WorldWideScience

Sample records for air bags

  1. Face-Saving Devices: Seat Belts and Air Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160032.html Face-Saving Devices: Seat Belts and Air Bags Using ... 11 percent) suffered facial fractures -- nasal and mid-face fractures most often. Those most likely to suffer ...

  2. Wave energy absorption by a floating air bag

    CERN Document Server

    Kurniawan, A; Greaves, D M; Hann, M; Farley, F J M

    2016-01-01

    A floating air bag, ballasted in water, expands and contracts as it heaves under wave action. Connecting the bag to a secondary volume via a turbine transforms the bag into a device capable of generating useful energy from the waves. Small-scale measurements of the device reveal some interesting properties, which are successfully predicted numerically. Owing to its compressibility, the device can have a resonance period longer than that of a rigid device of the same shape and size, without any phase control. Furthermore, varying the amount of air in the bag is found to change its shape and hence its dynamic response, while varying the turbine damping or the air volume ratio changes the dynamic response without changing the shape.

  3. A rare case of blunt thoracoabdominal trauma with small bowel perforation from air bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liverani, A; Pezzatini, M; Conte, S; Mari, F; Milillo, A; Gasparrini, M; Marino, G; Catracchia, V; -Favi, F

    2009-05-01

    Vehicle collisions represent more than 75% of mechanism of blunt abdominal trauma. In spite of the incomparable improvement of car safety devices, recent studies pointed out that the air bags might cause injuries, specially when it is not associated with seatbelt. In fact, some studies pointed out that crash victims using air bags alone have increased injury severity, hospitalisations, thoracoabdominal procedure, and rehabilitation. Some of the most frequently injured organs reported from air bag deployment are the liver (38%), the spleen (23%) and digestive system (17%). Injury of the hollow viscera are far less common. In particular, blunt abdominal trauma resulting in small bowel perforation is an infrequent lesion. These injuries are difficult to diagnose because specific signs are poor and a delay in treatment increases mortality and morbidity of the patients. We describe a case of thoracoabdominal trauma that occurred during a head-on collision after an air bag deployment without seatbelt use.

  4. Vented spikes improve delivery from intravenous bags with no air headspace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galush, William J; Horst, Travis A

    2015-07-01

    Flexible plastic bags are the container of choice for most intravenous (i.v.) infusions. Under certain circumstances, however, the air-liquid interface present in these i.v. bags can lead to physical instability of protein biopharmaceuticals, resulting in product aggregation. In principle, the air headspace present in the bags can be removed to increase drug stability, but experiments described here show that this can result in incomplete draining of solution from the bag using gravity delivery, or generation of negative pressure in the bag when an infusion pump is used. It is expected that these issues could lead to incomplete delivery of medication to patients or pump-related problems, respectively. However, here it is shown that contrary to the standard pharmacy practice of using nonvented spikes with i.v. bags, the use of vented spikes with i.v. bags that lack air headspace allows complete delivery of the dose solution without impacting the physical stability of a protein-based drug. PMID:25953689

  5. [Awareness of the risk of air bag-associated injuries essential].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnstig, Ulf; Haraldsson, Per-Olle; Polland, Werner; Sandström, Thomas

    2002-07-11

    Restraint systems, such as air bags and seat belts with pretensioners, reduce effectively the risk of serious injuries of car occupants. However, this equipment may have some adverse effects. In a frontal air bag deployment the cushion expands with a speed of about 200 km/h towards the driver. A person within the expansion zone, i.e. within 20 centimetres from the steering wheel hub, may experience a considerable injury risk. Short people, pregnant women and people "out of normal position" are especially at risk, as well as paramedics exposed for accidentally deployed air bags during rescue work. The gas generator in the air bag produces nitrogen in a chemical process. However, small amounts of NaOH (caustic soda) may leak out of the gas generator and may contaminate eyes and wounds and cause injuries and delay healing. The air bag gases may provoke an asthmatic attack in sensible individuals and a few will experience a hearing loss, often in the range of 4,000-6,000 Hz, from the sound impulse that may reach a level of 170 dB. Correct handling, based on a familiarity of the effects and side effects of modern restraint systems, would minimise the risk of adverse effects of this safety equipment. PMID:12170512

  6. Preliminary enviromagnetic comparison of the moss, lichen, and filter fabric bags to air pollution monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Salo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Air quality and anthropogenic air pollutants are usually investigated by passive biomonitoring which utilizes native species. Active biomonitoring, instead, refers to the use of transplants or bags in areas lacking native species. In Finland, the standardized moss bag technique SFS 5794 is commonly applied in active monitoring but there is still need for simpler and labor-saving sample material even on international scale. This article focuses on a preliminary comparison of the usability and collection efficiency of bags made of moss Sphagnum papillosum, lichen Hypogymnia physodes, and filter fabric (Filtrete™ in active biomonitoring of air pollutants around an industrial site in Harjavalta, SW Finland. The samples are analyzed with magnetic (i.e. magnetic susceptibility, isothermal remanent magnetization, hysteresis loop and hysteresis parameters methods highly suitable as a first-step tool for pollution studies. The results show that the highest magnetic susceptibility of each sample material is measured close to the industrial site. Furthermore, moss bags accumulate more magnetic material than lichen bags which, on the contrary, perform better at further distances. Filter fabric bags are tested only at 1 km sites indicating a good accumulation capability near the source. Pseudo-single-domain (PSD magnetite is identified as the main magnetic mineral in all sample materials and good correlations are found between different bag types. To conclude, all three materials effectively accumulate air pollutants and are suitable for air quality studies. The results of this article provide a base for later studies which are needed in order to fully determine a new, efficient, and easy sample material for active monitoring.

  7. 77 FR 33998 - Make Inoperative Exemptions; Retrofit On-Off Switches for Air Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... technological changes (e.g., consumer education on air bags and the importance of seat belts and putting..., 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For non-legal issues: Ms. Carla Rush, Office of... children, in relatively low speed crashes. It was shown that the majority of these fatalities...

  8. Hybrid Modeling of Flotation Height in Air Flotation Oven Based on Selective Bagging Ensemble Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Hou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The accurate prediction of the flotation height is very necessary for the precise control of the air flotation oven process, therefore, avoiding the scratch and improving production quality. In this paper, a hybrid flotation height prediction model is developed. Firstly, a simplified mechanism model is introduced for capturing the main dynamic behavior of the process. Thereafter, for compensation of the modeling errors existing between actual system and mechanism model, an error compensation model which is established based on the proposed selective bagging ensemble method is proposed for boosting prediction accuracy. In the framework of the selective bagging ensemble method, negative correlation learning and genetic algorithm are imposed on bagging ensemble method for promoting cooperation property between based learners. As a result, a subset of base learners can be selected from the original bagging ensemble for composing a selective bagging ensemble which can outperform the original one in prediction accuracy with a compact ensemble size. Simulation results indicate that the proposed hybrid model has a better prediction performance in flotation height than other algorithms’ performance.

  9. Theoretical investigation of heave dynamics of an air cushion vehicle bag and finger skirt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Joon

    This thesis describes a theoretical investigation of the nonlinear and linear heave dynamics of an air cushion vehicle (ACV) equipped with a bag and finger skirt system with the purpose of understanding the skirt's effect on the vehicle heave dynamics. Throughout the course of this work, the pure heave motion of a two dimensional section of the skirt is investigated using several mathematical models. Both the nonlinear and linearized analyses include a detailed model of the skirt geometry, which is modelled as a combination of inelastic membranes and links. Air flow processes from the bag to the cushion and from the cushion to the atmosphere are assumed to be quasisteady, and the bag and cushion volumes are modelled as lumped pneumatic capacitances. The modulation of the escaping cushion air by skirt-ground contact is also included. The nonlinear simulations reveal that characteristically nonlinear dynamical phenomena such as period doubling and chaos can be expected to occur during the normal operation of ACVs. Furthermore, a configuration representative of a 37 tonne vehicle shows a resonance at frequencies in the range for which humans are most sensitive. Although these results thus show that some aspects of the bag and finger skirt heave dynamics can be highly nonlinear, they indicate that under certain circumstances, standard linear techniques can yield useful insights. Results from the linear analysis suggest that changes in skirt geometry cannot be used to radically modify the undesirable heave response of the bag and finger skirt, but reducing the skirt mass is quite effective. The pneumatic capacitance of the bag and cushion volume proves to be an important factor in the heave response. In particular, it contributes to heave instability. The air compressibility also affects heave response at high frequencies, with the effect becoming more prominent as the flow rate is reduced. The importance of unsteady fan effects on ACV dynamics is investigated by the

  10. Nonlinear Dynamic Behaviors of a Marine Rotor-Bearing System Coupled with Air Bag and Floating-Raft

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, W.; Li, M; Xiao, L.

    2015-01-01

    To understand the nonlinear dynamic mechanism of a rotor-bearing system coupled with air bag and floating-raft, the dynamic characteristics of the system are investigated. This work has two key objectives. First, the vibration mechanism of rotor-bearing system coupled with air bag and floating-raft is investigated by developing a numerical model. Then, the nonlinear dynamics of the system and the effect of several parameters are studied, which includes the steady-state response and its spectr...

  11. Monitoring of heavy metal concentrations in home outdoor air using moss bags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, Marcela, E-mail: arivera@creal.ca [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Zechmeister, Harald [University of Vienna, Faculty of Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Medina-Ramon, Mercedes; Basagana, Xavier [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Foraster, Maria [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Bouso, Laura [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Moreno, Teresa [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Solanas, Pascual; Ramos, Rafael [Research Unit, Family Medicine, Girona, Jordi Gol Institute for Primary Care Research (IDIAP Jordi Gol), Catalan Institute of Health, Catalunya (Spain); Department of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Girona (Spain); Koellensperger, Gunda [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Deltell, Alexandre [Polytechnic School, GREFEMA, University of Girona (Spain); Vizcaya, David [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    One monitoring station is insufficient to characterize the high spatial variation of traffic-related heavy metals within cities. We tested moss bags (Hylocomium splendens), deployed in a dense network, for the monitoring of metals in outdoor air and characterized metals' long-term spatial distribution and its determinants in Girona, Spain. Mosses were exposed outside 23 homes for two months; NO{sub 2} was monitored for comparison. Metals were not highly correlated with NO{sub 2} and showed higher spatial variation than NO{sub 2}. Regression models explained 61-85% of Cu, Cr, Mo, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn and 72% of NO{sub 2} variability. Metals were strongly associated with the number of bus lines in the nearest street. Heavy metals are an alternative traffic-marker to NO{sub 2} given their toxicological relevance, stronger association with local traffic and higher spatial variability. Monitoring heavy metals with mosses is appealing, particularly for long-term exposure assessment, as mosses can remain on site many months without maintenance. - Research highlights: > Moss bags can be used to measure the metal's long-term spatial distribution within cities. > Heavy metals in mosses are not highly correlated with ambient NO{sub 2} concentrations. > Heavy metals show higher spatial variation and association with traffic than NO{sub 2}. > Bus lines in the nearest street explain 75-85% of Mo, Cr, Sb, Sn and Cu variability. > Moss bags are useful for long-term at home exposure assessment in epidemiological studies. - The long-term spatial distribution of heavy metals, measured with moss bags, is mainly determined by proximity to bus lines.

  12. Monitoring of heavy metal concentrations in home outdoor air using moss bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One monitoring station is insufficient to characterize the high spatial variation of traffic-related heavy metals within cities. We tested moss bags (Hylocomium splendens), deployed in a dense network, for the monitoring of metals in outdoor air and characterized metals' long-term spatial distribution and its determinants in Girona, Spain. Mosses were exposed outside 23 homes for two months; NO2 was monitored for comparison. Metals were not highly correlated with NO2 and showed higher spatial variation than NO2. Regression models explained 61-85% of Cu, Cr, Mo, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn and 72% of NO2 variability. Metals were strongly associated with the number of bus lines in the nearest street. Heavy metals are an alternative traffic-marker to NO2 given their toxicological relevance, stronger association with local traffic and higher spatial variability. Monitoring heavy metals with mosses is appealing, particularly for long-term exposure assessment, as mosses can remain on site many months without maintenance. - Research highlights: → Moss bags can be used to measure the metal's long-term spatial distribution within cities. → Heavy metals in mosses are not highly correlated with ambient NO2 concentrations. → Heavy metals show higher spatial variation and association with traffic than NO2. → Bus lines in the nearest street explain 75-85% of Mo, Cr, Sb, Sn and Cu variability. → Moss bags are useful for long-term at home exposure assessment in epidemiological studies. - The long-term spatial distribution of heavy metals, measured with moss bags, is mainly determined by proximity to bus lines.

  13. Influence of surfactant on the drop bag breakup in a continuous air jet stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Zhang, Wen-Bin; Xu, Jian-Liang; Li, Wei-Feng; Liu, Hai-Feng

    2016-05-01

    The deformation and breakup of surfactant-laden drops is a common phenomenon in nature and numerous practical applications. We investigate influence of surfactant on the drop bag breakup in a continuous air jet stream. The airflow would induce the advection diffusion of surfactant between interface and bulk of drop. Experiments indicate that the convective motions of deforming drop would induce the non-equilibrium distribution of surfactant, which leads to the change of surface tension. When the surfactant concentration is smaller than critical micelle concentration (CMC), with the increase of surface area of drop, the surface tension of liquid-air interface and the critical Weber number will increase. When the surfactant concentration is bigger than CMC, the micelle can be considered as the source term, which can supply the monomers. So in the presence of surfactant, there would be the significant nonlinear variation on the critical Weber number of bag breakup. We build the dynamic non-monotonic relationship between concentrations of surfactant and critical Weber number theoretically. In the range of parameters studied, the experimental results are consistent with the model estimates.

  14. Bag breakup of low viscosity drops in the presence of a continuous air jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work examines the breakup of a single drop of various low viscosity fluids as it deforms in the presence of continuous horizontal air jet. Such a fragmentation typically occurs after the bulk liquid has disintegrated upon exiting the atomizer and is in the form of an ensemble of drops which undergo further breakup. The drop deformation and its eventual disintegration is important in evaluating the efficacy of a particular industrial process, be it combustion in automobile engines or pesticide spraying in agricultural applications. The interplay between competing influences of surface tension and aerodynamic disruptive forces is represented by the Weber number, We, and Ohnesorge number, Oh, and used to describe the breakup morphology. The breakup pattern considered in our study corresponds to that of a bag attached to a toroidal ring which occurs from ∼12 2), is found to match well with experimental data ([L.-P. Hsiang and G. M. Faeth, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 21(4), 545–560 (1995)] and [R. S. Brodkey, “Formation of drops and bubbles,” in The Phenomena of Fluid Motions (Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1967)]). An exponential growth in the radial extent of the deformed drop and the streamline dimension of the bag is predicted by a theoretical model and confirmed by experimental findings. These quantities are observed to strongly depend on We. However, their dependence on Oh is weak

  15. 75 FR 51870 - Wheego Electric Cars, Inc.; Receipt of Application for Temporary Exemption From Advanced Air Bag...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Wheego Electric Cars, Inc.; Receipt of Application for... Electric Cars, Inc., has petitioned the agency for a temporary exemption from certain advanced air bag... requirements submitted by a manufacturer of a small electric car. II. Overview of Wheego's Petition...

  16. Using head-on collisions to compare risk of driver death by frontal air bag generation: a matched-pair cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braver, Elisa R; Kufera, Joseph A; Alexander, Melvin T; Scerbo, Marge; Volpini, Karen; Lloyd, Joseph P

    2008-03-01

    US air bag regulations were changed in 1997 to allow tests of unbelted male dummies in vehicles mounted and accelerated on sleds, resulting in longer crash pulses than rigid-barrier crashes. This change facilitated depowering of frontal air bags and was intended to reduce air bag-induced deaths. Controversy ensued as to whether sled-certified air bags could increase adult fatality risk. A matched-pair cohort study of two-vehicle, head-on, fatal collisions between drivers involving first-generation versus sled-certified air bags during 1998-2005 was conducted by using Fatality Analysis Reporting System data. Sled certification was ascertained from public information and a survey of automakers. Conditional Poisson regression for matched-pair cohorts was used to estimate risk ratios adjusted for age, seat belt status, vehicle type, passenger car size, and model year for driver deaths in vehicles with sled-certified air bags versus first-generation air bags. For all passenger-vehicle pairs, the adjusted risk ratio was 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.77, 0.98). In head-on collisions involving only passenger cars, the adjusted risk ratio was 1.04 (95% confidence interval: 0.85, 1.29). Increased fatality risk for drivers with sled-certified air bags was not observed. A borderline significant interaction between vehicle type and air bag generation suggested that sled-certified air bags may have reduced the risk of dying in head-on collisions among drivers of pickup trucks. PMID:18079131

  17. Bag breakup of low viscosity drops in the presence of a continuous air jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, V., E-mail: vkulkarn@purdue.edu; Sojka, P. E. [Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47906 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    This work examines the breakup of a single drop of various low viscosity fluids as it deforms in the presence of continuous horizontal air jet. Such a fragmentation typically occurs after the bulk liquid has disintegrated upon exiting the atomizer and is in the form of an ensemble of drops which undergo further breakup. The drop deformation and its eventual disintegration is important in evaluating the efficacy of a particular industrial process, be it combustion in automobile engines or pesticide spraying in agricultural applications. The interplay between competing influences of surface tension and aerodynamic disruptive forces is represented by the Weber number, We, and Ohnesorge number, Oh, and used to describe the breakup morphology. The breakup pattern considered in our study corresponds to that of a bag attached to a toroidal ring which occurs from ∼12 < We < ∼16. We aim to address several issues connected with this breakup process and their dependence on We and Oh which have been hitherto unexplored. The We boundary at which breakup begins is theoretically determined and the expression obtained, We=12(1+2/3Oh{sup 2}), is found to match well with experimental data ([L.-P. Hsiang and G. M. Faeth, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 21(4), 545–560 (1995)] and [R. S. Brodkey, “Formation of drops and bubbles,” in The Phenomena of Fluid Motions (Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1967)]). An exponential growth in the radial extent of the deformed drop and the streamline dimension of the bag is predicted by a theoretical model and confirmed by experimental findings. These quantities are observed to strongly depend on We. However, their dependence on Oh is weak.

  18. The influence of typical ways of operating and air-handling unit on the sensory pollution load from used bag filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysen, M.; Clausen, Geo; Bekö, Gabriel;

    2003-01-01

    An experiment was performed to determine whether the sensory pollution emitted from a bag filter that had been used for 3 months in a suburban area in Denmark was influenced by different ways of operating the air-handling unit (AHU). Samples of the used filter were pre-conditioned to simulate three...... operating conditions: 1) switched off overnight; 2) airflow reduced to 10% overnight; and 3) continuous 100% operation. Outside air passed through the samples and the acceptability of the air after the filter was assessed by a panel of subjects. The results indicate that turning off the AHU or reducing...... the airflow outside working hours would significantly increase the sensory pollution emitted by a used bag filter immediately after the AHU is turned on, in comparison with continuous airflow through the AHU (P...

  19. Sea spray production by bag breakup mode of fragmentation of the air-water interface at strong and hurricane wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Kandaurov, Alexander; Ermakova, Olga; Kozlov, Dmitry; Sergeev, Daniil; Zilitinkevich, Sergej

    2016-04-01

    Sea sprays is a typical element of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) of large importance for marine meteorology, atmospheric chemistry and climate studies. They are considered as a crucial factor in the development of hurricanes and severe extratropical storms, since they can significantly enhance exchange of mass, heat and momentum between the ocean and the atmosphere. This exchange is directly provided by spume droplets with the sizes from 10 microns to a few millimeters mechanically torn off the crests of a breaking waves and fall down to the ocean due to gravity. The fluxes associated with the spray are determined by the rate of droplet production at the surface quantified by the sea spray generation function (SSGF), defined as the number of spray particles of radius r produced from the unit area of water surface in unit time. However, the mechanism of spume droplets' formation is unknown and empirical estimates of SSGF varied over six orders of magnitude; therefore, the production rate of large sea spray droplets is not adequately described and there are significant uncertainties in estimations of exchange processes in hurricanes. Experimental core of our work comprise laboratory experiments employing high-speed video-filming, which have made it possible to disclose how water surface looks like at extremely strong winds and how exactly droplets are torn off wave crests. We classified events responsible for spume droplet, including bursting of submerged bubbles, generation and breakup of "projections" or liquid filaments (Koa, 1981) and "bag breakup", namely, inflating and consequent blowing of short-lived, sail-like pieces of the water-surface film, "bags". The process is similar to "bag-breakup" mode of fragmentation of liquid droplets and jets in gaseous flows. Basing on statistical analysis of results of these experiments we show that the main mechanism of spray-generation is attributed to "bag-breakup mechanism On the base of general principles

  20. Bans versus Fees: Disposable Carryout Bag Policies and Bag Usage

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Rebecca; Villas-Boas, Sofia B

    2015-01-01

    Using observational data on consumer carryout bag usage, we measure the effects of Disposable Bag Policies on bag demand. Our results show that plastic bag bans with paper bag fees eliminate use of disposable plastic bags and increase use of reusable bags. However, we find significant and undesired increases in paper bag demand. We compare our results to a study on bag fees and conclude the types of bags stores choose to sell in lieu of disposable plastic bags, as well as the price of alterna...

  1. Out of the Bag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Restricting the use of plastic shopping bags is China’s latest step to curb pollution While environment-conscious people identify themselves as non-users of plastic bags, Guo Geng,working at a nature reserve of deers in Beijing’s suburbs,stands out as a fighter against plastic bags. Since he started to work in 1998,Guo has seen David’s deer in his care dying from devouring waste plastic bags blown over

  2. Ruptura de sacos aéreos en aves ornamentales - Rupture of air bags in ornamental birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Piñeiro, Carlos J.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen En el siguiente trabajo se aborda la incidencia de rupturas de sacos aéreos en aves ornamentales así como el proceder mediante método quirúrgico y medicamentoso. Este trabajo fue realizado en la consulta Veterinaria de la Asociación Nacional Ornitológica de Cuba situada en Ciudad Habana durante los meses de Enero a Diciembre del año 2005. Abstract This study analyses the incidence of breakage of air sacks and its surgical and medical treatment in ornamental birds brought to the veterinary surgery of the Asociacion Nacional de Ornitologia de Cuba, at Havana city between January and December 2005.

  3. 致电伸缩材料驱动智能气囊排气装置特征%Characteristic of Intelligent Air Bag Venting Structure Actuating by Electrostrictive Stack Actuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戈嗣诚

    2002-01-01

    本文利用层叠电致伸缩驱动器设计了智能气囊排气装置,分析了其动态响应特性与缓冲驱动特性,并结合应用的需要进行了控制特性仿真.研究结果表明,该排气装置具有良好的驱动性能,可以满足智能气囊的排气控制要求.%In this paper the conception of smart materials and structures is firstly combined with research of air bag,and the main theory of self-adapting cushioning of intelligent air bag is expatiated.The intelligent venting structure is the main part affecting the cushioning result.Electrostrictive material was found having big force,high response speed and wide linearity,and it is fit to utilize in intelligent venting structure. The characteristic of the dynamic response and cushioning actuating of an electrostrictive stack actuator is analyzed,and the result of the computer simulation of the fuzzy control to intelligent venting structure is given.It is concluded that intelligent venting structure has good actuating characteristic and can satisfy the need of intelligent air bag.

  4. Long-term (1992-2004) record of lead, cadmium, and zinc air contamination in Warsaw, Poland: Determination by chemical analysis of moss bags and leaves of Crimean linden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmuchowski, Wojciech, E-mail: dmuchowski@ob.neostrada.p [Botanical Garden-Center for Conservation of Biological Diversity, Polish Academy of Sciences, 2 Prawdziwka St., 02-973 Warszawa (Poland); Warsaw University of Life Sciences-SGGW, Faculty of Agriculture and Biology, 159 Nowoursynowska St., 02-776 Warszawa (Poland); Bytnerowicz, Andrzej [US Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Between 1992 and 2004, air contamination with lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) in Warsaw, Poland, was monitored annually with moss (Sphagnum fallax) bags on a network of 230 sites covering the entire city. During the study the highest contamination was near the Warszawa Steel Mill, northwestern Warsaw. Lead concentrations in moss bags decreased in time, while those of Cd and Zn did not show clear trends. Between 1994 and 2004, Pb, Cd, and Zn were also monitored in the Crimean linden (Tilia Euchlora) foliage along the main city avenue and in a northwestern warsaw park. Lead concentrations decreased more near the avenue than in the park, indicating that the phasing-out of leaded gasoline had a major effect on reduced Pb contamination in Warsaw. At the same time, foliar concentrations of Cd and Zn in both areas decreased much less. - Between 1992 and 2004, concentrations of Pb decreased, while those of Cd and Zn remained little changed in moss bags and linden foliage exposed to ambient air in Warsaw, Poland.

  5. Long-term (1992-2004) record of lead, cadmium, and zinc air contamination in Warsaw, Poland: Determination by chemical analysis of moss bags and leaves of Crimean linden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1992 and 2004, air contamination with lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) in Warsaw, Poland, was monitored annually with moss (Sphagnum fallax) bags on a network of 230 sites covering the entire city. During the study the highest contamination was near the Warszawa Steel Mill, northwestern Warsaw. Lead concentrations in moss bags decreased in time, while those of Cd and Zn did not show clear trends. Between 1994 and 2004, Pb, Cd, and Zn were also monitored in the Crimean linden (Tilia Euchlora) foliage along the main city avenue and in a northwestern warsaw park. Lead concentrations decreased more near the avenue than in the park, indicating that the phasing-out of leaded gasoline had a major effect on reduced Pb contamination in Warsaw. At the same time, foliar concentrations of Cd and Zn in both areas decreased much less. - Between 1992 and 2004, concentrations of Pb decreased, while those of Cd and Zn remained little changed in moss bags and linden foliage exposed to ambient air in Warsaw, Poland.

  6. The main function of bionic air-bag midwifery skill reducing cesarean section rate%气囊仿生助产对降低剖宫产率的主要作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄崇梅; 王英; 何林清; 张琦

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析我国剖宫产率居高不下的原因,探讨应用气囊仿生助产技术对降低剖宫产率的可行性。方法:对我院未应用气囊仿生助产术前和已使用气囊仿生助产术后在我院分娩的孕产妇,从剖宫产指征、剖产率两方面进行回顾性对照研究。结果:未应用气囊仿生助产术前剖宫产指征中社会因素占56%,医学指征占44%,剖宫产率50%。应用气囊仿生助产术后社会因素占36%,医学指征占64%,剖宫产率下降至35%。讨论:运用气囊助产在分娩过程中缩短产程,减少会阴裂伤等优势。明显减少了剖宫产的社会因素指征,使剖宫产率明显下降。所以气囊仿生助产术是降低剖宫产率的有效措施,值得推广。%Objective: To analyze the reason of high cesarean section rate in our country, to investigate the feasibility of applying bionic air-bag midwifery skil to reduce cesarean section rate.Methods: We use the indication of cesarean section and cesarean section rate to undertake retrospective study about the differences of puerperal women in our hospital who apply bionic air-bag midwifery skil or not.Results: In the indication of cesarean section that puerperal women did not apply bionic air-bag midwifery skil, social factors account for 56% and medical indication accounts for 44%.The cesarean section rate is 50%.However, In the indication of cesarean section that puerperal women apply bionic air-bag midwifery skil, social factors account for 36% and medical indication accounts for 64%.The cesarean section rate drop to 35%.Discussion:Applying bionic air-bag midwifery skil have many advantages such as shortening the stage of labor during delivery and reducing perineal laceration. It makes the social factors of cesarean section and cesarean section rate decline obviously. In summary, bionic air-bag midwifery skil is an effective measure to reduce cesarean section rate and deserves popularity.

  7. Charges for plastic bags : Motivational and behavioral effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovcevic, Adriana; Steg, Linda; Mazzeo, Nadia; Caballero, Romina; Franco, Paul; Putrino, Natalia; Favara, Jesica

    2014-01-01

    Two field studies tested the effects of a charge for single-use plastic bags recently implemented in Buenos Aires City, Argentina. Study 1 showed a greater increase in consumers' own bag use after the charge was introduced in supermarkets where the policy was introduced, in comparison to control sup

  8. Shopping-bag Ladies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    达工

    2005-01-01

    Shopping-bag ladies don't beg publicly, but they do not refuse what is offered. Once a shopping-bag lady appears where you live, it is as hard to pass her by without giving her some money as it is to pay no attention to the collection box(功德箱) in church. And although you may not like it, if she chooses your doorway as her place to sleep,

  9. Gravitating lepton bag model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burinskii, A.

    2015-08-01

    The Kerr-Newman (KN) black hole (BH) solution exhibits the external gravitational and electromagnetic field corresponding to that of the Dirac electron. For the large spin/mass ratio, a ≫ m, the BH loses horizons and acquires a naked singular ring creating two-sheeted topology. This space is regularized by the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking, leading to an extended particle that has a regular spinning core compatible with the external KN solution. We show that this core has much in common with the known MIT and SLAC bag models, but has the important advantage of being in accordance with the external gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the KN solution. A peculiar two-sheeted structure of Kerr's gravity provides a framework for the implementation of the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking in configuration space in accordance with the concept of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. Similar to other bag models, the KN bag is flexible and pliant to deformations. For parameters of a spinning electron, the bag takes the shape of a thin rotating disk of the Compton radius, with a ring-string structure and a quark-like singular pole formed at the sharp edge of this disk, indicating that the considered lepton bag forms a single bag-string-quark system.

  10. Gravitating lepton bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burinskii, A., E-mail: burinskii@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Nuclear Safety Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    The Kerr–Newman (KN) black hole (BH) solution exhibits the external gravitational and electromagnetic field corresponding to that of the Dirac electron. For the large spin/mass ratio, a ≫ m, the BH loses horizons and acquires a naked singular ring creating two-sheeted topology. This space is regularized by the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking, leading to an extended particle that has a regular spinning core compatible with the external KN solution. We show that this core has much in common with the known MIT and SLAC bag models, but has the important advantage of being in accordance with the external gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the KN solution. A peculiar two-sheeted structure of Kerr’s gravity provides a framework for the implementation of the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking in configuration space in accordance with the concept of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. Similar to other bag models, the KN bag is flexible and pliant to deformations. For parameters of a spinning electron, the bag takes the shape of a thin rotating disk of the Compton radius, with a ring–string structure and a quark-like singular pole formed at the sharp edge of this disk, indicating that the considered lepton bag forms a single bag–string–quark system.

  11. Gravitating lepton bag model

    CERN Document Server

    Burinskii, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    As is known, the gravitational and electromagnetic (EM) field of the Dirac electron is described by an over-extremal Kerr-Newman (KN) black hole (BH) solution which has the naked singular ring and two-sheeted topology. This space is regulated by the formation of a regular source based on the Higgs mechanism of broken symmetry. This source shares much in common with the known MIT- and SLAC-bag models, but has the important advantage, of being in accordance with gravitational and electromagnetic field of the external KN solution. The KN bag model is flexible. At rotations, it takes the shape of a thin disk, and similar to other bag models, under deformations it creates a string-like structure which is positioned along the sharp border of the disk.

  12. Bagging Weak Predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukas, Manuel; Hillebrand, Eric

    Relations between economic variables can often not be exploited for forecasting, suggesting that predictors are weak in the sense that estimation uncertainty is larger than bias from ignoring the relation. In this paper, we propose a novel bagging predictor designed for such weak predictor variab...

  13. Determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using tedlar bag/solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME/GC/MS) in ambient and workplace air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SPME techniques have proven to be very useful tools in the analysis of wide VOCs in the air. In this study, we estimated VOCs in ambient and workplace air using a Tedlar ba/SPME/GC/MS system. The calibration curve was set to be linear over the range of 1-30 ppbv. The detection limits ranged from 10 pptv 0.93 ppbv for all VOCs. Reproducibility of TO-14 target gas mixtures by SPME/GC/MS averaged at 8.8 R.S.D (%). Air toxic VOCs (hazardous air pollutants, HAPs) containing a total of forty halohydrocarbons, aromatics, and haloaro-matic carbons could be analyzed with significant accuracy, detection limit and linearity at low ppbv level. Only reactive VOCs with low molecular weight, such as chloromethane, vinylchloride, ethylchloride and 1,2-dichloro-ethane, yielded relatively poor results using this technique. In ambient air samples, ten VOCs were identified and quantified after external calibration. VOC concentration in ambient and workplace air ranged from 0.04 to 1.85 ppbv. The overall process was successfully applied to identify and quantify VOCs in ambient/workplace air

  14. Dynamics of the soliton bag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MIT bag was one of the earliest and most successful models of QCD, imposing confinement and including perturbative gluon interactions. An evolution of the MIT bag came with the introduction of the chiral and cloudy bags, which treat pions as elementary particles. As a model of QCD, the soliton model proposed by Friedberg and Lee is particularly attractive. It is based on a covariant field theory and is sufficiently general so that, for certain limiting cases of the adjustable parameters, it can describe either the MIT or SLAC (string) bags. The confinement mechanism appears as a dynamic field. This allows non-static processes, such as bag oscillations and bag collisions, to be calculated utilizing the well-developed techniques of nuclear many-body theory. The utilization of the model for calculating dynamical processes is discussed. 14 references

  15. Bag-of-frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciompi, Francesco; Jacobs, Colin; Scholten, Ernst Th;

    2015-01-01

    informative plane to cut a 2-D view of the nodule in the 3-D image. We evaluate the descriptor on several nodule morphology classification problems, namely discrimination of nodules versus vascular structures and characterization of spiculation. We validate the descriptor on data from European screening......, obtaining a Bag-of-Frequencies, which is used to assign each spectra a label. The descriptor is obtained as the histogram of labels along all the spheres. Additional contributions are a technique to estimate the nodule size, based on the sampling strategy, as well as a technique to choose the most...

  16. Solitons, monopoles and bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments in the theory of solitons and related objects in the fields of high energy physics and nuclear physics are reviewed. The aim is to concentrate on the physical aspects and explain why these objects have awakened the interest of physicists. The physics of solitons is discussed with the help of a simple one-dimensional soliton. Then the physically more interesting monopole-soliton is considered and its connection with the original Dirac monopole is pointed out. The ''revolutionary'' possibility of making fermions as composites of bosons is indicated. Both the one-dimensional solitons and the monopole-soliton are examples of ''topological solitons'' and the role of topology in the physics of solitons is explained. The possible importance of topological quantum numbers in providing a fundamental understanding of the basic conservation laws of physics is pointed out. Two examples of non-topological solitons namely, the nucleon as a bag of almost-massless quarks and the abnormal nucleons as a bag of almost massless nucleons is discussed. (auth.)

  17. Plastic bag method for active sample loading into transmission electron microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Hao; Isobe, Shigehito; Wang, Yongming; Hashimoto, Naoyuki; Ohnuki, Somei

    2011-01-01

    A plastic bag method was developed to observe air sensitive samples on microstructure and phases distribution without air exposure during holder transfer process into the Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). As an example, a type of lithium aluminum hydride (Li3AlH6) was observed in TEM to demonstrate the effectiveness of this method. Results show that plastic bag method is a simple and practical TEM transfer method utilized to reduce air contact for a series of air sensitive materials.

  18. Fun and Functional Shopping Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Barbara Downing

    2009-01-01

    In conjunction with her school's interest in becoming more "green," this author designed an art project using inexpensive, sturdy, reusable grocery bags. In this article, she describes the different design concepts and art media used by each grade in decorating these bags. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  19. The fuzzy bag model revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we study a new version of the fuzzy bag model (FBM). The main point of this work is the inclusion of energy-momentum-conservation in the model. This feature is lacking in the original formulation, but it is of paramount importance to turn the model into a real bag model. In our version of the FBM, the size of the bag will be determined by the equilibrium of the outward pressure of the quarks with the inward pressure of the vacuum, just like in the MIT bag model. As a side remark, we note that a first consequence of our model is that the bag 'constant' B will not be a constant even for the ground state - it will be a function of the radial variable r. (author)

  20. Comparison of passive diffusion bag samplers and submersible pump sampling methods for monitoring volatile organic compounds in ground water at Area 6, Naval Air Station, Whidbey Island, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Raegan L.

    2002-01-01

    Ground-water samples were collected in April 1999 at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, Washington, with passive diffusion samplers and a submersible pump to compare concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water samples collected using the two sampling methods. Single diffusion samplers were installed in wells with 10-foot screened intervals, and multiple diffusion samplers were installed in wells with 20- to 40-foot screened intervals. The diffusion samplers were recovered after 20 days and the wells were then sampled using a submersible pump. VOC concentrations in the 10-foot screened wells in water samples collected with diffusion samplers closely matched concentrations in samples collected with the submersible pump. Analysis of VOC concentrations in samples collected from the 20- to 40-foot screened wells with multiple diffusion samplers indicated vertical concentration variation within the screened interval, whereas the analysis of VOC concentrations in samples collected with the submersible pump indicated mixing during pumping. The results obtained using the two sampling methods indicate that the samples collected with the diffusion samplers were comparable with and can be considerably less expensive than samples collected using a submersible pump.

  1. Bagged material palletizing robot system; Fukuromono paretaizu robot system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-10

    This paper introduces a case of delivery of an industrial automation machinery fabricated by Meidensha, Inc. A robot was delivered as a robot system to automate the work of palletizing craft paper bags containing cement. While bags filled with cement and sewn on the openings with a sewing machine in the previous process are transported to the robot, a shaping machine makes the bag height aligned, and a bleeder machine pushes out unnecessary air in the bags. The robot stacks the bags on a pallet sequentially one by one. A pallet magazine supplies automatically a next pallet when stacking by the robot has been completed. Introduction of this system has achieved such effects as elimination of labor shortage, release from simple muscle work, and stabilization of palletizing accuracy. Major constituting devices include: a palletizing robot (VTR-1000Y), a bag transporting equipment (comprising a conveyer, a shaping machine, and a bleeding device), and a pallet transporting equipment (comprising a conveyer and an empty pallet magazine). (NEDO)

  2. Bagging constrained equity premium predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillebrand, Eric; Lee, Tae-Hwy; Medeiros, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    The literature on excess return prediction has considered a wide array of estimation schemes, among them unrestricted and restricted regression coefficients. We consider bootstrap aggregation (bagging) to smooth parameter restrictions. Two types of restrictions are considered: positivity of the r...

  3. Development of Spray on Bag for manufacturing of large composites parts: Diffusivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempah, Maxime Joseph

    Bagging materials are utilized in many composites manufacturing processes. The selection is mainly driven by cost, temperature requirements, chemical compatibility and tear properties of the bag. The air barrier properties of the bag are assumed to be adequate or in many cases are not considered at all. However, the gas barrier property of a bag is the most critical parameter, as it can negatively affect the quality of the final laminate. The barrier property is a function of the bag material, uniformity, thickness and temperature. Improved barrier properties are needed for large parts, high pressure consolidated components and structures where air stays entrapped on the part surface. The air resistance property of the film is defined as permeability and is investigated in this thesis. A model was developed to evaluate the gas transport through the film and an experimental cell was implemented to characterize various commercial films. Understanding and characterizing the transport phenomena through the film allows optimization of the bagging material for various manufacturing processes. Spray-on-Bag is a scalable alternative bagging method compared to standard films. The approach allows in-situ fabrication of the bag on large and complex geometry structures where optimization of the bag properties can be varied on a local level. An experimental setup was developed and implemented using a six axis robot and an automated spraying system. Experiments were performed on a flat surface and specimens were characterized and compared to conventional films. Air barrier properties were within range of standard film approaches showing the potential to fabricate net shape bagging structures in an automated process.

  4. ARE PLASTIC GROCERY BAGS SACKING THE ENVIRONMENT?

    OpenAIRE

    Mangal Gogte

    2009-01-01

    This paper is oriented on analysis impacts of plastic bags on environment. In this paper is analyzed did plastic bags are so harmful, and what are the main ingredients of it. One part of this paper is oriented on effects of plastic bags and management of their usage. There is also made comparative analysis between impacts of plastic and paper bags on environment.

  5. [Pastel in the urine bag].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantaloube, Lucie; Lebaudy, Cécile; Hermabessière, Sophie; Rolland, Yves

    2012-03-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome is a relatively unknown phenomenon in which the urine bag and the collector of chronically catheterized patients turn purple or blue. It affects predominantly women, and is mainly reported in elderly patients. The mechanism seems to be related to the appearance in the urine of two compounds that have been identified as indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) which bind to the urine bag and the collector. Several associated factors are usually mentioned such as constipation, alkaline urine, bed rest, institutionalization or cognitive impairment. They are risk factor of this phenomenon. On the other hand, an infection or a urinary bacterial colonization is necessary and high bacterial counts seem to be the critical step in the development of the purple urine bag syndrome. We report on two cases of purple urine bag syndrome observed in two patients being treated in a long-term care unit. Both of whom were diagnosed with indwelling urinary bacterial colonization, with Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively.

  6. A gravitating electroweak bag model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burinskii, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    Gravitational and electromagnetic (EM) field of electron is described by the Kerr-Newman (KN) black hole solution with a topological defect. Regularization of this defect by the Higgs field leads to the smooth source which shares much in common with the known MIT- and SLAC- bag models, but has the advantage, of matching gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the electron. This model is flexible, and the rotating KN bag takes the shape of a thin disk with a circular string positioned on the sharp border of the disk. We consider the lowest excitations of the KN solution and the corresponding deformations of the bag surface, setting a preliminary correspondence with electroweak sector of the SM.

  7. Will Banning Free Plastic Bags Reduce Pollution?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    No more free plastic bags from June 1,2008.That’s the message to Chinese shoppers after a government ban on all production,sales or use of plastic bags less than 0.025 mm thick comes into force from this date.Nowadays,supermarkets give out 1 billion plastic bags every day while other shops collectively use double that amount. Consumers will have to pay for plastic bags exceeding this thickness,if they want this option.

  8. ARE PLASTIC GROCERY BAGS SACKING THE ENVIRONMENT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangal Gogte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is oriented on analysis impacts of plastic bags on environment. In this paper is analyzed did plastic bags are so harmful, and what are the main ingredients of it. One part of this paper is oriented on effects of plastic bags and management of their usage. There is also made comparative analysis between impacts of plastic and paper bags on environment.

  9. Ergonomics and safety of manual bag sealing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.D. de; Bosch, T.; Eikhout, S.M.; Vink, P.

    2005-01-01

    A variety of seals is used to close bags. Each seal has advantages and disadvantages. For shop assistants sealing bags could be a repetitive physically demanding action. Opening and closing the bags again can cause some discomfort or annoyance for consumers. Besides, it is an activity which can enda

  10. Bag-breakup control of surface drag in hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kandaurov, Alexander; Ermakova, Olga; Kozlov, Dmitry; Sergeev, Daniil

    2016-04-01

    Air-sea interaction at extreme winds is of special interest now in connection with the problem of the sea surface drag reduction at the wind speed exceeding 30-35 m/s. This phenomenon predicted by Emanuel (1995) and confirmed by a number of field (e.g., Powell, et al, 2003) and laboratory (Donelan et al, 2004) experiments still waits its physical explanation. Several papers attributed the drag reduction to spume droplets - spray turning off the crests of breaking waves (e.g., Kudryavtsev, Makin, 2011, Bao, et al, 2011). The fluxes associated with the spray are determined by the rate of droplet production at the surface quantified by the sea spray generation function (SSGF), defined as the number of spray particles of radius r produced from the unit area of water surface in unit time. However, the mechanism of spume droplets' formation is unknown and empirical estimates of SSGF varied over six orders of magnitude; therefore, the production rate of large sea spray droplets is not adequately described and there are significant uncertainties in estimations of exchange processes in hurricanes. Herewith, it is unknown what is air-sea interface and how water is fragmented to spray at hurricane wind. Using high-speed video, we observed mechanisms of production of spume droplets at strong winds by high-speed video filming, investigated statistics and compared their efficiency. Experiments showed, that the generation of the spume droplets near the wave crest is caused by the following events: bursting of submerged bubbles, generation and breakup of "projections" and "bag breakup". Statistical analysis of results of these experiments showed that the main mechanism of spray-generation is attributed to "bag-breakup mechanism", namely, inflating and consequent blowing of short-lived, sail-like pieces of the water-surface film. Using high-speed video, we show that at hurricane winds the main mechanism of spray production is attributed to "bag-breakup", namely, inflating and

  11. Ergonomics and safety of manual bag sealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Marinka D; Bosch, Tim; Eikhout, Sandra M; Vink, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A variety of seals is used to close bags. Each seal has advantages and disadvantages. For shop assistants sealing bags could be a repetitive physically demanding action. Opening and closing the bags again can cause some discomfort or annoyance for consumers. Besides, it is an activity which can endanger safety, i.e., knives being used in opening, children swallowing the systems of sealing. To prevent these problems a new sealing system was developed. In this paper the opinion of shop assistants, consumers and experts on several bag sealing systems was studied. It appeared that for sealing plastic bags, adhesive tape with paper is the best out of 4 systems, closely followed by adhesive tape. It is discussed that for the elderly, there is still room for improvement in opening bag seals. PMID:16219161

  12. Ergonomics and safety of manual bag sealing.

    OpenAIRE

    Groot, M.D. de; T. Bosch; Eikhout, S.M.; Vink, P.

    2005-01-01

    A variety of seals is used to close bags. Each seal has advantages and disadvantages. For shop assistants sealing bags could be a repetitive physically demanding action. Opening and closing the bags again can cause some discomfort or annoyance for consumers. Besides, it is an activity which can endanger safety, i.e., knives being used in opening, children swallowing the systems of sealing. To prevent these problems a new sealing system was developed. In this paper the opinion of shop assistan...

  13. An Economic Evaluation of Plastic Bag Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, several jurisdictions worldwide have implemented plastic bag regulations to curb environmentally deleterious effects of plastic bag production and consumption. The problems that each jurisdiction experience vary from place-to-place; as do the policy mechanisms set forth to combat these problems. Documentation of explicit economic rationality regarding these plastic bag regulations is scarce. This thesis sets out to fill some of that void. The thesis is organized as fol...

  14. Bag constant and deconfinement phase transition in the nontopological soliton bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effective potential in finite temperature and density nontopological soliton bag model is investigated. Based on this, the authors calculate the bag constant which depends on temperature and chemical potential. The property of deconfinement phase transition is analysed

  15. 探讨气囊尿管用于重症患者腹泻肛周皮肤的护理效果%Study on nursing effects of air bag urine tube to anus periderm skin in pstients with severe diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高明珠; 余新英; 罗玉珍; 罗向明; 黄惠英

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the nursing effect of air bag urine tube in patients with severe diarrhea,and the economic benefits of the measures.Methods 120 patients with severe diarrhea were divided into experimental group and control group,experimental group used air bag urine tube negative pressure drainage bottle shit,the control group used conventional care wet wipes clean anus week in time,besmear outside mupirocin ointment protection.We compared two groups of patients the nursing time and the incidence of crissum skin care costs.Results The incidence of crissum injury compared with that of the experimental group was 13.3%,this group of patients with corresponding nursing time and costs significantly reduced; control group crissum skin lesions were at a rate of 48.3%,with large application resource consumption.Conclusion In patients with severe diarrhea,application of air bag urine tube by negative pressure bottle effective drainage of move bowels can prevent crissum skin damage,reduce the incidence of anus periderm skin damage,reduce the nursing workload of nurses and patients' economic burden.%目的 探讨气囊尿管应用于重症患者腹泻的护理效果,以及该措施的经济效益.方法 将120例重症腹泻患者分为实验组和对照组,实验组使用气囊尿管接负压瓶引流大便,对照组采用湿纸巾清洁肛周,外涂莫匹罗星软膏保护.比较两组患者肛周皮损发生率、护理工作时间和护理费用.结果 实验组肛周损伤发生率为13.3%,该组患者相应护理工作时间及费用明显减少;对照组肛周皮损率为48.3%,应用的资源消耗大.结论 重症患者腹泻时应用气囊尿管接负压瓶有效引流大便,可预防肛周皮肤损伤,降低肛周皮肤损伤发生率,减少护理工作量,减轻患者经济负担.

  16. Effect evaluation of psychological intervention in relieving anxiety and depression of patients with ocular injuries caused by automotive air bag%心理干预对减轻汽车安全气囊致眼外伤患者焦虑抑郁的效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文辉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To discuss the effect of psychological intervention in relieving anxiety and depression of patients with ocular injuries caused by automotive air bag.Methods.34 patients with ocular injuries caused by automotive air bag were selected and divided into the intervention group and the control group with 17 patients in each group.The control group adopted routine intervention,while the intervention group was given psychological intervention,including music therapy,Beck's cognitive therapy and before-discharge education.Self-rating anxiety and self-rating depression scale were used to evaluated the psychological status of patients at admission and one day before discharge.Results Incidence of anxiety and depression significantly decreased in the intervention group after intervention.Score of anxiety and depression reduced after intervention in the intervention group,also evidently lower than that of the control group.Conclusions Psychological intervention can relieve anxiety and depression of patients with ocular injuries caused by automotive air bag.%目的 探讨心理干预对汽车安全气囊致眼外伤患者焦虑抑郁的作用.方法 选择34例汽车安全气囊所致眼外伤患者,随机分为干预组和对照组各17例.对照组采用常规干预,干预组采用心理干预,包括音乐疗法、贝克认知疗法和出院前教育.在人院当天和出院前1 d进行心理状态调查,应用抑郁自评量表与焦虑自评量表综合评分.结果 干预组心理干预后患者焦虑与抑郁发生率明显下降.心理干预后,干预组患者的焦虑和抑郁总评分比干预前总评分减少显著,心理干预后干预组的焦虑抑郁评分显著低于对照组.结论 心理干预可明显减轻汽车安全气囊致眼外伤患者的焦虑抑郁状态.

  17. SUBSTITUTION OF PLASTIC BAG BY JUTE BAG- CASE COMPANY REDQ : Support on Sustainable Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Afrin, Tania

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable development is one of the most important issues in the world today. People can play an important role in the sustainable development in different ways regardless of their own position. This study focuses on finding out how plastic bags could be substituted by jute bags and how it would contribute to the sustainable development. In addition, the study focuses on answering the question if the idea of substituting plastic bags by jute bags would be a profitable business innovation. F...

  18. Care of Down and Synthetic Sleeping Bags

    OpenAIRE

    Hawks, Leona K.

    1990-01-01

    If your down or synthetic sleeping bag is treated properly, it will give you years of reliable service. If treated improperly, it can easily be ruined by just one small mistake. The following are some general tips concerning the proper use and care of your sleeping bag.

  19. PVC posting bags for glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This specification covers the materials, measurements and manufacture of unpigmented PVC posting bags for use on glove boxes, together with methods of testing the materials. These bags are used in the handling of radioactive and toxic materials of a hazardous nature and therefore must be of the highest standard of mechanical strength, leak tightness and general finish. (author)

  20. The earliest mention of a black bag

    OpenAIRE

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Antonis A. Kousoulis; Tsoucalas, Ioannis; Androutsos, George

    2011-01-01

    A black bag, needed especially for home visits, has been used since the time of Hippocrates who, in his treatise “On good manners”, gave the first detailed description of a medical bag with guidelines for the required equipment and structure. Ancient Egyptian and Palestinian references also date back at least two millenniums.

  1. Cold temperature disinfestation of bagged flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted studies using a commercial freezer maintained at -17.8°C to determine the time needed to kill Tribolium castaneum eggs in a pallet of flour. Each bag weighed 22.7 kg, and there were 5 bags in each of 10 layers. The dimensions of the pallet were 109-cm wide by 132-cm long by 123-cm tall,...

  2. Strategy for selecting disposable bags for cell culture media applications based on a root-cause investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joseph; Mahajan, Ekta; Shiratori, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    The use of disposable bags for cell culture media storage has grown significantly in the past decade. Some of the key advantages of using disposable bags relative to non-disposable containers include increased product throughput, decreased cleaning validation costs, reduced risk of cross contamination and lower facility costs. As the scope of use of disposable bags for cell culture applications increases, problematic bags and scenarios should be identified and addressed to continue improving disposables technologies and meet the biotech industry's needs. In this article, we examine a cell culture application wherein media stored in disposable bags is warmed at 37°C before use for cell culture operations. A problematic bag film was identified through a prospective and retrospective cell culture investigation. The investigation provided information on the scope and variation of the issue with respect to different Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines, cell culture media, and application-specific parameters. It also led to the development of application-specific test methods and enabled a strategy for disposable bag film testing. The strategy was implemented for qualifying an alternative bag film for use in our processes. In this test strategy, multiple lots of 13 bag film types, encompassing eight vendors were evaluated using a three round, cell culture-based test strategy. The test strategy resulted in the determination of four viable bag film options based on the technical data. The results of this evaluation were used to conclude that a volatile or air-quenched compound, likely generated by gamma irradiation of the problematic bag film, negatively impacted cell culture performance.

  3. Insulin binding to plastic bags: a methodologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twardowski, Z J; Nolph, K D; McGary, T J; Moore, H L; Collin, P; Ausman, R K; Slimack, W S

    1983-04-01

    A radiotracer method to assess insulin binding to commercially available plastic peritoneal dialysis solution containers was developed. A peritoneal dialysis bag (bag 2) was emptied and attached to another full bag (bag 1) of the same kind. In the syringe-to-bag method, bag 1 was symmetrically injected through the bag wall with four syringes containing dialysis solution and radioactive insulin, with or without regular insulin. The radioactivity in each syringe was measured with a gamma counter before injection, and all of the samples were counted afterwards directly in the syringes. Using a bag-to-bag transfer method, bag 1 was agitated, eight samples were taken from different parts through the wall, and then the contents were transferred to bag 2. Bag 2 was then agitated and eight samples were taken and counted. In the bag-pieces method, pieces of bag wall were cut and the radioactivity on the walls was measured to determine the amount of binding. The syringe-to-bag method gave negative results, severely underestimating the amount of insulin binding. The bag-to-bag transfer method yielded positive results in all instances. Increasing the amounts of regular insulin had no demonstrable impact on percent of binding. When the bag-to-bag method was compared with the bag-pieces method, it gave only slightly higher values; however, the bag-to-bag method was considered more reliable because the counting can be controlled more effectively. A 15-minute delay in sampling was not found to influence insulin binding. A reliable method of assessing insulin binding must be based on the following two principles: (1) The transfer of samples to intermediate containers should be avoided, and (2) radiotracer concentrations in the samples should be similar. PMID:6342377

  4. Design-A-Bag Competition 2012

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia nahakunsti osakonna tudengid Kadri Paloveer, Inga Radikainen ja Mari Maripuu pälvisid Hong-Kongis korraldataval "DESIGN-A-BAG 2012" konkursil tihedas rahvusvahelises konkurentsis mitmeid preemiaid

  5. Adapt Bagging to Nearest Neighbor Classifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hua Zhou; Yang Yu

    2005-01-01

    It is well-known that in order to build a strong ensemble, the component learners should be with high diversity as well as high accuracy. If perturbing the training set can cause significant changes in the component learners constructed, then Bagging can effectively improve accuracy. However, for stable learners such as nearest neighbor classifiers, perturbing the training set can hardly produce diverse component learners, therefore Bagging does not work well. This paper adapts Bagging to nearest neighbor classifiers through injecting randomness to distance metrics. In constructing the component learners, both the training set and the distance metric employed for identifying the neighbors are perturbed. A large scale empirical study reported in this paper shows that the proposed BagInRand algorithm can effectively improve the accuracy of nearest neighbor classifiers.

  6. 49 CFR 178.520 - Standards for textile bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for textile bags. 178.520 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.520 Standards for textile bags. (a) The following are identification codes for textile bags: (1) 5L1 for an unlined or non-coated textile bag;...

  7. Storage of canola in hermetic plastic bags

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosik, R. E.; De la Torre, D. A.; Ochandio, D. C.; Cardoso, L. M.; Rodríguez, J.C.; Massigoge, J.

    2010-01-01

    Due to the small size of the seed, canola (Brassica napus or Brassica campestris) offers different challenges in the harvest and the subsequent post-harvest operations. Often, in Argentina, farmers do not have enough permanent storage capacity so they overcome this deficit with the use of hermetic plastic bags (silobags). The objectives of this work were: 1) Determine the feasibility of the bagging and extraction processes of canola. 2) Monitoring the condition of canola by periodic measureme...

  8. Life Cycle Assessment of Plastic Bag Production

    OpenAIRE

    Ruban, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The main focus of this report is to establish a comparative study of traditional and biodegradable vest-plastic bag production through the utilization of a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. The measurements were made for the Ukrainian limited liability company “Polymer”, as a representative manufacturer, in order to calculate the environmental impact of plastic bag manufacturing, and identify the more environmental friendly item. This research is based on a literature review of the specia...

  9. Bagged barrier testing at overseas facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Humphreys; Terry O' Beirne [ACIRL (Australia)

    2000-12-01

    The bag-barrier system, invented by the South African group CSIR-Miningtek and now used in Australia, represents a significant change to the management of explosion suppression in underground coal mines. This report summarises the initial testing of the bagged barrier leading to its recent use in Australia, and details the latest results from testing in the multi-heading Lake Lynn Experimental Mine in USA.

  10. Comparison of the clinical effect between bionic air-bag midwifery by single expansion method and natural delivery%“单扩法”气囊仿生助产与自然分娩临床效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚娟娟; 董林红; 邓月桂; 蒙朝霞; 覃莹莹

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical effect of a bionic air-bag midwifery skill by single expansion method in delivery.Methods Eighty puerperae in accordance with the inclusion criteria were randomly divided into the observation group(n=40) and the control group(n=40).The bionic air-bag midwifery skill by single expansion method was used in the observation group when the cervix was dilated≥5 cm.The duration of labor,delivery modes, perineum conditions, amount of postpartum hemorrhage and the rate of neonatal asphyxia were compared between the two groups.Results The time of the first, second stage and the total labor duration in the observation group were sig-nificantly shorter than those in the control group(P0.05).Con-clusion The bionic air-bag midwifery by single expansion method can shorten the laboring time and reduce the relat-ed complications during parturition.%目的:探讨在自然分娩过程中使用“单扩法”气囊仿生助产术的临床疗效。方法将符合纳入标准的80例产妇随机分为观察组和对照组各40例,观察组在宫口开大≥5 cm时采用“单扩法”气囊仿生助产术助产,对照组采取自然分娩。记录比较两组产妇的产程时间、分娩方式、会阴情况、产后出血情况及新生儿窒息率。结果观察组第一产程、第二产程及总产程时间均短于对照组,差异均有统计学意义( P<0.05)。观察组产妇产后2 h内平均出血量少于对照组,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。两组分娩方式、会阴情况及新生儿窒息率比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论“单扩法”气囊仿生助产术可以明显缩短产程时间,降低并发症发生率,对母婴无不良影响,值得临床应用推广。

  11. Behavioral Response to Plastic Bag Legislation in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Dikgang, Johane; Visser, Martine

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of charges and standards in dealing with a common externality, plastic litter from shopping bags in Botswana. The country passed a plastic bag tax (effective 2007) to curb the plastic bag demand. Interestingly, the legislation did not force retailers to charge for plastic bags, which they did voluntarily at different prices. We assessed the environmental effectiveness and efficiency of the plastic bag legislation by analyzing consumers’ sensitivity to the impro...

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: PAINT OVERSPRAY ARRESTOR, COLUMBUS INDUSTRIES, INC., SL-90B 8 POCKET BAG

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of March 23-24, 1999, tests of Columbus Industries Inc's SL-90B 8 Pocket Bag paint overspray arrestor (POA) as part of an evaluation of POAs by EPA's Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The basic pe...

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM REPORT: PAINT OVERSPRAY ARRESTOR, ATI A-3000 5P BAG

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of March 24-25, 1999, tests of ATI's A-3000 5P Bag paint overspray arrestor (POA) as part of an evaluation of POAs by EPA's Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The basic performance factor being ver...

  14. The generalized fermion-bag approach

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekharan, Shailesh

    2011-01-01

    We present a new approach to some four-fermion lattice field theories which we call the generalized fermion bag approach. The basic idea is to identify unpaired fermionic degrees of freedom that cause sign problems and collect them in a bag. Paired fermions usually act like bosons and do not lead to sign problems. A resummation of all unpaired fermion degrees of freedom inside the bag is sufficient to solve the fermion sign problem in a variety of interesting cases. Using a concept of duality we then argue that the size of the fermion bags is small both at strong and weak couplings. This allows us to construct efficient algorithms in both these limits. Using the fermion bag approach, we study the quantum phase transition of the 3D massless lattice Thirrring model which is of interest in the context of Graphene. Using our method we are able to solve the model on lattices as large as $40^3$ with moderate computational resources. We obtain the precise location of the quantum critical point and the values of the ...

  15. Solid and Liquid Waste Drying Bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiller, Eric (Inventor); Hogan, John A. (Inventor); Fisher, John W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for processing waste from human activities, including solids, liquids and vapors. A fluid-impermeable bag, lined with a liquid-impermeable but vapor-permeable membrane, defining an inner bag, is provided. A vacuum force is provided to extract vapors so that the waste is moved toward a selected region in the inner bag, extracted vapors, including the waste vapors and vaporized portions of the waste liquids are transported across the membrane, and most or all of the solids remain within the liner. Extracted vapors are filtered, and sanitized components thereof are isolated and optionally stored. The solids remaining within the liner are optionally dried and isolated for ultimate disposal.

  16. Labor development strategy in the bag industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Maya Nihayah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to formulate strategies for improving the labor competencies in the bag industry in Kudus Regency. The data comprise business players, which will be analyzed using the Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT analysis. The results reveal that the proper strategy for improving employment in the bag industry is growth and build strategy. Growth and development strategy are intensive actions undertaken through the development of labor competencies to improve the quality of output. It can be made with creating learning resources by designing methods and trainings refer to the Competency Based Training (CBT.

  17. Zero-point energy in bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The zero-point (Casimir) energy of free vector (gluon) fields confined to a spherical cavity (bag) is computed. With a suitable renormalization the result for eight gluons is E = + 0.51/a. This result is substantially larger than that for a spherical shell (where both interior and exterior modes are present), and so affects Johnson's model of the QCD vacuum. It is also smaller than, and of opposite sign to, the value used in bag model phenomenology, so it will have important implications there. 1 figure

  18. Best options for the exposure of traditional and innovative moss bags: A systematic evaluation in three European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzi, F; Giordano, S; Aboal, J R; Adamo, P; Bargagli, R; Boquete, T; Di Palma, A; Real, C; Reski, R; Spagnuolo, V; Steinbauer, K; Tretiach, M; Varela, Z; Zechmeister, H; Fernández, J A

    2016-07-01

    To develop an internationally standardized protocol for the moss bag technique application, the research team participating in the FP7 European project "MOSSclone" focused on the optimization of the moss bags exposure in terms of bag characteristics (shape of the bags, mesh size, weight/surface ratio), duration and height of exposure by comparing traditional moss bags to a new concept bag, "Mossphere". In particular, the effects of each variable on the metal uptake from the air were evaluated by a systematic experimental design carried out in urban, industrial, agricultural and background areas of three European countries with oceanic, Mediterranean and continental climate. The results evidenced that the shape, the mesh size of the bags and the exposure height (in the tested ranges), did not significantly influence the uptake capacity of the transplanted moss. The aspects more affecting the element uptake were represented by the density of the moss inside the bags and the relative ratio between its weight and the surface area of the bag. We found that, the lower the density, the higher the uptake recorded. Moreover, three weeks of exposure were not enough to have a consistent uptake signal in all the environments tested, thus we suggest an exposure period not shorter than 6 weeks, which is appropriate in most situations. The above results were confirmed in all the countries and scenarios tested. The adoption of a shared exposure protocol by the research community is strongly recommended since it is a key aspect to make biomonitoring surveys directly comparable, also in view of its recognition as a monitoring method by the EU legislation. PMID:27108040

  19. Compact assembly generates plastic foam, inflates flotation bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Device for generating plastic foam consists of an elastomeric bag and two containers with liquid resin and a liquid catalyst. When the walls of the containers are ruptured the liquids come into contact producing foam which inflates the elastomeric bag.

  20. Jute:Change From Bags to Fashion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Many people may be unfamiliar with jute,but everyone knows jute bag and hemp rope.For a long time,jute fiber only could be made into rough packing materials;it is difficult to be used widely for its characteristics.

  1. Plant Tissue Culture in a Bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Describes the use of an oven bag as a sterile chamber for culture initiation and tissue transfer. Plant tissue culture is an ideal tool for introducing students to plants, cloning, and experimental design. Includes materials, methods, discussion, and conclusion sections. (SAH)

  2. An update on purple urine bag syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadano Y

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Yoshiro Hadano,1 Taro Shimizu,2 Shimon Takada,3 Toshiya Inoue,4 Sumire Sorano51Department of General Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Rakuwakai Otowa Hospital, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto, Japan; 2Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Department of General Internal Medicine, Osaka City General Hospital, Miyakojima-ku, Osaka, Japan; 4Department of Emergency Medicine, Urasoe General Hospital, Urasoe-city, Okinawa, Japan; 5Kobe University School of Medicine, Kusunokicho, Chuoku, Kobe, JapanAbstract: Purple urine bag syndrome is characterized by the urinary drainage bag turning purple in patients on prolonged urinary catheterization, especially those in the bedridden state. It is associated with bacterial urinary tract infections caused by indigo-producing and indirubin-producing bacteria, usually affects women, and is associated with alkaline urine, constipation, and a high bacterial load in the urine. Almost all patients with purple urine bag syndrome are catheterized due to significant disability, and the urinary pH is 7.0 or more. In general, intensive treatment with antibiotics is not recommended. Purple urine bag syndrome per se almost always appears to be asymptomatic and harmless. However, caution is needed, because some cases have been reported to show progression to severe disease states, so further research into the morbidity and mortality of this infection is warranted.Keywords: purple urine, urinary catheterization, geriatrics, urinary tract infection

  3. The Kindness in a Bag of Chips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩小庆

    2011-01-01

    Last Sunday, my son and I were in line at the Dollar store buying an assortment of products. In a line next to ours, a woman was waiting to make her 1 . She had a few necessities and one bag of chips.

  4. The Kindness in a Bag of Chips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩小庆

    2011-01-01

    难度:★★★☆☆词数:406建议阅读时间:10分钟Last Sunday, my son and I were in line at the Dollar store buying an assortment of products. In a line next to ours, a woman was waiting to make her 1 . She had a few necessities and one bag of chips.

  5. 49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for paper bags. 178.521 Section 178.521...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.521 Standards for paper bags. (a) The following are identification codes for paper bags: (1) 5M1 for a multi-wall paper bag; and (2) 5M2 for a multi-wall...

  6. Plastic bag clip discovered in partial colectomy accompanying proposal for phylogenic plastic bag clip classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmer, Larisa M; Ragsdale, Bruce D; Daniel, John; Hayashi, Edwin; Kvalstad, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A plastic bag clip was incidentally found anchored in the mucosa of a partial colectomy specimen 2.6 cm proximal to a ruptured diverticulum for which the patient, a mentally retarded, diabetic, 58-year-old man, underwent surgery. Over 20 cases of accidental ingestion of plastic bag clips have been published. Known complications include small bowel perforation, obstruction, dysphagia, gastrointestinal bleeding and colonic impaction. Preoperative diagnosis of plastic clips lodged in the gastrointestinal tract is frustrated due to radiographic translucency. This occult threat could likely be prevented by the design of gastrointestinally safe, plastic-bag-sealing devices. Presented here is a morphologically based classification of bag clips as a possible guide for determining the most hazardous varieties and to aid further discussions of their impact on health. PMID:22679182

  7. Plastic bag clip discovered in partial colectomy accompanying proposal for phylogenic plastic bag clip classification

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmer, Larisa M; Ragsdale, Bruce D.; Daniel, John; Hayashi, Edwin; Kvalstad, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A plastic bag clip was incidentally found anchored in the mucosa of a partial colectomy specimen 2.6 cm proximal to a ruptured diverticulum for which the patient, a mentally retarded, diabetic, 58-year-old man, underwent surgery. Over 20 cases of accidental ingestion of plastic bag clips have been published. Known complications include small bowel perforation, obstruction, dysphagia, gastrointestinal bleeding and colonic impaction. Preoperative diagnosis of plastic clips lodged in the gastroi...

  8. 49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for woven plastic bags. 178.518 Section... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.518 Standards for woven plastic bags. (a) The following are identification codes for woven plastic bags: (1) 5H1 for an unlined or...

  9. 50 CFR 660.721 - Recreational fishing bag limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recreational fishing bag limits. 660.721... Migratory Fisheries § 660.721 Recreational fishing bag limits. This section applies to recreational fishing... daily bag limit of fishing during one calendar day. Federal recreational HMS regulations are...

  10. 50 CFR 640.23 - Bag/possession limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bag/possession limits. 640.23 Section 640... Measures § 640.23 Bag/possession limits. (a) EEZ off the southern Atlantic states, other than Florida. The daily bag or possession limit for spiny lobster in or from the EEZ off the southern Atlantic...

  11. 50 CFR 622.39 - Bag and possession limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... affecting § 622.39, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bag and possession limits. 622.39 Section... § 622.39 Bag and possession limits. (a) Applicability. (1) The bag and possession limits apply...

  12. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic...

  13. The Cheshire Cat principle for hybrid bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cheshire Cat point of view where the bag in the chiral bag model has no physical significance, but only a notational one is argued for. It is explained how a fermion - in, say, a 1+1 dimensional exact Cheshire Cat model - escapes the bag by means of an anomaly. The possibility to construct sophisticated hybrid bag models is suggested which use the lack of physical significance of the bag to fix the many parameters so as to anyway give hope of a phenomenologically sensible model. (orig.)

  14. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... house) Industrial emissions (like smoke and chemicals from factories) Household cleaners (spray cleaners, air fresheners) Car emissions (like carbon monoxide) *All of these things make up “particle pollution.” They mostly come from cars, trucks, buses, and ...

  15. Urine bag as a modern day matula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid.

  16. Inflatable bag with sealing and protection layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inflatable bag consists of a textile casing in which a cylindrical pvc tyre with concave bottoms is inserted and glued to the casing. A sealing protective layer is provided on the outer periphery of the cylindrical part of the tyre. A tyre valve with flange and fixing ears and also a relief valve are provided in the concave bottom. The casing material, such as a layer of 0.5 to 5 mm silicone rubber bands is suitable for use in contact with austenitic materials. The bag completely seals spaces such as the mouths of steam generator tubes or collector branches in a nuclear power plant. Decontamination can easily be achieved by rinsing the surface with common means. (J.B.). 2 figs

  17. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  18. SIMULATION OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR THE TEMPERATURE PROFILE IN A SILO BAG FOR BEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Hauth

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The problems encountered with storage of agricultural products has warranted studies related to finding alternative methods of grain storage, thereby avoiding unnecessary losses. Stored grain deteriorates quickly at high temperatures. The moisture content of the grain influences the respiratory process; therefore, when at the recommended humidity of between 11 and 13%, this rate remains low, it prolongs maintenance of the product quality. The silo bag being airtight enables the grain mass to consume the entire internal O2 purse within it, and in that low or absent oxygen environment the grain mass saturates the CO2 atmosphere, inhibiting the multiplication of insects and fungi, thus providing a controlled environment. This study aims at simulating, using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD, the time it would take for the entire grain mass contained in a silo bag to reach thermal equilibrium with the environment and analyzes the feasibility of the technique employed here. The simulations were performed based on the data of the average air temperature in the region at each harvest time and the average storage temperature of the bean mass (60°C. The results obtained from the simulations reveal that after one month of silo storage the entire bag remains in thermal stabilization, and four months later when it hits the entire mass, all the beans are in thermal equilibrium. Therefore, maintaining stable temperature and humidity within the recommended silo bag preserves the grain quality well.

  19. Consumption of Plastic bags and its Impact on Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Sarwat Afzal; Irfan Ali; Imdad Ali; M.Adil; Suman Gangwani; Faryal Shaikh

    2012-01-01

    The research was done on the consumption of plastic bags and its possible impact on environment. We considered the consumption of plastic bags as recycling, alternatives and disposal, and to be specific we defined environment impact on drainage and street waste. The respondents’ were the 20 years of age and older without any gender discrimination, and assumed to be users of plastic bags. The data was collected from the crowded shopping centers of city. Correlation and regression techniques we...

  20. Computer Forensic Using Lazy Local Bagging Predictors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Wei-dong; BAO Cheng-yi; ZHU Xing-quan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of employ ensemble learning for computer forensic. We propose a Lazy Local Learning based bagging (L3B) approach, where base learners are trained from a small instance subset surrounding each test instance. More specifically, given a test instance x, L3B first discovers x's k nearest neighbours, and then applies progressive sampling to the selected neighbours to train a set of base classifiers, by using a given very weak (VW) learner. At the last stage, x is labeled as the most frequently voted class of all base classifiers. Finally, we apply the proposed L3B to computer forensic.

  1. The Kaon Bag Parameter at Physical Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Frison, Julien; Christ, Norman H; Garron, Nicolas; Mawhinney, Robert; Sachrajda, Chris T; Yin, Hantao

    2013-01-01

    We present preliminary results for the calculation of the Kaon Bag parameter $B_K$ in $N_f=2+1$ lattice QCD, using M\\"obius Domain Wall Fermion ensembles generated by the RBC-UKQCD collaboration. This computation is done directly at physical meson masses, so that we do not have to rely on chiral perturbation theory or any other mass extrapolation. In parallel, the four-quark operator is renormalised through the Rome-Southampton technique. Finally, we compare our value with previous results and draw some conclusions about the remaining dominant contributions in our error budget.

  2. Structure functions in the chiral bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjose, V.; Vento, V.

    1989-07-13

    We calculate the structure functions of an isoscalar nuclear target for the deep inelastic scattering by leptons in an extended version of the chiral bag model which incorporates the qanti q structure of the pions in the cloud. Bjorken scaling and Regge behavior are satisfied. The model calculation reproduces the low-x behavior of the data but fails to explain the medium- to large-x behavior. Evolution of the quark structure functions seem inevitable to attempt a connection between the low-energy models and the high-energy behavior of quantum chromodynamics. (orig.).

  3. Two cases of death due to plastic bag suffocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadesan, K; Beng, O B

    2001-01-01

    Deaths due to plastic bag suffocation or plastic bag asphyxia are not reported in Malaysia. In the West many suicides by plastic bag asphyxia, particularly in the elderly and those who are chronically and terminally ill, have been reported. Accidental deaths too are not uncommon in the West, both among small children who play with shopping bags and adolescents who are solvent abusers. Another well-known but not so common form of accidental death from plastic bag asphyxia is sexual asphyxia, which is mostly seen among adult males. Homicide by plastic bag asphyxia too is reported in the West and the victims are invariably infants or adults who are frail or terminally ill and who cannot struggle. Two deaths due to plastic bag asphyxia are presented. Both the autopsies were performed at the University Hospital Mortuary, Kuala Lumpur. Both victims were 50-year old married Chinese males. One death was diagnosed as suicide and the other as sexual asphyxia. Sexual asphyxia is generally believed to be a problem associated exclusively with the West. Specific autopsy findings are often absent in deaths due to plastic bag asphyxia and therefore such deaths could be missed when some interested parties have altered the scene and most importantly have removed the plastic bag. A visit to the scene of death is invariably useful.

  4. The Effective Design of Bean Bag as a Vibroimpact Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Q. Liu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of a bean bag damper has been effectively applied in many engineering fields to control the vibroimpact of a structural system. In this study, the basic parameters responsible for the design of an effective bean bag: the size of beans, the mass ratio of the bean bag to the structure to which it is attached, the clearance distance and the position of the bag, are studied by both theoretical and experimental analyses. These will provide a better understanding of the performance of the bean bag for optimisation of damper design. It was found that reducing the size of beans would increase the exchange of momentum in the system due to the increase in the effective contact areas. Within the range of mass ratios studied, the damping performance of the damper was found to improve with higher mass ratios. There was an optimum clearance for any specific damper whereby the maximum attenuation could be achieved. The position of the bag with respect to nodes and antipodes of the primary structure determined the magnitude of attenuation attainable. Furthermore, the limitations of bean bags have been identified and a general criteria for the design of a bean bag damper has been formulated based on the study undertaken. It was shown that an appropriately configured bean bag damper was capable of reducing the amplitude of vibration by 80% to 90%.

  5. ASSESSMENT OF BAGGING OPERATORS EXPOSURE TO WITH PVC AIRBORNE PARTICULATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Asilian, M. Nasseri Nejad, S. B. Mortazavi, M. J. Jafari, A. Khavanin, A. R. Dehdashti

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Dust consists of tiny solid particles carried by air currents. These particles are formed by many different processes. One of these processes is polymerization of inert plastic such as Polyvinyl Chloride production plant. According to the Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series requirements, section 4.4.6, occupational health and safety risks must be defined and controlled where needed. This field study was conducted to evaluate the occupational exposure of packaging operators to airborne polyvinyl chloride dust in order to health risk assessment and recommend feasible controlling methods. The mass concentration of polyvinyl chloride particulate was measured in two fractions according to the particle size that expressed as total and respirable particulates. The Air Sampling Methods, Methods for the Determination of Hazardous Substances 14/3, of Health and Safety Executive were used as a standard sampling protocol. The average mass concentrations for respirable and total particulates were measured 3.54±0.3 mg/m3 and 11.89±0.8 mg/m3 respectively. Also health risks of studied condition were estimated as significant level, category one, therefore the risk must be reduced below the standard level. According to the work requirements to reduce the emission rate and mitigate the health risk exposure, a local exhaust ventilation system design was recommended for bag-filters of hopper tank.

  6. Efficacy of electron beams in radiation disinfestation of jute bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An irradiator generating electron radiation may be employed for radiation disinfestation of jute bags infested with larvae and adults of the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum DuV., if they are created as separate units or small batches, containing up to 40 bags, and are irradiated with a 2 kGy dose. (author)

  7. Effect of a Small Current Quark Mass on Bag Constant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONGHong-Shi; FENGHong-Tao; SUNWei-Min; DINGXiao-Ping; PINGJia-Lun

    2004-01-01

    A method for obtaining the small current quark mass effect on the dressed quark propagator within the Dyson Schwinger approach is developed. From this the small current quark mass dependence of the bag constant is evaluated. It is found that the bag constant decreases with the increasing current quark mass and the contribution of the current quark mass cannot be dropped.

  8. Effect of a Small Current Quark Mass on Bag Constant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Hong-Shi; FENG Hong-Tao; SUN Wei-Min; DING Xiao-Ping; PING Jia-Lun

    2004-01-01

    A method for obtaining the small current quark mass effect on the dressed quark propagator within the Dyson-Schwinger approach is developed. From this the small current quark mass dependence of the bag constant is evaluated. It is found that the bag constant decreases with the increasing current quark mass and the contribution of the current quark mass cannot be dropped.

  9. Commander Brand stows trash in jettison bag on middeck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Commander Brand disposes of empty food containers and dry trash in jettison bag and stows bag in middeck volume under MA73C control panel. Side hatch is visible behind Brand. Brand is wearing constant wear garment with communications kit assembly headset interface unit (HIU) and note pad strapped to his thighs.

  10. MICROWAVE POPCORN EMISSIONS RELEASED DURING COOKING AND BAG OPENING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data are not currently available on the contaminants released when microwave popcorn, flavorings and bags are heated to microwave temperatures. Thus, the primary goal of this work is to identify and quantify contaminants emitted while popping and opening a bag of microwave popcor...

  11. Partial bosonization: The formalism of Cheshire Cat bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By bosonizing fermionic theories on only a part of space-time, one obtains idealized bag models where the physics is independent of the bag radius. Such ''Cheshire Cat Models (CCM's)'' were introduced in an earlier paper, where it was suggested that realistic bag models are in fact approximate CCM's. The present paper further explores Abelian CCM's in 1+1 dimensions. First, the boundary action for CCM's is derived in the Lagrangian formalism by demanding invariance under parity and chiral rotations. Next, a quantum reinterpretation of the classical Lagrangian bag boundary conditions is used to obtain the bosonic representation of fermions as soliton operators. Last, these soliton operators are used to construct CCM's in the Hamiltonian framework. The Cheshire Cat criterion - independence of the energy spectrum on the bag radius - is presented as the commuting of the energy and momentum operators for the model. (orig.)

  12. Bagging Support Vector Machines for Leukemia Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokmen Zararsiz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Leukemia is one of the most common cancer type, and its diagnosis and classification is becoming increasingly complex and important. Here, we used a gene expression dataset and adapted bagging support vector machines (bSVM for leukemia classification. bSVM trains each SVM seperately using bootstrap technique, then aggregates the performances of each SVM by majority voting. bSVM showed accuracy between 87.5% - 92.5%, area under ROC curve between 98.0% - 99.2%, F-measure between 90.5% - 92.7% and outperformed single SVM and other classification methods. We also compared our results with other study results which used the same dataset for leukemia classification. Experimental results revealed that bSVM showed the best performance and can be used as a biomarker for the diagnose of leukemia disease.

  13. Non-topological soliton bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilets, L.

    1986-01-01

    The Friedberg-Lee soliton model, which effects confinement by a quantal scalar field, is discussed. The Lagrangian for the non-topological soliton model is the usual QCD Lagrangian supplemented by a non-linear scalar sigma field term. Static solutions to the field equations are considered in the mean field approximation. Small amplitude oscillations are discussed. Quantum alternatives to the mean field approximation are also considered. Methods of momentum projection and Lorentz boost are described, and the generator coordinate method is discussed. Calculations of the N-N interaction are reviewed briefly. Also discussed is one-gluon exchange, as well as the pion and dressing of the baryons. The hadron states are summarized. One loop quantum corrections are discussed briefly. Work in progress is mentioned in the areas of N-anti N annihilation, the many bag problem, and a Pauli equation for the nucleon. 31 refs. (LEW)

  14. Effects of bagging materials and CaCl2 spray on fruit calcium concentration in fruit-bagged apple trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of bagging materials and CaCl2 spray on fruit Ca concentration in fruit-bagged apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.). No difference was noted in fruit Ca concentration among bagging materials during the growing season. And also, there was no difference in fruit Ca concentration between bagged and non-bagged fruits. The fruit flesh Ca concentration of bagged fruits was significantly lower than that of non-bagged fruits in the same tree, which 0.5 % CaCl2 was sprayed 5 times in the late growing season. The radioactivity of 45Ca was highest in the sprayed shoot leaves and bark, while only a trace amount was detected in the fruit and shoot proximate to the treated shoot 3 weeks after 3 times application of 45CaCl2 (5 micro Ci/ml). As a result, it is confirmed that the Ca once accumulated in a specific part is hardly retranslocated. Therefore, it is concluded that Ca foliar spray to the fruit-bagged tree has no influence on Ca concentration in the fruit

  15. Dust filtration by means of compact filter bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filter materials used for separating particulate matter have been improved during the last few years and their scope of application has become much larger. One important innovation in this field are compact filter bags with a pleated surface; these bags have a porous self-supporting core covered by a microporous layer made of acrylic foam. A laboratory comparison between current tissue filters and the new compact bag filters revealed the latter to have a longer service life, a better compatibility with adhesive and wet dusts as well as an improved separation performance. (orig.)

  16. The Cheshire Cat principle applied to hybrid bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here is argued for the Cheshire Cat point of view according to which the bag (itself) has only notational, but no physical significance. It is explained in a 1+1 dimensional exact Cheshire Cat model how a fermion can escape from the bag by means of an anomaly. We also suggest that suitably constructed hybrid bag models may be used to fix such parameters of effective Lagrangians that can otherwise be obtained from experiments only. This idea is illustrated in a calculation of the mass of the pseudoscalar η' meson in 1+1 dimension. Thus there is hope to find a construction principle for a phenomenologically sensible model. (orig.)

  17. Fermion Bag Approach for Massive Thirring Model at Finite Density

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Daming

    2016-01-01

    We consider the 2+1 dimensional massive Thirring model with one flavor at finite density. Two numerical methods, fermion bag approach and complex Langevin dynamics, are used to calculate the chiral condensate and fermion density of this model. The numerical results obtained by fermion bag approach are compared with those obtained by complex Langevin dynamics. They are also compared with those obtained under phase quenched approximation. We show that in some range of fermion coupling strength and chemical potential the sign problem in fermion bag approach is mild, while it becomes severe for the complex Langevin dynamics.

  18. Vacuum-bag-only processing of composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Shad

    Ultrasonic imaging in the C-scan mode in conjunction with the amplitude of the reflected signal was used to measure flow rates of an epoxy resin film penetrating through the thickness of single layers of woven carbon fabric. Assemblies, comprised of a single layer of fabric and film, were vacuum-bagged and ultrasonically scanned in a water tank during impregnation at 50°C, 60°C, 70°C, and 80°C. Measured flow rates were plotted versus inverse viscosity to determine the permeability in the thin film, non-saturated system. The results demonstrated that ultrasonic imaging in the C-scan mode is an effective method of measuring z-direction resin flow through a single layer of fabric. The permeability values determined in this work were consistent with permeability values reported in the literature. Capillary flow was not observed at the temperatures and times required for pressurized flow to occur. The flow rate at 65°C was predicted from the linear plot of flow rate versus inverse viscosity. The effects of fabric architecture on through-thickness flow rates during impregnation of an epoxy resin film were measured by ultrasonic imaging. Multilayered laminates comprised of woven carbon fabrics and epoxy films (prepregs) were fabricated by vacuum-bagging. Ultrasonic imaging was performed in a heated water tank (65°C) during impregnation. Impregnation rates showed a strong dependence on fabric architecture, despite similar areal densities. Impregnation rates are directly affected by inter-tow spacing and tow nesting, which depend on fabric architecture, and are indirectly affected by areal densities. A new method of predicting resin infusion rates in prepreg and resin film infusion processes was proposed. The Stokes equation was used to derive an equation to predict the impregnation rate of laminates as a function of fabric architecture. Flow rate data previously measured by ultrasound was analyzed with the new equation and the Kozeny-Carman equation. A fiber

  19. Color Based Bags-of-Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solli, Martin; Lenz, Reiner

    In this paper we describe how to include high level semantic information, such as aesthetics and emotions, into Content Based Image Retrieval. We present a color-based emotion-related image descriptor that can be used for describing the emotional content of images. The color emotion metric used is derived from psychophysical experiments and based on three variables: activity, weight and heat. It was originally designed for single-colors, but recent research has shown that the same emotion estimates can be applied in the retrieval of multi-colored images. Here we describe a new approach, based on the assumption that perceived color emotions in images are mainly affected by homogenous regions, defined by the emotion metric, and transitions between regions. RGB coordinates are converted to emotion coordinates, and for each emotion channel, statistical measurements of gradient magnitudes within a stack of low-pass filtered images are used for finding interest points corresponding to homogeneous regions and transitions between regions. Emotion characteristics are derived for patches surrounding each interest point, and saved in a bag-of-emotions, that, for instance, can be used for retrieving images based on emotional content.

  20. Sensory pollution from bag-type fiberglass ventilation filters: Conventional filter compared with filters containing various amounts of activated carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Fadeyi, M.O.; Clausen, Geo;

    2009-01-01

    As ventilation filters accumulate particles removed from the airstream, they become emitters of sensory pollutants that degrade indoor air quality. Previously we demonstrated that an F7 bag-type filter that incorporates activated carbon (a "combination filter") reduces this adverse effect compared...... to an equivalent filter without carbon. The aim of the present study was to examine how the amount of activated carbon (AC) used in combination filters affects their ability to remove both sensory offending pollutants and ozone. A panel evaluated the air downstream of four different filters after each had...... filter and three modifications of a bag-type fiberglass combination filter: the "Heavy" corresponded to a commercially available filter containing 400 g of carbon per square meter of filter area, the "Medium" contained half as much carbon (200 g/m(2)), and the "Light" contained a quarter as much carbon...

  1. Bag nyhederne - værdier, idealer og praksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ida

    Hvorfor bliver nogle begivenheder til nyheder? Hvilke nyhedsværdier hersker på danske redaktioner? Bag nyhederne er en sociologisk undersøgelse af dansk nyhedskultur, der giver et indblik i hverdagens journalistiske praksis....

  2. Comparison of three methods in improving bag mask ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad EJ Golzari

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Leaving dentures in place in edentulous patients after inducing anesthesia improves bag-mask ventilation. However, placing folded compressed gauze in buccal space leads to more significant improvement in BMV compared to leaving dentures in place.

  3. Properties of hybrid stars in an extended MIT bag model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Tmurbagan; LIU Guang-Zhou; ZHU Ming-Feng

    2009-01-01

    The properties of hybrid stars are investigated in the framework of the relativistic mean field theory (RMFT) and an MIT bag model with density-dependent bag constant to describe the hadron phase (HP) and quark phase (QP), respectively. We find that the density-dependent B(p) decreases with baryon density p; this decrement makes the strange quark matter become more energetically favorable than ever, which makes the threshold densities of the hadron-quark phase transition lower than those of the original bag constant case. In this case, the hyperon degrees of freedom can not be considered. As a result, the equations of state of a star in the mixed phase (MP) become softer whereas those in the QP become stiffer, and the radii of the star obviously decrease. This indicates that the extended MIT bag model is more suitable to describe hybrid stars with small radii.

  4. Deformation of the Bag Skirt of ACV in Heave Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senba, Hiromitsu; Matsuo, Hideo; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki; Yoshimoto, Shintarou; Hiroe, Tetsuyuki; Fujiwara, Kazuhito

    A method to predict the change of the cushion pressure and the bag skirt configuration of ACV in heave is proposed. It is a quasistatic analysis based on the analysis of the skirt configuration in static operation that was proposed by the present authors. The cushion pressure depends on the velocity of motion as well as the hoverheight. It is higher in the downward motion than in the upward motion with the same hoverheight. As the model approaches the ground surface, the bag skirt is pushed outwards and also upwards but the hoverheight still decreases. This produces the increase of the cushion pressure that also flattened the configuration of the bag. The outward displacement of the bag produces the additional increase of the cushion base area and increases the restoring force. The stability is then increased.

  5. Bag-model quantum chromodynamics for hyperons at low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a non-perturbative bag model framework, gluon exchange which mediates quark exchange scattering in conjunction with quark interchange is shown to be the basis of the OBE interactions of hyperons at low energy. (orig.)

  6. Bag-model quantum chromodynamics for hyperons at low energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, H. J.; Maslow, J. N.

    1980-09-01

    In a non-perturbative bag model framework, gluon exchange which mediates quark exchange scattering in conjunction with quark interchange is shown to be the basis of the OBE interactions of hyperons at low energy.

  7. 75 FR 23670 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Countervailing Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Bags from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination, 75 FR... Retail Carrier Bags from Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam, USITC Publication 4144, Investigation Nos. 701... carrying merchandise from retail establishments, e.g., garbage bags, lawn bags, trash-can liners....

  8. Quark Orbital Angular Momentum in the MIT Bag Model

    OpenAIRE

    Burkardt, Matthias; Jarrah, Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    Using the MIT bag model, we study the contribution from the gluon vector potential due to the spectators to the orbital angular momentum of a quark in the bag model. For $\\alpha_s = {\\cal O}(1)$, this spectator contribution to the quark orbital angular momentum in the gauge-covariant Ji decomposition is of the same order as the non gauge-covariant quark orbital angular momentum and its magnitude is larger for $d$ than for $u$ quarks and negative for both.

  9. Cancellous bone homograft storage with aluminium-polyethylene bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meana, A; Martinez, R; Cañal, P; Arriaga, M J; Román, F San; Llames, S; Orós, C; Moreno, A; Fernandez, C

    2006-01-01

    In order to transport and cryopreserve human tissues, it is essential to have an easy-to-use recipient where tissues can be kept in sterile conditions. Here we show the results obtained by using Macopharma's tissue freezing bags, an aluminium-polyethylene multilayer bag, in our tissue bank of the Centro Comunitario de Sangre y Tejidos de Asturias. Five hundred and twenty-seven cancellous bone homografts were obtained from hospitals located 120 km around our Bank. The homografts were submitted to bacteriological controls and sent to our bank in these bags. They were stored at -70 degrees C and sent in dry ice to about 50 hospitals, where the tissue was bacteriologically controlled and grafted. Furthermore, the behaviour of these bags at -140 degrees C (vapour nitrogen) or -196 degrees C (liquid nitrogen) was tested. Our results indicate that Macopharma aluminium-polyethylene bags are suitable for the transporting and cryopreserving of cancellous bone homografts. These bags could also be used for keeping tissues in nitrogen containers.

  10. Application of Geotextile Bag Dehydrated Soil to Dike Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱平; 闫澍旺; 刘润

    2004-01-01

    Using geotextile bag dehydrated soil to construct dikes for land reclamation to substitute conventional straw bags is an urgent need in Tianjin New Harbor, China. This paper introduces the method to build a dike for hydraulic filling. The soil for filling the geotextile bags was tested in wave trench; the stress developed during construction was calculated by establishing a numerical model and compared with the tensile strength of the geotextile; the stability and settlement of the dike were estimated by performing centrifuge tests. Through this study, the following information was obtained: 1) The cohesionless silt with plasticity index less than 10 is suitable for filling the geotextile bags. The geotextile bag dehydrated soil consolidated very quickly even under the action of wave force. 2) A numerical model was devised to find the limit injection height and to calculate the tensile stress developed in the geotextile bags when they were piled up to form the dike. The calculated stress was compared with the strength of the geotextile, showing that the design is reasonably safe. 3) Centrifuge test results show that the designed dike will be stable and the settlement of dike will be less than the design requirement.

  11. BAG3: a new player in the heart failure paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezevic, Tijana; Myers, Valerie D; Gordon, Jennifer; Tilley, Douglas G; Sharp, Thomas E; Wang, JuFang; Khalili, Kamel; Cheung, Joseph Y; Feldman, Arthur M

    2015-07-01

    BAG3 is a cellular protein that is expressed predominantly in skeletal and cardiac muscle but can also be found in the brain and in the peripheral nervous system. BAG3 functions in the cell include: serving as a co-chaperone with members of the heat-shock protein family of proteins to facilitate the removal of misfolded and degraded proteins, inhibiting apoptosis by interacting with Bcl2 and maintaining the structural integrity of the Z-disk in muscle by binding with CapZ. The importance of BAG3 in the homeostasis of myocytes and its role in the development of heart failure was evidenced by the finding that single allelic mutations in BAG3 were associated with familial dilated cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, significant decreases in the level of BAG3 have been found in end-stage failing human heart and in animal models of heart failure including mice with heart failure secondary to trans-aortic banding and in pigs after myocardial infarction. Thus, it becomes relevant to understand the cellular biology and molecular regulation of BAG3 expression in order to design new therapies for the treatment of patients with both hereditary and non-hereditary forms of dilated cardiomyopathy. PMID:25925243

  12. 76 FR 33402 - Tesla Motors, Inc.; Receipt of Petition for Renewal of Temporary Exemption from the Advanced Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... three phase, four pole AC induction motor. The Roadster has a combined range of 245 miles on a single... crashes. \\2\\ See 65 FR 30680 (May 12, 2000). The issuance of the advanced air bag requirements was a... volume manufacturers were not subject to the advanced air bag requirements until the end of the...

  13. Performance of triple bagging hermetic technology for postharvest storage of cowpea grain in Niger

    KAUST Repository

    Baoua, Ibrahim B.

    2012-10-01

    Triple bagging technology for protecting postharvest cowpea grain from losses to the bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) is currently being adopted on a fairly large scale in ten West and Central African countries, including Niger. The triple bag consists of two inner high-density polyethylene bags acting as oxygen barriers, which in turn are encased in an outer woven polypropylene bag that serves primarily for mechanical strength. These hermetic bags, available in either 50 or 100 kg capacity, are called Purdue Improved Cowpea Storage (PICS) bags. Adoption of PICS technology in West and Central Africa has been driven by its effectiveness, simplicity, low cost, durability, and manufacture within the region. From surveys on adoption we discovered that farmers have begun to re-use bags they had used the previous year or even the previous two years. In the present study, we compared the performance of three different types of PICS bags: (1) new 50 kg (2) new 100 kg bags and (3) once-used 50 kg bags, all filled with naturally infested untreated cowpeas. In these PICS bags the O 2 levels within the bags initially fell to about 3 percent (v/v) while the CO 2 rose to nearly 5 percent (v/v). After five months of storage, new and used 50 kg bags and new 100 kg bags preserved the grain equally well. There were greatly reduced numbers of adults and larvae in the PICS bags versus the controls, which consisted of grain stored in single layer woven bags. The proportion of grain having C. maculatus emergence holes after five months of storage in PICS bags was little changed from that found when the grain was first put into the bags. The PICS technology is practical and useful in Sahelian conditions and can contribute to improved farmers\\' incomes as well as increase availability of high quality, insecticide-free cowpea grain as food. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Tedlar bag sampling technique for vertical profiling of carbon dioxide through the atmospheric boundary layer with high precision and accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kristen; Jensen, Michael L; Balsley, Ben B; Davis, Kenneth; Birks, John W

    2004-07-01

    Carbon dioxide is the most important greenhouse gas other than water vapor, and its modulation by the biosphere is of fundamental importance to our understanding of global climate change. We have developed a new technique for vertical profiling of CO2 and meteorological parameters through the atmospheric boundary layer and well into the free troposphere. Vertical profiling of CO2 mixing ratios allows estimates of landscape-scale fluxes characteristic of approximately100 km2 of an ecosystem. The method makes use of a powered parachute as a platform and a new Tedlar bag air sampling technique. Air samples are returned to the ground where measurements of CO2 mixing ratios are made with high precision (< or =0.1%) and accuracy (< or =0.1%) using a conventional nondispersive infrared analyzer. Laboratory studies are described that characterize the accuracy and precision of the bag sampling technique and that measure the diffusion coefficient of CO2 through the Tedlar bag wall. The technique has been applied in field studies in the proximity of two AmeriFlux sites, and results are compared with tower measurements of CO2. PMID:15296321

  15. Reducing Mission Logistics with Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep-out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  16. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags fro Reducing Exploration Mission Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) division is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  17. Performance Evaluation of Bagged RBF Classifier for Data Mining Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Govindarajan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Data mining is the use of algorithms to extract the information and patterns derived by the knowledge discovery in databases process. Classification maps data into predefined groups or classes. It is often referred to as supervised learning because the classes are determined before examining the data. The feasibility and the benefits of the proposed approaches are demonstrated by the means of data mining applications like intrusion detection, direct marketing, and signature verification. A variety of techniques have been employed for analysis ranging from traditional statistical methods to data mining approaches. Bagging and boosting are two relatively new but popular methods for producing ensembles. In this work, bagging is evaluated on real and benchmark data sets of intrusion detection, direct marketing, and signature verification in conjunction with radial basis function classifier as the base learner. The proposed bagged radial basis function is superior to individual approach for data mining applications in terms of classification accuracy.

  18. The transverse momentum dependent distribution functions in the bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, Harut; Efremov, Anatoly; Schweitzer, Peter; Yuan, Feng

    2010-01-29

    Leading and subleading twist transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) are studied in a quark model framework provided by the bag model. A complete set of relations among different TMDs is derived, and the question is discussed how model-(in)dependent such relations are. A connection of the pretzelosity distribution and quark orbital angular momentum is derived. Numerical results are presented, and applications for phenomenology discussed. In particular, it is shown that in the valence-x region the bag model supports a Gaussian Ansatz for the transverse momentum dependence of TMDs.

  19. Linearized theory of inhomogeneous multiple 'water-bag' plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, H. W.; Berk, H. L.

    1973-01-01

    Equations are derived for describing the inhomogeneous equilibrium and small deviations from the equilibrium, giving particular attention to systems with trapped particles. An investigation is conducted of periodic systems with a single trapped-particle water bag, taking into account the behavior of the perturbation equations at the turning points. An outline is provided concerning a procedure for obtaining the eigenvalues. The results of stability calculations connected with the sideband effects are considered along with questions regarding the general applicability of the multiple water-bag approach in stability calculations.

  20. BAG3: a new player in the heart failure paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Knezevic, Tijana; Myers, Valerie D.; Gordon, Jennifer; Tilley, Douglas G.; Sharp, Thomas E.; Wang, JuFang; Khalili, Kamel; Cheung, Joseph Y.; Feldman, Arthur M.

    2015-01-01

    BAG3 is a cellular protein that is expressed predominantly in skeletal and cardiac muscle but can also be found in the brain and in the peripheral nervous system. BAG3 functions in the cell include: serving as a co-chaperone with members of the heat-shock protein family of proteins to facilitate the removal of misfolded and degraded proteins, inhibiting apoptosis by interacting with Bcl2 and maintaining the structural integrity of the Z-disk in muscle by binding with CapZ. The importance of B...

  1. NN interaction from bag-model quark interchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, B. L. G.; Bozoian, M.; Maslow, J. N.; Weber, H. J.

    1982-03-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of elastic nucleon-nuclon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one- and two-boson exchange amplitude from a bag-model quark interchange mechanism. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with other meson theoretic potentials and data up to laboratory energies of ~350 MeV. NUCLEAR REACTIONS NN elastic scattering, Elab<=350 MeV. Coupling constants, form factors of renormalized OBE calculated from bag-model quark interchange. Phase shifts, deuteron parameters calculated from covariant partial-wave analysis.

  2. Radon in air calibration procedure: A primary method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure has been developed for preparing 3- to 9-iota volumes of air under natural conditions with a known concentration of /sup 222/Rn to be used for calibrating radon systems. Air is passed into a plastic bag through a standard /sup 226/Ra solution (prepared by the U.S. National Bureau of Standards) contained in an emanation flask. This plastic bag retains /sup 222/Rn with little loss into or through the bag walls. The mean ratios of the /sup 222/Rn in the air at 2 and 7 days after filling to that immediately after filling were -.992 +- 0.006 and 0.969 +- 0.008, which suggests a rate of radon loss into the bag of 0.4 +- 0.1%/day

  3. Developing Baby Bag Design by Using Kansei Engineering Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janari, D.; Rakhmawati, A.

    2016-01-01

    Consumer's preferences and market demand are essential factors for product's success. Thus, in achieving its success, a product should have design that could fulfill consumer's expectation. Purpose of this research is accomplishing baby bag product as stipulated by Kansei. The results that represent Kanseiwords are; neat, unique, comfortable, safe, modern, gentle, elegant, antique, attractive, simple, spacious, creative, colorful, durable, stylish, smooth and strong. Identification value on significance of correlation for durable attribute is 0,000 means significant to baby's bag. While the value of coefficient regression is 0,812 means that durable attribute insignificant to baby's bag.The result of the baby's bag final design selectionbased on the questionnaire 3 is resulting the combination of all design. Space for clothes, diaper's space, shoulder grip, side grip, bottle's heater pocket and bottle's pocket are derived from design 1. Top grip, space for clothes, shoulder grip, and side grip are derived from design 2.Others design that were taken are, spaces for clothes from design 3, diaper's space and clothes’ space from design 4.

  4. Kiondo Bag Boutique: A Serial Case for Introductory Financial Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardane, Harshini P.

    2014-01-01

    Kiondo Bag Boutique is a hypothetical serial case involving a start-up retail business. The case evolves from an ambitious business idea to a successful business. Through the evolving business, the importance of accounting information is highlighted. Different iterations are used to illustrate the role of accounting in serving and managing…

  5. The nucleon axial form factor in some bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compute gsub(A)(qsup(2)) for various bag models, including effects of an additional central force and recoil. For a confinement radius R approximately 0.85 fm predictions reproduce the data up to q < 0.5 fm, but fall faster than the observed dipole behaviour beyond

  6. Sensory Pollution from Bag Filters, Carbon Filters and Combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Weschler, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    by an upstream pre-filter (changed monthly), an EU7 filter protected by an upstream activated carbon (AC) filter, and EU7 filters with an AC filter either downstream or both upstream and downstream. In addition, two types of stand-alone combination filters were evaluated: a bag-type fiberglass filter...

  7. Spontaneous low-pressure headache complicating bag-piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Alasdair; McAuley, David; Roxburgh, Richard

    2007-04-01

    We describe an interesting case of a 40-year-old lady who developed a spontaneous low-pressure headache whilst playing the bag-pipes. Playing wind instruments requires the generation of significant intra-thoracic pressure, which may have contributed to this musician's condition. PMID:17445112

  8. QCD Phase Transitions and Bag Constants at Finite Chemical Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shu; GUO Hua; ZHAO En-Guang; L(U) Xiao-Fu

    2007-01-01

    The global colour model at finite temperature is further extended to study the systems at finite chemical potential. The deconfinement and chiral phase transition at finite chemical potential and at temperature T=0K are studied simultaneously. Meanwhile the evolution of the bag constants at finite chemical potential is calculated. The dependences of results on the model parameters are discussed in detail.

  9. OBE approximation of NN scattering in bag-model QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, B. L. G.; Maslow, J. N.; Weber, H. J.

    1981-09-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one-boson and two-pion exchange amplitude from bag-model quantum chromodynamics. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with data up to laboratory energies of ≈350 MeV.

  10. STS-32 OV-102 air revitalization system (ARS) humidity separator problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    During STS-32, onboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, a leakage problem at environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) air revitalization system (ARS) humidity separator A below the middeck is solved with a plastic bag and a towel. The towel inserted inside a plastic bag absorbed the water that had collected at the separator inlet.

  11. Effects of Different Fermentation Time, Packaging Color and Bag Sealing Applications on Packaged Corn Silage Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Karaşahin, Muhammet

    2015-01-01

    In this study, effects of two different fermentation times (35 and 70 days), two different packaging colors (black and white) and two different sealing (thermal sealing without vacuum in single bag and vacuum binding with clip in first bag + thermal sealing in second bag) were investigated on packaged corn silage quality. According to research results, pH values increased and flieg scores decreased as fermentation time gets longer. The crude protein values obtained from white colored bags wer...

  12. BAG3 affects the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Young-Hee [Department of Biochemistry, Dongguk University College of Oriental Medicine, Gyeongju 780-714 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sang-Gun [Department of Pathology, Chosun University College of Dentistry, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo-A., E-mail: ksooa@dongguk.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, Dongguk University College of Oriental Medicine, Gyeongju 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-21

    Bcl2-associated athoanogene (BAG) 3 is a member of the co-chaperone BAG family. It is induced by stressful stimuli such as heat shock and heavy metals, and it regulates cellular adaptive responses against stressful conditions. In this study, we identified a novel role for BAG3 in regulating the nuclear shuttling of HSF1 during heat stress. The expression level of BAG3 was induced by heat stress in HeLa cells. Interestingly, BAG3 rapidly translocalized to the nucleus upon heat stress. Immunoprecipitation assay showed that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 under normal and stressed conditions and co-translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress. We also demonstrated that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 via its BAG domain. Over-expression of BAG3 down-regulates the level of nuclear HSF1 by exporting it to the cytoplasm during the recovery period. Depletion of BAG3 using siRNA results in reduced nuclear HSF1 and decreased Hsp70 promoter activity. BAG3 in MEF(hsf1{sup −/−}) cells actively translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress suggesting that BAG3 plays a key role in the processing of the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress. - Highlights: • The expression level of BAG3 is induced by heat stress. • BAG3 translocates to the nucleus upon heat stress. • BAG3 interacts with HSF1 and co-localizes to the nucleus. • BAG3 is a key regulator for HSF1 nuclear shuttling.

  13. 78 FR 28194 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China, 69 FR 48201 (August 9, 2004) (PRCB Order). FOR..., citing Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from China, Malaysia, and Thailand, Inv. Nos. 731-TA-1043-1045... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of...

  14. Can "contamination" occur in body bags?-The example of background fibres in body bags used in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendener, Giuliana; Moret, Sébastien; Cavanagh-Steer, Karen; Roux, Claude

    2016-09-01

    Impurities that are transferred to a crime scene or a body can have a significant negative impact on the investigation if the existence of the contamination is not known, and the source of the contamination is not identified. Forensic consumables, such as DNA swabs, have been known to have caused contaminations, wrongfully linking crimes throughout Europe. In that context, this study focused on body bags, widely used to transfer a corpse from the crime scene to the morgue. Our preliminary survey showed that several countries and Australian Jurisdictions are conducting the sampling of trace evidence at the morgue after the transportation of the body. Potential impurities present in body bags could thus interfere with pertinent traces. The aim of this work was to qualify and quantify the background contamination of trace evidence in body bags used within Australia. Fifteen body bags from four Australian Jurisdictions or laboratories were searched for micro traces. Impurities such as fibres and unidentified particles were detected in each examined body bag, with an estimated average of 3603 coloured fibres and 1429 unidentified particles. This number of fibres is similar to the amount found on a vinyl cinema seat in other studies. Various other contaminants such as pieces of fabric, hairs, parts of insects or feathers were also observed. It is hypothesised that these impurities are introduced during the manufacturing process. This high number of impurities can lead to incorrect conclusions and misleading investigative leads. This paper presents an overview of the problems these impurities can cause and proposes several strategies to prevent future issues. PMID:27484248

  15. Effect of vacuum polarization in system of two three-phase chiral bags

    CERN Document Server

    Malakhov, I Y

    2002-01-01

    The self-consistent solutions describing the system of two interacting bags are obtained for the model of the three-phase chiral quark bags in the (1 + 1)-dimensional case. Special attention thereby is paid to studying the role of the fermions vacuum polarization inside the bags in the system dynamics and the boson field connecting (interpolating) the bags is accounted for only at the single-boson exchange level. The renormalized complete energy of the system is studied as the function of the parameters characterizing the geometry of the problem and the bags additional characteristics originating in the (1 + 1)-dimensional case. It is shown that the vacuum polarization in the system of two three-phase bags leads to origination of strong nonlinear interaction at small distances whereby in dependence on the bags characteristics this may be both repulsion and attraction

  16. Catalytic pleat filter bags for combined particulate separation and nitrogen oxides removal from flue gas streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a high temperature catalytically active pleated filter bag with hybrid filter equipment for the combined removal of particles and nitrogen oxides from flue gas streams is presented. A special catalyst load in stainless steel mesh cartridge with a high temperature pleated filter bag followed by optimized catalytic activation was developed to reach the required nitrogen oxides levels and to maintain the higher collection efficiencies. The catalytic properties of the developed high temperature filter bags with hybrid filter equipment were studied and demonstrated in a pilot scale test rig and a demonstration plant using commercial scale of high temperature catalytic pleated filter bags. The performance of the catalytic pleated filter bags were tested under different operating conditions, such as filtration velocity and operating temperature. Moreover, the cleaning efficiency and residual pressure drop of the catalyst loaded cartridges in pleated filter bags were tested. As result of theses studies, the optimum operating conditions for the catalytic pleated filter bags are determined. (author)

  17. Design of Control System for Flexible Packaging Bags Palletizing Production Line Based on PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huiping; Chen, Lin; Zhao, Xiaoming; Liu, Zhanyang

    Flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is to put the bags in the required area according to particular order and size, in order to finish handling, storage, loading and unloading, transportation and other logistics work of goods. Flexible packaging bags palletizing line is composed of turning bags mechanism, shaping mechanism, indexing mechanism, marshalling mechanism, pushing bags mechanism, pressing bags mechanism, laminating mechanism, elevator, tray warehouse, tray conveyor and loaded tray conveyor. Whether the whole production line can smoothly run depends on each of the above equipment and precision control among them. In this paper the technological process and the control logic of flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is introduced. Palletizing process of the production line realized automation by means of a control system based on programmable logic controller (PLC). It has the advantages of simple structure, reliable and easy maintenance etc.

  18. Study of cultured bovine capsular bag in pure ocular tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-qing; LI Qiu-ming

    2006-01-01

    @@ The proliferation, differentiation and fibrosis of lens epithelia cells (LECs) is mainly responsible for posterior capsular opacification (PCO). From the primary culture of LECs to the culture of lens capsular bag, the models of posterior capsular opacification have been developed. At present, the most commonly used model is cell culture in medium with serum. But the culture in pure ocular tissue has not been reported. Therefore, we established a new model of posterior capsular opacification-culturing bovine lens capsular bag in pure ocular tissue to exclude the role of serum. Our study established a new culture method to investigate the proliferation,differentiation and apoptosis of lens epithelia cells in the aqueous humor with or without lens cortex and vitreous humor. The purpose of the study is to model posterior capsular opacification in vivo as closely as possible and to discuss the influence of ocular tissue on posterior capsular opacification.

  19. Empirical Analysis of Bagged SVM Classifier for Data Mining Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Govindarajan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Data mining is the use of algorithms to extract the information and patterns derived by the knowledge discovery in databases process. Classification maps data into predefined groups or classes. It is often referred to as supervised learning because the classes are determined before examining the data. The feasibility and the benefits of the proposed approaches are demonstrated by the means of data mining applications like intrusion detection, direct marketing, and signature verification. A variety of techniques have been employed for analysis ranging from traditional statistical methods to data mining approaches. Bagging and boosting are two relatively new but popular methods for producing ensembles. In this work, bagging is evaluated on real and benchmark data sets of intrusion detection, direct marketing, and signature verification in conjunction with as the base learner. The proposed is superior to individual approach for data mining applications in terms of classification accuracy.

  20. Search for Flavoured Multiquarks in a Simple Bag Model

    CERN Document Server

    Zouzou, S

    1993-01-01

    We use a bag model to study flavoured mesonic $(Qq\\bar q\\bar q)$ and baryonic $({\\overline Q}qqqq)$ states, where one heavy quark $Q$ is associated with light quarks or antiquarks, and search for possible stable multiquarks. No bound state is found. However some states lie not too high above their dissociation threshold, suggesting the possibility of resonances, or perhaps bound states in improved models.

  1. Bagged Boosted Trees for Classification of Ecological Momentary Assessment Data

    OpenAIRE

    Spanakis, Gerasimos; Weiss, Gerhard; Roefs, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) data is organized in multiple levels (per-subject, per-day, etc.) and this particular structure should be taken into account in machine learning algorithms used in EMA like decision trees and its variants. We propose a new algorithm called BBT (standing for Bagged Boosted Trees) that is enhanced by a over/under sampling method and can provide better estimates for the conditional class probability function. Experimental results on a real-world dataset show...

  2. P-matrix residues in the bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Jaffe-Low prescription for extracting P-matrix residues from the bag model is discussed and an attempt is made to derive a better result. It is found that the Jaffe-Low result can be justifiably increased by a factor of 4/3, bringing it into better agreement with experiment. There remain large uncertainties surrounding the nature of corrections for quark and channel masses

  3. Electro membrane extraction using sorbent filled porous membrane bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Nyi Nyi; Li, Sam Fong Yau; Lee, Hian Kee

    2015-12-01

    Electro membrane extraction-solid-liquid phase microextraction (EME-SLPME) was developed for the first time to determine phenolic contaminants in water. The extraction system consisted of a solid/liquid interface that permitted a three-phase microextraction approach involving an aqueous sample (donor phase): an organic solvent-sorbent within a membrane bag, and an organic solvent (extractant phase), operated in a direct immersion sampling system. The sorbent, reduced graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol, synthesized using graphene oxide and polyvinyl alcohol by dispersing the graphene oxide in polyvinyl alcohol and chemically reducing it in aqueous solution. The prepared sorbent was dispersed in 1-octanol and the solution was immobilized by sonication in the membrane bag wall pores which was in contact with the aqueous donor solution and organic extractant solvent (1-octanol) in the main bag itself. The analytes were transported by application of an electrical potential difference of 100V across the sorbent/solvent phase from the aqueous sample into the organic extractant phase in the membrane bag. After extraction and derivatization, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine the derivatized analytes. This proposed EME-LSPME procedure provided high extraction efficiency with relative recoveries up to 99.6%. A linearity range of between 0.05 and 100μgL(-1) with corresponding coefficients of determination (r(2)) of between 0.987 and 0.996 were obtained. The limits of detection were in the range of between 0.003 and 0.053μgL(-1). This proposed method was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolic contaminants from water sample. PMID:26530143

  4. Rationalerne bag de geografiske placeringer af vidensbaserede virksomheder i Danmark

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Miriam Lerkenfeld; Jensen, Jon Gudmann; Jensen, Maria Nymann; Nielsen, Ann Cecilie; Fabech, Maja Yoon

    2006-01-01

    Projektet handler om danske vidensvirksomheders rationaler bag den geografiske placering af disses afdelinger i Danmark. Dette belyses af to teorier, omhandlende den kreative klasse og kompetenceklynger, udarbejdet af henholdsvis Richard Florida og Michael Porter begge amerikanske teoretikere. Med et udgangspunkt i den kritiske realisme foretages selvstændigt bearbejdelse af allerede eksisterende empirisk materiale, i form af to rapporter der behandler den kreative klasses geografiske placeri...

  5. SOFT CLUSTERING BASED EXPOSITION TO MULTIPLE DICTIONARY BAG OF WORDS

    OpenAIRE

    Sujatha, K. S.; B. Vinod

    2012-01-01

    Object classification is a highly important area of computer vision and has many applications including robotics, searching images, face recognition, aiding visually impaired people, censoring images and many more. A new common method of classification that uses features is the Bag of Words approach. In this method a codebook of visual words is created using various clustering methods. For increasing the performance Multiple Dictionaries BoW (MDBoW) method that uses more visual words from dif...

  6. Comparison of Three Methods in Improving Bag Mask Ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Samad EJ Golzari; Hassan Soleimanpour; Hamidreza Mehryar; Shaker Salarilak; Ata Mahmoodpoor; Jafar Rahimi Panahi; Mohammadreza Afhami; Majid Sabahi; Zahra Hassani

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Increasedlife expectancy in populations has brought along specific new scenarios in the fields of medicine for the elderly; prevalence of physical complications such as edentulism and patients with dentures is growing. Management of anesthesia and ventilation in this group of patients has turned into a great challenge. Some researchers suggest dentures to be left in place during bag-mask ventilation; yet, no unanimous agreement exists in this regard. Methods: In a single bli...

  7. Obe approximation of NN scattering in bag-model QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one-boson and two-pion exchange amplitude from bag-model quantum chromodynamics. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with data up to laboratory energies of approx. equal to 350 MeV. (orig.)

  8. NN interaction from bag-model quark interchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, B.L.G.; Bozoian, M.; Maslow, J.N.; Weber, H.J.

    1982-03-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one- and two-boson exchange amplitude from a bag-model quark interchange mechanism. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with other meson theoretic potentials and data up to laboratory energies of approx.350 MeV.

  9. NN interaction from bag-model quark interchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one- and two-boson exchange amplitude from a bag-model quark interchange mechanism. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with other meson theoretic potentials and data up to laboratory energies of approx.350 MeV

  10. Assessment of intermittent trace element pollution by moss bags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesa, M. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: mcesa@units.it; Bizzotto, A. [ARPAV Dipartimento di Vicenza, Servizio Territoriale di Bassano del Grappa, Via Cereria 15, I-36061 Bassano del Grappa (VI) (Italy); Ferraro, C. [ARPAV Dipartimento di Vicenza, Servizio Territoriale di Bassano del Grappa, Via Cereria 15, I-36061 Bassano del Grappa (VI) (Italy); Fumagalli, F. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Nimis, P.L. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    Moss bags of the aquatic bryophyte Rhynchostegium riparioides (Hedw.) C. Jens. were transplanted into an irrigation ditch in the Province of Vicenza (NE Italy), affected by intermittent trace element contamination due to galvanics. The study aimed at: (a) testing the ability of mosses to detect different patterns of pollution (b) providing information about intensity and temporal extension of pollution events, and (c) localising the main sources. Moss bags were collected after 20, 34, 48 and 62 days of exposure. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in the desiccated apical shoots of mosses were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean concentrations measured in non-contaminated stations of a previous work were adopted as background values, to calculate the contamination factor (CF). Transplants were able to: (a) detect spatial patterns of bioaccumulation (b) reveal chronic contamination by Pb and Cu, intermittent contamination by Cr, Zn, and Ni, and a release of Cd by moss bags, and (c) localise the main emission sources. - Transplanted bryophytes are able to detect accidental trace element pollution in freshwaters of industrial areas.

  11. SOFT CLUSTERING BASED EXPOSITION TO MULTIPLE DICTIONARY BAG OF WORDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Sujatha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Object classification is a highly important area of computer vision and has many applications including robotics, searching images, face recognition, aiding visually impaired people, censoring images and many more. A new common method of classification that uses features is the Bag of Words approach. In this method a codebook of visual words is created using various clustering methods. For increasing the performance Multiple Dictionaries BoW (MDBoW method that uses more visual words from different independent dictionaries instead of adding more words to the same dictionary was implemented using hard clustering method. Nearest-neighbor assignments are used in hard clustering of features. A given feature may be nearly the same distance from two cluster centers. For a typical hard clustering method, only the slightly nearer neighbor is selected to represent that feature. Thus, the ambiguous features are not well-represented by the visual vocabulary. To address this problem, soft clustering model based Multiple Dictionary Bag of Visual words for image classification is implemented with dictionary generated using modified Fuzzy C-means algorithm using R1 norm. A performance evaluation on images has been done by varying the dictionary size. The proposed method works better when the number of topics and the number of images per topics are more. The results obtained indicate that multiple dictionary bag of words model using fuzzy clustering increases the recognition performance than the baseline method.

  12. Potential in-hospital modes of transmission of Legionella pneumophila. Demonstration experiments for dissemination by showers, humidifiers, and rinsing of ventilation bag apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, A H; Yu, V L; Goetz, A

    1986-04-01

    The mode of transmission of nosocomial legionellosis remains uncertain. Aerosolization of Legionella pneumophila by showers, humidifiers, and respiratory equipment rinsed in tap water was evaluated using plate-settling culture and air aspirator methods. All protocols simulated the actual hospital setting including use of humidifier equipment used in hospital patient rooms and water from faucets and showerheads in hospitals with nosocomial Legionnaires' disease. Protocols for humidifier and shower experiments mimicked the procedure actually used in hospitals by health care personnel. Showering failed to produce aerosols of L. pneumophila; however, portable humidifiers readily generated aerosols of L. pneumophila that disseminated throughout a two-bed patient room. Intensity of aerosolization directly correlated with the degree of L. pneumophila contamination of the tap water used to fill the humidifier. Rinsing of ventilation bag apparatus with tap water led to isolation of L. pneumophila from culture plates after the ventilation bags were squeezed. Thus, L. pneumophila could be aerosolized or directly instilled into a patient's bronchial tree following routine measures for cleaning ventilation bag apparatus with tap water. On the basis of these results, the use of humidifiers filled with tap water has been discontinued and sterile water is recommended for rinsing ventilation bag apparatus and tubing. PMID:3457525

  13. BAG1: the guardian of anti-apoptotic proteins in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Aveic

    Full Text Available BCL2 associated Athano-Gene 1 (BAG1 is a multifunctional protein that has been described to be involved in different cell processes linked to cell survival. It has been reported as deregulated in diverse cancer types. Here, BAG1 protein was found highly expressed in children with acute myeloid leukemia at diagnosis, and in a cohort of leukemic cell lines. A silencing approach was used for determining BAG1's role in AML, finding that its down-regulation decreased expression of BCL2, BCL-XL, MCL1, and phospho-ERK1/2, all proteins able to sustain leukemia, without affecting the pro-apoptotic protein BAX. BAG1 down-regulation was also found to increase expression of BAG3, whose similar activity was able to compensate the loss of function of BAG1. BAG1/BAG3 co-silencing caused an enhanced cell predisposition to death in cell lines and also in primary AML cultures, affecting the same proteins. Cell death was CASPASE-3 dependent, was accompanied by PARP cleavage and documented by an increased release of pro-apoptotic molecules Smac/DIABLO and Cytochrome c. BAG1 was found to directly maintain BCL2 and to protect MCL1 from proteasomal degradation by controlling USP9X expression, which appeared to be its novel target. Finally, BAG1 was found able to affect leukemia cell fate by influencing the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins crucial for AML maintenance.

  14. Non-Flammable Containment Bag and Enclosure Development for International Space Station Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamdar, Sunil; Cadogan, Dave; Worthy, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Work conducted on the International Space Station (ISS) requires the use of a significant quantity of containment bags to hold specimens, equipment, waste, and other material. The bags are in many shapes and sizes, and are typically manufactured from polyethylene materials. The amount of bags being used on ISS has grown to the point where fire safety has become a concern because of the flammability of polyethylene. Recently, a new re-sealable bag design has been developed that is manufactured from a specialized non-flammable material called Armorflex 301 that was designed specifically for this application. Besides being non-flammable, Armorflex 301 is also FDA compliant, clear, flexible, and damage tolerant. The bags can be made with closure mechanisms that resemble ZipLoc® bags, or can be open top. Sample bags have been laboratory tested by NASA to verify materials properties, and evaluated by astronauts on the ISS in 2012. Flexloc bag manufacturing will commence in 2014 to support a transition away from polyethylene on ISS. In addition to re-sealable bags, other larger containment systems such as flexible gloveboxes, deployable clean rooms, and other devices manufactured from Armorflex 301 are being explored for use on ISS and in similar confined space locations where flammability is an issue. This paper will describe the development of the Armorflex 301 material, the Flexloc bag, and other containment systems being explored for use in confined areas

  15. Rapid changes in peat fly ash mutagenicity after release into the atmosphere: a controlled dilution bag study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantunen, M.J.; Liimatainen, A.; Ramdahl, T.; Itkonen, A.

    1986-07-01

    Effects of moisture condensation on fly ash mutagenicity, when the effluent of a peat-fired power plant is dispersed into cold and humid air, were investigated. A 140-m/sup 3/ flow- type dilution bag was used to dilute flue gas collected after the electrostatic precipitator with ambient air and to age this mixture for approximately 2 min. Fly ash was sampled by size fractionating aerosol samplers pre- and postdilution. Organics were extracted from the samples, fractionated by semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography, and assayed for mutagenicity by the Ames method (TA98 and TA100 with and without S9). The smallest particles were the most mutagenic in both pre-and postdilution samples. Mutagenicity of the fly ash increased strongly in the dilution bag. This was most pronounced in the medium- and low-polarity organic fractions. In the predilution samples most of the mutagenicity was found in the most polar fraction. Postdilution of this fraction showed a modest increase for TA98 and TA98 + S9 but not for TA100 or TA100 + S9. Direct mutagenicity and mutagenicity with activation were comparable. In the postdilution samples most of the mutagenicity was found in the nonpolar and medium polarity fractions. The mutagenicity of the nonpolarity and medium polarity fractions increased strongly after aging 2 min in the mixing bag. In these fractions predilution mutagenicity with and without activation was comparable. Following dilution and aging the mutagenicity with activation increased to a much greater extent than the direct mutagenicity. 21 references.

  16. Chemical, molecular, and proteomic analyses of moss bag biomonitoring in a petrochemical area of Sardinia (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortis, Pierluigi; Vannini, Candida; Cogoni, Annalena; De Mattia, Fabrizio; Bracale, Marcella; Mezzasalma, Valerio; Labra, Massimo

    2016-02-01

    In this study, Hypnum cupressiforme moss bags were used to examine the atmospheric deposition of trace elements in the oil refinery region of Sardinia (Italy) compared with surrounding natural zones. The concentrations of 13 elements [arsenic (As), calcium (Ca), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn)] were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. A significant accumulation of pollutants was detected using active biomonitoring with moss bags compared with a control site. The most relevant contaminants for all of the tested sites were Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn. Moreover, the accumulation of Cr and Zn in the refinery industrial areas, IA1 and IA2, was more than five times greater than that detected at the control site. Levels of Cd, Mg, and Pb were also higher at all of the monitored sites compared with the control site. Both genomic and proteomic methods were used to study the response of H. cupressiforme to air pollution. No DNA damage or mutations were detected using the amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) method. At the protein level, 15 gel spots exhibited differential expression profiles between the moss samples collected at the IA1 site and the control site. Furthermore, among the 14 spots that showed a decrease in protein expression, nine were associated with ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and proteins of the light-harvesting complexes of photosystem (PS) II, three were associated with protein synthesis, and three were stress-related proteins. Thus, some of these proteins may represent good moss biosensors which could be used as pre-alert markers of environmental pollution. PMID:26408120

  17. 套袋对黄冠梨果实品质和果皮特性的影响%Effects of bagging on the fruit quality and peel characteristics in Huangguan pear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚新明; 张锋; 王燕霞; 关军锋; 刘立芹; 刘媛; 孙玉龙

    2013-01-01

    选择外灰内黑纸袋和外黄内白纸袋对黄冠梨果实进行套袋处理,研究了套袋对果实周围微域环境及成熟期间果皮生理生化和果实品质变化的影响.结果表明:套袋改变了果实周围的微域环境,因天气状况而异.中午时分,套袋后袋内温度均高于外界大气温度,湿度低于外界空气湿度.当袋内温度高于35℃时,无论晴天与阴天,袋内的相对湿度低于50%,外黄内白的袋内高温持续时间长于外灰内黑的袋内的;雨天时,袋内相对湿度高于50%,袋内高温持续时间显著短于晴天和阴天.在果实成熟期间,套袋降低了果肉可溶性固形物、可溶性糖和果皮叶绿素含量、以及过氧化物酶活性和多酚氧化酶活性,且套外灰内黑袋的显著低于套外黄内白袋的处理.套外灰内黑袋的果肉可滴定酸和果皮膜透性显著高于裸果,而套外黄内白袋的表现相反.套袋降低了果皮可溶性酚含量,且套外黄内白的显著低于套外灰内黑袋的.套外黄内白袋的果实淀粉含量高于裸果和套外灰内黑袋的,而套外灰内黑袋的与裸果无显著差异.成熟后期套袋果与裸果的Vc含量无明显差别,2种袋之间的差异不显著.%Two different types of bags,outer gray and inner black paper bag(GB) and outer yellow and inner white paper bag(YW),were used to study the effect of bagging on microenvironment around fruit,physiol-biochemical characteristics of peel and quality of Huangguan pear during maturation.The results indicated that the microenvironment around fruit was varied with different bag types.The temperature inside the paper bag was higher than that the outside air temperature,while the humidity was lower at moon time.In the sunny and cloudy days,when the temperature inside bag was beyond 35 ℃ as well as the humidity was lower than 50%,the duration of the high temperature inside the YW bags was longer than that inside the GB ones.In the rainy days

  18. Roughage digestion evaluation in horses with total feces collection and mobile nylon bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liziana Maria Rodrigues

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of roughages in horses with total feces collection and mobile bags. Two trials were carried out simultaneously. The first trial evaluated the digestibility of nutrients of coastcross hay (Cynodon dactylon cv. coastcross with total feces collection. The second trial assessed the digestibility of nutrients of alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa, peanut (Arachis pintoi and coastcross hay with mobile bags. This trial was conducted with gastric insertions of nylon bags every 12 hours, and each bag contained 663 mg of feed samples in a proportion of 17 mg DM/cm². Feces and bags were collected directly from the stall floor immediately after excretion. There was no difference between the digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, carbohydrates and hydrolysable carbohydrates of coastcross hay estimated with feces collection and mobile bags. Forage peanut showed high nutrients digestibility, with values close to those observed with alfalfa, indicating potential for use in diets for horses.

  19. Surface modification of closed plastic bags for adherent cell cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmann, K.; Dohse, A.; Thomas, M.; Pohl, S.; Meyring, W.; Dittmar, K. E. J.; Lindenmeier, W.; Klages, C.-P.

    2011-07-01

    In modern medicine human mesenchymal stem cells are becoming increasingly important. However, a successful cultivation of this type of cells is only possible under very specific conditions. Of great importance, for instance, are the absence of contaminants such as foreign microbiological organisms, i.e., sterility, and the chemical functionalization of the ground on which the cells are grown. As cultivation of these cells makes high demands, a new procedure for cell cultivation has been developed in which closed plastic bags are used. For adherent cell growth chemical functional groups have to be introduced on the inner surface of the plastic bag. This can be achieved by a new, atmospheric-pressure plasma-based method presented in this paper. The method which was developed jointly by the Fraunhofer IST and the Helmholtz HZI can be implemented in automated equipment as is also shown in this contribution. Plasma process gases used include helium or helium-based gas mixtures (He + N2 + H2) and vapors of suitable film-forming agents or precursors such as APTMS, DACH, and TMOS in helium. The effect of plasma treatment is investigated by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy as well as surface tension determination based on contact angle measurements and XPS. Plasma treatment in nominally pure helium increases the surface tension of the polymer foil due to the presence of oxygen traces in the gas and oxygen diffusing through the gas-permeable foil, respectively, reacting with surface radical centers formed during contact with the discharge. Primary amino groups are obtained on the inner surface by treatment in mixtures with nitrogen and hydrogen albeit their amount is comparably small due to diffusion of oxygen through the gas-permeable bag, interfering with the plasma-amination process. Surface modifications introducing amino groups on the inner surface turned out to be most efficient in the promotion of cell growth.

  20. Automotive Vehicle Including a Security Arrangement Provided with an Inflatable Protective Bag

    OpenAIRE

    Chevroulet, Tristan; Béroud, Jean-Claude

    1996-01-01

    The invention concerns an automotive vehicle. This vehicle comprises a dashboard , steering control handles distanced from the dashboard, the dashboard comprising a compartment closed by a flap and in which is arranged a protective bag of supple material at least partially gas-tight, the bag being coupled to a gas source and one or more accelerometers for automatically releasing the gas source in response to abnormal behaviour of the vehicle, in that the bag spreads out, in the inflated state...

  1. Psychological interventional approach for reduce resource consumption : Reducing plastic bag usage at supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Ohtomo, Shoji; Ohnuma, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    A field study was conducted to investigate the reduction of plastic bag usage at supermarkets. Many behaviors leading to potential damage to the environment may be unintentional. This study applied a dual motivation model to plastic bag usage and examined the effects of an intervention aimed at promoting pro-environmental behavior. A voice prompt intervention was implemented in Japanese supermarkets. In the first (control) week, shoppers were given free plastic bags by the cashier. In the sec...

  2. Development and application of a resin-bag method to determine available nitrogen in forest soils

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, G.; Harrison, A.F.; Grimshaw, H. M.

    1986-01-01

    A resin-bag method was compared to a conventional KC1 extraction procedure for determining available nitrogen in forest soil. Under controlled growth room conditions, both the amounts of ammonium and nitrate nitrogen adsorbed by resin-bags and extracted by 6% KC1 correlated well with the uptake of nitrogen by birch seedlings from 6 widely differing soils. Also, resin-bags placed in situ under 5 differing forest stands and one upland grassland plot gave a close relationship b...

  3. Multielectrode machine for making the cages of bag filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordeev, F.I.; Arkov, V.G.; Boldyrev, A.F.; Sharenko, D.G.; Zhidkov, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes an automatic multielectrode machine for making wire cages with an internal spiral. The machine automatically produces an endless cage from wire, joins the wires by multiple spot contact welding, and cuts it into pieces of desired length. The machine is illustrated and the method of making wire cages is demonstrated. The cages are used in bag filters of gas-cleaning systems. The machine can be used to form cages of 130-mm diameter from wires of 3-mm diameter. It is easy to operate and has a high output rate of 90m/h.

  4. Chiral symmetry breaking and vacuum polarization in a bag

    CERN Document Server

    Yasui, S

    2006-01-01

    We study the effects of a finite quark mass in the hedgehog configuration in the two phase chiral bag model. We discuss the chiral properties, such as the fractional baryon number and the chiral Casimir energy, by using the Debye expansion for the analytical calculation and the Strutinsky's smearing method for the numerical computation. It is shown that the fractional baryon number carried by massive quarks in the vacuum is canceled by that in the meson sector. A finite term of the chiral Casimir energy is obtained with subtraction of the logarithmic divergence term.

  5. Deep inelastic structure functions in the chiral bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjose, V. (Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Didactica de las Ciencias Experimentales); Vento, V. (Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Centro Mixto CSIC/Valencia Univ., Valencia (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Corpuscular)

    1989-10-02

    We calculate the structure functions for deep inelastic scattering on baryons in the cavity approximation to the chiral bag model. The behavior of these structure functions is analyzed in the Bjorken limit. We conclude that scaling is satisfied, but not Regge behavior. A trivial extension as a parton model can be achieved by introducing the structure function for the pion in a convolution picture. In this extended version of the model not only scaling but also Regge behavior is satisfied. Conclusions are drawn from the comparison of our results with experimental data. (orig.).

  6. Carrying shopping bags does not alter static postural stability and gait parameters in healthy older females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bampouras, Theodoros M; Dewhurst, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Food shopping is an important aspect of maintaining independence and social interaction in older age. Carriage of shopping bags alters the body's weight distribution which, depending on load distribution, could potentially increase instability during standing and walking. The study examined the effect of carrying UK style shopping bags on static postural stability and gait in healthy older and young females. Nine older (71.0±6.0 years) and 10 young (26.7±5.2 years) females were assessed in five conditions carrying no bags, one 1.5kg bag in each hand, one 3kg bag in each hand, one 1.5kg bag in preferred hand, one 3kg bag in preferred hand. Antero-posterior and medio-lateral displacement, and 95% ellipse area from a 30s quiet standing were used for postural stability assessment. Stride length and its coefficient of variation, total double support time, step asymmetry and gait stability ratio were calculated from 1min treadmill walking at self-selected speed for gait assessment. Carrying shopping bags did not negatively affect postural stability or gait variables, in either group. Further, in older individuals, a decrease in sway velocity was found when holding bags during the postural stability assessment (psocial and as a physical activity. PMID:27131182

  7. Gaseous distension of the urinary bag during CO2 laparoscopy in the usual operative settings:Does the CO2 diffuse into the urinary bladder or is it a sign of urinary tract injury?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kahramanlker; Tuncay Ok; smail Temur; rfettin Hseyinolu; Kemal Kl; Barlas Sl

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To compare the amounts of any clinically detectable gas passage into the urinary bag in laparoscopic and open surgeries.Methods:Seventy-nine women were allocated into two surgical groups;Group1: carbon dioxide(CO2) laparoscopy(n=37) andGroup2: gasless laparoscopy or laparotomy(n=42).All patients had urinary catheter during the surgeries.After checking the tightness of the connection of the urinary catheter and bag operations were performed.At the end of each surgery the urine volumes were recorded.The bags were immersed into a water containing container with a volume scale.The volume rise of the container was recorded.The valve of the outlet of the bag was turned on under the water and any leakage of air bubbles was observed.The final volume of the container was recorded once again while the bag was still in the water.The two groups were compared by using theStudent’storMannWhitney U tests.Results:We did not observe and hence measure any gas accumulation in the urine bags of both groups.The women’s ages, total intraoperative urine volume, urine production rate and total operative times of the groups were not significantly different.The mean operative time was (82.98±62.14) min in open surgeries and(73.46±52.74) minutes inCO2 laparoscopic surgeries.The difference between the groups was not significant(P=0.468).Conclusions:Any gas accumulation in the urine bag duringCO2 laparoscopic surgery should raise the suspicion of urinary tract injury.Urinary catheterization helps to diagnose the unnoticed bladder injuries.

  8. Shelf-life enhancement of fresh ginger rhizomes at ambient temperatures by combination of gamma-irradiation, biocontrol and closed polyethylene bag storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of a combination process involving gamma-irradiation, packing in closed polyethylene bags and biological control of fungi causing storage rot was evaluated as a means of extending the shelf-life of fresh ginger rhizomes at ambient temperatures (25–30°C). Storage in closed polyethylene bags reduced weight loss but increased sprouting and rooting, which could be prevented by gamma irradiation to 60 Gy. Rotting caused by Sclerotium rolfsii was, however, a major cause of spoilage during extended storage. Four isolates of Trichoderma sp. isolated from sclerotia of S. rolfsii infecting ginger rhizomes, one of Gliocfadium uirens, and four isolates of fluorescent Pseudomonas were tested, out of which, one isolate of Trichoderma was found to be highly effective in suppressing the growth of S. rolfsii. The efficacy of the antagonist was demonstrated under simulated market conditions using artificially inoculated rhizomes. The recommended procedure consists of dipping washed, air dried rhizomes in Trichoderma suspension (108spores ml-1), air-drying, packing in 250 gauge LDPE bags followed by irradiation to 60 Gy. Rhizomes thus treated remained in good marketable condition for up to 2 months at ambient temperature without sprouting or significant loss of quality and less than 5% weight loss. An in vitro bioassay system was developed to demonstrate the efficacy of the antagonist to protect the cut surface of sliced rhizomes inoculated with the pathogen. The method could be used for rapid screening of antagonists

  9. A One-Piece Lunar Regolith Bag Garage Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, G. A.; Nehls, M. K.; Hovater, M. A.; Evans, S. W.; Miller, J. S.; Broughton, R. M., Jr.; Beale, D.; Kilinc-Balci, F.

    2007-01-01

    Shelter structures on the moon, even in early phases of exploration, should incorporate lunar materials as much as possible. This Technical Memorandum details the design and construction of a prototype for a one-piece regolith bag unpressurized garage concept and a materials testing program to investigate six candidate fabrics to learn how they might perform in the lunar environment. The conceptualization was that a lightweight fabric form be launched from Earth and landed on the lunar surface to be robotically filled with raw lunar regolith. Regolith bag fabric candidates included: Vectran(TM), Nextel(TM), Gore PTFE Fabric(TM), Zylon(TM), Twaron(TM), and Nomex(TM). Tensile (including post radiation exposure), fold, abrasion, and hypervelocity impact testing were performed under ambient conditions, and also performed under cold and elevated temperatures. In some cases, Johnson Space Center lunar simulant (JSC-1) was used in conjunction with testing. A series of preliminary structures was constructed during final prototype design based on the principles of the classic masonry arch. The prototype was constructed of Kevlar(TM) and filled with vermiculite. The structure is free-standing, but has not yet been load tested. Future plans would be to construct higher fidelity prototypes and to conduct appropriate tests of the structure.

  10. Facile Route to Generate Fuel Oil via Catalytic Pyrolysis of Waste Polypropylene Bags: Towards Waste Management of >20 μm Plastic Bags

    OpenAIRE

    Neeraj Mishra; Sunil Pandey,; Bhushan Patil; Mukeshchand Thukur; Ashmi Mewada; Madhuri Sharon; Maheshwar Sharon

    2014-01-01

    A novel strategy of waste recycling of polypropylene plastics (PP) bags for generation of commercially viable byproducts using nanoforms of nickel as catalyst is presented in this work. After pyrolysis of waste PP bags (>20 μm) under continuous argon flow, 90% conversion efficiency to high petroleum oil was observed at 550°C. To assess the physicochemical attributes of formed oil, flash point, pour point, viscosity, specific gravity, heating value, and density were also measured and found to ...

  11. Bcl-2 associated athanogene 5 (Bag5) is overexpressed in prostate cancer and inhibits ER-stress induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bag (Bcl-2 associated athanogene) family of proteins consists of 6 members sharing a common, single-copied Bag domain through which they interact with the molecular chaperone Hsp70. Bag5 represents an exception in the Bag family since it consists of 5 Bag domains covering the whole protein. Bag proteins like Bag1 and Bag3 have been implicated in tumor growth and survival but it is not known whether Bag5 also exhibits this function. Bag5 mRNA and protein expression levels were investigated in prostate cancer patient samples using real-time PCR and immunoblot analyses. In addition immunohistological studies were carried out to determine the expression of Bag5 in tissue arrays. Analysis of Bag5 gene expression was carried out using one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni’s Multiple Comparison test. The mean values of the Bag5 stained cells in the tissue array was analyzed by Mann-Whitney test. Functional studies of the role of Bag5 in prostate cancer cell lines was performed using overexpression and RNA interference analyses. Our results show that Bag5 is overexpressed in malignant prostate tissue compared to benign samples. In addition we could show that Bag5 levels are increased following endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress induction, and Bag5 relocates from the cytoplasm to the ER during this process. We also demonstrate that Bag5 interacts with the ER-resident chaperone GRP78/BiP and enhances its ATPase activity. Bag5 overexpression in 22Rv.1 prostate cancer cells inhibited ER-stress induced apoptosis in the unfolded protein response by suppressing PERK-eIF2-ATF4 activity while enhancing the IRE1-Xbp1 axis of this pathway. Cells expressing high levels of Bag5 showed reduced sensitivity to apoptosis induced by different agents while Bag5 downregulation resulted in increased stress-induced cell death. We have therefore shown that Bag5 is overexpressed in prostate cancer and plays a role in ER-stress induced apoptosis. Furthermore we have identified GRP78/BiP as a novel

  12. 75 FR 25207 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 74 FR 48224 (September 22, 2009). As explained in the... International Trade Administration A-557-813 Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia: Extension of Time... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags from Malaysia for...

  13. 75 FR 38978 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China, Malaysia, and Thailand...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... amended (the Act). See Initiation of Five-year (``Sunset'') Review, 74 FR 31412 (July 1, 2009); see also Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From China, Malaysia, and Thailand, 74 FR 31750 (July 2, 2009). \\1\\ On August... Duty Order: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia, 69 FR 48203 (August 9, 2004);...

  14. The microenvironment within and pollen transmission through paper and polyethylene sorghum pollination bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird damage is a problem in sorghum breeding and germplasm maintenance operations. Paper pollination bags are damaged by rain and provide minimal deterrent to birds. Earlier we reported upon bird resistance of spun polyethylene pollination bags. Herein, we report the potential for pollen transmissio...

  15. 46 CFR 59.15-10 - Bagged or blistered shell plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bagged or blistered shell plates. 59.15-10 Section 59.15... shell plates. (a) When the shell plates of cylindrical boilers which are exposed to the radiant heat of... boiler. (b) Where the shell plate is bagged due to overheating, the Officer in Charge, Marine...

  16. 75 FR 22842 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of December 3, 2009 (74 FR 63410). The hearing was held in... COMMISSION Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam Determinations On the basis... imports from Vietnam of polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs), provided for in subheading 3923.21.00...

  17. Bird-resistant pollination bags for sorghum breeding and germplasm maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird damage is a problem in sorghum breeding and germplasm maintenance operations. Paper pollination bags are damaged by rain and provide minimal deterrent to birds. To overcome these limitations we fabricated pollination bags from spun polyethylene fiber sheeting. Seed loss by bird damage was elimi...

  18. Effects of Density-Dependent Bag Constant and Strange Star Rotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qiao-Er; GUO Hua

    2003-01-01

    With the emphasis on the effects of the density-dependent bag constant and the rotation of strange star the limiting mass of strange star is calculated. The obtained results show that the limiting mass and the corresponding radius of strange star increase as the rotation frequency increases, and tend to be lowered when the density-dependent bag constant is considered.

  19. Vertex decoupling and quark deconfinement in soliton bag model at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of the Matsubara Green's function method, the temperature dependence of coupling constant gqqδ in soliton bag mode is investigated. It is found gqqδ will decrease as temperature increases in high temperature region and will approach zero at critical temperature Tc. The quark deconfinement phase transition in soliton bag model is discussed

  20. Casimir bag energy in the stochastic approximation to the pure QCD vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Fosco, C D

    2007-01-01

    We study the Casimir contribution to the bag energy coming from gluon field fluctuations, within the context of the stochastic vacuum model (SVM) of pure QCD. After formulating the problem in terms of the generating functional of field strength cumulants, we argue that the resulting predictions about the Casimir energy are compatible with the phenomenologically required bag energy term.

  1. Effect of Nylon Bag and Protozoa on In Vitro Corn Starch Disappearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwieten, van J.T.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Dijkstra, J.

    2008-01-01

    An in vitro experiment was carried out to study whether the presence of protozoa in nylon bags can explain the underestimation of the in situ degradation of slowly degradable starch. Corn of a high (flint) and a low (dent) vitreousness variety was ground over a 3-mm screen, weighed in nylon bags wit

  2. Dynamic vs. fixed bag filling: impact on cardiac output rebreathing protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavorsky, Gerald S; Beck, Kenneth C; Cass, Lauren M; Artal, Raul; Wagner, Peter D

    2010-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the repeatability (2.77 multiplied by the within-subject SD)between two different rebreathing protocols on cardiac output ( ˙Q ), pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and nitric oxide (DLNO), and pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc). This study compared two bag volume protocols [Fixed Bag Volume (FBV) = bag volume fixed at 60% of forced vital capacity; Dynamic Bag Volume (DBV) = bag volume matched to tidal volume at each stage of exercise].Ten females (age = 27±8 yrs; ˙VO2, (peak)=2.5±0.6 L/min had measurements at rest (12%), 52%, 88%, and 100% of ˙VO2, (peak) on two study days. Neither the slope nor intercept of ˙Q vs. ˙VO2 were different between either bag volume protocols. The slope of DLCO vs. ˙Q was the same but the intercept was higher for the FBV protocol. The bag volume affected the slope and the intercept between DLNO vs. ˙Q (p DLNO (p ≤ 0.06). Measurement error was lower for Vc when using the FBV protocol (p = 0.02). Also, the pattern of bag volume used during rebreathing maneuvers affected the relation between DLNO vs. ˙Q more than it affected DLCO vs. ˙Q , or Vc vs. ˙Q. Additionally, the FBV protocol provided less measurement error for Vc compared to the DBV protocol [corrected].

  3. Clinicopathologic significance of BAG1 and TIMP3 expression in colon carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To explore the expression of BAG1 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3) in colon carcinoma and their correlation and clinicopathologic significance.METHODS: SABC immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of BAG1 and TIMP3 in 80 colon carcinoma tissues and 20 normal colonic mucosa.RESULTS: Positive rate of BAG1 in colon carcinoma tissue (80%) was notably higher compared to normal colonic mucosa (10%) (P < 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in positive rate of TIMP3 in colon carcinoma tissue (43.75%) as compared with normal colonic mucosa (60%) (P > 0.05).Expression of BAG1 and TIMP3 was strongly associated with colon carcinoma differentiation, Duke's staging,lymph node metastasis and survival rate (P < 0.05), but not associated with gender and age. Moreover, BAG1 expression was not correlated with TIMP3.CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that over-expression of BAG1 or attenuated expression of TIMP3 may play an important role in genesis and development of colon carcinoma. The protein expression levels of BAG1 and TIMP3 are related to the malignant degree, infiltration and metastasis of colon carcinoma. BAG1 and TIMP3 might be new biological parameters in predicting invasion and metastasis of colon carcinoma.

  4. 76 FR 26241 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ..., 75 FR 60076 (September 29, 2010). The preliminary results of this administrative review are currently... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for... polyethylene retail carrier bags from Thailand for the period August 1, 2009, through July 31, 2010....

  5. 77 FR 25684 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... Reviews and Requests for Revocations in Part, 76 FR 61076 (October 3, 2011). Based on a request for review... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Rescission of Antidumping... retail carrier bags from Thailand. The period of review is August 1, 2010, through July 31, 2011. As...

  6. 75 FR 36359 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... Thailand. See Antidumping Duty Order: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand, 69 FR 48204 (August 9... of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand, 69 FR 34122, 34123... Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 74 FR 48224, 48226 (September 22, 2009).\\1\\ The...

  7. Earth bag dome workshop run by Paulina Wojciechowska – director of Earth Hands and Houses [lectures, research] Sussex, UK; 27 May 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Kolakowski, Marcin M

    2010-01-01

    Construction of a small earth bag wall in south Sussex: constructing the formwork for entrance, preparing and filling earth bags, ramming layers of earth bags, plastering, artistic sculpturing of the exterior and interior.

  8. Change of MIT bag constant in nuclear medium and implication for the EMC effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modified quark-meson coupling model, which features a density-dependent bag constant and bag radius in nuclear matter, is checked against the EMC effect within the framework of dynamical rescaling. Our emphasis is on the change in the average bag radius in nuclei, as evaluated in a local density approximation, and its implication for the rescaling parameter. We find that when the bag constant in nuclear matter is significantly reduced from its free-space value, the resulting rescaling parameter is in good agreement with that required to explain the observed depletion of the structure functions in the medium Bjorken x region. Such a large reduction of the bag constant also implies large and canceling Lorentz scalar and vector potentials for the nucleon in nuclear matter which are comparable to those suggested by the relativistic nuclear phenomenology and finite-density QCD sum rules. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  9. The Danish game bag record and its role in wildlife management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    The Danish Game Bag Record and its role in wildlife management The Danish Game Bag Record, i.e. the national hunting statistics database, was initiated in 1941. It is a compilation of annual, mandatory reports on bagged game (shot or trapped) from all hunting licence holders. Today, this database...... holds one of the longest and most complete time series of bagged game in the world. In the hunting season 2014/15 there were 178,000 hunting licence holders in Denmark so the annual data increment is considerable. Of course, the last 75 years has seen big changes in technology and communication, which...... is reflected in the methods of collecting the hunting statistics but the basic principle of every hunter reporting his/hers personal game bag every year still applies. From 1941 onwards annual reports were delivered on paper forms, and since year 2000 it has been possible to report electronically via...

  10. Persuasive Normative Messages: The Influence of Injunctive and Personal Norms on Using Free Plastic Bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayleigh Jones

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this exploratory field-study, we examined how normative messages (i.e., activating an injunctive norm, personal norm, or both could encourage shoppers to use fewer free plastic bags for their shopping in addition to the supermarket’s standard environmental message aimed at reducing plastic bags. In a one-way subjects-design (N = 200 at a local supermarket, we showed that shoppers used significantly fewer free plastic bags in the injunctive, personal and combined normative message condition than in the condition where only an environmental message was present. The combined normative message did result in the smallest uptake of free plastic bags compared to the injunctive and personal normative-only message, although these differences were not significant. Our findings imply that re-wording the supermarket’s environmental message by including normative information could be a promising way to reduce the use of free plastic bags, which will ultimately benefit the environment.

  11. Stability of the lepton bag model based on the Kerr–Newman solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burinskii, A., E-mail: bur@ibrae.ac.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Nuclear Safety Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    We show that the lepton bag model considered in our previous paper [10], generating the external gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the Kerr–Newman (KN) solution, is supersymmetric and represents a BPS-saturated soliton interpolating between the internal vacuum state and the external KN solution. We obtain Bogomolnyi equations for this phase transition and show that the Bogomolnyi bound determines all important features of this bag model, including its stable shape. In particular, for the stationary KN solution, the BPS bound provides stability of the ellipsoidal form of the bag and the formation of the ring–string structure at its border, while for the periodic electromagnetic excitations of the KN solution, the BPS bound controls the deformation of the surface of the bag, reproducing the known flexibility of bag models.

  12. Effect of cooking bag and netting packaging on the quality of pork ham during water cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qiaofen; Sun, Da-Wen

    2007-02-01

    As a preliminary test for combining water cooking with vacuum cooling in soup of pork ham, three package treatments were designed to study the effect of cooking bag and netting on the quality of water cooked ham, i.e. ham cooked with a cooking bag and without a cooking bag (single netting and double netting). For treatments without a cooking bag, the results indicated that there was no significant superiority of ham cooked with double netting compared with ham cooked with single netting on the processing efficiency and quality characteristics. Although the hams cooked with a bag performed better in some chemical retentions and pigment, the water contents were significantly lower than those hams cooked in single netting (P0.05). By considering the safety, convenience, cost, and the recovery effect on the quality changes of ham during vacuum cooling in soup, cooking with single netting is a better choice for future research.

  13. Development of high efficiency ventilation bag actuated dry powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behara, Srinivas R B; Longest, P Worth; Farkas, Dale R; Hindle, Michael

    2014-04-25

    New active dry powder inhaler systems were developed and tested to efficiently aerosolize a carrier-free formulation. To assess inhaler performance, a challenging case study of aerosol lung delivery during high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy was selected. The active delivery system consisted of a ventilation bag for actuating the device, the DPI containing a flow control orifice and 3D rod array, and streamlined nasal cannula with separate inlets for the aerosol and HFNC therapy gas. In vitro experiments were conducted to assess deposition in the device, emitted dose (ED) from the nasal cannula, and powder deaggregation. The best performing systems achieved EDs of 70-80% with fine particle fractions ventilation, nose-to-lung aerosol administration, and to assist patients that cannot reproducibly use passive DPIs.

  14. Effective face recognition using bag of features with additive kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shicai; Bebis, George; Chu, Yongjie; Zhao, Lindu

    2016-01-01

    In past decades, many techniques have been used to improve face recognition performance. The most common and well-studied ways are to use the whole face image to build a subspace based on the reduction of dimensionality. Differing from methods above, we consider face recognition as an image classification problem. The face images of the same person are considered to fall into the same category. Each category and each face image could be both represented by a simple pyramid histogram. Spatial dense scale-invariant feature transform features and bag of features method are used to build categories and face representations. In an effort to make the method more efficient, a linear support vector machine solver, Pegasos, is used for the classification in the kernel space with additive kernels instead of nonlinear SVMs. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve very high recognition accuracy on the ORL, YALE, and FERET databases.

  15. A One-Piece Lunar Regolith-Bag Garage Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, Gweneth A.; Nehls, Mary K.; Hovater, Mary A.; Evans, Steven W.; Miller, J. Scott; Broughton, Roy M.; Beale, David; Killing-Balci, Fatma

    2007-01-01

    Shelter structures on the moon, even in early phases of exploration, should incorporate lunar materials as much as possible. We designed and constructed a prototype for a one-piece regolith-bag unpressurized garage concept, and, in parallel, we conducted a materials testing program to investigate six candidate fabrics to learn how they might perform in the lunar environment. In our concept, a lightweight fabric form is launched from Earth to be landed on the lunar surface and robotically filled with raw lunar regolith. In the materials testing program, regolith-bag fabric candidates included: Vectran(TM), Nextel(TM), Gore PTFE Fabric(TM), Zylon(TM), Twaron(TM), and Nomex(TM). Tensile (including post radiation exposure), fold, abrasion, and hypervelocity impact testing were performed under ambient conditions, and, within our current means, we also performed these tests under cold and elevated temperatures. In some cases, lunar simulant (JSC-1) was used in conjunction with testing. Our ambition is to continuously refine our testing to reach lunar environmental conditions to the extent possible. A series of preliminary structures were constructed during design of the final prototype. Design is based on the principles of the classic masonry arch. The prototype was constructed of Kevlar(TM) and filled with vermiculite (fairly close to the weight of lunar regolith on the moon). The structure is free-standing, but has not yet been load tested. Our plan for the future would be to construct higher fidelity mockups with each iteration, and to conduct appropriate tests of the structure.

  16. Effects of fruit pre-harvest bagging on fruit quality of peach (Prunus persica Batsch cv. Hujingmilu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Jia, Hui-Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Meng

    2006-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to test the effects of pre-harvest bagging on fruit ripening and quality of peach (Prunus persica Batsch cv. Hujingmilu). Young fruits, at 50 days after full bloom (DAFB), were covered with bags made of single-, double-, and triple-layers of orange paper bag with 27.0%, 13.9% and 8.2% sunlight transmission, respectively. Ethylene production and respiration rate were measured, and fruit quality was analyzed at 111, 114, 117, 120 (firm-ripe stage) and 124 DAFB (full-ripe stage). Single- and triple-layer bagged fruits had higher ethylene production rates than double-layer bagged and un-bagged fruits. The skin of un-bagged fruit had higher brightness (L-value) but smaller hue angle (h degrees) at the full-ripe stage compared with that of bagged fruit. Flesh firmness of un-bagged fruit was higher than that of bagged fruit until the firm-ripe stage, although triple-layer bagged fruit had higher firmness than un-bagged fruit at the full-ripe stage. Total soluble solids in juice of single-layer bagged fruit were a little higher than those of other treated fruits at the full-ripe stage. Single-layer bagged fruit showed the highest level of gamma-decalactone, a main characteristic aroma of peach and total lactones at the firm-ripe and full-ripe stages. It was concluded that 'Hujingmilu' peach had high quality with abundant aromas when the fruits were bagged with single-layer orange paper bags at 50 DAFB. The biosynthesis of gamma-decalactone and other aromas may be affected by light to some extent. PMID:16775394

  17. 75 FR 75454 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... polyethylene retail carrier bags from Thailand. See Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 53953 (September 2, 2010). The administrative... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit...

  18. Cost analysis of adult parenteral nutrition systems: three-compartment bag versus customized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Berlana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parenteral nutrition (PN is a costly technology used widely to provide nutrition to patients who have an inaccessible or non-functioning intestine. Two all-in-one systems currently being used are customized formulations and three-compartment bags. Objective: To provide a systematic cost comparison of the two all-in-one PN systems: individualized (made from nutrient solutions versus commercialized (made from three-compartment bag, both prepared in hospital pharmacies. Setting: This study was conducted in three public Spanish hospitals. Method: We conducted a cost-minimization study to analyze prospectively the total cost of PN bags, accounting for all of the processes involved in preparing and delivering PN bags (cost of manpower, nutrition solutions, medical supplies and quality controls in three different healthcare settings. To compare therapeutic alternatives of equivalent nutritional value, the study was performed for the most frequently employed formulation and similar to commercial preparations. A univariate sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of different rates of use of three-compartment PN bag. Results: 157 routine acts of PN bag preparation (65 customized and 92 three-compartment were observed and timed over 9 days. Total costs of the 157 PN bags were included in the study. Mean costs of customized bags were higher than three-compartment bags, 51.16 ± 5.63 € versus 39.69 ± 3.00 € respectively (p < 0.01. Manpower costs were responsible for the majority of the differences found (70%. The time to complete an adult bag for the hospital compounded system was a mean of 25.9 minutes longer than the three-compartment system. In scenarios using a three-compartment system for 30%, 70% and 90% of PN provision, a cost savings of 4.3%, 10.1% and 12.9% respectively could be achieved. Greatest rates of changing from customized bags (70% and 90%, in a hospital with 1,800 PN bags/year, might reduce the annual

  19. Fate of microconstituents in biosolids composted in an aerated silage bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Nuria; Andrade, Natasha A; Deng, Di; Torrents, Alba; Rice, Clifford P; McConnell, Laura L; Ramirez, Mark; Millner, Patricia D

    2014-01-01

    Although most composting studies report pathogen concentrations, little is known about the fate of Endocrine Disruptor Chemicals (EDCs) during composting. In this study, a positively aerated polyethylene bag composting system was filled with a mixture of woodchips and limed biosolids from a large Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) to study the removal efficiency of two different groups of EDCs. Two antibacterial compounds, Triclocarban (TCC) and Triclosan (TCS), and a TCS byproduct, Methyltriclosan (MeTCS), as well as seven congeners of flame retardants known as PBDEs (Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers) were studied during two phases of composting: 1) a thermophilic phase, in which positive mechanical aeration, pushing air into and through the materials matrix, was conducted for 2 months; and 2) a curing and stabilization phase in which no mechanical aeration was provided and the bag was opened to ambient passive aeration to simulate storage conditions for seven months. Our results showed that while TCC concentrations remained constant, TCS degradation took place during both phases. The degradation of TCS was corroborated by the formation of MeTCS in both phases. The TCS concentrations decreased from 18409 ± 1,877 to 11955 ± 288 ng g(-1) dry wt. during the thermophilic phase and declined from 11,955 ± 288 to 7,244 ± 909. ng g(-1) dry wt. by the end of the curing phase. Thus, slightly greater TCS transformation occurred during the second than during the first (35.1 vs. 39.4%). MeTCS concentrations increased from 189.3 ± 8.6 to 364.6 ± 72.5 ng g(-1) dry wt. during the first phase and reached 589.0 ± 94.9 ng g(-1) dry wt. at the end of the second phase. PBDEs concentrations were below quantification limits for all but two of the congeners analyzed (BDE-47 and BDE-99). PBDE concentrations were measured at the end of the first phase only and were comparable to initial concentrations. PMID:24521417

  20. Automatic Bagging Machine for Cigarette%自动重袋包装机设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程亮; 郭爱华; 孔晨曲; 李怀刚; 丁科; 李全华

    2011-01-01

    自动重袋包装机具有自动取袋、自动开袋、自动夹袋、自动充填等主要功能以及其他辅助功能,整个工序模仿人工套袋过程制定,并配套整形袋口装置使其在装袋完毕后能无缝对接折边机进入缝包机缝包.其中取袋及开袋等关键动作均由吸盘完成.%Automatic bagging machine has main function of fetching, opening, clipping and filling bag automatically and other functions, and the process of putting bag manually is imitated. E-quipped with flattening device for the mouth of bag, automatic bagging machine can make the filled bag going smoothly to folding machine and sewing machine. Actions of fetching, opening bags etc. are all finished by suckers.

  1. Anoxic incubation of sediment in gas-tight plastic bags: a method for biogeochemical process studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, JW; Thamdrup, B.; Jørgensen, BB

    2000-01-01

    Incubation of sediment in gas-tight plastic bags is described as a method for experimental studies of biogeochemical processes. Sediment incubation in these bags allows time-course experiments to be conducted on homogenised sediment without dilution, continuous stirring, or gaseous head-space. Co......Incubation of sediment in gas-tight plastic bags is described as a method for experimental studies of biogeochemical processes. Sediment incubation in these bags allows time-course experiments to be conducted on homogenised sediment without dilution, continuous stirring, or gaseous head......-space. Consequently, bag incubations of sediment combine the advantage of low heterogeneity in slurry incubations with the more natural conditions in jar and whole-core incubations. The bag material is a transparent laminated plastic comprised of Nylon, ethylenevinyl alcohol, and polyethylene with a low permeability...... for the studied gases: O-2, CO2, H2S, CH4, N-2, H-2, and He. Estimated fluxes of biologically active gases through the plastic bag during sediment incubation were insignificant compared to rates of microbial processes and to gas concentrations in coastal sediments. An exception was CH4, for which process...

  2. Gravitating bag as a coherent system of the point-like and dressed electron

    CERN Document Server

    Burinskii, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Gravitational and electromagnetic fields of an electron correspond to over-rotating Kerr-Newman (KN) solution, which has a naked singular ring and two-sheeted topology. This solution is regularized by a solitonic source, in which singular interior is replaced by a vacuum bubble filled by the Higgs field in a false-vacuum state. Field model of this KN bubble has much in common with the famous MIT and SLAC bag models, but the geometry is "dual" (turned inside out), leading to consistency of the KN bag model with gravity. Similar to other bag models, the KN bag is compliant to deformations, and under rotations it takes an oblate ellipsoidal form, creating a circular string along the border. Electromagnetic excitations of the KN bag generate stringy traveling waves which deform the bag, creating a traveling singular pole, included in a general bag-string-quark complex. The dressed electron may be considered in this model as a coherent excitation of this system, confining the point-like electron (as a quark) in st...

  3. Thioflavin S (NSC71948) interferes with Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG-1)-mediated protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Adam; Crabb, Simon J; Johnson, Peter W M; Hague, Angela; Cutress, Ramsey; Townsend, Paul A; Ganesan, A; Packham, Graham

    2009-11-01

    The C-terminal BAG domain is thought to play a key role in BAG-1-induced survival and proliferation by mediating protein-protein interactions, for example, with heat shock proteins HSC70 and HSP70, and with RAF-1 kinase. Here, we have identified thioflavin S (NSC71948) as a potential small-molecule chemical inhibitor of these interactions. NSC71948 inhibited the interaction of BAG-1 and HSC70 in vitro and decreased BAG-1:HSC70 and BAG-1:HSP70 binding in intact cells. NSC71948 also reduced binding between BAG-1 and RAF-1, but had no effect on the interaction between two unrelated proteins, BIM and MCL-1. NSC71948 functionally reversed the ability of BAG-1 to promote vitamin D3 receptor-mediated transactivation, an activity of BAG-1 that depends on HSC70/HSP70 binding, and reduced phosphorylation of p44/42 mitogen-activate protein kinase. NSC71948 can be used to stain amyloid fibrils; however, structurally related compounds, thioflavin T and BTA-1, had no effect on BAG-1:HSC70 binding, suggesting that structural features important for amyloid fibril binding and inhibition of BAG-1:HSC70 binding may be separable. We demonstrated that NSC71948 inhibited the growth of BAG-1 expressing human ZR-75-1 breast cancer cells and wild-type, but not BAG-1-deficient, mouse embryo fibroblasts. Taken together, these data suggest that NSC71948 may be a useful molecule to investigate the functional significance of BAG-1 C-terminal protein interactions. However, it is important to recognize that NSC71948 may exert additional "off-target" effects. Inhibition of BAG-1 function may be an attractive strategy to inhibit the growth of BAG-1-overexpressing cancers, and further screens of additional compound collections may be warranted.

  4. Cooling performance of roof ponds with gunny bags floating on water surface as compared with a movable insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runsheng Tang [Yunnan Normal Univ., Solar Energy Research Inst., Kunming (China); Etzion, Y. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Desert Architecture and Urban Planning Unit., Seder Boker Campus (Israel)

    2005-07-01

    A roof pond with gunny bags floating on water surface (RPWGB) has been proven to be an efficient evaporative based cooling technique in the previous studies of the authors due to the creation of thermal stratification inside the pond. In this paper, a mathematical model is developed for the investigation of its cooling performance as compared to a roof pond with a movable insulation (RPWMI) under hot dry climatic conditions. This one-dimensional model is based on the new empirical correlations of water evaporation rate from a wetted surface and a free water surface to the ambient air proposed by the authors, and takes into account the response of buildings as a whole to evaporative cooling. Results by simulations indicated that RPWGB performed slightly better than RPWMI, which is widely considered as the most efficient evaporative based roof cooling techniques, except when they are applied to a building with poorly insulated light walls and roof. (Author)

  5. The effect of obstruction of bag surface on platelet concentrate pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, T L

    1983-01-01

    Platelet concentrates stored in bags (made of a plastic film incorporating a new plasticizer) on flat-bed agitators for up to 5 days were found to have accelerated pH decline when the surface of the bag was obstructed with added labels and an invoice on the non-labeled side. Without the over-labeling and invoice, only one of 20 concentrates had a pH below 6.0, even at very high concentrations of platelets. Blood banks experiencing problems with pH decline in the platelet concentrates being stored up to 5 days should consider eliminating surface obstruction on the bag. PMID:6679386

  6. Persuasive Normative Messages: The Influence of Injunctive and Personal Norms on Using Free Plastic Bags

    OpenAIRE

    Kayleigh Jones; Wokje Abrahamse; De Groot, Judith I. M.

    2013-01-01

    In this exploratory field-study, we examined how normative messages ( i.e. , activating an injunctive norm, personal norm, or both) could encourage shoppers to use fewer free plastic bags for their shopping in addition to the supermarket’s standard environmental message aimed at reducing plastic bags. In a one-way subjects-design ( N = 200) at a local supermarket, we showed that shoppers used significantly fewer free plastic bags in the injunctive, personal and combined normative message co...

  7. Flowrate testing of the bag filter LANCS-BOP 6CPVC-1.5-2SPVC (LANCS Industries) at 1 psig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Currie, Karissa Lyn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Berg, Charlotte Katherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-13

    The air flowrate through a flexible HEPA grade filter (Part LANCS-BOP 6CPVC-1.5-2SPVC www.lancsindustries.com) was measured at 48 ALPM for a differential pressure drop of 1.0 psig (28 inWC, 7.0 kPa). These filters are rated by the manufacturer to have a flowrate of 3 ALPM at a differential pressure drop of 1 inWC (0.25 kPa). The Los Alamos National Laboratory Aerosol Engineering Facility used one of their test rigs (originally developed to measure the pressure drop in capsule HEPA filters) to measure the airflow through the LANCS bag filter.

  8. Degradation of plastic carrier bags in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → There is considerable concern about the hazards that plastic debris presents to wildlife. → Here we investigate breakdown of oxodegradable, compostable and conventional plastic bags. → Compostable plastic disappeared from our test rig between 16 and 24 weeks. → Approximately 98% of the other plastics remained after 40 weeks. → Fouling by marine organisms substantially reduced the amount of UV-light reaching the plastic. - Abstract: There is considerable concern about the hazards that plastic debris presents to wildlife. Use of polymers that degrade more quickly than conventional plastics presents a possible solution to this problem. Here we investigate breakdown of two oxo-biodegradable plastics, compostable plastic and standard polyethylene in the marine environment. Tensile strength of all materials decreased during exposure, but at different rates. Compostable plastic disappeared from our test rig between 16 and 24 weeks whereas approximately 98% of the other plastics remained after 40 weeks. Some plastics require UV light to degrade. Transmittance of UV through oxo-biodegradable and standard polyethylene decreased as a consequence of fouling such that these materials received ∼90% less UV light after 40 weeks. Our data indicate that compostable plastics may degrade relatively quickly compared to oxo-biodegradable and conventional plastics. While degradable polymers offer waste management solutions, there are limitations to their effectiveness in reducing hazards associated with plastic debris.

  9. Bag-of-visual-ngrams for histopathology image classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Monroy, A. Pastor; Montes-y-Gómez, Manuel; Escalante, Hugo Jair; Cruz-Roa, Angel; González, Fabio A.

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes an extension of the Bag-of-Visual-Words (BoVW) representation for image categorization (IC) of histophatology images. This representation is one of the most used approaches in several high-level computer vision tasks. However, the BoVW representation has an important limitation: the disregarding of spatial information among visual words. This information may be useful to capture discriminative visual-patterns in specific computer vision tasks. In order to overcome this problem we propose the use of visual n-grams. N-grams based-representations are very popular in the field of natural language processing (NLP), in particular within text mining and information retrieval. We propose building a codebook of n-grams and then representing images by histograms of visual n-grams. We evaluate our proposal in the challenging task of classifying histopathology images. The novelty of our proposal lies in the fact that we use n-grams as attributes for a classification model (together with visual-words, i.e., 1-grams). This is common practice within NLP, although, to the best of our knowledge, this idea has not been explored yet within computer vision. We report experimental results in a database of histopathology images where our proposed method outperforms the traditional BoVWs formulation.

  10. Transient response of the 'multiple water-bag' plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A charge activates impulsively and then decays temporally within a MWB (multiple water-bag)-modelled warm plasma. The transient problem is formulated and asymptotically resolved for large time. The response potential comprises two characteristically distinct quantities W and WN: W is a superposition of spherically expanding, moderately attenuated Kelvin waves contributed by certain points on a subset of dispersion curves; WN is a superposition, associated with two other dispersion curves, of three spherical wavefunctions, one of which incorporates the Fresnel integrals. A transient state feature of the MWB discretization is the partitioning of the response field by growing (fast) fronts, (trailing) slow caustics and aj-surfaces, the fastest among these being an aN- surface (thermal front) which pushes back a quasi-static exterior. Contrary to expectations, there is no response jump across any of those growing partitions. Wavefunctions near the slow caustics possess Airy factors. A rest state ultimately develops behind the slowest slow caustic. An application is made to the fluid plasma. (author)

  11. Corneal abrasion and alkali burn secondary to automobile air bag inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlett, Angela; Gee, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A 59‐year‐old woman self presented to the emergency department with a painful right eye following a motor vehicle accident. She had reduced visual acuity and the eye had an alkaline pH with complete corneal uptake of fluorescein. Diagnosis of corneal abrasion and alkali burn to her right eye secondary to inflation of a driver's automobile airbag was made. The eye was irrigated with normal saline. Such injuries, although rare, can easily be identified within the emergency department by the history of exposure, evidence of facial injuries or burns, and an alkaline pH in the inferior cul‐de‐sac of the eye. Early detection and management with ophthalmology review is therefore imperative to prevent irreversible visual impairment. PMID:17901284

  12. 77 FR 69927 - Safety Advisory Notice: Safety Advisory for Shippers and Carriers of Air Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    .... Some of these devices look nearly identical to legitimate products, including the branding of certain... requirements of part 173, packaging specification requirements of part 178, and is designed and constructed...

  13. 75 FR 57549 - Fisker Automotive; Grant of Application for Temporary Exemption From Advanced Air Bag...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... an all-electric, tailpipe- emission-free range of 40 to 50 miles on a full charge, more than most Americans drive each day. The battery can be charged at home overnight. Using gas and electric power, Fisker... exemption from certain provisions of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 208, Occupant...

  14. 75 FR 30900 - Fisker Automotive; Receipt of Application for Temporary Exemption From Advanced Air Bag...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... to Panoz, 72 FR 28759 (May 22, 2007), or grant of petition to Koenigsegg, 72 FR 17608 (April 9, 2007... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Fisker Automotive; Receipt of Application for Temporary... Protection. SUMMARY: In accordance with the procedures in 49 CFR part 555, Fisker Automotive Corporation...

  15. Seasonal comparison of moss bag technique against vertical snow samples for monitoring atmospheric pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Hanna; Berisha, Anna-Kaisa; Mäkinen, Joni

    2016-03-01

    This is the first study seasonally applying Sphagnum papillosum moss bags and vertical snow samples for monitoring atmospheric pollution. Moss bags, exposed in January, were collected together with snow samples by early March 2012 near the Harjavalta Industrial Park in southwest Finland. Magnetic, chemical, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), K-means clustering, and Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) data showed parallel spatial trends of pollution dispersal for both materials. Results strengthen previous findings that concentrate and slag handling activities were important (dust) emission sources while the impact from Cu-Ni smelter's pipe remained secondary at closer distances. Statistically significant correlations existed between the variables of snow and moss bags. As a summary, both methods work well for sampling and are efficient pollutant accumulators. Moss bags can be used also in winter conditions and they provide more homogeneous and better controlled sampling method than snow samples. PMID:26969058

  16. Effect of cardboard under a sleeping bag on sleep stages during daytime nap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto-Mizuno, Kazue; Mizuno, Koh; Tanabe, Motoko; Niwano, Katsuko

    2016-05-01

    Fourteen healthy male subjects slept from 13:30 to 15:30 under ambient temperature and relative humidity maintained at 15 °C and 60%, respectively. They slept under two conditions: in a sleeping bag on wooden flooring (Wood) and in a sleeping bag with corrugated cardboard between the bag and the flooring (CC). Polysomnography, skin temperature (Tsk), microclimate, bed climate, and subjective sensations were obtained. The number of awakenings in the CC had significantly decreased compared to that in the Wood. The mean, back, and thigh Tsk, and bed climate temperature were significantly higher in the CC than that in the Wood. Subjective thermal sensations were warmer in the CC than in the Wood. These results suggest that using corrugated cardboard under a sleeping bag may reduce cold stress, thereby decreasing the number of awakenings and increasing subjective warmth; the mean, back, and thigh Tsk; and bed climate temperature. PMID:26851461

  17. Research on characteristics of water motion and influencing factors for the flexible air chamber jig body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yinghua; Kuang Yali; Li Haisheng

    2015-01-01

    The air bag deformation data were obtained by high-speed dynamic videos experiments. Based on gas–liquid flow VOF model, dynamic mesh technique and deformation data, numerical simulations for differ-ent structure models were achieved, and the law of water motion and influencing factors were analyzed. The results show that the flow in the length direction of the jig is smooth, and second pulsation appears in the separation time and forms the secondary separation. The installation position of screen and the num-ber of air bags have a great influence on the uniformity of flow and velocity. The screen height cannot be too low to avoid forming the unstable flow. At the same time, the screen height cannot be too high, other-wise water velocity will be too small and was unable to provide enough power. At the height of 1.4 m, velocity unevenness is minimum and the best uniform flow can be obtained. Compared with double air bags, there are the following features of single air bag:water flow is not smooth, the time achieving the maximum velocity is too long, maximum velocity is smaller, and overall effect is worse than double air bags.

  18. Epidemiology, Etiology, and Prevention of Late IOL-Capsular Bag Complex Dislocation: Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco J. Ascaso; Valentín Huerva; Andrzej Grzybowski

    2015-01-01

    Posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL) subluxation is uncommon but represents one of the most serious complications following phacoemulsification. Late spontaneous IOL-capsular bag complex dislocation is defined as occurring three months or later following cataract surgery. Unlike early IOL dislocation, late spontaneous IOL dislocation is due to a progressive zonular dehiscence and contraction of the capsular bag many years what seemed to be uneventful surgery. In recent years, late in-t...

  19. Influence of operating parameters on cake formation in pilot scale pulse-jet bag filter

    OpenAIRE

    Saleem, Mahmood; Krammer, Gernot; Khan, Rafi Ullah; Tahir, M. Suleman

    2012-01-01

    Bag filters are commonly used for fine particles removal in off-gas purification. There dust laden gas pervades through permeable filter media starting at a lower pressure drop limit leaving dust (called filter cake) on the filter media. The filter cakeformation is influenced by many factors including filtration velocity, dust concentration, pressure drop limits, and filter media resistance. Effect of the stated parameters is investigated experimentally in a pilot scale pulse-jet bag filter t...

  20. Smaller self-inflating bags produce greater guideline consistent ventilation in simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyle Malcolm J

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suboptimal bag ventilation in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR has demonstrated detrimental physiological outcomes for cardiac arrest patients. In light of recent guideline changes for resuscitation, there is a need to identify the efficacy of bag ventilation by prehospital care providers. The objective of this study was to evaluate bag ventilation in relation to operator ability to achieve guideline consistent ventilation rate, tidal volume and minute volume when using two different capacity self-inflating bags in an undergraduate paramedic cohort. Methods An experimental study using a mechanical lung model and a simulated adult cardiac arrest to assess the ventilation ability of third year Monash University undergraduate paramedic students. Participants were instructed to ventilate using 1600 ml and 1000 ml bags for a length of two minutes at the correct rate and tidal volume for a patient undergoing CPR with an advanced airway. Ventilation rate and tidal volume were recorded using an analogue scale with mean values calculated. Ethics approval was granted. Results Suboptimal ventilation with the use of conventional 1600 ml bag was common, with 77% and 97% of participants unable to achieve guideline consistent ventilation rates and tidal volumes respectively. Reduced levels of suboptimal ventilation arouse from the use of the smaller bag with a 27% reduction in suboptimal tidal volumes (p = 0.015 and 23% reduction in suboptimal minute volumes (p = 0.045. Conclusion Smaller self-inflating bags reduce the incidence of suboptimal tidal volumes and minute volumes and produce greater guideline consistent results for cardiac arrest patients.

  1. Abiotic and Biotic Degradation of Oxo-Biodegradable Plastic Bags by Pleurotus ostreatus

    OpenAIRE

    José Maria Rodrigues da Luz; Sirlaine Albino Paes; Denise Mara Soares Bazzolli; Marcos Rogério Tótola; Antônio Jacinto Demuner; Maria Catarina Megumi Kasuya

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the growth of Pleurotus ostreatus PLO6 using oxo-biodegradable plastics as a carbon and energy source. Oxo-biodegradable polymers contain pro-oxidants that accelerate their physical and biological degradation. These polymers were developed to decrease the accumulation of plastic waste in landfills. To study the degradation of the plastic polymers, oxo-biodegradable plastic bags were exposed to sunlight for up to 120 days, and fragments of these bags were used as su...

  2. Age bias in the bag of pink-footed geese : influence of flocking behaviour on vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In pink-footed goose (Anser brachyrhynchus) wintering in Denmark, The Netherlands and Belgium, the proportion of juveniles in the hunting bag is consistently higher than that observed in the autumn population. Such juvenile bias in the bag is usually ascribed to young geese lacking experience with hunting or disruption of juveniles from families. An alternative explanation may be that flocking behaviour of families make juveniles more vulnerable. Observations of morning fl...

  3. Environmental levy and green citizenship on plastic shopping bags behaviours in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Wing-sum.; 黃詠森.

    2012-01-01

    The Environmental Levy Scheme on Plastic Shopping was enforced in July 2009. The Levy aimed to create a direct fiscal disincentive to reduce the indiscriminate use of Plastic Shopping Bags and encourage consumers to switch to reusable shopping bags. In theory, fiscal instruments are more efficient and effective to change people’s behaviour, but its impacts towards attitude are still in question. Also, the level of green citizenship, which emphasising that people have the responsibility to pr...

  4. Compounds from multilayer plastic bags cause reproductive failures in artificial insemination

    OpenAIRE

    Nerin, C.; Ubeda, J. L.; Alfaro, P.; Y. Dahmani; M Aznar; Canellas, E.; Ausejo, R.

    2014-01-01

    High levels of reproductive failure were detected in some Spanish sow farms in the Spring of 2010. Regular returns to estrus and variable reductions in litter size were observed. The problem started suddenly and did not appear to be related to the quality of the ejaculates, disease, alterations of body condition or any other apparent reasons. Subsequent studies determined that the problem was the origin of the plastic bags used for semen storage. Chemical analysis of the suspicious bags ident...

  5. Anterior dislocation of an empty capsular bag in a pseudophakic eye: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Bin Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous intraocular lens (IOL dislocation is uncommon in the absence of any ocular areas with zonular weakness or trauma. There have been no reports of spontaneous capsular bag dislocation into the anterior chamber without an IOL. We report a rare, interesting case of spontaneous capsular bag anterior dislocation, without an IOL, into the anterior chamber with no history of genetic disease, ocular trauma, or pseudoexfoliation that might predispose to a zonular abnormality.

  6. Direct interaction between BAG5 protein and Parkin protein%BAG5蛋白与帕金森病相关蛋白Parkin的相互作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪晶; 郭纪锋; 江泓; 沈璐; 唐北沙

    2010-01-01

    目的:探讨BAG5(BCL2-associated athanogene 5)蛋白与帕金森病相关蛋白Parkin之间是否存在相互作用,以及BAG5对Parkin蛋白水平的调控机制.方法:本研究首先运用GST pull-down技术及免疫共沉淀技术验证BAG5蛋白与Parkin蛋白在体内及体外是否存在相互作用;进一步构建BAG5的不同截短型,运用GST pull-down技术验证BAG5与Parkin的相互结合结构域;进而运用chase time技术验证BAG5对Parkin蛋白降解水平的调控;最后运用免疫共沉淀技术验证BAG5对Parkin降解水平的调控是通过何种机制进行的.结果:BAG5蛋白与Parkin蛋白体内及体外均可以相互结合,且BAG5与Parkin的相互结合结构域存在于全长的4段BAG区域内;BAG5可以通过减少Parkin的降解而稳定细胞内Parkin蛋白的水平,且BAG5是通过减少Parkin通过泛素蛋白酶体降解系统(ubiquitin proteasome system,UPS)的降解从而增加Parkin蛋白的稳定性.结论:BAG5蛋白与Parkin蛋白可以相互结合,且BAG5蛋白可以通过UPS对Parkin的水平进行调节.

  7. Measuring the thermal insulation and evaporative resistance of sleeping bags using a supine sweating fabric manikin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For testing the thermal insulation of sleeping bags, standard test methods and procedures using heated manikins are provided in ASTM F1720-06 and EN 13537:2002. However, with regard to the evaporative resistance of sleeping bags, no instrument or test method has so far been established to give a direct measurement. In this paper, we report on a novel supine sweating fabric manikin system for directly measuring the evaporative resistance of sleeping bags. Eleven sleeping bags were tested using the manikin under the isothermal condition, namely, both the mean skin temperature of the manikin and that of the environment were controlled to be the same at 35 °C, with the wind speed and ambient relative humidity at 0.3 m s−1 and 50%, respectively. The results showed that the novel supine sweating fabric manikin is reproducible and accurate in directly measuring the evaporative resistance of sleeping bags, and the measured evaporative resistance can be combined with thermal insulation to calculate the moisture permeability index of sleeping bags

  8. Deterioration of bioplastic carrier bags in the environment and assessment of a new recycling alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accinelli, Cesare; Saccà, Maria Ludovica; Mencarelli, Mariangela; Vicari, Alberto

    2012-09-01

    Increasing environmental concerns and the introduction of technologies based on renewable resources have stimulated the replacement of persistent petroleum-derived plastics with biodegradable plastics from biopolymers. As a consequence, a variety of products are currently manufactured from bioplastic, including carrier bags. This series of studies investigated the deterioration of carrier bags made with Mater-Bi (MB), a starch-based bioplastic, in soil, compost and two aquatic ecosystems, a littoral marsh and seawater. Results from the laboratory study indicated that bioplastic carrier bags were rapidly deteriorated in soil and compost. After three months of incubation, weight loss of specimens was of 37% and 43% in soil and compost, respectively. Conversely, little deterioration was observed in specimens buried in soil under field conditions or exposed to water of a littoral marsh and of the Adriatic Sea. These findings were consistent with the greater number of bacteria and especially fungi capable of degrading MB that were recovered from soil and compost with respect to the two aquatic ecosystems. Considering that a variety of microbial isolates are capable of using MB as a source of carbon, a new alternative to recycle these MB-based carrier bags was explored. More specifically, starchy residues from bags were fermented by the fungus Rhizopus oryzae to produce up to 35 mg of lactic acid per g of bag residues. PMID:22717162

  9. Source of Kerr-Newman solution as supersymmetric bag model: 50 years of the problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burinskii, A.

    The ultra extreme Kerr-Newman (KN) solution(a = J/m >> m) produces the gravitational and EM fields of the electron. It has a naked singular ring - a topological defect which may be regularized by a solitonic source forming the pseudo-vacuum bubble filled by Higgs condensate in a supersymmetric superconducting state. Structure and stability of this source is determined by Bogomolnyi equations as a BPS-saturated soliton. The Principal Null Congruences of the KN solution determine consistent embedding of the Dirac equation, which acquires the mass from the Higgs condensate inside the soliton, indicating that this soliton forms a bag model. Shape of this bag is unambiguously determined by BPS-bound. The bag turns out to be flexible and takes the form of a very thin disk, which is completed by a ring-string along its sharp boundary. The ring-string traveling waves generate extra deformations of the bag creating a circulating singular pole. Bag model of the KN source integrates the dressed and pointlike electron in a bag-string-quark system, which removes the conflict between gravity and the point-like electron of the Dirac theory.

  10. Adaptation of business activities to the requirements of climate change mitigation - Case carrier bags; Liiketoiminnan sopeuttaminen ilmastonmuutoksen hillinnaen vaatimuksiin (OPTIKASSI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlbo, H.; Mattila, T.; Korhonen, M.-R.; Myllymaa, T. (Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Helsinki (Finland)); Soukka, R. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Department of Energy and Environmental Technology (Finland)); Kujanpaeae, M. (KCL Science and Consulting, Espoo (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    Shopping bags have been a prominent topic of debate lately. Many countries have banned disposable bags or imposed a tax on them. The motives have been to avoid littering, reduce reliance on oil, and curb climate change. Restrictions are also justified by the accumulation of plastic garbage in the oceans, and by the damage to marine organisms. The environmental effects of production, use, and disposal of shopping bags are small compared with other consumption. However, the choice of a shopping bag is repeated every week, and the consumer is not sure about the consequences of each alternative. To reduce this uncertainty the OPTIKASSI study was made. The study called 'Adaptation of business activities to the requirements of climate change mitigation . case shopping bags, OPTIKASSI project' was implemented to study shopping bag alternatives in Finnish grocery stores, and the effects of the bags on climate change and the possibilities to mitigate them. Finnish Environment Institute and Lappeenranta University of Technology were responsible for the study, funded by Tekes ClimBus Programme, and the bag producers Suominen Flexible Packaging Ltd, Plastiroll Oy (Ltd), UPM-Kymmene LtdWisapaper and CabassiOy. The goal of the OPTIKASSI project was to compile lifecycle based information about the climate effects of the most typical shopping bags. It was also desirable to find the best consumption and waste management solutions for bags made of various materials. Products compared were plastic bags of virgin material, and of recycled material, paper bags, canvas bags, and shopping bags of biodegradable plastic. According to the results the shopping bags are an insignificant part of the climate effects of a Finnish household, but negligent use of bags may multiply the effects. Based on scenario, sensitivity, and ambiguity studies: garbage bags should be replaced by plastic bags, and the bins packed full and tight, incineration is not sensible; paper bags should be

  11. Ensacamento de frutos de pereira cv. Housui Bagging of nashi pear cv. Housui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dagoberto Faoro

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a qualidade de frutos de pêra japonesa cv. Housui (Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta ensacados com diferentes tipos de sacos de papel e em duas épocas: 34 e 83 dias após a florada. O ensacamento não influenciou na firmeza, no teor de sólidos solúveis totais e no peso médio dos frutos. Sacos vermelhos não induziram aumento do pH da polpa, mas o uso de sacos duplos, sacos marrons, sacos de papel kraft marrons e sacos de pipoca brancos aumentaram significativamente o pH. Ao buscar-se maior precocidade de colheita, os melhores resultados foram obtidos com o uso de sacos pequenos de papel manteiga aos 34 dias após a floração e o uso de sacos grandes duplos ou sacos grandes marrons, 83 dias após a plena floração. O ensacamento 34 dias após a plena floração, com sacos grandes de papel duplo de cor marrom ou sacos de papel kraft marrons, ou ainda o uso de sacos pequenos parafinados transparentes de papel manteiga, aos 34 dias, seguidos pela colocação, aos 83 dias, dos dois tipos de sacos grandes citados anteriormente, resultaram em frutos de melhor qualidade externa (película de coloração homogênea e mais clara, lisa e com lenticelas pouco salientes. O uso de sacos vermelhos de papel manteiga e de sacos de pipoca brancos, com ou sem ensacamento prévio com sacos pequenos de papel manteiga parafinado, não resultaram em melhoria substancial da qualidade externa do fruto.The fruit quality of Nashi pears cv. Housui (Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta have been evaluated after bagging with different paper bags at two bagging dates: 34 and 83 days after full bloom. The bagging did not affect the fruit firmness, the total soluble solids and the average fruit weight. Red bags did not affect the pH of the fruit flesh. However the fruit bagged with double bags of brown color, brown kraft paper and white popcorn paper increased the pH. In order to harvest precociously, the use of small transparent paraffin paper bags 34 days after full bloom

  12. ADHD classification using bag of words approach on network features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmaz, Berkan; Dey, Soumyabrata; Rao, A. Ravishankar; Shah, Mubarak

    2012-02-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is receiving lots of attention nowadays mainly because it is one of the common brain disorders among children and not much information is known about the cause of this disorder. In this study, we propose to use a novel approach for automatic classification of ADHD conditioned subjects and control subjects using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data of resting state brains. For this purpose, we compute the correlation between every possible voxel pairs within a subject and over the time frame of the experimental protocol. A network of voxels is constructed by representing a high correlation value between any two voxels as an edge. A Bag-of-Words (BoW) approach is used to represent each subject as a histogram of network features; such as the number of degrees per voxel. The classification is done using a Support Vector Machine (SVM). We also investigate the use of raw intensity values in the time series for each voxel. Here, every subject is represented as a combined histogram of network and raw intensity features. Experimental results verified that the classification accuracy improves when the combined histogram is used. We tested our approach on a highly challenging dataset released by NITRC for ADHD-200 competition and obtained promising results. The dataset not only has a large size but also includes subjects from different demography and edge groups. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to propose BoW approach in any functional brain disorder classification and we believe that this approach will be useful in analysis of many brain related conditions.

  13. Damping performance of bean bag dampers in zero gravity environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Chen, Tianning; Wang, Xiaopeng

    2016-06-01

    Bean bag dampers (BBDs), developed from impact damping technology, have been widely applied in engineering field to attenuate the vibration of a structural system. The damping effect of a BBD on vibration control in ground gravity environments is good, but its performance in zero gravity environments is not clear, and there are few studies on it. Therefore, the damping effect of BBDs in zero gravity environments was investigated based on the discrete element method (DEM) in this paper. Firstly, a three-dimensional DEM model of a BBD was established, and the damping effects of the single degree of freedom (SDOF) systems with BBDs and non-obstructive particle dampers (NOPDs) in zero gravity environments were compared. Moreover, the influences of the diameter of the inner ball, the tightness of BBD, the vibration frequency of SDOF system and the gap between BBD and cavity on the vibration reduction effect of BBD in zero gravity environments were also studied, and the results were compared with the system with BBD in ground gravity environments. There are optimum ranges of the diameter of the inner ball, tightness and gap for BBD, and the effects of these parameters on the damping performances of BBD in gravity and zero gravity environments are similar in evolving trends, and the values are without big differences in the optimum ranges. Thereby the parameter selection in BBD design in zero gravity environments is similar to that in gravity environments. However, the diameter of BBD should be a slightly larger than the size of the cavity when the structures with BBD work in zero gravity environments. The BBD is supposed to be picked tightly when the vibration frequency is high, and the BBD has better to be picked more tightly in zero gravity environments. These results can be used as a guide in the design of BBDs in zero gravity environments.

  14. Microbial colonization and degradation of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic bags in temperate fine-grained organic-rich marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauendorf, Alice; Krause, Stefan; Bigalke, Nikolaus K; Gorb, Elena V; Gorb, Stanislav N; Haeckel, Matthias; Wahl, Martin; Treude, Tina

    2016-02-15

    To date, the longevity of plastic litter at the sea floor is poorly constrained. The present study compares colonization and biodegradation of plastic bags by aerobic and anaerobic benthic microbes in temperate fine-grained organic-rich marine sediments. Samples of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic carrier bags were incubated in natural oxic and anoxic sediments from Eckernförde Bay (Western Baltic Sea) for 98 days. Analyses included (1) microbial colonization rates on the bags, (2) examination of the surface structure, wettability, and chemistry, and (3) mass loss of the samples during incubation. On average, biodegradable plastic bags were colonized five times higher by aerobic and eight times higher by anaerobic microbes than polyethylene bags. Both types of bags showed no sign of biodegradation during this study. Therefore, marine sediment in temperate coastal zones may represent a long-term sink for plastic litter and also supposedly compostable material. PMID:26790603

  15. Bag filters at biofuelled plants, reliability and economy of operation; Slangfilter vid bioeldade anlaeggningar, tillfoerlitlighet och driftsekonomi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindau, Leif [SYCON Energikonsult, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    The background to this work is the increased requirements on dust emission control for smaller (2-50 MW) biofuel plants in Sweden, where established technology consisting of multi cyclones cannot meet the emission demands, and where the specific cost of the large scale established technology (electrostatic precipitators) quickly increases with decreased plant size. Operational experience of bag filters on Swedish biofuel plants down to a size of 2 MW has been collected. The operational experience is remarkably uniform and positive and availability is high. Bag life, being the most important operational cost factor, is between two and eleven years. Most frequent material used is aramide, but also PPS is employed and the experience of both materials is good. The cost relation between bag filter (including an upstream skimmer) and electrostatic precipitator has been studied based on supplier quotations. Bag filter always has the lowest first cost. At one year bag life, the total cost of a bag filter is less than that for an electrostatic precipitator for plants smaller than 15 MW, and at more than one year's bag life, the bag filter has the lowest total cost for plants up to 50 MW. For plants smaller than 5-10 MW, the difference in total cost is very high. With some simple means for quality assurance of new bags, premature failure rate can be reduced. Following up cleaning interval and/or emission during operation time, gives information about the development of bag condition and necessary bag change can be foreseen. Since bag filters are more prone to damage by fire than electrostatic precipitators, the process of damage due to entrained sparks has been analysed based on practical observations and a thermal calculation. This consideration shows that this damage mode can be eliminated by an upstream skimmer having moderate but reliable performance. The result is well in coherence with the practical operational experience found that with an adequate skimmer

  16. Cloning and functional analysis of FLJ20420: a novel transcription factor for the BAG-1 promoter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Liu

    Full Text Available BAG-1 is an anti-apoptotic protein that interacts with a variety of cellular molecules to inhibit apoptosis. The mechanisms by which BAG-1 interacts with other proteins to inhibit apoptosis have been extensively explored. However, it is currently unknown how BAG-1 expression is regulated at the molecular level, especially in cancer cells. Here we reported to clone a novel down-regulated BAG-1 expression gene named FLJ20420 using hBAG-1 promoter as a probe to screen Human Hela 5' cDNA library by Southernwestern blot. The FLJ20420 gene encodes a ∼26-kDa protein that is localized in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. We proved that FLJ20420 protein can specially bind hBAG-1 promoter region by EMSA in vivo and ChIP assay in vivo. Northern blot analysis revealed a low level of FLJ20420 transcriptional expression in normal human tissues (i.e., brain, placenta, lung, liver, kidney, pancreas and cervix, except for heart and skeletal muscles, which showed higher levels. Furthermore, enhanced FLJ20420 expression was observed in tumor cell lines (i.e., MDA468, BT-20, MCF-7, C33A, HeLa and Caski. Knockdown of endogenous FLJ20420 expression significantly increased BAG-1 expression in A549 and L9981 cells, and also significantly enhanced their sensitivity to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. A microarray assay of the FLJ20420 siRNA -transfectants showed altered expression of 505 known genes, including 272 upregulated and 233 downregulated genes. Finally, our gene array studies in lung cancer tissue samples revealed a significant increase in FLJ20420 expression in primary lung cancer relative to the paired normal lung tissue controls (p = 0.0006. The increased expression of FLJ20420 corresponded to a significant decrease in BAG-1 protein expression in the primary lung cancers, relative to the paired normal lung tissue controls (p = 0.0001. Taken together, our experiments suggest that FLJ20420 functions as a down-regulator of BAG-1 expression. Its abnormal

  17. Can laptops be left inside passenger bags if motion imaging is used in X-ray security screening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia eMendes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a study where a new X-ray machine for security screening featuring motion imaging (i.e. 5 views of a bag are shown as an image sequence was evaluated and compared to single view imaging available on conventional X-ray screening systems. More specifically, it was investigated whether with this new technology X-ray screening of passenger bags could be enhanced to such an extent that laptops could be left inside passenger bags, without causing a significant impairment in threat detection performance. An X-ray image interpretation test was created in four different versions, manipulating the factors packing condition (laptop and bag separate vs. laptop in bag and display condition (single vs. motion imaging. There was a highly significant and large main effect of packing condition. When laptops and bags were screened separately, threat item detection was substantially higher. For display condition, a medium effect was observed. Detection could be slightly enhanced through the application of motion imaging. There was no interaction between display and packing condition, implying that the high negative effect of leaving laptops in passenger bags could not be fully compensated by motion imaging. Additional analyses were carried out to examine effects depending on different threat categories (guns, improvised explosive devices, knives, others, the placement of the threat items (in bag vs. in laptop and viewpoint (easy vs. difficult view. In summary, although motion imaging provides an enhancement, it is not strong enough to allow leaving laptops in bags for security screening.

  18. Contributions from Goldstone-boson-exchange to baryon spectra in the MIT Bag Model

    CERN Document Server

    He, D H; Li, X Q; Shen, P N; He, Da-Heng; Ding, Yi-Bing; Li, Xue-Qian; Shen, Peng-Nian

    2005-01-01

    We discuss contributions of chiral bosons to baryon spectra in the MIT bag model. It is believed that within hadrons, chiral bosons are degrees of freedom which are independent of gluons to provide strong interactions between quarks. In the original MIT bag model, only interaction mediated by gluon exchanges was considered, by contrast, in this work we take into account the interaction mediated by the exchanges of chiral bosons $\\sigma$ and $\\pi^{(\\pm,0)}$. Then following the standard approach, we minimize the effective hamiltonian which includes both the contributions from gluon and chiral-boson exchanges with respect to the bag radius to obtain the effective radius. By re-fitting the spectra of baryons, we find that the contributions from the boson-exchange may be 40% of that from gluon-exchanges and meanwhile the bag constant $B$, the zero-point energy $z_0$ almost do not change. It indicates that in the original version of the MIT bag model, the intermediate-distance interaction due to the chiral-boson ex...

  19. Compounds from multilayer plastic bags cause reproductive failures in artificial insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerin, C.; Ubeda, J. L.; Alfaro, P.; Dahmani, Y.; Aznar, M.; Canellas, E.; Ausejo, R.

    2014-05-01

    High levels of reproductive failure were detected in some Spanish sow farms in the Spring of 2010. Regular returns to estrus and variable reductions in litter size were observed. The problem started suddenly and did not appear to be related to the quality of the ejaculates, disease, alterations of body condition or any other apparent reasons. Subsequent studies determined that the problem was the origin of the plastic bags used for semen storage. Chemical analysis of the suspicious bags identified unexpected compounds such as BADGE, a cyclic lactone and an unknown phthalate that leached into the semen at concentrations of 0.2 to 2.5 mg/L. Spermatozoa preserved in these bags passed all of the routine quality control tests, and no differences were observed between storage in the control and suspicious bags (p > 0.05). In vitro fecundation tests and endocrine profiler panel analysis (EPP) did not show any alterations, whereas the in vivo tests confirmed the described failure. This is the first described relationship between reproductive failure and toxic compounds released from plastic bags.

  20. Concentrations and solubility of selected trace metals in leaf and bagged black teas commercialized in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Polechońska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals in bagged and leaf black teas of the same brand and evaluate the percentage transfer of metals to tea infusion to assess the consumer exposure. Ten leaf black teas and 10 bagged black teas of the same brand available in Poland were analyzed for Zn, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Co, Cr, Al, and Fe concentrations both in dry material and their infusion. The bagged teas contained higher amounts of Pb, Mn, Fe, Ni, Al, and Cr compared with leaf teas of the same brand, whereas the infusions of bagged tea contained higher levels of Mn, Ni, Al, and Cr compared with leaf tea infusions. Generally, the most abundant trace metals in both types of tea were Al and Mn. There was a wide variation in percentage transfer of elements from the dry tea materials to the infusions. The solubility of Ni and Mn was the highest, whereas Fe was insoluble and only a small portion of this metal content may leach into infusion. With respect to the acceptable daily intake of metals, the infusions of both bagged and leaf teas analyzed were found to be safe for human consumption.

  1. Air System Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  2. Multi-water-bag models of ion temperature gradient instability in cylindrical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion temperature gradient instabilities play a major role in the understanding of anomalous transport in core fusion plasmas. In the considered cylindrical geometry, ion dynamics is described using a drift-kinetic multi-water-bag model for the parallel velocity dependency of the ion distribution function. In a first stage, global linear stability analysis is performed. From the obtained normal modes, parametric dependencies of the main spectral characteristics of the instability are then examined. Comparison of the multi-water-bag results with a reference continuous Maxwellian case allows us to evaluate the effects of discrete parallel velocity sampling induced by the Multi-Water-Bag model. Differences between the global model and local models considered in previous works are discussed. Using results from linear, quasilinear, and nonlinear numerical simulations, an analysis of the first stage saturation dynamics of the instability is proposed, where the divergence between the three models is examined

  3. Modeling multiple visual words assignment for bag-of-features based medical image retrieval

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jingyan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the bag-of-features based medical image retrieval methods, which represent an image as a collection of local features, such as image patch and key points with SIFT descriptor. To improve the bag-of-features method, we first model the assignment of local descriptor as contribution functions, and then propose a new multiple assignment strategy. By assuming the local feature can be reconstructed by its neighboring visual words in vocabulary, we solve the reconstruction weights as a QP problem and then use the solved weights as contribution functions, which results in a new assignment method called the QP assignment. We carry our experiments on ImageCLEFmed datasets. Experiments\\' results show that our proposed method exceeds the performances of traditional solutions and works well for the bag-of-features based medical image retrieval tasks.

  4. Inheritance patterns and phenotypic features of myofibrillar myopathy associated with a BAG3 mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odgerel, Zagaa; Sarkozy, Anna; Lee, Hee-Suk; McKenna, Caoimhe; Rankin, Julia; Straub, Volker; Lochmüller, Hanns; Paola, Francalanci; D’Amico, Adele; Bertini, Enrico; Bushby, Kate; Goldfarb, Lev G

    2010-01-01

    Myofibrillar myopathies (MFMs) are a heterogeneous group of neuromuscular disorders characterized by disintegration of myofibrils. The inheritance pattern in MFMs is commonly autosomal dominant, but there has been a striking absence of secondary cases noted in a BAG3-associated subtype. We studied three families with BAG3 p.Pro209Leu mutation showing a severe phenotype of myofibrillar myopathy and axonal neuropathy with giant axons. In one family, transmission to a pair of siblings has occurred from their asymptomatic father who showed somatic mosaicism. In two other families, neither of the parents was affected or showed detectable level of somatic mosaicism. These observations suggest that the BAG3 variant of MFM may result from a spontaneous mutation at an early point of embryonic development and that transmission from a mosaic parent may occur more than once. The study underlines the importance of parental evaluation as it may have implications for genetic counseling. PMID:20605452

  5. Influence of Post-treatment Methods on Pressure Change of Filter Bag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihua Yin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The PPS needle-punched non-woven filters with different post-treatments were studied by filter testing system. The pressure drop was measured at various filtration velocity, dust deposition time and the temperature during the experiment; and the effect of dust-cleaning as the consequence of pressure of filter bag was measured. The results showed that post-treatments transformed the surfaces of filters, and the dust formation differed greatly. Excessively high filtration velocity decreased the peak pressure in the process of dust-cleaning. The pressure of filter bag was increased as the dust layers were thickened. The higher temperature in filtration rose the peak pressure of filter bag, but decreased the rate of rising.

  6. Calculation of the static forces acting on ACV bag-finger skirts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y. N.; Hua, Y.

    A mathematical model of the geometry formation of an ACV bag-finger skirt is developed to determine skirt shape and its deflection for varying cushion pressures, and calculations for the reactions of supports of the rigid structure on the skirt at the inner and outer attachment points are obtained. The model assumption that the finger triangle of the two-dimensional bag-finger skirt turns around the inner attachment point with changing ratio of cushion pressure to bag pressure is confirmed by experiments using skirt rigs. Good agreement is found between theoretical and experimental results, and it is shown that when the cushion pressure is changing, the pressure ratio is the essential dimensionless parameter for the skirt geometry formation and its deflection, and for the forces acting on it.

  7. Different BAG-1 isoforms have distinct functions in modulating chemotherapeutic-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyu LIU; Zhuomin WANG; Yun BAI; Min WANG; Ying LI; Sen WEI; Qinghua ZHOU; Jun CHEN

    2009-01-01

    Aim:BAG-1 is a multifunctional anti-apoptotic gene with four isoforms,and different BAG-1 isoforms have different anti-apoptotic functions.In this study,we transfected BAG-1 isoforms into the human breast cancer cell lines Hs578T (ER nega-tive) and MCF-7 (ER positive) to study their effect on apoptosis with or without estrogens.Methods: The constructed recombinant expression vectors carrying individual BAG-1 isoforms was used to transfect human breast cancer cell lines Hs578T (ER negative) and MCF-7 (ER positive).After stable cell lines were made,a variety of apoptosis-inducing agents,including doxorubicin,docetaxel,and 5-FU,was used to treat these cell lines with or without estrogen to test the role of BAG-1.The mechanism by which BAG-1 affected the function of Bcl-2 was exploredby using the cycloheximide chase assay.Results: The BAG-1 p50 and p46 isoforms significantly enhanced the resistance to apoptosis in both cell lines according to flow cytometry analysis.BAG-1 p33 and p29 failed to protect the transfected cells from apoptosis.The cell viability assay showed that only BAG-1 p50,but not p46,p33,or p29,increased estrogen-dependent function in ER-positive cell line MCF-7.Only BAG-1 p50 dramatically increased its anti-apoptotic ability in the presence of estrogen,while estrogen has very little effect on the anti-apoptotic ability of other BAG-1 isoforms.In the detection of the expression of K-ras,Hsp70,cytochrome c,Raf-1,ER-α,and Bcl-2 in MCF-7 cells by Western blot,only Bcl-2 protein expression was significantly increased in MCF-7 cells transfected with BAG-1 p50 and p46,respectively.Furthermore,the cycloheximide chase assay indicated that the degradation of Bcl-2 protein was extended in the BAG-1 p50 and p46 transfected MCF-7 cells.Conclusion: Distinct isoforrns of BAG-1 have different anti-apoptotic functions in breast cancer cells,and that the BAG-1 p50 isoform can potentiate the role of estrogen in ER-positive breast cancer.

  8. A Comparison of Energy Expenditure During "Wii Boxing" Versus Heavy Bag Boxing in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perusek, Kristen; Sparks, Kenneth; Little, Kathleen; Motley, Mary; Patterson, Sheila; Wieand, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    Traditional computer videogames are sedentary, whereas new computer videogames, such as the Nintendo(®) (Redmond, WA) "Wii™ Sports" games, allow users to physically interact while playing the sport. Energy expenditure (EE), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during heavy bag boxing versus the Nintendo "Wii Boxing" game were compared. Fifteen males and 14 females (mean age, 25.6 years; height, 171.3 cm; weight, 71.8 kg) randomly selected (by a coin toss) heavy bag boxing or "Wii Boxing" for their first test session and completed the other protocol at their second session at least 2 days later. Each session lasted for a total duration of 30 minutes and consisted of 10 3-minute exercise bouts with measurements of HR, RPE, and EE obtained from indirect calorimetry. A paired-samples t test was used to analyze the results. Significant differences were found for HR (bag, 156 beats per minute; Wii, 138 beats per minute; P=0.001) and RPE (bag, 13.8; Wii, 11.4; P=0.0001) but not for EE (bag, 8.0 kcal/minute; Wii, 7.1 kcal/minute; bag, 241 total kcal; Wii, 213 total kcal; P=0.078). The results suggest that computer active videogames, such as the Nintendo Wii, have the potential to provide similar EE as their traditional forms of exercise and may be a sufficient replacement for traditional target HR zone activities, especially in less fit individuals. Further research is needed to compare EE for different "Wii Sports" games with those for their traditional forms of exercise.

  9. Recovery of Agricultural Odors and Odorous Compounds from Polyvinyl Fluoride Film Bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek A. Koziel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate sampling methods are necessary when quantifying odor and volatile organic compound emissions at agricultural facilities. The commonly accepted methodology in the U.S. has been to collect odor samples in polyvinyl fluoride bags (PVF, brand name Tedlar® and, subsequently, analyze with human panelists using dynamic triangular forced-choice olfactometry. The purpose of this research was to simultaneously quantify and compare recoveries of odor and odorous compounds from both commercial and homemade PVF sampling bags. A standard gas mixture consisting of p-cresol (40 µg m−3 and seven volatile fatty acids: acetic (2,311 µg m−3, propionic (15,800 µg m−3, isobutyric (1,686 µg m−3, butyric (1,049 µg m−3, isovaleric (1,236 µg m−3, valeric (643 µg m−3, and hexanoic (2,158 µg m−3 was placed in the PVF bags at times of 1 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, and 7 d prior to compound and odor concentration analyses. Compound concentrations were quantified using sorbent tubes and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Odor concentration, intensity, and hedonic tone were measured using a panel of trained human subjects. Compound recoveries ranged from 2 to 40% after 1 h and 0 to 14% after 7 d. Between 1 h and 7 d, odor concentrations increased by 45% in commercial bags, and decreased by 39% in homemade bags. Minimal changes were observed in intensity and hedonic tone over the same time period. These results suggest that PVF bags can bias individual compound concentrations and odor as measured by dynamic triangular forced-choice olfactometry.

  10. Facile Route to Generate Fuel Oil via Catalytic Pyrolysis of Waste Polypropylene Bags: Towards Waste Management of >20 μm Plastic Bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel strategy of waste recycling of polypropylene plastics (PP bags for generation of commercially viable byproducts using nanoforms of nickel as catalyst is presented in this work. After pyrolysis of waste PP bags (>20 μm under continuous argon flow, 90% conversion efficiency to high petroleum oil was observed at 550°C. To assess the physicochemical attributes of formed oil, flash point, pour point, viscosity, specific gravity, heating value, and density were also measured and found to be very close to ideal values of commercial fuel oil. Moreover, GC-MS was used to resolve the range of trace mass hydrocarbon present in the liquefied hydrocarbon. Our robust recycling system can be exploited as economical technique to solve the nuisance of waste plastic hazardous to ecosystem.

  11. Non-Abelian Cheshire Cat bag models in 1+1 dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-Abelian Cheshire Cat models are investigated in their Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations. The Lagrangian bag boundary conditions are used to derive the form of non-Abelian soliton operators, through which fermions are represented in bosonic language. These soliton operators are then used to construct the boundary interaction in the Hamiltonian picture, wherein the bosonic sector is formulated by means of a current algebra involving anomalous commutators. The Hamiltonian and the momentum operator are shown to commute, thus implying that the Cheshire Cat criterion - the independence of the energy spectrum on the bag wall position - is fulfilled by the system. (orig.)

  12. Carbon footprint of shopping (grocery) bags in China, Hong Kong and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, Subramanian Senthilkannan; Li, Y.; Hu, J. Y.; Mok, P. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon footprint has become a term often used by the media in recent days. The human carbon footprint is professed to be a very serious global threat and every nation is looking at the possible options to reduce it since its consequences are alarming. A carbon footprint is a measure of the impact of human activities on earth and in particular on the environment; more specifically it relates to climate change and to the total amount of greenhouse gases produced, measured in units of carbon dioxide emitted. Effort of individuals in minimizing the carbon footprint is vital to save our planet. This article reports a study of the carbon footprint of various types of shopping bags (plastic, paper, non-woven and woven) using life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) technique in two stages. The first stage (baseline study), comprised the study of the impact of different types of shopping bags in the manufacturing phase, without considering their usage and disposal phases (cradle to gate stage). The LCIA was accomplished by the IPCC 2007 method, developed by the Inter Panel on Climate Change in SIMAPRO 7.2. The GWP (Global Warming Potential) values calculated by the IPCC 2007 method for 100 years were considered as a directive to compare the carbon footprint made by the different types of shopping bags under consideration. The next stage was the study of the carbon footprint of these bags including their usage and disposal phases (cradle to grave stage) and the results derived were compared with the results derived from the baseline study, which is the major focus of this research work. The values for usage and end-of-life phases were obtained from the survey questionnaire performed amongst different user groups of shopping bags in China, Hong Kong and India. The results show that the impact of different types of shopping bags in terms of their carbon footprint potential is very high if no usage and disposal options were provided. When the carbon footprint values from different

  13. Assessment of the mobile bag method for estimation of in vivo starch digestibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghoorchi, Taghi; Lund, Peter; Larsen, Mogens;

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to assess the ability of the in situ mobile nylon bag method for predicting small intestinal and total tract starch digestibility. Starch disappearance was measured for 18 samples of different cereals and legumes subjected to different physical and chemical processing methods...... with starch from barley, wheat, oats, ear maize and maize. Transit times of the mobile bags from duodenum to ileum were not significantly different between feeds. A weak positive correlation was found between in vivo small intestinal and total tract digestibility of starch and disappearance obtained using...

  14. The use of cellulase and filter bag technique to predict digestibility of forages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalski, Z. M.; Ludwin, J.; Górka, P.;

    2014-01-01

    calculated for whole crop corn herbages, grass silages and clover silages. It can be concluded that the in vitro method presented in this study is a simple alternative for existing methods in which buffered rumen fluid is used. Using a standard enzyme available commercially worldwide may decrease variation...... between laboratories. Further, using filter bags and Daisy Incubator decreases labour costs and use of animals. Abbreviations AIC, akaike information criterion; ADF, acid detergent fibre; aNDF, neutral detergent fibre; AFBT, ANKOM filter bag technique; CP, crude protein; CS, subset ‘clover silages’; DK...

  15. Cultivation Experiment of Shiitake Strain Using UNICORN BAG%利用 UNICORN BAG 培养香菇菌种试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐年声; 焦海涛; 王群

    2001-01-01

    Culture shiitake strain using UNICORN BAGS with two types in t his experiment,the results showed that experimental bags with ventilating membra ne either had a good ventilated funciton or can protect from infection of weed f ungi,This bags are of filling simple and fast,inoculation convenient and easy,mo re mycelia sprout drops,and strain growing rapidly etc,and have a excellent apli cation prospects in strain making and cultivation of mushrooms.%本试验利用两种规格的UNICORN BAG培养香菇菌种,结果表明这种具有透气膜的塑料袋既有良好的透气性能,又能防止杂菌侵染,在菌种生产中具有装袋简单快速,接种方便容易,萌发点多,菌种成熟快等优点,具有极好的应用前景。

  16. 消化道肿瘤组织芯片中BAG-1的表达及意义分析%Expression and Significance of Apoptosis Related Gene BAG-1 in Digestive Tract Cancer by Tissue Microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林雨冬; 师建国; 闫庆国; 王明元; 王星

    2006-01-01

    目的检测抗凋亡基因BAG-1在多种消化道肿瘤中的表达,并讨论其意义.方法利用组织芯片,采用免疫组化DA-KO Envision法检测食道癌、胃癌、直肠癌及正常组织中BAG-1的表达.结果食道癌、胃癌及直肠癌组织中BAG-1的表达比其对应的正常组织为高(P<0.01).结论BAG-1在消化道肿瘤组织中表达高于正常组织,提示BAG1表达可能与消化道恶性肿瘤的发生有关.

  17. An Alternative Approach to the Monitoring of Respiration by Dynamic Air-Pressure Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Takarada, Tohru; Kawahara, Michio; Irifune, Masahiro; Endo, Chie; Shimizu, Yoshitaka; Kobayashi, Keiko; Sakata, Keiko; Kikuchi, Nobuhito; Saida, Takuya; Onizuka, Chiori

    2007-01-01

    Monitoring and assessing of patient respiratory function during conscious sedation are important because many drugs used for conscious sedation produce respiratory depression and subsequent hypoventilation. The purpose of this study is to assess the value of a dynamic air-pressure sensor for respiratory monitoring of clothed patients. Eight clothed adult volunteers were reclined on a dental chair positioned horizontally. The air bag for measuring air-pressure signals corresponding to respirat...

  18. Effects of fruit bags on microenvironment and non-astringent persimmon pigmentation%甜柿套袋微域生境与果实着色效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭创业; 苏彩虹; 张丽萍; 董少鹏

    2012-01-01

    Effects of fruit bags on microenvironment and non-astringent persimmon pigmentation were studied with four kinds of bags. It was found that temperature difference between day and night inside dou- ble-layer bag with red interior layer was greatest among five treatments.Under the condition of sunny days, the temperature increased by 5.8 ℃ and 4.8℃ on September 18 to 21 and October 3 to 8 respectively, compared with that of the control. The effect of plastic film bag and double-layer bag on the moisture re- tention was better, which alleviated the relative humidity stress when air humidity was too low under fine, hot and dry weather. The light in double-layer bags was poor, there were only 0.8% and 0.4% PAR inside double-layer bag with red interior layer and double-layer bag with black interior layer rspectively at 14:00 pm on sunny days compared with the control. Different bagging materials formed different micro-environ- ment, which resulted in different effects on fruit coloring. The peel pigmentation was better in the treat- ment of double-layer bag with red interior layer, followed by double-layer bag with black interior layer. There was less difference between other treatments and control. On September 25, the peel pigmentation was N25B for double-layer bag with red interior layer, and 163B for control . On October 15, the peel pigmentation was 33A for double-layer bag with red interior layer, and N25B for control . It was found that at persimmon late growth stage, carotenoid content increased in all treatments, and paper bags re- duced carotenoids in peel In the late growth phase, the treatments reduced the flavonoid content except double-layer paper bags. Double-layer bag with red interior layer reduced Carotenoids and Flavonoids by 0.0178 mg. g-1 and 0.0706 mg g-1 at maturity compared with control.%对4种不同材质的果袋,进行套袋微域生境及果实着色试验,结果表明,双层内红袋处理昼夜温差较大,9月18—21日和10

  19. 77 FR 3035 - Pricing for 2012 Annual Sets and America the Beautiful Quarters® Bags & Rolls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for 2012 Annual Sets and America the Beautiful Quarters Bags & Rolls AGENCY... announcing 2012 pricing for annual sets and the America the Beautiful Quarters Bags and Rolls. Please see...

  20. 77 FR 14600 - Pricing for 2012 Kennedy Half-Dollar Bags and Rolls, Bronze Medals, the First Spouse Bronze Medal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... United States Mint Pricing for 2012 Kennedy Half-Dollar Bags and Rolls, Bronze Medals, the First Spouse.... SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing 2012 pricing for Kennedy Half-Dollar bags and rolls, bronze..., Associate Director for Sales and Marketing; United States Mint; 801 9th Street NW., Washington, DC 20220;...

  1. 75 FR 14569 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Taiwan: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... Indonesia, 72 FR 60636 (October 25, 2007)). Disclosure We will disclose the calculations performed within... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Postponement of Final Determination, 74 FR 55183 (October 27... establishments, e.g., garbage bags, lawn bags, trash-can liners. Imports of merchandise included within the...

  2. Say Your Eco-friendly Slogan in 2008!——Take Cotton Bags Home and Become an Environmentalist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Take your own cotton shopping bags on your next trip to the supermarket and avoid excessive use of plastic bags. This has become the latest environmentally-friendly trend in China. A decree issued on January 8, 2008 by the General Office of the State Council banning the production, sales and use of ultra thin plastic grocery

  3. In-the-bag intraocular lens placement via secondary capsulorhexis with radiofrequency diathermy in pediatric aphakic eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Luo

    Full Text Available Pediatric ophthalmologists increasingly recognize that the ideal site for intraocular lens (IOL implantation is in the bag for aphakic eyes, but it is always very difficult via conventional technique. We conducted a prospective case series study to investigate the success rate and clinical outcomes of capsular bag reestablishment and in-the-bag IOL implantation via secondary capsulorhexis with radiofrequency diathermy (RFD in pediatric aphakic eyes, in which twenty-two consecutive aphakic pediatric patients (43 aphakic eyes enrolled in the Childhood Cataract Program of the Chinese Ministry of Health were included. The included children underwent either our novel technique for secondary IOL implantation (with RFD or the conventional technique (with a bent needle or forceps, depending on the type of preoperative proliferative capsular bag present. In total, secondary capsulorhexis with RFD was successfully applied in 32 eyes (32/43, 74.4%, age 5.6±2.3 years, of which capsular bag reestablishment and in-the-bag IOL implantation were both achieved in 30 eyes (30/43, 70.0%, but in the remaining 2 eyes (2/32, 6.2% the IOLs were implanted in the sulcus with a capsular bag that was too small. Secondary capsulorhexis with conventional technique was applied in the other 11 eyes (11/43, 25.6%, age 6.9±2.3 years, of which capsular bag reestablishment and in-the-bag IOL implantation were both achieved only in 3 eyes(3/43, 7.0%, and the IOLs were implanted in the sulcus in the remaining 8 eyes. A doughnut-like proliferative capsular bag with an extensive Soemmering ring (32/43, 74.4% was the main success factor for secondary capsulorhexis with RFD, and a sufficient capsular bag size (33/43, 76.7% was an additional factor in successful in-the-bag IOL implantation. In conclusion, RFD secondary capsulorhexis technique has 70% success rate in the capsular bag reestablishment and in-the-bag IOL implantation in pediatric aphakic eyes, particularly effective in

  4. Assessment of atmospheric trace element concentrations by lichen-bag near an oil/gas pre-treatment plant in the Agri Valley (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Caggiano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric concentrations of 17 trace elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Ti and Zn were measured by means of the "lichen-bag" technique in the Agri Valley (southern Italy. The lichen samples were collected from an unpolluted site located in Rifreddo forest (southern Italy. The bags were exposed to ambient air for 6 and 12 months. The exposed-to-control (EC ratio values highlighted that the used lichen species were suitable for biomonitoring investigations. The results showed that the concentrations of almost all the examined trace elements increased with respect to the control after 6–12 month exposures. Furthermore, Ca, Al, Fe, K, Mg and S were the most abundant trace elements both in the 6 and 12 month-exposed samples. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA results highlighted that the major sources of the measured atmospheric trace elements were related both to anthropogenic contributions due to traffic, combustion processes, agricultural practices, construction and quarrying activities, and to natural contributions mainly represented by the re-suspension of local soil and road dusts. In addition, the contribution both of secondary atmospheric reactions involving Centro Olio Val d'Agri (COVA plant emissions and the African dust long-range transport were also identified.

  5. Assessment of atmospheric trace element concentrations by lichen-bag near an oil/gas pre-treatment plant in the Agri Valley (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caggiano, R.; Trippetta, S.; Sabia, S.

    2015-02-01

    The atmospheric concentrations of 17 trace elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Ti and Zn) were measured by means of the "lichen-bag" technique in the Agri Valley (southern Italy). The lichen samples were collected from an unpolluted site located in Rifreddo forest (southern Italy), about 30 km away from the study area along the north direction. The bags were exposed to ambient air for 6 and 12 months. The exposed-to-control (EC) ratio values highlighted that the used lichen species were suitable for biomonitoring investigations. The results showed that the concentrations of almost all the examined trace elements increased with respect to the control after 6-12-month exposures. Furthermore, Ca, Al, Fe, K, Mg and S were the most abundant trace elements both in the 6-month and 12-month-exposed samples. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) results highlighted that the major sources of the measured atmospheric trace elements were related both to anthropogenic contributions due to traffic, combustion processes agricultural practices, construction and quarrying activities, and to natural contributions mainly represented by the re-suspension of local soil and road dusts. In addition, the contribution both of secondary atmospheric reactions involving Centro Olio Val d'Agri (COVA) plant emissions and the African dust long-range transport were also identified.

  6. Characterization of the Etna volcanic emissions through an active biomonitoring technique (moss-bags): part 1--major and trace element composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, S; D'Alessandro, W; Bellomo, S; Brusca, L; Martin, R S; Saiano, F; Parello, F

    2015-01-01

    Active biomonitoring using moss-bags was applied to an active volcanic environment for the first time. Bioaccumulation originating from atmospheric deposition was evaluated by exposing mixtures of washed and air-dried mosses (Sphagnum species) at 24 sites on Mt. Etna volcano (Italy). Concentrations of major and a large suite of trace elements were analysed by inductively coupled mass and optical spectrometry (ICP-MS and ICP-OES) after total acid digestion. Of the 49 elements analysed those which closely reflect summit volcanic emissions were S, Tl, Bi, Se, Cd, As, Cu, B, Na, Fe, Al. Enrichment factors and cluster analysis allowed clear distinction between volcanogenic, geogenic and anthropogenic inputs that affect the local atmospheric deposition. This study demonstrates that active biomonitoring with moss-bags is a suitable and robust technique for implementing inexpensive monitoring in scarcely accessible and harsh volcanic environments, giving time-averaged quantitative results of the local exposure to volcanic emissions. This task is especially important in the study area because the summit area of Mt. Etna is visited by nearly one hundred thousand tourists each year who are exposed to potentially harmful volcanic emissions.

  7. Epidemiology, Etiology, and Prevention of Late IOL-Capsular Bag Complex Dislocation: Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Ascaso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL subluxation is uncommon but represents one of the most serious complications following phacoemulsification. Late spontaneous IOL-capsular bag complex dislocation is defined as occurring three months or later following cataract surgery. Unlike early IOL dislocation, late spontaneous IOL dislocation is due to a progressive zonular dehiscence and contraction of the capsular bag many years what seemed to be uneventful surgery. In recent years, late in-the-bag IOL subluxation or dislocation has been reported with increasing frequency, having a cumulative risk of IOL dislocation following cataract extraction of 0.1% after 10 years and 1.7% after 25 years. A predisposition to zonular insufficiency and capsular contraction is identified in 90% of reviewed cases. Multiple conditions likely play a role in contributing to this zonular weakness and capsular contraction. Pseudoexfoliation is the most common risk factor, accounting for more than 50% of cases. Other associated conditions predisposing to zonular dehiscence are aging, high myopia, uveitis, trauma, previous vitreoretinal surgery, retinitis pigmentosa, diabetes mellitus, atopic dermatitis, previous acute angle-closure glaucoma attack, and connective tissue disorders. The recognition of these predisposing factors suggests a modified approach in cases at risk. We review certain measures to prevent IOL-bag complex luxation that have been proposed.

  8. Epidemiology, Etiology, and Prevention of Late IOL-Capsular Bag Complex Dislocation: Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascaso, Francisco J; Huerva, Valentín; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL) subluxation is uncommon but represents one of the most serious complications following phacoemulsification. Late spontaneous IOL-capsular bag complex dislocation is defined as occurring three months or later following cataract surgery. Unlike early IOL dislocation, late spontaneous IOL dislocation is due to a progressive zonular dehiscence and contraction of the capsular bag many years what seemed to be uneventful surgery. In recent years, late in-the-bag IOL subluxation or dislocation has been reported with increasing frequency, having a cumulative risk of IOL dislocation following cataract extraction of 0.1% after 10 years and 1.7% after 25 years. A predisposition to zonular insufficiency and capsular contraction is identified in 90% of reviewed cases. Multiple conditions likely play a role in contributing to this zonular weakness and capsular contraction. Pseudoexfoliation is the most common risk factor, accounting for more than 50% of cases. Other associated conditions predisposing to zonular dehiscence are aging, high myopia, uveitis, trauma, previous vitreoretinal surgery, retinitis pigmentosa, diabetes mellitus, atopic dermatitis, previous acute angle-closure glaucoma attack, and connective tissue disorders. The recognition of these predisposing factors suggests a modified approach in cases at risk. We review certain measures to prevent IOL-bag complex luxation that have been proposed. PMID:26798506

  9. 75 FR 33772 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Malaysia, 69 FR 48203 (August 9, 2004). On August 3, 2009, we published in the Federal Register a notice of... from Malaysia, 69 FR 3557 (January 26, 2004). See also Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia, 69 FR 34128 (June 18, 2004)...

  10. 75 FR 36679 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From China, Malaysia, and Thailand; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... instituted these reviews on July 1, 2009 (74 FR 31750, July 2, 2009) and determined on October 5, 2009 that it would conduct full reviews (74 FR 54069, October 21, 2009). Notice of the scheduling of the... COMMISSION Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From China, Malaysia, and Thailand; Determinations On the...

  11. Polylactide-based renewable composites from natural products residues by encapsulated film bag: characterization and biodegradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chin-San

    2012-09-01

    In the present study, the biodegradability, morphology, and mechanical properties of composite materials consisting of acrylic acid-grafted polylactide (PLA-g-AA) and natural products residues (corn starch, CS) were evaluated. Composites containing acrylic acid-grafted PLA (PLA-g-AA/CS) exhibited noticeably superior mechanical properties due to their greater compatibility with CS compared with PLA/CS. The feasibility of using PLA-g-AA/CS as a film bag material to facilitate the controlled release of an encapsulated phosphate-solubilizing bacterium (PSB) Burkholderia cepacia as a fertilizer use promoter was then evaluated. For purposes of comparison and accurate characterization, a PLA film bag was also assessed. The results showed that the bacterium completely degraded both the PLA and the PLA-g-AA/CS composite film bags, resulting in cell release. The PLA-g-AA/CS (20 wt%) film bags were more biodegradable than those made of PLA, and displayed a higher loss of molecular weight and intrinsic viscosity, indicating a strong connection between these characteristics and biodegradability. PMID:24751080

  12. Covariant momentum projection of the soliton bag: recoil corrections to the hadronic masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A central problem in calculations based on relativistic bags is that of projection onto an eigenstate of zero momentum and the subsequent covariant boosting of that state to a non-zero momentum eigenstate. We are here particularly concerned with relativistic bag models. The prototype of such models is the MIT bag model. Along with a number of derivative models, it shares the common feature of a surface boundary condition to confine the quarks. The Lagrangian contains coordinates which describe the surface, but the time derivatives of these coordinates do not appear. This complicates quantization which can, however, be accomplished through the techniques of Dirac constraints. It is important to work in a fully quantum mechanical framework. A model which fulfills that requirement, is covariant, and is tractable is the soliton bag model of Freidberg and Lee. This is a model for the low energy properties of QCD in which hadrons appear as solitons in a scalar field with quarks trapped inside the structures. The soliton model, for the present discussion, contains (massless) quarks interacting with a nonlinear scalar field sigma; the momentum operator conjugate to sigma is π = sigma, and the two satisfy the usual canonical equal-time commutation reltions. 12 references

  13. Hvem sidder dér bag skærmen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik; Schaumburg-Müller, Peer

    2009-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i nutidens daytrader, der sidder ´"bag skærmen" og foretager talrige daglige køb og salg af børsnoterede aktier mv., analyseres det i artiklen, hvornår en sådan lovlig daytrading udarter til strafbar kursmanipulation. Nogle daytradere har ment, at hvis en ikke-professionel invest...

  14. Optical in-situ measurement of filter cake height during bag filter plant operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmood Saleem; Gernot Krammer [Graz University of Technology (Austria). Institute for Apparatus Design, Particle Technology, and Combustion

    2007-04-15

    A pilot scale jet pulsed bag filter test facility is operated at conditions similar to those of the industrial bag filters. The facility is equipped with a stereo vision based optical system for in-situ cake height distribution measurements on the bag filter surface. Experimental data are presented and data evaluation procedures are discussed to elaborate the features of the measuring system. The results show that the cake height distribution becomes narrower towards the end of filtration cycles. A steep pressure drop rise is observed at the start of a filtration cycle in the absence of re-attachment and a non-uniform bag cleaning, which may be attributed to different cake properties. The specific cake resistance remains constant over the linear part of the pressure drop curve indicating a non-compressible cake formation. The analysis of residual cake patches shows a large number of small sized cake patches and a few large sized cake patches on the filter surface. The cake patch size increases with the cake formation. The fractal analysis of patches boundary indicates preferential cake formation at the boundary of the residual cake patches shortly after regeneration.

  15. Hadron-quark phase coexistence in a hybrid MIT-Bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phase transition of hadronic to quark matter and the boundaries of the hadron-quark coexistence phase are studied within the two Equation of State (EoS) models. The relativistic effective mean-field approach with constant and density-dependent meson-nucleon couplings is used to describe hadronic matter, and the MIT-Bag model is adopted to describe quark matter. The boundaries of the mixed phase for different Bag constants are obtained solving the Gibbs equations. We notice that the dependence on the Bag parameter of the critical temperatures (at zero chemical potential) can be well reproduced by a fermion ultrarelativistic quark gas model, without contribution from the hadron part. At variance, the critical chemical potentials (at zero temperature) are very sensitive to the EoS of the hadron sector. Hence, the contribution of the hadronic interaction is much more relevant for the determination of the transition to the quark-gluon plasma at finite baryon density and low T. Moreover, in the low-temperature and finite chemical potential region no solutions of the Gibbs conditions are existing for small Bag-constant values, B 4. Isospin effects in asymmetric matter appear important in the high chemical-potential regions at lower temperatures, of interest for the inner-core properties of neutron stars and for heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies. (orig.)

  16. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome in Two Elderly Men with Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Keer, Jan; Detroyer, Daan; Bammens, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome is a rare condition in which purple discoloration of urine inside its collection bag occurs. We describe two illustrative cases. The first patient is an 81-year-old man who was hospitalized for a newly diagnosed lymphoma with acute obstructive renal failure for which a nephrostomy procedure was performed. During the hospitalization, a sudden purple discoloration of the suprapubic catheter urine was noted, while the nephrostomy urine had a normal color. Urine culture from the suprapubic catheter was positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis; urine from the nephrostomy was sterile. The second case is an 80-year-old man who was admitted for heart failure with cardiorenal dilemma and who was started on intermittent hemodialysis. There was a sudden purple discoloration of the urine in the collection bag from his indwelling catheter. He was diagnosed with an E. coli urinary infection and treated with amoxicillin and removal of the indwelling catheter. These two cases illustrate the typical characteristics of purple urine bag syndrome. PMID:26351597

  17. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome in Two Elderly Men with Urinary Tract Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Van Keer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purple urine bag syndrome is a rare condition in which purple discoloration of urine inside its collection bag occurs. We describe two illustrative cases. The first patient is an 81-year-old man who was hospitalized for a newly diagnosed lymphoma with acute obstructive renal failure for which a nephrostomy procedure was performed. During the hospitalization, a sudden purple discoloration of the suprapubic catheter urine was noted, while the nephrostomy urine had a normal color. Urine culture from the suprapubic catheter was positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis; urine from the nephrostomy was sterile. The second case is an 80-year-old man who was admitted for heart failure with cardiorenal dilemma and who was started on intermittent hemodialysis. There was a sudden purple discoloration of the urine in the collection bag from his indwelling catheter. He was diagnosed with an E. coli urinary infection and treated with amoxicillin and removal of the indwelling catheter. These two cases illustrate the typical characteristics of purple urine bag syndrome.

  18. Influence of weather factors on population dynamics of two lagomorph species based on hunting bag records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rödel, H.; Dekker, J.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Weather conditions can have a significant influence on short-term fluctuations of animal populations. In our study, which is based on time series of hunting bag records of up to 28 years from 26 counties of The Netherlands and Germany, we investigated the impact of different weather variables on ann

  19. 75 FR 16434 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Combination Rates in Antidumping Investigations involving Non-Market Economy Countries, 70 FR 17233 (April 5... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') are being, or are likely to be, sold in the United States...

  20. Behaviour and Environment - A Behavioral Study of no Use of Plastic Bags' Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Bragança de Matos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The perception of the environmental impact of current consumption patterns and the increasing centrality of this discourse in international environmentalism’s mainstream bring new perspectives and arguments concerning the consumerism of contemporary Western societies. From this perspective, the central question of this project was: “What is the intention of not using plastic bags?” Using as a theoretical reference the Planned Behavior Theory, which seeks to understand and predict human behavior in a general way from a reduced set of antecedent variables, we developed an intersectional survey consisting of 226 interviews. Data were processed by equations modeling and treated in Amos 16.0 software. The measurement model considered the mental constructions forming TCP. It was possible to identify as a major contribution of this study that the perceived behavioral control is the most influential factor on the intended not use of plastic bags, hindering the adoption of the behavior of not using plastic bags. Perhaps the fact that it is a settled habit, which involves several routine actions, such as the habit of going to the grocery store and have to plan in advance to take the alternative shopping bag or cart for packaging purchased products, or to count on ecological alternatives offered by commercial establishments, is a major and determining impediment for behavioral change.

  1. 75 FR 16428 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Affirmative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... report regarding discussions held with third party experts concerning banking in Vietnam. See Memorandum.... Injury Test Because Vietnam is a ``Subsidies Agreement Country'' within the meaning of section 701(b) of... merchandise. See Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam; Determinations, 74...

  2. 76 FR 11203 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... Order: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China, 69 FR 48201 (August 9, 2004... Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity to Request Administrative Review, 75 FR 45094... and Requests for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 60076 (September 29, 2010). Rescission of Review...

  3. 76 FR 12700 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand, 75 FR 48940 (August 12, 2010). These deposit requirements shall remain... Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 53953 (September 2, 2010) (Preliminary Results), in the Federal... Thailand, 69 FR 34122, 34123 (June 18, 2004). The period of review is August 1, 2008, through July 31,...

  4. 75 FR 23673 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand, 69 FR 48204 (August 9, 2004). On September 22, 2009, we published a... Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocation in Part, 74 FR 48224, 48226 (September 22... FR 34122, 34123 (June 18, 2004). As explained in the February 12, 2010, memorandum from the...

  5. 78 FR 88 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 77 FR... Revocation in Part, 77 FR 59168 (September 26, 2012). On November 21, 2012, the petitioners withdrew their... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of...

  6. 78 FR 28192 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ...The Department of Commerce (the Department) is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from Thailand. The review covers 11 respondents. The period of review (POR) is August 1, 2011, through July 31, 2012. We preliminarily find that subject merchandise has been sold at less than normal value by the companies subject to this......

  7. 78 FR 46319 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Taiwan: Initiation of Anti-Circumvention Inquiry on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... consumer packaging and free of charge by retail establishments, e.g., grocery, drug, convenience... from The Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bag Committee and its individual members PCL Packaging, Inc... Republic of Vietnam, 75 FR 23667 (May 4, 2010) (PRCB Orders). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  8. Further evaluation of alternative air-filtration systems for reducing the transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by aerosol

    OpenAIRE

    Dee, Scott A.; Deen, John; Cano, Jean Paul; Batista, Laura; Pijoan, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare 4 methods for the reduction of aerosol transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV): high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration, 2×-low-cost filtration, bag filtration, and use of a filter tested against particles derived from dioctylphthalate (DOP). The HEPA-filtration system used a prefilter screen, a bag filter (Eurovent [EU] 8 rating), and a HEPA filter (EU13 rating). The low-cost-filtration system contained mo...

  9. Significant air embolism: A possibility even with collapsible intravenous fluid containers when used with rapid infuser system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepanjali Pant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant venous air embolism may develop acutely during the perioperative period due to a number of causes such as during head and neck surgery, spinal surgery, improper central venous and haemodialysis catheter handling, etc. The current trend of using self collapsible intravenous (IV infusion bags instead of the conventional glass or plastic bottles has several advantages, one of thaem being protection against air embolism. We present a 56-year-old man undergoing kidney transplantation, who developed a near fatal venous air embolism during volume resuscitation with normal saline in collapsible IV bags used with rapid infuser system. To our knowledge, this problem with collapsible infusion bags has not been reported earlier.

  10. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  11. ''WATA water bag'' explosion protection; Konstruktiver Explosionsschutz vom Typ ''Wassertasche WATA''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, K.P. [Chemisch-Technischen Fabrikation Dr. Klaus Schulte GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    2004-08-12

    The contribution describes the rapid quantitative spread of water bags as explosion protection system in Poland - the largest coal-producer in Europe - and analyses the reasons for this market penetration. The use of water bags in the neighbouring country - the Czech Republic - is used as a comparison. The success of the water bags is confirmed by the statements of various international experts. (orig.)

  12. Building the nucleus from quarks: The cloudy bag model and the quark description of the nucleon-nucleon wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Cloudy Bag Model hadrons are treated as quarks confined in an M.I.T. bag that is surrounded by a cloud of pions. Computations of the charge and magnetism distributions of nucleons and baryons, pion-nucleon scattering, and the strong and electromagnetic decays of mesons are discussed. Agreement with experimental results is excellent if the nucleon bag radius is in the range between 0.8 and 1.1 fm. Underlying qualitative reasons which cause the pionic corrections to be of the obtained sizes are analyzed. If bags are of such reasonably large sizes, nucleon bags in nuclei will often come into contact. As a result one needs to consider whether explicit quark degrees of freedom are relevant for Nuclear Physics. To study such possibilities a model which treats a nucleus as a collection of baryons, pions and six-quark bags is discussed. In particular, the short distance part of a nucleon-nucleon wave function is treated as six quarks confined in a bag. This approach is used to study the proton-proton weak interaction, the asymptotic D to S state ratio of the deuteron, the pp → dπ reaction, the charge density of /sup 3/He, magnetic moments of /sup 3/He and /sup 3/H and, the /sup 3/He-/sup 3/H binding energy difference. It is found that quark effects are very relevant for understanding nuclear properties

  13. 76 FR 29031 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Lead Smelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... and maintenance OAQPS Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards ODW Office of Drinking Water OECA... Substances and Disease Registry BACT best available control technology BLDS bag leak detection system CAA... System TTN Technology Transfer Network UF uncertainty factor /m\\3\\ microgram per cubic meter UL...

  14. Comparison between Fermion Bag Approach and Complex Langevin Dynamics for Massive Thirring Model at Finite Density in 0 + 1 Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Daming

    2016-01-01

    We consider the massive Thirring model at finite density in 0+1 dimension. The fermion bag approach, Langevin dynamics and complex Langevin dynamics are adopted to attack the sign problem for this model. Compared with the complex Langevin dynamics, both fermion bag approach and Langvin dynamics avoid the sign problem. The fermion density and chiral condensate, which are obtained by these numerical methods, are compared with the exact results. The advantages of the fermion bag approach over the other numerical methods are also discussed.

  15. PLASTIC BAGS – THREAT TO ENVIRONMENT AND CATTLE HEALTH: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY FROM GONDAR CITY OF ETHIOPIA

    OpenAIRE

    Velappagoundar Ramaswamy and Hardeep Rai Sharma

    2011-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted in Gondar city of Ethiopia for six years (2004/05 to 2009/10) to observe the impact of plastic bags usage on environment and cattle health. Paper packaging is vanishing slowly in the city and limited to small shops only. Open dumping of plastic bags containing wastes is observed commonly near road side, open plots, river side, in drains and public places however, it is prohibited under Ethiopian law. Winds carry bags to distant areas sometimes found entangl...

  16. The leaf-bag and the sediment sample: Two sides of the same ecological quality story?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintino, Victor; Sangiorgio, Franca; Mamede, Renato; Ricardo, Fernando; Sampaio, Leandro; Martins, Roberto; Freitas, Rosa; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Basset, Alberto

    2011-12-01

    A growing number of studies suggest that ecological quality status assessment in transitional waters should rely upon functional indicators rather than structural indices. The experimental study of decomposition rates using leaf-bags are among the former. A recent example was conducted in Ria de Aveiro, Western Portugal, and the decomposition rates of Phragmites australis obtained through the registration of the biomass decrease in leaf samples left in the estuary for fixed periods of time (7, 15, 30 and 60 days). The leaf-bags were recollected from the field and the accompanying fauna retained, for comparison to that obtained in sediment samples taken with a hand-held corer. The study was conducted in five areas covering the full salinity gradient, in three sites per area and four replicates per site. A total of 89 taxa were registered, 70 in the leaf-bags and 50 in the sediment samples. 39 taxa were sampled only in the leaf-bags, 19 only in the corers and 31 were common. From marine to freshwater areas, average abundance increased in both types of samples, and species richness and diversity diminished, except in freshwater and in the leaf-bags. Both samplers portrayed the succession from the marine to the freshwater areas, and the benthic community was found significantly different between all areas except between the two located closer to the estuarine entrance, equally by both samplers. Despite these similarities, the benthic communities sampled by the two methods were significantly different, either dominated by annelids (corers), or by arthropods (leaf-bags), amphipods in the estuary and insects in freshwater. These differences were not significant neither in the freshwater, due to paucity of the endofauna in freshwater, nor in the fully marine area, possibly due to the high variability of samples within the area. These results indicate that the estuarine benthic invertebrates upon which the taxonomic indices are calculated and those which contribute to the

  17. Abiotic and biotic degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastic bags by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; Paes, Sirlaine Albino; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Tótola, Marcos Rogério; Demuner, Antônio Jacinto; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the growth of Pleurotus ostreatus PLO6 using oxo-biodegradable plastics as a carbon and energy source. Oxo-biodegradable polymers contain pro-oxidants that accelerate their physical and biological degradation. These polymers were developed to decrease the accumulation of plastic waste in landfills. To study the degradation of the plastic polymers, oxo-biodegradable plastic bags were exposed to sunlight for up to 120 days, and fragments of these bags were used as substrates for P. ostreatus. We observed that physical treatment alone was not sufficient to initiate degradation. Instead, mechanical modifications and reduced titanium oxide (TiO2) concentrations caused by sunlight exposure triggered microbial degradation. The low specificity of lignocellulolytic enzymes and presence of endomycotic nitrogen-fixing microorganisms were also contributing factors in this process. PMID:25419675

  18. Abiotic and biotic degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastic bags by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Rodrigues da Luz

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the growth of Pleurotus ostreatus PLO6 using oxo-biodegradable plastics as a carbon and energy source. Oxo-biodegradable polymers contain pro-oxidants that accelerate their physical and biological degradation. These polymers were developed to decrease the accumulation of plastic waste in landfills. To study the degradation of the plastic polymers, oxo-biodegradable plastic bags were exposed to sunlight for up to 120 days, and fragments of these bags were used as substrates for P. ostreatus. We observed that physical treatment alone was not sufficient to initiate degradation. Instead, mechanical modifications and reduced titanium oxide (TiO2 concentrations caused by sunlight exposure triggered microbial degradation. The low specificity of lignocellulolytic enzymes and presence of endomycotic nitrogen-fixing microorganisms were also contributing factors in this process.

  19. A six-quark dressed-bag description of np -> d \\gamma radiative capture

    CERN Document Server

    Kaskulov, M M; Grabmayr, P

    2003-01-01

    The radiative capture process $n p \\to d \\gamma$ is considered within the framework of a recently developed six-quark dressed-bag model for the nucleon-nucleon interaction. The calculations presented here include both the nucleon current and the meson-exchange current contributions. The latter uses short-range hadronic form factors for the pion exchange currents consistent with the soft cut-off parameter $\\Lambda_{\\pi NN}$ from the $NN$-potential. Contributions of the pion exchange current and $\\Delta$-isobar current to the total cross section still cannot explain the discrepancy between the theoretical and experimental cross sections. Possibilities for new types of meson exchange currents associated with chiral fields inside multi-quark dressed-bag states in nuclei are discussed.

  20. A Case of Purple Urine Bag Syndrome in a Spastic Partial Quadriplegic Male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tul Llah, Sibghat; Khan, Salman; Dave, Atman; Morrison, Amelia Jane A; Jain, Swapna; Hermanns, David

    2016-01-01

    Purple bag urine syndrome (PUBS) is a benign and unique phenomenon of the urine turning a deep violet color within the urinary catheter tubing and bag. This phenomenon is commonly encountered in patients indicated with long-term catheter placement or, in certain conditions like chronic constipation, alkaline urine, limited ambulation, and, in terms of gender distribution, the female sex, predominates. PUBS gets its name from a unique phenomenon that takes places inside the gut where tryptophan (an amino acid) is metabolized, producing blue and red hues which together emanate a deep violet color. Here, the case of a middle-aged male patient with a suprapubic catheter in situ, following trauma causing spastic partial quadriplegia, is being presented with PUBS due to UTI secondary to Proteus vulgaris. The risk factors, in this case, include chronic constipation and recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs).​. PMID:27182466

  1. Rapid identification of phthalates in blood bags and food packaging using ToF-SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching Yuan; Ghule, Anil Vithal; Chen, Wen Yin; Wang, Chiung Chi; Chiang, Yi Shin; Ling, Yong Chien

    2004-06-01

    ToF-SIMS with Ga + ion as primary source is used to analyze plasticizers like bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) from the inner surface of the blood bags and their migration into the blood. Food packing materials were also analyzed for the presence of DEHP. The simplicity of using ToF-SIMS with high mass resolution as an aid in the identification and analysis are discussed. The ToF-SIMS results, the fragmentation pattern, and the ratio of ions were comparable to those obtained from traditional GC-MS analysis. This indicates that ToF-SIMS could be a promising technique for direct detection of DEHP (and phthalates in general) in blood bags and food packaging polymeric materials.

  2. Measurement of VOC permeability of polymer bags and VOC solubility in polyethylene drum liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A test program conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) investigated the use of a transport model to estimate the volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration in the void volume of a waste drum. Unsteady-state VOC transport model equations account for VOC permeation of polymer bags, VOC diffusion across openings in layers of confinement, and VOC solubility in a polyethylene drum liner. In support of this program, the VOC permeability of polymer bags and VOC equilibrium concentration in a polyethylene drum liner were measured for nine VOCs. The VOCs used in experiments were dichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride, cyclohexane, toluene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, methanol, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (Freon-113), trichloroethylene, and p-xylene. The experimental results of these measurements as well as a method of estimating both parameters in the absence of experimental data are described in this report

  3. Surgical management of spontaneous in-the-bag intraocular lens and capsular tension ring complex dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzeyir Gunenc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a technique to manage late spontaneous intraocular lens (IOL and capsular tension ring (CTR dislocation within the intact capsular bag. The subluxated IOL and CTR complex can be positioned in a closed chamber and fixed to the pars plana at both 3 and 9 o′clock quadrants with the presented ab externo direct scleral suturation technique which provides an easy, safe and effective surgical option for such cases.

  4. Evaluation of Bag-Valve-Mask Ventilation in Manikin Studies: What Are the Current Limitations?

    OpenAIRE

    Khoury, A.; Sall, F. S.; A. De Luca; Pugin, A.; S. Pili-Floury; Pazart, L; Capellier, G

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Manikin-based studies for evaluation of ventilation performance show high heterogeneity in the analysis and experimental methods used as we pointed out in previous studies. In this work, we aim to evaluate these potential limitations and propose a new analysis methodology to reliably assess ventilation performance. Methods. One hundred forty healthcare providers were selected to ventilate a manikin with two adult self-inflating bags in random order. Ventilation parameters were a...

  5. Merging linear discriminant analysis with Bag of Words model for human action recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Iosifidis, Alexandros; Tefas, Anastasios; Pitas, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel method for human action recognition, that unifies discriminative Bag of Words (BoW)-based video representation and discriminant subspace learning. An iterative optimization scheme is proposed for sequential discriminant BoWs-based action representation and codebook adaptation based on action discrimination in a reduced dimensionality feature space where action classes are better discriminated. Experiments on four publicly available action recognition data sets...

  6. Clinical Study on Treatment of Primary Dysmenorrhea with Qihuang Herbal Warm Bag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚敏; 李沛; 肖元春

    2007-01-01

    目的:观察"歧黄"养生温灸包对原发性痛经患者的影响.方法:以原发性痛经患者32例为观察对象,采用温灸包外敷的方法,治疗2个月经周期后观察临床疗效,并检测患者治疗前后的前列腺素F2a(PGF2a)及β内啡肽(β-EP)的变化.结果:温灸包对不同程度的痛经患者均有疗效,可使血中PGF2a含量下降及β-EP升高.结论:温灸包治疗原发性痛经有效.温灸包能够降低血清PGF2a含量,增加血清β-EP含量.%Objective: To investigate the effect of Qihuang herbal warm bag on primary dysmenorrhea. Methods: Thirty-two patients with primary dysmenorrhea were selected as subjects and treated by compression with the herbal warm bag for two months. The curative effect was evaluated, and prostaglandin F2a(PGF2a) and β-endorphin(β-EP) were measured before and after treatment. Results: The herbal warm bag had positive effects on dysmenorrhea at different degrees and could decrease the contents of blood PGF2a and β-EP. Conclusion: The herbal warm bag is quite effective for primary dysmenorrhea possibly by decreasing serum PGF2a and increasing serum β-EP.

  7. Behaviour and Environment - A Behavioral Study of no Use of Plastic Bags' Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane Bragança de Matos

    2013-01-01

    The perception of the environmental impact of current consumption patterns and the increasing centrality of this discourse in international environmentalism’s mainstream bring new perspectives and arguments concerning the consumerism of contemporary Western societies. From this perspective, the central question of this project was: “What is the intention of not using plastic bags?” Using as a theoretical reference the Planned Behavior Theory, which seeks to understand and predict human behavi...

  8. Learning Multilingual Word Representations using a Bag-of-Words Autoencoder

    OpenAIRE

    Lauly, Stanislas; Boulanger, Alex; Larochelle, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Recent work on learning multilingual word representations usually relies on the use of word-level alignements (e.g. infered with the help of GIZA++) between translated sentences, in order to align the word embeddings in different languages. In this workshop paper, we investigate an autoencoder model for learning multilingual word representations that does without such word-level alignements. The autoencoder is trained to reconstruct the bag-of-word representation of given sentence from an enc...

  9. Biomedical literature classification using encyclopedic knowledge: a Wikipedia-based bag-of-concepts approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouriño García, Marcos Antonio; Pérez Rodríguez, Roberto; Anido Rifón, Luis E

    2015-01-01

    Automatic classification of text documents into a set of categories has a lot of applications. Among those applications, the automatic classification of biomedical literature stands out as an important application for automatic document classification strategies. Biomedical staff and researchers have to deal with a lot of literature in their daily activities, so it would be useful a system that allows for accessing to documents of interest in a simple and effective way; thus, it is necessary that these documents are sorted based on some criteria-that is to say, they have to be classified. Documents to classify are usually represented following the bag-of-words (BoW) paradigm. Features are words in the text-thus suffering from synonymy and polysemy-and their weights are just based on their frequency of occurrence. This paper presents an empirical study of the efficiency of a classifier that leverages encyclopedic background knowledge-concretely Wikipedia-in order to create bag-of-concepts (BoC) representations of documents, understanding concept as "unit of meaning", and thus tackling synonymy and polysemy. Besides, the weighting of concepts is based on their semantic relevance in the text. For the evaluation of the proposal, empirical experiments have been conducted with one of the commonly used corpora for evaluating classification and retrieval of biomedical information, OHSUMED, and also with a purpose-built corpus of MEDLINE biomedical abstracts, UVigoMED. Results obtained show that the Wikipedia-based bag-of-concepts representation outperforms the classical bag-of-words representation up to 157% in the single-label classification problem and up to 100% in the multi-label problem for OHSUMED corpus, and up to 122% in the single-label classification problem and up to 155% in the multi-label problem for UVigoMED corpus. PMID:26468436

  10. Diet of invertebrates sampled in leaf-bags incubated in a tropical headwater stream

    OpenAIRE

    Emerson M. de Carvalho; Virgínia S. Uieda

    2009-01-01

    The diet of macroinvertebrates sampled in leaf-bags incubated in a tropical stream was analyzed on a spatial scale (one forested and one deforested area) and on a temporal scale (dry and rainy seasons). The macroinvertebrates were mostly represented by detritivores specialized in fine detritus (69%), followed by generalist detritivores (10% with a diet based on fine and coarse detritus), carnivores (10%), omnivores (8%), and one detritivore genera specialized on coarse detritus (3%). The detr...

  11. Environmental Awareness, Attitudes and Intention for Using Non-Recyclable Plastic Bags

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Gonçalves Santos Queiroga de Deus; Bruno Pellizzaro Dias Afonso; Tarcisio Afonso

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing discussion regarding consumer participation in environmental preservation through the formation of environmentally conscious behaviour. However, little is known about the influence of awareness, attitudes and behaving intention that direct personal choices, when it comes to environmental issues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship regarding the constructs of environmental awareness; attitude towards non-recyclable plastic bags; and the intentio...

  12. Deconfinement transition in protoneutron star cores: Analysis within the MIT Bag model

    CERN Document Server

    Carmo, Taiza A S do

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the effect of color superconductivity in the transition from hot hadron matter to quark matter in the presence of a gas of trapped electron neutrinos. We adopt a two-phase picture in which the hadronic phase is described trough a nonlinear Walecka model and just deconfined matter through the MIT bag model including color superconductivity. We compare the present results with those obtained within the NJL model.

  13. Values, food and bags: A study of consumption decisions in a laboratory supermarket

    OpenAIRE

    Kasser, Tim; Matthey, Astrid

    2013-01-01

    We study the relation between people's personal values and environmentally friendly consumption behavior. We first assessed subjects' personal values using the Aspiration Index. Then subjects participated in a laboratory supermarket offering organic and conventional food products and different kinds of bags. The results suggest that subjects' personal values are poor predictors of their ecologically-relevant consumption behavior. However, we find that subjects who spontaneously reflected upon...

  14. Treatment of invasive fungal infections: stability of voriconazole infusion solutions in PVC bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa I.H. Adams

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Voriconazole is a novel broad-spectrum antifungal drug, employed in the treatment of invasive fungal infections, and represents an alternative to amphotericin B treatment. The manufacturer recommends that any unused reconstituted product should be stored at 2ºC to 8ºC, for no more than 24 h, but no recommendations about i.v. infusion solutions are given. Previous works have reported on the stability of voriconazole in polyolefin bags and just one in 5% dextrose polyvinyl chloride (PVC bags, at a 4 mg.mL-1 concentration. In this work, the stability of voriconazole as an i.v. infusion solution in 0.9% sodium chloride and in 5% dextrose, in PVC bags, at 0.5 mg.mL-1, stored at 4 ºC and at room temperature, protected from light, was evaluated. These infusion solutions were analyzed for a 21-day period. Chemical stability was evaluated by HPLC assay. Visual inspection was performed and pH of the solutions was measured. No color change or precipitation in the solutions was observed. The drug content remained above 90% for 11 days in 0.9% sodium chloride and for 9 days in 5% dextrose solutions. The i.v. infusion solutions stored at room temperature were not stable. At room temperature, the voriconazole content dropped down to 88.3 and 86.6%, in 0.9% sodium chloride or 5% dextrose solutions, respectively, two days after admixture. Assays performed at the end of the study suggest the sorption of voriconazole by the PVC bags. The results of this study allow cost-effective batch production in the hospital pharmacy.

  15. A randomized trial of exothermic mattresses for preterm newborns in polyethylene bags.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, Lisa K

    2013-07-01

    Hypothermia on admission to the NICU is associated with increased mortality in preterm infants. Many newborns are hypothermic on admission despite using polyethylene bags (PBs). Using exothermic mattresses (EMs) in addition to PBs may reduce hypothermia but increase hyperthermia. We wished to determine whether placing preterm newborns in PBs on EMs in the DR results in more infants with rectal temperature outside the range 36.5 to 37.5°C on NICU admission.

  16. Google Sets, Google Suggest, and Google Search History: Three More Tools for the Reference Librarian's Bag of Tricks

    OpenAIRE

    Cirasella, Jill

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the features, quirks, and uses of Google Sets, Google Suggest, and Google Search History and argues that these three lesser-known Google tools warrant inclusion in the resourceful reference librarian’s bag of tricks.

  17. Effects of superglue fuming on materials characterization of zip-lock polyethylene bags for route forensic analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using cyanoacrylate or 'superglue' fuming to develop latent dermatoglyphic prints significantly altered the volatile and semivolatile compounds within the material of polyethylene zip-lock bags. Comparisons of SPME-GC/MS analyses of poly bags obtained before and after application of a glue fuming fingermark-developing technique resulted in markedly different material profiles of the bags. Not only were species added to the chemical composition of a bag, but other compounds that had been initially present were removed. These effects are particularly important for nuclear forensic investigations in the realm of route (pathway) analyses, and may also be of general interest to criminalistics laboratories that examine illicit drugs and their packaging. (author)

  18. 非小细胞肺癌RAD51、ERCC2和BAG-1基因多态性的表达%Genetic polymorphisms of RAD51,ERCC2/XPD and BAG -1 and the relationship with non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆俊国; 李桃; 张晓东; 孟云; 刘继斌

    2015-01-01

    athanogene 1( BAG-1 ),xeroderma pigmentosum group D( ERCC2/XPD)and DNA repair gene RAD51 polymorphism and genetic susceptibility to non-small cell lung cancer( NSCLC ). Methods:A case - control study among 100 NSCLC cases and 80 controls matched by age and gender was conducted. The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism ( PCR-RFLP)was used to analyze the genetic polymorphisms. Logistic regression model was employed to calculate the odd ratios( ORs)and 95% confidence intervals( CIs)of ERCC2/XPD Lys751Gln,BAG -1 codon 324 and RAD51 codon 135 with susceptibility of NSCLC. Results:The allele frequencies of C/C,C/A,and A/A of ERCC2/XPD 751Gln were 69%(69/100),26%(26/100)and 5%(5/100)in cases,respectively. The odds ratios for individ-uals carrying ERCC2/XPD C/A,and A/A were 1. 53(95% CI:1. 15-3. 32)and 0. 58(95% CI:0. 15-2. 39). The allele frequencies of C/C,C/T and T/T of BAG-1 codon 324 were 81%(81/100),19%(19/100)and 0%(0/100) in cases,respectively. The odds ratios for individuals carrying BAG-1 C/T was 1. 28(95% CI:1. 08-2. 74). The odds ratios for individuals carrying RAD51 G/C was 1. 03(95% CI:1. 06-2. 29). A significant interaction was found between ERCC2/XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism and smoking and air pollution in NSCLC. Conclusion:Genetic poly-morphism of ERCC2/XPD C/A,BAG-1 codon 324 C/T and RAD51 codon 135 G/C may be associated with the ge-netic susceptibility to NSCLC.

  19. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  20. Bagged ensemble of Fuzzy C-Means classifiers for nuclear transient identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baraldi, Piero; Razavi-Far, Roozbeh [Dipartimento di Energia - Sezione Ingegneria Nucleare, Politecnico di Milano, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Zio, Enrico, E-mail: enrico.zio@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Energia - Sezione Ingegneria Nucleare, Politecnico di Milano, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Ecole Centrale Paris-Supelec, Paris (France)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: > A bagged ensemble of classifiers is applied for nuclear transient identification. > Fuzzy C-Means classifiers are used as base classifiers of the ensemble. > Transients are simulated in the feedwater system of a boiling water reactor. > Ensemble is compared with a supervised, evolutionary-optimized FCM classifier. > Ensemble improves classification accuracy in cases of large or very small sizes data. - Abstract: This paper presents an ensemble-based scheme for nuclear transient identification. The approach adopted to construct the ensemble of classifiers is bagging; the novelty consists in using supervised fuzzy C-means (FCM) classifiers as base classifiers of the ensemble. The performance of the proposed classification scheme has been verified by comparison with a single supervised, evolutionary-optimized FCM classifier with respect of the task of classifying artificial datasets. The results obtained indicate that in the cases of datasets of large or very small sizes and/or complex decision boundaries, the bagging ensembles can improve classification accuracy. Then, the approach has been applied to the identification of simulated transients in the feedwater system of a boiling water reactor (BWR).

  1. Starch/polyester films: simultaneous optimisation of the properties for the production of biodegradable plastic bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Olivato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blends of starch/polyester have been of great interest in the development of biodegradable packaging. A method based on multiple responses optimisation (Desirability was used to evaluate the properties of tensile strength, perforation force, elongation and seal strength of cassava starch/poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT blown films produced via a one-step reactive extrusion using tartaric acid (TA as a compatibiliser. Maximum results for all the properties were set as more desirable, with an optimal formulation being obtained which contained (55:45 starch/PBAT (88.2 wt. (%, glycerol (11.0 wt. (% and TA (0.8 wt. (%. Biodegradable plastic bags were produced using the film with this formulation, and analysed according to the standard method of the Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas (ABNT. The bags exhibited a 45% failure rate in free-falling dart impact tests, a 10% of failure rate in dynamic load tests and no failure in static load tests. These results meet the specifications set by the standard. Thus, the biodegradable plastic bags fabricated with an optimised formulation could be useful as an alternative to those made from non-biodegradable materials if the nominal capacity declared for this material is considered.

  2. Agent-Based Hierarchical Approach For Executing Bag-Of-Tasks In Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz Funika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous unrelated, independent (no inter-task communication tasks called “bag-oftasks”(BoTs compared with message passing applications can be highly parallelised andexecuted in any acceptable order. A common practice when executing bag-of-tasks applications(BoT is to exploit the master-slave topology. Cloud environments offer some featuresthat facilitate executing BoT applications. One of the approaches to control cloud resourcesis to use agents that can flexibly act in a dynamic environment. Given these assumptions wedesigned a combination of these approaches, which can be classified as: a distributed, hierarchicalsolution to the issue of scalable executing of bag-of-tasks. The concept of our systemrelates to a project that is focused on processing huge quantities of data incoming from anetwork of sensors by the Internet. Our aim is to create a mechanism for processing such dataas a system which executes jobs while exploiting load balancing for cloud resources using,e.g., Eucalyptus. The idea is to create a hybrid architecture which takes advantage of somecentralized parts of the system and full distributedness in other parts. On the other handwe balance dependencies between the system components using a hierarchic master-slavestructure.

  3. Impacts of discarded plastic bags on marine assemblages and ecosystem functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Dannielle Senga; Boots, Bas; Blockley, David James; Rocha, Carlos; Thompson, Richard

    2015-05-01

    The accumulation of plastic debris is a global environmental problem due to its durability, persistence, and abundance. Although effects of plastic debris on individual marine organisms, particularly mammals and birds, have been extensively documented (e.g., entanglement and choking), very little is known about effects on assemblages and consequences for ecosystem functioning. In Europe, around 40% of the plastic items produced are utilized as single-use packaging, which rapidly accumulate in waste management facilities and as litter in the environment. A range of biodegradable plastics have been developed with the aspiration of reducing the persistence of litter; however, their impacts on marine assemblages or ecosystem functioning have never been evaluated. A field experiment was conducted to assess the impact of conventional and biodegradable plastic carrier bags as litter on benthic macro- and meio-faunal assemblages and biogeochemical processes (primary productivity, redox condition, organic matter content, and pore-water nutrients) on an intertidal shore near Dublin, Ireland. After 9 weeks, the presence of either type of bag created anoxic conditions within the sediment along with reduced primary productivity and organic matter and significantly lower abundances of infaunal invertebrates. This indicates that both conventional and biodegradable bags can rapidly alter marine assemblages and the ecosystem services they provide. PMID:25822754

  4. AN ENVIRONMENTAL COMPARISON OF PLASTIC AND PAPER CONSUMER CARRIER BAGS IN SOUTH AFRICA: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE LOCAL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sevitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The conventional consumer carrier bags have recently received considerable attention in South Africa. The choice of material for these bags, based on environmental preferences in the South African context, could significantly influence the local manufacturing industry. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA, an environmental management tool, has been applied to objectively evaluate and compare the overall environmental impacts of the complete life cycles (from raw material extraction to final disposal of consumer plastic and paper carrier bags in South Africa. Paper bags have a higher carrying capacity compared to plastic bags and different use ratios were subsequently evaluated. Plastic bags have a lower environmental impact for use ratios of up to 2.5 plastic bags to one paper bag. Above this ratio the conclusions are not reliable. Paper bags would need to increase its recycled content significantly to be competitive in terms of environmental impacts. The re-use of thicker plastic, as proposed by the new plastic bag legislation, has the potential to significantly lower the impact of plastic bags.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die konvensionele gebruikersdrasakke het onlangs aansienlike aandag in Suid Afrika ontvang. Die keuse van materiaal vir hierdie sakke, wat gebaseer is op omgewingsvoorkeure in die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks, kan 'n wesenlike invloed uitoefen op die plaaslike vervaardigingsindustrie. Lewenssiklusanalise (LCA, 'n omgewingsbestuurgereedskap, is aangewend vir 'n objektiewe evaluasie en vergelyking van die algehele omgewingsimpakte van die totale lewenssiklus (vanaf grondstofekstraksie tot finale wegdoening van gebruikersplastiek- en papierdrasakke in Suid-Afrika. Aangesien papiersakke 'n hoër drakapasiteit het in vergelyking met plastieksakke, is verskillende gebruiksverhoudings evalueer. Plastieksakke het 'n laer omgewingsimpak vir gebruiksverhoudings tot en met 2.5 plastieksakke vir elke papiersak. Die gevolgtrekkings

  5. AN ENVIRONMENTAL COMPARISON OF PLASTIC AND PAPER CONSUMER CARRIER BAGS IN SOUTH AFRICA: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE LOCAL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    J. Sevitz; A.C. Brent; A.B. Fourie

    2012-01-01

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The conventional consumer carrier bags have recently received considerable attention in South Africa. The choice of material for these bags, based on environmental preferences in the South African context, could significantly influence the local manufacturing industry. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), an environmental management tool, has been applied to objectively evaluate and compare the overall environmental impacts of the complete life cycles (from raw material ext...

  6. Bio-active glass air-abrasion has the potential to remove resin composite restorative material selectively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of this study were to assess: (a) the chemistry, morphology and bioactivity of bio-active glass (BAG) air-abrasive powder, (b) the effect of three air-abrasion operating parameters: air pressure, powder flow rate (PFR) and the abrasive powder itself, on the selective removal of resin composite and (c) the required “time taken”. BAG abrasive particles were characterised using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Standardised resin composite restorations created within an enamel analogue block (Macor™) in vitro, were removed using air-abrasion undersimulated clinical conditions. 90 standardised cavities were scanned before and after resin composite removal using laser profilometry and the volume of the resulting 3D images calculated. Multilevel linear model was used to identify the significant factors affecting Macor™ removal. BAG powder removed resin composite more selectively than conventional air-abrasion alumina powder using the same operating parameters (p < 0.001) and the effect of altering the unit's operating parameters was significant (p < 0.001). In conclusion, BAG powder is more efficient than alumina in the selective removal of resin composite particularly under specific operating parameters, and therefore may be recommended clinically as a method of preserving sound enamel structure when repairing and removing defective resin composite restorations.

  7. Bio-active glass air-abrasion has the potential to remove resin composite restorative material selectively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milly, Hussam [Biomaterials, Biomimetics and Biophotonics Research Group, Kings College London Dental Institute at Guy' s Hospital, King' s Health Partners, London (United Kingdom); Andiappan, Manoharan [Unit of Dental Public Health, Kings College London Dental Institute at Guy' s Hospital, King' s Health Partners, London (United Kingdom); Thompson, Ian [Biomaterials, Biomimetics and Biophotonics Research Group, Kings College London Dental Institute at Guy' s Hospital, King' s Health Partners, London (United Kingdom); Banerjee, Avijit, E-mail: avijit.banerjee@kcl.ac.uk [Biomaterials, Biomimetics and Biophotonics Research Group, Kings College London Dental Institute at Guy' s Hospital, King' s Health Partners, London (United Kingdom); Unit of Conservative Dentistry, King' s College London Dental Institute at Guy' s Hospital, King' s Health Partners, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-01

    The aims of this study were to assess: (a) the chemistry, morphology and bioactivity of bio-active glass (BAG) air-abrasive powder, (b) the effect of three air-abrasion operating parameters: air pressure, powder flow rate (PFR) and the abrasive powder itself, on the selective removal of resin composite and (c) the required “time taken”. BAG abrasive particles were characterised using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Standardised resin composite restorations created within an enamel analogue block (Macor™) in vitro, were removed using air-abrasion undersimulated clinical conditions. 90 standardised cavities were scanned before and after resin composite removal using laser profilometry and the volume of the resulting 3D images calculated. Multilevel linear model was used to identify the significant factors affecting Macor™ removal. BAG powder removed resin composite more selectively than conventional air-abrasion alumina powder using the same operating parameters (p < 0.001) and the effect of altering the unit's operating parameters was significant (p < 0.001). In conclusion, BAG powder is more efficient than alumina in the selective removal of resin composite particularly under specific operating parameters, and therefore may be recommended clinically as a method of preserving sound enamel structure when repairing and removing defective resin composite restorations.

  8. 76 FR 60118 - Tesla Motors, Inc. Grant of Petition for Renewal of a Temporary Exemption From the Advanced Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... traffic safety. \\6\\ 73 FR 4944 (Docket No. NHTSA-2008-0013). In a November 24, 2010 petition, Tesla sought... Register (76 FR 33402) a notice of receipt of Tesla's petition for renewal of a temporary exemption, and... risks presented by air bag deployment. \\3\\ See 65 FR 30680 (May 12, 2000). The issuance of the...

  9. Evaluation of the effects of different filters and helium bag on the reduction of electron contamination in photon beam of Neptune linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skin sparing is one of the most desirable characteristics of high energy photon beams. However, the photons emerging from the target of linacs are contaminated by secondary electrons as a result of their interactions with air, collimators, flattening filter and any other objects in their path. This phenomenon tends to increase the skin dose received by the patients. A practical and simple way to reduce the contribution of electron contamination is to place a sheet of medium to high Z material just after the secondary collimator. In this study, filters having different thickness and atomic number were applied and their effectiveness on the reduction of skin dose was evaluated. Materials and Methods: The filters of different thickness and atomic number were applied. The percent depth dose values were determined by the direct measurements made in a Scanditronix water phantom using a PTW 31006 Pin Point chamber having a sensitive volume of 0.015 cm3. A Perspex filter holder was made to be installed on the accessory slot. A plastic bag containing helium was also made using thin plastic sheet to study the effect of the helium bag when it replaces the air column between the head of the linac and the phantom. All of the measurements were carried out for the three field sizes of 10*10, 20*20 and 25*25 cm2. The setups were adjusted for SSD 100 cm. The ratio of the surface dose to maximum dose (Ds) was used as the criterion to determine the optimum filter. Results: The dosimetry results obtained in the water phantom indicated that a 0.4 mm thick Pb filter is the most effective one. This filter reduces the Ds for the field sizes of 10*10, 20*20 and 25*25 cm2 by 5.7, 7.9 and 9.6%, respectively. Also the simultaneous use of the optimum filter and He bag is more effective than the filter alone. It reduces the Ds by 6.3, 10.1 and 12.3% for the field sizes of 10*10,20*20 and 25*25 cm2, respectively. Discussion and Conclusion: Based on the results of this work it is evident that the

  10. Transport of Pirarucu Arapaima gigas juveniles in plastic bag Transporte de juvenis de pirarucu Arapaima gigas em sacos plásticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy de Carvalho Gomes

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the stress response of pirarucu juveniles in a closed system transport. Pirarucu (Arapaima gigas is a native Amazonian fish species from the Osteoglossidae family and an obligated air breather. A short duration transport trial (6h was undertaken comparing closed polyethylene bags filled with atmospheric air (Air group and bags filled with pure oxygen (Oxi group. Dissolved oxygen was the only water parameter that presented a difference between fish groups, and was saturated in the oxi group as expected. There was no mortality in either group after transport. Fish feeding was observed 36 h after transport for all fish, and normal feeding consumption was observed at 72 h. In both groups physiological responses were similar. Cortisol did not show any significant alteration during the sampled period. Unlike most fish species, cortisol values were unaltered in both groups during sampling, while glucose presented a significant change up to 12 h after transport. The results showed that pirarucu transport in plastic bags could be made with either atmospheric air or pure oxygen, since physiological response to stress, water quality and feeding behavior after 36 h were similar in both groups.Este estudo examinou as respostas de estresse de juvenis de pirarucu transportados em sistema fechado. Pirarucu (Arapaima gigas é um peixe nativo da bacia Amazônica, da família Osteoglossidae que possui respiração aérea obrigatória. Foi realizado um transporte de curta duração (6 h em sacos de polietileno inflados com ar atmosférico (grupo ar ou com oxigênio puro (grupo oxi. O oxigênio dissolvido foi o único parâmetro de qualidade da água que apresentou diferença estatística entre os grupos, e como esperado, o oxigênio estava supersaturado para o grupo oxi. Não houve mortalidade após o transporte em ambos os grupos. Os peixes se alimentaram 36 h após o transporte e apresentaram um consumo de ração habitual após 72 h. As

  11. [Analysis of phthalates in plastic food-packaging bags by thin layer chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Wang, Yuan; Zhu, Ruohua

    2006-01-01

    The method for simultaneous determination of four phthalates, namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in plastic food-packaging bags by thin layer chromatography (TLC) was developed. The plastic food-packaging bags were extracted with ethanol by ultrasonication, then the mixture was filtrated through membrane (0.45 microm). The mixture of ethyl acetate-anhydrous ether-isooctane (1 : 4 : 15, v/v) was used as developing agent on the TLC silica gel plate for development. The filtered liquid was spotted on the TLC plate dealt by acetone, and detected with scanning wavelength of 275 nm and reference wavelength of 340 nm. The qualitative analysis of the phthalates was performed using the R(f) values of the chromatogram. The quantitative analysis was performed with external standard method. Good linearities were obtained for DMP, DEP, DBP and DEHP. The detection limits were 2.1 ng for DMP, 2.4 ng for DEP, 3.4 ng for DBP and 4.0 ng for DEHP. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the four phthalates were 2.8% - 3.5%. The recoveries of the four phthalate standards in real sample were 78.58% - 111.04%. The method presented has the advantages of high precision, high sensitivity, small sample size, and simple pretreatment . The method was used to detect the four phthalates in the food-packaging bags. The contents in real samples were close to the results by gas chromatography.

  12. Inactivation and injury assessment of Escherichia coli during solar and photocatalytic disinfection in LDPE bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, P S M; Ciavola, M; Rizzo, L; Byrne, J A

    2011-11-01

    Solar disinfection (SODIS) of Escherichia coli suspensions in low-density polyethylene bag reactors was investigated as a low-cost disinfection method suitable for application in developing countries. The efficiency of a range of SODIS reactor configurations was examined (single skin (SS), double skin, black-backed single skin, silver-backed single skin (SBSS) and composite-backed single skin) using E. coli suspended in model and real surface water. Titanium dioxide was added to the reactors to improve the efficiency of the SODIS process. The effect of turbidity was also assessed. In addition to viable counts, E. coli injury was characterised through spread-plate analysis using selective and non-selective media. The optimal reactor configuration was determined to be the SBSS bag (t(50)=9.0min) demonstrating the importance of UVA photons, as opposed to infrared in the SODIS disinfection mechanism. Complete inactivation (6.5-log) was achieved in the presence of turbidity (50NTU) using the SBSS bag within 180min simulated solar exposure. The addition of titanium dioxide (0.025gL(-1)) significantly enhanced E. coli inactivation in the SS reactor, with 6-log inactivation observed within 90min simulated solar exposure. During the early stages of both SODIS and photocatalytic disinfection, injured E. coli were detected; however, irreversible injury was caused and re-growth was not observed. Experiments under solar conditions were undertaken with total inactivation (6.5-log) observed in the SS reactor within 240min, incomplete inactivation (4-log) was observed in SODIS bottles exposed to the same solar conditions.

  13. Children's Influence -Regarding Home Delivery Grocery Bags with Familyfood Optima AB in Focus.

    OpenAIRE

    Haglund, Josefin; Stenberg, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Background Children are influencing the family’s decision making process regarding food products. The children’s spending power is increasing and they become consumers in an early age. By influencing the parents, the children make them buy products that they had not planned to buy or make the parents avoid products that they usually would have bought. Online food shopping is increasing in Sweden and the home delivery grocery bag is the category of online food that has increased the most from ...

  14. Use of chorioamniotic membrane instead of bogota bag in open abdomen: how i do it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Sakir; Tekin, Ahmet; Kucukkartallar, Tevfik; Cakir, Murat; Kartal, Adil

    2008-02-01

    It is one of the most important problems for general surgeons to decide which operation should be undertaken on patients with intra-abdominal infection, especially those with concomitant abdominal hypertension. Recently, closure techniques using prosthetic meshes in order to retain abdominal tension and to control sepsis have become very popular for patients with abdominal sepsis and hypertension. We used chorioamniotic membrane instead of plastic material to cover the open abdomen. We conclude that human chorioamniotic membrane prepared under sterile conditions may be an alternative to conventional plastic bags in daily practice, for preventing serosal erosion and fistulas in patients undergoing open abdominal surgery. PMID:18205280

  15. Use of chorioamniotic membrane instead of bogota bag in open abdomen:How I Do It?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sakir Tekin; Ahmet Tekin; Tevfik Kücükkartallar; Murat Cakir; Adil Kartal

    2008-01-01

    It is one of the most important problems for general surgeons to decide which operation should be undertaken on patients with intra-abdominal infection,especially those with concomitant abdominal hypertension.Recentlly,closure techniques using prosthetic meshes in order to retain abdominal tension and to control sepsis have become very popular for patients with abdominal sepsis and hypertension.We used chorioamniotic membrane instead of plastic material to cover the open abdomen.We conclude that human chorioamniotic membrane prepared under sterile conditions may be an alternative to conventional plastic bags in daily practice,for preventing serosal erosion and fistulas in patients undergoing open abdominal surgery.

  16. REAL PROFIT VERSUS ESTIMATE PROFIT: A CASE STUDYFORAN INDUSTRY OFPAPER BAGS

    OpenAIRE

    Elaine Bernardo; Joyce de Oliveira Gonçalves; Eduardo Ito

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to analyse the less costly taxation for an industry of paper bags, which was called by the fictitious name of Company X. The case study was conducted with the company's financial data in the years 2008-2012. A bibliographical study of taxation scheme of Real Profit and Estimated Profit was used and with these data, a comparison between the taxes IRPJ e CSLL was made. The results showed that the scheme of Real Profit was the most advantageous in all five year...

  17. 76 FR 47641 - Pagani Automobili SpA; Denial of Application for Temporary Exemption From Advanced Air Bag...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... Panther Motor Car Co. Ltd., 54 FR 12731 (Mar. 28, 1989). In this case, Pagani earned profits of... FR 12731 (Mar 28, 1989) (denial of petition would result in temporary suspension of manufacturer's... drivers of passenger cars, and by 14 percent for right front passengers of passenger cars.\\5\\ \\4\\...

  18. 76 FR 7898 - Wheego Electric Cars, Inc.; Grant of Application for Temporary Exemption From Advanced Air Bag...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Wheego Electric Cars, Inc.; Grant of Application for.... 208, Occupant Crash Protection. SUMMARY: This notice grants the petition of Wheego Electric Cars, Inc... the first affordable electric cars available in the United States.'' Wheego states that...

  19. 76 FR 33406 - Lotus Cars Ltd. Receipt of Petition for Renewal of Temporary Exemption From the Advanced Air Bag...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ...\\ This number includes vehicles that Lotus has manufactured for Tesla Motors, Inc. \\11\\ See 64 FR 61379... other occupants, especially in low- speed crashes. \\2\\ See 65 FR 30680 (May 12, 2000). The issuance of... to Panoz, 72 FR 28759 (May 22, 2007), or grant of petition to Koenigsegg, 72 FR 17608 (April 9,...

  20. 78 FR 39062 - Group Lotus plc; Modification of a Temporary Exemption From an Advanced Air Bag Requirement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... small manufacturers such as Lotus as of September 1, 2012. \\1\\ 78 FR 15114. After publication of Lotus's... exemption, in control of the company's dealers. See 60 FR 12281 (Mar. 6, 1995). The 50 vehicles will count... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Group Lotus plc; Modification of a Temporary Exemption...

  1. 78 FR 15114 - Group Lotus plc; Grant of Petition for a Temporary Exemption From an Advanced Air Bag Requirement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... standard's crash tests. \\1\\ See 65 FR 30680 (May 12, 2000). The requirements for the vehicle performance in....\\2\\ \\2\\ See 65 FR 30690. On August 31, 2006, NHTSA published a final rule that increased the maximum... in period, which was September 1, 2012. \\3\\ See 71 FR 51768. In recent years, NHTSA has addressed...

  2. 77 FR 39564 - Group Lotus Plc, Receipt of Petition for Temporary Exemption From an Advanced Air Bag Requirement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... adult female dummies for the standard's crash tests. \\2\\ See 65 FR 30680 (May 12, 2000). The... testing to examine the practicability of imposing such a requirement.\\3\\ \\3\\ See 65 FR 30690. On August 31...\\ See 71 FR 51768. In recent years, NHTSA has addressed a number of petitions for exemption from some...

  3. 1985 Joint International Conference on Air Cushion Technology, Rockville, MD, September 24-26, 1985, Preprints and Late Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyot, J. R.

    1985-12-01

    Papers are presented on the effect of a resonant skirt on ACV seakeeping, aerodynamic characteristics of a bag-cone skirt, and a calculation of the static forces acting on ACV bag-finger skirts. Also considered are tactical problems relating to the hovercraft application of marine gas turbines, development of the Air Cushion Equipment Transporter, prevention of propeller Foreign Object Damage, and air propellers and their environmental problems on ACVs. Other topics include the maneuvering simulation of an Antarctic hovercraft, computer-aided conceptual design of air ACVs, the use of model-test data for predicting full-scale ACV resistance, and passive control of air cushion heave dynamics. Papers are also presented on hovercraft in low enforcement, managing LCAC in the evolving acquisition environment, and SES and ACV for naval mission.

  4. Joint learning and weighting of visual vocabulary for bag-of-feature based tissue classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jingyan

    2013-12-01

    Automated classification of tissue types of Region of Interest (ROI) in medical images has been an important application in Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD). Recently, bag-of-feature methods which treat each ROI as a set of local features have shown their power in this field. Two important issues of bag-of-feature strategy for tissue classification are investigated in this paper: the visual vocabulary learning and weighting, which are always considered independently in traditional methods by neglecting the inner relationship between the visual words and their weights. To overcome this problem, we develop a novel algorithm, Joint-ViVo, which learns the vocabulary and visual word weights jointly. A unified objective function based on large margin is defined for learning of both visual vocabulary and visual word weights, and optimized alternately in the iterative algorithm. We test our algorithm on three tissue classification tasks: classifying breast tissue density in mammograms, classifying lung tissue in High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) images, and identifying brain tissue type in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). The results show that Joint-ViVo outperforms the state-of-art methods on tissue classification problems. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Bag-of-visual-words model for artificial pornographic images recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳芳; 罗四伟; 刘熙尧; 邹北骥

    2016-01-01

    It is illegal to spread and transmit pornographic images over internet, either in real or in artificial format. The traditional methods are designed to identify real pornographic images and they are less efficient in dealing with artificial images. Therefore, criminals turn to release artificial pornographic images in some specific scenes, e.g., in social networks. To efficiently identify artificial pornographic images, a novel bag-of-visual-words based approach is proposed in the work. In the bag-of-words (BoW) framework, speeded-up robust feature (SURF) is adopted for feature extraction at first, then a visual vocabulary is constructed through K-means clustering and images are represented by an improved BoW encoding method, and finally the visual words are fed into a learning machine for training and classification. Different from the traditional BoW method, the proposed method sets a weight on each visual word according to the number of features that each cluster contains. Moreover, a non-binary encoding method and cross-matching strategy are utilized to improve the discriminative power of the visual words. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method outperforms the traditional method.

  6. Beyond bag of latent topics:spatial pyramid matching for scene category recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu-xiang LU; Jun HUANG

    2015-01-01

    We propose a heterogeneous, mid-level feature based method for recognizing natural scene categories. The proposed feature introduces spatial information among the latent topics by means of spatial pyramid, while the latent topics are obtained by using probabilistic latent semantic analysis (pLSA) based on the bag-of-words representation. The proposed feature always performs better than standard pLSA because the performance of pLSA is adversely affected in many cases due to the loss of spatial information. By combining various interest point detectors and local region descriptors used in the bag-of-words model, the proposed feature can make further improvement for diverse scene category recognition tasks. We also propose a two-stage framework for multi-class classifi cation. In the fi rst stage, for each of possible detector/descriptor pairs, adaptive boosting classifi ers are employed to select the most discriminative topics and further compute posterior probabilities of an unknown image from those selected topics. The second stage uses the prod-max rule to combine information coming from multiple sources and assigns the unknown image to the scene category with the highest'fi nal' posterior probability. Experimental results on three benchmark scene datasets show that the proposed method exceeds most state-of-the-art methods.

  7. Assessment of bagging GBLUP for whole-genome prediction of broiler chicken traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi-Arpanahi, R; Morota, G; Valente, B D; Kranis, A; Rosa, G J M; Gianola, D

    2015-06-01

    Bootstrap aggregation (bagging) is a resampling method known to produce more accurate predictions when predictors are unstable or when the number of markers is much larger than sample size, because of variance reduction capabilities. The purpose of this study was to compare genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) with bootstrap aggregated sampling GBLUP (Bagged GBLUP, or BGBLUP) in terms of prediction accuracy. We used a 600 K Affymetrix platform with 1351 birds genotyped and phenotyped for three traits in broiler chickens; body weight, ultrasound measurement of breast muscle and hen house egg production. The predictive performance of GBLUP versus BGBLUP was evaluated in different scenarios consisting of including or excluding the TOP 20 markers from a standard genome-wide association study (GWAS) as fixed effects in the GBLUP model, and varying training sample sizes and allelic frequency bins. Predictive performance was assessed via five replications of a threefold cross-validation using the correlation between observed and predicted values, and prediction mean-squared error. GBLUP overfitted the training set data, and BGBLUP delivered a better predictive ability in testing sets. Treating the TOP 20 markers from the GWAS into the model as fixed effects improved prediction accuracy and added advantages to BGBLUP over GBLUP. The performance of GBLUP and BGBLUP at different allele frequency bins and training sample sizes was similar. In general, results of this study confirm that BGBLUP can be valuable for enhancing genome-enabled prediction of complex traits. PMID:25727456

  8. Growth and Survival of Bagged Lucilia sericata Maggots in Wounds of Patients Undergoing Maggot Debridement Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Čičková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Maggot debridement therapy (MDT is an established method of debridement of nonhealing wounds. Despite intense clinical research about its efficacy and effects of substances produced by the larvae, growth and development of maggots in the wounds remain largely unexplored. In the present study, the bags with larvae (n=52, which had been used to debride traumatic, ischemic, diabetic and venous ulcers, were collected and examined. Survival, length, width and larval instar of the maggots within each bag were recorded and analyzed with respect to the wound type and duration of the treatment. Survival of maggots after a 48-h cycle of MDT ranged between 63.6 and 82.7%. Maggots in venous ulcers had on average 9–19% higher mortality than maggots within traumatic, ischemic, and diabetic ulcers. Length of larvae after 48 h cycle of MDT reached on average 7.09–9.68 mm, and average width varied between 1.77 and 2.26 mm. Larvae in venous ulcers were significantly smaller after 48 h, but not after 72 h treatment compared to the other wound types. Further studies should be aimed to identify other patient-associated factors which might influence growth and survival of the larvae during maggot debridement therapy.

  9. Growth and Survival of Bagged Lucilia sericata Maggots in Wounds of Patients Undergoing Maggot Debridement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cičková, Helena; Cambal, Marek; Kozánek, Milan; Takáč, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Maggot debridement therapy (MDT) is an established method of debridement of nonhealing wounds. Despite intense clinical research about its efficacy and effects of substances produced by the larvae, growth and development of maggots in the wounds remain largely unexplored. In the present study, the bags with larvae (n = 52), which had been used to debride traumatic, ischemic, diabetic and venous ulcers, were collected and examined. Survival, length, width and larval instar of the maggots within each bag were recorded and analyzed with respect to the wound type and duration of the treatment. Survival of maggots after a 48-h cycle of MDT ranged between 63.6 and 82.7%. Maggots in venous ulcers had on average 9-19% higher mortality than maggots within traumatic, ischemic, and diabetic ulcers. Length of larvae after 48 h cycle of MDT reached on average 7.09-9.68 mm, and average width varied between 1.77 and 2.26 mm. Larvae in venous ulcers were significantly smaller after 48 h, but not after 72 h treatment compared to the other wound types. Further studies should be aimed to identify other patient-associated factors which might influence growth and survival of the larvae during maggot debridement therapy.

  10. MSEBAG: a dynamic classifier ensemble generation based on `minimum-sufficient ensemble' and bagging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Kamel, Mohamed S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a dynamic classifier system, MSEBAG, which is characterised by searching for the 'minimum-sufficient ensemble' and bagging at the ensemble level. It adopts an 'over-generation and selection' strategy and aims to achieve a good bias-variance trade-off. In the training phase, MSEBAG first searches for the 'minimum-sufficient ensemble', which maximises the in-sample fitness with the minimal number of base classifiers. Then, starting from the 'minimum-sufficient ensemble', a backward stepwise algorithm is employed to generate a collection of ensembles. The objective is to create a collection of ensembles with a descending fitness on the data, as well as a descending complexity in the structure. MSEBAG dynamically selects the ensembles from the collection for the decision aggregation. The extended adaptive aggregation (EAA) approach, a bagging-style algorithm performed at the ensemble level, is employed for this task. EAA searches for the competent ensembles using a score function, which takes into consideration both the in-sample fitness and the confidence of the statistical inference, and averages the decisions of the selected ensembles to label the test pattern. The experimental results show that the proposed MSEBAG outperforms the benchmarks on average.

  11. Environmental Awareness, Attitudes and Intention for Using Non-Recyclable Plastic Bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Gonçalves Santos Queiroga de Deus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing discussion regarding consumer participation in environmental preservation through the formation of environmentally conscious behaviour. However, little is known about the influence of awareness, attitudes and behaving intention that direct personal choices, when it comes to environmental issues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship regarding the constructs of environmental awareness; attitude towards non-recyclable plastic bags; and the intention for using this product. For this purpose, a descriptive conclusive, survey type research was carried out, collecting a sampling of 279 students from a Business Administration College in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Data were collected through questionnaires,using the Likert scale with five points, in order to evaluate the degree of agreementin relation to statements thatmake upthe constructs surveyed. By way of modelling of  structural equation, it has been possible to investigate the relationships between the three constructs: awareness, attitude and intention.Among the models tested, the one that showed the best fit reveals the positive impact of environmental awareness on the attitude towards non-recyclable plastic bags, as well as positive impact of attitude on the intended use of this product. The research did not confirm any direct influence of environmental awareness on the behavioural intention.

  12. Familial Dilated Cardiomyopathy Caused by a Novel Frameshift in the BAG3 Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Toro

    Full Text Available Dilated cardiomyopathy, a major cause of chronic heart failure and cardiac transplantation, is characterized by left ventricular or biventricular heart dilatation. In nearly 50% of cases the pathology is inherited, and more than 60 genes have been reported as disease-causing. However, in 30% of familial cases the mutation remains unidentified even after comprehensive genetic analysis. This study clinically and genetically assessed a large Spanish family affected by dilated cardiomyopathy to search for novel variations.Our study included a total of 100 family members. Clinical assessment was performed in alive, and genetic analysis was also performed in alive and 1 deceased relative. Genetic screening included resequencing of 55 genes associated with sudden cardiac death, and Sanger sequencing of main disease-associated genes. Genetic analysis identified a frame-shift variation in BAG3 (p.H243Tfr*64 in 32 patients. Genotype-phenotype correlation identified substantial heterogeneity in disease expression. Of 32 genetic carriers (one deceased, 21 relatives were clinically affected, and 10 were asymptomatic. Seventeen of the symptomatic genetic carriers exhibited proto-diastolic septal knock by echocardiographic assessment.We report p.H243Tfr*64_BAG3 as a novel pathogenic variation responsible for familial dilated cardiomyopathy. This variation correlates with a more severe phenotype of the disease, mainly in younger individuals. Genetic analysis in families, even asymptomatic individuals, enables early identification of individuals at risk and allows implementation of preventive measures.

  13. Is Bagging Effective in the Classification of Small-Sample Genomic and Proteomic Data?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu TT

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been considerable interest recently in the application of bagging in the classification of both gene-expression data and protein-abundance mass spectrometry data. The approach is often justified by the improvement it produces on the performance of unstable, overfitting classification rules under small-sample situations. However, the question of real practical interest is whether the ensemble scheme will improve performance of those classifiers sufficiently to beat the performance of single stable, nonoverfitting classifiers, in the case of small-sample genomic and proteomic data sets. To investigate that question, we conducted a detailed empirical study, using publicly-available data sets from published genomic and proteomic studies. We observed that, under t-test and RELIEF filter-based feature selection, bagging generally does a good job of improving the performance of unstable, overfitting classifiers, such as CART decision trees and neural networks, but that improvement was not sufficient to beat the performance of single stable, nonoverfitting classifiers, such as diagonal and plain linear discriminant analysis, or 3-nearest neighbors. Furthermore, as expected, the ensemble method did not improve the performance of these classifiers significantly. Representative experimental results are presented and discussed in this work.

  14. In-line filtration of SAG-M red cell concentrates prepared in top/bottom or conventional bag systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, N

    1996-01-01

    SAG-M RCCs were prepared in triple conventional or quadruple top/bottom bag systems and filtered at +4 degrees C using the in-line filter system Leucoflex LCR 4 Macopharma after 16-24-30 h of storage. Postfiltration WBC content was determined by Nageotte hemocytometer counting. The mean WBC content of the units prepared in conventional bag systems and filtered was higher than that of the units prepared in T/B bag systems. The best results could be obtained in T/B RCCs stored for 24 h; potassium and hemolysis levels were also improved. The Leucoflex LCR 4 in-line filter T/B system can be recommended for application in the clinical routine by virtue of the effective leukocyte elimination.

  15. Application of Techniques on Citrus Bagging culture%柑橘套袋技术的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文帅

    2009-01-01

    采用目前市场上流行的8种水果套袋袋型,对纽荷尔脐橙及椪柑进行套袋对比实验,分析套袋对果实颜色、果面状况、果实大小及果实品质的影响,初步认为套袋对柑橘果实的生长及外观品质有一定的改良作用,但需要结合良好的果树综合管理技术措施.%Effects of bagging with 8 types of bags on Newhall navel orange and seedless ponkan (Citrus Unshiu Marc) fruit color, shape, size and quality were studied. The results showed that: bagging culture could improve fruit growth and appearance with good fruit comprehensive management measures.

  16. Effect of different brewing times on soluble oxalate content of loose-packed black teas and tea bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Reza; Lotfi Yagin, Neda; Liebman, Michael; Nikniaz, Zeinab

    2013-02-01

    Because of the postulated role of increased dietary oxalate intake in calcium oxalate stone formation, the effect of different brewing times on soluble oxalate contents of loose-packed black tea and tea bags was studied. The oxalate content of 25 different samples of loose-packed black teas after brewing at 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 min and of ten brands of tea bags after infusion for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 min was measured by enzymatic assay. The oxalate concentration resulting from different brewing times ranged from 4.3 to 6.2 mg/240 ml for loose-packed black teas and from 2.7 to 4.8 mg/240 ml for tea bags. There was a stepwise increase in oxalate concentration associated with increased brewing times.

  17. PLASTIC BAGS – THREAT TO ENVIRONMENT AND CATTLE HEALTH: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY FROM GONDAR CITY OF ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velappagoundar Ramaswamy and Hardeep Rai Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study was conducted in Gondar city of Ethiopia for six years (2004/05 to 2009/10 to observe the impact of plastic bags usage on environment and cattle health. Paper packaging is vanishing slowly in the city and limited to small shops only. Open dumping of plastic bags containing wastes is observed commonly near road side, open plots, river side, in drains and public places however, it is prohibited under Ethiopian law. Winds carry bags to distant areas sometimes found entangled on the trees and shrubs create nuisance. During rainy season, the blockage of drains and overflowing of water was observed in some areas of the city. During study period, out of 711 rumenotomies done, in 111 (15.61% and 600 (84.39% animals, emergency rumenotomy and elective rumenotomy was performed, respectively. The quantity of the foreign bodies (FB’s collected from the rumen was ranging from 0.75 to 2.0 kg in 28 animals (3.94%; 2.0 to 5.0 kg in 116 animals (16.32%; 5.0 to 9.0 kg in 217 animals (30.52% and above 9.0 kg in 350 animals (49.23%. Due to absence of plastic recycling unit in the Gondar city or in nearby areas, there is no practice of collecting and selling these products to junk dealers. Use of reusable bags made of cloths, jute and other natural fibers must be encouraged. In order to save the life of animals, residents should not pack and throw the food items in plastic bags. The cattle owners may be advised not to allow their cattle to freely wander in streets especially in the cities. They should see that the grazing lands are not polluted with the polythene and other wastes. Awareness may be created on careless disposal of plastic bags and as well as the periodical cleaning of these wastes in the grazing area.

  18. Comparison of Visual Quality after Implantation of Big Bag and Akreos Adapt Intraocular Lenses in Patients with High Myopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengsheng Ma; Dongjian Zheng; Ling Lin; Fanjian Meng; Yonggang Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To compare vision quality following phacoemulsifi-cation cataract extraction and implantation of a Big Bag or Akreos Adapt intraocular lens (IOL) in patients diagnosed with high myopia complicated with cataract. Methods:.This was a randomized prospective control study. The patients with high myopia complicated with cataract , with axial length ≥28 mm,.and corneal astigmatism ≤1D were enrolled and randomly divided into the Big Bag and Akreos Adapt IOL groups. All patients underwent phacoemulsification cataract extraction and lens implantation..At 3 months after surgery,.intraocular high-order aberration was measured by a Tracey-iTrace wavefront aberrometer at a pupil diameter of 5 mm in an absolutely dark room and statistically compared be-tween two groups. The images of the anterior segment of eyes were photographed with a Scheimpflug camera using Penta-cam three-dimensional anterior segment analyzer..The tilt and decentration of the IOL were calculated by Image-pro plus 6.0 imaging analysis software and statistically compared between two groups. Results:.In total,.127 patients (127 eyes),..including 52 males and 75 females, were enrolled in this study. The total high-or-der aberration and coma in the Akreos Adapt group (59 eyes) were significantly higher compared with those in the Big Bag (P0.05). The horizontal and vertical decentration were significantly smaller in the Big Bag lens group than in the Akreos Adapt group (both P0.05). Conclusion:.Both Big Bag and Akreos Adapt IOLs possess relatively good intraocular stability implanted in patients with high myopia. Compared with the Akreos Adapt IOL, the Big Bag IOL presents with smaller intraocular high-order aberra-tion. Coma is the major difference between the two groups.

  19. Effect of Bioactive Glass air Abrasion on Shear Bond Strength of Two Adhesive Resins to Decalcified Enamel

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Eshghi; Maryam Khoroushi; Alireza Rezvani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Bioactive glass air abrasion is a conservative technique to remove initial decalcified tissue and caries. This study examined the shear bond strength of composite resin to sound and decalcified enamel air-abraded by bioactive glass (BAG) or alumina using etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight permanent molars were root-amputated and sectioned mesiodistally. The obtained 96 specimens were mounted in acrylic resin; the buccal and lingual surfaces r...

  20. 乳腺癌BAG-1基因表达与表皮生长因子受体表达的相关性%Correlation of BAG-1 gene expression and EGFR expression in breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨辉; 徐笑红

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss the correlation of BAG-1 gene expression and EGFR expression in breast cancer. Methods Breast cancer cell lines were cultured, BAG-1 mRNA expression was detected by PCR in EGFR (+) and EGFR (-) cell lines. BAG-1 protein expression was detected by West blot. Correlation of BAG-1 gene expression and EGFR expression in breast cancer was analyzed. Results EGFR mRNA and EGFR protein were positive expression in EGFR MDA-MB-231 and T47D cell lines, and negative expression in MCF-7 and SLBP3 cell lines. BAG-1 mRNA expres-sion was highest in T47D cell line [(29.6±0.4)í10-4], followed by MDA-MB-231 cell line [(6.9±0.3)í10-4]. Both expres-sion levels were significantly higher than that of MCF-7 cell line [(4.3±0.5)í10-4] and SKBR3 cell line [(0.3±0.1)í10-4], the differences were statistically significant (P<0.01). Conclusion Expression of BAG-1 shows correlation with EGFR, which can be used as a potential targets for targeted therapy of breast cancer.%目的:探讨乳腺癌BAG-1基因表达与表皮生长因子受体(EGFR)表达的相关性。方法培养乳腺癌细胞株,采用实时聚合酶链反应技术检测EGFR(+)和EGFR(-)细胞株中BAG-1 mRNA的表达情况,West blot法检测其蛋白水平。分析BAG-1基因表达与EGFR表达的相关性。结果 MDA-MB-231、T47D细胞株EGFR mRNA和EGFR蛋白阳性表达,MCF-7、SLBP3细胞株EGFR mRNA和EGFR蛋白阴性表达。T47D细胞株BAG-1 mRNA的表达水平最高[(29.6±0.4)×10-4],其次为MDA-MB-231细胞株[(6.9±0.3)×10-4],两者的表达水平均显著高于MCF-7细胞株[(4.3±0.5)×10-4]、SKBR3细胞株[(0.3±0.1)×10-4],差异的有高度统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论 BAG-1表达与EGFR存在相关性,可作为乳腺癌靶向治疗的潜在靶点。

  1. Analysis of eigenvalues for the energy dependent potentials and NN interaction in the quark compound bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trajectories of eigenvalues of the energy dependent potentials are discussed for the case of NN interaction in the quark compound bag (QCB) model. It is shown that the asymptotic behaviour of eigenvalues for the linearly energy dependent potentials is defined by the coefficient at the linear energy term in the potential. In the QCB model this coefficient depends on the nucleon component admixture in the bag wave function. The results of eigenvalue analysis are illUstrated with the simple example of the QCB potential describing phase shifts up to T<=0.8 GeV

  2. YUTU,Small Bag, Big Brand——Interview with Zhang Jinying, GM of Yuantailong Co.,Ltd.,Gaobeidian city, Hebei province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The development of China's bag production industry cannot be separated from Baigou town, Hebei province,which enjoys the fame of "China's Hometown of Bag", while one of the most famous brands in Baigou is YUTU, or"Jade Cony"in English.

  3. MIT bag model inspired partonic transverse momentum distribution for prompt photon production in pp collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Diakonos, F K; Maintas, X N; 10.1103/PhysRevD.78.054023

    2010-01-01

    We consider the prompt photon production in pp collisions using, within the framework of perturbative QCD, a non-Gaussian distribution for the transverse momentum distribution of the partons inside the proton. Our description adopts the widely used in the literature factorization of the partonic momentum distribution into longitudinal and transverse components. It is argued that the non-Gaussian distribution of the intrinsic transverse momenta of the partons is dictated by the asymptotic freedom as well as the 3D confinement of the partons in the proton. To make this association more transparent we use the MIT bag model, which plainly incorporates both properties (asymptotic freedom, confinement), in order to determine in a simplified way the partonic transverse momentum distribution. A large set of data from six different experiments have been fitted with this simple description using as a single free parameter the mean partonic transverse momentum . Surprisingly enough, a perfect fit of the experimental dat...

  4. Using small meshed collecting bags on trawls to quantify trawls seabed disturbance of aquatic organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Ludvig Ahm

    NGOs have become active at uncovering and illustrating potential problems of the environmental and ecosystem impacts of fishing activities, especially demersal trawling, exerting considerable pressure on decision makers and subsequently, fisheries. The environmental impact of demersal trawling...... of organisms that encounter the trawl, but are not retained by it. Such catch represents an unaccounted trawl disturbance of the organisms associated with the seabed. In combination with knowledge on behavior and habitat utilization of these organisms, their presence can be used to indicate differences...... in the mechanical effect, such as penetration depth of the ground gear of different trawl designs. Collecting bags are also mounted to the different sections of the trawl in pairs, one to collect the organisms that pass through the trawl meshes and one to collect the population. Standard selectivity analyses...

  5. Strange Stars in $f(T)$ Gravity With MIT Bag Model

    CERN Document Server

    Abbas, G; Jawad, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with existence of strange stars in $f\\left(T\\right) $ modified gravity. For this purpose, we have taken the diagonal tetrad field of static spacetime with charged anisotropic fluid and MIT bag model, which provide the linear relation between radial pressure and density of the matter. Further, the analysis of the resulting equations have been done by assuming the parametric form of the metric functions in term of the radial profiles with some unknown constant (introduced by Krori and Barua). By the matching of two metrices, unknown constant of the metric functions appear in terms of mass, radius and charge of the stars, the observed values of these quantities have been used for the detail analysis of the the derived model. We have discuss the regularity, anisotropy, energy conditions, stability and surface redshift of the model.

  6. Purple urine bag syndrome in end-stage chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Delgado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: When faced with violet, purple or purplish-blue urine, clinicians should consider urinary tract infection in their differential diagnosis. Case report: A 60-year-old woman with end-stage kidney disease and non-adherence to renal replacement therapy was admitted to our hospital for placement of hemodialysis catheter. During her hospitalization she had purple urine, and purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS was diagnosed. She was effectively treated with antibiotics and her urine returned to a dark yellow color. Discussion: Although this condition is often easily treated, diagnosing PUBS in chronic renal patients probably means an increased serum concentration of indoxyl sulfate, metabolite that is involved in the progression of both CKD and cardiovascular disease. Conclusion: Hence, in the context of our renal patients, perhaps PUBS is not as benign as supposed.

  7. Automated classification of histopathology images of prostate cancer using a Bag-of-Words approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghavi, Foram M.; Agaian, Sos S.

    2016-05-01

    The goals of this paper are (1) test the Computer Aided Classification of the prostate cancer histopathology images based on the Bag-of-Words (BoW) approach (2) evaluate the performance of the classification grade 3 and 4 of the proposed method using the results of the approach proposed by the authors Khurd et al. in [9] and (3) classify the different grades of cancer namely, grade 0, 3, 4, and 5 using the proposed approach. The system performance is assessed using 132 prostate cancer histopathology of different grades. The system performance of the SURF features are also analyzed by comparing the results with SIFT features using different cluster sizes. The results show 90.15% accuracy in detection of prostate cancer images using SURF features with 75 clusters for k-mean clustering. The results showed higher sensitivity for SURF based BoW classification compared to SIFT based BoW.

  8. Study of the operation and maintenance costs of the Wavepower Limited Lancaster Flexible Bag system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corrie, N.J.B.

    1981-11-01

    A maintenance strategy to support the credibility of the Lancaster Flexible Bag wave energy concept, covering scheduled maintenance (servicing and overhaul) and unscheduled maintenance (repair) has been developed and costed. Costs are presented on an annual basis for a turbo-alternator overhaul life of five years (for helicopter and hovercraft maintenance crew transit options) and for a turbo-alternator overhaul life of ten years (hovercraft transit option only). For the case where a turbo-alternator overhaul life of ten years is specified, annual scheduled maintenance costs, including replacements, are Pound 16.15M (0.092 p/kW-h installed); repair and contingency costs are Pound 8.64M (0.050 p/kW-h installed).

  9. Nucleon-nucleon potential calculated for the cloudy bag and related to effective OBE parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nucleon nucleon potential is calculated in the context of the cloudy bag model. The one pion exchange diagram is used to determine the pion quark coupling. Two pion exchange diagrams, box and crossed box, including the delta isobar, produce additional central, spin-spin, and tensor couplings. Using non-relativistic approximations to the OBE model potentials, the two pion exchange contributions are related to the masses and couplings of σ, ω, δ, and ρ mesons. It is found that the two pion exchange generates essentially all of the σ contribution required by the OBE model, that there is a large δ contribution at a lower mass than expected, and that the ω and ρ contributions, while significant, are not able to provide what is required by the OBE model. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  10. Towards a Light-weight Bag-of-tasks Grid Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bašičević

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the application of SIP protocol in the context of bag-of-tasks grid architecture. The SIP protocol has been used in the realization of the execution management service. The main idea is the use of stateful SIP proxy as a request broker. The paper provides a description of the concept, and the prototype system that has been built, as well as the calculation of estimated performance level and its relation to maximum RTT of grid system. The main advantage of this light-weight grid architecture is the reuse of a mature infrastructure. A short overview of some approaches to the mathematical modeling of computer grids is included.

  11. 2w Laser Propagation and Raman Backscatter in Underdense Gas Bag Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meezan, N; Divol, L; Suter, L; Miller, M; Stevenson, R M; Slark, G; Oades, K

    2003-09-05

    Recent 2{omega} gasbag experiments on the Helen laser studied single-beam propagation and backscatter as a function of gas density. We present a comprehensive analysis of these experiments using simulations in HYDRA. Post-processed results agree well with experimental fast x-ray images (FXI) showing stable laser propagation across the bag. The measured total stimulated Raman backscatter (SRS) increases with initial gas density up to n{sub e} {approx} 0.08 n{sub c}, then decreases. Near-backscatter images (NBI) show that the decrease in total SRS with increasing density is not due to scatter outside of the collection optics. SRS gain spectra calculated from the HYDRA results agree well with experimental streak spectra. The tilt and spread in wavelength of the spectra appear to be explained by gasbag hydrodynamics only, with no need to invoke filamentation. Axial density gradients and laser pump absorption may combine to detune and limit SRS gain at high density.

  12. Bags with oven-dried moss for the active monitoring of airborne trace elements in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordano, S., E-mail: simonetta.giordano@unina.i [Dipartimento di Biologia Strutturale e Funzionale, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia 4, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Adamo, P. [Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta, dell' Ambiente e delle Produzioni Animali (DISSPAPA), Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, I-80055 Portici (Namibia) (Italy); Monaci, F. [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Universita degli Studi di Siena, Via P.A. Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Pittao, E.; Tretiach, M. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri, 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bargagli, R. [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Universita degli Studi di Siena, Via P.A. Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    To define a harmonized methodology for the use of moss and lichen bags as active monitoring devices of airborne trace elements in urban areas, we evaluated the element accumulation in bags exposed in Naples in different spring weather conditions for 6- and 12-weeks. Three different pre-exposure treatments were applied to moss and lichen materials: water-washing, acid-washing and oven-drying. During the different exposure periods in the Naples urban environment the moss accumulated always higher amounts of elements (except Hg) than lichens and the element accumulation increased during wetter weather and higher PM{sub 10} conditions. The oven pre-treatment did not substantially modify the morphology and element composition of moss and the exposure in bags of this material for 6-weeks was sufficient to detect the pattern of airborne trace elements. - A 6-week exposure with oven-dried moss bags resulted a suitable approach to evaluate airborne trace elements in a Mediterranean urban environment.

  13. In-the-bag decentration of a hydrophilic radially asymmetric multifocal intraocular lens secondary to capsule contraction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, J.W.M. van der; Meulen, I.J. van der; Mourits, M.P.; Lapid-Gortzak, R.

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of in-the-bag decentration and tilt of a hydrophilic rotationally asymmetric multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) of the M Plus type secondary to capsule contraction. After uneventful surgery and follow-up for 3 months, progressive decentering and tilting of the IOL secondary to capsul

  14. Water bags made from polyethylene- alternative to conventional water trough barriers; Wassertaschen aus Polyaethylen - Alternative zu konventionellen Wassertrogsperren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, K.P. [Chemisch-Technische Fabrikation Dr. Klaus Schulte, Dortmund (Germany); Lukes, M.; Selesovsky, P. [Research Mining Inst. VVUU, Ostrava-Radvanice (Czech Republic)

    2002-03-14

    Some Eastern European mining countries are using the new WATA water bag extinguishing medium system for explosion protection. The reasons for this use are the qualitative and quantitative advantages of the water bag barrier compared to conventional water troughs, which have been observed by the collieries in the Czech Republic and Poland since introduction of the water bag underground in 1997. The article describes with reference to Eastern European countries, in particular the Czech Republic, what cost reduction potential would be possible in practice also in the German coal mining industry by use of the water bag system compared to the traditional water trough in times of rationalisation pressures and reduction of subsidies. [German] Einige osteuropaeischen Bergbaulaender setzen in zunehmendem Mass das neue toeschmittelsystem der Wassertasche WATA im konstruktiven Explosionsschutz ein. Grund dafuer sind qualitative und quantitative Vorteile der Wassertaschensperre gegenueber den konventionellen Wassertroegen, welche die Steinkohlenbergwerke in der Tschechischen Republik und in Polen seit Einfuehrung der Wassertasche im Jahr 1997 unter Tage aufgezeigt haben. Der Artikel zeigt am Beispiel osteuropaeischer Staaten - mit Konzentration auf die Tschechische Republik - welche Kostensenkungspotentiale auch in der deutschen Steinkohlenindustrie durch Einsatz des Wassertaschensystems gegenueber dem traditionellen Wassertrog in Zeiten von Rationalisierungszwaengen in der Praxis moeglich waeren. (orig.)

  15. Bag-of-features based medical image retrieval via multiple assignment and visual words weighting

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jingyan

    2011-11-01

    Bag-of-features based approaches have become prominent for image retrieval and image classification tasks in the past decade. Such methods represent an image as a collection of local features, such as image patches and key points with scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) descriptors. To improve the bag-of-features methods, we first model the assignments of local descriptors as contribution functions, and then propose a novel multiple assignment strategy. Assuming the local features can be reconstructed by their neighboring visual words in a vocabulary, reconstruction weights can be solved by quadratic programming. The weights are then used to build contribution functions, resulting in a novel assignment method, called quadratic programming (QP) assignment. We further propose a novel visual word weighting method. The discriminative power of each visual word is analyzed by the sub-similarity function in the bin that corresponds to the visual word. Each sub-similarity function is then treated as a weak classifier. A strong classifier is learned by boosting methods that combine those weak classifiers. The weighting factors of the visual words are learned accordingly. We evaluate the proposed methods on medical image retrieval tasks. The methods are tested on three well-known data sets, i.e., the ImageCLEFmed data set, the 304 CT Set, and the basal-cell carcinoma image set. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed QP assignment outperforms the traditional nearest neighbor assignment, the multiple assignment, and the soft assignment, whereas the proposed boosting based weighting strategy outperforms the state-of-the-art weighting methods, such as the term frequency weights and the term frequency-inverse document frequency weights. © 2011 IEEE.

  16. Immediate effect of ice bag application to head and spine on cardiovascular changes in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mooventhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives: Ice application is one of the treatment procedures used in hydrotherapy. Though its various physiological/therapeutic effects were reported, ice bag application (IBA to head and spine on cardiovascular changes were not reported. Hence, this study aims at evaluating the immediate effect of IBA to head and spine on cardiovascular changes in healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight subjects were randomized into three sessions ([i] IBA [ii] tap water bag application [TWBA] and [iii] control and intervention was given in one of the 3-different orders. Systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, and pulse rate (PR was assessed before and after 20-min of each intervention. Pulse pressure, mean pressure (MP, rate pressure product (RPP, and double product (Do-P were derived by standard formula. Statistical analysis was performed by repeated measures of analysis of variance and post-hoc analysis with Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons with the use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences version-16. Results: The results showed no significant difference between sessions in all variables. Within-group analysis showed significant reductions in SBP, PR, RPP, Do-P in IBA and TWBA sessions; Significant reduction in DBP, MP in IBA unlike TWBA; and no significant changes in all the variables of control session. Conclusions: Result of our study suggest that though both IBA and TWBA to head and spine might be considered as having effect on improving cardiovascular function in healthy volunteers, IBA to head and spine could be considered as a better choice than TWBA.

  17. Stability of dacarbazine in amber glass vials and polyvinyl chloride bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Aatmani, Mohamed; Poujol, Sylvain; Astre, Cecile; Malosse, Françoise; Pinguet, Frederic

    2002-07-15

    The stability of dacarbazine in commercial glass vials and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags in various storage conditions and the emergence of 2-azahypoxanthine, a major degradation product possibly linked with some adverse effects, were studied. Triplicate samples of reconstituted (11 mg/mL) and diluted (1.40 mg/mL) dacarbazine admixtures were prepared and stored at 4 degrees C or at 25 degrees C in daylight, fluorescent light, or the dark. The effect of several light-protective measures (amber glass vials, aluminum foil wrapping, and opaque tubing) on dacarbazine stability in a simulated i.v. infusion system was also evaluated. Dacarbazine quantification and main degradation product determination were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Stability was defined as conservation of 90-105% of initial dacarbazine concentration without major variations in clarity, color, or pH and without precipitate formation. Reconstituted dacarbazine solutions were stable for 24 hours at room temperature and during light exposure and stable for at least 96 hours at 2-6 degrees C when stored in the dark. After dilution in PVC bags, stability time increased from 2 hours in daylight to 24 hours in fluorescent light and to 72 hours when covered with aluminum foil. After two hours of simulated infusion, dacarbazine remained stable. Diluted dacarbazine solutions stored at 2-6 degrees C were stable for at least 168 hours. The only degradation product found was 2-azahypoxanthine, which was detected in every sample. The storage and handling of dacarbazine should take into account both the loss of the drug and the production of its potentially toxic degradation product. Dacarbazine must be carefully protected from light, administered using opaque infusion tubing, and, if necessary, refrigerated before administration to reduce 2-azahypoxanthine formation. PMID:12132562

  18. Explicit Allocation Strategy with Deadline and Budget Constraint Algorithm in Bag of Tasks Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Purusothaman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study is for effective scheduling of grid jobs based on economy for space shared resources in Bag of tasks grid. Grid Computing aims in combining the power of heterogeneous, geographically distributed, multi-domain computational resources to provide high performance or high throughput. Approach: Space shared resources are parallel supercomputers and clusters of workstations that provides a great amount of computational power. These resources require jobs to be specified formally in terms of the amount of time (tr and number of processors (p needed for execution. Bag-of-Tasks (BoT is an application consists of several uniprocessor and independent tasks that have no inter-task communications or task-dependencies. BoT is highly suitable for execution in grids. It is capable of tolerating network delays or faults and does not require formal job submission. The Explicit allocation strategy assigns the formal job parameters (p, tr to the job requests, minimizing the overhead on the grid users to provide a formal job specification. This strategy uses adaptive heuristics to determine the parameters based on certain heuristics, in order to improve throughput. In the proposed system, explicit allocation strategy combined with Deadline and Budget Constraint (DBC Cost Time optimization algorithm performs effective scheduling of the jobs based on the user’s quality of service (QoS requirements such as deadline, budget and optimization strategy. Results: The cost-time optimization scheduling allocates the cheapest resources to ensure that the deadline can be met and computation is minimized. In case if there are two resources with the same cost, scheduling is done in any affordable resource so that the job gets executed as early as possible. Conclusion: The performance of this scheme against the existing system is evaluated using cost factor (Cfactor and speed up ratio (Tspeedup and this scheme is more effective than the existing

  19. Temperature variations around medication cassette and carry bag in routine use of epoprostenol administration in healthy volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Tamura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: According to several treatment guidelines, epoprostenol is an important treatment option for pulmonary arterial hypertension. However, the pharmacokinetic characteristics and poor stability of epoprostenol at room temperature make its administration challenging. We therefore studied temperature fluctuations between the drug administration cassette and atmosphere to promote the safe use of epoprostenol. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Five healthy volunteers carried a portable intravenous infusion pump attached to a medication cassette containing saline in a bag during their ordinary activities over 16 days during which the mean atmospheric temperature was 29.6 ± 1.5°C. The temperature around the medication cassette was not less than 25°C on any occasion, and the mean period over 24 h during which the temperature around the cassette exceeded 35°C and 40°C was 96.9 ± 156.4 min and 24.4 ± 77.3 min, respectively. Significant correlations were observed between the temperatures outside the bag and around the cassette, as well as between temperatures around the cassette and of the saline solution in the cassette (r = 0.9258 and 0.8276, respectively. There were no differences in the temperatures outside the bag or around the cassette with respect to the bag material. CONCLUSIONS: Temperatures around a medication cassette and outside the bag containing the medication increase with sunlight exposure. The temperature around cassettes used for administering epoprostenol must therefore be kept low for as long as possible during hot summer conditions to maintain the drug stability.

  20. Bio-active glass air-abrasion has the potential to remove resin composite restorative material selectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milly, Hussam; Andiappan, Manoharan; Thompson, Ian; Banerjee, Avijit

    2014-06-01

    The aims of this study were to assess: (a) the chemistry, morphology and bioactivity of bio-active glass (BAG) air-abrasive powder, (b) the effect of three air-abrasion operating parameters: air pressure, powder flow rate (PFR) and the abrasive powder itself, on the selective removal of resin composite and (c) the required “time taken”. BAG abrasive particles were characterised using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Standardised resin composite restorations created within an enamel analogue block (Macor™) in vitro, were removed using air-abrasion undersimulated clinical conditions. 90 standardised cavities were scanned before and after resin composite removal using laser profilometry and the volume of the resulting 3D images calculated. Multilevel linear model was used to identify the significant factors affecting Macor™ removal. BAG powder removed resin composite more selectively than conventional air-abrasion alumina powder using the same operating parameters (p resin composite particularly under specific operating parameters, and therefore may be recommended clinically as a method of preserving sound enamel structure when repairing and removing defective resin composite restorations.

  1. Effects of Bagging on Fruit Qualities of Citrus reticulata cv. Unshiu%套袋对温州蜜柑果实品质的效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张义; 王雪芳

    2011-01-01

    22 years old Citrs reticulata Blanco cv. Unshiu plants were used as experimental material. The fruit bagging tests were carried out with different color of bags (with red, yellow, blue, white film bags; Bagged on July 1, bags removed on Sept 25), different removal dates of bag (on Sept 5, Sept 20 and October 5 with bag non-removal as the check; Bagging on July 1; All bags made from yellow craft papers) and different bagging dates (on July 2, Aug 4 and Sept 9; Bag removed on Sept 27; All bags made from yellow craft papers) to study the effects of bagging on fruit qualities. The results showed all the fruit bagging treatments could improve fruit surface, enhance coloration, reduce very significantly Vc content and titratable acid content, increase very significantly solid-acid ratio, increase significantly or very significantly soluble solid contents in most of the treatments, and didn't show an inconsistent effects on fruit qualities among the treatments. By comprehensive analysis on fruit qualities, the blue and red bags were the best and the white ones were the worst. The best bag removing date was Sept 20 and the best bagging dates were July 2 and Aug 4, bagging too late was bad.%以22年生温州蜜柑(Citrus reticulata Blanco cv.Unshiu)植株为试材,分别进行了果袋颜色(分别是红、黄、蓝、白色,套袋时期7月1日,摘袋时期9月25日)、摘袋时期(套袋时期7月1日,摘袋时期分别为9月5日、9月20日、10月5日,以不摘袋为对照,黄色牛皮纸袋)和套袋时期(套袋时期分别为7月2日、8月4日、9月9日;摘袋时期在9月27日,黄色牛皮纸袋)试验,研究套袋对温州蜜柑果实品质的影响.结果表明,在3个试验中,套袋处理均能提高果面的光洁度,增进着色,极显著地降低了果实中可滴定酸和维生素C的含量,极显著地提高了固酸比和糖酸比,大多数能极显著地提高可溶性固形物的含量,但对可溶性糖含量影响不太一致.综合来

  2. Silencing Bag-1 gene via magnetic gold nanoparticle-delivered siRNA plasmid for colorectal cancer therapy in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenbai; Liu, Zhan'ao; Zhou, Guanzhou; Ling, Jianmin; Tian, Ailing; Sun, Nianfeng

    2016-08-01

    Apoptosis disorder is generally regarded as an important mechanism of carcinogenesis. Inducement of tumor cell apoptosis can be an effectual way to treat cancer. Bcl-2-associated athanogene 1 (Bag-1) is a positive regulator of Bcl-2 which is an anti-apoptotic gene. Bag-1 is highly expressed in colorectal cancer, which plays a critical role in promoting metastasis, poor prognosis, especially in anti-apoptotic function, and is perhaps a valuable gene target for colorectal cancer therapy. Recently, we applied a novel non-viral gene carrier, magnetic gold nanoparticle, and mediated plasmid pGPH1/GFP/Neo-Bag-1-homo-825 silencing Bag-1 gene for treating colorectal cancer in vivo and in vitro. By mediating with magnetic gold nanoparticle, siRNA plasmid was successfully transfected into cell. In 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, magnetic gold nanoparticle had no significant cytotoxicity and by which delivered RNA plasmid inhibited cell viability significantly (P plasmid complex-transfected Balb c/nude tumor xenograft. In conclusion, Bag-1 is confirmed an anti-apoptosis gene that functioned in colorectal cancer, and the mechanism of Bag-1 gene causing colorectal cancer may be related to Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway abnormality and suggested that magnetic gold nanoparticle-delivered siRNA plasmid silencing Bag-1 is an effective gene therapy method for colorectal cancer. PMID:26846101

  3. Thin air

    OpenAIRE

    Jasanoff, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Clearing the air How do we grasp the air? Without Michel Callon’s guidance, I might never have asked that question. Years ago, when I first entered environmental law practice, I took it for granted that problems such as air pollution exist “out there” in the real world for science to discover and law to fix. It is a measure of Callon’s influence that I understand the law today as a metaphysical instrument, no less powerful in its capacity to order nature than the tools of the ancient oracular...

  4. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a close in June 2013 when the company, Conscious Clothing, was awarded the My Air grand ... Page Options: Request Translation Services Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Google+ Reddit Email Evernote More Increase Font Size Decrease ...

  5. Stability of Ampicillin Sodium, Nafcillin Sodium, And Oxacillin Sodium in AutoDose Infusion System Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanping; Trissel, Lawrence A

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical stability of ampicillin sodium 1g/100mL, nafcillin sodium 1g/100mL, and oxacillin sodium 1g/100mL, each of which was admixed in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and packaged in an AutoDose Infusion System bag. Triplicate test samples were prepared by reconstituting the penicillin antibiotics and bringing the required amount of each drug to a final volume of 100 mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection. The test solutions were packaged in AutoDose Bags, which are ethylene vinyl acetate plastic containers designed for use in the AutoDose Infusion System. Samples were stored protected from light and were evaluated at appropriate intervals for up to 7 days at 23 deg C and up to 30 days at 4 deg C. Physical stability was assessed by means of a multistep evaluation procedure that included both turbidimetric and particulate measurement as well as visual inspection. Chemical stability was assesed with stability-indicating high-perofrmance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analytical techniques based on the determination of drug concentrations initially and at appropriate intervals over the study periods. All the penicillin admixtures were initially clear when viewed in normal fluorescent room light. When the admixtures were viewed with a Tyndall beam, a trace haze was observed with the ampicillin sodium and nafcillin sodium mixtures but not with the oxacillin sodium mixture. Measured turbidity and particulate content were low and exhibited little change in the ampicillin sodium and oxacillin sodium samples throughout the study. The nafcillin sodium samples stored at room temperature remained clear, but a microprecipitate developed in the refrigerated samples between 14 and 21 days of storage. All samples were essentially colorless throughout the study. HPLC analysis indicated some decomposition in the samples. Ampicillin sodium, which was the least stable, exhibited a 10% loss after 24 hours at 23 deg C. In the

  6. Flight Testing of the Forward Osmosis Bag for Water Recovery on STS-135

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael S.; Soler, Monica; Mortenson, Todd; McCoy, LaShelle; Woodward, Spencer; Levine, Howard G.

    2011-01-01

    The Forward Osmosis Bag (FOB) is a personal water purification device for recovery of potable liquid from almost any non-potable water source. The FOB experiment was flown as a sortie mission on STS-135/ULF7 using flight-certified materials and a design based on the X-Pack(TradeMark) from Hydration Technology Innovations (Albany, OR). The primary objective was to validate the technology for use under microgravity conditions. The FOB utilizes a difference in solute concentration across a selectively permeable membrane to draw water molecules from the non-potable water while rejecting most chemical and all microbial contaminants contained within. Six FOB devices were tested on STS-135 for their ability to produce a potable liquid permeate from a feed solution containing 500 mL potassium chloride (15 g/L) amended with 0.1% methyl blue dye (w:v) tracer against an osmotic gradient created by addition of 60 mL of concentrate containing the osmolytes fructose and glucose, and 0.01% sodium fluorescein (w:v) tracer. Three FOB devices were physically mixed by hand for 2 minutes by a crewmember after loading to augment membrane wetting for comparison with three unmixed FOB devices. Hydraulic flux rate and rejection of salt and dye in microgravity were determined from a 60-mL sample collected by the crew on orbit after 6 hours. Post-flight analysis of samples collected on orbit demonstrated that the Forward Osmosis Bag achieved expected design specifications in microgravity. The hydraulic flux rate of water across the membrane was reduced approximately 50% in microgravity relative to ground controls that generated an average of 50 mL per hour using the same water and osmolyte solutions. The membrane rejected both potassium and chloride at >92% and methyl blue dye at >99.9%. Physical mixing of the FOB during water recovery did not have any significant effect on either flux rate or rejection of solutes from the water solution. The absence of buoyancy-driven convection in

  7. Bluish Discolouration of Urine Drainage Tube and Bag in a Female Patient with Spina Bifida, Paraplegia, and Suprapubic Cystostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Vaidyanathan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a female patient with spina bifida, paraplegia, suprapubic cystostomy, and chronic constipation, who became anxious when she noticed a bluish discolouration of her urine drainage system. Urine microbiology revealed growth of Providencia stuartii and Staphylococcus aureus. There were no systemic features of infection and, therefore, antibiotics were not prescribed for asymptomatic bacteriuria. This patient was advised to change the urine bag every day, and was prescribed senna to facilitate bowel evacuation. She was reassured that bluish discolouration of the urine drainage tube and bag was a transient, benign phenomenon and not indicative of any underlying pathology. Over the next 7 days, the bluish discolouration gradually faded away. Clinical characteristics of patients who are likely to develop this phenomenon and the underlying biochemical mechanism for bluish discolouration of the urine drainage system are discussed in brief.

  8. Flow of Hydrolysed Polyacrylamide Mother Liquor through Filter Bag: Detecting the Effects of Formulation and Process Properties on Pressure Drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Ming Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysed polyacrylamide (HPAM mother liquor is mainly used to extract oil. The HPAM solution is needed to filter the impurity using a bag filter before it is injected into the oil well. Therefore, the pressure drop of HPAM mother liquor must be less than 0.02 MPa in the processing of impurity filtration. The influence factors on pressure drop need to be researched. In this work, the computational fluid dynamics program (CFD was used to research some key influence factors on pressure drop, such as porosity, outlet pressure of filter, inlet flow rate and viscosity of mother liquor. The simulation results indicated that with increasing porosity, outlet pressure, inlet flow rate and mother liquor viscosity, the pressure drop had increased after flowing through the filter bag.

  9. USING A BAG OF WORDS FOR AUTOMATIC MEDICAL IMAGE ANNOTATION WITH A LATENT SEMANTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riadh Bouslimi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We present in this paper a new approach for the automatic annotation of medical images, using the approach of "bag-of-words" to represent the visual content of the medical image combined with text descriptors based approach tf.idf and reduced by latent semantic to extract the co-occurrence between terms and visual terms. A medical report is composed of a text describing a medical image. First, we are interested to index the text and extract all relevant terms using a thesaurus containing MeSH medical concepts. In a second phase, the medical image is indexed while recovering areas of interest which are invariant to change in scale, light and tilt. To annotate a new medical image, we use the approach of "bagof-words" to recover the feature vector. Indeed, we use the vector space model to retrieve similar medical image from the database training. The calculation of the relevance value of an image to the query image is based on the cosine function. We conclude with an experiment carried out on five types of radiological imaging to evaluate the performance of our system of medical annotation. The results showed that our approach works better with more images from the radiology of the skull.

  10. DIAMONDS: a new Bayesian Nested Sampling tool. Application to Peak Bagging of solar-like oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Corsaro, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    In order to exploit the full potential of Kepler light curves, sophisticated and robust analysis tools are now required more than ever. We developed a new code, termed Diamonds, for Bayesian parameter estimation and model comparison by means of the Nested Sampling Monte Carlo (NSMC) algorithm, an efficient and powerful method very suitable for high-dimensional and multi-modal problems. A detailed description of the features implemented in the code is given, with a focus on the novelties and differences with respect to other existing methods based on NSMC. Diamonds is then tested on the bright F8 V star KIC 9139163, a challenging target for peak bagging analysis due to its large number of oscillation peaks observed, coupled to the blending occurring between $\\ell=2,0$ peaks, and the strong stellar background signal. We further strain the performance of the approach by adopting a 1147.5 days-long Kepler light curve, accounting for more than 840,000 data bins in the power spectrum of the star. The Diamonds code ...

  11. From pixels to patches: a cloud classification method based on bag of micro-structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Zhang, Z.; Lu, W.; Yang, J.; Ma, Y.; Yao, W.

    2015-10-01

    Automatic cloud classification has attracted more and more attention with the increasing development of whole sky imagers, but it is still in progress for ground-based cloud observation. This paper proposes a new cloud classification method, named bag of micro-structures (BoMS). This method treats an all-sky image as a collection of micro-structures mapped from image patches, rather than a collection of pixels. And then it constructs an image representation with a weighted histogram of micro-structures. Lastly, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier is applied on the image representation because SVM is appealing for sparse and high dimensional feature space. Five different sky conditions are identified: cirriform, cumuliform, stratiform, clear sky and mixed cloudiness that often appears in all-sky images but is seldom addressed in literature. BoMS is evaluated on a large dataset, which contains 5000 all-sky images that are captured by a total-sky cloud imager located in Tibet (29.25° N, 88.88° E). BoMS achieves an accuracy of 90.9 % for 10 fold cross-validation, and it outperforms the state-of-the-art method with an increase of about 19 %. Furthermore, influence of key parameters in BoMS are investigated to verify their robustness.

  12. Scenedesmus dimorphus (Turpin) Kützing growth with digestate from biogas plant in outdoor bag photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbato, F; Venditti, A; Bianco, A; Guarcini, L; Bottari, E; Festa, M R; Cogliani, E; Pignatelli, V

    2016-01-01

    Digestate coming from an Anaerobic Digestion unit in a Biogas Plant, feeded on cow manure and vegetable waste from markets, has been used. About 8-35 L polyethylene transparent bags have been employed as cultivation container, outdoor. Different aliquots of digestate, alone or mixed with commercial liquid fertiliser, were employed to cultivate in batch Scenedesus dimorphus, a freshwater green microalga, in the ENEA facilities of Casaccia Research Center, near Rome, Italy. The cultivation period was June-July 2013. The average daily yields of dry microalgae biomass varied from 20 mg/L/d to 60 mg/L/d, mean 38.2 mg/L/d. Final dry biomass concentration varied from 0.18 to 1.29 g/L, mean 0.55 g/L. S. dimorphus proved to be very efficient in removing N and P from the culture medium. Another fact emerged from these trials is that S. dimorphus inner composition resulted to be variable in response to the tested different culture conditions.

  13. Vortices and magnetic bags in Abelian models with extended scalar sectors and some of their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Forgács, Péter

    2016-01-01

    A detailed study of vortices is presented in Ginzburg-Landau (or Abelian Higgs) models with two complex scalars (order parameters) assuming a general U(1)$\\times$U(1) symmetric potential. Particular emphasis is given to the case, when only one of the scalars obtains a vacuum expectation value (VEV). It is found that for a significantly large domain in parameter space vortices with a scalar field condensate in their core (condensate core, CC) coexist with Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen (ANO) vortices. Importantly CC vortices are stable and have lower energy than the ANO ones. Magnetic bags or giant vortices of the order of 1000 flux quanta are favoured to form for the range of parameters ("strong couplings") appearing for the superconducting state of liquid metallic hydrogen (LMH). Furthermore, it is argued that finite energy/unit length 1VEV vortices are smoothly connected to fractional flux 2VEV ones. Stable, finite energy CC-type vortices are also exhibited in the case when one of the scalar fields is neutral.

  14. Effects of cold therapy in the treatment of mandibular angle fractures: hilotherm system vs ice bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barca, Ida; Colangeli, Walter; Cristofaro, Maria Giulia; Giudice, Amerigo; Giofrè, Elio; Varano, Anna; Giudice, Mario

    2016-06-18

    La crioterapia dopo interventi di chirurgia maxillo-facciale è una metodica comunemente utilizzata sia a fini analgesici che di riduzione dell’edema e dell’ecchimosi dei tessuti molli. Hilotherapy è costituito da un’unità mobile elettrica refrigerante dotata di un termostato digitale regolabile e da un circuito chiuso di acqua distillata refrigerata che scorre all’interno di collettori e di maschere in gomma specificatamente conformate per i distretti anatomici del massiccio facciale. Abbiamo selezionato 40 pz affetti da frattura unifocale di angolo mandibolare e suddivisi in 2 gruppi, crioterapia con ice-bag (gruppo A) e Hiloterapy System (Gruppo B); entrambi sottoposti a medesimo trattamento farmacologico di base (antibiotico-antiedemigeno-antidolorifico). L’analisi dei dati ha dimostrato come l’utilizzo dell’Hiloterapy System nel post-operatorio per 48 ore a temperatura modulata ha garantito un più rapido decremento dell’edema dei tessuti molli e un miglior controllo del dolore, con conseguente minor richiesta di farmaci anti-infiammatori ed anti-dolorifici, rispetto al gruppo A.

  15. Feature selection and classification of multiparametric medical images using bagging and SVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yong; Resnick, Susan M.; Davatzikos, Christos

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents a framework for brain classification based on multi-parametric medical images. This method takes advantage of multi-parametric imaging to provide a set of discriminative features for classifier construction by using a regional feature extraction method which takes into account joint correlations among different image parameters; in the experiments herein, MRI and PET images of the brain are used. Support vector machine classifiers are then trained based on the most discriminative features selected from the feature set. To facilitate robust classification and optimal selection of parameters involved in classification, in view of the well-known "curse of dimensionality", base classifiers are constructed in a bagging (bootstrap aggregating) framework for building an ensemble classifier and the classification parameters of these base classifiers are optimized by means of maximizing the area under the ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve estimated from their prediction performance on left-out samples of bootstrap sampling. This classification system is tested on a sex classification problem, where it yields over 90% classification rates for unseen subjects. The proposed classification method is also compared with other commonly used classification algorithms, with favorable results. These results illustrate that the methods built upon information jointly extracted from multi-parametric images have the potential to perform individual classification with high sensitivity and specificity.

  16. Content-Based Image Retrieval using Local Features Descriptors and Bag-of-Visual Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Alkhawlani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Image retrieval is still an active research topic in the computer vision field. There are existing several techniques to retrieve visual data from large databases. Bag-of-Visual Word (BoVW is a visual feature descriptor that can be used successfully in Content-based Image Retrieval (CBIR applications. In this paper, we present an image retrieval system that uses local feature descriptors and BoVW model to retrieve efficiently and accurately similar images from standard databases. The proposed system uses SIFT and SURF techniques as local descriptors to produce image signatures that are invariant to rotation and scale. As well as, it uses K-Means as a clustering algorithm to build visual vocabulary for the features descriptors that obtained of local descriptors techniques. To efficiently retrieve much more images relevant to the query, SVM algorithm is used. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated by calculating both precision and recall. The experimental results reveal that this system performs well on two different standard datasets.

  17. Diet of invertebrates sampled in leaf-bags incubated in a tropical headwater stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson M. de Carvalho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The diet of macroinvertebrates sampled in leaf-bags incubated in a tropical stream was analyzed on a spatial scale (one forested and one deforested area and on a temporal scale (dry and rainy seasons. The macroinvertebrates were mostly represented by detritivores specialized in fine detritus (69%, followed by generalist detritivores (10% with a diet based on fine and coarse detritus, carnivores (10%, omnivores (8%, and one detritivore genera specialized on coarse detritus (3%. The detritivores exhibited a broad spatial and temporal distribution and were represented mainly by Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Diptera. Phylloicus sp. (Trichoptera consumed mostly coarse detritus (CPOM and can be classified as the unique specialist shredder in this stream. Carnivores were represented by Anacroneuria sp. (Plecoptera, Hetaerina sp. and Heteragrion sp. (two Odonata. Omnivory was observed for Anacroneuria sp. and Smicridea sp. (Trichoptera, which evidently varied spatially and temporally in the proportion of the food consumed. The high diversity and the wide distribution of the taxa that used organic matter as food resource demonstrated the great importance of this food item to the macroinvertebrates community in this tropical stream.

  18. BAGGING TECHNIQUE: WATER CATCHMENT SYSTEM FOR RESIDUAL MOISTURE CROPS USED BY PRODUCERS MASIACA, SONORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastor Sánchez-García

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the southeast of Sonora as in most of the State, land is unproductive due to its arid and semi-arid land, if it does not have small or large irrigation facilities. Where economic conditions are reduced, producers need to develop techniques that help to overcome the erraticity in the availability of water, especially for irrigation. That's why Mays Indian and Masiaca community private producers from Sonora have developed a technique for harvesting from water of avenues of the intermittent streams near their plots, and once the ground has the adequate humidity conditions they can establish crops of their interest, so it is possible to obtain acceptable harvest in corn, peas, sorghum and safflower. However, these producers face a series of problems related primarily to the lack of rain; lack of credit support for the construction or maintenance of the required facilities; lack of profitability of crops established there, the abandonment of agricultural land, erosion of knowledge, etc. The analysis of this study can draw the following conclusions: The bagging technique is feasible if there are heavy rains, with the presence of cyclones, in October; the acceptable harvest obtained in established crops is largely due to the contribution of organic matter derived from the Avenues; the organizational levels observed are simple and operational.

  19. Determining nutrients degradation kinetics of chickpea (Cicer arietinum straw using nylon bag technique in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mirzaei-Aghsaghali

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Straw a by-product from grain legume crops is produced in large quantities in Iran. Straw is constant component of ruminant diets on small holder farms; however, there is little information about its nutritive value. Accordingly experiment was conducted to determine the chemical composition and ruminal organic matter (OM and crude protein (CP degradability of chickpea straw using nylon bags (in situ technique. Replicated samples were incubated at 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours in three rumen canulated Ghezel rams with 50±3 kg body weight. Dry matter (DM, CP, ether extract (EE, OM, crude fiber (CF and nitrogen free extract (NFE content of chickpea straws were 92.2, 6.1, 5.5, 92.0, 34.3 and 46.2%, respectively. The soluble fraction (a of the OM and CP of chickpea straw was 17.5 and 40.8% and potential degradability (a+b of OM and CP was 56.7 and 72.0%, respectively. Effective degradability at different passage rates (2, 5 and 8% per hours for OM was 51.0 44.9 and 40.7% and for CP were 68.4, 64.3 and 61.3%, respectively. In conclusion, based on chemical composition and degradation characteristics, chickpea straw could have moderate nutritive value for ruminants.

  20. Effect of Different Stocking Densities on Survival Rates of Nile Tilapia Fingerlings Transported in Plastic Bags.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelwahab.M. Adam Ibrahim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fish farmers in Sudan obtain their seed stocks mainly not from their farms and as such rely heavily on good packing conditions covering sometimes 8–12 hours transportation time to maximize fish survival and quality the study here required main objective to identified the optimum loading for the success during transporting. closed oxygenated plastic bag which was carried three densities for each one with tow replicate for every treatment for the lower loading is 75 fingerlings /l the medium is, 100 fingerlings and last density is the larger one 140 fingerlings the duration factors was 10 hours, 11 hours and 18 hours. The fingerlings was sex reversed, their size is (5g ± 0.5. The collecting data analyze used SPSS computer software version- 16.0. Analysis result shown the factor of density in the tow treatments (75 fingerlings + 100 fingerlings was the best according to the survivor rate depending to type of the periods parameter. 10 hour=94% and 11 hours = 92% and here was N.S otherwise the comparative between those and the density 140 was high significant. Variation between loading and durations is NS at P<0.05, so the conclusions is found the optimum loading during transporting period was 100/l/18 (hundred fish per litter in 18 hours period according to analysis details.

  1. Considering the Spatial Layout Information of Bag of Features (BoF) Framework for Image Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Guangyu; Liu, Ying; Wang, Limin

    2015-01-01

    The spatial pooling method such as spatial pyramid matching (SPM) is very crucial in the bag of features model used in image classification. SPM partitions the image into a set of regular grids and assumes that the spatial layout of all visual words obey the uniform distribution over these regular grids. However, in practice, we consider that different visual words should obey different spatial layout distributions. To improve SPM, we develop a novel spatial pooling method, namely spatial distribution pooling (SDP). The proposed SDP method uses an extension model of Gauss mixture model to estimate the spatial layout distributions of the visual vocabulary. For each visual word type, SDP can generate a set of flexible grids rather than the regular grids from the traditional SPM. Furthermore, we can compute the grid weights for visual word tokens according to their spatial coordinates. The experimental results demonstrate that SDP outperforms the traditional spatial pooling methods, and is competitive with the state-of-the-art classification accuracy on several challenging image datasets.

  2. Hunter's behavioural responses to changes in bag size and willow grouse density : implications for management and interpretation of harvest data

    OpenAIRE

    Asmyhr, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    An important aspect of ecological research is to provide guidelines and tools to wildlife managers. The ecological feature of density dependence which shapes population responses to harvest are important for wildlife management, but monitoring practices and exploiter dynamics to the changing resources and management regimes should also be included. Bag records are often collected by wildlife managers as part of their management regime, in which monitoring of the harvest is crucial. However, b...

  3. Moderls of Internationzation of Two Argentine Pharmaceutical Companies in Historical Perspective: The Cases of Bagó and Sidus

    OpenAIRE

    Campins, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    Internationalization is not a simple decision but rather a complex strategy that requires the presence of tangible and intangible resources that, in the case of a family firm, call for careful analysis. To understand this process, the present study reconstructs the historical trajectories of two important Argentine laboratories, Bagó and Sidus, in historical perspective, using the stage approach of the Uppsala school (U-model) and the perspective of resources and capacities (resource-based vi...

  4. Experimental degradation of polymer shopping bags (standard and degradable plastic, and biodegradable) in the gastrointestinal fluids of sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christin; Townsend, Kathy; Matschullat, Jörg

    2012-02-01

    The persistence of marine debris such as discarded polymer bags has become globally an increasing hazard to marine life. To date, over 177 marine species have been recorded to ingest man-made polymers that cause life-threatening complications such as gut impaction and perforation. This study set out to test the decay characteristics of three common types of shopping bag polymers in sea turtle gastrointestinal fluids (GIF): standard and degradable plastic, and biodegradable. Fluids were obtained from the stomachs, small intestines and large intestines of a freshly dead Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) and a Loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta). Controls were carried out with salt and freshwater. The degradation rate was measured over 49 days, based on mass loss. Degradation rates of the standard and the degradable plastic bags after 49 days across all treatments and controls were negligible. The biodegradable bags showed mass losses between 3 and 9%. This was a much slower rate than reported by the manufacturers in an industrial composting situation (100% in 49 days). The GIF of the herbivorous Green turtle showed an increased capacity to break down the biodegradable polymer relative to the carnivorous Loggerhead, but at a much lower rate than digestion of natural vegetative matter. While the breakdown rate of biodegradable polymers in the intestinal fluids of sea turtles is greater than standard and degradable plastics, it is proposed that this is not rapid enough to prevent morbidity. Further study is recommended to investigate the speed at which biodegradable polymers decompose outside of industrial composting situations, and their durability in marine and freshwater systems.

  5. Experimental degradation of polymer shopping bags (standard and degradable plastic, and biodegradable) in the gastrointestinal fluids of sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christin; Townsend, Kathy; Matschullat, Jörg

    2012-02-01

    The persistence of marine debris such as discarded polymer bags has become globally an increasing hazard to marine life. To date, over 177 marine species have been recorded to ingest man-made polymers that cause life-threatening complications such as gut impaction and perforation. This study set out to test the decay characteristics of three common types of shopping bag polymers in sea turtle gastrointestinal fluids (GIF): standard and degradable plastic, and biodegradable. Fluids were obtained from the stomachs, small intestines and large intestines of a freshly dead Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) and a Loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta). Controls were carried out with salt and freshwater. The degradation rate was measured over 49 days, based on mass loss. Degradation rates of the standard and the degradable plastic bags after 49 days across all treatments and controls were negligible. The biodegradable bags showed mass losses between 3 and 9%. This was a much slower rate than reported by the manufacturers in an industrial composting situation (100% in 49 days). The GIF of the herbivorous Green turtle showed an increased capacity to break down the biodegradable polymer relative to the carnivorous Loggerhead, but at a much lower rate than digestion of natural vegetative matter. While the breakdown rate of biodegradable polymers in the intestinal fluids of sea turtles is greater than standard and degradable plastics, it is proposed that this is not rapid enough to prevent morbidity. Further study is recommended to investigate the speed at which biodegradable polymers decompose outside of industrial composting situations, and their durability in marine and freshwater systems. PMID:22209368

  6. Commercially Available Gas-Permeable Cell Culture Bags May Not Prevent Anoxia in Cultured or Shipped Islets

    OpenAIRE

    Avgoustiniatos, E.S.; Hering, B.J.; Rozak, P.R.; Wilson, J.R.; Tempelman, L.A.; Balamurugan, A.N.; Welch, D.P.; Weegman, B. P.; Suszynski, T.M.; Papas, K.K.

    2008-01-01

    Prolonged anoxia has deleterious effects on islets. Gas-permeable cell culture devices can be used to minimize anoxia during islet culture and especially during shipment when elimination of gas-liquid interfaces is required to prevent the formation of damaging gas bubbles. Gas-permeable bags may have several drawbacks, such as propensity for puncture and contamination, difficult islet retrieval, and significantly lower oxygen permeability than silicone rubber membranes (SRM). We hypothesized ...

  7. Peak Bagging of red giant stars observed by Kepler: first results with a new method based on Bayesian nested sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corsaro Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The peak bagging analysis, namely the fitting and identification of single oscillation modes in stars’ power spectra, coupled to the very high-quality light curves of red giant stars observed by Kepler, can play a crucial role for studying stellar oscillations of different flavor with an unprecedented level of detail. A thorough study of stellar oscillations would thus allow for deeper testing of stellar structure models and new insights in stellar evolution theory. However, peak bagging inferences are in general very challenging problems due to the large number of observed oscillation modes, hence of free parameters that can be involved in the fitting models. Efficiency and robustness in performing the analysis is what may be needed to proceed further. For this purpose, we developed a new code implementing the Nested Sampling Monte Carlo (NSMC algorithm, a powerful statistical method well suited for Bayesian analyses of complex problems. In this talk we show the peak bagging of a sample of high signal-to-noise red giant stars by exploiting recent Kepler datasets and a new criterion for the detection of an oscillation mode based on the computation of the Bayesian evidence. Preliminary results for frequencies and lifetimes for single oscillation modes, together with acoustic glitches, are therefore presented.

  8. Mutagenicity Assessment of Drinking Water in Combination with Flavored Black Tea Bags: a Cross Sectional Study in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alebouyeh, Farzaneh; Bidgoli, Sepideh Arbabi; Ziarati, Parisa; Heshmati, Masoomeh; Qomi, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Diseases related to water impurities may present as major public health burdens. The present study aimed to assess the mutagenicity of drinking water from different zones of Tehran, and evaluate possible health risks through making tea with tea bags, by Ames mutagenicity test using TA 100, TA 98 and YG1029 strains. For this purpose, 450 water samples were collected over the period of July to December 2014 from 5 different zones of Tehran. Except for one sample, no mutagenic potential was detected during these two seasons and the MI scores were almost normal (≤ 1-1.6) in TA 100, TA 98 and YG1029 strains. Although no mutagenic effects were considered in TA 98 and TA 100 in the test samples of our three evaluated tea bag brands, one sample from a local company showed mutagenic effects in the YG1029 strain (MI=1.7-1.9 and 2) after prolonged (10-15 min.) steeping. Despite the mild mutagenic effect discovered for one of the brand, this cross sectional study showed relative safety of water samples and black tea bags in Tehran. According to the sensitivity of YG1029 to the mutagenic potential of water and black tea, even without metabolic activation by s9 fraction, this metabolizer strain could be considered as sensitive and applicable to food samples for quantitative analysis of mutagens.

  9. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  10. Enhancement of bioactivity of pulsed magnetron sputtered TiC{sub x}N{sub y} with bioactive glass (BAG) incorporated polycaprolactone (PCL) composite scaffold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anusha Thampi, V.V.; Subramanian, B., E-mail: subramanianb3@gmail.com

    2015-11-15

    Titanium carbonitride (TiC{sub x}N{sub y}) thin films were fabricated on SS 316 L by pulsed reactive DC magnetron sputtering using titanium and graphite targets. The sputtered film was characterized microstructurally by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD pattern revealed that the film was preferentially oriented along (200) axis with a grain size of 20 nm. A globular morphology was observed from electron micrograph while Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) showed the compositional purity of the film. To improve the bioactivity, bioactive glass (BAG) nanopowders of size 60 nm, synthesized by sol–gel method, was incorporated into a polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold (BAG-PCL), which was applied over TiC{sub x}N{sub y}/SS (BAG-PCL/TiCN/SS). In-vitro bioactivity studies of BAG-PCL showed the apatite formation, which was confirmed from fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum and SEM. In-vitro corrosion studies in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution showed that the coated specimen had a higher charge transfer resistance than stainless steel (SS) bare. The enhancement of bioactivity was monitored by hemocompatibility and cytocompatibility, where an improved cell attachment and lower thrombus formation was observed for the coatings with BAG-PCL. - Highlights: • Fabrication of TiC{sub x}N{sub y} thin films on SS 316 L (TiCN/SS) by reactive pulsed DC magnetron sputtering. • Synthesis of BAG nanopowders (45S5) by sol–gel method. • Incorporation of BAG nanopowders into PCL matrix to form polymer composite scaffold. • BAG-PCL scaffold was coated on TiCN/SS to enhance the bioactivity.

  11. Potentiation of antileukemic therapies by the dual PI3K/PDK-1 inhibitor, BAG956: effects on BCR-ABL– and mutant FLT3-expressing cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Ellen; Banerji, Lolita; Wright, Renee D.; Barrett, Rosemary; Ray, Arghya; Moreno, Daisy; Catley, Laurence; Jiang, Jingrui; Hall-Meyers, Elizabeth; Sauveur-Michel, Maira; Stone, Richard; Galinsky, Ilene; Fox, Edward; Kung, Andrew L.

    2008-01-01

    Mediators of PI3K/AKT signaling have been implicated in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Studies have shown that inhibitors of PI3K/AKT signaling, such as wortmannin and LY294002, are able to inhibit CML and AML cell proliferation and synergize with targeted tyrosine kinase inhi-bitors. We investigated the ability of BAG956, a dual PI3K/PDK-1 inhibitor, to be used in combination with inhibitors of BCR-ABL and mutant FLT3, as well as with the mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, and the rapamycin derivative, RAD001. BAG956 was shown to block AKT phosphorylation induced by BCR-ABL–, and induce apoptosis of BCR-ABL–expressing cell lines and patient bone marrow cells at concentrations that also inhibit PI3K signaling. Enhancement of the inhibitory effects of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, imatinib and nilotinib, by BAG956 was demonstrated against BCR-ABL expressing cells both in vitro and in vivo. We have also shown that BAG956 is effective against mutant FLT3-expressing cell lines and AML patient bone marrow cells. Enhancement of the inhibitory effects of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, PKC412, by BAG956 was demonstrated against mutant FLT3-expressing cells. Finally, BAG956 and rapamycin/RAD001 were shown to combine in a nonantagonistic fashion against BCR-ABL– and mutant FLT3-expressing cells both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:18184863

  12. Healthy Air Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung.org > Our Initiatives > Healthy Air > Outdoor Healthy Air Outdoors The quality of the air we breathe ... families and can even shorten their lives. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Outdoor air pollution continues to ...

  13. PREVENTION OF PERIOPERATIVE HYPOTHERMIA USING POLYETHYLENE PLASTIC BAGS IN PATIENTS WITH SURGERY UNDER GENERAL ANESTHESIA (IN SPANISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reales-Osorio Ronald José1

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: perioperative hypothermia is a common finding in the rooms of surgery and it simultaneously is underestimated. The biggest heat loss in patients under general anesthesia is presented importatit factor for the development of postoperative complications for what, preserve the body temperature improves the quality of anesthesia and it is cost-effective. Objetive: to quantify the efficiency and safety of low density polyethylene (LDPE plastic bags to prevent hypothermia in adult patients submitted surgery under general anesthesia. Methods: it is a randomized, prospective, single blind, controlled clinical trial camed out in the Hospital Universitario del Caribe of Cartagena (since june 2012 to may, 2013. 107 patients, scheduled for surgery under general anesthesia, were divided in two groups: [A] Intervention grupo with coverage of 75% of the body surface with low density polyethylene plastic bags, in surgeries that were allowing this coverage. [B] Control group, with conventional management without coverage. In both grups, contirwous measurement of the temperature was done, the proportions of outcome variables between the two groups were compared by means of chi2 and the Mann- Whitney U test. In adittion, the relative risk (RR9 with their confidence intervals of 95% for the use of the intervention in the reduction of the hypothermia was estimated. A p valve <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: the temperature at the end of the surgery was lower in the control group than in the intervention group (p<0.0001. The use of plastic bags had RR=0.48 (CI 0.33- 0.69 for reduction of hypothermia and RR=0.079 (CI 95% 0.011-0.58 for reduction of chills. In the group with plastic bags the appearance of chills and hypothermia was less frequent (p=0.0002. None of the groups presented adverse effects. Conclusion: the adequate coverage of minimum 75% of the body surface with plastic bags, in patients submitted to surgery under

  14. Out-of-the-bag intraocular lens dislocation: outcomes of posterior chamber intraocular lens exchange, risk factors, and prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Dan-ying; CHEN Li-na; SUN Yi; SHAO Ying-feng; LIANG Jing-li; LIU Yi-zhi

    2010-01-01

    Background Dislocation of posterior chamber intraocular lens is one of the most common complications of intraocular lens implantation. Lens exchange is an effective solution to this unsatisfactory status. This study was conducted to analyze the possible predisposing factors for out-of-the-bag posterior chamber intraocular lens dislocation and to study the outcomes of lens exchange surgery.Methods Thirty-six consecutive patients (36 eyes) with out-of-the-bag intraocular lens dislocation who underwent posterior chamber intraocular lens exchange in Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center of Sun Yat-sen University (Guangdong,China) from January 2003 to October 2009 were included. A 6-month follow-up was completed. The causes for out-of-the-bag intraocular lens dislocation and visual outcomes of posterior chamber intraocular lens exchange were analyzed. The out-of-the-bag intraocular lens dislocation was diagnosed on the basis of the findings from slit-lamp microscope and B-ultrasound. The dislocated intraocular lens was explanted. Reimplantation of a new posterior chamber intraocular lens was performed in each case using standardized surgical procedures.Results In this study, a total of thirty-six consecutive patients (36 eyes) with out-of-the-bag intraocular lens dislocation underwent posterior chamber intraocular lens exchange surgery. Causes for out-of-the-bag intraocular lens dislocation included posterior capsule rupture during the initial cataract extraction procedure (23 eyes, 63.8%), trauma (5 eyes,13.9%), neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser-induced dislocation (2 eyes, 5.6%), the status after vitrectomy (2 eyes, 5.6%) and unidentifiable etiology (4 eyes, 11.1%). Symptoms of these patients mainly included decrease in visual acuity (17 cases, 47.2%), blurred vision (16 cases, 44.4%), glare (1 case, 2.8%), diplopia (1 case,2.8%), and halo (1 case, 2.8%). Intraocular lens dislocation into the posterior vitreous cavity (29 eyes, 80.5%), anterior chamber (1

  15. Depletion of the cellular levels of Bag-1 proteins attenuates phorbol ester-induced downregulation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and nuclear accumulation of NF-{kappa}B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Jana V., E-mail: Jana.maier@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Volz, Yvonne [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Berger, Caroline [Joint Research Division Vascular Biology of the Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, and the German Cancer Research Center, Ludolf-Krehl-Str. 13-17, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Schneider, Sandra; Cato, Andrew C.B. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields}Bag-1 depletion only marginally affects the action of the glucocorticoid receptor but strongly regulates the activity of NF-{kappa}B. {yields}Bag-1 depletion attenuates phosphorylation and degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and nuclear accumulation of NF-{kappa}B p65 and p50. {yields}Bag-1 interacts with I{kappa}B{alpha} and partially restores I{kappa}B{alpha} and NF-{kappa}B activation in Bag-1 depleted cells. -- Abstract: Bag-1 consists in humans of four isoforms generated from the same RNA by alternative translation. Overexpression of single Bag-1 isoforms has identified Bag-1 as a negative regulator of action of many proteins including the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Here we have analysed the ability of Bag-1 to regulate the transrepression function of the GR. Silencing Bag-1 expression only marginally affects the transrepression action of the GR but decreased the action of the transcription factor NF-{kappa}B. Furthermore phosphorylation and degradation of the inhibitor protein I{kappa}B{alpha} and nuclear accumulation of p65 and p50 NF-{kappa}B proteins in response to phorbol ester was attenuated following Bag-1 depletion in HeLa cells. Reconstitution of Bag-1 in depleted cells partially restored I{kappa}B{alpha} and NF-{kappa}B activation. Knock-down of Bag-1 expression also did not significantly alter GR-mediated transactivation but affected the basal transcription of some of the target genes. Thus Bag-1 proteins function as regulators of the action of selective transcription factors.

  16. Effects of decreasing inspiratory times during simulated bag-valve-mask ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Goedecke, Achim; Bowden, Kevin; Wenzel, Volker; Keller, Christian; Gabrielli, Andrea

    2005-03-01

    During CPR, an inspiratory time of 2 s is recommended when the airway is unprotected; indicating that approximately 30% of the resuscitation attempt is spent on ventilation, but not on chest compressions. Since survival rates may not decrease when ventilation levels are relatively low, and uninterrupted chest compressions with a constant rate of approximately 100/min have been shown to be lifesaving, it may be beneficial to cut down the time spent on ventilation, and instead, increase the time for chest compressions. In an established bench model of a simulated unprotected airway, we evaluated if inspiratory time can be decreased from 2 to 1 s at different lower oesophageal sphincter pressure (LOSP) levels during ventilation with a bag-valve-mask device. In comparison with an inspiratory time of 2 s, 1 s resulted in significantly (p rate, while lung tidal volumes at all LOSP levels were clinically comparable. Neither ventilation strategy produced stomach inflation at 20 cmH2O LOSP, and 1 s versus 2 s inspiratory time did not produce significantly higher (mean +/- S.D.) stomach inflation at 15 (8 +/-9 ml versus 0 +/- 0 ml; p inflation at 5 cmH2O LOSP (219 +/- 16 ml versus 308 +/- 21 ml; p inflation volume over constantly decreasing LOSP levels with an inspiratory time of 2 s versus 1 s was higher (6820 ml versus 5920 ml). In conclusion, in this model of a simulated unprotected airway, a reduction of inspiratory time from 2 to 1 s resulted in a significant increase of peak airway pressure and peak inspiratory flow rate, while lung tidal volumes remained clinically comparable (up to approximately 15% difference), but statistically different due to the precise measurements. Theoretically, this may increase the time available for, and consequently the actual number of, chest compressions during CPR by approximately 25% without risking an excessive increase in stomach inflation.

  17. Multum in Parvo: Explorations with a Small Bag of Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EJM Campbell

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A collection of 12 papers published between 1957 and 1972 are revisited. The papers had a common theme of the use of rebreathing carbon dioxide and explored a variety of topics in respiratory physiology. The first study established a method for the noninvasive and indirect estimation of arterial carbon dioxide pressure that was suitable for the routine clinical monitoring of respiratory failure and whose clinical utility remains to this day, but which also provided observations that were the stimulus for the studies that followed. The rate of rise in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2 during rebreathing led to an analysis of body carbon dioxide storage capacity. Knowledge of carbon dioxide storage led to a method for quantifying lactate production in exercise without the need for blood sampling. The changes in ventilation that accompanied the increase in PCO2 provided the basis for a rapid method for measuring aspects of breathing control (Read's method, which was later modified to measure the ventilatory response to hypoxia. The physiology of breath-holding was explored through observations of the fall in breath-holding time as PCO2 climbed. Rebreathing also allowed increases in voluntary ventilation to be achieved without the development of alkalosis, leading to studies of maximal voluntary ventilation and respiratory muscle fatigue. Equilibration of PCO2 during rebreathing was used to measure mixed venous PCO2 during exercise and develop an integrated approach to the physiology of exercise in health and disease; alveolar-arterial disequilibrium in PCO2 during exercise was uncovered. Equilibration of PCO2, as well as PO2, during rebreathing of carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas mixtures showed different time courses of venous gases at the onset of exercise. Starting with the rebreathing of carbon dioxide in oxygen mixtures in a small rubber bag, an astonishing range of topics in respiratory physiology was explored, with observations

  18. High-temperature high-pressure gas cleanup with ceramic bag filters. Draft final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shackleton, M.; Chang, R.; Sawyer, J.; Kuby, W.; Turner-Tamiyasu, E.

    1982-12-06

    Advanced processes designed for the efficient use of coal in the production of energy will benefit from, or even depend upon, highly efficient, economical, high-temperature removal systems for fine particulates. In the case of pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC), the hot gas cleanup device must operate at approximately 1600/sup 0/F. Existing commercial filter systems are temperature limited due to the filter material, but ceramic fibers intended for refractory insulation offer the promise of a practical high-temperature filter media if they can be incorporated into a design which combines filter performance with acceptable durability. The current work was initiated to further develop and demonstrate on a larger-scale basis, a ceramic fiber filtration system for application to coal-fired PFBC's. The development effort centered around the need to replace the knit metal wire scrim, used in earlier designs as support for the fine fiber ceramic mat filtration medium, with a corrosion-resistant material. This led to the selection of woven ceramic cloth for support of the mat layer. Because of the substantial difference in strength and other material properties between the metal and ceramic cloth, tests were necessary to optimize the filter; pulse parameters such as pulse duration, pulse pressure, and pulse injection orifice size; woven cloth mesh configuration; the technique for clamping the bag to the support; and similar structural, fluid, and control parameters. The demonstration effort included both tests to prove this concept in a real application and a systems analysis to show commercial feasibility of the ceramic filtration approach for hot gas cleanup in PFBC's. 12 references, 57 figures, 23 tables.

  19. Effects of bagging treatments on fruit quality of Cuiguan pear variety%不同套袋处理对翠冠梨果实品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓庆; 张秀龙; 任节红; 骆军; 张学英; 刘川静; 吴建平; 奚春燕

    2011-01-01

    The pear variety Cuiguan was used as a test material, and effects of different bagging treatments on the fruit quality and appearance were studied.The results showed that bagging decreased the mean fruit weight (except one-time bagging with white bag)and the soluble solids content, and changed the fruit firmness.Bagging also improved the fruit surface brightness, and there were significant differences in carpodermis color between different bagging treatments.The carpodermis showed green when the fruit was bagged with white bag,white when bagged with black bag,and visible fruit rust and dull color when not bagged(CK).Bagging with black bag increased the carpodermis thickness,and bagging with white bag at the early stage made the carpodermis thin.Bagging increased the fruit dot density and decreased the fruit dot diameter.Compared with the fruit bagged with black bag,that bagged with white bag was higher in soluble solids content, smaller in fruit firmness, lower in fruit surface brightness and larger in fruit dot diameter,and had somewhat heavier green and yellow in fruit color under the same bagging period.The fruit bagged later had higher soluble solids content, smaller fruit dot density, larger fruit dot diameter, and somewhat heavier green in carpodermis color.Compared with the fruit bagged twice in the same period,that bagged once had higher soluble solids content, lower fruit surface brightness, lighter green color, smaller fruit dot density, and larger fruit dot diameter.Bagging twice at the early stage could effectively decrease the fruit dot diameter and improve the fruit appearance.%以翠冠梨为试材,研究了套袋处理对果实内在品质和外观的影响.结果表明:套袋降低了平均单果重(套一次白袋除外)和可溶性固形物含量,并改变了果实硬度.套袋提高果面亮度,不同套袋处理果皮色泽差异显著,套白袋果表呈绿色,黑袋呈白色,不套袋果(CK)果锈明显、外观暗淡;套黑袋果皮厚度增

  20. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst...

  1. 不同覆盖与果穗套袋对红地球葡萄的品质效应研究%Research on the Effects of Different Covering and Ear Bagging on the Quality of Red-globe Grape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹李兴; 吴克炎; 占小敏

    2011-01-01

    [目的]为闽北红地球葡萄产业的可持续发展提供技术支持.[方法]通过对红地球葡萄果园采取不同覆盖和套袋组合的对比试验, 探讨闽北遮雨大棚内不同覆盖、不同套袋对红地球葡萄的单果粒重、果粒纵横径大小和果实内含物可溶性固形物含量的影响.[结果]覆盖有利于提高浅层地温,套袋可以降低果实周围的空气温度,不同覆盖物的增温效果与不同套袋的降温效果组合,达到动态平衡是影响红提品质的关键.[结论]在实际生产中,应根据不同情况适当选取覆盖和套袋材料,进一步提高红提葡萄品质,推动闽北红提产业的发展.%[ Objective ] The research aimed to provide technical support for the sustainable development of red-globe grape industry in north areas of Fujian Province. [ Method ] Through the contrast test of different covering and bagging combinations in the red-globe orchard, the effects of different covering and different bagging in the rain-covering greenhouse on the single grain weight, vertical and horizontal size of fruit, soluble solids content in the fruit inclusion of red-globe grape in north areas of Fujian Province were discussed. [ Result] The covering was good to raise the shallow ground temperature. Bagging can lower the air temperature around the fruit. The warming effect of different coverings combined with the cooling effect of different bagging to achieve the balance was the key point affecting the quality of red-globe grape.[ Conclusion] In the actual production, the appropriate covering and bagging materials should be selected according to different situations, so as to further enhance the quality of red-globe grape and promote the development of red-globe grape in the north areas of Fujian.

  2. Aplicabilidade das técnicas de bag squeezing e manobra zeep em pacientes submetidos à ventilação mecânica Applicability of bag squeezing and zeep maneuvers in mechanically ventilated patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Moreira Lima Lobo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a aplicabilidade das manobras de bag squeezing e zeep em pacientes sob ventilação mecânica invasiva. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados vinte pacientes sob ventilação mecânica invasiva e hemodinamicamente estáveis. Os pacientes foram randomizados e alocados em uma das duas sequências de tratamento (bag squeezing ou manobra zeep. A ordem de aplicação da sequência foi invertida após quatro horas. Foram avaliadas frequência cardíaca, frequência respiratória, saturação periférica de oxigênio e pressão arterial, antes, durante e após a execução de cada técnica. A secreção aspirada foi coletada e mensurada. Os dados foram avaliados utilizando análise estatística pareada para comparação entre os dois grupos e ANOVA para comparar os resultados obtidos em cada grupo nas avaliações. RESULTADOS: Houve um aumento significativo na frequência cardíaca, de 92,6 ± 18,3 bpm para 99,8 ± 18,5 bpm e uma redução significativa na saturação periférica de oxigênio, de 96,9 ± 3,0% para 94,5 ± 4,3% durante a aplicação da técnica bag squeezing, embora os valores tenham se mantido dentro da normalidade. Não houve alterações durante a manobra zeep. Quando comparadas as duas técnicas foi encontrado diferença na saturação periférica de oxigênio durante a aplicação das mesmas. Não houve diferença na quantidade de secreção removida. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que ambas as técnicas são viáveis no tocante a sua aplicação, pois causam poucas alterações hemodinâmicas, e ambas as técnicas são eficazes na remoção de secreção brônquica.OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the applicability of the bag squeezing and zeep maneuvers in mechanically ventilated patients. METHODS: Twenty stable mechanically ventilated patients were studied. All patients were randomly allocated to either bag squeezing techinique followed by zeep maneuver, or the reversed sequence. Each group crossed to the other sequence four

  3. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  4. In vitro effect of air-abrasion operating parameters on dynamic cutting characteristics of alumina and bio-active glass powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milly, H; Austin, R S; Thompson, I; Banerjee, A

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive dentistry advocates the maintenance of all repairable tooth structures during operative caries management in combination with remineralization strategies. This study evaluated the effect of air-abrasion operating parameters on its cutting efficiency/pattern using bio-active glass (BAG) powder and alumina powder as a control in order to develop its use as a minimally invasive operative technique. The cutting efficiency/pattern assessment on an enamel analogue, Macor, was preceded by studying the powder flow rate (PFR) of two different commercial intraoral air-abrasion units with differing powder-air admix systems. The parameters tested included air pressure, powder flow rate, nozzle-substrate distance, nozzle angle, shrouding the air stream with a curtain of water, and the chemistry of abrasive powder. The abraded troughs were scanned and analyzed using confocal white light profilometry and MountainsMap surface analysis software. Data were analyzed statistically using one-way and repeated-measures analysis of variance tests (p=0.05). The air-abrasion unit using a vibration mechanism to admix the abrasive powder with the air stream exhibited a constant PFR regardless of the set air pressure. Significant differences in cutting efficiency were observed according to the tested parameters (ppatterns can improve the ultraconservative cutting characteristics of BAG air-abrasion, thereby allowing an introduction of this technology for the controlled cleaning/removal of enamel, where it is indicated clinically. PMID:23718212

  5. Transportation of perishable and refrigerated foods in mylar foil bags and insulated containers: a time-temperature study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Schrade, John P; Su, Haiyan; Specchio, John J

    2014-08-01

    Data are lacking on the temperature changes of food during transport without the use of refrigerated trucks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of several insulated and noninsulated containers with or without frozen gel packs to keep perishable and refrigerated foods within the temperature safe zone in relationship to duration of transport. The study was designed to duplicate the practices exhibited by customers purchasing perishable food products from a cash-and-carry business. Approximately 40 perishable food items were evaluated. Four types of containers were tested: a mylar foil bag, a commercial insulated bag, a generic insulated bag, and a commercial insulated blanket. Mixed foods were placed into these containers with or without frozen gel packs, transported in unrefrigerated vehicles, and monitored for 4 h for temperature changes. Two environmental temperatures, room temperature of 21.1°C and a stress temperature of 37.8°C, were evaluated. The internal temperature and surface temperature of the food products in these containers increased slowly but remained well below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Code requirements. The various containers were similar in their ability to retain coolness. The presence of frozen gel packs dramatically enhanced the cold-holding capacity of the containers. The temperature of foods increased more rapidly when stressed in a heated environment. The containers tested used with the frozen gel packs can keep the surface and internal temperatures of various perishable foods (starting at 4.4°C or less) within the Food Code recommendation of under 21.1°C for 4 h. Cash-and-carry businesses should strongly encourage their retail customers to utilize these containers with frozen gel packs to safely transport perishable foods.

  6. Tea bag filter paper as a novel protective membrane for micro-solid phase extraction of butachlor in aqueous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelden, Tshering; Thammaknet, Chongdee; Thavarungkul, Panote; Kanatharana, Proespichaya

    2014-01-01

    An innovative, cost-effective, simple, and environmental friendly tea bag filter paper protected micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE) technique was developed for the first time with the aim to miniaturize and minimize the use of organic solvents for the extraction and determination of butachlor in aqueous samples. The μ-SPE device was produced by packing 3.0 mg of an easily synthesized new sorbent, hydroxyl-functionalized polypyrrole (OH-PPY), inside a small tea bag filter paper sachet (1.0 cm × 0.5 cm) that served as a protective envelope. Both the extraction and desorption procedures were facilitated by sonication. Due to the high porosity and the fast water absorption of the tea bag filter paper, the analyte could easily diffuse through and enhance the interaction with the sorbent. Under the optimized conditions for the GC-ECD and the μ-SPE, the limit of detection (S/N ≥ 3) was 2.0 μg L(-1) while the limit of quantitation (S/N ≥ 10) was 10.0 μg L(-1). The recoveries of the butachlor spiked at 0.050, 0.10, and 0.50 μg mL(-1) ranged from 77.9 ± 3.0 to 112.5 ± 2.9%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of butachlor in water samples from paddy cultivation sites. The levels found were from non-detectable to 24.71 ± 0.37 μg L(-1).

  7. The improvement of the manufacturing process of a company by the Sigma level: the case of the company BAG (Batna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athmane MECHENENE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This modest work aims to evaluate the performance of the manufacturing process of the company by a new measurement tool, namely the sigma level whose purpose is to quantify the costs inherent in each production process, measure the levels of six Sigma in adjacent processes, to achieve weight calculate DPMO (Defects Per Million Opportunity and thus assess the overall competitiveness of the company. This new tool for measuring the performance of the manufacturing process (sigma level is applied to manufacturing gas cylinders (BAG - Batna.

  8. Development of new biomass-based furan/glass composites manufactured by the double-vacuum-bag technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez, Juan Carlos; Madsen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The present study addresses the development of new biomass-based furan resin/glass fibre composites manufactured by the double-vacuum-bag technique using a two-stage cure cycle to allow removal of water from the resin. The volumetric composition and mechanical properties of the composites...... of conventional thermosetting/glass composites, but with lower strength. The findings of the present study show that a more efficient water removal during manufacturing, a lower porosity content and a less brittle stress–strain behaviour of the furan matrix are to be addressed to further improve the properties...

  9. Effect of Xylopia aethiopica aqueous extract on antioxidant properties of refrigerated Roma tomato variety packaged in low density polyethylene bags

    OpenAIRE

    Babarinde, Grace Oluwakemi; Adegoke, Gabriel O.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Richard aqueous extract on the antioxidants of matured tomato fruits at red stage were investigated at 13 ± 2 °C and 80 ± 5 % relative humidity. A sample treated with sodium bicarbonate and untreated samples were included. Samples packaged in low density polyethylene (30 μm thickness) bags were analysed at intervals of 5 days. The treatments revealed statistically significant differences in ascorbic acid content of stored tomato fruits. Fruits treated ...

  10. In-use Stability of Ceftaroline Fosamil in Elastomeric Home Infusion Systems and MINI-BAG Plus Containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sisir; Parekh, Satish; Dedhiya, Mahendra

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine in-use stability of ceftaroline fosamil infusion solution of concentrations up to 12 mg/mL in elastomeric home infusion system prefilled with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection USP or 5% Dextrose Injection USP and MINI-BAG Plus Container delivery devices prefilled with 0.9% sodium chloride injection. In-use ceftaroline fosamil infusion solution (12 mg/mL) was prepared for elastomeric home infusion systems (Homepump Eclipse, Baxter Intermate, and AccuRx Elastomeric Pump) pre-filled with either 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose; or Baxter MINI-BAG Plus Containers pre-filled with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection USP (4 mg/mL to 12 mg/mL ceftaroline fosamil in final solution). The systems were stored refrigerated for 24 hours followed by up to 6 hours of storage at room temperature. Samples were analyzed at various time points for assay and degradation product by a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. In-use ceftaroline fosamil infusion solution, ranging from 4-mg/mL to a maximum of 12-mg/mL concentration, in elastomeric home infusion systems prefilled with 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose, and MINI-BAG Plus Containers prefilled with 0.9% sodium chloride injection were chemically stable for up to 24 hours refrigerated at 2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F) and up to 6 hours at room temperature and had acceptable compatibility with material used. Ceftaroline fosamil (4 mg/mL to 12 mg/mL) maintains its potency for up to 24 hours refrigerated at 2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F) and up to 6 hours of storage at room temperature upon reconstitution in infusion solution with 0.9% sodium chloride or 5% dextrose when used in elastomeric home infusion system and MINI-BAG Plus Containers delivery devices prefilled with 0.9% sodium chloride injection. PMID:26775451

  11. Association between polymorphisms of BAG-1 and XPD and chemotherapy sensitivity in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with vinorelbine combined cisplatin regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Wang, Ya-Di; Cheng, Jian; Chen, Jun-Chen; Ha, Min-Wen

    2015-12-01

    BCL-2 Associated athanogene 1 (BAG-1) and Xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) are involved in the nucleotide excision repair pathway and DNA repair. We aimed to investigate whether polymorphisms in BAG-1 and XPD have effects on chemotherapy sensitivity and survival in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with vinorelbine combined cisplatin (NP) regimen. A total of 142 patients with diagnosed advanced NSCLC were recruited in the current study. NP regimen was applied for all eligible patients. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used for BAG-1 (codon 324) and XPD (codons 312 and 751) genotyping. The treatment response was evaluated according to the RECIST guidelines. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were record as median and end point, respectively. As for BAG-1 codon 324, the chemotherapy sensitivity in NSCLC patients with CT genotype was 0.383 times of those with CC genotype (P < 0.05). With respect to XPD codon 751, the chemotherapy sensitivity in NSCLC patients with Lys/Gln genotype was 0.400 times of those with Lys/Lys genotype (P < 0.05). In addition, NSCLC patients carrying combined C/C genotype at codon 324 in BAG-1, Asp/Asp of XPD codon 312, and Lys/Lys of XPD codon 751 produced a higher efficacy of NP chemotherapy compared to those carrying mutation genotypes (all P < 0.05). Further, there were significant differences in PFS between patients with combined C/C genotype of BAG-1 codon 324, Lys/Lys genotype of XPD codon 751, and Asp/Asp genotype of XPD codon 312 and patients carrying BAG-1 codon 324 C/T genotype, XPD codon751 Lys/Gln genotype, and XPD codon312 Asp/Asn genotype (P < 0.05). Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that the combined wild-type of codon 324 XPD, codon 751 XPD, and codon 312 BAG-1 is the protective factor for OS and PFS, and clinical stages is the risk factor for OS and PFS. In conclusion, our research

  12. Source of the Kerr-Newman solution as a gravitating bag model: 50 years of the problem of the source of the Kerr solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burinskii, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    It is known that gravitational and electromagnetic fields of an electron are described by the ultra-extreme Kerr-Newman (KN) black hole solution with extremely high spin/mass ratio. This solution is singular and has a topological defect, the Kerr singular ring, which may be regularized by introducing the solitonic source based on the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking. The source represents a domain wall bubble interpolating between the flat region inside the bubble and external KN solution. It was shown recently that the source represents a supersymmetric bag model, and its structure is unambiguously determined by Bogomolnyi equations. The Dirac equation is embedded inside the bag consistently with twistor structure of the Kerr geometry, and acquires the mass from the Yukawa coupling with Higgs field. The KN bag turns out to be flexible, and for parameters of an electron, it takes the form of very thin disk with a circular string placed along sharp boundary of the disk. Excitation of this string by a traveling wave creates a circulating singular pole, indicating that the bag-like source of KN solution unifies the dressed and point-like electron in a single bag-string-quark system.

  13. SGTA Recognizes a Noncanonical Ubiquitin-like Domain in the Bag6-Ubl4A-Trc35 Complex to Promote Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Xu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Elimination of aberrantly folded polypeptides from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER by the ER-associated degradation (ERAD system promotes cell survival under stress conditions. This quality control mechanism requires movement of misfolded proteins across the ER membrane for targeting to the cytosolic proteasome, a process facilitated by a “holdase” complex, consisting of Bag6 and the cofactors Ubl4A and Trc35. This multiprotein complex also participates in several other protein quality control processes. Here, we report SGTA as a component of the Bag6 system, which cooperates with Bag6 to channel dislocated ERAD substrates that are prone to aggregation. Using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and biochemical assays, we demonstrate that SGTA contains a noncanonical ubiquitin-like-binding domain that interacts specifically with an unconventional ubiquitin-like protein/domain in Ubl4A at least in part via electrostatics. This interaction helps recruit SGTA to Bag6, enhances substrate loading to Bag6, and thus prevents the formation of nondegradable protein aggregates in ERAD.

  14. [Erythrocyte removal from bone marrow by density gradient separation using the COBE 2991 cell processor with the triple-bag processing set].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellesso-Fleury, S; Rage, C; Tschaggeny, F; Gaudé, J; Gomez, M; Bourin, P

    2009-03-01

    ABO-incompatible bone marrow transplantation requires red blood cell depletion. Lots of laboratory adopted the technique of density gradient centrifugation (Ficoll-hypaque) using the COBE 2991 cell processor with simple-bag processing set. However, tubing of this set is not adapted to the currently available peristaltic pumps. Moreover, two other sets are required: one for the buffy-coat and one for postgradient cell washing. We developed a method using triple-bag processing set to conduct whole-step procedure (concentration, Ficoll and washing). Peristaltic PVC tubing is provided in one line of the set allowing a safe processing without several connections thus reducing risks of microbial contamination. First, we used buffy-coat of total blood for training, then, we carried out red cell depletion of healthy bone marrow donors. The red blood cell depletion was 97.9+/-1.1% and CD34+ recovery was 89.6+/-8.7%. These results are very close to those obtained with the simple-bag set (red cell depletion.=94.0+/-6.8% and CD34+ recovery=95.9+/-20.3%). We conclude that the triple-bag system, very little used in France, is practical, simplified the manipulation and is more safety than the simple-bag set.

  15. AirData

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about...

  16. R9 Air Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Region 9 Air Districts layer is a compilation of polygons representing the California Air Pollution Control and Air Quality Management Districts, Arizona Air...

  17. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Hazardous Air Pollutants Hazardous air pollutants are those known to cause ... protect against adverse environmental effects. About Hazardous Air Pollutants What are hazardous air pollutants? Health and Environmental ...

  18. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  19. A Surveillance Function of the HSPB8-BAG3-HSP70 Chaperone Complex Ensures Stress Granule Integrity and Dynamism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganassi, Massimo; Mateju, Daniel; Bigi, Ilaria; Mediani, Laura; Poser, Ina; Lee, Hyun O; Seguin, Samuel J; Morelli, Federica F; Vinet, Jonathan; Leo, Giuseppina; Pansarasa, Orietta; Cereda, Cristina; Poletti, Angelo; Alberti, Simon; Carra, Serena

    2016-09-01

    Stress granules (SGs) are ribonucleoprotein complexes induced by stress. They sequester mRNAs and disassemble when the stress subsides, allowing translation restoration. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), aberrant SGs cannot disassemble and therefore accumulate and are degraded by autophagy. However, the molecular events causing aberrant SG formation and the molecular players regulating this transition are largely unknown. We report that defective ribosomal products (DRiPs) accumulate in SGs and promote a transition into an aberrant state that renders SGs resistant to RNase. We show that only a minor fraction of aberrant SGs is targeted by autophagy, whereas the majority disassembles in a process that requires assistance by the HSPB8-BAG3-HSP70 chaperone complex. We further demonstrate that HSPB8-BAG3-HSP70 ensures the functionality of SGs and restores proteostasis by targeting DRiPs for degradation. We propose a system of chaperone-mediated SG surveillance, or granulostasis, which regulates SG composition and dynamics and thus may play an important role in ALS. PMID:27570075

  20. Bayesian peak bagging analysis of 19 low-mass low-luminosity red giants observed with Kepler

    CERN Document Server

    Corsaro, E; García, R A

    2015-01-01

    The currently available Kepler light curves contain an outstanding amount of information but a detailed analysis of the individual oscillation modes in the observed power spectra, also known as peak bagging, is computationally demanding and challenging to perform on a large number of targets. Our intent is to perform for the first time a peak bagging analysis on a sample of 19 low-mass low-luminosity red giants observed by Kepler for more than four years. This allows us to provide high-quality asteroseismic measurements that can be exploited for an intensive testing of the physics used in stellar structure models, stellar evolution and pulsation codes, as well as for refining existing asteroseismic scaling relations in the red giant branch regime. For this purpose, powerful and sophisticated analysis tools are needed. We exploit the Bayesian code Diamonds, using an efficient nested sampling Monte Carlo algorithm, to perform both a fast fitting of the individual oscillation modes and a peak detection test base...

  1. Comparative studies of indoor radon concentration levels in Jordan using CR-39 based bag and cup dosimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, N; Matiullah; Khatibeh, A J

    1998-07-01

    Indoor radon concentration levels have been measured in 9 major cities of Jordan using CR(-3)9 detectors placed in punched polyethylene bags to measure both radon and thoron, and in cups to measure radon only. The average value of indoor radon and thoron concentration levels measured with bag dosimeters vary from 32 to 107 Bq m(-3) and the indoor radon concentration levels measured with cup dosimeters vary from 27 to 88 Bq m(-3). The indoor radon concentration levels in Irbid and Zaraka are comparable to the world average of 27 Bq m(-3). In Ajloun, Jerash, Salt, Tafilah and Amman, the indoor radon levels are greater than the world average by a factor of up to 2, and in Madaba and Karak these levels are greater than the world average by a factor of more than 3. The large variation in the measured radon levels may be attributed to the large variation in the 226Ra activity in the soil of the region. PMID:9645667

  2. CO2 sequestration using accelerated gas-solid carbonation of pre-treated EAF steel-making bag house dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naas, Muftah H; El Gamal, Maisa; Hameedi, Suhaib; Mohamed, Abdel-Mohsen O

    2015-06-01

    Mineral CO2 sequestration is a promising process for the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. In this paper, alkaline calcium-rich dust particles collected from bag filters of electric arc furnaces (EAF) for steel making were utilized as a viable raw material for mineral CO2 sequestration. The dust particles were pre-treated through hydration, drying and screening. The pre-treated particles were then subjected to direct gas-solid carbonation reaction in a fluidized-bed reactor. The carbonated products were characterized to determine the overall sequestration capacity and the mineralogical structures. Leaching tests were also performed to measure the extracted minerals from the carbonated dust and evaluate the carbonation process on dust stabilization. The experimental results indicated that CO2 could be sequestered using the pre-treated bag house dust. The maximum sequestration of CO2 was 0.657 kg/kg of dust, based on the total calcium content. The highest degree of carbonation achieved was 42.5% and the carbonation efficiency was 69% at room temperature.

  3. Comparative studies of indoor radon concentration levels in Jordan using CR-39 based bag and cup dosimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, N; Matiullah; Khatibeh, A J

    1998-07-01

    Indoor radon concentration levels have been measured in 9 major cities of Jordan using CR(-3)9 detectors placed in punched polyethylene bags to measure both radon and thoron, and in cups to measure radon only. The average value of indoor radon and thoron concentration levels measured with bag dosimeters vary from 32 to 107 Bq m(-3) and the indoor radon concentration levels measured with cup dosimeters vary from 27 to 88 Bq m(-3). The indoor radon concentration levels in Irbid and Zaraka are comparable to the world average of 27 Bq m(-3). In Ajloun, Jerash, Salt, Tafilah and Amman, the indoor radon levels are greater than the world average by a factor of up to 2, and in Madaba and Karak these levels are greater than the world average by a factor of more than 3. The large variation in the measured radon levels may be attributed to the large variation in the 226Ra activity in the soil of the region.

  4. BAG-1/SODD, HSP70, and HSP90 are potential prognostic markers of poor survival in node-negative breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ben; Valborg Reinertsen, Kristin; Trinh, Don; Reed, Wenche; Bøhler, Per Johannes

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the expression and clinical role of 13 signaling molecules in a large cohort of breast carcinoma patients with long follow-up period. Breast carcinomas (n=410) were analyzed for protein expression of phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinases (p-ERK, p-JNK, p-p38) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathway proteins (p-AKT, p-mTOR, p-p70S6K); the BAG family proteins BAG-1 and BAG-4/SODD; the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2; the inhibitor of apoptosis family member Survivin; and the heat shock protein family members HSP27, HSP70, and HSP90. Protein expression was studied for association with clinicopathological parameters and survival. Significantly higher expression of p-AKT (Pmarkers in node-negative breast carcinoma that merit further research. PMID:27038683

  5. Ethylene antagonizes salt-induced growth retardation and cell death process via transcriptional controlling of ethylene-, BAG- and senescence-associated genes in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YaJie ePan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The existing question whether ethylene is involved in the modulation of salt-induced cell death to mediate plant salt tolerance is important for understanding the salt tolerance mechanisms. Here, we employed Arabidopsis plants to study the possible role of ethylene in salt-induced growth inhibition and programmed cell death (PCD profiles. The root length, DNA ladder and cell death indicated by Evan’s blue detection were measured by compared to the control or salt-stressed seedlings. Secondly, the protoplasts isolated from plant leaves and dyed with Annexin V-FITC were subjected to flow cytometric (FCM assay. Our results showed that ethylene works effectively in seedling protoplasts, antagonizing salt-included root retardation and restraining cell death both in seedlings or protoplasts. Due to salinity, the entire or partial insensitivity of ethylene signaling resulted in an elevated levels of cell death in ein2-5 and ein3-1 plants and the event were amended in ctr1-1 plants after salt treatment. The subsequent experiment with exogenous ACC further corroborated that ethylene could modulate salt-induced PCD process actively. Plant Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG family genes are recently identified to play an extensive role in plant PCD processes ranging from growth, development to stress responses and even cell death. Our result showed that salinity alone significantly suppressed the transcripts of BAG6, BAG7 and addition of ACC in the saline solution could obviously re-activate BAG6 and BAG7 expressions, which might play a key role to inhibit the salt-induced cell death. In summary, our research implies that ethylene and salinity antagonistically control BAG family-, ethylene-, and senescence-related genes to alleviate the salt-induced cell death.

  6. Ethylene Antagonizes Salt-Induced Growth Retardation and Cell Death Process via Transcriptional Controlling of Ethylene-, BAG- and Senescence-Associated Genes in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ya-Jie; Liu, Ling; Lin, Ying-Chao; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Li, Lei-Peng; Tang, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The existing question whether ethylene is involved in the modulation of salt-induced cell death to mediate plant salt tolerance is important for understanding the salt tolerance mechanisms. Here, we employed Arabidopsis plants to study the possible role of ethylene in salt-induced growth inhibition and programmed cell death (PCD) profiles. The root length, DNA ladder and cell death indicated by Evan's blue detection were measured by compared to the control or salt-stressed seedlings. Secondly, the protoplasts isolated from plant leaves and dyed with Annexin V-FITC were subjected to flow cytometric (FCM) assay. Our results showed that ethylene works effectively in seedling protoplasts, antagonizing salt-included root retardation and restraining cell death both in seedlings or protoplasts. Due to salinity, the entire or partial insensitivity of ethylene signaling resulted in an elevated levels of cell death in ein2-5 and ein3-1 plants and the event were amended in ctr1-1 plants after salt treatment. The subsequent experiment with exogenous ACC further corroborated that ethylene could modulate salt-induced PCD process actively. Plant Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG) family genes are recently identified to play an extensive role in plant PCD processes ranging from growth, development to stress responses and even cell death. Our result showed that salinity alone significantly suppressed the transcripts of BAG6, BAG7 and addition of ACC in the saline solution could obviously re-activate BAG6 and BAG7 expressions, which might play a key role to inhibit the salt-induced cell death. In summary, our research implies that ethylene and salinity antagonistically control BAG family-, ethylene-, and senescence-related genes to alleviate the salt-induced cell death. PMID:27242886

  7. Technical hazards of using nutritive mixtures in bags for cyclical intravenous nutrition: comparison with standard intravenous nutrition in 48 gastroenterological patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Messing, B.; Beliah, M; Girard-Pipau, F; Leleve, D; Bernier, J J

    1982-01-01

    Three methods for dispensing nutritional solutions are compared in 48 patients with gastrointestinal diseases on intravenous nutrition during 3582 days. The protocol for intravenous nutrition applied by the nursing team and the solutions used were the same in the three groups. In group A standard bottles were used, while in group B, 31PVC-disposable bags were used--with fat emulsion included (group B1) or with fat excluded (group B2). When fat was excluded from the bags it was infused separat...

  8. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... humidity (30, 40 and 70%) and pollution level (low and high). Most of the experiments were performed with and without facially applied airflow at elevated velocity. The importance of the use of recirculated room air and clean, cool and dry outdoor air was studied. The exposures ranged from 60. min to 235....... min. Acceptability of PAQ and freshness of the air improved when air movement was applied. The elevated air movement diminished the negative impact of increased air temperature, relative humidity and pollution level on PAQ. The degree of improvement depended on the pollution level, the temperature...

  9. Effects of Bagging on the Pericarpial Coloration of ‘Irwin' Mango During Fruit Development%套袋对Irwin芒果果实发育过程中果皮着色的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马小卫; 邢姗姗; 王松标; 姚全胜; 詹儒林; 武红霞; 马蔚红

    2011-01-01

    Irwin mango was used to study the effects of bagging on the peel pigment and peel color during fruit growth and development. The results showed that the content of the pericarp chlorophyll, carotenoid, anthocyanin and flavonoid of mango bagged with composite paper bags (yellow outside and black inside) were significantly lower than that of no bagged fruits and white single bagged fruits. The peel lightness of fruits with composite bags (yellow outside and black inside) was significantly higher than that of no bagged fruits, while chroma was significantly lower than that of no bagged fruits.%研究套袋对Irwin芒果果实发育过程中果皮色素与果皮色泽的影响.结果表明,套袋(外黄内黑复合纸袋)显著降低了 Irwin芒果果实发育过程中果皮叶绿素、类胡萝卜素、花青苷和类黄酮含量,套袋处理(外黄内黑复合纸袋)的果皮亮度显著高于未套袋果,色彩浓度显著低于未套袋果.

  10. Kinetic water-bag model of global collisional drift waves and ion temperature gradient instabilities in cylindrical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collisional drift waves and ion temperature gradient (ITG) instabilities are studied using a linear water-bag kinetic model [P. Morel et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 112109 (2007)]. An efficient spectral method, already validated in the case of drift waves instabilities [E. Gravier et al., Eur. Phys. J. D 67, 7 (2013)], allows a fast solving of the global linear problem in cylindrical geometry. The comparison between the linear ITG instability properties thus computed and the ones given by the COLUMBIA experiment [R. G. Greaves et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 34, 1253 (1992)] shows a qualitative agreement. Moreover, the transition between collisional drift waves and ITG instabilities is studied theoretically as a function of the ion temperature profile.

  11. New theropod, thyreophoran, and small sauropod tracks from the Middle Jurassic Bagå Formation, Bornholm, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milàn, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Three new dinosaur tracks are described from the Middle Jurassic Bagå Formation of Bornholm, Denmark. The tracks are all preserved as natural casts on the underside of fluvial sandstone blocks originating from the old Hasle Klinkefabrik’s clay pit, now called Pyritsøen. The new tracks are from...... a medium-sized theropod, a thyreophoran, and a small sauropod. Together with a hyreophoran track and large sauropod tracks described in 2005, the Middle Jurassic dinosaur fauna of Bornholm now comprises theropods, two sizes of sauropods and at least one type of thyreophoran dinosaur. This is important...... additional data for the very scarce Middle Jurassic dinosaurian skeletal record of Europe....

  12. Characterization of the Etna volcanic emissions through an active biomonitoring technique (moss-bags): part 2--morphological and mineralogical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, S; D'Alessandro, W

    2015-01-01

    Volcanic emissions were studied at Mount Etna (Italy) by using moss-bags technique. Mosses were exposed around the volcano at different distances from the active vents to evaluate the impact of volcanic emissions in the atmosphere. Morphology and mineralogy of volcanic particulate intercepted by mosses were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Particles emitted during passive degassing activity from the two active vents, Bocca Nuova and North East Crater (BNC and NEC), were identified as silicates, sulfates and halide compounds. In addition to volcanic particles, we found evidences also of geogenic, anthropogenic and marine spray input. The study has shown the robustness of this active biomonitoring technique to collect particles, very useful in active volcanic areas characterized by continuous degassing and often not easily accessible to apply conventional sampling techniques.

  13. Financial technical indicator based on chaotic bagging predictors for adaptive stock selection in Japanese and American markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomoya; Ohkura, Yuushi

    2016-01-01

    In order to examine the predictability and profitability of financial markets, we introduce three ideas to improve the traditional technical analysis to detect investment timings more quickly. Firstly, a nonlinear prediction model is considered as an effective way to enhance this detection power by learning complex behavioral patterns hidden in financial markets. Secondly, the bagging algorithm can be applied to quantify the confidence in predictions and compose new technical indicators. Thirdly, we also introduce how to select more profitable stocks to improve investment performance by the two-step selection: the first step selects more predictable stocks during the learning period, and then the second step adaptively and dynamically selects the most confident stock showing the most significant technical signal in each investment. Finally, some investment simulations based on real financial data show that these ideas are successful in overcoming complex financial markets.

  14. Determination of phthalate esters in polyvinyl chloride infusion bag by stir bar sorptive extraction combined with GC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meng; Dai, Jinna; Wang, Xiaofan; Zhao, Xu; Bi, Kaishun; Chen, Xiaohui

    2012-12-01

    A novel, efficient, and sensitive stir bar sorptive extraction method coupled with GC for the detection of four kinds of phthalate esters in plasticized polyvinyl chloride infusion bag has been developed and validated. Some experimental parameters including stirring speed, stirring time, pH value, salt concentration, desorption mode, desorption solvents, and desorption time were investigated and optimized. Under optimum condition, the validated assay was found to be linear (r > 0.9945) and LODs were between 1.07 and 2.67 ng for the four analytes. The method exhibited excellent precision with RSD varied from 4.5 to 6.1% (n = 5). The recoveries of the four phthalate esters at two different concentrations ranged from 80.5 to 93.4%. The results showed that the validated method could meet the need of determination of targets and was successfully applied to the analysis of phthalate esters in real samples.

  15. Dust extraction from gas in cement kilns, using bag filters; Depoussierage des gaz de four cimentier par les filtres a manches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmegnies, M. [CALCIA, 78 - Guerville (France). Direction Technique

    1996-12-31

    After a review of regulations concerning cement plant emissions, the two main cement production techniques (dry and semi-dry processes) are described and the electrostatic and bag filter de-dusting techniques are compared. Examples of pilot applications of these techniques in two French cement plants are presented and operating results (performances, transient procedures, costs) are discussed

  16. Use of the mobile nylon bag technique for determination of apparent ileal digestibilities of crude protein and amino acids in feedstuffs for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, T; Bornholdt, U; Sauer, W C;

    2011-01-01

    /l at pH 2.0 and 37°C for 4 h. In the 28-day in vivo experiment, 15 nylon bags per pig and day were inserted through the duodenal cannula and collected through the PVTC cannula after passage through the small intestine. Coefficients of AID were calculated based on the disappearance of CP and AA from...

  17. Indigenous children nearby plantations with chlorpyrifos-treated bags have elevated 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) urinary concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel de Joode, van B.; Barraza-Ruiz, D.A.; Ruepert, C.; Mora, A.M.; Córdoba, L.; Öberg, M.; Wesseling, C.; Mergler, D.; Lindh, C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The US Environmental Protection Agency voluntary phased-out residential use of chlorpyrifos in 2001. In contrast, in Costa Rica, chlorpyrifos-treated bags are increasingly used to protect banana and plantain fruits from insects and to fulfill product standards, even in populated areas. O

  18. Filling a Plastic Bag with Carbon Dioxide: A Student-Designed Guided-Inquiry Lab for Advanced Placement and College Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanni, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    A guided-inquiry lab, suitable for first-year general chemistry or high school advanced placement chemistry, is presented that uses only inexpensive, store-bought materials. The reaction of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) with aqueous acetic acid (vinegar), under the constraint of the challenge to completely fill a sealable plastic bag with the…

  19. Development of Material-bags Handling and Palletizing Robot%物料袋堆垛搬运机器人的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张龙骞; 杜远霜; 斯伟泽; 方万骏; 潘虹燕; 李思益

    2015-01-01

    针对物料袋在堆垛搬运过程中存在的现实问题,设计开发了一种物料袋堆垛搬运机器人。分析了物料袋“点到点”搬运堆垛要求、机器人操作空间及搬运路径。采用“3个直线+1个旋转+1个手爪”张合运动,使得机器人具有“抓取、提拿、搬挪、摆放”功能动作,从而实现物料袋搬运、堆垛要求。%With regard to the practical problems in material bags palletizing and handling process,we designed and developed a material - bags handling and palletizing robot.Analyses have been made on the material bags “point to point”palletizing handling requirements,operating space and handling path of the robot. Using the open and close movement of “three-straight + one-rotary + one paw”,the robot could achieve the“seizing,lifting,moving and putting”function,thus meeting the requirements of material-bags handling and palletizing.

  20. Comparison of the effectiveness of painting onto the hand and immersing the hand in a bag, in pre-operative skin preparation of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incoll, I W; Saravanja, D; Thorvaldson, K T; Small, T

    2009-06-01

    The main goal of pre-operative skin preparation is to reduce the risk of postoperative wound infections by removing transient and commensal organisms from the skin. The aim of this study was to compare two methods of application of antiseptic solution in their effectiveness in removing these organisms from the skin. Fifty volunteers participated in the study. In 25 patients, the left hand was prepared using a standard paint technique and the right hand using the bag technique; in the other 25 the right was painted and the left was prepared using the bag technique. Three areas of the hand were examined: the paronychium of the thumb, the second web space and the hyponychium of the middle finger. Bacterial cultures were assessed after 5 days for growth. The bag technique proved better at removing organisms from the skin when comparing each site, and when comparing the total number of colony forming units (P = 0.002 for the thumb, P = 0.013 for the second web space and P = 0.003 for the middle finger). We concluded that pre-operative application of povidoneiodine to a hand using a non-sterile bag technique is more effective in removing skin organisms than the standard paint technique.

  1. Genome-wide Studies of Copy Number Variation and Exome Sequencing Identify Rare Variants in BAG3 as a Cause of Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Nadine; Li, Duanxiang; Rieder, Mark J.; Siegfried, Jill D.; Rampersaud, Evadnie; Züchner, Stephan; Mangos, Steve; Gonzalez-Quintana, Jorge; Wang, Libin; McGee, Sean; Reiser, Jochen; Martin, Eden; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Hershberger, Ray E.

    2011-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy commonly causes heart failure and is the most frequent precipitating cause of heart transplantation. Familial dilated cardiomyopathy has been shown to be caused by rare variant mutations in more than 30 genes but only ∼35% of its genetic cause has been identified, principally by using linkage-based or candidate gene discovery approaches. In a multigenerational family with autosomal dominant transmission, we employed whole-exome sequencing in a proband and three of his affected family members, and genome-wide copy number variation in the proband and his affected father and unaffected mother. Exome sequencing identified 428 single point variants resulting in missense, nonsense, or splice site changes. Genome-wide copy number analysis identified 51 insertion deletions and 440 copy number variants > 1 kb. Of these, a 8733 bp deletion, encompassing exon 4 of the heat shock protein cochaperone BCL2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3), was found in seven affected family members and was absent in 355 controls. To establish the relevance of variants in this protein class in genetic DCM, we sequenced the coding exons in BAG3 in 311 other unrelated DCM probands and identified one frameshift, two nonsense, and four missense rare variants absent in 355 control DNAs, four of which were familial and segregated with disease. Knockdown of bag3 in a zebrafish model recapitulated DCM and heart failure. We conclude that new comprehensive genomic approaches have identified rare variants in BAG3 as causative of DCM. PMID:21353195

  2. Oxygenation with T-piece versus self-inflating bag for ventilation of extremely preterm infants at birth: a randomized controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dawson, Jennifer A

    2011-06-01

    To investigate whether infants < 29 weeks gestation who receive positive pressure ventilation (PPV) immediately after birth with a T-piece have higher oxygen saturation (SpO₂) measurements at 5 minutes than infants ventilated with a self inflating bag (SIB).

  3. Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protect yourself and your family. Learn more Air Quality at Work Workers should breathe easy while on the job, but worksites with poor air quality put employees at risk. Healthy air is essential ...

  4. Air protection. Ochrana ovzdusia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siska, F.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses problems of air pollution control, air pollution abatement and effects of air pollution. Air pollution caused by black and brown coal combustion, by fossil-fuel power plants and by coking plants is evaluated. Air pollution by dusts, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, ammonia as well arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, chromium, gallium, cobalt, manganese, copper, nickel, lead, plutonium, titanium and vanadium, which sometimes accompany ashes in coal, is analyzed. Methods of air pollution abatement such as fluidized bed combustion, coal preparation, desulfurization or dry coke quenching are described. Systems for air pollution control are presented: air filtration, cyclones, electrostatic precipitators. Systems of air pollution measurement and recording are evaluated. Propagation of air pollutants in the atmosphere as well as the factors which influence pollutant propagation are characterized. Problems associated with site selection for fossil-fuel power plants are also discussed. An analysis of economic aspects of air pollution abatement and air pollution control is made. (55 refs.)

  5. HEPA air filter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  6. Bad Air Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Bad Air Day Air Quality and Your Health In many parts of the country, summer has the worst air quality of any season. When the forecast says ...

  7. An efficient large-scale retroviral transduction method involving preloading the vector into a RetroNectin-coated bag with low-temperature shaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodo, Katsuyuki; Chono, Hideto; Saito, Naoki; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Tahara, Kenichi; Nukaya, Ikuei; Mineno, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    In retroviral vector-mediated gene transfer, transduction efficiency can be hampered by inhibitory molecules derived from the culture fluid of virus producer cell lines. To remove these inhibitory molecules to enable better gene transduction, we had previously developed a transduction method using a fibronectin fragment-coated vessel (i.e., the RetroNectin-bound virus transduction method). In the present study, we developed a method that combined RetroNectin-bound virus transduction with low-temperature shaking and applied this method in manufacturing autologous retroviral-engineered T cells for adoptive transfer gene therapy in a large-scale closed system. Retroviral vector was preloaded into a RetroNectin-coated bag and incubated at 4°C for 16 h on a reciprocating shaker at 50 rounds per minute. After the supernatant was removed, activated T cells were added to the bag. The bag transduction method has the advantage of increasing transduction efficiency, as simply flipping over the bag during gene transduction facilitates more efficient utilization of the retroviral vector adsorbed on the top and bottom surfaces of the bag. Finally, we performed validation runs of endoribonuclease MazF-modified CD4(+) T cell manufacturing for HIV-1 gene therapy and T cell receptor-modified T cell manufacturing for MAGE-A4 antigen-expressing cancer gene therapy and achieved over 200-fold (≥ 10(10)) and 100-fold (≥ 5 × 10(9)) expansion, respectively. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the large-scale closed transduction system is highly efficient for retroviral vector-based T cell manufacturing for adoptive transfer gene therapy, and this technology is expected to be amenable to automation and improve current clinical gene therapy protocols.

  8. An efficient large-scale retroviral transduction method involving preloading the vector into a RetroNectin-coated bag with low-temperature shaking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuyuki Dodo

    Full Text Available In retroviral vector-mediated gene transfer, transduction efficiency can be hampered by inhibitory molecules derived from the culture fluid of virus producer cell lines. To remove these inhibitory molecules to enable better gene transduction, we had previously developed a transduction method using a fibronectin fragment-coated vessel (i.e., the RetroNectin-bound virus transduction method. In the present study, we developed a method that combined RetroNectin-bound virus transduction with low-temperature shaking and applied this method in manufacturing autologous retroviral-engineered T cells for adoptive transfer gene therapy in a large-scale closed system. Retroviral vector was preloaded into a RetroNectin-coated bag and incubated at 4°C for 16 h on a reciprocating shaker at 50 rounds per minute. After the supernatant was removed, activated T cells were added to the bag. The bag transduction method has the advantage of increasing transduction efficiency, as simply flipping over the bag during gene transduction facilitates more efficient utilization of the retroviral vector adsorbed on the top and bottom surfaces of the bag. Finally, we performed validation runs of endoribonuclease MazF-modified CD4(+ T cell manufacturing for HIV-1 gene therapy and T cell receptor-modified T cell manufacturing for MAGE-A4 antigen-expressing cancer gene therapy and achieved over 200-fold (≥ 10(10 and 100-fold (≥ 5 × 10(9 expansion, respectively. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the large-scale closed transduction system is highly efficient for retroviral vector-based T cell manufacturing for adoptive transfer gene therapy, and this technology is expected to be amenable to automation and improve current clinical gene therapy protocols.

  9. Socio-Demographic Determinants and Morbidity Profile of People Engaged in Bag Making Occupation in an Urban Slum of Mumbai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purushottam A Giri, Pawan V Meshram, Abhiram M Kasbe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bag making is a kind of occupation which comes under unorganized sector. An occupation is always associated with some risk which can account to health hazard. Bag makers are also not an exception to this rule. Objectives: A present study was conducted to assess the socio-demographic determinants and morbidity profile among bag makers. Material and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in the field practice area (cheetah camp urban health centre of the T. N. Medical College, Mumbai during the period of March 2008 to August 2009. A total 800 bag makers from cheetah camp area were interviewed and examined. A pre-tested interview tool was used to collect necessary information such as clinical history, socio-demographic profile, clinical examination findings and investigations performed. Results were analysed using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS version -17.0. Results: In the present study, out of the 800 study participants taken in to consideration, 95.9% were males and 4.1% were females. Musculoskeletal problems were most predominant, seen in 76.3% participants followed by skin problems (40.9%, while 30.3% participants presented with gastrointestinal and 17.3% with respiratory ailment. Thirty three percent workers had ocular morbidity and injuries were observed in 26.3% workers including minor injuries such as cuts and abrasions. Conclusion: In this study, large proportion of workers suffered from work related symptomatic morbidities mainly of musculoskeletal problems, followed by skin, eye, gastrointestinal and respiratory problems. Bag makers should be educated regarding their work related health hazards so that they are detected at the earliest and proper treatment can be initiated.

  10. The Effects of Bag Style on Muscle Activity of the Trapezius, Erector Spinae and Latissimus Dorsi During Walking in Female University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardie Rebecca

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Back pain is common in adolescents which has been associated with carrying a bag. However, there is little research examining the effects of bag style in female adolescents. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of different bag conditions on muscle activity of the trapezius, erector spinae and latissimus dorsi muscles in female university students during walking. Twelve female university students walked on a treadmill for 5 minutes at 1.1 m/s during five conditions; control, 1 strapped rucksack, 2 strapped rucksack, ipsilateral shoulder strap and contralateral shoulder strap, each containing 10% bodyweight. Electromyography for the trapezius, erector spinae and latissimus dorsi was recorded for the last 30 s of each condition. Two-way ANOVA and paired t-tests were used to identify differences between right and left muscles and between bag conditions. Results showed that muscle activity of the left trapezius was significantly higher than the right trapezius during the 1 strap rucksack condition. For the left trapezius, the 2 strapped rucksack and the control condition had significantly lower muscle activity compared to the 1 strapped rucksack and the ipsilateral shoulder strap. For the left erector spinae muscle, there was significantly greater muscle activity when wearing the contralateral shoulder strap compared to the control. For the right erector spinae, significantly lower muscle activity was observed when wearing the 2 strapped rucksack compared to the ipsilateral shoulder strap and contralateral shoulder strap. There were no significant differences in muscle activity of the latissimus dorsi muscles between any of the bag conditions. These findings suggest that a two strapped rucksack should be used when carrying loads to reduce spinal muscle activity which may, in turn, reduce reports of back pain in female adolescents.

  11. Forureneren bag forureneren og skadevolderen bag skadevolderen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer, i hvilket omfang et moderselskab eller et søsterselskab eller en hovedaktionær kan blive ansvarlig på objektivt grundlag, såkaldt hæftelsesgennembrud, for skade forvoldt af et andet selskab, herunder i tilfælde af miljøskader. De kriterier, der skal være opfyldt, for at der k...

  12. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  13. Aspectos epidemiológicos do Rhodococcus equi em eqüinos do Município de Bagé, RS, Brasil Epidemiological aspects of Rhodococcus equi in horses from Bagé county, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lazzari

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o intuito de obter informações epidemiológicas sobre o Rhodococcus equi (R. equi em seis haras do município de Bagé, estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Foram coletadas 36 amostras de solo superficial e 143 de fezes de eqüinos, sendo semeadas em meio seletivo para o R. equi (NANAT e incubadas em aerobiose a 37°C por até 72 horas. Também foi coletada amostra de solo para determinação de pH e matéria orgânica (MO de cada haras. A identificação do R. equi baseou-se na pesquisa do "fator equi" e características morfológicas, tintoriais e bioquímicas. Isolou-se o microrganismo de 75% (27/36 das amostras de solo superficial e 66,43% (95/143 das amostras de fezes de eqüinos. O isolamento do R. equi em 100% dos haras analisados comprova a disseminação desta bactéria na região estudada. Os dados obtidos na análise de pH e MO do solo não demonstraram correlação com a taxa de isolamento do R. equi do solo superficial dos haras.Epidemiological aspects about Rhodococcus equi (R. equi at six horse-breeding farms from Bagé county, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were analysed. Soil samples (36 and equine feces (143 were collected. The objective was to verify the presence of R. equi in those samples. Six soil samples were also used for pH and organic matter (OM determination. R. equi identification was based on equi factor search and morfological, tintorial and biochemistry behavior. All the horse-breeding farms had the R. equi present in soil and feces samples. Soil yielded 75.00% (27/36 positive samples and 66.43% (95/143 of equine feces were positive. The results obtained for pH and OM from the soil had no correlation with the isolation of R. equi from soil samples of the different horse-breeding farms.

  14. Permitting mixed waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities: A mixed bag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992 (FFCAct) requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to make a comprehensive national inventory of its mixed wastes (i.e., wastes that contain both a hazardous component that meets the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) definition of hazardous waste and a radioactive component consisting of source, special nuclear, or byproduct material regulated under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA)), and of its mixed waste treatment technologies and facilities. It also requires each DOE facility that stores or generates mixed waste to develop a treatment plan that includes, in part, a schedule for constructing units to treat those wastes that can be treated using existing technologies. Inherent in constructing treatment units for mixed wastes is, of course, permitting. This paper identifies Federal regulatory program requirements that are likely to apply to new DOE mixed waste treatment units. The paper concentrates on showing how RCRA permitting requirements interrelate with the permitting or licensing requirements of such other laws as the Atomic Energy Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Clean Air Act. Documentation needed to support permit applications under these laws are compared with RCRA permit application documentation. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation requirements are also addressed, and throughout the paper, suggestions are made for managing the permitting process

  15. Effect of Bioactive Glass air Abrasion on Shear Bond Strength of Two Adhesive Resins to Decalcified Enamel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Eshghi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive glass air abrasion is a conservative technique to remove initial decalcified tissue and caries. This study examined the shear bond strength of composite resin to sound and decalcified enamel air-abraded by bioactive glass (BAG or alumina using etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives.Forty-eight permanent molars were root-amputated and sectioned mesiodistally. The obtained 96 specimens were mounted in acrylic resin; the buccal and lingual surfaces remained exposed. A demineralizing solution was used to decalcify half the specimens. Both sound and decalcified specimens were divided into two groups of alumina and bioactive glass air abrasion. In each group, the specimens were subdivided into two subgroups of Clearfil SE Bond or OptiBond FL adhesives (n=12. Composite resin cylinders were bonded on enamel surfaces cured and underwent thermocycling. The specimens were tested for shear bond strength. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 and three-way ANOVA (α=0.05. Similar to the experimental groups, the enamel surface of one specimen underwent SEM evaluation.No significant differences were observed in composite resin bond strength subsequent to alumina or bioactive glass air abrasion preparation techniques (P=0.987. There were no statistically significant differences between the bond strength of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive groups (P=1. Also, decalcified or intact enamel groups had no significant difference (P=0.918. However, SEM analysis showed much less enamel irregularities with BAG air abrasion compared to alumina air abrasion.Under the limitations of this study, preparation of both intact and decalcified enamel surfaces with bioactive glass air abrasion results in similar bond strength of composite resin in comparison with alumina air abrasion using etch-&-rinse or self-etch adhesives.

  16. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ... Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Print this Page Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ...

  17. The bagging of Annona crassiflora fruits to control fruit borers=Ensacamento de frutos de Annona crassiflora contra broqueadores de frutos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Michelle Fonseca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of plastic bags to protect the fruits of Annona crassiflora (Annonaceae against Cerconota sp. (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae. As protection against this fruit-boring insect, 100 fruits were enclosed in plastic bags. Another 100 fruits were not bagged. The fruits were selected from the following five ranges of diameters: 1 = 0.5 – 1.99; 2 = 2.00 – 3.99; 3 = 4.00 – 7.90; 4 = 8.00 – 11.90; and 5 = 12.00 – 16.00 cm. The bagged fruits of various diameters were attacked less frequently by the pest. The bagged fruits with a diameter of less than two cm were not attacked. The percentage of fruits attacked and the number of larvae/fruit increased as the diameter of fruits increased in both treatments. The bagged fruits initially less than two cm in diameter showed the greatest final diameter and height.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do ensacamento dos frutos de Annona crassiflora (Annonaceae no controle de Cerconota sp. (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae. 100 frutos foram ensacados com saco plástico e 100 não ensacados em cada uma das cinco categorias de diâmetro: 1 = 0,5 – 1,99; 2 = 2,00 – 3,99; 3 = 4,00 – 7,90; 4 = 8,00 – 11,90 e 5 = 12,00 – 16,00 cm. Os frutos ensacados com sacos plásticos, nos diferentes diâmetros, apresentaram-se menos broqueados. Os frutos ensacados com menos de dois cm de diâmetro não foram broqueados. Observou-se aumento na percentagem de frutos broqueados bem como no número de brocas/fruto broqueado com o aumento na categoria do diâmetro de frutos nos diferentes tratamentos. Os frutos ensacados com menos de dois cm de diâmetro apresentaram maiores diâmetros e alturas de frutos.

  18. Stability of tramadol with three 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in polyolefin bags for patient-controlled delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen FC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fu-chao Chen,1 Jun Zhu,1 Bin Li,1 Fang-jun Yuan,1 Lin-hai Wang2 1Department of Pharmacy, Dongfeng Hospital, 2Department of Pharmacy, Renmin Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China Background: Mixing 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3 receptor antagonists with patient-controlled analgesia (PCA solutions of tramadol has been shown to decrease the incidence of nausea and vomiting associated with the use of tramadol PCA for postoperative pain. However, such mixtures are not commercially available, and the stability of the drug combinations has not been duly studied. The study aimed to evaluate the stability of tramadol with three 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in 0.9% sodium chloride injection for PCA administration.Materials and methods: Test samples were prepared by adding 1,000 mg tramadol hydrochloride, 8 mg ondansetron hydrochloride, and 6 mg granisetron hydrochloride or 5 mg tropisetron hydrochloride to 100 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride injection in polyolefin bags. The samples were prepared in triplicates, stored at either 25°C or 4°C for 14 days, and assessed using the following compatibility parameters: precipitation, cloudiness, discoloration, and pH. Chemical stability was also determined using a validated high-pressure liquid chromatography method.Results: All of the mixtures were clear and colorless throughout the initial observation period. No change in the concentration of tramadol hydrochloride occurred with any of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists during the 14 days. Similarly, little or no loss of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists occurred over the 14-day period.Conclusion: Our results suggest that mixtures of tramadol hydrochloride, ondansetron hydrochloride, granisetron hydrochloride, or tropisetron hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were physically and chemically stable for 14 days when stored in polyolefin bags at both 4°C and 25°C. Keywords: tramadol, ondansetron, granisetron

  19. Effect of municipal solid waste incinerator types on characteristics of ashes from different air pollution control devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chien-Hsing; Chuang, Kui-Hao

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the characteristics of fly and bottom ashes sampled from both fluidized bed (FB) and mass-burning (MB) municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs), respectively. Fly ashes from different locations at FB and MB MSWIs equipped with a cyclone, a semi-dry scrubber, and a bag filter as air pollution control devices were examined to provide the baseline information between physicochemical properties and leaching ability. Experimental results of leachability indicated that the bag filter fly ash (FB-FA(B)) from the FB incinerator meets Taiwan regulatory standards set through the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. X-ray diffraction results revealed the presence of Cr5O12 and Pb2O3 in the cyclone fly ash (MB-FA(C)) and bag filter fly ash (MB-FA(B)), respectively, from the MB incinerator. To observe lead incorporation mechanism, mixture of simulate lead-laden waste with bed material were fired between 600 °C and 900 °C in a laboratory scale FB reactor. The results clearly demonstrate a substantial decrease in lead leaching ratio for products with an appropriate temperature. The concentration of Pb in the MB-FA(B) was 250 times that in the FB-FA(B), suggesting that incineration of MSW in FB is a good strategy for stabilizing hazardous metals.

  20. Effect of municipal solid waste incinerator types on characteristics of ashes from different air pollution control devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chien-Hsing; Chuang, Kui-Hao

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the characteristics of fly and bottom ashes sampled from both fluidized bed (FB) and mass-burning (MB) municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs), respectively. Fly ashes from different locations at FB and MB MSWIs equipped with a cyclone, a semi-dry scrubber, and a bag filter as air pollution control devices were examined to provide the baseline information between physicochemical properties and leaching ability. Experimental results of leachability indicated that the bag filter fly ash (FB-FA(B)) from the FB incinerator meets Taiwan regulatory standards set through the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. X-ray diffraction results revealed the presence of Cr5O12 and Pb2O3 in the cyclone fly ash (MB-FA(C)) and bag filter fly ash (MB-FA(B)), respectively, from the MB incinerator. To observe lead incorporation mechanism, mixture of simulate lead-laden waste with bed material were fired between 600 °C and 900 °C in a laboratory scale FB reactor. The results clearly demonstrate a substantial decrease in lead leaching ratio for products with an appropriate temperature. The concentration of Pb in the MB-FA(B) was 250 times that in the FB-FA(B), suggesting that incineration of MSW in FB is a good strategy for stabilizing hazardous metals. PMID:26226945