WorldWideScience

Sample records for air bag restraint

  1. Optimizing the passenger air bag of an adaptive restraint system for multiple size occupants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhonghao; Jiang, Binhui; Zhu, Feng; Cao, Libo

    2014-01-01

    The development of the adaptive occupant restraint system (AORS) has led to an innovative way to optimize such systems for multiple size occupants. An AORS consists of multiple units such as adaptive air bags, seat belts, etc. During a collision, as a supplemental protective device, air bags can provide constraint force and play a role in dissipating the crash energy of the occupants' head and thorax. This article presents an investigation into an adaptive passenger air bag (PAB). The purpose of this study is to develop a base shape of a PAB for different size occupants using an optimization method. Four typical base shapes of a PAB were designed based on geometric data on the passenger side. Then 4 PAB finite element (FE) models and a validated sled with different size dummy models were developed in MADYMO (TNO, Rijswijk, The Netherlands) to conduct the optimization to obtain the best baseline PAB that would be used in the AORS. The objective functions-that is, the minimum total probability of injuries (∑Pcomb) of the 5th percentile female and 50th and 95th percentile male dummies-were adopted to evaluate the optimal configurations. The injury probability (Pcomb) for each dummy was adopted from the U.S. New Car Assessment Program (US-NCAP). The parameters of the AORS were first optimized for different types of PAB base shapes in a frontal impact. Then, contact time duration and force between the PAB and dummy head/chest were optimized by adjusting the parameters of the PAB, such as the number and position of tethers, lower the Pcomb of the 95th percentile male dummy. According to the optimization results, 4 typical PABs could provide effective protection to 5th and 50th percentile dummies. However, due to the heavy and large torsos of the 95th percentile occupants, the current occupant restraint system does not demonstrate satisfactory protective function, particularly for the thorax.

  2. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... generant and, in some cases, a pressure vessel (cylinder)) is a gas generator used to inflate an air bag in... domestic transportation by highway, rail freight, cargo vessel or cargo aircraft, a serviceable air bag...

  3. Development and functional significance of dorsal air bags in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the morphology and investigates the possible function of the air bags found on the nestlings of Monteiro's Hornbill Tockus monteiri. These air bags increased in size with age and mass of the nestling until 14 d of age, and then decreased in size. By 20 d of age, the air bags were absent. Histological ...

  4. Wave energy absorption by a floating air bag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurniawan, Adi; Chaplin, John; Greaves, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    A floating air bag, ballasted in water, expands and contracts as it heaves under wave action. Connecting the bag to a secondary volume via a turbine transforms the bag into a device capable of generating useful energy from the waves. Small-scale measurements of the device reveal some interesting...

  5. Development and functional significance of dorsal air bags in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological examination of the air bags showed that they were integumentary structures composed of an outer epidermis and an inner dermis. The air bags were not connected to the respiratory system. The body temperature (Tb) of Monteiro's Hornbill nestlings increased significantly with increasing age. Comparisons of ...

  6. Air Bag Momentum Force Including Aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Nusholtz

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A gas-jet momentum force drives the air bag into position during a crash. The magnitude of this force can change as a result of aspiration. To determine the potential magnitude of the effect on the momentum force and mass flow rate in an aspirated system, a series of experiments and simulations of those experiments was conducted. The simulation consists of a two-dimensional unsteady isentropic CFD model with special “infinite boundaries”. One of the difficulties in simulating the gas-jet behavior is determining the mass flow rate. To improve the reliability of the mass flow rate input to the simulation, a sampling procedure involving multiple tests was used, and an average of the tests was adopted.

  7. Wave energy absorption by a submerged air bag connected to a rigid float

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurniawan, Adi; Chaplin, J. R.; Hann, M. R.

    2017-01-01

    A new wave energy device features a submerged ballasted air bag connected at the top to a rigid float. Under wave action, the bag expands and contracts, creating a reciprocating air flow through a turbine between the bag and another volume housed within the float. Laboratory measurements are gene......A new wave energy device features a submerged ballasted air bag connected at the top to a rigid float. Under wave action, the bag expands and contracts, creating a reciprocating air flow through a turbine between the bag and another volume housed within the float. Laboratory measurements...

  8. Commercial liquid bags as a potential source of venous air embolism in shoulder arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Luke; Zmistowski, Benjamin; Tucker, Bradford; Hetrick, Robin; Curry, Patrick; Williams, Gerald

    2010-09-01

    Venous air embolism is a rare but potentially fatal complication of arthroscopy. Fatal venous air embolism has been reported with as little as 100 mL of air entering the venous system. During liquid-only arthroscopy, avenues for air introduction into the joint are limited. Therefore, we hypothesized that commercially prepared 3-L saline-solution bags are a source of potentially fatal amounts of gas that can be introduced into the joint by arthroscopic pumps. Eight 3-L arthroscopic saline-solution bags were obtained and visually inspected for air. The air was aspirated from four bags, and the volume of the air was recorded. A closed-system pump was prepared, and two 3-L bags were connected to it. The pump emptied into an inverted graduated cylinder immersed in a water bath. Both bags were allowed to run dry. Two more bags were then connected and also allowed to run dry. The air was quantified by the downward displacement of water. The experiment was then repeated with the four bags after the air had been aspirated from them. This experiment was performed at three institutions, with utilization of three pump systems and two brands of 3-L saline-solution bags. Air was visualized in all bags, and the bags contained between 34 and 85 mL of air. Arthroscopic pumps can pump air efficiently through the tubing. The total volumes of gas ejected from the tubing after the four 3-L bags had been emptied were 75, 80, and 235 mL. When bags from which the air had been evacuated were used, no air exited the system. Because a saline-solution arthroscopic pump is theoretically a closed system, venous air embolism has not been a concern. However, this study shows that it is possible to pump a fatal amount of air from 3-L saline-solution bags into an environment susceptible to the creation of emboli. Evacuation of air from the 3-L bags prior to use may eliminate this risk.

  9. Prediction of air temperature for thermal comfort of people using sleeping bags: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianhua

    2008-11-01

    Six models for determining air temperatures for thermal comfort of people using sleeping bags were reviewed. These models were based on distinctive metabolic rates and mean skin temperatures. All model predictions of air temperatures are low when the insulation values of the sleeping bag are high. Nevertheless, prediction variations are greatest for the sleeping bags with high insulation values, and there is a high risk of hypothermia if an inappropriate sleeping bag is chosen for the intended conditions of use. There is, therefore, a pressing need to validate the models by wear trial and determine which one best reflects ordinary consumer needs.

  10. Vented spikes improve delivery from intravenous bags with no air headspace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galush, William J; Horst, Travis A

    2015-07-01

    Flexible plastic bags are the container of choice for most intravenous (i.v.) infusions. Under certain circumstances, however, the air-liquid interface present in these i.v. bags can lead to physical instability of protein biopharmaceuticals, resulting in product aggregation. In principle, the air headspace present in the bags can be removed to increase drug stability, but experiments described here show that this can result in incomplete draining of solution from the bag using gravity delivery, or generation of negative pressure in the bag when an infusion pump is used. It is expected that these issues could lead to incomplete delivery of medication to patients or pump-related problems, respectively. However, here it is shown that contrary to the standard pharmacy practice of using nonvented spikes with i.v. bags, the use of vented spikes with i.v. bags that lack air headspace allows complete delivery of the dose solution without impacting the physical stability of a protein-based drug. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  11. Protection against head injuries should not be optional: a case for mandatory installation of side-curtain air bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuke, Lance E; Nirula, Raminder; Gentilello, Larry M; Shafi, Shahid

    2010-10-01

    More than 9,000 vehicle occupants die each year in side-impact vehicle collisions, primarily from head injuries. The authors hypothesized that side-curtain air bags significantly improve head and neck safety in side-impact crash testing. Side-impact crash-test data were obtained from the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, which ranks occupant protection as good, acceptable, marginal, or poor. Vehicles of the same make and model that underwent side-impact crash testing both with and without side-curtain air bags were compared, as well as the protective effect of these air bags on occupants' risk for head and neck injury. Of all the passenger vehicles, 25 models have undergone side-impact crash testing with and without side-curtain air bags by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. Only 3 models without side-curtain air bags (12%) provided good head and neck protection for drivers, while 21 cars with side-curtain air bags (84%) provided good protection (P bags was less dramatic but significant (84% without vs 100% with side-curtain air bags, P = .04). Side-curtain air bags significantly improve vehicle occupant safety in side-impact crash tests. Installation of these air bags should be federally mandated in all passenger vehicles. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Wave energy absorption by a submerged air bag connected to a rigid float.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, A; Chaplin, J R; Hann, M R; Greaves, D M; Farley, F J M

    2017-04-01

    A new wave energy device features a submerged ballasted air bag connected at the top to a rigid float. Under wave action, the bag expands and contracts, creating a reciprocating air flow through a turbine between the bag and another volume housed within the float. Laboratory measurements are generally in good agreement with numerical predictions. Both show that the trajectory of possible combinations of pressure and elevation at which the device is in static equilibrium takes the shape of an S. This means that statically the device can have three different draughts, and correspondingly three different bag shapes, for the same pressure. The behaviour in waves depends on where the mean pressure-elevation condition is on the static trajectory. The captured power is highest for a mean condition on the middle section.

  13. Preliminary enviromagnetic comparison of the moss, lichen, and filter fabric bags to air pollution monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Salo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Air quality and anthropogenic air pollutants are usually investigated by passive biomonitoring which utilizes native species. Active biomonitoring, instead, refers to the use of transplants or bags in areas lacking native species. In Finland, the standardized moss bag technique SFS 5794 is commonly applied in active monitoring but there is still need for simpler and labor-saving sample material even on international scale. This article focuses on a preliminary comparison of the usability and collection efficiency of bags made of moss Sphagnum papillosum, lichen Hypogymnia physodes, and filter fabric (Filtrete™ in active biomonitoring of air pollutants around an industrial site in Harjavalta, SW Finland. The samples are analyzed with magnetic (i.e. magnetic susceptibility, isothermal remanent magnetization, hysteresis loop and hysteresis parameters methods highly suitable as a first-step tool for pollution studies. The results show that the highest magnetic susceptibility of each sample material is measured close to the industrial site. Furthermore, moss bags accumulate more magnetic material than lichen bags which, on the contrary, perform better at further distances. Filter fabric bags are tested only at 1 km sites indicating a good accumulation capability near the source. Pseudo-single-domain (PSD magnetite is identified as the main magnetic mineral in all sample materials and good correlations are found between different bag types. To conclude, all three materials effectively accumulate air pollutants and are suitable for air quality studies. The results of this article provide a base for later studies which are needed in order to fully determine a new, efficient, and easy sample material for active monitoring.

  14. Fiscal 2000 achievement report. Development of technologies for waste treatment and recycling (Development of technologies for appropriate treatment of air bags); 2000 nendo haikibutsu recycle kanren gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Air bag tekisei shori gijutsu no kaihatsu nado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A centralized treatment process respecting environmental protection and safety for unused air bags aboard disused automobiles is developed. In concrete terms, a heating facility owned by Daicel Chemical Industries, Ltd., is used, which includes an apparatus for examining exhaust gas dioxins and an exhaust gas treatment apparatus and, with this facility, studies are made for appropriately treating waste gas and waste water to be generated when air bag modules undergo centralized heating. Endeavors in fiscal 2000 center about (1) the development of waste gas treatment technologies, (2) development of waste water treatment technologies, (3) chemical analysis of waste water sludge, dusts and air bag residues, and (4) the study of appropriate treatment of non-azide air bag modules. As to the development of exhaust gas treatment technology, it was proved that the exhaust gas treatment system consisting of secondary incineration furnace, exhaust gas cooling tower and bag filter worked effectively. (NEDO)

  15. 75 FR 57549 - Fisker Automotive; Grant of Application for Temporary Exemption From Advanced Air Bag...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... requirements submitted by a manufacturer of a plug-in hybrid electric car. The basis of the petition was... upgraded the requirements for air bags in passenger cars and light trucks, requiring what are commonly... completely new passenger car model. Design and development of the Karma began in late 2007. The Karma is...

  16. 77 FR 52619 - Make Inoperative Exemptions; Retrofit On-Off Switches for Air Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... Advancement Act Under the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (NTTAA) (Pub. L. 104-113... businesses to install retrofit on-off switches for air bags in vehicles owned by or used by persons whose... 62406) a final rule permitting motor vehicle dealers and repair businesses to install retrofit on-off...

  17. 77 FR 33998 - Make Inoperative Exemptions; Retrofit On-Off Switches for Air Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... timely manner. H. National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act Under the National Technology Transfer... vehicle dealers and repair businesses to install retrofit on-off switches for air bags in vehicles owned... comment (or signing the comment, if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc...

  18. [A new applicator with regulatable air bag designed for intracavitary brachytherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Wei, Guang-Yu; Tan, Yi-Chang; Huang, Ze-Li; Li, Shao-En; Lu, Zhi-Qian

    2004-10-01

    Nasopharynx applicator used in intracavitary brachytherapy plays an important role in the radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), its quality affects the efficiency of treatment. This study was to design a new applicator for clinical use. An inexpensive, reusable, and flexible latex nasopharynx applicator was designed. An air bag was placed at 15 mm from the foreside of the applicator, clung to the tube. The edge of air bag is tangent to the axis of tube. When the bag was full of air, the tube would hunch reversely,close to nasopharyngeal vault. After introduced into nasopharynx through middle nasal meatus, the applicator could be fixed in suitable position by its rotation, and air bag regulation, and confirmed its position by simulation. A total of 221 patients with NPC were treated with external beam radiation therapy in our hospital, and boosted HDR brachytherapy using this new applicator. The response rate was 92.6% in the primary tumor group (200/216), and 100% in the recurrent tumor group (5/5). Mucosal necrosis in the posterior or anterior wall of nasopharynx occurred in 5 patients, 8 patients experienced nasal congestion and nasal synechia. This new nasopharynx applicator is easy to operate, painless, and well dosage-distributed. Mucosal necrosis is likely due to higher fractional dose.

  19. Modeling and Simulation of the Second-Generation Orion Crew Module Air Bag Landing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Richard B.; Hardy, Robin C.; Willey, Cliff E.; Welch, Joseph V.

    2009-01-01

    Air bags were evaluated as the landing attenuation system for earth landing of the Orion Crew Module (CM). Analysis conducted to date shows that airbags are capable of providing a graceful landing of the CM in nominal and off-nominal conditions such as parachute failure, high horizontal winds, and unfavorable vehicle/ground angle combinations, while meeting crew and vehicle safety requirements. The analyses and associated testing presented here surround a second generation of the airbag design developed by ILC Dover, building off of relevant first-generation design, analysis, and testing efforts. In order to fully evaluate the second generation air bag design and correlate the dynamic simulations, a series of drop tests were carried out at NASA Langley s Landing and Impact Research (LandIR) facility in Hampton, Virginia. The tests consisted of a full-scale set of air bags attached to a full-scale test article representing the Orion Crew Module. The techniques used to collect experimental data, develop the simulations, and make comparisons to experimental data are discussed.

  20. Monitoring of heavy metal concentrations in home outdoor air using moss bags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, Marcela, E-mail: arivera@creal.ca [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Zechmeister, Harald [University of Vienna, Faculty of Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Medina-Ramon, Mercedes; Basagana, Xavier [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Foraster, Maria [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Bouso, Laura [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Moreno, Teresa [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Solanas, Pascual; Ramos, Rafael [Research Unit, Family Medicine, Girona, Jordi Gol Institute for Primary Care Research (IDIAP Jordi Gol), Catalan Institute of Health, Catalunya (Spain); Department of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Girona (Spain); Koellensperger, Gunda [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Deltell, Alexandre [Polytechnic School, GREFEMA, University of Girona (Spain); Vizcaya, David [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    One monitoring station is insufficient to characterize the high spatial variation of traffic-related heavy metals within cities. We tested moss bags (Hylocomium splendens), deployed in a dense network, for the monitoring of metals in outdoor air and characterized metals' long-term spatial distribution and its determinants in Girona, Spain. Mosses were exposed outside 23 homes for two months; NO{sub 2} was monitored for comparison. Metals were not highly correlated with NO{sub 2} and showed higher spatial variation than NO{sub 2}. Regression models explained 61-85% of Cu, Cr, Mo, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn and 72% of NO{sub 2} variability. Metals were strongly associated with the number of bus lines in the nearest street. Heavy metals are an alternative traffic-marker to NO{sub 2} given their toxicological relevance, stronger association with local traffic and higher spatial variability. Monitoring heavy metals with mosses is appealing, particularly for long-term exposure assessment, as mosses can remain on site many months without maintenance. - Research highlights: > Moss bags can be used to measure the metal's long-term spatial distribution within cities. > Heavy metals in mosses are not highly correlated with ambient NO{sub 2} concentrations. > Heavy metals show higher spatial variation and association with traffic than NO{sub 2}. > Bus lines in the nearest street explain 75-85% of Mo, Cr, Sb, Sn and Cu variability. > Moss bags are useful for long-term at home exposure assessment in epidemiological studies. - The long-term spatial distribution of heavy metals, measured with moss bags, is mainly determined by proximity to bus lines.

  1. Monitoring of heavy metal concentrations in home outdoor air using moss bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, Marcela; Zechmeister, Harald; Medina-Ramon, Mercedes; Basagana, Xavier; Foraster, Maria; Bouso, Laura; Moreno, Teresa; Solanas, Pascual; Ramos, Rafael; Koellensperger, Gunda; Deltell, Alexandre; Vizcaya, David

    2011-01-01

    One monitoring station is insufficient to characterize the high spatial variation of traffic-related heavy metals within cities. We tested moss bags (Hylocomium splendens), deployed in a dense network, for the monitoring of metals in outdoor air and characterized metals' long-term spatial distribution and its determinants in Girona, Spain. Mosses were exposed outside 23 homes for two months; NO 2 was monitored for comparison. Metals were not highly correlated with NO 2 and showed higher spatial variation than NO 2 . Regression models explained 61-85% of Cu, Cr, Mo, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn and 72% of NO 2 variability. Metals were strongly associated with the number of bus lines in the nearest street. Heavy metals are an alternative traffic-marker to NO 2 given their toxicological relevance, stronger association with local traffic and higher spatial variability. Monitoring heavy metals with mosses is appealing, particularly for long-term exposure assessment, as mosses can remain on site many months without maintenance. - Research highlights: → Moss bags can be used to measure the metal's long-term spatial distribution within cities. → Heavy metals in mosses are not highly correlated with ambient NO 2 concentrations. → Heavy metals show higher spatial variation and association with traffic than NO 2 . → Bus lines in the nearest street explain 75-85% of Mo, Cr, Sb, Sn and Cu variability. → Moss bags are useful for long-term at home exposure assessment in epidemiological studies. - The long-term spatial distribution of heavy metals, measured with moss bags, is mainly determined by proximity to bus lines.

  2. Bag breakup of low viscosity drops in the presence of a continuous air jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, V.; Sojka, P. E.

    2014-01-01

    This work examines the breakup of a single drop of various low viscosity fluids as it deforms in the presence of continuous horizontal air jet. Such a fragmentation typically occurs after the bulk liquid has disintegrated upon exiting the atomizer and is in the form of an ensemble of drops which undergo further breakup. The drop deformation and its eventual disintegration is important in evaluating the efficacy of a particular industrial process, be it combustion in automobile engines or pesticide spraying in agricultural applications. The interplay between competing influences of surface tension and aerodynamic disruptive forces is represented by the Weber number, We, and Ohnesorge number, Oh, and used to describe the breakup morphology. The breakup pattern considered in our study corresponds to that of a bag attached to a toroidal ring which occurs from ∼12 2 ), is found to match well with experimental data ([L.-P. Hsiang and G. M. Faeth, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 21(4), 545–560 (1995)] and [R. S. Brodkey, “Formation of drops and bubbles,” in The Phenomena of Fluid Motions (Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1967)]). An exponential growth in the radial extent of the deformed drop and the streamline dimension of the bag is predicted by a theoretical model and confirmed by experimental findings. These quantities are observed to strongly depend on We. However, their dependence on Oh is weak

  3. STS 31 PAYLOAD HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ENCLOSED IN AN AIR-TIGHT PLASTIC BAG FOR PROTECTION IN VERTICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Preparations are made to enclose the Hubble Space Telescope [HST] inside an air-tight plastic bag in the VPF. Processing of the 94- inch primary mirror telescope for launch on the Discovery in March 1990, involves working within strict controls to prevent contamination.

  4. 75 FR 51870 - Wheego Electric Cars, Inc.; Receipt of Application for Temporary Exemption From Advanced Air Bag...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ...-0118] Wheego Electric Cars, Inc.; Receipt of Application for Temporary Exemption From Advanced Air Bag... with the procedures in 49 CFR part 555, Wheego Electric Cars, Inc., has petitioned the agency for a... requirements submitted by a manufacturer of a small electric car. II. Overview of Wheego's Petition for...

  5. 76 FR 7898 - Wheego Electric Cars, Inc.; Grant of Application for Temporary Exemption From Advanced Air Bag...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ...-0118] Wheego Electric Cars, Inc.; Grant of Application for Temporary Exemption From Advanced Air Bag... grants the petition of Wheego Electric Cars, Inc. (Wheego) for the temporary exemption of its Whip LiFe... manufacturer of a plug-in electric car. The stated basis of the petition was that requiring compliance would...

  6. Bag breakup of low viscosity drops in the presence of a continuous air jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, V., E-mail: vkulkarn@purdue.edu; Sojka, P. E. [Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47906 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    This work examines the breakup of a single drop of various low viscosity fluids as it deforms in the presence of continuous horizontal air jet. Such a fragmentation typically occurs after the bulk liquid has disintegrated upon exiting the atomizer and is in the form of an ensemble of drops which undergo further breakup. The drop deformation and its eventual disintegration is important in evaluating the efficacy of a particular industrial process, be it combustion in automobile engines or pesticide spraying in agricultural applications. The interplay between competing influences of surface tension and aerodynamic disruptive forces is represented by the Weber number, We, and Ohnesorge number, Oh, and used to describe the breakup morphology. The breakup pattern considered in our study corresponds to that of a bag attached to a toroidal ring which occurs from ∼12 < We < ∼16. We aim to address several issues connected with this breakup process and their dependence on We and Oh which have been hitherto unexplored. The We boundary at which breakup begins is theoretically determined and the expression obtained, We=12(1+2/3Oh{sup 2}), is found to match well with experimental data ([L.-P. Hsiang and G. M. Faeth, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 21(4), 545–560 (1995)] and [R. S. Brodkey, “Formation of drops and bubbles,” in The Phenomena of Fluid Motions (Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1967)]). An exponential growth in the radial extent of the deformed drop and the streamline dimension of the bag is predicted by a theoretical model and confirmed by experimental findings. These quantities are observed to strongly depend on We. However, their dependence on Oh is weak.

  7. The hydrodynamics of air-filled bags for wave energy conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greaves, Deborah; Hann, Martyn; Kurniawan, Adi

    of a fabric encased within an array of longitudinal tendons. In the first configuration, the bag is floating and ballasted such that it pierces the free surface. In the second configuration, the bag is completely submerged and connected at its top to a rigid float and at its bottom to a weight. In the third...

  8. 78 FR 65426 - Technical Report: Evaluation of the Certified-Advanced Air Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... bags. Procedural Matters How can I influence NHTSA's thinking on this subject? NHTSA welcomes public... Washington, DC, on October 28, 2013. James F. Simons, Director, Office of Regulatory Analysis and Evaluation...

  9. Residential heating contribution to level of air pollutants (PAHs, major, trace, and rare earth elements): a moss bag case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuković, Gordana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Pergal, Miodrag; Janković, Milan; Goryainova, Zoya; Tomašević, Milica; Popović, Aleksandar

    2015-12-01

    In areas with moderate to continental climates, emissions from residential heating system lead to the winter air pollution peaks. The EU legislation requires only the monitoring of airborne concentrations of particulate matter, As, Cd, Hg, Ni, and B[a]P. Transition metals and rare earth elements (REEs) have also arisen questions about their detrimental health effects. In that sense, this study examined the level of extensive set of air pollutants: 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 41 major elements, trace elements, and REEs using Sphagnum girgensohnii moss bag technique. During the winter of 2013/2014, the moss bags were exposed across Belgrade (Serbia) to study the influence of residential heating system to the overall air quality. The study was set as an extension to our previous survey during the summer, i.e., non-heating season. Markedly higher concentrations of all PAHs, Sb, Cu, V, Ni, and Zn were observed in the exposed moss in comparison to the initial values. The patterns of the moss REE concentrations normalized to North American Shale Composite and Post-Archean Australian Shales were identical across the study area but enhanced by anthropogenic activities. The results clearly demonstrate the seasonal variations in the moss enrichment of the air pollutants. Moreover, the results point out a need for monitoring of air quality during the whole year, and also of various pollutants, not only those regulated by the EU Directive.

  10. Potential bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, P.L.; Tomio, L.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, relativistic confining potential models, endowed with bag constants associated to volume energy terms, are investigated. In contrast to the usual bag model, these potential bags are distinguished by having smeared bag surfaces. Based on the dynamical assumptions underlying the fuzzy bag model, these bag constants are derived from the corresponding energy-momentum tensor. Explicit expressions for the single-quark energies and for the nucleon bag constant are obtained by means of an improved analytical version of the saddle-point variational method for the Dirac equation with confining power-law potentials of the scalar plus vector (S + V) or pure scalar (S) type

  11. The influence of typical ways of operating and air-handling unit on the sensory pollution load from used bag filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysen, M.; Clausen, Geo; Bekö, Gabriel

    2003-01-01

    An experiment was performed to determine whether the sensory pollution emitted from a bag filter that had been used for 3 months in a suburban area in Denmark was influenced by different ways of operating the air-handling unit (AHU). Samples of the used filter were pre-conditioned to simulate thr...... the airflow outside working hours would significantly increase the sensory pollution emitted by a used bag filter immediately after the AHU is turned on, in comparison with continuous airflow through the AHU (P...... operating conditions: 1) switched off overnight; 2) airflow reduced to 10% overnight; and 3) continuous 100% operation. Outside air passed through the samples and the acceptability of the air after the filter was assessed by a panel of subjects. The results indicate that turning off the AHU or reducing...

  12. Soumen Bag

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. Soumen Bag. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 38 Issue 1 February 2013 pp 133-168. A survey on optical character recognition for Bangla and Devanagari scripts · Soumen Bag Gaurav Harit · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. The past few decades have witnessed an intensive research on ...

  13. Mechanical restraint in psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Jesper; Zoffmann, Vibeke; Sestoft, Dorte Maria

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine how potential mechanical restraint preventive factors in hospitals are associated with the frequency of mechanical restraint episodes. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study employed a retrospective association design, and linear regression was used to assess the associations. FINDINGS......: Three mechanical restraint preventive factors were significantly associated with low rates of mechanical restraint use: mandatory review (exp[B] = .36, p mechanical...

  14. [A study concerning how much weight schoolchildren carry in their bags, involving four schools in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laíño, Fernando A; Santa María, Claudio J; Bazán, Nelio E; Mainero, Daniel D

    2013-01-01

    Determining the weight children carry in their bags to school (absolute and relative values) and the distance walked during home-school routes, involving students from four schools in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires. The study involved 751 primary (4th to 6th grades) and secondary (1st to 3rd years) level students who were attending three private schools and one public one. Body and bag weights were measured and the children were asked about the distance (in blocks) they walked from school to home. The study involved a descriptive analysis and contrasted the students by gender, educational level, type of school and grade or year. Possible associations between variables were ascertained. The group was divided into those carrying bags weighing less than 10% of their body weight and those who carrying 10% (considered a critical value) and more; frequencies were calculated by the type of bag being used. 68% of the sample were carrying 10% or more of their body weight (P42=10.13%): 66% in male (P44=10.12%) and 60% in female children (P40=10.2%). Private school students carried more weight than public school children (p<0.05) and younger students carried a greater weight than older students (p<0.05) in both educational levels. Most children were carrying relative weights well above that recommended and female students were most affected. Younger students carried higher absolute and relative weights.

  15. Launching Garbage-Bag Balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hy

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modification of a procedure for making and launching hot air balloons made out of garbage bags. Student instructions for balloon construction, launching instructions, and scale diagrams are included. (DDR)

  16. Bag facaden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Susanne; Sjøstedt, Lotte Ebsen

    Bag facaden er et task-baseret materiale der går bag om danskerne kulturelt og sprogligt. Det henvender sig til spor 3-learnere på de sidste trin, men kan i nogle klasser godt anvendes tidligere. Teksterne i bogen er autentiske dagbogsnotater skrevet af danskere i alle aldre. Den nærværende og...... eller hun er i sin sprogtilegnelse og i sit behov for viden om dansk kultur og samfund. Derudover forbereder det fint learneren til almenprøve 2 og DUF eksamen, både hvad angår indhold og arbejdsformer. I forløb hvor der stiles mod folkeskolens afgangseksamner er Bag facaden relevant som supplerende...

  17. Urine drainage bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leg bag ... the catheter from your bladder into the leg bag. Your leg bag will be attached to you all day. You ... freely with it. You can hide your leg bag under skirts, dresses, or pants. They come in ...

  18. Sourav Bag

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences. Sourav Bag. Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences. Volume 128 Issue 3 March 2016 pp 339-347 Regular Articles. On the electrocatalytic activity of nitrogen-doped reduced graphene Oxide:Does the nature of nitrogen really control the activity towards oxygen ...

  19. Status of voluntary restraint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarts, W. [SWOKA Institute for Strategic Consumer Behaviour, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2000-05-01

    Do people enjoying a higher status, especially those with a higher education, constrain their consumption more than others? In general, higher status and high levels of consumption go hand in hand. But the greater availability of luxury goods has led to a decline in their exclusivity. Since environmental awareness has increased, a countercurrent may be possible. It is possible that certain high status groups, the environmentally aware trendsetters, can now be distinguished by their voluntary restraint rather than by their conspicuous consumption. This hypothesis formed the basis for a sociological doctoral project at the University of Amsterdam. The research was conducted under the umbrella of the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change.

  20. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Development of a waste disposal and recycle related technology. (Development of a technology to dispose of air bags adequately); 1998 nendo haikibutsu shori recycle kanren gijutsu kaihatsu air bag tekisei shori gijutsu no kaihatsu nado seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    This technological development is intended to develop a process technology to dispose adequately of air bags convergently when they are removed from waste cars, with consideration paid on environmental and safety aspects. This technology that can dispose of air bags remaining as air bag modules (ABM) in large quantity and adequately can solve the problems of maloperation in opening them in cars and noise in conventional disposal methods. The recovery and disposal system using an inflator can be expected of reducing work load on dismantling contractors and enhancing the work safety. Furthermore, the energy saving process utilizing combustion of plastics can save resources. However, this technology has not elucidated how dioxins, dust, smoke, sulfides, and nitrogen oxides are generated and how the generation can be prevented. Therefore, an exhaust gas dioxin testing facility and an exhaust gas treating facility were installed additionally to the existing heating treatment facility to develop a disposal technology to treat adequately the exhaust gases generated when ABMs are disposed conveergently in large quantity, and treat the waste water discharged from the facilities. Fiscal 1998 has performed preliminary tests to accumulate fundamental data, and design and installation of the above two facilities. (NEDO)

  1. Sea spray production by bag breakup mode of fragmentation of the air-water interface at strong and hurricane wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Kandaurov, Alexander; Ermakova, Olga; Kozlov, Dmitry; Sergeev, Daniil; Zilitinkevich, Sergej

    2016-04-01

    Sea sprays is a typical element of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) of large importance for marine meteorology, atmospheric chemistry and climate studies. They are considered as a crucial factor in the development of hurricanes and severe extratropical storms, since they can significantly enhance exchange of mass, heat and momentum between the ocean and the atmosphere. This exchange is directly provided by spume droplets with the sizes from 10 microns to a few millimeters mechanically torn off the crests of a breaking waves and fall down to the ocean due to gravity. The fluxes associated with the spray are determined by the rate of droplet production at the surface quantified by the sea spray generation function (SSGF), defined as the number of spray particles of radius r produced from the unit area of water surface in unit time. However, the mechanism of spume droplets' formation is unknown and empirical estimates of SSGF varied over six orders of magnitude; therefore, the production rate of large sea spray droplets is not adequately described and there are significant uncertainties in estimations of exchange processes in hurricanes. Experimental core of our work comprise laboratory experiments employing high-speed video-filming, which have made it possible to disclose how water surface looks like at extremely strong winds and how exactly droplets are torn off wave crests. We classified events responsible for spume droplet, including bursting of submerged bubbles, generation and breakup of "projections" or liquid filaments (Koa, 1981) and "bag breakup", namely, inflating and consequent blowing of short-lived, sail-like pieces of the water-surface film, "bags". The process is similar to "bag-breakup" mode of fragmentation of liquid droplets and jets in gaseous flows. Basing on statistical analysis of results of these experiments we show that the main mechanism of spray-generation is attributed to "bag-breakup mechanism On the base of general principles

  2. Bag filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, M; Komeda, I; Takizaki, K

    1982-01-01

    Bag filters are widely used throughout the cement industry for recovering raw materials and products and for improving the environment. Their general mechanism, performance and advantages are shown in a classification table, and there are comparisons and explanations. The outer and inner sectional construction of the Shinto ultra-jet collector for pulverized coal is illustrated and there are detailed descriptions of dust cloud prevention, of measures used against possible sources of ignition, of oxygen supply and of other topics. Finally, explanations are given of matters that require careful and comprehensive study when selecting equipment.

  3. Short- and long-term efficacy of intragastric air-filled balloon (Heliosphere® BAG) among obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuricin, M; Nagliati, C; Palmisano, S; Simeth, C; Urban, F; Buri, L; Balani, A; de Manzini, N

    2012-11-01

    Obesity is an increasing health problem worldwide. The intragastric balloon as a temporary endoscopic treatment of obesity can play an important role among the aforementioned group of obese individuals. It can also be used as a preoperative test before subjecting patients to restrictive bariatric surgery. Furthermore, the intragastric device may be applied to patients affected by severe obesity as a "bridge treatment" before they undergo major surgery in order to reduce chances of operation-related risks. To date, there are insufficient data in the literature on the long-term results of the intragastric balloon. Our study includes an analysis of our experience with Heliosphere® BAG from 2006 through to 2010, concerning early weight loss and weight loss maintenance over at least 18 months since the device's removal. The 32 patients who completed the 6-month treatment had recorded a mean weight loss of 12.66 kg and a mean overweight loss of 24.37 % (SD, 12.74). A total of 16 patients are subjected to an 18-month follow-up. Their pretreatment and long-term body mass index (BMI) were calculated: 6 months later, when devices were removed, they showed a mean weight of 99.75 kg (SD, 17.90; p < 0.001) and a mean weight loss of 13.62 kg and 26.14 % (SD, 12.79). 18 months after removing Heliosphere® BAG, the 16 patients' mean BMI was 37.28 kg/m² (SD, 5.41; p = 0.004), with a mean weight of 103.56 kg (SD 17.25; p = 0.0125), and a mean weight loss of 9.8 kg or 18.2 % (SD, 12.07). Heliosphere® BAG enables modest short-term weight loss with little side effects, although mid/long-term follow-up may entail partial weight gain. We believe it can be considered a useful bridge treatment in bariatric surgery in order to reduce chances of preoperative risks.

  4. 32 CFR 884.3 - Placing member under restraint pending delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Placing member under restraint pending delivery. 884.3 Section 884.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE... member under restraint pending delivery. Continue restraint only as long as is reasonably necessary to...

  5. Laparoscopic specimen retrieval bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorgick, Noam

    2014-10-01

    Specimen retrieval bags have long been used in laparoscopic gynecologic surgery for contained removal of adnexal cysts and masses. More recently, the concerns regarding spread of malignant cells during mechanical morcellation of myoma have led to an additional use of specimen retrieval bags for contained "in-bag" morcellation. This review will discuss the indications for use retrieval bags in gynecologic endoscopy, and describe the different specimen bags available to date.

  6. Dynamical chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colanero, K.; Chu, M.-C.

    2002-01-01

    We study a dynamical chiral bag model, in which massless fermions are confined within an impenetrable but movable bag coupled to meson fields. The self-consistent motion of the bag is obtained by solving the equations of motion exactly assuming spherical symmetry. When the bag interacts with an external meson wave we find three different kinds of resonances: fermionic, geometric, and σ resonances. We discuss the phenomenological implications of our results

  7. Bags Under Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bags under eyes Overview Bags under eyes — mild swelling or puffiness under the eyes — are common as you age. With aging, the tissues around your ... space below your eyes, adding to the swelling. Bags under eyes are usually a cosmetic concern and ...

  8. Chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musakhanov, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    The chiral bag model is considered. It is suggested that pions interact only with the surface of a quark ''bag'' and do not penetrate inside. In the case of a large bag the pion field is rather weak and goes to the linearized chiral bag model. Within that model the baryon mass spectrum, β decay axial constant, magnetic moments of baryons, pion-baryon coupling constants and their form factors are calculated. It is shown that pion corrections to the calculations according to the chiral bag model is essential. The obtained results are found to be in a reasonable agreement with the experimental data

  9. Magnetic moments of multiquark systems and restraints upon the six-quark admixture to the deuteron wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratyuk, L.A.; Krivoruchenko, M.I.; Shchepkin, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    The magnetic moment of the six-quark bag with the deuteron quantum numbers is calculated in the chiral bag model taking into account the gluonic and the pionic corrections. For the six-quark bag radius R 6q =1.18-1.38 fm (corresponding to the nucleon bag radius R 3q =0.8-1.0 fm) the magnetic moment equals m D 6q =1.17-1.23 nuclear magnetons. This result together with the deuteron magnetic momentum data provides a restraint upon the six-quark bag admixture in the deuteron P B < or approx. 3%. This value is a few times lower than the probability that two nucleons are in the range r < 1.4 fm. Therefore, it may be interpreted as an evidence for a considerable difference between the properties of the effective bag in the deuteron and of the MIT bag

  10. Long-term (1992-2004) record of lead, cadmium, and zinc air contamination in Warsaw, Poland: Determination by chemical analysis of moss bags and leaves of Crimean linden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmuchowski, Wojciech, E-mail: dmuchowski@ob.neostrada.p [Botanical Garden-Center for Conservation of Biological Diversity, Polish Academy of Sciences, 2 Prawdziwka St., 02-973 Warszawa (Poland); Warsaw University of Life Sciences-SGGW, Faculty of Agriculture and Biology, 159 Nowoursynowska St., 02-776 Warszawa (Poland); Bytnerowicz, Andrzej [US Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Between 1992 and 2004, air contamination with lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) in Warsaw, Poland, was monitored annually with moss (Sphagnum fallax) bags on a network of 230 sites covering the entire city. During the study the highest contamination was near the Warszawa Steel Mill, northwestern Warsaw. Lead concentrations in moss bags decreased in time, while those of Cd and Zn did not show clear trends. Between 1994 and 2004, Pb, Cd, and Zn were also monitored in the Crimean linden (Tilia Euchlora) foliage along the main city avenue and in a northwestern warsaw park. Lead concentrations decreased more near the avenue than in the park, indicating that the phasing-out of leaded gasoline had a major effect on reduced Pb contamination in Warsaw. At the same time, foliar concentrations of Cd and Zn in both areas decreased much less. - Between 1992 and 2004, concentrations of Pb decreased, while those of Cd and Zn remained little changed in moss bags and linden foliage exposed to ambient air in Warsaw, Poland.

  11. Long-term (1992-2004) record of lead, cadmium, and zinc air contamination in Warsaw, Poland: Determination by chemical analysis of moss bags and leaves of Crimean linden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmuchowski, Wojciech; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Between 1992 and 2004, air contamination with lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) in Warsaw, Poland, was monitored annually with moss (Sphagnum fallax) bags on a network of 230 sites covering the entire city. During the study the highest contamination was near the Warszawa Steel Mill, northwestern Warsaw. Lead concentrations in moss bags decreased in time, while those of Cd and Zn did not show clear trends. Between 1994 and 2004, Pb, Cd, and Zn were also monitored in the Crimean linden (Tilia Euchlora) foliage along the main city avenue and in a northwestern warsaw park. Lead concentrations decreased more near the avenue than in the park, indicating that the phasing-out of leaded gasoline had a major effect on reduced Pb contamination in Warsaw. At the same time, foliar concentrations of Cd and Zn in both areas decreased much less. - Between 1992 and 2004, concentrations of Pb decreased, while those of Cd and Zn remained little changed in moss bags and linden foliage exposed to ambient air in Warsaw, Poland.

  12. Long-term (1992-2004) record of lead, cadmium, and zinc air contamination in Warsaw, Poland: determination by chemical analysis of moss bags and leaves of Crimean linden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmuchowski, Wojciech; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej

    2009-12-01

    Between 1992 and 2004, air contamination with lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) in Warsaw, Poland, was monitored annually with moss (Sphagnum fallax) bags on a network of 230 sites covering the entire city. During the study the highest contamination was near the Warszawa Steel Mill, northwestern Warsaw. Lead concentrations in moss bags decreased in time, while those of Cd and Zn did not show clear trends. Between 1994 and 2004, Pb, Cd, and Zn were also monitored in the Crimean linden (Tilia Euchlora) foliage along the main city avenue and in a northwestern warsaw park. Lead concentrations decreased more near the avenue than in the park, indicating that the phasing-out of leaded gasoline had a major effect on reduced Pb contamination in Warsaw. At the same time, foliar concentrations of Cd and Zn in both areas decreased much less.

  13. B P Bag

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. B P Bag. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 35 Issue 1 February 2012 pp 1-5. Structural and optical characterization of thick and thin polycrystalline diamond films deposited by microwave plasma activated CVD · S K Pradhan B Satpati B P Bag T Sharda.

  14. Charges for plastic bags : Motivational and behavioral effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovcevic, Adriana; Steg, Linda; Mazzeo, Nadia; Caballero, Romina; Franco, Paul; Putrino, Natalia; Favara, Jesica

    2014-01-01

    Two field studies tested the effects of a charge for single-use plastic bags recently implemented in Buenos Aires City, Argentina. Study 1 showed a greater increase in consumers' own bag use after the charge was introduced in supermarkets where the policy was introduced, in comparison to control

  15. Radioactive Material Containment Bags

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    The audit was requested by Senator Joseph I. Lieberman based on allegations made by a contractor, Defense Apparel Services, about the Navy's actions on three contracts for radioactive material containment bags...

  16. Bag models of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeTar, C.E.; Donoghue, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    We believe further progress in the bag model must come from a better understanding of QCD. The bag theory is basically a simple model of the vacuum. A ''perturbative'' vacuum of finite extent is found inside the bag, while the ''true'' vacuum is found outside. The formation of the bag can be viewed as a phase change between the two types of vacuum. In what sense does QCD support this view. There have been many recent attempts to characterize the QCD vacuum. Of particular relevance to the bag model is recent work by Hansson et al. They set out to determine the structure of the vacuum wave function by using a variational argument. Their ''trial'' wave function was inspired by the bag model, but their intention was to describe general features of QCD. Their work starts from the realization that with the usual perturbative model of the vacuum a J /sup PC/ = 0 ++ glueball state can be made with m 2 ++ glueball (C. B. Thorn, unpublished), which leads to a state with m 2 < 0 when c.m. corrections are included (65). Hansson et al show that the perturbative vacuum can lower its energy by filling up with scalar glueballs. They calculate the energy of glueballs containing two and four gluons and find that the energy of the four-gluon state is higher. Therefore the vacuum energy reaches a minimum when the glueballs start to overlap

  17. 14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION International Travel § 223.24 Transportation of empty mail bags. Any carrier authorized to engage in foreign air transportation may transport...

  18. 32 CFR 636.34 - Restraint systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Restraint systems. 636.34 Section 636.34 National... Restraint systems. (a) Restraint systems (seat belts) will be worn by all operators and passengers of U.S. Government vehicles on or off the installations. (b) Restraint systems will be worn by all civilian personnel...

  19. Gravitating lepton bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burinskii, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Kerr–Newman (KN) black hole (BH) solution exhibits the external gravitational and electromagnetic field corresponding to that of the Dirac electron. For the large spin/mass ratio, a ≫ m, the BH loses horizons and acquires a naked singular ring creating two-sheeted topology. This space is regularized by the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking, leading to an extended particle that has a regular spinning core compatible with the external KN solution. We show that this core has much in common with the known MIT and SLAC bag models, but has the important advantage of being in accordance with the external gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the KN solution. A peculiar two-sheeted structure of Kerr’s gravity provides a framework for the implementation of the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking in configuration space in accordance with the concept of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. Similar to other bag models, the KN bag is flexible and pliant to deformations. For parameters of a spinning electron, the bag takes the shape of a thin rotating disk of the Compton radius, with a ring–string structure and a quark-like singular pole formed at the sharp edge of this disk, indicating that the considered lepton bag forms a single bag–string–quark system

  20. The quark bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenfratz, P.; Kuti, J.

    1978-01-01

    The quark bag model is reviewed here with particular emphasis on spectroscopic applications and the discussion of exotic objects as baryonium, gluonium, and the quark phase of matter. The physical vacuum is pictured in the model as a two-phase medium. In normal phase of the vacuum, outside hadrons, the propagation of quark and gluon fields is forbidden. When small bubbles in a second phase are created in the medium of the normal phase with a characteristic size of one fermi, the hadron constituent fields may propagate inside the bubbles in normal manner. The bubble (bag) is stabilized against the pressure of the confined hadron constituent fields by vacuum pressure and surface tension. Inside the bag the colored quarks and gluons are governed by the equations of quantum chromodynamics. (Auth.)

  1. Better Physician's 'Black Bags'

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The "black bag" is outgrowth of astronaut monitoring technology from NASA's Johnson Space Center. Technically known as the portable medical status system, a highly advanced physician's "black bag" weighs less than 30 pounds, yet contains equipment for monitoring and recording vital signs, electrocardiograms, and electroencephalograms. Liquid crystal displays are used to present 15 digits of data simultaneously for long periods of time without excessive use of battery power. Single printed circuit card contains all circuitry required to measure and display vital signs such as heart and respiration rate, temperature, and blood pressure.

  2. Book Bag Buddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Angie; Townsend, J. Scott; Green, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Children love to learn about new topics and share what they have discovered with their teachers, families, and friends. The authors designed the "Book Bag Buddies" project to give their third-grade students a chance to channel their enthusiasm and research from science investigations into writing. In this creative project, students integrated…

  3. The cloudy bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, A.W.

    1981-01-01

    Recent developments in the bag model, in which the constraints of chiral symmetry are explicitly included are reviewed. The model leads to a new understanding of the Δ-resonance. The connection of the theory with current algebra is clarified and implications of the model for the structure of the nucleon are discussed

  4. Bagging Weak Predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukas, Manuel; Hillebrand, Eric

    Relations between economic variables can often not be exploited for forecasting, suggesting that predictors are weak in the sense that estimation uncertainty is larger than bias from ignoring the relation. In this paper, we propose a novel bagging predictor designed for such weak predictor variab...

  5. Soliton Bag Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilets, L.; Bickeboeller, M.; Birse, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of recent and current research on the Soliton Bag Model is presented. The unique feature of the model, namely dynamics, is emphasized, since this permits calculation of reactions within the framework of a covariant effective Lagrangian. One gluon exchange effects are included. 17 refs., 3 figs

  6. Storing Peanuts in Grain Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was executed to determine the potential of storing farmers stock peanuts and shelled peanuts for crushing in hermetically sealed grain bags. The objectives of the study were to evaluate equipment for loading and unloading the grain bags, the capacity of the grain bags, and the changes in qu...

  7. A bag with soft surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il-Tong Cheon.

    1991-02-01

    The MIT bag has a sharply edged surface. It seems to be unnatural. Taking vector mesons into account, we discuss effects of a smooth surface of the bag constructed by superposition of the MIT bags with various radii on the baryon magnetic moments. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Comparison of storage stability of odorous VOCs in polyester aluminum and polyvinyl fluoride tedlar bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole air sampling using containers such as flexible bags or rigid canisters is commonly used to collect samples of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air. The objective of this study was to compare the stability of polyester aluminum (PEA) and polyvinyl fluoride (PVF, brand name Tedlar®) bags for ...

  9. Monopoles and bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    From chapter III to chapter V properties of U(1) monopole are discussed by calculating radiative capture of an electron by a monopole, the scattering cross section of an electron by a dyon, and the bound state properties of the electron-dyon system. The Lipkin-Weisberger-Peshkin difficulty is overcome by an introduction of a small magnetic moment of the electron. In chapter VI, the linear deformation of the Prasad-Sommerfield solution of the t'Hooft Polyakov monopole is discussed, where we found all the deformed solutions analytically. In chapter VII and VIII, the question of a deformed bag and properties of an excited bag are discussed. The excited D-state is mixed with S-state to give the correct value of g/sub A/. Initially, in chapter II, energy ratios for trimuons produced through a heavy-lepton cascade decay are calculated

  10. Dimerization Products of Chloroprene are Background Contaminants Emitted from ALTEF (Polyvinylidene Difluoride) Gas Sampling Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jae; Fan, Maomian; Martin, Jennifer A; Ott, Darrin K; Grigsby, Claude C

    2017-01-01

    Gas sampling bags have been used for collecting air samples. Tedlar bags are most commonly used, but bleed background chemicals such as N,N-dimethylacetamide and phenol. It is often necessary to remove the contaminant by flushing the bags with pure nitrogen or air. In this study, we identified four chloroprene dimerization products as background contaminants emitted from ALTEF bags that are made of a proprietary polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF). No monomer chloroprene was detected in the bags analyzed. All of the dimers gradually increased once bags were filled with nitrogen due to diffusion from the bag surface. Flushing the bags with nitrogen reduced their concentrations, but was not effective for removing the contaminants. When the bags that had been flushed with nitrogen 5 times were left for 24 h, they increased again, indicating that the dimers were constantly emitted from the ALTEF bag surface. To our knowledge, these compounds have never been demonstrated in ALTEF or other PVDF bags. Our finding indicates that ALTEF might be incorporated with Neoprene (chloroprene-based polymer) during its manufacturing process.

  11. Determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using tedlar bag/solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME/GC/MS) in ambient and workplace air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Hwan; Lee, Dai Woon [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Seung Man; Heo, Gwi Suk [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-01

    SPME techniques have proven to be very useful tools in the analysis of wide VOCs in the air. In this study, we estimated VOCs in ambient and workplace air using a Tedlar ba/SPME/GC/MS system. The calibration curve was set to be linear over the range of 1-30 ppbv. The detection limits ranged from 10 pptv 0.93 ppbv for all VOCs. Reproducibility of TO-14 target gas mixtures by SPME/GC/MS averaged at 8.8 R.S.D (%). Air toxic VOCs (hazardous air pollutants, HAPs) containing a total of forty halohydrocarbons, aromatics, and haloaro-matic carbons could be analyzed with significant accuracy, detection limit and linearity at low ppbv level. Only reactive VOCs with low molecular weight, such as chloromethane, vinylchloride, ethylchloride and 1,2-dichloro-ethane, yielded relatively poor results using this technique. In ambient air samples, ten VOCs were identified and quantified after external calibration. VOC concentration in ambient and workplace air ranged from 0.04 to 1.85 ppbv. The overall process was successfully applied to identify and quantify VOCs in ambient/workplace air.

  12. Determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using tedlar bag/solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME/GC/MS) in ambient and workplace air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Hwan; Lee, Dai Woon; Hwang, Seung Man; Heo, Gwi Suk

    2002-01-01

    SPME techniques have proven to be very useful tools in the analysis of wide VOCs in the air. In this study, we estimated VOCs in ambient and workplace air using a Tedlar ba/SPME/GC/MS system. The calibration curve was set to be linear over the range of 1-30 ppbv. The detection limits ranged from 10 pptv 0.93 ppbv for all VOCs. Reproducibility of TO-14 target gas mixtures by SPME/GC/MS averaged at 8.8 R.S.D (%). Air toxic VOCs (hazardous air pollutants, HAPs) containing a total of forty halohydrocarbons, aromatics, and haloaro-matic carbons could be analyzed with significant accuracy, detection limit and linearity at low ppbv level. Only reactive VOCs with low molecular weight, such as chloromethane, vinylchloride, ethylchloride and 1,2-dichloro-ethane, yielded relatively poor results using this technique. In ambient air samples, ten VOCs were identified and quantified after external calibration. VOC concentration in ambient and workplace air ranged from 0.04 to 1.85 ppbv. The overall process was successfully applied to identify and quantify VOCs in ambient/workplace air

  13. A week of Israeli restraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhart, T.

    2006-01-01

    In Israeli discourse, Israel is always the side exercising restraint in its conflict with the Palestinians. This was true again for the events of the past week: As the Qassam rockets were falling on the Southern Israeli town of Sderot, it was “leaked” that the Israeli Minister of Defense had

  14. Effects and costs of requiring child-restraint systems for young children traveling on commercial airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Thomas B; Johnston, Brian D; Grossman, David C

    2003-10-01

    The US Federal Aviation Administration is planning a new regulation requiring children younger than 2 years to ride in approved child-restraint seats on airplanes. To estimate the annual number of child air crash deaths that might be prevented by the proposed regulation, the threshold proportion of families switching from air to car travel above which the risks of the policy would exceed its benefits, and the cost per death prevented. Risk and economic analyses. Child-restraint seat use could prevent about 0.4 child air crash deaths per year in the United States. Increased deaths as a result of car travel could exceed deaths prevented by restraint seat use if the proportion of families switching from air to car travel exceeded about 5% to 10%. The estimate for this proportion varied with assumptions about trip distance, driver characteristics, and the effectiveness of child-restraint seats but is unlikely to exceed 15%. Assuming no increase in car travel, for each dollar increase in the cost of implementing the regulation per round trip per family, the cost per death prevented would increase by about $6.4 million. Unless space for young children in restraint seats can be provided at low cost to families, with little or no diversion to automobile travel, a policy requiring restraint seat use could cause a net increase in deaths. Even excluding this possibility, the cost of the proposed policy per death prevented is high.

  15. Air-Inflated Fabric Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cavallaro, Paul V; Sadegh, Ali M

    2006-01-01

    .... Examples include air ships, weather balloons, inflatable antennas and radomes, temporary shelters, pneumatic muscles and actuators, inflatable boats, temporary bridging, and energy absorbers such as automotive air bags...

  16. Bag model with diffuse surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phatak, S.C.

    1986-01-01

    The constraint of a sharp bag boundary in the bag model is relaxed in the present work. This has been achieved by replacing the square-well potential of the bag model by a smooth scalar potential and introducing a term similar to the bag pressure term. The constraint of the conservation of the energy-momentum tensor is used to obtain an expression for the added bag pressure term. The model is then used to determine the static properties of the nucleon. The calculation shows that the rms charge radius and the nucleon magnetic moment are larger than the corresponding bag model values. Also, the axial vector coupling constant and the πNN coupling constant are in better agreement with the experimental values

  17. Dynamics of the soliton bag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilets, L.; Goldflam, R.

    1983-09-01

    The MIT bag was one of the earliest and most successful models of QCD, imposing confinement and including perturbative gluon interactions. An evolution of the MIT bag came with the introduction of the chiral and cloudy bags, which treat pions as elementary particles. As a model of QCD, the soliton model proposed by Friedberg and Lee is particularly attractive. It is based on a covariant field theory and is sufficiently general so that, for certain limiting cases of the adjustable parameters, it can describe either the MIT or SLAC (string) bags. The confinement mechanism appears as a dynamic field. This allows non-static processes, such as bag oscillations and bag collisions, to be calculated utilizing the well-developed techniques of nuclear many-body theory. The utilization of the model for calculating dynamical processes is discussed. 14 references

  18. Acoustic Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) are designed to be the same external volume as a regular cargo transfer bag, the common logistics carrier for the International Space Station. After use as a cargo bag, the MCTB can be unzipped and unfolded to be reused. This Acoustic MCTBs transform into acoustic blankets after the initial logistics carrying objective is complete.

  19. The fuzzy bag model revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilotto, F.; Vasconcellos, C.A.Z.; Coelho, H.T.

    2001-01-01

    In this work we develop a new version of the fuzzy bag model. Th main ideas is to include the conservation of energy and momentum in the model. This feature is not included in the original formulation of the fuzzy bag model, but is of paramount importance to interpret the model as being a bag model - that, is a model in which the outward pressure of the quarks inside the bag is balanced by the inward pressure of the non-perturbative vacuum outside the bag - as opposed to a relativistic potential model, in which there is no energy-momentum conservation. In the MT bag model, as well as in the original version of the fuzzy bag model, the non-perturbative QCD vacuum is parametrized by a constant B in the Lagrangian density. One immediate consequence of including energy-momentum conservation in the fuzzy bag model is that the bag constant B will acquire a radial dependence, B = B(r). (author)

  20. The fuzzy bag model revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilotto, F.; Vasconcellos, C.A.Z. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Coelho, H.T. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2001-07-01

    In this work we develop a new version of the fuzzy bag model. Th main ideas is to include the conservation of energy and momentum in the model. This feature is not included in the original formulation of the fuzzy bag model, but is of paramount importance to interpret the model as being a bag model - that, is a model in which the outward pressure of the quarks inside the bag is balanced by the inward pressure of the non-perturbative vacuum outside the bag - as opposed to a relativistic potential model, in which there is no energy-momentum conservation. In the MT bag model, as well as in the original version of the fuzzy bag model, the non-perturbative QCD vacuum is parametrized by a constant B in the Lagrangian density. One immediate consequence of including energy-momentum conservation in the fuzzy bag model is that the bag constant B will acquire a radial dependence, B = B(r). (author)

  1. Runer bag ruder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    efterhånden ses på dem. Vejr og vind har gennem tiderne sat deres præg på de enestående mindesmærker. Og de mange turister, der hvert år besøger monumentområder, kommer også helt tæt på mindesmærkerne. Så tæt at Haralds sten udsættes for et alvorligt graffitihærværk i 2011. Se med i filmen ”Runer bag ruder...

  2. Off-gas filtration and releases: bag filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennart, D.M.J.G.

    1985-01-01

    During high-temperature incineration of radioactive waste, some metal oxides are volatilized and carried out with the off-gases. During cooling those oxides react with acidic components generated by the combustion of the fuel oil or of the waste itself. This results in a submicronic crystalline dust in which cesium isotopes are concentrated. Bag filters have been selected at S.C.K./C.E.N. to carry out the first step of dust separation. Two baghouses equipped with Teflon bags with a total filtering area of 100 m 2 have been installed. The bags are cleaned on line by compressed air backflow. The residual dust content is below 3 mg/m 3 , which is sufficiently low to be removed by HEPA filters. The baghouses were put into operation in October 1981 and since then have been on line for about 3000 hours. Some bags had to be replaced after a fire in mid-1983. (orig.)

  3. The Chiral bag model and the little bag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vento, Vincent.

    1980-11-01

    We review the properties of the existing solutions to the Chiral bag equations of motion and discuss how the 'little bag' picture could come about in this scheme. Our analysis leads to a model which is qualitatively similar to the naive quark model with pion cloud corrections. We use this latter approach to look for pion cloud signatures in experimental data

  4. Nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor having a reactor vessel, a reactor guard vessel, a thermal insulation shell and a horizontal seismic restraint, a restraint is described comprising: a. a first ring on the wall of the reactor vessel; b. a second ring on the wall of the reactor guard vessel in alignment with the first ring; c. a first block attached to the second ring proximate the first ring so as to provide a predetermined clearance between the first block and the first ring which is reduced to zero during thermal expansion; d. motion limit means extending through an aperture in the thermal insulation shell in alignment with the second ring and the first block; the e. a second block attached to the motion limit means proximate the second ring and in alignment the first block so as to provide a predetermined clearance between the second block and the second ring which is reduced to zero during thermal expansion

  5. Solitons, monopoles and bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajasekaran, G.

    1978-01-01

    Recent developments in the theory of solitons and related objects in the fields of high energy physics and nuclear physics are reviewed. The aim is to concentrate on the physical aspects and explain why these objects have awakened the interest of physicists. The physics of solitons is discussed with the help of a simple one-dimensional soliton. Then the physically more interesting monopole-soliton is considered and its connection with the original Dirac monopole is pointed out. The ''revolutionary'' possibility of making fermions as composites of bosons is indicated. Both the one-dimensional solitons and the monopole-soliton are examples of ''topological solitons'' and the role of topology in the physics of solitons is explained. The possible importance of topological quantum numbers in providing a fundamental understanding of the basic conservation laws of physics is pointed out. Two examples of non-topological solitons namely, the nucleon as a bag of almost-massless quarks and the abnormal nucleons as a bag of almost massless nucleons is discussed. (auth.)

  6. Vapor pressure measured with inflatable plastic bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Deflated plastic bag in a vacuum chamber measures initial low vapor pressures of materials. The bag captures the test sample vapors and visual observation of the vapor-inflated bag under increasing external pressures yields pertinent data.

  7. Bag pigtråd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jacob Halvas

    2015-01-01

    BogFeature om Inger Bjørn Knudsen: Bag Pigtråd - Rom flygtningelejr 1945-1948. Udg. af Lemvig Museum, 2014. 80 sider......BogFeature om Inger Bjørn Knudsen: Bag Pigtråd - Rom flygtningelejr 1945-1948. Udg. af Lemvig Museum, 2014. 80 sider...

  8. Fun and Functional Shopping Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Barbara Downing

    2009-01-01

    In conjunction with her school's interest in becoming more "green," this author designed an art project using inexpensive, sturdy, reusable grocery bags. In this article, she describes the different design concepts and art media used by each grade in decorating these bags. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  9. Detecting leaks in vacuum bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstrom, E. E.

    1980-01-01

    Small leaks in vacuum bag can be readily detected by eye, using simple chemical reaction: combination of ammonia and acetic acid vapors to produce cloudy white smoke. Technique has been successfully used to test seam integrity and to identify minute pinholes in vacuum bag used in assembly of ceramic-tile heat shield for Space Shuttle Orbiter.

  10. Sensory Pollution from Bag Filters, Carbon Filters and Combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Weschler, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    by an upstream pre-filter (changed monthly), an EU7 filter protected by an upstream activated carbon (AC) filter, and EU7 filters with an AC filter either downstream or both upstream and downstream. In addition, two types of stand-alone combination filters were evaluated: a bag-type fiberglass filter...... that contained AC and a synthetic fiber cartridge filter that contained AC. Air that had passed through used filters was most acceptable for those sets in which an AC filter was used downstream of the particle filter. Comparable air quality was achieved with the stand-alone bag filter that contained AC...

  11. Pions and the chiral bag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, M.

    1982-01-01

    As an aid to discussing the structure of nucleons and nuclei conceptual framework, heuristic arguments are presented which indicate that a hadron can be considered as a bag consisting of two different phases. The chiral structure of the phase outside the bag is discussed in terms of effective field theories and it is shown to what extent experiments in nuclei can constrain the structure of such theories. Results thus obtained are then combined to set up a set of equations for the bag structure of u and d hadrons, incorporating asymptotic freedom in the phase inside of the bag confinement of quarks and gluons by boundary conditions and spontaneously broken chiral symmetry in the outside. This set of equations which represent a chirally invariant generalization of the M.I.T. bag model is then solved. (U.K.)

  12. Time to death analysis of road traffic accidents in relation to delta V, drunk driving, and restraint systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yonghan; Sohn, So Young

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this research is to identify variables related to the expected time to death due to road traffic accidents (RTAs). Such research is expected to be useful in improving safety laws and regulations and developing new safety systems. The resulting information is crucial not only for reducing accident fatalities but for assessing related insurance policies. In this article, we analyze factors that are potentially associated with variation in the expected survival time after a road traffic accident using Weibull regression. In particular, we consider the association with alcohol involvement, delta V, and restraint systems. Our empirical results, obtained based on the NASS-CDS, indicate that the expected survival time for non-alcohol-impaired drivers is 3.23 times longer at a delta V of 50 km/h than that for alcohol-impaired drivers under the same conditions. In addition, it was observed that, even when occupants were alcohol-impaired, if they were protected by both air bags and seat belts, their expected survival time after an RTA increased 2.59-fold compared to alcohol-impaired drivers who used only seat belts. Our findings may be useful in improving road traffic safety and insurance policies by offering insights into the factors that reduce fatalities.

  13. Predictors of restraint use among child occupants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Marco; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A; Flannagan, Carol A

    2017-11-17

    The objective of this study was to identify factors that predict restraint use and optimal restraint use among children aged 0 to 13 years. The data set is a national sample of police-reported crashes for years 2010-2014 in which type of child restraint is recorded. The data set was supplemented with demographic census data linked by driver ZIP code, as well as a score for the state child restraint law during the year of the crash relative to best practice recommendations for protecting child occupants. Analysis used linear regression techniques. The main predictor of unrestrained child occupants was the presence of an unrestrained driver. Among restrained children, children had 1.66 (95% confidence interval, 1.27, 2.17) times higher odds of using the recommended type of restraint system if the state law at the time of the crash included requirements based on best practice recommendations. Children are more likely to ride in the recommended type of child restraint when their state's child restraint law includes wording that follows best practice recommendations for child occupant protection. However, state child restraint law requirements do not influence when caregivers fail to use an occupant restraint for their child passengers.

  14. Identification of control parameters for the sulfur gas storability with bag sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air samples containing sulfur compounds are often collected and stored in sample bags prior to analyses. The storage stability of six gaseous sulfur compounds (H2S, CH3SH, DMS, CS2, DMDS and SO2) was compared between two different bag materials (polyvinyl fluoride (PVF) and polyester aluminum (PEA))...

  15. Peepoo bag: self-sanitising single use biodegradable toilet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnerås, Björn; Hedenkvist, Mikael; Nordin, Annika; Wilhelmson, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene together with deficient nutritional status are major contributors to the global burden of disease. Safe collection, disposal and reuse of human excreta would enable the risk of transmission of diseases to be decreased and household food security to be increased in many regions. However, the majority of the 2.5 billion people lacking improved sanitation comprise poor people in societies with weak infrastructure. This study developed a low cost sanitation option requiring little investment and maintenance--a single use, self-sanitising, biodegradable toilet (Peepoo bag) and tested it for smell, degradability and hygiene aspects. It was found that no smell was detectable from a 25 microm thick bag filled with faeces during 24 h in a 10 m2 room at 30 degrees C. Bags that had been in contact with urea-treated faeces or urine for 2 months in air, compost or water at 24 or 37 degrees C showed little signs of degradation. Furthermore, pathogen inactivation modelling of the 4 g of urea present in the bag indicated that appropriate sanitation of faecal material collected is achieved in the bag within 2-4 weeks, after which the bag can be degraded and reused as fertiliser.

  16. A bag adapted for the handling of a filtering element or filter unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, D.A.G.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a transparent, flexible, synthetic plastics bag adapted to contain a filter element or filter unit so that the latter can be inserted into or removed from a filter casing or duct while being contained in the bag. The bag has a neck portion which is capable of being removably secured in an air-tight manner on to a part of the casing, and gloves or glove portions are provided in, or are formed in, the wall of the bag to permit handles on the filter element or unit to be grasped. (author)

  17. Development of Spray on Bag for manufacturing of large composites parts: Diffusivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempah, Maxime Joseph

    Bagging materials are utilized in many composites manufacturing processes. The selection is mainly driven by cost, temperature requirements, chemical compatibility and tear properties of the bag. The air barrier properties of the bag are assumed to be adequate or in many cases are not considered at all. However, the gas barrier property of a bag is the most critical parameter, as it can negatively affect the quality of the final laminate. The barrier property is a function of the bag material, uniformity, thickness and temperature. Improved barrier properties are needed for large parts, high pressure consolidated components and structures where air stays entrapped on the part surface. The air resistance property of the film is defined as permeability and is investigated in this thesis. A model was developed to evaluate the gas transport through the film and an experimental cell was implemented to characterize various commercial films. Understanding and characterizing the transport phenomena through the film allows optimization of the bagging material for various manufacturing processes. Spray-on-Bag is a scalable alternative bagging method compared to standard films. The approach allows in-situ fabrication of the bag on large and complex geometry structures where optimization of the bag properties can be varied on a local level. An experimental setup was developed and implemented using a six axis robot and an automated spraying system. Experiments were performed on a flat surface and specimens were characterized and compared to conventional films. Air barrier properties were within range of standard film approaches showing the potential to fabricate net shape bagging structures in an automated process.

  18. ARE PLASTIC GROCERY BAGS SACKING THE ENVIRONMENT?

    OpenAIRE

    Mangal Gogte

    2009-01-01

    This paper is oriented on analysis impacts of plastic bags on environment. In this paper is analyzed did plastic bags are so harmful, and what are the main ingredients of it. One part of this paper is oriented on effects of plastic bags and management of their usage. There is also made comparative analysis between impacts of plastic and paper bags on environment.

  19. 21 CFR 878.4100 - Organ bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Organ bag. 878.4100 Section 878.4100 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4100 Organ bag. (a) Identification. An organ bag is a device that is a flexible plastic bag intended to be used as a temporary receptacle for an...

  20. Cholinergic Modulation of Restraint Stress Induced Neurobehavioral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The involvement of the cholinergic system in restraint stress induced neurobehavioral alterations was investigated in rodents using the hole board, elevated plus maze, the open field and the light and dark box tests. Restraint stress (3h) reduced significantly (p<0.05) the number of entries and time spent in the open arm, ...

  1. Bagging constrained equity premium predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillebrand, Eric; Lee, Tae-Hwy; Medeiros, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    The literature on excess return prediction has considered a wide array of estimation schemes, among them unrestricted and restricted regression coefficients. We consider bootstrap aggregation (bagging) to smooth parameter restrictions. Two types of restrictions are considered: positivity of the r...

  2. Quantum chromodynamics, chiral symmetry and bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyeur, M.

    1983-08-01

    This course deals with the following subjects: quarks; quantum chromodynamics (the classical Lagrangian of QCD, quark masses, the classical equations of motion of QCD, general properties, lattices); chiral symmetry (massless free Dirac theory, realizations, the σ-model); the M.I.T. bag model (basic assumptions and equations of motion, spherical cavity approximation, properties of hadrons); the chiral bag models (basic assumptions, the cloudy bag model, the little bag model); non-topological soliton bag models

  3. 7 CFR 201.41 - Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bags. 201.41 Section 201.41 Agriculture Regulations of... Sampling in the Administration of the Act § 201.41 Bags. (a) For lots of six bags or less, each bag shall be sampled. A total of at least five trierfuls shall be taken. (b) For lots of more than six bags...

  4. Quark structure of nucleons: the third bag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilets, L.

    1983-01-01

    The soliton bag model proposed by Friedberg and Lee is discussed. Unlike the other bag models, it treats the confining bag as a fully dynamical object. A scalar soliton field is introduced to effect confinement. The combined quark-soliton system (plus gluons, Higgs fields, counter terms) is described by a Hamiltonian or Lagrangian. The standard bag models do not have a complete Hamiltonian or Lagrangian. The resulting bag can undergo oscillations, rotations and dynamical distortions

  5. BAG3 role in cardiomyocytes physiopathology

    OpenAIRE

    De Marco, Margot

    2013-01-01

    2010 - 2011 The anti-apoptotic protein BAG3 is expressed at high levels in skeletal and cardiac muscle in vivo. Our group recently focused its interest on BAG3 role in myocardiocyte proliferation, survival and response to stressful stimuli. We found that BAG3 is upregulated during the differentiation of cardiomyoblasts. Our results prompted us to verify whether bag3 silencing could affect the differentiation state of cardiocytes and we found that bag3 silencing resulted in highly reducing ...

  6. Testing odorants recovery from a novel metallized fluorinated ethylene propylene gas sampling bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenda; Koziel, Jacek A; Cai, Lingshuang; Wright, Donald; Kuhrt, Fred

    2015-12-01

    Industry-standard Tedlar bags for odor sample collection from confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have been challenged by the evidence of volatile organic compound (VOC) losses and background interferences. Novel impermeable aluminum foil with a thin layer of fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) film on the surface that is in contact with a gas sample was developed to address this challenge. In this research, Tedlar and metallized FEP bags were compared for (a) recoveries of four characteristic CAFO odorous VOCs (ethyl mercaptan, butyric acid, isovaleric acid and p-cresol) after 30 min and 24 hr sample storage time and for (b) chemical background interferences. All air sampling and analyses were performed with solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Mean target gas sample recoveries from metallized FEP bags were 25.9% and 28.0% higher than those in Tedlar bags, for 30 min and 24 hr, respectively. Metallized FEP bags demonstrated the highest p-cresol recoveries after 30-min and 24-hr storage, 96.1±44.5% and 44.8±10.2%, respectively, among different types of sampling bags reported in previous studies. However, a higher variability was observed for p-cresol recovery with metallized FEP bags. A 0% recovery of ethyl mercaptan was observed with Tedlar bags after 24-hr storage, whereas an 85.7±7.4% recovery was achieved with metallized FEP bags. Recoveries of butyric and isovaleric acids were similar for both bag types. Two major impurities in Tedlar bags' background were identified as N,N-dimethylacetamide and phenol, while backgrounds of metallized FEP bags were significantly cleaner. Reusability of metallized FEP bags was tested. Caution is advised when using polymeric materials for storage of livestock-relevant odorous volatile organic compounds. The odorants loss with storage time confirmed that long-term storage in whole-air form is ill advised. A focused short-term odor sample containment should be

  7. Quark bag coupling to finite size pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Kam, J.; Pirner, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    A standard approximation in theories of quark bags coupled to a pion field is to treat the pion as an elementary field ignoring its substructure and finite size. A difficulty associated with these treatments in the lack of stability of the quark bag due to the rapid increase of the pion pressure on the bad as the bag size diminishes. We investigate the effects of the finite size of the qanti q pion on the pion quark bag coupling by means of a simple nonlocal pion quark interaction. With this amendment the pion pressure on the bag vanishes if the bag size goes to zero. No stability problems are encountered in this description. Furthermore, for extended pions, no longer a maximum is set to the bag parameter B. Therefore 'little bag' solutions may be found provided that B is large enough. We also discuss the possibility of a second minimum in the bag energy function. (orig.)

  8. Seismic restraint means for radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, R.H.; Todt, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    Seismic restraint means are provided for mounting an elongated, generally cylindrical nuclear radiation detector within a tubular thimble in a nuclear reactor monitor system. The restraint means permits longitudinal movement of the radiation detector into and out of the thimble. Each restraint means comprises a split clamp ring and a plurality of symmetrically spaced support arms pivotally mounted on the clamp ring. Each support arm has spring bias means and thimble contact means eg insulating rollers whereby the contact means engage the thimble with a constant predetermined force which minimizes seismic vibration action on the radiation detector. (author)

  9. Double Vacuum Bag Process for Resin Matrix Composite Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tan-Hung (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A double vacuum bag molding assembly with improved void management and laminate net shape control which provides a double vacuum enviromnent for use in fabricating composites from prepregs containing air and/or volatiles such as reactive resin matrix composites or composites from solvent containing prepregs with non-reactive resins matrices. By using two vacuum environments during the curing process, a vacuum can be drawn during a B-stage of a two-step cycle without placing the composite under significant relative pressure. During the final cure stage, a significant pressure can be applied by releasing the vacuum in one of the two environments. Inner and outer bags are useful for creating the two vacuum environments with a perforated tool intermediate the two. The composite is placed intermediate a tool plate and a caul plate in the first environment with the inner bag and tool plate defining the first environment. The second environment is characterized by the outer bag which is placed over the inner bag and the tool plate.

  10. The Multifunctional Protein BAG3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie D. Myers, MS

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The B-cell lymphoma 2–associated anthanogene (BAG3 protein is expressed most prominently in the heart, the skeletal muscle, and in many forms of cancer. In the heart, it serves as a co-chaperone with heat shock proteins in facilitating autophagy; binds to B-cell lymphoma 2, resulting in inhibition of apoptosis; attaches actin to the Z disk, providing structural support for the sarcomere; and links the α-adrenergic receptor with the L-type Ca2+ channel. When BAG3 is overexpressed in cancer cells, it facilitates prosurvival pathways that lead to insensitivity to chemotherapy, metastasis, cell migration, and invasiveness. In contrast, in the heart, mutations in BAG3 have been associated with a variety of phenotypes, including both hypertrophic/restrictive and dilated cardiomyopathy. In murine skeletal muscle and vasculature, a mutation in BAG3 leads to critical limb ischemia after femoral artery ligation. An understanding of the biology of BAG3 is relevant because it may provide a therapeutic target in patients with both cardiac and skeletal muscle disease.

  11. Translational invariance in bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megahed, F.

    1981-10-01

    In this thesis, the effect of restoring the translational invariance to an approximation to the MIT bag model on the calculation of deep inelastic structure functions is investigated. In chapter one, the model and its major problems are reviewed and Dirac's method of quantisation is outlined. This method is used in chapter two to quantise a two-dimensional complex scalar bag and formal expressions for the form factor and the structure functions are obtained. In chapter three, the expression for the structure function away from the Bjorken limit is studied. The corrections to the L 0 - approximation to the structure function is calculated in chapter four and it is shown to be large. Finally, in chapter five, a bag-like model for kinematic corrections to structure functions is introduced and agreement with data between 2 and 6 (GeV/C) 2 is obtained. (author)

  12. Mechanical Restraint - Which Interventions Prevent Episodes of Mechanical Restraint? - A Systematic Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Jesper; Brandt-Christensen, Anne Mette; Sestoft, Dorte Maria

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE:  To identify interventions preventing mechanical restraints. DESIGN AND METHODS:  Systematic review of international research papers dealing with mechanical restraint. The review combines qualitative and quantitative research in a new way, describing the quality of evidence and the effect...... of intervention. FINDINGS:  Implementation of cognitive milieu therapy, combined interventions, and patient-centered care were the three interventions most likely to reduce the number of mechanical restraints. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS:  There is a lack of high-quality and effective intervention studies. This leaves...... patients and metal health professionals with uncertainty when choosing interventions in an attempt to prevent mechanical restraints....

  13. Reviews Toy: Air swimmers Book: Their Arrows will Darken the Sun: The Evolution and Science of Ballistics Book: Physics Experiments for your Bag Book: Quantum Physics for Poets Equipment: SEP colour wheel kit Equipment: SEP colour mixing kit Software: USB DrDAQ App: iHandy Level Equipment: Photonics Explorer kit Web Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    WE RECOMMEND Air swimmers Helium balloon swims like a fish Their Arrows will Darken the Sun: The Evolution and Science of Ballistics Ballistics book hits the spot Physics Experiments for your Bag Handy experiments for your lessons Quantum Physics for Poets Book shows the economic importance of physics SEP colour wheel kit Wheels investigate colour theory SEP colour mixing kit Cheap colour mixing kit uses red, green and blue LEDs iHandy Level iPhone app superbly measures angles Photonics Explorer kit Free optics kit given to schools WORTH A LOOK DrDAQ DrDAQ software gets an upgrade WEB WATCH Websites show range of physics

  14. Knife-edge seal for vacuum bagging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschl, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Cam actuated clamps pinch bagging material between long knife edge (mounted to clamps) and high temperature rubber cushion bonded to baseplate. No adhesive, tape, or sealing groove is needed to seal edge of bagging sheet against base plate.

  15. 21 CFR 880.6050 - Ice bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ice bag. 880.6050 Section 880.6050 Food and Drugs....6050 Ice bag. (a) Identification. An ice bag is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the... the body. The device may include a holder that keeps the bag in place against an external area of the...

  16. ARE PLASTIC GROCERY BAGS SACKING THE ENVIRONMENT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangal Gogte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is oriented on analysis impacts of plastic bags on environment. In this paper is analyzed did plastic bags are so harmful, and what are the main ingredients of it. One part of this paper is oriented on effects of plastic bags and management of their usage. There is also made comparative analysis between impacts of plastic and paper bags on environment.

  17. International Space Station Crew Restraint Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, M.; Norris, L.; Holden, K.

    2005-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), crews will be living and working in microgravity, dealing with the challenges of a weightless environment. In addition, the confined nature of the spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity areas, as well as prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Without optimum restraints, crewmembers may be handicapped for performing some of the on-orbit tasks. Currently, many of the tasks on ISS are performed with the crew restrained merely by hooking their arms or toes around handrails to steady themselves. This is adequate for some tasks, but not all. There have been some reports of discomfort/calluses on the top of the toes. In addition, this type of restraint is simply insufficient for tasks that require a large degree of stability. Glovebox design is a good example of a confined workstation concept requiring stability for successful use. They are widely used in industry, university, and government laboratories, as well as in the space environment, and are known to cause postural limitations and visual restrictions. Although there are numerous guidelines pertaining to ventilation, seals, and glove attachment, most of the data have been gathered in a 1-g environment, or are from studies that were conducted prior to the early 1980 s. Little is known about how best to restrain a crewmember using a glovebox in microgravity. In 2004, The Usability Testing and Analysis Facility (UTAF) at the NASA Johnson Space Center completed development/evaluation of several design concepts for crew restraints to meet the various needs outlined above. Restraints were designed for general purpose use, for teleoperation (Robonaut) and for use with the Life Sciences Glovebox. All design efforts followed a human factors engineering design lifecycle, beginning with identification of requirements followed by an iterative prototype/test cycle. Anthropometric

  18. Testing of Replacement Bag Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Recently, the FB-Line bagout material was changed to simplify the processing of sand, slag, and crucible.The results of the strength tests and the outgassing measurements and calculations demonstrate that the proposed replacement nylon bag materials (HRMP and orange anti-static material) are acceptable substitutes for LDPE and the original nylon with respect to mechanical properties

  19. Ergonomics and safety of manual bag sealing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.D. de; Bosch, T.; Eikhout, S.M.; Vink, P.

    2005-01-01

    A variety of seals is used to close bags. Each seal has advantages and disadvantages. For shop assistants sealing bags could be a repetitive physically demanding action. Opening and closing the bags again can cause some discomfort or annoyance for consumers. Besides, it is an activity which can

  20. Quantization of bag-like solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breit, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The method of collective coordinates is used to quantize bag-like solitons formed by scalar and spinor fields. This method leads to approximate wave functions for quarks in the bag that are orthogonal to the translational modes. Solutions are given for the MIT bag limit of the fields. (orig.)

  1. Massless quark wavefunction in the deformed bag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, D.P.; Park, B.Y.; Koh, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    The quark wavefunctions inside the deformed bag are obtained using a modified linear boundary condition stemming from the MIT bag Lagrangian with an additional term. We propose an exact method to obtain the quark wavefunction even for a spheroidally deformed bag. (Author)

  2. Stability of odorants from pig production in sampling bags for olfactometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael J; Adamsen, Anders P S; Feilberg, Anders; Jonassen, Kristoffer E N

    2011-01-01

    Odor from pig production facilities is typically measured with olfactometry, whereby odor samples are collected in sampling bags and assessed by human panelists within 30 h. In the present study, the storage stability of odorants in two types of sampling bags that are often used for olfactometry was investigated. The bags were made of Tedlar or Nalophan. In a field experiment, humid and dried air samples were collected from a pig production facility with growing-finishing pigs and analyzed with a gas chromatograph with an amperometric sulfur detector at 4, 8, 12, 28, 52, and 76 h after sampling. In a laboratory experiment, the bags were filled with a humid gas mixture containing carboxylic acids, phenols, indoles, and sulfur compounds and analyzed with proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry after 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h. The results demonstrated that the concentrations of carboxylic acids, phenols, and indoles decreased by 50 to >99% during the 24 h of storage in Tedlar and Nalophan bags. The concentration of hydrogen sulfide decreased by approximately 30% during the 24 h of storage in Nalophan bags, whereas in Tedlar bags the concentration of sulfur compounds decreased by bags, and the composition changes toward a higher relative presence of sulfur compounds. This can result in underestimation of odor emissions from pig production facilities and of the effect of odor reduction technologies. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  3. Acute Cold / Restraint Stress in Castrated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Zafari Zangeneh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed to determine whether castration altered osmotically stimulated vasopressin (VP release and urinary volume and what is the role of endocrine-stress axis in this process.Materials and methods: Totally 108 mice were studied in two main groups of castrated (n=78 and control (n=30. Each group was extracted by acute cold stress (4◦C for 2h/day, restraint stress (by syringes 60cc 2h/day and cold/restraint stress. The castrated group was treated in sub groups of testosterone, control (sesame oil as vehicle of testosterone. Propranolol as blocker of sympathetic nervous system was given to both groups of castrated mice and main control.Results: Our results showed that, there is interactions between testosterone and sympathetic nervous system on vasopressin, because urine volume was decreased only in testoctomized mice with cold/restraint and cold stress (P<0.001; propranolol as the antagonist of sympathetic nervous system could block and increase urine volume in castrated mice. This increased volume of urine was due to acute cold stress, not restraint stress (p<0.001. The role of testosterone, noradrenalin (NA and Vasopressin (VP in the acute cold stress is confirmed, because testosterone could return the effect of decreased urine volume in control group (P<0.001. Conclusion: Considering the effect of cold/restraint stress on urinary volume in castrated mice shows that there is interaction between sex hormone (testosterone, vasopressin and adrenergic systems.

  4. Roadside observation of child passenger restraint use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Bruce

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite legislation and research evidence supporting the use of childhood vehicle restraints, motor vehicle crashes remain the leading cause of injury, death and disability among Canadian children. Methods: Working in collaboration with trained car seat specialists and police officers, roadside checks were conducted to observe correct use of child restraints. Results: Of the 1323 child vehicle restraints inspected, 99.6% of the children were restrained, 91% were in the correct seat, and 48% of restraints were correctly installed. The seat/restraint types most used incorrectly used were booster seats (31% and seat belts (53%. The majority of incorrectly installed or fitted seats (55% were forward facing. Common errors in installation and fit included the seat not being secured tightly enough to the vehicle, incorrect tether strap use, the harness not being tight enough, and/or the chest clip being in the wrong place. Conclusions: The greatest proportion of incorrect seat use was among those children who transitioned to a seat belt too soon. The greatest proportion of installation and fit errors were among forward facing seats. Researchers recommend: 1 targeting parents with older children (ages 3 and above regarding transitioning too soon from forward facing seats to booster seats, and from booster seats to seat belts; 2 targeting parents with younger children regarding correct installation of rear facing and forward facing seats; 3 collaborating with police officers to review the most common errors and encourage observation at roadside checks; and 4 creating community awareness by way of roadside checks.

  5. A deformable bag model of hadrons, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ui, Haruo; Saito, Koich

    1983-01-01

    As a generalization of the MIT spherical bag model, we construct the spheroidal bag model of hadron with an arbitrary eccentricity. This generalization is made by slightly modifying the MIT linear boundary condition: The linear boundary condition is examined in detail. Our model always satisfies two necessary requirements of the MIT bag model - i.e., n.j = 0, no quark colour flux leaves the bag, and q-barq = 0, the scalar density of quark should vanish on the bag surface- and it reduces to the MIT spherical bag model in the limit of zero-eccentricity. Lagrangian formalism of our model is briefly described. The eigenfrequencies of a single massless quark confined in this spheroidal bag are numerically calculated. We obtain the level-splitting of the excited quark orbits, which is just analogous to the well-known Nilsson's splitting of single particle orbits in deformed nuclei. By using the numerical results of the lowest orbit, the effect of the bag-deformation on the mass of low-lying hadrons is estimated. It is found that, although the spherical bag is stable, the quark bag is extremely soft against the quadrupole deformation. Brief discussions are added on the mechanisms which make the spherical bag more stable. (author)

  6. Technology & Mechanics Overview of Air-Inflated Fabric Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cavallaro, Paul V

    2006-01-01

    .... Examples include air ships, weather balloons, inflatable radomes, shelters, pneumatic muscles, inflatable boats, bridging, and energy absorbers such as automotive air bags and landing cushions for space vehicles...

  7. Bag-breakup control of surface drag in hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kandaurov, Alexander; Ermakova, Olga; Kozlov, Dmitry; Sergeev, Daniil

    2016-04-01

    Air-sea interaction at extreme winds is of special interest now in connection with the problem of the sea surface drag reduction at the wind speed exceeding 30-35 m/s. This phenomenon predicted by Emanuel (1995) and confirmed by a number of field (e.g., Powell, et al, 2003) and laboratory (Donelan et al, 2004) experiments still waits its physical explanation. Several papers attributed the drag reduction to spume droplets - spray turning off the crests of breaking waves (e.g., Kudryavtsev, Makin, 2011, Bao, et al, 2011). The fluxes associated with the spray are determined by the rate of droplet production at the surface quantified by the sea spray generation function (SSGF), defined as the number of spray particles of radius r produced from the unit area of water surface in unit time. However, the mechanism of spume droplets' formation is unknown and empirical estimates of SSGF varied over six orders of magnitude; therefore, the production rate of large sea spray droplets is not adequately described and there are significant uncertainties in estimations of exchange processes in hurricanes. Herewith, it is unknown what is air-sea interface and how water is fragmented to spray at hurricane wind. Using high-speed video, we observed mechanisms of production of spume droplets at strong winds by high-speed video filming, investigated statistics and compared their efficiency. Experiments showed, that the generation of the spume droplets near the wave crest is caused by the following events: bursting of submerged bubbles, generation and breakup of "projections" and "bag breakup". Statistical analysis of results of these experiments showed that the main mechanism of spray-generation is attributed to "bag-breakup mechanism", namely, inflating and consequent blowing of short-lived, sail-like pieces of the water-surface film. Using high-speed video, we show that at hurricane winds the main mechanism of spray production is attributed to "bag-breakup", namely, inflating and

  8. Vector-Interaction-Enhanced Bag Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cierniak, Mateusz; Klähn, Thomas; Fischer, Tobias; Bastian, Niels-Uwe

    2018-02-01

    A commonly applied quark matter model in astrophysics is the thermodynamic bag model (tdBAG). The original MIT bag model approximates the effect of quark confinement, but does not explicitly account for the breaking of chiral symmetry, an important property of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). It further ignores vector repulsion. The vector-interaction-enhanced bag model (vBag) improves the tdBAG approach by accounting for both dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and repulsive vector interactions. The latter is of particular importance to studies of dense matter in beta-equilibriumto explain the two solar mass maximum mass constraint for neutron stars. The model is motivated by analyses of QCD based Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSE), assuming a simple quark-quark contact interaction. Here, we focus on the study of hybrid neutron star properties resulting from the application of vBag and will discuss possible extensions.

  9. Self-consistent quark bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, J.

    1979-01-01

    After an introductory overview of the bag model the author uses the self-consistent solution of the coupled Dirac-meson fields to represent a bound state of strongly ineteracting fermions. In this framework he discusses the vivial approach to classical field equations. After a short description of the used numerical methods the properties of bound states of scalar self-consistent Fields and the solutions of a self-coupled Dirac field are considered. (HSI) [de

  10. Striving for balance between caring and restraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moberg, Julie Y; Larsen, Dorte; Brødsgaard, Anne

    2017-01-01

    with 14 young adults were conducted. RESULTS: The essence of the phenomenon of having a parent with multiple sclerosis was synthesized into 'Striving for balance between caring and restraint' from two themes 'caring' and 'restraint' and eight subthemes. Participants' experiences of caring for parents...... that one of the greatest challenges of having a parent with multiple sclerosis is achieving a balance between caring for others and asserting one's own desires. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Health care professionals can support the family by encouraging family members to participate in consultations...

  11. Analysis of a classical chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeau, H.

    1985-01-01

    The author studies a classical chiral bag model with a Mexican hat-type potential for the self-coupling of the pion fields. He assumes a static spherical bag of radius R, the hedgehog ansatz for the chiral fields and that the quarks are all in the lowest lying s state. The author has considered three classes of models, the cloudy or pantopionic bags, the little or exopionic bags and the endopionic bags, where the pions are allowed all through space, only outside the bag and only inside the bag respectively. In all cases, the quarks are confined in the interior. He calculates the bag radius R, the bag constant B and the total ground state energy R for wide ranges of the two free parameters of the theory, namely the coupling constant λ and the quark frequency omega. The author focuses the study on the endopionic bags, the least known class, and compares the results with the familiar ones of other classes

  12. Chiral pion dynamics for spherical nucleon bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vento, V.; Rho, M.; Nyman, E.M.; Jun, J.H.; Brown, G.E.; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette

    1980-01-01

    A chirally symmetric quark-bag model for the nucleon is obtained by introducing an explicit, classical, pion field exterior to the bag. The coupling at the bag surface is determined by the requirement of a conserved axial-vector current. The pion field satisfies equations of motion corresponding to the non-linear sigma-model. We study on this paper the simplified case where the bag and the pion field are spherically symmetric. Corrections due to gluon exchange between the quarks are ignored along with other interactions which split the N- and Δ-masses. The equations of motion for the pion field are solved and we find a substantial pion pressure at the bag surface, along with an attractive contribution to the nucleon self-energy. The total energy of the system, bag plus meson cloud, turns out to be approximately Msub(n)c 2 for a wide range of bag radii, from 1.5 fm down to about 0.5 fm. Introduction of a form factor for the pion would extend the range of possible radii to even smaller values. We propose that the bag with the smallest allowed radius be identified with the 'little bag' discussed before. One surprising result of the paper is that as long as one restricts to spherically symmetric bags, restoring chiral symmetry to the bag model makes the axial-vector current coupling constant gsub(A) to be always too large compared with the experimental value for any bag radius, suggesting a deviation from spherical symmetry for the intrinsic bag wave functions of the 'ground-state' hadrons. (orig.)

  13. Astronaut Anna Fisher demonstrates sleep restraints on shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Anna L. Fisher demonstrates the versatility of shuttle sleep restraints to accommodate the preference of crewmembers as she appears to have configured hers in a horizontal hammock mode. Stowage lockers, one of the middeck walls, another sleep restraint, a jury-rigged foot and hand restraint are among other items in the frame.

  14. Physical Restraint Initiation in Nursing Homes and Subsequent Resident Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberg, John; Castle, Nicholas G.; McCaffrey, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: It is widely believed that physical restraint use causes mental and physical health decline in nursing home residents. Yet few studies exist showing an association between restraint initiation and health decline. In this research, we examined whether physical restraint initiation is associated with subsequent lower physical or mental…

  15. Restraint, tendency toward overeating and ice cream consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Strien, T; Cleven, A.H.G.; Schippers, G.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The examination of the prediction of grams of ice cream eaten by preload, restraint, susceptibility toward overeating, and interaction terms. METHOD: A milkshake-ice cream study on 200 females using the Restraint Scale (RS) and the restraint and disinhibition scales from the Three-Factor

  16. A rotating bag model for hadrons. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Masaharu

    1994-01-01

    The MIT bag model is modified in order to describe rotational motion of hadrons. It has a kind of 'diatomic molecular' structure; The rotational excitation of the MIT bag is described by the polarized two colored sub-bags which are connected with each other by the gluon flux. One sub-bag contains a quark and the other has an antiquark for mesons. For baryons, the latter sub-bag contains the remaining two quarks instead of the antiquark. The Regge trajectories of hadrons are explained qualitatively by our new model with the usual MIT bag parameters. In particular the Regge slopes are reproduced fairly well. It is also pointed out that the gluon flux plays an important role in the rotational motion of hadrons. (author)

  17. Effects of quantum entropy on bag constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.E.; Tawfik, A.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of quantum entropy on the bag constant are studied at low temperatures and for small chemical potentials. The inclusion of the quantum entropy of the quarks in the equation of state provides the hadronic bag with an additional heat which causes a decrease in the effective latent heat inside the bag. We have considered two types of baryonic bags, Δ and Ω - . In both cases we have found that the bag constant without the quantum entropy almost does not change with temperature and quark chemical potential. The contribution from the quantum entropy to the equation of state clearly decreases the value of the bag constant. Furthermore, we construct states densities for quarks using the 'Thomas Fermi model' and take into consideration a thermal potential for the interaction. (author)

  18. Lateral restraint assembly in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, S.J.; Gorholt, W.

    1977-01-01

    A lateral restraint assembly is described for a reactor of, for example, the high temperature gas-cooled type which commonly includes a reactor core of relatively complex construction supported within a shell or vessel providing a shielded cavity for containing the reactor core. (U.K.)

  19. Restraint Stress Impairs Glucose Homeostasis Through Altered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    serum level of adiponectin was significantly (p< 0.05) lower compared with ... were significantly (p< 0.05) decreased in the skeletal muscle of restraint stress exposed rats. ... controlled conditions for the light/dark cycle, ..... increase the production of catecholamines. ... specific protein that has been suggested to play a role.

  20. The use of restraints in psychiatric patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-09-17

    Sep 17, 2009 ... In South Africa, according to the Mental Health Care Act No. 17 of 2002 .... and staff composition, type of ward and ward atmosphere. The type of ... (e.g. psychiatric diagnosis, strengths, family history), and restraint should be ...

  1. PDBStat: a universal restraint converter and restraint analysis software package for protein NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejero, Roberto; Snyder, David; Mao, Binchen; Aramini, James M.; Montelione, Gaetano T.

    2013-01-01

    The heterogeneous array of software tools used in the process of protein NMR structure determination presents organizational challenges in the structure determination and validation processes, and creates a learning curve that limits the broader use of protein NMR in biology. These challenges, including accurate use of data in different data formats required by software carrying out similar tasks, continue to confound the efforts of novices and experts alike. These important issues need to be addressed robustly in order to standardize protein NMR structure determination and validation. PDBStat is a C/C++ computer program originally developed as a universal coordinate and protein NMR restraint converter. Its primary function is to provide a user-friendly tool for interconverting between protein coordinate and protein NMR restraint data formats. It also provides an integrated set of computational methods for protein NMR restraint analysis and structure quality assessment, relabeling of prochiral atoms with correct IUPAC names, as well as multiple methods for analysis of the consistency of atomic positions indicated by their convergence across a protein NMR ensemble. In this paper we provide a detailed description of the PDBStat software, and highlight some of its valuable computational capabilities. As an example, we demonstrate the use of the PDBStat restraint converter for restrained CS-Rosetta structure generation calculations, and compare the resulting protein NMR structure models with those generated from the same NMR restraint data using more traditional structure determination methods. These results demonstrate the value of a universal restraint converter in allowing the use of multiple structure generation methods with the same restraint data for consensus analysis of protein NMR structures and the underlying restraint data

  2. PDBStat: a universal restraint converter and restraint analysis software package for protein NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejero, Roberto [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine (United States); Snyder, David [William Paterson University, Department of Chemistry (United States); Mao, Binchen; Aramini, James M.; Montelione, Gaetano T., E-mail: guy@cabm.rutgers.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The heterogeneous array of software tools used in the process of protein NMR structure determination presents organizational challenges in the structure determination and validation processes, and creates a learning curve that limits the broader use of protein NMR in biology. These challenges, including accurate use of data in different data formats required by software carrying out similar tasks, continue to confound the efforts of novices and experts alike. These important issues need to be addressed robustly in order to standardize protein NMR structure determination and validation. PDBStat is a C/C++ computer program originally developed as a universal coordinate and protein NMR restraint converter. Its primary function is to provide a user-friendly tool for interconverting between protein coordinate and protein NMR restraint data formats. It also provides an integrated set of computational methods for protein NMR restraint analysis and structure quality assessment, relabeling of prochiral atoms with correct IUPAC names, as well as multiple methods for analysis of the consistency of atomic positions indicated by their convergence across a protein NMR ensemble. In this paper we provide a detailed description of the PDBStat software, and highlight some of its valuable computational capabilities. As an example, we demonstrate the use of the PDBStat restraint converter for restrained CS-Rosetta structure generation calculations, and compare the resulting protein NMR structure models with those generated from the same NMR restraint data using more traditional structure determination methods. These results demonstrate the value of a universal restraint converter in allowing the use of multiple structure generation methods with the same restraint data for consensus analysis of protein NMR structures and the underlying restraint data.

  3. Ellipsoidal bag model for heavy quark system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Pinzhen; Fudan Univ., Shanghai

    1991-01-01

    The ellipsoidal bag model is used to describe heavy quark systems such as Qanti Q, Qanti Qg and Q 2 anti Q 2 . Instead of two step model, these states are described by an uniform picture. The potential derived from the ellipsoidal bag for Qanti Q is almost equivalent to the Cornell potential. For a Q 2 anti Q 2 system with large quark pair separation, an improvement of 70 MeV is obtained comparing with the spherical bag. (orig.)

  4. Bag model with broken chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efrosinin, V.P.; Zaikin, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    A variant of the bag model in which chiral symmetry is broken and which provides a description of all the experimental data on the light hadrons, including the pion, is discussed. The pion and kaon decay constants are calculated in this model. The problem of taking into account the center-of-mass motion in bag models and the boundary conditions in the bag model with broken chiral symmetry are also discussed

  5. Comparison of storage stability of odorous VOCs in polyester aluminum and polyvinyl fluoride Tedlar® bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jo, Sang-Hee; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Sohn, Jong Ryeul; Parker, David B

    2012-01-27

    Whole air sampling using containers such as flexible bags or rigid canisters is commonly used to collect samples of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air. The objective of this study was to compare the stability of polyester aluminum (PEA) and polyvinyl fluoride (PVF, brand name Tedlar(®)) bags for gaseous VOC sampling. Eight VOC standards (benzene, toluene, p-xylene, styrene, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, butyl acetate, and isobutyl alcohol) were placed into each bag at storage times of 0, 2, and 3 days prior to analyses by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). From each bag representing each storage day, samples of 3 different mass loadings were withdrawn and analyzed to derive response factors (RF) of each chemical between the slope of the GC response (y-axis) vs. loaded mass (x-axis). The relative recoveries (RR) of VOC, if derived by dividing RF value of a given storage day by that of 0 day, varied by time, bag type, and VOC type. If the RR values after three days are compared, those of methyl isobutyl ketone were the highest with 96 (PVF) and 99% (PEA); however, the results of isobutyl alcohol were highly contrasting between the two bags with 31 and 94%, respectively. Differences in RR values between the two bag types increased with storage time, such that RR of PEA bags (88±10%) were superior to those of PVF bags (73±22%) after three days, demonstrating that VOC in PEA bags were more stable than in PVF bags. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Recent status of the chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosaka, Atsushi; Toki, Hiroshi.

    1995-01-01

    In this note, recent status of the chiral bag model is presented. As it combines the MIT quark bag model and the Skyrme model, the chiral bag model interpolates the two models smoothly as a function of the chiral bag radius R. The correct limit of R → ∞ is reproduced by including the higher order terms in the Ω expansion of the cranking method. It resolves the so-called small g A problem in a class of models where the semiclassical method is used. (author)

  7. 19 CFR 148.83 - Diplomatic and consular bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diplomatic and consular bags. 148.83 Section 148... bags. (a) Diplomatic bags. The contents of diplomatic bags are restricted to diplomatic documents and articles intended exclusively for official use and packages constituting the diplomatic bag must bear...

  8. Bosonization relations as bag boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadkarni, S.; Nielsen, H.B.; Zahed, I.

    1984-10-01

    The more sophisticated bag models of hadrons become, the less precisely they seem to determine the bag radius. Idealizing this situation leads to the concept of exact bag models - ''Cheshire Cat'' models, CCM'S - where the physics is completely insensitive to changes in the bag radius. CCM's are constructed explitly in 1+1-dimensions, where exact bosonization relations are known. In the formalism of bag models, these relations appear as boundary conditions which ensure that the shifting of the bag wall has no physical effect. Other notable features of 1+1-dimensional CCM's are: (i) Fermion number, though classically confined, can escape the bag via a vector current anomaly at the surface. (ii) Essentially the same boundary action works for a variety of models and its symmetries determine those of the external boson fields. Remarkably enough, this 1+1-dimensional boundary action has precisely the same form as the one used in 3+1-dimensional chiral bag models, lending support to the belief that the latter are indeed approximateCCM's. These 1+1-dimensional results are expected to provide useful guidelines in the attempt to, at least approximately, besonize 3+1-dimensional QCD. (orig.)

  9. PVC posting bags for glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-12-01

    This specification covers the materials, measurements and manufacture of unpigmented PVC posting bags for use on glove boxes, together with methods of testing the materials. These bags are used in the handling of radioactive and toxic materials of a hazardous nature and therefore must be of the highest standard of mechanical strength, leak tightness and general finish. (author)

  10. Nuclear matter as an MIT bag crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Q.; Derreth, C.; Schaefer, A.; Greiner, W.

    1986-01-01

    An MIT bag crystal model of nuclear matter is formulated. The energy bands of the quarks are calculated as a function of the overlap between adjacent bags. A clear indication of substantial overlap is found. Accordingly, infinite nuclear matter is more similar to a quark gas than to a nucleonic structure. (author)

  11. Baryon excitations in the bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, R.L.

    1976-07-01

    Two recent spectroscopic applications of the bag model are discussed. The first is a study of the place of multiquark states in meson and baryon spectroscopy, and the second is an attempt to sort out the P-wave baryon excitations in a bag model. 33 references

  12. 'Mechanical restraint-confounders, risk, alliance score'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deichmann Nielsen, Lea; Bech, Per; Hounsgaard, Lise

    2017-01-01

    . AIM: To clinically validate a new, structured short-term risk assessment instrument called the Mechanical Restraint-Confounders, Risk, Alliance Score (MR-CRAS), with the intended purpose of supporting the clinicians' observation and assessment of the patient's readiness to be released from mechanical...... restraint. METHODS: The content and layout of MR-CRAS and its user manual were evaluated using face validation by forensic mental health clinicians, content validation by an expert panel, and pilot testing within two, closed forensic mental health inpatient units. RESULTS: The three sub-scales (Confounders......, Risk, and a parameter of Alliance) showed excellent content validity. The clinical validations also showed that MR-CRAS was perceived and experienced as a comprehensible, relevant, comprehensive, and useable risk assessment instrument. CONCLUSIONS: MR-CRAS contains 18 clinically valid items...

  13. Pipe restraints for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keever, R.E.; Broman, R.; Shevekov, S.

    1976-01-01

    A pipe restraint for nuclear power plants in which a support member is anchored on supporting surface is described. Formed in the support member is a semicylindrical wall. Seated on the semicylindrical wall is a ring-shaped pipe restrainer that has an inner cylindrical wall. The inner cylindrical wall of the pipe restrainer encircles the pressurized pipe. In a modification of the pipe restraint, an arched-shaped pipe restrainer is disposed to overlie a pressurized pipe. The ends of the arch-shaped pipe restrainer are fixed to support members, which are anchored in concrete or to a supporting surface. A strap depends from the arch-shaped pipe restrainer. The pressurized pipe is supported by the depending strap

  14. Pipeline dynamics subject to restraints with clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loula, A.F.D.; Guerreiro, J.N.C.

    1980-12-01

    The principle of virtual works at its incremental form, is utilized for the formulation of flat pipeline vibration problems, of elastic-plastic behavior, submitted to restraints with clearance (also with elastic-plastic behavior) and with viscous damping. The possibility of uniform movement of the support, that simulates the seismic action is also considered. The finite element method and an integration time algorithm, are utilized for the problem resolution. Some examples ilustrate the application of the development program. (Author) [pt

  15. Financial Restraints in the South Korean Miracle

    OpenAIRE

    Panicos O Demetriades; Kul B Luintel

    2000-01-01

    We provide novel empirical evidence on the effects of financial restraints on South Korean financial development. The evidence is linked to a simple model of the Korean banking system that encapsulates its cartelised nature, which predicts a positive association between financial development and (i) the degree of state control over the banking system, (ii) mild repression of lending rates. The model also predicts that in the presence of lending rate controls, increases in the level of the adm...

  16. Vortex induced vibrations in gapped restrainted pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, P. de A.A.; Loula, A.F.D.

    1984-01-01

    The vortex induced vibration problem of gapped restrained piping is solved numerically. The model proposed by Skop-Griffin is used to describe the pipe-fluid interaction. The variational formulation is obtained modeling the gapped restraints as non-linear elastic springs. The regularized problem is solved using a finite element discretization for the spatial domain. In the time domain a finite difference discretization is used for the lift coefficient equatin and a Newmark discretization for the equation of motion. (Author) [pt

  17. Workplace Exposure to Titanium Dioxide Nanopowder Released from a Bag Filter System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ho Ji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers who use laboratory-scale synthesis systems to manufacture nanomaterials could be easily exposed to airborne nanomaterials during the research and development stage. This study used various real-time aerosol detectors to investigate the presence of nanoaerosols in a laboratory used to manufacture titanium dioxide (TiO2. The TiO2 nanopowders were produced via flame synthesis and collected by a bag filter system for subsequent harvesting. Highly concentrated nanopowders were released from the outlet of the bag filter system into the laboratory. The fractional particle collection efficiency of the bag filter system was only 20% at particle diameter of 100 nm, which is much lower than the performance of a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA filter. Furthermore, the laboratory hood system was inadequate to fully exhaust the air discharged from the bag filter system. Unbalanced air flow rates between bag filter and laboratory hood systems could result in high exposure to nanopowder in laboratory settings. Finally, we simulated behavior of nanopowders released in the laboratory using computational fluid dynamics (CFD.

  18. Gold Mine or Minefield: Understanding Russian Law on Vertical Restraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Rucker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While the Russian Federation represents a significant opportunity for growth, that opportunity is coupled with serious risks. As it relates to managing product distribution, Russian vertical restraint law remains significantly more restrictive than that of the U.S. and, since unless a company is fully integrated, it must manage its distribution system by way of vertical agreements, presents a large problem for businesses seeking to conduct business in Russia. While Russia has made significant steps in the right direction, the lack of consistent application of economic analysis to evaluation of vertical restraints leaves companies exposed. Further, the sometimes inconsistent application of the laws also makes it hard to predict how any particular vertical agreement would be evaluated. Neither American nor Russian antitrust laws establish a list of possible vertical restraints. Thus, there is no exhaustive guidance regarding how these restraints should be treated. U.S. antitrust laws, however, generally place all vertical restraints into one of two categories, intrabrand restraints and interbrand restraints. Intrabrand restraints are those that restrain the downstream firm’s freedom with regard to the resale of the product at issue (distribution restrictions. Interbrand restraints are those that restrict a downstream or upstream firm’s freedom to deal with competitors of the firm imposing the restraint (interbrand restrictions. It should be noted that Russian law does not make this distinction.

  19. Measurement of Dietary Restraint: Validity Tests of Four Questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Donald A.; Martin, Corby K.; York-Crowe, Emily; Anton, Stephen D.; Redman, Leanne M.; Han, Hongmei; Ravussin, Eric

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the validity of four measures of dietary restraint: Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, Eating Inventory (EI), Revised Restraint Scale (RS), and the Current Dieting Questionnaire. Dietary restraint has been implicated as a determinant of overeating and binge eating. Conflicting findings have been attributed to different methods for measuring dietary restraint. The validity of four self-report measures of dietary restraint and dieting behavior was tested using: 1) factor analysis, 2) changes in dietary restraint in a randomized controlled trial of different methods to achieve calorie restriction, and 3) correlation of changes in dietary restraint with an objective measure of energy balance, calculated from the changes in fat mass and fat-free mass over a six-month dietary intervention. Scores from all four questionnaires, measured at baseline, formed a dietary restraint factor, but the RS also loaded on a binge eating factor. Based on change scores, the EI Restraint scale was the only measure that correlated significantly with energy balance expressed as a percentage of energy require d for weight maintenance. These findings suggest that that, of the four questionnaires tested, the EI Restraint scale was the most valid measure of the intent to diet and actual caloric restriction. PMID:17101191

  20. Gold Mine or Minefield: Understanding Russian Law on Vertical Restraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Rucker

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available While the Russian Federation represents a significant opportunity for growth, that opportunity is coupled with serious risks. As it relates to managing product distribution, Russian vertical restraint law remains significantly more restrictive than that of the U.S. and, since unless a company is fully integrated, it must manage its distribution system by way of vertical agreements, presents a large problem for businesses seeking to conduct business in Russia. While Russia has made significant steps in the right direction, the lack of consistent application of economic analysis to evaluation of vertical restraints leaves companies exposed. Further, the sometimes inconsistent application of the laws also makes it hard to predict how any particular vertical agreement would be evaluated. Neither American nor Russian antitrust laws establish a list of possible vertical restraints. Thus, there is no exhaustive guidance regarding how these restraints should be treated. U.S. antitrust laws, however, generally place all vertical restraints into one of two categories, intrabrand restraints and interbrand restraints. Intrabrand restraints are those that restrain the downstream firm’s freedom with regard to the resale of the product at issue (distribution restrictions. Interbrand restraints are those that restrict a downstream or upstream firm’s freedom to deal with competitors of the firm imposing the restraint (interbrand restrictions. It should be noted that Russian law does not make this distinction.

  1. Lateral restraint assembly for reactor core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorholt, Wilhelm; Luci, Raymond K.

    1986-01-01

    A restraint assembly for use in restraining lateral movement of a reactor core relative to a reactor vessel wherein a plurality of restraint assemblies are interposed between the reactor core and the reactor vessel in circumferentially spaced relation about the core. Each lateral restraint assembly includes a face plate urged against the outer periphery of the core by a plurality of compression springs which enable radial preloading of outer reflector blocks about the core and resist low-level lateral motion of the core. A fixed radial key member cooperates with each face plate in a manner enabling vertical movement of the face plate relative to the key member but restraining movement of the face plate transverse to the key member in a plane transverse to the center axis of the core. In this manner, the key members which have their axes transverse to or subtending acute angles with the direction of a high energy force tending to move the core laterally relative to the reactor vessel restrain such lateral movement.

  2. Strategy for selecting disposable bags for cell culture media applications based on a root-cause investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joseph; Mahajan, Ekta; Shiratori, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    The use of disposable bags for cell culture media storage has grown significantly in the past decade. Some of the key advantages of using disposable bags relative to non-disposable containers include increased product throughput, decreased cleaning validation costs, reduced risk of cross contamination and lower facility costs. As the scope of use of disposable bags for cell culture applications increases, problematic bags and scenarios should be identified and addressed to continue improving disposables technologies and meet the biotech industry's needs. In this article, we examine a cell culture application wherein media stored in disposable bags is warmed at 37°C before use for cell culture operations. A problematic bag film was identified through a prospective and retrospective cell culture investigation. The investigation provided information on the scope and variation of the issue with respect to different Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines, cell culture media, and application-specific parameters. It also led to the development of application-specific test methods and enabled a strategy for disposable bag film testing. The strategy was implemented for qualifying an alternative bag film for use in our processes. In this test strategy, multiple lots of 13 bag film types, encompassing eight vendors were evaluated using a three round, cell culture-based test strategy. The test strategy resulted in the determination of four viable bag film options based on the technical data. The results of this evaluation were used to conclude that a volatile or air-quenched compound, likely generated by gamma irradiation of the problematic bag film, negatively impacted cell culture performance. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  3. Bag-like contaminant control work module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, H.; Jacobson, E.B.

    1982-01-01

    A bag-like contaminant control work module is formed from a flexible impervious membrane which is inflated inside of an enclosed workspace to protect workers in the module from contaminants. The workspace, such as in a nuclear power steam generator, has a portal or manway opening into the workspace into which the module is secured by a module passageway. The module includes one or more glove boxes, in which the workers perform their assigned tasks after passing through the passageway and portal. The module includes one or more absolute filters allowing passage of air flow through the module passageway and into the workspace only through the filters. The module may include an auxiliary passageway secured to the outside of the module passageway and also secured in the portal opening and through which items can be passed back and forth to the worker in the glove box from outside the portal. The module is invertible so that it can be pulled out of the workspace trapping all the contaminants therein and disposed of without handling the contaminants

  4. Breaking BAG: The Co-Chaperone BAG3 in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behl, Christian

    2016-08-01

    Human BAG (Bcl-2-associated athanogene) proteins form a family of antiapoptotic proteins that currently consists of six members (BAG1-6) all sharing the BAG protein domain from which the name arises. Via this domain, BAG proteins bind to the heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), thereby acting as a co-chaperone regulating the activity of Hsp70. In addition to their antiapoptotic activity, all human BAG proteins have distinct functions in health and disease, and BAG3 in particular is the focus of many investigations. BAG3 has a modular protein domain composition offering the possibility for manifold interactions with other proteins. Various BAG3 functions are implicated in disorders including cancer, myopathies, and neurodegeneration. The discovery of its role in selective autophagy and the description of BAG3-mediated selective macroautophagy as an adaptive mechanism to maintain cellular homeostasis, under stress as well as during aging, make BAG3 a highly interesting target for future pharmacological interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Restraint methods for radiography in dogs and cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrivani, P.V.; Bednarski, R.M.; Myer, C.W.; Dykes, N.L.

    1996-01-01

    Excellent patient restraint techniques are necessary to produce high-quality diagnostic images during survey and contrast radiography and ultrasonography. Use of non manual physical restraint (i.e., devices to hold the patient in position) helps reduce the exposure of veterinary personnel to radiation. Exposure of personnel to radiation should be kept as low as reasonably achievable. Usually, this involves taking the radiograph when no personnel are present in the room. Some procedures, however, require the presence of the veterinarian. No personnel should ever put any part of their bodies in the path of the x-ray beam. Protective gear must be worn. Physical restraint can be facilitated by chemical restraint, which varies from minimal sedation to general anesthesia. Appropriate chemical restraint for radiography is the minimum amount of sedation required for the efficient and safe completion of the radiographic examination. Chemical restraint techniques vary according to the patient's physical status, the type of examination, and the skill of the examiner in non manual restraint techniques. This article describes techniques for non manual restraint and protocols for chemical restraint for dogs and cats

  6. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for..., provided: (a) The quantity of contents is expressed in terms of numerical count of the bags; (b) A...

  7. Storage of Maize in Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Scott B; Murdock, Larry L; Baributsa, Dieudonne

    2017-01-01

    Interest in using hermetic technologies as a pest management solution for stored grain has risen in recent years. One hermetic approach, Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) bags, has proven successful in controlling the postharvest pests of cowpea. This success encouraged farmers to use of PICS bags for storing other crops including maize. To assess whether maize can be safely stored in PICS bags without loss of quality, we carried out laboratory studies of maize grain infested with Sitophilus zeamais (Motshulsky) and stored in PICS triple bags or in woven polypropylene bags. Over an eight month observation period, temperatures in the bags correlated with ambient temperature for all treatments. Relative humidity inside PICS bags remained constant over this period despite the large changes that occurred in the surrounding environment. Relative humidity in the woven bags followed ambient humidity closely. PICS bags containing S. zeamais-infested grain saw a significant decline in oxygen compared to the other treatments. Grain moisture content declined in woven bags, but remained high in PICS bags. Seed germination was not significantly affected over the first six months in all treatments, but declined after eight months of storage when infested grain was held in woven bags. Relative damage was low across treatments and not significantly different between treatments. Overall, maize showed no signs of deterioration in PICS bags versus the woven bags and PICS bags were superior to woven bags in terms of specific metrics of grain quality.

  8. CETA truck and EVA restraint system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, David C.; Merson, Wayne R.

    1991-01-01

    The Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) experiment is an extravehicular activity (EVA) Space Transportation System (STS) based flight experiment which will explore various modes of transporting astronauts and light equipment for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The basic elements of CETA are: (1) two 25 foot long sections of monorail, which will be EVA assembled in the STS cargo bay to become a single 50 ft. rail called the track; (2) a wheeled baseplate called the truck which rolls along the track and can accept three cart concepts; and (3) the three carts which are designated manual, electric, and mechanical. The three carts serve as the astronaut restraint and locomotive interfaces with the track. The manual cart is powered by the astronaut grasping the track's handrail and pulling himself along. The electric cart is operated by an astronaut turning a generator which powers the electric motor and drives the cart. The mechanical cart is driven by a Bendix type transmission and is similar in concept to a man-propelled railroad cart. During launch and landing, the truck is attached to the deployable track by means of EVA removable restraint bolts and held in position by a system of retractable shims. These shims are positioned on the exterior of the rail for launch and landing and rotate out of the way for the duration of the experiment. The shims are held in position by strips of Velcro nap, which rub against the sides of the shim and exert a tailored force. The amount of force required to rotate the shims was a major EVA concern, along with operational repeatability and extreme temperature effects. The restraint system was tested in a thermal-vac and vibration environment and was shown to meet all of the initial design requirements. Using design inputs from the astronauts who will perform the EVA, CETA evolved through an iterative design process and represented a cooperative effort.

  9. The restraint bias: how the illusion of self-restraint promotes impulsive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordgren, L.F.; van Harreveld, F.; van der Pligt, J.

    2009-01-01

    Four studies examined how impulse-control beliefs—beliefs regarding one's ability to regulate visceral impulses, such as hunger, drug craving, and sexual arousal—influence the self-control process. The findings provide evidence for a restraint bias: a tendency for people to overestimate their

  10. Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) 2015 Industry Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This document provides an overview of Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) hardware and software capabilities, including portable electronic devices (PEDs) used as EFBs, as of July 2015. This document updates and replaces the Volpe Centers previous EFB ind...

  11. Electronic flight bag (EFB) : 2010 industry survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This document provides an overview of Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) systems and capabilities, as of June 2010. This document updates and replaces the April 2007 EFB Industry Review (Yeh and Chandra, 2007). As with the previous industry survey, the focu...

  12. Enhancing Mathematical Communication: "Bag of Tricks" Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patahuddin, Sitti Maesuri; Ramful, Ajay; Greenlees, Jane

    2015-01-01

    An engaging activity which prompts students to listen, talk, reason and write about geometrical properties. The "Bag of Tricks" encourages students to clarify their thoughts and communicate precisely using accurate mathematical language.

  13. Multi-monopoles and magnetic bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolognesi, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    By analogy with the multi-vortices, we show that also multi-monopoles become magnetic bags in the large n limit. This simplification allows us to compute the spectrum and the profile functions by requiring the minimization of the energy of the bag. We consider in detail the case of the magnetic bag in the limit of vanishing potential and we find that it saturates the Bogomol'nyi bound and there is an infinite set of different shapes of allowed bags. This is consistent with the existence of a moduli space of solutions for the BPS multi-monopoles. We discuss the string theory interpretation of our result and also the relation between the 't Hooft large n limit of certain supersymmetric gauge theories and the large n limit of multi-monopoles. We then consider multi-monopoles in the cosmological context and provide a mechanism that could lead to their production

  14. Design-A-Bag Competition 2012

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia nahakunsti osakonna tudengid Kadri Paloveer, Inga Radikainen ja Mari Maripuu pälvisid Hong-Kongis korraldataval "DESIGN-A-BAG 2012" konkursil tihedas rahvusvahelises konkurentsis mitmeid preemiaid

  15. Models of quark bags and their consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogolubov, P.N.

    1977-01-01

    The development of the first Dubna Quark Bag and the results obtained in this way are considered. The idea of the first Dubna Quark Bag is as follows: baryons are constructed of three quarks measons are constructed of two quarks, and each quark is interpreted as the Dirac particle which moves in a scalar square well. The so-called quasiindependent quark model is considered too. It is a simple quark model based on an analogy with the shell model for nuclei. The quarks are considered as moving in an arbitrary radially-symmetric field, and their one-particle wave function satisfies the usual Dirac equation. Such quark model can give at least the same results as the relativistic bag model. A possibility exists to improve the results of the relativistic quark model with the oscillator interaction between quarks. The results of the MIT-Bag model and the quasiindependent quark model coincide

  16. Nuclear surface vibrations in bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomio, L.

    1984-01-01

    The main difficulties found in the hadron bag models are reviewed from the original version of the MIT bag model. Following, with the aim to answer two of the main difficulties in bag models, viz., the parity and the divergence illness, a dynamical model is presented. In the model, the confinement surface of the quarks (bag) is treated like a real physical object which interacts with the quarks and is exposed to vibrations. The model is applied to the nucleon, being observed that his spectrum, in the first excited levels, can be reproduced with resonable precision and obeying to the correct parity order. In the same way that in a similar work of Brown et al., it is observed to be instrumental the inclusion of the effect due to pions. (L.C.) [pt

  17. PLASTIC BAGS: AQUESTION OF CHANGING HABITS

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzett, Juliana Benitti; Rizzatti, Cláudia Bach; Lorenzett, Daniel Benitti; Godoy, Leoni Pentiado

    2013-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/223613087725This study aimed to conduct a review about of the use and disposal of plastic bags, checking in the existing literature that has been studied and the current status of this environmental problem, besides conducting a survey with customers in a supermarket to check the involvement of the community with the adoption of reusable bags. A bibliographic search was conducted by internet, and is considered therefore works available online. The study survey was gi...

  18. An alternative approach to heavy quark bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baacke, J.; Kasperidus, G.

    1980-01-01

    We discuss a formulation of quark bags where the quark wave function depends only on the relative coordinate and the bag boundary is fixed with respect to the center of mass of the quark system. For technical reasons we have to restrict ourselves to a heavy quark-antiquark system in an s-wave with spherical boundary. A phenomenological application to quarkonium states encourages further investigation of the approach. (orig.)

  19. Restraint Use in Older Adults Receiving Home Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepmans, Kristien; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Paquay, Louis; Van Gansbeke, Hendrik; Milisen, Koen

    2017-08-01

    To determine the prevalence, types, frequency, and duration of restraint use in older adults receiving home nursing care and to determine factors involved in the decision-making process for restraint use and application. Cross-sectional survey of restraint use in older adults receiving home care completed by primary care nurses. Homes of older adults receiving care from a home nursing organization in Belgium. Randomized sample of older adults receiving home care (N = 6,397; mean age 80.6; 66.8% female). For each participant, nurses completed an investigator-constructed and -validated questionnaire collecting information demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics and aspects of restraint use. A broad definition of restraint was used that includes a range of restrictive actions. Restraints were used in 24.7% of the participants, mostly on a daily basis (85%) and often for a long period (54.5%, 24 h/d). The most common reason for restraint use was safety (50.2%). Other reasons were that the individual wanted to remain at home longer, which necessitated the use of restraints (18.2%) and to provide respite for the informal caregiver (8.6%). The latter played an important role in the decision and application process. The physician was less involved in the process. In 64.5% of cases, there was no evaluation after restraint use was initiated. Use of restraints is common in older adults receiving home care nursing in Belgium. These results contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of use of restraints in home care, a situation that may be even more complex than in nursing homes and acute hospital settings. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  20. Stability of Fentanyl Citrate in Polyolefin Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Ronald F

    2016-01-01

    Fentanyl is used to manage pain because it is a potent lipophilic opiate agonist. The stability of fentanyl in polyolefin bags when diluted to either 10 µg/mL or 50 µg/mL with sodium chloride 0.9% has not been studied. The chemical stability of fentanyl 50 µg/mL packaged in polyvinyl chloride bags has been studied, however, the stability in polyolefin bags is lacking. Polyolefin bags were aseptically filled with either 10-µg/mL or 50-µg/mL fentanyl solution. Containers were then stored at either 5°C and protected from light or 22°C and exposed to light for 93 days. Fentanyl peaks were monitored using a stability-indicatin high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Changes to color, clarity, and pH were also monitored. There were no signs of chemical degradation of fentanyl packaged in polyolefin bags at either 5°C or 22°C after storage for 93 days. Over the course of the study, all solutions remained colorless and clear. The pH showed a slight decrease during the 93 days of storage. The stability of both undiluted (50-µg/mL) and diluted (10-µg/mL) fentanyl solutions when packaged in polyolefin bags was 93 days when stored at either 5°C or 22°C. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  1. Behavioral Response to Plastic Bag Legislation in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Dikgang, Johane; Visser, Martine

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of charges and standards in dealing with a common externality, plastic litter from shopping bags in Botswana. The country passed a plastic bag tax (effective 2007) to curb the plastic bag demand. Interestingly, the legislation did not force retailers to charge for plastic bags, which they did voluntarily at different prices. We assessed the environmental effectiveness and efficiency of the plastic bag legislation by analyzing consumers’ sensitivity to the impro...

  2. The quark mass and baryon numbers of empty chiral bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jezabek, M.; Zalewski, K.

    1984-01-01

    We show that for spherical chiral bags the baryon number of the Dirac vacuum inside the bag does not depend on quark masses. Thus, the sum of the baryon numbers of an empty chiral bag and the skyrmion surrounding the bag is an integer, which depends on the boundary condition on the surface of the bag. This extends the result obtained by Goldstone and Jaffe for massless quarks. (orig.)

  3. Alcohol, Appetite and Loss of Restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caton, Samantha J; Nolan, Laurence J; Hetherington, Marion M

    2015-03-01

    Alcoholic beverages have long been associated with feasts, celebration and marking special events. Today, it is commonplace to consume alcoholic beverages before, with and/or after a meal. Alcohol provides additional pleasure to the meal and enhances appetite. However, consuming an alcoholic beverage with or before a meal is associated with poor short-term energy compensation; energy from alcohol is additive to total energy intake with the added property of stimulating further eating. Limiting alcohol intake is an obvious means to reduce total energy intake for those who wish to lose weight. However, dieters and restrained eaters drink more and report greater binge drinking than unrestrained eaters despite employing cognitive strategies to reduce their intake. Increased intake may be attributable to greater attentional bias to alcohol related cues as well as to food cues, since these are more salient to those limiting intake. Alcohol increases energy intake in dieters, in part due to abandonment of restraint (disinhibition) and consumption of forbidden items including alcohol exacerbates attempts to resist temptation. Paradoxically, links between binge drinking or increased drinking frequency to overweight and obesity may be mediated by dietary restraint. Efforts to limit food and alcohol intake for weight control appear to be unsuccessful and have the net effect of promoting overconsumption. The potential role of restrained eating in the association between alcohol, appetite and obesity has been overlooked by much of the current research and further investigation of this is therefore warranted.

  4. Swelling and infusion of tea in tea bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Geeta U; Joshi, Bhushan S; Patwardhan, Ashwin W; Singh, Gurmeet

    2017-07-01

    The present study deals with swelling and infusion kinetics of tea granules in tea bags. The swelling and infusion kinetics of tea bags differing in tea loading and tea bag shapes were compared with loose tea. Increment in temperature and dipping frequency of tea bag in hot water increased the infusion kinetics of tea bags. Reduction in particle size enhanced the swelling and infusion kinetics of tea in a tea bag. The effects of tea particle size, tea bag dipping rate, loading of tea granules in tea bag and tea bag shapes on infusion kinetics were investigated. Increase in tea loading in tea bags resulted in reduced infusion kinetics. Double chambered tea bag showed the highest swelling (30%) and infusion kinetics (8.30% Gallic acid equivalence) while single chambered tea bags showed the lowest kinetics, amongst the various bags studied. The swelling and infusion kinetics of loose tea was always faster and higher than that of tea bags. It was found that overall effect of percentage filling of tea granules and height of tea bed in a tea bag affects tea infusion kinetics the most. Weibull model was found to be in good agreement with the swelling data.

  5. 75 FR 9613 - Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs [OJP (NIJ) Docket No. 1512] Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice AGENCY: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, DOJ. ACTION: Notice of Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice and Certification Program...

  6. Acute restraint stress induces hyperalgesia via non-adrenergic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analgesia or hyperalgesia has been reported to occur in animals under different stress conditions. This study examined the effect of acute restraint stress on nociception in rats. Acute restraint stress produced a time-dependant decrease in pain threshold; this hyperalgesia was not affected by prior administration of ...

  7. The relationship between restraints of trade and garden leave ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between restraints of trade and garden leave. ... Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad ... The purpose of the article is to examine the relationship between a so-called "garden leave" clause and a post-termination restraint of trade clause in employment contracts, ...

  8. Continuous restraint control systems: safety improvement for various occupants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, E. van der; Jager, B. de; Veldpaus, F.; Steinbuch, M.; Nunen, E. van; Willemsen, D.

    2009-01-01

    Occupant safety can be significantly improved by continuous restraint control systems. These restraint systems adjust their configuration during the impact according to the actual operating conditions, such as occupant size, weight, occupant position, belt usage and crash severity. In this study,

  9. Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism following physical restraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, S B; Jensen, T N; Bolwig, T

    2005-01-01

    . The literature on physical restraint, DVT, and PE was reviewed using a search of Medline and Psychinfo from 1966 to the present. RESULTS: Four other reported cases of DVT and PE were found in association with physically restrained patients. CONCLUSION: Risk of DVT and PE in association with immobilization during......OBJECTIVE: We describe a case of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) following the use of physical restraint in a patient with a diagnosis of acute delusional psychotic disorder. METHOD: A new case report of DVT and PE associated with prolonged physical restraint is presented...... physical restraint may occur in spite of no pre-existing risk factors. Medical guidelines for the prevention of thrombosis following physical restraint are presented. Despite the absence of controlled trials of treatment effectiveness, the catastrophic outcome of DVT and PE warrants early and vigorous...

  10. Performance testing of the new AMPAC fire debris bag against three other commercial fire debris bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grutters, Michiel M P; Dogger, Judith; Hendrikse, Jeanet N

    2012-09-01

    Fire debris evidence is collected and stored in a wide range of containers, including various polymer bags. Four different polymer bags have been investigated, including the NYLON, DUO, ALU, and AMPAC bags. The latter is the successor of the Kapak Fire DebrisPAK™. Microscopy and infrared spectroscopy were used to elucidate the composition of the bags. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to investigate performance parameters such as background volatiles, leak rate, cross-contamination, recovery, and sorption. The NYLON bag was susceptible for leakage and cross-contamination and showed decreased recoveries. The DUO and ALU bags showed some background volatiles, sorption, and poor recoveries. The AMPAC bag performed excellent: low background, no leakage or cross-contamination, good recoveries, and only traces of sorption. Heat sealing proved to be the best method of closure. Preliminary studies on AMPAC bags showed that polyethylene clamps are easy to use on-site and preserve ignitable liquids adequately for a limited period of time. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Safety and durability of low-density polyethylene bags in solar water disinfection applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danwittayakul, Supamas; Songngam, Supachai; Fhulua, Tipawan; Muangkasem, Panida; Sukkasi, Sittha

    2017-08-01

    Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a simple point-of-use process that uses sunlight to disinfect water for drinking. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles are typically used as water containers for SODIS, but a new SODIS container design has recently been developed with low-density polyethylene (LDPE) bags and can overcome the drawbacks of PET bottles. Two nesting layers of LDPE bags are used in the new design: the inner layer containing the water to be disinfected and the outer one creating air insulation to minimize heat loss from the water to the surroundings. This work investigated the degradation of LDPE bags used in the new design in actual SODIS conditions over a period of 12 weeks. The degradation of the LDPE bags was investigated weekly using a scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer, and tensile strength tester. It was found that the LDPE bags gradually degraded under the sunlight due to photo-oxidation reactions, especially in the outer bags, which were directly exposed to the sun and surroundings, leading to the reduction of light transmittance (by 11% at 300 nm) and tensile strength (by 33%). In addition, possible leaching of organic compounds into the water contained in the inner bags was examined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol was found in some SODIS water samples as well as the as-received water samples, in the concentration range of 1-4 μg/L, which passes the Environmental Protection Agency Drinking Water Guidance on Disinfection By-Products.

  12. The first survey of airborne trace elements at airport using moss bag technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuković, Gordana; Urošević, Mira Aničić; Škrivanj, Sandra; Vergel, Konstantin; Tomašević, Milica; Popović, Aleksandar

    2017-06-01

    Air traffic represents an important way of social mobility in the world, and many ongoing discussions are related to the impacts that air transportation has on local air quality. In this study, moss Sphagnum girgensohnii was used for the first time in the assessment of trace element content at the international airport. The moss bags were exposed during the summer of 2013 at four sampling sites at the airport 'Nikola Tesla' (Belgrade, Serbia): runway (two), auxiliary runway and parking lot. According to the relative accumulation factor (RAF) and the limit of quantification of the moss bag technique (LOQ T ), the most abundant elements in the samples were Zn, Na, Cr, V, Cu and Fe. A comparison between the element concentrations at the airport and the corresponding values in different land use classes (urban central, suburban, industrial and green zones) across the city of Belgrade did not point out that the air traffic and associated activities significantly contribute to the trace element air pollution. This study emphasised an easy operational and robust (bio)monitoring, using moss bags as a suitable method for assessment of air quality within various microenvironments with restriction in positioning referent instrumental devices.

  13. Designing and evaluating a persuasive child restraint television commercial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ioni; Ho, Bonnie; Lennon, Alexia

    2016-01-01

    Relatively high rates of child restraint inappropriate use and misuse and faults in the installation of restraints have suggested a crucial need for public education messages to raise parental awareness of the need to use restraints correctly. This project involved the devising and pilot testing of message concepts, filming of a television advertisement (the TVC), and the evaluation of the TVC. This article focuses specifically upon the evaluation of the TVC. The development and evaluation of the TVC were guided by an extended theory of planned behavior that included the standard constructs of attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control as well as the additional constructs of group norms and descriptive norms. The study also explored the extent to which parents with low and high intentions to self-check restraints differed on salient beliefs regarding the behavior. An online survey of parents (N = 384) was conducted where parents were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (n = 161), and therefore viewed the advertisement within the survey, or the control group (n = 223), and therefore did not view the advertisement. Following a one-off exposure to the TVC, the results indicated that, although not a significant difference, parents in the intervention group reported stronger intentions (M = 4.43, SD = 0.74) to self-check restraints than parents in the control group (M = 4.18, SD = 0.86). In addition, parents in the intervention group (M = 4.59, SD = 0.47) reported significantly higher levels of perceived behavioral control than parents in the control group (M = 4.40, SD = 0.73). The regression results revealed that, for parents in the intervention group, attitudes and group norms were significant predictors of parental intentions to self-check their child restraint. Finally, the exploratory analyses of parental beliefs suggested that those parents with low intentions to self-check child restraints were significantly more likely than

  14. Alternative hospital gift bags and breastfeeding exclusivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yeon; Wunderlich, Shahla M; Kashdan, Rickie

    2013-01-01

    The type of gift bags given to new mothers at the time of discharge from the hospital can influence their confidence in breastfeeding. Most hospitals in the US continue to distribute commercial gift bags containing formula samples despite the reported negative influence of commercial bags on the duration of breastfeeding. This study compared breastfeeding outcomes in women receiving three different kinds of gift bags at discharge. A prospective intervention study was conducted during 2009-2010 in New Jersey. Three breastfeeding cohorts were recruited and assigned to three groups: COMMERCIAL received discharge bags containing formula samples, BF-INFO received breastfeeding information and supplies, and PUMP received breastfeeding information/supplies plus a manual breast pump. Follow-up contacts were at 2, 4, and 12 postpartum weeks to determine breastfeeding outcome. The mean durations of exclusive (EBF) and partial breastfeeding were compared between groups using ANOVA. A total of 386 participants completed the study. The mean EBF duration (weeks) in the PUMP (n = 138, 8.28 ± 4.86) and BF-INFO (n = 121, 7.87 ± 4.63) were significantly longer (P < 0.01) than COMMERCIAL (n = 127, 6.12 ± 4.49). The rate of EBF through 12 weeks in PUMP was most consistent. The mean duration of partial breastfeeding showed similar results: significantly longer in PUMP and BF-INFO than COMMERCIAL (P < 0.01).

  15. Baryon bags in strong coupling QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattringer, Christof

    2018-04-01

    We discuss lattice QCD with one flavor of staggered fermions and show that in the path integral the baryon contributions can be fully separated from quark and diquark contributions. The baryonic degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) are independent of the gauge field, and the corresponding free fermion action describes the baryons through the joint propagation of three quarks. The nonbaryonic dynamics is described by quark and diquark terms that couple to the gauge field. When evaluating the quark and diquark contributions in the strong coupling limit, the partition function completely factorizes into baryon bags and a complementary domain. Baryon bags are regions in space-time where the dynamics is described by a single free fermion made out of three quarks propagating coherently as a baryon. Outside the baryon bags, the relevant d.o.f. are monomers and dimers for quarks and diquarks. The partition sum is a sum over all baryon bag configurations, and for each bag, a free fermion determinant appears as a weight factor.

  16. Metabolic immune restraints: implications for anticancer vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic immune restraints belong to a highly complex network of molecular mechanisms underlying the failure of naturally occurring and therapeutically induced immune responses against cancer. In the light of the disappointing results yielded so far with anticancer vaccines in the clinical setting, the dissection of the cascade of molecular events leading to tumor immune escape appears the most promising way to develop more effective immunotherapeutic strategies. Here we review the significant advances recently made in the understanding of the tumor-specific metabolic features that contribute to keep malignant cells from being recognized and destroyed by immune effectors. These mechanistic insights are fostering the development of rationally designed therapeutics aimed to revert the immunosuppressive circuits and thus to enhance the effectiveness of anticancer vaccines.

  17. Magnetic nuclear core restraint and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.H.

    1979-01-01

    A lateral restraint and control system for a nuclear reactor core adaptable to provide an inherent decrease of core reactivity in response to abnormally high reactor coolant fluid temperatures. An electromagnet is associated with structure for radially compressing the core during normal reactor conditions. A portion of the structures forming a magnetic circuit are composed of ferromagnetic material having a curie temperature corresponding to a selected coolant fluid temperature. Upon a selected signal, or inherently upon a preselected rise in coolant temperature, the magnetic force is decreased a given amount sufficient to relieve the compression force so as to allow core radial expansion. The expanded core configuration provides a decreased reactivity, tending to shut down the nuclear reaction

  18. Magnetic nuclear core restraint and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.H.

    1979-01-01

    A lateral restraint and control systemm for a nuclear reactor core provides an inherent decrease of core reactivity in response to abnormally high reactor coolant fluid temperatures. An electromagnet is associated with structure for radially compressing the core during normal reactor conditions. A portion of the structures forming a magnetic circuit is composed of ferromagnetic material having a curie temperature corresponding to a selected coolant fluid temperature. Upon a selected signal, or inherently upon a preselected rise in coolant temperature, the magnetic force is decreased by an amount sufficient to relieve the compression force so as to allow core radial expansion. The expanded core configuration provides a decreased reactivity, tending to shut down the nuclear reaction

  19. Magnetic nuclear core restraint and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.H.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a lateral restraint and control system for a nuclear reactor core adaptable to provide an inherent decrease of core reactivity in response to abnormally high reactor coolant fluid temperatures. An electromagnet is associated with structure for radially compressing the core during normal reactor conditions. A portion of the structures forming a magnetic circuit are composed of ferromagnetic material having a curie temperature corresponding to a selected coolant fluid temperature. Upon a selected signal, or inherently upon a preselected rise in coolant temperature, the magnetic force is decreased a given amount sufficient to relieve the compression force so as to allow core radial expansion. The expanded core configuration provides a decreased reactivity, tending to shut down the nuclear reaction

  20. An editor for the generation and customization of geometry restraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Nigel W; Draizen, Eli J; Adams, Paul D

    2017-02-01

    Chemical restraints for use in macromolecular structure refinement are produced by a variety of methods, including a number of programs that use chemical information to generate the required bond, angle, dihedral, chiral and planar restraints. These programs help to automate the process and therefore minimize the errors that could otherwise occur if it were performed manually. Furthermore, restraint-dictionary generation programs can incorporate chemical and other prior knowledge to provide reasonable choices of types and values. However, the use of restraints to define the geometry of a molecule is an approximation introduced with efficiency in mind. The representation of a bond as a parabolic function is a convenience and does not reflect the true variability in even the simplest of molecules. Another complicating factor is the interplay of the molecule with other parts of the macromolecular model. Finally, difficult situations arise from molecules with rare or unusual moieties that may not have their conformational space fully explored. These factors give rise to the need for an interactive editor for WYSIWYG interactions with the restraints and molecule. Restraints Editor, Especially Ligands (REEL) is a graphical user interface for simple and error-free editing along with additional features to provide greater control of the restraint dictionaries in macromolecular refinement.

  1. Solid and Liquid Waste Drying Bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiller, Eric (Inventor); Hogan, John A. (Inventor); Fisher, John W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for processing waste from human activities, including solids, liquids and vapors. A fluid-impermeable bag, lined with a liquid-impermeable but vapor-permeable membrane, defining an inner bag, is provided. A vacuum force is provided to extract vapors so that the waste is moved toward a selected region in the inner bag, extracted vapors, including the waste vapors and vaporized portions of the waste liquids are transported across the membrane, and most or all of the solids remain within the liner. Extracted vapors are filtered, and sanitized components thereof are isolated and optionally stored. The solids remaining within the liner are optionally dried and isolated for ultimate disposal.

  2. EMC effect and multiquark bags in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratyuk, L.; Shmatikov, M.

    1984-01-01

    Assuming existence of 9q- and 12q bags in niclei the form factors of light nuclei at large momentum transfers and structure functions of deep inelastic scattering of leptons on nuclei are described. It is shown that the existing experimental data can be described in a unified way provided the momentum distribution of quarks in multiquark bags at k 0 has the exponential form PSIsub(q)sup(2)(k) approximately esup(-k/k 0 ) with the parameter k 0 approximately 50-60 MeV. Theoretical results agree well the EMC experimental data on the ratio of the iron and deuteron structure functions with the 20% admixture of 12q-bags in the Fe nucleus

  3. Environmental restraints and life strategies: a habitat templet matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, E

    1988-02-01

    Four basic environmental restraints on life are deduced from the requirements of life's inherent order laws. Possible life strategies to contend with these restraints are listed. The various combinations of the restraints are subsequently investigated, and appropriate combinations of life strategies are fitted. This model is finally tested against insect case histories in various environments, and is demonstrated to explain some combinations of characteristics of insects in ecosystems not covered by the r-K or r-K-A continua. The role of heterochrony in achieving appropriate life strategies is briefly discussed.

  4. Overview of the design of core restraint systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinecke, J.

    1984-01-01

    The optimization of the core restraint system is an important condition for the safe and reliable operation of a fast breeder reactor. For KNK II which is under successful operation and SNR 300 all requirements for safety and operation have been met with help of a ring type system. For SNR 2 the decision between the ring type system and the free standing core has to be done in the near future. Within these considerations the advantages of a ring type restraint system of limiting deflections during operation and limiting of possible movements under seismic conditions have to be balanced against the somewhat more complicated structure of the ring type restraint system

  5. Do head-restraints protect the neck from whiplash injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, F

    1989-01-01

    Over an 11-month period a study was made of all patients presenting to an accident and emergency department who had sustained whiplash as a result of rear-bumper impacts. The patients were analysed with respect to the presence of head-restraints in their vehicles. A significant increase in the incidence of whiplash was found in patients whose vehicles did not have head-restraints fitted. Legislation requiring all passenger cars to have head-restraints fitted as standard would have a major impact in reducing the number of whiplash injuries sustained in rear bumper impacts. PMID:2712983

  6. Zero-point energy in bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, K.A.

    1979-01-01

    The zero-point (Casimir) energy of free vector (gluon) fields confined to a spherical cavity (bag) is computed. With a suitable renormalization the result for eight gluons is E = + 0.51/a. This result is substantially larger than that for a spherical shell (where both interior and exterior modes are present), and so affects Johnson's model of the QCD vacuum. It is also smaller than, and of opposite sign to, the value used in bag model phenomenology, so it will have important implications there. 1 figure

  7. Modern status of quark bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogolyubov, P.N.; Dorokhov, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    A review contains a modern status of the bag model - a composite quark model of hadrons. The idea of quasi-independent quarks moving in a finite closed region of space is a basic feature of the model. Dubna's formulation of the model and its different versions (MIT, chiral model and others) are given in detail. The role of symmetric and physical principles of the model is underlined, a critical review of mass formulas is given, the relation of the bag model and the soliton-like models (in particular with the Skyrme model) is considered

  8. Waste product profile: Plastic film and bags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C. [Environmental Industry Associations, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Plastic film is recycled by being pelletized following a granulation or densifying process. Manufacturing and converting plants are the major sources of plastic film for recycling because they can supply sufficient amounts of clean raw material of a known resin type. Post-consumer collection programs are more recent. They tend to focus on businesses such as grocery stores that are large generators of plastic bags. In this case, the recycling process is more complex, requiring sorting, washing, and removal of contaminants as a first step. Curbside collection of plastic bags is rare.

  9. Labor development strategy in the bag industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Maya Nihayah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to formulate strategies for improving the labor competencies in the bag industry in Kudus Regency. The data comprise business players, which will be analyzed using the Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT analysis. The results reveal that the proper strategy for improving employment in the bag industry is growth and build strategy. Growth and development strategy are intensive actions undertaken through the development of labor competencies to improve the quality of output. It can be made with creating learning resources by designing methods and trainings refer to the Competency Based Training (CBT.

  10. Solar saddle bags. Solar-Fahrradpacktaschen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willems, M

    1991-09-12

    The invention consists of the arrangement of solar cells on the upper side of saddle bags of every design (handle bar pocket, bicycle saddle bag etc.) which charge the accumulators in the pack pocket. One can drive the alternator of the bicycle, a transistor radio, a cassette tape recorder, or similar, with the power from the accumulators. The lamp and the taillight of the bicycle can still be used. The solar cells can be attached firmly to the pack pocket. However, they can also be assembled detachably, e.g. by push-buttons or zip-fasteners.

  11. Fragment size distribution in viscous bag breakup of a drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Varun; Bulusu, Kartik V.; Plesniak, Michael W.; Sojka, Paul E.

    2015-11-01

    In this study we examine the drop size distribution resulting from the fragmentation of a single drop in the presence of a continuous air jet. Specifically, we study the effect of Weber number, We, and Ohnesorge number, Oh on the disintegration process. The regime of breakup considered is observed between 12 phase Doppler anemometry. Both the number and volume fragment size probability distributions are plotted. The volume probability distribution revealed a bi-modal behavior with two distinct peaks: one corresponding to the rim fragments and the other to the bag fragments. This behavior was suppressed in the number probability distribution. Additionally, we employ an in-house particle detection code to isolate the rim fragment size distribution from the total probability distributions. Our experiments showed that the bag fragments are smaller in diameter and larger in number, while the rim fragments are larger in diameter and smaller in number. Furthermore, with increasing We for a given Ohwe observe a large number of small-diameter drops and small number of large-diameter drops. On the other hand, with increasing Oh for a fixed We the opposite is seen.

  12. Compact assembly generates plastic foam, inflates flotation bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Device for generating plastic foam consists of an elastomeric bag and two containers with liquid resin and a liquid catalyst. When the walls of the containers are ruptured the liquids come into contact producing foam which inflates the elastomeric bag.

  13. Biodegradable bags for the production of plant seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Bilck,Ana Paula; Olivato,Juliana Bonametti; Yamashita,Fabio; Souza,José Roberto Pinto de

    2014-01-01

    The production of plant seedlings has traditionally used polyethylene bags, which are thrown out in the soil or burned after transplant because the large amount of organic material attached to the bags makes recycling difficult. Additionally, when a seedling is taken from the bag for transplant, there is the risk of root damage, which compromises the plant’s development. In this study, we developed biodegradable bags to be used in seedling production, and we verify their influence on the deve...

  14. 49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for paper bags. 178.521 Section 178.521...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.521 Standards for paper bags. (a) The following are identification codes for paper bags: (1) 5M1 for a multi-wall paper bag; and (2) 5M2 for a multi-wall water...

  15. The Relationship between Restraints of Trade and Garden Leave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeukai Mupangavanhu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to examine the relationship between a so-called "garden leave" clause and a post-termination restraint of trade clause in employment contracts, in view of the decision in Vodacom (Pty Ltd v Motsa 2016 3 SA 116 (LC. The Labour Court grappled with the question of whether the enforcement of the garden leave provision impacts on the enforcement of a post-termination restraint of trade clause. Enforcement of both these types of clauses may be problematic. It can result in unfairness if an employee ends up being commercially inactive for a long period. The author argues that garden leave has a direct effect on the enforcement of a post- termination restraint of trade clause. Accordingly, a restraint of trade will be enforced only if the employer's proprietary interest requires additional protection beyond what is achieved under the garden leave clause.

  16. An update on purple urine bag syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadano Y

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Yoshiro Hadano,1 Taro Shimizu,2 Shimon Takada,3 Toshiya Inoue,4 Sumire Sorano51Department of General Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Rakuwakai Otowa Hospital, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto, Japan; 2Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Department of General Internal Medicine, Osaka City General Hospital, Miyakojima-ku, Osaka, Japan; 4Department of Emergency Medicine, Urasoe General Hospital, Urasoe-city, Okinawa, Japan; 5Kobe University School of Medicine, Kusunokicho, Chuoku, Kobe, JapanAbstract: Purple urine bag syndrome is characterized by the urinary drainage bag turning purple in patients on prolonged urinary catheterization, especially those in the bedridden state. It is associated with bacterial urinary tract infections caused by indigo-producing and indirubin-producing bacteria, usually affects women, and is associated with alkaline urine, constipation, and a high bacterial load in the urine. Almost all patients with purple urine bag syndrome are catheterized due to significant disability, and the urinary pH is 7.0 or more. In general, intensive treatment with antibiotics is not recommended. Purple urine bag syndrome per se almost always appears to be asymptomatic and harmless. However, caution is needed, because some cases have been reported to show progression to severe disease states, so further research into the morbidity and mortality of this infection is warranted.Keywords: purple urine, urinary catheterization, geriatrics, urinary tract infection

  17. Restraint use law enforcement intervention in Latino communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaechter, Judy; Uhlhorn, Susan B

    2011-11-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for U.S. Latinos aged 1 to 35 years. Restraint use is an effective means of prevention of motor vehicle crash injury. Effective interventions to raise restraint use include the following: legislation, law enforcement, education, and equipment distribution. The effects of law enforcement interventions in Latino immigrant communities are understudied. We measured the community-level effect of a combined intervention that included warnings and citations phase enforcement in Latino communities. We designed and implemented in two of three Latino-majority communities a multicomponent intervention consisting of a community awareness campaign, restraint use education with equipment distribution, and a two-staged law enforcement intervention. Restraint use observations were conducted in all three communities at baseline, after the warnings phase and again after the citations phase of the intervention were completed. The combined intervention of community awareness, education, child passenger restraint distribution, and law enforcement focused on educational traffic stops with incentives and warnings was associated with a significant increase in both driver and child passenger restraint use in one intervention community, but only driver restraint increased to a level of significance in the other intervention community; significant increase was also noted among nonintervention drivers. The citations phase of the intervention did not result in a significant increase in restraint use and was complicated by interruptions due to unlicensed drivers. The combined effort of community awareness, education, equipment distribution and law enforcement intervention that included incentives and warnings may be effective at increasing seat belt use in Latino communities without the need for citations.

  18. 21 CFR 870.3650 - Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. 870.3650 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3650 Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. (a) Identification. A pacemaker polymeric mesh bag is an implanted device used to hold a...

  19. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic film...

  20. 49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for woven plastic bags. 178.518 Section... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.518 Standards for woven plastic bags. (a) The following are identification codes for woven plastic bags: (1) 5H1 for an unlined or non-coated...

  1. 49 CFR 178.520 - Standards for textile bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., plastic film bonded to the inner surface of the bag, or one or more inner liners made of paper or plastic... bag, or one or more inner liners made of plastic material or metalized film or foil. (4) Maximum net... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for textile bags. 178.520 Section 178...

  2. On the vacuum baryon number in the chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaroszewicz, T.

    1984-01-01

    We give a rederivation, generalization and interpretation of the result of Goldstone and Jaffe on the vacuum baryon number in the chiral bag model. Our results are based on considering the bag model as a theory of free quarks, massless inside and infinitely massive outside the bag. (orig.)

  3. BAG3: a multifaceted protein that regulates major cell pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, A; Graziano, V; De Laurenzi, V; Pascale, M; Turco, M C

    2011-01-01

    Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) protein is a member of BAG family of co-chaperones that interacts with the ATPase domain of the heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 through BAG domain (110–124 amino acids). BAG3 is the only member of the family to be induced by stressful stimuli, mainly through the activity of heat shock factor 1 on bag3 gene promoter. In addition to the BAG domain, BAG3 contains also a WW domain and a proline-rich (PXXP) repeat, that mediate binding to partners different from Hsp70. These multifaceted interactions underlie BAG3 ability to modulate major biological processes, that is, apoptosis, development, cytoskeleton organization and autophagy, thereby mediating cell adaptive responses to stressful stimuli. In normal cells, BAG3 is constitutively present in a very few cell types, including cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscle cells, in which the protein appears to contribute to cell resistance to mechanical stress. A growing body of evidence indicate that BAG3 is instead expressed in several tumor types. In different tumor contexts, BAG3 protein was reported to sustain cell survival, resistance to therapy, and/or motility and metastatization. In some tumor types, down-modulation of BAG3 levels was shown, as a proof-of-principle, to inhibit neoplastic cell growth in animal models. This review attempts to outline the emerging mechanisms that can underlie some of the biological activities of the protein, focusing on implications in tumor progression. PMID:21472004

  4. Ergonomic Evaluation of the Foot Restraint Equipment Device (FRED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Chmielewski, Cindy; Qazi, A. S.; Mount, Francis

    1999-01-01

    Within the scope of the Microgravity Workstation and Restraint Evaluation project, funded by the NASA Headquarters Life Sciences Division, evaluations were proposed to be conducted in ground, KC-135, and/or Shuttle environments to investigate the human factors engineering (HFE) issues concerning confined/unique workstations, including crew restraint requirements. As part of these evaluations, KC-135 flights were conducted to investigate user/ workstation/ restraint integration for microgravity use of the FRED with the RMS workstation. This evaluation was a pre-cursor to Detailed Supplementary Objective (DSO) - 904 on STS-88. On that mission, a small-statured astronaut will be using the FRED restraint while working at the Aft RMS workstation. The DSO will collect video for later posture analyses, as well as subjective data in the form of an electronic questionnaire. This report describes the current FRED KC-135 evaluations. The primary objectives were to evaluate the usability of the FRED and to verify the DSO in-flight setup. The restraint interface evaluation consisted of four basic areas of restraint use: 1) adjustability; 2) general usability and comfort; 3) usability at the RMS workstation; and 4) assembly and disassembly.

  5. Determination of H2 Diffusion Rates through Various Closures on TRU Waste Bag-Out Bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noll, Phillip D. Jr.; Callis, E. Larry; Norman, Kirsten M.

    1999-01-01

    The amount of H 2 diffusion through twist and tape (horse-tail), wire tie, plastic tie, and heat sealed closures on transuranic (TRU) waste bag-out bags has been determined. H 2 diffusion through wire and plastic tie closures on TRU waste bag-out bags has not been previously characterized and, as such, TRU waste drums containing bags with these closures cannot be certified and/or shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Since wire ties have been used at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) from 1980 to 1991 and the plastic ties from 1991 to the present, there are currently thousands of waste drums that cannot be shipped to the WIPP site. Repackaging the waste would be prohibitively expensive. Diffusion experiments performed on the above mentioned closures show that the diffusion rates of plastic tie and horse-tail closures are greater than the accepted value presented in the TRU-PACT 11 Safety Analysis Report (SAR). Diffusion rates for wire tie closures are not statistically different from the SAR value. Thus, drums containing bags with these closures can now potentially be certified which would allow for their consequent shipment to WIPP

  6. The Cheshire Cat principle for hybrid bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.B.

    1987-05-01

    The Cheshire Cat point of view where the bag in the chiral bag model has no physical significance, but only a notational one is argued for. It is explained how a fermion - in, say, a 1+1 dimensional exact Cheshire Cat model - escapes the bag by means of an anomaly. The possibility to construct sophisticated hybrid bag models is suggested which use the lack of physical significance of the bag to fix the many parameters so as to anyway give hope of a phenomenologically sensible model. (orig.)

  7. Autoregulation of Co-Chaperone BAG3 Gene Transcription

    OpenAIRE

    Gentilella, Antonio; Khalili, Kamel

    2009-01-01

    The Bcl-2-associated athanogene, BAG, protein family through their BAG domain associates with the heat shock protein 70 (HSP-70) and modulates its chaperone activity. One member of this family, BAG3, appears to play an important role in protein homeostasis, as its expression promotes cell survival by preventing polyubiquitination of Hsp-70 client proteins. Expression of BAG3 is enhanced by a variety of stress-inducing agents. Here we describe a role for BAG3 to modulate transcription of its o...

  8. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugele, B.; Scheider, J.; Spangl, W.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  9. Air quality assessment of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tumwitike

    Technology ... Biochemical Sciences Department, University of Malawi, Private Bag 303, Blantyre 3 ... urban air quality monitoring in Blantyre and all urban areas in Malawi. ... Key words: Air pollutants, principal component analysis, developing ...

  10. Contamination of nebulisers and surrounding air at the bedside of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An air sampler was used to collect air samples from the surrounding bedside environment. .... individualised resealable plastic bags and stored upside down in a cooler .... conventional and mesh technology nebulisers used at home by adults.

  11. An electronic flight bag for NextGen avionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelazo, D. Eyton

    2012-06-01

    The introduction of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) initiative by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) will impose new requirements for cockpit avionics. A similar program is also taking place in Europe by the European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (Eurocontrol) called the Single European Sky Air Traffic Management Research (SESAR) initiative. NextGen will require aircraft to utilize Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) in/out technology, requiring substantial changes to existing cockpit display systems. There are two ways that aircraft operators can upgrade their aircraft in order to utilize ADS-B technology. The first is to replace existing primary flight displays with new displays that are ADS-B compatible. The second, less costly approach is to install an advanced Class 3 Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) system. The installation of Class 3 EFBs in the cockpit will allow aircraft operators to utilize ADS-B technology in a lesser amount of time with a decreased cost of implementation and will provide additional benefits to the operator. This paper describes a Class 3 EFB, the NexisTM Flight-Intelligence System, which has been designed to allow users a direct interface with NextGen avionics sensors while additionally providing the pilot with all the necessary information to meet NextGen requirements.

  12. Inflatable bag with sealing and protection layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocourek, L.; Dohnal, M.; Klinga, J.; Matal, O.; Holy, F.

    1989-01-01

    The inflatable bag consists of a textile casing in which a cylindrical pvc tyre with concave bottoms is inserted and glued to the casing. A sealing protective layer is provided on the outer periphery of the cylindrical part of the tyre. A tyre valve with flange and fixing ears and also a relief valve are provided in the concave bottom. The casing material, such as a layer of 0.5 to 5 mm silicone rubber bands is suitable for use in contact with austenitic materials. The bag completely seals spaces such as the mouths of steam generator tubes or collector branches in a nuclear power plant. Decontamination can easily be achieved by rinsing the surface with common means. (J.B.). 2 figs

  13. SIMULATION OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR THE TEMPERATURE PROFILE IN A SILO BAG FOR BEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Hauth

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The problems encountered with storage of agricultural products has warranted studies related to finding alternative methods of grain storage, thereby avoiding unnecessary losses. Stored grain deteriorates quickly at high temperatures. The moisture content of the grain influences the respiratory process; therefore, when at the recommended humidity of between 11 and 13%, this rate remains low, it prolongs maintenance of the product quality. The silo bag being airtight enables the grain mass to consume the entire internal O2 purse within it, and in that low or absent oxygen environment the grain mass saturates the CO2 atmosphere, inhibiting the multiplication of insects and fungi, thus providing a controlled environment. This study aims at simulating, using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD, the time it would take for the entire grain mass contained in a silo bag to reach thermal equilibrium with the environment and analyzes the feasibility of the technique employed here. The simulations were performed based on the data of the average air temperature in the region at each harvest time and the average storage temperature of the bean mass (60°C. The results obtained from the simulations reveal that after one month of silo storage the entire bag remains in thermal stabilization, and four months later when it hits the entire mass, all the beans are in thermal equilibrium. Therefore, maintaining stable temperature and humidity within the recommended silo bag preserves the grain quality well.

  14. Are there multiquark bags in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratyuk, L.A.; Scmatkov, M.Zh.

    1983-01-01

    Arguments are presented favouring the idea that multiquark bags do eXist in nuclei. Such hypothesis makes possible to reveal the relationship among three different scopes of phenomena: deep inelastic scattering of leptons by nUclei, large q 2 (where q 2 is a square of momentum transfer) behaviour of the form factors of light nuclei and yield of cumulative proton.s

  15. Chiral bags, skyrmions and quarks in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, M.

    1984-09-01

    Recent developments on an intriguing connection between the quark-bag description of the baryons (nucleons in particular) and the Skyrmion model are discussed in terms of the constraints coming from chiral anomalies. Topics treated are the leaking baryon charge, axial charge and energy density; the role of chiral anomalies; the role of Skyrme's quartic term and the connection to the meson degrees of freedom; and finally some qualitative implications in nuclei. The presentation is purposely descriptive and intuitive instead of mathematically precise

  16. Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may gi...

  17. BAG3 myofibrillar myopathy presenting with cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konersman, Chamindra G; Bordini, Brett J; Scharer, Gunter; Lawlor, Michael W; Zangwill, Steven; Southern, James F; Amos, Louella; Geddes, Gabrielle C; Kliegman, Robert; Collins, Michael P

    2015-05-01

    Myofibrillar myopathies (MFMs) are a heterogeneous group of neuromuscular disorders distinguished by the pathological hallmark of myofibrillar dissolution. Most patients present in adulthood, but mutations in several genes including BCL2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) cause predominantly childhood-onset disease. BAG3-related MFM is particularly severe, featuring weakness, cardiomyopathy, neuropathy, and early lethality. While prior cases reported either neuromuscular weakness or concurrent weakness and cardiomyopathy at onset, we describe the first case in which cardiomyopathy and cardiac transplantation (age eight) preceded neuromuscular weakness by several years (age 12). The phenotype comprised distal weakness and severe sensorimotor neuropathy. Nerve biopsy was primarily axonal with secondary demyelinating/remyelinating changes without "giant axons." Muscle biopsy showed extensive neuropathic changes that made myopathic changes difficult to interpret. Similar to previous cases, a p.Pro209Leu mutation in exon 3 of BAG3 was found. This case underlines the importance of evaluating for MFMs in patients with combined neuromuscular weakness and cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Bagworm bags as portable armour against invertebrate predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Sugiura

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Some animals have evolved the use of environmental materials as “portable armour” against natural enemies. Portable bags that bagworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Psychidae construct using their own silk and plant parts are generally believed to play an important role as a physical barrier against natural enemies. However, no experimental studies have tested the importance of bags as portable armour against predators. To clarify the defensive function, I studied the bagworm Eumeta minuscula and a potential predator Calosoma maximoviczi (Coleoptera: Carabidae. Under laboratory conditions, all bagworm larvae were attacked by carabid adults, but successfully defended themselves against the predators’ mandibles using their own bags. The portable bags, which are composed mainly of host plant twigs, may function as a physical barrier against predator mandibles. To test this hypothesis, I removed the twig bags and replaced some with herb leaf bags; all bag-removed larvae were easily caught and predated by carabids, while all bag-replaced larvae could successfully defend themselves against carabid attacks. Therefore, various types of portable bags can protect bagworm larvae from carabid attacks. This is the first study to test the defensive function of bagworm portable bags against invertebrate predators.

  19. Biodegradable bags for the production of plant seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Bilck

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of plant seedlings has traditionally used polyethylene bags, which are thrown out in the soil or burned after transplant because the large amount of organic material attached to the bags makes recycling difficult. Additionally, when a seedling is taken from the bag for transplant, there is the risk of root damage, which compromises the plant’s development. In this study, we developed biodegradable bags to be used in seedling production, and we verify their influence on the development of Brazilian ginseng (Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng Pedersen, when the plant is planted without being removed from the bag. Both black and white biodegradable bags remained intact throughout the seedling production period (60 days. After being transplanted into containers (240 days, they were completely biodegraded, and there was no significant difference between the dry mass of these plants and that of plants that were transplanted without the bags. The plants that were cultivated without being removed from the polyethylene bags had root development difficulties, and the wrapping showed no signs of degradation. The use of biodegradable films is an alternative for the production of bags for seedlings, as these can then be transplanted directly into the soil without removing the bag, reducing the risk of damage to the roots during the moment of transplant.

  20. Bagworm bags as portable armour against invertebrate predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Some animals have evolved the use of environmental materials as "portable armour" against natural enemies. Portable bags that bagworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) construct using their own silk and plant parts are generally believed to play an important role as a physical barrier against natural enemies. However, no experimental studies have tested the importance of bags as portable armour against predators. To clarify the defensive function, I studied the bagworm Eumeta minuscula and a potential predator Calosoma maximoviczi (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Under laboratory conditions, all bagworm larvae were attacked by carabid adults, but successfully defended themselves against the predators' mandibles using their own bags. The portable bags, which are composed mainly of host plant twigs, may function as a physical barrier against predator mandibles. To test this hypothesis, I removed the twig bags and replaced some with herb leaf bags; all bag-removed larvae were easily caught and predated by carabids, while all bag-replaced larvae could successfully defend themselves against carabid attacks. Therefore, various types of portable bags can protect bagworm larvae from carabid attacks. This is the first study to test the defensive function of bagworm portable bags against invertebrate predators.

  1. [Medical-legal issues of physical and pharmacological restraint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Durán, Esperanza L; Guija, Julio A; Ortega-Monasterio, Leopoldo

    2014-03-01

    The use of physical and pharmacological restraint is controversial but is currently accepted as inevitable. It is indicated for controlling behavioral disorders and psychomotor agitation that put patients and third parties at risk. Its indication should be medical, and we should opt for the least restrictive measure. Restraints represent a possible infringement of patients' fundamental rights and require understanding and strict respect for the medical-legal precepts by physicians and other practitioners involved in its application. This article reviews the current legal framework, as well as the medical-legal premises and aspects of applying restraints, with the objective of ensuring maximum respect for patients' rights and the appropriate legal safety in the activity of practitioners. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. Development and testing of restraints for nuclear piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.M.; Skinner, M.S.

    1980-06-01

    As an alternative to current practice of pipe restraint within nuclear power plants it has been proposed to adopt restraints capable of dissipating energy in the piping system. The specific mode of energy dissipation focused upon in these studies is the plastic yielding of steels utilizing relative movement between the pipe and the base of the restraint, a general mechanism which has been proven as reliable in several allied studies. This report discusses the testing of examples of two energy-absorbing devices, the results of this testing and the conclusions drawn. This study concentrated on the specific relevant performance characteristics of hysteretic behavior and degradation with use. The testing consisted of repetitive continuous loadings well into the plastic ranges of the devices in a sinusoidal or random displacement controlled mode

  3. Stability of sodium bicarbonate solutions in polyolefin bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, Jennifer; McPherson, Timothy B; Kolling, William M

    2010-06-15

    The stability of sodium bicarbonate solutions in sterile water for injection or 5% dextrose injection stored at 21-24 degrees C or 2-4 degrees C was evaluated. Sodium bicarbonate injection was obtained in 50-mL vials of 8.4% (1 meq/mL). A total of 50, 100, or 150 meq of sodium bicarbonate was added to each 1-L polyolefin bag of either sterile water for injection or 5% dextrose injection. All solutions were prepared in a laminar-airflow hood using aseptic technique. Bags were punctured once to remove headspace air and once for the addition of each 50 meq of sodium bicarbonate. Six replicates of each test solution were prepared. The solutions were stored at 21-24 degrees C and 2-4 degrees C. Control solutions (50 and 150 meq) were similarly prepared in triplicate. Control solutions were sparged with either nitrogen gas or oxygen gas before storage. Sodium bicarbonate stability was assessed by measuring solution pH. Bicarbonate content was measured utilizing titration. Both pH and bicarbonate concentrations were measured immediately upon preparation and on days 3, 5, and 7 for both test and control solutions. All 95% confidence interval values for sample solution pH remained within 7.0-8.5 for seven days at 2-4 degrees C. Sodium bicarbonate solutions of 50, 100, and 150 meq in sterile water for injection or 5% dextrose injection were stable for up to seven days when refrigerated. The 50-meq solution was stable for up to 48 hours when stored at room temperature, and the 100- and 150-meq solutions were stable for up to 30 hours when stored at room temperature.

  4. Role of blood bag temperature indicators in maintaining patent temperature of the returned unused blood bags in blood bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurasyikin, Y; Leong, C F; Fadhlullah, T M; Hafiz, W M; Nadiah, Z; Atieqah, A N; Ling, T J; Das, S

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the temperature chain of red blood cells (RBC) returned unused blood bags using blood temperature indicator and ascertain the factors like transportation time, type, size of coolant box and number of bags per box. A total of 250 blood bags with the indicator were observed for the temperature changes with other factors like transportation time, type and size of coolant box and number of bags per box. The recordings were performed at several checkpoints located between the blood bank and the wards. Out of the 250 bags, 74 (29.6%) showed colour changes in which 64 (86.3%) were returned unused (RU) blood bags. The transportation time for these 74 bags was 818.3 ± 941.643 min, significantly higher than bags without colour changes, (p=0.02). Interestingly, 71.4% of the colour changes occurred within the ward. The 7 litre coolant box with an average of 1-5 blood bags per box had a statistically significant higher percentage of colour change with 59.2% compared to the 5 litre coolant box (p=0.05). This study showed that the temperature chain of blood bags was often not well maintained. These results could be mainly due to the non-adherence to the standard operating procedure (SOP) of blood transfusion and the usage of non-standardized coolant boxes.

  5. Zebrafish models of BAG3 myofibrillar myopathy suggest a toxic gain of function leading to BAG3 insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruparelia, Avnika A; Oorschot, Viola; Vaz, Raquel; Ramm, Georg; Bryson-Richardson, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    Mutations in the co-chaperone Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) can cause myofibrillar myopathy (MFM), a childhood-onset progressive muscle disease, characterized by the formation of protein aggregates and myofibrillar disintegration. In contrast to other MFM-causing proteins, BAG3 has no direct structural role, but regulates autophagy and the degradation of misfolded proteins. To investigate the mechanism of disease in BAG3-related MFM, we expressed wild-type BAG3 or the dominant MFM-causing BAG3 (BAG3(P209L)) in zebrafish. Expression of the mutant protein results in the formation of aggregates that contain wild-type BAG3. Through the stimulation and inhibition of autophagy, we tested the prevailing hypothesis that impaired autophagic function is responsible for the formation of protein aggregates. Contrary to the existing theory, our studies reveal that inhibition of autophagy is not sufficient to induce protein aggregation. Expression of the mutant protein, however, did not induce myofibrillar disintegration and we therefore examined the effect of knocking down Bag3 function. Loss of Bag3 resulted in myofibrillar disintegration, but not in the formation of protein aggregates. Remarkably, BAG3(P209L) is able to rescue the myofibrillar disintegration phenotype, further demonstrating that its function is not impaired. Together, our knockdown and overexpression experiments identify a mechanism whereby BAG3(P209L) aggregates form, gradually reducing the pool of available BAG3, which eventually results in BAG3 insufficiency and myofibrillar disintegration. This mechanism is consistent with the childhood onset and progressive nature of MFM and suggests that reducing aggregation through enhanced degradation or inhibition of nucleation would be an effective therapy for this disease.

  6. Fast Flux Test Facility core restraint system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, S.L.; Trenchard, R.G.

    1990-02-01

    Characterizing Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) core restraint system performance has been ongoing since the first operating cycle. Characterization consists of prerun analysis for each core load, in-reactor and postirradiation measurements of subassembly withdrawal loads and deformations, and using measurement data to fine tune predictive models. Monitoring FFTF operations and performing trend analysis has made it possible to gain insight into core restraint system performance and head off refueling difficulties while maximizing component lifetimes. Additionally, valuable information for improved designs and operating methods has been obtained. Focus is on past operating experience, emphasizing performance improvements and avoidance of potential problems. 4 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  7. A hand in the bag; La main dans le sac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dube, C.

    2009-10-15

    Many retailers have abandoned the plastic bag for seemingly more environmentally friendly biodegradable bags. However, the solution may be worse than the problem. Biodegradable plastic bags are essentially made of the same polyethylene that is used in regular plastic bags. The only difference is that oxo-biodegradable bags have an additive such as iron or manganese that enables them to decompose in 12 to 24 months. The plastic decomposes quickly when exposed to ultraviolet rays or stress. Although the bags have been touted to be recyclable, they are not. This article presented an example of how a park bench made of recycled materials began to deteriorate after only a few weeks outside. The additive therefore renders the plastics ineffectual for use in recycled plastic products. The article also emphasized that contrary to popular belief, the role of landfills is not to accelerate decomposition, but limit it in order to prevent emissions of greenhouse gases. 1 fig.

  8. Role of BAG3 in cancer progression: A therapeutic opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Margot; Basile, Anna; Iorio, Vittoria; Festa, Michelina; Falco, Antonia; Ranieri, Bianca; Pascale, Maria; Sala, Gianluca; Remondelli, Paolo; Capunzo, Mario; Firpo, Matthew A; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Marzullo, Liberato; Cavallo, Pierpaolo; De Laurenzi, Vincenzo; Turco, Maria Caterina; Rosati, Alessandra

    2018-06-01

    BAG3 is a multifunctional protein that can bind to heat shock proteins (Hsp) 70 through its BAG domain and to other partners through its WW domain, proline-rich (PXXP) repeat and IPV (Ile-Pro-Val) motifs. Its intracellular expression can be induced by stressful stimuli, while is constitutive in skeletal muscle, cardiac myocytes and several tumour types. BAG3 can modulate the levels, localisation or activity of its partner proteins, thereby regulating major cell pathways and functions, including apoptosis, autophagy, mechanotransduction, cytoskeleton organisation, motility. A secreted form of BAG3 has been identified in studies on pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Secreted BAG3 can bind to a specific receptor, IFITM2, expressed on macrophages, and induce the release of factors that sustain tumour growth and the metastatic process. BAG3 neutralisation therefore appears to constitute a novel potential strategy in the therapy of PDAC and, possibly, other tumours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Properties of the cloudy bag in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunatyan, G.G.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the pion mode softening, the pion field of the clody bag in the nuclear matter increases if the nuclear density increases. This causes in its turn the decreasing of the bag size and at a sufficiently large density of the nuclear matter lead to absolute instability of the cloudy bag-nucleon, which means the transition of the nuclear matter in another nonnucleon phase

  10. Reducing single-use plastic shopping bags in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Travis P

    2017-12-01

    In the USA, local governments have the primary responsibility to manage MSW. However, local governments lack the authority to explicitly shift costs or responsibility back onto the producer for specific problem wastes. A particularly problematic waste for local governments is the single-use plastic bag. In 2014, in the USA, 103.465 billion single-use plastic shopping bags were consumed. Because of their extremely low recyclability rate, plastic bags remain a significant source of land-based litter and marine debris and impair stormwater management systems. They also reduce the effectiveness of automated recycling systems. In response, local governments increasingly have adopted a variety of measures specifically intended to reduce the store-level consumption of single-use shopping bags in 5 major categories: bans, imposition of fees and taxes, establishing minimum product design of bags, requiring consumer education, and mandating retailer take-back programs. As of September 2017, there were 271 local governments in the USA with plastic bag ordinances covering 9.7% of the nation's population. The majority (95%) of the ordinances is a ban on single-use plastic bags; 56.9% of these bans also include a mandatory fee on paper and/or reusable bags. For the fee-based ordinances, the mode is $0.10 per bag; every tax/fee ordinance allows retailers to retain some or all the collected fee. As local governments continue to increase their actions on plastic bags, 11 states have enacted laws to prohibit local governments from regulating single-use plastic bags. Because of the success with single-use bags, local governments are also enacting similar ordinances on single-use expanded polystyrene consumer products and other single-use plastic products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hybridizing the Skyrmion with an Anti-de-Sitter bag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosu, H.

    1992-02-01

    We discuss a phenomenological model of the nucleon in which a small Anti-de-Sitter bag is placed into the Skyrmion configuration. Such a bag has a timelike boundary and allows naturally the Cheshire Cat Principle. Very important in this model is the membrane of the bag, the 3-dimensional manifold S 1 xS 2 , in which topological techniques will come into play. (author). 63 refs

  12. Toponium Tests Of Top-Quark Higgs Bags

    OpenAIRE

    Macpherson, Alick L.; Campbell, Bruce A.

    1993-01-01

    Recently it has been suggested that top quarks, or very massive fourth generation quarks, might surround themselves with a Higgs "bag" of deformation of the Higgs expectation value from its vacuum magnitude. In this paper we address the question of whether such nonlinear Higgs-top interaction effects are subject to experimental test. We first note that if top quarks were necessarily accompanied by Higgs "bags", then top quark weak decay would involve the sudden disruption of the Higgs "bag", ...

  13. The Effective Design of Bean Bag as a Vibroimpact Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Q. Liu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of a bean bag damper has been effectively applied in many engineering fields to control the vibroimpact of a structural system. In this study, the basic parameters responsible for the design of an effective bean bag: the size of beans, the mass ratio of the bean bag to the structure to which it is attached, the clearance distance and the position of the bag, are studied by both theoretical and experimental analyses. These will provide a better understanding of the performance of the bean bag for optimisation of damper design. It was found that reducing the size of beans would increase the exchange of momentum in the system due to the increase in the effective contact areas. Within the range of mass ratios studied, the damping performance of the damper was found to improve with higher mass ratios. There was an optimum clearance for any specific damper whereby the maximum attenuation could be achieved. The position of the bag with respect to nodes and antipodes of the primary structure determined the magnitude of attenuation attainable. Furthermore, the limitations of bean bags have been identified and a general criteria for the design of a bean bag damper has been formulated based on the study undertaken. It was shown that an appropriately configured bean bag damper was capable of reducing the amplitude of vibration by 80% to 90%.

  14. Two cases of death due to plastic bag suffocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadesan, K; Beng, O B

    2001-01-01

    Deaths due to plastic bag suffocation or plastic bag asphyxia are not reported in Malaysia. In the West many suicides by plastic bag asphyxia, particularly in the elderly and those who are chronically and terminally ill, have been reported. Accidental deaths too are not uncommon in the West, both among small children who play with shopping bags and adolescents who are solvent abusers. Another well-known but not so common form of accidental death from plastic bag asphyxia is sexual asphyxia, which is mostly seen among adult males. Homicide by plastic bag asphyxia too is reported in the West and the victims are invariably infants or adults who are frail or terminally ill and who cannot struggle. Two deaths due to plastic bag asphyxia are presented. Both the autopsies were performed at the University Hospital Mortuary, Kuala Lumpur. Both victims were 50-year old married Chinese males. One death was diagnosed as suicide and the other as sexual asphyxia. Sexual asphyxia is generally believed to be a problem associated exclusively with the West. Specific autopsy findings are often absent in deaths due to plastic bag asphyxia and therefore such deaths could be missed when some interested parties have altered the scene and most importantly have removed the plastic bag. A visit to the scene of death is invariably useful.

  15. Radiative decays of vector mesons in the chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabachenko, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    A new model of radiative π-meson decays of vector mesons in the chiral bag model is proposed. The quark-π-meson interaction has the form of a pseudoscalar coupling and is located on the bag surface. The vector meson decay width depends on the quark masses, the π-meson decay constant, the radius of the bag, and the free parameter Z 2 , which specifies the disappearance of the bag during the decay. The obtained results for the omega- and p-decay widths are in satisfactory agreement with the experiment

  16. BAG3 is involved in neuronal differentiation and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Antonietta; Nicolin, Vanessa; Florenzano, Fulvio; Rosati, Alessandra; Capunzo, Mario; Nori, Stefania L

    2017-05-01

    Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) protein belongs to the family of co-chaperones interacting with several heat shock proteins. It plays a key role in protein quality control and mediates the clearance of misfolded proteins. Little is known about the expression and cellular localization of BAG3 during nervous system development and differentiation. Therefore, we analyze the subcellular distribution and expression of BAG3 in nerve-growth-factor-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells and in developing and adult cortex of mouse brain. In differentiated PC12 cells, BAG3 was localized mainly in the neuritic domain rather than the cell body, whereas in control cells, it appeared to be confined to the cytoplasm near the nuclear membrane. Interestingly, the change of BAG3 localization during neuronal differentiation was associated only with a slight increase in total BAG3 expression. These data were coroborated by transmission electron microscopy showing that BAG3 was confined mainly within large dense-core vesicles of the axon in differentiated PC12 cells. In mouse developing cortex, BAG3 appeared to be intensely expressed in cellular processes of migrating cells, whereas in adult brain, a diffuse expression of low to medium intensity was detected in neuronal cell bodies. These findings suggest that BAG3 expression is required for neuronal differentiation and migration and that its role is linked to a change in its distribution pattern rather than to an increase in its protein expression levels.

  17. Structure functions in the chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanjose, V.; Vento, V.; Centro Mixto CSIC/Valencia Univ., Valencia

    1989-01-01

    We calculate the structure functions of an isoscalar nuclear target for the deep inelastic scattering by leptons in an extended version of the chiral bag model which incorporates the qanti q structure of the pions in the cloud. Bjorken scaling and Regge behavior are satisfied. The model calculation reproduces the low-x behavior of the data but fails to explain the medium- to large-x behavior. Evolution of the quark structure functions seem inevitable to attempt a connection between the low-energy models and the high-energy behavior of quantum chromodynamics. (orig.)

  18. Structure functions in the chiral bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjose, V.; Vento, V.

    1989-07-13

    We calculate the structure functions of an isoscalar nuclear target for the deep inelastic scattering by leptons in an extended version of the chiral bag model which incorporates the qanti q structure of the pions in the cloud. Bjorken scaling and Regge behavior are satisfied. The model calculation reproduces the low-x behavior of the data but fails to explain the medium- to large-x behavior. Evolution of the quark structure functions seem inevitable to attempt a connection between the low-energy models and the high-energy behavior of quantum chromodynamics. (orig.).

  19. Gravitational bags and solitary cosmological evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, A.; Guendelman, E.I.

    1989-01-01

    The role played by the sophisticated scalar potential, dictated by spontaneous compactification, is analyzed. A fine-tuning is mandatory for achieving asymptotic flatness. Two main aspects are studied. 1. The three-fold spherically symmetric case exhibits localized four-dimensional objects, to be referred to as ''gravitational bags''. These are cores of scalar fields confined by means of a cosmic domain wall, whose size only slightly exceeds equal-mass black holes. 2. The cosmological case introduces a novel scenario of ''solitary evolution''. Triggered by the collapse of the extra dimensions, the universe undergoes an inflationary stage before settling in an oscillating fashion, in its ground state. (orig.)

  20. Efficacy of humidity retention bags for the reduced adsorption and improved cleaning of tissue proteins including prion-associated amyloid to surgical stainless steel surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secker, T J; Pinchin, H E; Hervé, R C; Keevil, C W

    2015-01-01

    Increasing drying time adversely affects attachment of tissue proteins and prion-associated amyloid to surgical stainless steel, and reduces the efficacy of commercial cleaning chemistries. This study tested the efficacy of commercial humidity retention bags to reduce biofouling on surgical stainless steel and to improve subsequent cleaning. Surgical stainless steel surfaces were contaminated with ME7-infected brain homogenates and left to dry for 15 to 1,440 min either in air, in dry polythene bags or within humidity retention bags. Residual contamination pre/post cleaning was analysed using Thioflavin T/SYPRO Ruby dual staining and microscope analysis. An increase in biofouling was observed with increased drying time in air or in sealed dry bags. Humidity retention bags kept both protein and prion-associated amyloid minimal across the drying times both pre- and post-cleaning. Therefore, humidity bags demonstrate a cheap, easy to implement solution to improve surgical instrument reprocessing and to potentially reduce associated hospital acquired infections.

  1. Head holder using negative pressure bag packed with plastic beads in xenon CT CBF study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Yuzo; Sakai, Noboru

    2003-01-01

    Employing analysis of cerebral blood flow (CBF) confidence maps, we investigated the usefulness of a head holder using a negative pressure bag packed with plastic beads in a xenon CT CBF study. A total of 272 consecutive patients for the CBF study were enrolled and classified into 3 groups: 88 patients with a negative pressure bag (M group), 87 patients with an air pillow (A group), and 97 patients with a sponge pillow (S group). The degree of effect of head movements on the CBF measurement in each patient was expressed as a confidence value (mean of the confidence values at one CT slice). The mean of confidence value in the M group (0.461) was statistically lower than that in the A group (0.866) and that in the S group (1.043). These findings showed that the head holder described here was useful for obtaining CBF maps of high quality in a xenon CT CBF study. (author)

  2. Food Intake and Success or Failure of Dietary Restraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; Strien, T. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Determination of success and failure of dietary restraint in relation to food intake in 510 females. Methods: Food intake as measured with the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was assessed in low vs. high restrained eaters and overeaters, as measured with the DEBQ (Dutch Eating

  3. 49 CFR 213.110 - Gage restraint measurement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements specified in §§ 213.109 and 213.127. (5) If the PTLF becomes non-functional or is missing, the... and fastener requirements specified in §§ 213.109 and 213.127 provided that— (1) The track owner... the minimum design requirements of a GRMS vehicle which specify that— (1) Gage restraint shall be...

  4. Restraint stress impairs glucose homeostasis through altered insulin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the potential alteration in the level of insulin and adiponectin, as well as the expression of insulin receptors (INSR) and glucose transporter 4 GLUT-4 in chronic restraint stress rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: the control group and stress group in which the rats were ...

  5. Restraint stress and social defeat: What they have in common.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Simone Cristina; Canteras, Newton Sabino

    2015-07-01

    Bob Blanchard was a great inspiration for our studies on the neural basis of social defense. In the present study, we compared the hypothalamic pattern of activation between social defeat and restraint stress. As important stress situations, both defeated and immobilized animals displayed a substantial increase in Fos in the parvicellular part of the paraventricular nucleus,mostly in the region that contains the CRH neurons. In addition, socially defeated animals, but not restrained animals, recruited elements of the medial hypothalamic conspecific-responsive circuit, a region also engaged in other forms of social behavior. Of particular interest, both defeated and immobilized animals presented a robust increase in Fos expression in specific regions of the lateral hypothalamic area (i.e., juxtaparaventricular and juxtadorsomedial regions) likely to convey septo-hippocampal information encoding the environmental boundary restriction observed in both forms of stress, and in the dorsomedial part of the dorsal premammillary nucleus which seems to work as a key player for the expression of, at least, part of the behavioral responses during both restraint and social defeat. These results indicate interesting commonalities between social defeat and restraint stress, suggesting, for the first time, a septo-hippocampal–hypothalamic path likely to respond to the environmental boundary restriction that may act as common stressor component for both types of stress. Moreover, the comparison of the neural circuits mediating physical restraint and social defense revealed a possible path for encoding the entrapment component during social confrontation.

  6. Conceptual design of pipe whip restraints using interactive computer analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigamonti, G.; Dainora, J.

    1975-01-01

    Protection against pipe break effects necessitates a complex interaction between failure mode analysis, piping layout, and structural design. Many iterations are required to finalize structural designs and equipment arrangements. The magnitude of the pipe break loads transmitted by the pipe whip restraints to structural embedments precludes the application of conservative design margins. A simplified analytical formulation of the nonlinear dynamic problems associated with pipe whip has been developed and applied using interactive computer analysis techniques. In the dynamic analysis, the restraint and the associated portion of the piping system, are modeled using the finite element lumped mass approach to properly reflect the dynamic characteristics of the piping/restraint system. The analysis is performed as a series of piecewise linear increments. Each of these linear increments is terminated by either formation of plastic conditions or closing/opening of gaps. The stiffness matrix is modified to reflect the changed stiffness characteristics of the system and re-started using the previous boundary conditions. The formation of yield hinges are related to the plastic moment of the section and unloading paths are automatically considered. The conceptual design of the piping/restraint system is performed using interactive computer analysis. The application of the simplified analytical approach with interactive computer analysis results in an order of magnitude reduction in engineering time and computer cost. (Auth.)

  7. The Cost of Prior Restraint: "U. S. v. The Progressive."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloski, John; Dyer, Carolyn Stewart

    Increased litigation and rising litigation costs threaten the future of newspapers and magazines. A case study was conducted to determine the costs and effects of "United States v. 'The Progressive,'" a prior restraint case over the publication in 1979 of an article on the hydrogen bomb. "The Progressive," which operates at a…

  8. QCD inspired bag model of quarkonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenfratz, P.; Horgan, R.R.; Kuti, J.; Richard, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    The QCD motivated bag model is applied to heavy quark-antiquark systems. The effect of colored glue in the model is shown to explain the rapid cross-over of the static QQ potential from the asymptotically free Coulomb region into the linear confinement regime. The spin-dependent force between static quarks is derived in Coulomb gauge from the exchange of a confined transverse gluon. The dimensional bag parameter Λ/sub B/ = 235 MeV and the quark-gluon coupling constant α = 0.38 as defined at r/sub QQ/approx.0.2 fermi are determined from a good fit of the cc-bar and bb-bar spectra. The fit is in serious disagreement with the widely accepted MIT parameters. As an important test of our model, we calculate the rich spectrum of QQ glue states. In UPSILON particle spectroscopy we predict a narrow QQ glue state with exotic quantum numbers J/sup PC/ = 1 -+ below the BB threshold. Its experimental confirmation would be the first direct evidence for colored glue in the hadron spectrum

  9. QCD inspired bag model of quarkonium

    CERN Document Server

    Hasenfratz, Peter; Kuti, Julius; Richard, J M

    1981-01-01

    The QCD motivated bag model is applied to heavy quark-antiquark systems. The effect of colored glue in the model is shown to explain the rapid cross-over of the static QQ potential from the asymptotically free Coulomb region into the linear confinement regime. The spin-dependent force between static quarks is derived in Coulomb gauge from the exchange of a confined transverse gluon. The dimensional bag parameter Lambda /sub B/=235 MeV and the quark-gluon coupling constant alpha =0.38 as defined at r/sub QQ/ approximately 0.2 fermi are determined from a good fit of the cc and bb spectra. The fit is in serious disagreement with the widely accepted MIT parameters. As an important test of their model, the authors calculate the rich spectrum of QQ glue states. In Upsilon particle spectroscopy they predict a narrow QQglue state with exotic quantum numbers J/sup PC/=1/sup -+/ below the BB threshold. Its experimental confirmation would be the first direct evidence for colored glue in the hadron spectrum. (3 refs).

  10. Hospital discharge bags and breastfeeding at 6 months: data from the infant feeding practices study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadacharan, Radha; Grossman, Xena; Matlak, Stephanie; Merewood, Anne

    2014-02-01

    Distribution of industry-sponsored formula sample packs to new mothers undermines breastfeeding. Using data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II (IFPS II), we aimed to determine whether receipt of 4 different types of bags was associated with exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life. We extracted data from IFPS II questionnaires. Type of discharge bag received was categorized as "formula bag," "coupon bag," "breastfeeding supplies bag," or "no bag". We examined exclusive breastfeeding status at 10 weeks (post hoc) and at 6 months using univariate descriptive analyses and multivariate logistic regression models, controlling for sociodemographic and attitudinal variables. Overall, 1868 (81.4%) of women received formula bags, 96 (4.2%) received coupon bags, 46 (2.0%) received breastfeeding supplies bags, and 284 (12.4%) received no bag. By 10 weeks, recipients of breastfeeding supplies bags or no bag were significantly more likely to be exclusively breastfeeding than formula bag recipients. In the adjusted model, compared to formula bag/coupon bag recipients, recipients of breastfeeding supplies bag/no bag were significantly more likely to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months (odds ratio = 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.36). The vast majority of new mothers received formula sample packs at discharge, and this was associated with reduced exclusive breastfeeding at 10 weeks and 6 months. Bags containing breastfeeding supplies or no bag at all were positively associated with exclusive breastfeeding at 10 weeks and 6 months.

  11. Core mechanics and configuration behavior of advanced LMFBR core restraint concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.N.; Wei, B.C.

    1978-02-01

    Core restraint systems in LMFBRs maintain control of core mechanics and configuration behavior. Core restraint design is complex due to the close spacing between adjacent components, flux and temperature gradients, and irradiation-induced material property effects. Since the core assemblies interact with each other and transmit loads directly to the core restraint structural members, the core assemblies themselves are an integral part of the core restraint system. This paper presents an assessment of several advanced core restraint system and core assembly concepts relative to the expected performance of currently accepted designs. A recommended order for the development of the advanced concepts is also presented

  12. Choosing Staff Members Reduces Time in Mechanical Restraint Due to Self-Injurious Behaviour and Requesting Restraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Craig C.; Lydersen, Tore; Johnson, Paul R.; Weiss, Shannon R.; Marconi, Michael R.; Cleave, Mary L.; Weber, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Using mechanical restraints to protect a person who engaged in dangerous self-injury was decreased by manipulation of an establishing operation involving the client choosing the staff person who would work with her. Materials and Methods: The client was a 28-year-old woman diagnosed with autism, bipolar disorder, static cerebral…

  13. Sensitization of restraint-induced corticosterone secretion after chronic restraint in rats: Involvement of 5-HT7 receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Iglesias, Brenda B.; Mendoza-Garrido, María E.; Gutiérrez-Ospina, Gabriel; Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Noyola-Díaz, Martha; Terrón, José A.

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress. We examined the effect of chronic restraint stress (CRS; 20 min/day) as compared to control (CTRL) conditions for 14 days, on: 1) restraint-induced ACTH and corticosterone (CORT) secretion in rats pretreated with vehicle or SB-656104 (a 5-HT7 receptor antagonist); 2) 5-HT7 receptor-like immunoreactivity (5-HT7-LI) and protein in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and adrenal glands (AG); 3) baseline levels of 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA), and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio in PVN and AG; and 4) 5-HT-like immunoreactivity (5-HT-LI) in AG and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) protein in PVN and AG. On day 15, animals were subdivided into Treatment and No treatment groups. Treatment animals received an i.p. injection of vehicle or SB-656104; No Treatment animals received no injection. Sixty min later, Treatment animals were either decapitated with no further stress (0 min) or submitted to acute restraint (10, 30, 60 or 120 min); hormone serum levels were measured. No Treatment animals were employed for the rest of measurements. CRS decreased body weight gain and increased adrenal weight. In CTRL animals, acute restraint increased ACTH and CORT secretion in a time of restraint-dependent manner; both responses were inhibited by SB-656104. Exposure to CRS abolished ACTH but magnified CORT responses to restraint as compared to CTRL conditions; SB-656104 had no effect on ACTH levels but significantly inhibited sensitized CORT responses. In CTRL animals, 5-HT7-LI was detected in magnocellular and parvocellular subdivisions of PVN and sparsely in adrenal cortex. Exposure to CRS decreased 5-HT7-LI and protein in the PVN, but increased 5-HT7-LI in the adrenal cortex and protein in whole AG. Higher 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels were detected in PVN and AG from CRS animals but 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio increased in AG only. Finally, whereas 5-HT-LI was sparsely observed in the adrenal cortex

  14. Let's Do It Again: Bagging Equity Premium Predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillebrand, Eric Tobias; Lee, Tae-Hwy; Medeiros, Marcelo C.

    The literature on excess return prediction has considered a wide array of estimation schemes, among them unrestricted and restricted regression coefficients. We consider bootstrap aggregation (bagging) to smooth parameter restrictions. Two types of restrictions are considered: positivity...... by smoothing the restriction through bagging....

  15. Bogota bag in the treatment of abdominal wound dehiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumar, N; Shaharin, S; Razman, J; Jasmi, A Y

    2004-06-01

    A patient who underwent emergency laparotomy for rectal prolapse developed repeated abdominal wound dehiscence and subsequently an enteric fistula. The management of abdominal wound dehiscence is discussed, specifically with regards to the Bogota bag. Use of Bogota bag has been reported worldwide but this may be the first report here.

  16. Storage quality and marketability potential of bagged silage for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bagged sole maize and maize–cowpea silages in three bag sizes were assessed at 42 and 282 d post-ensiling for sensory and chemical quality. A survey of dairy farmers on silage use and preferences was conducted in the Chikwaka communal area and Marirangwe small-scale commercial farming area. Only silage ...

  17. Behaviour of hadron matter within the bag model: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auberson, G.; Savatier, F.

    1988-01-01

    On the basis of the quantum theory of the vibrating bag developed in I, it is worked out the partition function of a gas of hadronic bags. This is done within the small deformation, Van der Waals approximation. The outcome is in full agreement with a previous, less elaborate model of deconfinement phase transition

  18. On the quantisation of one-dimensional bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairley, G.T.; Squires, E.J.

    1976-01-01

    The quantisation of one-dimensional MIT bags by expanding the fields as a sum of classical modes and truncating the series after the first term is discussed. The lowest states of a bag in a world containing two scalar quark fields are obtained. Problems associated with the zero-point oscillations of the field are discussed. (Auth.)

  19. Light hadrons in the bag model with broken chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efrosinin, V.P.; Zaikin, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    A version of the bag model with broken chiral symmetry is proposed. A satisfactory description of the experimental data on light hadrons including the pion is obtained. The estimate of the pion-nucleon σ term is given in the framework of this model. The pion and kaon decay constants are calculated. The centre-of-mass motion problem in bag models is discussed

  20. Investigating Comfort Temperatures and Heat Transfer in Sleeping Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Trevor; Hill, Lara

    2017-01-01

    After many years of confusion, thermal performance of sleeping bags has now been quantified and unified using expensive test techniques. Based on Newton's law of cooling, we present a simple inexpensive test and model to check manufacturers' claims on the temperature performance of a range of modern sleeping bags.

  1. Moderation: an alternative to restraint as a mode of weight self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotland, S

    2012-12-01

    This study considered two types of eating and weight self-regulation, in five groups, including four types of weight controllers and one non-dieting group. New scales were developed to measure eating moderation and restraint. Moderation was largely uncorrelated with restraint in 4 groups and had a fairly strong positive relation in 1 group. The moderation scale was unrelated to the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) restraint scale and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) rigid restraint subscale and weakly positively related to TFEQ flexible restraint. The restraint scale was strongly correlated to the DEBQ restraint scale, and to both flexible and rigid restraint subscales of the TFEQ. Across the five groups, moderation had exclusively positive relationships with attitude, behavior and emotion variables, while restraint had primarily negative relationships. The study supports moderation as a new dimension of weight self-regulation, independent of restraint. The new measures of moderation and restraint can be used together in research on the processes of change in weight management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Real-time adjustment of ventricular restraint therapy in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanta, Ravi K; Lee, Lawrence S; Umakanthan, Ramanan; Laurence, Rita G; Fox, John A; Bolman, Ralph Morton; Cohn, Lawrence H; Chen, Frederick Y

    2008-12-01

    Current ventricular restraint devices do not allow for either the measurement or adjustment of ventricular restraint level. Periodic adjustment of restraint level post-device implantation may improve therapeutic efficacy. We evaluated the feasibility of an adjustable quantitative ventricular restraint (QVR) technique utilizing a fluid-filled polyurethane epicardial balloon to measure and adjust restraint level post-implantation guided by physiologic parameters. QVR balloons were implanted in nine ovine with post-infarction dilated heart failure. Restraint level was defined by the maximum restraint pressure applied by the balloon to the epicardium at end-diastole. An access line connected the balloon lumen to a subcutaneous portacath to allow percutaneous access. Restraint level was adjusted while left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume (EDV) and cardiac output was assessed with simultaneous transthoracic echocardiography. All nine ovine successfully underwent QVR balloon implantation. Post-implantation, restraint level could be measured percutaneously in real-time and dynamically adjusted by instillation and withdrawal of fluid from the balloon lumen. Using simultaneous echocardiography, restraint level could be adjusted based on LV EDV and cardiac output. After QVR therapy for 21 days, LV EDV decreased from 133+/-15 ml to 113+/-17 ml (p<0.05). QVR permits real-time measurement and physiologic adjustment of ventricular restraint therapy after device implantation.

  3. Chiral bag model with constituent quarks: topological and nontopological decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malakhov, I.Yu.; Sveshnikov, K.A.; Fedorov, S.M.; Khalili, M.F.

    2002-01-01

    The three-phase modification of the hybrid chiral bag containing along with asymptotic freedom and hadronization phases and also intermediate phase of the constituent quarks is considered. The self-consistent solutions of the equations of the model in the (1 + 1)-dimensional case are determined with an account of the fermion vacuum polarization effects. The bag renormalized complete energy is studied as a function of the parameters characterizing the bag geometry and its topological (baryon) charge. It is shown that for nonzero topological charge there exists the whole series of configurations representing the local minima of the bag complete energy and containing all three phases, whereas the bag energy minimum in the nontopological case corresponds to zero dimensions of the area corresponding to asymptotic freedom phase [ru

  4. Vector meson decays in the chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, O.V.; Jennings, B.K.

    1985-01-01

    Vector meson decays are examined in a model where a confined quark and antiquark annihilate, producing a pair of elementary pseudoscalar mesons. Two versions of the pseudoscalar meson-quark interaction are employed, one where the coupling is restricted to the bag surface and one where it extends throughout the bag volume. Energy conservation is ensured in the model through insertion of exponential factors containing the bag energy at each interaction vertex. To guarantee momentum conservation, a wave-packet description is utilized in which the decay widths are normalized by a factor involving the overlap of the initial bag state with the confined qanti q state of zero momentum. With either interaction, the model yields a value for the p-width that exceeds the empirical width by a factor two. For the Ksup(*) and PHI mesons, the computed widths depend strongly on the interaction employed. Implications of these results for chiral bag models are discussed. (orig.)

  5. Restraint use in older adults in home care: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepmans, Kristien; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Paquay, Louis; Milisen, Koen

    2018-03-01

    To get insight into restraint use in older adults receiving home care and, more specifically, into the definition, prevalence and types of restraint, as well as the reasons for restraint use and the people involved in the decision-making process. Systematic review. Four databases (i.e. Pubmed, CINAHL, Embase, Cochrane Library) were systematically searched from inception to end of April 2017. The study encompassed qualitative and quantitative research on restraint use in older adults receiving home care that reported definitions of restraint, prevalence of use, types of restraint, reasons for use or the people involved. We considered publications written in English, French, Dutch and German. One reviewer performed the search and made the initial selection based on titles and abstracts. The final selection was made by two reviewers working independently; they also assessed study quality. We used an integrated design to synthesise the findings. Eight studies were reviewed (one qualitative, seven quantitative) ranging in quality from moderate to high. The review indicated there was no single, clear definition of restraint. The prevalence of restraint use ranged from 5% to 24.7%, with various types of restraint being used. Families played an important role in the decision-making process and application of restraints; general practitioners were less involved. Specific reasons, other than safety for using restraints in home care were noted (e.g. delay to nursing home admission; to provide respite for an informal caregiver). Contrary to the current socio demographical evolutions resulting in an increasing demand of restraint use in home care, research on this subject is still scarce and recent. The limited evidence however points to the challenging complexity and specificity of home care regarding restraint use. Given these serious challenges for clinical practice, more research about restraint use in home care is urgently needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier

  6. Effects of bagging materials and CaCl2 spray on fruit calcium concentration in fruit-bagged apple trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Y.J.; Choi, J.S.; Kim, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of bagging materials and CaCl 2 spray on fruit Ca concentration in fruit-bagged apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.). No difference was noted in fruit Ca concentration among bagging materials during the growing season. And also, there was no difference in fruit Ca concentration between bagged and non-bagged fruits. The fruit flesh Ca concentration of bagged fruits was significantly lower than that of non-bagged fruits in the same tree, which 0.5 % CaCl 2 was sprayed 5 times in the late growing season. The radioactivity of 45 Ca was highest in the sprayed shoot leaves and bark, while only a trace amount was detected in the fruit and shoot proximate to the treated shoot 3 weeks after 3 times application of 45 CaCl 2 (5 micro Ci/ml). As a result, it is confirmed that the Ca once accumulated in a specific part is hardly retranslocated. Therefore, it is concluded that Ca foliar spray to the fruit-bagged tree has no influence on Ca concentration in the fruit

  7. Non-topological soliton bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilets, L.

    1986-01-01

    The Friedberg-Lee soliton model, which effects confinement by a quantal scalar field, is discussed. The Lagrangian for the non-topological soliton model is the usual QCD Lagrangian supplemented by a non-linear scalar sigma field term. Static solutions to the field equations are considered in the mean field approximation. Small amplitude oscillations are discussed. Quantum alternatives to the mean field approximation are also considered. Methods of momentum projection and Lorentz boost are described, and the generator coordinate method is discussed. Calculations of the N-N interaction are reviewed briefly. Also discussed is one-gluon exchange, as well as the pion and dressing of the baryons. The hadron states are summarized. One loop quantum corrections are discussed briefly. Work in progress is mentioned in the areas of N-anti N annihilation, the many bag problem, and a Pauli equation for the nucleon. 31 refs

  8. Poor compliance with child safety restraint use while travelling.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fallon, R

    2011-02-01

    Road traffic accidents are a leading cause of death of children. It is the law that all children should be appropriately secured when traveling in vehicles. The aim of this study was to evaluate parental conformity with these regulations and to test if advice given at a Paediatric outpatient clinic could improve compliance. Two groups were assigned, an intervention group (parents given an information leaflet and a clear explanation about appropriate restraints for their children) and a non-intervention group (received no information). They were contacted again after 2 months and asked regarding compliance. A total of 394 children from 186 families were initially given the questionnaire. Nearly one third of children (29.2%) were not using any restraint while travelling rising to 35.3% on follow up. This study concluded that once off parental education made negligible difference to an already inconsistent and haphazard approach to compliance with safety regulations.

  9. Coping with budget restraint in a Scandinavian welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Holm, Lotte; Lund, Thomas Bøker

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how different types of households react to experiences of food budget restraint in Denmark. The study applied a mixed method design, based on survey data and on qualitative interviews. The qualitative data source consisted of interviews with 30...... institute GfK ConsumerTracking Scandinavia. Using both data sources the study explored how shopping, storing, cooking and eating practices changed as a consequence of experienced restraints on the food budget. The quantitative results revealed how differences in terms of application of various types...... of strategies are related to different levels of food budget restrictions. Strategies applied to storing and cooking food in more efficient manners were widely practiced across all groups. Strategies which affected eating experiences, such as compromising the tastiness of food and giving up social ties involved...

  10. Heavy metals dispersion during thermal treatment of plastic bags and its recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Ohidul; Wang, Sijia; Lu, Wentao

    2018-04-15

    One of the main worries for thermal treatment of plastic bag (PB) is the air pollution resulting from heavy metal (HM) evaporation and emission. The quest of the study was to investigate their fate during thermal treatment varying with temperature and atmosphere to explore the appropriate treatment technology. Four commonly consumed polymer bags such as PE, HDPE, LDPE and PVC were selected for the analysis. The elemental compositions, heating values and total metal contents of the samples were measured by an elemental analyzer, a sulphur/halogen analyzer, a bomb calorimeter and an ICP-OES, respectively. Thermal treatments of the samples were conducted in a tube furnace at 350, 550, 650, 750, and 850 °C with 1 L/min air or N 2 gas flow, respectively. 5% HNO 3 /10% H 2 O 2 solution was used for absorbing metals from gas phase, and then HM distributions both in flue gas and bottom ash were determined. Results revealed that the lower heating values of HDPE, LDPE, PVC and PE bags were 33.32, 34.28, 24.82 and 36.7 MJ/kg, respectively indicating energy recovery potential. Thermal treatment showed the maximum mass reduction (>90%) of PB at 850 °C. The higher percentage of metals was distributed in ash at initial temperature that promoted to gas with rise of temperature. The used absorption solution exhibited tremendous quantity of metals recovery. However, there was no significant difference between using air and N 2 gas flow during treatment of PB. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Degradation of plastic compost bags used for yard waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taber, H.G.; Cox, D.F.

    1993-01-01

    Three trials, beginning June, July, and September 1991, examined the breakdown of photodegradable plastic bags. The plastic contained a light-sensitive compound dissolved in the polymer to hasten degradation. The bags were placed in east-west rows on bare ground. Other factors studied included turning the bags over either every 3 or 7 days and either filling the bags with fresh grass clippings or leaving them empty. Strength loss was determined with a hand-held puncture tester. Strength increased initially by 36%, 32%, and 63% in the three trials, respectively. The bags took 33, 35, and 64 days to reach brittleness (puncture strength of 180 g) in the three trials, respectively. Once degradation began, all trials showed similar rates of decline. However, the degradation began 7 days after exposure in the first two trials, but not until 14 days after exposure in the September trial. The addition of grass clippings to the bags increased the initial strength and delayed the onset of degradation. Turning the bags every 3 days rather than every 7 did not affect degradation

  12. PICS bags safely store unshelled and shelled groundnuts in Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baributsa, D; Baoua, I B; Bakoye, O N; Amadou, L; Murdock, L L

    2017-05-01

    We conducted an experiment in Niger to evaluate the performance of hermetic triple layer (Purdue Improved Crop Storage- PICS) bags for the preservation of shelled and unshelled groundnut Arachis hypogaea L. Naturally-infested groundnut was stored in PICS bags and woven bags for 6.7 months. After storage, the average oxygen level in the PICS bags fell from 21% to 18% (v/v) and 21%-15% (v/v) for unshelled and shelled groundnut, respectively. Identified pests present in the stored groundnuts were Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) and Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens). After 6.7 months of storage, in the woven bag, there was a large increase in the pest population accompanied by a weight loss of 8.2% for unshelled groundnuts and 28.7% for shelled groundnut. In PICS bags for both shelled and unshelled groundnuts, by contrast, the density of insect pests did not increase, there was no weight loss, and the germination rate was the same compared to that recorded at the beginning of the experiment. Storing shelled groundnuts in PICS bags is the most cost-effective way as it increases the quantity of grain stored.

  13. Supporting system for the core restraint of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaser, A.

    1973-01-01

    The core restraint of water cooled nuclear reactors which is needed to direct the flow of the coolant through the core can be manufactured only in a moderate wall thickness. Thus, the majority of the loads have to be transmitted to the core barrel which is more rigid. The patent refers to a system of circumferential and vertical support members most of which are free to move relatively to each other, thus reducing thermal stresses during operation. (P.K.)

  14. Construct Validation of the Portuguese Version of the Restraint Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carvalho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AimThe main purpose of this study was to adapt the Restraint Scale (RS to Portuguese and examine its psychometric properties, specifically its construct validity.MethodIn this study, 238 normal-weight adults (82% women; Mean age = 36.6, SD = 15.0 participated in an online survey containing measures of Restraint Scale, Three Factor Eating Questionnaire, Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, and Body Dissatisfaction and Drive for Thinness scales.ResultsExploratory factor analyses corroborated the two-factors structure found in previous studies, in particular when three items without clear factorial assignment and low correlation were excluded. A final two-factors version of the RS containing seven items presented a very good fit to the measurement model and good internal consistency. Confirmatory factor analysis of the 7-items RS in relation to a three-factor model of overeating, dieting and body dissatisfaction measures revealed that the RS was the only restraint measure loading in all three factors.ConclusionThis suggests that the 7-items Portuguese version of the RS has good psychometric properties and unique features that lend it appropriate to identify and study unsuccessful chronic dieters.

  15. STS-102 Onboard Photograph-The Payload Equipment Restraint System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    In this Space Shuttle STS-102 mission image, the Payload Equipment Restraint System H-Strap is shown at the left side of the U.S. Laboratory hatch and behind Astronaut James D. Weatherbee, mission specialist. PERS is an integrated modular system of components designed to assist the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) in restraining and carrying necessary payload equipment and tools in a microgravity environment. The Operations Development Group, Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), while providing operation support to the ISS Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF), recognized the need for an on-orbit restraint system to facilitate control of lose objects, payloads, and tools. The PERS is the offspring of that need and it helps the ISS crew manage tools and rack components that would otherwise float away in the near-zero gravity environment aboard the Space Station. The system combines Kevlar straps, mesh pockets, Velcro and a variety of cornecting devices into a portable, adjustable system. The system includes the Single Strap, the H-Strap, the Belly Pack, the Laptop Restraint Belt, and the Tool Page Case. The Single Strap and the H-Strap were flown on this mission. The PERS concept was developed by industrial design students at Auburn University and the MSFC Flight Projects Directorate.

  16. Restraint reduction in a nursing home and its impact on employee attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundel, M; Garrett, R M; Horn, R D

    1994-04-01

    To reduce physical restraint use in a nursing home and increase employee support for the restraint-reduction program. A one-group pretest-posttest design with repeated measures was used to determine changes in restraint use with participants over a 14-month interval. All individuals employed at the nursing home were surveyed at two time periods to determine their opinions on restraint use. A 265-bed private, non-profit nursing home in Dallas, Texas. A restrained cohort of 170 residents with a mean age of 84 years; 84% were female. A total of 182 employees participated in the first survey and 209 in the second. Formation of a project team that planned and supervised restraint removal. Inservice training on restraint use was conducted for all employees. Type and frequency of restraint use among the restrained cohort at four evaluation points within a 14-month interval. The frequency of restraint use in the nursing home population was also recorded. Survey measures included employee responses to a 16-item closed-end questionnaire before and after training. The mean number of restraints used with each resident in the restrained cohort decreased from 1.56 to 0.67. The number of residents on restraints in the nursing home was reduced during the course of the study (67.5% vs. 36.7%, P reduction program in a nursing home can produce positive results in terms of decreased restraint use and supportive employee attitudes. More practical alternatives to restraints need to be developed for application in the training of nursing home employees. Future studies on resident, employee, and family attitudes about restraint use are suggested.

  17. The Cheshire Cat principle applied to hybrid bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.B.; Wirzba, A.

    1987-05-01

    Here is argued for the Cheshire Cat point of view according to which the bag (itself) has only notational, but no physical significance. It is explained in a 1+1 dimensional exact Cheshire Cat model how a fermion can escape from the bag by means of an anomaly. We also suggest that suitably constructed hybrid bag models may be used to fix such parameters of effective Lagrangians that can otherwise be obtained from experiments only. This idea is illustrated in a calculation of the mass of the pseudoscalar η' meson in 1+1 dimension. Thus there is hope to find a construction principle for a phenomenologically sensible model. (orig.)

  18. Attractive Casimir effect in an infrared modified gluon bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxman, L.E.; Amaral, R.L.P.G.; Svaiter, N.F.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we are motivated by previous attempts to derive the vacuum contribution to the bag energy in terms of familiar Casimir energy calculations for spherical geometries. A simple infrared modified model is introduced which allows studying the effects of the analytic structure as well as the geometry in a clear manner. In this context, we show that if a class of infrared vanishing effective gluon propagators is considered, then the renormalized vacuum energy for a spherical bag is attractive, as required by the bag model to adjust hadron spectroscopy

  19. Connection between hydrodynamic, water bag and Vlasov models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gros, M.; Bertrand, P.; Feix, M.R.

    1978-01-01

    The connection between hydrodynamic, water bag and Vlasov models is still under consideration with numerical experiments. For long wavelength, slightly non linear excitations and initial preparations such as the usual adiabatic invariant Pn -3 is space independent, the hydrodynamic model is equivalent to the water bag, and for long wavelengths a nice agreement is found with the full numerical solution of the Vlasov equation. For other initial conditions when the water bag cannot be defined, the hydrodynamic approach does not represent the correct behaviour. (author)

  20. Vacuum-bag-only processing of composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Shad

    Ultrasonic imaging in the C-scan mode in conjunction with the amplitude of the reflected signal was used to measure flow rates of an epoxy resin film penetrating through the thickness of single layers of woven carbon fabric. Assemblies, comprised of a single layer of fabric and film, were vacuum-bagged and ultrasonically scanned in a water tank during impregnation at 50°C, 60°C, 70°C, and 80°C. Measured flow rates were plotted versus inverse viscosity to determine the permeability in the thin film, non-saturated system. The results demonstrated that ultrasonic imaging in the C-scan mode is an effective method of measuring z-direction resin flow through a single layer of fabric. The permeability values determined in this work were consistent with permeability values reported in the literature. Capillary flow was not observed at the temperatures and times required for pressurized flow to occur. The flow rate at 65°C was predicted from the linear plot of flow rate versus inverse viscosity. The effects of fabric architecture on through-thickness flow rates during impregnation of an epoxy resin film were measured by ultrasonic imaging. Multilayered laminates comprised of woven carbon fabrics and epoxy films (prepregs) were fabricated by vacuum-bagging. Ultrasonic imaging was performed in a heated water tank (65°C) during impregnation. Impregnation rates showed a strong dependence on fabric architecture, despite similar areal densities. Impregnation rates are directly affected by inter-tow spacing and tow nesting, which depend on fabric architecture, and are indirectly affected by areal densities. A new method of predicting resin infusion rates in prepreg and resin film infusion processes was proposed. The Stokes equation was used to derive an equation to predict the impregnation rate of laminates as a function of fabric architecture. Flow rate data previously measured by ultrasound was analyzed with the new equation and the Kozeny-Carman equation. A fiber

  1. Performance of triple bagging hermetic technology for postharvest storage of cowpea grain in Niger

    KAUST Repository

    Baoua, Ibrahim B.; Margam, Venu; Amadou, Laouali; Murdock, Larry L.

    2012-01-01

    ) new 100 kg bags and (3) once-used 50 kg bags, all filled with naturally infested untreated cowpeas. In these PICS bags the O 2 levels within the bags initially fell to about 3 percent (v/v) while the CO 2 rose to nearly 5 percent (v/v). After five

  2. 76 FR 70965 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Correction to the Amended Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... Bags From Thailand: Correction to the Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review... bags from Thailand for the period August 1, 2009, through July 31, 2010. The notice did not include the... bags from Thailand. See Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Amended Final Results of...

  3. The effects of four agrobotanical extracts and three types of bags on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Shaki area of Oyo State, Nigeria and treated with extracts from Azadiractha indica (neem) leaf, Xylopia aethiopica(uda) pod, Occimum graticimum (nche anwu) leaf and Zingiber officinale (ginger) stem tuber. The storage bags were 0.05mm gauge polythene bags, 0.05mm gauge polythene-lined-jute bags and jute bags.

  4. Behavioral effects of acclimatization to restraint protocol used for awake animal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Michael D; Pira, Ashley S; Febo, Marcelo

    2013-07-15

    Functional MRI in awake rats involves acclimatization to restraint to minimize motion. We designed a study to examine the effects of an acclimatization protocol (5 days of restraint, 60 min per day) on the emission of 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations and performance in a forced swim test (FST). Our results showed that USV calls are reduced significantly by days 3, 4 and 5 of acclimatization. Although the rats showed less climbing activity (and more immobility) in FST on day 5 compared to the 1st day of restraint acclimatization, the difference was not detected once the animals were given a 2-week hiatus. Overall, we showed that animals adapt to the restraint over a five-day period; however, restraint may introduce confounding behavioral outcomes that may hinder the interpretation of results derived from awake rat imaging. The present data warrants further testing of the effects of MRI restraint on behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Towards the methodological optimization of the moss bag technique in terms of contaminants concentrations and replicability values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, A.; Fernández, J. A.; Carballeira, A.; Aboal, J. R.

    2014-09-01

    The moss bag technique is a simple and economical environmental monitoring tool used to monitor air quality. However, routine use of the method is not possible because the protocols involved have not yet been standardized. Some of the most variable methodological aspects include (i) selection of moss species, (ii) ratio of moss weight to surface area of the bag, (iii) duration of exposure, and (iv) height of exposure. In the present study, the best option for each of these aspects was selected on the basis of the mean concentrations and data replicability of Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn measured during at least two exposure periods in environments affected by different degrees of contamination. The optimal choices for the studied aspects were the following: (i) Sphagnum denticulatum, (ii) 5.68 mg of moss tissue for each cm-2 of bag surface, (iii) 8 weeks of exposure, and (iv) 4 m height of exposure. Duration of exposure and height of exposure accounted for most of the variability in the data. The aim of this methodological study was to provide data to help establish a standardized protocol that will enable use of the moss bag technique by public authorities.

  6. BOREAS TE-04 Branch Bag Data from Boreal Tree Species

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Contains 1996 TE-04 data of branch bag studies of photosynthesis, respiration and stomatal conductance of boreal forest species using the open MPH-1000...

  7. Use of pliable bags in liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonnet, G.; Jacquet, M.A.; Sharif, A.; Engler, R.

    1981-01-01

    Pliable plastic bags have been used to replace glass or plastic vials for liquid scintillation counting. The two major advantages of this method are the lower cost of the plastic bags and the fact that, per sample, the radioactive waste is significantly reduced. The following parameters have been checked: the impermeability of the bags to various scintillator mixtures and the fact that neither the irregular shape of the bags nor their position in the counting chamber had any effect on the results of the counting. The latter was also constant with time, at least over a period of 10 days. The technique has been used to count the radioactivity of 3 H-DNA precipitates prepared from bacteria and lymphocytes and deposited on filters impregnated with only 200 μl scintillator. It is a method that can be applied to the counting of any samples deposited on filters and insoluble in scintillator. (author)

  8. Fermion bag solutions to some unsolved sign problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Anyi; Chandrasekharan, Shailesh

    2012-03-01

    Some interesting lattice four-fermion models containing N flavors of staggered fermions with Z2 and U(1) chiral symmetries suffer from sign problems in the auxiliary field approach. Earlier calculations have either ignored these sign problems or have circumvented them by adding conjugate fermion fields which changes the model. In this talk we show that the recently proposed fermion bag approach solves these sign problems. The basic idea of the new approach is to collect unpaired fermionic degrees of freedom inside a fermion bag. A resummation of all fermion world lines inside the bag is then sufficient to solve the sign problems. The fermion bag approach provides new opportunities to solve in these ``unsolved'' four-fermion models in the chiral limit efficiently.

  9. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... sufficient volume to prevent gas waste during exhalation and to provide an adequate reserve for inhalation. (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to gasoline...

  10. In vitro digestibility of lucerne hay using bag method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    constantin gavan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A filter bag method was used for estimating apparent dry matter (DM digestibility, apparent digestible organic matter in DM, true DM digestibility, true digestible organic matter in DM and Digestibility of neutral detergent fibre. The forage sample analysed comprised tree plant parts (whole, leaf and stem of alfalfa (Medicago sativa, one degree of particle breakdown (1 mm sieve size at miliing and two field replicates at Agricultural Research and Developement Station (ARDS Șimnic-Craiova. Rumen fluid was used from two cannulated dairy cows. The use of filter bags can give acceptable results for the in vitro digestibility of forages. The escape of soluble matter from bags with samples high in solubles could influence the microbial population and hence increase cell wall degradation in bags with samples low in soluble matter, if  all are in the same incubation vessel.

  11. Hydrodynamical model based on a bag-like Lagrangian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C.B.; Lam, C.S.; Wang, K.H.

    1976-06-01

    Equations of motion of hydrodynamical model are derived from a bag-like Lagrangian by using the technique of information theory. Comments on the break-up of the system and on the properties of decay products are included

  12. Bag-model quantum chromodynamics for hyperons at low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, H.J.; Maslow, J.N.

    1980-01-01

    In a non-perturbative bag model framework, gluon exchange which mediates quark exchange scattering in conjunction with quark interchange is shown to be the basis of the OBE interactions of hyperons at low energy. (orig.)

  13. Transcriptional upregulation of BAG3 upon proteasome inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huaqin; Liu Haimei; Zhang Haiyan; Guan Yifu; Du Zhenxian

    2008-01-01

    Proteasome inhibitors exhibit antitumoral activity against malignancies of different histology. Emerging evidence indicates that antiapoptotic factors may also accumulate as a consequence of exposure to these drugs, thus it seems plausible that activation of survival signaling cascades might compromise their antitumoral effects. Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG) family proteins are characterized by their property of interaction with a variety of partners involved in modulating the proliferation/death balance, including heat shock proteins (HSP), Bcl-2, Raf-1. In this report, we demonstrated that BAG3 is a novel antiapoptotic molecule induced by proteasome inhibitors in various cancer cells at the transcriptional level. Moreover, we demonstrated that BAG3 knockdown by siRNA sensitized cancer cells to MG132-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our results suggest that BAG3 induction might represents as an unwanted molecular consequence of utilizing proteasome inhibitors to combat tumors

  14. Properties of hybrid stars in an extended MIT bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Tmurbagan; Liu Guangzhou; Zhu Mingfeng

    2009-01-01

    The properties of hybrid stars are investigated in the framework of the relativistic mean field theory (RMFT) and an MIT bag model with density-dependent bag constant to describe the hadron phase (HP) and quark phase (QP), respectively. We find that the density-dependent B(ρ) decreases with baryon density ρ; this decrement makes the strange quark matter become more energetically favorable than ever; which makes the threshold densities of the hadron-quark phase transition lower than those of the original bag constant case. In this case, the hyperon degrees of freedom can not be considered. As a result, the equations of state of a star in the mixed phase (MP) become softer whereas those in the QP become stiffer, and the radii of the star obviously decrease. This indicates that the extended MIT bag model is more suitable to describe hybrid stars with small radii. (authors)

  15. Overview of core designs and requirements/criteria for core restraint systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, W.H.

    1984-09-01

    The requirements and lifetime criteria for the design of a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Core Restraint System are presented. A discussion of the three types of core restraint systems used in LMFBR core design is given. Details of the core restraint system selected for FFTF are presented and the reasons for this selection given. Structural analysis procedures being used to manage the FFTF assembly irradiations are discussed. Efforts that are ongoing to validate the calculational methods and lifetime criteria are presented

  16. Dietary restraint, anxiety, and the relative reinforcing value of snack food in non-obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Gary S; Legg, Christine

    2006-11-01

    This study tested the independent and interactive effects of anxiety and dietary restraint on the relative reinforcing value of snack food. Thirty non-obese, female university students were assigned to one of four groups based on median split scores on measures of dietary restraint and state-anxiety: low-restraint/low-anxiety (n=7), low-restraint/high-anxiety (n=7), high-restraint/low-anxiety (n=9), and high-restraint/high-anxiety (n=7). Participants were provided the choice to earn points for palatable snack foods or fruits and vegetables using a computerized concurrent schedules choice task. The behavioural cost to gain access to snack foods increased across trials, whereas the cost to gain access to fruits and vegetables was held constant across trials. The relative reinforcing value of palatable snack food in relation to fruits and vegetables was defined as the total amount of points earned for snack food. Two-way analysis of covariance, with hunger and hedonic snack food ratings as covariates, showed that dietary restraint and anxiety had a significant interactive effect on the relative reinforcing value of snack food, indicating that the effect of anxiety on snack food reinforcement is moderated by dietary restraint. Specifically, the high-anxiety/low-restraint women found snack food significantly less reinforcing than low-anxiety/low-restraint women, but no differences emerged between high- and low-anxiety women with high-restraint. Neither restraint nor anxiety had an independent effect on the relative reinforcing value of snack food. These findings indicate that anxiety may have a suppressive effect on the relative reinforcing value of snack food in low-restrained eaters, but not an enhancing effect on snack food reinforcement in high-restrained eaters. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  17. Evaluation of the influence of seismic restraint characteristics on breeder reactor piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, R.M.; Pollono, L.P.

    1979-01-01

    For the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) heat transport system piping within the reactor containment building, dynamic analyses of the piping loops have been performed to study the effect of restraint stiffness on the dynamic behavior of the piping. In addition, analysis and testing of typical CRBRP restraint system components have been performed for the purpose of quantifying and verifying the basic characteristics of the restraints used in the piping system dynamic analysis

  18. The detrimental effects of physical restraint as a consequence for inappropriate classroom behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, S K; Ellis, J

    2001-01-01

    Functional analyses produced inconclusive results regarding variables that maintained problem behavior for 2 students with developmental disabilities. Procedures were modified to include a contingent physical restraint condition based on in-class observations. Results indicated that tinder conditions in which physical restraint (i.e., basket-hold timeout) was applied contingent on problem behavior, rates of these behaviors increased across sessions for both subjects. Implications for the use of physical restraint in the classroom are discussed.

  19. Use of physical restraint: Nurses' knowledge, attitude, intention and practice and influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Fatemeh; Abdullah, Khatijah Lim; Zainal, Nor Zuraida; Wong, Li Ping

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the knowledge, attitude, intention and practice of nurses towards physical restraint and factors influencing these variables. A literature review showed a lack of studies focused on the intention of nurses regarding physical restraint throughout the world. Considering that very little research on physical restraint use has been carried out in Malaysia, assessment of nurses' knowledge, attitude, intention and practice is necessary before developing a minimising programme in hospitals. A cross-sectional study was used. A questionnaire to assess the knowledge, attitude, intention and practice was completed by all nurses (n = 309) in twelve wards of a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur. Moderate knowledge and attitude with strong intention to use physical restraint were found among the nurses. Less than half of nurses considered alternatives to physical restraint and most of them did not understand the reasons for the physical restraint. Nurses' academic qualification, read any information source during past year and nurses' work unit showed a significant association with nurses' knowledge. Multiple linear regression analysis found knowledge, attitude and intention were significantly associated with nurses' practice to use physical restraint. This study showed some important misunderstandings of nurses about using physical restraint and strong intention regarding using physical restraint. Findings of this study serve as a supporting reason for importance of educating nurses about the use of physical restraint. Exploring the knowledge, attitude, intention and current practice of nurses towards physical restraint is important so that an effective strategy can be formulated to minimise the use of physical restraints in hospitals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A Decade (almost) of Brown bag Seminars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2018-01-01

    This collection of BB Seminar Series abstracts and titles is a celebration of sorts. The Center for Mobilities and Urban Studies (C-MUS) was established at Aalborg University in 2008. The 10th Year Anniversary conference to be held in August 2018 is a testament to this. It is not too much to say...... that during this decade C-MUS has grown to become an internationally well-recognized research center under the heading of the ‘new Mobilities turn’. However, a research center also need a daily life of mundane (but important) practices. This collection of abstracts takes you through the BB programs since...... series of BB presentations we get a sense of the academic debates and ‘matters of concern’ for the researchers in C-MUS. Moreover, this may also serve as an important pointer for the future. So next to presenting ‘old stories’ the report is an invitation to reflect upon the next decade of Brown Bag...

  1. Kluster Bag of Word Menggunakan Weka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tari Mardiana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dalam bidang pengolahan bahasa alami dan sistem temu balik informasi, representasi sebuah data teks sangat penting untuk mendukung proses analisis data statistik di dalamnya. Data teks dengan bentuk tidak terstruktur dapat direpresentasikan secara sederhana menggunakan sekumpulan set kata yang disebut bag-of-words dan belum memiliki label atau kelas tertentu. Data unsupervised atau objek-objek yang belum memiliki label dapat dikelompokan menggunakan klustering berdasarkan kemiripan satu objek dengan objek lain. Artikel ini membahas perbandingan hasil pengelompokan unsupervised data menggunakan algoritma kluster yang tersedia pada tools Weka, yaitu SimpleKMeans, X-Means, dan Farthest First. SimpleKMeans dan XMeans digunakan untuk mengolah dataset dan mengelompokan berdasarkan jumlah kluster tetap yang digunakan, sedangkan Farthest First akan meletakan semua pusat kluster pada titik terjauh dari pusat kluster yang sudah ada untuk mengelompokan data. Dataset berasal dari UCI machine learning dengan menggunakan 3 koleksi data, yaitu Enron Email, NIPS Proceedings, dan Daily Kos Blog entries. Performa dataset diuji dengan berbagai masukan parameter yang berbeda meliputi jumlah kluster hingga evaluasi sum squared error (SSE, serta iterasi selama proses pengolahan data. Hasil penelitian diharapkan dapat dijadikan acuan untuk menentukan algoritma dan parameter yang sesuai untuk melakukan pengelompokan data yang tidak memiliki label.

  2. Legislating child restraint usage -Its effect on self-reported child restraint use rates in a central city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brixey, Suzanne; Ravindran, Karthik; Guse, Clare E

    2010-02-01

    To assess the effect of the newly enacted child passenger safety law, Wisconsin Act 106, on self-report of proper restraint usage of children in Milwaukee's central city population. A prospective, non-randomized study design was used. The settings used were (a) a pediatric urban health center, and (b) two Women, Infants and Children offices in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Participants included 11,566 surveys collected over 18 months that spanned the pre-legislation and post-legislation time periods from February 2006 through August 2008. The study set out to assess appropriate child passenger restraint. The results showed that the changes in adjusted proper restraint usage rates for infants between the pre-law, grace period, and post-fine periods were 94%, 94%, and 94% respectively. For children 1-3years old, the adjusted proper usage rates were 65%, 63%, and 59%, respectively. And for children 4-7years old, the rates were 43%, 44% and 42%, respectively. There was a significant increase in premature booster seat use in children who should have been restrained in a rear- or forward-facing car seat (10% pre-law, 12% grace period, 20% post-fine; padvertising and marketing to the correct age group, ease of installation, and mechanisms to prevent incorrect safety strap and harness placement. To ensure accurate and consistent use on every trip, car seat manufacturers must ensure that best practice recommendations for use as well as age, weight, and height be clearly specified on each child restraint. The authors support the United States Department of Transportation's new consumer program that will assist caregivers in identifying the child seat that will fit in their vehicle. In addition, due to the increase in premature graduation of children into belt-positioning booster seats noted as a result of legislation, promoting and marketing booster seat use for children less than 40 pounds should not be accepted. Child passenger safety technicians must continue to promote best

  3. The use of filtered bags to increase waste payload capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dustin, D.F.; Thorp, D.T.; Rivera, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    For the past few years, the Department of Energy has favored the direct disposal of low plutonium content residue materials from Rocky Flats rather than engage in expensive and time consuming plutonium recovery operations. One impediment to direct disposal has been the wattage limit imposed by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant on hydrogenous materials such as combustibles and sludges. The issue of concern is the radiolytic generation and accumulation of hydrogen and other explosive gases in waste containers. The wattage limits that existed through 1996 restricted the amount of plutonium bearing hydrogenous materials that could be packaged in a WIPP bound waste drum to only a fraction of the capacity of a drum. Typically, only about one kilogram of combustible residue could be packaged in a waste drum before the wattage limit was exceeded resulting in an excessively large number of drums to be procured, stored, shipped, and interred. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site has initiated the use of filtered plastic bags (called bag-out bags) used to remove transuranic waste materials from glove box lines. The bags contain small, disk like HEPA filters which are effective in containing radioactively contaminated particulate material but allow for the diffusion of hydrogen gas. Used in conjunction with filtered 55 gallon drums, filtered bag-out bags were pursued as a means to increase the allowable wattage limits for selected residue materials. In February 1997, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission approved the use of filtered bag-out bags for transuranic waste materials destined for WIPP. The concomitant increase in wattage limits now allows for approximately four times the payload per waste drum for wattage limited materials

  4. Comment on bag models with spontaneously broken color symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandel, M.

    1985-01-01

    A recently suggested field-theoretic bag model, where gluons are confined via a Higgs mechanism, is discussed. It is found that the proposed model creates gluon boundary conditions that break global SU/sub c/(3) invariance. A modified scheme that removes this anomaly is suggested. However, some severe generic problems remain. Examples are the lack of a suppression mechanism for states with open color and the large surface energy of the bag states

  5. Bagworm bags as portable armour against invertebrate predators

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiura, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Some animals have evolved the use of environmental materials as “portable armour” against natural enemies. Portable bags that bagworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) construct using their own silk and plant parts are generally believed to play an important role as a physical barrier against natural enemies. However, no experimental studies have tested the importance of bags as portable armour against predators. To clarify the defensive function, I studied the bagworm Eumeta minuscula and a po...

  6. Study of the suitability of DUO plastic bags for the storage of dynamites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáiz, Jorge; Ferrando, José-Luis; Atoche, Juan-Carlos; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2013-10-10

    A comparative study on the retentiveness of two plastic bags (DUO and Royal Pack) has been carried out by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Two types of dynamites were packed in both plastic bags. The bags were placed into glass jars and headspace analyses were performed over 11 weeks to detect whether the volatile constituents of the dynamites were released from the bags. DUO plastic bags showed much better retentiveness than Royal Pack plastic bags. Ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN) was quickly detected in the headspace of the glass jars containing Royal Pack plastic bags after 1 week of storage. On the contrary, only a weak signal of EGDN, which was not detectable in the total ion chromatogram, was detected after 11 weeks of storage. Moreover, DUO plastic bags have shown less background signals than the Royal Pack bags, being the former bags much more suitable for the storage of dynamites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. BAG3 controls angiogenesis through regulation of ERK phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, A; Festa, M; Basile, A; Rosati, A; Pascale, M; Florenzano, F; Nori, S L; Nicolin, V; Di Benedetto, M; Vecchione, M L; Arra, C; Barbieri, A; De Laurenzi, V; Turco, M C

    2012-12-13

    BAG3 is a co-chaperone of the heat shock protein (Hsp) 70, is expressed in many cell types upon cell stress, however, its expression is constitutive in many tumours. We and others have previously shown that in neoplastic cells BAG3 exerts an anti-apoptotic function thus favoring tumour progression. As a consequence we have proposed BAG3 as a target of antineoplastic therapies. Here we identify a novel role for BAG3 in regulation of neo-angiogenesis and show that its downregulation results in reduced angiogenesis therefore expanding the role of BAG3 as a therapeutical target. In brief we show that BAG3 is expressed in endothelial cells and is essential for the interaction between ERK and its phosphatase DUSP6, as a consequence its removal results in reduced binding of DUSP6 to ERK and sustained ERK phosphorylation that in turn determines increased levels of p21 and p15 and cell-cycle arrest in the G1 phase.

  8. BAG3: a new player in the heart failure paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezevic, Tijana; Myers, Valerie D; Gordon, Jennifer; Tilley, Douglas G; Sharp, Thomas E; Wang, JuFang; Khalili, Kamel; Cheung, Joseph Y; Feldman, Arthur M

    2015-07-01

    BAG3 is a cellular protein that is expressed predominantly in skeletal and cardiac muscle but can also be found in the brain and in the peripheral nervous system. BAG3 functions in the cell include: serving as a co-chaperone with members of the heat-shock protein family of proteins to facilitate the removal of misfolded and degraded proteins, inhibiting apoptosis by interacting with Bcl2 and maintaining the structural integrity of the Z-disk in muscle by binding with CapZ. The importance of BAG3 in the homeostasis of myocytes and its role in the development of heart failure was evidenced by the finding that single allelic mutations in BAG3 were associated with familial dilated cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, significant decreases in the level of BAG3 have been found in end-stage failing human heart and in animal models of heart failure including mice with heart failure secondary to trans-aortic banding and in pigs after myocardial infarction. Thus, it becomes relevant to understand the cellular biology and molecular regulation of BAG3 expression in order to design new therapies for the treatment of patients with both hereditary and non-hereditary forms of dilated cardiomyopathy.

  9. Review on the Influences of Bagging Treatment on Pesticide Residue in Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    ZHAO Xiao-yun; XIE De-fang

    2018-01-01

    At present, bagging technology has been widely applicated in fruit cultivation. Impact of bagging treatment on the pesticide residues have different results. On the basis of existing achievements, this paper systematically analyzed the influence of different bagging treatments on pesticide residues:such as different ways of applying pesticide, pesticide concentration, number of applying pesticide; bagging materials, bagged layer; the type of pesticide(systemic pesticide, nonendoscopic pestici...

  10. Fermion bag approach to the sign problem in strongly coupled lattice QED with Wilson fermions

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasekharan, Shailesh; Li, Anyi

    2010-01-01

    We explore the sign problem in strongly coupled lattice QED with one flavor of Wilson fermions in four dimensions using the fermion bag formulation. We construct rules to compute the weight of a fermion bag and show that even though the fermions are confined into bosons, fermion bags with negative weights do exist. By classifying fermion bags as either simple or complex, we find numerical evidence that complex bags with positive and negative weights come with almost equal probabilities and th...

  11. Increase in best practice child car restraint use for children aged 2-5 years in low socioeconomic areas after introduction of mandatory child restraint laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie; Keay, Lisa; Hunter, Kate; Bilston, Lynne E; Simpson, Judy M; Ivers, Rebecca

    2013-06-01

    To examine changes in child car restraint practices in low socioeconomic areas following the introduction of mandatory child car restraint legislation in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Data from two cross-sectional studies of child car restraint use at pre-schools, early childhood centres and primary schools before and after the introduction of legislating mandatory age-appropriate car restraint use for children up to the age of seven years was used in this analysis. All included observations were from local government areas with socioeconomic status in the lowest 30% of urban Sydney. Children aged 2-5 years were observed in their vehicles as they arrived at observation sites (107 pre-legislation, 360 post-legislation). Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine changes in observed age-appropriate and correct use of car restraints. Age-appropriate car restraint use was higher post-legislation than pre-legislation. After controlling for child's age, parental income, language spoken at home and adjusting for clustering, the odds of children being appropriately restrained post-legislation were 2.3 times higher than in the pre-legislation sample, and the odds of them being correctly restrained were 1.6 times greater. Results indicate an improvement in car restraint practices among children aged 2-5 in low socioeconomic areas after introduction of child restraint laws. Implications : Despite improvements observed with enhanced legislation, further efforts are required to increase optimal child car restraint use. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  12. Extended Stability of Epinephrine Hydrochloride Injection in Polyvinyl Chloride Bags Stored in Amber Ultraviolet Light-Blocking Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Matre, Edward T; Ho, Kang C; Lyda, Clark; Fullmer, Beth A; Oldland, Alan R; Kiser, Tyree H

    2017-09-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of epinephrine hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride in polyvinyl chloride bags for up to 60 days. Methods: Dilutions of epinephrine hydrochloride to concentrations of 16 and 64 µg/mL were performed under aseptic conditions. The bags were then placed into ultraviolet light-blocking bags and stored at room temperature (23°C-25°C) or under refrigeration (3°C-5°C). Three samples of each preparation and storage environment were analyzed on days 0, 30, 45, and 60. Physical stability was performed by visual examination. The pH was assessed at baseline and upon final degradation evaluation. Sterility of the samples was not assessed. Chemical stability of epinephrine hydrochloride was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography. To determine the stability-indicating nature of the assay, degradation 12 months following preparation was evaluated. Samples were considered stable if there was less than 10% degradation of the initial concentration. Results: Epinephrine hydrochloride diluted to 16 and 64 µg/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection and stored in amber ultraviolet light-blocking bags was physically stable throughout the study. No precipitation was observed. At days 30 and 45, all bags had less than 10% degradation. At day 60, all refrigerated bags had less than 10% degradation. Overall, the mean concentration of all measurements demonstrated less than 10% degradation at 60 days at room temperature and under refrigeration. Conclusion: Epinephrine hydrochloride diluted to 16 and 64 µg/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection in polyvinyl chloride bags stored in amber ultraviolet light-blocking bags was stable up to 45 days at room temperature and up to 60 days under refrigeration.

  13. A validation study of new cryopreservation bags for implementation in a blood and marrow transplant laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomper, Gregory J; Wilson, Emily; Isom, Scott; Hurd, David D

    2011-06-01

    A new cryopreservation bag for hematopoietic cell transplantation requires validation as a safe alternative to the bag currently being used in the laboratory. The new bag was validated using both laboratory and clinical criteria. Laboratory validation proceeded using paired samples of mononuclear cells processed using standard procedures. Cells cryopreserved in the new and old bags were compared for viability, cell counts, CD34 enumeration, colony-forming unit assays, and bag integrity. After completion of laboratory investigations, engraftment with the new bags was followed and compared to historical engraftment using the old bags. There were no significant differences between the old and new bags detected using laboratory studies. Bag integrity was equivalent. The validation data suggested impaired cell function after cryopreservation in the new bags, but there were no significant differences in engraftment potential using either material. Days to engraftment was longer using the new bags, but statistical analysis revealed an association with CD34 dose and not with cryopreservation bag type. The new bags were noninferior to the old bags. A change in cryopreservation bag type may appear to affect cell function and potentially affect engraftment. Multiple analyses may be needed to understand the effect of cell processing changes. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  14. Filtration of Oil-furnace Carbon Black Dust Particles from the Tail Gases by Filter Bags With PTFE Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čuzela, D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During the industrial production of oil furnace carbon black, tail gases containing oil-furnace carbon black dust particles are emitted to the atmosphere. In the carbon black plant, Petrokemija d. d., there are six exhaust stacks for tail gases. Each of them has installed process equipment for cleaning tail gases. Efficiency of cleaning mainly depends on equipment construction and cleaning technology. The vicinity of the town, quality of the air in the region of Kutina, regarding floating particles PM10, and corporate responsibility for further enviromental improvement, imposes development of new methods that will decrease the emmision of oil-furnace carbon black dust particles in the air. Combining centrifugal percipitator and filter, special construction of cyclofilter for filtration of oil-furnace carbon black dust particles from tail gases by using PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene membrane filter bags, was designed. Developed filtration technique provides η = 99.9 % efficiency of filtration. Construction part of the filter contains the newest generation of PTFE membrane filter bags with the ability of jet pulse cleaning. Using the PTFE membrane filter bags technology, filtration efficiency for oil-furnace carbon black dust particles in tail gases of maximum γ=5mgm-3can be achieved. The filtration efficiency was monitored continuously measuring the concentration of the oil-furnace carbon black dust particles in the tail gases with the help of in situ electronic probe. The accomplished filtration technology is the base for the installation of the PTFE membrane filter bags in the main operation filters which will provide better protection of the air in the town of Kutina against floating particles PM10.

  15. An alternate and reversible method for flight restraint of cranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sen Lin; Yang, Shu Hui; Li, Bing; Xu, Yan Chun; Ma, Jian Hua; Xu, Jian Feng; Zhang, Xian Guang

    2011-01-01

    Flight restraint is important for zoos, safaris, and breeding centers for large birds. Currently used techniques for flight restraint include both surgical and non-surgical approaches. Surgical approaches usually cause permanent change to or removal of tendon, patagial membrane, or wing bones, and can cause pain and inflammation. Non-surgical approaches such as clipping or trimming feathers often alter the bird's appearance, and can damage growing blood feathers in fledglings or cause joint stiffness. We observed microstructure of primary feathers of the red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) and found that the width of barbs is a determinative factor influencing vane stiffness and geometric parameters. We hypothesized that partial longitudinal excision of barbs on the ventral surface of the primary feathers would reduce the stiffness of the vane and render the feathers unable to support the crane's body weight during flight. Furthermore, we hypothesized that this modification of barbs would also change the aerodynamic performance of feathers such that they could not generate sufficient lift and thrust during flapping to enable the bird to fly. We tested this hypothesis on a red-crowned crane that had normal flight capability by excising the ventral margin of barbs on all 10 primaries on the left wing. The bird was unable to take off until the modified feathers were replaced by new ones. Removal of barbs proved to be a simple, non-invasive, low-cost and reversible method for flight restraint. It is potentially applicable to other large birds with similar structural characteristics of primary feathers. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in male university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Ligia; Grunert, Klaus G; Sepúlveda, José; Lobos, Germán; Denegri, Marianela; Miranda, Horacio; Adasme-Berríos, Cristian; Mora, Marcos; Etchebarne, Soledad; Salinas-Oñate, Natalia; Schnettler, Berta

    2016-04-01

    Self-discrepancy describes the distance between an ideal and the actual self. Research suggests that self-discrepancy and dietary restraint are related, causing a significant impact on the person's well-being. However, this relationship has been mostly reported in female and mixed populations. In order to further explore dietary behaviors and their relations to self-discrepancy and well-being-related variables in men, a survey was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 119 male students from five Chilean state universities (mean age=21.8, SD=2.75). The questionnaire included the Revised Restraint Scale (RRS) with the subscales weight fluctuations (WF) and diet concern (DC), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Satisfaction with Food-Related Life Scale (SWFL), the Nutrition Interest Scale (NIS), and the Self-discrepancy Index (SDI). Questions were asked about socio-demographic characteristics, eating and drinking habits, and approximate weight and height. A cluster analysis applied to the Z-scores of the RRS classified the following typologies: Group 1 (22.7%), men concerned about weight fluctuations; Group 2 (37.0%), men concerned about diet and weight fluctuations; Group 3 (40.3%), unconcerned about diet and weight fluctuations. The typologies differed in their SDI score, restriction on pastry consumption and reported body mass index (BMI). Students with higher DC and WF scores had a higher BMI, and tended to report high self-discrepancy not only on a physical level, but also on social, emotional, economic and personal levels. This study contributes to the literature on subjective well-being, dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in men from non-clinical samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Move towards bag filter units in kiln dedusting; Vers l'utilisation de filtres a manches en four a ciment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schobesberger, M.

    2000-02-01

    Dedusting of kiln gases has become a major concern for cement companies worldwide due to the more and more stringent environmental standards. This short paper draws out an overview of the recent trends in dedusting techniques using bag filters. A comparison is made between different factories and their experience in the use of bag filters made of different materials or used in different operating conditions. The lifetime of these filters is the main problem to deal with and depends on various factors such as the the material used, the air to cloth ratio, the flow rate, temperature, and moisture of the flue gases. (J.S.)

  18. [Therapeutic restraint and freedom of movement, changing practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin-Niquet, Annick

    From confinement to the philosophy of care in the community, the history of psychiatry testifies to the evolution of practices in the matter of the restriction of freedom. The French National Health Authority still too often recommends practices based on restraint. Caregivers, in relation to the clinical aspect of the patients, need clearly identified therapeutic projects. While training can be vital for them, risk management policies can prove to be a hindrance to patients' freedom. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Crew Restraint Design for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Lena; Holden, Kritina; Whitmore, Mihriban

    2006-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), crews will be living and working in microgravity, dealing with the challenges of a weightless environment. In addition, the confined nature of the spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity areas, as well as prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Without optimum restraints, crewmembers may be handicapped for performing some of the on-orbit tasks. Currently, many of the tasks on ISS are performed with the crew restrained merely by hooking their arms or toes around handrails to steady themselves. This is adequate for some tasks, but not all. There have been some reports of discomfort/calluses on the top of the toes. In addition, this type of restraint is simply insufficient for tasks that require a large degree of stability. Glovebox design is a good example of a confined workstation concept requiring stability for successful use. They are widely used in industry, university, and government laboratories, as well as in the space environment, and are known to cause postural limitations and visual restrictions. Although there are numerous guidelines pertaining to ventilation, seals, and glove attachment, most of the data have been gathered in a 1-g environment, or are from studies that were conducted prior to the early 1980 s. Little is known about how best to restrain a crewmember using a glovebox in microgravity. Another ISS task that requires special consideration with respect to restraints is robotic teleoperation. The Robot Systems Technology Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center is developing a humanoid robot astronaut, or Robonaut. It is being designed to perform extravehicular activities (EVAs) in the hazardous environment of space. An astronaut located inside the ISS will remotely operate Robonaut through a telepresence control system. Essentially, the robot mimics every move the operator makes. This requires the

  20. Restraint behavior of concrete under extreme thermal and hygral conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwesinger, P.; Dommnich, F.

    1989-01-01

    Stresses due to temperature may be a considerable part of the whole loading of the structure especially in reactor vessels, chimneys and other structures. During using of this structures the heating cycle consisting of heating and cooling may be repeated for several times. On the other hand the initial load, the preloading time, the heating rate and the moisture of concrete can differ in respect of the design or utilization of the structure. The effect of this environmental factors on the restraint behavior of concrete is presented in this paper

  1. Design and optimization for the occupant restraint system of vehicle based on a single freedom model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junyuan; Ma, Yue; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Yan

    2013-05-01

    Throughout the vehicle crash event, the interactions between vehicle, occupant, restraint system (VOR) are complicated and highly non-linear. CAE and physical tests are the most widely used in vehicle passive safety development, but they can only be done with the detailed 3D model or physical samples. Often some design errors and imperfections are difficult to correct at that time, and a large amount of time will be needed. A restraint system concept design approach which based on single-degree-of-freedom occupant-vehicle model (SDOF) is proposed in this paper. The interactions between the restraint system parameters and the occupant responses in a crash are studied from the view of mechanics and energy. The discrete input and the iterative algorithm method are applied to the SDOF model to get the occupant responses quickly for arbitrary excitations (impact pulse) by MATLAB. By studying the relationships between the ridedown efficiency, the restraint stiffness, and the occupant response, the design principle of the restraint stiffness aiming to reduce occupant injury level during conceptual design is represented. Higher ridedown efficiency means more occupant energy absorbed by the vehicle, but the research result shows that higher ridedown efficiency does not mean lower occupant injury level. A proper restraint system design principle depends on two aspects. On one hand, the restraint system should lead to as high ridedown efficiency as possible, and at the same time, the restraint system should maximize use of the survival space to reduce the occupant deceleration level. As an example, an optimization of a passenger vehicle restraint system is designed by the concept design method above, and the final results are validated by MADYMO, which is the most widely used software in restraint system design, and the sled test. Consequently, a guideline and method for the occupant restraint system concept design is established in this paper.

  2. Evaluation of Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine Uplift Restraint for a Seismic Event During Repositioning Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SWENSON, C.E.

    2000-01-01

    Insertion of the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) assemblies into the Canister Storage Building (CSB) storage tubes involves the use of the MCO Handling Machine (MHM). During MCO storage tube insertion operations, inadvertent movement of the MHM is prevented by engaging seismic restraints (''active restraints'') located adjacent to both the bridge and trolley wheels. During MHM repositioning operations, the active restraints are not engaged. When the active seismic restraints are not engaged, the only functioning seismic restraints are non-engageable (''passive'') wheel uplift restraints which function only if the wheel uplift is sufficient to close the nominal 0.5-inch gap at the uplift restraint interface. The MHM was designed and analyzed in accordance with ASME NOG-1-1995. The ALSTHOM seismic analysis reported seismic loads on the MHM uplift restraints and EDERER performed corresponding structural calculations to demonstrate structural adequacy of the seismic uplift restraint hardware. The ALSTHOM and EDERER calculations were performed for a parked MHM with the active seismic restraints engaged, resulting in uplift restraint loading only in the vertical direction. In support of development of the CSB Safety Analysis Report (SAR), an evaluation of the MHM seismic response was requested for the case where the active seismic restraints are not engaged. If a seismic event occurs during MHM repositioning operations, a moving contact at a seismic uplift restraint would introduce a friction load on the restraint in the direction of the movement. These potential horizontal friction loads on the uplift restraints were not included in the existing restraint hardware design calculations. One of the purposes of the current evaluation is to address the structural adequacy of the MHM seismic uplift restraints with the addition of the horizontal friction associated with MHM repositioning movements

  3. Spatiotemporal distribution of airborne elements monitored with the moss bags technique in the Greater Thriasion Plain, Attica, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitanis, C J; Frontasyeva, M V; Steinnes, E; Palmer, M W; Ostrovnaya, T M; Gundorina, S F

    2013-01-01

    The well-known moss bags technique was applied in the heavily polluted Thriasion Plain region, Attica, Greece, in order to study the spatiotemporal distribution, in the atmosphere, of the following 32 elements: Na, Al, Cl, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Dy, Yb, Hf, Ta, Hg, Th, and U. The moss bags were constituted of Sphagnum girgensohnii materials. The bags were exposed to ambient air in a network of 12 monitoring stations scattered throughout the monitoring area. In order to explore the temporal variation of the pollutants, four sets of moss bags were exposed for 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Instrumental neutral activation analysis was used for the determinations of the elements. The data were analyzed using the Pearson correlations, the partial redundancy analysis, and the biplot statistical methods. Some pairs of elements were highly correlated indicating a probable common source of origin. The levels of the measured pollutants were unevenly distributed throughout the area and different pollutants exhibited different spatial patterns. In general, higher loads were observed in the stations close to and within the industrial zone. Most of the measured elements (e.g., Al, Ca, Ni, I, Zn, Cr, and As) exhibited a monotonic accumulation trend over time. Some elements exhibited different dynamics. The elements Mn, Mo, and Hg showed a decreasing trend, probably due to leaching and/or volatilization processes over time. Na and Br initially showed an increasing trend during the winter and early spring periods but decreased drastically during the late warm period. The results further suggest that the moss bags technique would be considered valuable for the majority of elements but should be used with caution in the cases of elements vulnerable to leaching and/or volatilization. It also suggests that the timing and the duration of the exposure of moss materials should be considered in the interpretation of the results.

  4. Burns From Hot Wheat Bags: A Public Safety Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Anna; Amprayil, Mathew; Solanki, Nicholas S.; Greenwood, John Edward

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Wheat bags are therapeutic devices that are heated in microwaves and commonly used to provide relief from muscle and joint pain. The Royal Adelaide Hospital Burns Unit has observed a number of patients with significant burn injuries resulting from their use. Despite their dangers, the products come with limited safety information. Methods: Data were collected from the Burns Unit database for all patients admitted with burns due to hot wheat bags from 2004 to 2009. This was analyzed to determine the severity of the burn injury and identify any predisposing factors. An experimental study was performed to measure the temperature of wheat bags when heated to determine their potential for causing thermal injury. Results: 11 patients were admitted with burns due to hot wheat bags. The median age was 52 years and the mean total body surface area was 1.1%. All burns were either deep dermal (45.5%) or full thickness (54.5%). Ten patients required operative management. Predisposing factors (eg, neuropathy) to thermal injury were identified in 7 patients. The experimental study showed that hot wheat bags reached temperatures of 57.3°C (135.1°F) when heated according to instructions, 63.3°C (145.9°F) in a 1000 W microwave and 69.6°C (157.3°F) on reheating. Conclusions: Hot wheat bags cause serious burn injury. When heated improperly, they can reach temperatures high enough to cause epidermal necrosis in a short period of time. Patients with impaired temperature sensation are particularly at risk. There should be greater public awareness of the dangers of wheat bag use and more specific safety warnings on the products. PMID:21915357

  5. Radon in air calibration procedure: A primary method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, H.F.; Markun, F.

    1988-01-01

    A procedure has been developed for preparing 3- to 9-iota volumes of air under natural conditions with a known concentration of /sup 222/Rn to be used for calibrating radon systems. Air is passed into a plastic bag through a standard /sup 226/Ra solution (prepared by the U.S. National Bureau of Standards) contained in an emanation flask. This plastic bag retains /sup 222/Rn with little loss into or through the bag walls. The mean ratios of the /sup 222/Rn in the air at 2 and 7 days after filling to that immediately after filling were -.992 +- 0.006 and 0.969 +- 0.008, which suggests a rate of radon loss into the bag of 0.4 +- 0.1%/day

  6. Comparison of chemical restraint techniques in ostrich (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ciboto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical restraint in ostriches is usually required for short-time interventions. Thus, this study established and evaluated intravenous anesthetics formulated from commonly used drugs in order to accomplish total restraint on this species and allow painful procedures to be performed. Thirty male and female ostriches weighing from 40 to 90 kg were randomly distributed into five groups. Animals in Groups I, II and III were given acepromazine (0.25 mg/kg i.m. and those in Groups IV and V were given xylazine (1.0 mg/kg i.m.. The following drugs were administered intravenously 15 to 20 min later: Group I - propofol (4.0 mg/kg, Groups II and IV - ketamine (5.0 mg/kg and diazepam (0.25 mg/kg, Groups III and V - tiletamine-zolazepam (3.0 mg/kg. All protocols have produced satisfactory results regarding total containment, muscular relaxation and maintenance of the evaluated parameters within a normal range.

  7. Wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint practices in paratransit vehicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Frost

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system (WTORS usage in paratransit vehicles based on observations of wheelchair and scooter (wheeled mobility devices, collectively, "WhMD" passenger trips. A retrospective review of on-board video monitoring recordings of WhMD trips was conducted. Four hundred seventy-five video recordings were collected for review and analysis. The use of all four tiedowns to secure the WhMD was observed more frequently for power WhMDs (82% and manual WhMDs (80% compared to scooters (39%, and this difference was significant (p< 0.01. Nonuse or misuse of the occupant restraint system occurred during 88% of WhMD trips, and was most frequently due to vehicle operator neglect in applying the shoulder belt. Despite the absence of incidents or injuries in this study, misuse and nonuse of WTORS potentially place WhMD seated passengers at higher risk of injury during transit. These findings support the need for improved vehicle operator training and passenger education on the proper use of WTORS and development of WTORS with improved usability and/or alternative technologies that can be automated or used independently.

  8. 28 CFR 552.26 - Medical attention in use of force and application of restraints incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Medical attention in use of force and application of restraints incidents. 552.26 Section 552.26 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS... § 552.26 Medical attention in use of force and application of restraints incidents. (a) In immediate use...

  9. Clinical decision making on the use of physical restraint in intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqian Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical restraint is a common nursing intervention in intensive care units and nurses often use it to ensure patients' safety and to prevent unexpected accidents. However, existing literature indicated that the use of physical restraint is a complex one because of inadequate rationales, the negative physical and emotional effects on patients, but the lack of perceived alternatives. This paper is aimed to interpret the clinical decision-making theories related to the use of physical restraint in intensive care units in order to facilitate our understanding on the use of physical restraint and to evaluate the quality of decisions made by nurses. By reviewing the literature, intuition and heuristics are the main decision-making strategies related to the use of physical restraint in intensive care units because the rapid and reflexive nature of intuition and heuristics allow nurses to have a rapid response to urgent and emergent cases. However, it is problematic if nurses simply count their decision-making on experience rather than incorporate research evidence into clinical practice because of inadequate evidence to support the use of physical restraint. Besides that, such a rapid response may lead nurses to make decisions without adequate assessment and thinking and therefore biases and errors may be generated. Therefore, despite the importance of intuition and heuristics in decision-making in acute settings on the use of physical restraint, it is recommended that nurses should incorporate research evidence with their experience to make decisions and adequate assessment before implementing physical restraint is also necessary.

  10. [Vision on and use of physical restraints and 'smart technology' in nursing homes in Flanders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlassara, V; Lampo, E; Degryse, B; Van Audenhove, C; Spruytte, N

    2017-04-01

    The STAFF-project investigates in what way 'smart technology' can offer an alternative for physical restraints in nursing homes. A survey is realized aimed at gaining more insight into the vision on and the use of physical restraints and 'smart technology'. Two partly overlapping structured questionnaires were developed and sent to nursing home staff in Flanders (Belgium). One hundred fifty six administrators (managers or assistant-managers) and 238 caregiving staff (nurses, nursing aids, paramedical staff and other) completed the online questionnaire. In general there is a low acceptability of physical restraint use, however, a more nuanced picture of acceptability is present depending on the specific motivation for using physical restraints and on the specific means of physical restraints. About half of the administrators say they use smart technology in the nursing home. The two main reasons for not applying (yet) smart technology are 'too high price for smart technology' and 'inadequate infrastructure of the nursing home'. All respondents underscore the importance of multiple strategies to diminish the use of physical restraints in nursing homes. Physical restraint use is a complex theme and needs a nuanced analysis and management. This study shows that there is still room for improvement in diminishing the use of physical restraints and that nursing homes in Flanders are open to use smart technology.

  11. Growth and Predictors of Growth Restraint in Moderately Preterm Children Aged 0 to 4 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca-Tjeertes, I.F.; Kerstjens, J.M.; Reijneveld, S.A.; de Winter, A.F.; Bos, A.F.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe growth in moderately preterm-born children, determine the prevalence of growth restraint at the age of 4, and identify predictors of growth restraint. We hypothesized that growth in moderately preterm-born children differs from growth in term-born children and that growth

  12. 76 FR 55825 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Child Restraint Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2011-0139] RIN 2127-AJ44 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Child Restraint Systems..., amends a provision in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 213, ``Child restraint systems,'' that... provision: When a motor vehicle safety standard is in effect under this chapter, a State or a political...

  13. Improved bag models of P-wave baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fan; Wong Chunwa

    1988-01-01

    Problems in two previous bag-model calculations of P-wave baryon states are pointed out. The two-body matrix elements used in one of these models, the Myhrer-Wroldsen bag model, have now been revised and corrected by Myhrer, Umino and Wroldsen. We use their corrected matrix elements to construct simple bag models in which baryon masses are stabilized against collapse by using a finite pion size. We find that baryon masses in both ground and excited states can be fitted with the same model parameters. Models with small-bag baryons of the type proposed by Brown and Rho are then obtained. Typical bag radii are 0.5 fm for N, 0.6 fm for Δ and 0.7 fm for P-wave nonstrange baryons. In these models, the mixing angles are still unsatisfactory, while inadequacy in the treatment of center-of-mass motion found in an earlier paper persists. These results are briefly discussed. especially in connection with skyrmion models. (orig.)

  14. Maximum Mass of Hybrid Stars in the Quark Bag Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaverdyan, G. B.; Vartanyan, Yu. L.

    2017-12-01

    The effect of model parameters in the equation of state for quark matter on the magnitude of the maximum mass of hybrid stars is examined. Quark matter is described in terms of the extended MIT bag model including corrections for one-gluon exchange. For nucleon matter in the range of densities corresponding to the phase transition, a relativistic equation of state is used that is calculated with two-particle correlations taken into account based on using the Bonn meson-exchange potential. The Maxwell construction is used to calculate the characteristics of the first order phase transition and it is shown that for a fixed value of the strong interaction constant αs, the baryon concentrations of the coexisting phases grow monotonically as the bag constant B increases. It is shown that for a fixed value of the strong interaction constant αs, the maximum mass of a hybrid star increases as the bag constant B decreases. For a given value of the bag parameter B, the maximum mass rises as the strong interaction constant αs increases. It is shown that the configurations of hybrid stars with maximum masses equal to or exceeding the mass of the currently known most massive pulsar are possible for values of the strong interaction constant αs > 0.6 and sufficiently low values of the bag constant.

  15. Performance of triple bagging hermetic technology for postharvest storage of cowpea grain in Niger

    KAUST Repository

    Baoua, Ibrahim B.

    2012-10-01

    Triple bagging technology for protecting postharvest cowpea grain from losses to the bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) is currently being adopted on a fairly large scale in ten West and Central African countries, including Niger. The triple bag consists of two inner high-density polyethylene bags acting as oxygen barriers, which in turn are encased in an outer woven polypropylene bag that serves primarily for mechanical strength. These hermetic bags, available in either 50 or 100 kg capacity, are called Purdue Improved Cowpea Storage (PICS) bags. Adoption of PICS technology in West and Central Africa has been driven by its effectiveness, simplicity, low cost, durability, and manufacture within the region. From surveys on adoption we discovered that farmers have begun to re-use bags they had used the previous year or even the previous two years. In the present study, we compared the performance of three different types of PICS bags: (1) new 50 kg (2) new 100 kg bags and (3) once-used 50 kg bags, all filled with naturally infested untreated cowpeas. In these PICS bags the O 2 levels within the bags initially fell to about 3 percent (v/v) while the CO 2 rose to nearly 5 percent (v/v). After five months of storage, new and used 50 kg bags and new 100 kg bags preserved the grain equally well. There were greatly reduced numbers of adults and larvae in the PICS bags versus the controls, which consisted of grain stored in single layer woven bags. The proportion of grain having C. maculatus emergence holes after five months of storage in PICS bags was little changed from that found when the grain was first put into the bags. The PICS technology is practical and useful in Sahelian conditions and can contribute to improved farmers\\' incomes as well as increase availability of high quality, insecticide-free cowpea grain as food. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Adjustable, physiological ventricular restraint improves left ventricular mechanics and reduces dilatation in an ovine model of chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanta, Ravi K; Rangaraj, Aravind; Umakanthan, Ramanan; Lee, Lawrence; Laurence, Rita G; Fox, John A; Bolman, R Morton; Cohn, Lawrence H; Chen, Frederick Y

    2007-03-13

    Ventricular restraint is a nontransplantation surgical treatment for heart failure. The effect of varying restraint level on left ventricular (LV) mechanics and remodeling is not known. We hypothesized that restraint level may affect therapy efficacy. We studied the immediate effect of varying restraint levels in an ovine heart failure model. We then studied the long-term effect of restraint applied over a 2-month period. Restraint level was quantified by use of fluid-filled epicardial balloons placed around the ventricles and measurement of balloon luminal pressure at end diastole. At 4 different restraint levels (0, 3, 5, and 8 mm Hg), transmural myocardial pressure (P(tm)) and indices of myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) were determined in control (n=5) and ovine heart failure (n=5). Ventricular restraint therapy decreased P(tm) and MVO2, and improved mechanical efficiency. An optimal physiological restraint level of 3 mm Hg was identified to maximize improvement without an adverse affect on systemic hemodynamics. At this optimal level, end-diastolic P(tm) and MVO2 indices decreased by 27% and 20%, respectively. The serial longitudinal effects of optimized ventricular restraint were then evaluated in ovine heart failure with (n=3) and without (n=3) restraint over 2 months. Optimized ventricular restraint prevented and reversed pathological LV dilatation (130+/-22 mL to 91+/-18 mL) and improved LV ejection fraction (27+/-3% to 43+/-5%). Measured restraint level decreased over time as the LV became smaller, and reverse remodeling slowed. Ventricular restraint level affects the degree of decrease in P(tm), the degree of decrease in MVO2, and the rate of LV reverse remodeling. Periodic physiological adjustments of restraint level may be required for optimal restraint therapy efficacy.

  17. Torsional Restraint Problem of Steel Cold-Formed Beams Restrained By Planar Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, Ivan; Melcher, Jindřich; Pešek, Ondřej

    2017-10-01

    The effect of continuous or discrete lateral and torsional restraints of metal thinwalled members along their spans can positively influence their buckling resistance and thus contribute to more economical structural design. The prevention of displacement and rotation of the cross-section results in stabilization of the member. The restraints can practically be provided e.g. by planar members of cladding supported by metal members (purlins, girts). The rate of stabilization of a member can be quantified using values of shear and rotational stiffness provided by the adjacent planar members. While the lateral restraint effected by certain shear stiffness can be often considered as sufficient, the complete torsional restraint can be safely considered in some practical cases only. Otherwise the values of the appropriate rotational stiffness provided by adjacent planar members may not be satisfactory to ensure full torsional restraint and only incomplete restraint is available. Its verification should be performed using theoretical and experimental analyses. The paper focuses on problem of steel thin-walled coldformed beams stabilized by planar members and investigates the effect of the magnitude of the rotational stiffness provided by the planar members on the resistance of the steel members. Cold-formed steel beams supporting planar members of cladding are considered. Full lateral restraint and incomplete torsional restraint are assumed. Numerical analyses performed using a finite element method software indicate considerable influence of the torsional restraint on the buckling resistance of a steel thin-walled member. Utilization of the torsional restraint in the frame of sizing of a stabilized beam can result in more efficient structural design. The paper quantifies this effect for some selected cases and summarizes results of numerical analysis.

  18. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags fro Reducing Exploration Mission Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) division is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  19. Reducing Mission Logistics with Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep-out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  20. Are the N and Δ deformed MIT bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, G.; Maamache, M.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of the one-gluon exchange interaction, zero-point energy, and centre-of-mass correction, on the deformation of the nucleon and Δ bags, is studied in the MIT bag model. If the sharp MIT boundary conditions are taken seriously, the strong dependence of the zero-point energy on the deformation leads to the collapse of the N and Δ bags for realistic values of the strong fine structure constant α/sub S/. If on the other hand the zero-point energy is ignored altogether, then the nucleon, spherical for α/sub S/ 3.25, while the Δ is always prolate. The various predictions of the model are, for α/sub S/> or approx. =3.25, consistent with experiment, except for the proton magnetic moment which is only about 40% of the experimental value

  1. Asphyxial suicide by inhalation of chloroform inside a plastic bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorro, Andres Rodriguez

    2014-01-01

    Asphyxia suicide by placing a plastic bag over the head in addition with inhalation of gases or use of sedative substances is an unusual method of committing suicide, but frequently referenced by right to die groups in the Internet. This article reports 2 suicides in which chloroform was used to induce unconsciousness and subsequent asphyxia by placing the head in a plastic bag. Case histories of 2 males, ages 23 and 28, are described with special emphasis on characteristics death related to suffocation using plastic bags and chloroform. The final remarkable point in both cases is that the victims previously searched the WEB for instructions of suicide methods. The importance of the phenomenon of misuse of Internet by young people who commit suicide is stressed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  2. Performance of PICS bags under extreme conditions in the sahel zone of Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baoua, Ibrahim B; Bakoye, Ousmane; Amadou, Laouali; Murdock, Larry L; Baributsa, Dieudonne

    2018-03-01

    Experiments in Niger assessed whether extreme environmental conditions including sunlight exposure affect the performance of triple-layer PICS bags in protecting cowpea grain against bruchids. Sets of PICS bags and woven polypropylene bags as controls containing 50 kg of naturally infested cowpea grain were held in the laboratory or outside with sun exposure for four and one-half months. PICS bags held either inside or outside exhibited no significant increase in insect damage and no loss in weight after 4.5 months of storage compared to the initial values. By contrast, woven bags stored inside or outside side by side with PICS bags showed several-fold increases in insects present in or on the grain and significant losses in grain weight. Grain stored inside in PICS bags showed no reduction in germination versus the initial value but there was a small but significant drop in germination of grain in PICS bags held outside (7.6%). Germination rates dropped substantially more in grain stored in woven bags inside (16.1%) and still more in woven bags stored outside (60%). PICS bags held inside and outside retained their ability to maintain internal reduced levels of oxygen and elevated levels of carbon dioxide. Exposure to extreme environmental conditions degraded the external polypropylene outer layer of the PICS triple-layer bag. Even so, the internal layers of polyethylene were more slowly degraded. The effects of exposure to sunlight, temperature and humidity variation within the sealed bags are described.

  3. WW domain of BAG3 is required for the induction of autophagy in glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merabova, Nana; Sariyer, Ilker Kudret; Saribas, A Sami; Knezevic, Tijana; Gordon, Jennifer; Turco, M Caterina; Rosati, Alessandra; Weaver, Michael; Landry, Jacques; Khalili, Kamel

    2015-04-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved, selective degradation pathway of cellular components that is important for cell homeostasis under healthy and pathologic conditions. Here we demonstrate that an increase in the level of BAG3 results in stimulation of autophagy in glioblastoma cells. BAG3 is a member of a co-chaperone family of proteins that associates with Hsp70 through a conserved BAG domain positioned near the C-terminus of the protein. Expression of BAG3 is induced by a variety of environmental changes that cause stress to cells. Our results show that BAG3 overexpression induces autophagy in glioma cells. Interestingly, inhibition of the proteasome caused an increase in BAG3 levels and induced autophagy. Further analysis using specific siRNA against BAG3 suggests that autophagic activation due to proteosomal inhibition is mediated by BAG3. Analyses of BAG3 domain mutants suggest that the WW domain of BAG3 is crucial for the induction of autophagy. BAG3 overexpression also increased the interaction between Bcl2 and Beclin-1, instead of disrupting them, suggesting that BAG3 induced autophagy is Beclin-1 independent. These observations reveal a novel role for the WW domain of BAG3 in the regulation of autophagy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Deformed baryons: constituent quark model vs. bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamura, Y.; Nogami, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Recently Bhaduri et al. developed a nonrelativistic constituent quark model for deformed baryons. In that model the quarks move in a deformable mean field, and the deformation parameters are determined by minimizing the quark energy subject to the constraint of volume conservation. This constraint is an ad hoc assumption. It is shown that, starting with a bag model, a model similar to that of Bhaduri et al. can be constructed. The deformation parameters are determined by the pressure balance on the bag surface. There is, however, a distinct difference between the two models with respect to the state dependence of the ''volume''. Implications of this difference are discussed

  5. Pion-nucleon scattering in the chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israilov, Z.Z.; Musakhanov, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Pion-nucleon scattering in the (3.3) resonance region in the framework of chiral bag model(CBM) is considered. The effective Hamiltonian of πNΔ-system in the framework of the CBM contains πNN, πNΔ, πΔΔ interaction terms with the formfactor which is essentially dependent on the size and shape of the quark bag. The iteration of the Born graphs of this model provides successful description of the (3.3) and (3.1) scattering where the values of the parameters agree with CBM [ru

  6. Linearized theory of inhomogeneous multiple 'water-bag' plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, H. W.; Berk, H. L.

    1973-01-01

    Equations are derived for describing the inhomogeneous equilibrium and small deviations from the equilibrium, giving particular attention to systems with trapped particles. An investigation is conducted of periodic systems with a single trapped-particle water bag, taking into account the behavior of the perturbation equations at the turning points. An outline is provided concerning a procedure for obtaining the eigenvalues. The results of stability calculations connected with the sideband effects are considered along with questions regarding the general applicability of the multiple water-bag approach in stability calculations.

  7. M1-transitions in the MIT bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackman, R.H.; Deshpande, N.G.; Dicus, D.A.; Teplitz, V.L.

    1977-03-01

    In the MIT bag model, the M1-transitions of low lying hadrons are investigated. The following calculations are performed: 32 hadron masses are recomputed with a choice of bag parameters designed to give the correct values for the proton magnetic moment, μ/sub p/, and several masses, M/sub rho/ M/sub ω/ M/sub Δ/ M/sub Ω/, and M/sub D/; (2) eta, eta', eta/sub c/ mixing is computed in an untrustworthy approximation; and the widths for 38 M1-transitions are computed

  8. Pion-nucleon scattering in the Chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israilov, Z.Z.; Musakhanov, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    The effective hamiltonian of the πNΔ-system in the framework of the Chiral Bag Model (CBM) contains πNN-, πNΔ-, πΔΔ-interaction terms with a form factor which is esstentially dependent on the size and shape of the quark bag. The interation of the Born graphs of this model provides successful description of the (3,3) and (3,1) phase shifts [in the (3,3) resonance region] where the values of the paramters agree with the CBM. (orig.)

  9. Analysis of flexible fabric structures for large-scale subsea compressed air energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimm, A; Garvey, S

    2009-01-01

    The idea of storing compressed air in submerged flexible fabric structures anchored to the seabed is being investigated for its potential to be a clean, economically-attractive means of energy storage which could integrate well with offshore renewable energy conversion. In this paper a simple axisymmetric model of an inextensional pressurised bag is presented, along with its implementation in a constrained multidimensional optimization used to minimise the cost of the bag materials per unit of stored energy. Base pressure difference and circumferential stress are included in the optimization, and the effect of hanging ballast masses from the inside of the bag is also considered. Results are given for a zero pressure natural shape bag, a zero pressure bag with circumferential stress and hanging masses, and a nonzero pressure bag with circumferential stress and hanging masses.

  10. Mental health inpatients' and staff members' suggestions for reducing physical restraint: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C; Rouse, L; Rae, S; Kar Ray, M

    2018-04-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Restraint has negative psychological, physical and relational consequences for mental health patients and staff. Restraint reduction interventions have been developed (e.g., "Safewards"). Limited qualitative research has explored suggestions on how to reduce physical restraint (and feasibility issues with implementing interventions) from those directly involved. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This paper explores mental health patients' and staff members' suggestions for reducing physical restraint, whilst addressing barriers to implementing these. Findings centred on four themes: improving communication and relationships; staffing factors; environment and space; and activities and distraction. Not all suggestions are addressed by currently available interventions. Barriers to implementation were identified, centring on a lack of time and/or resources; with the provision of more time for staff to spend with patients and implement interventions seen as essential to reducing physical restraint. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Improving communication and relationships between staff/patients, making staffing-related changes, improving ward environments and providing patient activities are central to restraint reduction in mental healthcare. Fundamental issues related to understaffing, high staff turnover, and lack of time and resources need addressing in order for suggestions to be successfully implemented. Introduction Physical restraint has negative consequences for all involved, and international calls for its reduction have emerged. Some restraint reduction interventions have been developed, but limited qualitative research explores suggestions on how to reduce physical restraint (and feasibility issues with implementation) from those directly involved. Aims To explore mental health patients' and staff members' suggestions for reducing physical restraint. Methods Interviews were conducted with 13 inpatients

  11. Do organisational constraints explain the use of restraint? A comparative ethnographic study from three nursing homes in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øye, Christine; Jacobsen, Frode Fadnes; Mekki, Tone Elin

    2017-07-01

    To investigate (1) what kind of restraint is used in three nursing homes in Norway and (2) how staff use restraint under what organisational conditions. Restraint use in residents living with dementia in nursing homes is controversial, and at odds with fundamental human rights. Restraint is a matter of hindering residents' free movement and will by applying either interactional, physical, medical, surveillance or environmental restraint. Previous research has identified use of restraint related to individual resident characteristics such as agitation, aggressiveness and wandering. This model is embedded in an overall mixed-method education intervention design study called Modelling and evaluating evidence-based continuing education program in dementia care (MEDCED), applying ethnography postintervention to examine the use of restraint in 24 nursing homes in Norway. Based on restraint diversity measured in the trial, ethnographic investigation was carried out in three different nursing homes in Norway over a 10-month period to examine restraint use in relation to organisational constraints. Several forms of restraint were observed; among them, interactional restraint was used most frequently. We identified that use of restraint relates to the characteristics of individual residents, such as agitation, aggressiveness and wandering. However, restraint use should also be explained in relation to organisational conditions such as resident mix, staff culture and available human resources. A fluctuating and dynamic interplay between different individual and contextual factors determines whether restraint is used - or not in particular situations with residents living with dementia. Educational initiatives targeting staff to reduce restraint must be sensitive towards fluctuating organisational constraints. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Social factors modulate restraint stress induced hyperthermia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2015-10-22

    Stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) was examined in three different social conditions in mice by thermographic measurement of the body surface temperature. Placing animals in cylindrical holders induced restraint stress. I examined the effect of the social factors in SIH using the thermograph (body surface temperature). Mice restrained in the holders alone showed SIH. Mice restrained in the holders at the same time as other similarly restrained cage mates (social equality condition) showed less hyperthermia. Interestingly, restrained mice with free moving cage mates (social inequality condition) showed the highest hyperthermia. These results are consistent with a previous experiment measuring the memory-enhancing effects of stress and the stress-induced elevation of corticosterone, and suggest that social inequality enhances stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The application of viscous dampers as pipe restraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keowen, R.S.; Hueffmann, G.; Mays, B.; Rencher, D.

    1993-01-01

    Dynamic loading of power generation piping systems may result in nonpermissable deflections and stresses. Fatigue failure translate to increased maintenance costs and possible lost revenue. Undesirable loading can occur due to external events such as earthquakes and internal events such as water and steam hammer, two-phase flow and cavitation. Sway braces and snubbers have been employed to reduce the negative effects of piping motion in emergency cases, however, repetitive loading due to internal events has caused premature wear and failure. Visco elastic dampers, however, have proven to be piping response due to slugging, steam hammer and other repetitive loads. Functional and modeling aspects of visco elastic dampers are discussed, experimental evidence of their effectiveness in a steam hammer application is presented and examples of primary coolant loop restraint applications are illustrated

  14. Mental Health Nursing, Mechanical Restraint Measures and Patients’ Legal Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkeland, Søren; Gildberg, Frederik Alkier

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Coercive mechanical restraint (MR) in psychiatry constitute the perhaps most important exception from the common health law requirement for involving patients in health care decisions and achieving their informed consent prior to treatment. Coercive measures and particularly MR constitute...... a serious collision with patient autonomy principles, pose a particular challenge to psychiatric patients’ legal rights, and put intensified demands on health professional performance. Legal rights principles require rationale for coercive measure use be thoroughly considered and rigorously documented....... This article presents an in-principle Danish Psychiatric Complaint Board decision concerning MR use initiated by untrained staff. The case illustrates that, judicially, weight must be put on the patient perspective on course of happenings and especially when health professional documentation is scant, patients...

  15. Wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint practices in paratransit vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Karen; Bertocci, Gina; Smalley, Craig

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system (WTORS) usage in paratransit vehicles based on observations of wheelchair and scooter (wheeled mobility devices, collectively, "WhMD") passenger trips. A retrospective review of on-board video monitoring recordings of WhMD trips was conducted. Four hundred seventy-five video recordings were collected for review and analysis. The use of all four tiedowns to secure the WhMD was observed more frequently for power WhMDs (82%) and manual WhMDs (80%) compared to scooters (39%), and this difference was significant (pinjuries in this study, misuse and nonuse of WTORS potentially place WhMD seated passengers at higher risk of injury during transit. These findings support the need for improved vehicle operator training and passenger education on the proper use of WTORS and development of WTORS with improved usability and/or alternative technologies that can be automated or used independently.

  16. T-piece resuscitator versus self-inflating bag for preterm resuscitation: an institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaram, Archana; Sima, Adam; Barker, Gail; Thacker, Leroy R

    2013-07-01

    Manual ventilation in the delivery room is provided with devices such as self-inflating bags (SIBs), flow-inflating bags, and T-piece resuscitators. To compare the effect of type of manual ventilation device on overall response to resuscitation among preterm neonates born at Apgar score. Secondary outcomes were incidence of air leaks, need for chest compressions/epinephrine, need for intubation, and surfactant use. We identified 294 resuscitations requiring ventilation. SIB was used for 135 neonates, and T-piece was used for 159 neonates. There was no significant difference between the 1-min and 5-min Apgar scores between SIB and T-piece (P = .77 and P = .11, respectively), nor were there significant differences in secondary outcomes. The rate of rise of Apgar score was higher, by 0.47, with T-piece, compared to SIB (95% CI 0.08-0.87, P = .02). Although some manikin studies favor T-piece for providing reliable and consistent pressures, our experience did not indicate significant differences in effectiveness of resuscitation between the T-piece and SIB in preterm resuscitations.

  17. Comparison of face masks in the bag-mask ventilation of a manikin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, D; Rassam, S; Stacey, M R; Mecklenburgh, J S

    2006-02-01

    We conducted a study investigating the effectiveness of four face mask designs in the bag-mask ventilation of a special manikin adapted to simulate a difficult airway. Forty-eight anaesthetists volunteered to bag-mask ventilate the manikin for 3 min with four different face masks. The primary outcome of the study was to calculate mean percentage leak from the face masks over 3 min. Anaesthetists were also asked to rate the face masks using a visual analogue score. The single-use scented intersurgical face mask had the lowest mean leak (20%). This was significantly lower than the mean leak from the single-use, cushioned 7,000 series Air Safety Ltd. face mask (24%) and the reusable silicone Laerdal face mask (27%) but not significantly lower than the mean leak from the reusable anatomical intersurgical face mask (23%). There was a large variation in both performance and satisfaction between anaesthetists with each design. This highlights the importance of having a variety of face masks available for emergency use.

  18. Can child restraint product information developed using consumer testing sustain correct use 6 months after child restraint purchase? Study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie; Elkington, Jane; Hall, Alexandra; Keay, Lisa; Charlton, Judith L; Hunter, Kate; Koppel, Sjaan; Hayen, Andrew; Bilston, Lynne E

    2018-03-07

    With long-standing and widespread high rates of errors in child restraint use, there is a need to identify effective methods to address this problem. Information supplied with products at the point of sale may be a potentially efficient delivery point for such a countermeasure. The aim of this study is to establish whether product materials developed using a consumer-driven approach reduce errors in restraint use among purchasers of new child restraint systems. A cluster randomised controlled trial (cRCT) will be conducted. Retail stores (n=22) in the greater Sydney area will be randomised into intervention sites (n=11) and control sites (n=11), stratified by geographical and socioeconomic indicators. Participants (n=836) will enter the study on purchase of a restraint. Outcome measures are errors in installation of the restraint as observed by a trained researcher during a 6-month follow-up home assessment, and adjustment checks made by the parent when the child is placed into the restraint (observed using naturalistic methods). Process evaluation measures will also be collected during the home visit. An intention-to-treat approach will be used for all analyses. Correct use and adjustment checks made by the parent will be compared between control and intervention groups using a logistic regression model. The number of installation errors between groups will be compared using Poisson regression. This cRCT will determine the effectiveness of targeted, consumer-driven information on actual error rates in use of restraints. More broadly, it may provide a best practice model for developing safety product information. ACTRN12617001252303p; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Dynamics of cesium-134 and biomass in treated and untreated turkey oak leaf-litter bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croom, J.M.; Ragsdale, H.L.

    1978-01-01

    Litter bags were prepared from leaves harvested in late fall from turkey oak trees (Quercus laevis) tagged with 134 Cs. Untreated bags and bags treated by soaking in 1000 ppM HgCl 2 were placed in the field on Dec. 7, 1974. Five bags of each treatment were retrieved at 7-, 14-, and 30-day intervals as the experiment progressed. Treated bags remained free of visible fungal hyphae growth for 12 weeks. Untreated bags had lost more weight but less 134 Cs than treated bags after 14 and 56 days, respectively. After 9 months, untreated bags had lost 33% weight and 90% 134 Cs. Although 134 Cs is rapidly leached from litter (ecological half-life approximately equal to 12 weeks), some is retained by fungal hyphae on leaf-litter surfaces. This mechanism of mineral retention in the litter layer could represent adaptation at the ecosystem level for nutrient conservation

  20. Nonlinear cloudy bag model in the meson mean-field approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunatyan, G.G.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate the cloudy bag model for the nucleon, including the essentially nonlinear interaction of the quarks with the meson field. From the boundary conditions, which guarantee the stability of the bag, we obtain equations for the size R of the bag, for the momentum p of the quarks, and for the mean pion field var-phi. We obtain an expression for the total energy E of the bag nucleon. By taking the appropriate averages of all the relations the calculations reduce to the case of a spherically symmetric bag. We show that in the general nonlinear cloudy bag model in question the equations for R, p, and var-phi have a simultaneous solution which corresponds to the absolute minimum of the bag energy E and, consequently, that there exists a stable equilibrium state of the bag nucleon

  1. Legitimization of regulatory norms: Waterfowl hunter acceptance of changing duck bag limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.; Lawrence, Jeffrey S.; Cordts, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined response to regulatory change over time, or addressed hunter attitudes about changes in hunting bag limits. This article explores Minnesota waterfowl hunters’ attitudes about duck bag limits, examining attitudes about two state duck bag limits that were initially more restrictive than the maximum set by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), but then increased to match federal limits. Results are from four mail surveys that examined attitudes about bag limits over time. Following two bag limit increases, a greater proportion of hunters rated the new bag limit “too high” and a smaller proportion rated it “too low.” Several years following the first bag limit increase, the proportion of hunters who indicated that the limit was “too high” had declined, suggesting hunter acceptance of the new regulation. Results suggest that waterfowl bag limits may represent legal norms that influence hunter attitudes and gain legitimacy over time.

  2. Effect of head restraint backset on head-neck kinematics in whiplash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemper, Brian D; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A

    2006-03-01

    Although head restraints were introduced in the 1960s as a countermeasure for whiplash, their limited effectiveness has been attributed to incorrect positioning. The effect of backset on cervical segmental angulations, which were previously correlated with spinal injury, has not been delineated. Therefore, the practical restraint position to minimize injury remains unclear. A parametric study of increasing head restraint backset between 0 and 140mm was conducted using a comprehensively validated computational model. Head retraction values increased with increasing backset, reaching a maximum value of 53.5mm for backsets greater than 60mm. Segmental angulation magnitudes, greatest at levels C5-C6 and C6-C7, reached maximum values during the retraction phase and increased with increasing backset. Results were compared to a previously published head restraint rating system, wherein lower cervical extension magnitudes from this study exceeded mean physiologic limits for restraint positions rated good, acceptable, marginal, and poor. As head restraint contact was the limiting factor in head retraction and segmental angulations, the present study indicates that minimizing whiplash injury may be accomplished by limiting head restraint backset to less than 60mm either passively or actively after impact.

  3. Exogenous agmatine has neuroprotective effects against restraint-induced structural changes in the rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Meng-Yang; Wang, Wei-Ping; Cai, Zheng-Wei; Regunathan, Soundar; Ordway, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Agmatine is an endogenous amine derived from decarboxylation of arginine catalysed by arginine decarboxylase. Agmatine is considered a novel neuromodulator and possesses neuroprotective properties in the central nervous system. The present study examined whether agmatine has neuroprotective effects against repeated restraint stress-induced morphological changes in rat medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 6 h of restraint stress daily for 21 days. Immunohistochemical staining with β-tubulin III showed that repeated restraint stress caused marked morphological alterations in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Stress-induced alterations were prevented by simultaneous treatment with agmatine (50 mg/kg/day, i.p.). Interestingly, endogenous agmatine levels, as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus as well as in the striatum and hypothalamus of repeated restraint rats were significantly reduced as compared with the controls. Reduced endogenous agmatine levels in repeated restraint animals were accompanied by a significant increase of arginine decarboxylase protein levels in the same regions. Moreover, administration of exogenous agmatine to restrained rats abolished increases of arginine decarboxylase protein levels. Taken together, these results demonstrate that exogenously administered agmatine has neuroprotective effects against repeated restraint-induced structural changes in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. These findings indicate that stress-induced reductions in endogenous agmatine levels in the rat brain may play a permissive role in neuronal pathology induced by repeated restraint stress. PMID:18364017

  4. Physical and mechanical restraint in psychiatric units: Perceptions and experiences of nursing staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedana, Kelly Graziani Giacchero; da Silva, Danielle Maria; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena; Giacon, Bianca Cristina Ciccone; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi; Miasso, Adriana Inocenti; Borges, Tatiana Longo

    2018-06-01

    Physical restraint in psychiatric units is a common practice but extremely controversial and poorly evaluated by methodologically appropriate investigations. The cultural issues and professionals' perceptions and attitudes are substantial contributors to the frequency of restraint that tend to be elevated. Aim In this qualitative study, we aimed to understand the experiences and perceptions of nursing staff regarding physical restraint in psychiatric units. Through theoretical sampling, 29 nurses from two Brazilian psychiatric units participated in the study. Data were collected from 2014 to 2016 from individual interviews and analyzed through thematic analysis, employing theoretical presuppositions of symbolic interactionism. Physical restraint was considered unpleasant, challenging, risky, and associated with dilemmas and conflicts. The nursing staff was often exposed to the risks and injuries related to restraint. Professionals sought strategies to reduce restraint-related damages, but still considered it necessary due to the lack of effective options to control aggressive behavior. This study provides additional perspectives about physical restraint and reveals the need for safer, humanized and appropriate methods for the care of aggressive patients that consider the real needs and rights of these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A daily diary study of perceived social isolation, dietary restraint, and negative affect in binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Tyler B; Heron, Kristin E; Braitman, Abby L; Lewis, Robin J

    2016-02-01

    Negative affect and dietary restraint are key predictors of binge eating, yet less is known about the impact of social factors on binge eating. The study sought to replicate and extend research on the relationships between negative affect, dietary restraint, perceived social isolation and binge eating using a daily diary methodology. College women (N = 54) completed measures of dietary restraint, negative affect, perceived social isolation, and binge eating daily for 14 days. Participants completed the measures nightly each day. A series of generalized estimating equations showed that dietary restraint was associated with less binge eating while controlling for negative affect and for perceived social isolation separately. Negative affect and perceived social isolation were associated with greater binge eating while controlling for restraint in separate analyses, but only perceived social isolation was significant when modeled simultaneously. All two-way interactions between negative affect, dietary restraint, and perceived social isolation predicting binge eating were nonsignificant. This study furthers our understanding of predictors of binge eating in a nonclinical sample. Specifically, these data suggest perceived social isolation, negative affect, and dietary restraint are important variables associated with binge eating in daily life and warrant further research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Therapeutic restraint management in Intensive Care Units: Phenomenological approach to nursing reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Nuevo, M; González-Gil, M T; Solís-Muñoz, M; Láiz-Díez, N; Toraño-Olivera, M J; Carrasco-Rodríguez-Rey, L F; García-González, S; Velasco-Sanz, T R; Martínez-Álvarez, A; Martin-Rivera, B E

    2016-01-01

    To identify nursing experience on physical restraint management in Critical Care Units. To analyse similarities and differences in nursing experience on physical restraint management according to the clinical context that they are involved in. A multicentre phenomenological study was carried out including 14 Critical Care Units in Madrid, classified according to physical restraint use: Common/systematic use, lacking/personalised use, and mixed use. Five focus groups (23 participants were selected following purposeful sampling) were convened, concluding in data saturation. Data analysis was focused on thematic content analysis following Colaizzi's method. Six main themes: Physical restraint meaning in Critical Care Units, safety (self-retreat vital devices), contribution factors, feelings, alternatives, and pending issues. Although some themes are common to the 3 Critical Care Unit types, discourse differences are found as regards to indication, feelings, systematic use of pain and sedation measurement tools. In order to achieve real physical restraint reduction in Critical Care Units, it is necessary to have a deep understanding of restraints use in the specific clinical context. As self-retreat vital devices emerge as central concept, some interventions proposed in other settings could not be effective, requiring alternatives for critical care patients. Discourse variations laid out in the different Critical Care Unit types could highlight key items that determine the use and different attitudes towards physical restraint. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  7. Minimizing Restraint and Seclusion in Schools: A Response to Beaudoin and Moore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Virginia L; Pinkelman, Sarah E

    2018-06-01

    Increasing efforts have been made in the field of special education to identify positive, evidence-based practices (EBPs) to meet the needs of students who engage in problem behavior, with a major goal being to eliminate or limit the use of reactive measures such as restraint and seclusion ( Snell & Walker, 2014 ). Various stakeholders, including families and self-advocates, have voiced concerns about the dangers of restraint and seclusion and the lack of protection afforded to students who engage in severe problem behavior. In the previous article in this issue of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Beaudoin and Moore (2018) echo these concerns in their account of a family's experience with restraint as told from the perspective of a father whose son was subjected to restraint, resulting in a number of adverse short- and long-term consequences that affected the entire family. In response to Beaudoin and Moore, we provide readers with a brief review of the current status of restraint and seclusion in school settings and evidence-based strategies that can be used to address severe problem behavior and reduce the need for restraint and seclusion. For readers interested in exploring restraint and seclusion in greater depth, we suggest recent work by Trader and colleagues (2017) . We also have outlined guidelines for behavior support planning that should be considered by various stakeholders as educators work toward establishing safe and supportive school environments that address a wide range of student behavioral needs.

  8. The anti-apoptotic activity of BAG3 is restricted by caspases and the proteasome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria M Virador

    Full Text Available Caspase-mediated cleavage and proteasomal degradation of ubiquitinated proteins are two independent mechanisms for the regulation of protein stability and cellular function. We previously reported BAG3 overexpression protected ubiquitinated clients, such as AKT, from proteasomal degradation and conferred cytoprotection against heat shock. We hypothesized that the BAG3 protein is regulated by proteolysis.Staurosporine (STS was used as a tool to test for caspase involvement in BAG3 degradation. MDA435 and HeLa human cancer cell lines exposed to STS underwent apoptosis with a concomitant time and dose-dependent loss of BAG3, suggesting the survival role of BAG3 was subject to STS regulation. zVAD-fmk or caspase 3 and 9 inhibitors provided a strong but incomplete protection of both cells and BAG3 protein. Two putative caspase cleavage sites were tested: KEVD (BAG3(E345A/D347A within the proline-rich center of BAG3 (PXXP and the C-terminal LEAD site (BAG3(E516A/D518A. PXXP deletion mutant and BAG3(E345A/D347A, or BAG3(E516A/D518A respectively slowed or stalled STS-mediated BAG3 loss. BAG3, ubiquitinated under basal growth conditions, underwent augmented ubiquitination upon STS treatment, while there was no increase in ubiquitination of the BAG3(E516A/D518A caspase-resistant mutant. Caspase and proteasome inhibition resulted in partial and independent protection of BAG3 whereas inhibitors of both blocked BAG3 degradation. STS-induced apoptosis was increased when BAG3 was silenced, and retention of BAG3 was associated with cytoprotection.BAG3 is tightly controlled by selective degradation during STS exposure. Loss of BAG3 under STS injury required sequential caspase cleavage followed by polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. The need for dual regulation of BAG3 in apoptosis suggests a key role for BAG3 in cancer cell resistance to apoptosis.

  9. Stress analysis of two-dimensional C/C composite components for HTGR's core restraint techanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoshi Hanawa; Taiju Shibata; Jyunya Sumita; Masahiro Ishihara; Tatsuo Iyoku; Kazuhiro Sawa

    2005-01-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced carbon matrix composite (C/C composite) is one of the most promising materials for HTGRs core components due to their high strength as well as high temperature resistibility. One of the most attractive applications of C/C composite is the core restraint mechanism. The core restraint mechanism is located around the reflector block and it works to tighten reactor core blocks so as to restrict un-supposition flow pass of coolant gas (bypass flow) in the core. The restriction of bypass flow reads to the high efficiency of coolant flow rate inside of the reactor core. For the future HTGRs and VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor), it is important to develop the core restraint mechanism with C/C composite substitute for metallic materials as used for HTTR. For the application of C/C composite to core restraint mechanism, it is important to investigate the applicability of C/C composite in viewpoint of structural integrity. In the present study, supposing the application of 2D-C/C composite to core restraint mechanism, thermal stress behavior was analyzed by considering the thickness of the C/C composite and the gap between reflector block and core restraint. It was shown from the thermal stress analysis that the circumferential stress decreases with increasing the gap and that the restraint force increases with increasing the thickness. By optimizing the thickness of C/C composite and gap between reflector block and core restraint, the C/C composite is applicable to the core restraint mechanism. (authors)

  10. BAG3 affects the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Young-Hee [Department of Biochemistry, Dongguk University College of Oriental Medicine, Gyeongju 780-714 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sang-Gun [Department of Pathology, Chosun University College of Dentistry, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo-A., E-mail: ksooa@dongguk.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, Dongguk University College of Oriental Medicine, Gyeongju 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-21

    Bcl2-associated athoanogene (BAG) 3 is a member of the co-chaperone BAG family. It is induced by stressful stimuli such as heat shock and heavy metals, and it regulates cellular adaptive responses against stressful conditions. In this study, we identified a novel role for BAG3 in regulating the nuclear shuttling of HSF1 during heat stress. The expression level of BAG3 was induced by heat stress in HeLa cells. Interestingly, BAG3 rapidly translocalized to the nucleus upon heat stress. Immunoprecipitation assay showed that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 under normal and stressed conditions and co-translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress. We also demonstrated that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 via its BAG domain. Over-expression of BAG3 down-regulates the level of nuclear HSF1 by exporting it to the cytoplasm during the recovery period. Depletion of BAG3 using siRNA results in reduced nuclear HSF1 and decreased Hsp70 promoter activity. BAG3 in MEF(hsf1{sup −/−}) cells actively translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress suggesting that BAG3 plays a key role in the processing of the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress. - Highlights: • The expression level of BAG3 is induced by heat stress. • BAG3 translocates to the nucleus upon heat stress. • BAG3 interacts with HSF1 and co-localizes to the nucleus. • BAG3 is a key regulator for HSF1 nuclear shuttling.

  11. BAG3 affects the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Young-Hee; Ahn, Sang-Gun; Kim, Soo-A.

    2015-01-01

    Bcl2-associated athoanogene (BAG) 3 is a member of the co-chaperone BAG family. It is induced by stressful stimuli such as heat shock and heavy metals, and it regulates cellular adaptive responses against stressful conditions. In this study, we identified a novel role for BAG3 in regulating the nuclear shuttling of HSF1 during heat stress. The expression level of BAG3 was induced by heat stress in HeLa cells. Interestingly, BAG3 rapidly translocalized to the nucleus upon heat stress. Immunoprecipitation assay showed that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 under normal and stressed conditions and co-translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress. We also demonstrated that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 via its BAG domain. Over-expression of BAG3 down-regulates the level of nuclear HSF1 by exporting it to the cytoplasm during the recovery period. Depletion of BAG3 using siRNA results in reduced nuclear HSF1 and decreased Hsp70 promoter activity. BAG3 in MEF(hsf1 −/− ) cells actively translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress suggesting that BAG3 plays a key role in the processing of the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress. - Highlights: • The expression level of BAG3 is induced by heat stress. • BAG3 translocates to the nucleus upon heat stress. • BAG3 interacts with HSF1 and co-localizes to the nucleus. • BAG3 is a key regulator for HSF1 nuclear shuttling

  12. Kiondo Bag Boutique: A Serial Case for Introductory Financial Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardane, Harshini P.

    2014-01-01

    Kiondo Bag Boutique is a hypothetical serial case involving a start-up retail business. The case evolves from an ambitious business idea to a successful business. Through the evolving business, the importance of accounting information is highlighted. Different iterations are used to illustrate the role of accounting in serving and managing…

  13. Bagged K-means clustering of metabolome data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, J. A.; van den Berg, R. A.; Westerhuis, J. A.; Hoefsloot, H. C. J.; Smilde, A. K.

    2006-01-01

    Clustering of metabolomics data can be hampered by noise originating from biological variation, physical sampling error and analytical error. Using data analysis methods which are not specially suited for dealing with noisy data will yield sub optimal solutions. Bootstrap aggregating (bagging) is a

  14. Editorial: The need for reducing plastic shopping bag use and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Editorial: The need for reducing plastic shopping bag use and disposal in Africa. S Rayne. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  15. Plastic-bag radon gas monitor and survey results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torri, G.

    1990-01-01

    The Plastic-bag radon monitor used in the Italian National Survey is described. The choice of this radon gas sampler has been determined by the peculiarity of the italian environmental monitoring program, which is carried out by several different regional laboratories. Results obtained in the past using this radon monitoring device are also reported. (author). 8 refs, 7 figs

  16. Effect of ruminal plastic bags on wellbeing of goats | Otsyina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Presence of plastic bags in the rumen of the goats was clinically characterized by anorexia, severe depression, discomfort (grunting sounds), dehydration, firmness and asymmetrical distention of the abdomen, reduced ruminal movements, diarrhoea with intermittent constipation, recumbency and death. Severity of the ...

  17. Micro-mesh fabric pollination bags for switchgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollination bags for making controlled crosses between switchgrass plants were made from a polyester micro-mesh fabric with a mesh size of 41 µm which is smaller than the mean reported 43 µm diameter of switchgrass pollen. When used in paired plant crosses between switchgrass plants, the mean amoun...

  18. Review of safety reports involving electronic flight bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-27

    Electronic Flight Bags (EFBs) are a relatively new device used by pilots. Even so, 37 safety-related events involving EFBs were identified from the public online Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) database as of June 2008. In addition, two accid...

  19. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome: A Case Report | Gandhi | Internet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is an uncommon phenomenon reported mostly in chronically constipated, institutionalized females on an indwelling catheter. It can often cause tremendous distress among health care providers. Though the condition is generally described as benign, it should draw immediate attention to ...

  20. Developing Baby Bag Design by Using Kansei Engineering Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janari, D.; Rakhmawati, A.

    2016-01-01

    Consumer's preferences and market demand are essential factors for product's success. Thus, in achieving its success, a product should have design that could fulfill consumer's expectation. Purpose of this research is accomplishing baby bag product as stipulated by Kansei. The results that represent Kanseiwords are; neat, unique, comfortable, safe, modern, gentle, elegant, antique, attractive, simple, spacious, creative, colorful, durable, stylish, smooth and strong. Identification value on significance of correlation for durable attribute is 0,000 baby's bag. While the value of coefficient regression is 0,812 baby's bag.The result of the baby's bag final design selectionbased on the questionnaire 3 is resulting the combination of all design. Space for clothes, diaper's space, shoulder grip, side grip, bottle's heater pocket and bottle's pocket are derived from design 1. Top grip, space for clothes, shoulder grip, and side grip are derived from design 2.Others design that were taken are, spaces for clothes from design 3, diaper's space and clothes’ space from design 4.

  1. Some spectroscopic problems in the bag theory of quark confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, R.L.

    1976-04-01

    In addition to conventional mesons and baryons, the bag model predicts the existence of several classes of unusual hadrons. The spectroscopy of two classes of unconventional hadrons is discussed: first are the Q 2 antiQ 2 mesons; second are Q 3 baryons or QantiQ mesons with quantum numbers forbidden by the nonrelativistic quark model

  2. The neutron electric dipole moment in the cloudy bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, M.A.; Miller, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    An evaluation of the neutron electric dipole moment (NEDM), using the cloudy bag model (CBM) shows that two CP-violating effects (a quark mass term and a pion-quark interaction) have contributions that are about equal in magnitude, but opposite in sign. This cancellation allows the upper limit on the θ parameter to increase by about an order of magnitude. (orig.)

  3. Clinical efficacy of a tea-bag formulation of Cryptolepis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of a tea bag formulation of the root of C. sanguinolenta. Design: This is a prospective descriptive open trial. Setting: Patients were recruited from Korle-Bu, Mamprobi and Dansoman Polyclinics. Subjects: Forty-four subjects with uncomplicated malaria were recruited for ...

  4. The Effectiveness of a Collector Bag for Measurement of Post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to assess sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) of collector bag and its correlation with hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Ht) variations. This study, carried on 100 women referred for admission to labor ward of Shohada hospital in Orumeyeh City, Iran, ...

  5. Emulsification in novel ultrasonic cavitation intensifying bag reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwieten, van Ralph; Verhaagen, Bram; Schroën, Karin; Fernández Rivas, David

    2017-01-01

    Cavitation Intensifying Bags (CIBs), a novel reactor type for use with ultrasound, have been recently proposed as a scaled-up microreactor with increased energy efficiencies. We now report on the use of the CIBs for the preparation of emulsions out of hexadecane and an SDS aqueous solution. The

  6. Overview of core designs and requirements/criteria for core restraint systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The requirements and lifetime criteria for the design of a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Core Restraint System is presented. A discussion of the three types of core restraint systems used in LMFBR core design is given. Details of the core restraint system selected for FFTF are presented and the reasons for this selection given. Structural analysis procedures being used to manage the FFTF assembly irradiations are discussed. Efforts that are ongoing to validate the calculational methods and lifetime criteria are presented. (author)

  7. CLASSIFICATION OF RESTRAINTS IN THE OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM OF A COLD-FORMED PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Łukowicz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the restraints in the optimization problem. This is an important and complicated issue because it requires taking into account a vast range of information related to the design and production. In order to describe the relations of a specific optimization problem, it is essential to adopt appropriate criteria and to collect information on all kinds of restraints, i.e. boundary conditions. The following paper verifies the various restraints and defines three subsets: design assumptions, technological limitations and standard conditions. The provided classification was made with reference to the analysis of the construction applicability of the newly patented cold-formed profile.

  8. [Physical and pharmacological restraints in geriatric and gerontology services and centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Cordero, Primitivo; López Trigo, José Antonio; Maíllo Pedraz, Herminio; Paz Rubio, José María

    2015-01-01

    Physical and pharmacological restraints are a controversial issue in the context of geriatric care due to their moral, ethical, social and legal repercussions and, despite this fact, no specific legislation exists at a national level. The use of restraints is being questioned with growing frequency, as there are studies that demonstrate that restraints do not reduce the number of falls or their consequences, but rather can increase them, cause complications, injuries and potentially fatal accidents. Restraints are not always used rationally, despite compromising a fundamental human right, that is, freedom, protected in the Constitution, as well as values and principles, such as dignity and personal self-esteem. There are centers where restraints are applied to more than 50% of patients, and in some cases without the consent of their legal representatives. On some occasions, restraints are used for attaining organizational or environmental objectives, such as complying with tight schedules, and for reducing or avoiding the supervision of patients who walk erratically and, at times, are used indefinitely. Even greater confusion exists with respect to the emerging concept of chemical or pharmacological restraints, since no conceptual framework exists based on scientific evidence, and with sufficient consensus for guiding healthcare workers. In this context, the Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología (SEGG--Spanish Geriatrics and Gerontology Society), aware of the significance and transcendence of the issue, and in an attempt to preserve and guarantee maximum freedom, dignity and self-esteem, on the one hand, and to ensure the maximum integrity and legal certainty of the persons cared for in geriatric and gerontology services and centers, on the other, decided to create an "Interdisciplinary Committee on Restraints" made up by members from different disciplines and members of SEGG Working Groups or Committees, external health care workers, groups

  9. 75 FR 36359 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ...) Co., Ltd., Sahachit Watana Plastics Ind. Co., Ltd., Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co., Ltd., and Thantawan Industry Public Co., Ltd. Id. The Department has determined previously that Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co., Ltd., APEC Film Ltd., and Winner's Pack Co., Ltd., comprise the Thai Plastic Bags Group. See...

  10. 75 FR 23673 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Co., Ltd., Landblue (Thailand) Co., Ltd., Sahachit Watana Plastics Ind. Co., Ltd., Thai Plastic Bags... that Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co., Ltd., APEC Film Ltd., and Winner's Pack Co., Ltd., comprise the Thai Plastic Bags Group (TPBG). See Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less than Fair Value...

  11. 78 FR 88 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011... duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) for... August 31, 2012, the petitioners, the Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bag Committee and its individual...

  12. 76 FR 11203 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from the People's... the PRC. See Antidumping Duty Order: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of...

  13. 21 CFR 178.3730 - Piperonyl butoxide and pyrethrins as components of bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bags. 178.3730 Section 178.3730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... pyrethrins as components of bags. Piperonyl butoxide in combination with pyrethrins may be safely used for insect control on bags that are intended for use in contact with dried feed in compliance with §§ 561.310...

  14. 77 FR 2959 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from the People's... Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China, 69 FR 48201 (August 9, 2004). On August 1, 2011...

  15. 76 FR 68137 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... Bags From Thailand: Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import..., the Department of Commerce (the Department) published Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand... 351.224(c) from the Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bag Committee and its individual members, Hilex Poly...

  16. 78 FR 76280 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... Bags From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Preliminary Determination of Circumvention of the... determines that imports of unfinished polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from the People's Republic of... Duty Order: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China, 69 FR 48201 (August 9...

  17. BAG3 affects the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Young-Hee; Ahn, Sang-Gun; Kim, Soo-A

    2015-08-21

    Bcl2-associated athoanogene (BAG) 3 is a member of the co-chaperone BAG family. It is induced by stressful stimuli such as heat shock and heavy metals, and it regulates cellular adaptive responses against stressful conditions. In this study, we identified a novel role for BAG3 in regulating the nuclear shuttling of HSF1 during heat stress. The expression level of BAG3 was induced by heat stress in HeLa cells. Interestingly, BAG3 rapidly translocalized to the nucleus upon heat stress. Immunoprecipitation assay showed that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 under normal and stressed conditions and co-translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress. We also demonstrated that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 via its BAG domain. Over-expression of BAG3 down-regulates the level of nuclear HSF1 by exporting it to the cytoplasm during the recovery period. Depletion of BAG3 using siRNA results in reduced nuclear HSF1 and decreased Hsp70 promoter activity. BAG3 in MEF(hsf1(-/-)) cells actively translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress suggesting that BAG3 plays a key role in the processing of the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. High expression of BAG3 predicts a poor prognosis in human medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong; Zhou, Ji; Wang, Hao; Wang, Yutao; Yang, Ge; Zhang, Yundong

    2016-10-01

    Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3), a co-chaperone of the heat shock protein (Hsp) 70, regulates various physiological and pathological processes. However, its role in human medulloblastoma has not been clarified. First of all, the expression of BAG3 was examined in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens by immunohistochemical staining. And then, the prognostic role of BAG3 was analyzed in 51 medulloblastoma samples. Finally, the roles of BAG3 in the proliferation, migration, and invasion of Daoy medulloblastoma cell were investigated using a specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA). The expression of BAG3 in medulloblastoma tissues was higher than nontumorous samples. Furthermore, BAG3 overexpression significantly correlated with poor prognosis of patients with medulloblastoma. The overall survival and tumor-free survival in patients with BAG3 low expression were higher than high expression. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that BAG3 overexpression was an independent prognostic marker for medulloblastoma. After the BAG3 knockdown, the Daoy cells exhibited decreased the ability to proliferate and form neurosphere. The preliminary mechanism study showed that overexpression of BAG3 might facilitate the cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase by modulating the cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and cyclin E expression. Additionally, we found that BAG3 might enhance the medulloblastoma cell migratory and invasive ability. In summary, BAG3 overexpression may regulate the survival and invasive properties of medulloblastoma and may serve as a potential therapy target for medulloblastoma.

  19. Dietary restraint partially mediates the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating only in lean individuals: The importance of accounting for body mass in studies of restraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Ashley Coffino

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Binge eating is characteristic of eating and weight-related disorders such as binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and obesity. In light of data that suggests impulsivity is associated with overeating specifically in restrained eaters, this study sought to elucidate the exact nature of the associations between these variables, hypothesizing that the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating is mediated by restrained eating. We further hypothesized that the role of dietary restraint as a mediator would be moderated by body mass index (BMI. Study participants (n = 506, 50.6% female were categorized based on self-reported BMI as under- and normal weight (BMI < 25, 65.8%, n = 333 or overweight and obese (BMI ≥ 25, 34.2%, n = 173 and completed the restrained eating subscale of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, the difficulties with impulse control subscale of the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale, and the Binge Eating Scale. Findings provide initial evidence for the hypothesized moderated mediation model, with dietary restraint partially mediating the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating severity only in lean respondents. In respondents with overweight or obesity, impulsivity was significantly correlated with binge eating severity, but dietary restraint was not. Findings inform our conceptualization of dietary restraint as a possible risk factor for binge eating and highlight the importance of accounting for body mass in research on the impact of dietary restraint on eating behaviors.

  20. Effect of muscle restraint on sheep meat tenderness with rigor mortis at 18°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carrick E; Payne, Steven R; Wells, Robyn W

    2002-02-01

    The effect on shear force of skeletal restraint and removing muscles from lamb m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LT) immediately after slaughter and electrical stimulation was undertaken at a rigor temperature of 18°C (n=15). The temperature of 18°C was achieved through chilling of electrically stimulated sheep carcasses in air at 12°C, air flow 1-1.5 ms(-2). In other groups, the muscle was removed at 2.5 h post-mortem and either wrapped or left non-wrapped before being placed back on the carcass to follow carcass cooling regimes. Following rigor mortis, the meat was aged for 0, 16, 40 and 65 h at 15°C and frozen. For the non-stimulated samples, the meat was aged for 0, 12, 36 and 60 h before being frozen. The frozen meat was cooked to 75°C in an 85°C water bath and shear force values obtained from a 1 × 1 cm cross-section. Commencement of ageing was considered to take place at rigor mortis and this was taken as zero aged meat. There were no significant differences in the rate of tenderisation and initial shear force for all treatments. The 23% cook loss was similar for all wrapped and non-wrapped situations and the values decreased slightly with longer ageing durations. Wrapping was shown to mimic meat left intact on the carcass, as it prevented significant prerigor shortening. Such techniques allows muscles to be removed and placed in a controlled temperature environment to enable precise studies of ageing processes.

  1. Effect of pre-harvest fruit bagging on post-harvest quality of guava cv. Swarupkathi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mokter Hossain

    2018-04-01

    The investigation was carried out at Germplasm Centre (BAU-GPC, Bangladesh Agricultural University, during March to July 2016 in order to investigate the effect of pre-harvest fruit bagging on post-harvest quality of guava cv. Swarupkathi. Four different bagging materials viz. brown paper bag, white paper bag, white polythene bag, black polythene bag included for the study and uncovered fruits were used as control treatment. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. Fruit bagging treatments showed significant effects on different parameters studied. It was observed that fruit size, fruit weight, vitamin C concentration, and moisture content increased due to fruit bagging. Fruits were gained maximum in size (6.59 cm length, 5.86 cm diameter and weight (164.26 g under white paper bag followed by white polythene bag (131.3g. The skin color of fruits was very attractive in case of white paper bag than that of other treatments. Total soluble solid concentration of the fruit was found maximum (12.33% Brix under brown paper bag while maximum vitamin C concentration (162.14 mg 100 g-1 was recorded under white paper bag. Uncovered fruits showed maximum total sugar, non-reducing sugar, reducing sugar concentrations (10.13%, 6.05%, 4.08%, respectively.The results revealed that fruit bagging in general, improved the growth and quality of guava fruits as compared to control. Among the various fruit covering materials, white paper bag was found to be the best for overall improvement of physical and chemical quality of guava cv. Swarupkathi. [Fundam Appl Agric 2018; 3(1.000: 363-371

  2. Can "contamination" occur in body bags?-The example of background fibres in body bags used in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendener, Giuliana; Moret, Sébastien; Cavanagh-Steer, Karen; Roux, Claude

    2016-09-01

    Impurities that are transferred to a crime scene or a body can have a significant negative impact on the investigation if the existence of the contamination is not known, and the source of the contamination is not identified. Forensic consumables, such as DNA swabs, have been known to have caused contaminations, wrongfully linking crimes throughout Europe. In that context, this study focused on body bags, widely used to transfer a corpse from the crime scene to the morgue. Our preliminary survey showed that several countries and Australian Jurisdictions are conducting the sampling of trace evidence at the morgue after the transportation of the body. Potential impurities present in body bags could thus interfere with pertinent traces. The aim of this work was to qualify and quantify the background contamination of trace evidence in body bags used within Australia. Fifteen body bags from four Australian Jurisdictions or laboratories were searched for micro traces. Impurities such as fibres and unidentified particles were detected in each examined body bag, with an estimated average of 3603 coloured fibres and 1429 unidentified particles. This number of fibres is similar to the amount found on a vinyl cinema seat in other studies. Various other contaminants such as pieces of fabric, hairs, parts of insects or feathers were also observed. It is hypothesised that these impurities are introduced during the manufacturing process. This high number of impurities can lead to incorrect conclusions and misleading investigative leads. This paper presents an overview of the problems these impurities can cause and proposes several strategies to prevent future issues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Applying sensory modulation to mental health inpatient care to reduce seclusion and restraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte; Kolmos, Anne; Andersen, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    that is associated with reduced rates of seclusion and restraint in mental healthcare, but there is need for more research in this area. AIMS: Using SM to reduce restraint and seclusion in inpatient mental health care. METHODS: The study included two similar psychiatric units where one unit implemented SM and one...... unit served as the control group. In the very beginning of the study, a staff-training program in the use of SM including assessment tools and intervention strategies was established. Data on restraint and forced medicine were sampled post the course of the year of implementation and compared...... with the control group. RESULTS: The use of belts decreased with 38% compared to the control group. The use of forced medication decreased with 46% compared to the control group. Altogether the use of physical restraint and forced medication decreased significantly with 42% (p 

  4. Prehospital chemical restraint of a noncommunicative autistic minor by law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jeffrey D; Nystrom, Paul C; Calvo, Darryl V; Berris, Marc S; Norlin, Jeffrey F; Clinton, Joseph E

    2012-01-01

    When responders are dealing with an agitated patient in the field, safety for all involved may sometimes only be accomplished with physical or chemical restraints. While experiences using chemical restraint in the prehospital setting are found in the medical literature, the use of this by law enforcement as a first-response restraint has not previously been described. We report a case of successful law enforcement-administered sedation of a noncommunicative, autistic, and violent minor using intramuscular droperidol and diphenhydramine. Although this case has some unique characteristics that allowed chemical restraint to be given by the law enforcement agency, it calls attention to some specific prehospital issues that need to be addressed when dealing with autistic patients with extreme agitation.

  5. Fabrication of a small animal restraint for synchrotron biomedical imaging using a rapid prototyper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ying; Zhang Honglin; McCrea, Richard; Bewer, Brian; Wiebe, Sheldon; Nichol, Helen; Ryan, Christopher; Wysokinski, Tomasz; Chapman, Dean

    2007-01-01

    Biomedical research at synchrotron facilities may involve imaging live animals that must remain motionless for extended periods of time to obtain quality images. Even breathing movements reduce image quality but on the other hand excessive restraint of animals increases morbidity and mortality. We describe a humane animal restraint designed to eliminate head movements while promoting animal survival. This paper describes how an animal restraint that conforms to the shape of an animal's head was fabricated by a 3D prototyper. The method used to translate medical computed tomography (CT) data to a 3D stereolithography format is described and images of its use at the Canadian Light Source (CLS) are shown. This type of restraint holds great promise in improving image quality and repeatability while reducing stress on experimental animals

  6. Examination of ethical dilemmas experienced by adult intensive care unit nurses in physical restraint practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yönt, Gülendam Hakverdioğlu; Korhan, Esra Akin; Dizer, Berna; Gümüş, Fatma; Koyuncu, Rukiye

    2014-01-01

    Nurses are more likely to face the dilemma of whether to resort to physical restraints or not and have a hard time making that decision. This is a descriptive study. A total of 55 nurses participated in the research. For data collection, a question form developed by researchers to determine perceptions of ethical dilemmas by nurses in the application of physical restraint was used. A descriptive analysis was made by calculating the mean, standard deviation, and maximum and minimum values. The nurses expressed (36.4%) having difficulty in deciding to use physical restraint. Nurses reported that they experience ethical dilemmas mainly in relation to the ethic principles of nonmaleficence, beneficence, and convenience. We have concluded that majority of nurses working in critical care units apply physical restraint to patients, although they are facing ethical dilemmas concerning harm and benefit principles during the application.

  7. Non-leptonic hyperon decays and the chiral meson coupling to bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvat, D.; Tadic, D.

    1986-01-01

    Hyperon nonleptonic decays have been analyzed using a chiral-bag model instead of the MIT-bag model which was used in earlier analyses. The adopted theoretical formalism allows a step by step comparison between the new and the old approaches. The results are in agreement with the calculation which has used chiral model in its cloudy-bag variant. Chiral-bag model based theoretical predictions are not significantly different from the old MIT-bag model based results. Theory can account for overall gross features of the hyperon nonleptonic decays but not for the fine details like the exact, almost vanishing, value of the A(Σsub(+) + ) amplitude. (orig.)

  8. National roadside survey of child restraint system use in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Roynard; Peter, Silverans; Yvan, Casteels; Philippe, Lesire

    2014-01-01

    In September 2011 the Belgian Road Safety Institute (BRSI) conducted its first roadside survey of child restraint system (CRS) use and misuse. The aim of this study was to obtain population-bases estimates of the prevalence of use and misuse of CRS and to identify predictors of misuse on the basis of observations in real traffic conditions. The survey was conducted on randomly selected sites across the country, stratified across various types of journeys. The principal parameters analysed were: the characteristics of the children and the car drivers, type of journey, types of CRS and types of misuse. The sample consisted of 1461 children (under 135cm) for whom the conditions of restraint were observed in detail and the driver was interviewed. At least 50% of the children were not correctly restrained and 10% were not restrained at all. The most significant factors associated with CRS use were the use of a seatbelt by the driver (31% of unrestrained children for unbelted drivers, compared to 7% for belted drivers - only 32% of correctly restrained children for unbelted drivers compared to 54% for belted drivers), whether the CRS was bought in a specialized shop (only 27% of misuse compared to 45% of misuse for CRS both in supermarkets) and the age of the children. The proportion of correctly restrained children (appropriate without misuse, the bottom category in the figure) has a roughly curvilinear relation with age; decreasing from 75% at age 0 to 24% at age 8 and going back up to 63% at age 10. Although the sample of ISOFIX users was small (n=76), it appears that the ISOFIX system reduced misuse significantly. Most of the drivers were ignorant of their own errors concerning the inappropriateness and/or misuse of the CRS or they were remiss and underestimated the risk. The three main reasons given by the drivers to explain or justify the misuse noticed were: low attention level to safety (inattention, time pressure, and short distance), the child's resistance to

  9. A simple air sampling technique for monitoring nitrous oxide pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, J C; Shaw, R; Moyes, D; Cleaton-Jones, P E

    1981-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive device for the continuous low-flow sampling of air was devised to permit monitoring of pollution by gaseous anaesthetics. The device consisted of a water-filled Perspex cylinder in which a double-walled flexible-film gas sample collection bag was suspended. Air samples could be aspirated into the collection bag at flow rates of as low as 1 ml min-1 by allowing the water to drain from the cylinder at a controlled rate. The maintenance of sample integrity with aspiration and storage of samples of nitrous oxide in air at concentrations of 1000, 100 and 30 p.p.m. v/v was examined using gas chromatography. The sample bags retained a mean 94% of the nitrous oxide in air samples containing nitrous oxide 25 p.p.m. over a 72-h storage period.

  10. Comparative Assessment of Torso and Seat Mounted Restraint Systems using Manikins on the Vertical Deceleration Tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2017-0044 Comparative Assessment of Torso and Seat Mounted Restraint Systems using Manikins on the Vertical ...Restraint Systems using Manikins on the Vertical Deceleration Tower 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-14-D-6500-0001 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...experimental effort involving a series of +z-axis impact tests was conducted on the 711th Human Performance Wing’s Vertical Deceleration Tower (VDT

  11. How the architect-engineer manages design objectives and restraints for optimizing sodium cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, K.A.; Roe, K.K.

    1978-01-01

    The design objectives of low capital and operating costs and high reliability are best attained by carefully defining criteria early in the development stage. Throughout the design development, unusual attention to constructibility, reliability and availability requirements, and the early resolution of licensing issues by designated engineering specialists are some of the approaches used to minimize design restraints. Effective management of these design objectives and restraints can assure that, on balance, LMFBR costs can be improved, reliability increased, and maintenance can be effective. (author)

  12. The evolution of the doctrine of restraint of trade in Australia: a law reform perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, John Wei-Ting

    2017-01-01

    This thesis examines the present state of the common law doctrine of restraint of trade from a law reform perspective. The doctrine was developed in England between the 1600s and mid-1800s and its evolution over the centuries has been a slow and ongoing process. The present state of the doctrine and its application in the Australian jurisdiction presents a challenging set of circumstances due to the difficulties faced by contracting parties when they wish to engage in restraint of trade. ...

  13. Comparison of bacterial attachment to platelet bags with and without preconditioning with plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loza-Correa, M; Kalab, M; Yi, Q-L; Eltringham-Smith, L J; Sheffield, W P; Ramirez-Arcos, S

    2017-07-01

    Canadian Blood Services produces apheresis and buffy coat pooled platelet concentrates (PCs) stored in bags produced by two different manufacturers (A and B, respectively), both made of polyvinyl chloride-butyryl trihexyl citrate. This study was aimed at comparing Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion to the inner surface of both bag types in the presence or absence of plasma factors. Sets (N = 2-6) of bags type A and B were left non-coated (control) or preconditioned with platelet-rich, platelet-poor or defibrinated plasma (PRP, PPP and DefibPPP, respectively). Each bag was inoculated with a 200-ml S. epidermidis culture adjusted to 0·5 colony-forming units/ml. Bags were incubated under platelet storage conditions for 7 days. After culture removal, bacteria attached to the plastic surface were either dislodged by sonication for bacterial quantification or examined in situ by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Higher bacterial adhesion was observed to preconditioned PC bags than control containers for both bag types (P bags was confirmed by SEM. Bacteria adhered equally to both types of containers in the presence of PRP, PPP and DefibPPP residues (P > 0·05). By contrast, a significant increase in bacterial adherence was observed to type A bags compared with type B bags in the absence of plasma (P bags depends on the presence of plasma factors. Future efforts should be focused on reducing plasma proteins' attachment to platelet storage containers to decrease subsequent bacterial adhesion. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  14. The Portuguese plastic carrier bag tax: The effects on consumers' behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinho, Graça; Balaia, Natacha; Pires, Ana

    2017-03-01

    Marine litter from lightweight plastic bags is a global problem that must be solved. A plastic bag tax was implemented in February 2015 to reduce the consumption of plastic grocery bags in Portugal and in turn reduce the potential contribution to marine litter. This study analyzes the effect of the plastic bag tax on consumer behavior to learn how it was received and determine the perceived effectiveness of the tax 4months after its implementation. In addition, the study assessed how proximity to coastal areas could influence behaviors and opinions. The results showed a 74% reduction of plastic bag consumption with a simultaneously 61% increase of reusable plastic bags after the tax was implemented. Because plastic bags were then reused for shopping instead of garbage bags, however, the consumption of garbage bags increased by 12%. Although reduction was achieved, the tax had no effect on the perception of marine litter or the impact of plastic bags on environment and health. The majority of respondents agree with the tax but view it as an extra revenue to the State. The distance to the coast had no meaningful influence on consumer behavior or on the perception of the tax. Although the tax was able to promote the reduction of plastics, the role of hypermarkets and supermarkets in providing alternatives through the distribution of reusable plastic bags was determinant to ensuring the reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. FUNGAL POPULATION, AFLATOXIN AND FREE FATTY ACID CONTENTS OF PEANUTS PACKED IN DIFFERENT BAG TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONIA S.P. BULAONG

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Shelled peanuts of Gajah var. with initial moisture content of 7% were stored at 11 kg/bag in four bag types namely: jute bag, polypropylene bag, jute bag doubled with thin polyethylene (PE, and jute bag doubled with thick PE. Storage was done for six months under warehouse conditions with monitoring of relative humidity and temperature. Samples taken at the be ginning of storage and every month thereafter were analyzed for moisture content, fungal population, aflatoxin and free fatty acid contents. Statistical analyses showed that moisture content, fungal population, and free fatty acid contents were signifi cantly higher in jute and polypropylene bags than in PE-dou,bled jute bags. No significant differences were obtained in aflatoxin contents among bag types but at the end of six months storage, toxin level in jute bag exceeded the 30 ppb limit. Polypropylene had second highest toxin level at 23 ppb. The PE-doubled bags ha d 17 and 19 ppb total aflatoxins for thin and thick films, respectively. The results indicated that the immediate packag ing of dried shelled peanuts at safe moisture level in plastic films with water vapor transmission rated of 1 g/m2/24 hr or lower is recommended. This p ackaging will delay critical increases in moisture content, fungal population, aflatoxin and free fatty acid contents of peanut kernels at ambient storage conditions.

  16. Ammonia Diffusion through Nalophan Double Bags: Effect of Concentration Gradient Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, Laura; Boiardi, Emanuela; Del Rosso, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The ammonia loss through Nalophan bags has been studied. The losses observed for storage conditions and times as allowed by the reference standard for dynamic olfactometry (EN 13725:2003) indicate that odour concentration values due to the presence of small molecules may be significantly underestimated if samples are not analysed immediately after sampling. A diffusion model was used in order to study diffusion through the bag. The study discusses the effect of concentration gradient (ΔC) across the polymeric membrane of the analyte. The ΔC was controlled by using a setup bag called “double bags.” Experimental data show a reduction of ammonia percentage losses due to the effect of the external multibarrier. The expedient of the double bag loaded with the same gas mixture allows a reduced diffusion of ammonia into the inner bag. Comparing the inner bag losses with those of the single bag stored in the same conditions (T, P, u) and with equal geometrical characteristics (S/V, z), it was observed that the inner bag of the double bag displays a 16% loss while the single bag displays a 37% loss. Acting on the ΔC it is possible to achieve a gross reduction of 57% in the ammonia leakage due to diffusion. PMID:25506608

  17. Ammonia diffusion through Nalophan double bags: effect of concentration gradient reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sironi, Selena; Eusebio, Lidia; Capelli, Laura; Boiardi, Emanuela; Del Rosso, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The ammonia loss through Nalophan bags has been studied. The losses observed for storage conditions and times as allowed by the reference standard for dynamic olfactometry (EN 13725:2003) indicate that odour concentration values due to the presence of small molecules may be significantly underestimated if samples are not analysed immediately after sampling. A diffusion model was used in order to study diffusion through the bag. The study discusses the effect of concentration gradient (ΔC) across the polymeric membrane of the analyte. The ΔC was controlled by using a setup bag called "double bags." Experimental data show a reduction of ammonia percentage losses due to the effect of the external multibarrier. The expedient of the double bag loaded with the same gas mixture allows a reduced diffusion of ammonia into the inner bag. Comparing the inner bag losses with those of the single bag stored in the same conditions (T, P, u) and with equal geometrical characteristics (S/V, z), it was observed that the inner bag of the double bag displays a 16% loss while the single bag displays a 37% loss. Acting on the ΔC it is possible to achieve a gross reduction of 57% in the ammonia leakage due to diffusion.

  18. BAG3 induces the sequestration of proteasomal clients into cytoplasmic puncta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoia, Melania; Boncoraglio, Alessandra; Vinet, Jonathan; Morelli, Federica F; Brunsting, Jeanette F; Poletti, Angelo; Krom, Sabine; Reits, Eric; Kampinga, Harm H; Carra, Serena

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells use autophagy and the ubiquitin–proteasome system as their major protein degradation pathways. Upon proteasomal impairment, cells switch to autophagy to ensure proper clearance of clients (the proteasome-to-autophagy switch). The HSPA8 and HSPA1A cochaperone BAG3 has been suggested to be involved in this switch. However, at present it is still unknown whether and to what extent BAG3 can indeed reroute proteasomal clients to the autophagosomal pathway. Here, we show that BAG3 induces the sequestration of ubiquitinated clients into cytoplasmic puncta colabeled with canonical autophagy linkers and markers. Following proteasome inhibition, BAG3 upregulation significantly contributes to the compensatory activation of autophagy and to the degradation of the (poly)ubiquitinated proteins. BAG3 binding to the ubiquitinated clients occurs through the BAG domain, in competition with BAG1, another BAG family member, that normally directs ubiquitinated clients to the proteasome. Therefore, we propose that following proteasome impairment, increasing the BAG3/BAG1 ratio ensures the “BAG-instructed proteasomal to autophagosomal switch and sorting” (BIPASS). PMID:25046115

  19. Overexpressed BAG3 is a potential therapeutic target in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huayuan; Wu, Wei; Fu, Yuan; Shen, Wenyi; Miao, Kourong; Hong, Min; Xu, Wei; Young, Ken H; Liu, Peng; Li, Jianyong

    2014-03-01

    Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3), a member of BAG family, is shown to sustain cell survival and underlie resistance to chemotherapy in human neoplastic cells. We aimed to determine the exact role and underlying mechanisms of BAG3 in human chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). One hundred human CLL samples and 20 normal B-cell samples from healthy controls were collected. We measured the BAG3 expression in these cells and explored its relationship with known prognostic factors for CLL. The roles of BAG3 in cell apoptosis and migration were evaluated by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of BAG3 in primary CLL cells. We showed that BAG3 expression level was increased in CLL cells compared with normal B cells. Moreover, BAG3 expression was particularly upregulated in CD38 positive, unmutated immunoglobulin heavy-chain patients and those with lymphadenopathy and/or splenomegaly. Importantly, patients with increased BAG3 expression level have poor overall survival in subgroups with positive ZAP-70 or those without any "p53 abnormality". In addition, knocking down of BAG3 expression resulted in increased apoptotic ratio and decreased migration in primary CLL cells. Our data indicate that BAG3 is a marker of poor prognostic in specific subgroups of CLL patients and may be a potential therapeutic target for this disease.

  20. Comparison of cryopreservation bags for hematopoietic progenitor cells using a WBC-enriched product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra-Tiekstra, Margriet J; Hazelaar, Sandra; Gkoumassi, Effimia; Weggemans, Margienus; de Wildt-Eggen, Janny

    2015-04-01

    Hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) are stored in cryopreservation bags that are resistant to liquid nitrogen. Since Cryocyte bags of Baxter (B-bags) are no longer available, an alternative bag was sought. Also, the influence of freezing volume was studied. Miltenyi Biotec (MB)- and MacoPharma (MP)-bags passed the integrity tests without failure. Comparing MB- and MP-bags with B-bags, no difference in WBC recovery or viability was found when using a WBC-enriched product as a "dummy" HPC product. Further, a freezing volume of 30 mL resulted in better WBC recovery and viability than 60 mL. Additonal studies using real HPC might be necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Design of Control System for Flexible Packaging Bags Palletizing Production Line Based on PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huiping; Chen, Lin; Zhao, Xiaoming; Liu, Zhanyang

    Flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is to put the bags in the required area according to particular order and size, in order to finish handling, storage, loading and unloading, transportation and other logistics work of goods. Flexible packaging bags palletizing line is composed of turning bags mechanism, shaping mechanism, indexing mechanism, marshalling mechanism, pushing bags mechanism, pressing bags mechanism, laminating mechanism, elevator, tray warehouse, tray conveyor and loaded tray conveyor. Whether the whole production line can smoothly run depends on each of the above equipment and precision control among them. In this paper the technological process and the control logic of flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is introduced. Palletizing process of the production line realized automation by means of a control system based on programmable logic controller (PLC). It has the advantages of simple structure, reliable and easy maintenance etc.

  2. Catalytic pleat filter bags for combined particulate separation and nitrogen oxides removal from flue gas streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young Ok; Choi, Ho Kyung

    2010-01-01

    The development of a high temperature catalytically active pleated filter bag with hybrid filter equipment for the combined removal of particles and nitrogen oxides from flue gas streams is presented. A special catalyst load in stainless steel mesh cartridge with a high temperature pleated filter bag followed by optimized catalytic activation was developed to reach the required nitrogen oxides levels and to maintain the higher collection efficiencies. The catalytic properties of the developed high temperature filter bags with hybrid filter equipment were studied and demonstrated in a pilot scale test rig and a demonstration plant using commercial scale of high temperature catalytic pleated filter bags. The performance of the catalytic pleated filter bags were tested under different operating conditions, such as filtration velocity and operating temperature. Moreover, the cleaning efficiency and residual pressure drop of the catalyst loaded cartridges in pleated filter bags were tested. As result of theses studies, the optimum operating conditions for the catalytic pleated filter bags are determined. (author)

  3. HIV-1 Tat protein induces glial cell autophagy through enhancement of BAG3 protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Anna Paola; De Simone, Francesca Isabella; Iorio, Vittoria; De Marco, Margot; Khalili, Kamel; Sariyer, Ilker Kudret; Capunzo, Mario; Nori, Stefania Lucia; Rosati, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    BAG3 protein has been described as an anti-apoptotic and pro-autophagic factor in several neoplastic and normal cells. We previously demonstrated that BAG3 expression is elevated upon HIV-1 infection of glial and T lymphocyte cells. Among HIV-1 proteins, Tat is highly involved in regulating host cell response to viral infection. Therefore, we investigated the possible role of Tat protein in modulating BAG3 protein levels and the autophagic process itself. In this report, we show that transfection with Tat raises BAG3 levels in glioblastoma cells. Moreover, BAG3 silencing results in highly reducing Tat- induced levels of LC3-II and increasing the appearance of sub G0/G1 apoptotic cells, in keeping with the reported role of BAG3 in modulating the autophagy/apoptosis balance. These results demonstrate for the first time that Tat protein is able to stimulate autophagy through increasing BAG3 levels in human glial cells.

  4. Expression of Anti-apoptotic Protein BAG3 in Human Sebaceous Gland Carcinoma of the Eyelid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunoki, Tatsuya; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Hayashi, Atsushi

    2017-04-01

    Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3), a co-chaperone of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), has been shown to play a role in anti-apoptosis of various malignant tumors. In this study, the expression of BAG3 was examined in human sebaceous gland carcinoma of the eyelid. The expression of BAG3 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry of surgical samples from 5 patients with sebaceous gland carcinoma in the eyelid. BAG3 was positive diffusely in the cytoplasm in all patients. The average positive rate of BAG3 was 73.0±26.0% in tumor cells of all patients. BAG3 was highly expressed in sebaceous gland carcinoma of the eyelid. BAG3 may play an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of sebaceous gland carcinoma of the eyelid. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  5. Mixed selection. Effects of body images, dietary restraint, and persuasive messages on females' orientations towards chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Kevin; Hendry, Alana; Stritzke, Werner G K

    2013-01-01

    Many women experience ambivalent reactions to chocolate: craving it but also wary of its impact on weight and health. Chocolate advertisements often use thin ideal models and previous research indicates that this exacerbates ambivalence. This experiment compared attitudes to, and consumption of, chocolate following exposure to images containing thin or overweight models together with written messages that were either positive or negative about eating chocolate. Participants (all female) were categorised as either low- or high-restraint. Approach, avoidance and guilt motives towards chocolate were measured and the participants had an opportunity to consume chocolate. Exposure to thin ideal models led to higher approach motives and this effect was most marked among the high restraint participants. Avoidance and guilt scores did not vary as a function of model size or message, but there were clear differences between the restraint groups, with the high restraint participants scoring substantially higher than low restraint participants on both of these measures. When the participants were provided with an opportunity to eat some chocolate, those with high restraint who had been exposed to the thin models consumed the most. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Restraint status improves the predictive value of motor vehicle crash criteria for pediatric trauma team activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Andrew P; Dassinger, Melvin S; Recicar, John F; Smith, Samuel D; Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna R; Nick, Todd G; Maxson, Robert T

    2012-12-01

    Most trauma centers incorporate mechanistic criteria (MC) into their algorithm for trauma team activation (TTA). We hypothesized that characteristics of the crash are less reliable than restraint status in predicting significant injury and the need for TTA. We identified 271 patients (age, <15 y) admitted with a diagnosis of motor vehicle crash. Mechanistic criteria and restraint status of each patient were recorded. Both MC and MC plus restraint status were evaluated as separate measures for appropriately predicting TTA based on treatment outcomes and injury scores. Improper restraint alone predicted a need for TTA with an odds ratios of 2.69 (P = .002). MC plus improper restraint predicted the need for TTA with an odds ratio of 2.52 (P = .002). In contrast, the odds ratio when using MC alone was 1.65 (P = .16). When the 5 MC were evaluated individually as predictive of TTA, ejection, death of occupant, and intrusion more than 18 inches were statistically significant. Improper restraint is an independent predictor of necessitating TTA in this single-institution study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of chronic restraint stress on body weight, food intake, and hypothalamic gene expressions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Joo Yeon; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kang, Sang Soo

    2013-12-01

    Stress affects body weight and food intake, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We evaluated the changes in body weight and food intake of ICR male mice subjected to daily 2 hours restraint stress for 15 days. Hypothalamic gene expression profiling was analyzed by cDNA microarray. Daily body weight and food intake measurements revealed that both parameters decreased rapidly after initiating daily restraint stress. Body weights of stressed mice then remained significantly lower than the control body weights, even though food intake slowly recovered to 90% of the control intake at the end of the experiment. cDNA microarray analysis revealed that chronic restraint stress affects the expression of hypothalamic genes possibly related to body weight control. Since decreases of daily food intake and body weight were remarkable in days 1 to 4 of restraint, we examined the expression of food intake-related genes in the hypothalamus. During these periods, the expressions of ghrelin and pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA were significantly changed in mice undergoing restraint stress. Moreover, daily serum corticosterone levels gradually increased, while leptin levels significantly decreased. The present study demonstrates that restraint stress affects body weight and food intake by initially modifying canonical food intake-related genes and then later modifying other genes involved in energy metabolism. These genetic changes appear to be mediated, at least in part, by corticosterone.

  8. Bupleurum falcatum prevents depression and anxiety-like behaviors in rats exposed to repeated restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bombi; Yun, Hye-Yeon; Shim, Insop; Lee, Hyejung; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2012-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that repeated restraint stress in rodents produces increases in depression and anxietylike behaviors and alters the expression of corticotrophinreleasing factor (CRF) in the hypothalamus. The current study focused on the impact of Bupleurum falcatum (BF) extract administration on repeated restraint stress-induced behavioral responses using the forced swimming test (FST) and elevated plus maze (EPM) test. Immunohistochemical examinations of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in rat brain were also conducted. Male rats received daily doses of 20, 50, or 100 mg/kg (i.p.) BF extract for 15 days, 30 min prior to restraint stress (4 h/day). Hypothalamicpituitary- adrenal axis activation in response to repeated restraint stress was confirmed base on serum corticosterone levels and CRF expression in the hypothalamus. Animals that were pre-treated with BF extract displayed significantly reduced immobility in the FST and increased open-arm exploration in the EPM test in comparison with controls. BF also blocked the increase in TH expression in the locus coeruleus of treated rats that experienced restraint stress. Together, these results demonstrate that BF extract administration prior to restraint stress significantly reduces depression and anxiety-like behaviors, possibly through central adrenergic mechanisms, and they suggest a role for BF extract in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders.

  9. Interactive effects of dietary restraint and adiposity on stress-induced eating and the food choice of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmich, James N; Lambiase, Maya J; Lobarinas, Christina L; Balantekin, Katherine N

    2011-12-01

    The Individual Differences Model posits that individual differences in physiological and psychological factors explain eating behaviors in response to stress. The purpose was to determine the effects of individual differences in adiposity, dietary restraint and stress reactivity on children's energy intake and food choices. A total of 40 boys and girls, age 8-12 years, with wide ranges of dietary restraint, adiposity, and stress reactivity were measured for total energy intake and choice of energy dense 'comfort' and lower density 'healthy' foods following reading and speech stressor manipulations. When exploring the interaction of dietary restraint and stress reactivity, lower restraint/lower reactivity and lower restraint/higher reactivity were associated with reductions in energy intake (37-62 kcal) and comfort food (33-89 kcal). Higher restraint/lower reactivity was associated with consuming 86 fewer total kcal and 45 fewer kcal of comfort food. Only higher restraint/higher reactivity predicted increased energy intake (104 kcal) and comfort food (131 kcal). The interaction of dietary restraint and percentage body fat revealed that lower restraint/lower adiposity was associated with consuming 123 fewer kcal after being stressed with the entire reduction due to a decrease in comfort food. Lower restraint/higher adiposity was associated with consuming 116 kcal more after being stressed with 70% (81 kcal) of the increase in the form of comfort foods. Higher restraint/lower adiposity and higher restraint/higher adiposity were associated with smaller changes in total energy intake of 22 kcal and 1 kcal; respectively. Both restraint and adiposity moderated the effect of stress on energy intake and food choice. Children with greater adiposity may be at risk for stress-induced eating to contribute to their obesity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Anticipatory precrash restraint sensor feasibility study: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kercel, S.W.; Dress, W.B.

    1995-08-01

    This report explores feasibility of an anticipatory precrash restraint sensor. The foundation principle is the anticipation mechanism found at a primitive level of biological intelligence and originally formalized by the mathematical biologist Robert Rosen. A system based on formal anticipatory principles should significantly outperform conventional technologies. It offers the prospect of high payoff in prevention of death and injury. Sensors and processes are available to provide a good, fast, and inexpensive description of the present dynamical state of the vehicle to the embedded system model in the anticipation engine. The experimental part of this study found that inexpensive radar in a real-world setting does return useful data on target dynamics. The data produced by a radar system can be converted to target dynamical information by good, fast and inexpensive signal-processing techniques. Not only is the anticipatory sensor feasible, but further development under the sponsorship of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration is necessary and desirable. There are a number of possible lines of follow-on investigation. The level of effort and expected benefits of various alternatives are discussed.

  11. 77 FR 48492 - Event Data Recorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... that [cir] Involve side or side curtain/tube air bags such that EDR data would only need to be locked... deployable restraints other than frontal, side or side/curtain air bags such that EDR data would not need to... definitions to alleviate any uncertainties in multiple event crashes; Revised certain sensor ranges and...

  12. Testing of SRS and RFETS Nylon Bag Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    This report compares the effects of radiation and heating on nylon bagout materials used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). Recently, to simplify the processing of sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C), FB-Line has replaced the low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags normally used to package cans of plutonium-bearing material with nylon bags. LDPE and PVC are not soluble in the nitric acid dissolver solution used in F-Canyon, so cans bagged using these materials had to be repackaged before they were added to the dissolver. Because nylon dissolves in nitric acid, cans bagged in nylon can be charged to the F-Canyon dissolvers without repackaging, thereby reducing handling requirements and personnel exposure. As part of a program to process RFETS SS and C at SRS, RFETS has also begun to use a nylon bagout material. The RFETS bag materials is made from a copolymer of nylon 6 and nylon 6.9, while the SRS material is made from a nylon 6 monomer. In addition, the SRS nylon has an anti-static agent added. The RFETS nylon is slightly softer than the SRS nylon, but does not appear to be as resistant to flex cracks initiated by contact with sharp corners of the inner can containing the SS and C.2 FB-Line Operations has asked for measurement of the effects of radiation and heating on these materials. Specifically, they have requested a comparison of the material properties of the plastics before and after irradiation, a measurement of the amount of outgassing when the plastics are heated, and a calculation of the amount of radiolytic gas generation. Testing was performed on samples taken from material that is currently used in FB-Line (color coded orange) and at RFETS. The requested tests are the same tests previously performed on the original and replacement nylon and LDPE bag materials.3,4,5. To evaluate the effect of irradiation on material properties, tensile stresses and elongations to break

  13. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome: A Rare Spot Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, Dilraj S; Ward, Joel; Lee, Regent; Handa, Ashok

    2017-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is a complication of urinary tract infections (UTIs) where catheter bags and tubing turn purple. It is alarming for patients, families, and clinicians; however, it is in itself a benign phenomenon. PUBS is the result of UTIs with specific bacteria that produce sulphatases and phosphatases which lead tryptophan metabolism to produce indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) pigments, a mixture of which becomes purple. Risk factors include female gender, immobility, constipation, chronic catheterisation, and renal disease. Management involves reassurance, antibiotics, and regular changing of catheters, although there are debates regarding how aggressively to treat and no official guidelines. Prognosis is good, but PUBS is associated with high morbidity and mortality due to the backgrounds of patients. Here, we review the literature available on PUBS, present a summary of case studies from the last five years, and propose the Oxford Urine Chart as a tool to aid such diagnoses.

  14. Quantum fluctuations in the bag and nucleon observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, O.V.; Vento, V.

    1982-03-01

    A time-dependent, perturbative formalism is developed to describe the effect of quantum fluctuations of the quark fields inside a hadronic bag on physical observables. This formalism differs from previous ones in that (1) all contributions to second order in the QCD coupling constant are generated systematically and included in the numerical treatment; (2) the intermediate sums are carried out over a full set of states consistent with parity and SU(2) coupling rules. After removing the logarithmic divergences arising from the intermediate state sums in the 1-body terms and applying a finite renormalization, the second order fluctuation corrections to several proton and neutron observables are computed. The results obtained are significantly different from those obtained in earlier calculations. In no case considered are the calculated corrections sufficient to account for existing discrepancies between empirical values and lower order hadronic bag results for nucleon observables

  15. Pioneras del punk: el caso de Alice Bag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Alonso Alconada

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar a la música chicana Alice Bag como una de las figuras influyentes en la temprana escena punk de Los Ángeles, California, quien ayudó a abrir el camino a una afluencia mayor de mujeres en la música punk, poniendo así algunos temas feministas en primera línea. De este modo, trataremos de ampliar el ámbito de estudio del punk. Tanto su autobiografía Violence Girl, From East L.A. Rage to Hollywood Stage (2011 y su casi recién estrenado LP Alice Bag (2016 abarcan temas relacionados con la condición de las mujeres chicanas, convirtiendo al punk en una poderosa plataforma de la que se ayuda para articular conceptos feministas y étnicos.

  16. Effective ultraviolet irradiation of platelet concentrates in teflon bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capon, S.M.; Sacher, R.A.; Deeg, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    Several plastic materials used in blood storage were evaluated for their ability to transmit ultraviolet B (UVB) light. A plastic bag manufactured from sheets of transparent Teflon efficiently (78-86%) transmitted UVB light and was employed in subsequent functional studies of lymphocytes and platelets exposed to UVB light while contained in these bags. In vitro experiments showed a UVB dose-dependent abrogation of lymphocyte responder and stimulator functions, with concurrent preservation of platelet aggregation responses. In a phase I pilot study, UVB-treated platelet concentrates were administered to four bone marrow transplant recipients. Adverse effects attributable to the transfusions were not observed, and patients showed clinically effective transfusion responses. No patient developed lymphocytotoxic HLA or platelet antibodies. These studies suggest that platelets can be effectively irradiated with UVB light in a closed system. However, numerous variables, including container material, volume and composition of contents, steady exposure versus agitation, and exact UV wavelength, must be considered

  17. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome: A Rare Spot Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilraj S. Kalsi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS is a complication of urinary tract infections (UTIs where catheter bags and tubing turn purple. It is alarming for patients, families, and clinicians; however, it is in itself a benign phenomenon. PUBS is the result of UTIs with specific bacteria that produce sulphatases and phosphatases which lead tryptophan metabolism to produce indigo (blue and indirubin (red pigments, a mixture of which becomes purple. Risk factors include female gender, immobility, constipation, chronic catheterisation, and renal disease. Management involves reassurance, antibiotics, and regular changing of catheters, although there are debates regarding how aggressively to treat and no official guidelines. Prognosis is good, but PUBS is associated with high morbidity and mortality due to the backgrounds of patients. Here, we review the literature available on PUBS, present a summary of case studies from the last five years, and propose the Oxford Urine Chart as a tool to aid such diagnoses.

  18. Are ''anomalons'' a bag ful'o colorful nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruse, F.; Noack, C.C.

    1983-01-01

    One of the more intriguing explanations of the possible existence of ''anomalons'' (if they do exist) would seem to be in terms of internal color excitations of nuclei. While it follows from confinement in QCD that isolated nuclei (as well as isolated nucleons) must be in color singlet states, the same is not necessarily so for nucleons bound together in a small region of space, viz. a nucleus. Thus one can envisage a nucleus in a color-excited state as composed of localized 3q-systems (i.e. nucleons) which, however, are not all color singlets. We have investigated a particularly simple example of such a model which retains as many of the features of ''normal'' nuclei as possible, and at the same time stays close to the physical picture of the M.I.T. bag model. We call this a ''nuclear bag.''

  19. Quark matter revisited with non-extensive MIT bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Pedro H.G.; Nunes da Silva, Tiago; Menezes, Debora P. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Fisica, CFM, Florianopolis (Brazil); Deppman, Airton [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2017-10-15

    In this work we revisit the MIT bag model to describe quark matter within both the usual Fermi-Dirac and the Tsallis statistics. We verify the effects of the non-additivity of the latter by analysing two different pictures: the first order phase transition of the QCD phase diagram and stellar matter properties. While the QCD phase diagram is visually affected by the Tsallis statistics, the resulting effects on quark star macroscopic properties are barely noticed. (orig.)

  20. The 'silent' phase transition in mesonic bags and lattice theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, J.; Dey, M.; Araujo Junior, C.F. de; Tomio, L.

    1993-10-01

    It is shown that even the simple bag model is able to reproduce the lattice result for the masses and the sound velocity, at finite temperature, T, suggests that the transition point depends on the nature of the meson. It would be interesting to check the last conclusion in present day finite temperature lattice theory, since different transition points seem to be indicated by particle emission T in heavy ion reactions. (author)

  1. Fermion Bag Approach to Lattice Hamiltonian Field Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Emilie

    2018-03-01

    Using a model in the Gross-Neveu Ising universality class, we show how the fermion bag idea can be applied to develop algorithms to Hamiltonian lattice field theories. We argue that fermion world lines suggest an alternative method to the traditional techniques for calculating ratios of determinants in a stable manner. We show the power behind these ideas by extracting the physics of the model on large lattices.

  2. Quark bags, P-matrix and nucleon-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narodetskij, I.M.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is an extended version of the talk given at IX European Conference on Few Body Problems in Physics, Tbilisi, 1984. It reviews recent developments of the quark compound bag (QCB) model including explicit examples of the QCB nucleon-nucleon potentials, description of the deuteron properties, calculation of the six quark admixture in the deuteron and applications to the three-nucleon system

  3. Exclusive semileptonic B decays in the bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lie-Svendsen, Oe.

    1989-09-01

    Using a recoil corrected version of the MIT bag model, the author has computed the relevant form factors and decay rates for the exclusive semileptonic decays B→De anti ν e and B→D*e anti ν e. The results are similar to other quark model calculations, but it is shown that the D* mode is suppressed due to the influence of the spectator quark. The D*'s produced are almost unpolarized in this model

  4. Medical emergencies facing general practitioners: Drugs for the doctor's bag

    OpenAIRE

    Janković Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    General practitioners are frequently facing medical emergencies. In order to react properly and administer therapy on time, a general practitioner needs to prepare and keep with himself the appropriate set of drugs which could be effectively used for treatment of the emergencies. The following drugs should find their place in the doctor's bag: acetaminophen (for mild and moderate pain, and for fever), morphine (for severe pain), naloxone (for heroin poisoning), ceftriaxone (for meningococcal ...

  5. NN interaction from bag-model quark interchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, B.L.G.; Bozoian, M.; Maslow, J.N.; Weber, H.J.

    1982-03-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one- and two-boson exchange amplitude from a bag-model quark interchange mechanism. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with other meson theoretic potentials and data up to laboratory energies of approx.350 MeV.

  6. Qanti-QG hermaphrodite mesons in the MIT bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, T.; Close, F.E.; Viron, F. de

    1982-10-01

    It is suggested that hermaphrodite (qanti-qg) mesons could exist with rather light masses. The spectrum of the ground state nonets, Jsup(PC) = (0, 1, 2) -+ ; 1 -- is calculated in the MIT bag model including 0(αsub(s)) energy shifts. Hadronic transitions among these states are discussed, considering their possible production at LEAR and SPEAR and indicating some interesting decay signatures. (author)

  7. Pairing-bag excitations in small-coherence-length superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, A.R.; Lomdahl, P.S.; Schrieffer, J.R.; Trugman, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    Localized baglike solutions in the pairing theory of superconductivity are studied. Starting from the Bogoliubov--de Gennes equations on a two-dimensional square lattice for half-filled negative-U Hubbard model, cigar- and star-shaped bags are numerically obtained, inside of which the order parameter is reduced, self-consistently trapping an added quasiparticle. These nonlinear excitations are important when the coherence length is small as for the new high-temperature superconductors. Several experimental consequences are discussed

  8. Quarks-bags phase transition in quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenshtejn, M.I.

    1981-01-01

    Phase transitions in the quark-gluon plasma are considered at finite temperatures and chemical potentials. A phenomenological account for a complicated structure of the QCD vacuum results in the necessity to use the formalism of isobaric ensembles to describe the system. The phase transition curve separating the regions of the quark-gluon plasma and the hadronic bag phase in the μT plane is calculated [ru

  9. NN interaction from bag-model quark interchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, B.L.G.; Bozoian, M.; Maslow, J.N.; Weber, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one- and two-boson exchange amplitude from a bag-model quark interchange mechanism. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with other meson theoretic potentials and data up to laboratory energies of approx.350 MeV

  10. Obe approximation of NN scattering in bag-model QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, B.L.G.; Maslow, J.N.; Weber, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one-boson and two-pion exchange amplitude from bag-model quantum chromodynamics. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with data up to laboratory energies of approx. equal to 350 MeV. (orig.)

  11. Effect of PCMI restraint on bubble size distribution in the rim structure of UO2 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Je-Yong; Koo, Yang-Hyun; Cheon, Jin-Sik; Lee, Byung-Ho; Sohn, Dong-Seong

    2005-01-01

    Generally, the bubble size in the rim structure of UO 2 is not dependent on the fuel burnup and the bubble pressure is higher than that in the equilibrium condition. However it was also observed that if the fuel pellet is not restrained, the size of the bubbles in the rim structure could be larger than that in the restraint condition. Although the wide variety of rim bubble sizes and porosities possibly result from an external restrain effect, the quantitative method to analyze the effect of PCMI restraint on bubble distribution in the rim is not available at the moment. In this paper, a method is developed which can be used to analyze the effect of PCMI restraint on the bubble distribution in the rim structure of UO 2 fuel based on the data in the literatures. The total number of Xe atoms in the rim bubbles per unit rim volume could be derived by a summation of the number of Xe atoms of each rim bubble in a unit rim volume. The number of Xe atoms of each rim bubble could be calculated by the Van der Waals equation of state and the pressure expressed by p=σ+C/r, where C is an unknown constant to be determined as a function of the temperature and the burnup. On the other hand, the total number of Xe atoms in the rim bubbles per unit rim volume can also be calculated by Xe depression data. If the fuel pellet is not restrained, the uniform hydrostatic stress, σ is zero. Hence if the data of the fuel disk without a restraint is used, a constant C can be obtained at 823K and a local burnup of 90 GWd/t. Although the local burnup of PCMI restraint case is slightly different from that without PCMI restraint, the value derived above is used for the analysis of PCMI restraint case. The calculated bubble distribution with PCMI restraint was similar to the measured one. Because the effect of PCMI restraint on bubble size increased with the bubble size, the development of a large bubble was suppressed. Hence, the PCMI restraint caused a typical bubble size in the rim and

  12. Characterization of ecofriendly polyethylene fiber from plastic bag waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soekoco, Asril S.; Noerati, Komalasari, Maya; Kurniawan, Hananto, Agus

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the characterization of fiber morphology, fiber count and tenacity of polyethylene fiber which is made from plastic bag waste. Recycling plastic bag waste into textile fiber has not developed yet. Plastic bag waste was recycled into fiber by melt spinning using laboratory scale melt spinning equipment with single orifice nozzle and plunger system. The basic principle of melt spinning is by melting materials and then extruding it through small orifice of a spinning nozzle to form fibers. Diameter and cross section shape of Recycled polyethylene fiber were obtained by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) instrumentation. Linear density of the recycled fiber were analyzed by calculation using denier and dTex formulation and The mechanical strength of the fibers was measured in accordance with the ASTM D 3379-75 standard. The cross section of recycled fiber is circular taking the shape of orifice. Fiber count of 303.75 denier has 1.84 g/denier tenacity and fiber count of 32.52 has 3.44 g/denier tenacity. This conditions is affected by the growth of polymer chain alignment when take-up axial velocity become faster. Recycled polyethylene fiber has a great potential application in non-apparel textile.

  13. The bag model and the Nambu-Goldstone pion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.C.; Ho-Kim, Q.

    1983-01-01

    The MIT bag model for the pion is improved and extended in such a way that the pion does not have spurious center-of-mass motions; perturbative gluon contributions to the pion mass msub(π) and decay constant fsub(π) are both calculated to lowest order in αsub(s). The pion is a Nambu-Goldstone boson in the sense that the vacuum in the bag refers to massive constituent quarks, but not so massless current quarks. The transformation of Nambu and Jona-Lasinio between massive and massless quarks is utilized in the computation of fsub(π), the result of which strongly suggests that quarks in the pion are correlated, characterized by a correlation momentum which is proportional 300 MeV/c. The vacuum expectation value for the massless quark condensate is calculated to be proportional0.04 GeV 3 , corresponding to a current quark mass of proportional4 MeV. The requirement that msub(π) approaches zero in a manner consistent with PCAC constrains the bag energy to be msub(π)/4. (orig.)

  14. A multi water bag model of drift kinetic electron plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, P.; Dreydemy Ghiro, F.; Berionni, V.; Gurcan, O.D.; Coulette, D.; Besse, N.

    2014-01-01

    A Multi Water Bag model is proposed for describing drift kinetic plasmas in a magnetized cylindrical geometry, relevant for various experimental devices, solar wind modeling... The Multi Water Bag (MWB) model is adapted to the description of a plasma with kinetic electrons as well as an arbitrary number of kinetic ions. This allows to describe the kinetic dynamics of the electrons, making possible the study of electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes, in addition to the effects of non adiabatic electrons on the ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes, that are of prime importance in the magnetized plasmas micro-turbulence [X. Garbet, Y. Idomura, L. Villard, T.H. Watanabe, Nucl. Fusion 50, 043002 (2010); J.A. Krommes, Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech. 44, 175 (2012)]. The MWB model is shown to link kinetic and fluid descriptions, depending on the number of bags considered. Linear stability of the ETG modes is presented and compared to the existing results regarding cylindrical ITG modes [P. Morel, E. Gravier, N. Besse, R. Klein, A. Ghizzo, P. Bertrand, W. Garbet, Ph. Ghendrih, V. Grandgirard, Y. Sarazin, Phys. Plasmas 14, 112109 (2007)]. (authors)

  15. Dietary restraint in college women: fear of an imperfect fat self is stronger than hope of a perfect thin self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalley, Simon E; Toffanin, Paolo; Pollet, Thomas V

    2012-09-01

    We predicted that the perceived likelihood of acquiring a hoped-for thin self would mediate perfectionistic strivings on dietary restraint, and that the perceived likelihood of acquiring a feared fat self would mediate perfectionistic concerns on dietary restraint. We also predicted that the mediation pathway from perfectionistic concerns to dietary restraint would have a greater impact than that from perfectionistic strivings. Participants were 222 female college students who reported their height and weight and completed measures of perfectionism, the likelihood of acquiring the feared fat and hoped-for thin selves, and dietary restraint. Statistical analyses revealed that the perceived likelihood of acquiring the feared fat self mediated both perfectionistic concerns and perfectionistic strivings on dietary restraint, and that the mediating pathway from perfectionistic concerns to dietary restraint was greater than that from perfectionistic strivings. Implications for future research and eating pathology interventions are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Leachables from saline-containing IV bags can alter therapeutic protein properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Judy Y; Xiao, Nina J; Zhu, Min; Zhang, Jennifer; Hoff, Ed; Russell, Stephen J; Katta, Viswanatham; Shire, Steven J

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the cause of the observed instability of dulanermin in 100 ml polyolefin (PO) infusion bags containing saline. Diluted dulanermin in IV bags was collected and frozen prior to analysis by size exclusion chromatography. The UV absorption profiles of the IV bag solutions were characterized by using spectrophotometry. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) measured the metal content. Leachables from IV bags were identified by LC-UV-high resolution MS/MS analysis. An elevated loss of dulanermin monomers was observed only in 100 ml PO bags. These IV bag solutions have a compound that contains zinc and has absorbance at 320 nm. This compound was identified to be 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole, and its zinc salt and was found to come from the stopper used in the 100 ml PO bags. The manufacturer has subsequently corrected this problem by using non-latex components in the 100 ml PO IV bag. End-users need to be aware that IV bags made from a particular polymer by the same manufacturer may contain components or use a manufacturing process that results in a different product. Analysis of samples after freezing and thawing proved to be useful in identifying potential incompatibility of dulanermin in the IV bags.

  17. Warming preterm infants in the delivery room: polyethylene bags, exothermic mattresses or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Lisa K; O'Donnell, Colm P F

    2011-12-01

    To compare the admission temperature of infants treated with polyethylene bags alone to infants treated with exothermic mattresses in addition to bags in the delivery room. We prospectively studied infants born at bags at birth. Some infants were also placed on mattresses. Admission axillary temperatures were measured in all infants on admission to the neonatal intensive care. We compared the temperatures of infants treated with bags alone to those treated with mattresses and bags. We studied 43 infants: 15 were treated with bags while 28 were treated with a bag and mattress. Mean admission temperature was similar between the groups. Hypothermia and hyperthermia occurred more frequently in infants treated with a bag and mattress, and more infants treated with a bag had admission temperatures 36.5-37.5°C. The use of exothermic mattresses in addition to polyethylene bags, particularly in younger, smaller newborns, may result in more hypothermia and hyperthermia on admission. A randomised controlled trial is necessary to determine which strategy results in more infants having admission temperatures in the normal range. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  18. Clinical application of vacuum bag immobilization of the trunk in malignant tumor patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Jianxin; Wu Yuqi; Huang Jun; Lin Chengguang; Liu Hui; Huang Xiaoyan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical application of vacuum bag immobilization of thorax and pelvis for patients with malignant tumors. Methods: Of 714 patients (fields) chosen randomly, 582(fields) were immobilized with vacuum bag, while the other 132 (fields) used only sand bags, tapes, and other simple immobilizing devices. The field movements were measured and compared before and after the setup, along with 56 patients immobilized twice with vacuum bag. Results: The variance of movement before and after the setup was 6.7% for patients with vacuum bag , while that was 26.5% for patients without the vacuum bag. It was even 32.1% for patients immobilized twice with vacuum bag. Conclusions: The variance of movement decreases significantly with vacuum bag immobilization. It should be used as frequently as possible. As the variance of movement rises obviously when vacuum bag is used twice, the semi-soft vacuum bag should be prepared afresh and checked under the simulator before the second use. (authors)

  19. 2'-Hydroxycinnamaldehyde induces apoptosis through HSF1-mediated BAG3 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hai-Anh; Kim, Soo-A

    2017-01-01

    BAG3, a member of BAG co-chaperone family, is induced by stressful stimuli such as heat shock and heavy metals. Through interaction with various binding partners, BAG3 is thought to play a role in cellular adaptive responses against stressful conditions in normal and neoplastic cells. 2'-Hydroxycinnamaldehyde (HCA) is a natural derivative of cinnamaldehyde and has antitumor activity in various cancer cells. In the present study, for the first time, we identified that HCA induced BAG3 expression and BAG3-mediated apoptosis in cancer cells. The apoptotic cell death induced by HCA was demonstrated by caspase-7, -9 and PARP activation, and confirmed by Annexin V staining in both SW480 and SW620 colon cancer cells. Notably, both the mRNA and protein levels of BAG3 were largely induced by HCA in a dose- and time-dependent manner. By showing transcription factor HSF1 activation, we demonstrated that HCA induces the expression of BAG3 through HSF1 activation. More importantly, knockdown of BAG3 expression using siRNA largely inhibited HCA-induced apoptosis, suggesting that BAG3 is actively involved in HCA-induced cancer cell death. Considering the importance of the stress response mechanism in cancer progression, our results strongly suggest that BAG3 could be a potential target for anticancer therapy.

  20. Silencing of BAG3 inhibits the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fei; Wang, Geng; Ma, Zhifang; Ma, Yuebing; Wang, Yingying

    2017-11-10

    Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) has been reported to be involved in aggressive progression of many tumors. In the present study, we examined the expression of BAG3 in human cervical cancer (CC) tissues and investigated the role of BAG3 in SiHa and HeLa cell growth, migration, and invasion. Here, we found that most of CC tissues highly expressed the protein and mRNA of BAG3, while their expression was obviously lower in paired normal tissues (all pBAG3 expression was associated with FIGO stage and metastasis (all pBAG3 siRNAs inhibited SiHa and HeLa cell growth, invasion and migration. Mechanically, BAG3 siRNAs inhibited the expression of EMT-regulating markers, involving MMP2, Slug and N-cadherin, and increased the expression of E-cadherin. In a xenograft nude model, BAG3 siRNAs inhibited tumor growth and the expression of EMT biomarkers. In conclusion, BAG3 is involved in the EMT process, including cell growth, invasion and migration in the development of CC. Thus, BAG3 target might be recommended as a novel therapeutic approach.

  1. A role of BAG3 in regulating SNCA/α-synuclein clearance via selective macroautophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu-Lan; Yang, Ya-Ping; Mao, Cheng-Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Wang, Chen-Tao; Yang, Jing; Lv, Dong-Jun; Wang, Fen; Hu, Li-Fang; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2017-12-01

    Many studies reveal that BAG3 plays a critical role in the regulation of protein degradation via macroautophagy. However, it remains unknown whether BAG3 affects the quality control of α-synuclein (SNCA), a Parkinson's disease-related protein. In this study, we demonstrated the increases of BAG3 expression in the ventral midbrain of SNCA A53T transgenic mice and also in MG132-treated PC12 cells overexpressing wild-type SNCA (SNCA WT -PC12). Moreover, we showed that BAG3 overexpression was sufficient to enhance the autophagy activity while knockdown of Bag3 reduced it in SNCA WT -PC12 cells. Immunoprecipitation revealed that BAG3 interacted with heat shock protein 70 and sequestosome 1. The immunostaining also showed the perinuclear accumulation and colocalization of BAG3 with these 2 proteins, as well as with LC3 dots in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the midbrain of SNCA A53T mice. BAG3 overexpression was able to modulate SNCA degradation via macroautophagy which was prevented by Atg5 knockdown. Taken together, these results indicate that BAG3 plays a relevant role in regulating SNCA clearance via macroautophagy, and the heat shock protein 70-BAG3-sequestosome 1 complex may be involved in this process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. BAG3 protects bovine papillomavirus type 1-transformed equine fibroblasts against pro-death signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotugno, Roberta; Gallotta, Dario; d'Avenia, Morena; Corteggio, Annunziata; Altamura, Gennaro; Roperto, Franco; Belisario, Maria Antonietta; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe

    2013-07-22

    In human cancer cells, BAG3 protein is known to sustain cell survival. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate the expression of BAG3 protein both in equine sarcoids in vivo and in EqS04b cells, a sarcoid-derived fully transformed cell line harbouring bovine papilloma virus (BPV)-1 genome. Evidence of a possible involvement of BAG3 in equine sarcoid carcinogenesis was obtained by immunohistochemistry analysis of tumour samples. We found that most tumour samples stained positive for BAG3, even though to a different grade, while normal dermal fibroblasts from healthy horses displayed very weak staining pattern for BAG3 expression. By siRNA technology, we demonstrate in EqS04b the role of BAG3 in counteracting basal as well as chemical-triggered pro-death signals. BAG3 down-modulation was indeed shown to promote cell death and cell cycle arrest in G0/G1. In addition, we found that BAG3 silencing sensitized EqS04b cells to phenethylisothiocyanate (PEITC), a promising cancer chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic agent present in edible cruciferous vegetables. Notably, such a pro-survival role of BAG3 was less marked in E. Derm cells, an equine BPV-negative fibroblast cell line taken as a normal counterpart. Altogether our findings might suggest a mutual cooperation between BAG3 and viral oncoproteins to sustain cell survival.

  3. BAG3 sensitizes cancer cells exposed to DNA damaging agents via direct interaction with GRP78.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, De-Hui; Zhang, Qiang; Meng, Xin; Zong, Zhi-Hong; Li, Chao; Liu, Bao-Qin; Guan, Yifu; Wang, Hua-Qin

    2013-12-01

    Bcl-2 associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) has a modular structure that contains a BAG domain, a WW domain, a proline-rich (PxxP) domain to mediate potential interactions with chaperons and other proteins that participate in more than one signal transduction. In search for novel interacting partners, the current study identified that 78kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) was a novel partner interacting with BAG3. Interaction between GRP78 and BAG3 was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown. We also identified that the ATPase domain of GRP78 and BAG domain of BAG3 mediated their interaction. Counterintuitive for a prosurvival protein, BAG3 was found to promote the cytotoxicity of breast cancer MCF7, thyroid cancer FRO and glioma U87 cells subjected to genotoxic stress. In addition, the current study demonstrated that BAG3 interfered with the formation of the antiapoptotic GRP78-procaspase-7 complex, which resulted in an increased genotoxic stress-induced cytotoxicity in cancer cells. Furthermore, overexpression of GRP78 significantly blocked the enhancing effects of BAG3 on activation of caspase-7 and induction of apoptosis by genotoxic stress. Overall, these results suggested that through direct interaction BAG3 could prevent the antiapoptotic effect of GRP78 upon genotoxic stress. © 2013.

  4. BAG1: the guardian of anti-apoptotic proteins in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Aveic

    Full Text Available BCL2 associated Athano-Gene 1 (BAG1 is a multifunctional protein that has been described to be involved in different cell processes linked to cell survival. It has been reported as deregulated in diverse cancer types. Here, BAG1 protein was found highly expressed in children with acute myeloid leukemia at diagnosis, and in a cohort of leukemic cell lines. A silencing approach was used for determining BAG1's role in AML, finding that its down-regulation decreased expression of BCL2, BCL-XL, MCL1, and phospho-ERK1/2, all proteins able to sustain leukemia, without affecting the pro-apoptotic protein BAX. BAG1 down-regulation was also found to increase expression of BAG3, whose similar activity was able to compensate the loss of function of BAG1. BAG1/BAG3 co-silencing caused an enhanced cell predisposition to death in cell lines and also in primary AML cultures, affecting the same proteins. Cell death was CASPASE-3 dependent, was accompanied by PARP cleavage and documented by an increased release of pro-apoptotic molecules Smac/DIABLO and Cytochrome c. BAG1 was found to directly maintain BCL2 and to protect MCL1 from proteasomal degradation by controlling USP9X expression, which appeared to be its novel target. Finally, BAG1 was found able to affect leukemia cell fate by influencing the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins crucial for AML maintenance.

  5. Impact of storage environment on the efficacy of hermetic storage bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Brett; Woloshuk, Charles

    2017-05-01

    Small hermetic bags (50 and 100 kg capacities) used by smallholder farmers in several African countries have proven to be a low-cost solution for preventing storage losses due to insects. The complexity of postharvest practices and the need for ideal drying conditions, especially in the Sub-Sahara, has led to questions about the efficacy of the hermetic bags for controlling spoilage by fungi and the potential for mycotoxin accumulation. This study compared the effects of environmental temperature and relative humidity at two locations (Indiana and Arkansas) on dry maize (14% moisture content) in woven polypropylene bags and Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) hermetic bags. Temperature and relative humidity data loggers placed in the middle of each bag provided profiles of environmental influences on stored grain at the two locations. The results indicated that the PICS bags prevented moisture penetration over the three-month storage period. In contrast, maize in the woven bags increased in moisture content. For both bag types, no evidence was obtained indicating the spread of Aspergillus flavus from colonized maize to adjacent non-colonized maize. However, other storage fungi did increase during storage. The number of infected kernels did not increase in the PICS bags, but the numbers in the woven bags increased significantly. The warmer environment in Arkansas resulted in significantly higher insect populations in the woven bags than in Indiana. Insects in the PICS bags remained low at both locations. This study demonstrates that the PICS hermetic bags are effective at blocking the effects of external humidity fluctuations as well as the spread of fungi to non-infected kernels.

  6. Performance comparison of plastic shopping bags in modern and traditional retail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radini, F. A.; Wulandari, R.; Nasiri, S. J. A.; Winarto, D. A.

    2017-07-01

    Followed by implementation of paid plastic bag policy in Indonesia’s modern and traditional retail, community question related to plastic shopping bag performance arise. But, there is limited information about it. Therefore, the assessment of the performance to compare between plastic shopping bags in modern retail and traditional retail should be interesting. The observation performance of plastic shopping bag were weight holding capacity, tear resistant and elongation. This performance were tested using Universal Testing Machine. Physical and physico-chemical properties also identified to determine factor affecting the performance of plastic shopping bag. The physical properties were analysed using visual and thickness gauge to see the colour and measure the thickness. The analysis of physico-chemical properties were carried out using DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry), TGA (Thermal Gravimetry Analysis), Furnace and FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy) to identify the materials, also its melting and decomposition temperature. The result showed that the performance difference between modern retail plastic bag with traditional retail plastic bag appears only in the performance of elongation. The elongation of modern retail plastic bag is 121 - 413%, while traditional has 170 - 609%. According to physico-chemical test result, modern retail and traditional retail plastic bag contain polyethylene as main material and has melting temperature in the range of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) melting temperature. However, modern retail plastic bag has 18.31 - 33.87% of inorganic filler percentage, whereas the traditional retail plastic bag has 0.35 - 9.85%. This inorganic filler percentage probably a contributing factor in the elongation performance difference between modern retail plastic bag with traditional retail plastic bag.

  7. Algorithm for selection of optimized EPR distance restraints for de novo protein structure determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmier, Kelli; Alexander, Nathan S.; Meiler, Jens; Mchaourab, Hassane S.

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid protein structure determination approach combining sparse Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) distance restraints and Rosetta de novo protein folding has been previously demonstrated to yield high quality models (Alexander et al., 2008). However, widespread application of this methodology to proteins of unknown structures is hindered by the lack of a general strategy to place spin label pairs in the primary sequence. In this work, we report the development of an algorithm that optimally selects spin labeling positions for the purpose of distance measurements by EPR. For the α-helical subdomain of T4 lysozyme (T4L), simulated restraints that maximize sequence separation between the two spin labels while simultaneously ensuring pairwise connectivity of secondary structure elements yielded vastly improved models by Rosetta folding. 50% of all these models have the correct fold compared to only 21% and 8% correctly folded models when randomly placed restraints or no restraints are used, respectively. Moreover, the improvements in model quality require a limited number of optimized restraints, the number of which is determined by the pairwise connectivities of T4L α-helices. The predicted improvement in Rosetta model quality was verified by experimental determination of distances between spin labels pairs selected by the algorithm. Overall, our results reinforce the rationale for the combined use of sparse EPR distance restraints and de novo folding. By alleviating the experimental bottleneck associated with restraint selection, this algorithm sets the stage for extending computational structure determination to larger, traditionally elusive protein topologies of critical structural and biochemical importance. PMID:21074624

  8. Physical restraint use among nursing home residents: A comparison of two data collection methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voyer Philippe

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In view of the issues surrounding physical restraint use, it is important to have a method of measurement as valid and reliable as possible. We determined the sensitivity and specificity of physical restraint use a reported by nursing staff and b reviewed from medical and nursing records in nursing home settings, by comparing these methods with direct observation. Methods We sampled eight care units in skilled nursing homes, seven care units in nursing homes and one long-term care unit in a hospital, from eight facilities which included 28 nurses and 377 residents. Physical restraint use was assessed the day following three periods of direct observation by two different means: interview with one or several members of the regular nursing staff, and review of medical and nursing records. Sensitivity and specificity values were calculated according to 2-by-2 contingency tables. Differences between the methods were assessed using the phi coefficient. Other information collected included: demographic characteristics, disruptive behaviors, body alignment problems, cognitive and functional skills. Results Compared to direct observation (gold standard, reported restraint use by nursing staff yielded a sensitivity of 87.4% at a specificity of 93.7% (phi = 0.84. When data was reviewed from subjects' medical and nursing records, sensitivity was reduced to 74.8%, and specificity to 86.3% (phi = 0.54. Justifications for restraint use including risk for falls, agitation, body alignment problems and aggressiveness were associated with the use of physical restraints. Conclusions The interview of nursing staff and the review of medical and nursing records are both valid and reliable techniques for measuring physical restraint use among nursing home residents. Higher sensitivity and specificity values were achieved when nursing staff was interviewed as compared to reviewing medical records. This study suggests that the interview of nursing

  9. Effectiveness of a multifactorial intervention to reduce physical restraints in nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczy, Petra; Becker, Clemens; Rapp, Kilian; Klie, Thomas; Beische, Denis; Büchele, Gisela; Kleiner, Andrea; Guerra, Virginia; Rissmann, Ulrich; Kurrle, Susan; Bredthauer, Doris

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a multifactorial intervention to reduce the use of physical restraints in residents of nursing homes. Cluster-randomized controlled trial. Forty-five nursing homes in Germany. Three hundred thirty-three residents who were being restrained at the start of the intervention. Persons responsible for the intervention in the nursing homes attended a 6-hour training course that included education about the reasons restraints are used, the adverse effects, and alternatives to their use. Technical aids, such as hip protectors and sensor mats, were provided. The training was designed to give the change agents tools for problem-solving to prevent behavioral symptoms and injuries from falls without using physical restraints. The main outcome was the complete cessation of physical restraint use on 3 consecutive days 3 months after the start of the intervention. Secondary outcomes were partial reductions in restraint use, percentage of fallers, number of psychoactive drugs, and occurrence of behavioral symptoms. The probability of being unrestrained in the intervention group (IG) was more than twice that in the control group (CG) at the end of the study (odds ratio=2.16, 95% confidence interval=1.05-4.46). A partial reduction of restraint use was also about twice as often achieved in the IG as in the CG. No negative effect was observed regarding medication or behavioral symptoms. The percentage of fallers was higher in the IG. The intervention reduced restraint use without a significant increase in falling, behavioral symptoms, or medication. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

  10. Acute restraint stress induces endothelial dysfunction: role of vasoconstrictor prostanoids and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carda, Ana P P; Marchi, Katia C; Rizzi, Elen; Mecawi, André S; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Padovan, Claudia M; Tirapelli, Carlos R

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that acute stress would induce endothelial dysfunction. Male Wistar rats were restrained for 2 h within wire mesh. Functional and biochemical analyses were conducted 24 h after the 2-h period of restraint. Stressed rats showed decreased exploration on the open arms of an elevated-plus maze (EPM) and increased plasma corticosterone concentration. Acute restraint stress did not alter systolic blood pressure, whereas it increased the in vitro contractile response to phenylephrine and serotonin in endothelium-intact rat aortas. NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; nitric oxide synthase, NOS, inhibitor) did not alter the contraction induced by phenylephrine in aortic rings from stressed rats. Tiron, indomethacin and SQ29548 reversed the increase in the contractile response to phenylephrine induced by restraint stress. Increased systemic and vascular oxidative stress was evident in stressed rats. Restraint stress decreased plasma and vascular nitrate/nitrite (NOx) concentration and increased aortic expression of inducible (i) NOS, but not endothelial (e) NOS. Reduced expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, but not COX-2, was observed in aortas from stressed rats. Restraint stress increased thromboxane (TX)B(2) (stable TXA(2) metabolite) concentration but did not affect prostaglandin (PG)F2α concentration in the aorta. Restraint reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, whereas concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were not affected. The major new finding of our study is that restraint stress increases vascular contraction by an endothelium-dependent mechanism that involves increased oxidative stress and the generation of COX-derived vasoconstrictor prostanoids. Such stress-induced endothelial dysfunction could predispose to the development of cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Use of top tethers with forward-facing child restraints: observations and driver interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, Angela H; Decina, Lawrence E; Jermakian, Jessica S; McCartt, Anne T

    2014-02-01

    Despite the safety benefits, many parents do not use top tethers with forward-facing child restraints. Detailed information was collected about why parents are not using tethers. The sample included 479 drivers who had forward-facing child restraints installed in passenger vehicles equipped with tether anchors. The survey was conducted primarily at shopping centers, recreation facilities, child care facilities, car seat check events, and health care facilities in mostly suburban areas surrounding Philadelphia, Washington, DC, Fredericksburg (VA), and Seattle. Drivers were surveyed about their knowledge and use of tethers and experience with child restraints. Tether use was observed to verify whether tethers were being used correctly. Fifty-six percent of forward-facing child restraints were installed with the tether; 39% were installed with the tether used correctly. The tether was used with 71% of LATCH lower anchor installations and 33% of seat belt installations. Drivers who installed child restraints without tethers most often said they did not know about the tether or how to use it. Although the tether use rate was slightly higher in the current research than in previous studies, many parents and caregivers still use forward-facing child restraints without attaching the tether. Because the main problem is lack of awareness of the tether or how to use it, public education should focus specifically on the safety benefits of tethers and how to use them. Information about why caregivers fail to use top tethers is potentially useful to child restraint manufacturers, child passenger safety technicians, and others who work with parents to improve motor vehicle safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  12. Anterior haptic flexing and in-the-bag subluxation of an accommodating intraocular lens due to excessive capsular bag contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Gregory D; Werner, Liliana; Neuhann, Tobias; Tetz, Manfred; Mamalis, Nick

    2015-09-01

    We describe the case of a patient who had cataract surgery with implantation of the hydrophilic acrylic Tetraflex accommodating intraocular lens (IOL), with subsequent development of capsulorhexis phimosis and in-the-bag IOL subluxation. Contraction of the capsular bag secondary to fibrosis resulted in significant anterior flexing of the lens haptic component. Explantation of the IOL-capsular bag complex was required 7 years after implantation. Histopathologic analysis demonstrated multiple areas of thick anterior subcapsular fibrosis. Pseudoexfoliative material was present throughout the surface of the lens capsule. Intraocular lenses manufactured from hydrophilic acrylic material are highly flexible and may be more susceptible to capsule contraction, even in the absence of predisposing ocular and systemic conditions. This case highlights the importance of developing guidelines regarding patient screening and selection for the appropriate use of accommodating and other highly flexible IOLs. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cardiovascular and hormonal responses of conscious pigs during physical restraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, C.E.; Bossone, C.A.; Hannon, J.P.; Hunt, M.M.; Rodkey, W.G.

    1986-01-01

    We investigated the effect of physical restraint on cardiovascular function and plasma hormone levels in 20 to 25 kg conscious Duroc pigs. Pigs were placed in a Pavlov sling or remained in a portable holding cage. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored and blood samples taken at 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 30, 60, 120 and 240 min. Placement into the sling increased heart rate from 106 ''+ or -'' 3 to 151 ''+ or -'' 13 beats/min and mean arterial pressure rose from 95 ''+ or -'' 2 to 115 ''+ or -'' 2 mm Hg. Both heart rate and blood pressure returned to basal values within 10 min. Hematocrit was increased from 26 ''+ or -'' 1 to 32 ''+ or -'' 1%. Heart rate, blood pressure and hematocrit were not changed in caged animals. Plasma norepinephrine increased from 179 ''+ or -'' 32 to 461 ''+ or -'' 52 pg/ml returning to basal values within 10 min. Epinephrine showed a similar trend rising from 69 ''+ or -'' 10 to 337 ''+ or -'' 53 pg/ml. Plasma renin activity increased after 5 min in the sling and remained increased from a basal level of 1.0 ''+ or -'' 0.2 to 2.8 ''+ or -'' 0.5 ng AI/ml/hr at four hr. Plasma cortisol (4.5 ''+ or -'' 0.6 to 8.2 ''+ or -'' 1.5 microg/dl), ACTH (45 ''+ or -'' 9 to 169 ''+ or -'' pg/ml) and aldosterone (3.5 ''+ or -'' 0.4 to 11.2 ''+ or -'' 1.1 ng/dl) rose over the four hr period. Pigs in cages showed no change in plasma hormones. Placement of an untrained pig into a sling raises heart rate, blood pressure and hematocrit and produces increases in plasma concentrations of epinephrine, ACTH, cortisol and aldosterone

  14. Women, sex and marriage. Restraint as a feminine strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishwar, M

    1997-01-01

    The expression of sexuality varies in different cultures, and most societies attempt to control sexuality through the institution of marriage. In the West, the availability of cheap, effective contraceptives separated sex from reproduction and promoted the sexual liberation of women. Today, while divorce is common, sexually liberated people nevertheless engage in a form of serial monogamy. Sexual liberation in the West causes women to be exploited by men and creates instability in nuclear families. In India, feminism is tempered by a belief that familial rights have precedence over individual rights. India women practice sexual self-denial after being widowed to protect their children and to gain power and respect in the community. The power of chastity was illustrated by Mahatma Gandhi who marshalled his spiritual forces to fight for independence. The stories of many individual women illustrate how they attain status and prestige through chastity. Other women maintain absolute marital faithfulness as a marital strategy to control wayward husbands. These women deemphasize their roles as wives and emphasize their roles as mothers. The children of such women often recognize their sacrifices and become their strongest allies. On the other hand, examples of women who have chosen sexual freedom show that such a choice places them at the mercy of men, makes them social outcasts, and causes other women to distrust them as competitors for their husbands. In patriarchal societies, women can not win if they try to mimic men's capacity for irresponsible sex. Sexual freedom can only work for women in matrilineal communities that shun marriage in favor of strong ties within a woman's natal family. Indian women rooted in the extended family enjoy the resilience and flexibility attendant upon playing a larger role than simply pleasing men. Opting for sexual restraint can be an effective though costly strategy to achieve the sympathy and support of an extended family when a man is

  15. Restraint stress intensifies interstitial K+ accumulation during severe hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eSchnell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress affects neuronal networks by inducing dendritic retraction, modifying neuronal excitability and plasticity, and modulating glial cells. To elucidate the functional consequences of chronic stress for the hippocampal network, we submitted adult rats to daily restraint stress for three weeks (6 h/day. In acute hippocampal tissue slices of stressed rats, basal synaptic function and short-term plasticity at Schaffer collateral/CA1 neuron synapses were unchanged while long-term potentiation was markedly impaired. The spatiotemporal propagation pattern of hypoxia-induced spreading depression episodes was indistinguishable among control and stress slices. However, the duration of the extracellular direct current (DC potential shift was shortened after stress. Moreover, K+ fluxes early during hypoxia were more intense, and the postsynaptic recoveries of interstitial K+ levels and synaptic function were slower. Morphometric analysis of immunohistochemically stained sections suggested hippocampal shrinkage in stressed rats, and the number of cells that are immunoreactive for GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein was increased in the CA1 subfield indicating activation of astrocytes. Western blots showed a marked downregulation of the inwardly rectifying K+ channel Kir4.1 in stressed rats. Yet, resting membrane potentials, input resistance and K+-induced inward currents in CA1 astrocytes were indistinguishable from controls. These data indicate an intensified interstitial K+ accumulation during hypoxia in the hippocampus of chronically stressed rats which seems to arise from a reduced interstitial volume fraction rather than impaired glial K+ buffering. One may speculate that chronic stress aggravates hypoxia-induced pathophysiological processes in the hippocampal network and that this has implications for the ischemic brain.

  16. Optimising product advice based on age when design criteria are based on weight: child restraints in vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R W G; Hutchinson, T P

    2009-03-01

    The motivation for this paper is the high rate of inappropriate child restraint selection in cars that is apparent in published surveys of child restraint use and how the public health messages promoting child restraints might respond. Advice has increasingly been given solely according to the child's weight, while many parents do not know the weight of their children. A common objection to promoting restraint use based on the age of the child is the imprecision of such advice, given the variation in the size of children, but the magnitude of the misclassification such advice would produce has never been estimated. This paper presents a method for estimating the misclassification of children by weight, when advice is posed in terms of age, and applies it to detailed child growth data published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In Australia, guidelines instructing all parents to promote their children from an infant restraint to a forward-facing child seat at 6 months, and then to a belt-positioning booster at 4 years, would mean that 5% of all children under the age of 6 years would be using a restraint not suited to their weight. Coordination of aged-based advice and the weight ranges chosen for the Australian Standard on child restraints could reduce this level of misclassification to less than 1%. The general method developed may also be applied to other aspects of restraint design that are more directly relevant to good restraint fit.

  17. BAG3 promotes chondrosarcoma progression by upregulating the expression of β-catenin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huijuan; Chen, Wenfang; Dong, Yu; Lu, Xiaofang; Zhang, Wenhui; Wang, Liantang

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the roles of B-cell lymphoma-2 associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) in human chondrosarcoma and the potential mechanisms, the expression levels of BAG3 were detected in the present study, and the associations between BAG3 and clinical pathological parameters, clinical stage as well as the survival of patients were analyzed. The present study detected BAG3 mRNA and protein expression in the normal cartilage cell line HC-a and in SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The BAG3 protein expression in 59 cases of chondrosarcoma, 30 patients with endogenous chondroma and 8 cases of normal cartilage was semi-quantitatively analyzed using the immunohistochemical method. In addition, the BAG3 protein expression level, the clinical pathological parameters, clinical stage and the survival time of patients with chondrosarcoma were analyzed. The plasmid transfection method was employed to upregulate the expression BAG3 and small RNA interference to downregulate the expression of BAG3 in SW1353 cells. The expression levels of BAG3 protein and mRNA were significantly increased in the chondrosarcoma cell line when compared with the normal cartilage cell line. The immunohistochemistry results indicated that BAG3 protein was overexpressed in the tissue of human chondrosarcoma. Statistical analysis showed that the expression level of BAG3 was significantly increased in the different Enneking staging of patients with chondrosarcoma and Tumor staging, and there were no statistical differences in age, gender, histological classification and tumor size. In the in vitro experiments, the data revealed that BAG3 significantly promoted chondrosarcoma cell proliferation, colony-formation, migration and invasion; however, it inhibited chondrosarcoma cell apoptosis. It was observed that BAG3 upregulated β-catenin expression at the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, BAG3 induced the expression of runt

  18. BAG3 promotes chondrosarcoma progression by upregulating the expression of β-catenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huijuan; Chen, Wenfang; Dong, Yu; Lu, Xiaofang; Zhang, Wenhui; Wang, Liantang

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the roles of B‑cell lymphoma‑2 associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) in human chondrosarcoma and the potential mechanisms, the expression levels of BAG3 were detected in the present study, and the associations between BAG3 and clinical pathological parameters, clinical stage as well as the survival of patients were analyzed. The present study detected BAG3 mRNA and protein expression in the normal cartilage cell line HC‑a and in SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The BAG3 protein expression in 59 cases of chondrosarcoma, 30 patients with endogenous chondroma and 8 cases of normal cartilage was semi-quantitatively analyzed using the immunohistochemical method. In addition, the BAG3 protein expression level, the clinical pathological parameters, clinical stage and the survival time of patients with chondrosarcoma were analyzed. The plasmid transfection method was employed to upregulate the expression BAG3 and small RNA interference to downregulate the expression of BAG3 in SW1353 cells. The expression levels of BAG3 protein and mRNA were significantly increased in the chondrosarcoma cell line when compared with the normal cartilage cell line. The immunohistochemistry results indicated that BAG3 protein was overexpressed in the tissue of human chondrosarcoma. Statistical analysis showed that the expression level of BAG3 was significantly increased in the different Enneking staging of patients with chondrosarcoma and Tumor staging, and there were no statistical differences in age, gender, histological classification and tumor size. In the in vitro experiments, the data revealed that BAG3 significantly promoted chondrosarcoma cell proliferation, colony‑formation, migration and invasion; however, it inhibited chondrosarcoma cell apoptosis. It was observed that BAG3 upregulated β‑catenin expression at the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, BAG3 induced the

  19. BAG3 regulates contractility and Ca(2+) homeostasis in adult mouse ventricular myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Arthur M; Gordon, Jennifer; Wang, JuFang; Song, Jianliang; Zhang, Xue-Qian; Myers, Valerie D; Tilley, Douglas G; Gao, Erhe; Hoffman, Nicholas E; Tomar, Dhanendra; Madesh, Muniswamy; Rabinowitz, Joseph; Koch, Walter J; Su, Feifei; Khalili, Kamel; Cheung, Joseph Y

    2016-03-01

    Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) is a 575 amino acid anti-apoptotic protein that is constitutively expressed in the heart. BAG3 mutations, including mutations leading to loss of protein, are associated with familial cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, BAG3 levels have been found to be reduced in end-stage non-familial failing myocardium. In contrast to neonatal myocytes in which BAG3 is found in the cytoplasm and involved in protein quality control and apoptosis, in adult mouse left ventricular (LV) myocytes BAG3 co-localized with Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and L-type Ca(2+) channels in the sarcolemma and t-tubules. BAG3 co-immunoprecipitated with β1-adrenergic receptor, L-type Ca(2+) channels and phospholemman. To simulate decreased BAG3 protein levels observed in human heart failure, we targeted BAG3 by shRNA (shBAG3) in adult LV myocytes. Reducing BAG3 by 55% resulted in reduced contraction and [Ca(2+)]i transient amplitudes in LV myocytes stimulated with isoproterenol. L-type Ca(2+) current (ICa) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) content but not Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange current (INaCa) or SR Ca(2+) uptake were reduced in isoproterenol-treated shBAG3 myocytes. Forskolin or dibutyryl cAMP restored ICa amplitude in shBAG3 myocytes to that observed in WT myocytes, consistent with BAG3 having effects upstream and at the level of the receptor. Resting membrane potential and action potential amplitude were unaffected but APD50 and APD90 were prolonged in shBAG3 myocytes. Protein levels of Ca(2+) entry molecules and other important excitation-contraction proteins were unchanged in myocytes with lower BAG3. Our findings that BAG3 is localized at the sarcolemma and t-tubules while modulating myocyte contraction and action potential duration through specific interaction with the β1-adrenergic receptor and L-type Ca(2+) channel provide novel insight into the role of BAG3 in cardiomyopathies and increased arrhythmia risks in heart failure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  20. BAG3 regulates contractility and Ca2+ homeostasis in adult mouse ventricular myocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Arthur M.; Gordon, Jennifer; Wang, JuFang; Song, Jianliang; Zhang, Xue-Qian; Myers, Valerie D.; Tilley, Douglas G.; Gao, Erhe; Hoffman, Nicholas E.; Tomar, Dhanendra; Madesh, Muniswamy; Rabinowitz, Joseph; Koch, Walter J.; Su, Feifei; Khalili, Kamel; Cheung, Joseph Y.

    2016-01-01

    Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) is a 575 amino acid anti-apoptotic protein that is constitutively expressed in the heart. BAG3 mutations, including mutations leading to loss of protein, are associated with familial cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, BAG3 levels have been found to be reduced in end-stage non-familial failing myocardium. In contrast to neonatal myocytes in which BAG3 is found in the cytoplasm and involved in protein quality control and apoptosis, in adult mouse left ventricular (LV) myocytes BAG3 co-localized with Na+-K+-ATPase and L-type Ca2+ channels in the sarcolemma and t-tubules. BAG3 co-immunoprecipitated with β1-adrenergic receptor, L-type Ca2+ channels and phospholemman. To simulate decreased BAG3 protein levels observed in human heart failure, we targeted BAG3 by shRNA (shBAG3) in adult LV myocytes. Reducing BAG3 by 55% resulted in reduced contraction and [Ca2+]i transient amplitudes in LV myocytes stimulated with isoproterenol. L-type Ca2+ current (ICa) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ content but not Na+/Ca2+ exchange current (INaCa) or SR Ca2+ uptake were reduced in isoproterenol-treated shBAG3 myocytes. Forskolin or dibutyrl cAMP restored ICa amplitude in shBAG3 myocytes to that observed in WT myocytes, consistent with BAG3 having effects upstream and at the level of the receptor. Resting membrane potential and action potential amplitude were unaffected but APD50 and APD90 were prolonged in shBAG3 myocytes. Protein levels of Ca2+ entry molecules and other important excitation-contraction proteins were unchanged in myocytes with lower BAG3. Our findings that BAG3 is localized at the sarcolemma and t-tubules while modulating myocyte contraction and action potential duration through specific interaction with the β1-adrenergic receptor and L-type Ca2+ channel provide novel insight into the role of BAG3 in cardiomyopathies and increased arrhythmia risks in heart failure. PMID:26796036