Sample records for air ambulances

  1. Air ambulance medical transport advertising and marketing. (United States)


    The National Association of EMS Physicians (NAEMSP), the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP), the Air Medical Physician Association (AMPA), the Association of Air Medical Services (AAMS), and the National Association of State EMS Officials (NASEMSO) believe that patient care and outcomes are optimized by using air medical transport services that are licensed air ambulance providers with robust physician medical director oversight and ongoing quality assessment and review. Only air ambulance medical transport services with these credentials should advertise/market themselves as air ambulance services.

  2. 75 FR 62639 - Air Ambulance and Commercial Helicopter Operations, Part 91 Helicopter Operations, and Part 135... (United States)


    ...--Nautical mile NTSB--National Transportation Safety Board NVG--Night vision goggles NVIS--Night-vision... ambulances have varying situational- awareness technology (such as night vision goggles, HTAWS, radio... during night conditions as four common factors in helicopter air ambulance accidents. A review...

  3. Mission impossible or border security – Practical and effective infection control on air ambulances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kuhn*


    These principles have been applied to our air ambulance system based from Lanseria International Airport. By combining preventative and control measures, there has been no breach in our infection control strategies, as evidenced by no growth noted on specific and random swabs even when more and more ”super bugs” are being identified in hospital. As an air ambulance service flying patients from various African countries, we have the responsibility to conduct our own ”Border Security” to keep our hospitals, patients, aircraft and crews clean and safe. In this presentation we will share our ”Border Security” principles and experiences with the audience.

  4. Risk Management Analysis of Air Ambulance Blood Product Administration in Combat Operations (United States)


    Combat Operations 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Nicole Powell-Dunford, Jose F. Quesada , Robert F...Analysis of Air Ambulance Blood Product Administration in Combat Operations Nicole Powell-Dunford , Jose F. Quesada , Robert F. Malsby , Victoria...Schofi eld Barracks, Wahiawa, HI; Jose F. Quesada , M.S., M.D., 440th Blood Support Detachment, and Robert Gerhardt, M.D., M.P.H., FACEP, U.S. Army

  5. The equestrian sport-related injury workload of a regional doctor-led air ambulance unit. (United States)

    Bleetman, David


    The Great Western Ambulance Service Air Support Unit (ASU) was established in July 2007. The helicopter carries a doctor, providing a Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) model of care. Equestrian sport-related injuries account for 6.8% of the unit's total attended case load. Horse riding has a higher rate of severe injury than motorcycle racing and 45% of patients admitted with equestrian injuries require surgical intervention. Orthopaedic injuries to the extremities are commonest, superseding head injuries since the introduction of protective headwear. The majority of equestrian sport-related injuries occur in areas inaccessible to land crews. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the ASU mission database from July 2008 to December 2009 (18 months) and identified 29 patients that were attended to by the ASU. The patient cohort had a female majority with an average age of 31.9. 10 Patients (34.5%) were under the age of 20. The ISS ranged from 1 to 75 (mean, 4.8; median, 1) and injuries to the extremities were commonest. The location of the accident was inaccessible to land ambulance in 55.2% of missions. The average mission time was over 2h. Doctors delivered more advanced (medical) interventions in 20.7% of missions. In 41.4% of missions, there were no such interventions performed by the attending doctor and no access to land ambulance. We therefore conclude that a large proportion of ASU dispatches were due to limited access rather than for the delivery of advanced interventions. However, our results support the opinion that horse riding carries some risk of serious injury and when employed appropriately, HEMS doctors on the ASU are a useful resource for a minority of equestrian sport-related injuries.

  6. Hospital survival upon discharge of ill-neonates transported by ground or air ambulance to a tertiary center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Alvarado-Socarras


    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the differences in hospital survival between modes of transport to a tertiary center in Colombia for critically ill neonates. Methods: Observational study of seriously ill neonates transported via air or ground, who required medical care at a center providing highly complex services. Data on sociodemographic, clinical, the Transport Risk Index of Physiologic Stability (TRIPS, and mode of transport were collected. Patients were described, followed by a bivariate analysis with condition (live or dead at time of discharge as the dependent variable. A multiple Poisson regression with robust variance model was used to adjust associations. Results: A total of 176 neonates were transported by ambulance (10.22% by air over six months. The transport distances were longer by air (median: 237.5 km than by ground (median: 11.3 km. Mortality was higher among neonates transported by air (33.33% than by ground (7.79%. No differences in survival were found between the two groups when adjusted by the multiple model. An interaction between mode of transport and distance was observed. Live hospital discharge was found to be associated with clinical severity upon admittance, birth weight, hemorrhaging during the third trimester, and serum potassium levels when admitted. Conclusions: Mode of transport was not associated with the outcome. In Colombia, access to medical services through air transport is a good option for neonates in critical condition. Further studies would determine the optimum distance (time of transportation to obtain good clinical outcomes according type of ambulance.

  7. The effect of active warming in prehospital trauma care during road and air ambulance transportation - a clinical randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naredi Peter


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention and treatment of hypothermia by active warming in prehospital trauma care is recommended but scientifical evidence of its effectiveness in a clinical setting is scarce. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of additional active warming during road or air ambulance transportation of trauma patients. Methods Patients were assigned to either passive warming with blankets or passive warming with blankets with the addition of an active warming intervention using a large chemical heat pad applied to the upper torso. Ear canal temperature, subjective sensation of cold discomfort and vital signs were monitored. Results Mean core temperatures increased from 35.1°C (95% CI; 34.7-35.5°C to 36.0°C (95% CI; 35.7-36.3°C (p Conclusions In mildly hypothermic trauma patients, with preserved shivering capacity, adequate passive warming is an effective treatment to establish a slow rewarming rate and to reduce cold discomfort during prehospital transportation. However, the addition of active warming using a chemical heat pad applied to the torso will significantly improve thermal comfort even further and might also reduce the cold induced stress response. Trial Registration NCT01400152

  8. Oregon Air Ambulance Services. (United States)


    34 SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THjIS PAGE (147.- D.In Enieod) REPORT DO~ CUMEN ~TATIONI PAGE REAL) 1NST1RucTrIONSMB 1E1ORE COMP1LETI-’YNG FORM 1 . REPORT NUMBER... reactions to flight must be guarded. 4. Aeromedical Transport. A breakdown of the 152 patients transported by agency is presented on Table 8. Agency No. 11

  9. Monitoring the effect of air pollution episodes on health care consultations and ambulance call-outs in England during March/April 2014: A retrospective observational analysis. (United States)

    Elliot, Alex J; Smith, Sue; Dobney, Alec; Thornes, John; Smith, Gillian E; Vardoulakis, Sotiris


    There is an increasing body of evidence illustrating the negative health effects of air pollution including increased risk of respiratory, cardiac and other morbid conditions. During March and April 2014 there were two air pollution episodes in England that occurred in close succession. We used national real-time syndromic surveillance systems, including general practitioner (GP) consultations, emergency department attendances, telehealth calls and ambulance dispatch calls to further understand the impact of these short term acute air pollution periods on the health seeking behaviour of the general public. Each air pollution period was comparable with respect to particulate matter concentrations (PM10 and PM2.5), however, the second period was longer in duration (6 days vs 3 days) and meteorologically driven 'Sahara dust' contributed to the pollution. Health surveillance data revealed a greater impact during the second period, with GP consultations, emergency department attendances and telehealth (NHS 111) calls increasing for asthma, wheeze and difficulty breathing indicators, particularly in patients aged 15-64 years. Across regions of England there was good agreement between air quality levels and health care seeking behaviour. The results further demonstrate the acute impact of short term air pollution episodes on public health and also illustrate the potential role of mass media reporting in escalating health care seeking behaviour.

  10. Investigation of the contamination of air and articles in ambulance and the effect of disinfection observation%救护车内空气、物品染菌量调查及干预效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective: To investigate the bacterial contamination of air and articles in ambulance, and observe the effect of disinfection. Methods: The bacterial contamination of the air and articles in one ambulance were detected before and after disinfection in early,middle and end per month from May. 2009 to Oct. 2009. Results :The pollution situation of air and articles in ambulance was serious before disinfection. The bacterial contamination was decreased significantly after disinfection. And the difference was statistically significant( P < 0.01 ). Conclusions: The pollution situation of air and articles in ambulance is serious. It is necessary to establish a strict disinfection management system.%目的:调查救护车内空气、物品的染菌量情况,观察消毒处理的效果.方法:2009年5~10月的每月上、中、下旬对3辆救护车内空气和物品表面进行消毒前后染菌量监测.结果:消毒前救护车内空气和物品的污染情况严重,消毒后染菌量明显下降(P<0.01).结论:救护车内空气和物品的污染状况严重,需加强其消毒和监测工作.

  11. Ambulance 3G. (United States)

    Banitsas, Konstantinos; Perakis, Konstantinos; Koutsouris, Dimitrios; Konis, Georgios; Tachakra, Sapal


    Minimising the time required for a patient to receive primary care has always been the concern of the Accidents and Emergency units. Ambulances are usually the first to arrive on the scene and to administer first aid. However, as the time that it takes to transfer the patient to the hospital increases, so does the fatality rate. In this paper, a mobile teleconsultation system is presented, based primarily on third generation mobile links and on Wi-Fi hotspots around a city. This system can be installed inside an ambulance and will permit high-resolution videoconferencing between the moving vehicle and a doctor or a consultant within a base station (usually a hospital). In addition to video and voice, high quality still images and screenshots from medical equipment can also be sent. The test was carried out in Athens, Greece where a 3G system was recently deployed by Vodafone. The results show that the system can perform satisfactory in most conditions and can effectively increase the patient's quality of service, while having a modest cost.

  12. Superior Ambulance Call Out Rate Forecasting Using Meteorological Data (United States)

    Mahmood, M. A.; Thornes, J. E.; Bloss, W.; Pope, F.


    Ambulances are an integral part of a country's infrastructure ensuring its citizens and visitors are kept healthy. The impact of weather, climate and climate change on ambulance services around the world has received increasing attention in recent years but most studies have been area specific and there is a need to establish basic relationships between ambulance data (both response and illness data) and meteorological parameters. In this presentation, the effects of temperature and relative humidity on ambulance call out rates for different medical categories will be investigated. We use call out data obtained from the London Ambulance Service (LAS) and meteorological data from a central London meteorological station. A time-series analysis was utilized to understand the relation between temperature, relative humidity, air pollutants and different call out categories. There are statistically significant relationships between mean temperature and ambulance callout rate for most of the categories investigated. Most categories show a negative dependence on temperature, i.e. call outs increase with decreasing temperature but some categories showed a positive dependence such as alcohol related call outs. Relative humidity is significant for some categories but in general is much less important than temperature. Significant time lag effects were observed for most of the categories related to infectious illnesses, which are transferrable through human contact. These findings support the opinion that ambulance attendance callouts records are an effective and well-timed source of data and can be used for health early warning systems. Furthermore the presented results can much improve our understanding of the relationships between meteorological conditions and human health thereby allowing for better prediction of ambulance use through the application of long and short-term weather forecasts.

  13. Intelligent Ambulance Traffic Assistance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available With the increase in traffic road density, several causalities occur due to delay in taking a patient to the hospital in an ambulance. In this paper, we have developed an algorithm to find the shortest path to reach the required destination. As required the software will identify the present location of the vehicle and ask the user for the destination. Then it will show all the available paths, highlighting the shortest one or in several cases the most optimum one. Further we made the traffic signals automated for special vehicles like an ambulance or a fire-engine such that the signals will go green for the ambulance as it comes in the vicinity of the traffic signal, thus providing them with a clear path to reach its destination. The original signal is restored as soon as the ambulance goes undetected by the Bluetooth scanner of the traffic signal.

  14. [Ambulant treatment of alcohol withdrawal]. (United States)

    Nüstedt, Volker


    Most of the patients addicted to alcohol are socially well integrated. The offer of a low threshold ambulant withdrawal therapy opens an opportunity to build a sustainable therapeutic relationship. The so started empathic addiction therapy will be well accepted and will lead to a satisfying outcome. Using Clomethiazole or Oxazepam in a daily reduced dose and with daily personal contacts, the ambulant withdrawal in patients without seizures or delir in medical history is a secure and successful therapeutic option.

  15. Physical workload of ambulance assistants. (United States)

    Doormaal, M T; Driessen, A P; Landeweerd, J A; Drost, M R


    The physical workload of ambulance assistants was assessed by means of the Ovako Working posture Analysis System (OWAS) observation method and a Work and Health Questionnaire (WHQ) for measuring perceived workload. In addition, a biomechanical model was applied to several specifically strenuous conditions that were simulated in a laboratory situation. Bad postures were identified for a number of activities: 16% to 29% of a work shift was spent in harmful positions. Strenuous situations occur particularly during rides in emergency situations. The results of observed and perceived workload are generally in agreement. A number of practical recommendations are made. They concern, for example, the equipment in ambulance cars, training of ambulance assistants and adaptations in working procedures.

  16. A Theory of Ambulance Chasing

    CERN Document Server

    Backović, Mihailo


    Ambulance chasing is a common socio-scientific phenomenon in particle physics. I argue that despite the seeming complexity, it is possible to gain insight into both the qualitative and quantitative features of ambulance chasing dynamics. Compound-Poisson statistics suffices to accommodate the time evolution of the cumulative number of papers on a topic, where basic assumptions that the interest in the topic as well as the number of available ideas decrease with time appear to drive the time evolution. It follows that if the interest scales as an inverse power law in time, the cumulative number of papers on a topic is well described by a di-gamma function, with a distinct logarithmic behavior at large times. In cases where the interest decreases exponentially with time, the model predicts that the total number of papers on the topic will converge to a fixed value as time goes to infinity. I demonstrate that the two models are able to fit at least 9 specific instances of ambulance chasing in particle physics us...

  17. Air ambulance and hospital services for critically ill and injured in Greenland, Iceland and the Faroe Islands: how can we improve? (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Björn; Jensen, Niels S Kieler; Garði, Tummas I; Harðardóttir, Helga; Stefánsdóttir, Lilja; Heimisdóttir, María


    The Nordic Atlantic Cooperation (NORA) is an intergovernmental organization under the auspices of the Nordic Council of Ministers. The NORA region comprises Greenland, Iceland, Faroe Islands and western coastal areas of Norway. Historical, cultural and institutional links bind these nations together in multiple ways, and regional co-operation has in recent years become a focus of interest. This commentary addresses air medical services (AMSs) and available advanced hospital services in the 3 smallest NORA countries challenged sparse populations, hereafter referred to as the region. It seems likely that strengthened regional co-operation can help these countries to address common challenges within health care by exchanging know-how and best practices, pooling resources and improving the efficiency of care delivery. The 4 largest hospitals in the region, Dronning Ingrids Hospital in Nuuk (Greenland), Landspítali in Reykjavík and Sjúkrahúsið á Akureyri, (both in Iceland) and Landssjúkrahúsið Tórshavn on the Faroe Islands, have therefore undertaken the project Network for patient transport in the North-West Atlantic (in Danish: Netværk for patienttransport i Vest-Norden). The goal of the project, and of this article, is to exchange information and provide an overview of current AMSs and access to acute hospital care for severely ill or injured patients in the 3 participating countries. Of equal importance is the intention to highlight the need for increased regional co-operation to optimize use of limited resources in the provision of health care services.

  18. Riding Third: Social Work in Ambulance Work (United States)

    Campbell, Hilary; Rasmussen, Brian


    This research explored the possible role of social work alongside emergency ambulance services. An ethnographic study included semistructured interviews and direct observations collected over 300 hours while riding in ambulances in an urban setting. The data suggest that social work could play a role by providing needed psychosocial care during…

  19. 42 CFR 410.41 - Requirements for ambulance suppliers. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for ambulance suppliers. 410.41... § 410.41 Requirements for ambulance suppliers. (a) Vehicle. A vehicle used as an ambulance must meet the... ALS services. (c) Billing and reporting requirements. An ambulance supplier must comply with...

  20. Improving community ambulation after stroke: the AMBULATE trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindley Richard


    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been reported that following rehabilitation, only 7% of stroke survivors are able to walk at a level commensurate with community participation. Previous research indicates that treadmill and overground walking training can improve walking capacity in people living in the community after stroke. The main objectives of the AMBULATE trial are to determine (i whether a 4-month treadmill walking program is more effective than a 2-month program, compared to control, in improving walking capacity, health and community participation and (ii the "threshold" walking speed that results in sufficient walking capacity that makes walking self-sustaining. Methods/Design A prospective randomised controlled trial of unsupported treadmill training with a 12 month follow-up with concealed allocation and blinded assessment will be conducted. 210 community-dwelling people after stroke who are able to walk independently but slowly will be recruited and randomly allocated to either a 4 month training group, 2 month training group or the control (no intervention group. Intervention for the two training groups will occur 3 days per week for 30 minutes each session. Measurements of walking, health and community participation will be taken at baseline, 2 months, 4 months, 6 months and 12 months. This study has obtained ethical approval from the relevant Human Research Ethics Committees. Discussion By improving stroke survivors' walking ability, it is likely also to improve their general wellbeing by promoting better health and greater community participation. Furthermore, if stroke survivors can reach a point where their walking and community participation is self-sustaining, this will reduce the burden of care on family and friends as well as the economic burden on the health system. Given the major demographic shift in developed nations involving significant growth in the aged population, this research will make an important evidence

  1. Application of 4 different sterilization methods applied for ambulance air disinfection%4种消毒方法在急救车物体表面消毒的应用效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒艳; 杨建国; 李素英; 王梅; 陈明


    目的 通过对北京市救护车污染状况、污染菌种的分析,研究探讨快速、有效、规范的救护车的消毒方法及卫生学监测标准. 方法 将164辆急救车分为4组,紫外线组、臭氧组、二氧化氯消毒剂组为3个试验组,清水组为对照组;每次急救车使用后及清洗消毒后对物体表面采样,并进行细菌培养计数及细菌鉴定. 结果 对照组、紫外线组、臭氧组及二氧化氯消毒剂组清洗消毒后菌落数分别是0.68、0.56、0.24、0.36 CFU/m2,均能达到消毒技术管理规范要求,符合Ⅲ类环境物体表面菌落总数≤10 CFU/m2范围,杀菌率分别为71.5%、82.9%、87.1%及82.1%,二氧化氯消毒剂擦拭的消毒效果明显好于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),紫外线和臭氧的消毒效果与对照比较,差异无统计学意义. 结论 二氧化氯消毒剂擦拭方法快速、有效,适用于急救车内壁及院外急救设备的卫生学监测标准.%OBJECTIVE To explore a rapid, effective and normative disinfection method and hygiene monitoring standard by analyzing ambulance pollution status and bacteria species. METHODS A total of 164 ambulances were divided into 4 groups, namely UV group, Ozone group, chlorine dioxide disinfectant group was set as experimental group and pure water group as control group. Every time after the use of ambulance and disinfection,the surfaces of ambulances were sampled, bacterial culture counts and the bacterial identification were performed.RESULTS After being disinfected, the colonies of 4 different methods were 0. 68,0. 56,0. 24 and 0. 36 CFU/m2 ,respectively, which met the requirement of management regulation and the No. 3 environmental standard on the total number of surface colonies (≤ 10 CFU/m2 ). The sterilization rates were 71. 5 %, 82. 9%, 87. 1 % and 82. 1 %, respectively. By pairwise comparison, the effect of chlorine dioxide aerosols was significantly better than that of control group (P<0

  2. Ambulance officers' use of online clinical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westbrook Mary T


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospital-based clinicians have been shown to use and attain benefits from online evidence systems. To our knowledge there have been no studies investigating whether and how ambulance officers use online evidence systems if provided. We surveyed ambulance officers to examine their knowledge and use of the Clinical Information Access Program (CIAP, an online evidence system providing 24-hour access to information to support evidence-based practice. Methods A questionnaire was completed by 278 ambulance officers in New South Wales, Australia. Comparisons were made between those who used CIAP and officers who had heard of, but not used CIAP. Results Half the sample (48.6% knew of, and 28.8% had used CIAP. Users were more likely to have heard of CIAP from a CIAP representative/presentation, non-users from written information. Compared to ambulance officers who had heard of but had not used CIAP, users were more likely to report better computer skills and that their supervisors regarded use of CIAP as a legitimate part of ambulance officers' clinical role. The main reasons for non-use were lack of access(49.0% and training(31.4%. Of users, 51.3% rated their skills at finding information as good/very good, 67.5% found the information sought all/most of the time, 87.3% believed CIAP had the potential to improve patient care and 28.2% had directly experienced this. Most access to CIAP occurred at home. The databases frequently accessed were MIMS (A medicines information database (73.8% and MEDLINE(67.5%. The major journals accessed were Journal of Emergency Nursing(37.5%, American Journal of Medicine(30.0% and JAMA(27.5%. Conclusion Over half of ambulance officers had not heard of CIAP. The proportion who knew about and used CIAP was also low. Reasons for this appear to be a work culture not convinced of CIAP's relevance to pre-hospital patient care and lack of access to CIAP at work. Ambulance officers who used CIAP accessed it

  3. CERN'S Fire and Rescue Group Gets New Ambulance

    CERN Multimedia


    The ambulance is to replace another based on the off-road vehicle design which was originally acquired for the civil engineering phase of LEP construction. Just one figure, in 1999, the CERN ambulance was called out 195 times.

  4. User reflection on actions in ambulance telemedicine systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Magnus


    Much information is shared, interpreted and recreated between caller, emergency dispatch personnel and ambulance crew during an emergency call. This paper studies the use of reflection in the ambulance control center based on the information an ambulance crew produces during patient treatment in ...... to understand and use the feedback delivered through the system. The paper argues for broadening the scope of telemedicine use outside the boundaries of communication between ambulance and emergency department....... in the ambulance. The study is based on an ethnographical single case study of a Danish ambulance control center that uses a system called “amPHI” to monitor outgoing and homebound ambulance runs from scene of injury to arrival at the emergency department. The paper finds that the control center uses...

  5. Shoes versus sneakers in toddler ambulation. (United States)

    Gould, N


    The purpose of this study was to determine the relative values and differences between shoes and sneakers for young children just learning to walk. In phase 1 of the study, 79 toddlers (47 females and 32 males), ranging in age from 11 months to 3 years, were carefully measured for footwear. Only 15 toddlers (19%) could be properly fitted in the medium-width sneakers that are currently available on the market. The majority of the measured toddlers required widths greater than D, and to accommodate these wider feet, it was necessary to fit them with longer sneakers than they actually needed otherwise, thus making ambulation a bit more difficult and clumsy. In phase 2, eight toddlers, randomly selected except for sex (four male and four female), ranging in age from 11 to 16 months who had been ambulating 2 weeks to 5 months, were tagged with an identifying letter and videotaped in four walking situations: sneakers on tile, shoes on tile, sneakers on rugging, and shoes on rugging. Four hours of video taping was edited down to one-half hour. Twenty-three observers (orthopaedic surgeons, pediatricians, and shoe fitters) carefully reviewed the tape on multiple occasions and came to the following conclusions: better fit, stance, gait, cadence, and stability were noted with shoes in all the toddlers and in all situations. Falls were three times more frequent in sneakers as compared to shoes on tile surfaces and five times more frequent on rugging. It was concluded that the slight economic advantage of sneakers over shoes was not that great to warrant jeopardizing the capabilities of the toddler in the earliest stages of ambulation.

  6. Leg Spasticity and Ambulation in Multiple Sclerosis

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    Swathi Balantrapu


    Full Text Available Background. Spasticity of the legs is common in multiple sclerosis (MS, but there has been limited research examining its association with ambulatory outcomes. Objective. This study examined spasticity of the legs and its association with multiple measures of ambulation in persons with MS. Methods. The sample included 84 patients with MS. Spasticity of the legs was measured using a 5-point rating scale ranging between 0 (normal and 4 (contracted. Patients completed the 6-minute walk (6 MW, timed 25 foot walk (T25FW, and timed up-and-go (TUG, and O2 cost of walking was measured during the 6 MW. The patients undertook two walking trials on a GAITRite (CIR systems, Inc. for measuring spatial and temporal parameters of gait. The patients completed the Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12 and wore an accelerometer over a seven-day period. Results. 52% (n=44 of the sample presented with spasticity of the legs. Those with leg spasticity had significantly worse ambulation as measured by 6 MW (P=0.0001, d=-0.86, T25FW (P=0.003,d=0.72, TUG (P=0.001, d=0.84, MSWS-12 (P=0.0001,d=1.09, O2 cost of walking (P=0.001, d=0.75, average steps/day (P<0.05, d=-0.45, and walking velocity (P<0.05, d=-0.53 and cadence (P<0.05, d=-0.46. Conclusion. Leg spasticity was associated with impairments in ambulation, including alterations in spatiotemporal parameters and free-living walking.

  7. Computer assisted assessment and advice for "non-serious" 999 ambulance service callers: the potential impact on ambulance despatch


    Dale, Jeremy; Higgins, J.; Williams, S.; Foster, T.; Snooks, Helen; Crouch, R; Hartley-Sharpe, C; Glucksman, E; Hooper, R.; George, S.


    Objective: To investigate the potential impact for ambulance services of telephone assessment and\\ud triage for callers who present with non-serious problems (Category C calls) as classified by ambulance\\ud service call takers.\\ud Design: Pragmatic controlled trial. Calls identified using priority dispatch protocols as non-serious\\ud were allocated to intervention and control groups according to time of call. Ambulance dispatch\\ud occurred according to existing procedures. During intervention...

  8. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Research on Air Pattern and Temperature Distribution Inside Compartment of All-Terrain Emergency Ambulance Vehicle%全地形履带式卫生急救车车厢内气流组织及温度分布的数值模拟与试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀国; 徐新喜; 刘亚军; 崔向东


    运用计算流体动力学方法,对全地形履带式卫生急救车车厢内的气流组织和温度分布进行了数值模拟,分析了车厢内气流组织形式和温度分布规律,同时将数值模拟结果与试验结果进行了对比分析,验证了数值模拟结果的准确性。结果表明:在人员活动的绝大部分区域内气流速度分布在0.5 m/s以下,仅在空调送风口射流区域内,气流速度较高,整个车厢内气流速度分布较均匀;车厢内垂直方向和前后方向上不存在明显的温度梯度,整个车厢内温度分布均匀性较好,温度分布在27.5℃左右,温差较小;车厢内人员的舒适性较好,能够满足相关医学作业要求。%The air pattern and the temperature distribution inside the compartment of all-terrain emergency ambulance vehicle are simulated by the technique of computational fluid dynamics(CFD),the air pattern and the temperature distribu-tion are analysed and the simulation result are compared with experimental result.The results show that the air velocity is under 0.5 m/s in the most zone of person activity and the air velocity is distributed uniformly in compartment.The high air velocity exists in the jet zone of the air conditioning.The obvious temperature gradient doesn’t exist in the vertical plane and the anteroposterior of the compartment.The temperature distribution in the compartment is quite uniform and the tempera-ture is almost at 27.5℃ with little temperature difference.The human thermal comfort is good in the compartment and the environment in the compartment can satisfy requirements of the medical operation.

  9. Actively-controlled Beds for Ambulances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takahiko Ono; Hikaru Inooka


    During transportation by ambulance,a patient is exposed to inertial acceleration when an ambulance decelerates or turns a corner.Such acceleration often gives a patient physical stress such as blood pressure variation or body sway,which causes strong pain,feeling of discomfort or sometimes critical damage for seriously injured persons.To reduce this undesirable effect of the acceleration,the authors developed the actively-controlled bed (ACB) which controls the posture of a stretcher in real time to reduce foot-to-head and lateral acceleration acting on a supine person.This paper describes development of the ACB,including control system design and performance evaluation.The control system is designed by Zakian's framework,which comprises the principle of matching and the method of inequalities,so that the design specifications on the tracking error and the motor torque are satisfied.From the results of driving experiments and simulation,it is estimated that the ACB can reduce the acceleration acting on a patient by 65% in the foot-to-head direction and by 75% in the lateral direction.

  10. Design of an Efficient Integrated System for Ambulance Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raid S. Sarhan


    Full Text Available Because the increases in accidents and emergencies require less time and faster access whenever possible in order to reduce the chances of death, This study designed an ambulance management system (AMaSy which utilize GIS, GPS, and GPRS that was tested in principle in Al-Mansoura City - EGYPT. The proposed system takes into consideration the emergency cases that could possibly occur. The research work considers all possible cases. While an ambulance could already be occupied with one patient, the system considers it as an available ambulance and requests it for another case, being that the ambulance only needs a short period of time to drop-off the current case and that the second case is relatively close to the ambulance. This forces the ambulance to quicken the processes of drop-off and pick-up between the two cases. The main objective of this research work is to make an ambulance system which enables ambulances to have faster arrivals and take less time to reach accident sites

  11. Offload zone patient selection criteria to reduce ambulance offload delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, Corine M.; Vanberkel, Peter T.; Boucherie, Richard J.; Carter, Alix J.E.


    Emergency department overcrowding is a widespread problem and often leads to ambulance offload delay. If no bed is available when a patient arrives, the patient has to wait with the ambulance crew. A recent Canadian innovation is the offload zone—an area where multiple patients can wait with a singl

  12. Board Certification. Registered EMT-Paramedic. Registered EMT-Intermediate. Registered EMT-Ambulance. Registered EMT-Non-Ambulance. (United States)

    National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians, Columbus, OH.

    These three brochures outline entry requirements and certification information for: (1) emergency medical technician (EMT)-ambulance and EMT-non-ambulance; (2) EMT-intermediate; and (3) EMT-paramedic. Each brochure provides information on entry requirements, including provisional registration and expiration date; lapsed registration; examination…

  13. Effect evaluation of a heated ambulance mattress-prototype on thermal comfort and patients’ temperatures in prehospital emergency care – an intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Aléx


    Full Text Available Background: The ambulance milieu does not offer good thermal comfort to patients during the cold Swedish winters. Patients’ exposure to cold temperatures combined with a cold ambulance mattress seems to be the major factor leading to an overall sensation of discomfort. There is little research on the effect of active heat delivered from underneath in ambulance care. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an electrically heated ambulance mattress-prototype on thermal comfort and patients’ temperatures in the prehospital emergency care. Methods: A quantitative intervention study on ambulance care was conducted in the north of Sweden. The ambulance used for the intervention group (n=30 was equipped with an electrically heated mattress on the regular ambulance stretcher whereas for the control group (n=30 no active heat was provided on the stretcher. Outcome variables were measured as thermal comfort on the Cold Discomfort Scale (CDS, subjective comments on cold experiences, and finger, ear and air temperatures. Results: Thermal comfort, measured by CDS, improved during the ambulance transport to the emergency department in the intervention group (p=0.001 but decreased in the control group (p=0.014. A significant higher proportion (57% of the control group rated the stretcher as cold to lie down compared to the intervention group (3%, p<0.001. At arrival, finger, ear and compartment air temperature showed no statistical significant difference between groups. Mean transport time was approximately 15 minutes. Conclusions: The use of active heat from underneath increases the patients’ thermal comfort and may prevent the negative consequences of cold stress.

  14. Understanding the factors that influence patient satisfaction with ambulance services. (United States)

    Bogomolova, Svetlana; Tan, P J; Dunn, S P; Bizjak-Mikic, M


    The quality of ambulance services has an immense impact on patients' future well-being and quality of life. Patient satisfaction is one of the key metrics for evaluating the quality of this service. Yet, the patient satisfaction measurement may be limited in its ability to accurately reflect this service quality, and even reflect factors beyond the patient experiences. We analyze 10 years of survey data to reveal a number of factors that systematically bias ambulance satisfaction ratings. Taking into account these biases provides more robust comparison of ambulance performance over time or across different jurisdictions.

  15. Efficacy and safety of intravenous fentanyl administered by ambulance personnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friesgaard, Kristian Dahl; Nikolajsen, Lone; Giebner, Matthias


    BACKGROUND: Management of pain in the pre-hospital setting is often inadequate. In 2011, ambulance personnel were authorized to administer intravenous fentanyl in the Central Denmark Region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous fentanyl administered...... by ambulance personnel. METHODS: Pre-hospital medical charts from 2348 adults treated with intravenous fentanyl by ambulance personnel during a 6-month period were reviewed. The primary outcome was the change in pain intensity on a numeric rating scale (NRS) from before fentanyl treatment to hospital arrival...... patients (1.3%) and hypotension observed in 71 patients (3.0%). CONCLUSION: Intravenous fentanyl caused clinically meaningful pain reduction in most patients and was safe in the hands of ambulance personnel. Many patients had moderate to severe pain at hospital arrival. As the protocol allowed higher doses...

  16. Would You Feel Safe in A Driverless Ambulance? (United States)

    ... configuration, while they had mixed feelings about the autopilot configuration," said Rice, an associate professor of human ... people's emotional responses to it because ambulances on autopilot aren't a part of our everyday lives ...

  17. Cardiac arrest: comparison of paramedic and conventional ambulance services.



    A prospective study conducted in the Greater Vancouver area compared survival rates in prehospital cardiac arrest managed by an advanced life support (paramedic) service with those in cardiac arrest managed by conventional ambulance service. Management by the paramedic service was associated with higher survival rates for patients found in cardiac arrest but not for patients who suffered the arrest while the ambulance was present. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation by bystanders was associated wit...

  18. Private Ambulance Services, ambulance zone, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Private Ambulance Services dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as...

  19. Evaluation on Ambulance Design and Musculoskeletal Disorders Risk Factors among Ambulance Emergency Medical Service Per¬sonnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baba M. DEROS


    Full Text Available Background: Injuries or pains occurred at various body's joints, ligaments, muscles, nerves, tendons, limbs, back and neck are classified as musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs. A single forceful exertion or repeated exposure to force, vibration or awkward posture can result in MSDs. This study was carried out by evaluating the relevant physical measurements of Class B ambulance used in Malaysia. The two main objectives of the study are to evaluate on the ambulance physical dimensions and workstation design and to conduct a Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA to examine ambulance’s emergency medical service (EMS workers’ activities and their associated MSDs risk factors.Methods: The two methodologies adopted for the study conducted in 2014 were direct measurement of the ambulance physical dimensions and workstation layout; and in-depth interviews of five EMS workers that provides patient care during transporting patient to a public hospital in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. REBA was conducted on seven commonly performed activities by EMS workers for identifying postural risks.Results: The study found ambulance width is too narrow and workstation layout may exposed EMS workers to MSDs risks. REBA scores for the seven commonly performed activities in the ambulance ranges from medium to very high. Conclusion: Seven important MSDs risk factors to be considered in the design of the Class B ambulance for performing patient care activities that may lead towards EMS workers’ injury are awkward posture, bumping, instability, narrow workspace dimension, inappropriate arrangement of storage cabinet, inappropriate arrangement of medical equipment, inadequate railing and seat, and inappropriate stretcher.  Keywords: Musculoskeletal disorders, Ambulance, EMS, Workers, REBA, Risks

  20. CERN'S Fire and Rescue Group Gets New Ambulance

    CERN Multimedia


    The arrival of a new vehicle is always an important moment in the life of a fire station. So when a new ambulance was delivered to the CERN Fire Brigade on Wednesday 16 September 2000, it was given a warm welcome, attended by staff of the different divisions involved in its purchase. It took a year from the first administrative moves to the day of acquisition. On the one hand there were the calls for tender needed for such a purchase and on the other the development of this custom-designed ambulance with its unique features. Three visits to the manufacturer had to be made, including two to the head office of the Miesen factory at Bonn to study and incorporate in the ambulance the special requirements called for by its future users. These requirements, born from the past experience of CERN’s ambulance crews, concerned not only interior arrangements but also included a new side panel, opening up a stowage compartment where everything will be put that gets dirty during ambulance operations. This will minimize ...

  1. Influence of ambulance use on early reperfusion therapies for acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Li; HU Da-yi; YAN Hong-bing; YANG Jin-gang; SUN Yi-hong; LI Chao; LIU Shu-shan; WU Dong; FENG Qi


    Background Ambulance use expedites the definitive treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ambulance use on the administration of early reperfusion therapies for patients with AMI in Beijing, China.Methods Data were prospectively collected from 498 patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who were admitted within 12 hours of symptom onset to 19 hospitals in Beijing between November 1,2005 and December 31, 2006. The baseline characteristics of and the initial management of the ambulance users and the non-ambulance users were compared.Results Only 186 (37.3%) patients used an ambulance as transportation to the hospital. Ambulance users were, on average, older and at relatively higher risk on presentation than the non-ambulance users. After adjustment for patient and hospital characteristics, ambulance use was associated with a greater early reperfusion rate, mainly because of a greater incidence of primary percutaneous coronary intervention. In addition, ambulance users had a significantly shorter median door-to-balloon (120 compared with 145 minutes, P<0.001) and symptom onset-to-balloon (223 compared with 300 minutes, P<0.001) time than non-ambulance users.Conclusions Ambulances are underused by AMI patients in Beijing. Ambulance use may lead to more frequent and faster receipt of early reperfusion therapies. New public health strategies should be developed to facilitate an increased use of ambulances by AMI patients.

  2. Health status in the ambulance services: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hem Erlend


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers have become increasingly aware that ambulance personnel may be at risk of developing work-related health problems. This article systematically explores the literature on health problems and work-related and individual health predictors in the ambulance services. Methods We identified the relevant empirical literature by searching several electronic databases including Medline, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, and ISI Web of Science. Other relevant sources were identified through reference lists and other relevant studies known by the research group. Results Forty-nine studies are included in this review. Our analysis shows that ambulance workers have a higher standardized mortality rate, higher level of fatal accidents, higher level of accident injuries and a higher standardized early retirement on medical grounds than the general working population and workers in other health occupations. Ambulance workers also seem to have more musculoskeletal problems than the general population. These conclusions are preliminary at present because each is based on a single study. More studies have addressed mental health problems. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptom caseness was > 20% in five of seven studies, and similarly high prevalence rates were reported for anxiety and general psychopathology in four of five studies. However, it is unclear whether ambulance personnel suffer from more mental health problems than the general working population. Conclusion Several indicators suggest that workers in the ambulance services experience more health problems than the general working population and workers in other health occupations. Several methodological challenges, such as small sample sizes, non-representative samples, and lack of comparisons with normative data limit the interpretation of many studies. More coordinated research and replication are needed to compare data across studies. We discuss some strategies for

  3. An integration of Emergency Department Information and Ambulance Systems. (United States)

    Al-Harbi, Nada; El-Masri, Samir; Saddik, Basema


    In this paper we propose an Emergency Department Information System that will be integrated with the ambulance system to improve the communication, enhance the quality of provided emergency services and facilitate information sharing. The proposed system utilizes new advanced technologies such as mobile web services that overcome the problems of interoperability between different systems, HL7 and GPS. The system is unique in that it allows ambulance officers to locate the nearest specialized hospital and allows access to the patient's electronic health record as well as providing the hospital with required information to prepare for the incoming patient.

  4. Masculinity and Lifting Accidents among Danish Ambulance Personnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus D.; Nielsen, Kent J

    Background Work injuries related to lifting are the most prevalent among ambulance personnel (AP) despite the introduction of ‘assistive technologies’ (AT) that help reduce situations of manual lifting. One third of the AP report using AT only ‘sometimes’ and 10% report having lifted a patient...... alone. For those 5% scoring lowest on MRNI the probability of reporting lifting alone was 6% while this figure was 17% for those scoring above the 95th percentile. Conclusion This study suggests that male ambulance workers performance of masculinity might pose a threat to their safety. AP...

  5. Risk of Transmission of MRSA on Contact Surfaces in Ambulance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukas, R. -P.; Keppler, P. -A.; Brinkrolf, P.; Friedrich, A. W.; Van Aken, H.; Bohn, A.


    The gram-positive bacterium methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most frequent causes of treatment-associated nosocomial infections. The incidence of MRSA among the population and in hospitalised patients is growing worldwide. Ambulance service is an interface between the

  6. 29 CFR 553.215 - Ambulance and rescue service employees. (United States)


    ... employees have received training in the rescue of fire, crime, and accident victims or firefighters or law... REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO EMPLOYEES OF STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Fire... rescue service employees. (a) Ambulance and rescue service employees of a public agency other than a...

  7. Is the Ability to Ambulate Associated with Better Employment Outcomes in Participants with Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury? (United States)

    Krause, James S.


    The author compares current employment status after spinal cord injury between participants who were independent in ambulation (required no assistance from others) and those who were dependent in ambulation (required assistance from at least one other person to ambulate). Those who were independent of assistance from others in ambulation were…

  8. Mobile-Based Medical Emergency Ambulance Scheduling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassey Isong


    Full Text Available Effective and efficient public service delivery like healthcare services are very important in today's society, especially in the rural areas. People in rural areas are expected to have access to public facilities at all times. However, these services are not always available when they are needed. This paper discusses the problems faced by rural areas of Mafikeng in South Africa (SA when public and basic healthcare facilities like medical ambulance transports are needed during emergency situation. The challenges ranges from poor communication, poor road network and unstructured address to non-arrival of ambulances leading loss of lives that are preventable. This paper designed and implemented a system prototype using mobile application technologies to offer cost-effective services to patients during emergencies. It is intended to reduce long queues in hospitals and long waiting periods for an ambulance via location-based services. By using this application, lives in the rural areas can be made easier and loss of lives prevented by providing timely response from the appropriate healthcare providers during emergencies.

  9. Approach to decreasing emergency department ambulance diversion hours. (United States)

    Vilke, Gary M; Brown, Lana; Skogland, Patty; Simmons, Charles; Guss, David A


    Analysis between two local Emergency Departments (EDs) suggested an oscillatory phenomenon for ambulance diversion: When one hospital went on diversion it led to a disproportionate flow of ambulance traffic to a neighboring facility that subsequently was forced to go on divert. We hypothesized if one hospital could avoid diversion status, the need for diversion could be averted in the neighboring facility. ED A secured additional resources and made a commitment to no diversion for 1 week. No changes in operations occurred in hospital B. We found no differences in ambulance runs or ED census at either facility comparing the week before, during, and after the trial. There was a dramatic decline in diversion hours from 19.7 to 1.4 and 27.7 to 0 at hospitals A and B, respectively, during the trial period (p < 0.05) compared to the weeks before and after. We conclude that reciprocating effects can be decreased with one institution's commitment to avoid diversion, thus decreasing the need for diversion at a neighboring facility.

  10. The Barbados Emergency Ambulance Service: High Frequency of Nontransported Calls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwin E. Phillips


    Full Text Available Objectives. There are no published studies on the Barbados Emergency Ambulance Service and no assessment of the calls that end in nontransported individuals. We describe reasons for the nontransport of potential clients. Methods. We used the Emergency Medical Dispatch (Medical Priority Dispatch System instrument, augmented with five local call types, to collect information on types of calls. The calls were categorised under 7 headings. Correlations between call types and response time were calculated. Results. Most calls were from the category medical (54%. Nineteen (19% percent of calls were in the non-transported category. Calls from call type Cancelled accounted for most of these and this was related to response time, while Refused service was inversely related (. Conclusions. The Barbados Ambulance Service is mostly used by people with a known illness and for trauma cases. One-fifth of calls fall into a category where the ambulance is not used often due to cancellation which is related to response time. Other factors such as the use of alternative transport are also important. Further study to identify factors that contribute to the non-transported category of calls is necessary if improvements in service quality are to be made.

  11. Clinical characteristics affecting motor recovery and ambulation in stroke patients (United States)

    Yetisgin, Alparslan


    [Purpose] To describe the clinical characteristics affecting motor recovery and ambulation in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Demographic and clinical characteristics of 53 stroke patients (31 M, 22 F), such as age, gender, etiology, hemiplegic side, Brunnstrom stage, functional ambulation scale scores, history of rehabilitation, and presence of shoulder pain and complex regional pain syndrome were evaluated. [Results] The etiology was ischemic in 79.2% of patients and hemorrhagic in 20.8%. Brunnstrom hand and upper extremity values in females were lower than in males. Complex regional pain syndrome was observed at a level of 18.9% in all patients (more common in females). Brunnstrom hand stage was lower in complex regional pain syndrome patients than in those without the syndrome. Shoulder pain was present in 44.4% of patients. Brunnstrom lower extremity values and functional ambulation scale scores were higher in rehabilitated than in non-rehabilitated cases. [Conclusion] Brunnstrom stages of hand and upper extremity were lower and complex regional pain syndrome was more common in female stroke patients. Shoulder pain and lower Brunnstrom hand stages were related to the presence of complex regional pain syndrome. PMID:28265142

  12. Perioperative transfusion threshold and ambulation after hip revision surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kamilla; Johansson, Pär I; Dahl, Benny;


    BACKGROUND: Transfusion with red blood cells (RBC) may be needed during hip revision surgery but the appropriate haemoglobin concentration (Hb) threshold for transfusion has not been well established. We hypothesized that a higher transfusion threshold would improve ambulation after hip revision...... received RBC. CONCLUSIONS: A Hb transfusion threshold of 8.9 g/dL was associated with a statistically significantly faster TUG after hip revision surgery compared to a threshold of 7.3 g/dL but the clinical importance is questionable and the groups did not differ in Hb at the time of testing....

  13. Effects of Weather and Heliophysical Conditions on Emergency Ambulance Calls for Elevated Arterial Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jone Vencloviene


    Full Text Available We hypothesized that weather and space weather conditions were associated with the exacerbation of essential hypertension. The study was conducted during 2009–2010 in the city of Kaunas, Lithuania. We analyzed 13,475 cards from emergency ambulance calls (EACs, in which the conditions for the emergency calls were made coded I.10–I.15. The Kaunas Weather Station provided daily records of air temperature (T, wind speed (WS, relative humidity, and barometric pressure (BP. We evaluated the associations between daily weather variables and daily number of EACs by applying a multivariate Poisson regression. Unfavorable heliophysical conditions (two days after the active-stormy geomagnetic field or the days with solar WS > 600 km/s increased the daily number of elevated arterial blood pressure (EABP by 12% (RR = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.04–1.21; and WS ≥ 3.5 knots during days of T < 1.5 °C and T ≥ 12.5 °C by 8% (RR = 1.08; CI 1.04–1.12. An increase of T by 10 °C and an elevation of BP two days after by 10 hPa were associated with a decrease in RR by 3%. An additional effect of T was detected during days of T ≥ 17.5 °C only in females. Women and patients with grade III arterial hypertension at the time of the ambulance call were more sensitive to weather conditions. These results may help in the understanding of the population’s sensitivity to different weather conditions.

  14. An exploration of factors influencing ambulance and emergency nurses protocol adherence in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebben, Remco; Vloet, Lilian; Mintjes, Joke; Achterberg, Theo van


    Adherence to ambulance and ED protocols is often suboptimal. Insight into factors influencing adherence is a requisite for improvement of adherence. This study aims to gain an in-depth understanding of factors that influence ambulance and emergency nurses’ adherence to protocols.

  15. Prognostic Predictors for Ambulation in Thai Children With Cerebral Palsy Aged 2 to 18 Years. (United States)

    Keeratisiroj, Orawan; Thawinchai, Nuanlaor; Siritaratiwat, Wantana; Buntragulpoontawee, Montana


    The objectives of this study were to determine prognostic predictors for ambulation among Thai children with cerebral palsy and identify their ambulatory status. A retrospective cohort study was performed at 6 special schools or hospitals for children with physical disabilities. The prognostic predictors for ambulation were analyzed by multivariable ordinal continuation ratio logistic regression. The 533 participants aged 2 to 18 years were divided into 3 groups: 186 with independent ambulation (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS I-II]), 71 with assisted ambulation (Gross Motor Function Classification System III), and 276 with nonambulation (Gross Motor Function Classification System IV-V). The significant positive predictors for ambulation were type of cerebral palsy (spastic diplegia, spastic hemiplegia, dyskinesia, ataxia, hypotonia, and mixed type), sitting independently at age 2 years, and eating independently. These predictors were used to develop clinical scoring for predicting the future ability to walk among Thai children with cerebral palsy.

  16. Stylistic analysis of the poem "Ambulance" by Philip Larkin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yasir Khan


    Full Text Available Philip Larkin is known as a movement poet, because there are many poems which were published in the book of poetic movement, New Lines. This movement was started in 1950, against the unreasonable, inflated and extortionate romanticism of 1930's and 1940's. The common features of movement poetry are; the use of irony and wit, an element of satire, the loneliness of modern man, pessimistic outlook on life, realism, use of ordinary diction, use of symbols, and loss of religious faith. Robert Conquest is known as the representative poet of this movement. The poets of this movement believed that the language of poetry should be simple, lucid and intelligible. The poem Ambulance deals with the important features of movement poetry. Through the stylistics study of this poem the researchers will show the loneliness and concept of death in modern man.

  17. How public ambulance arrivals impact on Emergency Department workload and resource use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Ferri


    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine patient’s characteristics associated with ED arrival mode, and to determine EMS impact on ED clinical resource use, workload and crowding. Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients seen at Sant’Andrea Hospital ED. Comparison focused on visit characteristics, and on resource use. Results: The use of EMS ambulance confirms association to older age, higher rate of hospital admission, longer length of stay, and severity of injury. Moreover our data show that ambulance referred patients are triaged into a higher acuity category and have a greater intensive care unit admission. Conclusion: Ambulance arrivals have a significant impact on ED resource use, workload and crowding.

  18. Occupant accelerations and injury potential during an ambulance-to-curb impact. (United States)

    Lee, Ellen L; Hayes, Wilson C


    This paper presents real world acceleration data for an ambulance driving up and over a curb. A full scale reenactment was performed for a litigated case in which a patient on a gurney in an ambulance claimed a variety of bodily injuries after the ambulance struck a curb. A height and weight matched surrogate rode on the gurney during the tests. Results demonstrated that peak vehicle and occupant accelerations never exceeded 1.1g's. To address the claimed injuries, the accelerations likely sustained by the patient were compared to those experienced during daily life. Since ambulances are wide vehicles that travel fast on potentially narrow arterial, collector or local roadways, curb or median impacts may occur during the normal course of driving. Thus, these results may be useful for forensic experts in dealing with similar cases involving claimed injuries following curb impacts.

  19. [Design of a mechanical system for the balanceable system of ambulance]. (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Luo, Yibin; Zhang, Guangpeng; Zhang, Zhide; Chen, Chaomin


    This is the design of a mechanical systems for use in the balanceable system of ambulance, which can keep the medical service bed at the ambulance level, whatever the terrain is. A level detector will detect the level state of the bed and turn it to a signal. The central processing unit will use this signal to analyse and control the movement of the motor. By this design (which uses the rolling rail as a drive transmission and makes three supports of the bed go up and down), the bed will keep level. With the use of this design, the balanceable system of ambulance can counteract 35 degrees. The error is controlled within +/- 1 degree. And the response time is within 0.3 s. The method of registration can be effective for keeping the bed at the ambulance level, and for reducing the chance of making the patient get hurt on the way to hospital.

  20. The Fire Brigade acquires a new ambulance with all the bells and whistles!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    On 19 April the Fire Brigade unveiled its latest acquisition: a brand-new ambulance specially designed for CERN.   One of the Fire Brigade's two ambulances has just been replaced by a state-of-the-art vehicle tailor-made to meet CERN's unique requirements. At 4.6 metres long it's much more spacious than its predecessors, providing plenty of room for patient, doctor and paramedic. The ambulance's design and manufacture are the result of a successful collaboration between the Fire Brigade and the technicians from Profile Vehicles, the Finnish company that won the contract following a call for tenders launched in June 2011. "It took us six months to finalise the specification for our new ambulance," explains Patrick Berlinghi, who is responsible for the Fire Brigade's logistics. "We wanted it to be spacious enough for us to be able to work comfortably and to have the latest safety and patient care equipment.  We also reques...

  1. Improving community ambulation after hip fracture: protocol for a randomised, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Orwig


    Discussion: This multicentre randomised study will be the first to test whether a home-based multi-component physiotherapy intervention targeting specific precursors of community ambulation (PUSH is more likely to lead to community ambulation than a home-based non-specific multi-component physiotherapy intervention (PULSE in older adults after hip fracture. The study will also estimate the potential economic value of the interventions.

  2. Demand Forecast Using Data Analytics for the Preallocation of Ambulances. (United States)

    Chen, Albert Y; Lu, Tsung-Yu; Ma, Matthew Huei-Ming; Sun, Wei-Zen


    The objective of prehospital emergency medical services (EMSs) is to have a short response time. By increasing the operational efficiency, the survival rate of patients could potentially be increased. The geographic information system (GIS) is introduced in this study to manage and visualize the spatial distribution of demand data and forecasting results. A flexible model is implemented in GIS, through which training data are prepared with user-desired sizes for the spatial grid and discretized temporal steps. We applied moving average, artificial neural network, sinusoidal regression, and support vector regression for the forecasting of prehospital emergency medical demand. The results from these approaches, as a reference, could be used for the preallocation of ambulances. A case study is conducted for the EMS in New Taipei City, where prehospital EMS data have been collected for three years. The model selection process has chosen different models with different input features for the forecast of different areas. The best daily mean absolute percentage error during testing of the EMS demand forecast is 23.01%, which is a reasonable forecast based on Lewis' definition. With the acceptable prediction performance, the proposed approach has its potential to be applied to the current practice.

  3. Weather factors in the short-term forecasting of daily ambulance calls. (United States)

    Wong, Ho-Ting; Lai, Poh-Chin


    The daily ambulance demand for Hong Kong is rising, and it has been shown that weather factors (temperature and humidity) play a role in the demand for ambulance services. This study aimed at developing short-term forecasting models of daily ambulance calls using the 7-day weather forecast data as predictors. We employed the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) method to analyze over 1.3 million cases of emergency attendance in May 2006 through April 2009 and the 7-day weather forecast data for the same period. Our results showed that the ARIMA model could offer reasonably accurate forecasts of daily ambulance calls at 1-7 days ahead of time and with improved accuracy by including weather factors. Specifically, the inclusion of average temperature alone in our ARIMA model improved the predictability of the 1-day forecast when compared to that of a simple ARIMA model (8.8% decrease in the root mean square error, RMSE=53 vs 58). The improvement in the 7-day forecast with average temperature as a predictor was more pronounced, with a 10% drop in prediction error (RMSE=62 vs 69). These findings suggested that weather forecast data can improve the 1- to 7-day forecasts of daily ambulance demand. As weather forecast data are readily accessible from Hong Kong Observatory's official website, there is virtually no cost to including them in the ARIMA models, which yield better prediction for forward planning and deployment of ambulance manpower.

  4. Health problems and help-seeking in a nationwide sample of operational Norwegian ambulance personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekeberg Øivind


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To estimate the prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms, and their association with professional help-seeking, among operational ambulance personnel and a general working population, and to study the symptoms of musculoskeletal pain and disturbed sleep among ambulance personnel. Methods The results of a comprehensive nationwide questionnaire survey of operational ambulance personnel (n = 1180 were compared with the findings of a population-based Norwegian health study of working people (n = 31,987. The questionnaire included measures of help-seeking, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Subjective Health Complaints Questionnaire, the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire and the Need for Recovery after Work Scale. Results Compared with those in the reference population, the mean of level anxiety symptoms in the ambulance sample was lower for men (3.5 vs. 3.9, P 0.001 and women (4.0 vs. 4.4, P 0.05, and the mean level of depression symptoms in ambulance workers was lower for men (2.3 vs. 2.8, P 0.05 but not for women (2.9 vs. 3.1, P = 0.22. A model adjusted for anxiety and depression symptoms indicated that ambulance personnel had lower levels of help-seeking except for seeing a chiropractor (12% vs. 5%, P 0.01. In the ambulance sample, symptoms of musculoskeletal pain were most consistently associated with help-seeking. In the adjusted model, only symptoms of disturbed sleep were associated with help-seeking from a psychologist/psychiatrist (total sample = 2.3%. Help-seeking was more often reported by women but was largely unaffected by age. Conclusion The assumption that ambulance personnel have more anxiety and depression symptoms than the general working population was not supported. The level of musculoskeletal pain and, accordingly, the level of help-seeking from a chiropractor were higher for ambulance workers. More research should address the physical strains among ambulance personnel.

  5. Ambulation following spinal cord injury and its correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Menon


    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess walking ability of spinal cord injury (SCI patients and observe its correlation with functional and neurological outcomes. Patients and Methods: The present prospective, observational study was conducted in a tertiary research hospital in India with 66 patients (46 males between January 2012 and December 2013. Mean age was 32.62 ± 11.85 years (range 16-65 years, mean duration of injury was 85.3 ± 97.6 days (range 14-365 days and mean length of stay in the rehabilitation unit was 38.08 ± 21.66 days (range 14-97 days in the study. Walking Index for spinal cord injury (WISCI II was used to assess ambulation of the SCI patients. Functional recovery was assessed using Barthel Index (BI and Spinal Cord Independence Measures (SCIM. Neurological recovery was assessed using ASIA impairment scale (AIS. We tried to correlate ambulatory ability of the patients with functional and neurological recovery. Results: Ambulatory ability of the patients improved significantly using WISCI II (P < 0.001 when admission and discharge scores were compared (1.4 ± 3.5 vs 7.6 ± 6.03. Similarly, functional (BI: 31.7 ± 20.5 vs 58.4 ± 23.7 and SCIM: 29.9 ± 15.1 vs 56.2 ± 20.6 and neurological recovery were found to be very significant (P < 0.001 when admission vs discharge scores were compared. Improvement in WISCI II scores was significantly correlated with improvement in neurological (using AIS scores and functional status (using BI and SCIM scores (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Significant improvement was seen in WISCI II, BI, and SCIM scores after in-patient rehabilitation. Improvement in WISCI II scores also significantly correlated with functional and neurological recovery.

  6. Calls Forecast for the Moscow Ambulance Service. The Impact of Weather Forecast (United States)

    Gordin, Vladimir; Bykov, Philipp


    We use the known statistics of the calls for the current and previous days to predict them for tomorrow and for the following days. We assume that this algorithm will work operatively, will cyclically update the available information and will move the horizon of the forecast. Sure, the accuracy of such forecasts depends on their lead time, and from a choice of some group of diagnoses. For comparison we used the error of the inertial forecast (tomorrow there will be the same number of calls as today). Our technology has demonstrated accuracy that is approximately two times better compared to the inertial forecast. We obtained the following result: the number of calls depends on the actual weather in the city as well as on its rate of change. We were interested in the accuracy of the forecast for 12-hour sum of the calls in real situations. We evaluate the impact of the meteorological errors [1] on the forecast errors of the number of Ambulance calls. The weather and the Ambulance calls number both have seasonal tendencies. Therefore, if we have medical information from one city only, we should separate the impacts of such predictors as "annual variations in the number of calls" and "weather". We need to consider the seasonal tendencies (associated, e. g. with the seasonal migration of the population) and the impact of the air temperature simultaneously, rather than sequentially. We forecasted separately the number of calls with diagnoses of cardiovascular group, where it was demonstrated the advantage of the forecasting method, when we use the maximum daily air temperature as a predictor. We have a chance to evaluate statistically the influence of meteorological factors on the dynamics of medical problems. In some cases it may be useful for understanding of the physiology of disease and possible treatment options. We can assimilate some personal archives of medical parameters for the individuals with concrete diseases and the relative meteorological archive. As a

  7. Ontogeny of sex differences in open-field ambulation in the rat. (United States)

    Slob, A K; Huizer, T; Van der Werff ten Bosch, J J


    The effects of age and gonads were studied in rats subjected to open-field tests, during which ambulation behavior was recorded. Subjects were three groups of male and female rats: sham-operation on day 1 and day 21; gonadectomy on day 1 and sham-operation on day 21; and sham-operation on day 1 and gonadectomy on day 21. Half of each group were tested in a circular open field (3 min/day, 3 consecutive days) on days 28-30; the others were tested on days 47-49. Representatives of both batches were tested again in a square open field on days 76-78. There was a sex difference in ambulation at 77 days, but not at earlier ages. In animals gonadectomized on day 1 or day 21 the sex difference in adulthood failed to occur, because castration caused the males to ambulate as much as sham-operated and ovariectomized females. On the basis of our results and reports in the literature it is suggested that testicular secretions around puberty have an organizing effect on ambulation behavior. The intact adult male rat ambulates less than the adult female and this difference persists after castration in adulthood. Castration well before puberty prevents the development of the adult sex difference.

  8. Variation in ambulance call rates for care homes in Torbay, UK. (United States)

    Hancock, Jason; Matthews, Justin; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Lang, Iain; Somerfield, David; Wenman, James; Dickens, Chris


    Emergency ambulance calls represent one of the routes of emergency hospital admissions from care homes. We aimed to describe the pattern of ambulance call rates from care homes and identify factors predicting those homes calling for an ambulance most frequently. We obtained data from South Western Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust on 3138 ambulance calls relating to people aged 65 and over from care homes in the Torbay region between 1 April 2012 and 31 July 2013. We supplemented this with data from the Care Quality Commission (CQC) website on home characteristics and outcomes of CQC inspections. We used descriptive statistics to identify variation in ambulance call rates for residential and nursing homes and fitted negative binomial regression models to determine if call rates were predicted by home type (nursing versus residential), the five standards in the CQC reports, dementia care status or travel time to hospital. One hundred and forty-six homes (119 residential and 27 nursing) were included in the analysis. The number of calls made ranged from 1 to 99. The median number (IQR; range) of calls per resident per year was 0.51 (0.21-0.89; 0.03-2.45). Nursing homes had a lower call rate than residential homes [adjusted rate ratio (ARR) 0.29; 95% CI: 0.22-0.40; P call rate compared to those who passed (ARR 0.67; 95% CI: 0.50-0.90; P = 0.006); and homes specialising in dementia had a higher call rate compared to those not specialising (ARR 1.56; 95% CI: 1.23-1.96; P call rate variability reflects the different needs of resident populations or differences in care home policies and practice.

  9. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in a nationwide sample of operational Norwegian ambulance personnel. (United States)

    Sterud, Tom; Hem, Erlend; Lau, Bjørn; Ekeberg, Oivind


    This is the first paper on suicidal ideation and attempts among ambulance personnel. This study aimed to investigate levels of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among ambulance personnel, and to identify important correlates and the factors to which ambulance personnel attribute their serious suicidal ideation. A comprehensive nationwide questionnaire survey of 1,180 operational ambulance personnel was conducted. Measurements included: Paykel's Suicidal Feelings in the General Population questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, the Subjective Health Complaints Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Job Satisfaction Scale, the Basic Character Inventory, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Lifetime prevalence ranged from 28% for feelings that life was not worth living to 10.4% for seriously considered suicide and 3.1% for a suicide attempt. Serious suicidal ideation was independently associated with job-related emotional exhaustion (feelings of being overextended and depleted of resources) (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.0) and bullying at work (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.02-2.7), younger age, not married/cohabitant, depression symptoms, low self-esteem and the personality trait reality weakness. In general, suicidal thoughts were hardly attributable to working conditions, since only 1.8% of ambulance personnel attributed suicidal ideation to work problems alone. In conclusion, ambulance personnel reported a moderate level of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Although serious suicidal ideation was rarely attributed to working conditions in general, this study suggests that job-related factors like emotional exhaustion and bullying may be of importance.

  10. Impact of subtropical climate on frequency of ambulance use for trauma patients in a coastal area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuqiang Chen; Yucheng Lai; Jiajie Ke; Yuefeng Chen; Yuling Xu; Yuqin Ma; Jiayin Yuan


    Purpose:To explore the impact of subtropical maritime monsoon climate on the frequency of ambulance use for trauma patients in a coastal region in China.Method:Statistical analysis of data on ambulance use from the 120 Emergency Command Center in Shantou City,Guangdong Province,from January to December 2012 as well as daily meteorological data from a Shantou observatory was performed to determine how climatic factors (seasons,time,and weather) affect the frequency of ambulance use for trauma patients.Results:The daily ambulance use for trauma patients differed between spring and summer or autumn (p < 0.05),between sunny and rainy days (p < 0.05),and between cloudy and lightly or moderately rainy days (p < 0.05).We found a linear correlation between daily maximum temperature and daily ambulance use for trauma patients (R2 =0.103,p < 0.05).In addition,there was significant difference in ambulance use between good and bad weather (p < 0.05).Conclusion:Frequency of ambulance use for trauma patients is affected by the subtropical maritime monsoon climate in the coastal region.Better weather contributes to increased daily frequency of ambulance use,which is the highest in autumn and lowest in spring.

  11. Ambulation with the reciprocating-gait orthosis - Experience in 15 children with myelomeningocele or paraplegia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GerritsmaBleeker, CLE; Heeg, M; VosNiel, H


    We reviewed 15 children with spina bifida or paraplegia who have used a reciprocating-gait orthosis between 1985 and 1995. All were nonfunctional ambulators. The level of the spinal lesions ranged from Th10 to L3. The mean age of fitting the orthosis was 5 years. 8 children have stopped using it at

  12. Community ambulation in patients with chronic stroke : How is it related to gait speed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Port, Ingrid G.; Kwakkel, Gert; Lindeman, Eline


    Objective: To explore the strength of the association between gait speed and community ambulation and whether this association is significantly distorted by other variables. Design: Cross-sectional study conducted 3 years after stroke. Subjects: A total of 102 patients after first-ever stroke follow

  13. Spinal fusion in children with spina bifida : influence on ambulation level and functional abilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, MAGC; Gulmans, VAM; Gooskens, RHJM; Pruijs, JEH; Helders, PJM


    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of spinal fusion on ambulation and functional abilities in children with spina bifida for whom early mobilization was stimulated. Ten children (three males and seven females) with myelomeningocele were prospectively followed. Their mean age at ope

  14. Osteogenesis imperfecta in childhood : effects of spondylodesis on functional ability, ambulation and perceived competence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolboom, N; Cats, EA; Helders, PJM; Pruijs, JEH; Engelbert, RHH


    We studied the effects of spondylodesis on spinal curvature, functional outcome, level of ambulation and perceived competence in 11 children with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). Mean age at surgical intervention was 13.1 years (SD 2.5 years) and follow-up amounted to 3.4 years (SD 2.3 years). Spinal c

  15. A strategic approach for the ambulance covering of the province of Friesland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, J.A.M.; Macfarlane, J.D.


    In the summer of 1995 the University of Twente, commissioned by the Province of Friesland, carried out research into the consequences of alternative locations for ambulances. The approach to this research was based on a network model, which represents the area to be covered. With this model the atte

  16. Radiology trainer. Surgical ambulance. 2. rev. and enl. ed.; Roentgen-Trainer. Chirurgische Ambulanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, Ole [Wedau-Kliniken Duisburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Unfallchirurgie; Ruchholtz, Steffen [Universitaetsklinikum Giessen und Marburg GmbH, Marburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Unfall-, Hand- und Wiederherstellungschirurgie; Siemann, Holger [LVR Klinikum Essen (Germany); Barkhausen, Joerg [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Luebeck (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin


    The radiology trainer for surgical ambulance includes informative X-ray imaging examples for the following issues: zygoma, nasal bone, spinal cord, clavicle, shoulder, upper arms, elbow, forearms, wrist, hand, phalanx, thorax, sternum, pelvis, abdomen, hips, femur, knee, lower leg, ankle, feet.

  17. Design and methods of European Ambulance Acute Coronary Syndrome Angiography Trial (EUROMAX)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steg, Philippe Gabriel; van 't Hof, Arnoud; Clemmensen, Peter;


    In patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) triaged to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), anticoagulation often is initiated in the ambulance during transfer to a PCI site. In this prehospital setting, bivalirudin has not been compared with standard-of-care...

  18. A clinical prediction rule for ambulation outcomes after traumatic spinal cord injury: a longitudinal cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middendorp, J.J. van; Hosman, A.J.F.; Donders, A.R.T.; Pouw, M.H.; Ditunno Jr., J.F.; Curt, A.; Geurts, A.C.H.; Meent, H. van de


    BACKGROUND: Traumatic spinal cord injury is a serious disorder in which early prediction of ambulation is important to counsel patients and to plan rehabilitation. We developed a reliable, validated prediction rule to assess a patient's chances of walking independently after such injury. METHODS: We

  19. Cross-cultural validation of the Italian version of the Cumulated Ambulation Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grana, Elisa; Verzellotti, Simone; Grassi, Federico A;


    Hip fractures are common in elderly patients, and walking impairment is a frequent complication. The Cumulated Ambulation Score (CAS) is a validated functional scale used to monitor easily three basic mobility activities in patients with hip fracture. The aim of this study was to translate, cross...

  20. Knee disarticulation : Survival, wound healing and ambulation. A historic cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Duis, K.; Bosmans, J. C.; Voesten, H. G. J.; Geertzen, J. H. B.; Dijkstra, P. U.


    The aim of this study was to analyze survival, wound healing and ambulation after knee disarticulation (KD). A historic cohort study using medical records and nursing home records was performed. Data included demographics, reason for amputation, concomitant diseases, survival, wound healing, re-ampu

  1. Self-paced brain-computer interface control of ambulation in a virtual reality environment (United States)

    Wang, Po T.; King, Christine E.; Chui, Luis A.; Do, An H.; Nenadic, Zoran


    Objective. Spinal cord injury (SCI) often leaves affected individuals unable to ambulate. Electroencephalogram (EEG) based brain-computer interface (BCI) controlled lower extremity prostheses may restore intuitive and able-body-like ambulation after SCI. To test its feasibility, the authors developed and tested a novel EEG-based, data-driven BCI system for intuitive and self-paced control of the ambulation of an avatar within a virtual reality environment (VRE). Approach. Eight able-bodied subjects and one with SCI underwent the following 10-min training session: subjects alternated between idling and walking kinaesthetic motor imageries (KMI) while their EEG were recorded and analysed to generate subject-specific decoding models. Subjects then performed a goal-oriented online task, repeated over five sessions, in which they utilized the KMI to control the linear ambulation of an avatar and make ten sequential stops at designated points within the VRE. Main results. The average offline training performance across subjects was 77.2±11.0%, ranging from 64.3% (p = 0.001 76) to 94.5% (p = 6.26×10-23), with chance performance being 50%. The average online performance was 8.5±1.1 (out of 10) successful stops and 303±53 s completion time (perfect = 211 s). All subjects achieved performances significantly different than those of random walk (p ambulation after only 10 minutes training. The ability to achieve such BCI control with minimal training indicates that the implementation of future BCI-lower extremity prosthesis systems may be feasible.

  2. Basic life support and automated external defibrillator skills among ambulance personnel: a manikin study performed in a rural low-volume ambulance setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Anne


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambulance personnel play an essential role in the ‘Chain of Survival’. The prognosis after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest was dismal on a rural Danish island and in this study we assessed the cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance of ambulance personnel on that island. Methods The Basic Life Support (BLS and Automated External Defibrillator (AED skills of the ambulance personnel were tested in a simulated cardiac arrest. Points were given according to a scoring sheet. One sample t test was used to analyze the deviation from optimal care according to the 2005 guidelines. After each assessment, individual feedback was given. Results On 3 consecutive days, we assessed the individual EMS teams responding to OHCA on the island. Overall, 70% of the maximal points were achieved. The hands-off ratio was 40%. Correct compression/ventilation ratio (30:2 was used by 80%. A mean compression depth of 40–50 mm was achieved by 55% and the mean compression depth was 42 mm (SD 7 mm. The mean compression rate was 123 per min (SD 15/min. The mean tidal volume was 746 ml (SD 221 ml. Only the mean tidal volume deviated significantly from the recommended (p = 0.01. During the rhythm analysis, 65% did not perform any visual or verbal safety check. Conclusion The EMS providers achieved 70% of the maximal points. Tidal volumes were larger than recommended when mask ventilation was applied. Chest compression depth was optimally performed by 55% of the staff. Defibrillation safety checks were not performed in 65% of EMS providers.

  3. Short-term exposure to ambient particulate matter and emergency ambulance dispatch for acute illness in Japan. (United States)

    Tasmin, Saira; Ueda, Kayo; Stickley, Andrew; Yasumoto, Shinya; Phung, Vera Ling Hui; Oishi, Mizuki; Yasukouchi, Shusuke; Uehara, Yamato; Michikawa, Takehiro; Nitta, Hiroshi


    Short-term exposure to air pollution may be linked to negative health outcomes that require an emergency medical response. However, few studies have been undertaken on this phenomenon to date. The aim of this study therefore was to examine the association between short-term exposure to ambient suspended particulate matter (SPM) and emergency ambulance dispatches (EADs) for acute illness in Japan. Daily EAD data, daily mean SPM and meteorological data were obtained for four prefectures in the Kanto region of Japan for the period from 2007 to 2011. The area-specific association between daily EAD for acute illness and SPM was explored using generalized linear models while controlling for ambient temperature, relative humidity, seasonality, long-term trends, day of the week and public holidays. Stratified analyses were conducted to evaluate the modifying effects of age, sex and medical conditions. Area-specific estimates were combined using meta-analyses. For the total study period the mean level of SPM was 23.7μg/m(3). In general, higher SPM was associated with a significant increase in EAD for acute illness [estimated pooled relative risk (RR): 1.008, 95% CI: 1.007 to 1.010 per 10μg/m(3) increase in SPM at lag 0-1]. The effects of SPM on EAD for acute illness were significantly greater for moderate/mild medical conditions (e.g. cases that resulted in 3weeks hospitalization or which resulted in death). Using EAD data, this study has shown the adverse health effects of ambient air pollution. This highlights the importance of reducing the level of air pollution in order to maintain population health and well-being.

  4. Prosthetic ambulation in a paraplegic patient with a transfemoral amputation and radial nerve palsy. (United States)

    Shin, J C; Park, C; Kim, D Y; Choi, Y S; Kim, Y K; Seong, Y J


    Great importance and caution should be placed on prosthetic fitting for a paraplegic patient with an anesthetic residual limb if functional ambulation is to be achieved. The combination of paraplegia with a transfemoral amputation and radial nerve palsy is a complex injury that makes the rehabilitation process difficult. This article describes a case of L2 paraplegia with a transfemoral amputation and radial nerve palsy on the right side. Following the rehabilitation course, the patient independently walked using a walker at indoor level with a transfemoral prosthesis with ischial containment socket, polycentric knee assembly, endoskeletal shank and multiaxis foot assembly and a knee ankle foot orthosis on the sound side. The difficulties of fitting a functional prosthesis to an insensate limb and the rehabilitation stages leading to functional ambulation are reviewed.

  5. Contributing factors and issues associated with rural ambulance crashes: literature review and annotated bibliography. (United States)

    Sanddal, Nels D; Albert, Steve; Hansen, Joseph D; Kupas, Douglas F


    Ambulance crashes occur with greater frequency and severity than crashes involving vehicles of similar size and weight characteristics. Crashes in rural areas tend to be more severe in terms of injury or death to vehicle occupants. The purpose of this article was to examine the extant literature, as well as summarize and discuss the overlapping findings of that body of literature. A stepwise literature search was conducted using the following MeSH search terms ambulance; accident, traffic; emergency medical technician; occupational health; and rural in descending combination. MEDLINE was used as the primary database but was augmented by searches of Academic Search Premier, Comprehensive Index of Nursing, Allied Health Literature, and ProQuest Dissertation International. The search resulted in 32 article citations, and of these, 28 were included. An annotated bibliography is followed by a discussion and conclusion that identify opportunities for prevention activities in the areas of education, enforcement, and engineering.

  6. Pre-Hospital Fast Positive Cases Identified by DFB Ambulance Paramedics – Final Clinical Diagnosis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Feeney, A


    Ischaemic stroke clinical outcomes are improved by earlier treatment with intravenous thrombolysis. An existing pathway at the Mater University Hospital for assessment of suspected acute stroke in the Emergency Department was updated, aiming to shorten ‘door to needle time’. This study examines the final clinical diagnosis of Dublin Fire Brigade Ambulance Paramedic identified Face Arm Speech Test (FAST) positive patients presenting to the Emergency Department over a 7 month period. A retrospective analysis was carried out of 177 consecutive FAST positive patients presenting between March and November 2014. The final clinical diagnosis was acute stroke in 57.1% (n=101) of patients. Of these, 76 were ischaemic strokes of whom 56.5% (n=43) were thrombolysed. In the pre-hospital setting Ambulance Paramedics can identify, with reasonable accuracy, acute stroke using the FAST test. Over half of the ischaemic stroke patients presenting via this pathway can be treated with intravenous thrombolysis

  7. Prediction of postoperative morbidity, mortality and rehabilitation in hip fracture patients: the cumulated ambulation score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Bang; Kristensen, Morten Tange; Kehlet, Henrik


    to short-term outcome parameters. RESULTS: The cumulated ambulation score was a highly significant predictor for length of hospitalization, time to discharge status, 30-day mortality and postoperative medical complications (P ...OBJECTIVE: To validate the cumulated ambulation score as an early postoperative predictor of short-term outcome in hip fracture patients. DESIGN: Prospective, descriptive study. SETTING: An orthopaedic hip fracture unit in a university hospital. PATIENTS: Four hundred and twenty-six consecutive hip...... fracture patients with an independent walking function admitted from their own home. Rehabilitation followed a well-defined multimodal rehabilitation regimen and discharge criteria. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Admission tests with a new mobility score to assess prefracture functional mobility and a short mental...

  8. 10-year experience of CO2-laser application in ambulance gynecology (United States)

    Stachanov, Michael L.; Masychev, Victor I.; Velsher, Leonid Z.; Kirkin, Vladimir V.; Zhashkov, Roman V.; Kocharian, Emilia A.


    CO2-laser surgical systems have come to stay in everyday practice of modern physicians and are successfully used in colposcopic and laparoscopic surgery. Results, obtained in ambulance gynecology are especially impressing. CO2- laser provides high medical- and cost-effective treatment. Presented work describes many-years experience of CO2- laser application. 439 patients with various vulvaric and cervix diseases were operated within this period. Laser beam parameters were selected according to requirements ((tau) =4 J/cm2) treatment without carbonization. Analyses of the results showed that the laser successfully destructs uterine cervix erosion, endocervicosis, dysplasia, leukoplakia, eritoplakia of uterine cervix, various benignant pathologies and focus degenerative process in ambulate conditions.

  9. The role of physician-staffed ambulances:the outcome of a pilot study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A Haner; P rninge; A Khorram-Manesh


    Objective:To evaluate the outcome of physician-staffed ambulances in a pilot study. Methods:All physician-staffed ambulance missions conducted in Gothenburg, Sweden, in 2013 were retrospectively reviewed and evaluated for the type of missions and the need of a physician. Results:Out of 1 381 physician-staffed missions, 511 were cancelled or managed by telephone. Around 239 (17%) missions required active intervention, of which only one was considered directly life-saving. Conclusions: Most of the missions neither required the interventional skills of a physician, nor could they be performed at distance. However, the added medical value of physicians was found to be in other prehospital situations, such as critical decision-making, staff education and research.

  10. Neurotherapeutic and neuroprosthetic effects of implanted functional electrical stimulation for ambulation after incomplete spinal cord injury. (United States)

    Bailey, Stephanie Nogan; Hardin, Elizabeth C; Kobetic, Rudi; Boggs, Lisa M; Pinault, Gilles; Triolo, Ronald J


    The purpose of this single-subject study was to determine the neurotherapeutic and neuroprosthetic effects of an implanted functional electrical stimulation (FES) system designed to facilitate walking in an individual with a longstanding motor and sensory incomplete spinal cord injury. An implanted pulse generator and eight intramuscular stimulating electrodes were installed unilaterally, activating weak or paralyzed hip flexors, hip and knee extensors, and ankle dorsiflexors during 36 sessions of gait training with FES. The neurotherapeutic effects were assessed by a comparison of pre- and posttraining volitional walking. The neuroprosthetic effects were assessed by a comparison of posttraining volitional and FES-assisted walking. Treatment resulted in significant (p ambulation to limited community ambulation. Additionally, the subject could perform multiple walks per day when using FES-assisted gait, which was impossible with volitional effort alone.

  11. Effects of adductor-canal-blockade on pain and ambulation after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenstrup, M T; Jæger, P; Lund, J;


    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is associated with intense post-operative pain. Besides providing optimal analgesia, reduction in side effects and enhanced mobilization are important in this elderly population. The adductor-canal-blockade is theoretically an almost pure sensory blockade. We...... hypothesized that the adductor-canal-blockade may reduce morphine consumption (primary endpoint), improve pain relief, enhance early ambulation ability, and reduce side effects (secondary endpoints) after TKA compared with placebo....

  12. Ambulance emergency services for patients with coronary heart disease in Lancashire: achieving standards and improving performance


    Stoykova, B; Dowie, R; Bastow, P; Rowsell, K; GREGORY, R.


    Methods: Audit datasets on two cohorts of patients with chest pain and suspected AMI were assembled by the Lancashire Ambulance Service NHS Trust in north west England: 3706 patients during 1996/97 and 3423 in 2001. They were transported to four hospitals. The analyses covered journey timings, role of rapid response vehicles (RRV), and clinical procedures and the results were compared with prevailing national standards.

  13. Relation Between Objectively Measured Growth Determinants and Ambulation in Children with Cerebral Palsy


    GÖKKAYA, N. Kutay ORDU; ÇALIŞKAN, Aslı; KARAKUŞ, Dilek; Uçan, Halil


    Aims: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a well-known neurodevelopmental condition beginning in early childhood and persisting throughout one´s life span. Feeding problems and eating impairments in CP children are well documented in the literature. The aims of our study were to determine the prevalence of linear growth retardation and the other growth determinants in this patient group and to identify the contributing factors and their relationship with ambulation. Materials and Methods: A cross-section...

  14. Emergency ambulance assistance in The Netherlands: is the Dutch situation optimal? (United States)

    van Vugt, A B; van Olden, G D; Edwards, M J


    The system of prehospital trauma care in the Netherlands is the subject of great concern. Although many improvements have been achieved in the last decade, there are still some deficits. Legislation concerning the minimal level of education for ambulance attendants was recently upgraded to 'registered nurse', a standard which must be achieved by 1997. Standardization with regard to extrication techniques, equipment and methods of treatment in prehospital trauma care does not yet exist. Although aware of the fact that large regional differences exist throughout the USA, a system of care in accordance with the advanced trauma life support (ATLS) standard of the American College of Surgeons (ACS) and by means of prehospital and advanced trauma life support (PHTLS) given according to the standards of the National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians (NAEMS) was considered to be the 'golden standard'. Nineteen ground ambulance and two helicopter services in different states of the USA, working according to ACS/NAEMS standard, were visited to analyse the system of care, with special reference to (para)medical education, communication, logistics, and immobilization materials and techniques. In the Netherlands all 41 central post ambulance services (CPAs) were asked to return a questionnaire. This resulted in a 90% (37 out of 41) response. The deficits of the Dutch system of care related to the PHTLS/ATLS standard are pointed out, resulting in recommendations to improve the Dutch system. The requirements of the dispatcher are far inferior to the optimal situation, which, together with the lack of technical equipment, results in serious communication problems. The Dutch ambulance attendant education, in which in the present system the education level reaches 'registered nurse' in only 91% and specialized courses are not mandatory, should be upgraded to the PHTLS level of care.

  15. Design and validation of a platform robot for determination of ankle impedance during ambulation. (United States)

    Rouse, Elliott J; Hargrove, Levi J; Peshkin, Michael A; Kuiken, Todd A


    In order to provide natural, biomimetic control to recently developed powered ankle prostheses, we must characterize the impedance of the ankle during ambulation tasks. To this end, a platform robot was developed that can apply an angular perturbation to the ankle during ambulation and simultaneously acquire ground reaction force data. In this study, we detail the design of the platform robot and characterize the impedance of the ankle during quiet standing. Subjects were perturbed by a 3° dorsiflexive ramp perturbation with a length of 150 ms. The impedance was defined parametrically, using a second order model to map joint angle to the torque response. The torque was determined using the inverted pendulum assumption, and impedance was identified by the least squares best estimate, yielding an average damping coefficient of 0.03 ± 0.01 Nms/° and an average stiffness coefficient of 3.1 ± 1.2 Nm/°. The estimates obtained by the proposed platform robot compare favorably to those published in the literature. Future work will investigate the impedance of the ankle during ambulation for powered prosthesis controller development.

  16. Manager-employee interaction in ambulance services: an exploratory study of employee perspectives on management communication. (United States)

    Nordby, Halvor


    Managers of ambulance stations face many communicative challenges in their interaction with employees working in prehospital first-line services. The article presents an exploratory study of how paramedics experience these challenges in communication with station leaders. On the basis of a dialogue perspective in qualitative method, 24 paramedics were interviewed in one-to-one and focus group settings. Naturalistic and phenomenological approaches were used to analyze the interviews. All the paramedics said that they wished to be more involved in decision processes and that station managers should provide better explanations of information "from above." The paramedics understood that it was difficult for the managers to find time for extensive dialogue, but many thought that the managers should give more priority to communication. The paramedics' views correspond to theoretical assumptions in human resource management. According to this model, employees should be involved in decision processes on management levels, as long as it is realistically possible to do so. Furthermore, expressing emotional support and positive attitudes does not take much time, and the study suggests that many ambulance managers should focus more on interpersonal relations to employees. It has been extensively documented that management communication affects organizational performance. The study indicates that managers of ambulance stations should be more aware of how their leadership style affects professional commitment and motivation in the first-line services.

  17. Feasibility, Reliability and Predictive Value Of In-Ambulance Heart Rate Variability Registration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Yperzeele

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV is a parameter of autonomic nervous system function. A decrease of HRV has been associated with disease severity, risk of complications and prognosis in several conditions.We aim to investigate the feasibility and the reliability of in-ambulance HRV registration during emergency interventions, and to evaluate the association between prehospital HRV parameters, patient characteristics, vital parameters and short-term outcome.We conducted a prospective study using a non-invasive 2-lead ECG registration device in 55 patients transported by the paramedic intervention team of the Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel. HRV assessment included time domain parameters, frequency domain parameters, nonlinear analysis, and time-frequency analysis. The correlation between HRV parameters and patient and outcome characteristics was analyzed and compared to controls.Artifact and ectopic detection rates were higher in patients during ambulance transportation compared to controls in resting conditions, yet technical reasons precluding in-ambulance HRV analysis occurred in only 9.6% of cases. HRV acquisition was possible without safety issues or interference with routine emergency care. Reliability of the results was considered sufficient for Sample entropy (SampEn, good for the ratio of low frequency and high frequency components (LF/HF ratio in the frequency and the time frequency domain, and excellent for the triangular interpolation of the NN interval histogram (TINN, and for the short-term scaling exponent of the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA α1. HRV indices were significantly reduced inpatients with unfavorable outcome compared to patients with favorable outcome and controls. Multivariate analysis identified lower DFA α1 as an independent predictor of unfavorable outcome (OR, 0.155; 95% CI 0.024-0.966; p = 0.049.In-ambulance HRV registration is technically and operationally feasible and produces reliable results for parameters

  18. Bed rest versus early ambulation with standard anticoagulation in the management of deep vein thrombosis: a meta-analysis.

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    Zhenlei Liu

    Full Text Available Bed rest has been considered as the cornerstone of management of deep vein thrombosis (DVT for a long time, though it is not evidence-base, and there is growing evidence favoring early ambulation.Electronic databases including Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library and three Chinese databases were searched with key words of "deep vein thrombosis", "pulmonary embolism", "venous thrombosis", "bed rest", "immobilization", "mobilization" and "ambulation". We considered randomized controlled trials, prospective or retrospective cohort studies that compared the outcomes of acute DVT patients managed with early ambulation versus bed rest, in addition to standard anticoagulation. Meta-analysis pertaining to the incidence of new pulmonary embolism (PE, progression of DVT, and DVT related deaths were conducted, as well as the extent of remission of pain and edema.13 studies were included with a total of 3269 patients. Compared to bed rest, early ambulation was not associated with a higher incidence of new PE, progression of DVT, or DVT related deaths (RD -0.03, 95% CI -0.05∼ -0.02; Z = 1.24, p = 0.22; random effect model, Tau2 = 0.01. Moreover, if the patients suffered moderate or severe pain initially, early ambulation was related to a better outcome, with respect to remission of acute pain in the affected limb (SMD 0.42, 95%CI 0.09∼0.74; Z = 2.52, p = 0.01; random effect model, Tau2 = 0.04. Meta-analysis of alleviation of edema cannot elicit a solid conclusion because of significant heterogeneity among the few studies.Compared to bed rest, early ambulation of acute DVT patients with anticoagulation was not associated with a higher incidence of new PE, progression of DVT, and DVT related deaths. Furthermore, for the patients suffered moderate or severe pain initially, a better outcome can be seen in early ambulation group, regarding to the remission of acute pain in the affected limb.

  19. Daily variations in ambulance calls for selected causes in Arkhangelsk, Russia: potential role of excessive alcohol consumption on weekends

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    Sergei N. Drachev


    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess daily variations in ambulance calls for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, mental and behavioral disorders, and external causes in Arkhangelsk, Northwest Russia, in 2000–2008. Study design. A population-based study. Methods. Data about all ambulance calls during the years 2000–2008 were obtained from the Arkhangelsk ambulance station. Information about patient's gender, age, doctor's diagnosis according to International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, and the date of call were recorded. Pearson's Chi-squared tests were used for comparing proportions of ambulance calls across the week for CVDs (I00-99, mental and behavioral disorders (F00-F99, and external causes (S00-T98, V01-Y98. The ratio of incidence of ambulance calls on Saturday, Sunday, and Monday versus the rest of week was also calculated. Results. There is a significant daily variation (p < 0.001 in calls for CVDs in men and women aged 18–59 and women aged 60 years and older, with increased numbers of calls on weekends and Mondays varying between 2 and 3% excess calls. For mental and behavioral disorders, a similar pattern was found in the age group of 18–59 year-olds. Ratios for the number of calls during weekends and Mondays vs. the rest of the week were 1.05 (95% CI: 1.02–1.08 among women and 1.02 (95% CI: 1.00–1.05 among men. For external causes, a significant variation and an increase in ambulance calls during Saturdays, Sundays, and Mondays from 4 to 17% excess calls was observed for both age and gender groups. Conclusions. The observed daily variations in ambulance calls with an increased number of calls on weekends and Mondays for CVDs, mental and behavioral disorders, and external causes may be associated with excessive alcohol consumption on the weekends. Further research using data on individual levels of alcohol consumption are warranted.

  20. Configuring a powered knee and ankle prosthesis for transfemoral amputees within five specific ambulation modes.

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    Ann M Simon

    Full Text Available Lower limb prostheses that can generate net positive mechanical work may restore more ambulation modes to amputees. However, configuration of these devices imposes an additional burden on clinicians relative to conventional prostheses; devices for transfemoral amputees that require configuration of both a knee and an ankle joint are especially challenging. In this paper, we present an approach to configuring such powered devices. We developed modified intrinsic control strategies--which mimic the behavior of biological joints, depend on instantaneous loads within the prosthesis, or set impedance based on values from previous states, as well as a set of starting configuration parameters. We developed tables that include a list of desired clinical gait kinematics and the parameter modifications necessary to alter them. Our approach was implemented for a powered knee and ankle prosthesis in five ambulation modes (level-ground walking, ramp ascent/descent, and stair ascent/descent. The strategies and set of starting configuration parameters were developed using data from three individuals with unilateral transfemoral amputations who had previous experience using the device; this approach was then tested on three novice unilateral transfemoral amputees. Only 17% of the total number of parameters (i.e., 24 of the 140 had to be independently adjusted for each novice user to achieve all five ambulation modes and the initial accommodation period (i.e., time to configure the device for all modes was reduced by 56%, to 5 hours or less. This approach and subsequent reduction in configuration time may help translate powered prostheses into a viable clinical option where amputees can more quickly appreciate the benefits such devices can provide.

  1. Configuring a powered knee and ankle prosthesis for transfemoral amputees within five specific ambulation modes. (United States)

    Simon, Ann M; Ingraham, Kimberly A; Fey, Nicholas P; Finucane, Suzanne B; Lipschutz, Robert D; Young, Aaron J; Hargrove, Levi J


    Lower limb prostheses that can generate net positive mechanical work may restore more ambulation modes to amputees. However, configuration of these devices imposes an additional burden on clinicians relative to conventional prostheses; devices for transfemoral amputees that require configuration of both a knee and an ankle joint are especially challenging. In this paper, we present an approach to configuring such powered devices. We developed modified intrinsic control strategies--which mimic the behavior of biological joints, depend on instantaneous loads within the prosthesis, or set impedance based on values from previous states, as well as a set of starting configuration parameters. We developed tables that include a list of desired clinical gait kinematics and the parameter modifications necessary to alter them. Our approach was implemented for a powered knee and ankle prosthesis in five ambulation modes (level-ground walking, ramp ascent/descent, and stair ascent/descent). The strategies and set of starting configuration parameters were developed using data from three individuals with unilateral transfemoral amputations who had previous experience using the device; this approach was then tested on three novice unilateral transfemoral amputees. Only 17% of the total number of parameters (i.e., 24 of the 140) had to be independently adjusted for each novice user to achieve all five ambulation modes and the initial accommodation period (i.e., time to configure the device for all modes) was reduced by 56%, to 5 hours or less. This approach and subsequent reduction in configuration time may help translate powered prostheses into a viable clinical option where amputees can more quickly appreciate the benefits such devices can provide.

  2. Emerging organizational structures in the ambulance industry in the United States. (United States)

    Narad, R A


    This analysis seeks to identify emerging forms of organizations in emergency medical services (EMS) in the United States, to provide examples of them, to relate them to changes in healthcare generally, and to apply a classification scheme. Public policy issues related to these new forms of organizations and lessons from other areas of the healthcare system are identified. Recent changes in the healthcare system in the United States have been marked by modifications in the structure of organizations that provide and pay for health services. New forms of organizations and alliances among existing organizations have emerged in an effort to improve the efficiency of the services provided and to improve organizations' market positions. Reflecting increased competition within EMS and the demands of the changing health-care delivery system, several types of organizations have begun to emerge in EMS that resemble those occurring in health care generally. These include forms of horizontal integration, such as consolidated ambulance services and various models of ambulance service networks; and forms of vertical integration, such as demand management programs and public-private joint ventures. The ultimate end might be complete integration with a carve-out of all non-scheduled care. Although changes in EMS organizations result largely from marketplace decisions by sellers and purchasers, this does not mean that there is no public policy role. While new organizational forms may increase the ambulance industry's efficiency, public policy makers must be concerned about quality and access as well. Some policy responses will promote marketplace changes, others will accept them generally, but will seek to correct problems, and a third group will attempt to restrain the market.


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    Gajanan Bhalerao


    Full Text Available Background: Stroke subjects face reduced tolerance to activity and sedentary lifestyle due to various impairments, such as muscle weakness, pain, spasticity, and poor balance. Thus, loss of independent ambulation especially outdoors is generally observed in them. Methods: Chronic stroke patients (> 6 months with Functional Ambulation Category score > 2 and able to walk at least 10 meters of distance with and without assistance from a tertiary healthcare centre were selected and treated. Subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups control group (n=14 and experimental group (n=13. Each group received Motor Relearning Programme for 60 minutes, 6 times a week for 4 weeks. The experimental group received an additional shoe-raise of 1 cm on the unaffected side along with while ambulating during therapy as well as at home. Pre and post treatment the patients were assessed for spatio-temporal parameters using foot print analysis method and Rivermead Visual Gait Assessment (RVGA Score using RVGA scale. Results: There was significant improvement seen in almost all the spatio-temporal gait parameters and RVGA score in within group analysis. Whereas on between group the results from between group comparison suggests that subjects in MRP with shoe-raise group showed better results in spatio-temporal parameters of gait than subjects receiving MRPalone. But there was no additional benefit of shoe-raise seen on RGVA score and angle of toe-out parameter. Conclusion: Additional use of shoe-raise helps to improve spatio-temporal gait parameters. However, there was no additional change seen in RVGA score.

  4. Training Persons with Spinal Cord Injury to Ambulate Using a Powered Exoskeleton. (United States)

    Asselin, Pierre K; Avedissian, Manuel; Knezevic, Steven; Kornfeld, Stephen; Spungen, Ann M


    Powered exoskeletons have become available for overground ambulation in persons with paralyses due to spinal cord injury (SCI) who have intact upper extremity function and are able to maintain upright balance using forearm crutches. To ambulate in an exoskeleton, the user must acquire the ability to maintain balance while standing, sitting and appropriate weight shifting with each step. This can be a challenging task for those with deficits in sensation and proprioception in their lower extremities. This manuscript describes screening criteria and a training program developed at the James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY to teach users the skills needed to utilize these devices in institutional, home or community environments. Before training can begin, potential users are screened for appropriate range of motion of the hip, knee and ankle joints. Persons with SCI are at an increased risk of sustaining lower extremity fractures, even with minimal strain or trauma, therefore a bone mineral density assessment is performed to reduce the risk of fracture. Also, as part of screening, a physical examination is performed in order to identify additional health-related contraindications. Once the person has successfully passed all screening requirements, they are cleared to begin the training program. The device is properly adjusted to fit the user. A series of static and dynamic balance tasks are taught and performed by the user before learning to walk. The person is taught to ambulate in various environments ranging from indoor level surfaces to outdoors over uneven or changing surfaces. Once skilled enough to be a candidate for home use with the exoskeleton, the user is then required to designate a companion-walker who will train alongside them. Together, the pair must demonstrate the ability to perform various advanced tasks in order to be permitted to use the exoskeleton in their home/community environment.

  5. Preoperative Predictors of Ambulation Ability at Different Time Points after Total Hip Arthroplasty in Patients with Osteoarthritis

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    Akiko Kamimura


    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to identify the preoperative factors influencing ambulation ability at different postoperative time points after total hip arthroplasty (THA and to examine the cutoff values of predictive preoperative factors by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves. Forty-eight women with unilateral THA were measured for hip extensor, hip abductor, and knee extensor muscle strength in both legs; hip pain (visual analog scale, VAS; and the Timed Up and Go (TUG test pre- and postoperatively. Multiple regression analysis indicated that preoperative knee extensor strength (β=-0.379,R2=0.409 at 3 weeks, hip abductor strength (β=-0.572,R2=0.570 at 4 months, and age (β=0.758,R2= 0.561 at 7 months were strongly associated with postoperative ambulation, measured using the TUG test. Optimal preoperative cutoff values for ambulation ability were 0.56 Nm/kg for knee extensor strength, 0.24 Nm/kg for hip abductor strength, and 73 years of age. Our results suggest that preoperative factors predicting ambulation ability vary by postoperative time point. Preoperative knee extensor strength, hip abductor strength, and age were useful predictors of ambulation ability at the early, middle, and late time points, respectively, after THA.

  6. Why did the patient die? The relationship between ambulance accidents and death of patients: forensic medical issues. (United States)

    Ersoy, Gokhan; Ersoy, Ozlem; Yuksekbas, Ozlem; Kurnaz, Gulay; Akyildiz, Elif Ulker; Ekemen, Suheyla


    This article's aim is investigating traumatic consequences of ambulance accident on patients and discussing difficulties to give a decision about the relation between death and accident at these cases. The cases were selected among the forensic medical reports concluded between 1996 and 2005 years. They were documented for age, sex, causes of urgent call, localization and extent of traumatic lesion, properties of events and board decisions. A total of 21 cases were found. 15 cases died on the day of the accident. Skin injuries at head (8 cases) and legs (6 cases) were most common traumatic lesions. Totally 6 deaths were found related with ambulance accident. Death of patient after ambulance accidents may not be associated easily to the accident. Delay due to accident or concomitant contributing medical conditions may also facilitate the death in this type of cases. Reliable medical records were needed for accurate medicolegal evaluation.

  7. Neurotherapeutic and neuroprosthetic effects of implanted functional electrical stimulation for ambulation after incomplete spinal cord injury

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    Ronald J. Triolo, PhD


    Full Text Available The purpose of this single-subject study was to determine the neurotherapeutic and neuroprosthetic effects of an implanted functional electrical stimulation (FES system designed to facilitate walking in an individual with a long-standing motor and sensory incomplete spinal cord injury. An implanted pulse generator and eight intramuscular stimulating electrodes were installed unilaterally, activating weak or paralyzed hip flexors, hip and knee extensors, and ankle dorsiflexors during 36 sessions of gait training with FES. The neurotherapeutic effects were assessed by a comparison of pre- and posttraining volitional walking. The neuroprosthetic effects were assessed by a comparison of posttraining volitional and FES-assisted walking. Treatment resulted in significant (p < 0.005 volitional improvements in 6-minute walking distance and speed, speed during maximum walk, double support time, and 10 m walking speed. Posttraining FES-assisted walking resulted in significant additional improvements in all these measures, except 10 m walking speed. When the subject was using FES-assisted gait, maximum walking distance, peak knee flexion in swing, peak ankle dorsiflexion in swing, and knee extension moment also significantly increased. Neuroprosthetic gains were sufficient to enable the subject to advance from household ambulation to limited community ambulation. Additionally, the subject could perform multiple walks per day when using FES-assisted gait, which was impossible with volitional effort alone.

  8. Benefits of microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knees to limited community ambulators: systematic review. (United States)

    Kannenberg, Andreas; Zacharias, Britta; Pröbsting, Eva


    The benefits of microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knees (MPKs) have been well established in community ambulators (Medicare Functional Classification Level [MFCL]-3) with a transfemoral amputation (TFA). A systematic review of the literature was performed to analyze whether limited community ambulators (MFCL-2) may also benefit from using an MPK in safety, performance-based function and mobility, and perceived function and satisfaction. We searched 10 scientific databases for clinical trials with MPKs and identified six publications with 57 subjects with TFA and MFCL-2 mobility grade. Using the criteria of a Cochrane Review on prosthetic components, we rated methodological quality moderate in four publications and low in two publications. MPK use may significantly reduce uncontrolled falls by up to 80% as well as significantly improve indicators of fall risk. Performance-based outcome measures suggest that persons with MFCL-2 mobility grade may be able to walk about 14% to 25% faster on level ground, be around 20% quicker on uneven surfaces, and descend a slope almost 30% faster when using an MPK. The results of this systematic review suggest that trial fittings may be used to determine whether or not individuals with TFA and MFCL-2 mobility grade benefit from MPK use. Criteria for patient selection and assessment of trial fitting success or failure are proposed.

  9. Ambulation and independence among Veterans with nontraumatic bilateral lower–limb loss

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    Sherene E. Sharath, MPH


    Full Text Available In describing functional outcomes and independent living in a cohort of bilateral major amputees, we sought to provide current estimates of function and independence after a second major amputation in an elderly Veteran population with peripheral arterial disease and/or diabetes. After retrospectively reviewing and excluding the electronic health records of those failing to meet the inclusion criteria, we identified 40 patients with a history of unilateral major amputation who underwent a second major amputation during the defined study period. Of these, 43% (17 were bilateral transfemoral amputations (TFAs; bilateral transtibial amputations (TTAs and TFA–TTA accounted for the rest (33% and 25%, respectively. Of the 19 (48% patients who were ambulatory prior to bilateral amputation, only 2 (11% remained ambulatory after the second amputation, while 17 (89% patients lost ambulatory capabilities. Compared with those who were ambulate precontralateral amputation (p = 0.03. All patients with bilateral TFA were nonambulatory. Independence postcontralateral amputation decreased from 88% (35 to 53% (21. When data were available (58%, pre and post Functional Independence Measure scores showed a decrease in 74% of patients, while 22% showed an increase. In conclusion, bilateral lower–limb amputation among dysvascular Veterans is highly associated with a loss of ambulation.

  10. Improving community ambulation after hip fracture: protocol for a randomised, controlled trial (United States)

    Orwig, D; Mangione, KK; Baumgarten, M; Terrin, M; Fortinsky, R; Kenny, AM; Gruber-Baldini, AL; Beamer, B; Tosteson, ANA; Shardell, M; Magder, L; Binder, E; Koval, K; Resnick, B; Craik, RL; Magaziner, J


    Introduction After a hip fracture in older persons, significant disability often remains; dependency in functional activities commonly persists beyond 3 months after surgery. Endurance, dynamic balance, quadriceps strength, and function are compromised, and contribute to an inability to walk independently in the community. In the United States, people aged 65 years and older are eligible to receive Medicare funding for physiotherapy for a limited time after a hip fracture. A goal of outpatient physiotherapy is independent and safe household ambulation 2 to 3 months after surgery. Current Medicare-reimbursed post-hip-fracture rehabilitation fails to return many patients to pre-fracture levels of function. Interventions delivered in the home after usual hip fracture physiotherapy has ended could promote higher levels of functional independence in these frail and older adult patients. Primary objective To evaluate the effect of a specific multicomponent physiotherapy intervention (PUSH), compared with a non-specific multi-component control physiotherapy intervention (PULSE), on the ability to ambulate independently in the community 16 weeks after randomisation. Design Parallel, two-group randomised multicentre trial of 210 older adults with a hip fracture assessed at baseline and 16 weeks after randomisation, and at 40 weeks after randomisation for a subset of approximately 150 participants. Participants and setting A total of 210 hip fracture patients are being enrolled at three clinical sites and randomised up to 26 weeks after admission. Study inclusion criteria are: closed, non-pathologic, minimal trauma hip fracture with surgical fixation; aged ≥ 60 years at the time of randomisation; community residing at the time of fracture and randomisation; ambulating without human assistance 2 months prior to fracture; and being unable to walk at least 300 m in 6 minutes at baseline. Participants are ineligible if the interventions are deemed to be unsafe or unfeasible

  11. Using HSPA to improve the telemedical links on a moving ambulance. (United States)

    Banitsas, Konstantinos; Tachakra, Sapal; Stefanidis, Euclid; Boletis, Konstantinos


    As the demand for faster and more effective health care increases, there is a growing need to establish mobile, high-speed communications between a moving ambulance and a consultation point (usually a hospital). The recent addition of HSPA (HSDPA and HSUPA) into the UMTS suite provides higher bandwidth and reduced delays, making this choice ideal for real-time telemedical applications. In this paper, we will describe a set of scenarios that took place in a typical large city area, along with their equivalent results: a moving ambulance was linked with a consultation station using HSPA and several videoconferencing sessions were initiated. Best-case, worst-case and average scenarios were recorded. Furthermore, in areas where the UMTS reception was marginal, a repeater was placed on top of the vehicle to boost up the signal power and thus maintain the higher bandwidth. Finally, treating doctors were asked to evaluate the effectiveness of this system's outputs, based on a variety of objective and subjective criteria.

  12. Humeral fracture in non-ambulant infants - a possible accidental mechanism

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    Somers, John M.; Halliday, Katharine E. [Nottingham University Hospitals, Radiology Department, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Chapman, Stephen [Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom)


    Humeral fracture in a non-ambulant infant younger than 1 year is suspicious for a non-accidental injury unless there is a credible accidental explanation. A previously unrecognised accidental mechanism was described in 1996 whereby a 5-month-old infant was rolled by a 3-year-old sibling from a prone to a supine position. To investigate the widely accepted view that an infant with limited mobility cannot sustain a fracture of the humerus by his or her own actions in the absence of the intervention of an external party. We present seven cases of non-ambulant infants between 4 and 7 months of age in whom an isolated humeral fracture was the only injury present. In each case the caregiver described the fracture occurring when the child rolled over, trapping the dependent arm, without the intervention of another party. There is no proof for this mechanism in the form of an independent witness or video recording. However, we propose that this mechanism is worthy of further consideration as a rare and unusual cause for the injury. Further study is required. (orig.)

  13. Four Square Step Test in ambulant persons with multiple sclerosis: validity, reliability, and responsiveness. (United States)

    Wagner, Joanne M; Norris, Rosemary A; Van Dillen, Linda R; Thomas, Florian P; Naismith, Robert T


    The aim of this study was to establish the concurrent validity and relative and absolute reliability, define the minimal detectable change, and evaluate the floor and ceiling effects of the Four Square Step Test (FSST) in ambulant persons with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). Twenty-five pwMS performed the FSST on two occasions, 8.1±4.1 days apart. During the first testing, session participants also reported their fall history, performed the Berg Balance Scale, Dynamic Gait Index, and completed the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale. Performance on the FSST was significantly (P<0.001) and strongly associated with performance on the Berg Balance Scale (rs=-0.84), Dynamic Gait Index (rs=-0.81), and Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale (rs=-0.78). Relative reliability of the FSST was excellent (ICC2,1=0.922). The minimal detectable change estimate for the FSST was 4.6 s. The FSST is a valid and reliable measure of dynamic standing balance in ambulant pwMS. However, because a substantial change (43%) is required to demonstrate a real change in individual performance, the FSST is unlikely to be sensitive in detecting longitudinal change in dynamic standing balance.

  14. Benefits of microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knees to limited community ambulators: Systematic review

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    Andreas Kannenberg, MD, PhD


    Full Text Available The benefits of microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knees (MPKs have been well established in community ambulators (Medicare Functional Classification Level [MFCL]-3 with a transfemoral amputation (TFA. A systematic review of the literature was performed to analyze whether limited community ambulators (MFCL-2 may also benefit from using an MPK in safety, performance-based function and mobility, and perceived function and satisfaction. We searched 10 scientific databases for clinical trials with MPKs and identified six publications with 57 subjects with TFA and MFCL-2 mobility grade. Using the criteria of a Cochrane Review on prosthetic components, we rated methodological quality moderate in four publications and low in two publications. MPK use may significantly reduce uncontrolled falls by up to 80% as well as significantly improve indicators of fall risk. Performance-based outcome measures suggest that persons with MFCL-2 mobility grade may be able to walk about 14% to 25% faster on level ground, be around 20% quicker on uneven surfaces, and descend a slope almost 30% faster when using an MPK. The results of this systematic review suggest that trial fittings may be used to determine whether or not individuals with TFA and MFCL-2 mobility grade benefit from MPK use. Criteria for patient selection and assessment of trial fitting success or failure are proposed.

  15. The Medical Duty Officer: An Attempt to Mitigate the Ambulance At-Hospital Interval

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    Megan H. Halliday


    Full Text Available Introduction: A lack of coordination between emergency medical services (EMS, emergency departments (ED and systemwide management has contributed to extended ambulance at-hospital times at local EDs. In an effort to improve communication within the local EMS system, the Baltimore City Fire Department (BCFD placed a medical duty officer (MDO in the fire communications bureau. It was hypothesized that any real-time intervention suggested by the MDO would be manifested in a decrease in the EMS at-hospital time. Methods: The MDO was implemented on November 11, 2013. A senior EMS paramedic was assigned to the position and was placed in the fire communication bureau from 9 a.m. to 9 p.m., seven days a week. We defined the pre-intervention period as August 2013 - October 2013 and the post-intervention period as December 2013 - February 2014. We also compared the post-intervention period to the “seasonal match control” one year earlier to adjust for seasonal variation in EMS volume. The MDO was tasked with the prospective management of city EMS resources through intensive monitoring of unit availability and hospital ED traffic. The MDO could suggest alternative transport destinations in the event of ED crowding. We collected and analyzed data from BCFD computer-aided dispatch (CAD system for the following: ambulance response times, ambulance at-hospital interval, hospital diversion and alert status, and “suppression wait time” (defined as the total time suppression units remained on scene until ambulance arrival. The data analysis used a pre/post intervention design to examine the MDO impact on the BCFD EMS system. Results: There were a total of 15,567 EMS calls during the pre-intervention period, 13,921 in the post-intervention period and 14,699 in the seasonal match control period one year earlier. The average at-hospital time decreased by 1.35 minutes from pre- to post-intervention periods and 4.53 minutes from the pre- to seasonal match

  16. What an ambulance nurse needs to know: a content analysis of curricula in the specialist nursing programme in prehospital emergency care. (United States)

    Sjölin, Helena; Lindström, Veronica; Hult, Håkan; Ringsted, Charlotte; Kurland, Lisa


    In Sweden, ambulances must be staffed by at least one registered nurse. Twelve universities offer education in ambulance nursing. There is no national curriculum for detailed course content and there is a lack of knowledge about the educational content that deals with the ambulance nurse practical professional work. The aim of this study was to describe the content in course curricula for ambulance nurses. A descriptive qualitative research design with summative content analysis was used. Data were generated from 49 courses in nursing and medical science. The result shows that the course content can be described as medical, nursing and contextual knowledge with a certain imbalance with largest focus on medical knowledge. There is least focus on nursing, the registered nurses' main profession. This study clarifies how the content in the education for ambulance nurses in Sweden looks today but there are reasons to discuss the content distribution.

  17. Evaluation of an algorithm for estimating a patient's life threat risk from an ambulance call

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    Moriwaki Yoshihiro


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Utilizing a computer algorithm, information from calls to an ambulance service was used to calculate the risk of patients being in a life-threatening condition (life threat risk, at the time of the call. If the estimated life threat risk was higher than 10%, the probability that a patient faced a risk of dying was recognized as very high and categorized as category A+. The present study aimed to review the accuracy of the algorithm. Methods Data collected for six months from the Yokohama new emergency system was used. In the system, emergency call workers interviewed ambulance callers to obtain information necessary to assess triage, which included consciousness level, breathing status, walking ability, position, and complexion. An emergency patient's life threat risk was then estimated by a computer algorithm applying logistic models. This study compared the estimated life threat risk occurring at the time of the emergency call to the patients' state or severity of condition, i.e. death confirmed at the scene by ambulance crews, resulted in death at emergency departments, life-threatening condition with occurrence of cardiac and/or pulmonary arrest (CPA, life-threatening condition without CPA, serious but not life-threatening condition, moderate condition, and mild condition. The sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios of the algorithm for categorizing A+ were calculated. Results The number of emergency dispatches over the six months was 73,992. Triage assessment was conducted for 68,692 of these calls. The study targets account for 88.8% of patients who were involved in triage calls. There were 2,349 cases where the patient had died or had suffered CPA. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio of the algorithm at predicting cases that would result in a death or CPA were 80.2% (95% confidence interval

  18. Effect of Planned Early Recommended Ambulation Technique on Selected Post caesarean Biophysiological Health Parameters

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    Jyoti V. Dube


    Full Text Available Background: Caesarean section has been a part of human culture since ancient times. It has been used effectively throughout the 20th century and among the major abdominal surgeries, it is the most common, oldest worldwide surgery performed in obstetrics. Despite the life saving advantages, there are several adverse consequences of caesarean delivery for a woman and to her household. The rate and risk of these complications increases due to the increasing incidence mainly in countries like India. The role of nurse midwife is to act in the best interest of patient and newborn and make the patient independent in carrying out the activities of daily living as soon as possible. This can lead to a faster recovery and shorter hospital stay. Also it can indirectly help in reducing the complications associated with prolonged bed rest and can improve the maternal newborn bonding. Aim and Objectives: The present study was done to evaluate the effect of planned early ambulation on selected biophysiological health parameters of post caesarean patients. Material and Methods: The study included total 500 study subjects, 250 in experimental and 250 in control group. Quasi experimental approach with multiple time series design was adopted for the study. The experimental group was given an early planned recommended ambulation technique starting from the day of surgery. This consisted of deep breathing exercise, cough exercise, leg exercise and early mobilization. Over and above, the routine general health care was given by the doctors and nurses. The control group received only by routine general care by doctors and nurses and mobilization on third post operative day as per strategy adopted by the hospital. The deep breathing exercises, coughing exercises and leg exercises were not given routinely and hence were not given to the control group. Post caesarean biophysiological parameters chart was used to assess the selected parameters for first five post operative

  19. Emergency obstetric referral in rural Sierra Leone: what can motorbike ambulances contribute? A mixed-methods study. (United States)

    Bhopal, Sunil S; Halpin, Stephen J; Gerein, Nancy


    Giving birth remains a dangerous endeavour for many of the world's women. Progress to improve this has been slow in sub-Saharan Africa. The second delay, where transport infrastructure is key in allowing a woman to reach care, has been a relatively neglected field of study. Six eRanger motorbike ambulances, specifically engineered for use on poor roads in resource-poor situations were provided in 2006 as part of an emergency referral system in rural Sierra Leone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation of this referral system in terms of its use, acceptability and accessibility. Data were collected from usage records, and a series of semi-structured interviews and focus groups conducted to provide deeper understanding of the service. A total of 130 records of patients being transported to a health facility were found, 1/3 of which were for obstetric cases. The ambulance is being used regularly to transport patients to a health care facility. It is well known to the communities, is acceptable and accessible, and is valued by those it serves. District-wide traditional birth attendant training and the sensitisation activities provided a foundation for the introduction of the ambulance service, creating a high level of awareness of the service and its importance, particularly for women in labour. Motorbike ambulances are suited to remote areas and can function on poor roads inaccessible to other vehicles.

  20. Feasibility of AmbulanCe-Based Telemedicine (FACT) Study : Safety, Feasibility and Reliability of Third Generation Ambulance Telemedicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yperzeele, Laetitia; Van Hooff, Robbert-Jan; De Smedt, Ann; Espinoza, Alexis Valenzuela; Van Dyck, Rita; Van de Casseye, Rohny; Convents, Andre; Hubloue, Ives; Lauwaert, Door; De Keyser, Jacques; Brouns, Raf


    Background: Telemedicine is currently mainly applied as an in-hospital service, but this technology also holds potential to improve emergency care in the prehospital arena. We report on the safety, feasibility and reliability of in-ambulance teleconsultation using a telemedicine system of the third

  1. High intertester reliability of the cumulated ambulation score for the evaluation of basic mobility in patients with hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Tange; Andersen, Lene; Bech-Jensen, Rie;


    OBJECTIVE: To examine the intertester reliability of the three activities of the Cumulated Ambulation Score (CAS) and the total CAS, and to define limits for the smallest change in basic mobility that indicates a real change in patients with hip fracture. DESIGN: An intertester reliability study....

  2. Early ambulance initiation versus in-hospital initiation of high dose clopidogrel in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, S.; Dambrink, J.H.; Ottervanger, J.P.; Gosselink, A.T.M.; Koopmans, P.C.; Berg, J.M. van den; Suryapranata, H.; Hof, A.W. van 't


    Pre-hospital infarct diagnosis gives the opportunity to start anti-platelet and anti-thrombotic agents before arrival at the PCI centre. However, more evidence is necessary to demonstrate whether high dose (HD) clopidogrel (600 mg) administered in the ambulance is associated with improved initial pa

  3. Cumulated Ambulation Score to evaluate mobility is feasible in geriatric patients and in patients with hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Tange; Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Nielsen, Jesper Westphal;


    Regaining basic mobility independence is considered important for elderly hospitalised patients. The Cumulated Ambulation Score (CAS) is a valid tool for evaluating these patients' basic mobility (getting in and out of bed, sit-to-stand from a chair and walking) in orthopaedic wards, and its use...

  4. Use of Functional Ambulation Performance Score as measurement of gait ability: Review

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    Arnaud Gouelle, PhD


    Full Text Available Gait analysis systems are widely used for the assessment of gait disabilities and provide more accurate and detailed information than clinical tests. Scores and indexes have been proposed to summarize the large volume of data produced, each emphasizing different aspects of gait. Based on specific spatiotemporal gait parameters, the Functional Ambulation Performance Score (FAPS quantifies gait at a self-selected speed. Integrated within electronic walkways, the FAPS is commonly used for clinical evaluations and has been used in an increasing number of publications over the past few years. However, its use is sometimes distorted by misunderstandings of its composition and calculation, practical and/or conceptual limits, and even the meaning of the score. This technical report reviews the use of the FAPS for the evaluation of gait based on peer-reviewed articles and clinical experience and addresses important issues that must be considered for an optimal unbiased understanding and analysis of the score.

  5. [The evaluation of health of medical personnel of ambulance care and impacting factors]. (United States)


    The analysis of self-assessment of medical personnel of ambulance care revealed that 13.2% of respondents consider themselves as healthy persons, 35.1%--as practically healthy, 39.2%--as rarely being ill, 12%--as often being ill According to the poll data, deterioration of health is promoted by such personal factors as disregard of one's health (35%) and chronic diseases (25.3%). Its own role play such external factors as professional characteristics (34%). ecological conditions (23%), poor conditions of work (22.2%). The amelioration of health is supported mainly by sport exercises (42.8%). The significant role in this process play the improvement of work conditions, the enhancement of quality of medical examninations and the introduction of professional dispanserization.

  6. Geographic information system data from ambulances applied in the emergency department: effects on patient reception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaber, Nikolaj; Pedersen, Iben Duvald; Riddervold, Ingunn Skogstad;


    BACKGROUND: Emergency departments (ED) recognize crowding and handover from prehospital to in-hospital settings to be major challenges. Prehospital Geographical Information Systems (GIS) may be a promising tool to address such issues. In this study, the use of prehospital GIS data was implemented...... was displayed in the ED. Data included real-time estimated time of arrival, distance to ED, dispatch criteria, patient data and ambulance contact information. Data was used by coordinating nurses for time activation of TT and MET involved in the initial treatment of severely-injured or critically-ill patients....... DISCUSSION: The contradiction of measured median wait time and nurses perceived improved timing of team activation may result from having both RT- ETA and supplemental patient information not only for seriously-injured or critically-ill patients received by the TT and MET, but for all patients transported...

  7. Design and Development of an Intelligent Mobile Health Tele-assistance System in Ambulance Practice Service

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    Rachid Merzougui


    Full Text Available Our attention has focused on the choice of a relevant work. It concerns an implemented and conceived service of medical Teleassistance for monitoring risky persons brought by ambulance service. Thus, a medical bulletin is automatically filled on mobile terminal, immediately transmitted to the service of the emergency (on doctors mobile terminal, data base of clinic. This paper recalls a complete architecture of an economic wireless transmission system with the implementation of an effective application, adapted to the portable phone, allowing the doctor to have the medical information of patients who have a risk of accident. Thus, the stakes of setting up such systems are numerous, so much for patients, medical staff and the society in general.

  8. Early ambulation and prevention of post-operative thrombo-embolic risk. (United States)

    Talec, P; Gaujoux, S; Samama, C M


    The prevention of post-operative risk of venous thrombo-embolism (VTE) is of fundamental importance, but preventive methods have progressed with the introduction of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC), the development of ambulatory surgery and enhanced recovery programs (ERP) after surgery. Surgery is, inherently a trigger for venous thrombo-embolic disease, as is prolonged immobilization. However, the risk of VTE is very low following ambulatory surgery, especially in this selected population. ERP, consists of a set of measures to optimize the patient's peri-operative management while reducing length of stay, costs and morbidity and mortality; one measure is the encouragement of early ambulation. This will undoubtedly have an impact on the incidence of VTE and lessen the need for prolonged thrombo-prophylaxis.

  9. Reducing Ambulance Diversion at Hospital and Regional Levels: Systemic Review of Insights from Simulation Models

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    M Kit Delgado


    Full Text Available Introduction: Optimal solutions for reducing diversion without worsening emergency department (ED crowding are unclear. We performed a systematic review of published simulation studies to identify: 1 the tradeoff between ambulance diversion and ED wait times; 2 the predicted impact of patient flow interventions on reducing diversion; and 3 the optimal regional strategy for reducing diversion.Methods: Data Sources: Systematic review of articles using MEDLINE, Inspec, Scopus. Additional studies identified through bibliography review, Google Scholar, and scientific conference proceedings. Study Selection: Only simulations modeling ambulance diversion as a result of ED crowding or inpatient capacity problems were included. Data extraction: Independent extraction by two authors using predefined data fields.Results: We identified 5,116 potentially relevant records; 10 studies met inclusion criteria. In models that quantified the relationship between ED throughput times and diversion, diversion was found to only minimally improve ED waiting room times. Adding holding units for inpatient boarders and ED-based fast tracks, improving lab turnaround times, and smoothing elective surgery caseloads were found to reduce diversion considerably. While two models found a cooperative agreement between hospitals is necessary to prevent defensive diversion behavior by a hospital when a nearby hospital goes on diversion, one model found there may be more optimal solutions for reducing region wide wait times than a regional ban on diversion.Conclusion: Smoothing elective surgery caseloads, adding ED fast tracks as well as holding units for inpatient boarders, improving ED lab turnaround times, and implementing regional cooperative agreements among hospitals. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(5:489-498.

  10. Telehealth-Enabled Emergency Medical Services Program Reduces Ambulance Transport to Urban Emergency Departments

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    James R. Langabeer II


    Full Text Available Introduction: Emergency medical services (EMS agencies transport a significant majority of patients with low acuity and non-emergent conditions to local emergency departments (ED, affecting the entire emergency care system’s capacity and performance. Opportunities exist for alternative models that integrate technology, telehealth, and more appropriately aligned patient navigation. While a limited number of programs have evolved recently, no empirical evidence exists for their efficacy. This research describes the development and comparative effectiveness of one large urban program. Methods: The Houston Fire Department initiated the Emergency Telehealth and Navigation (ETHAN program in 2014. ETHAN combines telehealth, social services, and alternative transportation to navigate primary care-related patients away from the ED where possible. Using a case-control study design, we describe the program and compare differences in effectiveness measures relative to the control group. Results: During the first 12 months, 5,570 patients participated in the telehealth-enabled program, which were compared against the same size control group. We found a 56% absolute reduction in ambulance transports to the ED with the intervention compared to the control group (18% vs. 74%, P<.001. EMS productivity (median time from EMS notification to unit back in service was 44 minutes faster for the ETHAN group (39 vs. 83 minutes, median. There were no statistically significant differences in mortality or patient satisfaction. Conclusion: We found that mobile technology-driven delivery models are effective at reducing unnecessary ED ambulance transports and increasing EMS unit productivity. This provides support for broader EMS mobile integrated health programs in other regions.

  11. How urgent are cases brought to the emergency department by ambulance?

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    Melih Yuksel


    Full Text Available Objective: Emergency departments are the first places to which patients present with unexpected or unforeseen health problems. The purpose of this study was to assess the urgency of cases brought by ambulance to the Hospital on the basis of a three-level triage system. Methods: This study was performed between 01.06.2013 and 31.09.2013 at the Diyarbakır Education and Research Hospital. Our emergency service unit is a third degree service for all adult patient groups and all child trauma types. Triage of patients brought to the emergency department by ambulance was performed by emergency medicine specialists. Patients’ vital findings, identity data and triage categories were assessed. Results: 712 patients were included, 382 (53.7% male and 330 (46.3% female, with a mean age of 45. In this study, 619 (86.9% patients were transferred from the scene and 93 (13.1 between hospitals, 483 (67.8% patients were brought by emergency medicine technician (EMT teams, 107 (15% by physician-led teams, 107 (15 by paramedic teams and 15 (2.1% by other teams, 442 (62.1% patients were assessed as yellow, 141 (19.8% as green and 129 (19.1% as red zone. Five hundred eighty (81.5% patients were discharged and 115 (15.9% were hospitalized. Conclusion: Emergency health services are clearly developing rapidly in Turkey. In order for pre-hospital emergency health services not to be abused, we think that these services should be up to the standards of those in developed countries and that public awareness needs to be increased, particularly with regard to triage. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (2: 126-129

  12. Planning like an Olympian. How London Ambulance Service successfully handled their 'summer of sport'. (United States)

    Killens, Jason


    LOCOG Medical managed thousands of patient contacts across all the Games venues without our intervention. A polyclinic in the athlete's village had extensive diagnostic options, including X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging for athletes and the Olympic family. These helped limit the number of patients who needed transport to the ED. Although the delivery was seamless, there were "behind the scenes" moments in the final stages of planning that made us think. We received additional requests for ambulance cover at training venues that hadn't been planned for on short notice. In addition, the torch relay attracted bigger crowds than initially planned for. Some of the planning assumptions and agreements changed on short notice for various reasons. This meant we had to adjust our plans while also solving human resource issues that you would expect to see among a workforce of around 500 across a six-week period. As part of the National Health Service (NHS) ambulance service Games cohort, more than 500 staff were deployed across 18 venues and 30 days of sport in London. In doing so, they delivered in excess of 165,000 hours of standby and care, responded to nearly 1,500 Games-related incidents and conveyed 800 patients to emergency departments across the capital. After such an influx, it wasn't easy to return to business as usual. Officials with previous host cities had advised us that there would be a feeling of "what next" once the Games concluded. When I first heard this, I thought the opposite would be the case. I expected feeling relieved of overwhelming emotion as well as from the exhaustion of the long days. I do have to say that although this was the case, it's also true that there is a "post Games" come down. We had just been part of a fantastic summer of sport with a brilliant medal tally from Team Great Britain and Paralympics Great Britain that, of course, helped the euphoria. But we did feel real sense of uncertainty about what to do next. We had spent five

  13. L’ambulantage : Représentations du commerce ambulant ou informel et métropolisation


    MONNET, Jérôme


    Les représentations sociales font du commerce dit ambulant, informel ou de rue un ensemble flou d’activités liées à l’illégalité, à l’archaïsme et au sous-développement. En première partie, une cybergéographie de ces représentations présente les trois identifications dominantes de ce type de commerce et différencie des approches selon que l’on s’exprime en anglais ou en français et en espagnol. Cependant, elles ont en commun de marginaliser le commerce ambulant, et en particulier de ne pas co...

  14. Differences in police, ambulance, and emergency department reporting of traffic injuries on Karachi-Hala road, Pakistan

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    Lagarde Emmanuel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research undertaken in developing countries has assessed discrepancies in police reporting of Road Traffic Injury (RTI for urban settings only. The objective of this study was to assess differences in RTI reporting across police, ambulance, and hospital Emergency Department (ED datasets on an interurban road section in Pakistan. Methods The study setting was the 196-km long Karachi-Hala road section. RTIs reported to the police, Edhi Ambulance Service (EAS, and five hospital EDs in Karachi during 2008 (Jan to Dec were compared in terms of road user involved (pedestrians, motorcyclists, four-wheeled vehicle occupants and outcome (died or injured. Further, records from these data were matched to assess ascertainment of traffic injuries and deaths by the three datasets. Results A total of 143 RTIs were reported to the police, 531 to EAS, and 661 to hospital EDs. Fatality per hundred traffic injuries was twice as high in police records (19 per 100 RTIs than in ambulance (10 per 100 RTIs and hospital ED records (9 per 100 RTIs. Pedestrian and motorcyclist involvement per hundred traffic injuries was lower in police records (8 per 100 RTIs than in ambulance (17 per 100 RTIs and hospital ED records (43 per 100 RTIs. Of the 119 deaths independently identified after matching, police recorded 22.6%, EAS 46.2%, and hospital ED 50.4%. Similarly, police data accounted for 10.6%, EAS 43.5%, and hospital ED 54.9% of the 1 095 independently identified injured patients. Conclusions Police reporting, particularly of non-fatal RTIs and those involving vulnerable road users, should be improved in Pakistan.

  15. Emergency department visits, ambulance calls, and mortality associated with an exceptional heat wave in Sydney, Australia, 2011: a time-series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaffer Andrea


    Full Text Available Abstract Background From January 30-February 6, 2011, New South Wales was affected by an exceptional heat wave, which broke numerous records. Near real-time Emergency Department (ED and ambulance surveillance allowed rapid detection of an increase in the number of heat-related ED visits and ambulance calls during this period. The purpose of this study was to quantify the excess heat-related and all-cause ED visits and ambulance calls, and excess all-cause mortality, associated with the heat wave. Methods ED and ambulance data were obtained from surveillance and administrative databases, while mortality data were obtained from the state death registry. The observed counts were compared with the average counts from the same period from 2006/07 through 2009/10, and a Poisson regression model was constructed to calculate the number of excess ED visits, ambulance and deaths after adjusting for calendar and lag effects. Results During the heat wave there were 104 and 236 ED visits for heat effects and dehydration respectively, and 116 ambulance calls for heat exposure. From the regression model, all-cause ED visits increased by 2% (95% CI 1.01-1.03, all-cause ambulance calls increased by 14% (95% CI 1.11-1.16, and all-cause mortality increased by 13% (95% CI 1.06-1.22. Those aged 75 years and older had the highest excess rates of all outcomes. Conclusions The 2011 heat wave resulted in an increase in the number of ED visits and ambulance calls, especially in older persons, as well as an increase in all-cause mortality. Rapid surveillance systems provide markers of heat wave impacts that have fatal outcomes.

  16. Strategies to reduce the configuration time for a powered knee and ankle prosthesis across multiple ambulation modes. (United States)

    Simon, Ann M; Fey, Nicholas P; Finucane, Suzanne B; Lipschutz, Robert D; Hargrove, Levi J


    Recently developed powered lower limb prostheses allow users to more closely mimic the kinematics and kinetics of non-amputee gait. However, configuring such a device, in particular a combined powered knee and ankle, for individuals with a transfemoral amputation is challenging. Previous attempts have relied on empirical tuning of all control parameters. This paper describes modified stance phase control strategies - which mimic the behavior of biological joints or depend on the instantaneous loads within the prosthesis - developed to reduce the number of control parameters that require individual tuning. Three individuals with unilateral transfemoral amputations walked with a powered knee and ankle prosthesis across five ambulation modes (level ground walking, ramp ascent/descent, and stair ascent/descent). Starting with a nominal set of impedance parameters, the modified control strategies were applied and the devices were individually tuned such that all subjects achieved comfortable and safe ambulation. The control strategies drastically reduced the number of independent parameters that needed to be tuned for each subject (i.e., to 21 parameters instead of a possible 140 or approximately 4 parameters per mode) while relative amplitudes and timing of kinematic and kinetic data remained similar to those previously reported and to those of non-amputee subjects. Reducing the time necessary to configure a powered device across multiple ambulation modes may allow users to more quickly realize the benefits such powered devices can provide.

  17. [Implantation of the emergency ambulance service in Salvador, Bahia: reality and challenges]. (United States)

    Vieira, Célia Maria Sales; Mussi, Fernanda Carneiro


    The goal of this study was to describe the implementation of the emergency ambulance service of Salvador, Bahia (SAMU-192). The Ministry of Health provided the legal basis and regulations for its implementation. The main purpose of this service is the provision of free primary level healthcare to individuals, with clinical, surgical, traumatic and psychiatric aggravations that cause suffering, sequels or death and occur outside the hospital environment. The specific goals of SAMU-192 was to grant free healthcare to urgency and emergency situations, under the hierarchy and regulations of the Single Health System (SUS) of the Brazilian government, assuring that public resources will be available and integrated to the complementary healthcare network. Investments for the installation of the service were agreed on in the city and with federal and state management commissions. To turn SAMU-192 into reality, several challenges need to be accomplished, including community education, professional qualification and evaluation of human and material resources so as to provide basic emergency care with the appropriate quality.

  18. [Helpful Factors of Ambulant Art Therapy in the Group and Changes of Experiences in Psychosomatic Patients]. (United States)

    Oster, Jörg; Moser, Anna Sophie; Danner-Weinberger, Alexandra; von Wietersheim, Jörn


    The aim of this study was to analyze the experiences of patients suffering from mostly chronic psychosomatic disorders in an ambulant art therapy in the group. Especially, the focus was on the experienced changes, helpful factors and specifics of the therapy as well as on the experienced benefit. For this, 30 patients were interviewed in a semi-standardized way. Additionally, the symptom-based strain was psychometrically recorded in a part of the patients (21) at the beginning of the therapy and after at least 6 months of participation. The evaluation of those interviews with the qualitative analysis of the therapy subjects surrendered an improvement of the health state in most of the participants. Especially group factors, art as a mean of communication, becoming aware of feelings but also diversion and fun were proved to be beneficial. The art therapy also serves for structuring the week as well as a contact point and a resource in the interpersonal communication of everyday life. Nearly all of the patients referred to some important turning point pictures. Mostly, the benefit was valued as being high. But, in contrast, the psychometric measure did not show any significant change. The results emphasize the stabilizing function of art therapy in the examined patients, whereat the classification of the psychometric result is complicated by the absence of a control group.

  19. Solving the dynamic ambulance relocation and dispatching problem using approximate dynamic programming. (United States)

    Schmid, Verena


    Emergency service providers are supposed to locate ambulances such that in case of emergency patients can be reached in a time-efficient manner. Two fundamental decisions and choices need to be made real-time. First of all immediately after a request emerges an appropriate vehicle needs to be dispatched and send to the requests' site. After having served a request the vehicle needs to be relocated to its next waiting location. We are going to propose a model and solve the underlying optimization problem using approximate dynamic programming (ADP), an emerging and powerful tool for solving stochastic and dynamic problems typically arising in the field of operations research. Empirical tests based on real data from the city of Vienna indicate that by deviating from the classical dispatching rules the average response time can be decreased from 4.60 to 4.01 minutes, which corresponds to an improvement of 12.89%. Furthermore we are going to show that it is essential to consider time-dependent information such as travel times and changes with respect to the request volume explicitly. Ignoring the current time and its consequences thereafter during the stage of modeling and optimization leads to suboptimal decisions.

  20. Leg Lengthening as a Means of Improving Ambulation Following an Internal Hemipelvectomy

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    Wakyo Sato


    Full Text Available Reconstructive surgery following an internal hemipelvectomy for a malignant pelvic tumor is difficult due to the structural complexity of the pelvis and the massive extension of the tumor. While high complication rates have been encountered in various types of reconstructive surgery, resection without reconstruction reportedly involved fewer complications. However, this method often results in limb shortening with resultant instability during walking. We reported herein leg lengthening performed to correct lower limb shortening after an internal hemipelvectomy, which improved ambulatory stability and overall QOL. An 18-year-old male patient came to our hospital to correct a lower limb discrepancy resulting from a left internal hemipelvectomy. His left pelvis and proximal femur had been resected, and the femur remained without an acetabular roof. His left lower limb was about 8 centimeters shorter. The left tibia was lengthened 8 centimeters with an external fixator. After the lengthening, the patient was able to walk without support and his gait remarkably improved. Additionally he no longer required placing a wallet in his back pocket as a pad as a means of raising the left side of his torso while sitting. Leg lengthening was a useful method of improving ambulation after an internal hemipelvectomy.

  1. Powered ankle-foot prosthesis for the improvement of amputee ambulation. (United States)

    Au, Samuel K; Herr, Hugh; Weber, Jeff; Martinez-Villalpando, Ernesto C


    This paper presents the mechanical design, control scheme, and clinical evaluation of a novel, motorized ankle-foot prosthesis, called MIT Powered Ankle-Foot Prosthesis. Unlike a conventional passive-elastic ankle-foot prosthesis, this prosthesis can provide active mechanical power during the stance period of walking. The basic architecture of the prosthesis is a unidirectional spring, configured in parallel with a force-controllable actuator with series elasticity. With this architecture, the anklefoot prosthesis matches the size and weight of the human ankle, and is also capable of delivering high mechanical power and torque observed in normal human walking. We also propose a biomimetic control scheme that allows the prosthesis to mimic the normal human ankle behavior during walking. To evaluate the performance of the prosthesis, we measured the rate of oxygen consumption of three unilateral transtibial amputees walking at self-selected speeds to estimate the metabolic walking economy. We find that the powered prosthesis improves amputee metabolic economy from 7% to 20% compared to the conventional passive-elastic prostheses (Flex-Foot Ceterus and Freedom Innovations Sierra), even though the powered system is twofold heavier than the conventional devices. This result highlights the benefit of performing net positive work at the ankle joint to amputee ambulation and also suggests a new direction for further advancement of an ankle-foot prosthesis.

  2. Successful trans-Atlantic air ambulance transfer of a patient supported by a bi-ventricular assist device. (United States)

    McLean, Neilson; Copeland, Ryan; Casey, Neil; Samoukovic, Gordon; Quigley, Robert


    The ventricular assist device (VAD) is a hemodynamic support device that augments cardiac output for patients with severe ventricular dysfunction. With improved reliability and technological advances, the use of VADs to support patients is increasing. Many VAD-dependent patients ultimately require heart transplants that are only available in specialized centers, necessitating an interhospital transfer. To date there are few reports of long-distance fixed wing aeromedical transport of patients dependent on a VAD. Here we describe the successful transfer of a patient supported by a biventricular assist device (BiVAD) from Cambridge, UK, to Durham, NC, via fixed-wing jet aircraft. During this transfer, we observed hemodynamic alterations secondary to gravitational forces, which should be anticipated and may be mitigated with simple maneuvers. With high-level logistical planning and appropriate medical oversight, patients dependant on BiVADs can be safely transported by fixed wing aircraft over long distances.

  3. Characterization of Artifacts produced by gel displacement on non-invasive Brain-Machine Interfaces during ambulation

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    Alvaro eCosta


    Full Text Available So far, Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMIs have been mainly used to study brain potentials during movement-free conditions. Recently, due to the emerging concern of improving rehabilitation therapies, these systems are also being used during gait experiments. Under this new condition, the evaluation of motion artifacts has become a critical point to assure the validity of the results obtained. Due to the high signal to noise ratio provided, the use of wet electrodes is a widely accepted technic to acquire electroencephalographic (EEG signals. To perform these recordings it is necessary to apply a conductive gel between the scalp and the electrodes. This work is focused on the study of gel displacements produced during ambulation and how they affect the amplitude of EEG signals. Data recorded during three ambulation conditions (gait training and one movement-free condition (BMI motor imagery task are compared to perform this study.Two phenomenons, manifested as unusual increases of the signals' amplitude, have been identified and characterized during this work. Results suggest that they are caused by abrupt changes on the conductivity between the electrode and the scalp due to gel displacement produced during ambulation and head movements. These artifacts significantly increase the Power Spectral Density (PSD of EEG recordings at all frequencies from 5 to 90 Hz, corresponding to the main bandwidth of electrocortical potentials. They should be taken into consideration before performing EEG recordings in order to asses the correct gel allocation and to avoid the use of electrodes on certain scalp areas depending on the experimental conditions.

  4. Effects of robot-assisted gait training on the balance and gait of chronic stroke patients: focus on dependent ambulators. (United States)

    Cho, Duk Youn; Park, Si-Woon; Lee, Min Jin; Park, Dae Sung; Kim, Eun Joo


    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to confirm the effect of robot-assisted gait training on the balance and gait ability of stroke patients who were dependent ambulators. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty stroke patients participated in this study. The participants were allocated to either group 1, which received robot-assisted gait training for 4 weeks followed by conventional physical therapy for 4 weeks, or group 2, which received the same treatments in the reverse order. Robot-assisted gait training was conducted for 30 min, 3 times a week for 4 weeks. The Berg Balance Scale, Modified Functional Reach Test, Functional Ambulation Category, Modified Ashworth Scale, Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Motricity Index, and Modified Barthel Index were assessed before and after treatment. To confirm the characteristics of patients who showed a significant increase in Berg Balance Scale after robot-assisted gait training as compared with physical therapy, subgroup analysis was conducted. [Results] Only lateral reaching and the Functional Ambulation Category were significantly increased following robot-assisted gait training. Subscale analyses identified 3 patient subgroups that responded well to robot-assisted gait training: a subgroup with hemiplegia, a subgroup in which the guidance force needed to be decreased to needed to be decreased to ≤45%, and a subgroup in which weight bearing was decreased to ≤21%. [Conclusion] The present study showed that robot-assisted gait training is not only effective in improving balance and gait performance but also improves trunk balance and motor skills required by high-severity stroke patients to perform activities daily living. Moreover, subscale analyses identified subgroups that responded well to robot-assisted gait training.

  5. Response times of ambulances to calls from Midwife Obstetric Units of the Peninsula Maternal and Neonatal Service (PMNS in Cape Town

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    J.K. Marcus


    Full Text Available Response times of ambulances to calls from Midwife Obstetric Units, although varied, are perceived as slow. Delays in transporting women experiencing complications during or after their pregnancies to higher levels of care may have negative consequences such as fetal, neonatal or maternal morbidity or death. An exploratory descriptive study was undertaken to investigate the response times of ambulances of the Western Cape Emergency Medical Services to calls from midwife obstetric units (MOUs in the Peninsula Maternal and Neonatal Services (PMNS in Cape Town. Response times were calculated from data collected in specific MOUs using a specifically developed instrument. Recorded data included time of call placed requesting transfer, diagnosis or reason for transfer, priority of call and the time of arrival of ambulance to the requesting facility. Mean, median and range of response times, in minutes, to various MOUs and priorities of calls were calculated. These were then compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test. A comparison was then made between the recorded and analysed response times to national norms and recommendations for ambulance response times and maternal transfer response times respectively.A wide range of response times was noted for the whole sample. Median response times across all priorities of calls and to all MOUs in sample fell short of national norms and recommendations. No statistical differences were noted between various priorities of calls and MOUs.The perception of delayed response times of ambulances to MOUs in the PMNS was confirmed in this pilot study.

  6. Indications and results of the unilateral /sup 123/I-hippurate-clearance in an ambulant urological-nephrological patients collective

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    Mariss, P.; Haubold, E.


    In 572 nephrological-urological ambulant patients 688 estimations of unilateral renal plasma flow were performed after application of 300 kBq/kg /sup 123/I-hippurate using a large field scintillation camera, external scintillation probe over the right shoulder and a computer system. The indications were patients with hypertension, chronic pyelonephritis, unilateral nephrocirrhosis, exclusion or approval of renal failure, furthermore diverse malformations of the urovesical system, nephrolithiasis and follow-up after urological operations. The unilateral renal clearance by /sup 123/I-hippurate represents an important diagnostic tool in urological-nephrological patients with special diseases in addition to morphological and microbiological methods.

  7. Ambulant photodynamic therapy of superficial malignomas with 5-ALA in combination with folic acid and use of noncoherent light. (United States)

    Jindra, R H; Kubin, A; Kolbabek, H; Alth, G; Dobrowsky, W


    This study reports our first results of ambulant photodynamic treatment with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) in combination with folic acid and subsequent illumination with a noncoherent light source. The compound was topically applied to avoid total body skin sensitivity which occurs in the case of systemic administration. If no therapeutic response could be proved, we added folic acid to 5-ALA for a further treatment attempt. Illumination was performed by broad band red thermic light to also excitate reaction products with absorption bands located near to that of the sensitizer. As a result, we observed a response in all cases, however, in some cases only after the addition of folic acid.

  8. Otimização da localização das bases de ambulâncias e do dimensionamento das suas regiões de cobertura em rodovias Optimizing the location of ambulance bases and the districting of their covering regions on highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Iannoni


    Full Text Available Neste artigo combinamos extensões do modelo hipercubo de filas com algoritmos genéticos para otimizar a configuração e operação de sistemas médicos emergenciais em rodovias. Inicialmente apresentamos um método para localizar as bases de ambulâncias ao longo da rodovia, de forma a otimizar as principais medidas de desempenho do sistema. Em seguida estendemos a abordagem para apoiar duas decisões combinadas: a localização das bases de ambulâncias e o dimensionamento das regiões de cobertura de cada base na rodovia. Por exemplo, a abordagem permite determinar os locais para posicionar as bases de ambulâncias e dimensionar os tamanhos das suas áreas de atuação, tais que minimizem o tempo médio de resposta aos usuários e/ou o desbalanceamento das cargas de trabalho das ambulâncias do sistema. Para ilustrar a aplicação dos métodos propostos, analisamos os resultados de dois estudos de caso em rodovias brasileiras.In this paper we combine extensions of the hypercube queueing model with genetic algorithms to optimize the configuration and operation of emergency medical systems on highways. Initially we present a method to locate the ambulance bases along the highway so that the main system performance measures are optimized. Then we extend the approach to support combined decisions: the location of ambulance bases and the districting of the covering regions of each base on the highway. For instance, the approach can search for locals to place the ambulance bases and determine the sizes of their operation areas, such that the mean user response time and/or the ambulance workload imbalance are minimized. To illustrate the application of the proposed methods, we analyze the results of two case studies of Brazilian highways.

  9. Physical and psychosocial work environment factors and their association with health outcomes in Danish ambulance personnel - a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus D; Rasmussen, Kurt; Kyed, Morten


    Background Reviews of the literature on the health and work environment of ambulance personnel have indicated an increased risk of work-related health problems in this occupation. The aim of this study was to compare health status and exposure to different work environmental factors among ambulance......,691) and was compared to reference samples of the Danish work force. The questionnaire contained measures of physical and psychosocial work environment as well as measures of musculoskeletal pain, mental health, self-rated health and sleep quality. Results Ambulance personnel have half the prevalence of poor self...... and meaningfulness of and commitment to work, and substantially lower levels of quantitative demands and influence at work. Only one out of ten aspects of physical work environment was consistently associated with higher levels of musculoskeletal pain. Emotional demands was the only psychosocial work factor...

  10. Living in critical times: The impact of critical incidents on frontline ambulance personnel--a qualitative perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, Sharon


    Little is known about the impact of Critical Incidents (CIs) on the lives of ambulance personnel. One-to-one interviews were conducted with 27 participants who had experienced CIs during the previous 12 months in order to: assess the nature and impact of CIs on health and well-being; examine attitudes toward support services; and explore barriers to service use. The results showed that incidents involving children, suicides, and grotesque mutilation were the most distressing. Participants reported a wide range of physical and mental health problems including sleep difficulties, angry outbursts, irrationality and feelings of alienation. Key themes included: low support service uptake due to fears relating to confidentiality and machismo; a perceived lack of concern and support from management; and a need for professional counselling and stress awareness training. Emergency Medical Controllers (EMCs) also reported a number of difficulties unique to their role. The findings suggest that exposure to CIs has a significant impact on health and well-being; this has important implications for recognizing and appropriately addressing the health and training needs of ambulance personnel, including the effective management of Critical Incident Stress.

  11. Minimally Invasive Posterior Stabilization Improved Ambulation and Pain Scores in Patients with Plasmacytomas and/or Metastases of the Spine

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    Joseph H. Schwab


    Full Text Available Background. The incidence of spine metastasis is expected to increase as the population ages, and so is the number of palliative spinal procedures. Minimally invasive procedures are attractive options in that they offer the theoretical advantage of less morbidity. Purpose. The purpose of our study was to evaluate whether minimally invasive posterior spinal instrumentation provided significant pain relief and improved function. Study Design. We compared pre- and postoperative pain scores as well as ambulatory status in a population of patients suffering from oncologic conditions in the spine. Patient Sample. A consecutive series of patients with spine tumors treated minimally invasively with stabilization were reviewed. Outcome Measures. Visual analog pain scale as well as pre- and postoperative ambulatory status were used as outcome measures. Methods. Twenty-four patients who underwent minimally invasive posterior spinal instrumentation for metastasis were retrospectively reviewed. Results. Seven (29% patients were unable to ambulate secondary to pain and instability prior to surgery. All patients were ambulating within 2 to 3 days after having surgery (=0.01. The mean visual analog scale value for the preoperative patients was 2.8, and the mean postoperative value was 1.0 (=0.001. Conclusion. Minimally invasive posterior spinal instrumentation significantly improved pain and ambulatory status in this series.

  12. Transporte de crianças em ambulâncias terrestres: segurança e conhecimentos dos profissionais

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    Sílvia Faria


    Full Text Available Introdução: O transporte de crianças em ambulâncias terrestres é uma problemática ainda insuficientemente investigada em todo o mundo. Neste contexto pretende-se conhecer as medidas de segurança usadas no transporte de crianças em ambulâncias terrestres e identificar o conhecimento dos profissionais acerca das medidas a adotar para este tipo de transporte. Materiais e Métodos: Estudo quantitativo, exploratório descritivo. A análise das medidas de segurança usadas no transporte de crianças tem por base as recomendações da National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Aplicado um questionário a 135 enfermeiros e bombeiros/tripulantes de ambulâncias portuguesas baseado em 4 possíveis situações de transporte e abrangendo 5 faixas etárias pediátricas. Resultados: Os profissionais adotam uma grande variedade de medidas de segurança na prática havendo uma diferença significativa entre a forma como transportam as crianças e o modo que consideram ser o ideal. Os resultados da avaliação do transporte situam-se mais próximos dos níveis de segurança aceitáveis do que dos níveis recomendados como ideais. Verifica-se que mulheres, profissionais graduados e enfermeiros de pediatria transportam as crianças em ambulâncias com mais segurança. Discussão e Conclusões: Muitos profissionais desconhecem as possibilidades de transporte seguro para as crianças nem conhecem recomendações para este tipo de transporte. A dispersão apurada na forma como o transporte é efetuado e os resultados obtidos sugerem a necessidade de regulamentação deste transporte, de investimento na formação dos profissionais e de sensibilização das instituições de saúde para a importância do uso de sistemas de retenção para crianças durante o seu transporte. Cómo citar este artículo: Faria S, Lomba L, Carvalhais M, Apóstolo J. Transporte de crianças em ambulâncias terrestres: segurança e conhecimentos dos profissionais. Rev Cuid

  13. Comparative evaluation of ambulation patterns and isokinetic muscle strength for the application of rehabilitation exercise in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. (United States)

    Kim, Soonyoung


    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in the ambulation patterns and knee joint performance between people with and without patellofemoral pain. The present study also aimed to utilize these results as a basis for the development of pain-alleviating and performance-improving treatment programs. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects consisted of 32 adult females diagnosed with patellofemoral pain syndrome and 25 adult females without patellofemoral pain (controls). Contact ratio patterns during ambulation and isokinetic muscle strength around the knee joint were measured in both groups and then compared. [Results] Ambulation patterns, specifically the contact ratios of the left forefoot and right forefoot, differed significantly between patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome and controls. An isokinetic muscle strength test demonstrated that left and right knee extensor and flexor torques also significantly differed between these two groups. [Conclusion] Basic analysis based on ambulation patterns and muscle strength can be used to indicate functional recovery from patellofemoral pain syndrome and provide insight into improving the rehabilitation of patients.

  14. Field testing of a remote controlled robotic tele-echo system in an ambulance using broadband mobile communication technology. (United States)

    Takeuchi, Ryohei; Harada, Hiroshi; Masuda, Kohji; Ota, Gen-ichiro; Yokoi, Masaki; Teramura, Nobuyasu; Saito, Tomoyuki


    We report the testing of a mobile Robotic Tele-echo system that was placed in an ambulance and successfully transmitted clear real time echo imaging of a patient's abdomen to the destination hospital from where this device was being remotely operated. Two-way communication between the paramedics in this vehicle and a doctor standing by at the hospital was undertaken. The robot was equipped with an ultrasound probe which was remotely controlled by the clinician at the hospital and ultrasound images of the patient were transmitted wirelessly. The quality of the ultrasound images that were transmitted over the public mobile telephone networks and those transmitted over the Multimedia Wireless Access Network (a private networks) were compared. The transmission rate over the public networks and the private networks was approximately 256 Kbps, 3 Mbps respectively. Our results indicate that ultrasound images of far higher definition could be obtained through the private networks.

  15. A atividade de trabalho de motoristas de ambulância sob o ponto de vista ergológico

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    Francinaldo do Monte Pinto

    Full Text Available Objetivo: analisar a atividade dos motoristas de ambulância do Serviço Móvel de Urgência (SAMU. Métodos: foi empregada a perspectiva ergológica, que se opera a partir da concepção de vida-saúde-doença postulada por George Canguilhem, e a Ergonomia da Atividade. Foram realizadas onze entrevistas dialógicas com motoristas da Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Móvel, em 2010, no estado da Paraíba. Resultados: os motoristas atribuem as principais dificuldades para realizar o trabalho ao modo de organização prescrita do trabalho no SAMU, à gestão temporal da atividade, à atividade no trânsito, à relação com a população usuária e ao risco de contrair doenças. Em contraposição, os motoristas adquirem sentido no trabalho ao salvarem vidas, em uma conjunção de valores – solidariedade, confiança e cooperação – em relação aos socorridos e aos seus acompanhantes. Quando essa possibilidade não se concretiza, o coletivo de trabalho serve de apoio para que permaneçam na profissão, apesar das frustrações. Conclusão: evidenciou-se que, mesmo diante das variabilidades cotidianas da atividade de trabalho, os motoristas de ambulâncias produzem modos operatórios para dar conta das situações de trabalho, cooperando para solução dos problemas e/ou manejando as imprevisibilidades no trabalho em equipe.

  16. Mechanical CPR devices compared to manual CPR during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and ambulance transport: a systematic review

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    Ong Marcus


    Full Text Available Abstract Aims The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of the published literature to address the question: “In pre-hospital adult cardiac arrest (asystole, pulseless electrical activity, pulseless Ventricular Tachycardia and Ventricular Fibrillation, does the use of mechanical Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR devices compared to manual CPR during Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest and ambulance transport, improve outcomes (e.g. Quality of CPR, Return Of Spontaneous Circulation, Survival”. Methods Databases including PubMed, Cochrane Library (including Cochrane database for systematic reviews and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, and AHA EndNote Master Library were systematically searched. Further references were gathered from cross-references from articles and reviews as well as forward search using SCOPUS and Google scholar. The inclusion criteria for this review included manikin and human studies of adult cardiac arrest and anti-arrhythmic agents, peer-review. Excluded were review articles, case series and case reports. Results Out of 88 articles identified, only 10 studies met the inclusion criteria for further review. Of these 10 articles, 1 was Level of Evidence (LOE 1, 4 LOE 2, 3 LOE 3, 0 LOE 4, 2 LOE 5. 4 studies evaluated the quality of CPR in terms of compression adequacy while the remaining six studies evaluated on clinical outcomes in terms of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC, survival to hospital admission, survival to discharge and Cerebral Performance Categories (CPC. 7 studies were supporting the clinical question, 1 neutral and 2 opposing. Conclusion In this review, we found insufficient evidence to support or refute the use of mechanical CPR devices in settings of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and during ambulance transport. While there is some low quality evidence suggesting that mechanical CPR can improve consistency and reduce interruptions in chest compressions, there is no

  17. Upper limb strength and function changes during a one-year follow-up in non-ambulant patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: an observational multicenter trial.

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    Andreea Mihaela Seferian

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Upper limb evaluation of patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is crucially important to evaluations of efficacy of new treatments in non-ambulant patients. In patients who have lost ambulation, there are few validated and informative outcome measures. In addition, longitudinal data demonstrating sensitivity to clinical evolution of outcome measures over short-term periods are lacking. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We report here the results of a one-year multicenter study using specifically designed tools to assess grip, pinch strength, and hand function in wheelchair-bound patients. Our study assessed 53 non-ambulant patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy aged 17.1 ± 4.8 years (range: 9 - 28.1 years. The average Brooke functional score of these patients was 4.6 ± 1.1. The average forced vital capacity was 44.5% predicted and 19 patients used non-invasive ventilation. Patients were assessed at baseline, 6 months, and one year using the Motor Function Measure and innovative devices (namely the MyoSet composed of MyoGrip, MyoPinch, and MoviPlate. RESULTS: Our study confirmed preliminary data previously reported regarding feasibility of use and of reliability of the MyoSet and the correlation at baseline between distal strength and clinical outcomes such as FVC, Brooke score, age, and duration since loss of ambulation. A significant correlation was observed between the distal upper limb strength and clinical variables. The sensitive dynamometers (MyoGrip and MyoPinch and MoviPlate captured a 12-month change in non-ambulant Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients of all ages. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00993161 NCT00993161.

  18. Análise da configuração de SAMU utilizando múltiplas alternativas de localização de ambulâncias Analysis of SAMU configuration using multiple alternatives of ambulance location

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    Regiane Máximo de Souza


    Full Text Available O Sistema de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência (SAMU no Brasil é um sistema médico emergencial de responsabilidade do poder público, em que a demanda de usuários em uma região urbana é usualmente separada por subregiões e classes de chamados emergenciais. Essa demanda pode mudar de forma significativa ao longo do dia, geograficamente e temporalmente, devido à sua natureza aleatória, mas também devido aos diferentes padrões de comportamentos da população ao longo do dia. Por exemplo, tipicamente há menos demanda durante a noite do que de dia. Os objetivos deste trabalho são: verificar se o conhecido modelo hipercubo de filas espacialmente distribuídas é adequado para analisar medidas de desempenho do SAMU, tais como tempos médios de resposta aos usuários, e utilizar este modelo para analisar múltiplas alternativas de localização das ambulâncias, explorando variações importantes da demanda e do serviço ao longo do dia. Para verificar a viabilidade e a aplicabilidade desta abordagem, foi realizado um estudo de caso no SAMU de Ribeirão Preto-SP.The Brazilian emergency medical system SAMU (Sistema de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência is an emergency medical system of public government liability, in which the users' service demand in an urban region is usually separated into subregions and classes of emergency calls. This demand can change substantially during the day, geographically and temporally, due to its random nature and also to the different behavior patterns of the population throughout the day. For instance, typically there is less demand during the night hours than during the day. The goals of this study are to verify whether the hypercube queuing model is adequate to analyze performance measures of SAMU, such as mean response times to the users, and use this model to analyze multiple alternatives of ambulance location considering significant variations in the demand and service throughout the day. In order to verify

  19. A Case of Blunt Traumatic Cardiac Tamponade Successfully Treated by Out-of-hospital Pericardial Drainage in a "Doctor-helicopter" Ambulance Staffed by Skilled Emergency Physicians. (United States)

    Otsuka, Hiroyuki; Sato, Toshiki; Morita, Seiji; Nakagawa, Yoshihide; Inokuchi, Sadaki


    We report a 55-year-old man who relapsed into a state of shock in an ambulance before arriving at our critical care center after a fall injury. The diagnosis of cardiac tamponade was made by portable ultrasound, and immediate pericardiocentesis and drainage were performed at the heliport. He was then transported immediately to our hospital with continuous drainage and surgery was performed. After surgery, the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit in stable condition. After undergoing rehabilitation, he made a full recovery and was discharged. This case illustrates that such patients can be treated reliably by pericardial drainage performed by skilled emergency physicians in the field by making use of the "doctor-helicopter" ambulance transportation system, followed by emergency surgery in a critical care center.

  20. Quality Control Circle of Standard Management of Ambulance%提高抢救车规范管理达标率的品管圈实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓梅; 张国梅; 邵继凤; 张玉莲; 刘红梅


    Objective To explore the practice and effect of quality control circle (QCC) in the standard management of ambulance. Methods A QCC team was established then improvement measures were formulated after the analysis of the reasons for non-standard management of ambulances then the effect of 6-month practice was assessed. Results The rate of standard management of ambulance was improved from 49% to 79% after QCC practice and memebers in QCC team regarded that the practice benefited the improvement of management awareness and working ability. Conclusion QCC practice benefits the management of ambulances and the improvement of QCC team members ’ ability, which promotes nursing management and nursing quality.%目的:探讨品管圈活动在抢救车规范管理中的实践和效果。方法成立品管圈小组,应用品管圈活动步骤,对全院57辆抢救车管理不规范原因进行分析,制定改进措施,规范抢救车管理,实施6个月后评价效果。结果实施品管圈活动后,抢救车规范管理达标率由活动前的49%提高到活动后的79%,圈员认为本次品管圈活动提升了参与管理的意识和工作能力。结论开展品管圈活动规范了全院抢救车的管理,提高了圈员能力,对提高精细化管理水平、提升护理质量起到了积极推动的作用。

  1. Skylab IMSS checklist application study for emergency medical care. [emergency medical care operations involving the use and operation of the portable ambulance module (United States)

    Carl, J. G.; Furukawa, S.


    A manual is presented that provides basic technical documentation to support the operation and utilization of the Portable Ambulance Module (PAM) in the field. The PAM is designed to be used for emergency resuscitation and victim monitoring. The functions of all the controls, displays, and stowed equipment of the unit are defined. Supportive medical and physiological data in those areas directly related to the uses of the PAM unit are presented.

  2. Posicionamento de ambulâncias do SAMU através de Programação Inteira e Teoria de Filas

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    Bruno Barreto

    Full Text Available Resumo: A configuração de redes logísticas para serviços de emergência é questão estratégica de imensa importância, visto que pequenas variações no tempo de resposta podem implicar na morte do solicitante. Partindo dessa premissa, o trabalho propõe novas alternativas de posicionamento para as ambulâncias do sistema SAMU na cidade de Duque de Caxias, RJ, capazes de reduzir o tempo de resposta do serviço. Essas propostas de reposicionamento das ambulâncias foram construídas em duas etapas: na primeira, dois modelos de Programação Inteira foram aplicados para se obter soluções que provejam maior cobertura à população. Posteriormente, o Modelo do Hipercubo foi empregado para avaliar a disponibilidade dos servidores, dentre outros indicadores de desempenho relevantes, como o tempo médio de resposta e a taxa de ocupação das ambulâncias.

  3. Pilot Field Test: The Ability to Ambulate After Landing as Assessed with Seat Egress, Walk, and Obstacle Test (United States)

    Fisher, E. A.; Fomina, E. V.; Reschke, M. F.; Cerisano, J. M.; Kofman, I. S.; Gadd, N. E.; Phillips, T. R.; Lee, S. M. C.; Laurie, S. S.; Stenger, M. B.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.


    Astronauts experience alterations in multiple physiological systems due to exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight. These changes lead to disruption in the ability to ambulate and perform functional tasks during the initial reintroduction to a gravitational environment. Figure 1 shows a schematic representation of the components involved in postflight ataxia. Full functional recovery has not been sufficiently investigated for long-duration crewmembers. The joint U.S./Russian Pilot Field Test (PFT) experiment (a pre-cursor to Field Test (FT)) was developed to address this gap in knowledge. The PFT was conducted on crewmembers traveling on Soyuz expeditions 34S - 41S and was comprised of several tasks designed to study the recovery of sensorimotor abilities of crewmembers during the first 24 hours after landing and for several days thereafter. Closing this gap will allow us to characterize the ability of crewmembers to perform critical mission tasks that they will be expected to perform after an unassisted landing following 6 to 12 months in microgravity. The Seat Egress, Walk and Obstacle (SEWO) Test will be discussed in this poster.

  4. Advanced glycation end-products in the peritoneal fluid and in the peritoneal membrane of continuous ambulant peritoneal dialysis patients. (United States)

    Mahiout, A; Ehlerding, G; Brunkhorst, R


    In patients on continuous ambulant peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) treatment, the peritoneal membrane is continuously exposed to the high glucose concentration contained in the dialysate. This may lead to the local generation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). To test this hypothesis we evaluated the plasma and dialysate AGE concentrations in five CAPD patients. The dialysate was measured after a 1 h and after a 12 h dwell time. Additionally, in two patients an immunohistochemical investigation of the peritoneal membrane for AGE was performed. For the determination of AGE an ELISA using a polyclonal antibody against AGE bovine serum albumin was used; the immunohistochemical staining was performed using the streptavidin-biotin complex method. We found only low concentrations of AGE in the dialysate after a 1 h dwell time; after 12 h, however, the dialysate AGE was even greater than the plasma concentration. In both peritoneal specimens we found positive staining for AGE in the interstitium of the mesothelial layer. The dialysate AGE contained a high proportion of high-molecular-weight AGE proteins and low-molecular-weight AGE was found to be in the same concentration range as the total serum AGE. We conclude that there is local generation of AGE in the peritoneal membrane and a 'washing out' of AGE from the peritoneal membrane during longer dwell times. We speculate that the accumulation of AGE might lead to some of the functional and morphological alterations observed after long-term CAPD.

  5. An art therapy intervention for cancer patients in the ambulant aftercare - results from a non-randomised controlled study. (United States)

    Geue, K; Richter, R; Buttstädt, M; Brähler, E; Singer, S


    Art therapy in psycho-oncology is gaining increasing importance, but systematic evaluations of its effects are rare. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of an art therapy intervention for cancer patients in ambulant aftercare on psychological distress and coping. The intervention consisted of 22 sessions. At three points of measurement (t1: before intervention, t2: following intervention, t3: 6 months after t2), participants responded to questionnaires (Freiburg Questionnaire on Coping with Illness, Perceived Adjustment to Chronic Illness Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). A group of haemato-oncological patients served as the comparison group (CG). Pre-post comparisons and analyses of variance were applied for statistical analysis. Relevant confounders were controlled. Fifty-four patients (intervention group, IG) with various cancer diagnoses completed the intervention. One hundred and twenty-nine data sets were available for the CG. Analyses of variance included group membership (IG vs. CG) and the following factors: gender, other psychosocial help and major life events. None of these variables was a predictor for changes in depression, anxiety and coping. Therefore, we could not prove intervention effects over time. Our results contradict those of preliminary studies and raise important questions. Further work on evaluating art therapy is necessary to explore which intervention concepts in which setting at which treatment stage show significant effects. Therefore, controlling for relevant confounders is needed.

  6. Air Pollution (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  7. A cross-sectional study of Victorian mobile intensive care ambulance paramedics knowledge of the Valsalva manoeuvre

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    Boyle Malcolm J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Valsalva Manoeuvre (VM is a primary measure for terminating haemodynamically stable supraventricular tachycardia (SVT in the emergency care setting. The clinical use and termination success of the VM in the prehospital setting has not been investigated to date. The objective of this study was to determine Melbourne Mobile Intensive Care Ambulance (MICA Paramedic knowledge of the VM, and to compare this understanding with an evidence-based model of VM performance. Methods A cross-sectional study in the form of a face-to-face interview was used to determine Melbourne MICA Paramedic understanding of VM instruction between January and February, 2008. The results were then compared with an evidence-based model of VM performance to ascertain compliance with the three criteria of position, pressure and duration. Ethics approval was granted. Results There were 28 participants (60.9% who elected a form of supine posturing, some 23 participants (50% selected the syringe method of pressure generation, with 16 participants (34.8% selecting the "as long as you can" option for duration. On comparison, one out of 46 MICA Paramedics correctly identified the three evidence-based criteria. Conclusions The formal education of Melbourne's MICA Paramedics would benefit from the introduction of an evidence based model of VM performance, which would impact positively on patient care and may improve reversion success in the prehospital setting. The results of this study also demonstrate that an opportunity exists to promote the evidence-based VM criteria across the primary emergency care field.

  8. Development of an implanted intramuscular EMG-triggered FES system for ambulation after incomplete spinal cord injury. (United States)

    Dutta, Anirban; Kobetic, Rudi; Triolo, Ronald


    Ambulation after spinal cord injury is possible with the aid of neuroprosthesis employing functional electrical stimulation (FES). Individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) retain partial volitional control of muscles below the level of injury, necessitating careful integration of FES with intact voluntary motor function for efficient walking. In this study, the intramuscular electromyogram (iEMG) was used to detect the intent to step and trigger FES-assisted walking in a volunteer with iSCI via an implanted neuroprosthesis consisting of two channels of bipolar iEMG signal acquisition and 12 independent channels of stimulation. The detection was performed with two types of classifiers- a threshold-based classifier that compared the running mean of the iEMG with a discrimination threshold to generate the trigger and a pattern recognition classifier that compared the time-history of the iEMG with a specified template of activity to generate the trigger whenever the cross-correlation coefficient exceeded a discrimination threshold. The pattern recognition classifier generally outperformed the threshold-based classifier, particularly with respect to minimizing False Positive triggers. The overall True Positive rates for the threshold-based classifier were 61.6% and 87.2% for the right and left steps with overall False Positive rates of 38.4% and 33.3%. The overall True Positive rates for the left and right step with the pattern recognition classifier were 57.2% and 93.3% and the overall False Positive rates were 11.9% and 24.4%. The subject showed no preference for either the threshold or pattern recognition-based classifier as determined by the Usability Rating Scale (URS) score collected after each trial and both the classifiers were perceived as moderately easy to use.

  9. A Movement Monitor Based on Magneto-Inertial Sensors for Non-Ambulant Patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: A Pilot Study in Controlled Environment.

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    Anne-Gaëlle Le Moing

    Full Text Available Measurement of muscle strength and activity of upper limbs of non-ambulant patients with neuromuscular diseases is a major challenge. ActiMyo® is an innovative device that uses magneto-inertial sensors to record angular velocities and linear accelerations that can be used over long periods of time in the home environment. The device was designed to insure long-term stability and good signal to noise ratio, even for very weak movements. In order to determine relevant and pertinent clinical variables with potential for use as outcome measures in clinical trials or to guide therapy decisions, we performed a pilot study in non-ambulant neuromuscular patients. We report here data from seven Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD patients (mean age 18.5 ± 5.5 years collected in a clinical setting. Patients were assessed while wearing the device during performance of validated tasks (MoviPlate, Box and Block test and Minnesota test and tasks mimicking daily living. The ActiMyo® sensors were placed on the wrists during all the tests. Software designed for use with the device computed several variables to qualify and quantify muscular activity in the non-ambulant subjects. Four variables representative of upper limb activity were studied: the rotation rate, the ratio of the vertical component in the overall acceleration, the hand elevation rate, and an estimate of the power of the upper limb. The correlations between clinical data and physical activity and the ActiMyo® movement parameters were analyzed. The mean of the rotation rate and mean of the elevation rate appeared promising since these variables had the best reliability scores and correlations with task scores. Parameters could be computed even in a patient with a Brooke functional score of 6. The variables chosen are good candidates as potential outcome measures in non-ambulant patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and use of the ActiMyo® is currently being explored in home environment

  10. Efficiency of the prehospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation of 785 patients treaded by the team of the Berlin-Friedrichshain-ambulance between 1995 and 1998



    Between 1995 and 1998 the Berlin-Friedrichshain-Ambulance (BFA) started 785 cardiopulmonary resuscitations (CPR) (96,2 % adults). Registered are 498 (66,0 %) male and 257 (34,0 %) female persons at the age between 18 and 94 years (ys) (63,7 ± 16,7 ys). In 40,7 % the CPR has been initial successful. 37 patients have been discharged from the hospital. That means only 4,9 % of all registered adults (n = 755) have been discharged, it also means that 12,1 % of the initial successful treated...

  11. Physician presence in an ambulance car is associated with increased survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a prospective cohort analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihito Hagihara

    Full Text Available The presence of a physician seems to be beneficial for pre-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. However, the effectiveness of a physician's presence during CPR before hospital arrival has not been established. We conducted a prospective, non-randomized, observational study using national data from out-of-hospital cardiac arrests between 2005 and 2010 in Japan. We performed a propensity analysis and examined the association between a physician's presence during an ambulance car ride and short- and long-term survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Specifically, a full non-parsimonious logistic regression model was fitted with the physician presence in the ambulance as the dependent variable; the independent variables included all study variables except for endpoint variables plus dummy variables for the 47 prefectures in Japan (i.e., 46 variables. In total, 619,928 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest cases that met the inclusion criteria were analyzed. Among propensity-matched patients, a positive association was observed between a physician's presence during an ambulance car ride and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC before hospital arrival, 1-month survival, and 1-month survival with minimal neurological or physical impairment (ROSC: OR = 1.84, 95% CI 1.63-2.07, p = 0.00 in adjusted for propensity and all covariates; 1-month survival: OR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.04-1.61, p = 0.02 in adjusted for propensity and all covariates; cerebral performance category (1 or 2: OR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.03-2.29, p = 0.04 in adjusted for propensity and all covariates; and overall performance category (1 or 2: OR = 1.50, 95% CI 1.01-2.24, p = 0.05 in adjusted for propensity and all covariates. A prospective observational study using national data from out-of-hospital cardiac arrests shows that a physician's presence during an ambulance car ride was independently associated with

  12. Pilates based core stability training in ambulant individuals with multiple sclerosis: protocol for a multi-centre randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Jennifer


    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with Multiple Sclerosis (MS frequently experience balance and mobility impairments, including reduced trunk stability. Pilates-based core stability training, which is aimed at improving control of the body's stabilising muscles, is popular as a form of exercise with people with MS and therapists. A replicated single case series study facilitated by the Therapists in MS Group in the United Kingdom (UK provides preliminary evidence that this approach can improve balance and mobility in ambulant people with MS; further evidence is needed to substantiate these findings to ensure that limited time, energy, finances and resources are used to best effect. This study builds upon the pilot work undertaken in the case series study by implementing a powered randomised controlled study, with the aims of: 1 Establishing the effectiveness of core stability training 2 Comparing core stability training with standardised physiotherapy exercise 3 Exploring underlying mechanisms of change associated with this intervention Methods This is a multi-centre, double blind, block randomised, controlled trial. Eligible participants will be recruited from 4 UK centres. Participants will be randomly allocated to one of three groups: Pilates based core stability training, standardised physiotherapy exercise or contract-relax relaxation sessions (placebo control. All will receive face to face training sessions over a 12 week period; together with a 15 minute daily home programme. All will be assessed by a blinded assessor before training, at the end of the 12 week programme and at 4 week follow-up. The primary outcome measure is the 10 metre timed walk. Secondary outcome measures are the MS walking Scale (MSWS-12, the Functional Reach (forwards and lateral, a 10 point Numerical Rating Scale to determine "Difficulty in carrying a drink when walking", and the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC Scale. In addition, ultrasound imaging of the

  13. The Groningen Ambulance Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svilaas, T; Dijk, WA; Busman, JP; Dassen, WRM; de Vos, R; Zijlstra, F


    This paper describes the effects of a treatment protocol for patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction, which was introduced in 2004. The setup of the new approach is described. The principle goal is to minimize time between onset of symptoms associated with acute myocardial infarction and re

  14. A comparison of adherence to correctly documented triage level of critically ill patients between emergency department and the ambulance service nurses. (United States)

    Jönsson, Kenneth; Fridlund, Bengt


    Priority or triage has always occurred in emergency care. Today it is performed by both nurses in emergency departments (EDs) and ambulance services (ASs) to ensure patient safety. Recent studies have shown that nurses are unlikely to change their first impressions and patients suffering from blunt trauma are undertriaged. Our study aimed to compare and evaluate the adherence to correct triage level documentation, between nurses in the ED and the AS, according to current regulations. Of 592 analysed triage records from a university, a central and a district hospital, the adherence was 64% by ED nurses and 43% by AS nurses (pnurses do not adhere to the triage system and do not correctly document the triage level. Internal feedback and control are two approaches to improve the patient outcome, indicating that organisational actions must be taken.

  15. Anàlisi dels referents culturals en les traduccions catalana i castellana de la pel·lícula 'El castell ambulant'


    Gorgas Canals, Maria


    Els referents culturals són un fenomen que ha estat molt estudiat en el camp de la traducció a causa de la complexitat que suposa expressar una realitat pròpia d'una llengua i d'una cultura en una altra llengua diferent. En aquest treball de final de grau es pretén realitzar una anàlisi i una classificació dels referents culturals que apareixen a la pel•lícula d'animació japonesa d'El Castell Ambulant i de la traducció que se n'ha fet a les versions espanyola i catalana. Aprofitant que dispos...

  16. Weakness and the Inability to Ambulate in a 14-Month-Old Female: A Case Report and Concise Review of Guillain-Barre Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Bloch


    Full Text Available Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS is an acquired disease of the peripheral nervous system which causes demyelination and leads to weakness, ataxia, and areflexia. There are a variety of forms of the syndrome, and although it is found in all age groups, it is rare in children less than two years of age. The present complaint of weakness, ataxia, or lower extremity pain in the pediatric population should cause the practitioner to consider GBS in the differential. We describe a case of a 14-month-old girl presenting with weakness and the inability to ambulate who was diagnosed with GBS. The purpose of this paper is to review the emergency medicine diagnosis and management of Guillain-Barre syndrome in children.

  17. On-scene alternatives for emergency ambulance crews attending patients who do not need to travel to the accident and emergency department: a review of the literature. (United States)

    Snooks, H A; Dale, J; Hartley-Sharpe, C; Halter, M


    With rising demand and recognition of the variety of cases attended by emergency ambulance crews, services have been considering alternative ways of providing non-urgent care. This paper describes and appraises the research literature concerning on-scene alternatives to conveyance to an emergency department, focusing on the: (1) profile and outcomes of patients attended but not conveyed by emergency crews; (2) triage ability of crews; (3) effectiveness and safety of protocols that allow crews to convey patients to alternative receiving units or to self care. The literature search was conducted through standard medical databases, supplemented with manual searches. Very few "live" studies were identified, and fewer still that included a control group. Findings indicated a complex area, with the introduction of protocols allowing crews to leave patients at scene carrying clinical risk. Robust research evidence concerning alternatives to current emergency care models is needed urgently to inform service and practice development.

  18. An artificial neural network to safely reduce the number of ambulance ECGs transmitted for physician assessment in a system with prehospital detection of ST elevation myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forberg Jakob L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-hospital electrocardiogram (ECG transmission to an expert for interpretation and triage reduces time to acute percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI in patients with ST elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI. In order to detect all STEMI patients, the ECG should be transmitted in all cases of suspected acute cardiac ischemia. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of an artificial neural network (ANN to safely reduce the number of ECGs transmitted by identifying patients without STEMI and patients not needing acute PCI. Methods Five hundred and sixty ambulance ECGs transmitted to the coronary care unit (CCU in routine care were prospectively collected. The ECG interpretation by the ANN was compared with the diagnosis (STEMI or not and the need for an acute PCI (or not as determined from the Swedish coronary angiography and angioplasty register. The CCU physician's real time ECG interpretation (STEMI or not and triage decision (acute PCI or not were registered for comparison. Results The ANN sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for STEMI was 95%, 68%, 18% and 99%, respectively, and for a need of acute PCI it was 97%, 68%, 17% and 100%. The area under the ANN's receiver operating characteristics curve for STEMI detection was 0.93 (95% CI 0.89-0.96 and for predicting the need of acute PCI 0.94 (95% CI 0.90-0.97. If ECGs where the ANN did not identify a STEMI or a need of acute PCI were theoretically to be withheld from transmission, the number of ECGs sent to the CCU could have been reduced by 64% without missing any case with STEMI or a need of immediate PCI. Conclusions Our ANN had an excellent ability to predict STEMI and the need of acute PCI in ambulance ECGs, and has a potential to safely reduce the number of ECG transmitted to the CCU by almost two thirds.

  19. Upper limb evaluation and one-year follow up of non-ambulant patients with spinal muscular atrophy: an observational multicenter trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Mihaela Seferian

    Full Text Available Assessment of the upper limb strength in non-ambulant neuromuscular patients remains challenging. Although potential outcome measures have been reported, longitudinal data demonstrating sensitivity to clinical evolution in spinal muscular atrophy patients are critically lacking. Our study recruited 23 non-ambulant patients, 16 patients (males/females = 6/10; median age 15.4 years with a range from 10.7 to 31.1 years with spinal muscular atrophy type II and 7 patients (males/females = 2/5; median age 19.9 years with a range from 8.3 to 29.9 years with type III. The Brooke functional score was on median 3 with a range from 2 to 6. The average total vital capacity was 46%, and seven patients required non-invasive ventilation at night. Patients were assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 1 year using the Motor Function Measure and innovative devices MyoGrip, MyoPinch, and MoviPlate, which assess handgrip strength, key pinch strength, and hand/finger extension-flexion function, respectively. The study demonstrated the feasibility and reliability of these measures for all patients, and sensitivity to negative changes after the age of 14 years. The younger patients showed an increase of the distal force in the follow-up period. The distal force measurements and function were correlated to different functional scales. These data represent an important step in the process of validating these devices as potential outcome measures for future clinical trials.

  20. Effects of different kinds of artificial airway in prehospital ambulance%不同人工气道在院外救护车内的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张吉新; 李士华; 张颖; 毕宝林; 崔兆伟


    Objective To compare the effects in cardiopulmonary resuscitation of 3 kinds of artificial airway: conventional tracheal intubation, blind insertion of laryngeal mask, and esophageal-tracheal combined tube in prehospital ambulance.Methods 328 cases undergoing CPR in the prehospital ambulance were Randomly divided into 3 groups: Group A (n=68) undergoing conventional tracheal intubation, Group B (n=140) undergoing blind insertion of laryngeal mask, and Group C (n=l 10) undergoing insertion of esophageal-tracheal combined tube. The time needed to establish artificial airway, one-time success rate of insertion, and resuscitation success rate were compared among these 3 groups. Results The time needed to establish artificial airway of Group B was (26±11.3) s, significantly shorter than those of Groups A and C[(l46±14.7)s and (81±16.5)s respectively , both P0.05). There were not significant differences in the resuscitation success rate among these 3 groups (26.5%,25.7% and 27.3%). Conclusion blind insertion of laryngeal mask is the best choice for CPR in prehospital ambulance, followed by insertion of esophageal tracheal combitube.%目的 探讨院外急救车上心肺复苏(CPR)建立人工气道通气的最佳方法和对复苏成功率的影响.方法 对院外急救车上发生心跳呼吸骤停患者318例,根据当时CPR时对患者随机建立人工气道的3种不同方法,将其分为3组,进行回顾性分析,A组68例,常规行气管导管插管;B组140例,盲插喉罩通气;C组110例,食管气管联合导管通气.结果 B组建立人工通气需(26±11.3)s,显著短于A组和C组[分别为(146±14.7)s和(81±16.5),均P<0.05].A组建立人工通气所需时间显著长于C组(P<0.05).盲插喉罩通气时间最短,其次是食管气管联合导管插管术,气管插管术最慢.B组一次插管成功率为100%,显著高于A组(60.3%,P<0.05),与C组的差异无显著性(98.2%,P>0.05).B组与C组之间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).A

  1. Determining the Feasibility of Ambulance-Based Randomised Controlled Trials in Patients with Ultra-Acute Stroke: Study Protocol for the "Rapid Intervention with GTN in Hypertensive Stroke Trial" (RIGHT, ISRCTN66434824). (United States)

    Ankolekar, Sandeep; Sare, Gillian; Geeganage, Chamila; Fuller, Michael; Stokes, Lynn; Sprigg, Nikola; Parry, Ruth; Siriwardena, A Niroshan; Bath, Philip M W


    Background. Time from acute stroke to enrolment in clinical trials needs to be reduced to improve the chances of finding effective treatments. No completed randomised controlled trials of ambulance-based treatment for acute stroke have been reported in the UK, and the practicalities of recruiting, consenting, and treating patients are unknown. Methods. RIGHT is an ambulance based, single-blind, randomised controlled trial with blinded-outcome assessment. The trial will assess feasibility of using ambulance services to deliver ultra-acute stroke treatments; a secondary aim is to assess the effect of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) on haemodynamic variables and functional outcomes. Initial consent, randomisation, and treatment are performed by paramedics prior to hospitalisation. Patients with ultra-acute stroke (≤4 hours of onset) are randomised to transdermal GTN (5 mg/24 hours) or gauze dressing daily for 7 days. The primary outcome is systolic blood pressure at 2 hours. Secondary outcomes include feasibility, haemodynamics, dependency, and other functional outcomes. A nested qualitative study is included. Trial Status. The trial has all relevant ethics and regulatory approvals and recruitment started on February 15, 2010. The trial stopped recruitment in December 2011 after 41 patients were recruited. Trial Registration. The trial registration number is ISRCTN66434824 and EudraCT number is 2007-004766-40.

  2. Immediate Return to Ambulation and Improved Functional Capacity for Rehabilitation in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome following Early Implantation of a Spinal Cord Stimulation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Jesse Goff


    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is a neuropathic pain condition that is characterized by vasomotor, sensory, sudomotor, and motor symptoms. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS has been successfully utilized for the treatment of pain refractory to conventional therapies. We present a case of a previously highly functioning 54-year-old female who developed a rarely reported case of idiopathic CRPS of the right ankle which spontaneously occurred four months after an uncomplicated anterior cervical disc fusion. This condition resulted in severe pain and functional impairment that was unresponsive to pharmacological management. The patient’s rehabilitation was severely stymied by her excruciating pain. However, with the initiation of spinal cord stimulation, her pain was adequately controlled allowing for progression to full unassisted ambulation, advancing functional capacity, and improving quality of life. This case report supports the concept that rapid progression to neuromodulation, rather than delays that occur due to attempts at serial sympathetic blocks, may better control symptoms leading allowing for a more meaningful recovery.

  3. Integrated Suit Test 1 - A Study to Evaluate Effects of Suit Weight, Pressure, and Kinematics on Human Performance during Lunar Ambulation (United States)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.; Norcross, Jason; Vos, Jessica R.


    In an effort to design the next generation Lunar suit, NASA has initiated a series of tests aimed at understanding the human physiological and biomechanical affects of space suits under a variety of conditions. The first of these tests was the EVA Walkback Test (ICES 2007-01-3133). NASA-JSC assembled a multi-disciplinary team to conduct the second test of the series, titled Integrated Suit Test 1 (IST-1), from March 6 through July 24, 2007. Similar to the Walkback Test, this study was performed with the Mark III (MKIII) EVA Technology Demonstrator suit, a treadmill, and the Partial Gravity Simulator in the Space Vehicle Mock-Up Facility at Johnson Space Center. The data collected for IST-1 included metabolic rates, ground reaction forces, biomechanics, and subjective workload and controllability feedback on both suited and unsuited (shirt-sleeve) astronaut subjects. For IST-1 the center of gravity was controlled to a nearly perfect position while the weight, pressure and biomechanics (waist locked vs. unlocked) were varied individually to evaluate the effects of each on the ability to perform level (0 degree incline) ambulation in simulated Lunar gravity. The detailed test methodology and preliminary key findings of IST-1 are summarized in this report.

  4. Neutral Caregivers or Military Support? The British Red Cross, the Friends’ Ambulance Unit, and the Problems of Voluntary Medical Aid in Wartime (United States)


    During the First World War the British Red Cross Society (BRCS) served as the coordinating body for voluntary medical aid giving in Britain. Among the many units which came within its purview was the Friends’ Ambulance Unit (FAU), formed by a group of young men whose desire to serve their nation in wartime conflicted with their pacifist principles. Both the BRCS and the FAU were wracked by ideological conflicts in the years which preceded and throughout the war. These struggles over voluntarist identity highlight the contested meanings of service and conscience in wartime. Through a critical examination of the language of official histories and biographies, this article will argue that the war formed a key moment in the relationship between the British state and voluntary medical aid, with the state’s increasing role in the work of such organizations raising questions about the voluntarist principles to which aid organizations laid claim. The struggles that both organizations and individuals within them faced in reconciling the competing pressures that this new relationship created form a legacy of the war which continues to have important implications for the place of medical voluntarism in wartime today. PMID:26213442

  5. Neutral Caregivers or Military Support? The British Red Cross, the Friends' Ambulance Unit, and the Problems of Voluntary Medical Aid in Wartime. (United States)

    Meyer, Jessica


    During the First World War the British Red Cross Society (BRCS) served as the coordinating body for voluntary medical aid giving in Britain. Among the many units which came within its purview was the Friends' Ambulance Unit (FAU), formed by a group of young men whose desire to serve their nation in wartime conflicted with their pacifist principles. Both the BRCS and the FAU were wracked by ideological conflicts in the years which preceded and throughout the war. These struggles over voluntarist identity highlight the contested meanings of service and conscience in wartime. Through a critical examination of the language of official histories and biographies, this article will argue that the war formed a key moment in the relationship between the British state and voluntary medical aid, with the state's increasing role in the work of such organizations raising questions about the voluntarist principles to which aid organizations laid claim. The struggles that both organizations and individuals within them faced in reconciling the competing pressures that this new relationship created form a legacy of the war which continues to have important implications for the place of medical voluntarism in wartime today.

  6. Air Pollution (United States)

    ... to view this content or go to source URL . What NIEHS is Doing on Air Pollution Who ... Junction Last Reviewed: February 06, 2017 This page URL: NIEHS website: Email ...

  7. Application of trans-theoretical model of behavior in ambulation training of stroke hemiplegic patients%行为转变理论在脑卒中偏瘫患者步行训练中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳; 陈剑苹; 蒋辛


    Objective To study the effect of trans-theoretical model of behavior on ambulation training in stroke hemiplegic patients. Methods Sixty hospitalized stroke hemiplegic patients from June to December 2013 were selected as control group. The control group was treated with routine nursing and ambulation training guidance. Sixty-two hospitalized stroke hemiplegia patients, from January 2014 to June 2014, were selected as intervention group. Patients in the intervention group received trans-theoretical model of behavior together with ambulation training guidance for 3 weeks and follow-up record for 6 months. Holden functional ambulation categories ( FAC ) and Bathel index were used to evaluate the effect of ambulation training . Result Trans-theoretical model of behavior training improved the walking function and activities of daily living in intervention group patients , compared with those of the control group. Conclusions Taking trans-theoretical model of behavior in walking training health education can improve the ambulation ability and ability of daily living of stroke hemiplegic patients. Therefore this theory can enhance the stroke hemiplegic patients′life quality.%目的:探讨行为转变理论在脑卒中偏瘫患者步行训练中的应用效果。方法将2013年6~12月在本院住院60例脑卒中偏瘫患者设为对照组,实施常规的护理及步行训练指导;将2014年1~6月在本院住院62例脑卒中偏瘫患者设为干预组,将行为转变理论应用于患者步行训练健康教育中,干预时间3周,随访时间6个月。采用Holden步行功能分级(functional ambulation categories, FAC)和Bathel指数对患者进行测评。结果训练后两组患者FAC测评结果和Bathel得分比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05),干预组患者步行功能和日常活动能力均优于对照组。结论将行为转变理论应用于脑卒中偏瘫患者步行训练健康教育中,可提高患者步行能

  8. Robot-assisted gait training improves brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity and peak aerobic capacity in subacute stroke patients with totally dependent ambulation (United States)

    Han, Eun Young; Im, Sang Hee; Kim, Bo Ryun; Seo, Min Ji; Kim, Myeong Ok


    Abstract Objective: Brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) evaluates arterial stiffness and also predicts early outcome in stroke patients. The objectives of this study were to investigate arterial stiffness of subacute nonfunctional ambulatory stroke patients and to compare the effects of robot-assisted gait therapy (RAGT) combined with rehabilitation therapy (RT) on arterial stiffness and functional recovery with those of RT alone. Method: The RAGT group (N = 30) received 30 minutes of robot-assisted gait therapy and 30 minutes of conventional RT, and the control group (N = 26) received 60 minutes of RT, 5 times a week for 4 weeks. baPWV was measured and calculated using an automated device. The patients also performed a symptom-limited graded exercise stress test using a bicycle ergometer, and parameters of cardiopulmonary fitness were recorded. Clinical outcome measures were categorized into 4 categories: activities of daily living, balance, ambulatory function, and paretic leg motor function and were evaluated before and after the 4-week intervention. Results: Both groups exhibited significant functional recovery in all clinical outcome measures after the 4-week intervention. However, peak aerobic capacity, peak heart rate, exercise tolerance test duration, and baPWV improved only in the RAGT group, and the improvements in baPWV and peak aerobic capacity were more noticeable in the RAGT group than in the control group. Conclusion: Robot-assisted gait therapy combined with conventional rehabilitation therapy represents an effective method for reversing arterial stiffness and improving peak aerobic capacity in subacute stroke patients with totally dependent ambulation. However, further large-scale studies with longer term follow-up periods are warranted to measure the effects of RAGT on secondary prevention after stroke. PMID:27741123

  9. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.


    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  10. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst...

  11. Aplicação do modelo hipercubo de filas para avaliar a descentralização de ambulâncias em um sistema urbano de atendimento médico de urgência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Algisi Takeda


    Full Text Available Uma das maiores preocupações de sistemas urbanos de atendimento médico-emergencial é a rapidez no atendimento às vítimas. Os tempos de resposta dependem de diversos fatores como condições de tráfego local, dia da semana e período do dia, tipo e número de veículos disponíveis, localização destes veículos, políticas de despacho, etc. Neste trabalho apresenta-se uma análise dos efeitos da descentralização de ambulâncias que operam no sistema de atendimento médico-emergencial (SAMU-192 de Campinas, SP. O problema é tratado por meio do modelo hipercubo de filas espacialmente distribuídas, que considera variações aleatórias dos processos de chegada e atendimento dos chamados emergenciais. A aplicação do modelo produz uma ampla variedade de indicadores de desempenho para o sistema, que são comparados com os valores reais observados. Os resultados obtidos com a descentralização das ambulâncias mostraram uma significativa elevação do nível de serviço oferecido aos usuários.One of the major concerns of urban emergency medical systems is to provide the fastest possible first care medical assistance to the victims. The response times depend on different aspects such as: local traffic conditions, weekday and time, type and number of available vehicles, location of these vehicles, dispatching policies, etc. This work analyzes the effects of decentralizing ambulances in the emergency medical system (SAMU-192 of Campinas, SP. The problem is dealt with the hypercube queuing model, which considers stochastic variations of the arrival and service processes of the emergency calls. The application of the model produces a wide variety of system performance indicators, which are compared to the actual observed values. The results obtained with ambulance decentralization showed a significant increase in the service level offered to the users.

  12. Medicare, Medicaid, and Children's Health Insurance Programs: Announcement of the Provider Enrollment Moratoria Access Waiver Demonstration of Part B Non-Emergency Ground Ambulance Suppliers and Home Health Agencies in Moratoria-Designated Geographic Locations. Implementation of the waiver demonstration. (United States)


    This notice announces the Provider Enrollment Moratoria Access Waiver Demonstration of Part B Non-Emergency Ground Ambulance Suppliers and Home Health Agencies in 6 states. The demonstration is being implemented in accordance with section 402 of the Social Security Amendments of 1967 and gives CMS the authority to grant waivers to the statewide enrollment moratoria on a case-by-case basis in response to access to care issues, and to subject providers and suppliers enrolling via such waivers to heightened screening, oversight, and investigations.

  13. GSPEL - Air Filtration Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Evaluation capabilities for air filtration devices The Air Filtration Lab provides testing of air filtration devices to demonstrate and validate new or legacy system...

  14. Ambulation and spinal cord injury. (United States)

    Hardin, Elizabeth C; Kobetic, Rudi; Triolo, Ronald J


    Walking is possible for many patients with a spinal cord injury. Avenues enabling walking include braces, robotics and FES. Among the benefits are improved musculoskeletal and mental health, however unrealistic expectations may lead to negative changes in quality of life. Use rigorous assessment standards to gauge the improvement of walking during the rehabilitation process, but also yearly. Continued walking after discharge may be limited by challenges, such as lack of accessibility in and outside the home, and complications, such as shoulder pain or injuries from falls. It is critical to determine the risks and benefits of walking for each patient.

  15. Air-to-Air Missile Vector Scoring (United States)


    64 4.6. Unscented Kalman Filter Performance in Air-to-Air Missile Scor - ing Application with Continuous Velocity Dynamics Model (Tar- get...Filter Performance in Air-to-Air Missile Scor - ing Application with Continuous Velocity Dynamics Model (Tar- get Aircraft Executing a Vertical Climb...Kalman Filter Performance in Air-to-Air Missile Scor - ing Application with Continuous Velocity Dynamics Model (Tar- get Aircraft Non-maneuvering

  16. R9 Air Districts (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Region 9 Air Districts layer is a compilation of polygons representing the California Air Pollution Control and Air Quality Management Districts, Arizona Air...

  17. AirData (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about...

  18. California Air Basins (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  19. Air Warfare (United States)


    undoubtedly begat the shield; poisonous gases were countered by the mask. Surely men on the surface of the earth will not have to submit to violent air, production methods and cost of helium are given in “Balloon and Airship Gases ,” a volume of the Ronald Aeronautic Library. 5 More complete...becomes and more inse - cure. We shall see later that even some of the men who were advancing in the path prescribed by the principle of mass

  20. Occupational accidents among ambulance drivers in the emergency relief Accidentes del trabajo de conductores de ambulancia que brindan atención de urgencia Acidentes de trabalho com motoristas de ambulâncias que realizam socorro de urgência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Takeda


    Full Text Available We analyzed the occurrence of occupational accidents (OA among ambulance drivers in Emergency Relief (ER, with a view to disclosing the types of events and their causes. A quantitative-qualitative study was carried out through the interview of 22 workers in a city in São Paulo, Brazil. The subjects were male, between 36 and 40 years old (40.9%, married (81.82%, with uncompleted primary education (40.9%, individual (90.9% and family (54.55% income between two and four Brazilian minimum wages, not performing any other paid occupation (45.45%. The majority of the OA were typical, due to an excess of exercises and vigorous and repeated movements (42.11% and aggression through body strength and other means (26.33%. The OA occurs mainly because drivers carry out tasks that do not suit their professional formation.Fue estudiada la frecuencia de accidentes del trabajo (AT con chóferes de ambulancia que brinda Atención de Urgencia (AU, buscando encontrar los tipos de accidentes y sus causas. La investigación fue cuanti-cualitativa, para lo cual fueron entrevistados 22 trabajadores de una ciudad en el Estado de São Paulo. Los sujetos eran de sexo masculino, con edades entre 36 y 40 años (40,9%, casados (81,82%, con educación primaria incompleta (40,9%, sueldo individual (90,9%, sueldo familiar (54,55% entre dos y cuatro sueldos mínimos y sin otra ocupación (45,45%. La gran mayoría de los AT fueron típicos, por exceso de ejercicios, movimientos enérgicos y repetidos (42,11% y daño por fuerza corporal y otras formas (26,33%. Los AT se dieron principalmente porque los chóferes realizaban actividades que no iban de acuerdo con su formación profesional.Estudou-se a ocorrência de acidentes de trabalho (AT com motoristas de ambulância que realizam Socorro de Urgência (SU, buscando evidenciar os tipos desses eventos e suas causas. A investigação foi quanti-qualitativa, entrevistando-se 22 trabalhadores que atuam em uma cidade paulista. Os

  1. Effects of weight relieving ambulator on walking function of hemiplegic patients with cerebral stroke%减重步态机器人对脑卒中偏瘫患者步行功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程明; 崔微; 王雪梅; 余茜


    目的 研究步态机器人训练对脑卒中偏瘫患者运动功能的影响.方法 将50例偏瘫患者分为2组,综合康复组行常规康复及减重步态机器人治疗,普通康复组行单纯康复治疗,疗程均为一个月,采用Carr-Shepherd运动功能评定(MAS)中的步行评定法对两组步行能力及临床疗效进行评定并且比较.结果 综合康复组患者步行能力较普通康复组改善明显,总有效率明显高于普通康复组(P<0.05).结论 减重步态机器人对偏瘫患者的恢复步行能力及改善异常步态有积极的作用.%Objective To study the effects of weight relieving ambulator on walking function of hemiplegic patients suffered from cerebral stroke. Methods Fifty hemiplegic patients were randomly divided into two groups: the comprehensive rehabilitation group and the general rehabilitation group. The comprehensive rehabilitation group was treated in the conventional method combined with weight relieving ambulator, while the general rehabilitation group was treated with the conventional method only. The period of treatment was one month. After treatment, the Carr-Shepherd assessment of motor function ( MAS ) was used to compare the walking function between the two groups. Results Patients of the comprehensive rehabilitation group had more improvements in walking ability than those of the general rehabilitation group did. Conclusion It is concluded that the weight relieving ambulator has a positive effect on the improvement of walking ability and abnormal gait of hemiplegic patients.

  2. Direct ambulance transport to catheterization laboratory reduces door-to-balloon time in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention: the DIRECT-STEMI study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Jian-ping; ZHANG Qi; LU Ji-de; WANG Hai-rong; LIN Jie; GE Zhi-ru; ZHANG Rui-yan; SHEN Wei-feng


    Background Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has been clearly identified as the first therapeutic option for patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The importance of reducing door-to-balloon (D2B) time has gained increased recognition. This study aimed to assess the feasibility, safety and efficacy of the strategy of direct ambulance transportation of patients with acute STEMI to catheterization lab to receive primary PCI.Methods The study population included 141 consecutive patients with chest pain and ST-segment elevation who were admitted to the catheterization laboratory directly by the ambulance and underwent primary PCI (DIRECT group).Another 145 patients with STEMI randomly selected from the PCI database, were served as control group (conventional group); they were transported to catheterization laboratory from emergency room (ER). The primary endpoint of D2B time,and secondary endpoint of in-hospital and 30-day major adverse cardiac events (MACE, including death, non-fatal reinfarction, and target vessel revascularization) were compared.Results Baseline and procedural characteristics between the two groups were comparable, except more patients in the DIRECT group presented TIMI 0-1 flow in culprit vessel at initial angiogram (80.1% and 73.8%, P=0.04). Comparing to conventional group, the primary endpoint of D2B time was reduced ((54±18) minutes and (112±55) minutes, P <0.0001)and the percentage of patients with D2B <90 minutes was increased in the DIRECT group (96.9% and 27.0%, P<0.0001).The success rate of primary PCI with stent implantation with final Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 3 flow was significantly higher in the DIRECT group (93.8% and 85.2%, P=0.03). Although no significant difference was found at 30-day MACE free survival rate between the two groups (95.0% and 89.0%, P=0.06), a trend in improving survival status in the DIRECT group was demonstrated by Kaplan-Meier analysis

  3. Evaluation of the effects of botulinum toxin A injections when used to improve ease of care and comfort in children with cerebral palsy whom are non-ambulant: a double blind randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorley Megan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with cerebral palsy (CP whom are non-ambulant are at risk of reduced quality of life and poor health status. Severe spasticity leads to discomfort and pain. Carer burden for families is significant. This study aims to determine whether intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A combined with a regime of standard therapy has a positive effect on care and comfort for children with CP whom are non-ambulant (GMFCS IV/V, compared with standard therapy alone (cycle I, and whether repeated injections with the same regime of adjunctive therapy results in greater benefits compared with a single injecting episode (cycle II. The regime of therapy will include serial casting, splinting and/or provision of orthoses, as indicated, combined with four sessions of goal directed occupational therapy or physiotherapy. Method/design This study is a double blind randomized controlled trial. Forty participants will be recruited. In cycle I, participants will be randomized to either a treatment group who will receive BoNT-A injections into selected upper and/or lower limb muscles, or a control group who will undergo sham injections. Both groups will receive occupational therapy and /or physiotherapy following injections. Groups will be assessed at baseline then compared at 4 and 16 weeks following injections or sham control. Parents, treating clinicians and assessors will be masked to group allocation. In cycle II, all participants will undergo intramuscular BoNT-A injections to selected upper and/or lower limb muscles, followed by therapy. The primary outcome measure will be change in parent ratings in identified areas of concern for their child’s care and comfort, using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM. Secondary measures will include the Care and Comfort Hypertonicity Scale (ease of care, the Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life Questionnaire (CP QoL–Child (quality of life, the Caregiver Priorities and Child

  4. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel


    decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air....... These contradictions should motivate manufacturers and researchers to develop new efficient filtration techniques and/or improve the existing ones. Development of low polluting filtration techniques, which are at the same time easy and inexpensive to maintain is the way forward in the future....

  5. Air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Air pollution conditions in Iwakuni city were monitored at 9 monitoring stations, and 21 locations where sulfur oxides were measured by the lead peroxide candle method, and 13 locations where particulates concentrations were determined by the deposit cage method. The average SO/sub x/ concentrations in 1973 measured by the lead peroxide candle method ranged from 0.17 mg sulfur trioxide/day/100 sq cm at the Miso Office to 0.58 mg SO/sub 3//day/100 sq cm at Mitsui Sekiyu Shataku. The average SO/sub x/ concentrations measured by the conductivity method ranged from 0.021 ppM at Kazuki Kominkan to 0.037 ppM at the Higashi Fire Department. Only 58% of a total of 264 measurement days gave hourly average concentrations below the environmental standard of 0.04 ppM at the Higashi Fire Deparment. The average airborne particulate concentrations ranged from 0.050 mg/cu m at Totsu Kominkan to 0.056 mg/cu at the Higashi Fire Department. The average nitrogen oxides concentrations measured by the Saltzman method ranged from 0.007 ppM to 0.061 ppM. The average oxidant concentrations at the Iwakuni Municipal Office and Kazuki Kominkan were 0.028 ppM and 0.037 ppM, respectively.

  6. ST-segment resolution with bivalirudin versus heparin and routine glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors started in the ambulance in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients transported for primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van't Hof, Arnoud; Giannini, Francesco; Ten Berg, Jurrien;


    BACKGROUND: Myocardial reperfusion after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) can be assessed by the extent of post-procedural ST-segment resolution. The European Ambulance Acute Coronary Syndrome Angiography (EUROMAX) trial compared pre-hospital bivalirudin and pre-hospital heparin...... with electrocardiographic data available in 824 patients (95%). Residual ST-segment deviation one hour after PCI was 3.8±4.9 mm versus 3.9±5.2 mm for bivalirudin and heparin+GPI, respectively (p=0.0019 for non-inferiority). Overall, there were no differences between randomized treatments in any measures of ST......-segment resolution either before or after the index procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-hospital treatment with bivalirudin is non-inferior to pre-hospital heparin + GPI with regard to residual ST-segment deviation or ST-segment resolution, reflecting comparable myocardial reperfusion with the two strategies....

  7. 关于化解院前急救救护车压担架难题的思考%Thoughts of resolving the ambulance retention of pre-hospital emergency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田建广; 朱勤忠


    介绍了近几年上海市院前急救救护车压担架状况、国外急诊预检分级救治的经验、我国急诊预检分级的机制和实践探索,并分析了影响急诊预检分级制度推行的相关问题。%This paper introduced the status of the ambulance retention in recent years,the overseas experience of emergency triage grading treatment,the exploration of the mechanism and the practice of emergency triage classification in China,and analyzed related problems affecting the implementation of emergency triage grading system.

  8. 院前急救调度质量控制对救护车空返率的影响%Effects of scheduling quality control on empty return rate of ambulance in prehospital emergency care

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽梅; 刘菁; 胡远扬


    Objective To investigate the effect of scheduling quality control on ambulance empty return rate in prehospital e-mergency care.Methods New formulation of scheduling quality implementation method is launched in 2013, the record of dispatc-hing prehospital emergency care ambulances in Quanzhou Emergency Command Center were selected, then empty return rate and scheduling quality of 2012 and 2013 were compared.Results In 2012, a total of 13 639 ambulances were dispatched.In 2013, a to-tal of 13 245 ambulances, empty return rate in 2012 was higher than in 2013(19.80% vs 17.98%), the difference was statistically significance(χ2 =14.392,P<0.001);The average response time(4.3 s vs 4.1 s) and processing time(56.3 s vs 48 s) of dispatch-ers’ answering alarm and off-hook in 2012 is higher than that in 2013, frequency of the processing time longer than 90 s was signifi-cantly declined in 2013(χ2 =105.820,P<0.001).Conclusions Through the improvement of prehospital emergency system, and strengthen the implementation of dispatchers’ quality control.It can effectively reduce the empty return rate, and improve the prehospi-tal emergency rescue efficiency.%目的:探讨调度质量控制对救护车空返率的影响。方法2013年泉州市急救指挥中心启用新制定的调度质量实施方法,选取统计其2012年和2013年院前急救出车情况,并比较两年的救护车空返率和调度质量。结果2012年共出车13639车次,2013年共出车13245车次,其中2012年空返率高于2013年(19.80% vs 17.98%),差异有统计学意义(χ2=14.392,P<0.001);2012年调度员接警摘机平均反应时间(4.3 s vs 4.1 s),平均受理时间(56.3 s vs 48.0 s)均高于2013年,其中2013年的受理时间大于90 s的次数明显下降(χ2=105.820,P<0.001)。结论通过完善院前急救体制和加强实施中心调度员质量控制,可以有效地降低院前急救空返率、提高院前急救抢救效率。

  9. Characteristics analysis of pneumatic artificial muscle isolation system of vehicle-mounted stretcher on ambulance%救护车载 PAM担架缓冲系统特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙大刚; 高蓬; 宋勇; 梁培根; 沈毅


    Based on the analysis of the vibration isolation system of ambulance stretcher and the study on its dynamic model,a new buffer system of stretcher based on pneumatic artificial muscle was proposed.Then a vehicle-stretcher-human vibration model was built up,and a semi-active neural network PID controller for stretcher vibration control based on pneumatic artificial muscle was designed.The vibration isolation system performances were simulated by using the Simulation software,and the simulation results were analysed.The results show that compared with traditional system,the pneumatic artificial muscle buffer system using neural network PID control has more obvious isolation effect on stretcher and patient vibration,indicating the feasibility of using pneumatic artificial muscle in buffer system of ambulance stretcher.%经对救护车担架隔振系统及动力学模型研究分析,提出气动人工肌肉(PAM)救护车担架隔振系统。建立车体-担架-分段人体振动模型,设计基于该系统的半主动神经网络 PID 控制器,并用 Simulink 对隔振系统进行性能仿真分析。仿真结果表明,与被动系统相比,采用神经网络 PID 控制的气动人工肌肉隔振系统对担架及人体有明显隔振效果,气动人工肌肉用于救护车担架隔振系统具有可行性。

  10. Air Sensor Toolbox (United States)

    Air Sensor Toolbox provides information to citizen scientists, researchers and developers interested in learning more about new lower-cost compact air sensor technologies and tools for measuring air quality.

  11. HEPA air filter (image) (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  12. GSPEL - Air Filtration Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Evaluation capabilities for air filtration devicesThe Air Filtration Lab provides testing of air filtration devices to demonstrate and validate new or legacy system...

  13. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution (United States)

    ... States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us As ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Lead Air Pollution Basics How does lead get ...

  14. AirPEx: Air Pollution Exposure Model


    Freijer JI; Bloemen HJTh; de Loos S; Marra M; Rombout PJA; Steentjes GM; Veen MP van; LBO


    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The principal grounds for studying the inhalatory exposure of humans to air pollutants are formed by the need for realistic exposure/dose estimates to evaluate the health effects of these pollutants. T...

  15. AirPEx: Air Pollution Exposure Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freijer JI; Bloemen HJTh; Loos S de; Marra M; Rombout PJA; Steentjes GM; Veen MP van; LBO


    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The

  16. Air Pollution Monitoring | Air Quality Planning & Standards ... (United States)


    The basic mission of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards is to preserve and improve the quality of our nation's air. To accomplish this, OAQPS must be able to evaluate the status of the atmosphere as compared to clean air standards and historical information.

  17. REACH. Air Conditioning Units. (United States)

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  18. Statistical air quality mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassteele, van de J.


    This thesis handles statistical mapping of air quality data. Policy makers require more and more detailed air quality information to take measures to improve air quality. Besides, researchers need detailed air quality information to assess health effects. Accurate and spatially highly resolved maps

  19. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.


    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... and the humidity of the room air. At a low humidity level of 30% an increased velocity could compensate for the decrease in perceived air quality due to an elevated temperature ranging from 20 °C to 26 °C. In a room with 26 °C, increased air movement was also able to compensate for an increase in humidity from 30...

  20. Relations of compassion fatigue to occupational stress and job burnout in ambulance nurses%院前急救护士共情疲劳与职业应激、职业倦怠关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏华; 黄敬堂; 申培红


    Objective To explore the relationship of compassion fatigue and occupational stress and job burnout in ambulance nurses.Methods By stratified cluster random sampling method, a total of 380 ambulance nurses from 5 cities in Henan Province were selected as objects, and 261 emergency nurses from the same hospital were selected as control.A assessment survey was performed using the Chinese version of Professional Quality of Life, the Maslach Burnout Inventory ( MBI) , and the Chinese Nursing Stressor Scale ( NSS) which included the stressor related to working expectation ( factor 1), the stressor related to family (factor 2), the stressor related to interpersonal relationships (factor 3), the stressor related to job specification (factor 4), related to patients (factor 5), and to the working load (factor 6).Results The ambulance nurses had higher compassion fatigue scores than the emergency nurses ( P <0.01 ) .One-way analysis of variance showed that the ambulance nurses with length of service less than 3.0 years had higher compassion fatigue scores than those with 3.0 or more years and those with over 10.0 years of service length ( P<0.05 ) .The compassion fatigue scores of general nurses were higher than those professional titled as senior nurses and nurse supervisors or above ( P<0.05).The correlation analysis showed that the compassion fatigue scores of ambulance nurse were positively correlated with the factor 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 of NSS scores and MBI scores [the correlation coefficients (r) were 0.15, 0.28, 0.25, 0.34, 0.32 and 0.36, P<0.05].The MBI scores were positively correlated with all the 6 factors of NSS (r were 0.31, 0.25, 0.36, 0.32, 0.37 and 0.31, respectively, P<0.05).The multiple linear regression analysis results showed that the regression correlations among MBI score, NSS factor 5 score, interaction effect of MBI and NSS factor 5 and the compassion fatigue score were confirmed (the standardized partial regression coefficient were 0.39, 0.24 and 0

  1. Random Vibration Analysis of an Integrated Airborne Aid Unit on Ambulance Helicopter%救护直升机机载急救单元随机振动分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘孝辉; 徐新喜; 白松; 谭树林; 杨猛


    为了解某救护直升机机载综合急救单元随机振动响应特性,针对载机平台振动特点,将载机宽带随机叠加正弦振动激励谱转换为ANSYS软件可用的纯随机振动谱,在ANSYS软件中建立了机载综合急救单元有限元模型,通过模态分析,获取了机载综合急救单元固有频率和振型。在此基础上施加转换后的载机振动谱并进行随机振动分析,得到了机载综合急救单元不同部位在激励频带范围内的动力响应及危险频率点,并对单元结构动强度进行了校核。仿真分析结果可为机载综合急救单元的抗减振设计提供参考依据。%To understand the random vibration reponse characteristics of the integrated airborne aid unit on ambulance helicopter, the finite element model of the unit was built by using ANSYS software. According to the vibration characteris-tics of the airborne platform of the ambulance helicopter, the randomly superimposed sinusoidal excitation spectrum of the airborne broadband was converted into a pure random vibration spectrum useable directly for ANSYS. The natural frequen-cies and modals of the unit were obtained by modal analysis. On this basis, the converted vibration spectrum was exerted so that the dynamic response and the critical frequencies in different positions of the integrated airborne aid unit were derived by the random vibration analysis. Meanwhile, the dynamic strength of the unit structure was checked up. The result of the analysis has provided a reference for anti-vibration design of the integrated airborne aid unit.

  2. Connectable solar air collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S.; Bosanac, M.


    The project has proved that it is possible to manufacture solar air collector panels, which in an easy way can be connected into large collector arrays with integrated ducting without loss of efficiency. The developed connectable solar air collectors are based on the use of matrix absorbers in the form of perforated metal sheets. Three interconnected solar air collectors of the above type - each with an transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} - was tested and compared with parallel tests on two single solar air collectors also with a transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} One of the single solar air collectors has an identical absorber as the connectable solar air collectors while the absorber of the other single solar air collector was a fibre cloth. The efficiency of the three solar air collectors proved to be almost identical in the investigated range of mass flow rates and temperature differences. The solar air collectors further proved to be very efficient - as efficient as the second most efficient solar air collectors tested in the IEA task 19 project Solar Air Systems. Some problems remain although to be solved: the pressure drop across especially the connectable solar air collectors is too high - mainly across the inlets of the solar air collectors. It should, however, be possible to considerably reduce the pressure losses with a more aerodynamic design of the inlet and outlet of the solar air collectors; The connectable solar air collectors are easy connectable but the air tightness of the connections in the present form is not good enough. As leakage leads to lower efficiencies focus should be put on making the connections more air tight without loosing the easiness in connecting the solar air collectors. As a spin off of the project a simple and easy way to determine the efficiency of solar, air collectors for pre-heating of fresh air has been validated. The simple method of determining the efficiency has with success been compared with an advance method

  3. AirCompare (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — AirCompare contains air quality information that allows a user to compare conditions in different localities over time and compare conditions in the same location...

  4. Allegheny County Air Quality (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Air quality data from Allegheny County Health Department monitors throughout the county. Air quality monitored data must be verified by qualified individuals before...

  5. Air Quality Facilities (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, as well as facilities required to submit an air emissions inventory, and other facilities...

  6. Indoor Air Pollution (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  7. Air Quality System (AQS) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements...

  8. Air Power and Warfare (United States)


    Memorial, 1963. (T) 767.8 A3 ser .3, V.4) Air war against Germany and Italy, 1939-1943. Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1954. (D 767.8 A3 Ser .3, al. Air poder indivisible Air University Ouarterly Review 2:5-18, Fall 1950. Spaatz, Crrl. Air-power odds against us. Readers Digest 58:11-14, June

  9. Indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Susanne; Recevska, Ieva

     The objective of the 35th specific agreement is to provide support to the EEA activities in Environment and Health (E&H) on the topic of indoor air quality. The specific objectives have been to provide an overview of indoor air related projects in EU and indoor air related policies as well...... as idenfiying "good practices" to reduce health impact of indoor air exposure and suggest areas for future improvements....

  10. We Pollute the Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    1.Clean air is important to good health.If the aircontains impurities,they may be absorbed by ourbodies and make us ill.We need clean air,butunfortunately,air pollution is generally present,especially in cities. 2.Our cities have many factories,which we need tomake food products,clothing and many other things.

  11. Air Pollution Training Programs. (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  12. Effect of High-Dose Vitamin D3 Intake on Ambulation, Muscular Pain and Bone Mineral Density in a Woman with Multiple Sclerosis: A 10-Year Longitudinal Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Feron


    Full Text Available Mounting evidence correlate vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol supplementation or higher serum levels of vitamin D (25(OHD with a lower risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS, reduced relapse rate, slower progression or fewer new brain lesions. We present here the case of a woman who was diagnosed with MS in 1990. From 1980 to 2000, her ability to walk decreased from ~20 to 1 km per day. Since January 2001, a vitamin D3 supplement was ingested daily. The starting dose was 20 mcg (800 IU/day and escalated to 100 mcg (4000 IU/day in September 2004 and then to 150 mcg (6000 IU/day in December 2005. Vitamin D3 intake reduced muscular pain and improved ambulation from 1 (February 2000 to 14 km/day (February 2008. Vitamin D intake over 10 years caused no adverse effects: no hypercalcaemia, nephrolithiasis or hypercalciuria were observed. Bowel problems in MS may need to be addressed as they can cause malabsorption including calcium, which may increase serum PTH and 1,25(OH2D levels, as well as bone loss. We suggest that periodic assessment of vitamin D3, calcium and magnesium intake, bowel problems and the measurement of serum 25(OHD, PTH, Ca levels, UCa/Cr and bone health become part of the integral management of persons with MS.

  13. Manual for THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Brandt, Jørgen

    The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS.......The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS....

  14. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors (United States)

    Healy, Bud


    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  15. Air filtration in HVAC systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ginestet, Alain; Tronville, Paolo; Hyttinen, Marko


    Air filtration Guidebook will help the designer and user to understand the background and criteria for air filtration, how to select air filters and avoid problems associated with hygienic and other conditions at operation of air filters. The selection of air filters is based on external conditions such as levels of existing pollutants, indoor air quality and energy efficiency requirements.

  16. 走近Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 大家对air这个单词并不陌生,它通常用作名词,表示"空气".例如: 1.Better let in fresh air. 最好让新鲜空气进来. 2.The air smells of paint. 空气里散发着油漆味. 3.The air was heavy with perfume of the flowers. 空气里弥漫着花朵的芳香.

  17. Contact air abrasion. (United States)

    Porth, R


    The advantages of contact air abrasion techniques are readily apparent. The first, of course, is the greatly increased ease of use. Working with contact also tends to speed the learning curve by giving the process a more natural dental feel. In addition, as one becomes familiar with working with a dust stream, the potential for misdirecting the air flow is decreased. The future use of air abrasion for deep decay removal will make this the treatment of choice for the next millennium.

  18. Olefin metathesis in air. (United States)

    Piola, Lorenzo; Nahra, Fady; Nolan, Steven P


    Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance.

  19. Cabin air temperature of parked vehicles in summer conditions: life-threatening environment for children and pets calculated by a dynamic model (United States)

    Horak, Johannes; Schmerold, Ivo; Wimmer, Kurt; Schauberger, Günther


    In vehicles that are parked, no ventilation and/or air conditioning takes place. If a vehicle is exposed to direct solar radiation, an immediate temperature rise occurs. The high cabin air temperature can threaten children and animals that are left unattended in vehicles. In the USA, lethal heat strokes cause a mean death rate of 37 children per year. In addition, temperature-sensitive goods (e.g. drugs in ambulances and veterinary vehicles) can be adversely affected by high temperatures. To calculate the rise of the cabin air temperature, a dynamic model was developed that is driven by only three parameters, available at standard meteorological stations: air temperature, global radiation and wind velocity. The transition from the initial temperature to the constant equilibrium temperature depends strongly on the configuration of the vehicle, more specifically on insulation, window area and transmission of the glass, as well as on the meteorological conditions. The comparison of the model with empirical data showed good agreement. The model output can be applied to assess the heat load of children and animals as well as temperature-sensitive goods, which are transported and/or stored in a vehicle.


    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.


    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  1. Air-Conditioning Mechanic. (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by air conditioning mechanics. Addressed in the four chapters, or lessons, of the manual are the following topics: principles of air conditioning, refrigeration components as…

  2. The Air We Breathe (United States)

    Davila, Dina


    Topics discussed include NASA mission to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery and aeronautics research; the role of Earth's atmosphere, atmospheric gases, layers of the Earth's atmosphere, ozone layer, air pollution, effects of air pollution on people, the Greenhouse Effect, and breathing on the International Space Station.

  3. Air/liquid collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Østergaard; Olesen, Ole; Kristiansen, Finn Harken


    This report determine efficiency equations for combined air/liquid solar collectors by measurements on to different air/liquid collectors. Equations which contain all relevant informations on the solar collectors. A simulation program (Kviksol) has been modified in order to be able to handle...

  4. Bad Air For Children (United States)

    Kane, Dorothy Noyes


    Children are especially sensitive to air pollution and consequences to them maybe of longer duration than to adults. The effects of low-level pollution on children are the concern of this article. The need for research on the threat of air pollution to childrens' health is emphasized. (BT)

  5. Air pollution and society


    Brimblecombe P.


    Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.

  6. Over the air test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    [1] This invention relates to over-the-air testing of a device in an anechoic chamber. In particular, the invention is suitable for simulating both uplink and downlink over-the-air communication with a device under test even when the anechoic chamber has different numbers of uplink and downlink...

  7. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition. (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  8. Air Pollution and Industry. (United States)

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  9. Bearings Only Air-to-Air Ranging (United States)


    sensor, observer and target parameters still remain. In order to reduce the number of cases to a manageable one, while preserving the geometric...perforance of variotu. ulro-air passive ranging tecnique has been examined as a fimn- tiam of uarget location andi motiom, observer motion. and length

  10. Restoran Buenos Aires = Restaurant Buenos Aires

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Restorani Buenos Aires (Narva mnt. 5, Tallinn) sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid: Janno Roos ja Andres Labi (Ruumilabor OÜ). Laudu eraldavad 400 vardasse aetud puukuuli. Sisearhitektidest, nende tähtsamad tööd. I-III korruse plaan, 12 värv. vaadet, fotod sisearhitektidest

  11. AIRE-Linux (United States)

    Zhou, Jianfeng; Xu, Benda; Peng, Chuan; Yang, Yang; Huo, Zhuoxi


    AIRE-Linux is a dedicated Linux system for astronomers. Modern astronomy faces two big challenges: massive observed raw data which covers the whole electromagnetic spectrum, and overmuch professional data processing skill which exceeds personal or even a small team's abilities. AIRE-Linux, which is a specially designed Linux and will be distributed to users by Virtual Machine (VM) images in Open Virtualization Format (OVF), is to help astronomers confront the challenges. Most astronomical software packages, such as IRAF, MIDAS, CASA, Heasoft etc., will be integrated into AIRE-Linux. It is easy for astronomers to configure and customize the system and use what they just need. When incorporated into cloud computing platforms, AIRE-Linux will be able to handle data intensive and computing consuming tasks for astronomers. Currently, a Beta version of AIRE-Linux is ready for download and testing.

  12. Airing 'clean air' in Clean India Mission. (United States)

    Banerjee, T; Kumar, M; Mall, R K; Singh, R S


    The submission explores the possibility of a policy revision for considering clean air quality in recently launched nationwide campaign, Clean India Mission (CIM). Despite of several efforts for improving availability of clean household energy and sanitation facilities, situation remain still depressing as almost half of global population lacks access to clean energy and proper sanitation. Globally, at least 2.5 billion people do not have access to basic sanitation facilities. There are also evidences of 7 million premature deaths by air pollution in year 2012. The situation is even more disastrous for India especially in rural areas. Although, India has reasonably progressed in developing sanitary facilities and disseminating clean fuel to its urban households, the situation in rural areas is still miserable and needs to be reviewed. Several policy interventions and campaigns were made to improve the scenario but outcomes were remarkably poor. Indian census revealed a mere 31% sanitation coverage (in 2011) compared to 22% in 2001 while 60% of population (700 million) still use solid biofuels and traditional cook stoves for household cooking. Further, last decade (2001-2011) witnessed the progress decelerating down with rural households without sanitation facilities increased by 8.3 million while minimum progress has been made in conversion of conventional to modern fuels. To revamp the sanitation coverage, an overambitious nationwide campaign CIM was initiated in 2014 and present submission explores the possibility of including 'clean air' considerations within it. The article draws evidence from literatures on scenarios of rural sanitation, energy practises, pollution induced mortality and climatic impacts of air pollution. This subsequently hypothesised with possible modification in available technologies, dissemination modes, financing and implementation for integration of CIM with 'clean air' so that access to both sanitation and clean household energy may be

  13. Location Problem of Air Materials Supply Center for Air Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 何亚群; 陶学禹


    Based on the analysis of three influencing factors on the air material supply center location, the location model of air material supply center was established. By solving the model, the rational supply center of air materials was also determined.

  14. Air Baltic: Estonian Air on nurka surutud / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele


    Air Balticu asepresidendi Janis Vanagsi hinnangul on Estonian Air aastaid jätnud tähelepanuta oma peamised turismiturud ning on praegu halvas seisus. Air Baltic on endiselt huvitatud Estonian Airi ostust. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi seisukoht

  15. Air Cleaning Technologies (United States)


    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  16. Emission Facilities - Air Emission Plants (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Represents the Primary Facility type Air Emission Plant (AEP) point features. Air Emissions Plant is a DEP primary facility type related to the Air Quality Program....

  17. Air Quality Management Process Cycle (United States)

    Air quality management are activities a regulatory authority undertakes to protect human health and the environment from the harmful effects of air pollution. The process of managing air quality can be illustrated as a cycle of inter-related elements.

  18. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation??s (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  19. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  20. Olefin metathesis in air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Piola


    Full Text Available Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance.

  1. Air/Water Purification (United States)


    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  2. Olefin metathesis in air (United States)

    Piola, Lorenzo; Nahra, Fady


    Summary Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance. PMID:26664625

  3. Clean Air and Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    The air we breathe and the water we drink are both vital components of our health. Nevertheless, bacteria, pollutants, and other contaminates can alter life-giving air and water into health-threatening hazards. Learn about how scientists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention work to protect the public from air and water-related health risks.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  4. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source...... apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2002 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. NO2 and PM10 were at several stations found in concentrations above the new EU limit values, which the Member...

  5. Mid-air Acrobatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    On September 1 two new aerobatic demonstration teams,theSky Wing and the Red Falcon,debuted at an air show held in Changchun,capital of northeast China's Jilin Province.The show was staged at a ceremony held by the Aviation University of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) Air Force.Also performing at the show was the 50-year-old Bayi aerobatic demonstration team.The teams demonstrated their superlative flying skills,which showcase the quality of the air force's rigorous pilot training.

  6. Optimal Design of Vibration Reduction for the Integrated Airborne Aid Unit on Ambulance Helicopter%救护直升机机载急救单元减振优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    According to the vibration characteristics of an ambulance helicopter, the optimum design for vibration isolation of integrated airborne aid unit was done using the tunable metal dry-friction damping. Within the adjustment range of the isolator’s dry friction damping, curves of the friction force of the vibration isolator were obtained by testing, and the harmonic-wave superposition method was used to simulate the cabin-floor excitation of the helicopter. Meanwhile, the optimum curve of the friction force was made based on the optimization simulation, and then the best working condition of the isolator damping was determined. Results of the optimization show that the RMS of the acceleration can be reduced by 78.755 % with the use of the isolator in the airborne aid unit, the isolator has a good vibration isolation damping performance and is suitable for the airborne vibration environment of the helicopter.%  针对某型救护直升机振动特点,采用金属干摩擦阻尼可调式隔振器对机载综合急救单元进行隔振优化设计,在隔振器干摩擦阻尼调节范围内,测试多组隔振器摩擦力曲线,应用谐波叠加法模拟直升机客舱底板激励,并通过仿真优化计算确定最佳摩擦力曲线,进而确定隔振器阻尼最佳工作状态。优化结果表明机载综合急救单元采用该型隔振器,能使加速度均方根响应降低78.75%,说明该隔振器具有良好的隔振减振性能,适用于直升机机载振动环境。

  7. Acute and Subacute Effects of Urban Air Pollution on Cardiopulmonary Emergencies and Mortality: Time Series Studies in Austrian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rabczenko


    Full Text Available Daily pollution data (collected in Graz over 16 years and in the Linz over 18 years were used for time series studies (GAM and case-crossover on the relationship with daily mortality (overall and specific causes of death. Diagnoses of patients who had been transported to hospitals in Linz were also available on a daily basis from eight years for time series analyses of cardiopulmonary emergencies. Increases in air pollutant levels over several days were followed by increases in mortality and the observed effects increased with the length of the exposure window considered, up to a maximum of 15 days. These mortality changes in Graz and Linz showed similar patterns like the ones found before in Vienna. A significant association of mortality could be demonstrated with NO2, PM2.5 and PM10 even in summer, when concentrations are lower and mainly related to motor traffic. Cardiorespiratory ambulance transports increased with NO2/PM2.5/PM10 by 2.0/6.1/1.7% per 10 µg/m³ on the same day. Monitoring of NO2 (related to motor traffic and fine particulates at urban background stations predicts acute effects on cardiopulmonary emergencies and extended effects on cardiopulmonary mortality. Both components of urban air pollution are indicators of acute cardiopulmonary health risks, which need to be monitored and reduced, even below current standards.

  8. Radioactive air sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Maiello, Mark L


    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  9. Natural Air Purifier (United States)


    NASA environmental research has led to a plant-based air filtering system. Dr. B.C. Wolverton, a former NASA engineer who developed a biological filtering system for space life support, served as a consultant to Terra Firma Environmental. The company is marketing the BioFilter, a natural air purifier that combines activated carbon and other filter media with living plants and microorganisms. The filter material traps and holds indoor pollutants; plant roots and microorganisms then convert the pollutants into food for the plant. Most non-flowering house plants will work. After pollutants have been removed, the cleansed air is returned to the room through slits in the planter. Terra Firma is currently developing a filter that will also disinfect the air.

  10. Advanced air distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor


    The aim of total volume air distribution (TVAD) involves achieving uniform temperature and velocity in the occupied zone and environment designed for an average occupant. The supply of large amounts of clean and cool air are needed to maintain temperature and pollution concentration at acceptable...... levels in the entire space, leading to increased energy consumption and the use of large and costly HVAC and duct systems. The performance of desk installed PV combined with background TVAD used for room temperature control has been studied in an office building located in a hot and humid climate....... Ventilation in hospitals is essential to decrease the risk of airborne cross-infection. At present, mixing air distribution at a minimum of 12 ach is used in infection wards. Advanced air distribution has the potential to aid in achieving healthy, comfortable and productive indoor environments at levels...

  11. Regional Air Quality Data (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on regional air quality, including trace level SO2, nitric acid, ozone, carbon monoxide, and NOy; and particulate sulfate, nitrate, and...

  12. Temporal solitons in air (United States)

    Voronin, A. A.; Zheltikov, A. M.


    Analysis of the group-velocity dispersion (GVD) of atmospheric air with a model that includes the entire manifold of infrared transitions in air reveals a remarkably broad and continuous anomalous-GVD region in the high-frequency wing of the carbon dioxide rovibrational band from approximately 3.5 to 4.2 μm where atmospheric air is still highly transparent and where high-peak-power sources of ultrashort midinfrared pulses are available. Within this range, anomalous dispersion acting jointly with optical nonlinearity of atmospheric air is shown to give rise to a unique three-dimensional dynamics with well-resolved soliton features in the time domain, enabling a highly efficient whole-beam soliton self-compression of such pulses to few-cycle pulse widths.

  13. Air Data Calibration Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility is for low altitude subsonic altimeter system calibrations of air vehicles. Mission is a direct support of the AFFTC mission. Postflight data merge is...

  14. Investigating Air Pollution (United States)

    Carter, Edward J.


    Describes an experiment using live plants and cigarette smoke to demonstrate the effects of air pollution on a living organism. Procedures include growth of the test plants in glass bottles, and construction and operation of smoking machine. (CS)

  15. Indoor Air Pollution


    Smith, Kirk R.


    Outdoor air pollution in developing-country cities is difficult to overlook. Indoor air pollution caused by burning such traditional fuels as wood, crop residues, and dung is less evident, yet it is responsible for a significant part of country and global disease burdens. The main groups affected are poor women and children in rural areas and urban slums as they go about their daily activi...

  16. Air Superiority Fighter Characteristics. (United States)


    many a dispute could have been deflated into a single paragraph if the disputants had just dared to define their terms.7 Aristotle ...meaningful. This section will expand on some key ideology concepts. The phrase "air superiority fighter" may bring to mind visions of fighter... biographies are useful in garnering airpower advocate theories as well as identifying key characteristics. Air campaign results, starting with World

  17. Nuclear air cushion vehicles. (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.


    This paper serves several functions. It identifies the 'state-of-the-art' of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant. Using mission studies and cost estimates, the report describes some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles. The paper also summarizes the technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies that have been performed at NASA Lewis Research Center.



    Wang, Xin


    With the development of modern architecture, one of the building's interior decoration, furnishings, appliances and equipment have become increasingly demanding, making construction of the indoor environment of increasing pollution, increasing pollution, indoor environmental pollution hazards to human is also a growing the greater. This thesis summarizes the major indoor air pollution sources and major pollutants. Indoor air pollutants are formaldehyde, radon, ammonia, total volatile org...

  19. Information support for the ambulant health worker. (United States)

    Merrell, Ronald C; Merriam, Nathaniel; Doarn, Charles


    Health workers are trained to work in information-rich environments. Nineteen medical students evaluated 2700 patients in four villages in Kenya where there was no power or phone. A model of information support included personal digital assistants (PDA), electronic medical records (EMR), satellite telecommunications, medical software, and solar power. The students promptly found the advantages of PDA over paper. By using software for decision support and interacting with the EMR data for medical expertise, very few live telemedicine consults were needed. The cost of this information support was only US 0.28 dollars per patient visit. We conclude information resources can be provided in remote environments at reasonable cost.

  20. Characterization of ankle function during stair ambulation


    Gates, Deanna H.; Lelas, Jennifer L.; Della Croce, Ugo; Herr, Hugh; Bonato, Paolo


    The aim of this study was to examine the ankle joint during level walking, stair ascent, and stair descent to determine models for use in the design of prosthetic and orthotic systems. Ten healthy subjects were asked to walk (1) across a level walkway, (2) up, and (3) down an instrumented stairway. Sagittal plane kinematic and kinetic data were analyzed to obtain ankle biomechanics during the stance phase of each task. Each stance phase was broken down into sub-phases based on the power traje...

  1. Teknologiers mellemkomst i ambulant behandling og egenomsorg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballegaard, Stinne Aaløkke; Aarhus, Rikke


    Vigtige tendenser i den danske sundhedssektor i disse år er centralisering af behandling og øget egenomsorg. Teknologi ses ofte som en del af denne udvikling, omend der eksisterer både dystopiske og utopiske forestillinger om, hvorvidt teknologi fremmedgør eller støtter patienten. I denne artikel...

  2. Measuring physical strain during ambulation with accelerometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bussmann, J B; Hartgerink, I; van der Woude, L H; Stam, H J


    PURPOSE: To study the feasibility of ambulatory accelerometry in the evaluation of physical strain in walking at different speeds and different levels of economy. METHODS: Twelve able-bodied subjects performed a walking test on a treadmill with increasing walking speed. After a 6-wk period, these me

  3. Multipollutant air quality management. (United States)

    Hidy, George M; Pennell, William T


    On the basis of a recent NARSTO assessment, this review discusses the factors involved in the implementation of a risk- and results-based multipollutant air quality management strategy applicable to North America. Such a strategy could evolve from current single-pollutant regulatory practices using a series of steps that would seek to minimize risk of exposure for humans and ecosystems while providing for a quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of the management process. The tools needed to support multipollutant air quality management are summarized. They include application of a formal risk analysis, accounting for atmospheric processes, ambient measurements, emissions characterization, air quality modeling of emissions to ambient concentrations, and characterization of human and ecological responses to ambient pollutant exposure. The new management strategy would expand the current practice of accountability that relates emission reductions and attainment of air quality derived from air quality criteria and standards. Conceptually, achievement of accountability would establish goals optimizing risk reduction associated with pollution management. This expanded approach takes into account the sequence of processes from emissions reduction to resulting changes in ambient concentration. Using ambient concentration as a proxy for exposure, the resulting improvement in human and ecosystem health is estimated. The degree to which this chain of processes and effects can be achieved in current practice is examined in a multipollutant context exemplified by oxidants, as indicated by ozone, particulate matter, and some hazardous air pollutants. Achievement of a multipollutant management strategy will mostly depend on improving knowledge about human and ecosystem response to pollutant exposure.

  4. Fluidized Bed Air-to-Air Heat Pump Evaporator Evaluation. (United States)


    Frost formation of air-to-air heat pump evaporator surfaces reduces unit efficiency and restricts application. The use of a fluidized bed heat...exchanger as an air-to- heat pump evaporator was investigated to determine if frost accumulation could be eliminated. Experimental investigations were...evaluated, with no practical solution being developed. The use of a fluidized bed heat exchanger for air-to-air heat pump evaporators was determined not feasible. (Author)

  5. Selection of Air Terminal Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,......This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,...

  6. Computers in Air Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V.S. Rao


    Full Text Available With man's mastery over the third dimension - the near atmosphere and space- it has become increasingly necessary to protect oneself not merely from attacks from land and the sea but, more importantly, from attacks from the air. This was recognised even during the World War II and a rudimentary air defence capability was sought to be established; by the manul (visual surveillance and the anti-aircraft guns. The advent of radar signified a major advance in air defence technology and techniques. Rather than depend on visual observation and the hazards and limitations thereof, it became possible with radar to detect the presence of flying objects at much great distances. The PPI display of a conventional air-surveillance radar permits an operator to scan the sky for several hundreds of kilometers all around. Early radar-based air defence systems were dependent on human observation and decision making for detecting targets, identifying them, deciding on interception strategy and for recovering the interceptor after completion of his mission. This was feasible because, with a radar of between 200 to 400 kilometers and aircraft speeds in the range of 500 kilometers per hour, upto 30 minutes warning was available before the target was overhead.

  7. Urban Air Pollution in India


    Narain, Urvashi


    This article describes the main efforts undertaken to stem the growth of air pollution in Indian cities. We begin by examining trends in air quality across the country. This is followed by a description of the legal and institutional framework and policies for controlling air pollution in India. Next we report on efforts to improve air quality in Delhi. We conclude by describing recent actions to control air pollution in cities other than Delhi.

  8. AirPort Extreme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    AirPort Extreme是基于IEEE802.11g无线通讯协议的54Mbps的无线路由机站,它提供了比802.11b标准几乎快5倍以上的连接速率。AirPort Extreme基站可以同时为50台Mac和PC机用户服务。它支持从无线打印至带有USB接口或以太网接口的打印机,支持无线桥接技术,并同时提供了一整套强大的管理工具。除此之外,AirPort Extreme基站还配有一个内建防火墙,

  9. Urban Air Pollution Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, B.


    This document focuses on the specific problems of urban air pollution related to emissions, urban climate, meteorology, smog potential, specific locations, air pollution measurements and trends. Examples are given with cases from European cities in particular. The north south differences, coastal and inland problems and data from various parts of Europe are presented. Global trends and results from the UNEP programme are used to illustrate the magnitude of the problem. Special emphasis is placed on the impact of different sources and their importance in selected cities. Different types of atmospheric dispersion models, their development and use, is outlined. The importance of local and regional meteorological data for explanation purposes and for estimating and forecasting urban air quality is presented. Finally, monitoring programmes, mapping, impact assessment and optimum abatement strategy planning are illustrated with examples from different areas in the world. 9 refs., 56 figs., 1 table

  10. Air the excellent canopy

    CERN Document Server

    Fahy, F


    We take it for granted, but without it we perish and if we continue to abuse it, it may kill us in the end. This fascinating text provides an understanding and appreciation of the role that air plays in our environment and its importance in relation to human life and technology. Aimed at those who are scientifically curious but who have no specialist training, it contains no mathematical equations and relies upon the qualitative descriptions and analogies to explain the more technical parts of the text together with simple home experiments to illustrate a range of air-based phenomena. Liberall

  11. Upper extremity joint stresses during walkerassisted ambulation in post-surgical patients Estresse articular no membro superior durante marcha assistida por andador em pacientes pós-cirúrgicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J. Mcquade


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A walker is a common device prescribed for ambulatory assistance for individuals with balance difficulties or to reduce lower extremity demands following injury or surgery. The long-term use of a walker imposes significant demands on the patient's upper extremities that may lead to increased risk for development of secondary conditions such as wrist, elbow or shoulder pain. OBJECTIVE: To describe the joint kinematics, forces and moments of the wrist, elbow and shoulder in a sample of twenty patients that were using a walker as a result of total joint surgery of the hips and knees. METHODS: Three-dimensional upper extremity kinematics were recorded using a motion capture system synchronized with forces and torques transmitted through a walker instrumented with force transducers in the handles. RESULTS: Compressive forces were found to be nearly 20% of the body weight at each of the upper extremity joints, both surgical and non-surgical sides, being the greatest force at the wrist and decreasing proximally. Compression forces were greater in the non-surgical side limb at the wrist and at the elbow. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicated that loads on upper extremity joints associated with the use of a walker for assisted ambulation are high and further studies are needed to address the cause-effect relationship between the actual joint loading and the development of secondary musculoskeletal upper extremity complaints in more frail patients.CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Um andador é um dispositivo frequentemente prescrito para auxiliar a marcha de indivíduos com dificuldades de equilíbrio ou para reduzir demandas à extremidade inferior após cirurgia ou lesão. O uso prolongado de um andador impõe significante demanda para a extremidade superior do paciente, o que pode levar a um risco aumentado de desenvolver condições secundárias, como dor no punho, cotovelo e ombro. OBJETIVO: Descrever a cinemática articular, forças e momentos do punho

  12. Air movement - good or bad?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn


    Air movement - good or bad? The question can only be answered by those who are exposed when they are exposed. Human perception of air movement depends on environmental factors including air velocity, air velocity fluctuations, air temperature, and personal factors such as overall thermal sensation...... and activity level. Even for the same individual, sensitivity to air movement may change from day to day as a result of e.g. different levels of fatigue. Based on existing literature, the current paper summarizes factors influencing the human perception of air movement and attempts to specify in general terms...... influences the subjective perception of air movement. With occupants feeling warmer than neutral, at temperatures above 23oC or at raised activity levels, humans generally do not feel draught at air velocities typical for indoor environments (up to around 0.4 m/s). In the higher temperature range, very high...

  13. Russia air management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, T.G. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NC (United States); Markin, S. [Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, Moscow (Sweden); Kosenkova, S.V. [Volgograd Environmental Services Administration, Volgograd (Russian Federation)


    The Russia Air Management Program is in the second year of a four-year cooperative program between the Russian Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources (MEPNR) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to improve national institutions, policies, and practices for air quality management in Russia. This program is part of the Environmental Policy and Technology project being conducted by the U.S. Agency for International Development. The Russia Air Management Program will pilot the application of potential air program improvements in the important industrial City of Volgograd which will enable the development, practical demonstration and evaluation of alternative approaches for improving AQM policies and practices in Russia. Volgograd has a progressive and environmentally enlightened local government, a diverse industrial base and a relatively healthy economy. It is located south of Moscow on the Volga River and was proposed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources. It was selected after a site visit and a series of discussions with the Ministry, Volgograd officials, the World Bank and the EPA. Following the pilot, RAMP will work to facilitate implementation of selected parts of the pilot in other areas of Russia using training, technology transfer, and public awareness. (author)

  14. Air Structures: Inflatable Alternatives (United States)

    Valerio, Joseph M.; And Others


    Describes and evaluates several avant garde'' examples of air structures. Included are a soft'' child's playpen, a pneudome that employs a water ballast for anchoring, a one-acre enclosed campus, an instant city'' constructed for an industrial design conference, and the Fuji Pavilion, at Expo '70 in Osaka, Japan, that was large enough to cover…

  15. Mid-air Acrobatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Two new aerobatic demonstration teams take to the skies On September 1,two new aerobatic demonstration teams,the Sky Wing and the Red Falcon,debuted at an air show held in Changchun,capital of northeast China’s Jilin Province.

  16. Hexane Air Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Boettcher, Philipp A; Shepherd, Joseph E


    Hot surface ignition and subsequent flame propagation of premixed n-hexane air mixtures are shown in this fluid dynamics video. High speed schlieren photography revealed 3 distinct behaviors of ignition and propagation as a function of mixture composition and initial pressure.

  17. Images in the Air (United States)

    Riveros, H. G.; Rosenberger, Franz


    This article discusses two "magic tricks" in terms of underlying optical principles. The first trick is new and produces a "ghost" in the air, and the second is the classical real image produced with two parabolic mirrors. (Contains 2 figure and 6 photos.)

  18. Air Blast Calculations (United States)


    gauges at this point are still inside the explosive fireball (where the pressure time histories are dramatically influenced by the propagating...outside of the explosive fireball (since no evidence of an air-product interface is detected in any of the pressure time histories at this point

  19. Learning AirWatch

    CERN Document Server

    Dunkerley, Mark


    If you are a technical professional who wants to dive deeper into the functionality offered by AirWatch or manage the solution, then this book will help you choose the best set of configuration, device management, and monitoring options that you can use to effectively manage your EMM implementation.

  20. Tribal Air Quality Monitoring. (United States)

    Wall, Dennis


    The Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals (ITEP) (Flagstaff, Arizona) provides training and support for tribal professionals in the technical job skills needed for air quality monitoring and other environmental management tasks. ITEP also arranges internships, job placements, and hands-on training opportunities and supports an…

  1. Indoor Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selman, Ayser Dawod; Heiselberg, Per

    Overall purpose of the research is to provide an overview of the relevance and importance of various defined Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) parameters in a European perspective. Based on the report it should be possible to prioritize which countries to target for further activities as well as it should...

  2. Air Distribution in Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    The research on air distribution in rooms is often done as full-size investigations, scale-model investigations or by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). New activities have taken place within all three areas and this paper draws comparisons between the different methods. The outcome of the l...

  3. Comparing toxic air pollutant programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, S.C. [ECKENFELDER Inc., Greenville, SC (United States)


    This article compares state and federal toxic air pollutant programs. The Clean Air Act Ammendments created a program for the control of Hazardous Air Pollutants based on the establishment of control technology standards. State toxic programs can be classified into two categories: control technology-based and ambient concentration-based. Many states have opened to implement the MACT standards while enforcing their own state air toxics programs. Specific topics discussed include the following: the Federal air toxics program; existing state regulations; New Jersey Air Toxic Program; New York Toxics program.

  4. Molecular Air Data Clear Air Turbulence Sensor: MADCAT Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear air turbulence (CAT), often referred to as "air pockets," is attributed to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at altitudes generally above 18,000ft, often in the...

  5. Nitrogen fluorescence in air for observing extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Keilhauer, B; Fraga, M; Matthews, J; Sakaki, N; Tameda, Y; Tsunesada, Y; Ulrich, A


    Extensive air showers initiate the fluorescence emissions from nitrogen molecules in air. The UV-light is emitted isotropically and can be used for observing the longitudinal development of extensive air showers in the atmosphere over tenth of kilometers. This measurement technique is well-established since it is exploited for many decades by several cosmic ray experiments. However, a fundamental aspect of the air shower analyses is the description of the fluorescence emission in dependence on varying atmospheric conditions. Different fluorescence yields affect directly the energy scaling of air shower reconstruction. In order to explore the various details of the nitrogen fluorescence emission in air, a few experimental groups have been performing dedicated measurements over the last decade. Most of the measurements are now finished. These experimental groups have been discussing their techniques and results in a series of \\emph{Air Fluorescence Workshops} commenced in 2002. At the 8$^{\\rm{th}}$ Air Fluoresc...

  6. Molecular Air Data Clear Air Turbulence Sensor: MADCAT Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear air turbulence (CAT), often referred to as "air pockets," is attributed to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at altitudes usually above 18,000ft, often without...

  7. Air-Coupled Vibrometry (United States)

    Döring, D.; Solodov, I.; Busse, G.

    Sound and ultrasound in air are the products of a multitude of different processes and thus can be favorable or undesirable phenomena. Development of experimental tools for non-invasive measurements and imaging of airborne sound fields is of importance for linear and nonlinear nondestructive material testing as well as noise control in industrial or civil engineering applications. One possible solution is based on acousto-optic interaction, like light diffraction imaging. The diffraction approach usually requires a sophisticated setup with fine optical alignment barely applicable in industrial environment. This paper focuses on the application of the robust experimental tool of scanning laser vibrometry, which utilizes commercial off-the-shelf equipment. The imaging technique of air-coupled vibrometry (ACV) is based on the modulation of the optical path length by the acoustic pressure of the sound wave. The theoretical considerations focus on the analysis of acousto-optical phase modulation. The sensitivity of the ACV in detecting vibration velocity was estimated as ~1 mm/s. The ACV applications to imaging of linear airborne fields are demonstrated for leaky wave propagation and measurements of ultrasonic air-coupled transducers. For higher-intensity ultrasound, the classical nonlinear effect of the second harmonic generation was measured in air. Another nonlinear application includes a direct observation of the nonlinear air-coupled emission (NACE) from the damaged areas in solid materials. The source of the NACE is shown to be strongly localized around the damage and proposed as a nonlinear "tag" to discern and image the defects.

  8. Air-cooled, hydrogen-air fuel cell (United States)

    Shelekhin, Alexander B. (Inventor); Bushnell, Calvin L. (Inventor); Pien, Michael S. (Inventor)


    An air-cooled, hydrogen-air solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell with a membrane electrode assembly operatively associated with a fluid flow plate having at least one plate cooling channel extending through the plate and at least one air distribution hole extending from a surface of the cathode flow field into the plate cooling channel.

  9. Nightfall: Machine Autonomy in Air-to-Air Combat (United States)


    Debashis Chanda et al., “Large-Area Flexible 3D Optical Negative Index Metamaterial Formed by Nanotransfer Printing,” Nature Nanotechnology 6, no. 7 (July...article restricts the discussion to air-to-air applications because they present an extremely sterile environment compared to the air-to-ground (surface

  10. A Breath of Fresh Air: Addressing Indoor Air Quality (United States)

    Palliser, Janna


    Indoor air pollution refers to "chemical, biological, and physical contamination of indoor air," which may result in adverse health effects (OECD 2003). The causes, sources, and types of indoor air pollutants will be addressed in this article, as well as health effects and how to reduce exposure. Learning more about potential pollutants in home…

  11. EN EL AIRE / In the air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés López Fernández


    Full Text Available RESUMEN En el aire es un viaje a la primera mitad del siglo XX que nos tratará de acercar la frescura y oportunidad de las calles corredor y los jardines en la ciudad vertical. Se inicia en 1909 en Nueva York, con la publicación por la revista Life de La Torre del Globo, se acerca al Inmueble-Villas y al Plan Obus para Argel de Le Corbusier, y finaliza en 1952 con el proyecto para el conjunto residencial de Golden Lane en Londres de A. y P. Smithson. Fragmentos para la ciudad vertical que se construía sobre papel, tras el espejo, paralela en el tiempo, pero muy distinta a la ciudad real, con el objetivo entre otros de integrar arquitectura y naturaleza. Esas propuestas siguen teniendo hoy un gran valor, en un panorama en que el espacio público ligado a la vivienda colectiva, prácticamente ha desaparecido, y el esfuerzo que se demanda al arquitecto se centra, en tejer a modo de encaje de bolillos, una fachada que envuelva un programa de vivienda, funcional y espacialmente obsoleto.SUMMARY In the air, is a journey to the first half of the twentieth century that will try to bring us to the freshness and opportunity of the corridor streets and gardens in the vertical city. It begins in 1909 in New York, with the publication in Life magazine of the Globe Tower, it approaches the Immeubles-Villas and Plan Obus for Algiers by Le Corbusier, and ends in 1952 with the project for the Golden Lane Estate residential complex in London, by A. and P. Smithson. Fragments for the vertical city that was constructed on paper, behind the mirror, parallel in time, but was very different from the real city, with the aim, inter alia, of integrating architecture and nature. These proposals continue to have great value today, in a scenario where the public space linked to the collective home has virtually disappeared, and the effort that is demanded of the architect focuses on weaving a facade like bobbin lace around a functionally and spatially obsolete housing

  12. 基于模拟退火法的某履带式急救车减振系统等效物理参数辨识%Equivalent Physical Parameters Identification of Tracked Emergency Ambulance's Damping System Using Simulated Annealing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨猛; 徐新喜; 白松; 苏琛; 刘孝辉; 谭树林


    Objective To identify the equivalent physical parameters of the tracked emergency ambulance's damping system. Methods According to the function and physical characteristics of the tracked emergency ambulance's damping system between carriage and coach chassis, the model for the damping system was reasonably simplified. Taking coach chassis longitudinal beam's motion as the system inputs, a 1 DOF vibration model for sprung mass was set up and the frequency response function for the acceleration of sprung mass was derived. Using the test data of proving ground, data fitting was conducted by a Matlab program written based on Simulated Annealing, and the equivalent physical parameters (stiffness and damping) of damping system under different road conditions were obtained. Results The verification of equivalent physical parameters was conducted through a kinematics differential equation built in Simulink of Matlab. The result showed that equivalent physical parameters were rather reliable. Conclusion The equivalent physical parameters identification of the tracked emergency ambulance's damping system is well done by simulated annealing. The Equivalent Physical Parameters can be used as the basis for vibration damping system optimization and have a high engineering practical significance.%目的:辨识某履带式急救车减振系统的等效物理参数.方法:针对某履带式急救车大板车箱与底盘之间减振系统的功能及物理特性,对减振系统进行了合理简化.以底盘纵梁的运动为系统输入,建立了簧载质量的单自由度模型,推导了簧载质量的加速度频响函数;利用汽车试验场道路试验数据,通过模拟退火法编写Matlab程序进行数据拟合,得到了减振系统在不同路面情况下的等效物理参数.结果:通过Matlab的Simulink模块建立减振系统运动微分方程模型对等效物理参数进行验证,结果表明等效物理参数具有较高可信度.结论:模拟退火法可以很

  13. Studies efficiency solar air collector




    The article presents an analysis of the existing solar air collectors. A description of the design and the results of experimental studies on the effectiveness of the solar air collector with an absorber of from metal shavings.

  14. Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for the Region 7 Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD) which logs all air pollution complaints...

  15. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality (United States)

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Share ... indoor air pollution. For this reason, it is important to pay attention to the time and place ...

  16. Air Markets Program Data (AMPD) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Markets Program Data tool allows users to search EPA data to answer scientific, general, policy, and regulatory questions about industry emissions. Air...

  17. Aluminum/air electrochemical cells


    Wang, Lei; 王雷


    Aluminum (Al) is a very promising energy carrier given its high capacity and energy density, low cost, earth abundance and environmental benignity. The Al/air battery as a kind of metal/air electrochemical cell attracts tremendous attention. Traditional Al/air batteries suffer from the self-corrosion and related safety problems. In this work, three new approaches were investigated to tackle these challenges and to develop high-performance Al/air cells: (1) incorporate an additional hydrogen/a...

  18. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)


    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  19. Hot Air Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stouffs


    Full Text Available Invented in 1816, the hot-air engines have known significant commercial success in the nineteenth century, before falling into disuse. Nowadays they enjoy a renewed interest for some specific applications. The "hot-air engines" family is made up of two groups: Stirling engines and Ericsson engines. The operating principle of Stirling and Ericsson engines, their troubled history, their advantages and their niche applications are briefly presented, especially in the field of micro-combined heat and power, solar energy conversion and biomass energy conversion. The design of an open cycle Ericsson engine for solar application is proposed. A first prototype of the hot part of the engine has been built and tested. Experimental results are presented.

  20. Air transport system

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Dieter


    The book addresses all major aspects to be considered for the design and operation of aircrafts within the entire transportation chain. It provides the basic information about the legal environment, which defines the basic requirements for aircraft design and aircraft operation. The interactions between  airport, air traffic management and the airlines are described. The market forecast methods and the aircraft development process are explained to understand the very complex and risky business of an aircraft manufacturer. The principles of flight physics as basis for aircraft design are presented and linked to the operational and legal aspects of air transport including all environmental impacts. The book is written for graduate students as well as for engineers and experts, who are working in aerospace industry, at airports or in the domain of transport and logistics.

  1. Aeromicrobiology/air quality (United States)

    Andersen, Gary L.; Frisch, A.S.; Kellogg, Christina A.; Levetin, E.; Lighthart, Bruce; Paterno, D.


    The most prevalent microorganisms, viruses, bacteria, and fungi, are introduced into the atmosphere from many anthropogenic sources such as agricultural, industrial and urban activities, termed microbial air pollution (MAP), and natural sources. These include soil, vegetation, and ocean surfaces that have been disturbed by atmospheric turbulence. The airborne concentrations range from nil to great numbers and change as functions of time of day, season, location, and upwind sources. While airborne, they may settle out immediately or be transported great distances. Further, most viable airborne cells can be rendered nonviable due to temperature effects, dehydration or rehydration, UV radiation, and/or air pollution effects. Mathematical microbial survival models that simulate these effects have been developed.

  2. Pupils' Understanding of Air Pollution (United States)

    Dimitriou, Anastasia; Christidou, Vasilia


    This paper reports on a study of pupils' knowledge and understanding of atmospheric pollution. Specifically, the study is aimed at identifying: 1) the extent to which pupils conceptualise the term "air pollution" in a scientifically appropriate way; 2) pupils' knowledge of air pollution sources and air pollutants; and 3) pupils' knowledge of air…

  3. Overview of Emerging Air Sensors (United States)

    These slides will be presented at the 2014 National Ambient Air Monitoring Conference in Atlanta, GA during August 11-15, 2014. The goal is to provide an overview of air sensor technology and the audience will be primarily state air monitoring agencies and EPA Regions.

  4. Improving IAQ Via Air Filtration. (United States)

    Monk, Brian


    Provides tips on using air filtration to control indoor air quality in educational facilities, including dedicated spaces with unique air quality conditions such as in libraries, museums and archival storage areas, kitchens and dining areas, and laboratories. The control of particulate contaminants, gaseous contaminants, and moisture buildup are…

  5. Air Pollution Primer. Revised Education. (United States)

    Corman, Rena

    This revised and updated book is written to inform the citizens on the nature, causes, and effects of air pollution. It is written in terms familiar to the layman with the purpose of providing knowledge and motivation to spur community action on clean air policies. Numerous charts and drawings are provided to support discussion of air pollution…

  6. Fast Air Temperature Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Elbert


    The note documents briefly work done on a newly developed sensor for making fast temperature measurements on the air flow in the intake ports of an SI engine and in the EGR input line. The work reviewed has been carried out in close cooperation with Civ. Ing. Michael Føns, the author (IAU......) and Spencer C. Sorenson (ET). The theory which decribes in detail the overall dynamic chracteristics of the sensor was developed at IAU, DTU....

  7. Air Conditioning Overflow Sensor (United States)


    The Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center helped a local inventor develop a prototype of an attachment for central air conditioners and heat pumps that helps monitor water levels to prevent condensation overflow. The sensor will indicate a need for drain line maintenance and prevent possible damage caused by drain pan water spillover. An engineer in the Stennis Space Center prototype Development Laboratory used SSC sensor technology in the development of the sensor.

  8. Air Cargo Security (United States)


    passenger and all-cargo aircraft. The air cargo system consists of a large, complex distribution network linking manufacturers and shippers to transportation to San Jose, California. His only luggage was a guitar case that concealed hammers, mallets, a knife, and a spear gun. At the...authorities and airplane manufacturers study methods to mitigate the effects of in-flight explosions.76 The FAA has had a active research program in blast

  9. Dental Compressed Air Systems. (United States)


    compressor ex- cept that the piston rings are made of a low friction material (usually a Teflon- composite ) The piston walls are oil-less and all friction... descal - ing. The water-cooled models are smaller, more efficient, and cause less heating of room air. Water-cooled aftercoolers must have an...dry to a dew point of -400C (-400 F). It has high adsorption capacity. (b) Silica Gel , which must be protected from liquid (usually by a layer of

  10. Clearing the Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    On November 8,seven Beijing residents,including a representative from a local environmental organization,were invited by the Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau (BMEPB)to visit its air-quality monitoring center,The visit was the first of a regular program of visits that will take 40 visitors to the center every Tuesday in hopes of giving them a betttr understanding of how airquality data are collected and analyzed.

  11. Air Consumption Analysis of Air-Jet Weaving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In Textile industry, production is mostly key concern for Industry owner. This always has attracted researchers and machines manufacturers to make new developments in process and machines. Air-jet is one of the leading and successful highest productive weaving machines. However, it is now well established that due to add of charges of compressed air, manufacturing cost of air-jet weaving machine is higher as compared with rapier and projectile weaving machines. This is why countries having energy issues do not prefer air-jet weaving machines comparing projectile weaving machines. In this regard, several researchers and machine manufacturers have continuously been working to improve the efficiency of air-jet weft insertion. However, industry practice is as important as design made by researchers. The aim of this research is to investigate the air consumption of air-jet weaving on industrial scale practice. In this study, five weaving machine of same manufacturer and model were selected. It was observed that despite of manufacturing same quality of fabric, air consumption was varying almost in all weaving machines. Conventionally, mill workers adopt hit and trial practice in weaving industry including airpressure setting which leads to variation of nozzle pressure. Main reason of disparity of air consumption in air-jet weaving machines may be variation of distance from compressor to weaving machines, number of joints, un-necessary valve opening and pipes leakages cause an increase of compressed air consumption.

  12. Enhancing indoor air quality –The air filter advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vannan Kandi Vijayan


    Full Text Available Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality.

  13. Air System Information Management (United States)

    Filman, Robert E.


    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) ( NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  14. Air transparent soundproof window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hoon Kim


    Full Text Available A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  15. Solid-Sorbent Air Sampler (United States)

    Galen, T. J.


    Portable unit takes eight 24-hour samples. Volatile organic compounds in air collected for analysis by portable, self-contained sampling apparatus. Sampled air drawn through sorbent material, commercial porous polymer of 2, 3-diphenyl-p-phenylene oxide. High-boiling-point organic compounds adsorbed onto polymer, while low-boiling-point organics pass through and returned to atmosphere. Sampler includes eight sample tubes filled with polymeric sorbent. Organic compounds in atmosphere absorbed when air pumped through sorbent. Designed for checking air in spacecraft, sampler adaptable to other applications as leak detection, gas-mixture analysis, and ambient-air monitoring.

  16. Air Risk Information Support Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoaf, C.R.; Guth, D.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)


    The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) was initiated in early 1988 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) and the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) as a technology transfer effort that would focus on providing information to state and local environmental agencies and to EPA Regional Offices in the areas of health, risk, and exposure assessment for toxic air pollutants. Technical information is fostered and disseminated by Air RISCs three primary activities: (1) a {open_quotes}hotline{close_quotes}, (2) quick turn-around technical assistance projects, and (3) general technical guidance projects. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  17. Air Quality at Your Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Becker, Thomas; Ketzel, Matthias

    DTU Transport as well as data on travel speeds based on GPS data from SpeedMap from the Danish Road Directorate. Modelled concentrations have been compared to fixed regional, urban background and street air quality monitoring stations to assess uncertainties, and to model results from about 30 streets......Citizens are frequently concerned about the air quality where they live, where they go to work, where their children go to kindergarten or where they want to move to. Municipalities may also have an interest in location based air quality information e.g. in relation to screening of complaints from...... concerned citizents, or in the context of localization of institutions, etc. The purpose of the project ‘Air Quality at Your Street’ is to create interactive air quality maps on the internet using webGIS to illustrate the geographical variation of air quality in Denmark for selected health related air...

  18. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal) (United States)

    Skip Navigation National Library of Medicine Environmental Health Student Portal Connecting Middle School Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air ...

  19. Comparison between Different Air Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    The aim of an air conditioning system is to remove excess heat in a room and replace room air with fresh air to obtain a high air quality. It is not sufficient to remove heat and contaminated air, it is also necessary to distribute and control the air movement in the room to create thermal comfort...

  20. Extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, M V S


    Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays carry information about their sources and the intervening medium apart from providing a beam of particles for studying certain features of high energy interactions currently inaccessible at man-made accelerators. They can at present be studied only via the extensive air showers (EAS's) they generate while passing through the Earth's atmosphere, since their fluxes are too low for the experiments of limited capability flown in balloons and satellites. The EAS is generated by a series of interactions of the primary cosmic ray and its progeny with the atmospheric nucle

  1. Solid sorbent air sampler (United States)

    Galen, T. J.


    A fluid sampler for collecting a plurality of discrete samples over separate time intervals is described. The sampler comprises a sample assembly having an inlet and a plurality of discreet sample tubes each of which has inlet and outlet sides. A multiport dual acting valve is provided in the sampler in order to sequentially pass air from the sample inlet into the selected sample tubes. The sample tubes extend longitudinally of the housing and are located about the outer periphery thereof so that upon removal of an enclosure cover, they are readily accessible for operation of the sampler in an analysis mode.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    During the last twenty years there has been rapid progress in the use of automation in a wide range of industries,as well as in military, scientific application. However, the progress in the application of automatic control is often hindered by the lack of accurate, reliable measuring apparatus. An economic thermal couple air flow sensor with better linearity (accuracy is ±5% of full scale) has been successfully made at Trolex Ltd. Many other existing sensors fail in the application of industries because of non-linearity.

  3. Teatro al aire libre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Canac


    Full Text Available Siendo cada vez más frecuentes y numerosas las peregrinaciones a la basílica de Notre Dame, de Laus (Altos Alpes, su capacidad resultaba hace tiempo insuficiente para acoger a sus peregrinos. Este fue el motivo de crear, en un terreno situado ante el atrio de la basílica, un conjunto, que permitiese celebrar misas al aire libre, ceremonias litúrgicas o representaciones de teatro religioso y que dispusiese de todas las posibilidades para conseguir la libertad del juego escénico.

  4. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme (LMP IV) has been revised in accordance with the Framework Directive and the first three daughter directives of SO2, NOx/NO2, PM10, lead, benzene, CO and ozone. PM10 samplers are under installation and the installation will be completed during 2002....... The PM10 results from 2000 are spares, only TSP are thus included in this report. The data sets for year 2000 is complete for many stations. The monitoring programme consists of 10 stations plus 2 extra stations under the Municipality of Copenhagen. The SO2 and lead levels are still decreasing and far...

  5. Ag-Air Service (United States)


    Econ, Inc.'s agricultural aerial application, "ag-air," involves more than 10,000 aircraft spreading insecticides, herbicides, fertilizer, seed and other materials over millions of acres of farmland. Difficult for an operator to estimate costs accurately and decide what to charge or which airplane can handle which assignment most efficiently. Computerized service was designed to improve business efficiency in choice of aircraft and determination of charge rates based on realistic operating cost data. Each subscriber fills out a detailed form which pertains to his needs and then receives a custom-tailored computer printout best suited to his particular business mix.

  6. Air gun wounding and current UK laws controlling air weapons. (United States)

    Bruce-Chwatt, Robert Michael


    Air weapons whether rifles or pistols are, potentially, lethal weapons. The UK legislation is complex and yet little known to the public. Hunting with air weapons and the laws controlling those animals that are permitted to be shot with air weapons is even more labyrinthine due to the legal power limitations on the possession of air weapons. Still relatively freely available by mail order or on the Internet, an increasing number of deaths have been reported from the misuse of air weapons or accidental discharges. Ammunition for air weapons has become increasingly sophisticated, effective and therefore increasingly dangerous if misused, though freely available being a mere projectile without a concomitant cartridge containing a propellant and an initiator.

  7. Nitrogen fluorescence in air for observing extensive air showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsunesada Y.


    Full Text Available Extensive air showers initiate the fluorescence emissions from nitrogen molecules in air. The UV-light is emitted isotropically and can be used for observing the longitudinal development of extensive air showers in the atmosphere over tenth of kilometers. This measurement technique is well-established since it is exploited for many decades by several cosmic ray experiments. However, a fundamental aspect of the air shower analyses is the description of the fluorescence emission in dependence on varying atmospheric conditions. Different fluorescence yields affect directly the energy scaling of air shower reconstruction. In order to explore the various details of the nitrogen fluorescence emission in air, a few experimental groups have been performing dedicated measurements over the last decade. Most of the measurements are now finished. These experimental groups have been discussing their techniques and results in a series of Air Fluorescence Workshops commenced in 2002. At the 8th Air Fluorescence Workshop 2011, it was suggested to develop a common way of describing the nitrogen fluorescence for application to air shower observations. Here, first analyses for a common treatment of the major dependences of the emission procedure are presented. Aspects like the contributions at different wavelengths, the dependence on pressure as it is decreasing with increasing altitude in the atmosphere, the temperature dependence, in particular that of the collisional cross sections between molecules involved, and the collisional de-excitation by water vapor are discussed.

  8. Nitrogen fluorescence in air for observing extensive air showers (United States)

    Keilhauer, B.; Bohacova, M.; Fraga, M.; Matthews, J.; Sakaki, N.; Tameda, Y.; Tsunesada, Y.; Ulrich, A.


    Extensive air showers initiate the fluorescence emissions from nitrogen molecules in air. The UV-light is emitted isotropically and can be used for observing the longitudinal development of extensive air showers in the atmosphere over tenth of kilometers. This measurement technique is well-established since it is exploited for many decades by several cosmic ray experiments. However, a fundamental aspect of the air shower analyses is the description of the fluorescence emission in dependence on varying atmospheric conditions. Different fluorescence yields affect directly the energy scaling of air shower reconstruction. In order to explore the various details of the nitrogen fluorescence emission in air, a few experimental groups have been performing dedicated measurements over the last decade. Most of the measurements are now finished. These experimental groups have been discussing their techniques and results in a series of Air Fluorescence Workshops commenced in 2002. At the 8th Air Fluorescence Workshop 2011, it was suggested to develop a common way of describing the nitrogen fluorescence for application to air shower observations. Here, first analyses for a common treatment of the major dependences of the emission procedure are presented. Aspects like the contributions at different wavelengths, the dependence on pressure as it is decreasing with increasing altitude in the atmosphere, the temperature dependence, in particular that of the collisional cross sections between molecules involved, and the collisional de-excitation by water vapor are discussed.

  9. Air Traffic Flow Management

    CERN Document Server

    Ganu, Hrishikesh V


    Air Traffic Flow Management is the regulation of air traffic in order to avoid exceeding airport or flight sector capacity in handling traffic, and to ensure that available capacity is used efficiently. We have tried to explore the logic behind the claims by Bertsimas about integral solutions to the LP relaxation of the Traffic Flow Management Problem(TFMP). Polyhedral theory only indicates that the stronger TFMP formulation of Bertsimas might lead to integral solutions in some cases. Our computations indicate that the encouraging results reported by Bertsimas are not merely fortuitous or due to their specific data set. Indeed, we found that the TFMP had integral solutions even in case of artificial data sets generated to include severe conflicts in the flight schedules. In our limited tests with 4-5 scenarios, we obtained non-integral solutions only once. This is of significant practical importance because, the LP relaxation can be solved even on small machines with low memory and processor...

  10. Perfil funcional de locomoção em um grupo de pacientes com lesão medular atendidos em um centro de reabilitação Perfil funcional de locomoción en un grupo de pacientes con lesión medular atendidos en un centro de rehabilitación Functional ambulation profile in a group of spinal cord injured patients attended at a rehabilitation center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Franzoi


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: descrever o perfil de locomoção de um grupo de pacientes com lesão medular (LM, correlacionando-o com as características da amostra. MÉTODOS: setenta pacientes (50 com LM traumática e 20 com LM não-traumática. Instrumentos: Classificação Funcional da Marcha Modificada (CFMM, WISCI-II, Escala de Ashworth Modificada (EAM, Classificação AIS, Lower Extremities Muscle Score (AIS-LEMS. Estatística: descritiva, comparação entre grupos, testes de correlação considerando pOBJETIVO: describir el perfil de locomoción de un grupo de pacientes con lesión medular (LM, correlacionándolo con las características de la muestra. MÉTODOS: setenta pacientes (50 con LM traumática y 20 con LM no traumática. Instrumentos: Clasificación Funcional de la Marcha Modificada (CFMM, WISCI-II, Escala de Ashworth Modificada (EAM, Clasificación AIS, AIS Lower Extremities Muscle Score (AIS-LEMS. Estadística: descriptiva, comparación entre grupos, testes de correlación considerando un pOBJECTIVE: to describe the locomotion profile of a group of spinal cord injured (SCI patients and its correlation with the sample features. METHODS: seventy patients (50 with traumatic SCI and 20 non-traumatic were assessed. Instruments: Modified Functional Ambulation Classification (MFAC, Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury II (WISCI-II, Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS, American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS and AIS Lower Extremities Muscle Score (AIS-LEMS. Statistics: descriptive, comparison between groups, correlation tests (considering p<0,05. RESULTS: average values were: age: 36 years, 72.9% males, average time of lesion 4.7 years. AIS A, 38.6%; AIS B, 10%; AIS C, 22.8%; AIS D, 28.6%. Level of lesion: 32.8% cervical, 52.9% thoracic, 14.3% lumbar. More prevalent etiologies: gunshot wounds 30% and car accidents 18%. MFAC: Non-ambulation, 34.3%; Therapeutic ambulation 20%, Household ambulation 12.8%, community ambulation (32.9%; WISCI-II: 7

  11. Managing Air in Olympic Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing W. Tian


    Full Text Available The 21st century Olympic Agenda aims to align itself with the concept of sustainable development and has driven improved environmental quality in host cities, such as the Green Games in Sydney 2000 and the planned Beijing 2008 Games and in London 2012 as the Low Carbon Games. Air quality has long been a concern of Olympic mega-cities, although the air quality plans and strategies have often seemed short-lived and unsustainable in the long term. We have explored air quality data and air pollution control from seven Olympic cities: Mexico City, Los Angeles, Atlanta, Sydney and Athens and also Beijing and London which will host Olympic Games in near future. The study shows that despite a high altitude and air pollution problems, Mexico City had no clear environmental policy in place for the 1968 games. The characteristic smog of Los Angeles raised concerns about athletic performance at the Olympic Games of 1984, but there were limited efforts to tackle the ozone concentration during these games. The 1996 Atlanta Games represents a case where temporary public transport changes were used as a tactic to reduce air pollution. In Sydney a well planned sustainable strategy reduced air pollutants and CO2 emissions in 2000, but Athens' long efforts to improve air quality for the 2004 games were not wholly effective. Even where strategies proved successful the improvements in air quality seem short-lived. Current host cities Beijing and London are developing emission reduction plans. These have clear air quality objectives and are well intentioned. However, the improvements may be too narrow and may not be sustainable in the long term. Our analysis looks at the origins of success and failure and how more coherent improvements might be achieved and what would promote sustainable plans for air quality management at future games. The study illustrates the feedback between air pollution science and policy awareness.

  12. Material Transport with Air Jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Patkó


    Full Text Available In the field of industry, there are only a very few examples of material transportwith air jet, and one of these is the air jet loom. In this weaving technology, the weft (thetransversal yarn of the fabric is shot by air jet. This paper will set up the mathematicalmodel of yarn end movement. For a special case, I will specify a solution of the model.

  13. The Cost of Air Pollution


    World Bank; Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation


    The Cost of Air Pollution: Strengthening the economic case for action, a joint study of the World Bank and the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), seeks to estimate the costs of premature deaths related to air pollution, to strengthen the case for action and facilitate decision making in the context of scarce resources. An estimated 5.5 million lives were lost in 2013 to diseases associated with outdoor and household air pollution, causing human suffering and reducing economic...

  14. Air and metal hydride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, M.; Noponen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Applied Thermodynamics


    The main goal of the air and metal hydride battery project was to enhance the performance and manufacturing technology of both electrodes to such a degree that an air-metal hydride battery could become a commercially and technically competitive power source for electric vehicles. By the end of the project it was possible to demonstrate the very first prototype of the air-metal hydride battery at EV scale, achieving all the required design parameters. (orig.)

  15. "Air embolism during fontan operation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Mohan Maddali


    Full Text Available In patients with a right to left intracardiac shunt, air embolism results in an obligatory systemic embolization. Nonembolization of entrained air is described in a child with a single ventricle physiology who had earlier undergone bidirectional Glenn shunt construction and Damus-Kaye-Stansel anastomosis. The air entrainment was detected by intra-operative transesophageal echocardiography. The combined effect of a "diving bell" phenomenon and mild aortic valve regurgitation are suggested as the reasons for the confinement of air into the ventricle preventing catastrophic systemic embolization.

  16. [Air quality and climate change]. (United States)

    Loft, Steffen


    Air quality, health and climate change are closely connected. Ozone depends on temperature and the greenhouse gas methane from cattle and biomass. Pollen presence depends on temperature and CO2. The effect of climate change on particulate air pollution is complex, but the likely net effect is greater health risks. Reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions by reduced livestock production and use of combustion for energy production, transport and heating will also improve air quality. Energy savings in buildings and use of CO2 neutral fuels should not deteriorate indoor and outdoor air quality.

  17. Aerodynamical sealing by air curtains (United States)

    Frank, Daria; Linden, Paul


    Air curtains are artificial high-velocity plane turbulent jets which are installed in a doorway in order to reduce the heat and the mass exchange between two environments. The performance of an air curtain is assessed in terms of the sealing effectiveness E, the fraction of the exchange flow prevented by the air curtain compared to the open-door situation. The main controlling parameter for air curtain dynamics is the deflection modulus Dm representing the ratio of the momentum flux of the air curtain and the transverse forces acting on it due to the stack effect. In this talk, we examine the influence of two factors on the performance of an air curtain: the presence of an additional ventilation pathway in the room, such as a small top opening, and the effects of an opposing buoyancy force which for example arises if a downwards blowing air curtain is heated. Small-scale experiments were conducted to investigate the E (Dm) -curve of an air curtain in both situations. We present both experimental results and theoretical explanations for our observations. We also briefly illustrate how simplified models developed for air curtains can be used for more complex phenomena such as the effects of wind blowing around a model building on the ventilation rates through the openings.

  18. Modern Air Situation Picture Display for Air Surveillance Radar Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stamatović


    Full Text Available We have developed a modern air situation picture display applicable in air surveillance radars. The display is based on commercial of-the-shelf hardware and custom software. This paper is focused on the details of the development process. Comparison with a similar commercially available product is given too.

  19. Colorado Air Quality Control Regulations and Ambient Air Quality Standards. (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Health, Denver. Div. of Air Pollution Control.

    Regulations and standards relative to air quality control in Colorado are defined in this publication. Presented first are definitions of terms, a statement of intent, and general provisions applicable to all emission control regulations adopted by the Colorado Air Pollution Control Commission. Following this, three regulations are enumerated: (1)…

  20. Norma Primaria de calidad del aire AIR QUALITY STANDARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Las normas primarias de calidad del aire tienen por finalidad proteger la salud de la población de la contaminación atmosférica. Ellas establecen un nivel de riesgo socialmente aceptado. Este artículo describe los antecedentes considerados durante el proceso de actualización de la regulación vigente en Chile. Detalla conceptos sobre la calidad del aire, describe los efectos en la salud de los contaminantes, y el procedimiento seguido para fijar los nuevos estándares Finaliza enumerando la norma primaria de calidad del aire, sus valores y los limites definidos para ser considerados en el ámbito de la gestión de los episodios críticos o de alta contaminaciónThe main purpose of air quality standards is to protect people health from air pollution. They establish a socially accepted level of risk. This article describes the background information considered during the process for updating the current Chilean regulation. Concepts about quality of air, and the effects of the pollutants on the health are described. The procedure followed to fix the new standards is detailed. Finally we state the primary air quality norm, its values as well as the critical limits in order to control critical events of high air pollution

  1. Reactive Air Aluminization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung-Pyung; Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.


    Ferritic stainless steels and other alloys are of great interest to SOFC developers for applications such as interconnects, cell frames, and balance of plant components. While these alloys offer significant advantages (e.g., low material and manufacturing cost, high thermal conductivity, and high temperature oxidation resistance), there are challenges which can hinder their utilization in SOFC systems; these challenges include Cr volatility and reactivity with glass seals. To overcome these challenges, protective coatings and surface treatments for the alloys are under development. In particular, aluminization of alloy surfaces offers the potential for mitigating both evaporation of Cr from the alloy surface and reaction of alloy constituents with glass seals. Commercial aluminization processes are available to SOFC developers, but they tend to be costly due to their use of exotic raw materials and/or processing conditions. As an alternative, PNNL has developed Reactive Air Aluminization (RAA), which offers a low-cost, simpler alternative to conventional aluminization methods.

  2. Indoor air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, D.R. (Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States))


    This article summarizes the health effects of indoor air pollutants and the modalities available to control them. The pollutants discussed include active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke; combustion products of carbon monoxide; nitrogen dioxide; products of biofuels, including wood and coal; biologic agents leading to immune responses, such as house dust mites, cockroaches, fungi, animal dander, and urine; biologic agents associated with infection such as Legionella and tuberculosis; formaldehyde; and volatile organic compounds. An approach to assessing building-related illness and tight building' syndrome is presented. Finally, the article reviews recent data on hospital-related asthma and exposures to potential respiratory hazards such as antineoplastic agents, anesthetic gases, and ethylene oxide.88 references.

  3. Air Composition and Chemistry (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Peter


    This book is about the atmosphere and humanity's influence on it. For this new edition, Brimblecombe has rewritten and updated much of the book. In the early chapters, he discusses the geochemical, biological and maritime sources of the trace gases. Next, he examines the chemistry of atmospheric gases, suspended particles, and rainfall. After dealing with the natural atmosphere, he examines the sources of air pollution and its effects, with all scenarios updated from the last edition. Scenarios include decline in health, damage to plants and animals, indoor pollution, and acid rain. The final chapters, also revised, are concerned with the chemistry and evolution of the atmospheres of the planets of the solar system. Students with an interest in chemistry and the environmental sciences will find this book highly valuable.

  4. de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Linne


    Full Text Available Esta investigación explora la situación de los cibercafés en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y de su principalpoblación, los adolescentes de sectores populares. Aunque en los últimos años millones de adolescentes abandonaronestos espacios como consecuencia de la ampliación de la Internet hogareña, en sectores popularesmuchos adolescentes aún continúan asistiendo en busca de recreación lúdico-comunicativa, información eintegración social. La metodología utilizada consiste en 40 entrevistas en profundidad, observaciones participantesy análisis de contenido de perfiles de Facebook (n: 200. Entre los resultados, se destaca que lasprincipales prácticas de estos adolescentes son comunicativas y que estos espacios funcionan para ellos comoherramientas de alfabetización digital, sociabilidad entre pares e inclusión ciudadana.

  5. Metal hydride air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Ke; DU; Ping; LU; Man-qi


    The relationship among the hydrogen storage properties, cycling characteristics and thermal parameters of the metal hydride air conditioning systems was investigated. Based on a new alloy selection model, three pairs of hydrogen storage alloys, LaNi4.4 Mn0.26 Al0.34 / La0.6 Nd0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0.2 Cu0. 1, LaNi4.61Mn0. 26 Al0.13/La0.6 Nd0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0.2 Cu0. 1 and LaNi4.61 Mn0.26 Al0.13/La0.6 Y0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0. 2, were selected as the working materials for the metal hydride air conditioning system. Studies on the factors affecting the COP of the system showed that higher COP and available hydrogen content need the proper operating temperature and cycling time,large hydrogen storage capacity, flat plateau and small hysterisis of hydrogen alloys, proper original input hydrogen content and mass ratio of the pair of alloys. It also needs small conditioning system was established by using LaNi4.61 Mn0.26 Al0. 13/La0.6 Y0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0.2 alloys as the working materials, which showed that under the operating temperature of 180℃/40℃, a low temperature of 13℃ was reached, with COP =0.38 and Wnet =0.09 kW/kg.

  6. 77 FR 12524 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality... (United States)


    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule...) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). This submittal incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality...

  7. Air Leakage Rates in Typical Air Barrier Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Atchley, Jerald Allen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Childs, Phillip W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Estimates for 2010 indicate that infiltration in residential buildings was responsible for 2.85 quads of energy (DOE 2014), which is about 3% of the total energy consumed in the US. One of the mechanisms being implemented to reduce this energy penalty is the use of air barriers as part of the building envelope. These technologies decrease airflow through major leakage sites such as oriented strand board (OSB) joints, and gaps around penetrations (e.g., windows, doors, pipes, electrical outlets) as indicated by Hun et al. (2014). However, most air barrier materials do not properly address leakage spots such as wall-to-roof joints and wall-to-foundation joints because these are difficult to seal, and because air barrier manufacturers usually do not provide adequate instructions for these locations. The present study focuses on characterizing typical air leakage sites in wall assemblies with air barrier materials.

  8. Air Pollution Control, Part I. (United States)

    Strauss, Werner, Ed.

    Authoritative reviews in seven areas of current importance in air pollution control are supplied in this volume, the first of a two-part set. Titles contained in this book are: "Dispersion of Pollutants Emitted into the Atmosphere,""The Formation and Control of Oxides of Nitrogen in Air Pollution,""The Control of Sulfur Emissions from Combustion…

  9. Screening in humid air plasmas (United States)

    Filippov, Anatoly; Derbenev, Ivan; Dyatko, Nikolay; Kurkin, Sergey


    Low temperature air plasmas containing H2O molecules are of high importance for atmospheric phenomena, climate control, biomedical applications, surface processing, and purification of air and water. Humid air plasma created by an external ionization source is a good model of the troposphere where ions are produced by the galactic cosmic rays and decay products of air and soil radioactive elements such as Rn222. The present paper is devoted to study the ionic composition and the screening in an ionized humid air at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The ionization rate is varied in the range of 101 -1018 cm-3s-1. The humid air with 0 - 1 . 5 % water admixture that corresponds to the relative humidity of 0 - 67 % at the air temperature equal to 20°C is considered. The ionic composition is determined on the analysis of more than a hundred processes. The system of 41 non-steady state particle number balance equations is solved using the 4th order Runge-Kutta method. The screening of dust particle charge in the ionized humid air are studied within the diffusion-drift approach. The screening constants are well approximated by the inverse Debye length and characteristic lengths of recombination and attachment processes. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, Project No. 16-12-10424.

  10. Ozone as an air pollutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.


    A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995.......A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995....

  11. Human preference for air movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.;


    Human preference for air movement was studied at slightly cool, neutral, and slightly warm overall thermal sensations and at temperatures ranging from 18 deg.C to 28 deg.C. Air movement preference depended on both thermal sensation and temperature, but large inter-individual differences existed...

  12. A Breath of Fresh Air (United States)

    Belew, Rachel


    One of the most important aspects of a healthy school--and one that, unfortunately, often falls by the wayside--is indoor air quality. The U.S. Government Accountability Office estimates that more than 15,000 schools nationwide report suffering from poor indoor air quality. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, schools with poor…

  13. Mind Your Indoor Air Quality (United States)

    Mak, Lily


    When it comes to excelling in the classroom, it turns out the air students are breathing is just as important as the lessons they are learning. Studies show poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can lessen the comfort of students as well as staff--affecting concentration, attendance and student performance. It can even lead to lower IQs. What's more, poor…

  14. Vehicles and Particulate Air Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The current scene relating to particles and vehicular emissions in UK is reviewed. The active research topics are health effects of particles, particle size and composition, modeling the fate of particles and assessing individual exposure. There is a National Air Quality Strategy combined with local air quality management which includes monitoring and assessment, dispersion modeling and development of management plans.

  15. Cylindrical air flow reversal barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woznica, C.; Rodziewicz, M.


    Describes an innovative design introduced in the ZMP mine in Zory for quick reversal of ventilation air flow. Geologic mining conditions at the 705 m deep horizon, where the barrier was built, are described. According to the design used until now, a reversal system consisted of safety barriers, ventilation air locks, a ventilation bridge and stopping needed in case of a fire when air flow direction must be reversed. Nine air locks and an expensive concrete ventilation bridge were needed and the air locks had to be operated at 8 points of the region to effect reversal. The new design consists of a 2-storey cylindrical barrier which also fulfills the function of a ventilation bridge. It can be manually or remotely operated by a mechanical or pneumatic system. Tests showed that the new barrier permits immediate air flow reversal while retaining 60% of the original air, which is important in the case of fire and methane hazards. It permits improved seam panelling and splitting of pillars and brings an economy of about 40 million zlotys in construction cost. Design and operation of the barrier is illustrated and ventilation air circulation is explained. 7 figs.

  16. Protective supplied breathing air garment (United States)

    Childers, Edward L.; von Hortenau, Erik F.


    A breathing air garment for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap.

  17. `Energy storage` using liquid air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.C. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia)


    Storage of liquid air is relatively simple, and the work needed to manufacture it is, at least in principle, entirely recoverable. Available energy densities seem excellent. Unfortunately the technology to use liquid air for energy storage has never been developed. The Phillips-Stirling and McMahon and Gifford air liquefiers, and a previous proposal by Smith, provide leads as to the form which the technology might take. This paper introduces the concept of `Exergy`, and how it can be utilized in the storage of liquid air. It concludes that liquid air seems to present some real advantages over batteries for energy storage. The development presents a challenge. Since battery technology is not making the huge advances promised, it could be time to take a more serious look at this alternative. (author). 4 figs., 14 refs.

  18. Picosecond laser filamentation in air (United States)

    Schmitt-Sody, Andreas; Kurz, Heiko G.; Bergé, Luc; Skupin, Stefan; Polynkin, Pavel


    The propagation of intense picosecond laser pulses in air in the presence of strong nonlinear self-action effects and air ionization is investigated experimentally and numerically. The model used for numerical analysis is based on the nonlinear propagator for the optical field coupled to the rate equations for the production of various ionic species and plasma temperature. Our results show that the phenomenon of plasma-driven intensity clamping, which has been paramount in femtosecond laser filamentation, holds for picosecond pulses. Furthermore, the temporal pulse distortions in the picosecond regime are limited and the pulse fluence is also clamped. In focused propagation geometry, a unique feature of picosecond filamentation is the production of a broad, fully ionized air channel, continuous both longitudinally and transversely, which may be instrumental for many applications including laser-guided electrical breakdown of air, channeling microwave beams and air lasing.

  19. Lithium-Air Cell Development (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Dobley, Arthur; Seymour, Frasier W.


    Lithium-air (Li-air) primary batteries have a theoretical specific capacity of 11,400 Wh/kg, the highest of any common metal-air system. NASA is developing Li-air technology for a Mobile Oxygen Concentrator for Spacecraft Emergencies, an application which requires an extremely lightweight primary battery that can discharge over 24 hours continuously. Several vendors were funded through the NASA SBIR program to develop Li-air technology to fulfill the requirements of this application. New catalysts and carbon cathode structures were developed to enhance the oxygen reduction reaction and increase surface area to improve cell performance. Techniques to stabilize the lithium metal anode surface were explored. Experimental results for prototype laboratory cells are given. Projections are made for the performance of hypothetical cells constructed from the materials that were developed.

  20. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Gaffney


    Full Text Available Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.

  1. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Sørensen, Jan; Bønløkke, Jacob


    Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed......) a static year 2005 population, (2) morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3) an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.......4 M€, 317.5 M€, and 261.6 M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution....

  2. Effect of Electroacupuncture at the Balance Area on Ambulation and Quality of Life in Patients with Cerebral Stroke%电针平衡区对脑卒中患者步行能力及生活质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱敏; 楚佳梅; 曾友华


    目的:观察电针平衡区对卒中患者步行能力及生活质量的影响。方法将100例脑卒中患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,每组50例。治疗组采用电针平衡区配合康复治疗,对照组采用常规针刺配合康复治疗。两组治疗前后分别采用 Berg平衡量表评分、Holden步行能力分级评分及改良Barthel指数评分对患者步行能力及生活质量进行评定。结果两组治疗1、2个疗程后Berg平衡量表评分、Holden步行能力分级评分及改良Barthel指数评分与同组治疗前比较,差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.01)。治疗组治疗1个疗程后Berg平衡量表评分、Holden步行能力分级评分及改良Barthel指数评分与对照组比较,差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论电针平衡区能有效提高脑卒中患者平衡功能,增加步行能力,提高生活质量。%Objective To observe the effect of electroacupuncture at the Balance Area on ambulation and quality of life in patients with cerebral stroke.Method A hundred patients with cerebral stroke were randomized into a treatment group and a control group, 50 cases in each group. The treatment group was intervened by electroacupuncture at the Balance Area plus rehabilitation, while the control group was by conventional acupuncture plus rehabilitation. The Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Holden ambulation grading score, and modified Barthel Index (BI) were adopted to evaluate the walk ability and quality of life.Result The BBS score, Holden grading score, and modified BI score respectively after 1 treatment course and 2 treatment courses were significantly different from that before intervention in both groups (P<0.01). After 1 treatment course, the BBS score, Holden grading score, and BI score of the treatment group were significantly different from that of the control group (P<0.05).Conclusion Electroacupuncture at the Balance Area can effectively enhance the balance function of cerebral stroke

  3. 新入职院前急救护士职业应激、心理资本与共情疲劳感的关系分析%Relationship of compassion fatigue, occupational stress and psychological capital among new graduate ambulance nurses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏华; 董越娟; 邹涛; 王永革; 陈妍; 段梅艳


    Objective To explore the relationship of compassion fatigue, occupational stress and psychological capital among new graduate ambulance nurses. Methods A total of 253 new graduate nurses were selected and followed-up in ambulance department. They were assessed by Professional Quality of Life(ProQOL-V), Chinese Nursing Stressor Scale (CNSS) and Psychological Capital Questionnaire-24 (PCQ-24). Results After six months, the scores of CNSS, CNSS-4 and CNSS-6 were (100. 21 ± 14. 82), (185. 54 ± 50. 54) and (165. 54 ± 51. 87), which were significantly higher than those at the first and third month (F=14. 53, 17. 41, 14. 89, respectively;P<0. 05). The score of CNSS was negatively correlated with the score of PCQ-24 (r=-0. 45,P<0. 05) and was positively correlated with the scores of CNSS-1, CNSS-2, CNSS-4 and CNSS-6 (r=0. 28, 0. 15, 0. 37, 0. 36, respectively;P<0. 05). The score of PCQ-24 was negatively correlated with the scores of CNSS-1, CNSS-2, CNSS-3, CNSS-4 and CNSS-6 (r= -0. 30, -0. 30, -0. 27, -0. 34, -0. 23, respectively;P<0. 05). Conclusions It suggests that the compassion fatigue is prevalence among new graduate nurses in ambulance department and it may be positively correlated with the occupational stress and negatively correlated with the psychological capital.%目的:探讨新入职院前急救护士职业应激、心理资本与共情疲劳感的关系。方法选取入职1个月的253名院前急救护士为研究对象,采用护士专业生活品质量表( ProQOL-V)、心理资本问卷(PCQ-24)和护士应激源量表(CNSS)进行测评,入职后3,6个月进行追踪测评。结果入职后6个月院前急救护士CNSS得分、CNSS-4得分、CNSS-6得分分别为(100.21±14.82),(185.54±50.54),(165.54±51.87)分,分别优于入职后1,3个月,差异有统计学意义(F值分别为14.53,17.41,14.89;P<0.05)。新入职院前急救护士 CNSS得分与 PCQ-24得分呈负相关(r=-0.45,P<0.05),与 CNSS-1、CNSS-2、CNSS-4、CNSS-6得分呈正相关(r=0

  4. 22 CFR 228.22 - Air transportation. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air transportation. 228.22 Section 228.22... for USAID Financing § 228.22 Air transportation. (a) The eligibility of air transportation is... U.S. flag air carriers for all international air travel and transportation, unless such service...

  5. Air Safety Spinoffs (United States)


    Weight saving-even a matter of a few pounds-is an important consideration in airplane design and . construction. Boeing saved 200 pounds simply by substituting a new type of compressed gas cylinder on their 747 commercial airliners. For quickly evacuating passengers in the event of a ground emergency the 747 escape chutes allow ' passengers to slide to safety from the two-story height of the cabin deck. The chutes pop out of exitways and are automatically inflated in seconds by compressed air stored in pressure vessels. Boeing's weight saving resulted from a recent changeover to a new type of pressure vessel built by Structural Composites Industries Inc. of Azusa, Cal. The company employs technology originally developed for rocket motor casings; the cylinders are constructed by winding fibers around an aluminum liner. This technique offers high strength for very low weight-in this case 60 percent less than the pressure vessels earlier used on the 747. Another contribution to improved air safety is an underwater locator device. Called the "Pinger," it uses sonar techniques to locate aircraft crashed in water-or, more specifically, to recover the flight recorder aboard the airplane. Its recovery provides clues as to what caused the accident and suggests measures to prevent similar future occurrences. Until recently, there was no way to recover flight recorders aboard aircraft lost in water crashes. The Pinger, now serving 95 percent of the airline industry, provides an answer. Key element of the Pinger system is a small, battery-powered transmitter, or homing beacon, included as part of the recorder package. For as long as 30 days, the transmitter sends out an acoustic signal from water depths up to 20,000 feet. The other element of the system is a receiver, used by search crews to home in on the transmitter's signal. Originating as a U.S. Navy project, this device was refined and further developed by NASA's Langley Research Center to retrieve submerged nose cones

  6. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.


    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  7. 78 FR 12267 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control... (United States)


    ... Pollution Control District and Feather River Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits... County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air Quality Management District (FRAQMD... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation...

  8. Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System for Air Quality Management (United States)

    CMAQ simultaneously models multiple air pollutants including ozone, particulate matter and a variety of air toxics to help air quality managers determine the best air quality management scenarios for their communities, regions and states.

  9. [Air quality control systems: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC)]. (United States)

    Bellucci Sessa, R; Riccio, G


    After a brief illustration of the principal layout schemes of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), the first part of this paper summarizes the standards, both voluntary and compulsory, regulating HVAC facilities design and installation with regard to the question of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). The paper then examines the problem of ventilation systems maintenance and the essential hygienistic requirements in whose absence HVAC facilities may become a risk factor for people working or living in the building. Lastly, the paper deals with HVAC design strategies and methods, which aim not only to satisfy comfort and air quality requirements, but also to ensure easy and effective maintenance procedures.

  10. 院内专业化救护路径在高原地区批量地震伤员救治中的应用%Application of Plateau Specialized Hospital Ambulance Transport Path in Batch of Wounded Rescue in the Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔够梅; 杏玲芝; 李娟; 汉瑞娟; 陆皓


    Objective To explore organization and management of the plateau specialized hospital ambu-lance transport path in batch of wounded rescue in the earthquake.Methods 3 1 patients were selected and explicitly checked by using a unified classification system,and responsible by rescue teams,open green life channel,earthquakes bulk of wounded patients transport,provide personalized specialist treatment plan,psychological support and other hospital professionalize rescue path to perform emergency surgery and postoperative treatment and clinical outcomes.Results The survival rate was 100% with no adverse outcome due to no one rescue was not timely,lack of prompt rescue and triage was not timely,no doctor-patient conflict,3 1 patients were all covered and stable and had continues treatment in the local hospital.Conclusion Plateau specialization hospital ambulance transport path mode can enhance the plateau nursing care ability and disaster nursing care ability to ensure the quality and efficiency of the plateau emergency care.%目的:探讨院内专业化救护路径在高原地区批量地震伤员救治中的应用。方法2013年7月批量收治31例地震伤员,采用统一明确检查分类、实施救护小组负责制、开放绿色生命通道、批量地震伤员转运、提供个性化专科救治方案、对伤员有效心理支持等院内专业化救护路径对其进行院内急救、手术与术后处理及临床治疗。结果31例伤员的抢救成功率为100%,无一例伤员因抢救不及时或接诊、分诊不及时而造成不良后果,无一起医患纠纷,31例伤员均康复出院或病情稳定后回当地医院继续治疗。结论院内专业化救护路径模式提高了医疗团队的高原护理能力及灾后护理能力,确保了高原地区的应急救护质量和效率。

  11. Radioxenon spiked air. (United States)

    Watrous, Matthew G; Delmore, James E; Hague, Robert K; Houghton, Tracy P; Jenson, Douglas D; Mann, Nick R


    Four of the radioactive xenon isotopes ((131m)Xe, (133m)Xe, (133)Xe and (135)Xe) with half-lives ranging from 9 h to 12 days are produced from nuclear fission and can be detected from days to weeks following their production and release. Being inert gases, they are readily transported through the atmosphere. Sources for release of radioactive xenon isotopes include operating nuclear reactors via leaks in fuel rods, medical isotope production facilities, and nuclear weapons' detonations. They are not normally released from fuel reprocessing due to the short half-lives. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty has led to creation of the International Monitoring System. The International Monitoring System, when fully implemented, will consist of one component with 40 stations monitoring radioactive xenon around the globe. Monitoring these radioactive xenon isotopes is important to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty in determining whether a seismically detected event is or is not a nuclear detonation. A variety of radioactive xenon quality control check standards, quantitatively spiked into various gas matrices, could be used to demonstrate that these stations are operating on the same basis in order to bolster defensibility of data across the International Monitoring System. This paper focuses on Idaho National Laboratory's capability to produce three of the xenon isotopes in pure form and the use of the four xenon isotopes in various combinations to produce radioactive xenon spiked air samples that could be subsequently distributed to participating facilities.

  12. Airing Out Anthrax (United States)


    The AiroCide TiO2 is an air-purifier that kills 93.3 percent of airborne pathogens that pass through it, including Bacillus anthraci, more commonly known as anthrax. It is essentially a spinoff of KES Science & Technology, Inc.'s Bio-KES system, a highly effective device used by the produce industry for ethylene gas removal to aid in preserving the freshness of fruits, vegetables, and flowers. The TiO2-based ethylene removal technology that is incorporated into the company's AiroCide TiO2 and Bio-KES products was first integrated into a pair of plant-growth chambers known as ASTROCULTURE(TM) and ADVANCED ASTROCULTURE(TM). Both chambers have housed commercial plant growth experiments in space on either the Space Shuttle or the International Space Station. The AiroCide TiO2 also has a proven record of destroying 98 percent of other airborne pathogens, such as microscopic dust mites, molds, and fungi. Moreover, the device is a verified killer of Influenza A (flu), E. coli, Staphylococcus aureas, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, among many other harmful viruses.

  13. Breathe the air!

    CERN Multimedia


    Feeling a bit cooped up in your office? Want to share your interest in science and technology with others but your computer's heard it all before and your colleagues won't even listen anymore? Then here's the answer - come and get some fresh air with the Education and Communication Group. The Visits Service and the Press Office offer you the opportunity to come into contact with CERN visitors. - Be a guide! In becoming a guide you get the opportunity to introduce the Laboratory to vast array of visitors of all nationalities and ages and communicate to them your passion for science and technology. You can get involved as a CERN guide on various levels - giving presentations and tours of the Laboratory, but also leading a «Drôle de Physique» workshop and giving tours of Microcosm. Guides receive training. If you're interested, take a look at the Guides Homepage where all the relevant information and formalities are explained: See also the article in the Bulletin n°25/2002. - Fa...

  14. Solar air systems - built examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastings, S.R. [ed.] [Solararchitektur, ETH-Hoenggerberg, Zurich (Switzerland)


    Active solar systems for air heating are a straightforward yet efficient way of using solar energy to heat spaces, ventilation air and even domestic hot water. They offer important advantages over solar water systems, improved comfort and fuller use of solar gains compared with many passive solar systems and are a natural fit with mechanically ventilated buildings. Solar air systems become more economical when they serve multiple functions such as providing a sound barrier, a weatherskin, sunshading, inducing cooling and even electricity supply (hybrid PV/air). Thirty-five different buildings with successfully installed exemplary solar air systems in climates ranging from Canada and Norway to Italy are described and documented. The building types cover single family houses, apartment buildings, schools, sports halls, and industrial commercial buildings with six different configurations of solar air systems used. Each building is described over several pages, with plans, performance details and illustrations provided. An accompanying product catalogue identifies suppliers of the necessary equipment and offers advice on product selection. As well as giving architects and designers invaluable advice based on the experience from these projects, this book also illustrates clearly the wide range of applications and the many benefits of solar air systems. (author)

  15. Air Sensor Toolbox: Resources and Funding (United States)

    EPA’s Air Sensor Toolbox provides information and guidance on new low-cost compact technologies for measuring air quality. It provides information to help citizens more effectively and accurately collect air quality data in their community.

  16. Profit goal set for airBaltic

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Latvijas Krajbanka president arvab, et airBalticu olukorra stabiliseerimiseks läheb vähemalt aasta. AirBalticu senine juht Bertolt Flick võib hakata uue Vilniuse lennukompanii investoriks. AirBalticu uuest juhatusest

  17. Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory contains measured and estimated data on ambient air pollution for use in assessing air quality, assisting in...

  18. National Air Toxic Assessments (NATA) Results (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Air Toxics Assessment was conducted by EPA in 2002 to assess air toxics emissions in order to identify and prioritize air toxics, emission source types...

  19. High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory conducted the High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project in the mid 1960s with the intention of better understanding air...

  20. Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change (United States)

    ... Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change Accomplishments & Successes View successes from ... reduce carbon pollution. Carbon pollution from transportation Other Air Pollution Learn about smog, soot, ozone, and other air ...

  1. Air Pollution, Climate, and Heart Disease (United States)

    ... of the American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Air Pollution, Climate, and Heart Disease Diane R. Gold , Jonathan ... . 7 What Is Air Pollution? Air pollution is a mixture of gases and ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. S. Staley; M. L. Abbott; P. D. Ritter


    Various laws stemming from the Clean Air Act of 1970 and the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 require air emissions modeling. Modeling is used to ensure that air emissions from new projects and from modifications to existing facilities do not exceed certain standards. For radionuclides, any new airborne release must be modeled to show that downwind receptors do not receive exposures exceeding the dose limits and to determine the requirements for emissions monitoring. For criteria and toxic pollutants, emissions usually must first exceed threshold values before modeling of downwind concentrations is required. This document was prepared to provide guidance for performing environmental compliance-driven air modeling of emissions from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory facilities. This document assumes that the user has experience in air modeling and dose and risk assessment. It is not intended to be a "cookbook," nor should all recommendations herein be construed as requirements. However, there are certain procedures that are required by law, and these are pointed out. It is also important to understand that air emissions modeling is a constantly evolving process. This document should, therefore, be reviewed periodically and revised as needed. The document is divided into two parts. Part A is the protocol for radiological assessments, and Part B is for nonradiological assessments. This document is an update of and supersedes document INEEL/INT-98-00236, Rev. 0, INEEL Air Modeling Protocol. This updated document incorporates changes in some of the rules, procedures, and air modeling codes that have occurred since the protocol was first published in 1998.

  3. Korean Air Excellence in Flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Korean Air with a fleet of 119 aircraft, is one of the world's top 20 airlines, and oper-ates almost 400 flights everyday to 90 cities in 33 countries. The airline has about 50 flights per week between the US and Asia from nine US gateways: New York, Los Angeles, Washington,Chicago, Dallas, San Francisco, Atlanta, Anchorage and Honolulu.The carrier is a founding member of SkyTeam, the global airline alliance partnering AeroMexico, Air France, Alitalia, CSA Czech Airlines, Continental Airlines, Delta Air Lines, KLM and Northwest Airlines to provide customers with extensive worldwide destina-tions, flights and services.

  4. Steerable percussion air drilling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bui, H.D.; Gray, M.A.; Oliver, M.S.


    In the Steerable Percussion Air Drilling System (SPADS), air percussion is used to drill directionally in hard formations. Compared to mud or air powered PDM motors, SPADS offers directional drilling at high penetration rate, reduced mud costs, negligible formation damage, and immediate indication of hole productivity. Field tests turned up problems ranging from tool design to operation procedures; remedies were developed. There is an optimum WOB (weight on bit) at which torque is reasonably low. The hammer was tested at three different line pressures (200, 300, 350 psig) at optimum WOB in granite, limestone, and sandstone.

  5. Air Parity: Re-Discovering Contested Air Operations (United States)


    maritime theories to war fighting strategy in the air domain, specific to the air control spectrum. The author assesses the importance of translating...effort to accomplish strategic 11 National Security Strategy , 12. 12 Office of the Secretary of...Defense, Sustaining U.S. Global Leadership: Priorities for 21st Century Defense (2012), 4. 13 Office of the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, The

  6. Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. Bakker


    Full Text Available Se coleccionaron hojas maduras de ejemplares adultos de Populus alba, Populus deltoides, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila y Fraxinus americana del Campus Universitario, Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina (37° 19’S, 59° 08’O en febrero de 2004. La cera cuticular fue extraída, purificada, y el contenido y proporción relativa de n-alcanos de número impar de carbonos (C23C35 fue cuantificado mediante cromatografía gas-líquido capilar. La concentración total de n-alcanos (mg/kg MS fue P. alba (6935 > Robinia (1571 > P. deltoides (1379 > Ulmus (880 > Fraxinus (467. Los n-alcanos más abundantes en todas las especies fueron C27 y C29 que constituyeron entre 10 y 51% y entre 35 y 76% del total respectivamente, excepto en Fraxinus donde los más abundantes fueron C29 y C31 que constituyeron el 31 y 49% del total respectivamente. P. alba y P. deltoides difirieron no solo en la concentración total de n-alcanos sino también en la proporción relativa de C27 y C29, siendo C29 el n-alcano más abundante en la segunda especie (76% igual que en Robinia (75%. La presencia de nalcanos de número par de carbonos no fue detectable o resultó muy baja en general en todas las especies, con excepción de C26, C28 y C30, este último se destacó particularmente en Fraxinus.

  7. Rooftop Unitary Air Conditioner with Integral Dedicated Outdoor Air System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiax Llc


    Energy use of rooftop and other unitary air-conditioners in commercial applications accounts for about 1 quad (10{sup 15} Btu) of primary energy use annually in the U.S. [Reference 7]. The realization that this cooling equipment accounts for the majority of commercial building cooled floorspace and the majority also of commercial building energy use has spurred development of improved-efficiency equipment as well as development of stricter standards addressing efficiency levels. Another key market driver affecting design of rooftop air-conditioning equipment has been concern regarding comfort and the control of humidity. Trends for increases in outdoor air ventilation rates in certain applications, and the increasing concern about indoor air quality problems associated with humidity levels and moisture in buildings points to a need for improved dehumidification capability in air-conditioning equipment of all types. In many cases addressing this issue exacerbates energy efficiency, and vice versa. The integrated dedicated outdoor air system configuration developed in this project addresses both energy and comfort/humidity issues.

  8. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, Armin [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)


    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed.

  9. Air Pollution: Current and Future Challenges (United States)

    Despite the dramatic progress to date, air pollution continues to threaten Americans’ health and welfare. The main obstacles are climate change, conventional air pollution, and ozone layer depletion.

  10. Personal Air Vehicle Research Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a low aspect ratio all-lifting configuration for personal air vehicles. This configuration uses an architecture fundamentally different from...

  11. A Martian Air Battery Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will investigate an entirely new battery chemistry by developing A Martian Air Battery. Specifically the project will explore the concept of a Martian...

  12. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index (United States)

    Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Forecast Current AQI AQI Loop More Maps AQI: Good (0 - ... About the Highest 5 Today's Forecasts Tomorrow's Forecasts Current AQI Metropolitan Baltimore, MD 101 Metropolitan Washington, DC ...

  13. 2011 NATA - Air Toxics Monitors (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes annual (2005 - 2013) statistics of measured ambient air toxics concentrations (in micrograms per cubic meter) and associated risk estimates for...

  14. US Air Force Balloon Observations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Worksheets containing pilot balloon data computed from releases at Air Force stations in the western United States. Elevation and azimuth angles are used to compute...

  15. US Air Force Base Observations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly observations taken by U.S. Air Force personnel at bases in the United States and around the world. Foreign observations concentrated in the Middle East and...

  16. Reverse Ballistic Air Gun Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This custom-designed facility houses a suite of three air guns capable of generating accelerations up to 100,000 Gs and velocities up to 2,000 ft/s. In addition to...

  17. Air Pollution Affects Community Health (United States)

    Shy, Carl M.; Finklea, John F.


    Community Health and Environmental Surveillance System (CHESS), a nationwide program relating community health to environmental quality, is designed to evaluate existing environmental standards, obtain health intelligence for new standards, and document health benefits of air pollution control. (BL)

  18. Reverse Ballistic Air Gun Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This custom-designed facility houses a suite of three air guns capable of generating accelerations up to 100,000 Gs and velocities up to 2,000 ft/s. In addition to a...

  19. Indoor Air Quality Test House (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:In order to enable studies of a range of indoor air quality and ventilation issues, EL maintains a highly instrumented three-bedroom test house. Previous...

  20. Quality and Indoor Air treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile HORT


    Full Text Available In developed countries, between 70% and 90% of the life time are spent in confined spaces (housing, transport, etc.. Air quality in these closed spaces is generally inferior than outside. Our lifestylesand the growing use of new products and materials create cocktails of chemicals compounds (COV, CIV... that can cause an increase of worrying diseases such as asthma, allergies or even cancer. These pollutants are particularly present in indoor air. These increasing public health problems gives rise to the development of devices for the treatment of indoor air. However, indoor air contains a lot of chemical substances showing very different physicochemical properties. The “Laboratoire de Thermique, Energétique et Procédés” (LaTEP studies the coupling of treatment processes, such as biofiltration coupled to adsorption.

  1. Air cushion vehicles: A briefing (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.; Finnegan, P. M.


    Experience and characteristics; the powering, uses, and implications of large air cushion vehicles (ACV); and the conceptual design and operation of a nuclear powered ACV freighter and supporting facilities are described.

  2. Global air quality and climate. (United States)

    Fiore, Arlene M; Naik, Vaishali; Spracklen, Dominick V; Steiner, Allison; Unger, Nadine; Prather, Michael; Bergmann, Dan; Cameron-Smith, Philip J; Cionni, Irene; Collins, William J; Dalsøren, Stig; Eyring, Veronika; Folberth, Gerd A; Ginoux, Paul; Horowitz, Larry W; Josse, Béatrice; Lamarque, Jean-François; MacKenzie, Ian A; Nagashima, Tatsuya; O'Connor, Fiona M; Righi, Mattia; Rumbold, Steven T; Shindell, Drew T; Skeie, Ragnhild B; Sudo, Kengo; Szopa, Sophie; Takemura, Toshihiko; Zeng, Guang


    Emissions of air pollutants and their precursors determine regional air quality and can alter climate. Climate change can perturb the long-range transport, chemical processing, and local meteorology that influence air pollution. We review the implications of projected changes in methane (CH(4)), ozone precursors (O(3)), and aerosols for climate (expressed in terms of the radiative forcing metric or changes in global surface temperature) and hemispheric-to-continental scale air quality. Reducing the O(3) precursor CH(4) would slow near-term warming by decreasing both CH(4) and tropospheric O(3). Uncertainty remains as to the net climate forcing from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) emissions, which increase tropospheric O(3) (warming) but also increase aerosols and decrease CH(4) (both cooling). Anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and non-CH(4) volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) warm by increasing both O(3) and CH(4). Radiative impacts from secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are poorly understood. Black carbon emission controls, by reducing the absorption of sunlight in the atmosphere and on snow and ice, have the potential to slow near-term warming, but uncertainties in coincident emissions of reflective (cooling) aerosols and poorly constrained cloud indirect effects confound robust estimates of net climate impacts. Reducing sulfate and nitrate aerosols would improve air quality and lessen interference with the hydrologic cycle, but lead to warming. A holistic and balanced view is thus needed to assess how air pollution controls influence climate; a first step towards this goal involves estimating net climate impacts from individual emission sectors. Modeling and observational analyses suggest a warming climate degrades air quality (increasing surface O(3) and particulate matter) in many populated regions, including during pollution episodes. Prior Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios (SRES) allowed unconstrained growth, whereas

  3. Global Air Quality and Climate (United States)

    Fiore, Arlene M.; Naik, Vaishali; Steiner, Allison; Unger, Nadine; Bergmann, Dan; Prather, Michael; Righi, Mattia; Rumbold, Steven T.; Shindell, Drew T.; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Sudo, Kengo; Szopa, Sophie; Horowitz, Larry W.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Zeng, Guang; Cameron-Smith, Philip J.; Cionni, Irene; Collins, William J.; Dalsoren, Stig; Eyring, Veronika; Folberth, Gerd A.; Ginoux, Paul; Josse, Batrice; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; OConnor, Fiona M.; Mackenzie, Ian A.; Nagashima, Tatsuya; Shindell, Drew Todd; Spracklen, Dominick V.


    Emissions of air pollutants and their precursors determine regional air quality and can alter climate. Climate change can perturb the long-range transport, chemical processing, and local meteorology that influence air pollution. We review the implications of projected changes in methane (CH4), ozone precursors (O3), and aerosols for climate (expressed in terms of the radiative forcing metric or changes in global surface temperature) and hemispheric-to-continental scale air quality. Reducing the O3 precursor CH4 would slow near-term warming by decreasing both CH4 and tropospheric O3. Uncertainty remains as to the net climate forcing from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, which increase tropospheric O3 (warming) but also increase aerosols and decrease CH4 (both cooling). Anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and non-CH4 volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) warm by increasing both O3 and CH4. Radiative impacts from secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are poorly understood. Black carbon emission controls, by reducing the absorption of sunlight in the atmosphere and on snow and ice, have the potential to slow near-term warming, but uncertainties in coincident emissions of reflective (cooling) aerosols and poorly constrained cloud indirect effects confound robust estimates of net climate impacts. Reducing sulfate and nitrate aerosols would improve air quality and lessen interference with the hydrologic cycle, but lead to warming. A holistic and balanced view is thus needed to assess how air pollution controls influence climate; a first step towards this goal involves estimating net climate impacts from individual emission sectors. Modeling and observational analyses suggest a warming climate degrades air quality (increasing surface O3 and particulate matter) in many populated regions, including during pollution episodes. Prior Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios (SRES) allowed unconstrained growth, whereas the Representative

  4. Call for improving air quality (United States)

    Showstack, Randy


    The European Environmental Bureau (EEB), a federation of citizen organizations, has called for stricter policies in Europe to protect human health and the environment. "Air pollution emanates from sources all around us, be they cars, industrial plants, shipping, agriculture, or waste. The [European Union] must propose ambitious legislation to address all of these sources if it is to tackle the grave public health consequences of air pollution," EEB secretary general Jeremy Wates said on 8 January.

  5. Cognitive abilities and air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raufhon Salahodjaev


    Full Text Available The link between intelligence and air pollution is subject to controversy. Some studies report that intelligence has insignificant effect in reducing the greenhouse gas emissions. By using carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions for a large set of countries we present further novel empirical evidence on the relation between level of intelligence and air pollution. Our findings suggest that the relation follows a U-shape pattern and resembles environmental Kuznets curve.

  6. Autonomy of the Air Arm (United States)


    Lewis, and Maj. Gen. George Simonds. Standing, left to right: Brig. Gen. John Gulik, James Doolittle (at that time a civilian), Edgar Gorrell, Brig...official sanction of the War Department, was submitted by Representative John M. Morin ." 56 CREATION OF THE ARmy AIR CORPS The initial stages of the...reality was a revision of the Morin air bill. 47 A quick summary at this point should clarify the major issues under review. Through the medium of various

  7. The lithium air battery fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Bruce, Peter G


    Lithium air rechargeable batteries are the best candidate for a power source for electric vehicles, because of their high specific energy density. In this book, the history, scientific background, status and prospects of the lithium air system are introduced by specialists in the field. This book will contain the basics, current statuses, and prospects for new technologies. This book is ideal for those interested in electrochemistry, energy storage, and materials science.

  8. Small Break Air Ingress Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Oh; Eung Soo Kim


    The small break air-ingress experiment, described in this report, is designed to investigate air-ingress phenomena postulated to occur in pipes in a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTRs). During this experiment, air-ingress rates were measured for various flow and break conditions through small holes drilled into a pipe of the experimental apparatus. The holes were drilled at right angles to the pipe wall such that a direction vector drawn from the pipe centerline to the center of each hole was at right angles with respect to the pipe centerline. Thus the orientation of each hole was obtained by measuring the included angle between the direction vector of each hole with respect to a reference line anchored on the pipe centerline and pointing in the direction of the gravitational force. Using this reference system, the influence of several important parameters on the air ingress flow rate were measured including break orientation, break size, and flow velocity . The approach used to study the influence of these parameters on air ingress is based on measuring the changes in oxygen concentrations at various locations in the helium flow circulation system as a function of time using oxygen sensors (or detectors) to estimate the air-ingress rates through the holes. The test-section is constructed of a stainless steel pipe which had small holes drilled at the desired locations.

  9. Solar air heaters and their applications (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.


    The solar air heater appears to be the most logical choice, as far as the ultimate application of heating air to maintain a comfortable environment is concerned. One disadvantage of solar air heaters is the need for handling larger volumes of air than liquids due to the low density of air as a working substance. Another disadvantage is the low thermal capacity of air. In cases where thermal storage is needed, water is superior to air. Design variations of solar air heaters are discussed along with the calculation of the efficiency of a flat plate solar air heater, the performance of various collector types, and the applications of solar air heaters. Attention is given to collectors with nonporous absorber plates, collectors with porous absorbers, the performance of flat plate collectors with finned absorbers, a wire mesh absorber, and an overlapped glass plate air heater.

  10. A mixed air/air and air/water heat pump system ensures the air-conditioning of a cinema; Un systeme mixte PAC air/air et air/eau climatise un cinema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This article presents the air conditioning system of a new cinema complex of Boulogne (92, France) which comprises a double-flux air processing plant and two heat pumps. Each heat pump has two independent refrigerating loops: one with a air condenser and the other with a water condenser. This system allows to limit the power of the loop and to reduce the size of the cooling tower and of the vertical ducts. This article describes the technical characteristics of the installation: thermodynamic units, smoke clearing, temperature control, air renewing. (J.S.)

  11. Air quality in Europe - 2012 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report presents an overview and analysis of the status and trends of air quality in Europe based on concentration measurements in ambient air and data on anthropogenic emissions and trends from 2001 - when mandatory monitoring of ambient air concentrations of selected pollutants first produced reliable air quality information - to 2010. (Author)

  12. Ozone, Air Quality, and Asthma (For Parents) (United States)

    ... gases can also affect lung function. continue How Poor Air Quality Affects People With Asthma Air pollution is a problem for ... to evening. In cities larger than 350,000 people, state and local agencies are ... days when air quality is poor, run the air conditioning and limit your child's ...

  13. Solid Waste, Air Pollution and Health (United States)

    Kupchik, George J.; Franz, Gerald J.


    This article examines the relationships among solid waste disposal, air pollution, and human disease. It is estimated that solid waste disposal contributes 9.7 percent of the total air pollution and 9.9 percent of the total air pollution health effect. Certain disposal-resource recovery systems can be implemented to meet air quality standards. (MR)

  14. 29 CFR 1917.154 - Compressed air. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air. 1917.154 Section 1917.154 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.154 Compressed air. Employees shall be... this part during cleaning with compressed air. Compressed air used for cleaning shall not exceed...

  15. 30 CFR 75.321 - Air quality. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 75.321 Section 75.321 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.321 Air quality. (a)(1) The air in areas where... air current in these areas shall be sufficient to dilute, render harmless, and carry away...

  16. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.30 Air quality. Section 176(c) of the Clean Air Act..., Air Quality Compliance. 10 10 See footnote 1 to § 989.1....

  17. Disparities in the Impact of Air Pollution (United States)

    ... Outdoor > Air Pollution Disparities in the Impact of Air Pollution The burden of air pollution is not evenly shared. Poorer people and some ... studies have explored the differences in harm from air pollution to racial or ethnic groups and people who ...

  18. Air void structure and frost resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange


    are conducted. Results were not originally presented in a way, which made comparison possible. Here the amount of scaled material is depicted as function of air voids parameters: total air content, specific surface, spacing factor, and total surface area of air voids. The total surface area of air voids...... is proportional to the product of total air content and specific surface. In all 4 cases, the conclusion is concurrent that the parameter of total surface area of air voids performs equally well or better than the spacing factor when linking air void characteristics to frost resistance (salt frost scaling...... on that capillary pores are connected to air voids. The chance that a capillary pore is connected to an air void depends on the total surface area of air voids in the system, not the spacing factor....

  19. Chapter 22: Compressed Air Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benton, N.


    Compressed-air systems are used widely throughout industry for many operations, including pneumatic tools, packaging and automation equipment, conveyors, and other industrial process operations. Compressed-air systems are defined as a group of subsystems composed of air compressors, air treatment equipment, controls, piping, pneumatic tools, pneumatically powered machinery, and process applications using compressed air. A compressed-air system has three primary functional subsystems: supply, distribution, and demand. Air compressors are the primary energy consumers in a compressed-air system and are the primary focus of this protocol. The two compressed-air energy efficiency measures specifically addressed in this protocol are: high-efficiency/variable speed drive (VSD) compressor replacing modulating compressor; compressed-air leak survey and repairs. This protocol provides direction on how to reliably verify savings from these two measures using a consistent approach for each.

  20. Development and benefits of air/air-heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessel, H.W.; Cremer, P.


    After the first experiments using glass tube heat exchangers, many air/air heat exchangers have made within ten years the breakthrough as ''interior climate improvers'' in stables. Especially inexpensive synthetic panels, foils and self-construction, ribbed heat exchangers are very popular among farmers. Based on thorough installation planning and satisfactory operating results, thousands of heat exchangers were installed, through which heating oil and fuel gas are being replaced as energy sources, and through an improved interior climate, the productivity can be optimized in fattening and rearing houses. (orig.).

  1. Unit for air decontamination; Unidad para descontaminacion de aire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano H, E


    To fulfill the applicable requirements of safety to the ventilation systems in nuclear facilities, it is necessary to make a cleaning of the air that hurtles to the atmosphere. For that which was designed and it manufactured an unit for decontamination of the air for the Pilot plant of production of Nuclear Fuel that this built one with national parts, uses Hepa national filters and the design can adapt for different dimensions of filters, also can be added a lodging for a prefilter or to adopt two Hepa filters. (Author)

  2. Psychiatric aspects of air pollution. (United States)

    Lundberg, A


    Psychological and toxic effects of air pollution can lead to psychiatric symptoms, including anxiety and changes in mood, cognition, and behavior. Increased levels of some air pollutants are accompanied by an increase in psychiatric admissions and emergency calls and, in some studies, by changes in behavior and a reduction in psychological well-being. Numerous toxic pollutants interfere with the development and adult functioning of the nervous system. Manifestations are often insidious or delayed, but they can provide a more sensitive indicator of toxic effects than cancer rates or mortality data. Other medical effects of air pollution, such as asthma, can indirectly affect psychological health. The sick building syndrome and multiple chemical sensitivity are conditions with toxicologic and psychiatric aspects. Psychosocial stress can cause symptoms similar to those of organic mental disorders. Reactions to stress depend on cultural, individual, and situational variables. We must understand these factors to be able to alleviate and prevent the consequences of environmental trauma. Expanded research is recommended in three main areas: (1) how people perceive and cope with environmental health risks, (2) the effects of air pollution on behavior and neuropsychological functioning, and (3) neurotoxicologic evaluation of air pollutants with both behavioral and in vitro studies.

  3. [Air pollution and cardiovascular disease]. (United States)

    Haber, Guy; Witberg, Guy; Danenberg, Haim


    Cardiovascular atherothrombosis is the most common cause of death globally, with several well-known risk factors. Air pollution is a byproduct of fuel combustion by motor vehicles, power plants and industrial factories. It is composed of gases, fluids and particulate matter (PM) of different sizes, which include basic carbon, organic carbonic molecules and metals such as vanadium, nickel, zinc and iron. These particles are subdivided by their median size, a major contributing factor for their capability to enter the human body through the respiratory system. Most of the epidemiological studies have shown correlation between acute and long-term exposure to air pollution elements and cardiovascular morbidity in general, and angina pectoris and acute myocardial infarction specifically. Physiological studies have found different arrhythmias as the etiologic cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality following exposure to air pollution. A major finding was a decline in heart rate variability, a phenomenon known as endangering for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in patients after acute myocardial infarction. To date, several pathways have been proposed, including a hypercoagulable state following an inflammatory response, cardiac nervous autonomic disequilibrium, endothelial dysfunction with blood vessel contraction and direct toxic impact on cardiac muscle. Additional research is needed for clarifying the pathophysiological pathways by which air pollution affects the cardiovascular system. That might allow forthcoming with preventive measures and correct treatment, and hence a decrease in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Another important target is dose-outcome correlation curves for safety threshold calculation as a basis for air pollution regulations.

  4. Air protection strategy in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaszczyk, B.


    Air quality is one of the basic factors determining the environmental quality and influencing the life conditions of people. There is a shortage of proper quality air in many regions of Poland. In consequence, and due to unhindered transport, air pollution is the direct cause of losses in the national economy (reduction of crops, losses in forestry, corrosion of buildings and constructions, worsening of people`s health). Poland is believed to be one of the most contaminated European countries. The reason for this, primarily, is the pollution concomitant with energy-generating fuel combustion; in our case it means the use of solid fuels: hard coal and lignite. This monocultural economy of energy generation is accompanied by low efficiency of energy use (high rates of energy loss from buildings, heat transmission pipelines, energy-consuming industrial processes). This inefficiency results in the unnecessary production of energy and pollution. Among other reasons, this results from the fact that in the past Poland did not sign any international agreements concerning the reduction of the emission of pollution. The activities aimes at air protection in Poland are conducted based on the Environmental Formation and Protection Act in effect since 1980 (with many further amendments) and the The Ecological Policy of the state (1991). The goals of the Polish air pollution reduction program for the period 1994-2000 are presented.

  5. “Large Animal Model of Pumpless Arteriovenous Extracorporeal CO2 Removal Using Room Air Via Subclavian Vessels” (United States)

    Witer, Lucas; Howard, Ryan; Trahanas, John; Bryner, Benjamin S.; Alghanem, Fares; Hoffman, Hayley R.; Cornell, Marie S.; Bartlett, Robert H.; Rojas-Peña, Alvaro


    End-stage lung disease (ESLD) causes progressive hypercapnia, dyspnea, and impacts quality of life. Many extracorporeal support (ECS) configurations for CO2 removal resolve symptoms but limit ambulation. An ovine model of pumpless ECS using subclavian vessels was developed to allow for ambulatory support. Vascular grafts were anastomosed to the left subclavian vessels in four healthy sheep. A low-resistance membrane oxygenator was attached in an arteriovenous (AV) configuration. Device function was evaluated in each animal while awake and spontaneously breathing, and while mechanically ventilated with hypercapnia induced. Sweep gas (FiO2=0.21) to the device was increased from 0-15 L/min and arterial and post-device blood gases, as well as post-device air, were sampled. Hemodynamics remained stable with average AV shunt flows of 1.34±0.14 L/min.. In awake animals, CO2 removal was 3.4±1.0 mL/kg/min at maximum sweep gas flow. Respiratory rate decreased from 60±25 at baseline to 30±11 breaths per minute. In animals with induced hypercapnia, PaCO2 increased to 73.9±15.1. At maximum sweep gas flow, CO2 removal was 3.4±0.4 mL/kg/min and PaCO2 decreased to 49.1±6.7 mmHg. Subclavian AV access is effective in lowering PaCO2 and respiratory rate, and is potentially an effective ambulatory destination therapy for ESLD patients. PMID:26461241

  6. [Microbial air purity in hospitals. Operating theatres with air conditioning system]. (United States)

    Krogulski, Adam; Szczotko, Maciej


    The aim of this study was to show the influence of air conditioning control for microbial contamination of air inside the operating theatres equipped with correctly working air-conditioning system. This work was based on the results of bacteria and fungi concentration in hospital air obtained since 2001. Assays of microbial air purity conducted on atmospheric air in parallel with indoor air demonstrated that air filters applied in air-conditioning systems worked correctly in every case. To show the problem of fluctuation of bacteria concentration more precisely, every sequences of single results from successive measure series were examined independently.

  7. Pigeons home faster through polluted air


    Zhongqiu Li; Franck Courchamp; Daniel T. Blumstein


    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our resu...

  8. Considering Air Density in Wind Power Production

    CERN Document Server

    Farkas, Zénó


    In the wind power production calculations the air density is usually considered as constant in time. Using the CIPM-2007 equation for the density of moist air as a function of air temperature, air pressure and relative humidity, we show that it is worth taking the variation of the air density into account, because higher accuracy can be obtained in the calculation of the power production for little effort.

  9. Commercial Air Carrier Vulnerabilities to Information Operations (United States)


    GMO /ENS/02E-11 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio...AFIT/ GMO /ENS/02E-11 COMMERCIAL AIR CARRIER VULNERABILITIES TO INFORMATION OPERATIONS...networks that without them, “there is no water coming out of your tap; there is no electricity lighting your room; there is no food being transported to

  10. Heat Recovery Ventilation for Housing: Air-to-Air Heat Exchangers. (United States)

    Corbett, Robert J.; Miller, Barbara

    The air-to-air heat exchanger (a fan powered ventilation device that recovers heat from stale outgoing air) is explained in this six-part publication. Topic areas addressed are: (1) the nature of air-to-air heat exchangers and how they work; (2) choosing and sizing the system; (3) installation, control, and maintenance of the system; (4) heat…

  11. Review of Air Exchange Rate Models for Air Pollution Exposure Assessments (United States)

    A critical aspect of air pollution exposure assessments is estimation of the air exchange rate (AER) for various buildings, where people spend their time. The AER, which is rate the exchange of indoor air with outdoor air, is an important determinant for entry of outdoor air pol...

  12. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake... STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.57 Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem. The following requirements apply to vehicles with air brake and...

  13. 21 CFR 211.46 - Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and... Buildings and Facilities § 211.46 Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling. (a) Adequate... holding of a drug product. (c) Air filtration systems, including prefilters and particulate matter...

  14. Picosecond laser filamentation in air

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt-Sody, Andreas; Bergé, L; Skupin, S; Polynkin, Pavel


    The propagation of intense picosecond laser pulses in air in the presence of strong nonlinear self-action effects and air ionization is investigated experimentally and numerically. The model used for numerical analysis is based on the nonlinear propagator for the optical field coupled with the rate equations for the production of various ionic species and plasma temperature. Our results show that the phenomenon of plasma-driven intensity clamping, which is paramount in femtosecond laser filamentation, holds for picosecond pulses. Furthermore, the temporal pulse distortions are limited and the pulse fluence is also clamped. The resulting unique feature of the picosecond filamentation regime is the production of a broad, fully ionized air channel, continuous both longitudinally and transversely, which may be instrumental for numerous applications.

  15. Steerable percussion air drilling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bui, H.D.; Meyers, J.A.; Yost, A.B. II


    By increasing penetration rates and bit life, especially in hard formations, the use of down-hole air hammers in the oil field has significantly reduced drilling costs in the Northeast US and West Texas. Unfortunately, drilling by this percussion method has been limited mostly to straight hole applications. This paper presents a new concept of a percussion drilling tool which performs both the function of a down-hole hammer as well as that of a down-hole motor. Such a drilling tool, being introduced here as Steerable Percussion Air Drilling System (SPADS), eliminates the necessity to rotate the drill string and, consequently, enables the use of down-hole air hammers to drill directional wells.

  16. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz


    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these

  17. Animal Welfare in Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Popović


    Full Text Available Animal welfare is becoming an evermore-important factorfor air carriers from the economical viewpoint, due to its importantimpact on the carrier public image. High standard care hasto be taken of animals during transport in order to satisfy an importantsegment of airline customers, either the Business/Firstclass passengers travelling with pets, or influential shippers ofracing horses, dogs, Zoo species etc.Air transp011 of animals, disregarding other advantages,may pose a threat to their health and welfare being a significantmultifactorial stressor. Along with cardiovascular, endocrineand metabolic abe1mtions, it affects the immune response ofan animal and increases susceptibility to infection. Therefore,strict conditions for air transport of eve1y animal species havebeen imposed. Transport of only healthy animals is approved,as it is necessG/y to prevent the spread of disease during transportand to provide satisfactOJy environment for animals to betransported.

  18. Air pollution and allergic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, J.


    In the discussion on possible adverse effects of air pollution upon human health one has to distinguish between out-door and in-door environment. The most frequent pollutants in out-door air over industrialized areas are particulate substances, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxide, carbonmonoxide, ozone and lead. Most of these substances have direct irritating effects on mucous surfaces. Hypersensitivity reactions have been described against sulfur dioxide and sulfites occurring as asthma, urticaria or anaphylactoid reactions. In-door air pollution is of much greater practical importance for a variety of diseases. Apart from physio-chemical irritants and microbial organisms leading to infections, organic allergens (e.g. house dust mites, moulds, animal epithelia) can induce a variety of allergic diseases via different pathomechanisms.

  19. Air quality management planning (AQMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivertsen Bjarne


    Full Text Available In most urban areas of the world, particulate matter (PM levels pose severe problems, addressed in several policy areas (air quality, climate change, and human health. PM presents multiple challenges due to the multitude of its sources, spanning many sectors of economic activity as well as nature, and due to the complexity of atmospheric processes involved in its transport and secondary formation. For the authorities, the goal is to assure minimal impacts of atmospheric PM levels, in practice represented by compliance with existing regulations and standards. This may be achieved through an air quality management plan (AQMP. In Northern America and in parts of Europe, comprehensive research programs have guided development of AQMP over the last forty years. This cumulated experience can be utilized by others who face the same problems, but have yet to develop their own substantial research base. The main purpose of the AQMP development process is to establish an effective and sound basis for planning and management of air quality in a selected area. This type of planning will ensure that significant sources of impacts are identified and controlled in a most cost-effective manner. The choice of tools, methods and input information is often dictated by their availability, and should be evaluated against current best practices. Important elements of the AQMP are the identification of sources and development of a complete emission inventory, the development and operation of an air quality monitoring programme, and the development and application of atmospheric dispersion models. Major task is to collect the necessary input data. The development of the AQMP will take into account: - Air Quality Management System (AQMS requirements; - Operational and functional structure requirements; - Source identification through emission inventories; - Source reduction alternatives, which may be implemented; - Mechanisms for facilitating interdepartmental

  20. Thermodynamic properties of sea air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Feistel


    Full Text Available Very accurate thermodynamic potential functions are available for fluid water, ice, seawater and humid air covering wide ranges of temperature and pressure conditions. They permit the consistent computation of all equilibrium properties as, for example, required for coupled atmosphere-ocean models or the analysis of observational or experimental data. With the exception of humid air, these potential functions are already formulated as international standards released by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS, and have been adopted in 2009 for oceanography by IOC/UNESCO.

    In this paper, we derive a collection of formulas for important quantities expressed in terms of the thermodynamic potentials, valid for typical phase transitions and composite systems of humid air and water/ice/seawater. Particular attention is given to equilibria between seawater and humid air, referred to as "sea air" here. In a related initiative, these formulas will soon be implemented in a source-code library for easy practical use. The library is primarily aimed at oceanographic applications but will be relevant to air-sea interaction and meteorology as well.

    The formulas provided are valid for any consistent set of suitable thermodynamic potential functions. Here we adopt potential functions from previous publications in which they are constructed from theoretical laws and empirical data; they are briefly summarized in the appendix. The formulas make use of the full accuracy of these thermodynamic potentials, without additional approximations or empirical coefficients. They are expressed in the temperature scale ITS-90 and the 2008 Reference-Composition Salinity Scale.

  1. Thermodynamic properties of sea air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Feistel


    Full Text Available Very accurate thermodynamic potential functions are available for fluid water, ice, seawater and humid air covering wide ranges of temperature and pressure conditions. They permit the consistent computation of all equilibrium properties as, for example, required for coupled atmosphere–ocean models or the analysis of observational or experimental data. With the exception of humid air, these potential functions are already formulated as international standards released by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS, and have been adopted in 2009 for oceanography by IOC/UNESCO.

    In this paper, we derive a collection of formulas for important quantities expressed in terms of the thermodynamic potentials, valid for typical phase transitions and composite systems of humid air and water/ice/seawater. Particular attention is given to equilibria between seawater and humid air, referred to as ''sea air'' here. In a related initiative, these formulas will soon be implemented in a source-code library for easy practical use. The library is primarily aimed at oceanographic applications but will be relevant to air-sea interaction and meteorology as well.

    The formulas provided are valid for any consistent set of suitable thermodynamic potential functions. Here we adopt potential functions from previous publications in which they are constructed from theoretical laws and empirical data; they are briefly summarized in the appendix. The formulas make use of the full accuracy of these thermodynamic potentials, without additional approximations or empirical coefficients. They are expressed in the temperature scale ITS-90 and the 2008 Reference-Composition Salinity Scale.

  2. Flow in air conditioned rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.


    of the flow equations is demonstrated and the flow in air conditioned rooms in case of steady two dimensional flow is predi cted. Compari son with measured results is shown i n the case of small Archimedes numbers, and predictions are shown at high Archimedes numbers. A numerical prediction of f low and heat......Flow in air conditioned r ooms is examined by means of model experiments . The different gearnetries giving unsteady, steady three- dimensional and steady twodimensional flow are determined . Velacity profiles and temperature profiles are measured in some of the geometries. A numerical solution...

  3. When water molecules meet air


    Hsie, Cho-Shuen; Campen, R. Kramer; Verde, Ana Vila; Bolhuis, Peter; Nienhuys, Han-Kwang; Bonn, Mischa


    About 70% of our planet is covered in water. Most of that water exists as water in the bulk – the neighbors of water molecules are other water molecules – and only a small fraction of molecules are at the air-water interface. Despite the small relative abundance of interfacial water, it is of the utmost importance: it governs the chemistry involving the surface of oceans and seawater aerosols, or the small water droplets forming clouds. Reactions at the air-water interface are directly releva...

  4. Adaptação para a língua portuguesa do Questionário de Experiências Dissociativas Peritraumáticas (QEDP numa amostra de bombeiros Portuguese adaptation of the Peritraumatic Dissociation Experiences Questionnaire (PDEQ in a sample of ambulance personal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Costa Maia


    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A dissociação peritraumática é uma resposta no momento da exposição a uma situação ameaçadora que tem se mostrado um preditor significativo de perturbação psicológica a longo prazo, nomeadamente perturbação pós-estresse traumático. OBJETIVOS: Fazer a adaptação para português do Peritraumatic Dissociation Experiences Questionnaire numa população altamente exposta a situações traumáticas, como é o caso dos bombeiros. MÉTODO: Após a tradução e o estudo dos itens, fizeram-se a aplicação e a análise psicométrica com uma amostra de 170 bombeiros, que relataram exposição traumática e que também preencheram uma escala de Perturbação de Pós-Estresse Traumático. RESULTADOS: Os dados indicam que se trata de um instrumento com uma boa consistência interna (alfa de Cronbach = 0,87 e cuja validade de construto o torna adequado para a avaliação das respostas dessa população no exercício da sua profissão. Para além disso, a correlação elevada com os sintomas de perturbação pós-estresse traumático sugere ainda uma boa validade convergente. DISCUSSÃO: Atendendo ao fato de que a dissociação peritraumática prevê PPST, o recurso a um instrumento que revela boas capacidades psicométricas pode ajudar a identificar as pessoas que desenvolverão perturbação após exposição a trauma.BACKGROUND: Peritraumatic dissociation is a reaction that occurs in the moment someone is exposed to a threatening situation and has shown to be an important predictor of long term psychological disorder, including post traumatic stress disorder. OBJECTIVES: To make the psychometric adaptation of Peritraumatic Dissociation Experiences Questionnaire in Portuguese ambulance personnel that report high exposure to trauma. The instrument has been widely used in research, and was initially designed to analyse peritraumatic dissociation in emergency personnel. METHODS: After items translation and study, 170 ambulance

  5. Multizone Age-of-Air Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.


    Age of air is a technique for evaluating ventilation that has been actively used for over 20 years. Age of air quantifies the time it takes for outdoor air to reach a particular location or zone within then indoor environment. Age of air is often also used to quantify the ventilation effectiveness with respect to indoor air quality. In a purely single zone situation this use of age of air is straightforward, but application of age of air techniques in the general multizone environment has not been fully developed. This article looks at expanding those single-zone techniques to the more complicated environment of multizone buildings and in doing so develops further the general concept of age of air. The results of this analysis shows that the nominal age of air as often used cannot be directly used for determining ventilation effectiveness unless specific assumptions are made regarding source distributions.

  6. 77 FR 52277 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management... (United States)


    ... submitted for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (District) portion of the California State... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management District; Prevention of Significant Deterioration; Greenhouse Gases AGENCY:...

  7. Aerometric Information Retrieval System/AIRS Facility Subsystem (AIRS/AFS) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Aerometric Information Retrieval System/AIRS Facility Subsystem (AIRS/AFS) is a database that provides information on air releases from various stationary...

  8. 78 FR 53270 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality... (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... permitting rules submitted by California as a revision to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

  9. 78 FR 10589 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality... (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... by California as a revision to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD...

  10. Operating experiences with rotary air-to-air heat exchangers: hospitals, schools, nursing homes, swimming pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, R.J.


    Systems utilizing rotary air-to-air heat exchangers are discussed. Basic considerations of use (fresh air requirements, system configurations, cost considerations), typical system layout/design considerations, and operating observations by engineers, staff and maintenance personnel are described.

  11. Antibubbles and fine cylindrical sheets of air

    KAUST Repository

    Beilharz, D.


    Drops impacting at low velocities onto a pool surface can stretch out thin hemispherical sheets of air between the drop and the pool. These air sheets can remain intact until they reach submicron thicknesses, at which point they rupture to form a myriad of microbubbles. By impacting a higher-viscosity drop onto a lower-viscosity pool, we have explored new geometries of such air films. In this way we are able to maintain stable air layers which can wrap around the entire drop to form repeatable antibubbles, i.e. spherical air layers bounded by inner and outer liquid masses. Furthermore, for the most viscous drops they enter the pool trailing a viscous thread reaching all the way to the pinch-off nozzle. The air sheet can also wrap around this thread and remain stable over an extended period of time to form a cylindrical air sheet. We study the parameter regime where these structures appear and their subsequent breakup. The stability of these thin cylindrical air sheets is inconsistent with inviscid stability theory, suggesting stabilization by lubrication forces within the submicron air layer. We use interferometry to measure the air-layer thickness versus depth along the cylindrical air sheet and around the drop. The air film is thickest above the equator of the drop, but thinner below the drop and up along the air cylinder. Based on microbubble volumes, the thickness of the cylindrical air layer becomes less than 100 nm before it ruptures.

  12. Air Power in Irregular Warfare (United States)


    bombardment attacks with fighter offense for the control of the air.”57 Douhet commonly bucked the theory of fighter offense, relying solely on “a...morale booster as well. Now patrols could cut a landing zone with chain saws and explosives to receive a medevac chopper rather than face an extended

  13. New concepts in air abrasion. (United States)

    Porth, R N


    There is no doubt that air abrasion is going to be part of the millennial shift in dentistry away from traditional treatment modalities. With the change in incidence and morphology of caries as a result of the hardening effect of fluoride on enamel, this ability to remove only decayed areas and permanently seal the less susceptible areas becomes increasingly desirable.

  14. Pariisi-kiri / Aire Allikmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Allikmets, Aire


    Fanny de Siversile pühendatud vastuvõtust College de France'i Sinises Salongis 27. märtsil 1997 ja temale pühendatud koguteosest 'Contacts de langues et de cultures dans l'aire Baltique' (koost. M. M. Jocelyne Fernendez ja Raimo Raag)

  15. A Breath of Fresh Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Have you ever driven by a sewage-treatment plant and noticed a rotten-eggstink? Air-quality requirements force these plants touse devices called chemical scrubbers to eliminate malodorous hydrogen sulfide from the gases createdby bacteria in sewageslurry. The process works,but it's expensive and depends on filtering gasthrough toxic chemicalssuch as lye and bleach.

  16. Health Effects of Air Pollution. (United States)

    Environmental Education Report and Newsletter, 1985


    Summarizes health hazards associated with air pollution, highlighting the difficulty in establishing acceptable thresholds of exposure. Respiratory disease, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other problems are addressed. Indicates that a wide range of effects from any one chemical exists and that there are differences in sensitivity to…

  17. A Tire Air Maintenance Technology (United States)

    Pierce, Alan


    Improperly inflated car tires can reduce gas mileage and car performance, speed up tire wear, and even cause a tire to blow out. The AAA auto club recommends that someone check the air pressure of one's car's tires at least once a month. Wouldn't it be nice, though, if someone came up with a tire pressure-monitoring system that automatically kept…

  18. Air-Leakage Control Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, Jim; Washington State Energy Office; United States. Bonneville Power Administration.


    This manual is for builders and designers who are interested in building energy-efficient homes. The purpose of the manual is to provide the how and why'' of controlling air leakage by means of a system called the Simple Caulk and Seal'' (SIMPLE{center dot}CS) system. This manual provides an overview of the purpose and contents of the manual; It discusses the forces that affect air leakage in homes and the benefits of controlling air leakage. Also discussed are two earlier approaches for controlling air leakage and the problems with these approaches. It describes the SIMPLE-{center dot}CS system. It outlines the standard components of the building envelope that require sealing and provides guidelines for sealing them. It outlines a step-by-step procedure for analyzing and planning the sealing effort. The procedure includes (1) identifying areas to be sealed, (2) determining the most effective and convenient stage of construction in which to do the sealing, and (3) designating the appropriate crew member or trade to be responsible for the sealing.

  19. Air-leakage control manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, J. [Washington State Energy Office, Olympia, WA (United States)


    This manual is for builders and designers who are interested in building energy-efficient homes. The purpose of the manual is to provide the ``how and why`` of controlling air leakage by means of a system called the ``Simple Caulk and Seal`` (SIMPLE{center_dot}CS) system. This manual provides an overview of the purpose and contents of the manual; It discusses the forces that affect air leakage in homes and the benefits of controlling air leakage. Also discussed are two earlier approaches for controlling air leakage and the problems with these approaches. It describes the SIMPLE-{center_dot}CS system. It outlines the standard components of the building envelope that require sealing and provides guidelines for sealing them. It outlines a step-by-step procedure for analyzing and planning the sealing effort. The procedure includes (1) identifying areas to be sealed, (2) determining the most effective and convenient stage of construction in which to do the sealing, and (3) designating the appropriate crew member or trade to be responsible for the sealing.

  20. Ballistics examination of air rifle. (United States)

    Bogiel, G


    The aim of this paper is to determine the velocity, energy, maximum range and distance at which pellets fired from an air rifle of kinetic energy below 17 J can pose a threat to unprotected human skin. Doppler radar equipment and exterior ballistics software were used in this examination.

  1. Ballistics examination of air rifle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Bogiel


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the velocity, energy, maximum range and distance at which pellets fired from an air rifle of kinetic energy below 17 J can pose a threat to unprotected human skin. Doppler radar equipment and exterior ballistics software were used in this examination.

  2. Ballistics examination of air rifle



    The aim of this paper is to determine the velocity, energy, maximum range and distance at which pellets fired from an air rifle of kinetic energy below 17 J can pose a threat to unprotected human skin. Doppler radar equipment and exterior ballistics software were used in this examination.

  3. Biological effects of air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosting, P.E.; Houten, J.G. ten


    Exposure of living organisms to sulphur dioxide, sulphuric acid, fly ash, other particulates, and oxides of nitrogen is discussed from the points of view of air pollution phenomenology, specific and nonspecific responses of plants, animals and man, and environmental and constitutional factors that i

  4. Experimental Analysis on Solar Desiccant Air Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. U. V. Kongre, C. M. Singh, A. B. Biswas


    Full Text Available The experiment investigated and evaluated the feasibility of an solar desiccant air conditioner. Its effectiveness as a possible air conditioner option used in household air conditioner or as an energy efficient and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional air conditioning units used in houses are evaluated. A solar water heater was used as heat gain. The model utilizes the technology of solar air conditioner system. The purpose in the long term would be reduced the consumption of electricity used for air conditioning, reduce harmful emission and hence saving money.

  5. AIR for Javascript Developers Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, Mike; Hoyt, Kevin; Georgita, Dragos


    This book is the official guide to Adobe ® AIR[TM], written by members of the AIR team. With Adobe AIR, web developers can use technologies like HTML and JavaScript to build and deploy web applications to the desktop. Packed with examples, this book explains how AIR works and features recipes for performing common runtime tasks. Part of the Adobe Developer Library, this concise pocket guide explains: What Adobe AIR is, and the problems this runtime aims to solveHow to set up your development environmentThe HTML and JavaScript environments within AIRHow to create your first AIR application


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Levels of indoor radon in air are studied by a continuous electrostatic radon monitor under normal living conditions to evaluate the influence of air conditioned ventilation on indoor air radon level.Results show that the indoor air radon concentrations are not much more than those without household conditioner living condition.although using household conditioner requires a sealed room which should lead to a higher radon level.Turning on air conditioner helps lower indoor radon level.Therefore.the total indoor air Rn levels are normal>ventilation>exhaust or indraft> exhaust plus indraft.

  7. On Air Shutter for Cold Storage Room (United States)

    Fukuhara, Isamu; Tsuji, Katsuhiko

    Air curtains are frequently placed at doorway of cold storage room or freezing chamber. As an opening of jet flow in these air curtains is relatively narrow and speed of jet flow is fast, air entrained from surroundings increases in quantity. Therefore, we consider that jet flow with narrow opening can not effectively isolate inside air from the external atmosphere, but the one with relatively wide opening can decrease air entrained from surroundings. Then, when air curtain which has a wide opening (we call it air shutter) is installed at cold storage room, and isolating performances of air shutter are compared with the air curtain. First, as various conditions can be easily changed in numerical calculation, we compare a velocity and temperature field in cold storage room under these conditions when velocity of jet flow is changed by using numerical method. Second, we measure a temperature and velocity distribution in an actual cold storage room under three conditions (air shutter operates, air curtain operates and no operation). From these results, it was found that air shutter is more efficient than air curtain.

  8. Air quality in Europe - 2011 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro, C.; Larssen, S. (Norsk Inst. for Luftforskning (NILU), Lillestroem (Norway)); Leeuw, F. de (RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)); Foltescu, V. (EEA, Copenhagen (Denmark))


    The annual report 'Air quality in Europe' summarises the most recent evaluation of Europe's air quality status. It is mainly based on air quality measurement data that have been made available officially by 32 EEA member countries as well as 6 EEA cooperating countries. The report includes maps and analyses of air quality status over the calendar year 2009. It also analyses air quality trends over the past years. The evaluation of the status and trends of air quality is based on ambient air measurements, in conjunction with reported anthropogenic emissions. The report summarizes the main effects of different air pollutants on human health, the environment and the climate. An overview of policies and measures at European level is also given for each pollutant. This report reviews progress towards meeting the requirements of the two air quality directives in force as well as the air quality guidelines set by the World Health Organization (WHO). The report is produced in support of European and national policy development and implementation in the field of air quality. It also supports air quality management and informs the general public on the current status and trends of air quality in Europe. (Author)

  9. TANGO ARRAY An Air Shower Experiment in Buenos Aires

    CERN Document Server

    Bauleo, P; Filevich, A; Reguera, A


    A new Air Shower Observatory has been constructed in Buenos Aires during 1999, and commissioned and set in operation in 2000. The observatory consists of an array of four water \\v{C}erenkov detectors, enclosing a geometrical area of $\\sim$ 30.000 m$^{2}$, and is optimized for the observation of cosmic rays in the ``knee'' energy region. The array detects $\\sim$ 250 to $\\sim$ 1500 showers/day, depending on the selected triggering condition. In this paper, the design and construction of the array, and the automatic system for data adquisition, daily calibration, and monitoring, are described. Also, the Monte Carlo simulations performed to develop a shower database, as well as the studies performed using the database to estimate the response and the angular and energy resolutions of the array, are presented in detail.

  10. Power plant VII revisited - Air-air /Scirocco/ (United States)

    Etievant, C.; Royer, D.

    A hybrid fossil fuel-solar central receiver power plant is described, noting principally a 'Scirocco' configuration for the receiver. The primary loop contains air which enters passages in the alveolar-configured walls of the boiler, which is semi-spherically shaped. The alveoles are located in the back of the cavity while the upper and lower surfaces are reflective. A heat flux of 24.4 MWth is delivered to the aperture by 668 heliostats, each having a 53 sq m surface. Air is heated to 660 C and then flows past flame tubes to attain temperatures near 900 C through use of a combustor before impinging on the turbine blades. It is noted that although only 1000 hr of functioning are currently available for the Scirocco configuration, it offers the chance to reduce the size of the boiler. Further studies to optimize the materials for the boiler are indicated.

  11. Significance of air humidity and air velocity for fungal spore release into the air (United States)

    Pasanen, A.-L.; Pasanen, P.; Jantunen, M. J.; Kalliokoski, P.

    Our previous field studies have shown that the presence of molds in buildings does not necessarily mean elevated airborne spore counts. Therefore, we investigated the release of fungal spores from cultures of Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium sp. and Cladosporium sp. at different air velocities and air humidities. Spores of A. fumigatus and Penicillium sp. were released from conidiophores already at air velocity of 0.5 ms -1, whereas Cladosporium spores required at least a velocity of 1.0 ms -1. Airborne spore counts of A. fumigatus and Penicillium sp. were usually higher in dry than moist air, being minimal at relative humidities (r.h.) above 70%, while the effect of r.h. on the release of Cladosporium sp. was ambivalent. The geometric mean diameter of released spores increased when the r.h. exceeded a certain level which depends on fungal genus. Thus, spores of all three fungi were hygroscopic but the hygroscopicity of various spores appeared at different r.h.-ranges. This study indicates that spore release is controlled by external factors and depends on fungal genus which can be one reason for considerable variation of airborne spore counts in buildings with mold problems.

  12. Impact of individually controlled facially applied air movement on perceived air quality at high humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skwarczynski, M.A. [Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Institute of Environmental Protection Engineering, Department of Indoor Environment Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Lublin (Poland); International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Melikov, A.K.; Lyubenova, V. [International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kaczmarczyk, J. [Faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Department of Heating, Ventilation and Dust Removal Technology, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland)


    The effect of facially applied air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) at high humidity was studied. Thirty subjects (21 males and 9 females) participated in three, 3-h experiments performed in a climate chamber. The experimental conditions covered three combinations of relative humidity and local air velocity under a constant air temperature of 26 C, namely: 70% relative humidity without air movement, 30% relative humidity without air movement and 70% relative humidity with air movement under isothermal conditions. Personalized ventilation was used to supply room air from the front toward the upper part of the body (upper chest, head). The subjects could control the flow rate (velocity) of the supplied air in the vicinity of their bodies. The results indicate an airflow with elevated velocity applied to the face significantly improves the acceptability of the air quality at the room air temperature of 26 C and relative humidity of 70%. (author)

  13. TANGO ARRAY I: An Air Shower Experiment in Buenos Aires (United States)

    Bauleo, P.; Bonifazi, C.; Filevich, A.; Reguera, A.

    The TANGO Array is an air shower experiment which has been recently constructed in Buenos Aires, Argentina. It became fully operational in September, 2000. The array consists of 4 water ˇCerenkov detector stations enclosing a geometrical area of ˜ 30.000 m2 and its design has been optimized for the observation of EAS produced by cosmic rays near the "knee" energy region. Three of the detectors have been constructed using 12000-liter stainless steel tanks, and the fourth has been mounted in a smaller, 400liter plastic container. The detectors are connected by cables to the data acquisition room, where a fully automatic system, which takes advantage of the features of a 4-channel digital oscilloscope, was set for data collection without the need of operator intervention. This automatic experiment control includes monitoring, data logging, and daily calibration of all stations. This paper describes the detectors and their associated electronics, and details are given on the data acquisition system, the triggering and calibration procedures, and the operation of the array. Examples of air shower traces, recorded by the array, are presented.

  14. Community air monitoring and Village Green Project (United States)

    Cost and logistics are practical issues that have historically constrained the number of locations where long-term, active air pollution measurement is possible. In addition, traditional air monitoring approaches are generally conducted by technical experts with limited engageme...

  15. Solid State Air Purification System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this proposed research is to develop a new air purification system based on a liquid membrane, capable of purifying carbon dioxide from air in a far...

  16. Poster Puzzler Solution: Taking in Air | Poster (United States)

    The current Poster Puzzler image shows the top of Building 560, where a new supply air handler was recently installed by Facilities Maintenance and Engineering (FME) staff, as part of lab renovations in wing 1, floor 1. FME staff enlarged the attic of the building to make space for the air handler. Building 560, the largest building at the NCI at Frederick campus, houses about 120 labs and has 19 air handlers. A supply air handler draws in outside air, filters it, cools or heats it, and adjusts the humidity to provide clean conditioned air to the laboratories. The Building 560 air handler weighs approximately 22,500 pounds and moves 22,000 cubic feet of air per minute.

  17. Noise Emission from Laboratory Air Blowers (United States)

    Rossing, Thomas D.; Windham, Betty


    Product noise ratings for a number of laboratory air blowers are reported and several recommendations for reducing laboratory noise from air blowers are given. Relevant noise ratings and methods for measuring noise emission of appliances are discussed. (BB)

  18. Air quality strategy for Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex, N.K.Y. [Air Policy Group, Wanchai (Hong Kong). Environmental Protection Dept.


    Hong Kong has experienced unimpeded economic growth for four decades but at the same time has suffered from growing air pollution. A new look at the air quality strategy is therefore required to bring about sustainable development. (author)

  19. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document provides specifications for the process air compressor for a compressed air storage project, requests a budgetary quote, and provides supporting information, including compressor data, site specific data, water analysis, and Seneca CAES value drivers.

  20. Protective supplied-breathing-air garment (United States)

    Childers, E.L.; von Hortenau, E.F.


    A breathing-air garment for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants is disclosed. The garment includes a suit and a separate head-protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air-delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air-delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit sealed with an adhesive sealing flap.