alter the world state. To effectively counter hostile behaviors , they need to be recognized and predicted. We

  9. Exploration and Resource Assessment at Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho Using an Integrated Team Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph C. Armstrong; Robert P. Breckenridge; Dennis L. Nielson; John W. Shervais; Thomas R. Wood

    2012-10-01

    The U.S. Air Force is facing a number of challenges as it moves into the future, one of the biggest being how to provide safe and secure energy to support base operations. A team of scientists and engineers met at Mountain Home Air Force Base near Boise, Idaho, to discuss the possibility of exploring for geothermal resources under the base. The team identified that there was a reasonable potential for geothermal resources based on data from an existing well. In addition, a regional gravity map helped identify several possible locations for drilling a new well. The team identified several possible sources of funding for this well—the most logical being to use U.S. Department of Energy funds to drill the upper half of the well and U.S. Air Force funds to drill the bottom half of the well. The well was designed as a slimhole well in accordance with State of Idaho Department of Water Resources rules and regulations. Drilling operations commenced at the Mountain Home site in July of 2011 and were completed in January of 2012. Temperatures increased gradually, especially below a depth of 2000 ft. Temperatures increased more rapidly below a depth of 5500 ft. The bottom of the well is at 5976 ft, where a temperature of about 140°C was recorded. The well flowed artesian from a depth below 5600 ft, until it was plugged off with drilling mud. Core samples were collected from the well and are being analyzed to help understand permeability at depth. Additional tests using a televiewer system will be run to evaluate orientation and directions at fractures, especially in the production zone. A final report on the well exploitation will be forthcoming later this year. The Air Force will use it to evaluate the geothermal resource potential for future private development options at Mountain Home AFB.

  10. Environmental Assessment:Security and Safety Upgrades to Entry Control Facilities Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Security and Safety Upgrades to Entry Control Facilities 1-1 Vandenberg Air Force Base, California Chapter 1. Introduction : Purpose of and Need for the...woodland/Burton Mesa chaparral community. Dominant scrub species include California sagebrush and black sage (Salvia mellifera). The non-native...Grant, Campbell 1978a Chumash: Introduction . In California , edited by Robert F. Heizer, pp. 505–508. Handbook of North American Indians, vol. 8

  11. Air temperature measurements based on the speed of sound to compensate long distance interferometric measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrua Milena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to measure the real time temperature distribution along an interferometer path based on the propagation of acoustic waves is presented. It exploits the high sensitivity of the speed of sound in air to the air temperature. In particular, it takes advantage of a special set-up where the generation of the acoustic waves is synchronous with the amplitude modulation of a laser source. A photodetector converts the laser light to an electronic signal considered as reference, while the incoming acoustic waves are focused on a microphone and generate a second signal. In this condition, the phase difference between the two signals substantially depends on the temperature of the air volume interposed between the sources and the receivers. The comparison with the traditional temperature sensors highlighted the limit of the latter in case of fast temperature variations and the advantage of a measurement integrated along the optical path instead of a sampling measurement. The capability of the acoustic method to compensate the interferometric distance measurements due to air temperature variations has been demonstrated for distances up to 27 m.

  12. Parametric analysis of a combined dew point evaporative-vapour compression based air conditioning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Singh Chauhan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A dew point evaporative-vapour compression based combined air conditioning system for providing good human comfort conditions at a low cost has been proposed in this paper. The proposed system has been parametrically analysed for a wide range of ambient temperatures and specific humidity under some reasonable assumptions. The proposed system has also been compared from the conventional vapour compression air conditioner on the basis of cooling load on the cooling coil working on 100% fresh air assumption. The saving of cooling load on the coil was found to be maximum with a value of 60.93% at 46 °C and 6 g/kg specific humidity, while it was negative for very high humidity of ambient air, which indicates that proposed system is applicable for dry and moderate humid conditions but not for very humid conditions. The system is working well with an average net monthly power saving of 192.31 kW h for hot and dry conditions and 124.38 kW h for hot and moderate humid conditions. Therefore it could be a better alternative for dry and moderate humid climate with a payback period of 7.2 years.

  13. [Estimation of average traffic emission factor based on synchronized incremental traffic flow and air pollutant concentration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Run-Kui; Zhao, Tong; Li, Zhi-Peng; Ding, Wen-Jun; Cui, Xiao-Yong; Xu, Qun; Song, Xian-Feng

    2014-04-01

    On-road vehicle emissions have become the main source of urban air pollution and attracted broad attentions. Vehicle emission factor is a basic parameter to reflect the status of vehicle emissions, but the measured emission factor is difficult to obtain, and the simulated emission factor is not localized in China. Based on the synchronized increments of traffic flow and concentration of air pollutants in the morning rush hour period, while meteorological condition and background air pollution concentration retain relatively stable, the relationship between the increase of traffic and the increase of air pollution concentration close to a road is established. Infinite line source Gaussian dispersion model was transformed for the inversion of average vehicle emission factors. A case study was conducted on a main road in Beijing. Traffic flow, meteorological data and carbon monoxide (CO) concentration were collected to estimate average vehicle emission factors of CO. The results were compared with simulated emission factors of COPERT4 model. Results showed that the average emission factors estimated by the proposed approach and COPERT4 in August were 2.0 g x km(-1) and 1.2 g x km(-1), respectively, and in December were 5.5 g x km(-1) and 5.2 g x km(-1), respectively. The emission factors from the proposed approach and COPERT4 showed close values and similar seasonal trends. The proposed method for average emission factor estimation eliminates the disturbance of background concentrations and potentially provides real-time access to vehicle fleet emission factors.

  14. An emission source inversion model based on satellite data and its application in air quality forecasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims at constructing an emission source inversion model using a variational processing method and adaptive nudging scheme for the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) based on satellite data to investigate the applicability of high resolution OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) column concentration data for air quality forecasts over the North China. The results show a reasonable consistency and good correlation between the spatial distributions of NO2 from surface and OMI satellite measurements in both winter and summer. Such OMI products may be used to implement integrated variational analysis based on observation data on the ground. With linear and variational corrections made, the spatial distribution of OMI NO2 clearly revealed more localized distributing characteristics of NO2 concentration. With such information, emission sources in the southwest and southeast of North China are found to have greater impacts on air quality in Beijing. When the retrieved emission source inventory based on high-resolution OMI NO2 data was used, the coupled Weather Research Forecasting CMAQ model (WRF-CMAQ) performed significantly better in forecasting NO2 concentration level and its tendency as reflected by the more consistencies between the NO2 concentrations from surface observation and model result. In conclusion, satellite data are particularly important for simulating NO2 concentrations on urban and street-block scale. High-resolution OMI NO2 data are applicable for inversing NOx emission source inventory, assessing the regional pollution status and pollution control strategy, and improving the model forecasting results on urban scale.

  15. AIR POLLUTION FEATURES OF THE VALLEY-BASED TOWNS IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. UTASI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There are 30 valley-based towns with >10,000 inhabitants in Hungary, filled by 1.023 million people i.e. 10 % of the population. Two criteria are used to define the valley-based town. They are: (i Vertical difference between the lowest point in the town and the highest one around it should be >100 m. At the same time, (ii the same difference on the opposite side should be >50 m. Air pollution data by the National Air Pollution Observation Network are used. Five contaminants were selected and analysed for 2007, 2010 and 2013. Due to a sharp reduction in the network, we could find data for a small part of the valley-based towns. Control towns with equal air-quality observations and similar cumulative number of inhabitants were also selected. The contaminants and the number of the settlements are: NO2 manual (14 valley-based vs. 2x14 control, NO2 automatic (8 vs. 8, SO2 automatic (7 vs. 2x6, PM10 automatic (8 vs. 2x7 and PM10 deposition manual (6 vs. 8. Average values, as well as high concentration episodes (>98%thresholds are equally analysed and evaluated. The main conclusion is that there are so big differences between the years both in absolute values and relative sequence of valley-based and control groups that the analysed there years is not enough to make any final conclusion. For step-over frequencies, however valley-based towns have some advantage, possibly due to the valley-hill wind system.

  16. The Second Order Guided Modes Based on Photonic Bandgap Effects in Air/Glass Photonic Crystal Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Lei; LOU Shu-Qin; JIAN Shui-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a defect site in the periodic structure of a photonic bandgap fiber,to confine and guide the second order mode by photonic bandgap effects.Based on a high air-filling fraction photonic crystal cladding structure,a simplified model with an equivalent air cladding was proposed to explore and analyze the properties of this second order guided mode.

  17. Evaluation of ozone generation and indoor organic compounds removal by air cleaners based on chamber tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kuo-Pin; Lee, Grace Whei-May; Hsieh, Ching-Pei; Lin, Chi-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Ozone can cause many health problems, including exacerbation of asthma, throat irritation, cough, chest ache, shortness of breath, and respiratory infections. Air cleaners are one of the sources of indoor ozone, and thus the evaluation of ozone generated by air cleaners is desired significant issue. Most evaluation methods proposed are based on chamber tests. However, the adsorption and desorption of ozone on the wall of test chamber and the deposition of ozone resulted from the surface reaction can influence the evaluation results. In this study, we developed a mass balance model that took the adsorption, desorption and deposition of ozone into consideration to evaluate the effective ozone emission rates of six selected air cleaners. The experiments were conducted in a stainless steel chamber with a volume of 11.3 m 3 at 25 °C and 60% relative humidity. The adsorption, desorption and deposition rate constants of ozone obtained by fitting the model to the experimental data were k a = 0.149 ± 0.052 m h -1, k d = 0.013 ± 0.007 h -1, and k r = 0.050 ± 0.020 h -1, respectively. The effective ozone emission rates of Air Cleaners No. 1, 2, and 3 ranged between 13,400-24,500 μg h -1, 7190-10,400 μg h -1, and 4880-6560 μg h -1, respectively, which were more stable than those of No.4, 5, and 6. The effective ozone emission rates of Air Cleaners No. 4, 5, and 6 increased with the time of operation which might be relevant to the decrease of ozone removal by the "aging" filter installed in these cleaners. The removal of toluene and formaldehyde by these six air cleaners were also evaluated and the clean air delivery rates (CADRs) of these two pollutants ranged from non-detectable to 0.42 ± 0.08 m 3 h -1, and from non-detectable to 0.75 ± 0.07 m 3 h -1, respectively. The CADRs showed an insignificant relationship with the effective ozone emission rates. Thus, the removal of toluene and formaldehyde might be resulted from the adsorption on the filters and the

  18. Localization of an air target by means of GNSS-based multistatic radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmedov, Daulet Sh.; Raskaliyev, Almat S.

    2016-08-01

    The possibility of utilizing transmitters of opportunity for target detection, tracking and positioning is of great interest to the radar community. In particular the optional use of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) has lately triggered scientific research that has purpose to take advantage of this source of signal generation for passive radar. Number of studies have been conducted previously on development of GNSS-based bistatic and multistatic radars for detection and range estimation to the object located in the close atmosphere. To further enrich research in this area, we present a novel method for coordinate determination of the air target by means of the GNSS-based multistatic radar.

  19. The Research on Programmable Control System of Lithium-Bromide Absorption Refrigerating Air Conditioner Based on the Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Lunan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article regard the solar lithium-bromide absorption refrigerating air conditioning system as the research object, and it was conducting adequate research of the working principle of lithium bromide absorption refrigerating machine, also it was analyzing the requirements of control system about solar energy air conditioning. Then the solar energy air conditioning control system was designed based on PLC, this system was given priority to field bus control system, and the remote monitoring is complementary, which was combining the network remote monitoring technology. So that it realized the automatic control and intelligent control of new lithium bromide absorption refrigerating air conditioning system with solar energy, also, it ensured the control system can automatically detect and adjust when the external conditions was random changing, to make air conditioning work effectively and steadily, ultimately ,it has great research significance to research the air conditioning control system with solar energy.

  20. Potentiometric surfaces of the Arnold Engineering Development Complex Area, Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee, May and September 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugh, Connor J.; Robinson, John A.

    2016-01-29

    Arnold Air Force Base occupies about 40,000 acres in Coffee and Franklin Counties, Tennessee. The primary mission of Arnold Air Force Base is to provide risk-reduction information in the development of aerospace products through test and evaluation. This mission is achieved in part through test facilities at Arnold Engineering Development Complex (AEDC), which occupies about 4,000 acres in the center of Arnold Air Force Base. Arnold Air Force Base is underlain by gravel and limestone aquifers, the most productive of which is the Manchester aquifer. Several volatile organic compounds, primarily chlorinated solvents, have been identified in the groundwater at Arnold Air Force Base. In 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, Arnold Air Force Base, completed a study of groundwater flow focused on the Arnold Engineering Development Complex area. The Arnold Engineering Development Complex area is of particular concern because within this area (1) chlorinated solvents have been identified in the groundwater, (2) the aquifers are dewatered around below-grade test facilities, and (3) there is a regional groundwater divide.

  1. Numerical Estimation of Incident Wave Parameters Based on the Air Pressure Measurements in Pico OWC Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Crom, I.; Brito-Melo, A.; Newman, F. Sarmento, A. [Wave Energy Centre, Av. Manuel da Maia, 36, r/c D., Lisbon (Portugal)

    2009-07-01

    The present study aims at assessing the key spectral parameters of the incident wave on a fixed oscillating water column (OWC) device, based on the air pressure measurements inside the chamber and on the numerical hydrodynamic coefficients of the device. The methodology is based on the equation of continuity of the air in the time-domain and linear decomposition of the air flow in the usual terms of radiation and diffraction flows. By applying the Fast Fourier Transform, the time-domain equation is transposed to the respective frequency-domain equation. This methodology was applied to the 400 kW OWC power plant, on the Island of Pico, Azores, which has been monitored since 2005 by the Wave Energy Centre. The numerical hydrodynamic coefficients obtained by the 3D radiation-diffraction boundary element code, AQUADYN-OWC, were used in this study. No measurements of the incident wave in front of the plant are available; therefore the results obtained for a set of records are compared with forecast estimations for the site of Pico plant provided by INETI and also with the measurements of two directional wave rider buoys offshore Pico and Terceira islands. These data are provided by the Centre of Climate, Meteorology and Global Changes and propagated via the SWAN spectral wave model to the zone of interest. Final objective is to improve the control of the Pico plant by assessing its performance for a range of sea states.

  2. CFD based aerodynamic modeling to study flight dynamics of a flapping wing micro air vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rege, Alok Ashok

    The demand for small unmanned air vehicles, commonly termed micro air vehicles or MAV's, is rapidly increasing. Driven by applications ranging from civil search-and-rescue missions to military surveillance missions, there is a rising level of interest and investment in better vehicle designs, and miniaturized components are enabling many rapid advances. The need to better understand fundamental aspects of flight for small vehicles has spawned a surge in high quality research in the area of micro air vehicles. These aircraft have a set of constraints which are, in many ways, considerably different from that of traditional aircraft and are often best addressed by a multidisciplinary approach. Fast-response non-linear controls, nano-structures, integrated propulsion and lift mechanisms, highly flexible structures, and low Reynolds aerodynamics are just a few of the important considerations which may be combined in the execution of MAV research. The main objective of this thesis is to derive a consistent nonlinear dynamic model to study the flight dynamics of micro air vehicles with a reasonably accurate representation of aerodynamic forces and moments. The research is divided into two sections. In the first section, derivation of the nonlinear dynamics of flapping wing micro air vehicles is presented. The flapping wing micro air vehicle (MAV) used in this research is modeled as a system of three rigid bodies: a body and two wings. The design is based on an insect called Drosophila Melanogaster, commonly known as fruit-fly. The mass and inertial effects of the wing on the body are neglected for the present work. The nonlinear dynamics is simulated with the aerodynamic data published in the open literature. The flapping frequency is used as the control input. Simulations are run for different cases of wing positions and the chosen parameters are studied for boundedness. Results show a qualitative inconsistency in boundedness for some cases, and demand a better

  3. Quantum cascade laser-based spectrometer for high sensitive measurements of trace gases in air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanyuan Tang; Wenqing Liu; Ruifeng Kan; Yujun Zhang; Dong Chen; Shuai Zhang; Jun Ruan

    2012-01-01

    A quantum cascade (QC) laser-based spectrometer is developed to measure trace gases in air.The proposed spectrometer is tested for N2O,and the results presented in this letter.This system takes advantage of recent technology in QC lasers by utilizing intra-pulse scan spectroscopy,which allows high sensitive measurement.Without calibration gases,the gas concentration can be calculated with scan integration and the corresponding values from the HITRAN04 database.By analyzing the Allan variance,a detection limit of 2 ppb is obtained.Continuous measurement of N2O sampled from ambient air shows the applicability of the proposed system for the field measurements of gases of environmental concern.

  4. Air Pollution Monitoring and Mining Based on Sensor Grid in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hassard

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a distributed infrastructure based on wireless sensors network and Grid computing technology for air pollution monitoring and mining, which aims to develop low-cost and ubiquitous sensor networks to collect real-time, large scale and comprehensive environmental data from road traffic emissions for air pollution monitoring in urban environment. The main informatics challenges in respect to constructing the high-throughput sensor Grid are discussed in this paper. We present a twolayer network framework, a P2P e-Science Grid architecture, and the distributed data mining algorithm as the solutions to address the challenges. We simulated the system in TinyOS to examine the operation of each sensor as well as the networking performance. We also present the distributed data mining result to examine the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  5. Radar Scan Strategies for the Patrick Air Force Base Weather Surveillance Radar, Model-74C, Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, David

    2008-01-01

    The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) is replacing the Weather Surveillance Radar, Model 74C (WSR-74C) at Patrick Air Force Base (PAFB), with a Doppler, dual polarization radar, the Radtec 43/250. A new scan strategy is needed for the Radtec 43/250, to provide high vertical resolution data over the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) launch pads, while taking advantage of the new radar's advanced capabilities for detecting severe weather phenomena associated with convection within the 45 WS area of responsibility. The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed several scan strategies customized for the operational needs of the 45 WS. The AMU also developed a plan for evaluating the scan strategies in the period prior to operational acceptance, currently scheduled for November 2008.

  6. Environmental Assessment for Proposed Aircraft Replacement, 507th Tactical Air Control Wing, Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    7=1r LUIB MUM= 1ý14 . I.’D 󈨚 1 :-•.HC,• Tý4-7 DI-U’F_1 LAHILF__’ PFE ; ...4• - C, significant impact on the management of hazardous wraterfals, the...Detachment 1372, Air Force Audit Agency; the 2020th Information Systems Squadron; Field Training Detachment 307; and Detachment 9, Tactical

  7. All air treatments are realisable energy efficiently. Room air conditioning based on membranes; Alle Luftbehandlungen energiesparend realisierbar. Membranbasierte Raumklimatisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenbaum, Hannes [ILK Dresden gGmbH, Dresden (Germany). Hauptbereich Luft- und Klimatechnik

    2011-12-15

    Membrane elements for indirect liquid sorption processes enable a decentralized air conditioning. A suitable design of the heat transmitting and substance transmitting components needs to be developed yet. Then, membrane heat exchangers perform a hygienic, condensate-free dehumidification energy efficiently.

  8. Experimental validation of a local dehumidification system based on cold water droplets and air-to-air heat exchanger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.G.O.N.; Hammink, H.A.J.; Hendriksen, L.J.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive humidity is a problem in Dutch growing circumstances. A traditional solution is heating and natural ventilation. To save energy a number of energy efficient dehumidification methods are developed, like mechanical ventilation with dry outside air or a curtain of cold water droplets. In this

  9. Regression-based air temperature spatial prediction models: an example from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Szymanowski

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A Geographically Weighted Regression ? Kriging (GWRK algorithm, based on the local Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR, is applied for spatial prediction of air temperature in Poland. Hengl's decision tree for selecting a suitable prediction model is extended for varying spatial relationships between the air temperature and environmental predictors with an assumption of existing environmental dependence of analyzed temperature variables. The procedure includes the potential choice of a local GWR instead of the global Multiple Linear Regression (MLR method for modeling the deterministic part of spatial variation, which is usual in the standard regression (residual kriging model (MLRK. The analysis encompassed: testing for environmental correlation, selecting an appropriate regression model, testing for spatial autocorrelation of the residual component, and validating the prediction accuracy. The proposed approach was performed for 69 air temperature cases, with time aggregation ranging from daily to annual average air temperatures. The results show that, irrespective of the level of data aggregation, the spatial distribution of temperature is better fitted by local models, and hence is the reason for choosing a GWR instead of the MLR for all variables analyzed. Additionally, in most cases (78% there is spatial autocorrelation in the residuals of the deterministic part, which suggests that the GWR model should be extended by ordinary kriging of residuals to the GWRK form. The decision tree used in this paper can be considered as universal as it encompasses either spatially varying relationships of modeled and explanatory variables or random process that can be modeled by a stochastic extension of the regression model (residual kriging. Moreover, for all cases analyzed, the selection of a method based on the local regression model (GWRK or GWR does not depend on the data aggregation level, showing the potential versatility of the technique.

  10. Quantile-based Bayesian maximum entropy approach for spatiotemporal modeling of ambient air quality levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hwa-Lung; Wang, Chih-Hsin

    2013-02-05

    Understanding the daily changes in ambient air quality concentrations is important to the assessing human exposure and environmental health. However, the fine temporal scales (e.g., hourly) involved in this assessment often lead to high variability in air quality concentrations. This is because of the complex short-term physical and chemical mechanisms among the pollutants. Consequently, high heterogeneity is usually present in not only the averaged pollution levels, but also the intraday variance levels of the daily observations of ambient concentration across space and time. This characteristic decreases the estimation performance of common techniques. This study proposes a novel quantile-based Bayesian maximum entropy (QBME) method to account for the nonstationary and nonhomogeneous characteristics of ambient air pollution dynamics. The QBME method characterizes the spatiotemporal dependence among the ambient air quality levels based on their location-specific quantiles and accounts for spatiotemporal variations using a local weighted smoothing technique. The epistemic framework of the QBME method can allow researchers to further consider the uncertainty of space-time observations. This study presents the spatiotemporal modeling of daily CO and PM10 concentrations across Taiwan from 1998 to 2009 using the QBME method. Results show that the QBME method can effectively improve estimation accuracy in terms of lower mean absolute errors and standard deviations over space and time, especially for pollutants with strong nonhomogeneous variances across space. In addition, the epistemic framework can allow researchers to assimilate the site-specific secondary information where the observations are absent because of the common preferential sampling issues of environmental data. The proposed QBME method provides a practical and powerful framework for the spatiotemporal modeling of ambient pollutants.

  11. Groundwater level and nitrate concentration trends on Mountain Home Air Force Base, southwestern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Marshall L.

    2014-01-01

    Mountain Home Air Force Base in southwestern Idaho draws most of its drinking water from the regional aquifer. The base is located within the State of Idaho's Mountain Home Groundwater Management Area and is adjacent to the State's Cinder Cone Butte Critical Groundwater Area. Both areas were established by the Idaho Department of Water Resources in the early 1980s because of declining water levels in the regional aquifer. The base also is listed by the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality as a nitrate priority area. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, began monitoring wells on the base in 1985, and currently monitors 25 wells for water levels and 17 wells for water quality, primarily nutrients. This report provides a summary of water-level and nitrate concentration data collected primarily between 2001 and 2013 and examines trends in those data. A Regional Kendall Test was run to combine results from all wells to determine an overall regional trend in water level. Groundwater levels declined at an average rate of about 1.08 feet per year. Nitrate concentration trends show that 3 wells (18 percent) are increasing in nitrate concentration trend, 3 wells (18 percent) show a decreasing nitrate concentration trend, and 11 wells (64 percent) show no nitrate concentration trend. Six wells (35 percent) currently exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant limit of 10 milligrams per liter for nitrate (nitrite plus nitrate, measured as nitrogen).

  12. A Visual Analytics Approach for Station-Based Air Quality Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Du

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the deployment of multi-modality and large-scale sensor networks for monitoring air quality, we are now able to collect large and multi-dimensional spatio-temporal datasets. For these sensed data, we present a comprehensive visual analysis approach for air quality analysis. This approach integrates several visual methods, such as map-based views, calendar views, and trends views, to assist the analysis. Among those visual methods, map-based visual methods are used to display the locations of interest, and the calendar and the trends views are used to discover the linear and periodical patterns. The system also provides various interaction tools to combine the map-based visualization, trends view, calendar view and multi-dimensional view. In addition, we propose a self-adaptive calendar-based controller that can flexibly adapt the changes of data size and granularity in trends view. Such a visual analytics system would facilitate big-data analysis in real applications, especially for decision making support.

  13. A Visual Analytics Approach for Station-Based Air Quality Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yi; Ma, Cuixia; Wu, Chao; Xu, Xiaowei; Guo, Yike; Zhou, Yuanchun; Li, Jianhui

    2016-12-24

    With the deployment of multi-modality and large-scale sensor networks for monitoring air quality, we are now able to collect large and multi-dimensional spatio-temporal datasets. For these sensed data, we present a comprehensive visual analysis approach for air quality analysis. This approach integrates several visual methods, such as map-based views, calendar views, and trends views, to assist the analysis. Among those visual methods, map-based visual methods are used to display the locations of interest, and the calendar and the trends views are used to discover the linear and periodical patterns. The system also provides various interaction tools to combine the map-based visualization, trends view, calendar view and multi-dimensional view. In addition, we propose a self-adaptive calendar-based controller that can flexibly adapt the changes of data size and granularity in trends view. Such a visual analytics system would facilitate big-data analysis in real applications, especially for decision making support.

  14. Fall 1994 wildlife and vegetation survey, Norton Air Force Base, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-15

    The fall 1994 wildlife and vegetation surveys were completed October 3-7, 1994, at Norton Air Force Base (AFB), California. Two biologists from CDM Federal Programs, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regional biologist and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) lead biologist conducted the surveys. A habitat assessment of three Installation Restoration Project (IRP) sites at Norton Air Force Base was also completed during the fall survey period. The IRP sites include: Landfill No. 2 (Site 2); the Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant (IWTP) area; and Former Fire Training Area No. 1 (Site 5). The assessments were designed to qualitatively characterize the sites of concern, identify potential ecological receptors, and provide information for Remedial Design/Remedial Action activities. A Reference Area (Santa Ana River Wash) and the base urban areas were also characterized. The reference area assessment was performed to provide a baseline for comparison with the IRP site habitats. The fall 1994 survey is the second of up to four surveys that may be completed. In order to develop a complete understanding of all plant and animal species using the base, these surveys were planned to be conducted over four seasons. Species composition can vary widely during the course of a year in Southern California, and therefore, seasonal surveys will provide the most complete and reliable data to address changes in habitat structure and wildlife use of the site. Subsequent surveys will focus on seasonal wildlife observations and a spring vegetation survey.

  15. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Federal Energy Management Program Technical Assistance Project 224 Altus Air Force Base Solar Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Bryan J.

    2010-09-30

    The principal goal of this project was to evaluate altus Air Force Base for building integrated silicon or thin film module photovoltaic opportunities. This report documents PNNL's efforts and documents study conclusions.

  16. Triple-bore hollow fiber membrane contactor for liquid desiccant based air dehumidification

    KAUST Repository

    Bettahalli, N.M. Srivatsa

    2016-04-26

    Dehumidification is responsible for a large part of the energy consumption in cooling systems in high humidity environments worldwide. Improving efficiency is therefore essential. Liquid desiccants offer a promising solution for dehumidification, as desired levels of humidity removal could be easily regulated. The use of membrane contactors in combination with liquid desiccant is attractive for dehumidification because they prevent direct contact between the humid air and the desiccant, removing both the potential for desiccant carryover to the air and the potential for contamination of the liquid desiccant by dust and other airborne materials, as well as minimizing corrosion. However, the expected additional mass transport barrier of the membrane surface can lower the expected desiccation rate per unit of desiccant surface area. In this context, hollow fiber membranes present an attractive option for membrane liquid desiccant contactors because of their high surface area per unit volume. We demonstrate in this work the performance of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) based triple-bore hollow fiber membranes as liquid desiccant contactors, which are permeable to water vapor but impermeable to liquid water, for dehumidification of hot and humid air.

  17. Experimental performance study of a proposed desiccant based air conditioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassuoni, M M

    2014-01-01

    An experimental investigation on the performance of a proposed hybrid desiccant based air conditioning system referred as HDBAC is introduced in this paper. HDBAC is mainly consisted of a liquid desiccant dehumidification unit integrated with a vapor compression system (VCS). The VCS unit has a cooling capacity of 5.27 kW and uses 134a as refrigerant. Calcium chloride (CaCl2) solution is used as the working desiccant material. HDBAC system is used to serve low sensible heat factor applications. The effect of different parameters such as, process air flow rate, desiccant solution flow rate, evaporator box and condenser box solution temperatures, strong solution concentration and regeneration temperature on the performance of the system is studied. The performance of the system is evaluated using some parameters such as: the coefficient of performance (COPa), specific moisture removal and energy saving percentage. A remarkable increase of about 54% in the coefficient of performance of the proposed system over VCS with reheat is achieved. A maximum overall energy saving of about 46% is observed which emphasizes the use of the proposed system as an energy efficient air conditioning system.

  18. Experimental performance study of a proposed desiccant based air conditioning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Bassuoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation on the performance of a proposed hybrid desiccant based air conditioning system referred as HDBAC is introduced in this paper. HDBAC is mainly consisted of a liquid desiccant dehumidification unit integrated with a vapor compression system (VCS. The VCS unit has a cooling capacity of 5.27 kW and uses 134a as refrigerant. Calcium chloride (CaCl2 solution is used as the working desiccant material. HDBAC system is used to serve low sensible heat factor applications. The effect of different parameters such as, process air flow rate, desiccant solution flow rate, evaporator box and condenser box solution temperatures, strong solution concentration and regeneration temperature on the performance of the system is studied. The performance of the system is evaluated using some parameters such as: the coefficient of performance (COPa, specific moisture removal and energy saving percentage. A remarkable increase of about 54% in the coefficient of performance of the proposed system over VCS with reheat is achieved. A maximum overall energy saving of about 46% is observed which emphasizes the use of the proposed system as an energy efficient air conditioning system.

  19. Examining air pollution in China using production- and consumption-based emissions accounting approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Hong; Zhang, Qiang; Guan, Dabo; Su, Xin; Zhao, Hongyan; He, Kebin

    2014-12-16

    Two important reasons for China's air pollution are the high emission factors (emission per unit of product) of pollution sources and the high emission intensity (emissions per unit of GDP) of the industrial structure. Therefore, a wide variety of policy measures, including both emission abatement technologies and economic adjustment, must be implemented. To support such measures, this study used the production- and consumption-based emissions accounting approaches to simulate the SO2, NOx, PM2.5, and VOC emissions flows among producers and consumers. This study analyzed the emissions and GDP performance of 36 production sectors. The results showed that the equipment, machinery, and devices manufacturing and construction sectors contributed more than 50% of air pollutant emissions, and most of their products were used for capital formation and export. The service sector had the lowest emission intensities, and its output was mainly consumed by households and the government. In China, the emission intensities of production activities triggered by capital formation and export were approximately twice that of the service sector triggered by final consumption expenditure. This study suggests that China should control air pollution using the following strategies: applying end-of-pipe abatement technologies and using cleaner fuels to further decrease the emission factors associated with rural cooking, electricity generation, and the transportation sector; continuing to limit highly emission-intensive but low value-added exports; developing a plan to reduce construction activities; and increasing the proportion of service GDP in the national economy.

  20. Energy and Exergy Performances of Air-Based vs. Water-Based Heating and Cooling Systems: A Case Study of a Single-Family House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Shukuya, Masanori; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    -based systems, an air heating and cooling system, and a radiant floor heating and cooling system were chosen, respectively. A single-family house was used as a case study assuming that different space heating and cooling systems were used to condition the indoor space of this house. In addition to the thermal...... energy and exergy inputs to the system, energy and exergy inputs to the auxiliary components were also studied. Both heating and cooling cases were considered and three climatic zones were studied; Copenhagen (Denmark), Yokohama (Japan), and Ankara (Turkey). The analysis showed that the water......-based radiant heating and cooling system performed better than the air-based system both in terms of energy and exergy input to the heating/cooling plant. The relative benefits of the water-based system over the air-based system vary depending on the climatic zone. The air-based system also requires higher...

  1. Environmental Assessment of the Use of Prescribed Fire on Six Burn Units Westover Air Reserve Base, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Massachusetts. The Base is in close proximity to the Cities of Holyoke and Springfield, the Towns of West Springfield, Granby, and South Hadley, and is...a Federal statute requiring the identification and analysis of potential environmental impacts of proposed Federal actions before those actions are...Plan. April 1998. Westover Air Reserve Base (WARB). 1998b. Wetland Identification and Delineation Report. September 1998. Westover Air Reserve

  2. A Process Model for Deployment Planning of Ground-based Air Defense System Against Asymmetric Homeland Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    A Process Model for Deployment Planning of Ground-based Air Defense System Against Asymmetric Homeland Threat Ronald L. Cypert Scientific...units, along with coordination at the state and federal agency level, a dynamic process modeling capability was chosen to chart the myriad...COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Process Model for Deployment Planning of Ground-based Air Defense System Against

  3. Environmental Assessment for the Construction and Operation of a Battalion Headquarters for the U.S. Army Priority Air Transport at Joint Base Andrews-Naval Air Facility Washington, Prince George’s County, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Wastewater Program, and Toxics/Asbestos Program. To learn more about each program click here. Polution Prevention Pollution Prevention The Air Force...PRIORITY AIR TRANSPORT AT JOINT BASE ANDREWS-NAVAL AIR FACILITY W ASillNGTON, MARYLAND INTRODUCTION The attached environmental assessment (EA) examines...the potential impacts on the environment from the Proposed Action to construct and operate a battalion headquarters for the U.S. Army Priority Air

  4. Air pollution and newly diagnostic autism spectrum disorders: a population-based cohort study in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau-Ren Jung

    Full Text Available There is limited evidence that long-term exposure to ambient air pollution increases the risk of childhood autism spectrum disorder (ASD. The objective of the study was to investigate the associations between long-term exposure to air pollution and newly diagnostic ASD in Taiwan. We conducted a population-based cohort of 49,073 children age less than 3 years in 2000 that were retrieved from Taiwan National Insurance Research Database and followed up from 2000 through 2010. Inverse distance weighting method was used to form exposure parameter for ozone (O3, carbon monoxide (CO, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, sulfur dioxide (SO2, and particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazards (PH model was performed to evaluate the relationship between yearly average exposure air pollutants of preceding years and newly diagnostic ASD. The risk of newly diagnostic ASD increased according to increasing O3, CO, NO2, and SO2 levels. The effect estimate indicating an approximately 59% risk increase per 10 ppb increase in O3 level (95% CI 1.42-1.79, 37% risk increase per 10 ppb in CO (95% CI 1.31-1.44, 340% risk increase per 10 ppb increase in NO2 level (95% CI 3.31-5.85, and 17% risk increase per 1 ppb in SO2 level (95% CI 1.09-1.27 was stable with different combinations of air pollutants in the multi-pollutant models. Our results provide evident that children exposure to O3, CO, NO2, and SO2 in the preceding 1 year to 4 years may increase the risk of ASD diagnosis.

  5. Air pollution and newly diagnostic autism spectrum disorders: a population-based cohort study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chau-Ren; Lin, Yu-Ting; Hwang, Bing-Fang

    2013-01-01

    There is limited evidence that long-term exposure to ambient air pollution increases the risk of childhood autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The objective of the study was to investigate the associations between long-term exposure to air pollution and newly diagnostic ASD in Taiwan. We conducted a population-based cohort of 49,073 children age less than 3 years in 2000 that were retrieved from Taiwan National Insurance Research Database and followed up from 2000 through 2010. Inverse distance weighting method was used to form exposure parameter for ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10). Time-dependent Cox proportional hazards (PH) model was performed to evaluate the relationship between yearly average exposure air pollutants of preceding years and newly diagnostic ASD. The risk of newly diagnostic ASD increased according to increasing O3, CO, NO2, and SO2 levels. The effect estimate indicating an approximately 59% risk increase per 10 ppb increase in O3 level (95% CI 1.42-1.79), 37% risk increase per 10 ppb in CO (95% CI 1.31-1.44), 340% risk increase per 10 ppb increase in NO2 level (95% CI 3.31-5.85), and 17% risk increase per 1 ppb in SO2 level (95% CI 1.09-1.27) was stable with different combinations of air pollutants in the multi-pollutant models. Our results provide evident that children exposure to O3, CO, NO2, and SO2 in the preceding 1 year to 4 years may increase the risk of ASD diagnosis.

  6. Arduino-based control system for measuring ammonia in air using conditionally-deployed diffusive samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, J. M.; Williams, C.; Shonkwiler, K. B.

    2012-12-01

    Arduino microcontrollers, wireless modules, and other low-cost hardware were used to develop a new type of air sampler for monitoring ammonia at strong areal sources like dairies, cattle feedlots, and waste treatment facilities. Ammonia was sampled at multiple locations on the periphery of an operation using Radiello diffusive passive samplers (Cod. RAD168- and RAD1201-Sigma-Aldrich). However, the samplers were not continuously exposed to the air. Instead, each sampling station included two diffusive samplers housed in specialized tubes that sealed the cartridges from the atmosphere. If a user-defined set of wind and weather conditions were met, the Radiellos were deployed into the air using a micro linear actuator. Each station was solar-powered and controlled by Arduinos that were linked to a central weather station using Xbee wireless modules (Digi International Inc.). The Arduinos also measured the total time of exposure using hall-effect sensors to verify the position of the cartridge (i.e., deployed or retracted). The decision to expose or retract the samplers was made every five minutes based on wind direction, wind speed, and time of day. Typically, the diffusive samplers were replaced with fresh cartridges every two weeks and the used samplers were analyzed in the laboratory using ion chromatography. Initial studies were conducted at a commercial dairy in northern Colorado. Ammonia emissions along the Front Range of Colorado can be transported into the mountains where atmospheric deposition of nitrogen can impact alpine ecosystems. Therefore, low-cost air quality monitoring equipment is needed that can be widely deployed in the region. Initial work at the dairy showed that ammonia concentrations ranged between 600 to 1200 ppb during the summer; the highest concentrations were downwind of a large anaerobic lagoon. Time-averaged ammonia concentrations were also used to approximate emissions using inverse dispersion models. This methodology provides a

  7. Sequential maneuvering decisions based on multi-stage influence diagram in air combat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A multi-stage influence diagram is used to model the pilot's sequential decision making in one on one air combat.The model based on the multi-stage influence diagram graphically describes the elements of decision process,and contains a point-mass model for the dynamics of an aircraft and takes into account the decision maker's Dreferences under uncertain conditions.Considering an active opponent,the opponent's maneuvers can be modeled stochastically.The solution of multistage influence diagram Can be obtained by converting the multistage influence diagram into a two-level optimization problem.The simulation results show the model is effective.

  8. CFD simulation analysis and research based on engine air intake system of automotive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xia; Yan, Hua Jin; Tian, Ning; Zhao, GuoQi

    2017-01-01

    Traditional method for the design of automotive engine intake system has many issues, such as period, high costs, energy consumption and so on. The paper utilized one kind of CFD numerical simulation analysis based on the basic theory of CFD. It use the three-dimensional geometry modal grid, computational modeling and model analysis to identify the turbulence due to unreasonable design of air filter inlet position, and then through the test to verify the correctness of the results of CFD calculations. It provide a theoretical basis for the intake system structural optimization.

  9. Cubic PdNP-based air-breathing cathodes integrated in glucose hybrid biofuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggion Junior, D.; Haddad, R.; Giroud, F.; Holzinger, M.; Maduro de Campos, C. E.; Acuña, J. J. S.; Domingos, J. B.; Cosnier, S.

    2016-05-01

    Cubic Pd nanoparticles (PdNPs) were synthesized using ascorbic acid as a reducing agent and were evaluated for the catalytic oxygen reduction reaction. PdNPs were confined with multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) dispersions to form black suspensions and these inks were dropcast onto glassy carbon electrodes. Different nanoparticle sizes were synthesized and investigated upon oxygen reduction capacities (onset potential and electrocatalytic current densities) under O2 saturated conditions at varying pH values. Strong evidence of O2 diffusion limitation was demonstrated. In order to overcome oxygen concentration and diffusion limitations in solution, we used a gas diffusion layer to create a PdNP-based air-breathing cathode, which delivered -1.5 mA cm-2 at 0.0 V with an onset potential of 0.4 V. This air-breathing cathode was combined with a specially designed phenanthrolinequinone/glucose dehydrogenase-based anode to form a complete glucose/O2 hybrid bio-fuel cell providing an open circuit voltage of 0.554 V and delivering a maximal power output of 184 +/- 21 μW cm-2 at 0.19 V and pH 7.0.Cubic Pd nanoparticles (PdNPs) were synthesized using ascorbic acid as a reducing agent and were evaluated for the catalytic oxygen reduction reaction. PdNPs were confined with multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) dispersions to form black suspensions and these inks were dropcast onto glassy carbon electrodes. Different nanoparticle sizes were synthesized and investigated upon oxygen reduction capacities (onset potential and electrocatalytic current densities) under O2 saturated conditions at varying pH values. Strong evidence of O2 diffusion limitation was demonstrated. In order to overcome oxygen concentration and diffusion limitations in solution, we used a gas diffusion layer to create a PdNP-based air-breathing cathode, which delivered -1.5 mA cm-2 at 0.0 V with an onset potential of 0.4 V. This air-breathing cathode was combined with a specially designed phenanthrolinequinone

  10. Review of the Lightning Shielding Against Direct Lightning Strokes Based on Laboratory Long Air Gap Discharges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    It is one of the most effective ways to use laboratory long air gap discharges tbr investigating the fundamental process involved in the lightning strike. During the 1960s and the 1970s, the electro-geometrical method (EGM) and the rolling sphere method were developed base on the breakdown characteristics of negative long spark discharges, which have been widely used to design the lightning shielding system of transmission lines and structures. In recent years, the scale of the power facilities is increased dramatically with the rising of power grid's voltage level.

  11. Human factors in the Naval Air Systems Command: Computer based training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seamster, T.L.; Snyder, C.E.; Terranova, M.; Walker W.J.; Jones, D.T.

    1988-01-01

    Military standards applied to the private sector contracts have a substantial effect on the quality of Computer Based Training (CBT) systems procured for the Naval Air Systems Command. This study evaluated standards regulating the following areas in CBT development and procurement: interactive training systems, cognitive task analysis, and CBT hardware. The objective was to develop some high-level recommendations for evolving standards that will govern the next generation of CBT systems. One of the key recommendations is that there be an integration of the instructional systems development, the human factors engineering, and the software development standards. Recommendations were also made for task analysis and CBT hardware standards. (9 refs., 3 figs.)

  12. A Study of Maneuvering Control for an Air Cushion Vehicle Based on Back Propagation Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jun; HUANG Guo-liang; LI Shu-zhi

    2009-01-01

    A back propagation (BP) neural network mathematical model was established to investigate the maneuvering control of an air cushion vehicle (ACV). The calculation was based on four-freedom-degree model experiments of hydrodynamics and aerodynamics. It is necessary for the ACV to control the velocity and the yaw rate as well as the velocity angle at the same time. The yaw rate and the velocity angle must be controlled correspondingly because of the whipping, which is a special characteristic for the ACV. The calculation results show that it is an efficient way for the ACV's maneuvering control by using a BP neural network to adjust PID parameters online.

  13. Group 13, 1990 ASCAN Ellen Ochoa trains at Vance Air Force Base, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Group 13, 1990 Astronaut Candidate (ASCAN) Ellen Ochoa, wearing helmet and in full parachute equipment, waits while a training instructor adjusts her parachute harness prior to a parasail training exercise at Vance Air Force Base (AFB) in Enid, Oklahoma. When adjusted correctly, Ochoa will be pulled behind a moving vehicle to simulate a parachute jump from an airplane in an emergency situation. The parachute creates the backdrop for this photo. Ochoa, along with 22 other ASCANs, participated in this survival training course at Vance from 07-29-90 through 07-31-90.

  14. Group 13, 1990 ASCAN Ellen Ochoa parasails at Vance Air Force Base, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Group 13, 1990 Astronaut Candidate (ASCAN) Ellen Ochoa, wearing helmet and holding onto parachute harness, parasails during a survival training course exercise at Vance Air Force Base (AFB) in Enid, Oklahoma. In this phase of the course, the trainee, in full parachute equipment, is pulled behind a moving vehicle to simulate a parachute jump from an airplane in an emergency situation. Her parachute forms the backdrop for the photo. Ochoa, along with 22 other ASCANs, began a year's training and evaluation in July. This session was conducted from 07-29-90 through 07-31-90.

  15. Flexible Wing Base Micro Aerial Vehicles: Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) for Surveillance and Remote Sensor Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifju, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) will be developed for tracking individuals, locating terrorist threats, and delivering remote sensors, for surveillance and chemical/biological agent detection. The tasks are: (1) Develop robust MAV platform capable of carrying sensor payload. (2) Develop fully autonomous capabilities for delivery of sensors to remote and distant locations. The current capabilities and accomplishments are: (1) Operational electric (inaudible) 6-inch MAVs with novel flexible wing, providing superior aerodynamic efficiency and control. (2) Vision-based flight stability and control (from on-board cameras).

  16. Operable Unit 1 remedial investigation report, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, T.J.; Fruland, R.M.; Liikala, T.L. [and others

    1994-06-01

    This remedial investigation report for operable Unit 1 (OU-1) at Eielson Air Force Base presents data, calculations, and conclusions as to the nature and extent of surface and subsurface contamination at the eight source areas that make up OU-1. The information is based on the 1993 field investigation result and previous investigations. This report is the first in a set of three for OU-1. The other reports are the baseline risk assessment and feasibility study. The information in these reports will lead to a Record of Decision that will guide and conclude the environmental restoration effort for OU-1 at Eielson Air Force Base. The primary contaminants of concern include fuels and fuel-related contaminants (diesel; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene; total petroleum hydrocarbon; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), maintenance-related solvents and cleaners (volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroothylene), polychlorinated biphenyls, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). The origins of contaminants of concern include leaks from storage tanks, drums and piping, and spills. Ongoing operations and past sitewide practices also contribute to contaminants of concern at OU-1 source areas. These include spraying mixed oil and solvent wastes on unpaved roads and aerial spraying of DDT.

  17. Membrane-based air conditioning. Decentral desiccant cooling; Membranbasierte Raumklimatisierung. Dezentrale sorptionsgestuetzte Klimatisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenbaum, Hannes [Institut fuer Luft- und Kaeltetechnik gGmbH, Dresden (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Semipermeable membranes have a considerable potential use in air conditioning systems due to their properties. As water resistant but water vapor permeable functional separation layers, they allow desiccant air-conditioning processes in decentral air conditioning systems and a condensate-free air dehumidification at cooling ceiling elements. (orig.)

  18. Air-condition Control System of Weaving Workshop Based on LabVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jian

    The project of air-condition measurement and control system based on LabVIEW is put forward for the sake of controlling effectively the environmental targets in the weaving workshop. In this project, which is based on the virtual instrument technology and in which LabVIEW development platform by NI is adopted, the system is constructed on the basis of the virtual instrument technology. It is composed of the upper PC, central control nodes based on CC2530, sensor nodes, sensor modules and executive device. Fuzzy control algorithm is employed to achieve the accuracy control of the temperature and humidity. A user-friendly man-machine interaction interface is designed with virtual instrument technology at the core of the software. It is shown by experiments that the measurement and control system can run stably and reliably and meet the functional requirements for controlling the weaving workshop.

  19. Tribological Performance of MoS2-based Coatings after Deposition and Storage in Humid Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JINGYang; LUOJian-bin; PANGSi-qin

    2004-01-01

    MoS2-based composite coatings were deposited with the nano-compound unbalanced plasma plating technique the effects of processing parameters and working enwironments on the tribological properties of the coatings were examined by the drilling experiuments and XPS.the distances between substrate and Ti larget, Ti content and deposition pressure were varied in order to determine the optimun conditions for producing lubricious,long-lasting MoS2-based coatings,IT is found that the tribological performance of Tin-MoS2 roating decreases rqapidly in humid air but the humid resistant property of Tin-MoS2/Ti coating improves evidently it is indicated that the humid-resistantance property and the abrasion durability of MoS2-based coatings can be enhanced markedly by adding Ti with a certain contents.

  20. Development and case study of a science-based software platform to support policy making on air quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Zhu; Yahweh Lao; Carey Jang; Chen-Jen Lin; Jia Xing; Shuxiao Wang; Joshua S.Fu

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and implementations of a novel software platform that supports real-time,science-based policy making on air quality through a user-friendly interface.The software,RSM-VAT,uses a response surface modeling (RSM) methodology and serves as a visualization and analysis tool (VAT) for three-dimensional air quality data obtained by atmospheric models.The software features a number of powerful and intuitive data visualization functions for illustrating the complex nonlinear relationship between emission reductions and air quality benefits.The case study of contiguous U.S.demonstrates that the enhanced RSM-VAT is capable of reproducing the air quality model results with Normalized Mean Bias <2% and assisting in air quality policy making in near real time.

  1. Air Force Electronic Systems Center: Reorganization Resulted in Workforce Reassignments at Hanscom Air Force Base, but Other Possible Effects Are Not Yet Known

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Officer VERA/VSIP Voluntary Early Retirement Authority/Voluntary Separation Incentive Payments This is a work of the U.S. government and is not...force, Hanscom Air Force Base officials used three rounds of the Voluntary Early Retirement Authority/Voluntary Separation Incentive Payments (VERA...by early retirement , voluntary retirement, or resignation. The Homeland Security Act of 2002, Pub. L. No. 107-296, §1313(b), authorized these

  2. Environmental Assessment for Demolition of Lighter Than Air (LTA) Buildings 868, 869, 948 and 949 at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    to the intersection with Nealy Avenue/ Hammond Avenue. EA for Demolition of Lighter Than Air (LTA) Buildings 868, 869, 948, 949 3.0 Affected...southeastern portion of the base. The large wind tunnels and aeronautical test equipment that comprise the NASA facility resemble a large industrial area...the Langley AFB area, groundwater occurs in a shallow water table aquifer , an upper artesian aquifer system, and the principal artesian aquifer system

  3. Effects of shift work in air traffic controllers: a systematic review based on the Prisma method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Vieira Marcolino

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Air Traffic Controllers (ATC perform very complex functions of great responsibility. Due to the necessities of the job, they are submitted to a work shift system which makes their schedule irregular. The alternation of work shifts can result in effects that cause damages to their work performance and quality of life. Objective: To explore the effects of shift work in ATCs through a systematic review based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis model (PRISMA. Methodological procedures: The systematic review was conducted based on three databases: PubMed, Science Direct and Web of Science. Results: A total of 748 articles were found, 487 from PubMed, 240 from Science Direct and 21 from Web of Science; seven articles were included in the review after the application of eligibility criteria. Conclusions: The researches showed effects that affect mainly the night shifts, caused by alteration in sleep quality, somnolence and fatigue, resulting in decreased performance and increasing the risk of air accidents.

  4. A WebGIS-based system for analyzing and visualizing air quality data for Shanghai Municipality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Manyi; Liu, Chaoshun; Gao, Wei

    2014-10-01

    An online visual analytical system based on Java Web and WebGIS for air quality data for Shanghai Municipality was designed and implemented to quantitatively analyze and qualitatively visualize air quality data. By analyzing the architecture of WebGIS and Java Web, we firstly designed the overall scheme for system architecture, then put forward the software and hardware environment and also determined the main function modules for the system. The visual system was ultimately established with the DIV + CSS layout method combined with JSP, JavaScript, and some other computer programming languages based on the Java programming environment. Moreover, Struts, Spring, and Hibernate frameworks (SSH) were integrated in the system for the purpose of easy maintenance and expansion. To provide mapping service and spatial analysis functions, we selected ArcGIS for Server as the GIS server. We also used Oracle database and ESRI file geodatabase to store spatial data and non-spatial data in order to ensure the data security. In addition, the response data from the Web server are resampled to implement rapid visualization through the browser. The experimental successes indicate that this system can quickly respond to user's requests, and efficiently return the accurate processing results.

  5. Assessment and mitigation of the environmental burdens to air from land applied food-based digestate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, A; Williams, I D; Pant, D C; Kishore, V V N

    2015-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of putrescible urban waste for energy recovery has seen rapid growth over recent years. In order to ascertain its systems scale sustainability, however, determination of the environmental fate of the large volume of digestate generated during the process is indispensable. This paper evaluates the environmental burdens to air associated with land applied food-based digestate in terms of primary pollutants (ammonia, nitrogen dioxide) and greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide). The assessments have been made in two stages - first, the emissions from surface application of food-based digestate are quantified for the business as usual (BAU). In the next step, environmental burden minimisation potentials for the following three mitigation measures are estimated - mixed waste digestate (MWD), soil-incorporated digestate (SID), and post-methanated digestate (PMD). Overall, the mitigation scenarios demonstrated considerable NH3, CH4 and N2O burden minimisation potentials, with positive implications for both climate change and urban pollution.

  6. Curtailment of soil vapor extraction systems at McClellan Air Force Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, T.E. [BDM Federal, McClellan AFB, CA (United States); Mook, P.H. Jr.; Wong, K.B. [SM-ALC/EMR, McClellan AFB, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    McClellan Air Force Base (AFB), located near Sacramento, California, is one of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program`s National Environmental Technology Test Sites. McClellan AFB has implemented soil vapor extraction (SVE) as an Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA) non-time-critical remedial action for volatile organic compounds in soil. Operation and maintenance costs for SVE systems are increasingly becoming a major component of the environmental clean-up budget. In an effort to reduce costs, while assuring the protection of public health and the environment, a risk-based strategy has been developed for the curtailment and eventual shut-down of SVE systems at McClellan AFB. This paper presents an overview of the SVE EE/CA process and a detailed description of the development and implementation of the curtailment strategy. Included in the discussion are details of the public and regulatory involvement in the process.

  7. Eielson Air Force Base operable unit 2 and other areas record of decision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, R.E.; Smith, R.M.

    1994-10-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial actions and no action decisions for Operable Unit 2 (OU2) at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB), Alaska, chosen in accordance with state and federal regulations. This document also presents the decision that no further action is required for 21 other source areas at Eielson AFB. This decision is based on the administrative record file for this site. OU2 addresses sites contaminated by leaks and spills of fuels. Soils contaminated with petroleum products occur at or near the source of contamination. Contaminated subsurface soil and groundwater occur in plumes on the top of a shallow groundwater table that fluctuates seasonally. These sites pose a risk to human health and the environment because of ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact with contaminated groundwater. The purpose of this response is to prevent current or future exposure to the contaminated groundwater, to reduce further contaminant migration into the groundwater, and to remediate groundwater.

  8. Final Supplemental Environmental Assessment of Proposed Actions by the 58th Special Operations Wing, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Defense Threat Reduction Agency  Finley,  Carol  A USAF AFMC 377 MSG/CEANQ  Natural Resources Program Manager  Air Force Materiel Command/377th Mission...Engineering  Ragan, Elmer W USAF AFMC 377 ABW/SE  Chief, Safety   Air Force Materiel Command/377th Air Base  Wing/Safety  Reese , Ian E USAF AETC 58 OSS

  9. Using Neutron Radiography to Quantify Water Transport and the Degree of Saturation in Entrained Air Cement Based Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Catherine L.; Bentz, Dale P.; Hussey, Daniel S.; Jacobson, David L.; Weiss, W. Jason

    Air entrainment is commonly added to concrete to help in reducing the potential for freeze thaw damage. It is hypothesized that the entrained air voids remain unsaturated or partially saturated long after the smaller pores fill with water. Small gel and capillary pores in the cement matrix fill quickly on exposure to water, but larger pores (entrapped and entrained air voids) require longer times or other methods to achieve saturation. As such, it is important to quantitatively determine the water content and degree of saturation in air entrained cementitious materials. In order to further investigate properties of cement-based mortar, a model based on Beer's Law has been developed to interpret neutron radiographs. This model is a powerful tool for analyzing images acquired from neutron radiography. A mortar with a known volume of aggregate, water to cement ratio and degree of hydration can be imaged and the degree of saturation can be estimated.

  10. Chemiluminescence-based multivariate sensing of local equivalence ratios in premixed atmospheric methane-air flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Markandey M.; Krishnan, Sundar R.; Srinivasan, Kalyan K.; Yueh, Fang-Yu; Singh, Jagdish P.

    2011-09-07

    Chemiluminescence emissions from OH*, CH*, C2, and CO2 formed within the reaction zone of premixed flames depend upon the fuel-air equivalence ratio in the burning mixture. In the present paper, a new partial least square regression (PLS-R) based multivariate sensing methodology is investigated and compared with an OH*/CH* intensity ratio-based calibration model for sensing equivalence ratio in atmospheric methane-air premixed flames. Five replications of spectral data at nine different equivalence ratios ranging from 0.73 to 1.48 were used in the calibration of both models. During model development, the PLS-R model was initially validated with the calibration data set using the leave-one-out cross validation technique. Since the PLS-R model used the entire raw spectral intensities, it did not need the nonlinear background subtraction of CO2 emission that is required for typical OH*/CH* intensity ratio calibrations. An unbiased spectral data set (not used in the PLS-R model development), for 28 different equivalence ratio conditions ranging from 0.71 to 1.67, was used to predict equivalence ratios using the PLS-R and the intensity ratio calibration models. It was found that the equivalence ratios predicted with the PLS-R based multivariate calibration model matched the experimentally measured equivalence ratios within 7%; whereas, the OH*/CH* intensity ratio calibration grossly underpredicted equivalence ratios in comparison to measured equivalence ratios, especially under rich conditions ( > 1.2). The practical implications of the chemiluminescence-based multivariate equivalence ratio sensing methodology are also discussed.

  11. Research and application of air mercury measurement based on transverse Zeeman background correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Si, Fuqi; Zeng, Yi; Li, Chuangxin; Liu, Wenqing

    2016-10-01

    Mercury is known as a highly toxic metal, which will have a significant health hazard to the human body. To monitor the trace mercury pollution in air, the development of monitoring instruments has been conducted. In this paper the mercury analyzer is developed based on the cold atomic absorption spectrometry theory by exploiting the transverse Zeeman-Effect background correction technology. The experiments have been done to test the performance of the system. At the same time, the same experiments with RA-915 mercury analyzer have been done to compare with the results. First, zero gas was measured for an hour and high concentration mercury sample gas was measured for four days. The results of zero gas shows that the detection limit of the system is 2.19ng/m3 and the standard deviation is 0.73. The concentration fluctuation is within a tight range of +/-1.5ng/m3. The results of high concentration sample gas are in good agreement with the results of RA-915, and the correlation coefficient is 0.95. Second, laboratory air was measured for 12 hours. The results compared with RA-915 are in good agreement and have the same variation trend. Additionally, the atmospheric mercury concentration near the non-ferrous metal smelter in Tongling city has been measured by the system and the RA-915. The measurement results from two analyzers have a good linear correlation with correlation coefficient of 0.98 and slope of 1.027. It indicates that the system has accurate background correction ability, low detection limit and is applicable to long-term air mercury on-line monitoring.

  12. An Optimization Model of the Single-Leg Air Cargo Space Control Based on Markov Decision Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-rong Qin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the single-leg air cargo issues, we establish a dynamic programming model to consider the overbooking and space inventory control problem. We analyze the structure of optimal booking policy for every kind of booking requests and show that the optimal booking decision is of threshold type (known as booking limit policy. Our research provides a theoretical support for the air cargo space control.

  13. Towards an agent based traffic regulation and recommendation system for the on-road air quality control

    OpenAIRE

    Sadiq, Abderrahmane; El Fazziki, Abdelaziz; Ouarzazi, Jamal; Sadgal, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated and adaptive problem-solving approach to control the on-road air quality by modeling the road infrastructure, managing traffic based on pollution level and generating recommendations for road users. The aim is to reduce vehicle emissions in the most polluted road segments and optimizing the pollution levels. For this we propose the use of historical and real time pollution records and contextual data to calculate the air quality index on road networks and gen...

  14. Robins Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, G.P.; Keller, J.M.; Stucky, D.J.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Larson, L.L.

    1993-10-01

    The US Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Robins Air Force Base (AFB). This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at the AFMC Robins AFB facility located approximately 15 miles south of Macon, Georgia. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 13 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative-description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operation and maintenance (O&M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings to investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  15. Patrick Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandusky, W.F.; Parker, S.A.; King, D.A.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Elliott, D.B.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-12-01

    The US Air Force has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost effective energy projects at Patrick Air Force Base (AFB). This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at Patrick AFB which is located south of Cocoa Beach, Florida. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume.2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 11 common energy end-use categories. A narrative description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings, impacts on operations and maintenance, and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost analysis indicating the net present value and value index of each ERO.

  16. AN AIR POLLUTION PREDICTION TECHNIQUE FOR URBAN DISTRICTS BASED ON MESO-SCALE NUMERICAL MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jing-hua; XU Jian-ping

    2005-01-01

    Taking Shenzhen city as an example, the statistical and physical relationship between the density of pollutants and various atmospheric parameters are analyzed in detail, and a space-partitioned city air pollution potential prediction scheme is established based on it. The scheme considers quantitatively more than ten factors at the surface and planetary boundary layer (PBL), especially the effects of anisotropy of geographical environment, and treats wind direction as an independent impact factor. While the scheme treats the prediction equation respectively for different pollutants according to their differences in dilute properties, it considers as well the possible differences in dilute properties at different districts of the city under the same atmospheric condition, treating predictions respectively for different districts. Finally, the temporally and spatially high resolution predictions for the atmospheric factors are made with a high resolution numerical model, and further the space-partitioned and time-variational city pollution potential predictions are made. The scheme is objective and quantitative, and with clear physical meaning, so it is suitable to use in making high resolution air pollution predictions.

  17. Analysis of Air Traffic Controller Workload Reduction Based on the Solution Space for the Merging Task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercado Velasco, G.A.; Mulder, M.; Van Paassen, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Air traffic controller workload is considered to be an important limiting factor to the growth of air traffic. The difficulty of an air traffic control task can be analyzed through examining the problem’s solution space, that is, all possible vector commands that satisfy the constraints of safety, p

  18. Assessment of China's virtual air pollution transport embodied in trade by using a consumption-based emission inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Guan, D. B.; Davis, S. J.; Liu, Z.; Huo, H.; Lin, J. T.; Liu, W. D.; He, K. B.

    2015-05-01

    Substantial anthropogenic emissions from China have resulted in serious air pollution, and this has generated considerable academic and public concern. The physical transport of air pollutants in the atmosphere has been extensively investigated; however, understanding the mechanisms how the pollutant was transferred through economic and trade activities remains a challenge. For the first time, we quantified and tracked China's air pollutant emission flows embodied in interprovincial trade, using a multiregional input-output model framework. Trade relative emissions for four key air pollutants (primary fine particle matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and non-methane volatile organic compounds) were assessed for 2007 in each Chinese province. We found that emissions were significantly redistributed among provinces owing to interprovincial trade. Large amounts of emissions were embodied in the imports of eastern regions from northern and central regions, and these were determined by differences in regional economic status and environmental policy. It is suggested that measures should be introduced to reduce air pollution by integrating cross-regional consumers and producers within national agreements to encourage efficiency improvement in the supply chain and optimize consumption structure internationally. The consumption-based air pollutant emission inventory developed in this work can be further used to attribute pollution to various economic activities and final demand types with the aid of air quality models.

  19. Capillary based Li-air batteries for in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Mie Møller; Johnsen, Rune E.; Younesi, Reza;

    2015-01-01

    For Li-air batteries to reach their full potential as energy storage system, a complete understanding of the conditions and reactions in the battery during operation is needed. To follow the reactions in situ a capillary-based Li-O2 battery has been developed for synchrotron-based in situ X-ray p...

  20. An Explosive Range Model Based on the Gas Composition, Temperature, and Pressure during Air Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Air drilling is low cost and effectively improves the penetration rate and causes minimal damage to liquid-sensitive pay zones. However, there is a potential downhole explosion when combustible gas mixed with drilling fluid reaches the combustible condition. In this paper, based on the underground combustion mechanism, an explosive range calculation model is established. This model couples the state equation and the empirical formula method, which considers the inert gas content, pressure, mixed gas component, and temperature. The result shows that increase of the inert gas content narrows the explosive range, while increase of the gas temperature and pressure improves the explosive range. A case in Chongqing, China, is used to validate the explosive range calculation model.

  1. A Terminal Guidance Law Based on Motion Camouflage Strategy of Air-to-Ground Missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-sheng Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A guidance law for attacking ground target based on motion camouflage strategy is proposed in this paper. According to the relative position between missile and target, the dual second-order dynamics model is derived. The missile guidance condition is given by analyzing the characteristic of motion camouflage strategy. Then, the terminal guidance law is derived by using the relative motion of missile and target and the guidance condition. In the process of derivation, the three-dimensional guidance law could be designed in a two-dimensional plane and the difficulty of guidance law design is reduced. A two-dimensional guidance law for three-dimensional space is derived by bringing the estimation for target maneuver. Finally, simulation for the proposed guidance law is taken and compared with pure proportional navigation. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed guidance law can be applied to air-to-ground missiles.

  2. A one-compartment fructose/air biological fuel cell based on direct electron transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuee; Zhao, Feng; Varcoe, John R; Thumser, Alfred E; Avignone-Rossa, Claudio; Slade, Robert C T

    2009-10-15

    The construction and characterization of a one-compartment fructose/air biological fuel cell (BFC) based on direct electron transfer is reported. The BFC employs bilirubin oxidase and d-fructose dehydrogenase adsorbed on a cellulose-multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) matrix, reconstituted with an ionic liquid, as the biocathode and the bioanode for oxygen reduction and fructose oxidation reactions, respectively. The performance of the bioelectrode was investigated by chronoamperometric and cyclic voltammetric techniques in a standard three-electrode cell, and the polarization and long-term stability of the BFC was tested by potentiostatic discharge. An open circuit voltage of 663 mV and a maximum power density of 126 microWcm(-2) were obtained in buffer at pH 5.0. Using this regenerated cellulose-MWCNT matrix as the immobilization platform, this BFC has shown a relatively high performance and long-term stability compared with previous studies.

  3. Indoor Air Quality Assessment Based on Human Physiology - Part 2. Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Jokl

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate indoor air quality in practice it is necessary to establish limits, or more exactly, tolerable ranges for unadapted and adapted persons. The optimal value overwhelmingly corresponds to PD 20 %. A better value of PD 10 % could be prescribed for asthmatics and for persons with increased requirements, i.e. those allergic to the environment and operators in airport control towers and atomic power stations. A worse value PD 30 % could be accepted as an admissible value. These values differ for unadapted and adapted persons (as introduced by BSR/ASHRAE 62-1989 R. The long-term tolerable value is the end of SBS range (for CO2 it is based on USSR space research, for TVOC on Molhave. The short-term tolerable value is the beginning of the toxic range (for CO2 it is taken from British Guidance Note EH 40/90; for TVOC from Molhave.

  4. Study on application of capillary plane radiation air conditioning system based on the slope roof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. G.; Wang, T. T.; Liu, X. L.; Dong, X. Z.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, based on the principle of the capillary plane radiation air conditioning system, taking the slope roof as an example, the application of the capillary plane radiation airconditioning system is studied and analysed. Then the numerical solution of differential equations is obtained by the technology of CFD. Finally, we analyze the distribution of indoor temperature of the slope roof and the predicted mean votes (PMV) using Airpak simulation software by establishing a physical model. The results show that the PMV of different sections ranges from 0 to 2.5, which meets the requirement of the comfort. These provide a theoretical basis for application and promotion of capillary plane in the slope roof.

  5. A review on the recent development of solar absorption and vapour compression based hybrid air conditioning with low temperature storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor D. N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional air conditioners or vapour compression systems are main contributors to energy consumption in modern buildings. There are common environmental issues emanating from vapour compression system such as greenhouse gas emission and heat wastage. These problems can be reduced by adaptation of solar energy components to vapour compression system. However, intermittence input of daily solar radiation was the main issue of solar energy system. This paper presents the recent studies on hybrid air conditioning system. In addition, the basic vapour compression system and components involved in the solar air conditioning system are discussed. Introduction of low temperature storage can be an interactive solution and improved economically which portray different modes of operating strategies. Yet, very few studies have examined on optimal operating strategies of the hybrid system. Finally, the findings of this review will help suggest optimization of solar absorption and vapour compression based hybrid air conditioning system for future work while considering both economic and environmental factors.

  6. A Proposed Method for Measurement of Absolute Air Fluorescence Yield based on High Resolution Optical Emission Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gika, V; Maltezos, S

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a method for absolute measurement of air fluorescence yield based on high resolution optical emission spectroscopy. The absolute measurement of the air fluorescence yield is feasible using the Cherenkov light, emitted by an electron beam simultaneously with the fluorescence light, as a "standard candle". The separation of these two radiations can be accomplished exploiting the "dark" spectral regions of the emission band systems of the molecular spectrum of nitrogen. In these "dark" regions the net Cherenkov light can be recorded experimentally and be compared with the calculated one. The instrumentation for obtaining the nitrogen molecular spectra in high resolution and the noninvasive method for monitoring the rotational temperature of the emission process are also described. For the experimental evaluation of the molecular spectra analysis we used DC normal glow discharges in air performed in an appropriate spectral lamp considered as an air-fluorescence light emulator. The propose...

  7. Analysis of radionuclide concentration in air released through the stack of a radiopharmaceutical production facility based on a medical cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardina, M.; Tomarchio, E.; Greco, D.

    2015-11-01

    Positron emitting radionuclides are increasingly used in medical diagnostics and the number of radiopharmaceutical production facilities have been estimated to be growing worldwide. During the process of production and/or patient administration of radiopharmaceuticals, an amount of these radionuclides might become airborne and escape into the environment. Therefore, the analysis of radionuclide concentration in the air released to the stack is a very important issue to evaluate the dose to the population living around the plant. To this end, sampling and measurement of radionuclide concentration in air released through the stack of a Nuclear Medicine Center (NMC), provided with a cyclotron for radiopharmaceuticals production, must be routinely carried out with an automatic measurement system. In this work is presented the air monitoring system realized at "San Gaetano" NMC at Bagheria (Italy) besides the analysis of the recorded stack relesead air concentration data. Sampling of air was carried out continuously and gamma-ray spectrometric measurement are made on-line and for a short time by using a shielded Marinelli beaker filled with sampled air and a gamma detector. The use of this system allows to have 1440 values of air concentration per day from 2002, year of the start of operation with the cyclotron. Therefore, the concentration values are very many and an analysis software is needed to determine the dose to the population. A comparison with the results of a simulation code based on a Gaussian Plume air dispersion modelling allow us to confirm the no-radiological significance of the stack effluent releases in terms of dose to population and to evaluate possible improvements in the plant devices to reduce the air concentration at stack.

  8. U.S. Air Force Environmental Assessment: Repair by Replacement JP-8 Fuel Transfer Line Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    asphalt ). Solid waste generated on Tinker AFB is disposed of at an off-base landfill. The nearest landfill to Tinker AFB is the Southeast Oklahoma...operations. Hazards associated with the handling of combustible materials would also increase as would the amount of wear and tear on Base roads...removal from engines  Abrasive blasting Conducting these activities requires the use of large volumes of solvents and the generation of dust and

  9. Hybrid Modeling of Flotation Height in Air Flotation Oven Based on Selective Bagging Ensemble Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Hou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The accurate prediction of the flotation height is very necessary for the precise control of the air flotation oven process, therefore, avoiding the scratch and improving production quality. In this paper, a hybrid flotation height prediction model is developed. Firstly, a simplified mechanism model is introduced for capturing the main dynamic behavior of the process. Thereafter, for compensation of the modeling errors existing between actual system and mechanism model, an error compensation model which is established based on the proposed selective bagging ensemble method is proposed for boosting prediction accuracy. In the framework of the selective bagging ensemble method, negative correlation learning and genetic algorithm are imposed on bagging ensemble method for promoting cooperation property between based learners. As a result, a subset of base learners can be selected from the original bagging ensemble for composing a selective bagging ensemble which can outperform the original one in prediction accuracy with a compact ensemble size. Simulation results indicate that the proposed hybrid model has a better prediction performance in flotation height than other algorithms’ performance.

  10. Soil erosion and causative factors at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, Joel B.

    1988-01-01

    Areas of significant soil erosion and unvegetated road cuts were identified and mapped for Vandenberg Air Force Base. One hundred forty-two eroded areas (most greater than 1.2 ha) and 51 road cuts were identified from recent color infrared aerial photography and ground truthed to determine the severity and causes of erosion. Comparison of the present eroded condition of soils (as shown in the 1986 photography) with that in historical aerial photography indicates that most erosion on the base took place prior to 1928. However, at several sites accelerated rates of erosion and sedimentation may be occurring as soils and parent materials are eroded vertically. The most conspicuous erosion is in the northern part of the base, where severe gully, sheet, and mass movement erosion have occurred in soils and in various sedimentary rocks. Past cultivation practices, compounded by highly erodible soils prone to subsurface piping, are probably the main causes. Improper range management practices following cultivation may have also increased runoff and erosion. Aerial photography from 1986 shows that no appreciable headward erosion or gully sidewall collapse have occurred in this area since 1928.

  11. Satellite-based Estimates of Ambient Air Pollution and Global Variations in Childhood Asthma Prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H. Ross; Butland, Barbara K.; Donkelaar, Aaron Matthew Van; Brauer, Michael; Strachan, David P.; Clayton, Tadd; van Dingenen, Rita; Amann, Marcus; Brunekreef, Bert; Cohen, Aaron; Dentener, Frank; Lai, Christopher; Lamsal, Lok N.; Martin, Randall V.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The effect of ambient air pollution on global variations and trends in asthma prevalence is unclear. Objectives: Our goal was to investigate community-level associations between asthma prevalence data from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) and satellite-based estimates of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter prevalence of severe asthma as the outcome and multilevel models to adjust for gross national income (GNI) and center- and country-level sex, climate, and population density. We examined associations (adjusting for GNI) between air pollution and asthma prevalence over time in centers with data from ISAAC Phase One (mid-1900s) and Phase Three (2001-2003). Results: For the 13- to 14-year age group (128 centers in 28 countries), the estimated average within-country change in center-level asthma prevalence per 100 children per 10% increase in center-level PM2.5 and NO2 was -0.043 [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.139, 0.053] and 0.017 (95% CI: -0.030, 0.064) respectively. For ozone the estimated change in prevalence per parts per billion by volume was -0.116 (95% CI: -0.234, 0.001). Equivalent results for the 6- to 7-year age group (83 centers in 20 countries), though slightly different, were not significantly positive. For the 13- to 14-year age group, change in center-level asthma prevalence over time per 100 children per 10% increase in PM2.5 from Phase One to Phase Three was -0.139 (95% CI: -0.347, 0.068). The corresponding association with ozone (per ppbV) was -0.171 (95% CI: -0.275, -0.067). Conclusion: In contrast to reports from within-community studies of individuals exposed to traffic pollution, we did not find evidence of a positive association between ambient air pollution and asthma prevalence as measured at the community level.

  12. Use of Air2Air Technology to Recover Fresh-Water from the Normal Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Mortensen

    2009-06-30

    This program was undertaken to build and operate the first Air2Air{trademark} Water Conservation Cooling Tower at a power plant, giving a validated basis and capability for water conservation by this method. Air2Air{trademark} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10%-25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate).

  13. Evaluation of physical sampling efficiency for cyclone-based personal bioaerosol samplers in moving air environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei-Chung; Tolchinsky, Alexander D; Chen, Bean T; Sigaev, Vladimir I; Cheng, Yung Sung

    2012-09-01

    The need to determine occupational exposure to bioaerosols has notably increased in the past decade, especially for microbiology-related workplaces and laboratories. Recently, two new cyclone-based personal bioaerosol samplers were developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in the USA and the Research Center for Toxicology and Hygienic Regulation of Biopreparations (RCT & HRB) in Russia to monitor bioaerosol exposure in the workplace. Here, a series of wind tunnel experiments were carried out to evaluate the physical sampling performance of these two samplers in moving air conditions, which could provide information for personal biological monitoring in a moving air environment. The experiments were conducted in a small wind tunnel facility using three wind speeds (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 m s(-1)) and three sampling orientations (0°, 90°, and 180°) with respect to the wind direction. Monodispersed particles ranging from 0.5 to 10 μm were employed as the test aerosols. The evaluation of the physical sampling performance was focused on the aspiration efficiency and capture efficiency of the two samplers. The test results showed that the orientation-averaged aspiration efficiencies of the two samplers closely agreed with the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) inhalable convention within the particle sizes used in the evaluation tests, and the effect of the wind speed on the aspiration efficiency was found negligible. The capture efficiencies of these two samplers ranged from 70% to 80%. These data offer important information on the insight into the physical sampling characteristics of the two test samplers.

  14. Microlith-Based Catalytic Reactor for Air Quality and Trace Contaminant Control Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilekar, Saurabh; Hawley, Kyle; Junaedi, Christian; Crowder, Bruce; Prada, Julian; Mastanduno, Richard; Perry, Jay L.; Kayatin, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, gaseous compounds such as methane, carbon monoxide, and trace contaminants have posed challenges for maintaining clean air in enclosed spaces such as crewed spacecraft cabins as they are hazardous to humans and are often difficult to remove by conventional adsorption technology. Catalytic oxidizers have provided a reliable and robust means of disposing of even trace levels of these compounds by converting them into carbon dioxide and water. Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) and NASA - Marshall (MSFC) have been developing, characterizing, and optimizing high temperature catalytic oxidizers (HTCO) based on PCI's patented Microlith® technology to meet the requirements of future extended human spaceflight explorations. Current efforts have focused on integrating the HTCO unit with a compact, simple recuperative heat exchanger to reduce the overall system size and weight while also reducing its energy requirements. Previous efforts relied on external heat exchangers to recover the waste heat and recycle it to the oxidizer to minimize the system's power requirements; however, these units contribute weight and volume burdens to the overall system. They also result in excess heat loss due to the separation of the HTCO and the heat recuperator, resulting in lower overall efficiency. Improvements in the recuperative efficiency and close coupling of HTCO and heat recuperator lead to reductions in system energy requirements and startup time. Results from testing HTCO units integrated with heat recuperators at a variety of scales for cabin air quality control and heat melt compactor applications are reported and their benefits over previous iterations of the HTCO and heat recuperator assembly are quantified in this paper.

  15. Catalytic wet air oxidation of 2-chlorophenol over sewage sludge-derived carbon-based catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Yuting [Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l’environnement de Lyon (IRCELYON), CNRS – Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 2 Avenue Albert Einstein, 69626 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Xiong, Ya; Tian, Shuanghong [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Kong, Lingjun [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Descorme, Claude, E-mail: claude.descorme@ircelyon.univ-lyon1.fr [Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l’environnement de Lyon (IRCELYON), CNRS – Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 2 Avenue Albert Einstein, 69626 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • A sewage sludge derived carbon-supported iron oxide catalyst (FeSC) was prepared. • FeSC exhibited high catalytic activity in the wet air oxidation of 2-chlorophenol. • A strong correlation was observed between the 2-CP conversion, the iron leaching and the pH. • Using an acetate buffer, the iron leaching was suppressed while keeping some catalytic activity. • A simplified reaction pathway was proposed for the CWAO of 2-CP over the FeSC catalyst. - Abstract: A sewage sludge derived carbon-supported iron oxide catalyst (FeSC) was prepared and used in the Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation (CWAO) of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP). The catalysts were characterized in terms of elemental composition, surface area, pH{sub PZC}, XRD and SEM. The performances of the FeSC catalyst in the CWAO of 2-CP was assessed in a batch reactor operated at 120 °C under 0.9 MPa oxygen partial pressure. Complete decomposition of 2-CP was achieved within 5 h and 90% Total Organic Carbon (TOC) was removed after 24 h of reaction. Quite a straight correlation was observed between the 2-CP conversion, the amount of iron leached in solution and the pH of the reaction mixture at a given reaction time, indicating a strong predominance of the homogeneous catalysis contribution. The iron leaching could be efficiently prevented when the pH of the solution was maintained at values higher than 4.5, while the catalytic activity was only slightly reduced. Upon four successive batch CWAO experiments, using the same FeSC catalyst recovered by filtration after pH adjustment, only a very minor catalyst deactivation was observed. Finally, based on all the identified intermediates, a simplified reaction pathway was proposed for the CWAO of 2-CP over the FeSC catalyst.

  16. Simple Models for Airport Delays During Transition to a Trajectory-Based Air Traffic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Peter

    It is now widely recognised that a paradigm shift in air traffic control concepts is needed. This requires state-of-the-art innovative technologies, making much better use of the information in the air traffic management (ATM) system. These paradigm shifts go under the names of NextGen in the USA and SESAR in Europe, which inter alia will make dramatic changes to the nature of airport operations. A vital part of moving from an existing system to a new paradigm is the operational implications of the transition process. There would be business incentives for early aircraft fitment, it is generally safer to introduce new technologies gradually, and researchers are already proposing potential transition steps to the new system. Simple queuing theory models are used to establish rough quantitative estimates of the impact of the transition to a more efficient time-based navigational and ATM system. Such models are approximate, but they do offer insight into the broad implications of system change and its significant features. 4D-equipped aircraft in essence have a contract with the airport runway and, in return, they would get priority over any other aircraft waiting for use of the runway. The main operational feature examined here is the queuing delays affecting non-4D-equipped arrivals. These get a reasonable service if the proportion of 4D-equipped aircraft is low, but this can deteriorate markedly for high proportions, and be economically unviable. Preventative measures would be to limit the additional growth of 4D-equipped flights and/or to modify their contracts to provide sufficient space for the non-4D-equipped flights to operate without excessive delays. There is a potential for non-Poisson models, for which there is little in the literature, and for more complex models, e.g. grouping a succession of 4D-equipped aircraft as a batch.

  17. Vandenberg Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, M.A.; Richman, E.E.; Dagle, J.E.; Hickman, B.J.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Sullivan, G.P.

    1993-06-01

    The US Air Force Space Command has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program, to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB). This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E). The primary goal of the VAFB project is to identify all electric energy efficiency opportunities, and to negotiate with PG and E to acquire those resources through a customized demand-side management program for its federal clients. That customized program should have three major characteristics: (1) 100% up-front financing; (2) substantial utility cost-sharing; and (3) utility implementation through energy service companies under contract to the utility. A similar arrangement will be pursued with Southern California Gas for non-electric resource opportunities if that is deemed desirable by the site and if the gas utility seems open to such an approach. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at VAFB located near Lompoc, California. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 3, Resource Assessment. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, natural gas, fuel oil, and propane use for fiscal year 1991. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at VAFB by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A more complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that includes the accounting of all energy use among buildings, utilities, and applicable losses.

  18. Assessment of China's virtual air pollution transport embodied in trade by a consumption-based emission inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Davis, S. J.; Guan, D.; Liu, Z.; Huo, H.; Lin, J. T.; Liu, W. D.; He, K. B.

    2014-10-01

    High anthropogenic emissions from China have resulted in serious air pollution, and it has attracted considerable academic and public concern. The physical transport of air pollutants in the atmosphere has been extensively investigated, however, understanding the mechanisms how the pollutants were transferred through economic and trade activities remains challenge. In this work, we assessed China's virtual air pollutant transport embodied in trade, by using consumption-based accounting approach. We first constructed a consumption-based emission inventory for China's four key air pollutants (primary PM2.5, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC)) in 2007, based on the bottom-up sectoral emission inventory concerning their production activities - a production-based inventory. We used a multiregional input-output (MRIO) model to integrate the sectoral production-based emissions and the associated economic and trade activities, and finally obtained consumption-based inventory. Unlike the production-based inventory, the consumption-based inventory tracked emissions throughout the supply chain related to the consumption of goods and services and hereby identified the emission flows followed the supply chains. From consumption-based perspective, emissions were significantly redistributed among provinces due to interprovincial trade. Large amount of emissions were embodied in the net imports of east regions from northern and central regions; these were determined by differences in the regional economic status and environmental policies. We also calculated the emissions embodied in exported and imported goods and services. It is found that 15-23% of China's pollutant emissions were related to exports for foreign consumption; that proportion was much higher for central and export-oriented coastal regions. It is suggested that measures should be introduced to reduce air pollution by integrating cross-regional consumers

  19. Research on a Micro-Grid Frequency Modulation Strategy Based on Optimal Utilization of Air Conditioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhu Wan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the proportion of air conditioners increasing gradually, they can provide a certain amount of frequency-controlled reserves for a micro-grid. Optimizing utilization of air conditioners and considering load response characteristics and customer comfort, the frequency adjustment model is a quadratic function model between the trigger temperature of the air conditioner compressor, and frequency variation is provided, which can be used to regulate the trigger temperature of the air conditioner when the micro-grid frequency rises and falls. This frequency adjustment model combines a primary frequency modulation method and a secondary frequency modulation method of the energy storage system, in order to optimize the frequency of a micro-grid. The simulation results show that the frequency modulation strategy for air conditioners can effectively improve the frequency modulation ability of air conditioners and frequency modulation effects of a micro-grid in coordination with an energy storage system.

  20. Variability and Risk Analysis of Hong Kong Air Quality Based on Monsoon and El Ni(n)o Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jong-Suk KIM; ZHOU Wen; Ho Nam CHEUNG; Chak Hang CHOW

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an exploratory analysis aimed at improving understanding of the variability of Hong Kong air quality associated with different climate conditions.Significantly negative correlations were found when Nifio 3 led particulate matter ≤10 μm PM10) and NO2 by 2-3 months over the Hong Kong territory,while the other pollutants (e.g.,O3,SO2) showed modest correlations.A significant decreasing trend in visibility was observed during the autumn and winter,which has potential implications for the air-quality degradation and the endangerment of human health in Hong Kong.In an El Ni(n)o summer,the visibility was relatively better,while visibility in other seasons was diminished.On the other hand,in La Ni(n)a events,significant changes occurred in visibility in winter and autumn.Air pollution indices were less sensitive to the South China Summer Monsoon (SCSM),but a relatively high correlation existed between the East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM) and air pollutants.Rainfall was lower during most of the strong EAWM years compared to the weak years.This result suggests that the pollutants that accumulate in Hong Kong are not easy to wash out,so concentrations remain at a higher level.Finally,based on the conditional Air Pollution Index (API) risk assessment,site-specific vulnerabilities were analyzed to facilitate the development of the air-quality warning systems in Hong Kong.

  1. Imaging based optofluidic air flow meter with polymer interferometers defined by soft lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wuzhou; Psaltis, Demetri

    2010-08-01

    We present an optofluidic chip with integrated polymer interferometers for measuring both the microfluidic air pressure and flow rate. The chip contains a microfluidic circuit and optical cavities on a polymer which was defined by soft lithography. The pressure can be read out by imaging the interference patterns of the cavities. The air flow rate was then calculated from the differential pressure across a microfluidic Venturi circuit. Air flow rate measurement in the range of 0-2mg/second was demonstrated. This device provides a simple and versatile way for in situ measuring the microscale air pressure and flow on chip.

  2. Mortality weighting-based method for aggregate urban air risk assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-yu ZHANG; Guo-jin SUN; Wei-li TIAN; Yu-mei WEI; Si-mai FANG; Jin-feng RUAN; Guo-rong SHAN; Yao SHI

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with a mortality-weighted synthetic evaluation (MWSE) method for evaluating urban air risk.Sulphur dioxide (SO2),nitrogen oxide (NOx),and particulate matter (PM10) were used as pollution indices.The urban area of Hangzhou,China is divided into 756 grid cells,with a resolution of 1 km× 1 km,and is evaluated using the MWSE and the air quality index (AQI),a widely-used method to evaluate ambient air quality and air risk.In an evaluation of one day in April 2004,the surface areas categorized as levels Ⅰ and Ⅲ,as defined by the integrated air risk evaluation,were 27.3% and 3.3% lower,respectively,than grades Ⅰ and Ⅲ defined by the AQI evaluation.Meanwhile,the areas classified as level Ⅱ or above level Ⅲ by the integrated air risk evaluation were 55.1% and 101.1% higher,respectively,than grade Ⅱ or above grade Ⅲ when using the AQI evaluation.From this comparison,we find that the MWSE method is more sensitive than the AQI method.The AQI method uses a single index to assess integrated air quality and is therefore unable to evaluate integrated air risks due to multiple pollutants.The MWSE method overcomes this problem,providing improved accuracy in air risk assessment.

  3. Environmental Assessment Realignment of the Air Force Reserve 940th Air Refueling Group to McClellan Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Repatriation Act. Title V of Public Law 100-77 (the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act, 1987) requires that a -iy federal facility first be assessed...ans eoebt mnean. g. calculoed ae addimiedc mean h. This standard is biendomed to Mil the frequency and severity of vlebaty haiplnent due to regional...area designated in the Base Comprehensive Plan as District Number 3, generally defined as the area east of the runway between Kelly Way and James Way. In

  4. A knowledge-based control system for air-scour optimisation in membrane bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, G; Monclús, H; Sancho, L; Garrido, J M; Comas, J; Rodríguez-Roda, I

    2011-01-01

    Although membrane bioreactors (MBRs) technology is still a growing sector, its progressive implementation all over the world, together with great technical achievements, has allowed it to reach a mature degree, just comparable to other more conventional wastewater treatment technologies. With current energy requirements around 0.6-1.1 kWh/m3 of treated wastewater and investment costs similar to conventional treatment plants, main market niche for MBRs can be areas with very high restrictive discharge limits, where treatment plants have to be compact or where water reuse is necessary. Operational costs are higher than for conventional treatments; consequently there is still a need and possibilities for energy saving and optimisation. This paper presents the development of a knowledge-based decision support system (DSS) for the integrated operation and remote control of the biological and physical (filtration and backwashing or relaxation) processes in MBRs. The core of the DSS is a knowledge-based control module for air-scour consumption automation and energy consumption minimisation.

  5. A Near-Term Concept for Trajectory Based Operations with Air/Ground Data Link Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, David; Mueller, Eric; Thipphavong, David; Paielli, Russell; Cheng, Jinn-Hwei; Lee, Chuhan; Sahlman, Scott; Walton, Joe

    2010-01-01

    An operating concept and required system components for trajectory-based operations with air/ground data link for today's en route and transition airspace is proposed. Controllers are fully responsible for separation as they are today, and no new aircraft equipage is required. Trajectory automation computes integrated solutions to problems like metering, weather avoidance, traffic conflicts and the desire to find and fly more time/fuel efficient flight trajectories. A common ground-based system supports all levels of aircraft equipage and performance including those equipped and not equipped for data link. User interface functions for the radar controller's display make trajectory-based clearance advisories easy to visualize, modify if necessary, and implement. Laboratory simulations (without human operators) were conducted to test integrated operation of selected system components with uncertainty modeling. Results are based on 102 hours of Fort Worth Center traffic recordings involving over 37,000 individual flights. The presence of uncertainty had a marginal effect (5%) on minimum-delay conflict resolution performance, and windfavorable routes had no effect on detection and resolution metrics. Flight plan amendments and clearances were substantially reduced compared to today s operations. Top-of-descent prediction errors are the largest cause of failure indicating that better descent predictions are needed to reliably achieve fuel-efficient descent profiles in medium to heavy traffic. Improved conflict detections for climbing flights could enable substantially more continuous climbs to cruise altitude. Unlike today s Conflict Alert, tactical automation must alert when an altitude amendment is entered, but before the aircraft starts the maneuver. In every other failure case tactical automation prevented losses of separation. A real-time prototype trajectory trajectory-automation system is running now and could be made ready for operational testing at an en route

  6. Low-carbon energy policy and ambient air pollution in Shanghai, China. A health-based economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Changhong; Wang, Bingyan [Shanghai Academy of Environmental Sciences, Shanghai 200233 (China); Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Huang, Cheng; Zhao, Jing; Dai, Yi [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2007-02-01

    Energy and related health issues are of growing concern worldwide today. To investigate the potential public health and economic impact of ambient air pollution under various low-carbon energy scenarios in Shanghai, we estimated the exposure level of Shanghai residents to air pollution under various planned scenarios, and assessed the public health impact using concentration-response functions derived from available epidemiologic studies. We then estimated the corresponding economic values of the health effects based on unit values for each health outcome. Our results show that ambient air pollution in relation to low-carbon energy scenarios could have a significant impact on the future health status of Shanghai residents, both in physical and monetary terms. Compared with the base case scenario, implementation of various low-carbon energy scenarios could prevent 2804-8249 and 9870-23,100 PM{sub 10}-related avoidable deaths (mid-value) in 2010 and 2020, respectively. It could also decrease incidence of several relevant diseases. The corresponding economic benefits could reach 507.31-1492.33 and 2642.45-6192.11 million U.S. dollars (mid-value) in 2010 and 2020, respectively. These findings illustrate that a low-carbon energy policy will not only decrease the emission of greenhouse gases, but also play an active role in the reduction of air pollutant emissions, improvement of air quality, and promotion of public health. Our estimates can provide useful information to local decision-makers for further cost-benefit analysis. (author)

  7. Low-carbon energy policy and ambient air pollution in Shanghai, China: A health-based economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Changhong [Shanghai Academy of Environmental Sciences, Shanghai 200233 (China); Chen Bingheng [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Wang Bingyan [Shanghai Academy of Environmental Sciences, Shanghai 200233 (China); Huang Cheng [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhao Jing [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Dai Yi [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Kan Haidong [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)]. E-mail: haidongkan@gmail.com

    2007-02-01

    Energy and related health issues are of growing concern worldwide today. To investigate the potential public health and economic impact of ambient air pollution under various low-carbon energy scenarios in Shanghai, we estimated the exposure level of Shanghai residents to air pollution under various planned scenarios, and assessed the public health impact using concentration-response functions derived from available epidemiologic studies. We then estimated the corresponding economic values of the health effects based on unit values for each health outcome. Our results show that ambient air pollution in relation to low-carbon energy scenarios could have a significant impact on the future health status of Shanghai residents, both in physical and monetary terms. Compared with the base case scenario, implementation of various low-carbon energy scenarios could prevent 2804-8249 and 9870-23,100 PM{sub 10}-related avoidable deaths (mid-value) in 2010 and 2020, respectively. It could also decrease incidence of several relevant diseases. The corresponding economic benefits could reach 507.31-1492.33 and 2642.45-6192.11 million U.S. dollars (mid-value) in 2010 and 2020, respectively. These findings illustrate that a low-carbon energy policy will not only decrease the emission of greenhouse gases, but also play an active role in the reduction of air pollutant emissions, improvement of air quality, and promotion of public health. Our estimates can provide useful information to local decision-makers for further cost-benefit analysis.

  8. Low-carbon energy policy and ambient air pollution in Shanghai, China: a health-based economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changhong; Chen, Bingheng; Wang, Bingyan; Huang, Cheng; Zhao, Jing; Dai, Yi; Kan, Haidong

    2007-02-01

    Energy and related health issues are of growing concern worldwide today. To investigate the potential public health and economic impact of ambient air pollution under various low-carbon energy scenarios in Shanghai, we estimated the exposure level of Shanghai residents to air pollution under various planned scenarios, and assessed the public health impact using concentration-response functions derived from available epidemiologic studies. We then estimated the corresponding economic values of the health effects based on unit values for each health outcome. Our results show that ambient air pollution in relation to low-carbon energy scenarios could have a significant impact on the future health status of Shanghai residents, both in physical and monetary terms. Compared with the base case scenario, implementation of various low-carbon energy scenarios could prevent 2804-8249 and 9870-23,100 PM10-related avoidable deaths (mid-value) in 2010 and 2020, respectively. It could also decrease incidence of several relevant diseases. The corresponding economic benefits could reach 507.31-1492.33 and 2642.45-6192.11 million U.S. dollars (mid-value) in 2010 and 2020, respectively. These findings illustrate that a low-carbon energy policy will not only decrease the emission of greenhouse gases, but also play an active role in the reduction of air pollutant emissions, improvement of air quality, and promotion of public health. Our estimates can provide useful information to local decision-makers for further cost-benefit analysis.

  9. Pollution resistance assessment of existing landscape plants on Beijing streets based on air pollution tolerance index method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng-Qian; Liu, Yan-Ju; Chen, Xing; Yang, Zheng; Zhu, Ming-Hao; Li, Yi-Ping

    2016-10-01

    Various plant species of green belt in urban traffic area help to reduce air pollution and beautify the city environment. Those plant species growing healthily under long-term atmospheric pollution environment are considered to be resilient. This study aims to identify plant species that are more tolerant to air pollution from traffic and to give recommendations for future green belt development in urban areas. Leaf samples of 47 plant species were collected from two heavy traffic roadside sites and one suburban site in Beijing during summer 2014. Four parameters in leaves were separately measured including relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content (TCH), leaf-extract pH (pH), and ascorbic acid (AA). The air pollution tolerance index (APTI) method was adopted to assess plants' resistance ability based on the above four parameters. The tolerant levels of plant species were classified using two methods, one by comparing the APTI value of individual plant to the average of all species and another by using fixed APTI values as standards. Tolerant species were then selected based on combination results from both methods. The results showed that different tolerance orders of species has been found at the three sampling sites due to varied air pollution and other environmental conditions. In general, plant species Magnolia denudata, Diospyros kaki, Ailanthus altissima, Fraxinus chinensis and Rosa chinensis were identified as tolerant species to air pollution environment and recommend to be planted at various location of the city, especially at heavy traffic roadside.

  10. Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Fresh-Water Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Mortensen

    2011-12-31

    This program was undertaken to enhance the manufacturability, constructability, and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation and Plume Abatement Cooling Tower, giving a validated cost basis and capability. Air2Air{TM} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10% - 25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate). This program improved the efficiency and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation Cooling Tower capability, and led to the first commercial sale of the product, as described.

  11. Source evaluation report phase 2 investigation: Limited field investigation. Final report: United States Air Force Environmental Restoration Program, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the limited field investigation work done to address issues and answer unresolved questions regarding a collection of potential contaminant sources at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB), near Fairbanks, Alaska. These sources were listed in the Eielson AFB Federal Facility Agreement supporting the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) cleanup of the base. The limited field investigation began in 1993 to resolve all remaining technical issues and provide the data and analysis required to evaluate the environmental hazard associated with these sites. The objective of the limited field investigation was to allow the remedial project managers to sort each site into one of three categories: requiring remedial investigation/feasibility study, requiring interim removal action, or requiring no further remedial action.

  12. An air flow sensor for neonatal mechanical ventilation applications based on a novel fiber-optic sensing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, L; Sciuto, S A; Scorza, A

    2013-03-01

    In this work, a simple and low-cost air flow sensor, based on a novel fiber-optic sensing technique has been developed for monitoring air flows rates supplied by a neonatal ventilator to support infants in intensive care units. The device is based on a fiber optic sensing technique allowing (a) the immunity to light intensity variations independent by measurand and (b) the reduction of typical shortcomings affecting all biomedical fields (electromagnetic interference and patient electrical safety). The sensing principle is based on the measurement of transversal displacement of an emitting fiber-optic cantilever due to action of air flow acting on it; the fiber tip displacement is measured by means of a photodiode linear array, placed in front of the entrance face of the emitting optical fiber in order to detect its light intensity profile. As the measurement system is based on a detection of the illumination pattern, and not on an intensity modulation technique, it results less sensitive to light intensity fluctuation independent by measurand than intensity-based sensors. The considered technique is here adopted in order to develop two different configurations for an air flow sensor suitable for the measurement of air flow rates typically occurring during mechanical ventilation of newborns: a mono-directional and a bi-directional transducer have been proposed. A mathematical model for the air flow sensor is here proposed and a static calibration of two different arrangements has been performed: a measurement range up to 3.00 × 10(-4) m(3)∕s (18.0 l∕min) for the mono-directional sensor and a measurement range of ±3.00 × 10(-4) m(3)∕s (±18.0 l∕min) for the bi-directional sensor are experimentally evaluated, according to the air flow rates normally encountered during tidal breathing of infants with a mass lower than 10 kg. Experimental data of static calibration result in accordance with the proposed theoretical model: for the mono

  13. An air flow sensor for neonatal mechanical ventilation applications based on a novel fiber-optic sensing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, L.; Sciuto, S. A.; Scorza, A.

    2013-03-01

    In this work, a simple and low-cost air flow sensor, based on a novel fiber-optic sensing technique has been developed for monitoring air flows rates supplied by a neonatal ventilator to support infants in intensive care units. The device is based on a fiber optic sensing technique allowing (a) the immunity to light intensity variations independent by measurand and (b) the reduction of typical shortcomings affecting all biomedical fields (electromagnetic interference and patient electrical safety). The sensing principle is based on the measurement of transversal displacement of an emitting fiber-optic cantilever due to action of air flow acting on it; the fiber tip displacement is measured by means of a photodiode linear array, placed in front of the entrance face of the emitting optical fiber in order to detect its light intensity profile. As the measurement system is based on a detection of the illumination pattern, and not on an intensity modulation technique, it results less sensitive to light intensity fluctuation independent by measurand than intensity-based sensors. The considered technique is here adopted in order to develop two different configurations for an air flow sensor suitable for the measurement of air flow rates typically occurring during mechanical ventilation of newborns: a mono-directional and a bi-directional transducer have been proposed. A mathematical model for the air flow sensor is here proposed and a static calibration of two different arrangements has been performed: a measurement range up to 3.00 × 10-4 m3/s (18.0 l/min) for the mono-directional sensor and a measurement range of ±3.00 × 10-4 m3/s (±18.0 l/min) for the bi-directional sensor are experimentally evaluated, according to the air flow rates normally encountered during tidal breathing of infants with a mass lower than 10 kg. Experimental data of static calibration result in accordance with the proposed theoretical model: for the mono-directional configuration, the

  14. Final Environmental Assessment for a Proposed Pararescue and Combat Rescue Officer Training Campus at Kirtland Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    beginning of 2005 within the ROI was 5.2 percent (New Mexico Department of Labor 2005). 3.3.2.3 Kirtland Air Force Base Kirtland AFB had...International Sunport, New Mexico. Accessed 5/2005 from http://www. wrcc.dri.edu/ CLIMA TEDA T A.html. AETC P J/CRO Campus at Kirtland AFB Preliminary

  15. Risk based decision support for new air traffic operations with reduced aircraft separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speijker, L.J.P.

    2007-01-01

    With the steady increase in air traffic, the aviation system is under continuous pressure to increase aircraft handling capacity. Various new Air Traffic Management systems and flight procedures are proposed to increase airport capacity while maintaining the required level of safety. Newly proposed

  16. Analysis of mine's air leakage based on pressure gradient matrix between nodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-rang; WANG Hong-gang; WU Feng-liang; CHANG Xin-tan

    2008-01-01

    Air leakage may significantly affect the effectiveness of mine ventilation by in-creasing the cost of ventilation and arousing problems for ventilation management. Fur-thermore, air leakage may accelerate the process of coal spontaneous combustion andcause gas explosion, thus greatly threatens the safety of coat production. The estimationof air leakage, therefore, have great practical significance. For any ventilation system ofcoal mines, there is a defined pattern of pressure gradient which drived the mine air toflow in the network, drives possible air leakage to go shortcut as well. Air leakage mayoccur through ventilation structures such as ventilation doors and fractures of the surroun-dig coal and rock of airways. A concept and the relevent calculation method of the pres-sure gradient matrix was put forward to assist the analysis of potential air leakage routes.A simplified example was used to introduce the application principle of'pressure gradientmatrix in identifying all the potential air leaking routes, which offers a deeper understand-ing over the ventilation system and the prevention of coal spontaneous combustion.

  17. Solution Space-based Approach to Assess Sector Complexity in Air Traffic Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdul Rahman, S.M.B.

    2014-01-01

    Various methods have been introduced in the past in efforts to optimize airspace sector design and the allocation of air traffic controllers. This is done with the aim to accommodate growth, increase productivity and most importantly to ensure safety of air traffic. To accomplish this, a more compre

  18. Impact analysis of traffic-related air pollution based on real-time traffic and basic meteorological information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Long; Yao, Enjian; Yang, Yang

    2016-12-01

    With the rapid development of urbanization and motorization in China, traffic-related air pollution has become a major component of air pollution which constantly jeopardizes public health. This study proposes an integrated framework for estimating the concentration of traffic-related air pollution with real-time traffic and basic meteorological information and also for further evaluating the impact of traffic-related air pollution. First, based on the vehicle emission factor models sensitive to traffic status, traffic emissions are calculated according to the real-time link-based average traffic speed, traffic volume, and vehicular fleet composition. Then, based on differences in meteorological conditions, traffic pollution sources are divided into line sources and point sources, and the corresponding methods to determine the dynamic affecting areas are also proposed. Subsequently, with basic meteorological data, Gaussian dispersion model and puff integration model are applied respectively to estimate the concentration of traffic-related air pollution. Finally, the proposed estimating framework is applied to calculate the distribution of CO concentration in the main area of Beijing, and the population exposure is also calculated to evaluate the impact of traffic-related air pollution on public health. Results show that there is a certain correlation between traffic indicators (i.e., traffic speed and traffic intensity) of the affecting area and traffic-related CO concentration of the target grid, which indicates the methods to determine the affecting areas are reliable. Furthermore, the reliability of the proposed estimating framework is verified by comparing the predicted and the observed ambient CO concentration. In addition, results also show that the traffic-related CO concentration is higher in morning and evening peak hours, and has a heavier impact on public health within the Fourth Ring Road of Beijing due to higher population density and higher CO

  19. Identification of the source of PFOS and PFOA contamination at a military air base site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias E, Victor A; Mallavarapu, Megharaj; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Although the use of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS)/perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)-based aqueous fire-fighting foams (AFFF) has been banned due to their persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity to biota, PFOS and PFOA are still present at significant levels in the environment due to their past usage. This study investigated the reasons for detection of PFOS and PFOA in an evaporation pond used to collect the wastewater arising from fire-fighting exercises at a military air base despite the replacement of PFOS/PFOA-based foam with no PFOS/PFOA-foam about 6 years ago. Concentrations in the wastewater stored in this pond ranged from 3.6 to 9.7 mg/L for PFOS and between 0.6 and 1.7 mg/L for PFOA. The hypothesis tested in a laboratory study was that PFOS and PFOA have accumulated in the sediments of the pond and can be released into the main body of the water. Concentrations detected in the sediments were 38 and 0.3 mg/g for PFOS and PFOA, respectively. These values exceed the recently reported average global values for sediments (0.2-3.8 ng/g for PFOS and from 0.1 to 0.6 ng/g for PFOA) by a factor of several thousands. PFOS and PFOA distribution coefficients were derived for the organic content of the pond sediment (1.6%). Identification of the source of contamination and knowledge of the partition between soil and aqueous phases are vital first steps in developing a sustainable remediation technology to remove the source from the site. This study clearly suggests that unless the sediment is cleaned of PFOS/PFOA, these chemicals will continue to be detected for a long period in the pond water, with potential adverse impacts on the ecosystem.

  20. Autonomous Landing and Ingress of Micro-Air-Vehicles in Urban Environments Based on Monocular Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockers, Roland; Bouffard, Patrick; Ma, Jeremy; Matthies, Larry; Tomlin, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Unmanned micro air vehicles (MAVs) will play an important role in future reconnaissance and search and rescue applications. In order to conduct persistent surveillance and to conserve energy, MAVs need the ability to land, and they need the ability to enter (ingress) buildings and other structures to conduct reconnaissance. To be safe and practical under a wide range of environmental conditions, landing and ingress maneuvers must be autonomous, using real-time, onboard sensor feedback. To address these key behaviors, we present a novel method for vision-based autonomous MAV landing and ingress using a single camera for two urban scenarios: landing on an elevated surface, representative of a rooftop, and ingress through a rectangular opening, representative of a door or window. Real-world scenarios will not include special navigation markers, so we rely on tracking arbitrary scene features; however, we do currently exploit planarity of the scene. Our vision system uses a planar homography decomposition to detect navigation targets and to produce approach waypoints as inputs to the vehicle control algorithm. Scene perception, planning, and control run onboard in real-time; at present we obtain aircraft position knowledge from an external motion capture system, but we expect to replace this in the near future with a fully self-contained, onboard, vision-aided state estimation algorithm. We demonstrate autonomous vision-based landing and ingress target detection with two different quadrotor MAV platforms. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of onboard, vision-based autonomous landing and ingress algorithms that do not use special purpose scene markers to identify the destination.

  1. Air filtration in HVAC systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ginestet, Alain; Tronville, Paolo; Hyttinen, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Air filtration Guidebook will help the designer and user to understand the background and criteria for air filtration, how to select air filters and avoid problems associated with hygienic and other conditions at operation of air filters. The selection of air filters is based on external conditions such as levels of existing pollutants, indoor air quality and energy efficiency requirements.

  2. An Interoperable Architecture for Air Pollution Early Warning System Based on Sensor Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadzadegan, F.; Zahmatkesh, H.; Saber, M.; Ghazi khanlou, H. J.

    2013-09-01

    Environmental monitoring systems deal with time-sensitive issues which require quick responses in emergency situations. Handling the sensor observations in near real-time and obtaining valuable information is challenging issues in these systems from a technical and scientific point of view. The ever-increasing population growth in urban areas has caused certain problems in developing countries, which has direct or indirect impact on human life. One of applicable solution for controlling and managing air quality by considering real time and update air quality information gathered by spatially distributed sensors in mega cities, using sensor web technology for developing monitoring and early warning systems. Urban air quality monitoring systems using functionalities of geospatial information system as a platform for analysing, processing, and visualization of data in combination with Sensor Web for supporting decision support systems in disaster management and emergency situations. This system uses Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) framework of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), which offers a standard framework that allows the integration of sensors and sensor data into spatial data infrastructures. SWE framework introduces standards for services to access sensor data and discover events from sensor data streams as well as definition set of standards for the description of sensors and the encoding of measurements. The presented system provides capabilities to collect, transfer, share, process air quality sensor data and disseminate air quality status in real-time. It is possible to overcome interoperability challenges by using standard framework. In a routine scenario, air quality data measured by in-situ sensors are communicated to central station where data is analysed and processed. The extracted air quality status is processed for discovering emergency situations, and if necessary air quality reports are sent to the authorities. This research proposed an

  3. AN INTEROPERABLE ARCHITECTURE FOR AIR POLLUTION EARLY WARNING SYSTEM BASED ON SENSOR WEB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Samadzadegan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental monitoring systems deal with time-sensitive issues which require quick responses in emergency situations. Handling the sensor observations in near real-time and obtaining valuable information is challenging issues in these systems from a technical and scientific point of view. The ever-increasing population growth in urban areas has caused certain problems in developing countries, which has direct or indirect impact on human life. One of applicable solution for controlling and managing air quality by considering real time and update air quality information gathered by spatially distributed sensors in mega cities, using sensor web technology for developing monitoring and early warning systems. Urban air quality monitoring systems using functionalities of geospatial information system as a platform for analysing, processing, and visualization of data in combination with Sensor Web for supporting decision support systems in disaster management and emergency situations. This system uses Sensor Web Enablement (SWE framework of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC, which offers a standard framework that allows the integration of sensors and sensor data into spatial data infrastructures. SWE framework introduces standards for services to access sensor data and discover events from sensor data streams as well as definition set of standards for the description of sensors and the encoding of measurements. The presented system provides capabilities to collect, transfer, share, process air quality sensor data and disseminate air quality status in real-time. It is possible to overcome interoperability challenges by using standard framework. In a routine scenario, air quality data measured by in-situ sensors are communicated to central station where data is analysed and processed. The extracted air quality status is processed for discovering emergency situations, and if necessary air quality reports are sent to the authorities. This research

  4. Catalytic wet air oxidation of 2-chlorophenol over sewage sludge-derived carbon-based catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yuting; Xiong, Ya; Tian, Shuanghong; Kong, Lingjun; Descorme, Claude

    2014-07-15

    A sewage sludge derived carbon-supported iron oxide catalyst (FeSC) was prepared and used in the Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation (CWAO) of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP). The catalysts were characterized in terms of elemental composition, surface area, pHPZC, XRD and SEM. The performances of the FeSC catalyst in the CWAO of 2-CP was assessed in a batch reactor operated at 120°C under 0.9MPa oxygen partial pressure. Complete decomposition of 2-CP was achieved within 5h and 90% Total Organic Carbon (TOC) was removed after 24h of reaction. Quite a straight correlation was observed between the 2-CP conversion, the amount of iron leached in solution and the pH of the reaction mixture at a given reaction time, indicating a strong predominance of the homogeneous catalysis contribution. The iron leaching could be efficiently prevented when the pH of the solution was maintained at values higher than 4.5, while the catalytic activity was only slightly reduced. Upon four successive batch CWAO experiments, using the same FeSC catalyst recovered by filtration after pH adjustment, only a very minor catalyst deactivation was observed. Finally, based on all the identified intermediates, a simplified reaction pathway was proposed for the CWAO of 2-CP over the FeSC catalyst.

  5. A NEW AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM FAN MODEL BASED ON NUMERICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Nassif

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A large portion of energy use in buildings is attributed to air movement devices. Accurate estimation of fan performance is a key element in maximizing fan efficiency. This study proposes a new fan model that can be used in several applications such as optimization and fault detection and can also be incorporated into any commercial building models. The model uses a numerical analysis based on an interpolation technique for the data generated by basic fan laws. It can use any two variables among all four variables of airflow rate, total fan pressure, speed and power as inputs or outputs. Another advantage of this model is the flexibility of using any size of data for calibration, obtained either from manufacturers or field measured data. The model was tested for accuracy using two different manufacturers’ data of roof top unit packages with capacity ranging from 2 to 20 tons. Furthermore, the model was evaluated and tested on an actual VAV system using three months’ worth of measured data. The results show that the model can provide accurate estimation with the Coefficient of Variance (CV less than 2% and it can be used for several applications.

  6. Space-Based Detection of Missing Sulfur Dioxide Sources of Global Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLinden, Chris A.; Fioletov, Vitali; Shephard, Mark W.; Krotkov, Nick; Li, Can; Martin, Randall V.; Moran, Michael D.; Joiner, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide is designated a criteria air contaminant (or equivalent) by virtually all developed nations. When released into the atmosphere, sulfur dioxide forms sulfuric acid and fine particulate matter, secondary pollutants that have significant adverse effects on human health, the environment and the economy. The conventional, bottom-up emissions inventories used to assess impacts, however, are often incomplete or outdated, particularly for developing nations that lack comprehensive emission reporting requirements and infrastructure. Here we present a satellite-based, global emission inventory for SO2 that is derived through a simultaneous detection, mapping and emission-quantifying procedure, and thereby independent of conventional information sources. We find that of the 500 or so large sources in our inventory, nearly 40 are not captured in leading conventional inventories. These missing sources are scattered throughout the developing world-over a third are clustered around the Persian Gulf-and add up to 7 to 14 Tg of SO2 yr(exp -1), or roughly 6-12% of the global anthropogenic source. Our estimates of national total emissions are generally in line with conventional numbers, but for some regions, and for SO2 emissions from volcanoes, discrepancies can be as large as a factor of three or more. We anticipate that our inventory will help eliminate gaps in bottom-up inventories, independent of geopolitical borders and source types.

  7. Attenuated geophysical signatures associated with ongoing remediation efforts at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Oscoda, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che-Alota, V.; Atekwana, E. A.; Sauck, W. A.; Nolan, J. T.; Slater, L. D.

    2007-12-01

    Previous geophysical investigations (1996, 1997, 2003, and 2004) conducted at the decommissioned Wurtsmith Air Force Base former Fire Training Cell (FT-02) showed a clearly defined high conductivity anomaly associated with hydrocarbon contaminants in the vadose zone and ground water near the source area. The source of the geophysical anomalies was attributed to biogeochemical modifications of the contaminated zone resulting from intrinsic bioremediation. During these previous surveys, ground penetrating radar (GPR) data showed a zone of attenuated GPR reflections extending from the vadose zone to below the water table. Self potential data (SP) data defined a positive anomaly coincident with the hydrochemically defined plume, while electrical resistivity data showed anomalously high conductivity within the zone of impact. In 2007, another integrated geophysical study of the site was conducted. GPR, SP, electrical resistivity, and induced polarization surveys were conducted with expectations of achieving similar results as the past surveys. However, preliminary assessment of the data shows a marked decrease in electrical conductivity and SP response over the plume. GPR data still showed the attenuated signals, but the zone of attenuation was only observed below the water table. We attribute the attenuation of the observed geophysical anomalies to ongoing soil vapor extraction initiated in 2003. Significant removal of the contaminant mass by the vapor extraction system has altered the subsurface biogeochemical conditions and these changes were documented by the 2007 geophysical and geochemical data. The results of this study show that the attenuation of the contaminant plume is detectable with geophysical methods.

  8. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Bill

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the offsite migration of contaminated ground water from WPAFB. WPAFB retained the services of the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) and its principle subcontractor, International Technology Corporation (IT) to complete Phase 1 of the environmental investigation of ground-water contamination at WPAFB. Phase 1 of the investigation involves the short-term evaluation and potential design for a program to remove ground-water contamination that appears to be migrating across the western boundary of Area C, and across the northern boundary of Area B along Springfield Pike. Primarily, Task 4 of Phase 1 focuses on collection of information at the Area C and Springfield Pike boundaries of WPAFB. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to assist in completion of the Task 4 field investigation and is comprised of the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and the Field Sampling Plan (FSP).

  9. Space-based detection of missing sulfur dioxide sources of global air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLinden, Chris A.; Fioletov, Vitali; Shephard, Mark W.; Krotkov, Nick; Li, Can; Martin, Randall V.; Moran, Michael D.; Joiner, Joanna

    2016-07-01

    Sulfur dioxide is designated a criteria air contaminant (or equivalent) by virtually all developed nations. When released into the atmosphere, sulfur dioxide forms sulfuric acid and fine particulate matter, secondary pollutants that have significant adverse effects on human health, the environment and the economy. The conventional, bottom-up emissions inventories used to assess impacts, however, are often incomplete or outdated, particularly for developing nations that lack comprehensive emission reporting requirements and infrastructure. Here we present a satellite-based, global emission inventory for SO2 that is derived through a simultaneous detection, mapping and emission-quantifying procedure, and thereby independent of conventional information sources. We find that of the 500 or so large sources in our inventory, nearly 40 are not captured in leading conventional inventories. These missing sources are scattered throughout the developing world--over a third are clustered around the Persian Gulf--and add up to 7 to 14 Tg of SO2 yr-1, or roughly 6-12% of the global anthropogenic source. Our estimates of national total emissions are generally in line with conventional numbers, but for some regions, and for SO2 emissions from volcanoes, discrepancies can be as large as a factor of three or more. We anticipate that our inventory will help eliminate gaps in bottom-up inventories, independent of geopolitical borders and source types.

  10. Indoor Air Quality Assessment Based on Human Physiology - Part 1. New Criteria Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Jokl

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Human physiology research makes evident that the Weber-Fechner law applies not only to noise perception but also to the perception of other environmental components. Based on this fact, new decibel units for dor component representing indoor air quality in majority locations have been proposed: decicarbdiox dCd (for carbon dioxide CO2 and decitvoc dTv (for total volatile organic compound TVOC. Equations of these new units have been proved by application of a experimental relationships between odor intensity (representing odor perception by the human body and odor concentrations of CO2 and TVOC, b individually  measured CO2 and TVOC levels (concentrations – from these new decibel units can be calculated and their values compared with decibel units of noise measured in the same locations. The undoubted benefit of using the decibel scale is that it gives much better approximation to human perception of odor intensity compared to the CO2 and TVOC concentration scales.

  11. Monitoring and analysis of air emissions based on condition models derived from process history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Liukkonen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of online information on operating conditions is necessary when reducing air emissions in energy plants. In this respect, automated monitoring and control are of primary concern, particularly in biomass combustion. As monitoring of emissions in power plants is ever more challenging because of low-grade fuels and fuel mixtures, new monitoring applications are needed to extract essential information from the large amount of measurement data. The management of emissions in energy boilers lacks economically efficient, fast, and competent computational systems that could support decision-making regarding the improvement of emission efficiency. In this paper, a novel emission monitoring platform based on the self-organizing map method is presented. The system is capable, not only of visualizing the prevailing status of the process and detecting problem situations (i.e. increased emission release rates, but also of analyzing these situations automatically and presenting factors potentially affecting them. The system is demonstrated using measurement data from an industrial circulating fluidized bed boiler fired by forest residue as the primary fuel and coal as the supporting fuel.

  12. Bilirubin oxidase based enzymatic air-breathing cathode: Operation under pristine and contaminated conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Carlo; Babanova, Sofia; Erable, Benjamin; Schuler, Andrew; Atanassov, Plamen

    2016-04-01

    The performance of bilirubin oxidase (BOx) based air breathing cathode was constantly monitored over 45 days. The effect of electrolyte composition on the cathode oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) output was investigated. Particularly, deactivation of the electrocatalytic activity of the enzyme in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution and in activated sludge (AS) was evaluated. The greatest drop in current density was observed during the first 3 days of constant operation with a decrease of ~60 μA cm(-2) day(-1). The rate of decrease slowed to ~10 μA cm(-2) day(-1) (day 3 to 9) and then to ~1.5 μA cm(-2)day(-1) thereafter (day 9 to 45). Despite the constant decrease in output, the BOx cathode generated residual current after 45 days operations with an open circuit potential (OCP) of 475 mV vs. Ag/AgCl. Enzyme deactivation was also studied in AS to simulate an environment close to the real waste operation with pollutants, solid particles and bacteria. The presence of low-molecular weight soluble contaminants was identified as the main reason for an immediate enzymatic deactivation within few hours of cathode operation. The presence of solid particles and bacteria does not affect the natural degradation of the enzyme.

  13. Real-time threat evaluation in a ground based air defence environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JN Roux

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In a military environment a ground based air defence operator is required to evaluate the tactical situation in real-time and protect Defended Assets (DAs on the ground against aerial threats by assigning available Weapon Systems (WSs to engage enemy aircraft. Since this aerial environment requires rapid operational planning and decision making in stress situations, the associated responsibilities are typically divided between a number of operators and computerized systems that aid these operators during the decision making processes. One such a Decision Support System (DSS, a threat evaluation and weapon assignment system, assigns threat values to aircraft (with respect to DAs in real-time and uses these values to propose possible engagements of observed enemy aircraft by anti-aircraft WSs. In this paper a design of the threat evaluation part of such a DSS is put forward. The design follows the structured approach suggested in [Roux JN & van Vuuren JH, 2007, Threat evaluation and weapon assignment decision support: A review of the state of the art, ORiON, 23(2, pp. 151-187], phasing in a suite of increasingly complex qualitative and quantitative model components as more (reliable data become available.

  14. Stereo vision-based obstacle avoidance for micro air vehicles using an egocylindrical image space representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockers, R.; Fragoso, A.; Matthies, L.

    2016-05-01

    Micro air vehicles which operate autonomously at low altitude in cluttered environments require a method for onboard obstacle avoidance for safe operation. Previous methods deploy either purely reactive approaches, mapping low-level visual features directly to actuator inputs to maneuver the vehicle around the obstacle, or deliberative methods that use on-board 3-D sensors to create a 3-D, voxel-based world model, which is then used to generate collision free 3-D trajectories. In this paper, we use forward-looking stereo vision with a large horizontal and vertical field of view and project range from stereo into a novel robot-centered, cylindrical, inverse range map we call an egocylinder. With this implementation we reduce the complexity of our world representation from a 3D map to a 2.5D image-space representation, which supports very efficient motion planning and collision checking, and allows to implement configuration space expansion as an image processing function directly on the egocylinder. Deploying a fast reactive motion planner directly on the configuration space expanded egocylinder image, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this new approach experimentally in an indoor environment.

  15. 4D metrology of flapping-wing micro air vehicle based on fringe projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qican; Huang, Lei; Chin, Yao-Wei; Keong, Lau-Gih; Asundi, Anand

    2013-06-01

    Inspired by dominant flight of the natural flyers and driven by civilian and military purposes, micro air vehicle (MAV) has been developed so far by passive wing control but still pales in aerodynamic performance. Better understanding of flapping wing flight mechanism is eager to improve MAV's flight performance. In this paper, a simple and effective 4D metrology technique to measure full-field deformation of flapping membrane wing is presented. Based on fringe projection and 3D Fourier analysis, the fast and complex dynamic deformation, including wing rotation and wing stroke, of a flapping wing during its flight can be accurately reconstructed from the deformed fringe patterns recorded by a highspeed camera. An experiment was carried on a flapping-wing MAV with 5-cm span membrane wing beating at 30 Hz, and the results show that this method is effective and will be useful to the aerodynamicist or micro aircraft designer for visualizing high-speed complex wing deformation and consequently aid the design of flapping wing mechanism to enhanced aerodynamic performance.

  16. Assessing Expected Fractional Damage of Above-ground Buildings from Air-to-surface Weapons based on Indirect Fire Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Yil Park

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available For the expected fractional damage of building targets from air-to-surface weapons, the US has used the JMEM/AS method, which is based on the direct-fire concept. However, the damage redistribution assumption in the direct-fire concept could induce serious errors in damage estimation of building targets. In this paper, a method for the expected fractional damage of building targets is proposed based on the indirect-fire concept. From the proposed model, it is shown that the joint munitions effectiveness manuals/air-to-surface (JMEM/AS method is not appropriate for building targets, especially for attacks with multiple aiming points. It is recommended that the indirect-fire concept should be adopted for weaponeering even for air-to-surface weapons. fire concept could induce serious errors in damage estimation of building targets. In this paper, a method for the expected fractional damage of building targets is proposed based on the indirect-fire concept. From the proposed model, it is shown that the JMEM/AS method is not appropriate for building targets, especially for attacks with multiple aiming points. It is recommended that the indirect-fire concept should be adopted for weaponeering even for air-to-surface weapons.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(5, pp.491-496, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.571

  17. A method for calculation of forces acting on air cooled gas turbine blades based on the aerodynamic theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grković Vojin R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the mathematical model and the procedure for calculation of the resultant force acting on the air cooled gas turbine blade(s based on the aerodynamic theory and computation of the circulation around the blade profile. In the conducted analysis was examined the influence of the cooling air mass flow expressed through the cooling air flow parameter λc, as well as, the values of the inlet and outlet angles β1 and β2, on the magnitude of the tangential and axial forces. The procedure and analysis were exemplified by the calculation of the tangential and axial forces magnitudes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije: Development and building the demonstrative facility for combined heat and power with gasification

  18. In vitro toxicity testing of cigarette smoke based on the air-liquid interface exposure: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang

    2016-10-01

    Cigarette smoke is a complex aerosol comprising particulate phase and gaseous vapour phase. The air-liquid interface exposure provides a possible technical means to implement whole smoke exposure for the assessment of tobacco products. In this review, the research progress in the in vitro toxicity testing of cigarette smoke based on the air-liquid interface exposure is summarized. The contents presented involve mainly cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, systems toxicology, 3D culture and cigarette smoke dosimetry related to cigarette smoke, as well as the assessment of electronic cigarette aerosol. Prospect of the application of the air-liquid interface exposure method in assessing the biological effects of tobacco smoke is discussed.

  19. Thermal profile analysis of Doubly-Fed induction generator based wind power converter with air and liquid cooling methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede; Lau, Mogens;

    2013-01-01

    Today, wind power generation system keeps on moving from onshore to offshore and also upscaling in size. As the lifetime of the wind power converter is prolonged to 20–25 years, this paper will investigate and compare different cooling methods for power modules — the air cooling and the liquid...... cooling seen from a thermal profile assessment point of view. Firstly, an analytical approach from loss profile to thermal profile for the power semiconductor is proposed and verified in a 2 MW Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) based wind turbine system. Then, the typical air cooling and liquid...... cooling in wind power converter are analyzed and compared in terms of the mean junction temperature and the junction temperature fluctuation. It is concluded that the liquid cooling approach has a similar junction temperature fluctuation but gives a lower mean junction temperature than the air cooling...

  20. Functionalized Polysilsesquioxane-Based Hybrid Silica Solid Amine Sorbents for the Regenerative Removal of CO2 from Air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhilash, Kochukunju Adisser Saraladevi; Deepthi, Thomas; Sadhana, Retnakumari Amma; Benny, K George

    2015-08-19

    Functionalized polysilsesquioxane-based hybrid silica materials are presented as solid amine sorbents for direct CO2 capture from air. The sorbent was synthesized from amine and vinyl functionalized alkoxysilanes by a simple, energy efficient, and cost-effective co-condensation method. The material, containing bound amine functionalities, was found to have a selective CO2 capturing capacity of 1.68 mmol/g from atmospheric air with an adsorption half time of 50 min. This material also showed a maximum adsorption capacity of 2.28 mmol/g in pure CO2 and 1.92 mmol/g in 10% CO2. Desorption started at a temperature as low as 60 °C, and complete desorption occurred at 80 °C. The sorbent exhibited high recycling ability, and 100 cycles of adsorption/desorption were demonstrated in pure CO2 and 50 cycles in ambient air without any loss in efficiency.

  1. Air-void embedded GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown on laser drilling patterned sapphire substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Li, Yufeng; Wang, Shuai; Feng, Lungang; Xiong, Han; Su, Xilin; Yun, Feng

    2016-07-01

    Air-void structure was introduced in GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes (LED) with one-step growth on periodic laser drilling patterned sapphire substrate, which free of any photolithography or wet/dry etching process. The influence of filling factors (FF) of air-void on crystal quality and optical performance were investigate. Transmission electron microscopy images and micro-Raman spectroscopy indicated that the dislocation was bended and the partially compressed strain was released. When FF was 55.43%, compared with the LED structure grown on flat sapphire substrate, the incorporation of air-void was observed to reduce the compressed stress of ˜20% and the luminance intensity has improved by 128%. Together with the simulated reflection intensity enhancement by finite difference time-domain (FDTD) method, we attribute the enhanced optical performance to the combined contribution of strong back-side light reflection of air-void and better GaN epitaxial quality. This approach provides a simple replacement to the conventional air-void embedded LED process.

  2. Kids Making Sense of Air Quality Around Them Through a Hands-On, STEM-Based Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, T.

    2015-12-01

    Air pollution in many parts of the world is harming millions of people, shortening lives, and taking a toll on our ecosystem. Cities in India, China, and even the United States frequently exceed air quality standards. The use of localized data is a powerful enhancement to regulatory monitoring site data. Learning about air quality at a local level is a powerful driver for change. The Kids Making Sense program unites Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education with a complete measurement and environmental education system that teaches youth about air pollution and empowers them to drive positive change in their communities. With this program, youth learn about particle pollution, its sources, and health effects. A half-day lecture is followed by hands-on activity using handheld air sensors paired with an app on smartphones. Students make measurements around schools to discover pollution sources and cleaner areas. Next, the data they collect are crowdsourced on a website for guided discussion and data interpretation. This program meets Next Generation Science Standards, encourages project-based learning and deep understanding of applied science, and allows students to practice science like real scientists. The program has been successfully implemented in several schools in the United States and Asia, including New York City, San Francisco, Los Angeles, and Sacramento in the United States, and Taipei and Taichung in Taiwan. During this talk, we'll provide an overview of the program, discuss some of the challenges, and lay out the next steps for Kids Making Sense.

  3. Performance analysis of a direct expansion air dehumidification system combined with membrane-based total heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Cai-Hang; Zhang, Li-Zhi; Pei, Li-Xia [Key Laboratory of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2010-09-15

    A direct expansion (DX) air dehumidification system is an efficient way to supply fresh and dry air to a built environment. It plays a key role in preventing the spread of respiratory disease like Swine flu (H1N1). To improve the efficiency of a conventional DX system in hot and humid regions, a new system of DX in combination with a membrane-based total heat exchanger is proposed. Air is supplied with dew points. A detailed mathematical modeling is performed. A cell-by-cell simulation technique is used to simulate its performances. A real prototype is built in our laboratory in South China University of Technology to validate the model. The effects of inlet air humidity and temperature, evaporator and condenser sizes on the system performance are investigated. The results indicate that the model can predict the system accurately. Compared to a conventional DX system, the air dehumidification rate (ADR) of the novel system is 0.5 times higher, and the coefficient of performance (COP) is 1 times higher. Furthermore, the system performs well even under harsh hot and humid weather conditions. (author)

  4. Carbon-Based Air-Breathing Cathodes for Microbial Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Merino-Jimenez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A comparison between different carbon-based gas-diffusion air-breathing cathodes for microbial fuel cells (MFCs is presented in this work. A micro-porous layer (MPL based on carbon black (CB and an activated carbon (AC layer were used as catalysts and applied on different supporting materials, including carbon cloth (CC, carbon felt (CF, and stainless steel (SS forming cathode electrodes for MFCs treating urine. Rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE analyses were done on CB and AC to: (i understand the kinetics of the carbonaceous catalysts; (ii evaluate the hydrogen peroxide production; and (iii estimate the electron transfer. CB and AC were then used to fabricate electrodes. Half-cell electrochemical analysis, as well as MFCs continuous power performance, have been monitored. Generally, the current generated was higher from the MFCs with AC electrodes compared to the MPL electrodes, showing an increase between 34% and 61% in power with the AC layer comparing to the MPL. When the MPL was used, the supporting material showed a slight effect in the power performance, being that the CF is more powerful than the CC and the SS. These differences also agree with the electrochemical analysis performed. However, the different supporting materials showed a bigger effect in the power density when the AC layer was used, being the SS the most efficient, with a power generation of 65.6 mW·m−2, followed by the CC (54 mW·m−2 and the CF (44 mW·m−2.

  5. Air-based coal gasification in a two-chamber gas reactor with circulating fluidized bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinin, A. M.; Tuponogov, V. G.; Kagramanov, Y. A.

    2017-01-01

    During the bed gasification of solid fuels, the process temperature in the reaction zone is not high enough for reaching the maximum rate of the chemical efficiency factor of the gasification process. In order to increase the chemical efficiency factor, it is necessary to supply extra heat to the reaction zone to increase the reaction temperature. In this article, coal gasification in a chamber with forced fluidized bed is considered and it is proposed to supply extra heat with a circulating flow of an inert particulate heat transfer agent. Circulating inert particulate material is successively heated by coal combustion in a cone chamber with bubbling fluidized bed and in a combustion chamber with a spherical nozzle that inhibits the forced fluidized bed. After that, the heat transfer agent heated to 930-950°C enters first in a gasification chamber with bubbling bed and then in a chamber with forced fluidized bed, where it transfers the physical heat to the air fuel mixture. The experiments conducted with crushed Borodinsky coal and inert particulate heat transfer agent (electrocorundum) showed the temperature rise in a gasification chamber with from 760 to 870°C and the increase in the combustible component (CO) concentration in the gasification products by 5.5%. Based on the kinetic equations of the fuel combustion reactions and the CO2 reduction to CO and on the thermal balance equations of combustion and gasification chambers, the simulation model for the gas composition and the temperature rate calculated by the height of reaction chambers was developed. The experimental temperature rates and product gas compositions are in good agreement with the simulation results based on the proposed kinetic gasification model.

  6. Plume-based analysis of vehicle fleet air pollutant emissions and the contribution from high emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An automated identification and integration method has been developed to investigate in-use vehicle emissions under real-world conditions. This technique was applied to high time resolution air pollutant measurements of in-use vehicle emissions performed under real-world conditions at a near-road monitoring station in Toronto, Canada during four seasons, through month-long campaigns in 2013–2014. Based on carbon dioxide measurements, over 100 000 vehicle-related plumes were automatically identified and fuel-based emission factors for nitrogen oxides; carbon monoxide; particle number, black carbon; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX; and methanol were determined for each plume. Thus the automated identification enabled the measurement of an unprecedented number of plumes and pollutants over an extended duration. Emission factors for volatile organic compounds were also measured roadside for the first time using a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer; this instrument provided the time resolution required for the plume capture technique. Mean emission factors were characteristic of the light-duty gasoline dominated vehicle fleet present at the measurement site, with mean black carbon and particle number emission factors of 35 mg kg−1 and 7.7 × 1014 kg−1, respectively. The use of the plume-by-plume analysis enabled isolation of vehicle emissions, and the elucidation of co-emitted pollutants from similar vehicle types, variability of emissions across the fleet, and the relative contribution from heavy emitters. It was found that a small proportion of the fleet (< 25% contributed significantly to total fleet emissions; 95, 93, 76, and 75% for black carbon, carbon monoxide, BTEX, and particle number, respectively. Emission factors of a single pollutant may help classify a vehicle as a high emitter. However, regulatory strategies to more efficiently target multi-pollutants mixtures may be better developed by

  7. A Rechargeable Li-Air Fuel Cell Battery Based on Garnet Solid Electrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Jiyang Sun; Ning Zhao; Yiqiu Li; Xiangxin Guo; Xuefei Feng; Xiaosong Liu; Zhi Liu; Guanglei Cui; Hao Zheng; Lin Gu; Hong Li

    2017-01-01

    Non-aqueous Li-air batteries have been intensively studied in the past few years for their theoretically super-high energy density. However, they cannot operate properly in real air because they contain highly unstable and volatile electrolytes. Here, we report the fabrication of solid-state Li-air batteries using garnet (i.e., Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12, LLZTO) ceramic disks with high density and ionic conductivity as the electrolytes and composite cathodes consisting of garnet powder, Li salts (...

  8. Conducting polymer actuator based on chemically deposited polypyrrole and polyurethane-based solid polymer electrolyte working in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hwa-Jeong; Song, Young-Min; Chung, Ildoo; Ryu, Kwang-Sun; Jo, Nam-Ju

    2009-02-01

    Conducting polymers (CPs), such as polypyrrole, polythiophene, and polyaniline, are unique in that they have switchable properties due to their two or more mechanically stable oxidation states. Thus, their films or coatings can be easily switched by the application of a small voltage and current to change their volume during electrochemical redox processes. In particular, polypyrrole (PPy) has been studied most extensively because of its high electrical conductivity and good environmental stability under ambient conditions. In this work, we have studied a new CP actuator, fully polymeric, assembled with two PPy film electrodes and a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE), polyurethane/Mg(ClO4)2. Polyurethanes (PUs) were synthesized from 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI), 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) and three types of polyol: poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), poly(propylene glycol) (PPG), and PPG-block-PEG-block-PPG (PPG-co-PEG). The chemical polymerization of PPy by immersion in Py monomer aqueous solution and oxidant aqueous solution is an adequate method to prepare PU/PPy composite film as an actuator. To find the proper thickness of the PPy coating layer for actuation, we measured the displacements of the actuators according to the thickness of the PPy coating layer. The displacement of all actuators is discussed in connection with the properties of the SPE and PPy. All the results obtained in this work show the feasibility of electrochemomechanical devices based on PPy and SPE film being able to work in air.

  9. A radiance-based method for estimating uncertainties in the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) land surface temperature product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulley, Glynn C.; Hook, Simon J.

    2012-10-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) has been identified by NASA and other international organizations as an important Earth System Data Record (ESDR). An ESDR is defined as a long-term, well calibrated and validated data set. Identifying uncertainties in LST products with coarse spatial resolutions (>10 km) such as those from hyperspectral infrared sounders is notoriously difficult due to the challenges of making reliable in situ measurements representative of the spatial scales of the output products. In this study we utilize a Radiance-based (R-based) LST method for estimating uncertainties in the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) v5 LST product. The R-based method provides estimates of the true LST using a radiative closure simulation without the need for in situ measurements, and requires input air temperature, relative humidity profiles and emissivity data. The R-based method was employed at three validation sites over the Namib Desert, Gran Desierto, and Redwood National Park for all AIRS observations from 2002 to 2010. Results showed daytime LST root-mean square errors (RMSE) of 2-3 K at the Namib and Desierto sites, and 1.5 K at the Redwood site. Nighttime LST RMSEs at the two desert sites were a factor of two less when compared to daytime results. Positive daytime LST biases were found at each site due to an underestimation of the daytime AIRS v5 longwave spectral emissivity, while the reverse occurred at nighttime. In the AIRS v6 product (release 2012), LST biases and RMSEs will be reduced significantly due to improved methodologies for the surface retrieval and emissivity first guess.

  10. Environmental Assessment for Installation of a New Jet Engine Test Cell, Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    airflow noise generated as the airframe passes through the air. The same noise sources are present with supersonic flights, but the aircraft are... ditches and retention ponds. Additionally, during construction of new facilities, Edwards AFB requires contractors to implement construction

  11. Can we establish relationship between outdoor air ventilation and health based on the published epidemiological data?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrer, Paolo; Wargocki, Pawel; Fanetti, Annaclara

    2015-01-01

    , multidisciplinary review was carried out of the scientific literature on health and outdoor air ventilation in non-industrial indoor environments (not covered by previous reviews on this topic) and of major reviews on this topic. The results show, that effects on health were seen for wide range of ventilation rates......Appropriate exposure control is prerogative for reducing the burden of disease (BOD) due to inadequate air quality indoors (IAQ). Ventilation with outdoor air is one of the available exposure control methods and is widespread. It is often assumed that this method will bring tangible effects...... on health. This paper examines whether the available archival epidemiological evidence provides information on the link between outdoor air ventilation and health that can be used for regulative purposes, when ventilation requirements for non-industrial built environments are set. To achieve this goal...

  12. Satellite and Ground-Based Measurements of Urban Air Quality in Relation with Children's Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria; Dida, Mariana Rodica

    2016-08-01

    The adverse health effects from aerosol particulate matter PM pollution, especially with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm PM2.5 must be considered in developing policies to improve air quality. Epidemiologic studies demonstrated that exposure to ambient particulate matter PM is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, particularly associated with cardiopulmonary disease and asthma of which children are most exposed for the rapid increase of asthma disease. Very early exposure to certain components of air pollution can increase the risk of developing of different allergies by age 7. The present study attempts to retrieve the aerosol load in terms of aerosol optical depth (AOD) related to air quality in the Bucharest metropolitan area. In this study is presented a spatio-temporal analysis of the aerosol concentrations in relation with meteorological parameters in two size fractions (PM10 and PM2.5) and Air Qualiy Index and possible health effects on children's asthma.

  13. Culturing Life from Air: Using a Surface Air System to Introduce Discovery-Based Research in Aerobiology into the Undergraduate Biology Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn F. Weber

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the field of aerobiology predates Louis Pasteur’s classic experiments in the late 19th century, the atmosphere has recently emerged as one of the last great frontiers in the field of microbiology. Recent research has demonstrated that airborne microbes are more diverse than previously thought and are metabolically active in some cases, influencing atmospheric chemistry and meteorological patterns.  Furthermore, concern continues to grow regarding airborne travel of biothreat agents and emerging infectious diseases in an increasingly global society.  Despite the increased recognition of the atmosphere as a frontier for microbiological exploration in both basic and applied sciences, students are generally not exposed to this field of research in the undergraduate biology curriculum.  We describe the use of the Surface Air System (SAS SUPER 180 (Bioscience International, Rockville, MD, an extremely rugged, easy-to-use, portable and nearly maintenance-free instrument that impacts defined volumes of air directly onto petri dishes to facilitate the study of culturable airborne microorganisms.  We successfully employed this instrument in a Biology I course in which freshmen, with no prior research experiences, conducted discovery-based research that produced data that was presented at a national meeting and made a genuine contribution to the field of aerobiology.  We also describe how such discovery-based research experiences in aerobiology can be used as a platform for teaching core biological concepts and basic laboratory skills. Editor's Note:The ASM advocates that students must successfully demonstrate the ability to explain and practice safe laboratory techniques. For more information, read the laboratory safety section of the ASM Curriculum Recommendations: Introductory Course in Microbiology and the Guidelines for Biosafety in Teaching Laboratories, available at www.asm.org. The Editors of JMBE recommend that adopters of the

  14. Environmental Assessment (EA): Proposed Software Facilities, Hill Air Force Base, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    for hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Solid and Hazardous Waste If contaminated building materials, soils or pavements are identified, they...and the extensive development and disturbance of Hill AFB, the potential for historic properties is extremely low . However, if any such properties are...painting and abrasive blasting operations (in compliance with the base’s Title V air quality permit). Emission estimates are available for criteria

  15. Environmental Assessment: Proposed Seat and Canopy Staging Building, Hill Air Force Base, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    obtained. Restoration planting (of any areas not occupied by structures, pavements , or irrigated turf) would include fire resistant plants, native...potential for historic properties is extremely low . However, if any are found during construction, ground-disturbing activities in the immediate vicinity...and abrasive blasting operations (in compliance with the base’s Title V air quality permit). Emission estimates are available for criteria air

  16. Environmental Assessment: Proposed Automotive/Arts and Crafts Skills Center, Hill Air Force Base, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    transported, disposed, re-used, and/or recycled. Wastewater flows to an existing sanitary sewer. If contaminated soils or pavements are identified, they...historic properties is extremely low . However, if any are found during construction, ground-disturbing activities in the immediate vicinity will cease... abrasive blasting operations (in compliance with the base’s Title V air quality permit). Emission estimates are available for criteria air pollutants and

  17. Environmental Assessment: Western Snowy Plover Habitat Restoration, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Recovery Act ROC Reactive organic compound RWQCB Regional Water Quality Control Board SBCAPCD Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District...Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan tons/yr Tons per year UCSB University of California, Santa Barbara U.S. United States USAF United States Air... pollutants from a point source into navigable Waters of the US, except in compliance with a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (40 CFR Part

  18. Environmental Assessment for Developing Renewable Energy Enhanced Use Lease Facilities at Robins Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-15

    and effluent is monitored for biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, coliform bacteria, pH, oil and grease, ammonia , metals, suspended...on Airports and Aviation. Airport Cooperative Research Program. ACRP Synthesis 28. United States Air Force (USAF). 2013. U.S. Air Force Energy...battlegrounds, and a variety of other structures from the period of recorded history in the region. Architectural resources include structures or districts

  19. Air segmented amplitude modulated multiplexed flow analysis with software-based phase recognition: determination of phosphate ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogusu, Takeshi; Uchimoto, Katsuya; Takeuchi, Masaki; Tanaka, Hideji

    2014-01-01

    Amplitude modulated multiplexed flow analysis (AMMFA) has been improved by introducing air segmentation and software-based phase recognition. Sample solutions, the flow rates of which are respectively varied at different frequencies, are merged. Air is introduced to the merged liquid stream in order to limit the dispersion of analytes within each liquid segment separated by air bubbles. The stream is led to a detector with no physical deaeration. Air signals are distinguished from liquid signals through the analysis of detector output signals, and are suppressed down to the level of liquid signals. Resulting signals are smoothed based on moving average computation. Thus processed signals are analyzed by fast Fourier transform. The analytes in the samples are respectively determined from the amplitudes of the corresponding wave components obtained. The developed system has been applied to the simultaneous determinations of phosphate ions in water samples by a Malachite Green method. The linearity of the analytical curve (0.0-31.0 μmol dm(-3)) is good (r(2)>0.999) and the detection limit (3.3 σ) at the modulation period of 30s is 0.52 μmol dm(-3). Good recoveries around 100% have been obtained for phosphate ions spiked into real water samples.

  20. Towards an agent based traffic regulation and recommendation system for the on-road air quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq, Abderrahmane; El Fazziki, Abdelaziz; Ouarzazi, Jamal; Sadgal, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated and adaptive problem-solving approach to control the on-road air quality by modeling the road infrastructure, managing traffic based on pollution level and generating recommendations for road users. The aim is to reduce vehicle emissions in the most polluted road segments and optimizing the pollution levels. For this we propose the use of historical and real time pollution records and contextual data to calculate the air quality index on road networks and generate recommendations for reassigning traffic flow in order to improve the on-road air quality. The resulting air quality indexes are used in the system's traffic network generation, which the cartography is represented by a weighted graph. The weights evolve according to the pollution indexes and path properties and the graph is therefore dynamic. Furthermore, the systems use the available pollution data and meteorological records in order to predict the on-road pollutant levels by using an artificial neural network based prediction model. The proposed approach combines the benefits of multi-agent systems, Big data technology, machine learning tools and the available data sources. For the shortest path searching in the road network, we use the Dijkstra algorithm over Hadoop MapReduce framework. The use Hadoop framework in the data retrieve and analysis process has significantly improved the performance of the proposed system. Also, the agent technology allowed proposing a suitable solution in terms of robustness and agility.

  1. COGENERATION OPPORTUNITIES TO IMPROVE THE EFFICIENCY OF MICRO HEAT POWER PLANTS BASED ON AIR COOLED INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Shchinnikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities of operation of electric generators based on internal combustion engines with air cooling under conditions of cogeneration, when, along with the electricity, heat release in different embodiments is provided. Such facilities are usually realized on the basis of gasoline internal combustion engines (i.e. gasoline is used as a fuel. They can be used in the household, by professional builders, geologists, the military and rescuers in the area of emergencies and in areas with a lack of infrastructure. The basis of the facility is the gasoline generator Hitachi-2400 with an air-cooled power of 2.4 kW. The basic methodology for the study of microthermal power plants based on an air-cooled internal combustion engine which is based on balance equations is presented. The facility operation ensures the measurement of all temperatures and expenses of operating environments for determining heat flow in accordance with the proposed methodology. The specifications of heat exchangers for utilizing the heat of exhaust flue gases are presented. The energy diagram illustrating the useful effect of the application of various heat exchangers are plotted. Cogeneration possibilities of the facility are provided, firstly, by the release of heat with the air that cools a cylinder of the internal combustion engine, and, secondly, by the release of heat of hot water heated by utilizing the heat of the leaving flue gases, and, thirdly, in the calculated version, by the release of heat with air that is sequentially heated due to the cooling of the cylinder head and then by utilizing the heat of exhaust gases. It is demonstrated that the fuel heat utilization factor can be increased from 0.22 to 0.50–0.60, depending on the adopted technical solutions.

  2. Statistical Short-Range Guidance for Peak Wind Speed Forecasts at Edwards Air Force Base, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Joseph; Crawford, Winifred; Lafosse, Richard; Hoeth, Brian; Burns, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    The peak winds near the surface are an important forecast element for Space Shuttle landings. As defined in the Shuttle Flight Rules (FRs), there are peak wind thresholds that cannot be exceeded in order to ensure the safety of the shuttle during landing operations. The National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) is responsible for weather forecasts for all shuttle landings. They indicate peak winds are a challenging parameter to forecast. To alleviate the difficulty in making such wind forecasts, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMTJ) developed a personal computer based graphical user interface (GUI) for displaying peak wind climatology and probabilities of exceeding peak-wind thresholds for the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) at Kennedy Space Center. However, the shuttle must land at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB) in southern California when weather conditions at Kennedy Space Center in Florida are not acceptable, so SMG forecasters requested that a similar tool be developed for EAFB. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) personnel archived and performed quality control of 2-minute average and 10-minute peak wind speeds at each tower adjacent to the main runway at EAFB from 1997- 2004. They calculated wind climatologies and probabilities of average peak wind occurrence based on the average speed. The climatologies were calculated for each tower and month, and were stratified by hour, direction, and direction/hour. For the probabilities of peak wind occurrence, MSFC calculated empirical and modeled probabilities of meeting or exceeding specific 10-minute peak wind speeds using probability density functions. The AMU obtained and reformatted the data into Microsoft Excel PivotTables, which allows users to display different values with point-click-drag techniques. The GUT was then created from the PivotTables using Visual Basic for Applications code. The GUI is run through a macro within Microsoft Excel and allows forecasters to quickly display and

  3. Air assimilative capacity-based environment friendly siting of new industries--a case study of Kochi region, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, S K; Chalapati Rao, C V

    2007-09-01

    Air pollution has become a matter of grave concern, particularly in mega-cities and urban areas, where the situation is alarming and becoming more and more severe day-by-day and warrants, therefore, careful planning to facilitate future industrial development. Site selection, with the objective of minimizing adverse environmental impacts based on environmental criteria is a vital prerequisite, particularly for air polluting industries. In order to locate any air polluting industry, the assimilative capacity of the region needs to be assessed carefully and planned accordingly, so that the receiving environment is not adversely affected. Assimilative capacity of a region/airshed, widely represented through the ventilation coefficient by many researchers in the past, does not give a clear picture about the amount of emission load that can be assimilated in a given region. The ventilation coefficient, at best, can only present a broad picture about the air pollution dispersion potential (low, medium or high) of the region. A modified approach, which utilizes air quality modelling as a tool to estimate the maximum allowable emission load that a region can assimilate without violating the stipulated standards, has been used for estimating the assimilative capacity of the air environment. Details of this approach have been presented in this paper through a case study carried out for the Kochi region, located in the Kerala State of India. A variety of emission and meteorological scenarios have been considered and critical emission loads have been estimated. This approach shall provide necessary technical guidance to the environmental regulatory authorities as well as to the industries in planning environment friendly industrial development.

  4. Tentative detection of clear-air turbulence using a ground-based Rayleigh lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauchecorne, Alain; Cot, Charles; Dalaudier, Francis; Porteneuve, Jacques; Gaudo, Thierry; Wilson, Richard; Cénac, Claire; Laqui, Christian; Keckhut, Philippe; Perrin, Jean-Marie; Dolfi, Agnès; Cézard, Nicolas; Lombard, Laurent; Besson, Claudine

    2016-05-01

    Atmospheric gravity waves and turbulence generate small-scale fluctuations of wind, pressure, density, and temperature in the atmosphere. These fluctuations represent a real hazard for commercial aircraft and are known by the generic name of clear-air turbulence (CAT). Numerical weather prediction models do not resolve CAT and therefore provide only a probability of occurrence. A ground-based Rayleigh lidar was designed and implemented to remotely detect and characterize the atmospheric variability induced by turbulence in vertical scales between 40 m and a few hundred meters. Field measurements were performed at Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP, France) on 8 December 2008 and 23 June 2009. The estimate of the mean squared amplitude of bidimensional fluctuations of lidar signal showed excess compared to the estimated contribution of the instrumental noise. This excess can be attributed to atmospheric turbulence with a 95% confidence level. During the first night, data from collocated stratosphere-troposphere (ST) radar were available. Altitudes of the turbulent layers detected by the lidar were roughly consistent with those of layers with enhanced radar echo. The derived values of turbulence parameters Cn2 or CT2 were in the range of those published in the literature using ST radar data. However, the detection was at the limit of the instrumental noise and additional measurement campaigns are highly desirable to confirm these initial results. This is to our knowledge the first successful attempt to detect CAT in the free troposphere using an incoherent Rayleigh lidar system. The built lidar device may serve as a test bed for the definition of embarked CAT detection lidar systems aboard airliners.

  5. Set-theoretic deconvolution (STD) for multichromatic ground/air/space-based imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safronov, Aleksandr N.

    1997-09-01

    This paper proposes a class of nonlinear methods, called Set-Theoretic Deconvolution (STD), developed for joint restoration of M(M >1) monochrome distorted 2-dimensional images (snapshots) of an unknown extended object, being viewed through the optical channel with unknown PSF, whose true monochrome brightness profiles look distinct at M(M>!) slightly different wavelengths chosen. The presented method appeals to the generalized Projection Onto Convex Sets (POCS) formalism, so that the proper projective metric is introduced and then minimized. Thus, a number of operators is derived in closed form and cyclically applied to M-dimensional functional vector built up from estimates for combinations of monochrome images. During the projecting of vector onto convex sets one attempts to avoid non-physical inversion and to correctly form a feasible solution (fixed point) consistent with qualitative not quantitative information being assumed to be known in advance. Computer simulation demonstrates that the resulting improved monochrome images reveal fine details which could not easily be discerned in the original distorted images. This technique recovers fairly reliably the total multichromatic 2-D portrait of an arbitrary compact object whose monochrome brightness distributions have discontinuities and are highly nonconvex plus multiply connected ones. Originally developed for the deblurring of passively observed objects, the STD approach can be carried over to scenario with actively irradiated objects (f.e., near-Earth space targets). Under advanced conditions, such as spatio-spectrally diversified laser illumination or coherent Doppler imaging implementation, the synthesized loop deconvolver could be universal tool in object feature extraction by means of occasionally aberrated space-borne telescope or turbulence-affected ground/air-based large aperture optical systems.

  6. Effects of contaminants on reproductive success of aquatic birds nesting at Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothem, R.L.; Crayon, J.J.; Law, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Contamination by organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls, metals, and trace elements at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), located in the Mojave Desert, could adversely affect nesting aquatic birds, especially at the sewage lagoons that comprise Piute Ponds. Estimates of avian reproduction, in conjunction with analyses of eggs and avian foods for contaminant residues, may indicate the potential for negative effects on avian populations. From 1996 to 1999, we conducted studies at the Piute Ponds area of EAFB to evaluate the impacts of contaminants on nesting birds. Avian reproduction was evaluated in 1999. Eggs were collected for chemical analyses in 1996 and 1999, and African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis), a likely food source, were collected for chemical analyses in 1998. Avian species occupying the higher trophic levels-black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), white-faced ibis (Plegadis chihi), and American avocet (Recurvirostra americana)-generally bioaccumulated higher concentrations of contaminants in their eggs. Reproductive success and egg hatchability of night-herons and white-faced ibises in the Piute Ponds were similar to results observed at other western colonies. Deformities were observed in only one embryo in this study, but concentrations of contaminants evaluated in this ibis embryo were considered insufficient to have caused the deformities. Because clawed frogs, a primary prey item for night-herons at Piute Ponds, had no detectable levels of any OCs, it is likely that OCs found in night-heron eggs were acquired from the wintering grounds rather than from EAFB. The presence of isomers of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in ibis eggs indicated recent exposure, but invertebrates used for food by ibises were not sampled at Piute Ponds, and conclusions about the source of OCs in ibis eggs could not be made. Concentrations of contaminants in random and failed eggs of individual species were not different, and we concluded

  7. Geologic investigation :an update of subsurface geology on Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hart, Dirk (GRAM, Inc.)

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to generate a revised geologic model of Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) incorporating the geological and geophysical data produced since the Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization Project (SWHC) of 1994 and 1995. Although this report has certain stand-alone characteristics, it is intended to complement the previous work and to serve as a status report as of late 2002. In the eastern portion of KAFB (Lurance Canyon and the Hubbell bench), of primary interest is the elevation to which bedrock is buried under a thin cap of alluvium. Elevation maps of the bedrock top reveal the paleodrainage that allows for the interpretation of the area's erosional history. The western portion of KAFB consists of the eastern part of the Albuquerque basin where bedrock is deeply buried under Santa Fe Group alluvium. In this area, the configuration of the down-to-the-west, basin-bounding Sandia and West Sandia faults is of primary interest. New geological and geophysical data and the reinterpretation of old data help to redefine the location and magnitude of these elements. Additional interests in this area are the internal stratigraphy and structure of the Santa Fe Group. Recent data collected from new monitoring wells in the area have led to a geologic characterization of the perched Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater system and have refined the known limits of the Ancestral Rio Grande fluvial sediments within the Santa Fe Group. Both the reinterpretation of the existing data and a review of the regional geology have shown that a segment of the boundary between the eastern and western portions of KAFB is a complicated early Tertiary (Laramide) wrench-fault system, the Tijeras/Explosive Ordnance Disposal Area/Hubbell Spring system. A portion of this fault zone is occupied by a coeval ''pull-apart'' basin filled with early Tertiary conglomerates, whose exposures form the ''Travertine Hills''.

  8. Airborne Four-Dimensional Flight Management in a Time-based Air Traffic Control Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David H.; Green, Steven M.

    1991-01-01

    Advanced Air Traffic Control (ATC) systems are being developed which contain time-based (4D) trajectory predictions of aircraft. Airborne flight management systems (FMS) exist or are being developed with similar 4D trajectory generation capabilities. Differences between the ATC generated profiles and those generated by the airborne 4D FMS may introduce system problems. A simulation experiment was conducted to explore integration of a 4D equipped aircraft into a 4D ATC system. The NASA Langley Transport Systems Research Vehicle cockpit simulator was linked in real time to the NASA Ames Descent Advisor ATC simulation for this effort. Candidate procedures for handling 4D equipped aircraft were devised and traffic scenarios established which required time delays absorbed through speed control alone or in combination with path stretching. Dissimilarities in 4D speed strategies between airborne and ATC generated trajectories were tested in these scenarios. The 4D procedures and FMS operation were well received by airline pilot test subjects, who achieved an arrival accuracy at the metering fix of 2.9 seconds standard deviation time error. The amount and nature of the information transmitted during a time clearance were found to be somewhat of a problem using the voice radio communication channel. Dissimilarities between airborne and ATC-generated speed strategies were found to be a problem when the traffic remained on established routes. It was more efficient for 4D equipped aircraft to fly trajectories with similar, though less fuel efficient, speeds which conform to the ATC strategy. Heavy traffic conditions, where time delays forced off-route path stretching, were found to produce a potential operational benefit of the airborne 4D FMS.

  9. Session 6: Bactericidal indoor air decontamination on TiO{sub 2}-based photo-catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, V.; Keller, N.; Garin, F. [Laboratoire des Materiaux, Surfaces et Procedes pour la Catalyse (LMSPC), 67 - Strasbourg (France); Lett, M.C. [Laboratoire d' Expression des Genomes et de Microorganismes (LGM), 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    2004-07-01

    The innovative approach of our work is focused on the indoor air decontamination on TiO{sub 2}-based photo-catalysts for applications in places with high infection and contamination risks, such as hospitals, collectivities or even for domestic use. The bactericidal activity of a series of photo-catalysts is evaluated for the Escherichia coli (typical dimensions of 1 x 4 {mu}m) photo-killing on: (i) commercial TiO{sub 2} P25 (Degussa), (ii) TiO{sub 2} prepared by sol-gel methods and (iii) chemically and electronically modified TiO{sub 2}, such as binary and ternary coupled semiconductor systems, WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}, WO{sub 3}-{beta}-SiC, WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}-{beta}-SiC. The second innovation concerns the especially built bio-photo-catalytic device, made of a bacteria-supplying continuous system coupled to a photo-reactor. The survival ratio and physiological states of bacteria have been determined as a function of time on stream on the series of photo-catalysts given previously, by measurement of cellular ATP or by viability staining. Morphology of dead bacteria was also investigated by electronic microscopy. The evolution of the survival ratio of the bacteria with time on stream will be presented in details. The kinetic of photo-killing rate in function of UV intensity, of photo-catalyst content and on the 'bacteria flow rate and concentration' will be discussed in details. A possible mechanism of bactericidal effect through cell attack and destruction will be proposed. (authors)

  10. Prediction of air leakage and aerosol transport through concrete cracks with a fractal based crack morphology model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishnoi, L.R., E-mail: lrbishnoi@aerb.gov.in [Siting and Structural Engineering Division, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Vedula, R.P., E-mail: rpv@iitb.ac.in [Mechanical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • A fractal based numerical concrete crack morphology model is presented. • Computational studies conducted for airflow and aerosol transport through cracks. • Results are compared with experimental data and other empirical relations. • Comparative studies demonstrate model effectiveness and versatility of application. - Abstract: Cracks may appear in pressurized concrete containment of a nuclear power plant during a severe accident and provide leak paths for release of radioactive aerosols dispersed in the contained air. In this paper, a fractal based crack morphology model is presented for prediction of air leakage and aerosol transport through cracks in concrete. Airflow field generated in air leakage studies is used for aerosol transport studies with the Lagrangian discrete phase model using CFD code FLUENT. Computational studies conducted with the fractal based model are compared with the experimental data as well as the predictions from empirical relations available in open literature. The comparative studies demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed fractal based model and its versatility for practical applications.

  11. Easily regenerable solid adsorbents based on polyamines for carbon dioxide capture from the air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeppert, Alain; Zhang, Hang; Czaun, Miklos; May, Robert B; Prakash, G K Surya; Olah, George A; Narayanan, S R

    2014-05-01

    Adsorbents prepared easily by impregnation of fumed silica with polyethylenimine (PEI) are promising candidates for the capture of CO2 directly from the air. These inexpensive adsorbents have high CO2 adsorption capacity at ambient temperature and can be regenerated in repeated cycles under mild conditions. Despite the very low CO2 concentration, they are able to scrub efficiently all CO2 out of the air in the initial hours of the experiments. The influence of parameters such as PEI loading, adsorption and desorption temperature, particle size, and PEI molecular weight on the adsorption behavior were investigated. The mild regeneration temperatures required could allow the use of waste heat available in many industrial processes as well as solar heat. CO2 adsorption from the air has a number of applications. Removal of CO2 from a closed environment, such as a submarine or space vehicles, is essential for life support. The supply of CO2-free air is also critical for alkaline fuel cells and batteries. Direct air capture of CO2 could also help mitigate the rising concerns about atmospheric CO2 concentration and associated climatic changes, while, at the same time, provide the first step for an anthropogenic carbon cycle.

  12. Spatiotemporal variability of tetrachloroethylene in residential indoor air due to vapor intrusion: a longitudinal, community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jill E; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2014-11-01

    The migration of volatile contaminants from groundwater and soil into indoor air is a potential health threat at thousands of contaminated sites across the country. This phenomenon, known as vapor intrusion, is characterized by spatial and temporal heterogeneity. This study examined short-term fluctuations in concentrations of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in the indoor air of residential homes due to vapor intrusion in a community in San Antonio, Texas, that sits atop an extensive, shallow plume of contaminated groundwater. Using a community-based design, we removed potential indoor sources of PCE and then collected twelve 3-day passive indoor air samples in each of the 20 homes. Results demonstrated a one-order-of-magnitude variability in concentration across both space and time among the study homes, although all measured concentrations were below risk-based screening levels. We found that within any given home, indoor concentrations increase with the magnitude of the barometric pressure drop (P=0.048) and humidity (P<0.001), while concentrations decrease as wind speed increases (P<0.001) and also during winter (P=0.001). In a second analysis to examine sources of spatial variability, we found that indoor air PCE concentrations between homes increase with groundwater concentration (P=0.030) and a slab-on-grade (as compared with a crawl space) foundation (P=0.028), whereas concentrations decrease in homes without air conditioners (P=0.015). This study offers insights into the drivers of temporal and spatial variability in vapor intrusion that can inform decisions regarding monitoring and exposure assessment at affected sites.

  13. AQA-PM: Extension of the Air-Quality Model For Austria with Satellite based Particulate Matter Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirtl, Marcus; Mantovani, Simone; Krüger, Bernd C.; Triebnig, Gerhard; Flandorfer, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    Air quality is a key element for the well-being and quality of life of European citizens. Air pollution measurements and modeling tools are essential for assessment of air quality according to EU legislation. The responsibilities of ZAMG as the national weather service of Austria include the support of the federal states and the public in questions connected to the protection of the environment in the frame of advisory and counseling services as well as expert opinions. The Air Quality model for Austria (AQA) is operated at ZAMG in cooperation with the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences in Vienna (BOKU) by order of the regional governments since 2005. AQA conducts daily forecasts of gaseous and particulate (PM10) air pollutants over Austria. In the frame of the project AQA-PM (funded by FFG), satellite measurements of the Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) and ground-based PM10-measurements are combined to highly-resolved initial fields using regression- and assimilation techniques. For the model simulations WRF/Chem is used with a resolution of 3 km over the alpine region. Interfaces have been developed to account for the different measurements as input data. The available local emission inventories provided by the different Austrian regional governments were harmonized and used for the model simulations. An episode in February 2010 is chosen for the model evaluation. During that month exceedances of PM10-thresholds occurred at many measurement stations of the Austrian network. Different model runs (only model/only ground stations assimilated/satellite and ground stations assimilated) are compared to the respective measurements. The goal of this project is to improve the PM10-forecasts for Austria with the integration of satellite based measurements and to provide a comprehensive product-platform.

  14. Evaluation of an Ejector Ramjet Based Propulsion System for Air-Breathing Hypersonic Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Scott R.; Perkins, H. Douglas; Trefny, Charles J.

    1997-01-01

    A Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine system is designed to combine the high thrust to weight ratio of a rocket along with the high specific impulse of a ramjet in a single, integrated propulsion system. This integrated, combined cycle propulsion system is designed to provide higher vehicle performance than that achievable with a separate rocket and ramjet. The RBCC engine system studied in the current program is the Aerojet strutjet engine concept, which is being developed jointly by a government-industry team as part of the Air Force HyTech program pre-PRDA activity. The strutjet is an ejector-ramjet engine in which small rocket chambers are embedded into the trailing edges of the inlet compression struts. The engine operates as an ejector-ramjet from take-off to slightly above Mach 3. Above Mach 3 the engine operates as a ramjet and transitions to a scramjet at high Mach numbers. For space launch applications the rockets would be re-ignited at a Mach number or altitude beyond which air-breathing propulsion alone becomes impractical. The focus of the present study is to develop and demonstrate a strutjet flowpath using hydrocarbon fuel at up to Mach 7 conditions. Freejet tests of a candidate flowpath for this RBCC engine were conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center's Hypersonic Tunnel Facility between July and September 1996. This paper describes the engine flowpath and installation, outlines the primary objectives of the program, and describes the overall results of this activity. Through this program 15 full duration tests, including 13 fueled tests were made. The first major achievement was the further demonstration of the HTF capability. The facility operated at conditions up to 1950 K and 7.34 MPa, simulating approximately Mach 6.6 flight. The initial tests were unfueled and focused on verifying both facility and engine starting. During these runs additional aerodynamic appliances were incorporated onto the facility diffuser to enhance starting

  15. Cloud parcel modelling of CCN activation in megacity air based on observations from Beijing and Guangzhou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, H.; Reutter, P.; Trentmann, J.; Rose, D.; Gunthe, S.; Simmel, M.; Nowak, A.; Wiedensohler, A.; Zhu, T.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-04-01

    The other team members are P. Achtert (3), M. Hu (4), M. Shao (4), and Y.H. Zhang (4). The activation of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) determines the initial number of cloud droplets, and thus influences the evolution of the cloud and formation of precipitation. Characterizing the CCN activation process by parcel model studies with detailed cloud microphysics and dynamics provides useful information for parameterizing the activation process in meso-scale and global-scale models. During the CAREBEIJING 2006 campaign in Beijing and the PRIDE-PRD2006 campaign in Guangzhou, fast condensational growth of particles was frequently observed and the CCN size distribution was sometimes dominated by the growing nucleation mode (Aitken Mode) rather than by the accumulation mode. In this study we investigated the implications of the experimental findings using a cloud parcel model with detailed spectral cloud microphysics and with the ΰ-Köhler model approach for efficient and realistic description of the effective hygroscopicity and CCN activity of aerosol particles. The number of droplets formed at the cloud base was examined for a wide range of updraft velocities and aerosol particle number concentrations. Moreover, the impact of aerosol hygroscopicity, size distribution and giant CCN were also evaluated. References: Reutter, P., Trentmann, J., Su, H., Simmel M., Rose, D., Wernli, H., Andreae, M. O., and Pöschl, U.: Activation of aerosol particles as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) under smoky and pyro-convective conditions, manuscript in preparation, 2009 Rose, D., Gunthe, S. S., Mikhailov, E., Frank, G. P., Dusek, U., Andreae, M. O., and Pöschl, U.: Calibration and measurement uncertainties of a continuous-flow cloud condensation nuclei counter (DMT-CCNC): CCN activation of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol particles in theory and experiment, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 1153-1179, 2008. Rose, D., Nowak, A., Achtert, P., Wiedensohler, A., Hu, M., Shao, M

  16. Waste site characterization through digital analysis of historical aerial photographs at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Eglin Air Force Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Eeckhout, E.; Pope, P.; Wells, B.; Rofer, C.; Martin, B.

    1995-05-01

    Historical aerial photographs are used to provide a physical history and preliminary mapping information for characterizing hazardous waste sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Eglin Air Force Base. The examples cited show how imagery was used to accurately locate and identify previous activities at a site, monitor changes that occurred over time, and document the observable of such activities today. The methodology demonstrates how historical imagery (along with any other pertinent data) can be used in the characterization of past environmental damage.

  17. Final Environmental Assessment: For Immediate Storm Surge Protection for Santa Rosa Island Facilities, Eglin Air Force Base, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    allowable atmospheric concentration that may occur and still protect public health and welfare with a reasonable margin of safety. The NAAQS...federal agencies to make every effort to reduce the risk of flood loss, minimize the impact of floods on human health, safety, and welfare , and preserve...Protection for Santa Rosa Island Facilities, Eglin Air Force Base, FL Davis et al., 2000 Davis, R. W., W. E. Evans, B. Würsig (eds), 2000. Cetaceans

  18. Effects-Based Operations: Air Power as the Sole Military Instrument of Power, Has it Matured Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    BACKGROUND He who controls the past, controls the future; and he who controls the present, controls the past. — George Orwell In order to enhance the...50. 77 Ibid., p. 51. 78 George W. Bush (address to Congress, Washington, DC, 20 September 2001). Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news...bence.html (accessed 31 MAR 2006). Berg, Paul D. “Effects-Based Airpower and Space Power.” Air and Space Power Journal, Spring 2006: 17. Bush, George

  19. A genetic algorithm based stochastic programming model for air quality management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a model that can aid planners in defining the total allowable pollutant discharge in the planning region,accounting for the dynamic and stochastic character of meteorological conditions.This is accomplished by integrating Monte Carlo simulation and using genetic algorithm to solve the model.The model is demonstrated by using a realistic air urban-scale SO2 control problem in the Yuxi City of China.To evaluate effectiveness of the model,results of the approach are shown to compare with those of the linear deterministic procedures.This paper also provides a valuable insight into how air quality targets should be made when the air pollutant will not threat the residents'health.Finally,a discussion of the areas for further research are briefly delineated.

  20. Microcavity-based cascaded Raman microlaser in air and in buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistiakova, Maria V.; Armani, Andrea M.

    2013-03-01

    Due to the non-linear effects in whispering gallery mode microresonators, low threshold microlaser development is possible. The lasing threshold is significantly lowered as high circulating optical intensities build up within the resonator, resulting from long photon lifetimes attributed to the ultra-high quality factor. With such characteristics in place, microresonators can operate as lasers even in complex media. We show cascaded Raman microlaser behavior in an undoped silica microsphere in air and HEPES buffer environments. The first emission peak is at around 800nm with a pump source of around 771nm. The lowest obtained threshold of the first emission line is 105μW in air and a higher threshold power of 760μW is required in buffer. Cascaded behavior of up to ten lasing peaks has been observed in air and up to two peaks were seen in buffer.

  1. Local and regional interactions between air quality and climate in New Delhi- A sector based analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrapu, Pallavi

    Deteriorating air quality is one of the major problems faced worldwide and in particular in Asia. The world's most polluted megacities are located in Asia highlighting the urgent need for efforts to improve the air quality. New Delhi (India), one of the world's most polluted cities, was the host of the Common Wealth Games during the period of 4-14 October 2010. This high profile event provided a good opportunity to accelerate efforts to improve air quality. Computational advances now allow air quality forecast models to fully couple the meteorology with chemical constituents within a unified modeling system that allows two-way interactions. The WRF-Chem model is used to simulate air quality in New Delhi. The thesis focuses on evaluating air quality and meteorology feedbacks. Four nested domains ranging from South Asia, Northern India, NCR Delhi and Delhi city at 45km, 15km, 5km and 1.67km resolution for a period of 20 day (26th Sep--15th Oct, 2010) are used in the study. The predicted mean surface concentrations of various pollutants show similar spatial distributions with peak values in the middle of the domain reflecting the traffic and population patterns in the city. Along with these activities, construction dust and industrial emissions contribute to high levels of criteria pollutants. The study evaluates the WRF-Chem capabilities using a new emission inventory developed over Delhi at a fine resolution of 1.67km and evaluating the results with observational data from 11 monitoring sties placed at various Game venues. The contribution of emission sectors including transportation, power, industry, and domestic to pollutant concentrations at targeted regions are studied and the results show that transportation and domestic sector are the major contributors to the pollution levels in Delhi, followed by industry. Apart from these sectors, emissions outside of Delhi contribute 20-50% to surface concentrations depending on the species. This indicates that pollution

  2. Soil-based filtration technology for air purification: potentials for environmental and space life support application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Bohn, Hinrich

    Soil biofiltration, also known as Soil bed reactor (SBR), technology was originally developed in Germany to take advantage of the diversity in microbial mechanisms to control gases producing malodor in industrial processes. The approach has since gained wider international acceptance and seen numerous improvements, for example, by the use of high-organic compost beds to maximize microbial processes. This paper reviews the basic mechanisms which underlay soil processes involved in air purification, advantages and limitations of the technology and the cur-rent research status of the approach. Soil biofiltration has lower capital and operating/energetic costs than conventional technologies and is well adapted to handle contaminants in moderate concentrations. The systems can be engineered to optimize efficiency though manipulation of temperature, pH, moisture content, soil organic matter and airflow rates. SBR technology was modified for application in the Biosphere 2 project, which demonstrated in preparatory research with a number of closed system testbeds that soil could also support crop plants while also serving as soil filters with air pumps to push air through the soil. This Biosphere 2 research demonstrated in several closed system testbeds that a number of important trace gases could be kept under control and led to the engineering of the entire agricultural soil of Biosphere 2 to serve as a soil filtration unit for the facility. Soil biofiltration, coupled with food crop produc-tion, as a component of bioregenerative space life support systems has the advantages of lower energy use and avoidance of the consumables required for other air purification approaches. Expanding use of soil biofiltration can aid a number of environmental applications, from the mitigation of indoor air pollution, improvement of industrial air emissions and prevention of accidental release of toxic gases.

  3. Global consistency check of AIRS and IASI total CO2 column concentrations using WDCGG ground-based measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Anyuan; Shu, Jiong; Song, Ci; Gao, Wei

    2017-03-01

    This article describes a global consistency check of CO2 satellite retrieval products from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) using statistical analysis and data from the World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases (WDCGG). We use the correlation coefficient (r), relative difference (RD), root mean square errors (RMSE), and mean bias error (MBE) as evaluation indicators for this study. Statistical results show that a linear positive correlation between AIRS/IASI and WDCGG data occurs for most regions around the world. Temporal and spatial variations of these statistical quantities reflect obvious differences between satellite-derived and ground-based data based on geographic position, especially for stations near areas of intense human activities in the Northern Hemisphere. It is noteworthy that there appears to be a very weak correlation between AIRS/IASI data and ten groundbased observation stations in Europe, Asia, and North America. These results indicate that retrieval products from the two satellite-based instruments studied should be used with great caution.

  4. Environmental Impact Statement. Disposal and Reuse of Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Boom Impact Technology, Human Systems Division, Air Force Systems Command, Brooks Air Force B&se, Texas 78235-5000. Frerichs, R.R., B.L. Beeman , and A.H...regarding the People is niehigee. bes-t "it acot. fTm truly. ty o -~~ c - ~ tm~w; "isgl matte ass Donald W. niews*. Jr.. Jam" Muscle. Cart Lewis. lPreeldeet...Honorable Donald Riegle U.S. House of Representatives The Honorable James Barcia The Honorable Joseph Knollenberg State of Michigan Officials Governor

  5. Location Problem of Air Materials Supply Center for Air Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 何亚群; 陶学禹

    2002-01-01

    Based on the analysis of three influencing factors on the air material supply center location, the location model of air material supply center was established. By solving the model, the rational supply center of air materials was also determined.

  6. Evaluating the effect of human activity patterns on air pollution exposure using an integrated field-based and agent-based modelling framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Oliver; Beelen, Rob M. J.; de Bakker, Merijn P.; Karssenberg, Derek

    2015-04-01

    Constructing spatio-temporal numerical models to support risk assessment, such as assessing the exposure of humans to air pollution, often requires the integration of field-based and agent-based modelling approaches. Continuous environmental variables such as air pollution are best represented using the field-based approach which considers phenomena as continuous fields having attribute values at all locations. When calculating human exposure to such pollutants it is, however, preferable to consider the population as a set of individuals each with a particular activity pattern. This would allow to account for the spatio-temporal variation in a pollutant along the space-time paths travelled by individuals, determined, for example, by home and work locations, road network, and travel times. Modelling this activity pattern requires an agent-based or individual based modelling approach. In general, field- and agent-based models are constructed with the help of separate software tools, while both approaches should play together in an interacting way and preferably should be combined into one modelling framework, which would allow for efficient and effective implementation of models by domain specialists. To overcome this lack in integrated modelling frameworks, we aim at the development of concepts and software for an integrated field-based and agent-based modelling framework. Concepts merging field- and agent-based modelling were implemented by extending PCRaster (http://www.pcraster.eu), a field-based modelling library implemented in C++, with components for 1) representation of discrete, mobile, agents, 2) spatial networks and algorithms by integrating the NetworkX library (http://networkx.github.io), allowing therefore to calculate e.g. shortest routes or total transport costs between locations, and 3) functions for field-network interactions, allowing to assign field-based attribute values to networks (i.e. as edge weights), such as aggregated or averaged

  7. Outbreak of acute gastroenteritis in an air force base in Western Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolokotronis Theodoros

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On the 20th September 2005, soldiers and staff at the Air Force base in Western Greece experienced an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis. The purpose of this study was to identify the agent and the source of the outbreak in order to develop control measures and to avoid similar outbreaks in the future. Methods A case-control analytical approach was employed with 100 randomly selected cases and 66 controls. Patients completed standardized questionnaires, odds ratios were calculated and statistical significance was determined using χ2 test. In addition, to identify the source of the infection, we performed bacteriological examination of food samples (included raw beef, cooked minced meat, grated cheese and grated cheese in sealed package collected from the cuisine of the military unit. Results More than 600 out of the 1,050 individuals who ate lunch that day, became ill. The overall attack rate, as the military doctor of the unit estimated it, was at least 60%. The overall odds ratio of gastroenteritis among those who had lunch was 370 (95% CI: 48–7700 as compared to those who didn't eat lunch. Among the symptoms the most prominent were watery diarrhoea (96% and abdominal pain (73%. The mean incubation period was 9 h and the median duration of the symptoms was 21 h. In the bacteriological examination, Staphylococcus aureus was detected in a sample of raw beef (2,000 cfu per g and in two samples of grated cheese; leftover cheese from lunch (7,800 cfu per g and an unopened package purchased from the market (3,000 cfu per g. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that the aetiological agent of this outbreak was S. aureus. The food vehicle was the grated cheese, which was mixed with the beef and served for lunch in the military unit. This outbreak highlights the capacity of enterotoxin-producing bacteria to cause short term, moderately-severe illness in a young and healthy population. It underscores the need for proper

  8. Air pollution and survival within the Washington University-EPRI veterans cohort: risks based on modeled estimates of ambient levels of hazardous and criteria air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipfert, Frederick W; Wyzga, Ronald E; Baty, Jack D; Miller, J Philip

    2009-04-01

    For this paper, we considered relationships between mortality, vehicular traffic density, and ambient levels of 12 hazardous air pollutants, elemental carbon (EC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and sulfate (SO4(2-)). These pollutant species were selected as markers for specific types of emission sources, including vehicular traffic, coal combustion, smelters, and metal-working industries. Pollutant exposures were estimated using emissions inventories and atmospheric dispersion models. We analyzed associations between county ambient levels of these pollutants and survival patterns among approximately 70,000 U.S. male veterans by mortality period (1976-2001 and subsets), type of exposure model, and traffic density level. We found significant associations between all-cause mortality and traffic-related air quality indicators and with traffic density per se, with stronger associations for benzene, formaldehyde, diesel particulate, NOx, and EC. The maximum effect on mortality for all cohort subjects during the 26-yr follow-up period is approximately 10%, but most of the pollution-related deaths in this cohort occurred in the higher-traffic counties, where excess risks approach 20%. However, mortality associations with diesel particulates are similar in high- and low-traffic counties. Sensitivity analyses show risks decreasing slightly over time and minor differences between linear and logarithmic exposure models. Two-pollutant models show stronger risks associated with specific traffic-related pollutants than with traffic density per se, although traffic density retains statistical significance in most cases. We conclude that tailpipe emissions of both gases and particles are among the most significant and robust predictors of mortality in this cohort and that most of those associations have weakened over time. However, we have not evaluated possible contributions from road dust or traffic noise. Stratification by traffic density level suggests the

  9. Abbreviated Environmental Assessment for the Northwest Infrastructure, Phase II Spangdahlem Air Base, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    iM---/nclucll!np ........... - .J (+•~.t/td; O•no~ ·•1111111-olltct; U• unkno..,-) + 0 . u 7. AIR INSTAU.ATION ~ PI \\ TliiLE USE ZONEAANO USE...petraea Traubeneiche Ses.~i le Oak rubus idaeus Himbeere Red Raspberry salix fragilis Bruchweidc Crack Willow sam bucus nigra Schwarz.~r Holw1der

  10. Advanced zinc-air batteries based on high-performance hybrid electrocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanguang; Gong, Ming; Liang, Yongye; Feng, Ju; Kim, Ji-Eun; Wang, Hailiang; Hong, Guosong; Zhang, Bo; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-01-01

    Primary and rechargeable Zn-air batteries could be ideal energy storage devices with high energy and power density, high safety and economic viability. Active and durable electrocatalysts on the cathode side are required to catalyse oxygen reduction reaction during discharge and oxygen evolution reaction during charge for rechargeable batteries. Here we developed advanced primary and rechargeable Zn-air batteries with novel CoO/carbon nanotube hybrid oxygen reduction catalyst and Ni-Fe-layered double hydroxide oxygen evolution catalyst for the cathode. These catalysts exhibited higher catalytic activity and durability in concentrated alkaline electrolytes than precious metal Pt and Ir catalysts. The resulting primary Zn-air battery showed high discharge peak power density ~265 mW cm(-2), current density ~200 mA cm(-2) at 1 V and energy density >700 Wh kg(-1). Rechargeable Zn-air batteries in a tri-electrode configuration exhibited an unprecedented small charge-discharge voltage polarization of ~0.70 V at 20 mA cm(-2), high reversibility and stability over long charge and discharge cycles.

  11. Environmental Impact Statement. Disposal and Reuse of Mather Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    phosphate , and pitchblende. Radon in the outside air is diluted to insignificant concentrations. Radon present in surrounding soil may enter a building...recreation and naturel habitat. The Proposed 04 poie ontexetofcnaisonndherkfcos Action, aso do all alternatives to the Proposal except no action, associated

  12. Central Heat and Power Plant Coal Dust and Silica Risk Management, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-11

    autoimmune diseases and in death from other nonmalignant respiratory diseases , including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease . There are some... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica; Proposed Rule. This consultative letter is in...strategies, occupational and environmental exposure limits, and air sampling methods as they apply to CHPP operations. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Silica

  13. Experience-Based Mitigation of Age-Related Performance Declines: Evidence from Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Ashley; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has found age-related deficits in a variety of cognitive processes. However, some studies have demonstrated age-related sparing on tasks where individuals have substantial experience, often attained over many decades. Here, the authors examined whether decades of experience in a fast-paced demanding profession, air traffic…

  14. Chinese Attacks on Air Bases in Asia: An Assessment of Relative Capabilities, 1996-2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    RAND Project AIR FORCE documented in The U.S.-China Military Scorecard : Forces, Geography, and the Evolving Balance of Power, 1996–2017, by Eric...the U.S.-China Military Scorecard : Relative Capabilities and the Balance of Power, 1996–2017, RB-9858/1-AF (available at www.rand.org/t/RB9858z1) U.S

  15. Simulation of Population-Based Commuter Exposure to NO2 Using Different Air Pollution Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina S. Ragettli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We simulated commuter routes and long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution during commute in a representative population sample in Basel (Switzerland, and evaluated three air pollution models with different spatial resolution for estimating commute exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO2 as a marker of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Our approach includes spatially and temporally resolved data on actual commuter routes, travel modes and three air pollution models. Annual mean NO2 commuter exposures were similar between models. However, we found more within-city and within-subject variability in annual mean (±SD NO2 commuter exposure with a high resolution dispersion model (40 ± 7 µg m−3, range: 21–61 than with a dispersion model with a lower resolution (39 ± 5 µg m−3; range: 24–51, and a land use regression model (41 ± 5 µg m−3; range: 24–54. Highest median cumulative exposures were calculated along motorized transport and bicycle routes, and the lowest for walking. For estimating commuter exposure within a city and being interested also in small-scale variability between roads, a model with a high resolution is recommended. For larger scale epidemiological health assessment studies, models with a coarser spatial resolution are likely sufficient, especially when study areas include suburban and rural areas.

  16. Enhanced, multi criteria based site selection to measure mobile source toxic air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research studies being conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in collaboration with the U.S. Federal Highway Administration are designed to establish relationships between concentrations of highway vehicle air pollutants and variations in these concentrations as a ...

  17. Environmental Assessment: Proposed Deactivation and Closure of Federal Prison Camp Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    shark . Other faunal remains represented in the Deptford middens include white-tail deer, gray squirrel, rabbit, opossum, rodents, striped skunk...chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and mercury . According to the U.S. Air Force, radon is not considered a concern in this area, and no testing has ever

  18. Final Environmental Assessment Prescribed Burning for Weed Management on F. E. Warren Air Force Base, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    TO Coord ~~A-LL Z:> 90 MW/ ’/6 ~r Zf/IZ- 6 ccs ~ Coord Coord Coord Coord SURNAME OF ACTION OFFICER AND GRADE ?𔄁 I S~BOL PHONE Beckwith, GS ...Manager Chief, Environmental Restoration F. E. Warren AFB F. E. Warren AFB Kirk Schaumann Ernest Cisneros Air Quality Manager Grounds Maintenance

  19. Exposure-response functions for health effects of air pollutants based on epidemiological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aunan, K.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of this report is to provide exposure-response functions for health effects and air pollution, which can be used in cost-effectiveness analyses of abatement measures. When cost-effective abatement strategies for air pollution are analyzed, and when air quality standards are set, it is important to have quantitative knowledge about health damage. In spite of their shortcomings, epidemiological studies provide a sound basis for exposure-response functions because they involve a random cross section of the population. In this report the exposure-response functions apply to the relation between air pollutant concentrations and relative effect frequencies, and involve the following health effect end-points: acute and chronic respiratory symptoms in children and adults, asthma episodes in children and adults, eye irritations, headache, lung damage in children, excess mortality, lung cancer incidence. The effects are attributed to one indicator component, which in many cases is particles, but for some effects NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, or CO. A calculation procedure is suggested which makes it possible to estimate excess annual symptom-days for short-term effects using the annual average concentration. 103 refs., 1 table

  20. Leak-Based Method for the Measurement of Air Permeability of Papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colard Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The air permeability of cigarette paper is currently assessed according to the international standard ISO 2965 by applying a constant pressure difference of 1 kPa between the two faces of a sample and by measuring the corresponding airflow.

  1. Acid-base regulation in intensively farmed air-breathing fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayley, Mark; Damsgaard, Christian; Thomsen, Mikkel;

    Hypercapnia in slow moving organically loaded tropical waters is a natural occurrence with several records of pCO2 at 60 mm Hg. Despite this, studies on South American air-breathing fish have revealed a low capacity for extracellular pH (pHe) regulation. The two underlying reasons proposed are; 1...

  2. A monitoring device for pressurised-air-driven diaphragm-based artificial heart assist devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeben, F.P.; Mul, de F.F.M.; Stokkink, H.S.D.; Koelink, M.H.; Greve, J.

    1992-01-01

    A non-invasive device has been developed to monitor the diaphragm position and the blood flow in artificial heart assist devices equipped with a pressurised-air-driven diaphragm. Light scattering from the diaphragm is used as a mechanism for measuring. Information about the position of several point

  3. Modelling of human exposure to air pollution in the urban environment: a GPS-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Daniela; Tchepel, Oxana

    2014-03-01

    The main objective of this work was the development of a new modelling tool for quantification of human exposure to traffic-related air pollution within distinct microenvironments by using a novel approach for trajectory analysis of the individuals. For this purpose, mobile phones with Global Positioning System technology have been used to collect daily trajectories of the individuals with higher temporal resolution and a trajectory data mining, and geo-spatial analysis algorithm was developed and implemented within a Geographical Information System to obtain time-activity patterns. These data were combined with air pollutant concentrations estimated for several microenvironments. In addition to outdoor, pollutant concentrations in distinct indoor microenvironments are characterised using a probabilistic approach. An example of the application for PM2.5 is presented and discussed. The results obtained for daily average individual exposure correspond to a mean value of 10.6 and 6.0-16.4 μg m(-3) in terms of 5th-95th percentiles. Analysis of the results shows that the use of point air quality measurements for exposure assessment will not explain the intra- and inter-variability of individuals' exposure levels. The methodology developed and implemented in this work provides time-sequence of the exposure events thus making possible association of the exposure with the individual activities and delivers main statistics on individual's air pollution exposure with high spatio-temporal resolution.

  4. AFSOC Assets Beddown at Cannon Air Force Base, New Mexico Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    the Notice of Availability (NOA) for this Draft EIS was filed in the Federal Register. Public hearings provided direct feedback to the Air Force...have no objection to signing them first. In addition, I have corrected th¢ ana~~ Elcctrollic Funds Transfer ( Efl ) Information sheet so that it includes

  5. Indoor particles affect vascular function in the aged - An air filtration-based intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauner, E.V.; Forchhammer, L.; Moller, P.;

    2008-01-01

    -filtered or nonfiltered air (2,533-4,058 and 7,718-12,988 particles/cm(3), respectively) in their homes. Measurements and Main Results: MVF was assessed noninvasively by measuring digital peripheral artery tone after arm ischemia. Secondary endpoints included hemoglobin, red blood cells, platelet count, coagulation...... of cardiovascular disease....

  6. 75 FR 68251 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; 2002 Base Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... Engines provisions) (Chapter 145, Sections 111-113). NO X SIP Call (Portland Cement Kiln provisions... sources, including small sources of NO X , cement kilns, and large stationary combustion engines; and...'s Control Technique Guidelines, the State and Territorial Air Pollution Program...

  7. Contributing recharge areas to water-supply wells at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, in southwestern Ohio, has operated three well fields--Area B, Skeel Road, and the East Well Fields--to supply potable water for consumption and use for base activities. To protect these well fields from contamination and to comply with the Ohio Wellhead Protection Plan, the Base is developing a wellhead-protection program for the well fields. A three-dimensional, steady-state ground-water-flow model was developed in 1993 to simulate heads in (1) the buried-valley aquifer system that is tapped by the two active well fields, and in (2) an upland bedrock aquifer that may supply water to the wells. An advective particle-tracking algorithm that requires estimated porosities and simulated heads was used to estimate ground-water-flow pathlines and traveltimes to the active well fields. Contributing recharge areas (CRA's)--areas on the water table that contribute water to a well or well field--were generated for 1-, 5-, and 10-year traveltimes. Results from the simulation and subsequent particle tracking indicate that the CRA's for the Skeel Road Well Fields are oval and extend north- ward, toward the Mad River, as pumping at the well field increases. The sizes of the 1-, 5-, and 10-year CRA's of Skeel Road Well Field, under maximum pumping conditions, are approximately 0.5, 1.5 and 3.2 square miles, respectively. The CRA's for the Area B Well Field extend to the north, up the Mad River Valley; as pumping increases at the well field, the CRA's extend up the Mad River Valley under Huffman Dam. The sizes of the 1-, 5-, and 10-year CRA's of Area B Well Field, under maximum pumping conditions, are approximately 0.1, 0.5, and 0.9 square miles, respectively. The CRA's for the East Well Field are affected by nearby streams under average pumping conditions. The sizes of the 1-, 5-, and 10-year CRA's of the East Well Field, under maximum pumping conditions, are approximately 0.2, 1.2, and 2.4 square miles, respectively. However, as pumping increases

  8. In-car particles and cardiovascular health: an air conditioning-based intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Lin, Lian-Yu; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Ma, Chih-Ming; Chuang, Kai-Jen

    2013-05-01

    Exposure to traffic-related particulate matter (PM) is considered a potential risk for cardiovascular events. Little is known about whether improving air quality in car can modify cardiovascular effects among human subjects during commuting. We recruited a panel of 60 healthy subjects to commute for 2 h by a car equipped with an air conditioning (AC) system during the morning rush hour in Taipei. Operation modes of AC system using outside air (OA-mode), circulating inside air (IA-mode) and turning off (Off-mode) were examined. Repeated measurements of heart rate variability (HRV) indices, PM≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and noise level were conducted for each participant in different modes during the commute. We used linear mixed-effects models to associate HRV indices with in-car PM2.5. We found that decreases in HRV indices were associated with increased levels of in-car PM2.5. For Off-mode, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in in-car PM2.5 with 15-min moving average was associated with 2.7% and 4.1% decreases in standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN) and the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals (r-MSSD), respectively. During OA and IA modes, participants showed slight decreases in SDNN (OA mode: 0.1%; IA mode: 1.3%) and r-MSSD (OA mode: 1.1%; IA mode: 1.8%) by an IQR increase in in-car PM2.5 with 15-min moving average. We concluded that in-car PM2.5 is associated with autonomic alteration. Utilization of the car's AC system can improve air quality and modify the effects of in-car PM2.5 on HRV indices among human subjects during the commute.

  9. Installation Restoration Program Phase II - Confirmation/Quantification. Stage 1. Davis-Monthan Air Force Base, Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-18

    and is presently a Tactical Air Command base. The base is situated in the Tucson basin, a basin, bordered by the Santa Catalina, Rincon , Santa Rita...the Santa Catalina, Rincon , Santa Rita, Tucson, Sierrita, Tortolita, and Empire Mountains and Black Mountain. The Tucson basin typifies the...I. W em em "m O’ _ _ , - It F. LUi FA 0 -.A y Il r - iti we -4 -0 I-, I-,.- *, , I o so 0 ’ 0 ___ - mI I Ili IsIT ’"." U " U , U - -= , , - - - -e

  10. An empirically grounded agent based model for modeling directs, conflict detection and resolution operations in Air Traffic Management

    CERN Document Server

    Bongiorno, C; Mantegna, Rosario N

    2016-01-01

    We present an agent based model of the Air Traffic Management socio-technical complex system that aims at modeling the interactions between aircrafts and air traffic controllers at a tactical level. The core of the model is given by the conflict detection and resolution module and by the directs module. Directs are flight shortcuts that are given by air controllers to speed up the passage of an aircraft within a certain airspace and therefore to facilitate airline operations. Conflicts resolution between flight trajectories can arise during the en-route phase of each flight due to both not detailed flight trajectory planning or unforeseen events that perturb the planned flight plan. Our model performs a local conflict detection and resolution procedure. Once a flight trajectory has been made conflict-free, the model searches for possible improvements of the system efficiency by issuing directs. We give an example of model calibration based on real data. We then provide an illustration of the capability of our...

  11. Improving snow process modeling with satellite-based estimation of near-surface-air-temperature lapse rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Sun, Litao; Shrestha, Maheswor; Li, Xiuping; Liu, Wenbin; Zhou, Jing; Yang, Kun; Lu, Hui; Chen, Deliang

    2016-10-01

    In distributed hydrological modeling, surface air temperature (Tair) is of great importance in simulating cold region processes, while the near-surface-air-temperature lapse rate (NLR) is crucial to prepare Tair (when interpolating Tair from site observations to model grids). In this study, a distributed biosphere hydrological model with improved snow physics (WEB-DHM-S) was rigorously evaluated in a typical cold, large river basin (e.g., the upper Yellow River basin), given a mean monthly NLRs. Based on the validated model, we have examined the influence of the NLR on the simulated snow processes and streamflows. We found that the NLR has a large effect on the simulated streamflows, with a maximum difference of greater than 24% among the various scenarios for NLRs considered. To supplement the insufficient number of monitoring sites for near-surface-air-temperature at developing/undeveloped mountain regions, the nighttime Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer land surface temperature is used as an alternative to derive the approximate NLR at a finer spatial scale (e.g., at different elevation bands, different land covers, different aspects, and different snow conditions). Using satellite-based estimation of NLR, the modeling of snow processes has been greatly refined. Results show that both the determination of rainfall/snowfall and the snowpack process were significantly improved, contributing to a reduced summer evapotranspiration and thus an improved streamflow simulation.

  12. Results from prototypes of environmental and health alarm devices based on gaseous detectors operating in air in counting mode

    CERN Document Server

    Martinengo, P; Peskov, V; Benaben, P; Charpak, G; Breuil, P

    2011-01-01

    We have developed and successfully tested two prototypes of detectors of dangerous gases based on wire-type counters operating in air in avalanche mode: one is for radon (Rn) detection whereas the other one is for the detection of gases with an ionization potential less than the air components. Due to the operation in pulse counting mode these prototypes have sensitivities comparable to (in the case of the Rn detector) or much higher than (in the case of the detector for low ionization gases) the best commercial devices currently available on the market. We believe that due to their high sensitivity, simplicity and low cost such new detectors will find massive applications. One of them, discussed in this paper, could be the on-line monitoring of Rn for the prediction of earthquakes. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling natural emissions in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ Model–I: building an emissions data base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. Mueller

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A natural emissions inventory for the continental United States and surrounding territories is needed in order to use the US Environmental Protection Agency Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ Model for simulating natural air quality. The CMAQ air modeling system (including the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE emissions processing system currently estimates non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC emissions from biogenic sources, nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions from soils, ammonia from animals, several types of particulate and reactive gas emissions from fires, as well as sea salt emissions. However, there are several emission categories that are not commonly treated by the standard CMAQ Model system. Most notable among these are nitrogen oxide emissions from lightning, reduced sulfur emissions from oceans, geothermal features and other continental sources, windblown dust particulate, and reactive chlorine gas emissions linked with sea salt chloride. A review of past emissions modeling work and existing global emissions data bases provides information and data necessary for preparing a more complete natural emissions data base for CMAQ applications. A model-ready natural emissions data base is developed to complement the anthropogenic emissions inventory used by the VISTAS Regional Planning Organization in its work analyzing regional haze based on the year 2002. This new data base covers a modeling domain that includes the continental United States plus large portions of Canada, Mexico and surrounding oceans. Comparing July 2002 source data reveals that natural emissions account for 16% of total gaseous sulfur (sulfur dioxide, dimethylsulfide and hydrogen sulfide, 44% of total NOx, 80% of reactive carbonaceous gases (NMVOCs and carbon monoxide, 28% of ammonia, 96% of total chlorine (hydrochloric acid, nitryl chloride and sea salt chloride, and 84% of fine particles (i.e., those smaller than 2.5 μm in size released into the

  14. Modeling natural emissions in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model – Part 1: Building an emissions data base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A natural emissions inventory for the continental United States and surrounding territories is needed in order to use the US Environmental Protection Agency Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ Model for simulating natural air quality. The CMAQ air modeling system (including the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE emissions processing system currently estimates volatile organic compound (VOC emissions from biogenic sources, nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions from soils, ammonia from animals, several types of particulate and reactive gas emissions from fires, as well as windblown dust and sea salt emissions. However, there are several emission categories that are not commonly treated by the standard CMAQ Model system. Most notable among these are nitrogen oxide emissions from lightning, reduced sulfur emissions from oceans, geothermal features and other continental sources, and reactive chlorine gas emissions linked with sea salt chloride. A review of past emissions modeling work and existing global emissions data bases provides information and data necessary for preparing a more complete natural emissions data base for CMAQ applications. A model-ready natural emissions data base is developed to complement the anthropogenic emissions inventory used by the VISTAS Regional Planning Organization in its work analyzing regional haze based on the year 2002. This new data base covers a modeling domain that includes the continental United States plus large portions of Canada, Mexico and surrounding oceans. Comparing July 2002 source data reveals that natural emissions account for 16% of total gaseous sulfur (sulfur dioxide, dimethylsulfide and hydrogen sulfide, 44% of total NOx, 80% of reactive carbonaceous gases (VOCs and carbon monoxide, 28% of ammonia, 96% of total chlorine (hydrochloric acid, nitryl chloride and sea salt chloride, and 84% of fine particles (i.e., those smaller than 2.5 μm in size released into the

  15. Modeling natural emissions in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model-I: building an emissions data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. N.; Mueller, S. F.

    2010-05-01

    A natural emissions inventory for the continental United States and surrounding territories is needed in order to use the US Environmental Protection Agency Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model for simulating natural air quality. The CMAQ air modeling system (including the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) emissions processing system) currently estimates non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emissions from biogenic sources, nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from soils, ammonia from animals, several types of particulate and reactive gas emissions from fires, as well as sea salt emissions. However, there are several emission categories that are not commonly treated by the standard CMAQ Model system. Most notable among these are nitrogen oxide emissions from lightning, reduced sulfur emissions from oceans, geothermal features and other continental sources, windblown dust particulate, and reactive chlorine gas emissions linked with sea salt chloride. A review of past emissions modeling work and existing global emissions data bases provides information and data necessary for preparing a more complete natural emissions data base for CMAQ applications. A model-ready natural emissions data base is developed to complement the anthropogenic emissions inventory used by the VISTAS Regional Planning Organization in its work analyzing regional haze based on the year 2002. This new data base covers a modeling domain that includes the continental United States plus large portions of Canada, Mexico and surrounding oceans. Comparing July 2002 source data reveals that natural emissions account for 16% of total gaseous sulfur (sulfur dioxide, dimethylsulfide and hydrogen sulfide), 44% of total NOx, 80% of reactive carbonaceous gases (NMVOCs and carbon monoxide), 28% of ammonia, 96% of total chlorine (hydrochloric acid, nitryl chloride and sea salt chloride), and 84% of fine particles (i.e., those smaller than 2.5 μm in size) released into the atmosphere

  16. Modeling natural emissions in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model - Part 1: Building an emissions data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. N.; Mueller, S. F.

    2010-01-01

    A natural emissions inventory for the continental United States and surrounding territories is needed in order to use the US Environmental Protection Agency Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model for simulating natural air quality. The CMAQ air modeling system (including the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) emissions processing system) currently estimates volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from biogenic sources, nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from soils, ammonia from animals, several types of particulate and reactive gas emissions from fires, as well as windblown dust and sea salt emissions. However, there are several emission categories that are not commonly treated by the standard CMAQ Model system. Most notable among these are nitrogen oxide emissions from lightning, reduced sulfur emissions from oceans, geothermal features and other continental sources, and reactive chlorine gas emissions linked with sea salt chloride. A review of past emissions modeling work and existing global emissions data bases provides information and data necessary for preparing a more complete natural emissions data base for CMAQ applications. A model-ready natural emissions data base is developed to complement the anthropogenic emissions inventory used by the VISTAS Regional Planning Organization in its work analyzing regional haze based on the year 2002. This new data base covers a modeling domain that includes the continental United States plus large portions of Canada, Mexico and surrounding oceans. Comparing July 2002 source data reveals that natural emissions account for 16% of total gaseous sulfur (sulfur dioxide, dimethylsulfide and hydrogen sulfide), 44% of total NOx, 80% of reactive carbonaceous gases (VOCs and carbon monoxide), 28% of ammonia, 96% of total chlorine (hydrochloric acid, nitryl chloride and sea salt chloride), and 84% of fine particles (i.e., those smaller than 2.5 μm in size) released into the atmosphere. The seasonality and

  17. [Synergistic emission reduction of chief air pollutants and greenhouse gases-based on scenario simulations of energy consumptions in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuan-bo; Li, Wei

    2013-05-01

    It is one of the common targets and important tasks for energy management and environmental control of Beijing to improve urban air quality while reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). Here, based on the interim and long term developmental planning and energy structure of the city, three energy consumption scenarios in low, moderate and high restrictions were designed by taking the potential energy saving policies and environmental targets into account. The long-range energy alternatives planning (LEAP) model was employed to predict and evaluate reduction effects of the chief air pollutants and GHG during 2010 to 2020 under the three given scenarios. The results showed that if urban energy consumption system was optimized or adjusted by exercising energy saving and emission reduction and pollution control measures, the predicted energy uses will be reduced by 10 to 30 million tons of coal equivalents by 2020. Under the two energy scenarios with moderate and high restrictions, the anticipated emissions of SO2, NOx, PM10, PM2.5, VOC and GHG will be respectively reduced to 71 to 100.2, 159.2 to 218.7, 89.8 to 133.8, 51.4 to 96.0, 56.4 to 74.8 and 148 200 to 164 700 thousand tons. Correspondingly, when compared with the low-restriction scenario, the reducing rate will be 53% to 67% , 50% to 64% , 33% to 55% , 25% to 60% , 41% to 55% and 26% to 34% respectively. Furthermore, based on a study of synergistic emission reduction of the air pollutants and GHG, it was proposed that the adjustment and control of energy consumptions shall be intensively developed in the three sectors of industry, transportation and services. In this way the synergistic reduction of the emissions of chief air pollutants and GHG will be achieved; meanwhile the pressures of energy demands may be deliberately relieved.

  18. Threatened and Endangered Species Survey for Patrick Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddy, Donna M.; Stolen, Eric D.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Larson, Vickie L.; Hall, Patrice; Hensley, Melissa A.

    1997-01-01

    A review of previous environmental work conducted at Patrick Air Force Base (PAFB) indicated that several threatened, endangered, or species of special concern occurred or had the potential to occur there. This study was implemented to collect more information on protected species at PAFB. A map of landcover types was prepared for PAFB using aerial photography, groundtruthing, and a geographic information system (GIS). Herbaceous vegetation was the most common vegetation type. The second most abundant vegetation type was disturbed shrubs/exotics. The beach and associated dune vegetation comprised 3.2% of the land area, but was the most extensive natural community within PAFB. A few isolated mangrove communities exist along the Banana River. Seventy-seven species of vascular plants occurred on the dunes, including four species listed by state agencies: spider lily (Hymenocallis latifolia), prickly pear cactus (Opuntia stricta), beach star (Remirea maritima), and inkberry (Scaevola plumien). Surveys of other habitats revealed eighty-four species of vascular plants including two state-listed species: spider lily and prickly pear cactus. Many of these areas are dominated by invasive, exotic species, particularly Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius) and Australian pine (Casuarina equisetifolia), and native species of open or disturbed sites such as camphorweed (Heterotheca subaxillaris) and beardgrass (Andropogon spp.). Due to the isolation of PAFB from other natural areas, most exotic plant populations on the base are not an immediate threat to intact native plant communities. Dune habitat was surveyed for the southeastem beach mouse (Peromyscus polionotus niveiventris) by quarterly trapping along eight 100 m transects. No beach mice were found. The limited extent of dune habitat, its fragmented condition, and the isolation of PAFB from extant populations of the beach mouse probably accounts for its absence. Surveys of birds on PAFB found an avifauna

  19. GIS-based Analysis of Main Air Pollutants of Changchun City in Summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the characteristics of air pollution of Changchun city, P. R. China, in summer, the analytical methods of geographical information system(GIS) and statistical analysis software SPSS were applied to the analysis of the monitored concentrations of SO2, NO2, and O3 in July of 2002 to 2004 in Changchun city. The results obtained show that the average hourly O3 concentrations in July 2002 and 2004 were higher than the first-level hourly standard of China. At the same time, the dynamic distribution of the O3 concentration and the relationship between the concentration of O3 and that of NOx were studied. The air quality evaluation result of Changchun city indicates that the southwest of this city was heavily polluted during the monitored period.

  20. 4D Trajectory Estimation for Air Traffic Control Automation System Based on Hybrid System Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Min Tang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available To resolve the problem of future airspace management under great traffic flow and high density condition, 4D trajectory estimation has become one of the core technologies of the next new generation air traffic control automation system. According to the flight profile and the dynamics models of different aircraft types under different flight conditions, a hybrid system model that switches the aircraft from one flight stage to another with aircraft state changing continuously in one state is constructed. Additionally, air temperature and wind speed are used to modify aircraft true airspeed as well as ground speed, and the hybrid system evolution simulation is used to estimate aircraft 4D trajectory. The case study proves that 4D trajectory estimated through hybrid system model can image the flight dynamic states of aircraft and satisfy the needs of the planned flight altitude profile.KEY WORDSair traffic management, 4D trajectory estimation, hybrid system model, aircraft dynamic model

  1. Characteristics and dynamic response of 3-D component base isolation system using ball bearings and air springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, Hideaki; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Mori, Kazunari; Ebisawa, Katsumi; Shibata, Katsuyuki [Seismic Emergency Information System Research Team, Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    Introduction of the base isolation technique into the seismic design of nuclear power plant components as well as buildings has been expected as one of effective countermeasure to reduce the seismic force applied to components. A research program on the base isolation of nuclear components has been carried out at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) since 1991. A methodology and a computer code (EBISA: Equipment Base Isolation System Analysis) for evaluating the failure frequency of the nuclear component with the base isolation were developed. In addition, a test program, which is concerned with the above development, aiming at improvement of failure frequency analysis models in the code has been conducted since 1996 to investigate the dynamic behavior and to verify the effectiveness of component base isolation systems. Two base isolation test systems with different characteristics were fabricated and static and dynamic characteristics were measured by static loading and free vibration tests. One which consists of ball bearings and air springs was installed on the test bed to observe the dynamic response under natural earthquake motion. The effect of base isolation system has been observed under several earthquakes. Three-dimensional response and effect of base isolation of another system using multi-layer-rubber-bearings and coil springs has been investigated against various large earthquake motions by shaking table test. This report describes the design specification of the base isolation system using ball bearings and air springs, dynamic characteristics, dynamic response against natural seismic motion and results of dynamic response analysis considering the various characteristics of isolation devices. (author)

  2. Environmental Assessment: Proposed Consolidated Transportation Facility, Hill Air Force Base, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    building materials, soils or pavements are identified, they would be properly handled during the demolition and construction process. Operational...of previous findings and the extensive development and disturbance of Hill AFB, the potential for historic properties is extremely low . However, if...particulates during painting and abrasive blasting operations (in compliance with the base’s Title V air quality permit). Emission estimates are

  3. Flexible High-Energy Polymer-Electrolyte-Based Rechargeable Zinc-Air Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing; Lee, Dong Un; Hassan, Fathy Mohamed; Yang, Lin; Bai, Zhengyu; Park, Moon Gyu; Chen, Zhongwei

    2015-10-07

    A thin-film, flexible, and rechargeable zinc-air battery having high energy density is reported particularly for emerging portable and wearable electronic applications. This freeform battery design is the first demonstrated by sandwiching a porous-gelled polymer electrolyte with a freestanding zinc film and a bifunctional catalytic electrode film. The flexibility of both the electrode films and polymer electrolyte membrane gives great freedom in tailoring the battery geometry and performance.

  4. Activity-based Calculation Models for the Brazilian Air Force Cellular Unit of Intendancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    readiness (Operations “Aghata” and “Cruzex”), humanitarian missions (support to combat dengue in the city of Rio de Janeiro ; support of the military...disinfection, sanitary and barber shop; u) water supply ; v) water treatment; x) providing electrical power. 1.8 Organization This research will be...recreation, and water and electricity supply . 2.1.1 Cellular Unit of Intendancy. The CUI provides the Air Force with the necessary mobility to

  5. Final Environmental Assessment for Land Exchange at Dyess Air Force Base, Taylor County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    or educational facilities.   No Churches, auditoriums, outdoor music venues, sports arenas, or  amusement   parks .   No uses that release into the air...AFB) in Taylor County Texas operates a Class B runway. Under the current Department of Defense (DoD) Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) 3-260-01...ALTERNATIVES ..................... 5  2.1 Selection Criteria

  6. Installation Restoration Program. Phase 2. Confirmation/Quantification Stage 2, Moody Air Force Base, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    Selenium .004 <.01 <.01 <.01 .01 Strontium .086 -- - -5.0 Zinc .021 <.05 <.05 <.05 5.0 Silica as SiO 2 27 37.6 36.0 33.2 - Aluminum .026 - - - - Iron...Air deodorant Agricultural chemicals 1,l-Dichloroethane Cleaning solvent and degreaser Laboratory solvent 1,2-Dichloroethane Solvent Laboratory solvent

  7. Final Environmental Assessment For Proposed Family Campground Expansion Maxwell Air Force Base, Montgomery County, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    Agriculture and Industry 1445 Federal Dr Montgomery, AL 36107   Mr. George C. Speake, PE/LS Montgomery County Engineer PO Box 1667 Montgomery...Insecticide, Fungicide , and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), or the Asbestos National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) under the...organizations and resources are available as well. 1) The US Department of Agriculture Forest Products Laboratory, in partnership with the University of

  8. Installation Restoration Program Records Search for Dobbins Air Force Base, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    Combat Support Group, Air Force Reserve, is 3 currently the host unit at Dobbins AFB. I 3 II - 1 CC ~L/LLI 1’ 1/ LULLI (~~s’ c * .00 I 3- Lockheed...Services Center (AFESC), Engineering-Science (ES) and CH2 M Hill. The basis for this model was a system developed for EPA by JB Associates of MLean

  9. Air Base Attacks and Defensive Counters: Historical Lessons and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    V. S. Jagan Mohan and Samir Chopra, Eagles over Bangladesh : The Indian Air Force in the 1971 Liberation War, Noida, India: HarperCollins Publishers...Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Serbia, Argentina, Chile, Cuba, Peru, Ethiopia, Djibouti, South Africa, Bangladesh , India, and...aircraft storage and servicing facility” in Kosovo during OAF in 1999.145 The feasibility of such attacks varies with local geology and entrance

  10. F-22A Beddown Environmental Assessment Elmendorf Air Force Base, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    operation of Air Force ranges. The overall purpose of range management is to balance the military’s need to accomplish realistic testing and training...N Churches, auditoria , and concert halls .................. Y 25 30 N N N Government services ............................................. Y Y 25...Damage to outside walls Existing cracks in stucco extended. Bric-a-brac Those carefully balanced or on edges can fall; fine glass, such as large

  11. Sea Water Air Conditioning (SWAC) at Naval Base Guam: Cost-Beneit Analysis and Acquisition Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Renewable energy is a recognized effective means of conservation. The present is an era of significant advancement in renewable energy ...significant conn’ibution towards meeting the Secretruy of the Navy’s renewable energy goals. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF sea water air conditioning...towards meeting the Secretary of the Navy’s renewable energy goals. vi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK vii TABLE OF CONTENTS I.

  12. Environmental Assessment for Kirtland Air Force Base Prairie Dog Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    safety from contaminants. Impacts from fumigation would not occur because phosphine gas reaching the surface quickly becomes nontoxic as it mixes... fumigation would not occur because phosphine gas reaching the surface quickly becomes nontoxic as it mixes with fresh air. Additionally, the...decrease of all living wildlife within the burrows during fumigation . However, a positive impact to wildlife is expected from the establishment of the

  13. Environmental Assessment for Cantonment Areas at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-28

    the federally endangered flatwoods salamander (Ambystoma bishopi) exists on or near some cantonment areas. Reptile species of concern that may occur...Acoustical Society of America , Vol 98, No 2, pp 1025–1033. Finegold, L. S., C. S. Harris, and H. E. vonGlerke, 1994. Community annoyance and sleep...Fidell, 1995. Predicting noise-induced sleep disturbance. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America , Vol 97, No 1, pp 331–338. U.S. Air Force

  14. Environmental Review for the CV-22 Beddown at Yokota Air Base, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-24

    States (U) U.S.A. United States of America (U) USACE U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (U) USAF U.S. Air Force (U) USASOC U.S. Army Special Operations...endangered species were documented, including three plants, one bird, one reptile , and one insect. Presumably, most sightings of protected species...Falco tinnunculus Chogenbo Common kestrel n/a ● Apus affinis Himeamatsubame House swift n/a ● Reptiles Eumeces latiscutatus Tokage Five-lined

  15. Research on measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution based on an air-water channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuan-yuan; Zhou, Xue-jun; Xu, Hua-bin; Cheng, Kang

    2016-11-01

    A measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) method with an air-water channel is researched. In this method, the underwater vehicle and satellite are the legitimate parties, and the third party is at the airwater interface in order to simplify the unilateral quantum channel to water or air. Considering the condition that both unilateral transmission distance and transmission loss coefficient are unequal, a perfect model of the asymmetric channel is built. The influence of asymmetric channel on system loss tolerance and secure transmission distance is analyzed. The simulation results show that with the increase of the channel's asymmetric degree, the system loss tolerance will descend, one transmission distance will be reduced while the other will be increased. When the asymmetric coefficient of channel is between 0.068 and 0.171, MDI-QKD can satisfy the demand of QKD with an air-water channel, namely the underwater transmission distance and atmospheric transmission distance are not less than 60 m and 12 km, respectively.

  16. Loyalty programmes as a direct sales platform: a cardholder segmentation based on air flight redemptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Ponzoa Casado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available There are increasingly more loyalty programmes that offer cardholders the opportunity of buying additional programme points or obtaining rewards, such as package holidays or air flights, by paying some of the cost in cash. This feature of the programmes, together with their very nature and structure and the current situation in which the tourism sector finds itself, has allowed for their development as sales platforms offering services directly to their members.This work discusses the potential of such programmes as a tool for a better knowledge and segmentation of customers by differentiating between them on the basis of those who redeem their rewards on a points-only basis and those that do so using points-plus-cash.Using information from a leading, Spanish, multi-sponsor, loyalty programme, this article analyses the importance of redeeming air tickets only, as against other rewards, and cash contributions as a means of completing the redemption transaction. By means of decision trees, as a segmentation method, it can be seen how variables related with buying behaviour, within the programme member companies, have an influence on the redemption of air tickets by the programme’s cardholders.

  17. Distributed pheromone-based swarming control of unmanned air and ground vehicles for RSTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, John A.; Mathews, Robert S.; Yinger, Andrew; Robinson, Joshua S.; Moody, John; Riddle, Stephanie

    2008-04-01

    The use of unmanned vehicles in Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA) applications has received considerable attention recently. Cooperating land and air vehicles can support multiple sensor modalities providing pervasive and ubiquitous broad area sensor coverage. However coordination of multiple air and land vehicles serving different mission objectives in a dynamic and complex environment is a challenging problem. Swarm intelligence algorithms, inspired by the mechanisms used in natural systems to coordinate the activities of many entities provide a promising alternative to traditional command and control approaches. This paper describes recent advances in a fully distributed digital pheromone algorithm that has demonstrated its effectiveness in managing the complexity of swarming unmanned systems. The results of a recent demonstration at NASA's Wallops Island of multiple Aerosonde Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) and Pioneer Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) cooperating in a coordinated RSTA application are discussed. The vehicles were autonomously controlled by the onboard digital pheromone responding to the needs of the automatic target recognition algorithms. UAVs and UGVs controlled by the same pheromone algorithm self-organized to perform total area surveillance, automatic target detection, sensor cueing, and automatic target recognition with no central processing or control and minimal operator input. Complete autonomy adds several safety and fault tolerance requirements which were integrated into the basic pheromone framework. The adaptive algorithms demonstrated the ability to handle some unplanned hardware failures during the demonstration without any human intervention. The paper describes lessons learned and the next steps for this promising technology.

  18. Thermal properties in phase change wallboard room based on air conditioning cold storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈其针; 刘鑫; 牛润萍; 王琳

    2009-01-01

    By comparing the thermal performance parameters of an ordinary wall room with a phase change wall (PCW) room,the effect of phase change wallboard on the fluctuation of temperature in air-conditioning room in summer was studied. And PCW room and an ordinary wall room,which are cooled by air-conditioner,were built up. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to test the temperature field and heat flow fluctuation in these rooms. Through analyzing the data tested,it is found that the mean temperature of PCW is lower than that of ordinary wall room by 1-2 ℃,and PCW can lower the heat flow by 4.6 W/m2. Combining phase change material to building envelope can lower the indoor temperature,make the room thermal comfortable,and cut down the turn-on-and-off frequency of air-conditioner,the primary investment and operating costs. It alleviates urgent need of the electric power. Building envelope which contains phase change wallboard can improve the indoor thermal environment,and decrease energy consumption in buildings. Phase change wallboard can make impressive effect on energy efficiency of buildings.

  19. Programmatic Environmental Assessment, 2007 General Plan for the Main Cantonment and the South Base Cantonment at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-05

    Monterey pines originally planted as part of a windbreak west of California Blvd., have spread into adjacent Burton Mesa Chaparral to the west...Chumash: Introduction . In California , edited by Robert F. Heizer, pp. 505–508. Handbook of North American Indians, vol. 8, William C. Sturtevant...Air Force Base, California 5 May 2008 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the

  20. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  1. Polyfluorinated compounds in ambient air from ship- and land-based measurements in northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Annekatrin; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    Neutral volatile and semi-volatile polyfluorinated organic compounds (PFC) and ionic perfluorinated compounds were determined in air samples collected at two sites in the vicinity of Hamburg, Germany, and onboard the German research vessel Atair during a cruise in the German Bight, North Sea, in early November 2007. PUF/XAD-2/PUF cartridges and glass fiber filters as sampling media were applied to collect several fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOH), fluorotelomer acrylates (FTA), perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (FASA), and perfluoroalkyl sulfonamido ethanols (FASE) in the gas- and particle-phase as well as a set of perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCA) and sulfonates (PFSA) in the particle-phase. This study presents the distribution of PFC in ambient air of the German North Sea and in the vicinity of Hamburg for the first time. Average total PFC concentrations in and around Hamburg (180 pg m -3) were higher than those observed in the German Bight (80 pg m -3). In the German Bight, minimum-maximum gas-phase concentrations of 17-82 pg m -3 for ΣFTOH, 2.6-10 pg m -3 for ΣFTA, 10-15 pg m -3 for ΣFASA, and 2-4.4 pg m -3 for ΣFASE were determined. In the vicinity of Hamburg, minimum-maximum gas-phase concentrations of 32-204 pg m -3 for ΣFTOH, 3-26 pg m -3 for ΣFTA, 3-18 pg m -3 for ΣFASA, and 2-15 pg m -3 for ΣFASE were detected. Concentrations of perfluorinated acids were in the range of 1-11 pg m -3. FTOH clearly dominated the substance spectrum; 8:2 FTOH occurred in maximum proportions. Air mass back trajectories, cluster, and correlation analyses revealed that the air mass origin and thus medium to long range atmospheric transport was the governing parameter for the amount of PFC in ambient air. Southwesterly located source regions seemed to be responsible for elevated PFC concentrations, local sources appeared to be of minor importance.

  2. Supplemental Environmental Assessment:VTRS Fiber Optic Cable Installation on South Base Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Act RWD Report of Waste Discharge RWQCB Regional Water Quality Control Board SBCAPCD Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District SE State...Endangered SSC Species of Special Concern SWPPP Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan SWRCB State Water Resources Control Board TSCA Toxic...classification. Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1977 as amended (33 USC 1251 et. seq.) Prohibits the discharge of pollutants from a point source into navigable

  3. Hybrid Energy Storage System Based on Compressed Air and Super-Capacitors with Maximum Efficiency Point Tracking (MEPT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemofouet, Sylvain; Rufer, Alfred

    This paper presents a hybrid energy storage system mainly based on Compressed Air, where the storage and withdrawal of energy are done within maximum efficiency conditions. As these maximum efficiency conditions impose the level of converted power, an intermittent time-modulated operation mode is applied to the thermodynamic converter to obtain a variable converted power. A smoothly variable output power is achieved with the help of a supercapacitive auxiliary storage device used as a filter. The paper describes the concept of the system, the power-electronic interfaces and especially the Maximum Efficiency Point Tracking (MEPT) algorithm and the strategy used to vary the output power. In addition, the paper introduces more efficient hybrid storage systems where the volumetric air machine is replaced by an oil-hydraulics and pneumatics converter, used under isothermal conditions. Practical results are also presented, recorded from a low-power air motor coupled to a small DC generator, as well as from a first prototype of the hydro-pneumatic system. Some economical considerations are also made, through a comparative cost evaluation of the presented hydro-pneumatic systems and a lead acid batteries system, in the context of a stand alone photovoltaic home application. This evaluation confirms the cost effectiveness of the presented hybrid storage systems.

  4. Performance study on three-stage power system of compressed air vehicle based on single-screw expander

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A new compressed-air engine system based on three-stage single screw expander was proposed to improve the performance of power system.Three different structure styles were presented,and the studies on the power performance and the distribution of expansion ratios between stages were carried out by programming and mathematical modeling of each style.Research results indicated that the best matches of expansion ratios with equal heat temperature for the air tank of pressure 30 MPa were seven-five-three for"first-stage heating"style,eight-five-three for"two-stage heating"style and five-five-four for"three-stage heating"style,respectively.Results also showed that heating up inlet air or increasing the expander efficiency might improve the power performance.The output power of the"two-stage heating"style is far higher than that of"first-stage heating"style and is a little lower than that of"three-stage heating"style.The new system showed good structure and power performances.

  5. Nonlinear Least-Squares Based Method for Identifying and Quantifying Single and Mixed Contaminants in Air with an Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A. Ryan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has recently developed and built an electronic nose(ENose using a polymer-carbon composite sensing array. This ENose is designed to be usedfor air quality monitoring in an enclosed space, and is designed to detect, identify andquantify common contaminants at concentrations in the parts-per-million range. Itscapabilities were demonstrated in an experiment aboard the National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration’s Space Shuttle Flight STS-95. This paper describes a modified nonlinearleast-squares based algorithm developed to analyze data taken by the ENose, and itsperformance for the identification and quantification of single gases and binary mixtures oftwelve target analytes in clean air. Results from laboratory-controlled events demonstrate theeffectiveness of the algorithm to identify and quantify a gas event if concentration exceedsthe ENose detection threshold. Results from the flight test demonstrate that the algorithmcorrectly identifies and quantifies all registered events (planned or unplanned, as singles ormixtures with no false positives and no inconsistencies with the logged events and theindependent analysis of air samples.

  6. Distribution and sources of air pollutants in the North China Plain based on on-road mobile measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yi; Zhang, Jiping; Wang, Junxia; Chen, Wenyuan; Han, Yiqun; Ye, Chunxiang; Li, Yingruo; Liu, Jun; Zeng, Limin; Wu, Yusheng; Wang, Xinfeng; Wang, Wenxing; Chen, Jianmin; Zhu, Tong

    2016-10-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) has been experiencing severe air pollution problems with rapid economic growth and urbanisation. Many field and model studies have examined the distribution of air pollutants in the NCP, but convincing results have not been achieved, mainly due to a lack of direct measurements of pollutants over large areas. Here, we employed a mobile laboratory to observe the main air pollutants in a large part of the NCP from 11 June to 15 July 2013. High median concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) (12 ppb), nitrogen oxides (NOx) (NO + NO2; 452 ppb), carbon monoxide (CO) (956 ppb), black carbon (BC; 5.5 µg m-3) and ultrafine particles (28 350 cm-3) were measured. Most of the high values, i.e. 95 percentile concentrations, were distributed near large cities, suggesting the influence of local emissions. In addition, we analysed the regional transport of SO2 and CO, relatively long-lived pollutants, based on our mobile observations together with wind field and satellite data analyses. Our results suggested that, for border areas of the NCP, wind from outside this area would have a diluting effect on pollutants, while south winds would bring in pollutants that have accumulated during transport through other parts of the NCP. For the central NCP, the concentrations of pollutants were likely to remain at high levels, partly due to the influence of regional transport by prevalent south-north winds over the NCP and partly by local emissions.

  7. A complexity measure based method for studying the dependence of 222Rn concentration time series on indoor air temperature and humidity

    CERN Document Server

    Mihailovic, Dragutin T; Krmar, Miodrag; Arsenić, Ilija

    2013-01-01

    We have suggested a complexity measure based method for studying the dependence of measured 222Rn concentration time series on indoor air temperature and humidity. This method is based on the Kolmogorov complexity (KL). We have introduced (i) the sequence of the KL, (ii) the Kolmogorov complexity highest value in the sequence (KLM) and (iii) the KL of the product of time series. The noticed loss of the KLM complexity of 222Rn concentration time series can be attributed to the indoor air humidity that keeps the radon daughters in air.

  8. A complexity measure based method for studying the dependance of 222Rn concentration time series on indoor air temperature and humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailovic, D T; Udovičić, V; Krmar, M; Arsenić, I

    2014-02-01

    We have suggested a complexity measure based method for studying the dependence of measured (222)Rn concentration time series on indoor air temperature and humidity. This method is based on the Kolmogorov complexity (KL). We have introduced (i) the sequence of the KL, (ii) the Kolmogorov complexity highest value in the sequence (KLM) and (iii) the KL of the product of time series. The noticed loss of the KLM complexity of (222)Rn concentration time series can be attributed to the indoor air humidity that keeps the radon daughters in air.

  9. Cellular attachment and differentiation on titania nanotubes exposed to air- or nitrogen-based non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Yeon Seo

    Full Text Available The surface topography and chemistry of titanium implants are important factors for successful osseointegration. However, chemical modification of an implant surface using currently available methods often results in the disruption of topographical features and the loss of beneficial effects during the shelf life of the implant. Therefore, the aim of this study was to apply the recently highlighted portable non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (NTAPPJ, elicited from one of two different gas sources (nitrogen and air, to TiO2 nanotube surfaces to further improve their osteogenic properties while preserving the topographical morphology. The surface treatment was performed before implantation to avoid age-related decay. The surface chemistry and morphology of the TiO2 nanotube surfaces before and after the NTAPPJ treatment were determined using a field-emission scanning electron microscope, a surface profiler, a contact angle goniometer, and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscope. The MC3T3-E1 cell viability, attachment and morphology were confirmed using calcein AM and ethidium homodimer-1 staining, and analysis of gene expression using rat mesenchymal stem cells was performed using a real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results indicated that both portable nitrogen- and air-based NTAPPJ could be used on TiO2 nanotube surfaces easily and without topographical disruption. NTAPPJ resulted in a significant increase in the hydrophilicity of the surfaces as well as changes in the surface chemistry, which consequently increased the cell viability, attachment and differentiation compared with the control samples. The nitrogen-based NTAPPJ treatment group exhibited a higher osteogenic gene expression level than the air-based NTAPPJ treatment group due to the lower atomic percentage of carbon on the surface that resulted from treatment. It was concluded that NTAPPJ treatment of TiO2 nanotube surfaces results in an increase in

  10. Analysis of Aerosol Properties in Beijing Based on Ground-Based Sun Photometer and Air Quality Monitoring Observations from 2005 to 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol particles are the major contributor to the deterioration of air quality in China’s capital, Beijing. Using ground-based sun photometer observations from 2005 to 2014, the long-term variations in optical properties and microphysical properties of aerosol in and around Beijing were investigated in this study. The results indicated little inter-annual variations in aerosol optic depth (AOD but an increase in the fine mode AODs both in and outside Beijing. Furthermore, the single scattering albedo in urban Beijing is larger, while observations at the site that is southeast of Beijing suggested that the aerosol there has become more absorbing. The intra-annual aspects were as follow: The largest AOD and high amount of fine mode aerosols are observed in the summer. However, the result of air pollution index (API that mainly affected by the dry density of near-surface aerosol indicated that the air quality has been improving since 2006. Winter and spring were the most polluted seasons considering only the API values. The inconsistency between AOD and API suggested that fine aerosol particles may have a more important role in the deterioration of air quality and that neglecting particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5 in the calculation of API might not be appropriate in air quality evaluation. Through analysis of the aerosol properties in high API days, the results suggested that the fine mode aerosol, especially PM2.5 has become a major contributor to the aerosol pollution in Beijing.

  11. Collaborative Emission Reduction Model Based on Multi-Objective Optimization for Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qing-chun; Rong, Xiao-xia; Zhang, Yi-min; Wan, Xiao-le; Liu, Yuan-yuan; Wang, Yu-zhi

    2016-01-01

    CO2 emission influences not only global climate change but also international economic and political situations. Thus, reducing the emission of CO2, a major greenhouse gas, has become a major issue in China and around the world as regards preserving the environmental ecology. Energy consumption from coal, oil, and natural gas is primarily responsible for the production of greenhouse gases and air pollutants such as SO2 and NOX, which are the main air pollutants in China. In this study, a mathematical multi-objective optimization method was adopted to analyze the collaborative emission reduction of three kinds of gases on the basis of their common restraints in different ways of energy consumption to develop an economic, clean, and efficient scheme for energy distribution. The first part introduces the background research, the collaborative emission reduction for three kinds of gases, the multi-objective optimization, the main mathematical modeling, and the optimization method. The second part discusses the four mathematical tools utilized in this study, which include the Granger causality test to analyze the causality between air quality and pollutant emission, a function analysis to determine the quantitative relation between energy consumption and pollutant emission, a multi-objective optimization to set up the collaborative optimization model that considers energy consumption, and an optimality condition analysis for the multi-objective optimization model to design the optimal-pole algorithm and obtain an efficient collaborative reduction scheme. In the empirical analysis, the data of pollutant emission and final consumption of energies of Tianjin in 1996-2012 was employed to verify the effectiveness of the model and analyze the efficient solution and the corresponding dominant set. In the last part, several suggestions for collaborative reduction are recommended and the drawn conclusions are stated.

  12. Improving air pollution control policy in China--A perspective based on cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinglei; Yuan, Zengwei; Liu, Xuewei; Xia, Xiaoming; Huang, Xianjin; Dong, Zhanfeng

    2016-02-01

    To mitigate serious air pollution, the State Council of China promulgated the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan in 2013. To verify the feasibility and validity of industrial energy-saving and emission-reduction policies in the action plan, we conducted a cost-benefit analysis of implementing these policies in 31 provinces for the period of 2013 to 2017. We also completed a scenario analysis in this study to assess the cost-effectiveness of different measures within the energy-saving and the emission-reduction policies individually. The data were derived from field surveys, statistical yearbooks, government documents, and published literatures. The results show that total cost and total benefit are 118.39 and 748.15 billion Yuan, respectively, and the estimated benefit-cost ratio is 6.32 in the S3 scenario. For all the scenarios, these policies are cost-effective and the eastern region has higher satisfactory values. Furthermore, the end-of-pipe scenario has greater emission reduction potential than energy-saving scenario. We also found that gross domestic product and population are significantly correlated with the benefit-cost ratio value through the regression analysis of selected possible influencing factors. The sensitivity analysis demonstrates that benefit-cost ratio value is more sensitive to unit emission-reduction cost, unit subsidy, growth rate of gross domestic product, and discount rate among all the parameters. Compared with other provinces, the benefit-cost ratios of Beijing and Tianjin are more sensitive to changes of unit subsidy than unit emission-reduction cost. These findings may have significant implications for improving China's air pollution prevention policy.

  13. Collaborative Emission Reduction Model Based on Multi-Objective Optimization for Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-chun Meng

    Full Text Available CO2 emission influences not only global climate change but also international economic and political situations. Thus, reducing the emission of CO2, a major greenhouse gas, has become a major issue in China and around the world as regards preserving the environmental ecology. Energy consumption from coal, oil, and natural gas is primarily responsible for the production of greenhouse gases and air pollutants such as SO2 and NOX, which are the main air pollutants in China. In this study, a mathematical multi-objective optimization method was adopted to analyze the collaborative emission reduction of three kinds of gases on the basis of their common restraints in different ways of energy consumption to develop an economic, clean, and efficient scheme for energy distribution. The first part introduces the background research, the collaborative emission reduction for three kinds of gases, the multi-objective optimization, the main mathematical modeling, and the optimization method. The second part discusses the four mathematical tools utilized in this study, which include the Granger causality test to analyze the causality between air quality and pollutant emission, a function analysis to determine the quantitative relation between energy consumption and pollutant emission, a multi-objective optimization to set up the collaborative optimization model that considers energy consumption, and an optimality condition analysis for the multi-objective optimization model to design the optimal-pole algorithm and obtain an efficient collaborative reduction scheme. In the empirical analysis, the data of pollutant emission and final consumption of energies of Tianjin in 1996-2012 was employed to verify the effectiveness of the model and analyze the efficient solution and the corresponding dominant set. In the last part, several suggestions for collaborative reduction are recommended and the drawn conclusions are stated.

  14. GIS based assessment of the spatial representativeness of air quality monitoring stations using pollutant emissions data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righini, G.; Cappelletti, A.; Ciucci, A.; Cremona, G.; Piersanti, A.; Vitali, L.; Ciancarella, L.

    2014-11-01

    Spatial representativeness of air quality monitoring stations is a critical parameter when choosing location of sites and assessing effects on population to long term exposure to air pollution. According to literature, the spatial representativeness of a monitoring site is related to the variability of pollutants concentrations around the site. As the spatial distribution of primary pollutants concentration is strongly correlated to the allocation of corresponding emissions, in this work a methodology is presented to preliminarily assess spatial representativeness of a monitoring site by analysing the spatial variation of emissions around it. An analysis of horizontal variability of several pollutants emissions was carried out by means of Geographic Information System using a neighbourhood statistic function; the rationale is that if the variability of emissions around a site is low, the spatial representativeness of this site is high consequently. The methodology was applied to detect spatial representativeness of selected Italian monitoring stations, located in Northern and Central Italy and classified as urban background or rural background. Spatialized emission data produced by the national air quality model MINNI, covering entire Italian territory at spatial resolution of 4 × 4 km2, were processed and analysed. The methodology has shown significant capability for quick detection of areas with highest emission variability. This approach could be useful to plan new monitoring networks and to approximately estimate horizontal spatial representativeness of existing monitoring sites. Major constraints arise from the limited spatial resolution of the analysis, controlled by the resolution of the emission input data, cell size of 4 × 4 km2, and from the applicability to primary pollutants only.

  15. The Correlation of Radon Concentration with Various Building Attributes at U.S. Air Force Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    these daughter products that continue to decay giving off radiation which can then lead to the development of lung cancer . The United States Air Force...USAF) is concerned about the increased risk of developing lung cancer by persons exposed to elevated levels of radon in their domiciles and in their...CONOM 0 S * 0 0 a N&NO.)C Nowfum - a w em C mec0- C Mama - 00 4.4 .Q0 0 40 VO O 02ýCt > a MW 0 5 O 0 500 0 ’-ONM > Co S- -W N 00l 0 N 0 O--0 CPe go - Na Wm

  16. Environmental Assessment for the Hilltop Community Services District, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    exposure limits for  workplace  stressors. The  Air Force standards also address protection from occupational noise exposure compliant with OSHA’s...of the action ( extinction  of a threatened or  endangered species or the destruction of a cultural site).  Labor, energy, materials, and capital would

  17. Cladding of the carbon fiber on the steel base using electron beam in the air atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losinskaya, A.; Lozhkina, E.; Bardin, A.; Stepanova, N.

    2016-11-01

    The formation of the high-carbon layers on the low-carbon steel (0.18 % C) using the method of electron-beam partial melting of the carbon fibers is considered. A 1.4 MeV electron beam extracted into air was used. The features of the cladded layers formation using different binders for a reliable fixation of the cladding material are studied. It is revealed that the best results are obtained using the phenol-formaldehyde glue as the binder. A 3 mm thickness layers with 2.2 % C are shown to be formed.

  18. Residual oil monitoring in pressurised air with SnO2-based gas sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Papamichail, Nikos

    2004-01-01

    The doctoral thesis at hand describes the investigations undertaken in order to develop a newly invented procedure for the monitoring of residual oil in pressurised air. The problem of this application lies on the one hand in the state of aggregation of the oil, most of it is liquid and forms aerosols, and on the other hand in the general challenge to measure a small concentration in a changing matrix by means of unspecific sensors. The oil origins from the compressors, which typically us...

  19. Nellis and Creech Air Force Bases Capital Improvements Program Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    registrations.  Answer all questions.     2. Use the terms and acronyms list.   Although this checklist has been designed to minimize the use of " enviro ...filling or any other alteration of a navigable water.     Open burning — any outdoor fire or outdoor  smoke  producing process from which air

  20. Environmental Impact Statement. Small Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Program Malmstrom Air Force Base, Montana. Appendix E

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    ste o rlede~d. The hesrirg officerr.0iy pa C4 E-67 DOCUMENT 10 DOCUMENT 10 PUBLIC HEARING COMMENT SHEET 5 Small IcaOM Progrsm Maimalronl Air Force Hase...Cultural Resourcies ttouing N.tiz. Ame~rican Resources Housin Native American Renvurers Educaion Biological Resources Educaton BrigelResources Publc .. e...Designated WepcctevrtlnrPriat ,rtcarotPniwi ilrgnvicimo (:1c " icial of Private Orfanination Cititei, pa ... Checek here it you wirh to ark e quriti

  1. Graphene based silicon-air grating structure to realize electromagnetically-induced-transparency and slow light effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Buzheng; Liu, Huaiqing; Ren, Guobin; Yang, Yuguang; Ye, Shen; Pei, Li; Jian, Shuisheng

    2017-01-01

    A broad band tunable graphene based silicon-air grating structure is proposed. Electromagnetically-induced-transparency (EIT) window can be successfully tuned by virtually setting the desired Fermi energy levels on graphene sheets. Carrier mobility plays an important role in modulating the resonant depth. Furthermore, by changing the grating periods, light can be trapped at corresponding resonant positions where slow down factor is relatively larger than in the previous works. This structure can be used as a highly tunable optoelectronic device such as optical filter, broad-band modulator, plasmonic switches and buffers.

  2. Performance analysis of a bio-gasification based combined cycle power plant employing indirectly heated humid air turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S.; Mondal, P.; Ghosh, S.

    2016-07-01

    Rapid depletion of fossil fuel has forced mankind to look into alternative fuel resources. In this context, biomass based power generation employing gas turbine appears to be a popular choice. Bio-gasification based combined cycle provides a feasible solution as far as grid-independent power generation is concerned for rural electrification projects. Indirectly heated gas turbine cycles are promising alternatives as they avoid downstream gas cleaning systems. Advanced thermodynamic cycles have become an interesting area of study to improve plant efficiency. Water injected system is one of the most attractive options in this field of applications. This paper presents a theoretical model of a biomass gasification based combined cycle that employs an indirectly heated humid air turbine (HAT) in the topping cycle. Maximum overall electrical efficiency is found to be around 41%. Gas turbine specific air consumption by mass is minimum when pressure ratio is 6. The study reveals that, incorporation of the humidification process helps to improve the overall performance of the plant.

  3. Application of XAD-resin based passive air samplers to assess local (roadside) and regional patterns of persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, Paul; Thuens, Sabine; Shunthirasingham, Chubashini; Westgate, John N; Wania, Frank; Radke, Michael

    2012-07-01

    We used XAD-resin based passive air samplers (PAS) to measure atmospheric levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at five ombrotrophic bogs in Eastern Canada. The aims of our study were to investigate the influence of local roads on contaminant levels in the bogs, to derive the regional pattern of atmospheric concentrations, and to assess the uncertainties of the method. Expanded uncertainties based on the duplicate PAS deployed at 24 sites were good for the PAHs, while the deployment period of approx. 100 days was too short to yield acceptable uncertainties for PCBs. The regional PAH distribution was in good agreement with the calculated source proximity of the sampled bogs. We conclude that XAD-resin based PAS deployed for comparatively short periods are well suited for measuring atmospheric concentrations of volatile PAHs, while in remote regions longer deployment is necessary for less volatile PAHs and for PCBs.

  4. Crystallization Analysis and Control of Ammonia-Based Air Source Absorption Heat Pump in Cold Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption of heating and domestic hot water is very high and will keep increasing. Air source absorption heat pump (ASAHP was proposed to overcome the problems of low energy efficiency and high air pollution existing in boiler systems, as well as the problem of bad performance under low ambient temperatures for electrical heat pumps. In order to investigate the crystallization possibility of ammonia-salt ASAHP, crystallization margin (evaluated by solution mass concentration at generating temperature ranging from 100 to 150°C, evaporating temperature from −30 to 10°C, and condensing temperature from 30 to 65°C are analyzed. To prevent the NH3–NaSCN solution from crystallizing, ASAHP integrated with pressure booster located between the evaporator and absorber is simulated. Analysis and comparisons show that NH3–NaSCN is easy to crystallize at relatively high generating temperature, low evaporating temperature, and low condensing temperature. But crystallization margin of NH3–LiNO3 can always stay above 5% for most conditions, keeping away from crystallization. Pressure booster can effectively avoid the crystallization problem that will take place in the NH3–NaSCN ASAHP system.

  5. Frequency Comb-Based Remote Sensing of Greenhouse Gases over Kilometer Air Paths

    CERN Document Server

    Rieker, Gregory B; Swann, William C; Kofler, Jon; Zolot, Alex M; Sinclair, Laura C; Baumann, Esther; Cromer, Christopher; Petron, Gabrielle; Sweeney, Colm; Tans, Pieter P; Coddington, Ian; Newbury, Nathan R

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate coherent dual frequency-comb spectroscopy for detecting variations in greenhouse gases. High signal-to-noise spectra are acquired spanning 5990 to 6260 cm^-1 (1600 to 1670 nm) covering ~700 absorption features from CO2, CH4, H2O, HDO, and 13CO2, across a 2-km open-air path. The transmission of each frequency comb tooth is resolved, leading to spectra with <1 kHz frequency accuracy, no instrument lineshape, and a 0.0033-cm^-1 point spacing. The fitted path-averaged concentrations and temperature yield dry-air mole fractions. These are compared with a point sensor under well-mixed conditions to evaluate current absorption models for real atmospheres. In heterogeneous conditions, time-resolved data demonstrate tracking of strong variations in mole fractions. A precision of <1 ppm for CO2 and <3 ppb for CH4 is achieved in 5 minutes in this initial demonstration. Future portable systems could support regional emissions monitoring and validation of the spectral databases critical to global s...

  6. Low-voltage ionization of air with carbon-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M. S.; Zhang, W.; Fisher, T. S.; Garimella, S. V.

    2005-11-01

    Polycrystalline diamond and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exhibit excellent vacuum field emission properties, characterized by low turn-on voltage and high current density. Their atmospheric field emission and ionization capabilities are reported in this paper. Highly graphitic polycrystalline diamond (HGPD) film was grown in a plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition process, and its ability to ionize atmospheric air was characterized and compared against CNTs. The HGPD sample was activated by applying a moderate voltage bias (340 V) for an extended period across a 10 µm electrode gap. After activation, a turn-on voltage of 20 V and a sustainable current of 10 µA were observed with the same gap. Results also indicate that field emission helps to create a moderate ionization effect without catastrophic air breakdown. A hydrogen plasma treatment is shown to restore emission current back to or even exceeding the original level, which suggests an important role of surface termination in the electron emission process. CNTs were grown and tested but did not perform as well under similar conditions.

  7. Combined Ground and Space-Based Measurements of Air Quality during the London Olympic Games 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, R. R.; Leigh, R. J.; Singh Anand, J.; McNally, M.; Lawrence, J.; Remedios, J.; Monks, P. S.

    2012-12-01

    During July and August 2012 the Summer Olympic Games were held in London. During this period, unusually high levels of traffic and visitors to the city were expected, it is important to understand the effect this had on the air quality in London during this period. To this end three novel CityScan instruments were installed in London from the 20th July though to the end of September; affording the unique opportunity to monitor the spatial and vertical structure of nitrogen dioxide within the boundary layer in unprecedented detail. The deployment was included as part of the large NERC funded ClearfLo project (Clean Air for London) involving many other institutions and complementary measurement techniques. CityScan is a Hemispherical Scanning Imaging Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer (HSI-DOAS) which is has been optimised to measure concentrations of nitrogen dioxide. CityScan has a 95° field of view (FOV) between the zenith and 5° below the horizon. Across this FOV there are 128 resolved elements which are measured concurrently, the spectrometer is rotated azimuthally 1° per second providing full hemispherical coverage every 6 minutes. CityScan measures concentrations of nitrogen dioxide over specific lines of sight and due to the extensive field of view of the instrument this produces measurements which are representative over city-wide scales. Nitrogen dioxide is an important air pollutant which is produced in all combustion processes and can reduce lung function; especially in sensitised individuals. These instruments aim to bridge the gap in spatial scales between point source measurements of air quality and satellite measurements of air quality offering additional information on emissions, transport and the chemistry of nitrogen dioxide. More information regarding the CityScan technique can be found at http://www.leos.le.ac.uk/aq/index.html. The first of the three CityScan instruments was located in North Kensington, the second in Soho and third

  8. Hydrogeology, simulated ground-water flow, and ground-water quality, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumouchelle, D.H.; Schalk, C.W.; Rowe, G.L.; De Roche, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water in the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base area. The aquifer consists of glacial sands and gravels that fill a buried bedrock-valley system. Consolidated rocks in the area consist of poorly permeable Ordovician shale of the Richmondian stage, in the upland areas, the Brassfield Limestone of Silurian age. The valleys are filled with glacial sediments of Wisconsinan age consisting of clay-rich tills and coarse-grained outwash deposits. Estimates of hydraulic conductivity of the shales based on results of displacement/recovery tests range from 0.0016 to 12 feet per day; estimates for the glacial sediments range from less than 1 foot per day to more than 1,000 feet per day. Ground water flow from the uplands towards the valleys and the major rivers in the region, the Great Miami and the Mad Rivers. Hydraulic-head data indicate that ground water flows between the bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. Data from a gain/loss study of the Mad River System and hydrographs from nearby wells reveal that the reach of the river next to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a ground-water discharge area. A steady-state, three-dimensional ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate ground-water flow in the region. The model contains three layers and encompasses about 100 square miles centered on Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Ground water enters the modeled area primarily by river leakage and underflow at the model boundary. Ground water exits the modeled area primarily by flow through the valleys at the model boundaries and through production wells. A model sensitivity analysis involving systematic changes in values of hydrologic parameters in the model indicates that the model is most sensitive to decreases in riverbed conductance and vertical conductance between the upper two layers. The analysis also indicates that the contribution of water to the buried-valley aquifer from the bedrock that forms the valley walls is about 2 to 4

  9. 基于复合热源的热泵型空调器%Heat pump air conditioner based on multiple heat sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国珊; 凌勋

    2012-01-01

    It is proposed that the air-water multiple heat sources could be the heat source of heat pump air conditioner. Based on the current study condition, the heat pump air conditioner which has a air/family waste water multiple heat source is preliminary designed. The working cycle and characteristics of the air conditioner are analyzed by using the thermodynamic principle. The results show that the refrigeration performance of the heat pump air conditioner is better than that of air source heat pump air conditioner, the heating performance and the situation which the outdoor heat exchanger frosts are improved.%提出将空气-水作为热泵型空调器的复合热源.根据当前的研究状况,初步设计空气-水复合热源热泵型空调器,利用热力学原理分析该空调器的工作循环和特点,结果表明该空调器的制冷性能高于空气源热泵空调器,制热和室外换热器结霜状况得到一定改善.

  10. Spatiotemporal air pollution exposure assessment for a Canadian population-based lung cancer case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hystad Perry

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few epidemiological studies of air pollution have used residential histories to develop long-term retrospective exposure estimates for multiple ambient air pollutants and vehicle and industrial emissions. We present such an exposure assessment for a Canadian population-based lung cancer case-control study of 8353 individuals using self-reported residential histories from 1975 to 1994. We also examine the implications of disregarding and/or improperly accounting for residential mobility in long-term exposure assessments. Methods National spatial surfaces of ambient air pollution were compiled from recent satellite-based estimates (for PM2.5 and NO2 and a chemical transport model (for O3. The surfaces were adjusted with historical annual air pollution monitoring data, using either spatiotemporal interpolation or linear regression. Model evaluation was conducted using an independent ten percent subset of monitoring data per year. Proximity to major roads, incorporating a temporal weighting factor based on Canadian mobile-source emission estimates, was used to estimate exposure to vehicle emissions. A comprehensive inventory of geocoded industries was used to estimate proximity to major and minor industrial emissions. Results Calibration of the national PM2.5 surface using annual spatiotemporal interpolation predicted historical PM2.5 measurement data best (R2 = 0.51, while linear regression incorporating the national surfaces, a time-trend and population density best predicted historical concentrations of NO2 (R2 = 0.38 and O3 (R2 = 0.56. Applying the models to study participants residential histories between 1975 and 1994 resulted in mean PM2.5, NO2 and O3 exposures of 11.3 μg/m3 (SD = 2.6, 17.7 ppb (4.1, and 26.4 ppb (3.4 respectively. On average, individuals lived within 300 m of a highway for 2.9 years (15% of exposure-years and within 3 km of a major industrial emitter for 6.4 years (32% of exposure-years. Approximately 50

  11. Extricating sex and gender in air pollution research: a community-based study on cardinal symptoms of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oiamo, Tor H; Luginaah, Isaac N

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated sex and gender differences in cardinal symptoms of exposure to a mixture of ambient pollutants. A cross sectional population-based study design was utilized in Sarnia, ON, Canada. Stratified random sampling in census tracts of residents aged 18 and over recruited 804 respondents. Respondents completed a community health survey of chronic disease, general health, and socioeconomic indicators. Residential concentrations of NO₂, SO₂, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and o/m/p-xylene were estimated by land use regression on data collected through environmental monitoring. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis was used to identify variables that interacted with sex and cardinal symptoms of exposure, and a series of logistic regression models were built to predict the reporting of five or more cardinal symptoms (5+ CS). Without controlling for confounders, higher pollution ranks increased the odds ratio (OR) of reporting 5+ CS by 28% (p air pollution, but additionally indicated that stronger effects on females is partly due to autoimmune disorders. Furthermore, gender differences in occupational exposure confound the effect size of exposure in studies based on residential levels of air pollution.

  12. Development of a web-based support system for both homogeneous and heterogeneous air quality control networks: process and product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, J; Ares, J; García, R; Presa, J; Rodríguez, S; Piñeiro-Iglesias, M; López-Mahía, P; Muniategui, S; Prada, D

    2007-10-01

    The Environmental Laboratories Automation Software System or PALMA (Spanish abbreviation) was developed by a multidisciplinary team in order to support the main tasks of heterogeneous air quality control networks. The software process for PALMA development, which can be perfectly applied to similar multidisciplinary projects, was (a) well-defined, (b) arranged between environmental technicians and informatics, (c) based on quality guides, and (d) clearly user-centred. Moreover, it introduces some interesting advantages with regard to the classical step-by-step approaches. PALMA is a web-based system that allows 'off-line' and automated telematic data acquisition from distributed inmission stations belonging not only to homogeneous but also to heterogeneous air quality control networks. It provides graphic and tabular representations for a comprehensive and centralised analysis of acquired data, and considers the daily work that is associated with such networks: validation of the acquired data, alerts with regard to (periodical) tasks (e.g., analysers verification), downloading of files with environmental information (e.g., dust forecasts), etc. The implantation of PALMA has provided qualitative and quantitative improvements in the work performed by the people in charge of the considered control network.

  13. Real-Time Cell-Electronic Sensing of Coal Fly Ash Particulate Matter for Toxicity-Based Air Quality Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Birget; Yuan, Chungang; Li, Jinhua; Du, Haiying; Gabos, Stephan; Le, X Chris; Li, Xing-Fang

    2016-06-20

    The development of a unique bioassay for cytotoxicity analysis of coal fly ash (CFA) particulate matter (PM) and its potential application for air quality monitoring is described. Using human cell lines, A549 and SK-MES-1, as live probes on microelectrode-embedded 96-well sensors, impedance changes over time are measured as cells are treated with varying concentrations (1 μg/mL-20 mg/mL) of CFA samples. A dose-dependent impedance change is determined for each CFA sample, from which an IC50 histogram is obtained. The assay was successfully applied to examine CFA samples collected from three coal-fired power plants (CFPs) in China. The samples were separated into three size fractions: PM2.5 (10 μm). Dynamic cell-response profiles and temporal IC50 histograms of all samples show that CFA cytotoxicity depends on concentration, exposure time (0-60 h), and cell-type (SK-MES-1 > A549). The IC50 values differentiate the cytotoxicity of CFA samples based on size fraction (PM2.5 ≈ PM10-2.5 ≫ PM10) and the sampling location (CFP2 > CFP1 ≈ CFP3). Differential cytotoxicity measurements of particulates in human cell lines using cell-electronic sensing provide a useful tool for toxicity-based air quality monitoring and risk assessment.

  14. Novel adaptive neural control of flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicles based on sliding mode differentiator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Xiangwei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel adaptive neural control strategy is exploited for the longitudinal dynamics of a generic flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (FAHV. By utilizing functional decomposition method, the dynamics of FAHV is decomposed into the velocity subsystem and the altitude subsystem. For each subsystem, only one neural network is employed for the unknown function approximation. To further reduce the computational burden, minimal-learning parameter (MLP technology is used to estimate the norm of ideal weight vectors rather than their elements. By introducing sliding mode differentiator (SMD to estimate the newly defined variables, there is no need for the strict-feedback form and virtual controller. Hence the developed control law is considerably simpler than the ones derived from back-stepping scheme. Finally, simulation studies are made to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control approach in spite of the flexible effects, system uncertainties and varying disturbances.

  15. Promising future energy storage systems: Nanomaterial based systems, Zn-air, and electromechanical batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, R.; Richardson, J.

    1993-10-01

    Future energy storage systems will require longer shelf life, higher duty cycles, higher efficiency, higher energy and power densities, and be fabricated in an environmentally conscious process. This paper describes several possible future systems which have the potential of providing stored energy for future electric and hybrid vehicles. Three of the systems have their origin in the control of material structure at the molecular level and the subsequent nanoengineering into useful device and components: aerocapacitors, nanostructure multilayer capacitors, and the lithium ion battery. The zinc-air battery is a high energy density battery which can provide vehicles with long range (400 km in autos) and be rapidly refueled with a slurry of zinc particles and electrolyte. The electromechanical battery is a battery-sized module containing a high-speed rotor integrated with an iron-less generator mounted on magnetic bearings and housed in an evacuated chamber.

  16. Air-fuel ratio and speed control for low emission vehicles based on sliding mode techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puleston, P.F. [UNLP, La Plata (Argentina). Departamento de Electrotecnia, CONICET and LEICI; Monsees, G. [Delft University of Technology (Netherlands). Faculty of Information, Technology and Systems, Control Laboratory; Spurgeon, S.K. [University of Leicester (United Kingdom). Department of Engineering, Control and Instrumentation Group

    2002-05-01

    This paper deals with the combined air-fuel ratio (AFR) and speed control of automotive engines. The robust controller is developed using dynamic sliding mode (SM) control design methods. The proposed controller set-up is tested under realistic operating conditions by means of computer simulation using a comprehensive non-linear model of a four-stroke engine, specifically provided by the automotive industry for these purposes. This accurate industrial model comprises extensive dynamics description and numerous look-up tables representing parameter characteristics obtained from experimental data. The SM controller set-up proves to be robust to model uncertainties and unknown disturbances, regulating effectively the engine speed for a wide range of set-points while maintaining the AFR at the stoichiometric value. (author)

  17. Testing of Large Diameter Fresnel Optics for Space Based Observations of Extensive Air Showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, James H.; Christl, Mark J.; Young, Roy M.

    2011-01-01

    The JEM-EUSO mission will detect extensive air showers produced by extreme energy cosmic rays. It operates from the ISS looking down on Earth's night time atmosphere to detect the nitrogen fluorescence and Cherenkov produce by the charged particles in the EAS. The JEM-EUSO science objectives require a large field of view, sensitivity to energies below 50 EeV, and must fit within available ISS resources. The JEM-EUSO optic module uses three large diameter, thin plastic lenses with Fresnel surfaces to meet the instrument requirements. A bread-board model of the optic has been manufactured and has undergone preliminary tests. We report the results of optical performance tests and evaluate the present capability to manufacture these optical elements.

  18. Research on segregation evaluation methods of asphalt pavement based on air voids distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Eye observation was used to evaluate the segregation degree of asphalt pavement, which was not much creditable. To the asphalt pavement, road surface texture measuring method which has appeared recently can identify gradational segregation; but it can't reflect the influence of the temperature segregation. However,using infrared temperature detector to evaluate the segregation must be taken during paving, which brings much inconvenience. In this paper, measuring the air voids distribution using non-nuclear density gauge to evaluate asphalt pavement segregation was introduced. Result shows that this method can directly reflect the comprehensive results of the two types of segregation in a high efficient and accurate way. Moreover, using the sketch map of segregation area can help to analyze the segregation reason visually.

  19. An Empirically grounded Agent Based simulator for the Air Traffic Management in the SESAR scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Gurtner, Gérald; Ducci, Marco; Miccichè, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a simulator allowing to perform policy experiments relative to the air traffic management. Different SESAR solutions can be implemented in the model to see the reaction of the different stakeholders as well as other relevant metrics (delays, safety, etc). The model describes both the strategic phase associated to the planning of the flight trajectories and the tactical modifications occurring in the en-route phase. An implementation of the model is available as open-source and freely accessible by any user. More specifically, different procedures related to business trajectories and free-routing are tested and we illustrate the capabilities of the model on airspace implementing these concepts. After performing numerical simulations with the model, we show that in a free-routing scenario the controllers perform less operations although they are dispersed over a larger portion of the airspace. This can potentially increase the complexity of conflict detection and resolution for controll...

  20. The Study of LeachateTreatment by Using Three Advanced Oxidation Process Based Wet air Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behroz Karimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wet air oxidation is regarded as appropriate options for wastewater treatment with average organic compounds. The general purpose of this research is to determine the efficiency of three wet air oxidation methods, wet oxidation with hydrogen peroxide and absorption with activated carbon in removing organic matter and nitrogenous compounds from Isfahan's urban leachate. A leachate sample with the volume of 1.5 liters entered into a steel reactor with the volume of three liters and was put under a 10-bar pressure, at temperatures of 100, 200, and 300[degree sign] as well as three retention times of 30, 60, and 90 minutes. The sample was placed at 18 stages of leachate storage ponds in Isfahan Compost Plant with the volume of 20 liters, using three WPO, WAO methods and a combination of WAO/GAC for leachate pre-treatment. Thirty percent of pure oxygen and hydrogen peroxide were applied as oxidation agents. The COD removal efficiency in WAO method is 7.8-33.3%, in BOD is 14.7-50.6%, the maximum removal percentage (efficiency for NH4-N is 53.3% and for NO3-N is 56.4-73.9%. The removal efficiency of COD and BOD5 is 4.6%-34 and 24%-50 respectively in WPO method. Adding GAC to the reactor, the removal efficiency of all parameters was improved. The maximum removal efficiency was increased 48% for COD, 31%-43.6 for BOD5 by a combinational method, and the ratio of BOD5/COD was also increased to 90%. In this paper, WAO and WPO process was used for Leachate pre-treatment and WAO/GAC combinational process was applied for improving the organic matter removal and leachate treatment; it was also determined that the recent process is much more efficient in removing resistant organic matter.

  1. The study of leachate treatment by using three advanced oxidation process based wet air oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Behroz; Ehrampoush, Mohammad Hassan; Ebrahimi, Asghar; Mokhtari, Mehdi

    2013-01-02

    Wet air oxidation is regarded as appropriate options for wastewater treatment with average organic compounds. The general purpose of this research is to determine the efficiency of three wet air oxidation methods, wet oxidation with hydrogen peroxide and absorption with activated carbon in removing organic matter and nitrogenous compounds from Isfahan's urban leachate. A leachate sample with the volume of 1.5 liters entered into a steel reactor with the volume of three liters and was put under a 10-bar pressure, at temperatures of 100, 200, and 300° as well as three retention times of 30, 60, and 90 minutes. The sample was placed at 18 stages of leachate storage ponds in Isfahan Compost Plant with the volume of 20 liters, using three WPO, WAO methods and a combination of WAO/GAC for leachate pre-treatment. Thirty percent of pure oxygen and hydrogen peroxide were applied as oxidation agents. The COD removal efficiency in WAO method is 7.8-33.3%, in BOD is 14.7-50.6%, the maximum removal percentage (efficiency) for NH4-N is 53.3% and for NO3-N is 56.4-73.9%. The removal efficiency of COD and BOD5 is 4.6%-34 and 24%-50 respectively in WPO method. Adding GAC to the reactor, the removal efficiency of all parameters was improved. The maximum removal efficiency was increased 48% for COD, 31%-43.6 for BOD5 by a combinational method, and the ratio of BOD5/COD was also increased to 90%. In this paper, WAO and WPO process was used for Leachate pre-treatment and WAO/GAC combinational process was applied for improving the organic matter removal and leachate treatment; it was also determined that the recent process is much more efficient in removing resistant organic matter.

  2. Temporal Variation in Air Pollution Concentrations and Preterm Birth—A Population Based Epidemiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertil Forsberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence of adverse birth outcomes due to exposure to air pollution during gestation. However, recent negative studies are also reported. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of ozone and vehicle exhaust exposure (NO2 on the length of the gestational period and risk of preterm delivery. We used data from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry on all vaginally delivered singleton births in the Greater Stockholm area who were conceived during 1987–1995 (n = 115,588. Daily average levels of NO2 (from three measuring stations and ozone (two stations were used to estimate trimester and last week of gestation average exposures. Linear regression models were used to assess the association between the two air pollutants and three exposure windows, while logistic regression models were used when analyzing associations with preterm delivery ( < 37 weeks gestation. Five percent were born preterm. The median gestational period was 40 weeks. Higher levels of ozone during the first trimester were associated with shorter gestation as well as with an elevated risk of preterm delivery, the odds ratio from the most complex model was 1.06 (95% CI: 1.00–1.13 per 10 μg/m3 increase in the mean daily 8-h maximum concentration. Higher levels of ozone during the second trimester were associated with shorter gestation but the elevated risk of preterm delivery was not statistically significant. Higher levels of ozone and NO2 during the last week of gestation were associated with a shorter duration of gestation and NO2 also with preterm delivery. There were no significant associations between first and second trimester NO2 exposure estimates and studied outcomes. The effect of first trimester ozone exposure, known to cause oxidative stress, was smallest among women who conceived during autumn when vitamin D status, important for fetal health, in Scandinavian women is the highest.

  3. Optimization of thermal performance of a smooth flat-plate solar air heater using teaching–learning-based optimization algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Venkata Rao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance of teaching–learning-based optimization (TLBO algorithm to obtain the optimum set of design and operating parameters for a smooth flat plate solar air heater (SFPSAH. The TLBO algorithm is a recently proposed population-based algorithm, which simulates the teaching–learning process of the classroom. Maximization of thermal efficiency is considered as an objective function for the thermal performance of SFPSAH. The number of glass plates, irradiance, and the Reynolds number are considered as the design parameters and wind velocity, tilt angle, ambient temperature, and emissivity of the plate are considered as the operating parameters to obtain the thermal performance of the SFPSAH using the TLBO algorithm. The computational results have shown that the TLBO algorithm is better or competitive to other optimization algorithms recently reported in the literature for the considered problem.

  4. Data fusion control and guidance of surface-to-air missile under the complex circumstance based on neural-net technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Deyun; Zhou Feng

    2008-01-01

    Under the complicated electromagnetism circumstance,the model of data fusion control and guidance of surface-to-air missile weapon systems is established.Such ways and theories as Elman-NN,radar tracking and niter's data fusion net based on the group method for data-processing (GMRDF) are applied to constructing the model of data fusion.The highly reliable state estimation of the tracking targets and the improvement in accuracy of control and guidance are obtained.The purpose is optimization design of data fusion control and guidance of surface-to-air missile weapon systems and improving the fighting effectiveness of surface-to-air missile weapon systems.

  5. Connectable solar air collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S.; Bosanac, M.

    2002-02-01

    The project has proved that it is possible to manufacture solar air collector panels, which in an easy way can be connected into large collector arrays with integrated ducting without loss of efficiency. The developed connectable solar air collectors are based on the use of matrix absorbers in the form of perforated metal sheets. Three interconnected solar air collectors of the above type - each with an transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} - was tested and compared with parallel tests on two single solar air collectors also with a transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} One of the single solar air collectors has an identical absorber as the connectable solar air collectors while the absorber of the other single solar air collector was a fibre cloth. The efficiency of the three solar air collectors proved to be almost identical in the investigated range of mass flow rates and temperature differences. The solar air collectors further proved to be very efficient - as efficient as the second most efficient solar air collectors tested in the IEA task 19 project Solar Air Systems. Some problems remain although to be solved: the pressure drop across especially the connectable solar air collectors is too high - mainly across the inlets of the solar air collectors. It should, however, be possible to considerably reduce the pressure losses with a more aerodynamic design of the inlet and outlet of the solar air collectors; The connectable solar air collectors are easy connectable but the air tightness of the connections in the present form is not good enough. As leakage leads to lower efficiencies focus should be put on making the connections more air tight without loosing the easiness in connecting the solar air collectors. As a spin off of the project a simple and easy way to determine the efficiency of solar, air collectors for pre-heating of fresh air has been validated. The simple method of determining the efficiency has with success been compared with an advance method

  6. Final Environmental Assessment for Proposed Enhanced Testing and Associated Training Use of the Giant Reusable Air Blast Simulator (GRABS) Site at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Negligible 30 Soft whisper (15 feet) Very quiet 50 Light auto traffic (100 feet) Quiet 60 Air conditioning unit (20 feet) Intrusive 70 Noisy restaurant or...substitute for a p1asticide label. Trade names used herein are for convenience only; no endorsement of products is intended, nor is criticism of unnamed

  7. Energy Performance of Water-based and Air-based Cooling Systems in Plus-energy Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads E.; Schøtt, Jacob; Kazanci, Ongun Berk

    2016-01-01

    Energy use in buildings accounts for a large part of the energy use globally and as a result of this, international building energy performance directives are becoming stricter. This trend has led to the development of zero-energy and plus-energy buildings. Some of these developments have led...... achieved and cooling might be needed even in residential buildings. This paper focuses on the cooling operation of a detached, single-family house, which was designed as a plus-energy house in Denmark. The simulation model of the house was created in IDA ICE and it was validated with measurement data...... energy use reductions. The coupling of radiant floor with the ground enables to obtain “free” cooling, although the brine pump power should be kept to a minimum to fully take advantage of this solution. By implementing a ground heat exchanger instead of the heat pump and use the crawl-space air as intake...

  8. Towards Organized Hybrid Nanomaterials at the Air/Water Interface Based on Liquid-Crystal/ZnO Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paczesny, Jan; Wolska-Pietkiewicz, Małgorzata; Binkiewicz, Ilona; Wróbel, Zbigniew; Wadowska, Monika; Matuła, Kinga; Dzięcielewski, Igor; Pociecha, Damian; Smalc-Koziorowska, Julita; Lewiński, Janusz; Hołyst, Robert

    2015-11-16

    The ability to self-assemble nanosized ligand-stabilized metal oxide or semiconductor materials offers an intriguing route to engineer nanomaterials with new tailored properties from the disparate components. We describe a novel one-pot two-step organometallic approach to prepare ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) coated with deprotonated 4-(dodecyloxy)benzoic acid (i.e., an X-type liquid-crystalline ligand) as a model LC system (termed ZnO-LC1 NCs). Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films of the resulting hybrids are investigated. The observed behavior of the ZnO NCs at the air/water interface is rationalized by invoking a ZnO-interdigitation process mediated by the anchored liquid-crystalline shell. The ordered superstructures form according to mechanism based on a ZnO-interdigitation process mediated by liquid crystals (termed ZIP-LC). The external and directed force applied upon compression at the air/water interface and the packing of the ligands that stabilize the ZnO cores drives the formation of nanorods of ordered internal structure. To study the process in detail, we follow a nontraditional protocol of thin-film investigation. We collect the films from the air/water interface in powder form (ZnO-LC1 LB), resuspend the powder in organic solvents and utilize otherwise unavailable experimental techniques. The structural and physical properties of the resulting superlattices were studied by using electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray studies, dynamic light scattering, thermogravimetric analysis, UV/Vis absorption, and photoluminescence spectroscopy.

  9. Catalytic wet-air oxidation of a chemical plant wastewater over platinum-based catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cybulski, Andrzej; Trawczyński, Janusz

    2006-01-01

    Catalytic wet-air oxidation (CWAO) of wastewater (chemical oxygen demand [COD] = 1800 mg O2/dm3) from a fine chemicals plant was investigated in a fixed-bed reactor at T = 393-473 K under total pressure of 5.0 or 8.0 MPa. Catalysts containing 0.3% wt. of platinum deposited on two supports, mixed silica-titania (SM1) and carbon black composites (CBC) were used. The CBC-supported catalyst appeared to be more active than the SM1-supported one. A slow decrease of activity of the platinum on SM1 (Pt-SM1) during the long-term operation is attributed to recrystallization of titania and leaching of a support component, while the Pt-CBC catalyst is deteriorated, owing to combustion of the support component. The power-law-kinetic equations were used to describe the rate of COD removal at CWAO over the catalysts. The kinetic parameters of COD reduction for the wastewater were determined and compared with the kinetic parameters describing phenol oxidation over the same catalysts. Rates of COD removal for the wastewater were found higher than those for phenol oxidation over the same catalysts and under identical operating conditions.

  10. AirCache: A Crowd-Based Solution for Geoanchored Floating Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armir Bujari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet edge has evolved from a simple consumer of information and data to eager producer feeding sensed data at a societal scale. The crowdsensing paradigm is a representative example which has the potential to revolutionize the way we acquire and consume data. Indeed, especially in the era of smartphones, the geographical and temporal scopus of data is often local. For instance, users’ queries are more and more frequently about a nearby object, event, person, location, and so forth. These queries could certainly be processed and answered locally, without the need for contacting a remote server through the Internet. In this scenario, the data is alimented (sensed by the users and, as a consequence, data lifetime is limited by human organizational factors (e.g., mobility. From this basis, data survivability in the Area of Interest (AoI is crucial and, if not guaranteed, could undermine system deployment. Addressing this scenario, we discuss and contribute with a novel protocol named AirCache, whose aim is to guarantee data availability in the AoI while at the same time reducing the data access costs at the network edges. We assess our proposal through a simulation analysis showing that our approach effectively fulfills its design objectives.

  11. Experimental development of advanced air filtration media based on electrospun polymer fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghochaghi, Negar

    Electrospinning is a process by which polymer fibers can be produced using an electrostatically driven fluid jet. Electrospun fibers can be produced at the micro- or nano-scale and are, therefore, very promising for air filtration applications. However, because electrospun fibers are electrically charged, it is difficult to control the morphology of filtration media. Fiber size, alignment and uniformity are very important factors that affect filter performance. The focus of this project is to understand the relationship between filter morphology and performance and to develop new methods to create filtration media with optimum morphology. This study is divided into three focus areas: unimodal and bimodal microscale fibrous media with aligned, orthogonal and random fiber orientations; unimodal and bimodal nanoscale fibers in random orientations; bimodal micrometer and nanometer fiber media with orthogonally aligned orientations. The results indicate that the most efficient filters, which are those with the highest ratio of particle collection efficiency divided by pressure drop, can be obtained through fabricating filters in orthogonal layers of aligned fibers with two different fiber diameters. Moreover, our results show that increasing the number of layers increases the performance of orthogonally layered fibers. Also, controlling fiber spacing in orthogonally layered micrometer fiber media can be an alternative way to study the filtration performance. Finally, such coatings presented throughout this research study can be designed and placed up-stream, down-stream, and/or in between conventional filters.

  12. Monitoring trace metals in urban aerosols from Buenos Aires city. Determination by plasma-based techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smichowski, Patricia; Gómez, Dario R; Dawidowski, Laura E; Giné, María Fernanda; Bellato, Ana Claudia Sánchez; Reich, Silvia L

    2004-04-01

    A study was undertaken, within the framework of a 3 years national project, to assess the content of 13 elements in airborne particulate matter collected in representative zones of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires. The sampling strategy followed consisted in collecting simultaneously 67 samples of PM10 particulate matter in 9 sampling sites covering an area of about 30 km2 during one week. The collection was performed on ash-free fibre-glass filters using high volume samplers. A combination of aqua regia and perchloric acid was used for leaching metals from filters. Key elements, namely Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, Sn, Zn and Zr, were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) at micro g g(-1) and ng g(-1) levels. Analyte concentration varied from 130 ng g(-1)(Mo) to over 30%(Ca). Multivariate statistical analysis was performed on the data set including the measured elemental compositions for the monitored period. The atmospheric concentration found for Pb confirms the decreasing levels of this element since the introduction of unleaded gasoline in 1995: 88 ng m(-3)(2001) gas imply low emissions of this element from combustion activities. To the best of our knowledge, S concentrations are reported for the first time for this city.

  13. Air Temperature Error Correction Based on Solar Radiation in an Economical Meteorological Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingming Sun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Air temperature (AT is an extremely vital factor in meteorology, agriculture, military, etc., being used for the prediction of weather disasters, such as drought, flood, frost, etc. Many efforts have been made to monitor the temperature of the atmosphere, like automatic weather stations (AWS. Nevertheless, due to the high cost of specialized AT sensors, they cannot be deployed within a large spatial density. A novel method named the meteorology wireless sensor network relying on a sensing node has been proposed for the purpose of reducing the cost of AT monitoring. However, the temperature sensor on the sensing node can be easily influenced by environmental factors. Previous research has confirmed that there is a close relation between AT and solar radiation (SR. Therefore, this paper presents a method to decrease the error of sensed AT, taking SR into consideration. In this work, we analyzed all of the collected data of AT and SR in May 2014 and found the numerical correspondence between AT error (ATE and SR. This corresponding relation was used to calculate real-time ATE according to real-time SR and to correct the error of AT in other months.

  14. Extricating Sex and Gender in Air Pollution Research: A Community-Based Study on Cardinal Symptoms of Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac N. Luginaah

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated sex and gender differences in cardinal symptoms of exposure to a mixture of ambient pollutants. A cross sectional population-based study design was utilized in Sarnia, ON, Canada. Stratified random sampling in census tracts of residents aged 18 and over recruited 804 respondents. Respondents completed a community health survey of chronic disease, general health, and socioeconomic indicators. Residential concentrations of NO2, SO2, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and o/m/p-xylene were estimated by land use regression on data collected through environmental monitoring. Classification and Regression Tree (CART analysis was used to identify variables that interacted with sex and cardinal symptoms of exposure, and a series of logistic regression models were built to predict the reporting of five or more cardinal symptoms (5+ CS. Without controlling for confounders, higher pollution ranks increased the odds ratio (OR of reporting 5+ CS by 28% (p < 0.01; Confidence Interval (CI: 1.07–1.54. Females were 1.52 (p < 0.05; CI: 1.03–2.26 times more likely more likely to report 5+ CS after controlling for income, age and chronic diseases. The CART analysis showed that allergies and occupational exposure classified the sample into the most homogenous groups of males and females. The likelihood of reporting 5+ CS among females was higher after stratifying the sample based on occupational exposure. However, stratifying by allergic disease resulted in no significant sex difference in symptom reporting. The results confirmed previous research that found pre-existing health conditions to increase susceptibility to ambient air pollution, but additionally indicated that stronger effects on females is partly due to autoimmune disorders. Furthermore, gender differences in occupational exposure confound the effect size of exposure in studies based on residential levels of air pollution.

  15. Catalytic wet air oxidation of coke-plant wastewater on ruthenium-based eggshell catalysts in a bubbling bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, M; Sun, Y; Xu, A H; Lu, X Y; Du, H Z; Sun, C L; Li, C

    2007-07-01

    Catalytic wet air of coke-plant wastewater was studied in a bubbling bed reactor. Two types of supported Ru-based catalysts, eggshell and uniform catalysts, were employed. Compared with the results in the wet air oxidation of coke-plant wastewater, supported Ru uniform catalysts showed high activity for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia/ammonium compounds (NH3-N) removal at temperature of 250 degrees C and pressure of 4.8 MPa, and it has been demonstrated that the catalytic activity of uniform catalyst depended strongly on the distribution of active sites of Ru on catalyst. Compared to the corresponding uniform catalysts with the same Ru loading (0.25 wt.% and 0.1 wt.%, respectively), the eggshell catalysts showed higher activities for CODcr removal and much higher activities for NH3-N degradation. The high activity of eggshell catalyst for treatment of coke-plant wastewater can be attributed to the higher density of active Ru sites in the shell layer than that of the corresponding uniform catalyst with the same Ru loading. It has been also evidenced that the active Ru sites in the internal core of uniform catalyst have very little or no contribution to CODcr and NH3-N removal in the total oxidation of coke-plant wastewater.

  16. Isothermal oxidation behavior of Ti3Al-based alloy at 700-1 000 ℃ in air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Yu-hai; LI Mei-shuan; LU Bin

    2009-01-01

    The isothermal oxidation behavior of a Ti3Al-based alloy (Ti-24Al-14Nb-3V-0.5Mo-0.3Si, molar fraction, %) at 700- 1 000 ℃ in air was investigated. The oxidation kinetics of tested alloy approximately obeys the parabolic law, which shows that the oxidation process is dominated by the diffusion of ions. The oxidation diffusion activity energy is 241.32 kJ/mol. The tested alloy exhibits good oxidation resistance at 700 ℃. However, when the temperature is higher than 900 ℃, the oxidation resistance becomes poor. The XRD results reveal that the oxide product consists of a mixture of TiO2 and Al2O3. Serious crack and spallation of oxide scale occur during cooling procedure after being exposed at 1 000 ℃ in air for 16 h. According to the analysis of SEM/EDS and XRD, it is concluded that the Al2O3 oxide forms at the initially transient oxidation stage and most of it keeps in the outer oxide layer during the subsequent oxidation procedure.

  17. In-fiber rectangular air fabry-perot strain sensor based on high-precision fiber cutting platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Chen, Mao-qing; Lv, Ri-qing; Xia, Feng

    2017-02-01

    An in-fiber rectangular air Fabry-Perot (FP) strain sensor based on a high-precision fiber cutting platform (HFCP) is proposed. The HFCP consisting of a CCD notation system, a micro-displacement platform, and an optical fiber cleaver can be used to precisely control the length of FP cavity. The microcavity of FP (even only tens of microns) with smooth reflective surface can be realized easily by using this system. The FP structures with different cavity lengths have been fabricated in this paper. Simulation and experimental results prove that the shorter length the cavity has, the higher strain sensitivity and the larger free spectral range (FSR) the sensor obtains. The strain sensitivity and FSR of in-fiber rectangular air FP sensor with a cavity length of 35 μm can be up to 2.23 pm/με and 28.5 nm respectively. Moreover, the proposed FP strain sensor has a negligible temperature sensitivity in the range of 25-75 °C. It is anticipated that such easy making, compact and low-cost fiber-optic strain sensors could find important applications in practice.

  18. Safe and simple detection of sparse hydrogen by Pd-Au alloy/air based 1D photonic crystal sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, S.; Biswas, T.; Chattopadhyay, R.; Ghosh, J.; Bysakh, S.; Bhadra, S. K.

    2016-11-01

    A simple integrated hydrogen sensor using Pd-Au alloy/air based one dimensional photonic crystal with an air defect layer is theoretically modeled. Structural parameters of the photonic crystal are delicately scaled to generate photonic band gap frequencies in a visible spectral regime. An optimized defect thickness permits a localized defect mode operating at a frequency within the photonic band gap region. Hydrogen absorption causes modification in the band gap characteristics due to variation of refractive index and lattice parameters of the alloy. As a result, the transmission peak appeared due to the resonant defect state gets shifted. This peak shifting is utilized to detect sparse amount of hydrogen present in the surrounding environment. A theoretical framework is built to calculate the refractive index profile of hydrogen loaded alloy using density functional theory and Bruggeman's effective medium approximation. The calculated refractive index variation of Pd3Au alloy film due to hydrogen loading is verified experimentally by measuring the reflectance characteristics. Lattice expansion properties of the alloy are studied through X-ray diffraction analyses. The proposed structure shows about 3 nm red shift of the transmission peak for a rise of 1% atomic hydrogen concentration in the alloy.

  19. A health-based assessment of particulate air pollution in urban areas of Beijing in 2000-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minsi; Song, Yu; Cai, Xuhui

    2007-04-15

    Particulate air pollution is a serious problem in Beijing. The annual concentration of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microm (PM(10)), ranging from 141 to 166 microg m(-3) in 2000-2004, could be very harmful to human health. In this paper, we presented the mortality and morbidity effects of PM(10) pollution based on statistical data and the epidemiological exposure-response function. The economic costs to health during the 5 years were estimated to lie between US$1670 and $3655 million annually, accounting for about 6.55% of Beijing's gross domestic product each year. The total costs were apportioned into two parts caused by: the local emissions and long-range transported pollution. The contribution from local emissions dominated the total costs, accounting on average for 3.60% of GDP. However, the contributions from transported pollution cannot be neglected, and the relative percentage to the total costs from the other regions could account for about 45%. An energy policy and effective measures should be proposed to reduce particulate matter, especially PM(2.5) pollution in Beijing to protect public health. The Beijing government also needs to cooperate with the other local governments to reduce high background level of particulate air pollution.

  20. Performance of in-situ soil and groundwater treatment systems at McClellan Air Force Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, T.E. [BDM Federal, McClellan AFB, CA (United States); Mook, P.H. Jr.; Wong, K.B. [Sm-ALC/EMR, McClellan AFB, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    McClellan Air Force Base (AFB), located near Sacramento, California, is one of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program`s National Environmental Technology Test Sites. The US Air Force has evaluated, as part of the on-going environmental clean-up of McClellan AFB, several innovative and conventional in situ soil and groundwater technologies for the treatment of volatile organic compounds. This paper presents an overview and comparison of the performance and cost of three innovative technologies tested at McClellan AFB. Conventional groundwater extraction systems are effective but costly. Operation and maintenance (O and M) costs for treatment systems are increasingly becoming a major component of the environmental clean-up budget. The performance, limitations, costs, and lessons learned from the implementation of conventional soil vapor and groundwater extraction systems are compared with those of two innovative dual phase extraction systems. Both the Xerox 2-Phase{trademark} Extraction system and a standard dual phase extraction system are more effective than their conventional counterparts, but only over a discrete range of soil permeabilities. Discussions on McClellan AFB`s experiences with cometabolic bioremediation of groundwater and thermally enhanced soil vapor extraction systems are also included.

  1. Impact of future time-based operations on situation awareness of air traffic controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oprins, E.A.P.B.; Zwaaf, D.; Eriksson, F.; Merwe, K. van de; Roe, R.

    2009-01-01

    A time-based operation, as planned in the ATM future, is assumed to affect the controllers’ Situation Awareness (SA) due to a higher priority of meeting a time objective and increasing automation. This paper provides SA requirements on the design of controller support tools in time-based operations,

  2. Ground-based & satellite DOAS measurements integration for air quality evaluation/forecast management in the frame of QUITSAT Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostadinov, Ivan; Petritoli, Andrea; Giovanelli, Giorgio; Masieri, Samuele; Premuda, Margarita; Bortoli, Daniele; Ravegnani, Fabrizio; Palazzi, Elisa

    The observations of the Earth's atmosphere from space provide excellent opportunities for the exploration of the sophisticated physical-chemical processes on both global and regional scales. The major interest during the last three decades was focused mainly on the stratosphere and the ozone depletion. More recently the continuous improvements of satellite sensors have revealed new opportunities for larger applications of space observations, attracting scientific interest to the lower troposphere and air quality issues. The air quality depends strongly on the anthropogenic activity and therefore regional environmental agencies along with policy makers are in need of appropriate means for its continuous monitoring and control to ensure the adoption of the most appropriate actions. The goal of the pilot project QUITSAT, funded by the Italian Space Agency, is to develop algorithms and procedures for the evaluation and prediction of the air quality in Lombardia and Emilia-Romagna regions (Italy) by means of integrating satellite observations with ground-based in-situ and remote sensing measurements. This work presents dedicated Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements performed during the summer of 2007 and the winter of 2008. One of the DOAS instruments operate at Mt.Cimone station (2165m a.s.l) and the other two instruments conducted measurements in/near Bologna (90 m. a.s.l). Different observational geometry was adopted (zenith-sky, multi-axis and long-path) aimed to provide tropospheric NO2 columns and O3, SO2 and HCHO concentrations at ground level as an input data for QUITSAT procedures. Details of the instruments, the radiative transfer model used and the algorithms for retrieving and calculation of the target gases concentrations are presented. The obtained experimental results are correlated with the corresponding ones retrieved from SCIAMACHY /ENVISAT observations during the overpasses above the ground-based instruments. The analysis

  3. 基于VR-Force的协同空战效能评估研究%Evaluation effectiveness of cooperate air combat based on VR-Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左家亮; 杨任农; 寇雅楠; 张滢

    2011-01-01

    In the air combat, through integrating the main factor of the entity in the combat, and evaluating the hit probability of the entity in theory. On the assign task of the air combat based on the VR-Force develop environment is researched. According to the plan of the task, after edit campaign plan for every entity in the air combat, simulation experiment is done according the air combat plan in VR-Force, evaluate the efficiency of the air combat plan. At last, through comparing the result of the simulation, the value and meaning of the scientific and reasonable task assign plan in the air to air combat is illuminated.%在空战对抗中,通过综合参战实体各项战技指标,从理论上拟合单个实体对对方的杀伤概率.基于VR-Force开发环境,进行协同空战任务分配研究.根据任务分配方案,对每个参战实体制定对应的作战计划,按此方案制作作战想定,进行战场推演,实现效能评估.实验仿真结果与理论推导说明了科学合理的任务分配方案在协同空战中的作用和意义.

  4. Nickel based alloys as electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution from alkaline solutions. [Metal--air batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, P.W.T.; Srinivasan, S.

    1977-01-01

    The slowness of the oxygen evolution reaction is one of the main reasons for significant energy losses in water electrolysis cells and secondary air--metal batteries. To date, data on the kinetics of this reaction on alloys and intermetallic compounds are sparse. In this work, mechanically polished alloys of nickel with Ir, Ru or W and Ni--Ti intermetallic compounds were studied as oxygen electrodes. Since the oxygen evolution reaction always takes place on oxide-film covered surfaces, the nature of oxide films formed on these alloys were investigated using cyclic voltametric techniques. Steady-state potentiostatic and slow potentiodynamic (at 0.1 mV/s) methods were employed to obtain the electrode kinetic parameters for the oxygen evolution reaction in 30 wt. percent KOH at 80/sup 0/C, the conditions normally used in water electrolysis cells. The peaks for the formation or reduction of oxygen-containing layers appearing on the pure metals are not always found on the alloys. The maximum decreases in oxygen overpotential at an apparent current density of 20 mA cm/sup -2/ (as compared with that on Ni) were found for the alloys of 50Ni--50Ir and 75Ni--25Ru and the intermetallic compound Ni/sub 3/Ti, these decreases being about 40, 30, and 20 mV, respectively. On the long-term polarization in the potential region of oxygen evolution, the oxygen-containing layers on Ni--Ir or Ni--Ru alloys are essentially composed of nickel oxides instead of true mixed oxide films of two components. The present work confirms that, possibly because of coverage by oxide films, there is no direct dependence of the electrocatalytic activities of the alloys on their electronic properties. 11 figures, 1 table.

  5. Portable air quality sensor unit for participatory monitoring: an end-to-end VESNA-AQ based prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucnik, Matevz; Robinson, Johanna; Smolnikar, Miha; Kocman, David; Horvat, Milena; Mohorcic, Mihael

    2015-04-01

    Key words: portable air quality sensor, CITI-SENSE, participatory monitoring, VESNA-AQ The emergence of low-cost easy to use portable air quality sensors units is opening new possibilities for individuals to assess their exposure to air pollutants at specific place and time, and share this information through the Internet connection. Such portable sensors units are being used in an ongoing citizen science project called CITI-SENSE, which enables citizens to measure and share the data. The project aims through creating citizens observatories' to empower citizens to contribute to and participate in environmental governance, enabling them to support and influence community and societal priorities as well as associated decision making. An air quality measurement system based on VESNA sensor platform was primarily designed within the project for the use as portable sensor unit in selected pilot cities (Belgrade, Ljubljana and Vienna) for monitoring outdoor exposure to pollutants. However, functionally the same unit with different set of sensors could be used for example as an indoor platform. The version designed for the pilot studies was equipped with the following sensors: NO2, O3, CO, temperature, relative humidity, pressure and accelerometer. The personal sensor unit is battery powered and housed in a plastic box. The VESNA-based air quality (AQ) monitoring system comprises the VESNA-AQ portable sensor unit, a smartphone app and the remote server. Personal sensor unit supports wireless connection to an Android smartphone via built-in Wi-Fi. The smartphone in turn serves also as the communication gateway towards the remote server using any of available data connections. Besides the gateway functionality the role of smartphone is to enrich data coming from the personal sensor unit with the GPS location, timestamps and user defined context. This, together with an accelerometer, enables the user to better estimate ones exposure in relation to physical activities, time

  6. Suitability of Semiconductor Heterostructure over SiO2-Air Composition for One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal based Bandpass Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arka Karmakar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bandpass filter characteristics is numerically computed for semiconductor heterostructure based onedimensional photonic crystal at different optical wavelengths by varying the structural parameters taking GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs as a suitable composition subject to normal incidence of electromagnetic wave. Transfer matrix technique is used for numerical analysis. Results are compared with conventionally used SiO2-air material system and significance improvements are observed at few desired spectra. Heterostructure provides larger passbandwidth with almost negligible ripple than conventional material system at 1330 nm or 1550 nm, which is required for present day optical communication network. Efficient tuning can be achieved by varying different layer dimensions for the preferred material composition which effectively changes the filter bandwidth in either side of the central wavelength, but it cost generation of ripples for the conventional system.

  7. Numerical analysis of the in-well vapor-stripping system demonstration at Edwards Air Force Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, M.D.; Gilmore, T.J.

    1996-10-01

    Numerical simulations, with the Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator, were applied to the field demonstration of an in-well vapor-stripping system at Edwards Air Force Base (AFB), near Mojave, California. The demonstration field site on the Edwards AFB was previously contaminated from traversing groundwater that was contained a varied composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which primarily includes trichloroethylene (TCE). Contaminant TCE originated from surface basin that had been used to collect runoff during the cleaning of experimental rocket powered planes in the 1960s and 1970s. This report documents those simulations and associated numerical analyses. A companion report documents the in- well vapor-stripping demonstration from a field perspective.

  8. A global airport-based risk model for the spread of dengue infection via the air transport network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Gardner

    Full Text Available The number of travel-acquired dengue infections has seen a consistent global rise over the past decade. An increased volume of international passenger air traffic originating from regions with endemic dengue has contributed to a rise in the number of dengue cases in both areas of endemicity and elsewhere. This paper reports results from a network-based risk assessment model which uses international passenger travel volumes, travel routes, travel distances, regional populations, and predictive species distribution models (for the two vector species, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus to quantify the relative risk posed by each airport in importing passengers with travel-acquired dengue infections. Two risk attributes are evaluated: (i the risk posed by through traffic at each stopover airport and (ii the risk posed by incoming travelers to each destination airport. The model results prioritize optimal locations (i.e., airports for targeted dengue surveillance. The model is easily extendible to other vector-borne diseases.

  9. A Soft Sensor-Based Fault-Tolerant Control on the Air Fuel Ratio of Spark-Ignition Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jia Zhai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The air/fuel ratio (AFR regulation for spark-ignition (SI engines has been an essential and challenging control problem for engineers in the automotive industry. The feed-forward and feedback scheme has been investigated in both academic research and industrial application. The aging effect can often cause an AFR sensor fault in the feedback loop, and the AFR control performance will degrade consequently. In this research, a new control scheme on AFR with fault-tolerance is proposed by using an artificial neural network model based on fault detection and compensation, which can provide the satisfactory AFR regulation performance at the stoichiometric value for the combustion process, given a certain level of misreading of the AFR sensor.

  10. Evaluation of bituminous materials used in pavement recycling projects at Tyndall, MacDill, and Hurlburt Air Force Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiggundu, B.; Martinez, R.; Humphrey, B.; Shuler, T.

    1987-07-01

    This report presents results of a study involving bituminous materials from Tyndall and MacDill Air Force Bases and Hurlburt Field. These materials included Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP), modifiers, virgin asphalts, and new aggregates. A tentative modifier selection criterion was used to judge the quality of materials used in the recycling efforts at the respective sites. The results showed that independent adequacy of physical properties from chemical properties in selection of modifiers could not be established. However, some of the results showed that physical properties were more sensitive indicators of changes in binders due to aging. In addition, this report includes the tentative modifier selection criteria and results of an interlaboratory study from which variability limits to parameters determined using modified Clay-Gel and Heithaus procedures are established. The modified Clay-Gel and Heithaus procedures are included.

  11. Fused analytical and iterative reconstruction (AIR) via modified proximal forward-backward splitting: a FDK-based iterative image reconstruction example for CBCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hao

    2016-10-01

    This work is to develop a general framework, namely analytical iterative reconstruction (AIR) method, to incorporate analytical reconstruction (AR) method into iterative reconstruction (IR) method, for enhanced CT image quality and reconstruction efficiency. Specifically, AIR is established based on the modified proximal forward-backward splitting (PFBS) algorithm, and its connection to the filtered data fidelity with sparsity regularization is discussed. As a result, AIR decouples data fidelity and image regularization with a two-step iterative scheme, during which an AR-projection step updates the filtered data fidelity term, while a denoising solver updates the sparsity regularization term. During the AR-projection step, the image is projected to the data domain to form the data residual, and then reconstructed by certain AR to a residual image which is then weighted together with previous image iterate to form next image iterate. Intuitively since the eigenvalues of AR-projection operator are close to the unity, PFBS based AIR has a fast convergence. Such an advantage is rigorously established through convergence analysis and numerical computation of convergence rate. The proposed AIR method is validated in the setting of circular cone-beam CT with AR being FDK and total-variation sparsity regularization, and has improved image quality from both AR and IR. For example, AIR has improved visual assessment and quantitative measurement in terms of both contrast and resolution, and reduced axial and half-fan artifacts.

  12. Community air monitoring for pesticides. Part 3: using health-based screening levels to evaluate results collected for a year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, Pamela; Segawa, Randy; Schreider, Jay; Federighi, Veda; Neal, Rosemary; Brattesani, Madeline

    2014-03-01

    The CA Department of Pesticide Regulation (CDPR) and the CA Air Resources Board monitored 40 pesticides, including five degradation products, in Parlier, CA, to determine if its residents were exposed to any of these pesticides and, if so, in what amounts. They included 1,3-dichloropropene, acrolein, arsenic, azinphos-methyl, carbon disulfide, chlorpyrifos and its degradation product, chlorthalonil, copper, cypermethrin, diazinon and its degradation product, dichlorvos, dicofol, dimethoate and its degradation product, diuron, endosulfan and its degradation product, S-ethyl dipropylcarbamothioate (EPTC), formaldehyde, malathion and its degradation product, methyl isothiocyanate (MITC), methyl bromide, metolachlor, molinate, norflurazon, oryzalin, oxyfluorfen, permethrin, phosmet, propanil, propargite, simazine, SSS-tributylphosphorotrithioate, sulfur, thiobencarb, trifluralin, and xylene. Monitoring was conducted 3 days per week for a year. Twenty-three pesticides and degradation products were detected. Acrolein, arsenic, carbon disulfide, chlorpyrifos, copper, formaldehyde, methyl bromide, MITC, and sulfur were detected in more than half the samples. Since no regulatory ambient air standards exist for these pesticides, CDPR developed advisory, health-based non-cancer screening levels (SLs) to assess acute, subchronic, and chronic exposures. For carcinogenic pesticides, CDPR assessed risk using cancer potency values. Amongst non-carcinogenic agricultural use pesticides, only diazinon exceeded its SL. For carcinogens, 1,3-dichloropropene concentrations exceeded its cancer potency value. Based on these findings, CDPR has undertaken a more comprehensive evaluation of 1,3-dichloropropene, diazinon, and the closely related chlorpyrifos that was frequently detected. Four chemicals-acrolein, arsenic, carbon disulfide, and formaldehyde-sometimes used as pesticides were detected, although no pesticidal use was reported in the area during this study. Their presence was most

  13. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow at Arnold Air Force Base, Coffee and Franklin counties, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugh, C.J.; Mahoney, E.N.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force at Arnold Air Force Base (AAFB), in Coffee and Franklin Counties, Tennessee, is investigating ground-water contamination in selected areas of the base. This report documents the results of a comprehensive investigation of the regional hydrogeology of the AAFB area. Three aquifers within the Highland Rim aquifer system, the shallow aquifer, the Manchester aquifer, and the Fort Payne aquifer, have been identified in the study area. Of these, the Manchester aquifer is the primary source of water for domestic use. Drilling and water- quality data indicate that the Chattanooga Shale is an effective confining unit, isolating the Highland Rim aquifer system from the deeper, upper Central Basin aquifer system. A regional ground-water divide, approximately coinciding with the Duck River-Elk River drainage divide, underlies AAFB and runs from southwest to northeast. The general direction of most ground-water flow is to the north- west or to the northwest or to the southeast from the divide towards tributary streams that drain the area. Recharge estimates range from 4 to 11 inches per year. Digital computer modeling was used to simulate and provide a better understanding of the ground-water flow system. The model indicates that most of the ground-water flow occurs in the shallow and Manchester aquifers. The model was most sensitive to increases in hydraulic conductivity and changes in recharge rates. Particle-tracking analysis from selected sites of ground-water contamination indicates a potential for contami- nants to be transported beyond the boundary of AAFB.

  14. Individual traffic-related air pollution and new onset adult asthma:A GIS-based pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysbeck Hansen, Carl; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Baelum, Jesper

    individual traffic-related air pollution exposure and new onset asthma and wheeze. It is recommended that the analytic methods developed in this pilot study are used in a larger prospective cohort to investigate individual traffic-related air pollutants as a risk factor for the development of new asthma......The background for the project is that traffic-related air pollution may provoke the onset of asthma. The objective of this pilot study is to investigate the relation between asthma and wheeze debut and individually estimated exposure to traffic-related air pollutants with a validated exposure...... successfully identified for all study participants (N=33). Using AirGIS traffic-related air pollutant levels from both urban background and street level were estimated for the 10 year study period on an hourly basis. Individual levels of air pollutants in the years preceding debut of asthma or wheeze were...

  15. Simulation evaluation of TIMER, a time-based, terminal air traffic, flow-management concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credeur, Leonard; Capron, William R.

    1989-01-01

    A description of a time-based, extended terminal area ATC concept called Traffic Intelligence for the Management of Efficient Runway scheduling (TIMER) and the results of a fast-time evaluation are presented. The TIMER concept is intended to bridge the gap between today's ATC system and a future automated time-based ATC system. The TIMER concept integrates en route metering, fuel-efficient cruise and profile descents, terminal time-based sequencing and spacing together with computer-generated controller aids, to improve delivery precision for fuller use of runway capacity. Simulation results identify and show the effects and interactions of such key variables as horizon of control location, delivery time error at both the metering fix and runway threshold, aircraft separation requirements, delay discounting, wind, aircraft heading and speed errors, and knowledge of final approach speed.

  16. Passivity-Based Control for a Micro Air Vehicle Using Unit Quaternions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eusebia Guerrero-Sanchez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the development and practical implementation of a Passivity-Based Control (PBC algorithm to stabilize an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV described with unit quaternions are presented. First, a mathematical model based on Euler-Lagrange formulation using a logarithmic mapping in the quaternion space is introduced. Then, a new methodology: a quaternion-passivity-based control is derived, which does not compute excessive and complex Partial Differential Equations (PDEs for synthesizing the control law, making a significant advantage in comparison with other methodologies. Therefore, the control design to a system as the quad-rotor is easily solved by the proposed methodology. Another advantage is the possibility to stabilize quad-rotor full dynamics which may not be possible with classical PBC techniques. Experimental results and numerical simulations to validate our proposed scheme are presented.

  17. Comparing toxic air pollutant programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, S.C. [ECKENFELDER Inc., Greenville, SC (United States)

    1997-05-01

    This article compares state and federal toxic air pollutant programs. The Clean Air Act Ammendments created a program for the control of Hazardous Air Pollutants based on the establishment of control technology standards. State toxic programs can be classified into two categories: control technology-based and ambient concentration-based. Many states have opened to implement the MACT standards while enforcing their own state air toxics programs. Specific topics discussed include the following: the Federal air toxics program; existing state regulations; New Jersey Air Toxic Program; New York Toxics program.

  18. Ecological Assessment of Vandenburg Air Force Base, California. Volume 2. Biological Inventory 1974/75

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    represent a few age classes so that the conclusions reached below are very tentative . But some trends are indicated which may warrent further...transparent sheet of velum over the base map to ascertain the landmarks, roads, and man-made structures marked on the base maps. Using...1 > - i aisTw« rmci, «HK ■ wm* ■» — • - tusmn rtMCt, CMia LIM — «reaoMN tent we <u* CLIaUMCf ■ aWTIM *«IL*0*B — ^ laiSTHM

  19. Comparison of Highly Resolved Model-Based Exposure Metrics for Traffic-Related Air Pollutants to Support Environmental Health Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih Ying Chang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to air pollution in many studies is represented by ambient concentrations from space-time kriging of observed values. Space-time kriging techniques based on a limited number of ambient monitors may fail to capture the concentration from local sources. Further, because people spend more time indoors, using ambient concentration to represent exposure may cause error. To quantify the associated exposure error, we computed a series of six different hourly-based exposure metrics at 16,095 Census blocks of three Counties in North Carolina for CO, NOx, PM2.5, and elemental carbon (EC during 2012. These metrics include ambient background concentration from space-time ordinary kriging (STOK, ambient on-road concentration from the Research LINE source dispersion model (R-LINE, a hybrid concentration combining STOK and R-LINE, and their associated indoor concentrations from an indoor infiltration mass balance model. Using a hybrid-based indoor concentration as the standard, the comparison showed that outdoor STOK metrics yielded large error at both population (67% to 93% and individual level (average bias between −10% to 95%. For pollutants with significant contribution from on-road emission (EC and NOx, the on-road based indoor metric performs the best at the population level (error less than 52%. At the individual level, however, the STOK-based indoor concentration performs the best (average bias below 30%. For PM2.5, due to the relatively low contribution from on-road emission (7%, STOK-based indoor metric performs the best at both population (error below 40% and individual level (error below 25%. The results of the study will help future epidemiology studies to select appropriate exposure metric and reduce potential bias in exposure characterization.

  20. Socioeconomic Impact Analysis Study. Disposal and Reuse of Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    30 3.5.5 Health Care ......................................... 3-31 3.6 PUBLIC FINANCE .......................................... 3-33 3.6.1 County of...4-44 4.6 PUBLIC FINANCE .......................................... 4-44 4.6.1 Proposed Action...services, public finance , transportation, and utilities. These factors substantially influence the character of communities in the vicinity of the base

  1. Socioeconomic Impact Analysis Study. Disposal and Reuse of Norton Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    closure and potential reuse of the base. The scope of this study includes economic activity, population,3housing, public services, public finance , transportation...3-5 3.1.5 Public Finance ........................................ 3-5 3.1.6 Other Relevant Resources ................................ 3-5...3-7 3.2.5 Public Finance ........................................ 3-8 3.2.6 Other Relevant Resources

  2. Environmental Assessment for the Aeromedical Evacuation Formal Training Unit, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    endangered  Upland Sandpiper (Bartramia longicauda), threatened  Sedge Wren (Cistothorus platensis), species of concern  Henslow’s sparrow...tresses (Spiranthes magnicamporum), potentially threatened  Pigeon grape (Vitis cinerea), potentially threatened Additionally, the midland sedge ... Carex mesochorea) is known to exist from just outside the Base boundary in Greene County and is listed as threatened in Ohio. This species is quite

  3. Grady Highway Extension (Ship Creek Crossing) Elmendorf Air Force Base and Fort Richardson, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    DPW Directorate of Public Works DRMO Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office E.O. Executive Order Acronyms and Abbreviations vi...recreation management designation of the proposed road and bridge site is Limited Recreation (open to hiking, skiing, berry picking, birdwatching , and...Environmental Assessment Grady Highway Extension (Ship Creek Crossing) by the Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office (DRMO) located on the Base

  4. Stewart Air National Guard Base, NY, C-5M Painting Refurbishment Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    isocyanate paints can adequately be mitigated through the continued practice of wearing cotton or Tyvek® coveralls and nitrile or neoprene gloves...cotton or Tyvek® coveralls and nitrile or neoprene gloves. 5 Batten, Timothy W. Base Level

  5. 75 FR 958 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; 2002 Base Year Emission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... emissions modeling software, MOBILE6. The FMVCP and RVP emission reductions are then removed from the base... and/or VOC) accounting for any growth that occurs during the six year period following the baseline... source emissions accounting for all mobile control measures. The MVEBs for the 2008 RFP are shown...

  6. 75 FR 953 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; 2002 Base Year Emission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... reductions are determined by the State using EPA's on-road mobile source emissions modeling software, MOBILE6... SIP revision must provide for a 15 percent emission reduction (either NO X and/or VOC) accounting for... the 2008 RFP is based on the projected 2008 mobile source emissions accounting for all mobile...

  7. Installation Restoration Program Records Search for Bergstrom Air Force Base, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    Johnson grass, buffalograss, Bermudagrass, fescue, and Texas wintergrass. Spring wildflowers , including Texas bluebonnet and indian paintbrush, are...kingfisher. The California jack rabbit is very common on the grassy areas of the base. Other mammals known to be present in the wooded ravines include

  8. Geothermal Potential on Kirtland Air Force Base Lands, Bernalillo County, New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    RIO GRANDE RIFT The Rio Grande from its headwaters in the western San Luis Valley of south central Colorado to the vicinity of El Paso flows through a...approximatel’ the center of the west half of section 26, T 10 N, R 5 F. Another expo- sure is a minor scarp located by Kelley at the base of the Rincon

  9. Ozone distributions over southern Lake Michigan: comparisons between ferry-based observations, shoreline-based DOAS observations and air quality forecast models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Cleary

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Air quality forecast models typically predict large ozone abundances over water relative to land in the Great Lakes region. While each state bordering Lake Michigan has dedicated monitoring systems, offshore measurements have been sparse, mainly executed through specific short-term campaigns. This study examines ozone abundances over Lake Michigan as measured on the Lake Express ferry, by shoreline Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS observations in southeastern Wisconsin, and as predicted by the National Air Quality Forecast System. From 2008–2009 measurements of O3, SO2, NO2 and formaldehyde were made in the summertime by DOAS at a shoreline site in Kenosha, WI. From 2008–2010 measurements of ambient ozone conducted on the Lake Express, a high-speed ferry that travels between Milwaukee, WI and Muskegon, MI up to 6 times daily from spring to fall. Ferry ozone observations over Lake Michigan were an average of 3.8 ppb higher than those measured at shoreline in Kenosha with little dependence on position of the ferry or temperature but with highest differences during evening and night. Concurrent ozone forecast images from National Weather System's National Air Quality Forecast System in the upper Midwestern region surrounding Lake Michigan were saved over the ferry ozone sampling period in 2009. The bias of the model O3 forecast was computed and evaluated with respect to ferry-based measurements. The model 1 and 8 h ozone mean biases were both 12 ppb higher than observed ozone, and maximum daily 1 h ozone mean bias was 10 ppb, indicating substantial ozone over-prediction over water. Trends in the bias with respect to location and time of day or month were also explored showing non-uniformity in model bias. Extreme ozone events were predicted by the model but not observed by ferry measurements.

  10. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 4, Health and Safety Plan (HSP); Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation report: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  11. Temperature insensitive one-dimensional bending vector sensor based on eccentric-core fiber and air cavity Fabry-Perot interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jing; Zhou, Ai; Yuan, Libo

    2017-04-01

    A temperature insensitive directional bending sensor based on an eccentric-core fiber (ECF) cascaded with an air-cavity Fabry–Perot (F-P) interferometer is presented and demonstrated. The ECF-based air cavity F-P interferometer is fabricated by fuse splicing a piece of hollow-core fiber (HCF) in between an ECF and a multi-mode fiber (MMF). The bending sensitivities of the sensor at the two opposite most sensitive directions are 79.5 pm/m‑1 and ‑81.5 pm/m‑1, respectively. The temperature sensitivity of the proposed structure is as low as 1 pm °C‑1.

  12. Generalization of heterogeneous alpine vegetation in air photo-based image classification, Latnjajaure catchment, northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindblad, K. E. M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Mapping alpine vegetation at a meso-scale (catchment level using remote sensing presents difficulties due to a patchy distribution and heterogeneous spectral appearance of the plant cover. We discuss issues of generalization and accuracy assessment in this case study when using a digital CIR air photo for an automatic classification of the dominant plant communities. Spectral information from an aerial photograph was supplemented by classified plant communities in field and by topographical information derived from a DEM. 150 control points were tracked in the field using a GPS. The outcome from three alternative classifications was analysed by Kappa statistics, user’s and producer’s accuracy. Overall accuracy did not differ between the classifications although producer’s and user’s accuracy for separate classes differed together with total surface (ha and distribution. Manual accuracy assessment when recording the occurrence of the correct class within a radius of 5 meters from the control points generated an improvement of 16 % of the total accuracy. About 10 plant communities could be classified with acceptable accuracy where the chosen classification scheme determined the final outcome. If a high resolution pixel mosaic is generalized to units that match the positional accuracy of simple GPS this generalization may also influence the information content of the image.



    Hemos llevado a cabo la cartografía de la vegetación alpina a escala media (nivel de cuenca experimental mediante interpretación remota. Esta metodología plantea dificultades debido a la distribución en mosaico de la vegetación y a la heterogeneidad del espetro obtenido. Se discuten las posibilidades de generalización de los resultados y el grado de precisión alcanzado en este caso experimental mediante fotografía aérea digital CIR aplicada a una clasificación automática de

  13. Evaluation of air cleanness degree of the urban environment based on negative air ion concentration%基于空气负离子浓度的城市环境空气清洁度评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王薇; 余庄; 冀凤全

    2013-01-01

      选取安徽合肥和广东深圳为研究对象,收集其空气正、负离子浓度、风速、空气温度、相对湿度、材料和植物负离子浓度等数据并分析.结果显示,空气负离子浓度与风速、水、植物、相对湿度等有较为密切的关系,其中最主要的影响是水,其次是风,最小的是气温;并根据对城市室内外环境的实测研究,利用空气离子单极系数及安倍空气离子评价指数对城市室内外环境的空气质量进行初步评价,结果表明,从城市室内环境到城市居住区环境、城镇、自然生态环境空气清洁度逐步变好.城市居住区环境中,以低层高密度住区的空气质量最好,空气负离子浓度为289个/cm3,空气质量达到1.7,空气清洁度为最清洁;而高层居住区最差,空气负离子浓度为139个/cm3,空气质量达到0.08,空气清洁度为重污染.城市室内环境中以自然通风和有新风进入的房间空气质量最好,同时放置负离子发生器对室内空气质量也有显著提高.因此,建议在城市规划建设中采取有效措施以提高空气负离子浓度的分布,从而改善城市生态环境以创造舒适宜居的空气环境,并把空气负离子浓度列为室内环境的监测和评价指标,为今后城乡建设规划、城市林业规划和环境能源保护提供科学依据和设计思路.%In this study, we conducted test in Hefei of Anhui province and Shenzhen of Guangdong province in China, where we chose different typical sites to measure and research. The measurements included negative air ion concentration, positive air icon concentration, wind speed, air temperature, relative humidity and negative air icon concentration in materials and plants. The results showed that negative air icon concentration had a closer relation with wind speed, water, plants and air humidity than other factors, the most important factor was the water, followed by wind, and the minimal was air temperature.Based

  14. Environmental Assessment: Military Family Housing Revitalization Travis Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    of creating an attractive appearance No significant impacts are anticipated. Potential aesthetic impacts would be similar to those described...to control termites . Chlordane is a persistent bioaccumulative and toxic chemical; therefore, it may still be present in the soils within the MFH...expressed first in units in which they were promulgated. Equivalent units given in parentheses are based on a reference temperature of 25 degrees Celsius

  15. Wing Infrastructure Development Outlook (WINDO) Plan. Environmental Assessment: Langley Air Force Base, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    with Nealy Avenue/ Hammond Avenue. Parking in some on-base areas is limited. The combination of Ward Road, Clarke Avenue, Weyland Road and Lee...The large wind tunnels and aeronautical test equipment that comprise the NASA facility resemble a large industrial area. A number of older...shallow water table aquifer , an upper artesian aquifer system, and the principal artesian aquifer system. All three aquifers in this area contain water

  16. A Strategic Decision Matrix for Analyzing Food Service Operations at Air Force Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    comment addressing this area on the returned questionnaire stated “Since our wartime mission is food and we earn a large portion of our go-to-war...looking to satisfy a craving for fast food . The menu also changes from day to day to add additional variety. But, their strategy is not based solely on...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT A Strategic Decision Matrix for Analyzing Food Service

  17. Environmental Assessment: Construction of Consolidated Fuel Overhaul and Repair Facility at Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    the base, the Hennessey Group overlies the aquifer and acts as a confining layer because it is typical clay -rich, low-permeability shale. The...archaeological materials such as chipped ~·:one tools, pottery , bone, historic crockery, glass, metal items or building materials, this agency should be...materials such as chipped stone, tools, pottery , bone, historic crockery, glass, metal items or building materials, this agency should be contacted

  18. Environmental Impact Statement for Proposed Closure of Myrtle Beach Air Force Base, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus), inhabits freshwater rivers, lakes, swamps, and marshes, occasionally entering brackish or salt water. Their range...eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). U Prehistoric Resources. Twelve of the 14 archaeological sites recorded on the...base contain the remains of prehistoric occupations, ranging in age from the Middle Archaic to Woodland periods. The sites consist of sparse lithic

  19. Environmental Assessment: Replacement of Subscale Drone Recovery Boat Dock at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    to approximately 110 ft below land surface (bls) at Tyndall AFB. This material is relatively permeable and is underlain by the Intracoastal Formation... permeable . The Intracoastal Formation is underlain by highly permeable limestone that extends below 600 ft bls in some areas. In general, the soils of...off base by a solid waste disposal contractor. Metal components on the dock, such as nails , screws, cleats, lamp posts, and the chain-link access gate

  20. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Disposal and Reuse of Portions of Grissom Air Force Base, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    in enclosed areas, such as basements. The cancer risk caused by exposure, through the inhalation of radon, is currently a topic of concern. 3-70...parcel adjacent to the main base on the east side of U.S. 31. American sycamore, black walnut, red- osier dogwood, osage orange, climbing rose, milkweed ...include birth defects, low birth weight, psychological illness, cancer , stroke, hypertension, sudden cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and cardiac