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Sample records for ailing mother russia

  1. Patterns of partnership formation among lone mothers in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Cordula Zabel

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the determinants of partnership formation among lone mothers in Russia, using data from the Russian Generations and Gender Survey (GGS) and the Education and Employment Survey (EES). The central research question is whether difficult economic circumstances pressure lone mothers to enter new partnerships sooner than they would under other circumstances, limiting their freedom of choice of type of living arrangement. The empirical results show that while occupation influence...

  2. Babushki as Surrogate Wives: How Single Mothers and Grandmothers Negotiate the Division of Labor in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Utrata, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Much like husbands and wives, single mothers and grandmothers struggle over the sharing of paid work and “second shift†responsibilities. Using in-depth interview and ethnographic data from Russia, this article applies elements of Hochschild’s (1989) framework to illuminate sites of tension and reciprocity among single mothers and their children’s grandmothers, or babushki, demonstrating that women’s negotiations across the generational divide resemble those between husbands and wive...

  3. Indigenous Children's Right to Learn Their Mother Tongue at School: Implementation and Realization in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Andreyevna Zmyvalova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available According to official statistics, there are decreasing numbers of Nenets people—the largest group of indigenous small-numbered people in Russia—who know their native language. Moreover, it is mostly elderly people who know the language. Even though children learn the Nenets language at school, they do not know it properly. This is especially true in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug in northwest Russia. In the eight-year period between the population censuses of 2002 and 2010, the number of Nenets speakers in this area decreased threefold. While many factors have contributed to this decline, this article focuses on the legal issues that have impacted the situation. Particular emphasis is given to the inadequate implementation into national legislation of international commitments that guarantee the right of indigenous children to learn their mother tongue at school and the ineffective realization of legal commitments of national legislation concerning this right. This article examines how sources of law concerning indigenous children's right to learn their mother tongue are implemented and realized in Russia. The focus is on the Nenets Autonomous Okrug.

  4. Interpretation of food risks by mothers of kindergarten children in St.Petersburg, Russia, and their strategies of risk handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gromasheva, O.

    2012-01-01

    This study discusses different types of food risks and different strategies of risk handling as conceived by mothers of kindergarten children in Russia. The research includes an analysis of Internet forum discussions and semi-structured interviews; it mainly used data from well-educated, middle-clas

  5. Poverty, Public Assistance and Single Mothers : A Comparative Look at Norway, Russia and the U.S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela A. Brown

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents some of the perceptions and experiences of mothers on public assistance and their social workers in three countries—Norway, Russia and the US. Based on in-depth interviews in each country with social workers and the women, five themes emerged that will be presented here. The mothers spoke of the inadequacy of economic support to meet their needs, a life of poverty that sometimes involved discrimination of them as mothers, and a loss of hope that their lives could be different. Two themes that stood out in the interviews with social workers was the lack of resources needed to help their clients and the dilemma faced as an agent of social welfare institutions balanced with being an advocate for the mothers’ needs.

  6. Mother

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付玉涛

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1.You You quarreled with her mother.She was very angry and ran out of home.优优跟妈妈吵了一架,赌气跑了出去. 2.She walked to a noodle shop.And she felt a little hungry.她来到一个拉面铺前,才感到自己有些饿了.

  7. Five-year trends in epidemiology and prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission, St. Petersburg, Russia: results from perinatal HIV surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kissin Dmitry M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV epidemic in Russia has increasingly involved reproductive-aged women, which may increase perinatal HIV transmission. Methods Standard HIV case-reporting and enhanced perinatal HIV surveillance systems were used for prospective assessment of HIV-infected women giving birth in St. Petersburg, Russia, during 2004-2008. Trends in social, perinatal, and clinical factors influencing mother-to-child HIV transmission stratified by history of injection drug use, and rates of perinatal HIV transmission were assessed using two-sided χ2 or Cochran-Armitage tests. Results Among HIV-infected women who gave birth, the proportion of women who self-reported ever using injection drugs (IDUs decreased from 62% in 2004 to 41% in 2008 (P P P P for trend Conclusions Reduced proportion of IDUs and improved clinical services among HIV-infected women giving birth were accompanied by decreased perinatal HIV transmission, which can be further reduced by increasing outreach and HIV testing of women before and during pregnancy.

  8. Structural Insights into Ail-Mediated Adhesion in Yersinia pestis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Satoshi; Lukacik, Petra; Barnard, Travis J.; Noinaj, Nicholas; Felek, Suleyman; Tsang, Tiffany M.; Krukonis, Eric S.; Hinnebusch, B. Joseph; Buchanan, Susan K. (Michigan); (NIH); (Michigan-Med)

    2012-01-30

    Ail is an outer membrane protein from Yersinia pestis that is highly expressed in a rodent model of bubonic plague, making it a good candidate for vaccine development. Ail is important for attaching to host cells and evading host immune responses, facilitating rapid progression of a plague infection. Binding to host cells is important for injection of cytotoxic Yersinia outer proteins. To learn more about how Ail mediates adhesion, we solved two high-resolution crystal structures of Ail, with no ligand bound and in complex with a heparin analog called sucrose octasulfate. We identified multiple adhesion targets, including laminin and heparin, and showed that a 40 kDa domain of laminin called LG4-5 specifically binds to Ail. We also evaluated the contribution of laminin to delivery of Yops to HEp-2 cells. This work constitutes a structural description of how a bacterial outer membrane protein uses a multivalent approach to bind host cells.

  9. Defining Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lijiu

    2005-01-01

    @@ Russia is a state stretching over the Eurasian land mass and with a mixture of both East and West cultures. During the historical process of its shaping, particularly sea changes took place, Russian leaders and the elites as well have always asked the following questions about the definition and orientation of their country: "Who am I?" "How to do?" and "Where to?" At present, Russia finds itself in a critical stage of social transition and adjustment of international status. "What country is Russia like?" "What image should Russia show on the international arena?" "What is its strategic trend?" These questions would directly affect the development of Russia.

  10. Ailing and treatment seeking behavior of schedule tribes of Madhya Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Sarda Prasad

    2014-01-01

    The highest percentages of tribes are living in North East region of India and in Madhya Pradesh in the central India. This study is based on the NSSO 60 th round data, with the two objectives - Tribal′s ailing and hospitalization pattern and treatment seeking behavior of ailing Madhya Pradesh and India. Result shows that around 7% of Indian tribes were ailing 15 days before the survey and about 10% of them were hospitalized during 365 days before the survey. Rural tribes were more ailing and...

  11. Ailing and treatment seeking behavior of schedule tribes of Madhya Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarda Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The highest percentages of tribes are living in North East region of India and in Madhya Pradesh in the central India. This study is based on the NSSO 60 th round data, with the two objectives - Tribal′s ailing and hospitalization pattern and treatment seeking behavior of ailing Madhya Pradesh and India. Result shows that around 7% of Indian tribes were ailing 15 days before the survey and about 10% of them were hospitalized during 365 days before the survey. Rural tribes were more ailing and went to hospital for treatment than urban tribes. Odds ratio show that rural, male, old-aged, educated up to primary, not in labor force, currently married, and Hindu tribes were more likely to be hospitalized in Madhya Pradesh. Odds ratio also depicts that the household that have no drainage, used water from tube well and hand pump were more likely to be ailing.

  12. An Analysis of the Role of ATC in the AILS Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Marvin C.; Doyle, Thomas M.; McGee, Frank G.

    2000-01-01

    Airborne information for lateral spacing (AILS) is a concept for making approaches to closely spaced parallel runways in instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). Under the concept, each equipped aircraft will assume responsibility for accurately managing its flight path along the approach course and maintaining separation from aircraft on the parallel approach. This document presents the results of an analysis of the AILS concept from an Air Traffic Control (ATC) perspective. The process has been examined in a step by step manner to determine ATC system support necessary to safely conduct closely spaced parallel approaches using the AILS concept. The analysis resulted in recognizing a number of issues related to integrating the process into the airspace system and proposes operating procedures.

  13. [Adaptogenic potentialities of dynamic magnetotherapy in the treatment and prevention of ENT pathology in ailing children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotova, N V; Grinkevich, A V; Grishchenko, T P; Raĭgorodskiĭ, Iu M; Tupkin, V D

    2007-01-01

    Efficacy of dynamic magnetotherapy (in transcranial and adrenal variants) for treatment of ENT pathology and prevention of its exacerbations is demonstrated in 126 ailing children. Mechanism of action of this magnetotherapy is due to formation of adequate adaptation reactions raising resistance to pathogens. PMID:17828083

  14. AILES: the infrared and THz beamline on SOLEIL synchrotron radiation source; AILES: la ligne infrarouge et THz sur rayonnement synchrotron SOLEIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, P.; Brubach, J.B.; Rouzieres, M.; Pirali, O.; Kwabia Tchana, F. [Synchrotron Soleil, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Manceron, L. [Paris-6 Univ., Lab. de Dynamique Interactions et Reactivite (LADIR), 75 (France)

    2008-03-15

    The development of a new infrared beamline (ligne de lumiere AILES) at the third generation Synchrotron Radiation source SOLEIL is underway. This beamline utilizes infrared synchrotron radiation from both the edge emission and the constant field conventional source. The expected performances including flux, spatial distribution of the photons, spectral range and stability are calculated and discussed. The optical system, spectroscopic stations and workspace are described. The calculation in the near field approach and the simulation by ray tracing show that the source with its adapted optics offers high flux and brilliance for a variety of infrared experiments. We also review the main research themes and the articulation and developments of the infrared sources at SOLEIL. (authors)

  15. Radcure developments in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The survey dwells on three main parts: 1. Insight into the state of radiation curing technology in Russia. 2. Scope of the scientific potential. 3. Certain regard on forecasts, opportunities and prospects for Russian RadTech market

  16. China-Russia Bond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Zhiye; Ma Zongshi

    2007-01-01

    @@ Thanks to China's successful launching of the Year of Russia, 2006 will surely go down as a milestone in the history of the China-Russia bond. Furthermore, a still-warmer climate will continue to prevail in 2007 when Moscow, in its turn, hosts the Year of China, trying to outshine its next-door neighbor in this regard, as Russian President Vladimir Putin promised in the exchange of new year greetings with his Chinese counterpart, President Hu Jintao.

  17. Russia air management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, T.G. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NC (United States); Markin, S. [Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, Moscow (Sweden); Kosenkova, S.V. [Volgograd Environmental Services Administration, Volgograd (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The Russia Air Management Program is in the second year of a four-year cooperative program between the Russian Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources (MEPNR) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to improve national institutions, policies, and practices for air quality management in Russia. This program is part of the Environmental Policy and Technology project being conducted by the U.S. Agency for International Development. The Russia Air Management Program will pilot the application of potential air program improvements in the important industrial City of Volgograd which will enable the development, practical demonstration and evaluation of alternative approaches for improving AQM policies and practices in Russia. Volgograd has a progressive and environmentally enlightened local government, a diverse industrial base and a relatively healthy economy. It is located south of Moscow on the Volga River and was proposed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources. It was selected after a site visit and a series of discussions with the Ministry, Volgograd officials, the World Bank and the EPA. Following the pilot, RAMP will work to facilitate implementation of selected parts of the pilot in other areas of Russia using training, technology transfer, and public awareness. (author)

  18. My mother

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭

    2007-01-01

    @@ My mother is a farmer. She is thirty-five years old. She is verytall. She has big eyes and long hair.She is very hard-working and kind.As my father works a place far away from us, she does all the housework every day. She loves me and loves my grandparents. My grandparents are both over seventy years old. She always looks after them very carefully. My grandmother is often ill, so my mother always buys some meat, fish and eggs for her. My mother gets on well with them. She makes our family become very harmonious.My grandmother often says my mother is better than her own daughter.

  19. Jet-Cooled Spectroscopy on the Ailes Infrared Beamline of the Synchrotron Radiation Facility Soleil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Robert

    2015-06-01

    The Advanced Infrared Line Exploited for Spectroscopy (AILES) extracts the bright far infrared (FIR) synchrotron continuum of the third generation radiation facility SOLEIL. This beamline is equipped with a high resolution (10-3 cm-1) Bruker IFS125 Fourier transform spectrometer which can be operated in the FIR but also in the mid and near infrared by using its internal conventional sources. The jet-AILES consortium (IPR, PhLAM, MONARIS, SOLEIL) has implemented a supersonic-jet apparatus on the beamline to record absorption spectra at very low temperature (5-50 K) and in highly supersaturated gaseous conditions. Heatable slit-nozzles of various lengths and widths are used to set properly the stagnation conditions. A mechanical pumping (roots pumps) was preferred for its ability to evacuate important mass flow rates and therefore to boost the experimental sensitivity of the set-up, the counterpart being a non-negligible consumption of both carrier (argon, helium or nitrogen) and spectroscopic gases. Various molecular systems were investigated up to now using the Jet-AILES apparatus. The very low temperature achieved in the gas expansion was either used to simplify the rotation-vibration structure of monomers, such as SF6, CF4 or naphthalene, or to stabilize the formation of weakly bonded molecular complexes such as the trimer of HF or the dimer of acetic acid. The nucleation of water vapor and the nuclear spin conversion of water were also investigated under free-jet conditions in the mid infrared. High-resolution spectroscopy and analysis of the νb{2} + νb{3} combination band of SF6 in a supersonic jet expansion. V. Boudon, P. Asselin, P. Soulard, M. Goubet, T. R. Huet, R. Georges, O. Pirali, P. Roy, Mol. Phys. 111, 2154-2162 (2013) The far infrared spectrum of naphthalene characterized by high resolution synchrotron FTIR spectroscopy and anharmonic DFT calculations. O. Pirali, M. Goubet, T.R. Huet, R. Georges, P. Soulard, P. Asselin, J. Courbe, P. Roy and M

  20. Backbone structure of Yersinia pestis Ail determined in micelles by NMR-restrained simulated annealing with implicit membrane solvation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The outer membrane protein Ail (attachment invasion locus) is a virulence factor of Yersinia pestis that mediates cell invasion, cell attachment and complement resistance. Here we describe its three-dimensional backbone structure determined in decyl-phosphocholine (DePC) micelles by NMR spectroscopy. The NMR structure was calculated using the membrane function of the implicit solvation potential, eefxPot, which we have developed to facilitate NMR structure calculations in a physically realistic environment. We show that the eefxPot force field guides the protein towards its native fold. The resulting structures provide information about the membrane-embedded global position of Ail, and have higher accuracy, higher precision and improved conformational properties, compared to the structures calculated with the standard repulsive potential

  1. Backbone structure of Yersinia pestis Ail determined in micelles by NMR-restrained simulated annealing with implicit membrane solvation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marassi, Francesca M., E-mail: fmarassi@sbmri.org; Ding, Yi [Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute (United States); Schwieters, Charles D. [National Institutes of Health, Division of Computational Bioscience, Center for Information Technology (United States); Tian, Ye; Yao, Yong [Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The outer membrane protein Ail (attachment invasion locus) is a virulence factor of Yersinia pestis that mediates cell invasion, cell attachment and complement resistance. Here we describe its three-dimensional backbone structure determined in decyl-phosphocholine (DePC) micelles by NMR spectroscopy. The NMR structure was calculated using the membrane function of the implicit solvation potential, eefxPot, which we have developed to facilitate NMR structure calculations in a physically realistic environment. We show that the eefxPot force field guides the protein towards its native fold. The resulting structures provide information about the membrane-embedded global position of Ail, and have higher accuracy, higher precision and improved conformational properties, compared to the structures calculated with the standard repulsive potential.

  2. Solid-state NMR of the Yersinia pestis outer membrane protein Ail in lipid bilayer nanodiscs sedimented by ultracentrifugation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Yi; Fujimoto, L. Miya; Yao, Yong; Marassi, Francesca M., E-mail: fmarassi@sbmri.org [Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Solid-state NMR studies of sedimented soluble proteins has been developed recently as an attractive approach for overcoming the size limitations of solution NMR spectroscopy while bypassing the need for sample crystallization or precipitation (Bertini et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(26):10396–10399, 2011). Inspired by the potential benefits of this method, we have investigated the ability to sediment lipid bilayer nanodiscs reconstituted with a membrane protein. In this study, we show that nanodiscs containing the outer membrane protein Ail from Yersinia pestis can be sedimented for solid-state NMR structural studies, without the need for precipitation or lyophilization. Optimized preparations of Ail in phospholipid nanodiscs support both the structure and the fibronectin binding activity of the protein. The same sample can be used for solution NMR, solid-state NMR and activity assays, facilitating structure–activity correlation experiments across a wide range of timescales.

  3. Exporting to Russia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on extensive fieldwork conducted in Central Asia to explore food exports to Russia. It takes its theoretical starting point in global value chain theory and pinpoints chain entry barriers relating to financing, transportation and standards. The article also proposes rethinking...

  4. Home Education in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staroverova, T. I.

    2011-01-01

    From the eighteenth through the early twentieth centuries, home education (home schooling) by tutors and governesses in Russia was a customary form of schooling for an overwhelming majority of members of the nobility. Social and political transformations of the twentieth century led to substantial changes as the state got actively involved with…

  5. Singing Praise for Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Younger generations in China and Russia need to learn more about each other Few in China’s younger generations know more Russian than the names of the charismatic Prime Minister Vladimir Putin, the anti-virus software brand Kaspersky or super tenor Vitas. Their

  6. Tax culture in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abakarova Rabiyat Shamsudinovna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the tax culture. It describes the reasons, which encouraged the formation of high level of tax culture in the Western countries. The author distinguishes a number of the most significant factors affecting the sustainability of the national mentality. The author compares the different attitudes to the payment of taxes in Rus-sia and other countries.

  7. Terrorism Mounts in Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The new year starts ominously with Moscow airport attack The year 2011 did not begin happily for Russia. On January 24,a bomb attack at Moscow’s Domodedovo Airport-the city’s largest-killed at least 35 people and injured more than 130. This tragedy shed light

  8. Russia energy survey 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Isabel

    2002-07-01

    Russia is a key oil and gas exporter. The chances for successful economic reform in Russia depend on the success of the energy sector. So does the stability of world energy markets. This survey, the first since 1995, describes the energy-security issues affecting Russian oil, gas, coal and nuclear power after decades of inadequate investment and maintenance. The study concentrates on Russia's still-incomplete implementation of energy-sector reform. It raises questions about the energy sector's ability to meet the country's increasing energy demand. Particular note is taken of the country's plans to increase the use of coal in order to reduce its dependence on natural gas. The International Energy Agency commends Russian efforts to increase energy efficiency. The IEA supports the Russian view that price reform and customer choice are the keys to increased efficiency. To raise the 550 to 700 billion dollars it will need to invest in energy infrastructure by the year 2020, the study suggests, Russia must create a much more stable and competitive investment environment. 36 figs., 2 apps.

  9. 张爱玲小说叙事的权威性%The Narrative Authority of Zhang Ailing's Literary Works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses the narrative theory to analyze the narrative strategy and narrative features in Zhang Ailing's literary works. Zhang Ailing's text authoritative performance in: her authority of feminist voice, the space of the text occupying in the literary world, her position in the literary world. Zhang Ailing's gender position performance in feminist thought and consciousness in her works. Zhang Ailing's works mainly adopts the author narrative voice patterns. She applied the dual narrative space of the surface text and subtext in the narration. She uses the subtext, the password narrative techniques, to show that the value of feminist consciousness is her survival and adaptability.%利用叙事学理论分析张爱玲作品的叙事策略和叙事特性。张爱玲文本的权威性表现在她对女性主义声音的发出的权威、她的文学作品在文学界占据的文本空间以及她在文坛上的地位。张爱玲的性别立场的声音表现在她的小说表现出来的女性主义思想和意识。张爱玲的作品主要采用的是作者型叙述声音模式。在叙事的过程中采用的是表面文本和隐含文本的双重的叙事空间,她采用隐含文本这种密码似的叙述技巧来表现女性主义意识的价值在于她的生存性和适应性。

  10. Russia`s atomic tsar: Viktor N. Mikhailov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reams, C.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Center for International Security Affairs

    1996-12-01

    Minatom (Ministry of Atomic Energy) was created to manage Russia`s nuclear weapons program in the age of disarmament. The ministry is responsible for the development, production, and maintenance of nuclear weapons, warhead dismantlement, the production of nuclear materials for weapons, the disposition of nuclear materials disassembled from warheads, the administration of Russia`s vast nuclear weapons complex, the development of policy for the future role of Russia`s nuclear complex and payment of employees entrusted with such tasks. Thus, Minatom is instrumental in the implementation of arms control, disarmament and nonproliferation agreements. The director of Minatom, Viktor N. Mikhailov, wields a great deal of power and influence over Russia`s nuclear infrastructure. He is an important player amidst efforts to reduce the threats posed by Russia`s decaying nuclear complex. There are certainly other personalities in the Russian government who influence Minatom; however, few affect the ministry as profoundly as Mikhailov. His ability to influence Russia`s nuclear complex has been clearly demonstrated by his policies in relation to the US purchase of Russian highly enriched uranium, the planned fissile material storage facility at Mayak, materials protection, control and accountability programs, and his unwavering determination to sell Iran commercial nuclear technology. Mikhailov has also been a key negotiator when dealing with the US on issues of transparency of weapons dismantlement and fissile material disposition, as well as the use of US threat reduction funds. His policies and concerns in these areas will affect the prospects for the successful negotiation and implementation of future nuclear threat reduction programs and agreements with Russia.

  11. My Mother

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于艺海; 胡宝兰

    2002-01-01

    My mother is a teacher She works in a middle school.She teaches music.She can sing very well She teaches four classes every day.She works very hard.She likes her work very much and she loves to work for children.too.

  12. Russia's Development Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Acomplex process characterizes the evolvement of Russia's development strategy from general and ambiguous to specific and clear. In the immediate post-independence days, former President Boris Yeltsin's zeal for wholesale leaning to and meshing with the West only ended up in the loss of initiative and national assertiveness. Since his assumption of office, President Vladimir Putin came up with a "national resurgence strategy" aimed at economic rejuvenation for recovery of the country's status as a big power by proceeding from its current post-Soviet weakened conditions. This pragmatic popular approach is generally believed to have a rosy future ahead.Even so it would still be a bumpy, uphill path, replete with challenges due to trammels of domestic opposition and resentment or obstruction from the West. In addressing these issues under international limelight, after briefly reviewing Russia's post-independence trajectory, this article will focus on President Putin's "strong national strategy" and do some crystal ball gazing for its future.

  13. Nuclear in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief presentation of some information and data about Russia, this document proposes indications of levels of energy production and world ranking for different sources (oil, gas, coal, hydroelectricity, nuclear), indications of some reserves (gas, coal, oil, uranium), indication of electricity production and exports (with a brief history of the electronuclear sector). The next part proposes an overview of the nuclear sector: political and industrial organisation, main technical steps, reactor types (light water graphite reactors, light water enriched uranium reactors, fast neutron reactors) with their strengths, weaknesses and improvements. The renewal program is evoked, as well as the fuel cycle activity, and the large presence on the international market. The cooperation between France and Russia is briefly presented

  14. Beyond Holy Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This biography examines the long life of the traveller and author Stephen Graham. Graham walked across large parts of the Tsarist Empire in the years before 1917, describing his adventures in a series of books and articles that helped to shape attitudes towards Russia in Britain and the United States. In later years he travelled widely across Europe and North America, meeting some of the best known writers of the twentieth century, including H.G. Wells and Ernest Hemingway. Graham also wrote...

  15. American Studies in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Antsyferova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the USA, both general and specifically academic, has always existed in Russia, with its own ups and downs. But American studies as an academic discipline started gaining its popularity probably after WWII when there sporadically started to emerge the ever-increasing number of academic books, articles and dissertations in literary and historical research on the USA, the main centers of which were founded at the Academic Research Institute of the USA and Canada, headed by academicia...

  16. Orphan Care in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt, Victoria

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Current public opinion about the residential care system in contemporary Russia is extremely negative. A majority of Russians, both citizens and professionals, consider that family placement is the best arrangement for orphaned children. The year 2007 was announced as the Year of the Child in Russia. The majority of officials interpreted it as the year of de-institutionalization of the residential care system for children in Russia. De-institutionalization is mostly identified as reform focused on family placement instead of placement in institutions. Vladimir Fridlyanov, the executive director of the Ministry of Science and Education, announced in May, 2007 that the government is going to transfer 120,000 children from institutions into families every year from 2007 until 2010 and reduce the number of residential care institutions by one-third (Nesterova 2007. But the likelihood of family placement is small, with the exception of the adoption of infants without serious pathologies, and the attempts of precipitant de-institutionalization (when children’s homes are closed and children are distributed among families have failed (children were returned into children homes. According to the opinion of the Ministry, the key obstacle to effective de-institutionalization is the lack of professionals in adoption and foster care (Vazhdaeva 2006.

  17. RUSSIA AND GUAM

    OpenAIRE

    Skakov, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    It would seem expedient to discuss the topic "Russia and GUAM" in the context of the integration unions existing in the post-Soviet space, that is, with respect to the CIS and, to some extent, its alternative organizations. It is very evident that the activity of the CIS, despite the obvious need, in our opinion, for its further existence, at least as a negotiation platform, does not fully meet the functions of an integration structure. There are many different reasons for this, such as the C...

  18. Motherly Precaution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Middleton

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Translated onto glass from copper plates As from Rembrandt or Brueghel or their heirs In whose busy depictions such an act Is incidental, some side-alley fact, Now placed here in the center by Millet -- This all too human scene, both rude and true: A mother wrinkling up her young son’s gown  Before he wets himself on backdoor steps Where his six-year-old sister, shrinking, stares At the wobbly colossus, wholly exposed. His soft hand grips his mother’s muscled wrist, Still nearer to the milked...

  19. EU-Russia Cultural Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sidorova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the link between culture and diplomacy between Russia and the European Union, and shows the importance of cultural relations. It examines the common space of science, education and culture introduced at the 2003 EU-Russia Summit in St. Petersburg and the application of the principles of this concept that were established at the 2005 EU-Russia Summit in Moscow. It then considers EU-Russia collaboration on humanitarian action and the challenges that both parties face in this sphere. It also explains the formation of EU domestic and foreign cultural policy, and the role of European institutions and states in cultural affairs and diplomacy, as well as key elements and mechanisms of contemporary Russian foreign cultural policy. In addition, the article focuses on the European side of post-Soviet EU-Russia cultural relations. This cultural collaboration is defined as a competitive neighbourhood. EU and Russian interests collide: while Europeans try to promote their values, norms and standards within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy, Russia seeks to culturally influence and engage in this region for geostrategic and historical reasons. Finally, the article assesses the prospects for the EU-Russia cultural relations and emphasizes the role of ideology in improving such relations.

  20. Women Physicists in Russia After 20 Years of Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didenko, Nelli; Ermolaeva, Elena; Kunitsyna, Ekaterina; Kratasyk, Valentina; Vitman, Renata

    2009-04-01

    The process of globalization and reforms in Russia resulted in great changes in the human resources of Russian science. Feminization and stratification of Russian scientific community has occurred in physics and all sciences. Active women physicists ages 35-50 years are part of a new group of "new Russian scientists," whose expertise is in demand in Russia and abroad. But the social conditions for young mothers are not satisfactory as yet, so young women physicists with small children have great problems in their career building, though there are lots of grants for young scientists (Russian and international). The percentage of female in physics and mathematics on average is about 40%. We show the present situation for women in physics and the activities of organizations of women physicists.

  1. Can Iran take Russia's place?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ihle, R.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural exports. Sales of European farm products to Russia have collapsed. Could there be an alternative market for our agricultural goods in Iran? Demand is growing there for processed foods as well as unprocessed commodities and feeds.

  2. Subculture of Hackers in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Dremliuga

    2014-01-01

    This article observes the situation with hacker subculture in Russia. The author is analyzing the reasons why this subculture doesn’t need a lot of time to conquer Russian net society. He is proving that tremendous growth of popularity of hacker subculture in Russia is caused by easy acceptance of hacker’s ideology. Also, the author is studying modern functions of hacker subculture and researching why Russian society does not regard hackers as criminals.

  3. Medical exposure in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently there have been considerable changes in radiology, which is because of coming to a new form of property, reforms of health services and crisis in the society. Big area, bad means of communication and low density of population in most regions of the country should be also mentioned among the factors influencing the level of both health protection and radiology services. All these factors don't allow to create an effective radiology system in a short time. Meanwhile the main nearest task of radiology is the integration and optimization of all means of visualization on the basis of solving fundamental problems of health protection according to the Federal program, normative acts and decrees of the government. In this connection it seemed to be an urgent task to estimate various aspects of radiology activity of Russian health in the dynamics for the recent period of time. The data of the state statistics are to be used to cope with this task. These data on the basis of the computer program 'Region', the quantity indices of various visualization methods used in Russia and the doses of exposure of the population have been estimated and the reference book 'Medical irradiation of the population in Russia. 1980-1997 years' has been published. It turned out that the average annual number of X-ray examinations per thousand population in Russia before 1988 year was constantly up to 1600. And only then because of Chernobyl accident its increase stopped and its gradual decline began (table 1). Such high frequency of the examinations was caused mainly by the large scales of mass preventive photofluorography (more than 40%), held for early tuberculosis exposure. It was as a result of reorganization of fluorographic examination system started in the late 80s and early 90s that this pernicious tendency was overcome and the number of fluorography was reduced almost twice from 90 to 56 millions a year, which considerably contributed to reducing the exposure. Unfortunately as

  4. Kondyor Massif, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This is neither an impact crater nor a volcano. It is a perfect circular intrusion, about 10 km in diameter with a topographic ridge up to 600 m high. The Kondyor Massif is located in Eastern Siberia, Russia, north of the city of Khabarovsk. It is a rare form of igneous intrusion called alkaline-ultrabasic massif and it is full of rare minerals. The river flowing out of it forms placer mineral deposits. Last year 4 tons of platinum were mined there. A remarkable and very unusual mineralogical feature of the deposit is the presence of coarse crystals of Pt-Fe alloy, coated with gold. This 3-D perspective view was created by draping a simulated natural color ASTER composite over an ASTER-derived digital elevation model. The image was acquired on June 10, 2006, and is located at 57.6 degrees north latitude, 134.6 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  5. Lone mothers in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burström, B; Diderichsen, Finn; Shouls, S;

    1999-01-01

    To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period.......To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period....

  6. Suicidal mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Gentile

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological research has demonstrated that suicidal ideation is a relatively frequent complication of pregnancy in both developed and developing countries. Hence, the aims of this study are: to assess whether or not pregnancy may be considered a period highly susceptible to suicidal acts; to recognize potential contributing factors to suicidal behaviors; to describe therepercussions of suicide attempts on maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcome; to identify a typical profile of women at high risk of suicide during pregnancy.Methods: Medical literature information published in any language since 1950 was identified using MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. Search terms were: “pregnancy”,(antenatal “depression”, “suicide”. Searches were last updated on 28 September 2010. Forty-six articles assessing the suicidal risk during pregnancy and obstetrical outcome of pregnancies complicated by suicide attempts were analyzed, without methodological limitations.Results: Worldwide, frequency of suicidal attempts and the rate of death by suicidal acts are low. Although this clinical event is rare, the consequences of a suicidal attempt are medically andpsychologically devastating for the mother-infant pair. We also found that common behaviors exist in women at high risk for suicide during pregnancy. Review data indeed suggest that a characteristicprofile can prenatally identify those at highest risk for gestational suicide attempts.Conclusions: Social and health organizations should make all possible efforts to identify women at high suicidal risk, in order to establish specific programs to prevent this tragic event. The available data informs health policy makers with a typical profile to screen women at high risk ofsuicide during pregnancy. Those women who have a current or past history of psychiatric disorders,are young, unmarried, unemployed, have incurred an unplanned pregnancy (eventually terminated with an

  7. Russia Cannot Be Understood By the Mind Alone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ These words by the 19th-century Russian poet Fyodor Tyutchev still resonate today. Russia is beyond comprehension; it can only be felt. And to do that, you have to come to Russia, see Russia, travel through Russia.

  8. Russia's parliamentary elections and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article examines the effects of Russia's parliamentary elections on the Russian energy sector and gives details of Russia's legislation concerning Production Sharing Agreement (PSA). The importance of party politics, use of the energy sector as a ready source of cash for electoral campaigns, the government's strengthening of its representation on the board of Gazprom, the role of foreign investors, the bankruptcy of the Siberian Far Eastern Oil Company (Sidanko), the postponement of reforms, and the wait-and-see attitude of investors especially with the forthcoming presidential and Duma elections are discussed. (UK)

  9. China Urges Russia to Honor Oil Agreements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China's Premier Wen Jiabao paid a three-day official visit to Russia in late September with a mission to secure more power supply from Russia to satisfy China's booming demand for oil and gas.This is his first visit to Russia since taking office in March last year. Oil was top of the agenda in Premier Wen's trip to Moscow.

  10. CPAFFC and CRFA Delegation in Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Invited by the Russia-China Friendship Association (RCFA), a delegation of the CPAFFC and the China-Russia Friendship Association (CRFA) led by CPAFFC President Chen Haosu paid a visit to Russia from October 7 to 13, 2010.

  11. China Pins Hopes on Pipeline with Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China still has faith in the gigantic Sino-Russia oil pipeline, despite reports which said that Russia is inclined to build a competing pipeline in favor of Japan. CNPC, the company representing China to negotiate with Russia on the project, is reported to continue its preparation work to receive Russian crude.

  12. Contemporary impingements on mothering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha

    2009-03-01

    Mothering in contemporary Western society needs to be understood in the context of a rapidly changing social context. Increased geographic mobility, improved access to child-related information through the media, and scientific and technological progress have contributed to significant shifts in cultural views on mothering. Several contextual impingements on mothering, including changing family structure, economic pressures, decreased social support, cultural ideals of the perfect mother, and increased awareness of interpersonal and global trauma impact mothers' internal worlds. These societal changes often reinforce mothers' fear of losing their children and an idealization of intensive mothering, and evoke challenges in reorganizing their sense of personal identity. Implications for psychoanalytic theory and practice, and specifically the need to integrate individual and contextual forces related to experiences of mothers will be explored. PMID:19295618

  13. Russia s Putin Courts Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱多秀

    2000-01-01

    WithRussia'srelationshipwiththeUnitedStatessouring1,PresidentVladimirPutinistryingtoedgeclosertotheEuropeanUnionanduseitsgrowinginternationalclout2tooffset3Washington.BorisYeltsin,Putin'spredocessor4,mademuchofhisbackslapping5,first-name"BillandBoris"relationshipwithPresidentClinton-whichpaidoffinU.S.supportedloansandotheraid.ButtieswiththeUnitedStateshavefrayed6inrecentyearsoverissuessuchastheU.S.-ledbombingofYugoslaviaandU.S.allegations7ofRussiangovernmentcorruption.NowPutinislikelytofocusonstrengtheningt...

  14. PARALLEL IMPORT: REALITY FOR RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. А. Сухопарова

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem of parallel import is urgent question at now. Parallel import legalization in Russia is expedient. Such statement based on opposite experts opinion analysis. At the same time it’s necessary to negative consequences consider of this decision and to apply remedies to its minimization.Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy now

  15. Petroleum Tax Policy in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Yuri Bobylev

    2012-01-01

    Petroleum complex is Russia’s basic economic sector which is playing a leading role in providing the state budget revenues. This paper is dedicated to the main issues of the government petroleum tax policy in Russia. The author analyses the outcome of the implemented petroleum tax reform and possible measures designed for further taxation improvement in this sector.

  16. Artemia cyst production in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinenko, Liudmila I.; Litvinenko, Aleksandr I.; Boiko, Elena G.; Kutsanov, Kirill

    2015-11-01

    In Western Siberia (Russia) there are about 100 Artemia lakes with total area over 1 600 km2. Geographically these lakes are located between 51°-56°N and 61°-82°E. In general these lakes are shallow (depth less than 1.5 m), small or medium size (0.1 to 10 km2); they are chloride; their total salinity is from 40 to 250 g/L. The harvesting of cysts per year is only in 20-40 lakes. In Russia 550 tons of dry Artemia cysts (14%-18% of the world production) were harvested annually. This includes about 350 tons in the Altai region and 200 tons in other regions. During our regular 20-year study period the cyst harvest was: 95 tons in Kurgan; 65 tons in Omsk, 20 tons in Novosibirsk, 20 tons in Tyumen. Ways of increasing cyst harvest in Russia are considered in this article. During the last 30 years the harvest of cysts in Russia has increased from 7-20 to 500-600 tons. A significant influence of dryness of the year was found on productivity in selected lakes, but taken for all the lakes together, the relationship was not significant. The optimal salinity for productivity of cysts in the lakes was determined. Analysis of productivity of the lakes and the harvesting results showed that the stocks of cysts are underutilized by approximately 1.7 times.

  17. Turning around an ailing district hospital: a realist evaluation of strategic changes at Ho Municipal Hospital (Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kegels Guy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing consensus that linear approaches to improving the performance of health workers and health care organisations may only obtain short-term results. An alternative approach premised on the principle of human resource management described as a form of 'High commitment management', builds upon a bundles of balanced practices. This has been shown to contribute to better organisational performance. This paper illustrates an intervention and outcome of high commitment management (HiCom at an urban hospital in Ghana. Few studies have shown how HiCom management might contribute to better performance of health services and in particular of hospitals in low and middle-income settings. Methods A realist case study design was used to analyse how specific management practices might contribute to improving the performance of an urban district hospital in Ho, Volta Region, in Ghana. Mixed methods were used to collect data, including document review, in-depth interviews, group discussions, observations and a review of routine health information. Results At Ho Municipal Hospital, the management team dealt with the crisis engulfing the ailing urban district hospital by building an alliance between hospital staff to generate a sense of ownership with a focus around participative problem analysis. The creation of an alliance led to improving staff morale and attitude, and contributed also to improvements in the infrastructure and equipment. This in turn had a positive impact on the revenue generating capacity of the hospital. The quick turn around in the state of this hospital showed that change was indeed possible, a factor that greatly motivated the staff. In a second step, the management team initiated the development of a strategic plan for the hospital to maintain the dynamics of change. This was undertaken through participative methods and sustained earlier staff involvement, empowerment and feelings of reciprocity. We

  18. Functional Mapping of YadA- and Ail-Mediated Binding of Human Factor H to Yersinia enterocolitica Serotype O:3▿

    OpenAIRE

    Biedzka-Sarek, Marta; Salmenlinna, Saara; Gruber, Markus; Lupas, Andrei N.; Meri, Seppo; Skurnik, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is an enteric pathogen that exploits diverse means to survive in the human host. Upon Y. enterocolitica entry into the human host, bacteria sense and respond to variety of signals, one of which is the temperature. Temperature in particular has a profound impact on Y. enterocolitica gene expression, as most of its virulence factors are expressed exclusively at 37°C. These include two outer membrane proteins, YadA and Ail, that function as adhesins and complement resista...

  19. The Power of Mothers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    MOTHERS always give so much to their children. Regardless of how rich or poor they may be, or whether they are highly educated or not, all mothers guide their children by their own words and actions. Here, six famous figures share their thoughts on the power of mothers.

  20. 张爱玲创作“小气”局限探缘%Study on Psychological Grasp of ZHANG Ailing Creation Mean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王濯巾

    2014-01-01

    独特的家庭出身、痛苦的人生经历及深刻的生命体悟,成就了张爱玲的艺术人生,也使其创作存在着极大的局限性。根据马斯洛的需求层次理论,张爱玲创作局限性主要源于安全需要的刻骨缺失、归属需要的冷漠荒芜和爱的需要的极度匮乏,从这个角度对张爱玲的创作心理及作品的局限性能有更深切的理解。%Unique family background,the pain of life experience and profound life led to Zhang Ailing's art life,and brought her art and life great limitations also. Maslow's theory of hierarchy needs life interpretated Zhang Ailing's limitation,and also understand Zhang ailing creation can't transcend the limitations in later literature popular.

  1. Young carers as social actors: coping strategies of children caring for ailing or ageing guardians in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovdal, Morten; Ogutu, Vincent O; Aoro, Cellestine; Campbell, Catherine

    2009-08-01

    There is a vast body of research on the impact of HIV/AIDS on children, but little which acknowledges the role of children in providing care and support for ailing parents or ageing guardians. There has been a tendency to downplay the active role and agency of young carers, with young carers often represented as victims of damaging circumstances that compromise their psychosocial well-being. To counter-balance this tendency, and to develop the critical trend that views children as social actors, we explore how young carers cope with challenging circumstances, often with skill and ingenuity, drawing on data collected in Western Kenya in 2007. Forty-eight young carers (aged 11-17) used photography and drawing to provide accounts of their coping strategies. They described 240 of the resulting photographs and drawings in writing. In addition, 34 individual interviews and 2 group discussions were conducted with children to explore the findings further and 10 individual interviews with local adults were conducted to elucidate the dynamics between adults and children. Our data revealed that young carers cope by mobilising social support, engaging in income generating activities and constructing positive social identities around their caring roles. We conclude that children's ability to cope is determined by the extent to which they are able to participate in their community and negotiate support from it.

  2. Muslims in Contemporary Russia: Russia's Domestic Muslim Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Yilmaz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Islam and Muslim population is a fact of the Russian Federation. Today, a considerable number of Muslim people live in Russia mainly in Moscow, Volga region and North Caucasia. In addition, there are a large number of Muslim migrants coming mainly from Central Asian countries and North Caucasus in some of the Russian cities. Statistics show that while the general population of Russia has been in decline, that of the Muslims has been steadily increasing. According to some Russian politicians, this situation is an alarming one and poses a threat to the country. Russian government officially supports the traditional (loyal/official Islam represented by Council of Muftis of Russia. On the other hand, unofficial Islam, generally defined in terms of 'non-traditional' Salafi practice and movements, is viewed as the most significant threat to the integrity of the Russian state. Although there is a growing sentiment of xenophobia and Islamophobia among ethnic Russians, Russian government and its leaders do not approve this and frequently express their support for traditional Islam by stating that it is an indispensible component of Russian civilization.

  3. Geothermal energy utilization in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geothermal energy use is the way to clean, sustainable energy development for the world. Russia has rich high and low temperature geothermal resources and is making progress using them - mostly with low-temperature geothermal resources and heat pumps This is optimal for many regions of Russia -in the European part, in the Urals and others. Electricity is generated by some geothermal power plants (GeoPP) only in the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands There are two possible ways of using geothermal resources, depending on the properties of thermal waters heat/power and mineral extraction. The mineral-extraction direction is basic for geothermal waters, which contain valuable components in industrial quantities The most significant deposits of thermal waters represent the brines containing from 35 up to 400 and more g/l of salts. These are the minerals of many chemical dements. (author)

  4. HR technology in modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glinkina Ol'ga Vladimirovna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article made a study and analysis of the concepts «HR technology", "recruitment", "interview" and other terms of the application of the mechanism of HR technologies in modern Russian market of Russia. The scheme of decision-making in recruiting Russian companies and Western, identifies key differences. Fully described algorithm measures for staff selection western companies. The article also discusses the features of recruitment in relation to modern Western companies operating in the Russian market.

  5. Marketing for exhibitions in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Borodina, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to determinate how the European companies may market the international trade fairs in order to attract and serve Russian business customers. The aim was to find out what kind of marketing are tools available for small companies perceiving new market opportunities with Russian business market. The study was carried out by analysing the secondary sources and a massive corpus of publications related to marketing in Russia and exhibitions. The research method was c...

  6. Monitoring of Russia's Economic Outlook.

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Trunin; Mikhail Khromov; Alexander Deryugin; Andrey Kaukin; Sergey Tsukhko; Olga Izryadnova; Marina Turuntseva; Kirill Rogov; Georgy Idrisov; Sergey Drobyshevsky; Eugen Goryunov; Arseny Mamedov; Vasiliy Zatsepin; Olga Morgunova

    2015-01-01

    From mid-March, both government officials and experts stated speaking about signs of economic stabilization in Russia, first of all, about ruble stabilization and inflation rate. Most likely, impact of direct consequences of December 2014 currency crisis is weakening, indeed. However, indirect consequences of devaluation as well as reduction of oil receipts and sharp reduction of external financing of the economy have a long-term trend and their consequences, most likely, have reached its pea...

  7. Social Media Marketing in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Ageeva, Yu. A.; Zaviyalova, Zinaida Sergeevna; Агеева, Ю. А.; Завьялова, Зинаида Сергеевна

    2015-01-01

    The article focuses on using social media for business promotion. The authors analyze and compare the SMM experience in the western countries and Russia, give examples of failed promotion. A short review of Russian social networks are given including their peculiar features, which are important to consider when planning a SMM campaign. The main problems and perspectives of Russian SMM are described in conclusion of the article. In order to present the situation and specific of use of social n...

  8. Perspectives of Expanding Business into Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Samaeva, Naylya

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis was to analyze and evaluate the Russian market taking into account all its advantages and disadvantages and to find out whether it was profitable for the case company Hotel Vip Club International Oy to expand its business into Rus-sia. The study includes theoretical framework covering different essential theories and concepts, information about tourism and hotel related business in Russia, and the pecu-liarities of doing business in Russia including the analyses of t...

  9. Neopaganism and New Age in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Ferlat

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s various new pagan organisations have emerged in Russia. Religious phenomena known in Western Europe, such as the emergence of new religious movements, including the New Age, are also taking place in Russia. The article aims to find out whether the pagan movements in today’s Russia are related and if so, how they are related according to the comparative perspective explicated by Michael York, Paul Heelas and Wouter Hanegraaff.

  10. Space Policy Strategies and Priorities in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia Edelkina; Oleg Karasev; Natalia Velikanova

    2015-01-01

    This article explores new innovation policy measures aimed at ongoing transformation of the space industry in Russia. The current implementation of a wide range of state programs and presidential decrees helps to maintain the leading position of Russia in the space industry and expanding international cooperation. The main objective of the paper is to present the principal directions of space policy development in Russia, including its priorities and the tasks to be solved in the short and mi...

  11. Assessment of Ail Gene Marker Amplicon for Mo­lecular Characterization of Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in Food Samples Collected in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Khorramizadeh

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess the utility of the chromosomal ail virulence gene sequence for detection of pathogenic Yersinia en­terocolitica in raw meet food products (beef, lamb, and chicken. Methods: This study included 39 Yersinia enterocolitica positive cultures from suspicious food samples, in a working pe­riod of six months. These samples were referred to the "Food-Borne Diseases and Chronic Diarrhea Lab at Research Cen­tre for Gastric and Liver Diseases" of the Taleghani Hospital at Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Te­hran, Iran. Isolates from 8 cultured Y. intermedia, Y. aldovi, Y. intermedia type O:45, Y. kristensenii, Y. enterocolitica type O:12/26, Y. enterocolitica type1/7/8, Y. frederiksenii type O:39, and Y. enterocolitica type O:8 samples were in­cluded in the study. Four non-Yersinia species Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexeneri, and Proteus mirabi­lis were used for specificity testing. An established Yersinia type O:9 was used as positive control and for sensitiv­ity testing. An in-house real-time PCR assay was designed in order to rapidly and specifically identifies the pres­ence of specific Yersinia species. Results: Out of 39 tested Y. enterocolitica samples, 6(2.3% showed positive results for the ail gene PCR prod­uct, typed as O:8, and O:9, respectively. PCR products were sent for sequencing. Two sequences were registered with the Na­tional Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI Genbank as polymorphic ail gene sequences under the acces­sion numbers of DQ157767 and DQ003329. Conclusions: Collectively, this test is well adapted for definite confirmation of pathogenic Y. en­terocolitica in food sam­ples.

  12. Single Mother's Resource Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferando, Annette; Newbert, David

    Funded under the Women's Educational Equity Act, the Assertiveness Training Program for Single Mothers was offered to mothers with children enrolled in the Omaha Head Start and Parent-Child Center Programs. The 16-week long program, providing a total of 40 hours of training, covered a wide range of topics in addition to the initial workshops on…

  13. Single Mothers "Do" Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Margaret K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores how single mothers both incorporate others into family life (e.g., when they ask others to care for their children) and simultaneously "do families" in a manner that holds out a vision of a "traditional" family structure. Drawing on research with White, rural single mothers, the author explores the manner in which these women…

  14. RUSSIA AND ITS PIPELINE WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FODOR Cosmin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we intend to present the new power which is given to Russia upon EU due to her great natural resources and due to her control upon pipelines. Now Moscow can exert influence upon countries in Europe not through its revolutionary zeal and its tanks and army, but through its resources. And she knows how to use them and how make the EU dependent on her will: this is a new geopolitics, a 21-th century geopolitics, which is centered upon the control of gas pipelines in Central Asian states and upon EU states great dependence on Russian pipeline system.

  15. Aerospace Medical Support in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleberry, Tara; Chamberlin, Blake; Cole, Richard; Dowell, Gene; Savage, Scott

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the role of the flight surgeon in support of aerospace medical support operations at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), also known as Star City, in Russia. The flight surgeon in this role is the medical advocate for non-russian astronauts, and also provides medical care for illness and injury for astronauts, family members, and guests as well as civil servants and contractors. The flight surgeon also provides support for hazardous training. There are various photos of the area, and the office, and some of the equipment that is used.

  16. Energy Fuels Booming China-Russia Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the latest visit to Russia in mid-June this year, Chinese President Hu Jintao expressed that China is willing to strengthen cooperation with Russia and other energy-producing and energy-consuming countries to jointly safeguard the stability of world en

  17. 3D Cadastre modelling in Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandysheva, N.; Tikhonov, V.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Stoter, J.E.; Ploeger, H.D.; Wouters, R.; Penkov, V.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the on-going project on 3D cadastre modelling in Russia. The aim of this project is to provide guidance in the development of a prototype and to create favourable legal and institutional conditions for the introduction of 3D cadastre modelling in Russia based on experience of the

  18. Development of Energy Efficiency Indicators in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Russia is sometimes referred to as 'the Saudi Arabia of energy efficiency'; its vast potential to reduce energy consumption can be considered a significant 'energy reserve'. Russia, recognising the benefits of more efficient use of energy, is taking measures to exploit this potential. The president has set the goal to reduce energy intensity by 40% between 2007 and 2020. In the past few years, the IEA has worked closely with Russian authorities to support the development of energy efficiency indicators in Russia, critical to an effective implementation and monitoring of Russia's ambitious energy intensity and efficiency goals. The key findings of the IEA work with Russia on developing energy efficiency indicators form the core of this report.

  19. Reintegration of young mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Worthen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Young mothers seeking reintegration after periods of time spent livingwith fighting forces and armed groups face exclusion and stigmarather than the support they and their children badly need.

  20. World economy still ailing

    OpenAIRE

    Großer, Günter

    1983-01-01

    1982 was yet another year of international economic disappointment. The frequently forecast gradual recovery of demand and production during the course of the second half of the year did not materialise. In fact, Western Europe once again experienced another pronounced downturn. However, at least in the majority of leading industrialised countries, the conditions for growth have definitely improved. Will 1983 bear witness to the turning of the recessionary tide?

  1. Restoration of ailing wetlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswald J Schmitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely held that humankind's destructive tendencies when exploiting natural resources leads to irreparable harm to the environment. Yet, this thinking runs counter to evidence that many ecological systems damaged by severe natural environmental disturbances (e.g., hurricanes can restore themselves via processes of natural recovery. The emerging field of restoration ecology is capitalizing on the natural restorative tendencies of ecological systems to build a science of repairing the harm inflicted by humans on natural environment. Evidence for this, for example, comes from a new meta-analysis of 124 studies that synthesizes recovery of impacted wetlands worldwide. While it may take up to two human generations to see full recovery, there is promise, given human will, to restore many damaged wetlands worldwide.

  2. Nuclear weapons and NATO-Russia relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornwell, G.C.

    1998-12-01

    Despite the development of positive institutional arrangements such as Russian participation in the NATO-led peacekeeping force in Bosnia and the NATO- Russia Permanent Joint Council, the strategic culture of Russia has not changed in any fundamental sense. Russian strategic culture has not evolved in ways that would make Russian policies compatible with those of NATO countries in the necessary economic, social, technological, and military spheres. On the domestic side, Russia has yet to establish a stable democracy and the necessary legal, judicial, and regulatory institutions for a free-market economy. Russia evidently lacks the necessary cultural traditions, including concepts of accountability and transparency, to make these adaptations in the short-term. Owing in part to its institutional shortcomings, severe socioeconomic setbacks have afflicted Russia. Russian conventional military strength has been weakened, and a concomitant reliance by the Russians on nuclear weapons as their ultimate line of defense has increased. The breakdown in the infrastructure that supports Russian early warning and surveillance systems and nuclear weapons stewardship defense, coupled with a tendency towards has exacerbated Russian anxiety and distrust toward NATO. Russia`s reliance on nuclear weapons as the ultimate line of defense, coupled with a tendency toward suspicion and distrust toward NATO, could lead to dangerous strategic miscalculation and nuclear catastrophe.

  3. Russia's atomic tsar: Viktor N. Mikhailov

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minatom (Ministry of Atomic Energy) was created to manage Russia's nuclear weapons program in the age of disarmament. The ministry is responsible for the development, production, and maintenance of nuclear weapons, warhead dismantlement, the production of nuclear materials for weapons, the disposition of nuclear materials disassembled from warheads, the administration of Russia's vast nuclear weapons complex, the development of policy for the future role of Russia's nuclear complex and payment of employees entrusted with such tasks. Thus, Minatom is instrumental in the implementation of arms control, disarmament and nonproliferation agreements. The director of Minatom, Viktor N. Mikhailov, wields a great deal of power and influence over Russia's nuclear infrastructure. He is an important player amidst efforts to reduce the threats posed by Russia's decaying nuclear complex. There are certainly other personalities in the Russian government who influence Minatom; however, few affect the ministry as profoundly as Mikhailov. His ability to influence Russia's nuclear complex has been clearly demonstrated by his policies in relation to the US purchase of Russian highly enriched uranium, the planned fissile material storage facility at Mayak, materials protection, control and accountability programs, and his unwavering determination to sell Iran commercial nuclear technology. Mikhailov has also been a key negotiator when dealing with the US on issues of transparency of weapons dismantlement and fissile material disposition, as well as the use of US threat reduction funds. His policies and concerns in these areas will affect the prospects for the successful negotiation and implementation of future nuclear threat reduction programs and agreements with Russia

  4. Coolant technology experience in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early 1950s, the researches on substantiation of nuclear power facilities cooled with lead-bismuth eutectic alloy were started in Russia under the proposal made by A.I. Leipunsky. The choice of this alloy as a coolant was determined by its some positive physical-chemical thermal-physical properties. Low chemical activity of lead and bismuth at interaction of the alloy with air, water, steam excludes an opportunity of explosion and fire. The high level of coolant boiling temperature prevents an opportunity of its boiling in high power density parts of facility. The low working pressure in a coolant circuit increases a reliability and safety, simplifies a design and manufacturing of the equipment, essentially facilitates operational conditions of the equipment in the primary circuit

  5. Mothers with intellectual disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kolarič, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    For the theoretical part of this master's thesis foreign literature and finished foreign researches were studied. In this part of the thesis the characteristics of mothers with intellectual disabilities; factors, which influence the success of carrying out their mother role; and the rights of people with intellectual disabilities as parents, all based on Slovene legislation are included. We listed reasons for limiting reproduction for women with intellectual disabilities and issues concerning...

  6. Mothering to death

    OpenAIRE

    Meadow, R

    1999-01-01

    Three families are described in which the healthy only child was, from early childhood, put to bed and treated as if ill, dependent, and incapable. This abnormal mothering continued for 28, 45, and 48 years, respectively, and the children died as disabled adults. In each case, the three mothers evaded medical, educational, and social services. The origins of their behaviour are examined, and the links with more common forms of separation anxiety, school refusal, and perceive...

  7. Mothers, work and childcare

    OpenAIRE

    Ingrid Ooms; Evelien Eggink; Edwin van Gameren

    2007-01-01

    Original title: Moeders, werk en kinderopvang in model. The government wants women to go out to work more. The choices made by women between working and looking after children are accordingly receiving a great deal of attention. This report describes which factors influence these choices by mothers with young children. The analyses, which are based on the situation in 2004, show that the family situation and income of mothers plays a key role in their decisions on work and childcare. The cost...

  8. Oil Deals to Widen Trade Deficit with Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ The US$ 150 billion oil deal between China and Russia will expand bilateral trade and China's huge trade deficit with Russia, according to Chinese experts. China's exports to Russia may have increased rapidly in recent years but the nation is expected to see its trade deficit with Russia widen for the foreseeable future.

  9. Russia and Human Rights: Incompatible Opposites?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Bowring

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Article raises in his article “Russia and human rights: incompatible opposites?” the question, if the currently complicated relations between Russia and the CoE concerning Russia’s obligations under the ECHR are at breaking-point. In regard to this issue he gives a description of the history of law in Russia to prove the pre-existing tradition of argument about human rights.

  10. The Social Position of Schoolteachers in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'in, V. A.; Shabunova, A. A.; Leonidova, G. V.

    2013-01-01

    Research on the teaching profession in Russia shows that teachers are characterized by low pay and low prestige. There is an urgent need to change this situation if the modernization and innovative development of Russian society are to be achieved.

  11. Elections in Russia, 1991-2008

    CERN Document Server

    Treisman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I review the main trends in voting in national elections in Russia since 1991, discuss the evidence of manipulation or falsification by the authorities, and use statistical techniques to examine the determinants of voting trends.

  12. Professional development of social work in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to get an understanding about how the profession of social work explains its relevance and legitimacy in today's Russia, to enlighten the importance of socio-political, professional and educational contexts in explaining the societal position of the social work profession in Russia. This paper begins with the analysis of the processes of legitimization, professionalization and constitution of social work in today's Russia. In addition to functionalist and critical perspectives on these three processes, in its second part the paper employs phenomenological approach looking into everyday life theory of social work that is constructed in routine work at the social service agencies. The third part of this paper talks about the issues of social services and social work with family and children in contemporary Russia.

  13. Public health nursing education in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, L Louise; Paganpegara, Galina

    2003-07-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990 brought many changes to Russia, including changes in nursing education. However, the changes did not include content in public health nursing. Most health care in Russia is provided at the tertiary level in hospitals. Health promotion and health education are new concepts in Russia and are not well understood. When health education does occur, it is at the individual level, taught by physicians, and in response to new diagnoses. Health promotion at the primary level and with aggregates is not often practiced. Russia currently is in a demographic crisis where health indicators continue to decline. Russian nurses trained in public health principles, such as health promotion, health education, and providing primary and secondary prevention services at the population and aggregate level, can positively affect the current demographic crisis.

  14. Russia vows to end oil export tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that Russia will eliminate its oil export tax by 1994 and until then will allow some exemptions, Russian officials have assured a group of US tax specialists. They stopped short of saying it would be repealed by the end of the year, the Ken Crawford, a member of a Tax Foundation delegation visiting Russia and managing partner of KPMG Peat Marwick's Moscow office. The export tax was one of several tax related Russian economic issues on which the US experts and Russian officials exchanged views early this month. The 15 member delegation was in Moscow on invitation from Russia's Ministry of Finance and State Committee on Taxation to help develop guidelines for laws governing Russia's taxation of foreign investment. The US group was sponsored by the Tax Foundation, Washington, DC, a nonprofit, nonpartisan tax and fiscal policy research and public education group

  15. China, US, Russia Inaugurate Global Research Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China, the United States and Russia began on Jaunary 12 a global network for scientific research, the first of its kind in the North Hemisphere connecting major scientific centers such as Chicago, Moscow and Beijing.

  16. Russia-CERN: the solid collaboration continues

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    CERN and Russia have recently signed an extension to the 1996 protocol defining the Russian contribution to LHC construction. Russian scientists are taking part in the construction of the accelerator and are also extensively involved in building the detectors.

  17. Organizational aspects of management education in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnova Elena Viktorovna; Eroyan Asya Efimovna

    2015-01-01

    The article examines the main organizational aspects of the education sector in Russia. Organizational management is concerned, above all, the quality of education and methods of evaluation. The analysis of national education policy.

  18. The Comparison between Zhang Ailing and Liao Huiying Love Marriage%张爱玲与廖辉英爱情婚姻观的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晨光

    2015-01-01

    张爱玲与廖辉英作为两岸文坛具有代表性的女作家,她们虽以不同的姿态在文坛上崭露头角,却把目光共同聚焦在对婚姻的思考。透过张爱玲与廖辉英的创作,我们可以看到她们作品背后反映的两岸不同的社会文化环境以及两岸作家不同的人生经历。就创作的相同之处而言,两位女作家都认同世俗功利的婚恋观,认为乌托邦式的精神之爱无法存活在现实生活中;与此同时,小说对婚姻中爱情的看法和把握婚姻的态度方面也表现出创作的差异性。通过比较研究,让我们对张爱玲和廖辉英的爱情婚姻观有了更深层的认知。%Zhang Ailing and Liao Huiying are one of literary representative on both sides of the Taiwan female writer, although they are in a different position in the literary world,they all focus on marriage. Through the cre⁃ation of Zhang Ailing and Liao Huiying, we can see their works reflecting on both sides of the different social and cultural environment and different life experiences on both sides of the writer. In terms of writing in common, the two women writers agree that secular utilitarian marriage, concept of the utopian spirit love can't survive in the re⁃al life;At the same time, the novel view of marriage of love and marriage has also showed the differences of cre⁃ative attitude. Through the comparative study, we strengthen the concept of Women love marriage between Zhang Ailing and Liao Huiying.

  19. Staff Training for Nanoindustry in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Sidorov Sergey Grigoryevich

    2015-01-01

    The nanotechnology industry represents such a direction of the development of science, technologies and industries by means of which Russia will be able to achieve advanced positions in the world. For the last decade the necessary regulatory base for nanotech industry development was created in the country, beginning with the concept of nanotechnological works, and the strategy of nanotech industry development, and finishing by the program of nanotech industry development in Russia till 2015....

  20. Review of Labor Market in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Kamaseva; E. F. Salyakhov; A. L. Halikov; A. V. Fakhrutdinova

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to the detailed characteristic of a current state of the labor market in Russia. It analyses thegender and age structure of the population and gender and age structure of economically active population. Theeducation level of the working people is considered in gender aspect. It reveals that shares of women and men inthe labor market in Russia with sufficient education are not equal. People with the higher or secondaryprofessional education (28,9 and 27,5% respectively) ...

  1. Risks of Public Service Reform in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Alexey Barabashev; T. Zaytseva; Mihail Krasnov; Alexander Obolonsky

    2007-01-01

    Public service reform in Russia is inevitable, otherwise the problems will continue to pile up for public service and this may result in further public administration deterioration. But how to tackle these problems and how to conduct public service reform? Should the world experience be applied or not? It seems that the Russian experience of the past decade gave the answer. The initial attempts to reform public service in Russia are already based on the world experience, with parts of it appl...

  2. Social Pedagogy in Russia: Trends, Problems, Ideas

    OpenAIRE

    Sorochinskaya, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The given paper is concerned with holistic approach to social pedagogy in Russia. Itcovers the key trends in development of social pedagogy over the last 25 years. The main objective of the given paper is to give coverage to the researches that make significant contribution to development of social pedagogy in Russia. The author of the article highlights the key directions ofthe researches in the domain of social pedagogy,such as providing scientific grounds forthe new direction of pedagogica...

  3. A Common Currency for Belarus and Russia?

    OpenAIRE

    Vassili Prokopenko; Etibar Jafarov; Anne Marie Gulde

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses costs, benefits, and implementation challenges of a possible currency union between Belarus and Russia. It shows that Belarus and Russia are economically closely linked but nevertheless do not fulfill all "optimal currency area" criteria, especially the macroeconomic symmetry condition. Furthermore, we argue that the different speeds of economic liberalization over the past decade have resulted in different economic structures, with Belarus still dependent on monetary fin...

  4. Russia's energy policies and Ukraine's NATO candidacy

    OpenAIRE

    Imblum, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    NATO enlargement and the European Union's growing dependence on external energy supplies controlled by Russia have simultaneously developed into crucial security issues in Europe. The emerging interaction between Alliance enlargement and energy policies may yet affect Ukraine's future relationship with NATO as well as Russia and even determine which direction NATO takes regarding Ukraine's candidacy for membership. As the leading natural gas exporter with the largest proven gas reserves i...

  5. Is Russia Sick with the Dutch Disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria Dobrynskaya; Edouard Turkish

    2009-01-01

    Despite impressive economic growth between 1999 and 2007, there is a fear that Russia may suffer the Dutch disease, which predicts that a country with large natural resource rents may experience a de-industrialisation and a lower long term economic growth. We study whether there are symptoms of the Dutch disease in Russia. Using Rosstat and CHELEM databases, we analyse the trends in production, wages and employment in the Russian manufacturing industries, and we study the behaviour of Russian...

  6. Enterprise systems in Russia: 1992-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataev, Michael Yu; Bulysheva, Larisa A.; Emelyanenko, Alexander A.; Emelyanenko, Vladimir A.

    2013-05-01

    This paper introduces the enterprise systems (ES) development and implementation in Russia in the past three decades. Historic analysis shows that, in terms of time frame, the development of ACS (Automated Control Systems) in the former Soviet Union and the ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) in the West was almost parallel. In this paper, the current status and the major trend of ES in Russia is discussed.

  7. History of earthquake studies in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Tatevossian, R.

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the completeness of modern knowledge on historical seismicity it is necessary to know the general geopolitical and socio-cultural background in the country. It determines the possibility to record the evidence of an earthquake and conserve the record in original form for a long time-period. The potential duration of historical earthquake study in Russia is assessed based on these considerations. Certain stages of earthquake study in Russia have been detected. Specific problems ...

  8. Cost Accounting in Russia: Historical Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolov, A. Y.; Ch. Z. Bikmukhametova

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to retrospective analysis of development stages of the system of cost and managementaccounting in the USSR and Russia. The features of full costs accounting method used in Russia have beenconsidered, comparative analysis of the given method and that of absorption costing has been performed. Theproblems of implementation of management accounting techniques have been studied. Particular attention ispaid to study of the early stages of production accounting development.

  9. US DOE International energy policy on Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, B.G.

    1996-04-01

    This report describes the importance of the United States Department of Energy`s (US DOE) International Energy Policy to Russia. Key objectives identified include the support of the transition to democracy and a market based economy. The U.S.interests at stake, importance of energy to Russia, key institutional mechanism, energy-policy committee, joint energy activities, and the key to the success of other U.S. policy are discussed.

  10. Renewables in Russia. From opportunity to reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Russia is rich not only in oil, gas and coal, but also in wind, hydro, geothermal, biomass and solar energy - the resources of renewable energy. However, fossil fuels dominate Russia's current energy mix, while its abundant and diverse renewable energy resources play little role. What are the near- and medium-term opportunities for renewables in Russia? What preconditions are necessary to draw renewables into the energy mix to complement Russia's other ample energy resources? Russia's renewables can cost-effectively provide energy services where conventional forms are expensive. Whether it is geothermal resources in the Far East or North Caucasus, bio-energy resources from the vast territories, or hydro from the many watersheds, established renewable technologies can cost effectively supplement energy from fossil fuels. At the same time, new renewables such as wind and solar energy can serve remote populations and in the right circumstances, provide energy at competitive prices on the grid. This report demonstrates that renewable energy can offer a real means to address some of Russia's energy and economic challenges. It identifies the first steps toward creating a Russian renewables market and will contribute to a better understanding by both Russian and international industry, of the potential for profitable renewables projects, and the incentive to start undertake them.

  11. Russia needs the Subjective Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Z. Gontcharov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the comparative analysis of different kinds of philosophic thinking, the paper reveals the advantages of subjective philosophy – the most adequate universal essentiality of socialized human being, opening the prospects for Russia as the creative society of cultural spontaneous activity. Objective principle of thinking is limited by the logic of outward definition. According to the above logic, people are regarded as tiny parts of social mechanism, the objects of manipulation. Separating action from spontaneous activity, object changes from self-alteration of human subject, executive functions from norm-creating ones brings about alienated practices and such social situation that makes individuals perceive their own existence as alien non- existence, or opposing existence.Subjectivity is a form of social activity regarding individuals and groups according to their ability in self-definition, self-organizing, self-control, norm-creating, as well as their actual rights and duties in social spheres of needs and objectives, and their feasible power over forces of nature and society. Subjective philosophy perceives the material production as the means for cultivating wholesome and spontaneously active individuals due to educational fundamentality and cultural prosperity. Accordingly, accumulation of capital turns into accumulation of culture and personal creativity growth. The results of the undertaken analysis and its conclusions can be implemented in developing creative anthropological bases for philosophy, pedagogy, psychology, economics, political science, as well as the relating discipline teaching. 

  12. The Chinese Tiger Mother

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Hołówka

    2011-01-01

    In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive...

  13. Factors affecting the healthcare-seeking behavior of mothers regarding their children in a rural community of Darjeeling district, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilanjana Ghosh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : An ailing, unresponsive health system and the existing social complexities, with considerable contextual differences, are all pervasive in India. In health, these are manifested as differences in morbidity and mortality, severely affecting child health and survival. Objectives: To find out the possible factors affecting the health-seeking behavior of mothers with regard to their children, in a rural community of Darjeeling district, and the reasons for not seeking curative care for perceived sick children. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, community-based study among the mothers of the Naxalbari Block was undertaken, using a multistage random sampling technique, from June to August 2011, by using the questionnaire method. A total of 256 mothers (sample size were studied. Results: Joint family structure, mass media exposure, literacy status, socioeconomic status of mothers, and gender differences among children were found to be significantly associated with the healthcare-seeking behavior of the mothers. Conclusion: Increasing maternal education, intensified awareness generation through the mass media approach, implementing gender-sensitive interventions, and counseling, may have positive implications in future, leading to better health outcomes and favorable health indicators.

  14. Why Russia is not a state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, J.E.

    1993-08-16

    This article makes two principal points. First the author argues that the Russian federation has never been a state and is not sustainable as a state. Four centrifugal indicators are presented to support this claim: ethnic divisiveness; uncertainty about the legitimacy of Russia`s current borders; competing claims for legitimacy on the part of federal and regional leaders; and army units` unpredictable allegiances. Second, she argues that Soviet policies intended to facilitate central control of the periphery had the perverse effect of creating ethnic identity and demands for national autonomy where, in many cases, they did not exist prior to the Communist regime. Following the introduction, part one briefly reviews the concepts of state, nation, and nationalism and the roles they play in Russia. Criteria for state-hood are discussed. Part two lists the main ethnic groups in Russia and considers the roots of ethnic nationalism in the Russian Federation. Part three discusses confusion over the legitimacy of the physical, economic, and political boundaries of the Russian Federation. Part four discusses political disarray in the center and the regions and the lack of unity among order-enforcing entities. The Volga-Ural region -- where there is a large concentration of nuclear weapons and facilities, and which is especially volatile politically -- is discussed in somewhat more detail. Part five argues that these factors taken together call into question Russia`s identity as a state. The author concludes that Russia remains a multi-ethnic empire in which the rule of law is still not supreme.

  15. Energetic dialog EU and Russia slows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    European Union maintains an individual dialog with Russia about cooperation in energy sphere since joint summit in Paris in October 2000. Both sides agreed there to create four export groups: for energy strategy, investments, infrastructure and technologies, efficiency and ecology. European Union expects that Russia will unequivocally take over the obligations by creation of suitable climate for investors. European Union considers as key preconditions the restructuring of the largest national monopoles. These conditions are also the important component of asking strategy of EU by the discussions about integration of Russia to WTO. One of the most important requests of Brussels is the restructuring of Gazprom concern, what means its division to mining and transport part. Russian part refuses all steps in this sphere. Author analyses the strategic interests of Russian government and of president Putin by planning and mining of oil and gas as like as by investments to the pipelines and gas lines. International Energetic Agency (IEA) assumes that the investments to oil and gas mining in Russia will be around 330 million USD till 2030. The similar situation is also in oil sector. More than half of huge oil deposits with the highest output are already mined. The oil mining in Russia reached 421 million tons in 2003. According to pessimistic estimations the gas mining will reach from 550 to 560 billion m3 in the following decades, according to optimistic scenario it can reach up to 730 billion m3 per year. In this case the netto export of oil from Russia could rise from present around 175 billion m3 to 280 billion m3 in 2030. IEA warns that these plans should be fulfilled only if massive foreign investments enter this sector. IEA also warns before concerns of investors about Russian legislation, property protection, cooperative regulation and transparentness of undertaking. Proposed pipelines among Russia, Near East, Africa and European Union are shown

  16. Mothers in Honors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killinger, Mimi; Binder-Hathaway, Rachel; Mitchell, Paige; Patrick, Emily

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the experiences of four honors mothers as they offer sage advice. They argue convincingly that they are motivated, focused students who bring rich diversity to college programs. They further report disturbing marginalization and isolation that could be ameliorated with support and increased sensitivity on the part of…

  17. Mothers, work and childcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingrid Ooms; Evelien Eggink; Edwin van Gameren

    2007-01-01

    Original title: Moeders, werk en kinderopvang in model. The government wants women to go out to work more. The choices made by women between working and looking after children are accordingly receiving a great deal of attention. This report describes which factors influence these choices by mothers

  18. My Mother and Me

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGQIAN

    2003-01-01

    I was born in 1982, in the Yimeng mountain area of Shandong Province, one of the poorest regions in east China. The local people there till have a feudalistic mentality,md firmly believe that men are superior to women. Living in such an environment, my mother and I have had to struggle hard to live a decent life.

  19. Our Mother Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, Sherry; And Others

    Developed to provide an understanding of the magnitude of the role of corn, referred to as Mother Corn in the cultures of the Seneca, Pawnee, and Hopi tribes, the student text provides information on the tribes' basic lifestyles and the way they grew and used corn in three different parts of the United States. The section on the origin of corn…

  20. Information for Working Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Kristen S.

    2002-01-01

    Women are entering, staying, or returning to the workforce following childbirth in increasing numbers. They report various amounts of success in the workplace after they become mothers. This column presents a review of five Web sites that provide useful resources to working Moms.

  1. Space Biology in Russia Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, Anatoly; Sychev, Vladimir; Ilyin, Eugene

    At present space biology research in Russia is making significant progress in several areas of high priority. Gravitational biology. In April-May 2013, a successful 30-day flight of the biological satellite (biosatellite) Bion-M1 was conducted, which carried rodents (mice and gerbils), geckos, fish, mollusks, crustaceans, microorganisms, insects, lower and higher plants, seeds, etc. The investigations were performed by Russian scientists as well as by researchers from NASA, CNES, DLR and South Korea. Foton-M4 carrying various biological specimens is scheduled to launch in 2014. Work has begun to develop science research programs to be implemented onboard Bion-M2 and Bion-M3 as well as on high apogee recoverable spacecraft. Study of the effects of microgravity on the growth and development of higher plants cultivated over several generations on the International Space Station (ISS) has been recently completed. Space radiobiology. Regular experiments aimed at investigating the effects of high-energy galactic cosmic rays on the animal central nervous system and behavior are being carried out using the Particle Accelerator in the town of Dubna. Biological (environmental) life support systems. In recent years, experiments have been performed on the ISS to upgrade technologies of plant cultivation in microgravity. Advanced greenhouse mockups have been built and are currentlyundergoing bioengineering tests. Technologies of waste utilization in space are being developed. Astrobiology experiments in orbital missions. In 2010, the Biorisk experiment on bacterial and fungal spores, seeds and dormant forms of organisms was completed. The payload containing the specimens was installed on the exterior wall of the ISS and was exposed to outer space for 31 months. In addition, Bion-M1 also carried seeds, bacterial spores and microbes that were exposed to outer space effects. The survival rate of bacterial spores incorporated into man-made meteorites, that were attached to the

  2. Alteration and Significance of Th17 RelatedCytokines of Patients with Chronic HBV Infection%慢性HBV感染者血清IL-17A,IL-6与TNF-α水平变化及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄书明; 吴玉兰; 陈琳; 汪美华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the role of helper T lymphocyte associated factors such as IL-17A,IL-6 and TNF-α in the pathogenesis of chronic HBV infection.Methods Specific cytokines of helper T lymphocyte such as IL-17A,IL-6 and TNF-α in serum of 37 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB),40 patients with chronic liver cirrhosis (LC),10 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 13 healthy examined people [as normal controls (NC)] were measured by Cytometric Bead Array.The level of three cytokines were analysised and showed the relationship between the level and the class of child-pugh and the relationship of three factors.Results The concentration of IL-17A, IL-6 and TNF-α of patients with CHB and LC were higher than that of NC.The level of IL-17A,IL-6 of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were higher that of normal control.The level of IL-17A,IL-6 and TNF-α was closely related to the class of child-pugh.Three cytokines had significant correlation.Conclusion The level of IL-17A,IL-6 and TNF-α may play the important role in the progress and prognosis of CHB and LC.The level of these three cytokines can be used as a marker to determine the degree of liver cirrhosis.%目的 探讨辅助性T细胞17(Th17)相关因子IL-17A,IL-6与TNF-α在慢性HBV感染者发病过程中的作用.方法 采用流式细胞小球微阵列术(cytometric bead array,CBA)检测37例慢性乙型肝炎(CHB组)、40例乙型肝炎肝硬化(LC组)、10例肝癌(HCC组)患者和13例健康体检者[正常对照(NC)组]血清中IL-17A,IL-6与TNF-α水平,并比较3种细胞因子水平在LC Child-pugh分级中的作用;分析3种细胞因子水平相互间的相关性.结果 CHB组和LC组血清IL-17A,IL-6与TNF-α水平均明显高于NC组,HCC组血清IL-17A,IL-6水平均明显高于NC组.3种细胞因子水平均与LC Child-pugh分级密切相关.3种细胞因子水平相互间有显著相关性.结论 3种细胞因子水平可能在CHB,LC患者病情的进展以

  3. Economics of the Kyoto Protocol for Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golub, D.D.; Strukova, E. [Environmental Defense, Washington, DC (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The authors propose a careful analysis of the economic consequences of the Kyoto Protocol for Russian economic recovery. They review a different GHG forecasts for Russia and develop a new forecast for uncertain GDP growth and the changing elasticity of GHG emissions per GDP. As the rate of growth remains uncertain, elasticity could change over time, as well as the fuel mix. They apply the Monte-Carlo method to simulate these uncertainties and to produce a reasonable interval for CO{sub 2} emissions in 2010. The probability of Russia exceedings its Kyoto emissions budget is essentially zero. They also discuss the benefits for Russia from the Kyoto Protocol, and more generally from the implementation of GHG mitigation policy. Ancillary benefits from Kyoto Protocol implementation will bring essential reductions in risk to human health. On the other hand, potential negative changes in the fuel mix and GDP structure, as well as a slowing of the innovation process, could exacerbate the existing health problems. Alternatives to the Kyoto Protocol may bring much tougher commitments to Russia. In conclusion the Kyoto Protocol is the best possible deal for Russia. 24 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Russia-Georgia Conflict and Beyond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Yujun; Ma Zongshi

    2008-01-01

    Yet another Post 9/11 historical event indicating a significant turning point in the Post-Cold War era, Russia-Georgia conflict represents a remarkable change in the international strategy of a resurgent Russia. It also signifies that former Soviet republics are still groping for a new identity and that a new round of realignment will persist in the vast Eurasia region. The conflict reveals declining U.S. global control, flawed European integration, and NATO embarrassment. To a certain extent, it exposes chaos brought about by international nonpolarity and world governance vacuum. It also highlights what serious consequences can a double standard inflict on the principles of international law. A reasonable arrangement for global security and economic growth is therefore challenging the resolve and wisdom of international strategists. Actually fierce geopolitical rivalry for energy resources is at work behind the Russia-Georgia conflict. This will further compound the international energy strategic environment.

  5. Features of Russia migration policy in the 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morozov Sergej

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main directions of Russia migration policy after the Soviet Union collapse. The analysis of the dynamics of the accommodation of refugees and internally displaced people on the territory of Russia is made.

  6. Environmental security: The problems of Northwestern Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review of main existing environmental problems of North-West Russia covers the radioactive pollution, atmospheric pollution, destroying of the tundra and forest ecosystems, inland and water pollution, consequences of space activities. This region includes: Karelia and Komi republics; Yamalo-Nenetzk autonomous region; Murmansk; Leningrad and Vologda regions; White Sea; Southern and eastern parts of Barents Sea; eastern part of Kara Sea; and eastern part of the Baltic (Finnish Bay). The environmental situation in northwestern Russia is extremely unsafe. The fundamental reason for this situation is Soviet over-militarization in the past. There is an urgent need now to tackle the international environmental security in the Arctic and Scandinavian regions at least in two fields: 1. The existing radioactive pollution (mostly connected with military activities), and even more dangerous - the potential radioactive pollution of the Arctic and Scandinavia. 2. Atmospheric pollution (long distance transportation of pollutant, mostly sulphur dioxide and heavy metals, from melting factories on Kola Peninsula). Several other problems relating to the environmental security of the region (among them deforestation, oil/gas pollution of the ocean, development of the diamond industry) need international attention in the nearest future. It is unrealistic to think that Russia alone can overcome these long-standing problems in the foreseeable future: we need international support for this. But foreign money for solving our environmental problems is not the solution, firstly, because for environmental restoration and recovery Russia needs much more than the international community can allocate; secondly, because there is much money inside Russia (every month, during 1993-1996, up to two billions US dollars were flowing out from Russia to western banks). To utilize this money in a proper way, we drastically need international help to awaken the Russian public environmental awareness

  7. Russia needs a strong counterpart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper an interview with the head of OMV, Wolfgang Ruttenstorfer is published. There is extract from this interview: Q: There have been attempts to take over MOL for a quite long time. Do you think you can still succeed? Since the beginning we kept saying that this would not happen from one day to another. But it may take two to three years. But we are positive that it is justified. Q: Resistance from MOL and the Hungarian government is strong. We have tried to persuade the Hungarian government. We offered them a split company management. A part of the management would be in Budapest. We would locate the management of the largest division - the refinery, there. And of course only the best could be part of the management. We would not nominate people according to their nationality, it would not matter whether the person was Austrian, Hungarian or Slovak. We want a Central European company, not Hungarian, Romanian or Slovak company. Q: Would the transaction still be attractive if, because of pressure exercised by Brussels, you had to sell Slovnaft or your refinery in Szazhalobatta? We do not intend to sell any refineries. Q: Rumours are spreading that the Commission may ask you to sell a refinery? We do not want to speculate. Let us wait and see what happens. We do not want to sell refineries. Q: It is said that OMV is coordinating or at least consulting its attempts to acquire MOL with Gazprom. There are many rumours in Central Europe. But I can tell you this is not true. We are interested in this merger because we feel the increasing pressure exercised by Kazakhstan and Russia. We, of course, have a good relationship with Gazprom which we have had enjoyed for over forty years. As indeed Slovakia has. Q: A few weeks ago Austrian daily Wirtschaftsblatt published an article about Gazprom's interest in OMV shares. That is gossip that is more than ten years' old. Similarly to the rumours that Gazprom is a shareholder of MOL. There are no negotiations with Gazprom

  8. Parenting attitudes of addict mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellisch, D K; Steinberg, M R

    1980-08-01

    Parenting attitudes of female heroin addicts were investigated in a single factor design which compared addict mothers, addict non-mothers, nonaddict mothers, and nonaddict nonmothers. A principal components factor analysis was performed on the PARI and used as the dependent measure. A factor labeled "authoritarian overinvolvement" emerged which significantly differentiated between groups. Further, the effects of mothering and addiction proved to be additive such that addict mothers were extremely high on this scale. This result was discussed in terms of the parental home environment of addict women.

  9. United States/Russia Space Cooperation Documentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This video documents the initiative to develop a multinational, permanent space research laboratory. Historical background on the U.S. and Soviet manned space flight program as well as joint efforts such as the Apollo-Soyuz link up is shown. The current initiative will begin with collaborative missions involving NASA's space shuttle and Russia's Mir space station, and culminate in a permanently manned space station involving the U.S., Russia, Japan, Canada, and ESA. Shown are computer simulations of the proposed space station. Commentary is provided by the NASA administrator, former astronauts, cosmonauts, and Russian and American space experts.

  10. The NATO-Russia Council - a Success?

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    After the end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, NATO and Russia concluded that «they no longer regarded each other as adversaries» (NATO, 1997).They also soon began a gradual rapprochement. In 1997, the Founding Act was created, and in 2002, the NATO-Russia Council (NRC) was established. The aim of the NRC was to treat the actors as equal partners, build trust, practical cooperation and become the main forum for crisis and security consultation between NATO and ...

  11. Russia flexes muscles over oil and gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2006-10-15

    A new militancy is emerging from Moscow in dealings with foreign companies operating in Russia. The government has severely criticized a number of international oil companies engaged in major oil and gas developments, including Shell, ExxonMobil, BP and Total. In several cases, the companies have been told that their environmental plans covering the development of new fields are unsatisfactory. The latest arguments concern two large oil and gas developments on the Pacific island of Sakhalin. The environmental criticisms, however, are simply the outward sign of a growing sentiment inside Russia that foreign companies have been granted lucrative upstream opportunities on terms that are much too favourable to them. (author)

  12. TB an epidemic in Russia's prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Over 100,000 prisoners are infected with tuberculosis (TB) in Russia, which has the highest incarceration rate in the world. Drug-resistant TB is found in thousands of inmates, and approximately 20,000 have died from it within the past 2 years. Although the country now has 50 centers for TB-infected prisoners, many are not being cured because of medicine shortages and failure to complete treatment. Up to 25 percent of TB infections found in Russian jails are multi-drug resistant, as opposed to 4 percent in Russia's general population and under 2 percent in the United States. PMID:11367347

  13. Russia's Nuclear Forces: Between Disarmament and Modernization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear weapons have traditionally occupied an important place in Russia's national security strategy. This tradition goes back to the Soviet times, when the country invested considerable efforts into building its nuclear arsenal and achieving strategic parity with the United States. As Russia and the United States have been reducing their nuclear arsenals since the end of the Cold War, their relationship has undergone a complex transformation toward cooperation and partnership mixed with suspicion and rivalry. The focus of Russia's nuclear policy, however, has remained essentially unchanged - it still considers strategic balance with the United States to be an important element of national security and pays considerable attention to maintaining the deterrent potential of its strategic forces. Russia does recognize the emergence of new threats - it cannot ignore the threats related to regional instabilities and conflicts on its own territory and in bordering states, such as the tensions in the Caucasus or the war in Afghanistan, the terrorist activity that is associated with these conflicts, as well as the problems that stem from nuclear and missile proliferation. These, however, are not given a high priority in Russia's security policy. For example, the new military doctrine adopted in February 2010, opens the list of military threats with the expansion of geographical and political reach of NATO, which is followed by the threat to strategic stability and then by deployment of missile defense. Nuclear proliferation, terrorism, and destabilizing local conflicts are placed much further down the list. Even when it comes to confronting the issues of local instabilities and terrorism, Russia's leadership tends to see these issues through the prism of its strategic strength, alleging that terrorist attacks are a reaction to Russia's perceived weakness. This way of looking at the issues effectively redefines national security problems to conform to the traditional view

  14. The NATO-Russia Council: current political and juridical perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Iulia IULIAN

    2015-01-01

    After the end of the Cold War, an important element of the European and international security structure is the cooperation between NATO and Russia in security and stability fields. NATO had the initiative to develop security organizations to approach Russia and create a partnership. The best security structure is represented by the NATO-Russia Council, a form of cooperation between a state, Russia and an international alliance, NATO. After being institutionalized a collaboration, with some i...

  15. International grain markets: Russia as a new power?

    OpenAIRE

    Glauben, Thomas; Pàll, Zsombor; Perekhozhuk, Oleksandr; Prehn, Sören; Teuber, Ramona

    2012-01-01

    Russia, a former net importer of wheat, has developed into one of the leading actors in the world wheat market within the last decade. Forecasts suggest that Russia's share in the world market may increase even further and Russia might become the world's largest wheat exporter by 2020. One key research question resulting from this development is whether Russia could use its newly-gained market position in order to exercise market power or price discrimination. This issue could be of particula...

  16. A Letter to Mother

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    MOTHER, I remember the day I left you to emigrate to the United States. We were hugging sadly in your room while the taxi waited to take my husband, my son and me to the airport. My heart was broken by the thought that I might never see you again. On the plane, I could hear your voice : "" Do not worry about what you have left behind. Look forward and be a strong woman.

  17. Bioenergy Development in Russia. Comparison of the North-West of Russia and Finland.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakitova, Olga (National Bioenergy Union, Saint-Petersburg, 197183 (Russian Federation)). e-mail: rakitova@newc.ru; Mutanen, Keijo (Joensuu Regional Development Company JOSEK Ltd, FIN-80110 Joensuu (Finland)). e-mail: keijo.mutanen@josek.fi

    2008-10-15

    Russia owns the largest natural gas, the second largest coal and the third largest oil reserves in the world. Russia is the third largest energy user and the largest producer of oil and gas in the world. Export of oil and gas plays a major role in the economic development of the whole Russia. Wood harvesting and processing industry responds only 4,4 % of the industrial production although Russia owns 23 % of the world's forest resources. Biomass represents only 1 % of the total energy consumption including residential use but hydro power represents about 18 % of Russia's electricity generation. Russia needs three times more energy to produce one unit of GDP than e.g. EU. This indicates very poor energy efficiency and poor conditions of the energy and the whole infrastructure as well. Simultaneously the prices of fossil fuels and electricity are heavily subsidized. These basic figures give on idea why utilization of renewable energy and especially biomass play a minor role in Russian energy system. One of the most progressive regions in bioenergy is the Northwest of Russia. The first pellet and briquette plants were installed in this region a few years ago. The region can be regarded as the forerunner in bioenergy in Russia. Federal Region of Northwest Russia consists of City of St.Petersburg, Republics of Karelia and Komi and regions of Leningrad, Arkhangelsk, Kaliningrad, Murmansk, Nenetsk, Novgorod, Pskov and Vologda. The region has 15 million inhabitants and a 2200 km long joint border with the EU, most of that with Finland. N-W Russia owns over 14000 million m3 of raw wood that represents 17 % of Russian forests and 60 % of the forests located in the European side. Potential for annual harvesting is over 100 million m3 while harvesting is about 45 million m3. Most of that is exported as a form of raw wood. Wood represents only 2,8 % of the region's energy use including residential usage. Use of peat is marginal representing only 0,1 % of the

  18. Qualities of adolescent mothers' parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, P L; Matthews, K L; Felice, M E

    1994-03-01

    This study examined the interrelations among adolescent mothers' parenting attitudes, parenting confidence, and parenting stress and the potential differences in these dimensions by mothers' age, race, and parity, and age and sex of child. Subjects were 119 former adolescent mothers (mean age = 20.2 years) from predominantly poor, minority backgrounds (50% Hispanic, 27% African American, 17% non-Hispanic White). All subjects completed questionnaires about their parenting qualities twice an average of 10 weeks apart. All children were at least 1 year of age (mean age = 37.2 months; range 12-50 months). Subjects' parenting attitudes were assessed by the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory, a 32-item questionnaire. The Maternal Self-Report inventory was used to assess the mothers' self-esteem or their confidence in the mothering role. To assess the stress experienced with parenting, the Parenting Daily Hassles scale was used. Results indicated that for some mothers there exists a triple jeopardy of low parenting confidence, high parenting stress, and inappropriate parenting values. Mothers who reported feeling high parenting stress had low confidence in themselves as mothers, low empathy to their children's needs, and low acceptance of their children. Mothers who were older at the time of the study placed greater value on physical punishment and had less confidence in their caretaking abilities. Young maternal age at delivery and young maternal age at the time of this study were associated with low child acceptance. Non-Hispanic White mothers had significantly more favorable parenting values (greater empathy to child's needs and less value of physical punishment) than did African-American and Hispanic mothers, and African-American mothers reported significantly greater caretaking confidence than did Hispanic mothers. No parity or sex of child effects were found. These results suggest the presence of meaningful patterns of convergence and within-group variation for

  19. Chinese Students in the Higher Educational Institutions of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aref'ev, A. L.

    2012-01-01

    There has been an increase in the number of students from China studying in Russia, but still less than 2 percent of Chinese who study abroad do so in Russia. A third of these students would not encourage others to do so, on the grounds that educational conditions are not good and that they feel unwelcome in Russia. Most of these students…

  20. The Chinese Tiger Mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Hołówka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive. Chua shows this educational model as a contrast to the Western model, where the children have their own, naive and sentimental culture, their own shops and catwalks in shopping malls. The results of systematic research on education seem to prove something quite different. The educational success has to be measured using different scales, because it depends on different factors. The data published by OECD show that the level of education depends on the educational tradition of the society, level of GDP, intergenerational contacts, level of education of teachers and their social status. A strong determiner is the family, but not necessarily the mother. Even more, there is a strong correlation between the results in learning and a supporting stance of the parents, but also with their habit of spending free time with their children. The parents who take their children to the cinema, an a trip, gossip with them or take them to McDonalds, can be sure that their children will have statistically higher than the average grades. Detailed results from other sources show that success correlates the most with grades from previous class, parents’ habit of talking about things at school, higher education of the parents, being a child of a single mother, signing the child up for extracurricular classes from music and the mother working part-time. Failure correlates with being an Afro-American or Latino, checking homework by parents, free time after school without

  1. “妇人性”--从《流言》看张爱玲对女性形象的重塑%"The woman"--From"gossip"to see Zhang Ai-ling reshapes the image of female

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕

    2013-01-01

      二十世纪上半叶的女性书写和书写女性是一时之潮流,但是很多作家笔下的女性形象都带有神化或者男人化的味道。张爱玲在散文集《流言》中却塑造出了一种迥异他人的女性形象。本文试图从张爱玲在散文集中提出的“妇人性“入手,探索张爱玲所塑造的一个享受世俗乐趣,体味人生悲凉,有着些许缺点的真实的、立体的女性形象,观察张爱玲是怎样做到女性形象的重塑。%In half of twentieth Century the female writing and female is a trend, but the female image have a myth or man of taste by many writers. Zhang Ai-ling creates a different female images of others in prose"gossip". This paper tries to focus on the"woman"to start from in the Zhang Ai-ling essay, explore a enjoy earthly pleasures created by Zhang Ai-ling, and the taste of life, has some disadvantages of the real, three-dimensional image of women. Observe Zhang Ai-ling how managed to reshape the image of women.

  2. Formation of tax culture in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halikova Je.A.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the mechanism of the formation of tax culture in Russia, moral and ethical principles, on which based the work of the tax authorities, given the author's idea of the formation of tax culture. We consider the institution of tax advice, its interaction with the tax authorities and its impact on the formation of tax culture.

  3. 77 FR 12880 - Uranium From Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... on July 1, 2011 (76 FR 38694) and determined on October 4, 2011 that it would conduct an expedited review (76 FR 64107, October 17, 2011). The Commission transmitted its determination in this review to... COMMISSION Uranium From Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject...

  4. 76 FR 47238 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ...)). Background The Commission instituted this review on March 1, 2011 (76 FR 11273) and determined on June 6, 2011 that it would conduct an expedited review (76 FR 34749, June 14, 2011). The Commission transmitted... COMMISSION Ammonium Nitrate From Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the...

  5. 76 FR 11273 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... nitrate from Russia (71 FR 17080). The Commission is now conducting a second review to determine whether... recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request for information is... (65 FR 37759, June 16, 2000). Following five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission,...

  6. Life-Threatening Sochi Virus Infections, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Detlev H; Tkachenko, Evgeniy A; Morozov, Vyacheslav G; Yunicheva, Yulia V; Pilikova, Olga M; Malkin, Gennadiy; Ishmukhametov, Aydar A; Heinemann, Patrick; Witkowski, Peter T; Klempa, Boris; Dzagurova, Tamara K

    2015-12-01

    Sochi virus was recently identified as a new hantavirus genotype carried by the Black Sea field mouse, Apodemus ponticus. We evaluated 62 patients in Russia with Sochi virus infection. Most clinical cases were severe, and the case-fatality rate was as high as 14.5%.

  7. Russia's Precious Metals Market: Condition and Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOTLYAR A. Yu.

    2012-01-01

    The region of existence of phases in equilibrium with the solid solution based on palladium.Presented to analyze the current situation in the market of precious metals in Russia.Provides information about the production and processing of precious metals.Prospects for the most likely path of development of the Russian market of precious metals.

  8. A Survey of Corporate Governance in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Lazareva; Andrei Rachinsky; Sergey Stepanov

    2007-01-01

    In this survey, we describe the current state of corporate governance in Russia and discuss its dynamics and prospects. We review the main mechanisms of corporate governance in the country and relate them to firms’ ownership structures, financial market development and government influence. Finally, we discuss the current trends in Russian corporate governance and its prospects.

  9. Legal reality of Russia: constants and variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Valeryevich Skorobogatov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to develop the sciencebased knowledge about essential and substantial aspects of the current legal reality of Russia in the context of postclassical paradigm. Methods the methodological basis of this research is the synthesis of classical and postclassical paradigms that determine the choice of specific methods of research formallegal comparative legal modeling method hermeneutic discursive methods. Results basing on the postclassical methodology it is proved that the legal reality of Russia consists of three levels legislation law enforcement and legal behavior. The determinant level of legal reality is legal behavior that is aimed at observing the unwritten rules. The legal reality of Russia is characterized by a transgressive state of the modern Russian society expressed in broad application of nonlegislative nonlegal practices low level of legal culture legal nihilism and legal infantilism. Scientific novelty the article for the first time analyzes the ontological and phenomenological essence of the legal reality in Russia and determines its transgressive nature at the present stage of development. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity when considering questions about the nature and content of legal development. nbsp

  10. Libraries at "the End of Russia."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronayne, Betty

    2000-01-01

    Describes the library at Far Eastern State Technical University in Vladivostok (Russia) based on a visit that was part of a collaborative project with California State University, Sacramento. Highlights include staffing; problems with funding, space, and technology; library collections in the Department of World Politics and Law; and the nearby…

  11. An Overview of Teacher Education in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, William E.

    This paper describes the experience of an educational psychologist who completed a Fulbright Lectureship at Moscow State Pedagogical University in Russia during April and May of 1993. The chaotic situation brought about by the dramatic and rapid changes that have taken place since the collapse of the Soviet Union has resulted in hyperinflation,…

  12. Formation of tax culture in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Halikova Je.A.; Ginijatullina D.R.

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the mechanism of the formation of tax culture in Russia, moral and ethical principles, on which based the work of the tax authorities, given the author's idea of the formation of tax culture. We consider the institution of tax advice, its interaction with the tax authorities and its impact on the formation of tax culture.

  13. Europe, Russia and the Ukraine Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Jeppe Damgaard; Pedersen, Jonas Gejl; Götz, Karl Elias Immanuel

    2015-01-01

    Da Institut for Statskundskab på Aarhus Universitet afholdt konferencen ”Europe, Russia and the Ukraine Crisis”, blev der præsenteret en række forskellige forklaringer på, hvorfor forholdet mellem Rusland og Vesten har udviklet sig, som det er tilfældet samt, hvordan Vesten fremadrettet på...

  14. Safety of political communication in modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morozov Ilya Leonidovich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes transformation of the new threat in the information area. The author requests for discussion the various models of information security of Russia in the modern world. The article includes recommendations and proposals aimed at strengthening the security of the democratic state.

  15. Who pays for the sanctions on Russia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giumelli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The EU’s sanctions on Russia mark the low point in relations between Brussels and Moscow since the end of the Cold War. Though there is a fierce debate over the impact of these sanctions on the Russian economy, much less attention is paid to their cost to EU Europe.

  16. The economics of smoking in Russia: evidence from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE)

    OpenAIRE

    Quirmbach, D.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis contributes to our understanding of tobacco consumption, one of the leading causes of premature mortality in Russia. While smoking has received less attention in the literature compared to hazardous alcohol consumption in Russia, it is increasingly the focus of government policy, as illustrated by a restrictive anti-smoking law which was passed in 2013 and which, among other things, foresees substantial tax increases, some of which have already been introduced. The few studies exa...

  17. Probe into Zhang Ailing's Ugly Aesthetic Art from "Red Rose and White Rose"%从《红玫瑰与白玫瑰》探讨张爱玲丑的审美艺术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗红霞

    2014-01-01

    张爱玲是我国现代文学史上的“异数”,她笔下主要描写了在封建传统文化与现代思想交织下普通男女的情爱生活。张爱玲以其独特的创作风格和以丑为美的审美风格刻画了许多行为诡异、心理变态的人物形象,揭示了现实生活中人性深处最真实的一面。小说《红玫瑰与白玫瑰》中男女主人公的际遇反映了张爱玲丑的审美艺术及其创作心理。%Zhang Ailing is a special writer in China's modern history of literature. In her works, she mainly describes the ordinary men and women's love life under the interwoven of feudal traditional culture and modern thought. Zhang Ailing depicts so many psychopath characters with weird behavior using her unique creating style and ugly aesthetic style, revealing the truest things in the depths of human nature in real life. The story of the hero and heroine in "Red Rose and White Rose" reveals Zhang Ailing's ugly aesthetic art and her creating psychology.

  18. [Labor migration to Russia from nearby countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasinets, E; Barinova, N

    1996-01-01

    According to official data the unemployment rate in the Russian Federation at the end of the first half of 1995 reached 5.7 million people, or 7.6% of the economically active population. At the present time [1996] the proportion of potentially unemployed people ranges from 13% to 17% of the economically active population. During 1993-95, in the whole economy of Russia, the number of vacancies fluctuated between 320,000 and 400,000. Moreover, in the first quarter of 1995 an increase of manpower needs by 14% was observed compared to the first quarter of 1994. In the first half of 1995 the manpower needs increased to 311,000-400,000 people, or 43.1%. As far as the regional distribution of available jobs was concerned, one-fifth of them was located in the Urals and western Siberia and about one-third in the central region. In order to protect the labor market for Russian natives, in December 1993 a presidential decree was issued. At the end of 1994 the number of foreign workers in Russia numbered 128,999 people, of which 73,695 (58.9%) came from adjacent countries bordering Russia. Experts ascertained that these foreign workers provided higher qualifications: 47.2% were better qualified than the local work force, 75% were more productive, and 83.2% were more disciplined. The labor migration in Russia during the 1990s will depend on the demographic and socioeconomic changes in the newly independent states of the former Soviet Union and the composition of the labor market, as well as measures taken in Russia concerning immigration policy. It is estimated that in the coming years the annual number of foreign workers would equal 110,000-130,000 people, and if quotas are set up by mutual agreement the number could grow two- to three-fold compared to the figure of 1994. PMID:12294931

  19. Promoting sustainable energy strategies in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R.K.

    1995-12-31

    Enormous structural changes are taking place in the economy of Russia. It is important that vital sectors of the economy undergo a smooth transition from a centrally-planned paradigm to a more market-oriented structure. Introducing market-oriented-institutional structures and energy planning approaches to Russian utilities can facilitate the transition to the market and allow them to become vehicles for change rather than mere witnesses. As real electricity prices increase relative to other prices, a significant industrial restructuring can be expected, with an accompanying reduction of energy consumption. By developing programs to help industry become more energy-efficiency, the electricity sector can play a central role in Russia`s economic recovery. A robust energy sector will be in a much better position to lead other sectors of the economy toward market-oriented solutions to the present economic crisis. Because of the magnitude of the task of recreating an economy for one of the world`s superpowers, institutional restructuring should take place incrementally. The transition of US utilities from a {open_quotes}build-and-grow{close_quotes} paradigm to one of Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) and subsequently to a hybrid of competition and IRP began and is continuing on the state and regional level. Local success stories on the West Coast and New England persuaded other states to adopt these methods. This strategy could also prove to be very effective in regions of Russia that are served by integrated electricity grids, such as the South Russia Power pool (Yuzhenergo) that serves the North Caucasus region. As the Russian energy system currently undergoes change, simultaneously privatizing and restructuring, these issues will be largely decided within the next two years. One of the greatest challenges involves implementing an environmentally sustainable strategy which ensures that energy efficiency and renewable energy are incorporated into the new structure.

  20. Emigration from Russia: New Trends and Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Alekseyevich Iontsev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject-matter of this article is migration from Russia. The study deals with current aspects and new forms of emigration. The goal of this paper is to identify new patterns determining the emigration from Russia. The article views the emigration in a broad sense, including, in addition to classic emigration (i.e. leaving the home country for permanent residence in another country, various categories of return migration (labor migration, shuttle traders, seasonal migration, episodic migration, economic tourism, business migration, education abroad, etc.. With the emergence of these new forms and categories, there is a need to clarify the migration concepts. This analysis is built on a broad historical perspective on emigration, which has been a typical phenomenon for Russia over the last three centuries. The article is based on such economic theories, as the human capital theory, new economic theory of migration, Todaro’s economic theory of migration and other. In this article, a variety of methods are used, including historical analogy, statistical and mathematical approaches, sociological and econometric models. The article analyzes the patterns of modern emigration from Russia. It also considers certain aspects in the legal regulation of migration processes, with a focus on emigrants, including potential emigrants. In conclusion, the article notes the need for the state control of emigration processes. This means not so much the improvement of statistical records for this group of migrants, but rather specific government measures aimed at providing the state support to these categories of migrants in order to prevent the nonreturn migration. In other words, it is not aimed at banning the emigration (a measure, the adverse effects of which were noted as long ago as by Mikhail Lomonosov, but at providing the state support to these categories of migrants in order to prevent the non-return migration. The findings of this research can be

  1. Epidemiology of cardiovascular malformations among newborns in Monchegorsk (north-west Russia: a register-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly A. Postoev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cardiovascular malformations (CVM are one of the most prevalent groups of birth defects. Knowledge about the prevalence, distribution and survival in Russia has been limited. The aim of our study was to assess the perinatal prevalence, structure and risk factors for CVM among newborns in Monchegorsk (Murmansk Oblast, Russia and the mortality among the affected newborns in the period 1973-2008. Design and methods. A register-based study on data from the Kola and Murmansk County Birth Registers. The study included 28,511 births. Results. The registered perinatal prevalence was 3.0 per 1000 newborns, with septal defects as the most prevalent. CVM was twenty times more prevalent among stillborn than live born, and one-third of the live born with a CVM died during the first week of life. The perinatal mortality rate with CVM was 442 per 1000 newborns. This indicator decreased over time. The mothers of newborns with a CVM were ten times more likely to have stillbirth in their anamnesis. The adjusted odds ratio between maternal smoking during pregnancy and CVM was 4.09 [95% confidence interval: 1.75-9.53]. Conclusions. The diagnosed perinatal prevalence was relatively low. A previous stillbirth by the mother was highly associated with being born with a CVM. An adjusted elevated risk was also observed among smoking mothers. Perinatal survival increased over time, but varied to a large extent between the different types of CVM.

  2. Investigations regarding vitalization and revitalization of ailing spruce stands by mycorrhiza inoculation. Untersuchungen zur Vitalisierung und Revitalisierung erkrankter Fichtenbestaende durch Mykorrhizaimpfung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuestenhoefer, B.

    1989-01-01

    In an experimental site with an ailing spruce stand the question was investigated whether vitalization of the spruces could be achieved by inoculation with mycorrhiza fungi and/or by implanting beech trees that carry mycorrhizas. In order to create better soil conditions for the mycorrhization experiments, a number of the plots were treated with different fertilization variants. Application of two mycorrhiza fungi was by spraying of spores and/or intermediate planting of mycorrhiza-supported beeches. The effects of the activities were controlled both by vegetation and fungus mappings and by soil and root analyses. In the fertilized plots, notable changes as to the quantity of plants and spectrum of species were observed. The number of the species of mycorrhiza fungus remained relatively constant. But in the fertilized plots, distinctly less fruit-bodies were counted. Altogether, the activities resulted in a significant change in the amount of mycorrhizas at the roots of spruces. Over the next years, the applied fungi are expected to establish themselves firmly by added spore formation. (JH).

  3. Women's lives, mothers' health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauliac, M; Masse-raimbault, A M

    1985-01-01

    This document dealing with women's lives and the health of mothers identifies factors conditioning the health and nutritional status of women and girls (life expectancy at birth, maternal mortality rate, and the birthrate); considers nutritional requirements of pregnant and lactating women, weight gain during preganncy, mothers' age and number of children and interbirth interval, maternal nutritional status and breastfeeding, anemia, work and women's health, pregnancy in adolescents, abortion, the growth of small girls and its effect on future pregnancies, and sexual mutilations; and reports on actions aimed at improving the health of women as well as health problems facing rural women. The 3 key concepts of this reflection on women's lives are: women's health should be taken into account as well as children's health; the development of the whole human being should be respected, implying ongoing surveillance of the health status of women and of their children; and the overall living conditions of women within the family and society must be analyzed at the different phases of their life, so as to encourage integrated actions rather than various uncoordinated efforts. Women's health status, like the health status of everyone, depends on a multitude of socioeconomic and sanitational factors. A figure illustrates several of the many interrelations between the various factors which influence the nutritional status of all individuals. Women of childbearing age are at greater risk than other population groups, due to their reproductive function and their ability to nurse children: pregnancy, like lactation, generates metabolic changes and increases nutritional needs. Delivery itself presents a series of risks for the woman's health, and only regular surveillance of pregnancy may prevent many of these. A woman's health status and, most of all her nutritional status during pregnancy and delivery, condition her future health and ability to assume her many tasks as well as

  4. Development of radiobiological dentistry in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    History of the radiological dentistry progress in Russia from the first report on the application of biomedical radiography techniques to dental practice in Russia in 1901 is briefly described. The first special X-ray room was open in 1921 in Petrograd. First scientific papers and guides on the radiological dentistry made their appearance. The second period in the development of Russian radiological dentistry was connected with the World War 2 and wounds of maxillo-facial wounds. Postwar time is characterized by application of the novel techniques, wide range of scientific researches in the radiological dentistry. The modern history of radiological dentistry began from 1983 due to computerized tomography used in case of malignant tumors of maxilla and nose cavity

  5. Electronic geothermal atlases of Asian Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Albert DDuchkov; Michael Zheleznjak; Ludmila SSokolova

    2014-01-01

    Generalized geothermal data was used to produce two electronic atlases for Asian Russia, Geothermal Atlas of Siberia (GAS) (1995-2000) and Geothermal Atlas for Siberia and Russian Far East (GASRFE) (2009-2012). The atlases include heat flow maps, temperatures at depths of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5 km and lower boundary of permafrost. Quantitative values of pa-rameters are presented as isolines (GAS) and symbols (GASRFE). GAS website is located at the Trofimuk Institute (www.ipgg.sbras.ru/ru/institute/structure/geophysics/natural-fields). GASRFE provides the most complete geothermal data on Asian Russia, which has been growing for the last 50 years, and is published on the Internet at http://maps.nrcgit.ru/geoterm. In this atlas, data about the depth of permafrost lower boundary ("zero"isotherm) are pre-sented for the first time.

  6. Integaration capacity of Kazakhstan and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saule Auganbaevna Kalieva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Within this article, the analysis of various theoretical approaches to assessment of international integration is carried out (3 blocks of criterions of degrees of countries integration are allocated: degree of involvement of nationaleconomy into international trade, degree of participation of national economy at the international movement of production factors and level of economic development of the country as well as the author's approach is offered to assessment of level of trade integration of Kazakhstan and Russia on the basis of following coefficients: coefficient of preference, coefficient of mutual preference and coefficient of relative preference. The approach offered by the author to an assessment of the international economic cooperation, in particular trade integration of Kazakhstan and Russia, can be used for the analysis of bilateral cooperation within the SCO, the CIS, the Eurasian economic community and other integration groups.

  7. History of earthquake studies in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tatevossian

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the completeness of modern knowledge on historical seismicity it is necessary to know the general geopolitical and socio-cultural background in the country. It determines the possibility to record the evidence of an earthquake and conserve the record in original form for a long time-period. The potential duration of historical earthquake study in Russia is assessed based on these considerations. Certain stages of earthquake study in Russia have been detected. Specific problems of seismicity studies of low active areas are discussed as an example of Russian platform. The value of each (even moderate magnitude event becomes crucial for seismic hazard assessment in such territories. A correct identification of event nature (tectonic earthquake or exogenous phenomena - landslides, karsts, etc. is practically impossible without using primary sources with detailed descriptions. Occurrence of modern earthquakes can be used to assess the accuracy of historical seismicity knowledge.

  8. Russia and Ukraine: Media Literacy Education Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Fedorov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For many decades of the Soviet period the development of media education in Russia and Ukraine has been practically coinciding. Media educational lessons (mainly on the material of cinematography and the press were of optional and focal character and depended on the enthusiasm of certain teachers. In theory and methodology the aesthetic and practical approaches predominated. In the 1960es – 1980es the most active was the Kiev group of Ukrainian film educators. Besides study groups, elective courses (aesthetic approach and film/photo/video studious, school and university amateur newspapers and magazines (practical approach media education was developing in an integrating form – within the compulsory subjects as literature, history, Russian, Ukrainian and foreign languages. The situation changed in modern times: Russia is leading in media education literacy researches, and Ukraine - in the practical media education in schools.

  9. Adolescent Mothers Leaving Multigenerational Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlander, Sarah E.; Shebl, Fatma M.; Magder, Laurence S.; Black, Maureen M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how the developmental processes of autonomy and relatedness are related to changes in the residential status of 181 first-time, adolescent, urban, low-income, African American mothers over the first 24 months postpartum. Although adolescent mothers were eager to live independently, few made a clear transition out of the…

  10. Like Mother,Like Daughter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    On the road to maturity, one's parents always have a great degree of influence. Yang Yuying, a young singer, attributes much of her success to her mother Xiong Yonghong. The hard working mother has exerted an imperceptible influence on her daughter's attitude to life with her traditional Chinese virtues.

  11. Where's the Feminism in Mothering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcy, Catherine; Turner, Colleen; Crockett, Belinda; Gridley, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This article is a reflective narrative bringing together personal, collective, and action learning reflections from three women: all mothers, feminists, and community psychology practitioners. Its focus on mothering highlights the interconnectedness and tensions across these roles, as well as the shared learnings arising from this collaboration.…

  12. Adolescent Mothers' Adjustment to Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Valerie Jarvis; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined adolescent mothers' adjustment to parenting, self-esteem, social support, and perceptions of baby. Subjects (n=52) responded to questionnaires at two time periods approximately six months apart. Mothers with higher self-esteem at Time 1 had better adjustment at Time 2. Adjustment was predicted by Time 2 variables; contact with baby's…

  13. RUSSIA IN MYTHS AND IN REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Solovey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Among both Russian and international authors there are wide-spread stereotypes regarding typical values of Russians. However, sociological studies on systems of values and patterns of behaviour frequent among citizens of Russia contradict with the myths of special “Russian path”. Domination of the “ideals of achievement” in Russian places it in line with other European countries.

  14. Has Banks’ Financial Intermediation Improved in Russia?

    OpenAIRE

    Fungachova, Z.; Solanko, L.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the increasing importance of banks in the Russian economy over the period following the financial crisis of 1998. We use several measures to assess the role of banks in domestic financial intermediation in Russia. The traditional macro-level view is complemented by the analysis of sectoral financial flows as well as by insights from micro-level studies. All of these confirm that banks are becoming increasingly important in financial intermediation. We find ...

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT TOOLS: INTERNATIONAL PRACTICIES FOR RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Smetanina, T.; Pintassilgo, P.; Matias, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the basic tools of environmental management applied by developed countries and discusses its application to Russia. The focus is on environmental management instruments such as environmental taxes, subsidies, standards, permits and also on the important role of voluntary tools. Russian practice is analyzed in terms of the current environmental management situation and the prospects of necessary legislative actions. The article refers to the formation of the basic parts...

  16. Regional out-migration patterns in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Brunarska, Zuzanna

    2014-01-01

    Russian society has been perceived by many scholars as relatively immobile. Migration abroad is indeed not as common in Russia as it is, for example, in Ukraine or Moldova, whose citizens migrate abroad in large numbers to improve their living standards. Leaving aside the deliberations whether Russians are less mobile than other big world populations this text concentrates on differences between Russian regions in patterns of mobility focusing on migration outflows. Given the size of the coun...

  17. Corruption and extortions : extortion groups in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    This research is devoted to the Extortion Groups (EG) activities as the appeared substances and substitutes to the law system in Soviet Union and Russia further. Such establishments are considering as the transition process product. The appearance of these groups is due to the perishing of the old-type Soviet economy and transition shocks in connection with the job losing and unrequired men s work force especially under the situation which was between two points of time after Afganistania...

  18. Unwritten rules of HR management in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Stepanova, N. A.; Степанова, Н. А.

    2013-01-01

    In spite of the fact that Western companies have been actively developing the Russian market over the last twenty years, they are still faced with the Soviet-era heritage in human resource management. This paper gives an overview of the common Soviet human resource practices of the past. Understanding traditional human resource practices in the Soviet Union prior to the end of communism will help practitioners to design human resource management systems for Russia more efficiently today. More...

  19. Russia and Ukraine: Media Literacy Education Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorov, Alexander V.

    2012-01-01

    For many decades of the Soviet period the development of media education in Russia and Ukraine has been practically coinciding. Media educational lessons (mainly on the material of cinematography and the press) were of optional and focal character and depended on the enthusiasm of certain teachers. In theory and methodology the aesthetic and practical approaches predominated. In the 1960es – 1980es the most active was the Kiev group of Ukrainian film educators. Besides study groups, elective ...

  20. Oil and Gas Industry in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanov, Nikita

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the thesis is to identify the role of oil and gas industries for the Russian economy. Describe problems and benefits that energy sector brings to the economy. Determine main threats and opportunities for oil and gas industries. Firstly, it presents overview of Russian economic situation including performance of its oil and gas industries and theory of Dutch disease. Secondly, the thesis focuses at world gas and crude oil deposits in the world with the emphasis on Russia. It presen...

  1. COMPULSORY INSURANCE OF CIVIL LIABILITY IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the main trends of compulsory insurance of civil liability in Russia : problems, trends and prospectsInsurance of civil liability – one of the popular forms of distribution and security in the world. The essence of compulsory insurance of civil responsibility is to protect the property interests of individuals. The development of liability insurance goes along with technological progress and reinforced by various laws and regulations, it touches almost all areas of life.

  2. Russia's strategic forces: policy, evolution and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The well-know 1980 joke, according to which the Soviet Union was nothing else than Upper Volta armed with nuclear missiles, was literally not quite correct. On top of its nuclear missiles, the former Soviet Union had a lot of nuclear and conventional submarines, combat aircraft, tanks and other deadly weaponry. Yet it was true that the global ambitions of the high military commanders, the captains of the Soviet military-industrial complex, and the CPSU chiefs burdened the weak Soviet economy. In fact, military related expenditures, mounting up to 25 percent of the USSR GDP, were among the most fundamental causes of the Soviet economic and political collapse. By the 1990, the joke had become even more credible. Yeltzin Russia, affected by severe economic and social crises, kept only two attributes of its former superpower status: a seat on the UN Security Council and a substantial yet decreasing nuclear arsenal. Russia recent economic revival and political transformation, from the embryonic and chaotic democracy of Yeltzin into an authoritarian regime pillaring itself on the security sector and the post-Soviet bureaucracy, provoke critical questions in regards to the nation future role in the emerging international system, primarily in the Eurasian region. Two of these questions are whether Russia will be able to maintain the world second largest strategic nuclear arsenal, and how Russia ruling class will view the roles and missions of nuclear weapons. To answer these questions it is necessary to assess (a) the governmental policy that determines the development of Russian nuclear force; (b) the structure and quantity of the current nuclear force; and (c) the capacity of missile and submarine-building industries. (author)

  3. The development of stock experience in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    FEDORENKO A.O.

    2015-01-01

    The securities market plays a very significant role in the modern economy. At the same time, in Russia its specific characteristics are determined by the fact that it has been developing during the period of active economic and other reforms. This had had a strong impact on the functions and operations of the market. The article deals with the history of major patterns of development of the Russian securities (stock) market and with its current condition.

  4. Russia's Debt Crisis and the Unofficial Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Schrooten, Mechthild; Lusinyan, Lusine; Heinrich, Ralph P.; Buch, Claudia M.

    2000-01-01

    Russia's foreign debt problems worsened substantially after the financial crisis of 1998. The paper focuses on the key role of the government in servicing foreign debt and promoting institution building by showing how foreign debt influences the choice between official and unofficial taxation. The enterprise sector is assumed to reallocate its resources between domestic investment and capital flight. It is discussed under which conditions debt rescheduling may create incentives for the govern...

  5. 共表达口蹄疫病毒O型P1-2A-IL-18基因和Asia Ⅰ型P1-2A-3C基因重组鸡痘病毒的构建%Construction of Recombinant Fowlpox Virus for Co-expressing P1-2A-IL-18 Gene of Foot-and-mouth Disease Virus FMDV Type O and P1-2A-3C Gene of FMDV Type Asia Ⅰ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷长维; 胡博; 马鸣潇; 金宁一; 霍晓伟; 李太元; 鲁会军; 郑敏; 常巧呈; 于长勇; 牟伟峰

    2008-01-01

    目的 构建共表达口蹄疫病毒(FWDV)O型P1-2A-IL-18基因和Asia Ⅰ型P1-2A-3C基因的重组鸡痘病毒.方法 将酶切得到的FWDV O型P1-2A-IL-18基因和Asia I型P1-2A-3C基因克隆至鸡痘病毒表达载体pUTAL上,构建重组鸡痘病毒转移质粒pUTAL-P1-2A-3C-P1-2A-IL-18,与鸡痘病毒(FPV)282 E4株共转染鸡胚成纤维细胞(CEF),通过BrdU 3次加压筛选.挑选出单克隆重组病毒株,进行RT-PCR及间接免疫荧光(IFA)鉴定.结果 重组鸡痘病毒转移质粒pUTAL-P1-2A-3C-P1-2A-IL-18经双酶切鉴定证明构建正确.经RT-PCR和IFA鉴定,证明所筛选的重组鸡痘病毒在CEF中能正确表达P1-2A-3C-P1-2A-IL-18基因盒.结论 已成功构建了共表达FMDV O型P1-2A-IL-18基因和Asia Ⅰ型P1-2A-3C基因的重组鸡痘病毒.

  6. Russia: Development Aid Policies and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beletskaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available After more than twenty years of independence, Russia has recovered from economic and political shocks and demonstrates its commitment to gain new political and economic role in the global development aid architecture. International development assistance provided by Russia to other countries has increased from USD 100 million in 2004 to USD 610 million in 2013. The Concept of Russia's participation in the international development assistance, approved in 2007 and updated in 2014, outlines Russia’s priorities in the international aid sphere. Based on review of this concept, available official statistics and expert estimates, this paper provides qualitative and quantitative analysis of the dynamics and perspectives of Russia’s transformation from the international aid recipient into one of the donor countries. The results indicate that there is a large gap between Russia’s political ambitions and actual development aid policies; moreover, there is a shift towards a “soft power” concept in political decision making. At the same time, the potential of Russia’s embedding into the international development aid system remains high.

  7. Nuclear power development in Russia. Russia's energy industry preparing for the free market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy industry in Eastern Europe is preparing for the free market economy. The ambitions goal is to get fit and prepared for joining the free market economy as a competitor, and within the shortest possible time at that, struggling against the sharp wind of change that will blow, and trying to make the best of actually very unfavourable economic and political conditions. Priority has been given to privatisation of power plants and electricity networks, and to a speedy connection to the Western grids. However, all parties concerned are well aware that this task cannot be accomplished out of Russia's own resources alone. Whether the economy in Russia can be put on a stable footing and develop stable structures will depend on the development and efficient use of nuclear power, as the most important resources of Russia's energy industry are concentrated in the eastern part of the country, while 70% of electricity generation and demand is concentrated in the European part. (orig.)

  8. Policy in Transition. New Framework for Russia's Climate Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2000, Russia entered the second round of radical reforms of its economic and political system. These changes affect the institutions of the macro- and microeconomic policy, of the energy policy, as well as the institutions of the climate policy. Thus, the framework is currently being built in Russia within which the Climate Convention and the Kyoto Protocol are being and will be implemented. Success, or failure, in Russia's interactions with the international community in implementation of the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol would depend, particularly, on whether it would be able to establish renovated climate policy institutions in the nearest future. Main provisions of the Kyoto Protocol open good perspectives for the climate policy of Russia. For these favourable perspectives to become a reality, Russia will have to accomplish quite a lot at the domestic, national level. Here, Russia is facing some serious problems. Among them are recently emerged problems with ratification of Kyoto Protocol

  9. 林黛玉与张爱玲苍凉悲观心态比较%Comparison of the Pessimistic Mentality of Lin Daiyu and Zhang Ailing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧萍

    2015-01-01

    Lin Daiyu and Zhang Ailing, ancient and modern respectively, but are both related to literature. There are a lot of similarities in their origins, character, love and fate. They lived in a turbulent and backward age or family with similar wandering life experiences. In spite of the shocks and setbacks, they still have the courage to stick to their own personalities and ideals. They dedicated their lifetime with true temperament to the practice of their own life philosophy. However, the huge pressure of reality made them hard to get rid of the constraints and bondage, ending up with his own life to produce numerous moving elegy, which became an integral part of Chinese literature history.%林黛玉与张爱玲,两人虽一古一今,但都与文学相关,而且两人的出身、性格、爱情、命运都有着很大的相似性,都身处多事之秋且日渐凋零的时代或家庭,家国衰落动荡的命运及辗转飘泊的人生经历对她们所造成的影响也是极为相似. 尽管面临种种打击和挫折,但她们仍勇于坚持着自己的人格和理想,她们的一生都在用真性情来实践着自己的人生理念.然而现实的巨大压力却让她们无法摆脱种种束缚,最终用自己的生命演绎了一曲曲动人的悲歌,成为我国文学史上不可或缺的一笔.

  10. CRFA President Chen Yuan Leads Delegation to Visit Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen; Guangmei

    2015-01-01

    The year 2014 marked the 65th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic ties between China and Russia as well as establishment of the China-Russia Friendship Association(C R FA).The success ful meeting between Chinese President Xi Jinping and Russian President VladimirPutin in May of the year elevated the China-Russia comprehensive strategic cooperative partnership to a

  11. Pressing the "Reset Button" on US-Russia Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Anders Aslund; Andrew Kuchins

    2009-01-01

    The global financial crisis offers all world leaders an opportunity to think big and reach out to international cooperation. President Barack Obama should seize this opportunity to dramatically turn around US-Russia relations by establishing a positive interaction with President Dmitri Medvedev based on an early formulation of a Russia policy. Aslund and Kuchins recommend that integration, as opposed to isolation, is the best way to "manage Russia's rise." They identify six key areas of desir...

  12. Ukraine between the EU and Russia: A Geopolitical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Мухаметов, Руслан Салихович

    2013-01-01

    The author analyses major interests of Russia and of the European Union in Ukraine. The author demonstrates that Brussels’ interest in Ukraine is to contain Russian influence. As Ukraine is vital transit channel of Russian energy to the EU, Russia and the EU compete over controlling Ukrainian gas infrastructure. The military presence of Russia in Ukraine, which is of great importance to Russian national interests, is another controversial issue. The author argues that Brussels and Moscow are ...

  13. Where Has All the Foreign Investment Gone in Russia?

    OpenAIRE

    Broadman, Harry G.; Recanatini, Francesca

    2001-01-01

    Since its transition to a market economy began, Russia has not attracted much foreign direct investment (FDI). Inflows of FDI into Russia are much lower than those into other transition countries in the region, adjusted for population size and similar measures. Clearly, if Russia is to grow it must increase the level of FDI inflows, which is why a good deal of policy attention has focused ...

  14. The G-8 Summit in St. Petersburg and Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Iwata, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    The G8 summit in St. Petersburg from July 15 through 17, 2006 was regarded as a triumph for Russia as a host country that took advantage of the moment to assert its re-emergence on the world stage. The G8 leaders except Russia agreed to avoid pressuring Russia on its domestic policy, after a lot of accusations by Western leaders and the press on rollbacks in democracy. By focusing on and examining energy security with special reference to Russia's energy resources and strategic position, ...

  15. Supporting mothers: issues in a Community Mothers Programme

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Pat

    2001-01-01

    peer-reviewed This article describes a community support programme which implicitly challenges the assumption that the existence of a partner and local kin obviates the need to support women when they come home from hospital with a new baby. Implicit in the programme is the idea that support by mothers, of mothers, validates the activity of child care and is one way of facilitating the child's development. This programme was successful in terms of its perceived impact on both the providers...

  16. FACTORS DETERMINING THE DIFFERENCES IN FDI INFLOWS INTO AZERBAIJAN''S AND RUSSIA''S OIL SECTORS AFTER INDEPENDENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Eyyubov, Kamran

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the FDI inflows into Azerbaijan's and Russia's oil sectors between 1991 and 2006. It identifies the main reasons for Azerbaijan's advantage over Russia. The author first gives a brief explanation of FDI in general, then identifies the different patterns of FDI inflow into the oil sectors of both Azerbaijan and Russia, and concludes his article by pointing out the main determinants of the differences in FDI inflow into the oil sectors of these two countries.

  17. Competitiveness of Russia ; problems and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitry V. Kuzin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews general contemporary issues of competitiveness of Russia on a global stage and suggests some possible scenarios of further development which could improve the world ratings of Russia. After a brief introduction devoted to modern concepts of national competitiveness, the author analyse current competitive positioning of Russia using the results of the world's most influential research reports and rankings. This part of the paper reveals the most serious indicators of Russia's lag behind the leading and other similar in size, as well as potential and development stage countries.The next three parts of the paper analyze both positive and negative trends of recent Russia's development over the last 6 years as it is viewed from Russian expert' point of view. The essence of the current debate on the future of the country, after the next Presidential election, is also presented with emphasis on several feasible strategies and their potential influence on the future competitiveness of the country. At the end the paper addresses the issue of values modernization in Russia which seems to be crucial not just to improve competitiveness but to ensure the future development of the country.The views and estimates expressed in the paper except for references to different expert opinions are the authors own responsibility and should not be interpreted as presenting an official position on these issues.El presente trabajo hace una revisión general de los aspectos contemporáneos de la capacidad competitiva de Rusia a nivel global e indica posibles situaciones para un desarrollo que pueda mejorar la valoración mundial de Rusia. Tras una breve introducción, dedicada a conceptos modernos de competitividad nacional, el autor analiza la situación competitiva actual de Rusia utilizando los resultados de los informes y clasificaciones más influyentes a nivel mundial. Esta sección del artículo facilita los indicadores más rigurosos de la posici

  18. News of Education in Russia: [2010--The Year of the Schoolteacher in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russian Education and Society, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article presents statements by President Dmitry A. Medvedev at the meeting of the Council on the Implementation of Priority National Projects and Demographic Policy on the development of education, health care, and demography, and at the ceremony on the occasion of the launching of the Year of the Schoolteacher in Russia, held at the Russian…

  19. 海洋细菌AiL3菌株防治香蕉枯萎病研究%Biological Control of Banana Fusarium Wilt by Marine Bacterium AiL3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张萌; 唐桢强; 何红; 谢江辉

    2013-01-01

    The indoor experiment and field test of Marine bacterium AiL3 were carried out to study the effect on the suppression of the banana Fusarium-wilt disease and the growth of banana seedlings. The results showed that the number of leaves, the plant height, photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate of the tested banana plants were promoted significantly after innoculated with strain AiL3 in indoor and field tests compared to the control treatment. The control efficacies of AiL3 against Fusarium Wilt was 100% with the test indoor for six months. The control efficacies were 72.71% and 46.32% after 8 months with the indoor test and field test, respectively. It was suggested that the bacterial strain AiL3 could control the banana Fusarium wilt and promote growth of banana.%采用室内盆栽和大田小区试验对海洋细菌AiL3菌株防治香蕉枯萎病作用及对香蕉的促生效果进行测定.结果表明:菌株处理后盆栽试验和大田试验中的香蕉苗叶片数、株高、光合速率和蒸腾速率等均明显高于对照;AiL3菌株盆栽试验处理6个月后对香蕉枯萎病的防治效果达100%,大田小区试验菌株处理8个月后对香蕉枯萎病的防治效果分别为72.71%和46.32%.表明AiL3菌株对香蕉植株有一定的防病促生作用.

  20. 3. The Slow Death of Holy Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Graham returned to Russia at the end of 1913, armed with Northcliffe's commission to "go where you like and write what you like", travelling by train through Paris and Warsaw, before heading on to Kiev, a city he had first visited the previous year on his way back from Jerusalem. Here he called on a number of old friends, including a spirited young woman called Katia, who had as a child made an unlikely attempt to run away to South Africa to help the Boers in their fight against the British. ...

  1. NEW TRENDS REGARDING OFDI FROM RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Among emerging economies, the Russian Federation is the second largest outward investor, surpassed only by China, but ahead of Brazil, India and South Africa. Alongside other multinationals from BRICS countries, TNCs from Russia started to emerge in the international rankings of global companies. The propose of the paper is to present the importance of developing and transition economies as investors, to provide background information and new trends of OFDI from BRICS countries, pointing out the outward expansion of Russian multinational corporations in recent years. The paper basically investigates the main patterns of Russian outward foreign direct investment (OFDI, including its dynamics and geographical destinations.

  2. Staff Training for Nanoindustry in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorov Sergey Grigoryevich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The nanotechnology industry represents such a direction of the development of science, technologies and industries by means of which Russia will be able to achieve advanced positions in the world. For the last decade the necessary regulatory base for nanotech industry development was created in the country, beginning with the concept of nanotechnological works, and the strategy of nanotech industry development, and finishing by the program of nanotech industry development in Russia till 2015. The special place is allocated for education in the field of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. The system of staff training for nanotech industry is developing very quickly. The departments of nanotechnologies are established almost in all leading higher education institutions of Russia, the institutes of scientific and educational centers as well as the centers of collective use are introduced in the country, the national nanotechnological network is functioning. RUSNANO State Corporation of Nanotechnologies makes significant contribution to the training of innovation staff. The corporation is planning to create at least 100 educational programs of staff training and retraining for the needs of nanotech industry. The fund of infrastructure and educational programs was established in RUSNANO which in 2012 launched the project on creation of training system in the field of nanotechnology in the e-Learning mode. In 2013 the fund created the autonomous non-profit organization “Electronic Education for Nanotech Industry” (“eNano” which became the leading developer of innovative branch educational resources and the operator on rendering educational services for nanotech industry. Since 2011 in RUSNANO there is a School League which set for itself the task to make the contribution to improvement of the situation in teaching naturalscience disciplines at schools. At the same time, according to the results of students enrolment in Russia in 2011-2014, the

  3. Russia and its neighbours: East or West?

    OpenAIRE

    S. White; McAllister, I.

    2008-01-01

    As ‘Europe’ becomes more diverse, the countries that were formerly part of the USSR face new choices. One of the most fundamental is whether they identify with the economic and military institutions of the ‘West’, such as NATO and the European Union, or with the Commonwealth of Independent States and other forms of association with the Slavic ‘East’. We examine these choices in each of three societies—Belarus, Russia and Ukraine—on the basis of national surveys conducted between 2000 and 2008...

  4. The Quest for Rural Sustainability in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen K. Wegren

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rural depopulation and the disappearance of villages in rural Russia occurred as part of the historical process of urbanization and industrialization. Rural depopulation also occurred for structural reasons having to do with village location, and for behavioral reasons whereby villagers react to primitive living conditions and poor economic prospects. Three possible strategies for addressing the problem of sustainable villages are considered. The government is attempting to improve rural living conditions, but rural depopulation is likely to continue. Characteristics of sustainable villages are outlined. Agro-tourism is analyzed for its potential to support sustainable villages.

  5. The Saami Language Situation in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Scheller, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    The article gives an overview of the Saami language situation in Russia, there people use four Kola Saami languages or at least have some competence in them (Kildin Saami, Ter Saami, Skolt Saami and Akkala Saami). Since the 1990's, also North Saami has been used among Kola Saami community members. Today, all four Kola Saami languages are seriously threatened by a language shift from Saami to Russian. However, a revitalization process of Kildin Saami is going on. The article starts with a gen...

  6. Mothers' Mobility after Separation: Do Grandmothers Matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, M.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Merz, E.-M.

    2016-01-01

    Starting from a life course perspective, this study aims to gain more insight into mobility patterns of recently separated mothers, focusing especially on moves to the location of their own mother: the maternal grandmother. Separated mothers, having linked lives with their own mothers, may benefit f

  7. 75 FR 26875 - Mother's Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... many forms, and children may be raised by two parents, a single mother, two mothers, a step-mom, a... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8517 of May 7, 2010 Mother's Day, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Generations of mothers have labored tirelessly and selflessly to...

  8. Russia Update - Lower oil price will take its toll

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Lorié

    2015-01-01

    Russia managed to avoid a recession in 2014 as economic owes have mounted. Already feeble investments were further eroded by the US/EU sanctions. But it is the oil price decline from USD 110 to below USD 50 that is pushing Russia into a serious recession in 2015.

  9. 75 FR 74746 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... from Russia and Ukraine (64 FR 62653). Following second five-year reviews by Commerce and the... imports of solid urea from Russia and Ukraine (71 FR 581). The Commission is now conducting third reviews... part 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this...

  10. Adolescent Drunkenness: Perception of the Problem in Russia and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybakova, L. N.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse in Russia among children is increasing, but programs to address this problem have not been adequately developed. The experience of other countries in equipping children to handle alcohol in a mature and safe way can be used as a basis for creating new programs in Russia.

  11. 76 FR 15339 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... its notice of institution (75 FR 74746, December 1, 2010) were adequate and that the respondent... COMMISSION Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it...

  12. 75 FR 35086 - Magnesium From China and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... group responses to its notice of institution (75 FR 9252, March 1, 2010) were adequate.\\1\\ A record of... COMMISSION Magnesium From China and Russia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... orders on magnesium from China and Russia. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it...

  13. 78 FR 55096 - Ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of July 25, 2013 (78 FR 44969). The conference was held in... COMMISSION Ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... Russia and Venezuela of ferrosilicon, provided for in subheadings 7202.21.10, 7202.21.50,...

  14. The Economic Effects of a Russia-EU FTA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Manchin

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe paper examines the effects of Russia joining the WTO taking into account energy sector reform and the impact of a future Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between the enlarged EU and Russia. The paper uses Computable General Equilibrium Modelling techniques for quantifying the different pos

  15. China's Energy Strategy and China-Russia Energy Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Yishan

    2010-01-01

    @@ Energy strategy and China-Russia energy cooperation are based on the estimation of China's energy supply and demand.Therefore, before we get to the main point, we need to analyze the development of energy in China first,and then discuss the issue of China's energy strategy and China-Russia energy cooperation.

  16. Higher Education Reform in Russia: Democratization or Bureaucratization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panfilova, T. V.

    2011-01-01

    Recent reforms have increased the level of administrative oversight, and also of interference of the structure and content of university education in Russia. This is leading to a weakening of Russian higher education. In this article, the author talks about the reform of the system of higher education in Russia and the bureaucratization of higher…

  17. The Universities of Russia: Areas and Prospects of Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdashkevich, A. P.

    2011-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a significant increase in university students in Russia, the growth of private and state-financed higher education, and the beginnings of a move to a national network of research institutions. The recent economic recession, however, poses a challenge to the continuance of current fee-based higher education in Russia.…

  18. Engineering and Technical Education in Russia, in Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aref'ev, A. L.; Aref'ev, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of the main tendencies in the development of engineering and technical education in Russia during the last 100 years shows that earlier strengths have been lost, and that currently technical education in Russia is far behind modern world standards.

  19. Russia's Policy and Standing in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhov, Alexander I.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I consider the historical stages of development of nanotechnology in Russia as well as the political framework for this. It is shown that early federal nanotechnology programs in Russia date back to the 1990s and that since the mid-2000s, nanotechnology has attracted the increasing attention of government. I characterize the…

  20. Sino-Russia Trade,Bearing Confidence in Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zang Kejia

    2009-01-01

    @@ Sino-Russia Trade is invariably regarded as the focus of Harbin China Harbin International Economic and Trade Fair(HFT),and it is no exception for the 20th session.Especially great attention is paid to the impact that the economic crisis brought to Sino-Russia trade and the deals during the HFT.

  1. Beijing Elderly People’ s Art Troupe Performs in Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The Beijing Elderly People’s Art Troupe sent by the CPAFFC, made a performance tour of Russia from September 22 to 30, 2007. The performance tour was part of the activities held in celebration of the 58th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Russia within the framework of the China Year in

  2. Renewable energy in Russia: The take off in solid bioenergy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pristupa, A.O.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Triggered by debates on climate change and energy security, renewable energy sources are presently high on the political agenda in many countries. In this regard Russia seems to stand aside worldwide developments. Until recently Russia¿s enormous potential in renewable energy sources remained poorly

  3. China-Russia Oil Pipeline Comes under Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The long-awaited oil pipeline linking Russia's far east to China's northeast is set to start operation by the end of 2010, Zhou Jiping, Vice President of ChinaNational Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) confirmed in Beijing at a conference in late April. The pipeline runs from Skovorodino, Russia to China's northeastern city of Daqing.

  4. The results of Implementation of the Youth Policy in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kibanov Ardalyon

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Systematic work with the youth in Russia should focus on trying to make the new generation successful, healthy, professionally oriented, happy, educated and appreciating the history of their country. The analysis of the quantitative and qualitative composition of young people in Russia can make some conclusions about the results of the ongoing concept of work with young people

  5. IMPROVEMENT OF SMALL BUSINESS CREDIT IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimova N. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Small business is the basis for the development of the national economy, providing 60% of revenues in foreign countries. In Russia, this sector is developing slowly due to lack of funding. In connection with the development of small business, lending is growing in popularity in this sphere. The state develops a variety of programs to support small businesses in the form of public and private lending institutions, venture capital funds, credit unions. However, the volume of lending to small business remains relatively low, due to mistrust of banks and credit organizations in the sphere of small business. Nevertheless, it is here, according to statistics, the debt on loans is only 1.5% of the total. The article describes the features of small business lending, it analyzes the dynamics of the volume of loans granted, and the amount of debt, identifies main obstacles to obtaining loans to entrepreneurs, gives the analysis of credit conditions of small business in Russia and Germany. The problem of credit was considered from two perspectives: from the perspective of credit institutions and the banks themselves. We have developed measures to improve credit conditions, which must take into account not only credit institutions but also the state. It is necessary to provide tax incentives, encouraging the establishment and development of insurance business associations, to support the creation of specialized banks lending to small businesses, the development of cooperation of small and large banks to increase bank lending and reduce credit risks

  6. Russia and the European Union: Wasteful Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timofei Bordachev

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ince the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia’s potential to contribute politically and economically to the stability of the Russia–European Union Shared Neighbourhood has been systematically undervalued. The regional integration initiated by the governments of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia has created a new institutional and ideological reality. However, the increased risk of political and economic competition with the European Union threatens to split the region into separate competing blocs, potentially limiting further regional development. One of the negative factors is the long-term decline of the institutional tools that the EU can apply to sustain its presence in the region. As a consequence of previously used unilateral mechanisms, current European regional policy is ineffective. Because no prospects of membership can be offered to the countries in the Shared Neighbourhood, regulatory convergence with the EU depends increasingly on individual political regimes. This principle prevents a multilateral regional framework from emerging. The process is aggravated further by the increased role of irrational factors in EU regional policy, as opposed to security interests, since the mid 2000s. However, since the beginning of Eurasian integration, the Shared Neighbourhood has entered a new phase of political and economic development, where irrational competition can only jeopardize the strategic goals of Russia and the EU. In the long term, both actors are interested in creating a coherent regional subsystem, based on multilateral formats of regional cooperation.

  7. Joint US-CERN-Russia-Japan School

    CERN Multimedia

    CAS

    2011-01-01

    The Joint US-CERN-Russia-Japan School recently organised a course on Synchrotron Radiation & Free Electron Lasers, held at the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture in Erice, Italy from 6 to 15 April, 2011.   The school attracted 65 participants representing 22 different nationalities, with around half from Europe and the other half from Russia, Asia and the Americas. The programme comprised 15 lectures each of 90 minutes, 9 hours of parallel sessions, and 6 hours of discussion/student presentation sessions. Feedback from the participants was extremely positive, praising the expertise and enthusiasm of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and quality of their lectures. In addition to the academic programme, the students had the opportunity during the traditional one-day excursion to visit two archeological sites at the Temples of Segesta and Selinunte. The success of the school has encouraged the organisers to re-launch the Joint School, which ran on a roughly t...

  8. L'aile dite « des prélats » au château de Grignan (Drôme 1684-1689

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Trézin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La construction de l'aile « des prélats » au château de Grignan de 1684 à 1689 correspond à la requalification d'un secteur composite constitué du XIIe au XVIIe siècle. Commanditée sans intervention d'architecte par l'évêque de Carcassonne et l'archevêque d'Arles, frères du comte de Grignan, elle est bâtie en deux chantiers successifs selon des partis distincts dont l'harmonisation laborieuse est restée inachevée. Si le bâtiment de Carcassonne reflète initialement le savoir traditionnel de l'entrepreneur Florent Loiseleur, celui d'Arles est imprégné des œuvres récentes de l'agence de Jules Hardouin-Mansart dont le maçon Jacque Jaquet dit Beaufleury a probablement été tenu de s'inspirer. Ce chantier est un exemple du mode d'action des architectes amateurs dans le milieu conservateur de la noblesse provençale.The "prelates" wing of the castle of Grignan was built from 1684 to 1689. It was supposed to be a requalification and a renewal of a heterogeneous area erected between 12th to 17th century. Sponsored by the bishop of Carcassonne and the archbishop of Arles, brothers of the count of Grignan, no architect was involved in its design. It was built in two successive phases reflecting distinct conceptions and accordingly its architctural harmonization was made difficult and remained unfulfilled. If the Carcassonne building reflects the traditional savoir faire of the building contractor Florent Loiseleur, Arles's was deeply close to the recent works of Jules Hardouin-Mansart's agency whom the master builder Jacque Jaquet, said Beaufleury, had most probably to be inspired of. This construction is an example of the way amateur architects used to work in the conservative circle of provençal nobility.

  9. Far-infrared 14NH3 line positions and intensities measured with a FT-IR and AILES beamline, Synchrotron SOLEIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Keeyoon; Yu, Shanshan; Pearson, John; Pirali, Olivier; Kwabia Tchana, Fridolin; Manceron, Laurent

    2016-09-01

    Extensive measurements of line positions and intensities are reported for the inversion-rotation and rovibrational transitions of 14NH3 in the 50-660 cm-1 region. This study analyzes high-resolution (0.00167 cm-1, unapodized) Fourier-transform spectra of high purity (99.5%) normal ammonia sample obtained using the AILES beamline of Synchrotron SOLEIL. The experimental conditions are designed to study transitions with intensities weaker than 1 × 10-22 cm-1/(molecule cm-2) at room temperature. Line positions and intensities of more than 2830 transitions of 14NH3 are measured and compiled after proper quality control; the features from minor isotopologues (15NH3 and NH2D) and H2O are identified and excluded. Based on the predictions of recent work from the empirical Hamiltonian modeling, systematic quantum assignments are made for 2047 transitions from eight bands including four inversion-rotation (gs, v2, 2v2, and v4) and four ro-vibrational bands (v2-gs, 2v2-v2, v4-v2, and 2v2-v4), as well as covering their ΔK = 3 forbidden transitions. The measured line positions for the assigned transitions are in an excellent agreement (typically better than 0.001 cm-1) with the predictions in a wide range of J and K for all the eight bands. The comparison with the HITRAN 2012 database is also satisfactory, although systematic offsets are seen for transitions with high J and K and those from weak bands. Also we note that out of the eight bands, the 2v2-v4 has not been listed in the HITRAN 2012 database. Differences of 20% are seen between our measured and calculated intensities depending on the bands. For line positions, greater differences are found for some NH3 bands in HITRAN 2012 than recent predictions. Measurements of the individual line positions and intensities are presented for the eight bands, and the final spectroscopic line positions and intensities are compiled as an electronic supplement.

  10. The attitudes of women towards family planning and related factors in the postpartum periodDoğum sonu dönemdeki kadınların aile planlaması konusundaki tutumları ve ilişkili faktörler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nergiz Eryılmaz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An early second pregnancy after birth may negatively influence the health of the first child and mother. Most of the women want to delay or prevent future pregnancies during the postpartum period. The postpartum is a very important period of preventing unwanted pregnancies. In postpartum period, use of contraceptive is connected with women’s cultural and religious believes, partner’s attitudes and previous contraceptive experiences. Family planning training in prenatal and postnatal period is considered as a standard care. The aim of the study is to determine the attitudes of women towards family planning and related factors in the postpartum period. This study is done as a descriptive research in the postpartum period. The samples consist of 272 women in the postpartum period. "Family Planning Attitude Scale" (FPAS and personal information questionnaire prepared by the researchers have been used to collect the data. In the analysis of data; Number, percentage, mean and standard deviation, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis test were used for the analysis of the data. It was found out that mean age of the postpartum women was 26.30±5.60 years and mean marriage duration (year was 5.84±4.92. It was noted that 72.8% of women planned to last pregnancy and 52,6% of them don’t want to do pregnancy again. It was determined that 47,8% of women’s source of information about family planning (FP was the health professional and 76,1% of them received counseling about FP. 94,9% of postpartum women want to use contraceptive method until they decide a new pregnancy .Significant differences were detected between postpartum women; education  (Z=-3.320; p:0.001, employment status (Z=-4.741; p:0.000, social security (Z=-4.569; p:0.000, family type (Z=-4.086; p:0.000, perception of economic status (KW=8402; p:0.015 getting counseling service about family planning  (Z=2.841; p=0.004, and using family planning in the postnatal period. (Z=-4.741; p:0

  11. Excess Weapons Plutonium Immobilization in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, L.; Borisov, G.B.

    2000-04-15

    The joint goal of the Russian work is to establish a full-scale plutonium immobilization facility at a Russian industrial site by 2005. To achieve this requires that the necessary engineering and technical basis be developed in these Russian projects and the needed Russian approvals be obtained to conduct industrial-scale immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at a Russian industrial site by the 2005 date. This meeting and future work will provide the basis for joint decisions. Supporting R&D projects are being carried out at Russian Institutes that directly support the technical needs of Russian industrial sites to immobilize plutonium-containing materials. Special R&D on plutonium materials is also being carried out to support excess weapons disposition in Russia and the US, including nonproliferation studies of plutonium recovery from immobilization forms and accelerated radiation damage studies of the US-specified plutonium ceramic for immobilizing plutonium. This intriguing and extraordinary cooperation on certain aspects of the weapons plutonium problem is now progressing well and much work with plutonium has been completed in the past two years. Because much excellent and unique scientific and engineering technical work has now been completed in Russia in many aspects of plutonium immobilization, this meeting in St. Petersburg was both timely and necessary to summarize, review, and discuss these efforts among those who performed the actual work. The results of this meeting will help the US and Russia jointly define the future direction of the Russian plutonium immobilization program, and make it an even stronger and more integrated Russian program. The two objectives for the meeting were to: (1) Bring together the Russian organizations, experts, and managers performing the work into one place for four days to review and discuss their work with each other; and (2) Publish a meeting summary and a proceedings to compile reports of all the excellent

  12. What ails India's biodiesel programme?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With more than 95% of India's surface transport dependent on imported fossil fuel, India has made a concerted effort to promote biofuel. The newly announced biofuel policy of India stipulates a blending target of 20% for both bioethanol and biodiesel. In the case of biodiesel, complement to fossil fuel diesel, India's predominant transport fuel, this target is to be achieved by cultivating non-edible oil seed plants in wastelands and fallow land. In spite of best effort, very little progress has been made on the ground. As the result, the deadline for blending target of 20% for biodiesel has been postponed from 2011–2012 to 2006–2017. This paper makes an attempt to understand the factors behind the tardy progress in India's biodiesel scene and suggests policy remedies. - Highlights: ► Even after a decade of efforts in promoting biofuel, India's achievement does not augur well. ► Objective is to understand the factors behind tardy progress. ► Suggests policy remedies.

  13. Des racines et des ailes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Vincent-Geslin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Les mobilités pendulaires semblent être en augmentation en Europe depuis une dizaine d’années. Cette croissance du temps passé à se déplacer amène à remettre en question la conjecture de Zahavi et apparaît relativement inexplicable en regard du paradigme classique de l’acteur rationnel traditionnellement utilisé dans le champ des transports. Si, dans la littérature, les temps de déplacements sont principalement expliqués par le contexte résidentiel, la forme urbaine et le travail, ce cadre explicatif ne dit rien des processus de décision eux-mêmes qui amènent aux pendularités intensives.À partir d’une enquête qualitative menée auprès de pendulaires français, suisses et belges, cette contribution propose d’analyser les arbitrages et les éléments déterminants des processus de la grande pendularité. Les mobilités quotidiennes pendulaires apparaissent comme le résultat de compromis entre activité professionnelle, attachement résidentiel et choix de vie et prennent ainsi la forme de stratégies de conciliation entre vie privée et vie professionnelle. Ces mobilités spatiales permettent alors paradoxalement la préservation des ancrages résidentiels, sociaux et familiaux.Roots and wings. Long-distance commuting patterns, or how to conciliate professional and personal lifeLong-distance commuting patterns appear to be increasing in Europe over the last ten years. These raising mobility patterns lead to reappraise the Zahavi conjecture and appear largely inexplicable by the classical rational actor paradigm traditionally used in transportation research. In literature, commuting is mainly explained by residential contexts, urban forms and job. Nevertheless this theoretical frame says little about the decision-making processes themselves. Based on a qualitative survey conducted in three European countries - France, Belgium and Switzerland – among a population of high commuters, this paper proposes an analysis of trade-off and elements implied in the decision-making process of becoming a long-distance commuter. Intense commuting patterns appear to be the result of compromises between job career, residential attachment and life choices. Thus they may be a “happy medium” that allows to conciliate professional and personal life. Finally these spatial mobilities paradoxically allow to preserve residential, social and family anchors.De raíces y de alas. La movilidad pendular como estrategia de conciliación entra la vida privada y la vida profesionalLas movilidades pendulares parecen aumentar en Europa desde hace una década. Esta aumentación del tiempo consagrado a los desplazamientos nos lleva a poner en entredicho la conjetura de Zahavi porque es relativamente inexplicable con relación al paradigma clásico del actor racional, habitualmente utilizado en el ámbito de los transportes. Si en los diferentes estudios realizados el tiempo utilizado en los transportes es explicado por el contexto de la residencia, la forma urbana y el trabajo, este marco explicativo no evoca siquiera los procesos de decisión que inducen pendularidades intensivas. A partir de una encuesta cualitativa llevada a cabo sobre grupos « pendulares » franceses, suizos y belgas, esta contribución propone el análisis de las mediaciones y de los elementos determinantes en estos procesos. Las movilidades cotidianas pendulares son una manera de asumir el compromiso entre actividad profesional, lugar de residencia y elección de modo de vida y toman la forma de estrategias de conciliación entre lo privado y lo profesional. Estas movilidades espaciales permiten paradójicamente de preservar el enraizamiento residencial, profesional y familiar.

  14. "Good mothering" or "good citizenship"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Maree; Kerridge, Ian H; Jordens, Christopher F C

    2012-03-01

    Umbilical cord blood banking is one of many biomedical innovations that confront pregnant women with new choices about what they should do to secure their own and their child's best interests. Many mothers can now choose to donate their baby's umbilical cord blood (UCB) to a public cord blood bank or pay to store it in a private cord blood bank. Donation to a public bank is widely regarded as an altruistic act of civic responsibility. Paying to store UCB may be regarded as a "unique opportunity" to provide "insurance" for the child's future. This paper reports findings from a survey of Australian women that investigated the decision to either donate or store UCB. We conclude that mothers are faced with competing discourses that force them to choose between being a "good mother" and fulfilling their role as a "good citizen." We discuss this finding with reference to the concept of value pluralism. PMID:23180199

  15. Fatal attraction: Explaining Russia's sensitive nuclear transfers to Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchinsky, Leah R.

    This paper explores Russia's sensitive nuclear assistance to Iran in an effort to determine why a supplier state might proliferate against its own apparent security interests. The goal is to help readers understand the supply-side dynamics of nuclear proliferation. Through careful reconstruction of the historical narrative, using open source data, this study tests the plausibility of a "fatalistic calculus" explanation, identified by Stephen Sestanovich as a possible driver for Russia's behavior. According to the hypothesis, Russia has cooperated with Iran as a way both to stay in the good graces of a neighbor that is suspected of developing nuclear weapons and to win short-term influence and profits. The paper also examines the role of other factors advanced in the existing supply-side literature, such as economic motives identified by physicist and nonproliferation scholar David Albright. The findings show that bureaucratic, economic and fatalistic factors have each played a role in motivating Russia's cooperation with Iran, with their relative importance shifting over time. Fatalism begets a strategy of Russian "minimaxing," in the lexicon of Russia scholar Robert Freedman, wherein Russia attempts to minimize damage to its relationship with the U.S. while maximizing influence in Iran via nuclear cooperation. Fatalism, as actualized by minimaxing, best explains Russia's behavior after former Russian president Vladmir Putin came to power, when the bureaucratic and economic arguments become less cogent.

  16. State of HTGR development in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed designs of VGR50, VG400 and VGM reactors were developed in Russia. The most important result of the activity was formation of contacts between different organizations and creation of technology basis for HTGRs. At present it is assumed that advantages of HTGRs as compared to other types of reactors can be more completely demonstrated if module reactors with thermal power of about 200 MW and pebble bed core will be aimed only at process heat production, and for electricity production through gas-turbine cycle will be used module reactors with thermal power of about 600 MW and a core from prismatic blocks. To this effect, feasibility study of VGMP reactor was carried out and development of GT-MHR with gas-turbine cycle is under way. (author). 1 ref., 6 figs, 4 tabs

  17. The development of Social Pedagogy in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Romm

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The way social pedagogy is developing nowadays has been paved by a centuries-old tradition of social and pedagogical work, historical experience of the theoretical research on the prob- lems of interactions between the man and the environment, and experience of successful problem solution of proper socialization in educational organizations at different stages of social pedagogy (pre- soviet, soviet and modern periods. Modern state of social pedagogy is related to the issues of deter- mining the status of social pedagogy, finding the main methodology parameters, as well as the research-specific issues. This paper  also presents the characteristics of the main concepts of social pedagogy in Russia and the peculiarities of professional work done by social pedagogues.

  18. Professionalisation in Early Childhood Education in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya Yurchenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The dialogue around preschool educators has increased as concerns about the quality of early education have been raised across the world. This paper contributes to a novel historical and contemporary understanding of the professionalisation of Russian preschool educators. This history bears similarities and differences to those of other nations, making this project of interest to cross-cultural comparisons. A particular emphasis is laid on the challenges of, and opportunities for, professionalisation by discussing the issue of professional knowledge and expertise, autonomy, and authority. Data for the study comes from two sources: (1 the historical analysis of preschool educators in Russia; (2 semi-structured interviews undertaken with 25 preschool educators from the major organisations representing them. The research showed the central role played by the state in all historical phases of the professionalisation of Russian early education. It was found that Russian preschool educators are discontented with their current professional standing, and look to the state to enhance it.

  19. Decommissioning: from COMECON to CIS and RUSSIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NPP decommissioning experience in the USSR and the Commonwealth Independent States (CIS) members was actively accumulated over ten years since 1982, by Russian experts in particular. Nevertheless, it is not well renowned throughout the scientists and engineers from both Russia and other near' (the CIS) and 'distant' foreign countries. A general review on NPP decommissioning in the CIS has been published just now. An unshown before NPP decommissioning issues are presented in the report. The first program on NPP decommissioning was developed under the aegis of COMECOM with the leadership of Russian experts. The most considerable results are the feasibility studies of Armenia NPP, the Novovoronezh NPP first construction stage (two units) and Bohunice V - 1 unit. (J.P.N.)

  20. Freezing precipitation in Russia and the Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Zavyalova

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Conditions for freezing precipitation (FP, including freezing rain (FR and freezing drizzle (FZ for 8 airports in Russia and 4 in the Ukraine are studied on the basis of 10 to 20-year series of surface observations, radiosonde and objective analysis data. Statistical characteristics are presented of the FP episode durations and of occurrence frequency dependences on surface air temperature, wind direction and speed and cloud base height. From the radiosonde data, it is found that the "classical mechanism" of FP generation (for which, stratification of "warm nose" type in the cloud layer is necessary is not frequent: most of FP cases are associated with "all cold" conditions in the lower 3-km layer, that is, with negative temperatures in and below the clouds.

  1. HIV epidemic in Russia and neighbouring countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Pokrovskiy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Reports of HIV/AIDS cases attributed to sexual transmission from foreigners were published in the USSR in the mid of 80s. In the initial decade of the epidemic, the subtype B was found in men who have sex with men (MSM population and several non-B subtypes were identified in heterosexual persons. The first case of HIV infection in intravenous drug users (IVDU was reported in 1993 and since then a specific subtype A and its recombinants invaded the intravenous drug users (IVDU populations of the region with the highest rate in Estonia, Russia and Ukraine. The concentrated HIV epidemic in IVDUs is still the main problem in the Eastern Europe; however, the rate of heterosexual transmission is increasing and many evidences of HIV prevalence rise in MSM are published. UNAIDS estimations for the number of HIV-positive persons living in the region range from 980,000 to 1,300,000 but distribution of HIV-cases is uneven and the prevalence rate of HIV infection in separate regions is over 1%. Mass seasonal labour migration from Central Asia and Caucasian republics to Russia transmits HIV to these countries. Prevention programs in the region are limited, and ART coverage is not more than 20% of the total HIV-positive population. The lack of concern about the epidemic, absence of effective national strategies and limited allocated resources are the main barriers to prevention and care in many countries. Local conflicts, rising religiosity and discrimination are adverse factors. The near-term forecast for the epidemic in the region is pessimistic and further international advocacy is needed to improve the situation.

  2. New System of Food Control in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakova, Irina V.

    Food safety is quite important for human health in all countries. Humanity has the uniform space and must take care about all parts of it. Pollution of one region leads to the same state of others regions through water, land, air, living organisms. The poor-quality or poisoned food products can pollute the territory and influence negatively on the environment. The food security is important, especially, in connection with the possibility of terrorist attacks. The Federal Service of control in sphere of protection of the rights of consumers was formed in Russia in 2004. This Service carries out the activity directly and through the territorial organizations in interaction with administrative structures in food control and inspection, namely in sanitary-epidemiological service, veterinary service, grain service, inspection of trade connections and standardization and certification. The control is carried out on the basis of laws. The law № 29-FZ concerns the quality and safety of foodstuff and how to control it. The law 134-FZ attracted the protection of the rights of legal persons and individual businessmen. The modification of the law №234-FZ about protection of the rights of consumers is connected with new food - GMOs. Great attention is paid to the safety of new food. Private companies also perform analysis of heavy metals, mycotoxins, radiation and the presence of bacteria, virus or genetically modified organisms. We would like to thank the group Pilot Study "Food chain security" for very important work concerning food safety in different countries. They help us to understand internal problems in Russia and to create the cooperation with other countries. All these steps are very important for the protection population from toxic food.

  3. Speech by V. V. Tereshkova, President of Russia International Cooperation Association

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    First of all, please allow me, on behalf of the Rus-sia International Centre for Scientific and Cultural Coop-eration under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia,the Russia International Co-operation Association and the Russia-China Friendship Asso-

  4. China and Russia Jointly Celebrate The Joyful Occasion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Galina; Kulikova

    2014-01-01

    <正>The year 2014 is memorable for both China’s history and RussiaChina relations.It is the 65th anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic of China(PRC),the 65th anniversary of the establishment of China-Russia diplomatic relations,the 65th anniversary of the founding of the China-Russia Friendship Association(CRFA)and the60th anniversary of the establishment of the leading organization of nongovernmental diplomacy—the Chinese

  5. Family business in Russia: the path to middle class?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhatova, N; McMylor, P; Mellor, R

    2001-06-01

    The paper seeks to explore via a series of interview-based case studies aspects of the emergence of an entrepreneurial middle-class in Russia. The paper notes the origins of those studied in the professional or highly skilled workers in the former Soviet Union. The paper reveals the complexity and fragility of the circumstances of these entrepreneurs and suggests that commentary in both Russia and the West that pins its hopes for social stability on the emergence of a new property owning middle class in Russia are, at best, premature. PMID:11440056

  6. Family business in Russia: the path to middle class?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhatova, N; McMylor, P; Mellor, R

    2001-06-01

    The paper seeks to explore via a series of interview-based case studies aspects of the emergence of an entrepreneurial middle-class in Russia. The paper notes the origins of those studied in the professional or highly skilled workers in the former Soviet Union. The paper reveals the complexity and fragility of the circumstances of these entrepreneurs and suggests that commentary in both Russia and the West that pins its hopes for social stability on the emergence of a new property owning middle class in Russia are, at best, premature.

  7. Adverse health outcomes in offspring of mothers with cosmetic breast implants : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjoller, Kim; Friis, Soren; Lipworth, Loren; McLaughlin, Joseph K.; Olsen, Jorgen H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: To assess whether maternal cosmetic breast implants are associated with adverse health outcomes among offspring, the authors examined published findings of epidemiologic studies that addressed this hypothesis. Methods: Four epidemiologic studies, ail from Scandinavia, were identified. Wo

  8. Working Mothers and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarr, Sandra; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reviews studies of the effects of maternal employment on marital relations, child development, and the mothers themselves. Concludes that employment is not the major issue in either marital relations or child development, but family circumstances, attitudes and expectations of both parents, and the distribution of available time have important…

  9. Volunteerism: 'community mothers' in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, Jill; Clark, Kim; Clemenston, Katy

    Volunteers represent a growing, but often undervalued, section of service delivery in many areas in the community, particularly in health care. This paper is centred on volunteers' perceptions and experiences of home visiting gained through the implementation of the Community Mothers (CM) program in Western Australia (WA). Further, the paper aims to inform debate about the issue of professional versus non-professional home visitors and offers a perspective on the issue that may provide direction for policy makers and practitioners. This qualitative study involved individual telephone interviews with a volunteer sample of 12 participants, purposefully selected. Transcription data from each interview were examined and coded utilising an adapted method of content analysis described by Burnard (1991). Three main themes emerged in the findings as to why volunteers became involved in the Community Mothers Program: (1) Empathetic concern; (2) Contribution to community life; and (3) Lifecourse issues and personal development. With experiences of volunteers in home visiting, four main themes reflected the participants' views: (1) Facilitating client empowerment; (2) Facilitating personal empowerment; (3) Promoting social connectedness; and (4) Enabling goal setting. Although programs such as the Community Mothers Program aim to benefit and support mothers in the parenting role it is clear that there are benefits that emerge also for the individual volunteer, such as increased self-esteem, self-efficacy and satisfaction. Hence, measuring the overall outcomes that result from such program remains a major challenge. PMID:15729811

  10. The Mother of Famous Mathematician

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    MOTHERS not only create families, but also create genius. World-famous mathematician Hua Luogeng (1910-1985) is one of the forefathers of China’s modern mathematics research and pedagogy. Hua developed the study of the analytic theory of numbers and the typical matrix geometry in China. Hua Lianqing, 90, is three years older

  11. Working Mothers and Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Margaret

    1970-01-01

    Discusses possible ways of providing continuity of care for young children of working mothers, including industry - sponsored day nurseries, cooperative nursery schools, communal clusters where working and nonworking women share household tasks and child care, and expanded neighborhood day care. (MG)

  12. NATO'S MISTAKES THAT PAVED THE WAY FOR RUSSIA-UKRAINE CRISIS

    OpenAIRE

    OĞUZ, Şafak

    2015-01-01

    The Russia-Ukraine Crisis has been the second biggest crisis between NATO and Russia in five years. Russia occupied Georgia, a NATO candidate, in 2008 and officially recognized two breakaway regions threatening Georgia's territorial integrity. Five years later, Russia threatened the territorial integrity of Ukraine, another NATO candidate, illegaly annexing Crimea and supporting separatists in the Eastern part of the country. The Western World and NATO have been condemning Russia because of i...

  13. Transfer of 137Cs into mother's milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concern of nursing mothers about the contamination of foodstuffs after Chernobyl prompted this investigation of radiocaesium transfer to mother's milk. Between May 1987 and December 1988, duplicates of daily food intakes, as well as the corresponding mothers' milk samples, were collected from 12 nursing mothers for two to four weeks in order to measure the 137Cs activity. Once during the collection period, the total-body activity of each of the mothers involved was measured. Based on our results, 137Cs is transferred into mother's milk not only directly from food intake but also from the accumulated body burden. Approximately 19% of the 137Cs activity from the daily food intake and about 13% of the specific 137Cs body activity of the mother are transferred into 1 litre of mother's milk. (author)

  14. Current State and Prospects for Development of Tourism in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulyana V. Laktionova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism in Russia is a developing complex, capable of resolving a lot of social and economic issues if developed correctly. Week and strong points of Russian tourism, ways to address arising problems.

  15. FEATURES OF KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY IN RUSSIA: THEORY AND PRACTICE

    OpenAIRE

    Zagainova A. A.

    2015-01-01

    The article identifies the main problems of the knowledge market of modern Russia. The term of "knowledge economy" was clarified. We have also identified characteristic features, specifics, as well as we have proposed the ways of its development

  16. Current State and Prospects for Development of Tourism in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Ulyana V. Laktionova; Irina N. Markaryan

    2012-01-01

    Tourism in Russia is a developing complex, capable of resolving a lot of social and economic issues if developed correctly. Week and strong points of Russian tourism, ways to address arising problems.

  17. Can the W.T.O.Change Russia?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dominic Fean

    2011-01-01

    @@ If Vladimir Putin returns as planned to the presidency in 2012, he will once again face the challenge of modernizing the Russian economy.This is something both he and his seat-warmer, Dmitri Medvedev, have failed to achieve during three consecutive presidential terms.A meeting of the working group on Russia's accession to the World Trade Organization is expected to end 18 years of negotiations by finalizing terms of membership for Russia, the largest economy outside of the trade body.Even Georgia, which fought a war with Russia in 2008, is now onboard.Once the few remaining issues are overcome, Russia should become a member during a ministerial meeting on December 15.

  18. Soil Moisture for Western Russia and The Ukraine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset, DSI-6411 is comprised of soil moisture data and the accompanying information for the agricultural regions of Western Russia (west of ~ 60E) and The...

  19. Koptev announces space plans for Russia in 2003

    CERN Multimedia

    Pieson, D

    2003-01-01

    According to the head of the Russian Aviation and Space Agency, Yuri Koptev, the major emphasis of Russia's space program in 2003 will be supporting the nation's telecommunication satellite program (1/2 page).

  20. Hierarchy in Moldova-Russia Relations: the Transnistrian Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Crandall

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the effect of the Transnistrian area on Moldova-Russia relations. David Lake’s concept of hierarchy will be used as the theoretical framework. The article examines why Russia’s mechanisms of infl uence should be seen as a reflection of a hierarchical relationship between Russia and Moldova. The article begins by explaining why this work has chosen a hierarchical framework and a brief introduction of Transnistria. This is followed by two sections of analysis: security and economy.These two sections will also contain subsections on events that highlight the hierarchical nature of the Moldova-Russia relationship. This article shows that Russia clearly has a hierarchical relationship with Moldova. David Lake’s theory proves to be a useful tool in understanding Moldovan-Russian relations.

  1. 母亲,你在哪里?──论《金锁记》中母亲与子女的关系%Mother,Where Are You?——Discussing the Relationship between the Mother and the Children in the "The Golden Cangue"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴思迪

    2012-01-01

    "The Golden Cangue" is the representative work of Zhang Ailing,which tells the fate tragedy story of Cao Qiqiao who used the golden cangue to kill herself and her children.This article analyzes the relationship between Qiqiao and her children in the SM culture background.It reveals the relationship of sadism and masochism(SM) between Qiqiao and her children.And in the patriarchal society,the women surpass the power and desire in the absence of paternity.The relationship between Qiqiao and her children is abnormal and twisted,this relationship and the relationship between Zhang Ailing and her mother is also a part of dialogue relationship.%《金锁记》是张爱玲的代表作品,讲述了曹七巧用黄金的枷锁劈杀了她自己和子女的命运的悲剧。本文主要以虐恋文化背景下分析七巧与子女的关系,揭示了母亲与子女的施虐和受虐的关系。以及在父权社会中,女性在父权缺席下对权力和欲望的僭越。七巧和子女的关系是变态和扭曲的,这种关系与张爱玲和她母亲的关系也构成了一种对话关系。

  2. Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives in Russia: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Rotfuß, Waldemar

    2007-01-01

    This work provides a descriptive overview of Russian markets for financial derivatives. Available figures for the exchange-traded and over-the-counter-traded derivatives in Russia show that the Russian derivatives markets experienced enormous growth rates since the financial crisis in 1998. Starting from a very low level, turnover of exchange-traded derivatives in Russia rose from 2000 to 2006 on average 168 percent per year and reached a total turnover of EUR 102 billion in 2006. Among futur...

  3. Ukraine, EU and Russia: soft power versus Realpolitik?

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Barata

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the European Union (EU) and Ukraine began in 1998 with the signature of the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement. Afterwards, in 2003 Ukraine joined the European Neighbourhood Policy and in 2004 EU was already the major trade partner with Ukraine, bigger than Russia. Anticipating the approach of former soviet republics towards Euro Atlantic structures and the foreseen loss of influence in its near abroad, Putin’s Russia launched in 2011 the Eurasian Economic Union, a...

  4. FUTURE SCENARIOS OF IKEA SHOPPING CENTRES RUSSIA FOR 2020

    OpenAIRE

    Gvozdikov, Artem

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at developing scenarios for IKEA Shopping Centres Russia to help the company to be prepared for the future challenges and understand its own role and functions in the future. The theoretical background consists of an overview of the shopping centres industry, its past and present situation in Russia. In addition, methodologies of the future research and the PESTEL analysis were studied in order to understand the research tools and methods used in this study. As this ...

  5. New Progress in China's Energy Cooperation with Russia and Kazakhstan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ CNPC and YUKOS signes oil pipeline agreement CNPC and Russia's private oil producer YUKOS signed an agreement on May 28 in Moscow, setting out key aspects such as the quality of oil to be supplied, contractual terms and pricing formulas to pave the way for a US$2.5 billion oil pipeline stretching the vast expanse of Siberian and into China. This agreement was inked on the third day of China's President Hu Jintao's state visit to Russia.

  6. THE PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY IN RUSSIA: REALITY AND PROSPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Gordeev, A.

    2009-01-01

    This section “Forum” is about the pharmaceutical industry in Russia. We were encouraged to debate this topic after the unveiling of the Strategy of Development of the Pharmaceutical Industry in the Russian Federation developed by the Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Russian Federation. The majority of our experts, who are authorities in the federal government, business, academia, and industrial science, believe that Russia needs a fully developed pharmaceutical industry. What are the mai...

  7. Will The Kyoto Protocol Affect Growth in Russia?

    OpenAIRE

    Lecocq, Franck; Shalizi, Zmarak

    2004-01-01

    In light of the recent argument that rapid economic growth in Russia over the next decade, might result in emissions higher than the Kyoto target, thereby putting much-needed growth at risk, the authors revisit the discussion on the costs and benefits of ratification of the Kyoto Protocol by Russia. They conclude that even under a very high economic growth assumption, and even under very c...

  8. Using Internet Technologies in Legal Practices and Studies in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Vernigorova

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the agenda of using computer and Internet technologies in legal practices and studies in Russia. Despite the obvious necessity for professionals to learn English, many graduates in Russia still demonstrate a very poor command of this universal language. And it has become quite impossible for a lawyer (or for any other specialist to work effectively without using the Internet and for a student – to study and to practice a foreign language.

  9. Russia and the problem of Kosovo and Metohija

    OpenAIRE

    Simić Predrag

    2007-01-01

    Nearly ten years since the 1999 NATO military intervention against Serbia and the establishment of UN administration, Kosovo and Metohija has resurfaced as a topical issue in international politics, separating the positions of the USA and Russia, and becoming a precedent in international relations, possibly with far-reaching consequences not only for the future of the western Balkans but also for many territorial disputes worldwide. Russia has only recently pulled herself out of the years-lon...

  10. Determinants of obesity in transition economies: the case of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Huffman, Sonya K.; Rizov, Marian

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines human obesity, measured as weight and body mass index (BMI), and its determinants in Russia. Obesity increased dramatically during transition from a planned to a market economy, by 38%. We determine the factors contributing to rising obesity using individual level data from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey for 1994 and 2004. We find a strong positive effect of diet/caloric intake and a strong negative effect of smoking on weight and BMI. Gender, education, and inc...

  11. Double Win for China and Russia in Oil & Gas Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wei

    2015-01-01

    Petroleum industry plays an important role in both the Chinese and Russian economy.Petroleum cooperation between the two countries continue to accelerate since China opening wider to the outside world, and Chinese oil companies have increased their presence in Russia. Sino–Russia joint-ventures, oil& gas trade has progressed smoothly, there is a better future for cooperation in oil& gas development in Russian Far Eastern region. Chinese and Russian companies will continue to benefit from collaboration in petroleum industry.

  12. Economic Growth and its Effect on Poverty Reduction in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Yuka Takeda

    2009-01-01

    This study discusses whether Russia fs economic growth following the 1998 financial crisis is pro-poor. Using Russia fs regional data pertaining to 1995-2002, we estimate the elasticity of poverty to real per capita GRP (gross regional product). The analysis reveals that the elasticity of poverty to growth after the crisis substantially falls at both the national and regional levels. Our results also suggest that inequality increases between and within the richer and poorer regions. We conclu...

  13. THE POSITION OF RUSSIA IN THE WORLD ARMS MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Tuliakova I.R.

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to the role of Russia in the world arms market. Two world wars and arms race of the late twentieth century led to the formation of the defense- industrial complex. Russian military products are exported to many countries. Currently, Russia is the main supplier of arms to the world market. But there are serious limits to the expansion of military production

  14. Diagnosing Dutch Disease; Does Russia Have the Symptoms?

    OpenAIRE

    Oomes, Nienke; Kalcheva, Katerina

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we assess whether recent economic developments in Russia are symptomatic of Dutch Disease. We first provide a brief review of the literature on Dutch Disease and the natural resource curse. We then discuss the symptoms of Dutch Disease, which include (1) real exchange rate appreciation; (2) slower manufacturing growth; (3) faster service sector growth; and (4) higher overall wages. We test these predictions for Russia while carefully controlling for other factors that could hav...

  15. Using Internet Technologies in Legal Practices and Studies in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    V.A. Vernigorova

    2011-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the agenda of using computer and Internet technologies in legal practices and studies in Russia. Despite the obvious necessity for professionals to learn English, many graduates in Russia still demonstrate a very poor command of this universal language. And it has become quite impossible for a lawyer (or for any other specialist) to work effectively without using the Internet and for a student – to study and to practice a foreign language.

  16. Perspectives Of Introduction Sustainable Procurement In Public Procurement In Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Romodina; Maxim Silin

    2015-01-01

    The paper is about sustainable public procurement as a new global trend in the development of a sustainable economy. The main question raised is the following: how sustainable public procurement could be implemented in Russia? The study aims to investigate the prospects of the implementation of sustainable public procurement in Russia. The author presents the findings of survey, covering public procurement practices of 51 contracting authorities and documentation analysis of 400 public tender...

  17. The internationalization of SMEs in emerging markets: Case Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Nieminen, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The Internationalization of SMEs in Emerging Markets: Case Russia The first goal of this study is to investigate and analyze the characteristics and challenges of the internationalization process of foreign small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to Russia. The second goal of this study is to create a model of the production unit establishment process, as designed especially for SMEs. Also, the key resources in succeeding in these processes are studied. The theoretical frame...

  18. China-Russia Crude Pipeline Test Run Successful

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Airu

    2010-01-01

    @@ PetroChina has recently operated a 65-kilometer crossborder pipeline on a trial basis and described the test run as successful.It is a step away from formally launching the much more efficient and cost-saving crude oil pipeline from Russia to China.The first shipment, after traveling 13 hours over swaths of virgin forests and frigid soil from Russia's Dzhalinda, entered the oil storage in Mohe,northeast China's Heilongjiang Province, on November 2010.

  19. Chief Editor’s Note on Arbitration Reform in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitry Maleshin

    2016-01-01

    Russia is a party to the New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards. The USSR was one of the original Member States to sign the Convention in 1958. There is a distinction between international and domestic arbitration. Arbitration in Russia was regulated by the Federal Law on Arbitral Tribunals in the Russian Federation (2003) (domestic arbitration) and the Federal Law on International Commercial Arbitration (1993) (international arbitration). This law w...

  20. Dispositional Empathy in Neglectful Mothers and Mothers at High Risk for Child Physical Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paul, Joaquin; Perez-Albeniz, Alicia; Guibert, Maria; Asla, Nagore; Ormaechea, Amaia

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates whether mothers who are neglectful and at high risk for child physical abuse present a deficit in empathy. Participants were neglectful mothers (n = 37), mothers at high risk for child physical abuse (n = 22), and nonmaltreating mothers (n = 37). The Interpersonal Reactivity Index, a self-report measure assessing specific…

  1. Depressed and Well Mothers' Emotion Interpretation Accuracy and the Quality of Mother-Infant Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broth, Michelle Robbins; Goodman, Sherryl H.; Hall, Christine; Raynor, Lynne Catherine

    2004-01-01

    The inadequate parenting associated with mothers' depression may be related to mothers' problems in interpreting infants' emotional expressions. The relations between depressed and well mothers' accuracy at interpreting babies' facial expressions and the quality of the mothers' interactions with their infants were examined. In partial support of…

  2. Exploring Behavioral Intentions among Young Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Howard M.; Conway, Pat; Plummer, Pam; Adkins, Samuel E.; Hudson, George Cliff; McLeod, David A.; Zafaroni, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between young mothers' individual characteristics (demographics and self-efficacy), social support, and behavioral intentions regarding education and child bearing. Using a home visiting model, the program recruited 141 teen mothers to participate. Young mothers completed an initial assessment, measuring…

  3. Incest Survivor Mothers: Protecting the Next Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreklewetz, Christine M.; Piotrowski, Caroline C.

    1998-01-01

    A study involving 16 incest-survivor mothers with daughters between the ages of 9-14 found the mothers described themselves as very protective and often overly-protective parents, wanting to parent differently, and better, than they were parented. Many survivors strive to be the "perfect mother" including over-protecting and over-nurturing…

  4. Facial Expressivity in Infants of Depressed Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, Jeffrey; Field, Tiffany

    1993-01-01

    Facial expressions were examined in 84 3-month-old infants of mothers classified as depressed, nondepressed, or low scoring on the Beck Depression Inventory. Infants of both depressed and low-scoring mothers showed significantly more sadness and anger expressions and fewer interest expressions than infants of nondepressed mothers. (Author/MDM)

  5. College Students' Positivity toward Teen Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.

    2011-01-01

    Although teen pregnancy and parenthood are more visible in society than in the past, teen mothers are often stereotyped and stigmatized. The study examined positivity toward teen mothers among college students (N = 316) at a midwestern university. Although students responded positively to some items regarding teen mothers, other statements showed…

  6. Sole Mothers in Australia: Supporting Mothers to Seek Work

    OpenAIRE

    Marilyn McHugh; Jane Millar

    1996-01-01

    The rapid increase in the numbers of sole parents in Australia - and their high risk of poverty - has meant that these families have become a focus of increasing concern. This paper explores the issue of sole motherhood and employment, with a particular emphasis on examining the relationship between social security policies and current discourses on the role of women in Australian society, including the perspectives of sole mothers themselves. The paper is part of an edited collection (Duncan...

  7. Lunar and planetary cartography in Russia

    CERN Document Server

    Shevchenko, Vladislav; Michael, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    This book is the first to document in depth the history of lunar and planetary cartography in Russia. The first map of the far side of the Moon was made with the participation of Lomonosov Moscow University (Sternberg Astronomical Institute, MSU) in 1960. The developed mapping technologies were then used in preparing the “Complete Map of the Moon” in 1967 as well as other maps and globes. Over the years, various maps of Mars have emerged from the special course “Mapping of extraterrestrial objects” in the MSU Geography Department, including the hypsometric map of Mars at a scale of 1:26,000,000, compiled by J.A. Ilyukhina and published in 2004 in an edition of 5,000 copies. A more detailed version of this map has since been produced with a new hypsometric scale. In addition, maps of the northern and southern hemispheres of Mars have been compiled for the hypsometric globe of Mars.  Relief maps of Venus were made in 2008, 2010, and 2011, and hypsometric maps of Phobos and Deimos at a scale of 1:60,000...

  8. Neither father nor biological mother

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Bente; Malterud, Kirsti

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore lesbian co-mothers’ maternity care experiences and their implications for the caringencounter. Methods: A qualitative interview study with data from a convenience sample of eleven Norwegiancomothers was conducted. Systematic text condensation was used for data analysis......-mother” wasperceived as a bureaucratic concept. Conclusion: For lesbian co-mothers, being recognized in maternity care implies that they are valued forthe qualities that separate them from other user groups on a personal level. On a societal level, beingrecognized is related to acknowledgement of inventive ways...... of doing family. Everyday signs of recognitionmay prevent moral violation, and by paying particular attention to use of language, staff can helpco-mothers feel acknowledged....

  9. EU-Russia Relations Regarding Water Resources in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Likhacheva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Central Asia, the water deficit and water-energy problem have been one of among the most acute and conflict-ridden challenges for the sustainable development of the region and for regional security. Key trade and investment partners, including Russia and the European Union, could play a considerable role in influencing this issue, due to the long-lasting status quo, the inability to find a solution through intra-regional dialogue and the region’s rising dependence on foreign trade. Indeed, water-related interactions between Russia and the EU have been developing in a complementary manner. The EU possesses new technologies and its members have access to long-term capital markets, while Russia carries influence through providing security, regulating migration and holding a favourable political position for offering mediation services to the republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. This article examines EU-Russia relations regarding water issues in Central Asia over the medium term. By analyzing cooperative and non-cooperative strategies used by the major stakeholders in the water conflict (the five republics and the third parties of Russia and the EU, it confirms the continuous complementary character of EU and Russian activities in this context. Russia will take responsibility for moderating the principal questions (as with the construction of big dams such as Rogunor Kambarata, as they relate to the provision of security guarantees. The EU will act through providing support for water companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and promoting the European Water Initiative principles and by developing its investment policy. The intersection of interests is possible when if Russia will attracts an independent arbiter, such as an actor available to provide guarantees related to the values of professional objectivism, human rights support and environment protection. These issues inevitably arise with

  10. National Large Solar Telescope of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidov, Mikhail

    One of the most important task of the modern solar physics is multi-wavelength observations of the small-scale structure of solar atmosphere on different heights, including chromosphere and corona. To do this the large-aperture telescopes are necessary. At present time there several challenging projects of the large (and even giant) solar telescopes in the world are in the process of construction or designing , the most known ones among them are 4-meter class telescopes ATST in USA and EST in Europe. Since 2013 the development of the new Large Solar Telescope (LST) with 3 meter diameter of the main mirror is started in Russia as a part (sub-project) of National Heliogeophysical Complex (NHGC) of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It should be located at the Sayan solar observatory on the altitude more then 2000 m. To avoid numerous problems of the off-axis optical telescopes (despite of the obvious some advantages of the off-axis configuration) and to meet to available financial budget, the classical on-axis Gregorian scheme on the alt-azimuth mount has been chosen. The scientific equipment of the LST-3 will include several narrow-band tunable filter devices and spectrographs for different wavelength bands, including infrared. The units are installed either at the Nasmyth focus or/and on the rotating coude platform. To minimize the instrumental polarization the polarization analyzer is located near diagonal mirror after M2 mirror. High order adaptive optics is used to achieve the diffraction limited performances. It is expected that after some modification of the optical configuration the LST-3 will operate as an approximately 1-m mirror coronograph in the near infrared spectral lines. Possibilities for stellar observations during night time are provided as well.

  11. Forecast of the Demografic Development of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Petrovich Chichkanov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the contemporary issues of the reproduction of the Russian population, their reasons, and state policy toward them are considered. Relevance of the task solution of assessment of the most expected birth rate dynamics of the Russian population in future in the conditions of low norms of the parenthood status taking into account the influence of government measures for the birth rate stimulation is proved. In order to achieve this objective, on the basis of the behavior probability distribution function of crude birth rate, the probabilistic assessment of the future birth rate dynamics of the Russian population was conducted. On the basis of the modernized Hirst method, two expected dynamics trajectories of crude birth rate were constructed: the first trajectory corresponds to the scenario at which the value of crude birth rate will be in the range of 8-10,5 born / 1000 people (probability — 0,182, including the negative external impact, the second trajectory will be in the range of 13-16,5 born / 1000 people (probability — 0,618, including the positive external impact. In spite of the fact that these scenarios are quite different, the dynamics trajectories of crude birth rate predicted according to them during the period of 2015-2041 that corresponds to the time of the reliable prediction are almost identical. The analysis of the received results enabled to conclude that the state population policy cannot affect the future dynamics of the birth rate due mainly to to the conjunctural changes.These conclusions confirm the intellectual vested interest of the academic circles that government regulation of a demographic situation in Russia has to be aimed, first of all, at the health improvement and increase of the expected life interval of the population

  12. Development of advanced nuclear reactors in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several advanced reactor designs have been so far developed in Russia. The AES-91 and AES-92 plants with the VVER-1000 reactors have been developed at the beginning of 1990. However, the former design has been built in China and the latest which is certified meeting European Utility Requirements is being built in India. Moreover, the model VVER-1500 reactor with 50-60 MWd/t burn-up and an enhanced safety was being developed by Gidropress about 2005, excepting to be completed in 2007. But, this schedule has slipped in favor of development of the AES-2006 power plant incorporating a third-generation standardized VVER-1200 reactor of 1170 MWe. This is an evolutionary development of the well-proven VVER-1000 reactor in the AES-92 plant, with longer life, greater power and efficiency and its lead units are being built at Novovoronezh II, to start operation in 2012-13. Based on Atomenergoproekt declaration, the AES-2006 conforms to both Russian standards and European Utility Requirements. The most important features of the AES-2006 design are mentioned as: a design based on the passive safety systems, double containment, longer plant service life of 50 years with a capacity factor of 92%, longer irreplaceable components service life of 60 years, a 28.6% lower amount of concrete and metal, shorter construction time of 54 months, a Core Damage Frequency of 1x10-7/ year and lower liquid and solid wastes by 70% and 80% respectively. The presented paper includes a comparative analysis of technological and safety features, economic parameters and environmental impact of the AES-2006 design versus the other western advanced reactors. Since the Bushehr phase II NPP and several other NPPs are planning in Iran, such analysis would be of a great importance

  13. Financial Institutes of Nanoindustry Development in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strukova Tatyana Vladimirovna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available At the present stage Russia’s nanoindustry can be formed on the basis of new and old specialized financial and non-financial institutes, which form a milti-layered structure providing targeted investments for innovative projects. The active state fiscal policy plays a decisive role in the national nanoindustry formation at different stages of its development and approval. The article substantiates the need for state regulation of the nanoindustry development funding mechanism in Russia. The author characterizes the main principles, subjects, methods, tools and sources of nanoindustrialization financial mechanism. The article presents the system of Russian financial institutes of development, allowing to identify the goals, objectives, forms and tools for implementation of the functions of each of them in the process of innovative development. The author reveals the essence, types, role and interests of development institutes in the process of public and public-private funding of national innovation system. The problems of innovative projects funding, caused by the specific features of the Russian economy are designated; a number of measures aimed at coordinating the activities of financial institutions and consolidating the public and private financial resources in priority sectors and industries of the economy is proposed. The author substantiates the necessity of building a mechanism of institutional, organizational and informational interaction of the federal target programs regulation bodies focused on the development of innovative activity system, federal executive bodies and exchange institutes, as well as the coordinating mechanism allowing to maximize the effectiveness of using methods and tools for innovation support.

  14. Nuclear energy industry in Russia promoting global strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since former USSR disintegrated to birth new Russia on December, 1991, it already passed ten years. As Russian economic hardship affected its nuclear energy development, No.1 reactor of the Rostov nuclear power station (VVER-1000) established its full power operation on September, 2001 after passing eight years of pausing period as a Russian nuclear power station, at dull development of nuclear energy in the world. When beginning of its commercial operation, scale of nuclear power generation under operation in Russia will reach to the fourth one in the world by getting over the one in Germany. Russia also begins international business on reprocessing of spent fuel and intermittent storage. And, Russia positively develops export business of concentrated uranium and nuclear fuel, too. Furthermore, Russia shows some positive initiatives on export of nuclear power station to China, Iran and India, and development on advanced nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel cycle forecast to future. Here was introduced on international developmental development of nuclear energy industry activated recently at delayed time for this ten years. (G.K.)

  15. Evaluating the performance of Russia in the research in nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article analyzes the development of nano research in Russia during the years 1990–2010. To identify the contribution of Russia in nanoscience and to compare it with the contribution of other countries, we used the international multidisciplinary database Science Citation Index Expanded. Scientific performance is measured based on the growth rate of nano publications by countries and in the world, authorship patterns, indexes of international collaboration, etc. The indicators used are the national publication output, the total citations and the average citation per nano publication, the number and subject profile of highly cited nano publications; contribution and impact of Russian institutions. The article describes the current state and trends of nano research in Russia, their key players and the existing “centers of excellence.” It also discusses some inconsistencies of Russia’s science policy in the field of nanotechnology in light of the performed bibliometric study.

  16. Oil and gas resources in the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The primary objective of this study is to assess the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The study does not analyze the costs or technology necessary to achieve the estimates of the ultimate recoverable oil and gas. This study uses reservoir data to estimate recoverable oil and gas quantities which were aggregated to the field level. Field totals were summed to a basin total for discovered fields. An estimate of undiscovered oil and gas, from work of the US Geological Survey (USGS), was added to give a total basin resource volume. Recent production decline points out Russia`s need to continue development of its discovered recoverable oil and gas. Continued exploration is required to discover additional oil and gas that remains undiscovered in the basin.

  17. Forest certification in Russia: development, current state and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukashevich Victor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the development of voluntary forest certification by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC system in Russia. The article is based on the review of diverse information sources, analysis of the reports of timber processing enterprises, personal observations during certification audits, discussions in workgroups, and information collected at training courses. We evaluated the present state of voluntary forest certification in Russia, analyzed non-compliances of the activity of Russian wood processing enterprises with the national standard FSC-STD-RUS-V6-1-2012 and indicated possible reasons for non-fulfillment of the requirements. We also presented problems in the development of forest certification in Russia and possible ways for its further development.

  18. Russia's resource capitalism—market vs political signalling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the early post-Soviet era, when many strategically important Russian oil and gas fields were sold on unfavourable terms, the state has been seeking to regain control of these strategic assets. With Putin's return to the Presidency in 2012, Russia's U-turn over oil and gas privatizations has again caused market consternation. We examine strategic asset acquisitions by Russian O and G companies during Putin's first terms as president and suggest that there should however, be few surprises. Under Putin, strategic deals in Russia are often informal, dominated by Russian partners, subject to internecine rivalries and, we show, are ‘somehow’ known by markets prior to promulgation. Findings suggest that in Russia deals of strategic substance are recognized by financial markets prior to the announcement of political policy

  19. Reducing mother-to-child HIV transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In developing countries,mother-to-child trans mission of human immune deficiency virus (HIV)is responsible for 5 to 10 percen t o f all new HIV infections.Most children born to HIV-positive mothers are not HIV positive,but one quarter to one third are.The following instert looks at the p o ssibilities for reducing mother-to-child HIV transmission,and discusses some of the questions that are still unanswered.

  20. Gambaran Kepuasan Berwirausaha pada Wanita Single Mother

    OpenAIRE

    Jamilah, Siti

    2014-01-01

    In general, the financial situation of a single mother less than adequate to fill their needs than when they have a husband. Entrepreneurship may be an option for single mother to fill their needs. When entrepreneur can handle the business they want smoothly and properly, they will feel the satisfaction on entrepreneurship. However, from the facts found in the literature and field study, there were some differences in the satisfaction of entrepreneurship on single mothers because of several t...

  1. Ideologies of motherhood and single mothers

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hagan, Clare

    2006-01-01

    This chapter examines the situation of lone parents in contemporay Ireland, in particular the workings of ideologies of motherhood and the family through different sites, contexts and institutions in order to determine the impact of these ideologies on single mothers' lives. Specifically, the number of single mothers, ideologies of motherhood and the family, the influence of Church, State and New Right and Irish social policy are examined, and their combined impact on Irish single mothers is ...

  2. Activities of China-Russia People-to-People Friendship Month Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>To celebrate the 60th anniversary of the estab- lishment of diplomatic relations between China and Russia and the founding of the Chi- na-Russia Friendship Association (CRFA), the CPAFFC and CRFA designated

  3. Quantifying yield gaps in wheat production in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierhorn, Florian; Faramarzi, Monireh; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Koch, Friedrich J.; Müller, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    Crop yields must increase substantially to meet the increasing demands for agricultural products. Crop yield increases are particularly important for Russia because low crop yields prevail across Russia’s widespread and fertile land resources. However, reliable data are lacking regarding the spatial distribution of potential yields in Russia, which can be used to determine yield gaps. We used a crop growth model to determine the yield potentials and yield gaps of winter and spring wheat at the provincial level across European Russia. We modeled the annual yield potentials from 1995 to 2006 with optimal nitrogen supplies for both rainfed and irrigated conditions. Overall, the results suggest yield gaps of 1.51-2.10 t ha-1, or 44-52% of the yield potential under rainfed conditions. Under irrigated conditions, yield gaps of 3.14-3.30 t ha-1, or 62-63% of the yield potential, were observed. However, recurring droughts cause large fluctuations in yield potentials under rainfed conditions, even when the nitrogen supply is optimal, particularly in the highly fertile black soil areas of southern European Russia. The highest yield gaps (up to 4 t ha-1) under irrigated conditions were detected in the steppe areas in southeastern European Russia along the border of Kazakhstan. Improving the nutrient and water supply and using crop breeds that are adapted to the frequent drought conditions are important for reducing yield gaps in European Russia. Our regional assessment helps inform policy and agricultural investors and prioritize research that aims to increase crop production in this important region for global agricultural markets.

  4. Occupational accidents in Russia and the Russian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Dudarev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. According to official statistics, the rate of occupational accidents (OAs and fatal injuries in Russia decreased about 5-fold and 2-fold, respectively, from 1975 to 2010, but working conditions during this period had the opposite trend; for example, the number of people who work in unfavourable and hazardous conditions (particularly since 1991 has increased significantly. Methods. This review summarises the results of a search of the relevant peer-reviewed literature published in Russia and official statistics on OAs and occupational safety in Russia and the Russian Arctic in 1980–2010. Results. The occupational safety system in Russia has severely deteriorated in the last 2 decades, with legislators tending to promote the interests of industry and business, resulting in the neglect of occupational safety and violation of workers’ rights. The majority of workers are employed in conditions that do not meet rules of safety and hygiene. More than 60% of OAs can be attributed to management practices – violation of safety regulations, poor organisation of work, deficiency of certified occupational safety specialists and inadequate personnel training. Research aimed at improving occupational safety and health is underfunded. There is evidence of widespread under-reporting of OAs, including fatal accidents. Three federal agencies are responsible for OAs recording; their data differ from each other as they use different methodologies. The rate of fatal OAs in Russia was 3–6 times higher than in Scandinavian countries and about 2 times higher compared to United States and Canada in 2001. In some Russian Arctic regions OAs levels are much higher. Conclusions. Urgent improvement of occupational health and safety across Russia, especially in the Arctic regions, is needed.

  5. Ukraine, EU and Russia: soft power versus Realpolitik?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Barata

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the European Union (EU and Ukraine began in 1998 with the signature of the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement. Afterwards, in 2003 Ukraine joined the European Neighbourhood Policy and in 2004 EU was already the major trade partner with Ukraine, bigger than Russia. Anticipating the approach of former soviet republics towards Euro Atlantic structures and the foreseen loss of influence in its near abroad, Putin’s Russia launched in 2011 the Eurasian Economic Union, an economic bloc formed by some of the Russia’s former satellite States - Belarus and Kazakhstan – and through a carrot and stick policy tried to attract also Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, in order to thwart the Chinese economic development and to impose itself in the regional and global markets. In November 2013, during the 3rd EU’s Eastern Partnership Summit, in Vilnius, Lithuania, Ukraine’s President, Viktor Yanukovych surprised the world refusing to sign the Commercial Agreement with EU, turning back to a EU possible integration. On the other hand, Russia offered to reduce the natural gas rates plus a fifteen billion dollars loan, throwing Ukraine in a quasi civil war, and leaving EU and Russia on opposite sides. Considering this situation what to expect from Ukraine? To continue being a Russian satellite or head towards the Euro Atlantic geopolitical space? This paper intents to analyse the actual situation in Ukraine following Barry Buzan’s approach of multidimensional security, focusing on the different postures assumed by each one of the actors - EU and Russia - which have been between complementarity and division. The scope of the analysis is to contribute to the academic debate about security dynamics between EU, Russia and Ukraine during the post-USSR period, arguing that in the geopolitical dispute for the post-soviet space where Ukraine is integrated, the Russian Realpolitik prevails the EU soft power.

  6. Military aspects of Russia's Arctic policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zysk, Katarzyna

    2013-03-01

    Russia's Arctic policies have a strong bearing on the regional strategic environment for a number of factors. One obvious reason is the geography and the fact that Russia's Arctic shoreline covers nearly half of the latitudinal circle, which gives the country a unique potential to influence future Arctic activities. Second, despite radical changes in the regional security environment after the end of the Cold War, the Arctic and the High North (the European Arctic), in particular has maintained its central role in Russian strategic thinking and defense policy. Russia still has a strong military presence in the region, with a variety of activities and interests, despite weaknesses and problems facing the Russian armed forces. Third, and finally, Russia has enormous petroleum and other natural riches in the Arctic, and the leadership is laying on ambitious plans for development of commercial activities in the region. Understanding Russia's approaches to security is thus clearly important to surrounding Arctic nations and other stakeholders. Russian military activity in the Arctic has tangibly increased in recent years, adding perhaps the most controversial topic in debates on the region's future security. Combined with political assertiveness and rhetorical hostility toward the West, which was a particular feature of Vladimir Putin's second presidential term (2004#En Dash#2008), the intensified presence of the Russian naval and air forces operating in the region has drawn much of the international attention and contributed to the image of Russia as the wild card in the Arctic strategic equation.(Author)

  7. CURRENT LEVELS OF MEDICAL EXPOSURE IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Balonov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We considered conditions of patients’ medical radiation exposure in Russian diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine basing on the data of our own research, of the Unified system of individual dose control and of some relevant literature. We analyzed the data on the number of diagnostic examinations, patients’ individual and collective doses and their distribution by examination types. Time trends of the studied parameters are presented for the period between 1999 and 2013. Current level of Russian patients’ medical exposure is the lowest over the whole observation period and one of the lowest among the developed countries. The annual number of X-ray diagnostic examinations is 1.8 per capita. In 2013 median effective dose of medical exposure per capita in Russia was 0.45 mSv and median dose per procedure was 0.25 mSv. The major contribution to collective dose of medical exposure was from computed tomography and radiography; the largest individual doses were caused by interventional radiology, computed X-Ray and nuclear medicine tomographic examinations. The range of median doses comprises about four orders of magnitude, i.e. from several microSv in dental X-ray examinations up to several tens of milliSv in interventional and multistage tomographic examinations. The median effective dose of adult patients increases by about an order of magnitude with each transition from dental X-ray examinations to conventional radiology and further to computed tomography and interventional radiology examinations. During interventional X-Ray examinations, absorbed skin doses at radiation beam entrance site may reach several Gray, which may lead to deterministic radiation effects in skin and subcutaneous tissues. Due to replacement of low-dose ‘functional’ nuclear medicine examinations with more informative modern scintigraphy and tomography examination, patient doses substantially increased over the last decade. With current trend for re-equipment of

  8. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.

    2012-04-01

    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges

  9. Signal Analysis by New Mother Wavelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the general formula for finding qualified mother wavelets [Opt. Lett. 31 (2006) 407] we make wavelet transforms computed with the newly found mother wavelets (characteristic of the power 2n) for some optical Gaussian pulses, which exhibit the ability to measure frequency of the pulse more precisely and clearly. We also work with complex mother wavelets composed of new real mother wavelets, which offer the ability of obtaining phase information of the pulse as well as amplitude information. The analogy between the behavior of Hermite-Gauss beams and that of new wavelet transforms is noticed. (general)

  10. Social class, anxieties and mothers' foodwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jan; Maher, JaneMaree; Tanner, Claire

    2015-03-01

    In the context of concerns about childhood obesity, mothers are placed at the forefront of responsibility for shaping the eating behaviour and consequently the health of their young children. This is evident in a multitude of diverse sites such as government reports, health promotion materials, reality TV shows and the advice of childcare nurses and preschools. These sites produce a range of resources available to mothers to draw on to constitute themselves as mothers in terms of caring for their children's health. Drawing on a qualitative study of mothers recruited through three Australian preschool centres, this article examines how the working-class and middle-class mothers of preschool-aged children engage with knowledge about motherhood, children and health and how those engagements impact on their mothering, their foodwork and their children. We argue that, unlike the working-class mothers pathologised in some literature on obesity, these working-class mothers demonstrated a no-nonsense (but still responsibilised) approach to feeding their children. The middle-class mothers, on the other hand, were more likely to engage in practices of self-surveillance and to demonstrate considerable anxieties about the appropriateness of their practices for their children's current and future health. PMID:25677342

  11. Signal Analysis by New Mother Wavelets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Jin-Bo; FAN Hong-Yi; QI Kai-Guo

    2009-01-01

    Based on the general formula for finding qualified mother wavelets [Opt. Lett. 31 (2006) 407] we make wavelet transforms computed with the newly found mother wavelets (characteristic of the power 2n) for some optical Gaussian pulses, which exhibit the ability to measure frequency of the pulse more precisely and clearly. We also work with complex mother wavelets composed of new real mother wavelets, which offer the ability of obtaining phase information of the pulse as well as amplitude information. The analogy between the behavior of Hermite-Gauss beams and that of new wavelet transforms is noticed.

  12. Problems of development of fuel-power complex of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems on developing the fuel-power complex (FPC) in Russia which provides for vital activities of other branches of the national economy of the country are discussed. The taxation policy of the State plays an important role in stabilization of the financial situation at the FPC enterprises. Special attention is paid to the improvement of the system for the FPC products price formation. The forecast of the FPC development in Russia for the period of 2005 to 2010 years is presented. The diagrams for the coal, natural gas and oil mining and electrical power production by two scenarios of the FPC development for 2000 up to 2010 years are also presented

  13. Russia's Nuclear Forces: Between Disarmament and Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podvig, Pavel

    2011-04-01

    Nuclear weapons have traditionally occupied an important place in Russia's national security strategy. This tradition goes back to the Soviet times, when the country invested considerable efforts into building its nuclear arsenal and achieving strategic parity with the United States. As Russia and the United States have been reducing their nuclear arsenals since the end of the Cold War, their relationship has undergone a complex transformation toward cooperation and partnership mixed with suspicion and rivalry. The focus of Russia's nuclear policy, however, has remained essentially unchanged - it still considers strategic balance with the United States to be an important element of national security and pays considerable attention to maintaining the deterrent potential of its strategic forces. Russia does recognize the emergence of new threats - it cannot ignore the threats related to regional instabilities and conflicts on its own territory and in bordering states, such as the tensions in the Caucasus or the war in Afghanistan, the terrorist activity that is associated with these conflicts, as well as the problems that stem from nuclear and missile proliferation. These, however, are not given a high priority in Russia's security policy. For example, the new military doctrine adopted in February 2010, opens the list of military threats with the expansion of geographical and political reach of NATO, which is followed by the threat to strategic stability and then by deployment of missile defense. Nuclear proliferation, terrorism, and destabilizing local conflicts are placed much further down the list. Even when it comes to confronting the issues of local instabilities and terrorism, Russia's leadership tends to see these issues through the prism of its strategic strength, alleging that terrorist attacks are a reaction to Russia's perceived weakness. This way of looking at the issues effectively redefines national security problems to conform

  14. Russia's Interests in the Syrian Conflict: Power, Prestige, and Profit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azuolas Bagdonas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the crimes against humanity committed by Bashar Assad's regime in Syria and despite the growing international pressure, Russia provided steadfast international political support to the regime during the development of the conflict in Syria in March 2011-July 2012. The article examines Russia's position and analyzes the reasons behind its support for the regime, arguing that it was primarily motivated not by material interests but rather by the foreign policy doctrine of multipolarity and the wish to maintain influence and reputation in the region.

  15. Viewing Europe-Russia Ties from a New Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jian

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Ukrainian election crisis started on November 22 resulted not only from the struggle between pro-West and pro-Russia forces in Ukraine but also from the conflict of different values and strategic interests between the West and Russia. The European Union responded to the Ukrainian election crisis swiftly in step and also in relatively great strength. Therefore, the EU's move was strongly criticized by the Russians. So it was not only aggravated still further the two sides' mutual distrust, ① surely it will influence the future development of the bilateral relationship as well.

  16. Russia's Challenges as Chair of the G-8

    OpenAIRE

    Anders Aslund

    2006-01-01

    Russia's chairmanship of the G-8 raises questions about its fitness for the task. While it is certainly a market economy, Russia can no longer lay claims to being even semidemocratic. The G-8 should not be swept up in a celebration of Putin's authoritarian power during the St. Petersburg summit. While there are pitfalls, the G-8 can still accomplish important work if the democratic members work together. These members should convene a mini-summit in a Baltic capital such as Vilnius on their w...

  17. Scenarios for Russia's natural gas exports to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russia is an important energy supplier as it holds the world's largest natural gas reserves and it is the world's largest exporter of natural gas. Despite a recent reduction in Russia's exports to Europe, it plans to build new pipelines. We explore the long-term (up to 2050) scenarios of Russian natural gas exports to Europe and Asia using the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, a computable general equilibrium model of the world economy. We found that over the next 20–40 years natural gas can still play a substantial role in Russian exports and there are substantial reserves to support a development of the gas-oriented energy system both in Russia and in its current and potential gas importers. Based on the considered scenarios, Russia does not need any new pipeline capacity to the EU unless it wants to diversify its export routes to supply the EU without any gas transit via Ukraine and Belarus. Asian markets are attractive to Russian gas and substantial volumes may be exported there. Relatively cheap shale gas in China may sufficiently alter the prospects of Russian gas, especially in Asian markets. In the Reference scenario, exports of natural gas grow from Russia's current 7 Tcf to 11–12 Tcf in 2030 and 13–14 Tcf in 2050. Alternative scenarios provide a wider range of projections, with a share of Russian gas exports shipped to Asian markets rising to more than 30% by 2030 and almost 50% in 2050. Europe's reliance on LNG imports increases, while it still maintains sizable imports from Russia. - Highlights: • In the Reference scenario exports of natural gas grow from Russia’s current 7 Tcf to 11–12 Tcf in 2030 and 13–14 Tcf in 2050. • In alternative scenarios a share of Russian exports to Asian markets is rising to about 30% by 2030 and 50 % in 2050. • Cheap shale gas in China can sufficiently alter Russian natural gas export. • Reduction in nuclear generation in Europe can lead to increased exports of natural gas from

  18. The Gorbachev Anti-Alcohol Campaign and Russia's Mortality Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Jay; Gathmann, Christina; Miller, Grant

    2013-01-01

    Political and economic transition is often blamed for Russia's 40% surge in deaths between 1990 and 1994. Highlighting that increases in mortality occurred primarily among alcohol-related causes and among working-age men (the heaviest drinkers), this paper investigates an alternative explanation: the demise of the 1985-1988 Gorbachev Anti-Alcohol Campaign. Using archival sources to build a new oblast-year data set spanning 1978-2000, we find a variety of evidence suggesting that the campaign's end explains a large share of the mortality crisis - implying that Russia's transition to capitalism and democracy was not as lethal as commonly suggested. PMID:24224067

  19. The perspectives of family policy in Russia amid increasing cohabitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Mitrofanova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Russia has long been characterized by early and universal marriage. After the Soviet Union collapse, the average age of marriage has been rising, and cohabitations have become common. Many scholars explain the causes of this trend through the perspective of the Second Demographic Transition. The aim of this research was to define the nature of cohabitations in Russia, reveal the factors of entrance to non-marital unions in order to discuss how and why non-marital union is implicated in recent dialogues about family policy. In order to achieve the aim, such methods as Event History Analysis and Sequence Analysis were used.

  20. Ukraine/Russia. Gas dimension of a conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas is not absent from the Russian-Ukrainian conflict, as both a cause and a consequence of long-term disagreements between the two countries. The 2006 and 2009 'gas crises' had partly revealed disputes relating to both the price of gas and the total debt of Kiev. While negotiations continue on these issues, the break-up seems to have reached the point of no return: Moscow is seeking to oust Ukraine as a transit country between Russia and Europe, while Kiev dreams of total emancipation of Russia's gas. (author)

  1. PRIVATISATION IN RUSSIA: Hard Choice, First Results, New Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Radygin

    2013-01-01

    The privatisation wave that spread all over the world in the 1980s at last reached the shores of Russia in the 1990s and near the bastions of the administrative system it came to rest in a rather indecisive way. If in the 1980s the issue of privatisation was of real interest only for a narrow circle of academics, and again only as it was applicable to the nations of the West and the developing nations, the autumn of 1990 in Russia was a starting point for extremely vigorous deliberations over...

  2. Welfare Analysis of Lifting the GM Ban in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chetvertakov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Use of genetically modified crops is prohibited in Russia, however, Russian politicians are currently discussing this technology. This article evaluates the potential welfare effects of adopting genetically modified crops in Russia, focusing on the potential benefits to Russian producers who adopt herbicide tolerant corn and soybeans. Calculations are based on supply and demand functions of current market situations and their potential shifts. The results quantify the potential monetary gains from open markets to genetic engineering technology and explain the potential additional costs related to technology adoption.

  3. Chief Editor’s Note on Arbitration Reform in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Maleshin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Russia is a party to the New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards. The USSR was one of the original Member States to sign the Convention in 1958. There is a distinction between international and domestic arbitration. Arbitration in Russia was regulated by the Federal Law on Arbitral Tribunals in the Russian Federation (2003 (domestic arbitration and the Federal Law on International Commercial Arbitration (1993 (international arbitration. This law was drafted on the basis of the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration.

  4. Understanding and Developing Educational Tourism from Russia to Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Tenitskaya, Yulia

    2015-01-01

    This Bachelor’s thesis focuses on researching educational tourism from Russian degree stu-dents’ point of view and sources of information which Russian students and applicants utilize. The research paper intends to compare the educational systems of two partner countries Fin-land and Russia, aiming to uncover main tendencies in educational tourism from Russia to Fin-land. The thesis is also a project with an aim to research the motivation of Russian students as well as difficulties in a proce...

  5. Speech by V. V. Tereshkova, President of Russia International Cooperation Association

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>First of all, please allow me, on behalf of the Russia International Centre for Scientific and Cultural Cooperation under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, the Russia International Cooperation Association and the Russia-China Friendship Association, to express my heartfelt thanks for this opportunity to participate in this 50th anniversary celebration of the founding of the Chinese People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries, our long partner of cooperation.

  6. The mother as hidden regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Panzer

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A human baby is born with a decidedly immature brain, and is absolutely dependent on an intense relationship with its mother (or primary caregiver for brain maturation. In the short term, maternal regulation contributes to a more joyful baby, while in the long term it leads to the internalisation and development of self-regulatory capabilities. The ability to regulate one’s own emotional states is based on the development of right orbitofrontal dominance of dual limbic circuits, i.e. the excitatory sympathetic ventral tegmental circuit, and the inhibitory parasympathetic lateral tegmental circuit. Thus the child will be able to calm down after nigh overwhelming emotions by activating the parasympathetic system, but also to bounce back after setbacks by activating the sympathetic system. The mother influences the parcellation of the two limbic systems and thus the permanent excitation-inhibition autonomic balance of its prefrontal regulatory system. Repeated unregulated emotional states in the practicing period from 12-18 months pave the way for various psychological and psychiatric disorders in adulthood. It is worrisome that many children pass through this critical time in nursery schools, where a shortage of adult staff may lead to the scenario where a child’s emotions are repeatedly not modulated, with dire consequences for the internalisation of its future self-regulating capabilities.

  7. Grandparenting and mothers' labour force participation: A comparative analysis using the Generations and Gender Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnstein Aassve

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND It is well known that the provision of public childcare plays an important role for women labour force participation and its availability varies tremendously across countries. In many countries, informal childcare is also important and typically provided by the grandparents, but its role on mothers' employment is not yet well understood. Understanding the relationship between labour supply decisions and grandparental childcare is complex. While the provision of grandparental childcare is clearly a function of the social and institutional context of a country, it also depends on family preferences, which are typically unobserved in surveys. OBJECTIVE We analyze the role of informal childcare provided by grandparents on mothers' labour force participation keeping unobserved preferences into account. METHODS Bivariate probit models with instrumental variables are estimated on data from seven countries (Bulgaria, France, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Russia and The Netherlands drawn from the Generations and Gender Survey. RESULTS We find that only in some countries mothers' employment is positively and significantly associated with grandparents providing childcare. In other countries, once we control for unobserved preferences, we do not find this effect. CONCLUSIONS The role of grandparents is an important element to reconcile work and family for women in some countries. Our results show the importance of considering family preferences and country differences when studying the relationship between grandparental childcare and mothers' labour supply. COMMENTS Our results are consistent with previous research on this topic. However, differently from previous studies, we conduct separate analyses by country and show that the effect of grandparental childcare varies considerably. The fact that we also include in the analyses Bulgaria, Hungary, Russia and Georgia is an important novelty as there are no studies on this issue

  8. MOTHER-INFANT INTERACTION IMPROVES WITH A DEVELOPMENTAL INTERVENTION FOR MOTHER-PRETERM INFANT DYADS

    OpenAIRE

    White-Traut, Rosemary; Norr, Kathleen F.; Fabiyi, Camille; Rankin, Kristin M.; Li, Zhyouing; Liu, Li

    2013-01-01

    While premature infants have a high need for positive interactions, both infants and their mothers are challenged by the infant‘s biological immaturity. This randomized clinical trial of 198 premature infants born at 29–34 weeks gestation and their mothers examined the impact of the H-HOPE (Hospital to Home: Optimizing the Infant’s Environment) intervention on mother-premature infant interaction patterns at 6-weeks corrected age (CA). Mothers had at least 2 social environmental risk factors s...

  9. Organohalogen compounds in human breast milk from Republic of Buryatia, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsydenova, Oyuna V. [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Sudaryanto, Agus [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kajiwara, Natsuko [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kunisue, Tatsuya [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Batoev, Valeriy B. [Baikal Institute of Nature Management, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Sakhyanova st. 6, Ulan-Ude 670047 (Russian Federation); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2007-03-15

    Human breast milk samples collected during 2003/04 in Buryatia, a Russian autonomous republic, were analyzed in order to assess human exposure to organohalogen compounds including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). When compared with available worldwide data, levels of HCB (23-880 ng/g lipid wt.), PCBs (69-680 ng/g lipid wt.), and HCHs (100-3700 ng/g lipid wt.) were relatively high, indicating elevated human exposure to these organochlorines (OCs) in Buryatia. In contrast to OCs, PBDE concentrations were low (0.46-1.7 ng/g lipid wt.). Out of 14 BDE congeners analyzed, BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-100, BDE-153, BDE-197, and BDE-207 were detected. Estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of HCHs, HCB, CHLs, and PCBs by infants solely from human milk for 100%, 43%, 34%, and 17% of the samples, respectively, exceeded guideline thresholds. Although high EDIs raise concern for possible toxic effects of OCs, women in Buryatia are recommended to breastfeed due to numerous advantages of breastfeeding for mother and child. - People in the Republic of Buryatia, Russia are exposed to relatively high levels of HCHs, HCB and PCBs.

  10. Caesium activity in nursing mothers and in the mother's milk one year after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linear correlation between Cs-137 concentration in mother's milk and the mother's Cs-137 whole body activity was obtained. A simple metabolic model is proposed to interpret measured data. Caesium activity in mother's milk was five times lower than in dairy products. (orig./HP)

  11. Mothers' Cognitions about Children's Self-Control: Implications for Mothers' Responses to Children's Helplessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Elizabeth A.; Pomerantz, Eva M.

    2008-01-01

    This research examined the role of mothers' cognitions about children's self-control in their responses to children's helplessness. Mothers and their four-year-old children (N = 109) were asked to work on a difficult task in the laboratory. Mothers' hostility and warmth as well as children's helpless (vs. mastery) behavior were coded every minute.…

  12. Sexual Health Discussions between African-American Mothers and Mothers of Latino Descent and Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Ashley; Ellis, Monica U.; Castellanos, Ted; Gaul, Zaneta; Sutton, Madeline Y.; Sneed, Carl D.

    2014-01-01

    We examined approaches used by African-American mothers and mothers of Latino descent for informal sex-related discussions with their children to inform sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV intervention development efforts. We recruited mothers (of children aged 12-15) from youth service agencies and a university in southern California.…

  13. Mothering while Imprisoned: The Effects of Family and Child Dynamics on Mothering Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Ebonie Cunningham; Barnes, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, the number of children with imprisoned mothers has increased 131%. A mother's imprisonment potentially exposes children to a concentrated disadvantage that undermines their cognitive, emotional, and intellectual abilities. Additionally, such experiences can have deleterious effects on mother-child relationships, stand-in…

  14. Present Russia in a sociological mirror (about Zinaida Golenkov's studies related to social structure of contemporary Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidojević Zoran

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In many aspects, sociological thought in present Russia is a mirror of the condition and key social processes occurring in that large country. They are basically the same as the processes which have already been under way in the majority of other societies in the region of former real-socialism. Therefore the results acquired by the sociological thought in Russia specially those from empirical researches, are significant for the scientific and broader social public in other countries, too. In that sense, the findings obtained by Zinaida Golenkova in the research about the changes of the social structure in present Russia are representative and very indicative. Her researches concentrate on the social stratification. She concludes that the government, income and ownership are the main factors in social stratification, thus revealing the main factors in the creation and reproduction of social inequalities - which are very deep in present Russia - then the basis of the formation of a new social structure in that country and the division into losers and winners in the ownership-structural changes. The key relation is the relation between these changes and "deetatization". The middle class in Russia is underdeveloped, more than a half of the specialists with the high and secondary education is poor. In spite of the widespread poverty, there are no larger social protests, disturbances and strikes in Russia. This could be explained by the tradition of forbearance political aparthy, struggle for survival, as well as by the additional income of one part of the unemployed population. Material-status inequalities and life perspectives intersect with ethnic inequalities and with the destiny of numerous migrants of Russian and non-Russian origin.

  15. 15 CFR 744.10 - Restrictions on certain entities in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Russia. 744.10 Section 744.10 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign... REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY: END-USER AND END-USE BASED § 744.10 Restrictions on certain entities in Russia. (a) General prohibition. Certain entities in Russia are included in Supplement No. 4 to this part 744...

  16. İş ve Aile Yaşamı Dengesi(zliği)nin Kadın Çalışanlar Üzerindeki Etkileri(The Effects of The Work and Famıly Life (Im)Balance on Female Workers)

    OpenAIRE

    Seda TOPGÜL

    2016-01-01

    ş ve aile yaşamı dengesi son dönemlerde dikkat çeken konulardan biridir. Kişinin iş ve aile alanlarından kaynaklanan taleplerin uyumsuz olması sonucunda sadece kişisel olarak değil aynı zamanda toplumu etkilemesi nedeniyle konu daha çok önem kazanmıştır. Kadınlar hem evdeki sorumluluklarını hem de iş yerindeki görev ve sorumluluklarını dengelemek konusunda sıkıntılar yaşamaktadırlar. Bu çalışmanın amacı yoğun çalışma saatlerine sahip olan çeşitli kademelerdeki banka çalışanı ka...

  17. Interpretation of Nala's Fable and Zhang Ailing's None of Teenage Classmates are Basely Bred%"娜拉寓言"的深度言说——解读张爱玲遗作《同学少年都不贱》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓芳

    2009-01-01

    张爱玲的遗作是对"五四""娜拉寓言"的深度言说.言说的丛要是作者写作的巨大冲动.作者结合自己的人生经历对娜拉走出家庭后独立生存的心路历程作细微深入的描述.然而,作者在最后自己将这一言说消解了.%Zhang Ailing's novel None of Teenage Classmates are Basely Bred was the explanation of Nala's fable in the period of May 4th in 1919.The necessity of interpretation is the impetus of writing for Zhang Ailing.The writer made a deep illustration Nala's psychological activities after she left home with the living experiences she has gone through.

  18. Eğitim Seviyesindeki Yükselmenin Geleneksel Aile Anlayışının Değişimine Etkisi: Karabük Üniversitesi Örneği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Yılmaz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ÖzetGünümüzde aile ile ilgili yeni yaklaşımlar ortaya çıkmış ve geleneksel aile anlayışları değişmeye başlamıştır. Evlilik yaşının yükselmesi, boşanmaların artması, nikâhsız birlikte yaşama anlayışının yaygınlaşmaya başlaması, hanehalkı sayısının küçülmesi, çocuk sayısının azalması vb. yeni yaklaşım ve anlayışlar, sıradan bir insanın bile gözlemleyebileceği ölçüde yaygınlaşmıştır. Aile ile ilgili yeni anlayışların ortaya çıkmasını tetikleyen elbette pek çok neden vardır. Bu araştırmada, aile ile ilgili bu yeni anlayışların ortaya çıkmasında eğitimin rolünün ne olduğu araştırılmaktadır. Araştırmada, aile anlayışında meydana gelen değişmelerle ilgili olarak TÜİK verilerinden yararlanıldığı gibi üniversite öğrencileri üzerinde yapmış olduğumuz bir araştırmanın sonuçlarına da yer verilmiştir. İstatistiksel veriler eğitim seviyesinin düşük olduğu dönemlerle karşılaştırılmış, böylece eğitim seviyesindeki yükselmenin nasıl bir değişim ve dönüşüme neden olduğu tespit edilmeye çalışılmıştır. Özellikle ikinci dünya savaşı sonrasında aile ile ilgili olarak Avrupa ve Amerika’da yaşanan gelişmeler de incelenmiş ve Türk ailesindeki gelişmelerle karşılaştırılarak benzer dönüşümlerin yaşanıp yaşanmayacağı tartışılmıştır. AbstractToday, new approaches about the family have emerged, and traditional family patterns have started to change. The increase of marriage age, the increase in the number of divorces, the tendency for cohabitation, the decrease in the number of family members and the decline in the number of offspring have become so wide-spread that these changes could be easily observed even by ordinary people. There are, of course, a lot of reasons that stimulate these new approaches about the family, yet this study focuses upon the role of education concerning the emergence of

  19. Space Radar Image of Kliuchevskoi Volcano, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of the Kliuchevskoi volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, which began to erupt on September 30, 1994. Kliuchevskoi is the bright white peak surrounded by red slopes in the lower left portion of the image. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 25th orbit on October 1, 1994. The image shows an area approximately 30 kilometers by 60 kilometers (18.5 miles by 37 miles) that is centered at 56.18 degrees north latitude and 160.78 degrees east longitude. North is toward the top of the image. The Kamchatka volcanoes are among the most active volcanoes in the world. The volcanic zone sits above a tectonic plate boundary, where the Pacific plate is sinking beneath the northeast edge of the Eurasian plate. The Endeavour crew obtained dramatic video and photographic images of this region during the eruption, which will assist scientists in analyzing the dynamics of the current activity. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). The Kamchatka River runs from left to right across the image. An older, dormant volcanic region appears in green on the north side of the river. The current eruption included massive ejections of gas, vapor and ash, which reached altitudes of 20,000 meters (65,000 feet). New lava flows are visible on the flanks of Kliuchevskoi, appearing yellow/green in the image, superimposed on the red surfaces in the lower center. Melting snow triggered mudflows on the north flank of the volcano, which may threaten agricultural zones and other settlements in the valley to the north. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars

  20. Space Radar Image of Kiluchevskoi, Volcano, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of the area of Kliuchevskoi volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, which began to erupt on September 30, 1994. Kliuchevskoi is the blue triangular peak in the center of the image, towards the left edge of the bright red area that delineates bare snow cover. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 88th orbit on October 5, 1994. The image shows an area approximately 75 kilometers by 100 kilometers (46 miles by 62 miles) that is centered at 56.07 degrees north latitude and 160.84 degrees east longitude. North is toward the bottom of the image. The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The Kamchatka volcanoes are among the most active volcanoes in the world. The volcanic zone sits above a tectonic plate boundary, where the Pacific plate is sinking beneath the northeast edge of the Eurasian plate. The Endeavour crew obtained dramatic video and photographic images of this region during the eruption, which will assist scientists in analyzing the dynamics of the recent activity. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). In addition to Kliuchevskoi, two other active volcanoes are visible in the image. Bezymianny, the circular crater above and to the right of Kliuchevskoi, contains a slowly growing lava dome. Tolbachik is the large volcano with a dark summit crater near the upper right edge of the red snow covered area. The Kamchatka River runs from right to left across the bottom of the image. The current eruption of Kliuchevskoi included massive ejections of gas, vapor and ash, which reached altitudes of 15,000 meters (50,000 feet). Melting snow mixed with volcanic ash triggered mud flows on the

  1. Mother,I Want to Say...

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    果佳; 姜国强; 姜鹏; 王杨

    2007-01-01

    The greatest love in the world is mother’s love.Our mothers take care o6 us day and night.They tell us how to learn,how to live and how to get on with others... Do you have anything to say to your mother?

  2. 77 FR 28761 - Mother's Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-11992 Filed 5-15-12; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... work, and my Administration continues to promote workplace flexibility so no mother has to choose... services such as mammograms at no additional cost. Today, let us pay respect to mothers across America...

  3. Satisfied Working Mothers and Their Preschool Sons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henggeler, Scott W.; Borduin, Charles M.

    1981-01-01

    Studied the effects of maternal employment on mother-child relations and children's psychosocial functioning. Mother-son pairs (N=28) were divided into maternal working versus maternal nonworking groups. Groups were observed at home and in a laboratory. Results indicated no significant main effects or interaction effects for maternal working…

  4. Teen Mothers: Marriage, Cohabitation, and Educational Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the proportions of ethnically diverse low-income teen mothers who are cohabitating and/or married to the father of their child(ren) at approximately 14, 24, and 36 months after birth of their child. In addition, the relationship between marital status and education among teen mothers is explored. At 36 months after giving…

  5. Effects of Parenting Training for Incarcerated Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alvin R.; Clement, Mary J.

    1998-01-01

    The effectiveness of a parenting-training program, Mothers Inside Loving Kids, was evaluated (N=40). Effects on parenting techniques and on self-esteem were studied. Data from a national profile of incarcerated women are reviewed, and the effects of mother's incarceration on children are discussed. Implications for public policy are addressed.…

  6. Fathers' and Mothers' Involvements in Sibling Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghout Austin, Ann M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Measures fathers' and mothers' linguistic involvement in the development of communication between young siblings--infants and toddlers. In a laboratory setting, 39 families, each with a mother, a father and two children, were videotaped in semistructured activities. Results suggest that fathers very actively direct sibling interactions, especially…

  7. "Breastfeeding" by feeding expressed mother's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherman, Valerie J; Lee, Henry C

    2013-02-01

    This article provides the pediatric community with a practical overview of milk expression and an update on the recent literature. Approaches for working mothers, preterm infants, critically ill infants, and mothers before lactogenesis II are presented separately, as these groups may benefit from practices tailored to individual needs. PMID:23178067

  8. Spirituality and Mental Health among Homeless Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R.; Moser, Stephanie E.; Shafer, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Mothers are one of the fastest growing segments of the homeless population in the United States. Although mental health problems often contribute to homelessness, little is known about the factors that affect mothers' mental health. To help identify protective factors, this longitudinal study examined the relationship between spirituality and…

  9. Looking Mother Tongue Instruction through Different Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Kapil Dev

    2008-01-01

    Mother Tongue Instruction has been a debatable issue since long. There may be two options in the medium of instruction: either to teach especially primary and preprimary schoolchildren in their own mother tongue or continue using second or foreign language as the medium of instruction. Both of the approaches bear some pros and cons. This article…

  10. America and Russia in International Communications: Stereotypes and Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenova, Olga; Beadle, Mary

    1999-01-01

    One barrier to international communication is cultural stereotypes. Based on a literature review and on personal experience and research, this paper explores several prevalent stereotypes about Russia and the United States, noting the influence they may have on business communication. It also discusses the opportunities for and threats to…

  11. Adult Education and Lifelong Learning: New Developments in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajda, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    Examines effects of social and economic change on adult education and lifelong learning in postcommunist Russia. Discusses the history of Russian adult education, educational policy changes in the 1990s, establishment of the first Open University and a network of adult-education centers, and the conflict between market-oriented objectives and…

  12. Russia : Towards Improving the Efficiency of Public Investment Expenditures

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    This report documents the current levels and patterns of public investment in Russia, analyzes the institutional arrangements in place for investment budgeting, and develops short- and medium-term recommendations where policy or institutional strengthening is required for improving the efficiency of investment expenditures. The analysis of public investment is based primarily on the federa...

  13. Food Security in Russia: Monitoring, Trends and Threats

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Shagaida; Vasiliy Uzun

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on monitoring, assessment and threats of food security in Russia. The authors propose methodologies and submit calculations of aggregate indices of assessment of the food security. Economic accessibility of food for groups of population with different income levels in the country as a whole and in the constituents of the Russian Federation.

  14. Analysis of machine-building industry in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoveev Vitalii Nikolaevich

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article contains a description of the main functions of the machine-building industry and an analysis of its development in Russia for the period from 2000 to 2010. Basic production assets of the domestic industry were analyzed.

  15. Epidemiology of Primary Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Vladimir Region, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershova, Julia V; Volchenkov, Grigory V; Kaminski, Dorothy A; Somova, Tatiana R; Kuznetsova, Tatiana A; Kaunetis, Natalia V; Cegielski, J Peter; Kurbatova, Ekaterina V

    2015-11-01

    We studied the epidemiology of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in Vladimir Region, Russia, in 2012. Most cases of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB) were caused by transmission of drug-resistant strains, and >33% were in patients referred for testing after mass radiographic screening. Early diagnosis of drug resistance is essential for preventing transmission of MDR TB.

  16. 76 FR 11813 - Magnesium From China and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... (75 FR 9252) and determined on June 4, 2010 that it would conduct full reviews (75 FR 35086, June 21... 10, 2010 (75 FR 48360). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on December 7, 2010, and all persons... COMMISSION Magnesium From China and Russia Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in...

  17. 75 FR 9252 - Magnesium From China and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... magnesium (also known as magnesium metal) from China and Russia (70 FR 19928-19931). The Commission is... 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request for... employment statute for Federal employees, and Commission rule 201.15(b) (19 CFR 201.15(b)), 73 FR 24609...

  18. Sino-Russia Oil and Gas Cooperation Shows Wider Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Wenbo

    2002-01-01

    @@ China and Russia are two countries of important consequences in the world, which are also amicable neighboring countries. In recent years, not only good neighboring amity between the two countries has been developed and consolidated in politics, but also an historic significant step has been reached in aspect of economic cooperation.

  19. Financing Education in Transitional Societies: Lessons from Russia and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Mark; Borevskaya, Nina

    2001-01-01

    Compares changing patterns in educational finance in Russia and China, drawing on the literature concerning educational change in societies moving from socialism to market economies. Discusses economic and political contexts in the two countries, public and private educational expenditures, decentralization of financial responsibilities, increased…

  20. State regulation of services in real estate market of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Medovy

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper defines role of state in regulation framework of real estate market of Russia. Factors influencing on decreasing state regulatory level are analyzed. The author describes role and significance of administrative and economic methods of state regulation in real estate market. Some policy measures are recommended to improve regulatory environment.

  1. New Development of China-Russia-India Triangle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Jiali

    2005-01-01

    @@ Since September 2001 when scholars from China, Russia and India held the first dual track dialogue, new changes have taken place in the trilateral relations among the three countries. On June 2, 2005, the foreign ministers of the three countries held an "informal meeting" in Vladivostok, signifying that the trilateral relations have been lifted to the official level, attracting worldwide attention.

  2. Traditions and Innovations: English Language Teaching in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter-Minasova, Svetlana G.

    2005-01-01

    The English language in Russia: a brief survey. It includes a historical perspective, the traditions of the past and the new challenges of the present-day situation. The history is simple: it is based on a deep love of foreign languages in general and English in particular. Love against all odds, for better, for worse, for richer and for poorer.…

  3. Russia to invest 200 million Swiss Francs in international accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Russia will invest 200 million CHF in the LHC project, according to first deputy industry, science and technologies minister. The results of scientific research in the center will be use in various industries, enabling new Russian technologies to enter the world market.

  4. Reforming Undergraduate Instruction in Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovzik, Alexander; Watts, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Deals with the restructuring of undergraduate economics instruction at Russia's Moscow State University (MSU) since 1989. Examines how changes at MSU are reflected at Belarus State University and at Kiev State University. Considers issues such as training of faculty members, and the use of translated Western textbooks. (RLH)

  5. Social Inequality and Access to Higher Education in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinovskiy, David L.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses research on social inequality and access to higher education in Russia. It argues that the myth about equality of life chances, as with certain other myths, was an important part of the Soviet ideology. However, children from privileged groups traditionally received the education and professional training which were most…

  6. Engineering Education in Russia in an Era of Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukianenko, M. V.; Polezhaev, O. A.; Churliaeva, N. P.

    2013-01-01

    Engineering education in Russia is undergoing reforms, but the history of this form of higher education does not indicate that it will succeed in bringing it into line with current world standards, or even making it more able to contribute at a high level to Russian economic growth. (Contains 5 notes.)

  7. Determinants of obesity in transition economies: The case of Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rizov, M.I.; Huffman, S.K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines human obesity, measured as weight and body mass index (BMI), and its determinants in Russia. Obesity increased dramatically during transition from a planned to a market economy, by 38 percent. We determine the factors contributing to rising obesity using individual level data fro

  8. Empowering Communities : The Local Initiatives Support Program in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Shulga, Ivan; Sukhova, Anna; Khachatryan, Gagik

    2014-01-01

    Prosperity from economic growth is not shared evenly among Russia's population and regions. Local communities and rural territories face serious development challenges: including poor living conditions, infrastructure, and services and lack of citizens' participation in decision-making processes. The Russian Federation Local Initiatives Support Program (RF LISP) aims to address community c...

  9. Trends of tourism and hospitality industry development in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkov Sergei Konstantinovich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes trends in the Russian tourism industry. The study analyzed the following parameters: the number of Russian tourists who went abroad, the number of foreigners visiting Russia, Russian receipts from foreign tourists. Proposed specific measures for the development of the tourism industry.

  10. Some Problems and Support for Small businesses in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аlina R. Sitnikova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on key issues of small businesses in today’s market conditions. Implementation of suggested measures will ensure the sustainable development of small businesses in Russia eliminating down sides in the government support system for small businesses.

  11. In Russia, Corruption Plagues the Higher-Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemtsova, Anna

    2008-01-01

    From the top down, says the writer, Russia's universities are impoverished by bribery and insider deals large and small. A new president's dorm at Nizhniy Novgorod is one example of what anti-corruption watchdogs say is widespread mismanagement, and in some cases outright corruption, throughout the country's higher-education system. Presidents use…

  12. ASSESSMENT OF COMPETITIVENESS OF RUSSIA IN THE WORLD ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normova T. A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article evaluates the competitiveness of Russia in the world economy. This aspect of the study was considered in the dynamics and historical perspective of world economic relations development, the world's leading economies being an example. The origins and nature of competition, the concept of substitute goods were considered as an important problem of market economic system. The place of Russian Federation in the modern external economic environment and real prospects of achieving a high position among the leading producing countries were studied based on retrospective data. A comparative analysis was carried out according to certain criteria between the highly developed States. Theoretical review of data to assess the competitiveness of Russia in the world economy showed that the crisis of recent years could not have a positive impact on both economic development level of the Russian Federation and its opponents. It is known that each approach to consideration of a specific situation has its advantages and disadvantages but this article provides the most comprehensive and detailed material on the subject matter. Evaluation of competitive ability of Russia in the global economy has shown the need to increase the production capacity of the domestic manufacturer, and consequently, the production power of the country is increasing. This will contribute to the strengthening of the international authority of Russia

  13. New basic safety regulations of radioactive material transport in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananiev, V.V. [Div. of the Decommission of Nuclear and Radiation-Hazardous Object of the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ershov, V.N. [FGUP ' ' Emergency Response Centre' ' , St-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Shvedov, M.O. [Div. of Nuclear and Radiation Safety of the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    In the paper the system of normative regulation of radioactive material transport in Russia, basic principles and provisions of the new Russian regulations, available deviations from rules IAEA regulations are briefly considered. The problems, connected with putting in force of the new regulations in practice of transport, including problems of usage earlier designed and manufactured packages are considered as well.

  14. The Social and Pedagogical Protection of Orphans in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantiukhina, E. N.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the history of the provision of children's care ("prizrenie") in Russia which provides evidence that the desire to help those close to one, especially orphans and the poor, was a traditional trait of the Russian national character. The system of children's welfare as it took shape over many centuries is unique in its own…

  15. Re-thinking copyright through the copy in Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Sezneva

    2013-01-01

    How one copy of a film or a single is made illegal, while its identical twin is treated as legitimate? By drawing from the material collected in Russia on the illegal copying and distribution of video and musical contents, this paper moves beyond the definition of media piracy in legal terms, and in

  16. Needs Assessment for Health Care Management Education in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekhter, Natalia; Togunov, Igor A.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: For more than 70 years, health care management in the Soviet Union reflected a centralized directive style familiar to the Soviet political system. Market-oriented reform in post-Soviet Russia is pushing practicing physicians and physician-executives to acquire new information and skills regarding health care management. To assist…

  17. John Arquilla Interview: Russia's Military is Now "Nimbler, More Networked"?

    OpenAIRE

    Arquilla, John

    2012-01-01

    PRI's The World The Cold War is over but the "Cool War" is on. Professor Arquilla tells host Lisa Mullins that Russia's military is reasserting itself on the world stage and that in the "quiet arms race" the Russians are gaining a step on America.

  18. CMS Virtual Visit from Russia - 16 November 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Belotelov, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    This event gathered 200+ high school students selected from all over Russia from three places: - high school students from "Experimental Physics Olympics" at Sirius center, Sochi - students from European Gymnasium, Moscow - interested people at "White leaf" lecturing space Pictures show the CMS Virtual Visit, preparation lecture and masterclass activity. CMS Guides for the Virtual Visit: Nikolay Voytishin & Alexey Kamenev

  19. Innovation public procurement in Russia: problems of institutional arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Korytcev Maxim, A.

    2015-01-01

    The paper explores the problems of public procurement in innovation sphere in Russia, its institutional organization. In international practice, some strategies of innovation stimulation (by public procurement) are developing. There is necessity to use more elements of these strategies in Russian National Procurement System. The active National Public Procurement System has no enough effective methods and instruments for stimulating innovation development now.

  20. Patriotism in the political culture of modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fomin Oleg Nikolaevich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the priorities change in Russian political thought. Different types of patriotism such as state-patriotic patriotism, ‘negative’ dissident patriotism, and humanistic patriotism actualizes at different periods in Russian history. The author explores Russian modern patriotic members and difficulty of its formation in Russia nowadays.

  1. China-Russia Energy Cooperation Enters New Historical Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ China and Russia signed a deal in Beijing on February 17,2009 to lend US$25 billion to two Russian oil firms,which in turn will sell 15 million tons of crude oil a year to China for the next 20 years.

  2. 75 FR 28547 - Aerospace Supplier Mission to Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... disposable income ($4,830) and GDP ($15,200) were the highest among the BRIC countries. Prior to the global economic crisis, during which 2009 GDP declined 7.9%, Russia had a nine-year run of continuous rapid economic expansion, with GDP growing approximately 7% annually. Most domestic and international...

  3. Trends of tourism and hospitality industry development in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Volkov Sergei Konstantinovich

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes trends in the Russian tourism industry. The study analyzed the following parameters: the number of Russian tourists who went abroad, the number of foreigners visiting Russia, Russian receipts from foreign tourists. Proposed specific measures for the development of the tourism industry.

  4. Russia and the problem of Kosovo and Metohija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Predrag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nearly ten years since the 1999 NATO military intervention against Serbia and the establishment of UN administration, Kosovo and Metohija has resurfaced as a topical issue in international politics, separating the positions of the USA and Russia, and becoming a precedent in international relations, possibly with far-reaching consequences not only for the future of the western Balkans but also for many territorial disputes worldwide. Russia has only recently pulled herself out of the years-long Chechnya crisis, and facing similar problems in her 'new neighborhood' (Abkhazia, South Ossetia Transdniestria, is among the countries that might be affected by this precedent. Secondly, with her bad experience in the former Yugoslavia in the 1990s, Russia has become sensitive not only to any disturbance in the balance of power in the Balkans but also to any change to the existing international order. Moscow has not forgotten that during the 1990s many Westerners saw Serbia as a 'metaphor for Russia' and that the NATO interventions against the Serbs in Bosnia-Herzegovina (1995 and against Serbia (1999 revealed Russia's weakness, sending her the message to give up her interests in the Balkans and Europe. Thirdly, diverging American and Russian policies on Kosovo and Metohija coincide with their strained relations over the deployment of an antimissile 'shield' in Poland and the Czech Republic, the war in Iraq, policy towards Iran and other issues currently at the top of the list of international problems. Fourthly, meanwhile Russia has managed to recover from the disintegration of the USSR and to consolidate her economic and political power in Europe and the world, owing above all to oil and gas exports, but also to the export of industrial products (military in particular. The precedent that an independent Kosovo and Metohija would constitute in international relations is therefore a test of Russia's role as a permanent member of the UN Security Council

  5. Mortality in mothers after perinatal loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Wu, C; Schendel, D;

    2016-01-01

    a perinatal loss. During follow-up, 8883 mothers (1.06%) died. There was an increased overall mortality for mothers who experienced a perinatal loss adjusted for maternal age and educational level, hazard ratio (HR) 1.83 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.55-2.17]. The strongest association was seen in mortality......OBJECTIVE: To assess whether mothers who lost a child from stillbirth or in the first week of life have an increased overall mortality and cause-specific mortality. DESIGN: A population based follow-up study. SETTING: Data from Danish national registers. POPULATION: All mothers in Denmark were...... included in the cohort at time of their first delivery from 1 January 1980 to 31 December 2008 and followed until 31 December 2009 or death, whichever came first. METHODS: The association between perinatal loss and total and cause-specific mortality in mothers was estimated with hazard ratios (HR) and 95...

  6. The infant caring process among Cherokee mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Lee Anne

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the social process of infant care among Cherokee mothers. Nineteen informants, who had an infant less than 2 years of age, were interviewed. The data were analyzed using the technique of constant comparative analysis. A social process of Indian infant care among Cherokee mothers was identified. Eight concepts emerged from data analysis. The first and principal concept, being a Cherokee mother, describes the functions of being an Indian mother in Cherokee society. The other seven concepts describe the patterns of cultural care the mothers provided to their infants. These included accommodating everyday infant care, accommodating health perspectives, building a care-providing consortium, living spiritually, merging the infant into Indian culture, using noncoercive discipline techniques, and vigilantly watching for the natural unfolding of the infant. Trustworthiness and credibility of the generated theory were evaluated through multiple measures. PMID:15296577

  7. Listening to Hispanic mothers: guidelines for teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A H; Robledo, L

    1999-01-01

    Teaching Hispanic mothers in a culturally sensitive way to care for their children is a challenge to pediatric nurses. Pediatric nurses must be familiar with customs and the folk medicine practiced by Hispanic mothers. It is very important that the pediatric nurse listens to the voices of Hispanic mothers to determine their health practices, and those that may have been used in their children. Familiarity with folk medicine and health practices will facilitate an appropriate treatment plan and will help to determine whether the mothers' practices are dangerous or beneficial for the child. Pediatric nurses should assess for concurrent use of home remedies and conventional medications to determine if there are any known interactive effects. Finally, increasing the number of pediatric nurses who are fluent in Spanish will enable the voices of Hispanic mothers to be better heard, which in turn, will improve the health status of Hispanic children.

  8. Teenage mothers and their infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, E

    1985-06-01

    The outcomes of the IS/MT pilot project and the expanded services program as well as program replications in other geographic areas suggest that efforts to support the teenage mother in the care of her firstborn infant can have a demonstrable effect. Completing school, securing employment, going off welfare, and acting on a decision to prevent subsequent unwanted pregnancies were all secondary effects of a 20-week postnatal mother-infant class program designed to positively influence infant development. Similar treatment effects have been reported by IS/MT replications in St. Louis and Genesee County, Michigan. Other program innovations, however, lacking the funds and/or the expertise to conduct adequate evaluations, are nonetheless significant because they provide a groundswell capable of establishing a climate for social change. At the community level, this is expressed in the creation of new service paradigms, as in Norfolk and Memphis, where individuals and agencies are transformed and experiment with new solutions to thorny problems. At the national level, it is expressed in coalitions and political alliances around a single issue, as with the Children's Defense Fund and adolescent and single-parent families. As one who has spent almost 20 years addressing the consequences of teenage parenthood, it is heartening to know that the time is near to address the prevention of the problem. Let us hope that the Children's Defense Fund agenda accurately reflects the beliefs and feelings of the majority of our citizenry and that our national priorities will change to include the reduction of teen pregnancy and teen parenthood. PMID:2410176

  9. [Maternal affect regulation of mothers with a history of abuse in mother-infant-interaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Sandra; Cierpka, Manfred; Möhler, Eva; Resch, Franz

    2012-01-01

    Maternal intuitive skills can be threatened as a result of severe deprivation or unresolved trauma in the own childhood and can even be inaccessible to the mother. A mother's own childhood experience of abuse maybe a risk factor for repeated child abuse. As a follow-up study to assess the emotional availability of abused mothers it was investigated how a physical or sexual abuse appears in the mother-child interaction and communication in the context of "cycle of abuse" and whether it could give effect to it. Interactions of mothers with abuse experience were compared with those of mothers without an abuse experience and evaluated five months postpartum with the Munich clinical communication scale (MKK). The results suggest that maltreatment experienced mothers show less emotion tuning to their child in a standardized interaction sequence. PMID:22957399

  10. [Knowledge of oral health and practices among mothers attending a mother-child dental care program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Lúcia de Fátima Almeida de Deus; de Moura, Marcoeli Silva; de Toledo, Orlando Ayrton

    2007-01-01

    This study assesses the assimilation of knowledge and preventive practices in oral health among the mothers of children assisted by a mother-child dental care program. The Preventive Program for Pregnant Mothers and Babies (PPPMB) is an extension project run by the Piauí Federal University (UFPI), whose goal is to make pregnant women and mothers of children from zero to 36 months old more concerned about habits fostering oral health. After a random selection of clinical record cards for children who had participated in this Program, letters were sent to their mothers. Feedback was received from 281 mothers, who responded through interviews that included questions on matters addressed by the Program. The findings indicate that mothers attending this Program were properly informed, adopting hygienic practices in their families that underpin the control and prevention of oral diseases. PMID:17680166

  11. Russia-Turkey: A Relationship Shaped by Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deepening ties in between Turkey and Russia in the energy sector prompt questions as to where the balance of power between the two countries lies, with the former relying heavily on the latter for its energy needs. In light of Europe's efforts to diversify its energy sources and of tensions in its relationship with Ukraine, Russia is building the South Stream pipeline under the Black Sea (through Turkish territorial waters). At the same time, Turkey is strengthening its position in South Stream's rival pipeline projects, which aim to supply the European Union with gas from the Caspian Sea region. This means there is a difficult balance between the two countries as they try to negotiate a compromise on the basis of several lines of economic interest. While Russia attempts to protect its European revenues, Turkey is trying to enhance its status as an energy hub between Europe, the Caucasus and the Middle East. As well as the major pipeline projects, the Turkish government and, increasingly, private Turkish operators are developing an energy partnership with Russia in a growing number of fields, including nuclear power. At first glance, this would appear to make Turkey more dependent on Russia. However, the strategic maneuvers surrounding competing regional pipeline projects could give Turkey more room for negotiation and allow it to mitigate its energy dependency. Lastly, the economic significance and the timescales of all these common energy projects explain the desire of the two countries to play down their contrasting political interests in the Middle East. (author)

  12. Living Seriously in Hypocrisy-An Analysis of Womenˊs Psychology in Zhang Ailingˊs Novel%认真活在虚伪里--试论张爱玲小说女性心理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗斐然

    2015-01-01

    In Zhang Ailingˊs novels,she deconstructed female mythology from ancient times. She uncov-ered different kinds of womenˊs ugly psychology distorted by their desires with her luxurious language and her sadly beautiful writing style. Based on her novels,the paper analyzes womenˊs twisty sexual psychology,their adhering mentality in nature,and their psychology about extremely strong vanity and mutual conflict of the same sex,and then explores the forming causes of these psychological characteristics. This study further studies the unique value of female psychological portray in her novels.%张爱玲的小说解构了自古以来的女性神话,她用华丽的文辞、凄艳的笔调揭示了女性被欲望扭曲了的种种丑恶心理。从文本出发分析了张爱玲小说中女性性扭曲的心理、本质上的依附心理和极度爱慕虚荣、同性相互倾轧等心理,并分析了产生这些心理特点的原因,从而进一步探讨其女性心理塑造的独特价值。

  13. Eğitim Seviyesindeki Yükselmenin Geleneksel Aile Anlayışının Değişimine Etkisi: Karabük Üniversitesi Örneği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan YILMAZ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Günümüzde aile ile ilgili yeni yaklaşımlar ortaya çıkmış ve geleneksel aile anlayışları değişmeye başlamıştır. Evlilik yaşının yükselmesi, boşanmaların artması, nikâhsız birlikte yaşama anlayışının yaygınlaşmaya başlaması, hanehalkı sayısının küçülmesi, çocuk sayısının azalması vb. yeni yaklaşım ve anlayışlar, sıradan bir insanın bile gözlemleyebileceği ölçüde yaygınlaşmıştır. Aile ile ilgili yeni anlayışların ortaya çıkmasını tetikleyen elbette pek çok neden vardır. Bu araştırmada, aile ile ilgili bu yeni anlayışların ortaya çıkmasında eğitimin rolünün ne olduğu araştırılmaktadır. Araştırmada, aile anlayışında meydana gelen değişmelerle ilgili olarak TÜİK verilerinden yararlanıldığı gibi üniversite öğrencileri üzerinde yapmış olduğumuz bir araştırmanın sonuçlarına da yer verilmiştir. İstatistiksel veriler eğitim seviyesinin düşük olduğu dönemlerle karşılaştırılmış, böylece eğitim seviyesindeki yükselmenin nasıl bir değişim ve dönüşüme neden olduğu tespit edilmeye çalışılmıştır. Özellikle ikinci dünya savaşı sonrasında aile ile ilgili olarak Avrupa ve Amerika’da yaşanan gelişmeler de incelenmiş ve Türk ailesindeki gelişmelerle karşılaştırılarak benzer dönüşümlerin yaşanıp yaşanmayacağı tartışılmıştır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Aile, Türk Ailesi, Geleneksel aile, Yeni aile anlayışları, Eğitim ve aile. The Effect of Increasing Education Level on Changes in Traditional Family Patterns: The Case of Karabuk University Today, new approaches about the family have emerged, and traditional family patterns have started to change. The increase of marriage age, the increase in the number of divorces, the tendency for cohabitation, the decrease in the number of family members and the decline in the number of offspring have become so wide-spread that these changes could be easily

  14. Attitudes of Saudi mothers towards breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshebly, Mashael; Sobaih, Badr

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the practice and attitudes of Saudi mothers towards breastfeeding. A cross-sectional survey done on a total of 517 Saudi mothers using a questionnaire inquiring about their demographic data, breastfeeding practice in the first 6 months after delivery and longer, different reasons for stopping breastfeeding. Furthermore, their impression on the relation between breastfeeding and breast cancer as well as prevention of infant's allergic and infectious diseases. Only 37.5% of the mothers practiced exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months. 31.9% of the mothers continued breastfeeding until 9-12 months, and only 23% continued until 18-24 months. Insufficient breast milk was the commonest reason for stopping breastfeeding (25.9%). The vast majority of the mothers (95.2%) believe that breast milk can prevent allergy and infection to their infants, and 88.4% agreed that breastfeeding may decrease the risk of breast cancer. 30% of mothers with higher income and higher socio-economic class tend to have less compliance with breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months lag far behind the WHO recommendation. There is a major problem with adequacy of breast milk production in the majority of mothers in this study which might indicate the need for proper awareness and teaching programs regarding breastfeeding in our community. PMID:27651551

  15. [Mother's attributions regarding children's behavior and maltreatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Namiko

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to compare maltreating mothers and non-maltreating mothers on attributions and affects related to child behaviors. It also assessed how attributions predict affective and behavioral reactions to child behaviors. The study population comprised of a community-based sample of mothers with children aged 2 to 4 years (n = 238). Mothers' attributions and affect were assessed using vignettes of child behavior. They also answered questions about their maltreating parenting behaviors and demographic factors such as childcare environments. Results highlighted that, as compared with non-maltreating mothers, maltreating mothers made more intentional and stable attributions to negative child behavior, and to report more anger and aversion. They also had a tendency to report less happiness toward positive child behavior. Additionally, path analyses documented a pattern of thinking-feeling-action linkages. It was revealed that attributions regarding children's behavior influenced negative affect and that negative affect in turn predicted maltreatment. Finally, the usefulness of a cognitive approach to maltreating mothers, and the implications of the findings as a model for intervention are discussed. PMID:27180512

  16. The mood variation in mothers of preterm infants in Kangaroo mother care and conventional incubator care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo, Elizeu Coutinho; Cruvinel, Fernando; Lukasova, Katerina; D'Antino, Maria Eloisa Famá

    2007-10-01

    Preterm babies are more prone to develop disorders and so require immediate intensive care. In the conventional neonatal intensive care, the baby is kept in the incubator, separated from the mother. Some actions have been taken in order to make this mother-child separation less traumatic. One of these actions is the Kangaroo mother care (KMC) characterized by skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn. The objective of this study was to compare the mood variation of mothers enrolled in the KMC program to those in the conventional incubator care. In one general hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 90 mothers were evaluated before and after contact with the baby in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The participants were divided into three groups: 30 mothers of term newborns (TG), 30 mothers of preterm infants included in KMC program (PGK) and 30 preterms with incubator placement (PGI). The Brazilian version of the Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) was used for the assessment before and after the infant's visit. Results showed that TG mothers reported fewer occurrences of depressive states than PGK and PGI mothers. A significant mood variation was observed for PGK and PGI after the infant's visit. PGK mothers reported feeling calmer, stronger, well-coordinated, energetic, contented, tranquil, quick-witted, relaxed, proficient, happy, friendly and clear-headed. The only variation showed by PGI mothers was an increase in feeling clumsy. This study shows a positive effect of the KMC on the mood variation of preterm mothers and points to the need of a more humane experience during the incubator care. PMID:17881409

  17. Plugging the Baby Gap? The Struggle to Reverse Demographic Decline in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Orlova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Russia has been struggling to reverse plunging birthrates by adopting anumber of radical policies designed to encourage women to have more babies. The breakup of the Soviet Union and the ensuing economic and political instability prompted a decadelong decline in fertility rates, which dropped from 1.72 children per woman in 1991 to 1.2 children per woman in 2000. As a result, Russia lost nearly 6 million inhabitants. Relative stability and high oil prices in the decade that followed saw fertility rates settle at around 1.6 children per woman in 2012 and 1.71 children per woman in 2013, which is still below the needed replacement rate of 2.1 children per woman. This article focuses on the maternal capital subsidy for the birth of two or more children that took effect in 2007 and will run until 2016. It deals with two questions. The first question is, why has maternal capital fraud been so prevalent? The second question is, does maternal capital make a difference when it comes to increasing Russia’s birthrate? In exploring these questions, the article considers the future of maternal capital subsidy, specifically focusing on the social, economic, and political outcomes of the current Ukraine crisis and Russia’s annexation of the Crimean peninsula. The article concludes that the overly restrictive design of the maternal capital program provides afertile ground for fraud and that this subsidy fails to address the many complex causes underlying Russia’s declining fertility rates, thus limiting its effectiveness. Mothers and their families want the maternal capital money here and now because they do not believe that the money will be available in the future (in part, such belief is justified by the turbulent history of the 1990s and several bank collapses. The other side of the coin is that the state does not trust its citizens to use maternal capital money in a responsible fashion and has thus prescribed very limited usages for these

  18. The Plight of Transnational Latina Mothers: Mothering from a Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Sternberg

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic globalization, trade agreements, and revolutionary changes in transportation and communication have fueled a steady increase in international migration. Foreign-born Latinas, driven by a strong desire to escape poverty and to improve life for their children, face difficult decisions as transnational mothers. These women emigrate from their countries of origin, leaving their children behind with relatives. After overcoming the hardships and dangers involved in a clandestine crossing of the U.S.-Mexico border, they continue to suffer the pain of separation from their children and to hope for eventual family reunification. This study focuses on the experiences of eight Latina transnational mothers and calls for reflection and solidarity by nurses and other health care professionals in order to influence the dynamics of social, economic, and political actions to relieve social suffering.La mondialisation, les accords commerciaux et les évolutions révolutionnaires que connaissent les secteurs des transports et des communications ont favorisé l'augmentation régulière de l’immigration internationale. Motivées par la volonté d’échapper à la pauvreté et d’offrir une vie meilleure à leurs enfants, les mères latino-américaines sont confrontées à des décisions difficiles en tant que mères transnationales. Ces femmes émigrent de leur pays d’origine, laissant leurs enfants à leur famille. Après avoir surmonté les épreuves et les dangers inhérents au passage clandestin de la frontière américano-mexicaine, elles continuent à souffrir du fait de la séparation d’avec leurs enfants et vivent dans l’espoir de se retrouver à nouveau en famille. Cette étude s’intéresse à l’expérience de huit mères latino-américaines vivant aux Etats-Unis et appelle les infirmières et autres professionnels de la santé à réfléchir et à faire preuve de solidarité afin d’influencer une dynamique d’actions sociales,

  19. Demonstration of a PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John C. Trocciola; Thomas N. Pompa; Linda S. Boyd

    2004-09-01

    This project involved the installation of a 200kW PC25C{trademark} phosphoric-acid fuel cell power plant at Orgenergogaz, a Gazprom industrial site in Russia. In April 1997, a PC25C{trademark} was sold by ONSI Corporation to Orgenergogaz, a subsidiary of the Russian company ''Gazprom''. Due to instabilities in the Russian financial markets, at that time, the unit was never installed and started by Orgenergogaz. In October of 2001 International Fuel Cells (IFC), now known as UTC Fuel Cells (UTCFC), received a financial assistance award from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) entitled ''Demonstration of PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia''. Three major tasks were part of this award: the inspection of the proposed site and system, start-up assistance, and installation and operation of the powerplant.

  20. CIVIL SOCIETY AS A RESOURSE FOR DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris I. Makarenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on research on civil society in Russia conducted for the Committee of Civil Initiatives by the Centre of Political Technologies in June-July 2013. It compares the Western model of civil society with its understanding in non-Western nations. The author analyses historical evolution of the Russian society and provides assessment of its current standing. He concludes that non-governmental organisations and civil activities in Russia develop under conditions of low mutual trust among the population and between society and state. The lack of trust of governmental bodies to civil initiatives is clearly reflected in the latest legislation on “foreign agents”. The remaining unfavourable conditions are likely to continue to hinder progress of Russian civil society for the years to come. The foundation for the research created the data from surveys, in-depth interviews and group discussions.

  1. The Establishment and Development of Muftiates in Tsarist Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Alp

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, muftiates which was founded in Tsarist Russia, composed important part of policy of Russian government on Muslim people and Islam religion and lasted for a long time was analyzed. Factors which influenced foundation process of Orenburg Ecclesiastical Assembly, Crimean Muftiate, Southern Caucasia Sunnite and Shiite Muftiates, their duties and authorities were put forward. It was mentioned that religious organizations which have equal rights and authorities were not formed in regions where Muslim people were dominant in Russia. The difference between perspective of Tsardom government and Muslim people towards muftiates were determined, the reflection of this situation on relation between Empire and Muslim people was stated in the sense of policy.

  2. The US plutonium materials conversion program in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress has been made in Russia towards the conversion of weapons-grade plutonium (w-Pu) into plutonium oxide (PuO2) suitable for further manufacture into mixed oxide (MOX) fuels. This program was started in 1998 in response to US proliferation concerns and the acknowledged international need to decrease the available weapons-grade Pu. A similar agenda is being followed in the US to address disposition of US surplus weapons-grade Pu. In Russia a conversion process has been selected and a site proposed. This paper discusses the present state of the program in support of this future operating facility that will process up to 5 metric tons of plutonium a year. (authors)

  3. Experience in education and training of gas engineers in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience gained in training and retraining of engineers for gas industry is considered in the report. The report contains the material on modern state of higher technical education in Russia in view of the reforms taking place in this country. The report deals with questions concerning the experience gained in a specialized training of gas engineers at higher educational establishments of Russia including training of specialists for foreign countries. Conditions under which retraining of engineers involved in gas industry takes place are presented in the report. The report is based mainly on the experience gained by the Russian leading higher educational establishment of oil and gas profile, that is the State Gubkin Oil and Gas Academy. (au)

  4. Gli studi umanistici in Russia e la svolta del 1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Dovgopolova Aleksej Kamenskich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentiamo la cronaca del seminario scientifico-didattico internazionale Gumanitarnaja škola v Rossii i perelom 1917 g.: èkzistenciajl’noe izmerenie / Humanities in Russia and the Break of 1917: the Existential Dimension, svolto nella filiale di Perm’ dell’Università di ricerca internazionale «Higher School of Economics» dal 25 al 28 agosto 2015. We present the chronicle of the international scientific-didactic seminar Gumanitarnaya shkola v Rossii i perelom 1917 g .: ekzistentsiajlnoe izmerenie / Humanities in Russia and the Break of 1917: the Existential Dimension, held in Perm filial of Narional Research University "Higher School of Economics» (25-28 August 2015.

  5. The local context of mobile phone use in Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shklovski, Irina

    While social relationships are important in any culture, research suggests that in societies marked by economies of shortage and authoritarian political systems, such as Russia, people rely on their social relationships for coping with contingencies of daily life as well as for providing the basic...... social services where the government falls short (Lokshin & Yemtsov, 2001; Lonkila, 1997; Rose, 2000). In these types of personal networks informal interactions are governed by norms of high degree of reciprocity, providing everything from information to functional support. With the demise of the Soviet...... networks of shallow and long-distance ties that can be useful for certain types of support (Horst & Miller, 2006). Although Russians were relatively late to broadly adopt mobile telephony, by 2005 Russia had the fourth largest number of mobile subscribers in the world (Gladarev, 2006). Despite such breadth...

  6. Catching air? Climate change policy in Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan have each participated actively in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conferences of the Parties, and each is developing domestic rules and institutions to address UN obligations under the treaties. Russia and Ukraine are each Annex I/Annex B countries. Kazakhstan will become Annex I upon ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, but has not yet established itself as Annex B. Each state has evolved a distinct set of policies and priorities in the domestic and the international arena. Drawing largely on interviews in each country, this article presents brief histories of the evolution of climate policy, focusing on each state's behavior in the international arena, the sources of domestic policy leadership, and the forces that led to change in each national approach. Current policies and practices are evaluated with an eye towards learning from the successes and failures in each state

  7. Veterans’ Policy in Russia: a Puzzle of Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Danilova

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Every war creates a new “lost generation”, veterans of wars and military operations. After the end of wars, states develop different ways of rewarding ex-soldiers for their service to the state. This paper analyzes veterans’ policy in the Soviet Union, its transformation after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the new veterans’ policy in modern Russia. The paper reviews different historical stages in developing a veterans’ policy, and examines the main differences among the population of veterans. It outlines how the position of the most preferred group, the veterans of the Great Patriotic War, is supported by politics and expressed in civil-military relations. Further, the paper shows the gradual development in the welfare of veterans for other subgroups of veterans. In conclusion, it discusses the consequences of the modern veterans’ system in Russia.

  8. Travel Recommendations for the Nursing Mother

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Breastfeeding Information for Families Breastfeeding Hotline The HHS Office ... State and Local Programs Travel Recommendations for the Nursing Mother Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Travel ...

  9. Infant of a substance using mother

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Maternal substance use; Maternal drug use; Narcotic exposure - infant; Substance use disorder - infant ... ARE THE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS SEEN IN AN INFANT OF A SUBSTANCE-ABUSING MOTHER? Babies born to ...

  10. Analytical characterisation of homoeopathic mother tinctures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, A; Franck-Karl, G; Waimer, F; Riegert, U; Wiget, R

    2009-03-01

    Quality of homoeopathic mother tinctures is assured by the definition of the starting material, the manufacturing process and the analytical characteristics described in the monograph. Traditionally analytical characterisation of the mother tincture comprises appearance, odour, identity, density and dry residue. According to annex I of directive 2001/83/EC an assay is only performed in case of a health hazard due to toxic compounds. The concept of marker substances as usually used in phytotherapy cannot be transferred to mother tinctures without research effort. For example the marker substances echinacoside, apigenin-7-glucoside and rosmarinic acid found in dried underground parts of Echinacea pallida Nutt., dried flower heads of Matricaria recutita L. and dried herb of Pulmonaria officinalis L. cannot be found in homoeopathic mother tinctures prepared from fresh material thereof. PMID:19275866

  11. Transfer of elements into mother's milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research project aimed to determine the factors for the transfer of the elements silver (Ag), cerium (Ce), cobalt (Co), chrome (Cr), gallium (Ga), lanthanum (La), molybdenum (Mo), niobium (Nb), radium (Ra), ruthenium (Ru), antimony (sb), thorium (Th), titanium (Ti) and uranium (U) from food into the mother's milk. This factors will be used as a basic to check and derive activity values for the contamination of food and for radiation protection at working places of suckling women. For this purpose 19 mothers collected samples daily (2-8 weeks), using the duplicate method, of all the food they consumed as well as of their milk. After microwave-assisted digestion the element contents were analysed by mass-spectroscopy with inductive coupled plasma (ICP-MS). The results of the mothers who participate for more than 5 weeks were used to make a time lapse between the intake and transfer of the elements in the mothers milk visible. (orig.)

  12. Mampang Yumco: Mother of All Rivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The Mapang Yumco Lake is famed as the “Mother of All Rivers”. In the absence of wind and waves, the vast lake surface is like a mirror reflecting the blue sky, white clouds, snowy peaks and steep cliffs.

  13. Child Care Arrangements Of Working Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh H

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Children arrangements for infants and preschool children and the reasons for working outside the home were studied in 300 mothers of whom 100 were teachers (Group. I 100 clerks (groups II and 100 tabourers (Group III. The interview method was used. The most common (80% reason for working was financial needs, the next most frequent was utilization of specialized skills. In 58.7% of the cases, substitute childcare was provided by one of the family members, usually the grandmother. Sixty six percent of caretakers were illiterate. Most (93% of the working mothers had also to perform certain household chores. Bottle-feeding was stated at birth by 80% of these mothers: Childcare arrangements for children of working mothers must be considered in the future.

  14. Transfer of mother tongue in SLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米海燕

    2012-01-01

    In SLA transfer of mother tongue can not be overlooked. And we group it into positive transfer and negative transfer, which are reflected on different levels including pronunciation, vocabulary, syntax and culture.

  15. The European Union and Russia - English School and sanctions

    OpenAIRE

    Schack, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the dynamics of the actions taken by the European Union, and the Russian Federation in the Ukraine Crisis, as well as a general timeline. By making use of English School theory, specifically by Hedley Bull and Barry Buzan, and applying it to the above actors, it is determined that the European Union and the Russia Federation subscribe to very different values and institutions. These differences in values and institutions, attempt to explain the foundation for their differe...

  16. Labour Supply in the Informal Economy in Russia during Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Kolev, Alexandre

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates the informal labour market in Russia in late 1995 and estimates a labour supply function in the informal sector using nationally representative micro-data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, Round VI. The findings show that the informal economy constitutes a considerable source of additional income for many families, though it is associated with a large degree of wage and gender inequality. Informal job holding appears to be a safety valve for several indi...

  17. Epidemiology of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy abroad and in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    T. E. Popova; N. A. Shnayder; M. M. Petrova; T. Ya. Nikolaeva; E. A. Kantimirova

    2015-01-01

    Current article provides an overview of the results of epidemiological studies of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) in Russia and abroad. It is shown that the prevalence of CIDP is different in countries, due to the use of different diagnostic criteria. It should be noted that the reliability of epidemiological prevalence and incidence is affected by difficulties of diagnosis of atypical forms of the disease.

  18. Aerobic Methanotrophs in Natural and Agricultural Soils of European Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Kravchenko; Andrey Yurkov; Anna Kizilova

    2013-01-01

    Human activities such as land management and global warming have great impact on the environment. Among changes associated with the global warming, rising methane emission is a serious concern. Therefore, we assessed methane oxidation activity and diversity of aerobic methanotrophic bacteria in eight soil types (both unmanaged and agricultural) distributed across the European part of Russia. Using a culture-independent approach targeting pmoA gene, we provide the first baseline data on the di...

  19. United States-Russia: Environmental management activities. Summer 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Joint Coordinating Committee for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (JCCEM) was formed between the US and Russia. This report describes the areas of research being studied under JCCEM, namely: Efficient separations; Contaminant transport and site characterization; Mixed wastes; High level waste tank remediation; Transuranic stabilization; Decontamination and decommissioning; and Emergency response. Other sections describe: Administrative framework for cooperation; Scientist exchange; Future actions; Non-JCCEM DOE-Russian activities; and JCCEM publications

  20. Business valuation for mergers and acquisitions in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Zaderienko, Dmitrii

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The main objective of this study is to find out relevant issues of business valuation for conducting mergers and acquisitions in Russia and elaborate recommendations for increasing effectiveness of business amalgamation processes. In order to achieve this objective, there are specific milestones: to determine basics of mergers and acquisitions, to analyze patterns and models of business consolidation; to assess the role of valuation procedures in mergers and acquisitions; to ide...

  1. JINR and Russia Exhibition Science Bringing Nations Together

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    The collaboration of JINR scientists and specialists with Russian colleagues, large institutes and industrial enterprises of the JINR host countries dates back its founding. These fruitful contacts cover virtually all research areas of JINR and largely determine new trends in scientific research. Geographically, JINR co-operation with scientific and educational centres and industry in Russia embraces over 150 organisations and over 40 Russian towns.

  2. United States-Russia: Environmental management activities, Summer 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    A Joint Coordinating Committee for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (JCCEM) was formed between the US and Russia. This report describes the areas of research being studied under JCCEM, namely: Efficient separations; Contaminant transport and site characterization; Mixed wastes; High level waste tank remediation; Transuranic stabilization; Decontamination and decommissioning; and Emergency response. Other sections describe: Administrative framework for cooperation; Scientist exchange; Future actions; Non-JCCEM DOE-Russian activities; and JCCEM publications.

  3. Education in Udmurt and Chuvash as minority languages of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Protassova, Ekaterina; Alòs i Font, Hèctor; Bulatova, Ekaterina

    2014-01-01

    The languages of Russia are a valuable resource of knowledge about the life of the indigenous peoples and a challenge for all the specialists in linguistic typology. As is widely known, they are undergoing the process of loss, mainly because the quantity of speakers diminishes and the quality of their speech deteriorates. The article discusses the situation of Udmurt and Chuvash in education on the basis of legal texts, statistical data, interviews to parents, teachers and school officials an...

  4. Human Resource Management in Russia: Some Unwritten Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Denisova-Schmidt, Elena

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the fact that Western companies have been actively developing the Russian market over the last twenty years, they are still faced with the Soviet-era heritage in human resource management. This paper gives an overview of the common Soviet human resource practices of the past. Understanding traditional human resource practices in the Soviet Union prior to the end of communism will help practitioners to design human resource management systems for Russia more effic...

  5. Mobile Banking in Russia: User Intention towards Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Veronika Belousova; Nikolay Chichkanov

    2015-01-01

    Mobile banking is currently one of the most dynamic and rapid growth types of distance banking services. In recent years in Russia, the number of individual bank accounts that can be accessed remotely using mobile devices has increased by more than 20 times. With every year, an increasing number of banks offer mobile banking services. Nevertheless, the popularity of mobile banking applications is lower than the popularity of other banking services. Thus the problem of mobile banking adoption ...

  6. Agrogeochemical cycles of plant nutrients in the territory of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudeyarov, V. N.; Semenov, V. M.

    2008-12-01

    The contribution of mineral fertilization to the agrogeochemical cycles of major nutrients (N, P, K) was estimated. The agrogeochemical budgets of major nutrients (NPK) in the territory of Russia are unfavorable for agricultural production for the present and the nearest future. The removal of major nutrients with crops significantly exceeds their input to the soil with fertilizers and other sources. The nutritional degradation of arable soils increases, which can result in irreversible catastrophic consequences within 20-30 years.

  7. Stock Market Reaction to Debt Financing Arrangements in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Christophe J. Godlewski; Fungacova, Zuzana; Weill, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates stock market reaction to debt arrangements in Russia. The analysis of the valuation of debt arrangements by stock markets provides information about the use of debt by Russian companies. We apply the event study methodology to check whether debt announcements lead to abnormal returns using a sample of Russian listed companies that issued syndicated loans or bonds between June 2004 and December 2008. We find a negative reaction of stock markets to debt arrangements that...

  8. Epidemiology of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy abroad and in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Popova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current article provides an overview of the results of epidemiological studies of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP in Russia and abroad. It is shown that the prevalence of CIDP is different in countries, due to the use of different diagnostic criteria. It should be noted that the reliability of epidemiological prevalence and incidence is affected by difficulties of diagnosis of atypical forms of the disease.

  9. Quality of Tourism and Hospitality Management Systems in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina N. Markaryan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the features of quality standards (ISO, their application in Russia, analyzes Quality Awards, awarded to Russian producers, such as the Award of the Government of the Russian Federation in the field of Quality, National Tourism Award named after Yu. Senkevich, Travel Award «Golden Meridian», Moscow “Guiding Star” Award. The objectives of management system for Sochi resorts and hotels were determined

  10. Three myths about Ukraine balansing between Russia and European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skriba Andrey Sergeevich

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The debate about the integration choice of the Ukraine during the last decade has traditionally been based on three well-known theses: (1 unique importance of the Ukraine to European and Eurasian integrations; (2 Russian desire to involve the Ukraine into the Eurasian integration by any means; (3 the Ukraine as a key point of the RussiaEU relations, still characterized as a zero-sum game. In this article, the author refutes the main stereotypes of Ukraine’s balancing policy. Firstly, both actors (Russian and EU expect the Ukraine to enter their integrations only in case this country meets their expectations. Otherwise, the only thing they need is to prevent its cooperation with an alternative actor. That is why, secondly, Russia will not pay a price for Ukrainian integration that it would consider as unacceptable. The Russian current policy is just about establishing fair relations with the Ukraine, without any benefits and subsidies. Thirdly, if the Ukraine becomes an integration participant, yet it doesn’t mean that the actor it approaches with has clear advantages and they both will have only win-win outcomes. Even within the integration, the Ukraine seems to continue its balancing policy, trying to get maximum profit, giving minimum contribution. Finally, the study shows that these theses have a negative impact on the development of the Russia-Ukraine cooperation either. Critical analysis of these theses made it possible to free the Russia-Ukraine relations from a speculating component and discovered the true essence of the conflicts between the two countries. In addition, the research results can improve the policy aimed at the effective involvement of the Ukraine in the Eurasian integration process.

  11. Informal Employment in Russia: Combining Disadvantages and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Merkuryeva

    2006-01-01

    The paper discusses the problem of informal employment in Russia, its structure and the factors contributing to the individual decisions making when choosing specific employment type. Informal employment is a highly diverse area comprising individuals with different profiles and motivations to prefer specific informal options over formal employment. Empirical findings using the 2003 NOBUS dataset confirm that defined groups of informally employed individuals are consistently different accordi...

  12. Innovation public procurement in Russia: problems of institutional arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korytcev Maxim, A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the problems of public procurement in innovation sphere in Russia, its institutional organization. In international practice, some strategies of innovation stimulation (by public procurement are developing. There is necessity to use more elements of these strategies in Russian National Procurement System. The active National Public Procurement System has no enough effective methods and instruments for stimulating innovation development now.

  13. Cyber Operations Between Russia and Ukraine During Ukrainian Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Pavlíková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available When the Ukraine crisis started in 2013, discussions about possible cyber warfare appeared. Debates about the usage of cyber tools in war conflicts have already been considered for the last few years and conflicts where actors possess these capacities emphasize the importance to analyze this phenomenon. This article examines cyber warfare between Russia and Ukraine during the Ukraine crisis and aims to analyze incidents in the cyber domain with considerations cyber war on a theoretical background.

  14. STUDENT CIVIC ENGAGEMENT AND PROTEST ACTIVITIES IN RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Savchenko Daria Sergeevna

    2012-01-01

    Recent political events in Russia and the understanding that the society needs some strong consolidation motive contribute to the surging interest for civic awareness of the young, and especially students. The article focuses on the protest activity of students and analyses its factors and forms. The article is based on solid research and survey carried out by the author in a number of Russian regions. The author con cludes with the comprehensive analysis covering special features of student ...

  15. Trends for nanotechnology development in China, Russia, and India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China, Russia, and India are playing an increasingly important role in global nanotechnology research and development (R and D). This paper comparatively inspects the paper and patent publications by these three countries in the Thomson Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI) database and United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database (1976-2007). Bibliographic, content map, and citation network analyses are used to evaluate country productivity, dominant research topics, and knowledge diffusion patterns. Significant and consistent growth in nanotechnology papers are noted in the three countries. Between 2000 and 2007, the average annual growth rate was 31.43% in China, 11.88% in Russia, and 33.51% in India. During the same time, the growth patterns were less consistent in patent publications: the corresponding average rates are 31.13, 10.41, and 5.96%. The three countries' paper impact measured by the average number of citations has been lower than the world average. However, from 2000 to 2007, it experienced rapid increases of about 12.8 times in China, 8 times in India, and 1.6 times in Russia. The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), and the Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT) were the most productive institutions in paper publication, with 12,334, 6,773, and 1,831 papers, respectively. The three countries emphasized some common research topics such as 'Quantum dots,' 'Carbon nanotubes,' 'Atomic force microscopy,' and 'Scanning electron microscopy,' while Russia and India reported more research on nano-devices as compared with China. CAS, RAS, and IIT played key roles in the respective domestic knowledge diffusion.

  16. Russia's black carbon emissions: focus on diesel sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholod, Nazar; Evans, Meredydd; Kuklinski, Teresa

    2016-09-01

    Black carbon (BC) is a significant climate forcer with a particularly pronounced forcing effect in polar regions such as the Russian Arctic. Diesel combustion is a major global source of BC emissions, accounting for 25-30 % of all BC emissions. While the demand for diesel is growing in Russia, the country's diesel emissions are poorly understood. This paper presents a detailed inventory of Russian BC emissions from diesel sources. Drawing on a complete Russian vehicle registry with detailed information about vehicle types and emission standards, this paper analyzes BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles. We use the COPERT emission model (COmputer Programme to calculate Emissions from Road Transport) with Russia-specific emission factors for all types of on-road vehicles. On-road diesel vehicles emitted 21 Gg of BC in 2014: heavy-duty trucks account for 60 % of the on-road BC emissions, while cars represent only 5 % (light commercial vehicles and buses account for the remainder). Using Russian activity data and fuel-based emission factors, the paper also presents BC emissions from diesel locomotives and ships, off-road engines in industry, construction and agriculture, and generators. The study also factors in the role of superemitters in BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles and off-road sources. The total emissions from diesel sources in Russia are estimated to be 49 Gg of BC and 17 Gg of organic carbon (OC) in 2014. Off-road diesel sources emitted 58 % of all diesel BC in Russia.

  17. Georgia War within the context of the NATO - Russia relations

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Iulia IULIAN

    2013-01-01

    The Russian-Georgian conflict represented a turning point in the International Relations, putting on another basis the relation between Russia and Western countries, in general, and between Rusia and NATO, especially. Although it was a short war (8-13 August 2008), it became a key element in the future evolution of NATO to the East, influencing the Russian position towards the West and toward the near abroad. Russia’s military action completed its political action initiated at the NATO Summit...

  18. Preconditions for Sustainable Development of Pacific Russia Seaside Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. Ya. Baklanov

    2011-01-01

    A geographical position and objective processes of globalization become leading factors of the orientation of the Russian east areas in the long-term development to interaction with the countries of the Asian-Pacific region (APR) and also to various natural resources and transport potential of the Pacific Ocean.In terms of economic-geographical attraction to the Pacific Ocean as a whole within Russia,it is possible to allocate three zones (Baklanov 2009):

  19. BUSINESS PLAN BLUEPRINT OF A CAFE IN RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Geraskin, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    This thesis provides an insight into business plan core chapters from the viewpoint of a starting company in North-Western Russia. The aim of the thesis was to comprehend the main steps on the way to the successful business plan such as the marketing plan, risk management issues, human resource management features and to facet the business idea itself with the help of the project commissioner. Catering business, marketing, risk management and other special literature was used along with i...

  20. Foreign Direct Investment and Governance Quality in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Kuzmina; Natalya Volchkova; Tatiana Zueva

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of poor governance quality on foreign direct investment in Russia. Using a survey of businesses across forty administrative districts, we find that higher frequency of using illegal payments and higher pressure from regulatory agencies, enforcement authorities, and criminals, negatively affect foreign direct investment. Our identification strategy builds on the exogenous cross-regional variation in worker strikes during 1895-1914, the period before the October Re...

  1. Modern trends in the institutional investing in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Nikitina, Tatjana; Repeta, Anna

    2011-01-01

    In this article we analyse main tendencies and trends driving institutional investing in Russia nowadays. Russian specifics of institutional investors market is that historically banks played key role and thus became the largest intermediaries in the financial system. Other institutional investors being insurance companies, pension funds and other mutual funds are still in development stage and have extensive opportunities to grow. However, total assets of non-bank institutional investors in ...

  2. Performance assessment of innovation infrastructure facilities in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Barinova, Vera; Sorokina, Alla

    2014-01-01

    Performance assessment of innovation infrastructure facilities might be seen as one of the most topical issues of regional development in Russia. Due to the variety of infrastructure types, it's difficult to select the assessment indicators, for there are no generally accepted and integrated performance assessment measures, based on verifiable data according to the enquiries of the stakeholders. The article discusses ways to evaluate the efficiency of innovation infrastructure facilities in R...

  3. Pure Profit for Russia: Benefits of Responsible Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Gerasimchuk, Ivetta; Ilyumzhinova, Kamila; Schorn, Alistair; Kraft, Georg; Smith, Kevin; Lottmann, Juergen; Eckstein, Mark; Khmeleva, Ekaterina; Perelet, Renat; Shvarts, Evgeny

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to serve as a post financial crisis handbook that will help both financiers and environmentalists in Russia to cooperate in establishing a ‘greener’ and less risky financial system in a similar manner to which this process is underway in other emerging markets such as China, Brazil and South Africa. The report provides an overview of the evolution of international mechanisms of environmental and social responsibility in the global financial sector, quantifies the...

  4. Social networking as an advertising tool in Russia and abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ageeva Y. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study contrasts the behavioural patterns of users on Facebook with those on VKontakte using data collected by Facebook and a survey of Russian VKontakte users. The authors analyse the key differences between the two popular social networks, including what users perceived to be the most attractive options, the amount of time spent online and attitudes toward advertising. The results have been used to evaluate the potential of social networks (SMM for business promotion in Russia.

  5. LAND REFORM AND DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL LAND MARKETS IN RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Lerman, Zvi; SHAGAIDA Natalya

    2005-01-01

    Russia has experienced dramatic changes in land ownership and land tenure since the dissolution of the Soviet Union at the end of 1991: agricultural land has been largely privatized, individual landowners now have legal rights to most agricultural land in the country, and previous prohibitions on buying and selling of land have been removed by recent laws. The necessary preconditions for the development of agricultural land markets have been met and we are beginning to witness transactions th...

  6. China's Oil Giants Increase Oil Imports from Russia's Yukos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ To relieve the shortage in crude supply, sharp reduction of crude production by Daqing Oil Field in particular, Sinopec Corp has recently signed an agreement with OAO Yukos Oil Company to import 17 million tons of crude oil from Russia's second largest oil firm via a railway over the next four years.The first batch of the Russian oil will be delivered starting May 1 by a rail link from Russian territory to Erlianhaote in China's Inner Mongolia.

  7. HUGE ADVANTAGES OF ENERGY COOPERATION AMONG CHINA, RUSSIA AND KAZAKHSTAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In November 30 to December 2,2005, Beijing successfully hosted the "2nd Sino-Russo-KazakhOil Forum", on which the participants discussed the ways to find the crossing points of their common benefit. In addition to the participants from China,Russia and Kazakhstan, some representatives from the petroleum industries of other countries such as Ukraine,Turkmenistan, England and Netherlands also attended the meeting.

  8. Effects Of Mother-Child Communication Training

    OpenAIRE

    YALÇIN, Hatice

    2013-01-01

    Communication with parents towards their children is important during childhood. A training program that covers the communication skills of the mothers in this study, the behavior of the children investigated the effect of social relations. Working is experimental model. Pre-test and post-test control group research design was used. The research population mothers of children in the age group 4-5 are 3 different preschool. To collect data to study the Behavior of Parental Self Rating Scale (B...

  9. Hester Prynne:Contradictions and Mother's Role

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金凤

    2007-01-01

    Hester Prynne,heroine of Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter,seems idealized by the narrator,yet in her attitudes and behaviors there are some contradictions that need a further study.Her role as a mother plays a vital part in all the contradictions,bringing the figure to life from the sacred shrine made for her by the narrator.To understand the significance of Hester's mother's role in her contradictions will reveal a character more human to the reader.

  10. Hester Prynne: Contradictions and Mother's Role

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金凤

    2007-01-01

    Hester Prynne,heroine of Hawthorne The Scarlet Letter,seems idealized by the narrator,yet in her anitudes and behaviors there are some contradictions that need a further study.Her role as a mother plays a vital part in all the contradictions.bringing the figure to life from the sacred shrine made for her by the narrator.To understand the significance of Hester's mother's role in her contradictions will reveal a character more human to the reader.

  11. Feminism, psychology and becoming a mother

    OpenAIRE

    Hollway, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    The period of becoming a mother is a fundamental issue for feminism and a challenging one for psychology, involving a specific set of psychological processes and psychic changes that are hard to access through available language and discourses. How we understand, theorise and represent the perinatal period of mothering reaches into questions of gender equality and gender difference, parenting and how feminist psychology has tended to treat women’s reproductive bodies and the biological. To ex...

  12. Mothers and mammismo in the Italian diaspora

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Penelope.; Willson, Perry; Barocci, Silvia; Garroni, Maria Susanna; Giorgio, Adalgisa; Ricatti, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The short pieces presented here all originate in a workshop entitled The Stereotype Abroad: Mammismo in the Italian Diaspora held in Edinburgh (Scotland, UK) in May 2014. The workshop formed part of a wider interdisciplinary project – La Mamma: Interrogating a National Stereotype – funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council, to investigate the role and representations of Italian mothers, and, in particular, the stereotype of mammismo (the strong Italian mother who overindulges her son...

  13. Children of Working Mothers, March 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Almost 27 million children in the U.S.--or 42 percent of those under age 18--had mothers working or seeking work in March 1974. About one in four of these children (6.1 million) were below regular school age. Since 1970, the number of children whose mothers were in the labor force has risen sharply by 1.2 million, while the total number of…

  14. Mother-induced hypertension in familial dysautonomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Palma, Jose-Alberto; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2016-02-01

    Here we report the case of a patient with familial dysautonomia (a genetic form of afferent baroreflex failure), who had severe hypertension (230/149 mmHg) induced by the stress of his mother taking his blood pressure. His hypertension subsided when he learnt to measure his blood pressure without his mother's involvement. The case highlights how the reaction to maternal stress becomes amplified when catecholamine release is no longer under baroreflex control. PMID:26589199

  15. [(Lack of) motivation of the puerperal mother to practice the Kangaroo Mother Method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Gisele Perin; Monticelli, Marisa

    2007-03-01

    This article aims at describing the context of the development of the Mother-Kangaroo Method at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a public hospital, and discussing the reasons why some women/mothers do not seem stimulated to maintain skin contact with their premature babies. The methodology included three steps: reality problematization, literature review, and systematic reflection aiming at solving the identified problem. It was concluded that the perception of the neonatal team as to mother-newly born infant bond needs to be changed, in the sense of understanding that often the mothers' reaction are different from those expected by the health professionals. PMID:17658053

  16. Between stigma and mother-blame: blind mothers' experiences in USA hospital postnatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Angela

    2015-11-01

    This study examines instances of discrimination that blind mothers in the USA have experienced at the hands of doctors, nurses and social workers during hospital postnatal care. The author identifies postnatal care as the time when blind mothers are likely to face the most stigmatising interactions with medical staff, as it is when scepticism about their competence as mothers is at its height. The author argues these interactions must be understood within their institutional context in which ideologies of risk and mother-blame are embedded in hospital postnatal practices.

  17. Estimating Renewable Energy Resources of Russia: Goals and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakun V.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During the last several years in some regions of Russian Federation one can observe a growing interest in renewable energy projects motivated by a necessity to have stable, affordable and autonomous energy sources. Besides, there has been an advance in legal initiatives designed to regulate the development of renewable energy sources in Russia. Some governmental regulations having for an object to stimulate this area, have already been accepted. The regulation contains the target value parameters of the output volume of the electric energy output volumes with the use of renewable energy sources (except hydroelectric power plants with the established capacity exceeding 25 MW. The work shows the results of resource estimating wind, solar, biomass energy resources for Russia, using GIS methods, which allow one to provide more exact predictions for the energy development, and therefore to prove investments and to pass to working out the equipment design of energy plants based on renewable energy sources. Current matters are relating to opportunities and perspectives of renewable sector in Russia.

  18. Distribution and color variation of gyrfalcons in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.; Ellis, C.H.; Pendleton, G.W.; Panteleyev, A.V.; Rebrova, I.V.; Markin, Y.M.

    1992-01-01

    Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) museum specimens in Moscow (73) and St. Petersburg (132) were divided into four color classes (gray, light gray, white gray, and white) and four longitudinal belts representing major physiographic regions of northern Russia. Gray variants predominated in the west and central regions. White birds were most common in extreme eastern Siberia, but were occasionally found even west of the Ural Mountains. Frequencies were as follows: European Russia 4% white, 50% gray (the remainder were intermediates); western Siberia 0% white, 58% gray; central Siberia 15% white, 42% gray; and eastern Siberia 47% white, 33% gray. Remarkably, in the easternmost subregion, white birds predominated even near the southernmost extension. Because the northernmost portions of the species' range in continental Russia are in central Siberia where white variants were rare, we propose that a better predictor of the white variant is longitude, not latitude. White birds were most frequent at the eastern reaches of both the Palearctic and Nearctic. The best environmental correlates of this distribution pattern may be the southward bending thermal isoclines proceeding eastward toward Greenland or Kamchatka, where both land masses are bathed by cold oceanic currents of Arctic origin. By contrast, the western reaches of both land masses are bathed by warm currents. In these western reaches, Gyrfalcon summer distribution is displaced northward and dark variants predominate. The breeding range of the Gyrfalcon, determined by mapping the locations of the specimens we examined, differs little from the range proposed in 1951.

  19. Life Insurance In Russia: Features Of Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Leonidovna Prokopjeva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Life insurance is the economic tool allowing to accumulate large monetary funds at the level of the country, regions and certain insurers, and also providing growth of a standard of living of citizens and social stability in society. Subject matter of the research is the economic aspects of development of life insurance in regions of Russia. The purpose of the work — to carry out the comparative analysis of functioning of the markets for life insurance in territorial subjects of the Russian Federation, to reveal regularities and distinctive features of development of the markets and to define further prospects of branch. Methods of research: analysis, comparison, induction, analogy, mathematical modeling were used. The main results of research: life insurance — a demanded financial product in Moscow, but in regions of Russia demand for it is extremely limited; economic indicators of the market have low values and vary on territorial subjects of the Russian Federation; statistics of a variation confirm heterogeneity of functioning of the life insurance marketin comparison with the insurance market in general; life insurance volumes in regions of Russia significantly depend on activity of real sector of economy, thus have practically no close interrelation with the income of the population. Collaboration of authorities of all levels and insurance community is necessary for effective development of the life insurance marketin regions. The special attention has to be paid to price policy of insurers, increase of transparency of the movement of their financial streams and guarantees of recoverability of means of insurers.

  20. Energy Security of Russia and the EU: Current Legal Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Security of energy supply is a cornerstone of European energy policy. It receives specific mention both in the Constitution Treaty and in the Lisbon Treaty. Of course, energy and energy-generated revenues are vital for Russia as well. It is a common understanding that Russia and the EU are extremely interdependent in terms of energy. On the one hand, Russia is the strategic energy supplier to the EU as a whole; for some member states Russian supplies represent the only source of the external energy flows. On the other hand, the revenues generated from the west-bound supplies of oil and gas constitute a significant share of the overall export income and of the budget of Russian Federation. Taking the interdependency as a point of departure the present article answers the following questions: What are the differences and the similarities in the European and the Russian approaches towards security of energy supply? Is their understanding of energy security so different? What are the current legal instruments guiding interaction in this sphere? What are the actual trends that could give some indication of how the situation may develop in the future? - While the concepts of 'security of energy supplies' or of 'energy security' are theoretical in nature, the ways the concepts are understood and the legal framework for them directly influences the way they are applied in practice. (author)

  1. Energy Strategy of Russia in the Conditions of Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashulin Danila A.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the transformation of the energy strategy of Russia in the conditions of the current economic crisis. The special attention is paid to current trends in the sphere of international relations having a decisive influence on the formation of Russia’s energy strategy. The authors point to the crisis of the modern world, the deepening of interstate contradictions, the expansion of confrontation, the revision of the uniform principles of trade, established by the World Trade Organization, the changes in the global financial system. The authors investigate the possibility of political arrangements between the leading suppliers of oil on the destabilization of the oil market in order to achieve geopolitical goals. In the article special attention is also paid to the issue of political motivation of anti-Russian sanctions directed at impeding Russia’s development and its Fuel & Energy Complex, in particular. Today, against the background of the current political situation, the energy strategy of Russia is exposed to adjustment. The country has the important task of ensuring technological independence of the energy sector on the basis of import substitution of the equipment, diversification of the directions of export of energy resources, preservation of leading positions in the world market of peaceful nuclear energy, etc. The authors conclude that the energy strategy of Russia is important part of foreign policy strategy of the country, and it is focused on practical cooperation with all countries and is aimed at protecting interests of the state.

  2. Political chaos reins progress on new joint ventures in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that frustration is mounting among foreign petroleum companies chasing business opportunities in Russia. Political uncertainty continues to block large oil and gas exploration and production deals there. Most foreign officials believe Russia's transformation from a centrally planned economy to a market economy is irreversible. But enough political, social, and economic uncertainty persists that Russian leaders are hesitant to approve deals with foreign companies. The lack of certainty among leaders of the former Soviet republic about who controls Russia's natural resources, who can approve contracts, and who determines winners of bid tenders is causing confusion among foreign companies trying to negotiate major E and P deals. With no clearly successful path apparent for completing large deals, various secondary negotiating strategies are prevailing. Russian industry specialists say those secondary strategies work best for small deals involving relatively small players in less prospective regions. Meantime, countervailing political forces within the country, the world's top producer of oil and gas, continue to buffet petroleum companies that are negotiating deals or getting projects off the ground

  3. Carbon taxation and market structure: A CGE analysis for Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russia is one of the world's major sources of carbon based energy as well as one its most intensive users. Introducing carbon taxes can lead to a reduction in emissions and encourage investment in energy efficiency. We investigate the economic effects of carbon taxes on the Russian economy under perfect competition and a Cournot oligopoly in output markets. The main findings are: (i) substituting carbon taxes for labour taxes can yield a strong double dividend in Russia; however, welfare gains strongly depend on the labour supply elasticity and elasticities of substitution between capital, labour, and energy. (ii) Under the assumption of a Cournot oligopoly with homogenous products and symmetric firms in the markets for natural gas, petroleum and chemical products, metals, and minerals, welfare costs of the environmental tax reform can be higher than under perfect competition. This is because introducing carbon taxes leads to a reduction in already sub-optimal output, thereby exacerbating pre-existing distortions arising from imperfect competition. (iii) Furthermore, increases in energy costs can result in higher mark-ups in some markets because of less competition resulting from firms' exit. - Highlights: ► Substituting carbon taxes for labour taxes in Russia can yield a double dividend. ► The labour supply elasticity and substitution possibilities between factors are crucial. ► Introducing carbon taxes can exacerbate distortions from imperfect competition. Increases in energy costs result in higher mark-ups because of less competition.

  4. Genre Formatting in Periodic Printed Media of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tertytchny A. A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern tendencies of genre formatting in printed media in Russia are analyzed in the article. A number of printed periodicals are investigated, namely “Ekonomika i zhizn’”, “Vedomosti”, “Schastlivye roditeli” (more than 1200 texts and 5 regional Moscow newspapers (“Kolomenskaya Pravda”, “Zarya”, “Orekhovo-Zuevskaya Pravda”, “Serebryanoprudsky Vestnik”, “Khimkinskie Novosti” comprising more than 400 texts. The author states that formatting of modern printed media and formatting of the used genres occur within the main tendencies of journalism development. They are PR, Westernization, glamorization and usage of Western journalism patterns. It leads to distribution of new text types, such as an advertising article, an ordered article, an image and supporting articles. Some changes in the process of genre formatting in Russia are determined: traditional genre forms characteristic for Russia are reduced and hybrid genres appear instead whereas journalism genres mutate and Western ones are widely applied. This results in news reports as the most popular genres whereas high quality analytical and art-journalistic genres are reduced.

  5. ECONOMIC SECURITY OF RUSSIA UNDER THE IMPORT SUBSTITUTION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimova N. V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Instability of economic processes and exacerbation of political tensions regarding Russia require measures in foreign trade policy, which are able to increase the economic security of Russia. The import substitution policy is considered one of the main directions nowadays. There have been considered two directions of the state policy for displacement or substitution of imported goods in the domestic market. There has been also reported the structure of the country's merchandise imports during the period from 2013 until 2015, resulting in a detected negative dynamics of imports, which indicates a successful beginning of the importsubstitution policy. Gradation of the main economic activities according to dependence on imports has allowed identifying the most import-dependent activities and the most available ways to form the import substitution. Threshold amount of economic security of the country has been considered to characterize the external economic security of Russia and some other countries of the world. There has been identified the necessity of state aid, which is reflected in the program of support for transport engineering industry for 2016, subsidies from the federal budget to participants of industrial clusters, the elimination of discriminatory relationships between credit financial institutions and industrial enterprises, the provision of state guarantees for loans to strategic enterprises and organizations of the country

  6. Muslims in Contemporary Russia: Russia’s Domestic Muslim Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Yılmaz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Islam and Muslim population is a fact of the Russian Federation. Today, a considerable number of Muslim people live in Russia mainly in Moscow, Volga region and North Caucasia. In addition, there are a large number of Muslim migrants coming mainly from Central Asian countries and North Caucasus in some of the Russian cities. Statistics show that while the general population of Russia has been in decline, that of the Muslims has been steadily increasing. According to some Russian politicians, this situation is an alarming one and poses a threat to the country. Russian government officially supports the traditional (loyal/official Islam represented by Council of Muftis of Russia. On the other hand, unofficial Islam, generally defined in terms of ‘non-traditional’ Salafi practice and movements, is viewed as the most significant threat to the integrity of the Russian state. Although there is a growing sentiment of xenophobia and Islamophobia among ethnic Russians, Russian government and its leaders do not approve this and frequently express their support for traditional Islam by stating that it is an indispensible component of Russian civilization.

  7. Nationalism and state control in Russia: A weakened social consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlène Laruelle

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nationalism in Russia is played out on several registers. It is the instrument by which the ruling elites succeed in effacing (at least superficially their internal divisions and unifying the political spectrum under their banner. It can also be likened to a new form of state-proposed social contract, an attempt to remobilise society to its advantage by drawing on those elements of its cultural reservoirs that form a consensus around the theme of patriotism. Lastly, for the tiny proportion of the population committed to radical right-wing parties, it makes it possible to mobilise against the “other” at a time when massive social discontent is being expressed in xenophobic terms. Nationalism is therefore akin to an amalgam that reveals the multiplicity of current social and cultural experiences in contemporary Russia. Through nationalism, those who have lost out as a result of the reforms formulate their critique of the present and their nostalgia for the past, whereas the elites and the middle classes that have gained from these changes express their satisfaction and belief that Russia will win the game of globalisation.

  8. Development of nuclear power plant technology in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up to its disintegration the Soviet Union was one of the leading nuclear powers in the world. This also applied to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The broad spectrum of developments in nuclear power plant technology is astounding. Three reactor lines were developed and built independently: the VVER pressurized water reactor line up to VVER-1000 (water-water power reactor); the graphite-moderated RBMK boiling water reactor line up to RBMK-1500 (high-power reactor with channels), and the sodium cooled fast breeder reactors up to BN-600. The associated scientific installations and the nuclear machine building industry were mainly concentrated in Russia and remained there as a core capability in nuclear power plant technology also after the end of the Soviet Union. The current lines of small, medium-sized and large reactors under development, designed for construction in Russia proper and for exports, are presented in the article. Alongside technical developments, Russia rearranged the economic capacities of her nuclear industry so as to be able to meet her objectives in building nuclear power plants in the country and abroad. The main parts of the nuclear industry are combined in the 'AtomEnergoProm' holding. (orig.)

  9. COSTS OF THE HEALTH CARE IN RUSSIA ASSOCIATED WITH SMOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kontsevaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To analyze costs of health care in Russia associated with smoking in 2009. Material and methods. Cardiovascular diseases, cancers and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD were included in the analysis. Calculation was performed on the basis of the relative risks of diseases associated with smoking, and obtained from foreign surveys, official statistics on morbidity and health system resources expenditure, and costs of health-seeking in line with state program of guaranteed free medical care.  Results. In 2009 total costs of the health care system associated with smoking exceeded RUR 35.8 bln. It corresponded to 0.1% of gross domestic product in Russia in 2009. The costs structure was the following: hospitalization – RUR 26.2 bln, emergency calls – RUR 1.4 bln, and outpatient health-seeking – RUR 8.2 bln. Costs of outpatient pharmacotherapy were not included into analysis because of lack of baseline data needed for calculations. Cardiovascular diseases caused 62% of the health care costs associated with smoking, cancers – 20.2%, and COPD – 17.8%. Conclusion. The smoking in Russia is associated with significant health care costs. It makes needed resources investment in preventive programs to reduce smoking prevalence.

  10. An update on emergency care and emergency medicine in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodigin, Anthony

    2015-12-01

    Russia's national healthcare system is undergoing significant changes. Those changes which affect healthcare financing are particularly vital. As has often been the case in other nations, the emergency care field is at the forefront of such reforms. The ongoing challenges constitute the environment in which the hospital-based specialty of emergency medicine needs to develop as part of a larger system. Emergency care has to evolve in order to match true needs of the population existing today. New federal regulations recently adopted have recognized emergency departments as the new in-hospital component of emergency care, providing the long-needed legal foundation upon which the new specialty can advance. General knowledge of Western-style emergency departments in terms of their basic setup and function has been widespread among Russia's medical professionals for some time. Several emergency departments are functioning in select regions as pilots. Preliminary data stemming from their operation have supported a positive effect on efficiency of hospital bed utilization and on appropriate use of specialists and specialized hospital departments. In the pre-hospital domain, there has been a reduction of specialized ambulance types and of the number of physicians staffing all ambulances in favor of midlevel providers. Still, a debate continues at all levels of the medical hierarchy regarding the correct future path for emergency care in Russia with regard to adaptation and sustainability of any foreign models in the context of the country's unique national features. PMID:26608599

  11. Research into elementary Chinese learners' directional complement acquisition in Russia%俄罗斯初级汉语学习者趋向补语习得研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周颖

    2012-01-01

    Based on the corpus, this paper probes into elementary Chinese learners' directional complement acquisition in Russia and generalizes the factors influencing the directional complement acquisition of students whose mother language is Russian.%在收集大量语料的基础上对俄罗斯初级汉语学习者趋向补语十个项目的习得进行研究分析,归纳了影响以俄语为母语的学生习得趋向补语的因素。

  12. Parenting among Mothers with Bipolar Disorder: Children's Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Meenakshi

    2011-01-01

    Four children from three families in which the mother had a bipolar disorder were interviewed to understand their perspectives on their mothers' parenting. Children identified strengths in their mother's parenting, such as helping them with homework and moods and providing for their wants. They also identified challenges, such as mothers sleeping…

  13. Physical Education for Students with Spina Bifida: Mothers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jihoun; Goodwin, Donna L.

    2007-01-01

    This study described the meaning 7 mothers of children with spina bifida ascribed to their children's physical education, the mothers' roles in the schools, and the importance of the IEP in home and school communication. The stories of 4 mothers of elementary and 3 mothers of secondary aged children were gathered using the phenomenological methods…

  14. Study of Mothers' Anxieties Related to Their Children's Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgar, Sengul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to study anxieties of mothers related to their children's future. Qualitative method was used in order to study anxieties of mothers from different socio-economic levels. Sample of the study participants are 129 mothers living in Istanbul. 32 of those mothers are from upper socio-economic level, 57, from middle…

  15. Characteristics of the Mother and Child in Teenage Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Stanley M.; Petzold, Audrey S.

    1983-01-01

    Data from nearly 30,000 pregnant and third decade (20-29 years) mothers show that small infant size among teenage mothers is consistent with the mother's size and not directly related to early age at conception. Third decade mothers of comparable size give birth to infants with essentially the same characteristics and problems. (Author/GC)

  16. Predictors of Mothers' Use of Spanking with Their Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs-Orme, Terri; Cain, Daphne S.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This study describes mothers who report spanking their infants in the first 13 months of life. Methods: Two hundred forty-six (246) mothers were interviewed in the Mother-Baby Unit of a large university-affiliated hospital in a large southeastern city of the United States. Ninety-three percent (93%) of those mothers were reinterviewed…

  17. Factors Associated with Stress in Mothers of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Cristiane S.; Bordin, Isabel A.; Yazigi, Latife; Mooney, Julia

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this case-control study was to investigate the determinants of maternal stress in mothers of children with autism. Mothers of 31 children with autism from mental health clinics were matched by child age/gender and mother age to 31 mothers of children without mental health problems, drawn from public schools and a primary care…

  18. Single, Cohabitating, and Married Mothers' Time with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendig, Sarah M.; Bianchi, Suzanne M.

    2008-01-01

    Utilizing the 2003 and 2004 American Time Use Survey (ATUS), this study examines the relationship between family structure and maternal time with children among 4,309 married mothers and 1,821 single mothers with children less than 13 years of age. Single mothers spend less time with their children than married mothers, though the differences are…

  19. The law of the mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemf, E

    1992-01-01

    The Congress Workshop on People and Protected Areas convened to discuss the need to combine modern science and traditional knowledge to effect sustainable development among indigenous peoples in the world. The founder of the Fundacion Pro-Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta talked about development of training programs for displaced farmers and rehabilitation of Indian lands and villages in the Sierra Nevada of northern Colombia. The 3 indigenous peoples (Kogi, Arsario, and Arhuaco Indians) have only recently regained title to their forebears' lands. In fact, in 1990, the government of Colombia gave about 25% of the country back to indigenous populations. The forebears of the Kogi, Arsario, and Arhuaco Indians constructed great stone cities and advanced systems of agriculture, terracing, and irrigation. The Indians have lived under the Law of the Mother for thousands of years. This code dictates human behavior so that humans are in unity with plant and animal cycles, star movements, climatic phenomena, and the sacred geography of the coastal mountains. They are so much an integral part of their ecosystem that they even limit their population size. Now they resurrect villages in 2 national parks and indigenous reservations. Farmers who colonized the area since the 1960s must now leave the reserves and begin anew in nearby buffer zones. Here they learn revitalized agricultural techniques to abandon their illegal marijuana, cocaine, and poppy farming. At the workshop, participants also learned about conservation activities of the Imgrauen in the Banc d'Arguin National Park in Mauritania who continue to use dolphins to catch mullet. In India, the Bisnoi people living in the Rajasthan desert have established their own unofficial protected areas to keep the fragile ecosystem. Other examples were in Niger and Central Europe. The workshop participants agreed that recognition of land tenure and intellectual property rights were high priorities. PMID:12317699

  20. Maternal Involvement in Preschoolers' Sexuality Education: A Comparison of Single and Married Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Sandweg, Ginger S.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the responses to a sexuality education questionnaire completed by 30 single mothers and 43 married mothers with preschool-aged children. Chi-square analyses were used to examine differences between married mothers and single mothers; mothers of males and mothers of females; and married mothers of males, married mothers of females, single mothers of males and single mothers of females. Age at which their preschool children first exhibited behaviors, frequency of that behavi...

  1. Export-import Procedures between Russia and Finland. Case: Company X, Exporting Kitchen Equipment from Russia to Finland.

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhanova, Nelli

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand all customs procedures, steps in transporting kitchen equipment, define exporting, importing and transporting prob-lems in delivering kitchen equipment, and get to a structured view of how to transport kitchen equipment from Russia to Finland and avoid problems which can occur. This work consists of two parts: theory part, which includes the chapters about transporting modes, Incoterms, nomenclature codes, international trade, documentation, export...

  2. Music Education for Inclusion: The Call to the Musicians Professional Community in Russia : The Legal Professions in France and Russia.

    OpenAIRE

    Vershinina, Victoria; Rubtcova, Mariia

    2012-01-01

    International audience Russian state in the post-perestroika period has come to the need for the economy of knowledge and society of equal opportunity. However this movement had created some contradictions in the professional musical community in Russia. Different teachers are oriented on different values. This situation set at variance between value orientation of elite music community and social oriented music teachers, who give support to children with health problems and disability. Аl...

  3. HIV/AIDS in Russia: determinants of regional prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordaan Jacob A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The motivation for this paper is to inform the selection of future policy directions for tackling HIV/AIDS in Russia. The Russian Federation has more people living with HIV/AIDS than any other country in Europe, and nearly 70% of the known infections in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The epidemic is particularly young, with 80% of those infected aged less than thirty, and no Russian region has escaped the detection of infections. However, measures to address the epidemic in Russia have been hampered by late recognition of the scale of the problem, poor data on HIV prevalence, potentially counterproductive narcotics legislation, and competing health priorities. An additional complication has been the relative lack of research into the spatial heterogeneity of the Russian HIV/AIDS epidemic, investigating the variety of prevalence rates in the constituent regions and questioning assumptions about the links between the epidemic and the circumstances of post-Soviet transformation. In the light of these recent developments, this paper presents research into the determinants of regional HIV prevalence levels in Russia. Results Statistical empirical research on HIV and other infectious diseases has identified a variety of factors that influence the spread and development of these diseases. In our empirical analysis of determinants of HIV prevalence in Russia at the regional level, we identify factors that are statistically related to the level of HIV prevalence in Russian regions, and obtain some indication of the relative importance of these factors. We estimate an empirical model that includes factors which describe economic and socio-cultural characteristics. Conclusion Our analysis statistically identifies four main factors that influence HIV prevalence in Russian regions. Given the different nature of the factors that we identify to be of importance, we conclude that successful HIV intervention policies will need to be

  4. ABKHAZIA, TRANSNISTRIA AND SOUTH OSSETIA IN THE FOREIGN POLICY OF RUSSIA IN 1991-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Aleksandrovna Makhalkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of interaction of Russia with Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Transnistria from 1991 to 2008. The author characterizes the formation of the foundations of the new foreign policy of Russia. The author highlights three stages in the development of Russian foreign policy, specifies the internal political aspects in Russia's development, which influenced the formation of foreign policy and analyzes the political and diplomatic efforts for the resolution of ethnic-national conflicts in these republics. The author describes the reasons for the deterioration of relations of Russia with Georgia and Moldova, identifies the arguments to prove the line of Russia's foreign policy. Based on the study, the author makes the conclusions substantiating the position of Russia in the Georgian-South Ossetian conflict of 2008 and marks the Russian policy in the issues related to international legal recognition of unrecognized States.

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Well-Being and Coping among Mothers of Toddlers and Mothers of Adolescents with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Leann E.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Greenberg, Jan S.; Carter, Alice S.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of autism symptoms and coping strategies on the well-being of mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The sample consisted of 153 mothers of toddlers and 201 mothers of adolescents drawn from two ongoing, longitudinal studies of families of individuals with ASD. For mothers of toddlers, lower…

  6. Locating Mothers: How Cultural Debates about Stay-at-Home versus Working Mothers Define Women and Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillaway, Heather; Pare, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Most women must decide whether to work for pay while mothering or make mothering their sole social role. Often this decision is portrayed in terms of whether they will be "stay-at-home" and presumably "full-time" mothers, or "working mothers" and therefore ones who prioritize paid work over caregiving. Inferred within this construction is women's…

  7. Stress, Roles and Responsibilities of Single Mothers in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hashim Intan Hashimah; Azmawati Azman Azwan; Endut Noraida

    2015-01-01

    Life as a single mother is often associated with great demands and many challenges. This study examines how a group of single mothers in Malaysia views sources of stress and challenges in their lives. It also investigates perceived roles and responsibilities of single mothers. Three hundred single mothers from all over Malaysia were interviewed in this study. Single mothers reported relatively low level of stress that was mostly related to financial (insufficient pay) and day-to-day living. T...

  8. CPAFFC and CRFA Delegation Attends Celebrations of 50th Anniversary of Russia-China Friendship Association

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Invited by the Russia-China Friendship Association (RCFA), the delegation of the CPAFFC and the China-Russia Friendship Association (CRFA) led by CPAFFC President Chen Haosu paid a visit to Russia to attend the celebrations of the 50th Anniversary of the RCFA from October 21 to 28, 2007. The delegation included Liu Shu, former vice president of the China Association for Science and Technology; Zhu Jiamu, vice presi-

  9. Taking your Business to Russia. A Guidebook and Historical Overview for Entrepreneurs

    OpenAIRE

    Galkina, Tamara; Kock, Sören

    2014-01-01

    As a growing market, Russia holds great economic interest and potential opportunities for international companies, especially Finnish SMEs. Due to their geographic proximity, Russia and Finland have a long history of established business and trade relations. Finland’s major economic institutions were formed during the period when the country was under Russian rule. Also, the two countries had bilateral trade relations for approximately forty years. Nowadays, Russia is acknowledged as one of...

  10. The Level of Education in Post-Soviet Russia: A Contradictory Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkevich, Mikhail Nikolaevich

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the development of the level of education of the inhabitants of Russia is analyzed based on the materials of "post-Soviet Russia," in which there are two clearly marked different stages: the 1990s and the beginning of the present century. On the whole, this period has to be seen as one in which "capitalism was restored" in Russia.…

  11. BASICS OF INTEGRAL APPROACH TO IMPROVEMENT OF INNOVATION SYSTEM IN DEFENSE INDUSTRY COMPLEX OF RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Анатолий Андреевич Чудин

    2014-01-01

    The author develops integral approach to improvement of innovation system as exemplified by defense industry complex (DIC) of Russia. Integral approach includes the elements of 3 approaches: system, synergetic and geotrion. This approach contains conceptual, modeling-projecting and realizing parts and the principles, mechanisms and technologies aimed for improvement of management of innovation system in Russia. DIC of Russia is an earth object – it is complex of complexes which is supposed to...

  12. Design of an Optimal Waste Utilization System: A Case Study in St. Petersburg, Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail Rodionov; Toshihiko Nakata

    2011-01-01

    Storing municipal solid waste (MSW) in landfills is the oldest and still the primary waste management strategy in many countries. Russia is the third largest methane (CH 4 ) emitter country after USA and China, representing 5% of total global CH 4 emissions from waste landfilling. Due to high economical growth, the amount of waste generated in Russia has risen sharply over the last ten years. However, waste management in Russia is mainly based on landfilling. In order to design an optimal MSW...

  13. Interpreting the dynamic nexus between energy consumption and economic growth: Empirical evidence from Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on the nexus between energy consumption and economic growth is a fundamental topic for energy policy making and low-carbon economic development. Russia proves the third largest energy consumption country in the world in recent years, while little research has shed light upon its energy consumption issue till now, especially its energy-growth nexus. Therefore, this paper empirically investigates the dynamic nexus of the two variables in Russia based on the state space model. The results indicate that, first of all, Russia's energy consumption is cointegrated with its economic growth in a time-varying way though they do not have static or average cointegration relationship. Hence it is unsuitable to merely portrait the nexus in an average manner. Second, ever since the year of 2000, Russia's energy efficiency has achieved much more promotion compared with that in previous decades, mainly due to the industrial structure adjustment and technology progress. Third, among BRIC countries, the consistency of Russia's energy consumption and economic growth appears the worst, which suggests the complexity of energy-growth nexus in Russia. Finally, there exists bi-directional causality between Russia's energy consumption and economic growth, though their quantitative proportional relation does not have solid foundation according to the cointegration theory. - Research highlights: →This study investigates the dynamic nexus of energy consumption and economic growth in Russia. → Russia's energy consumption is cointegrated with its economic growth in a time-varying way though they do not have static or average cointegration relationship. → Ever since 2000, Russia's energy efficiency has achieved much more promotion compared with that in previous decades. → Among BRIC countries, the consistency of Russia's energy consumption and economic growth appears the worst. → There exists bi-directional causality between Russia's energy consumption and economic growth.

  14. FEATURES OF THE PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES OF GRADUATES OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS FSIN OF RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Sorokin Aleksandr Ivanovich

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the features of professional activities of graduates of educational institutions of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia. Objective: To determine the characteristics of professional activities of graduates of educational institutions of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia. Methodology of work: competence approach. Scope of the results: training in universities FSIN of Russia. Results: describes the main features of the professional activities of graduates o...

  15. The Current State of CSR Consultancy Development in Russia and the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Armley, Natasha

    2005-01-01

    The research examines the phenomenon of corporate social responsibility (CSR) consultancy in Russia, as a new growing market, in comparison with well defined CSR consultancy in the UK, more advanced in CSR traditions and practices. The introduction to CSR consultancy has been made through a prism of CSR definitions: how it is interpreted in the West and Russia. Significant attention has been paid to analysing the UK and Russia national CSR systems combining the major drivers of CSR develo...

  16. Investigation and Analysis of Chinese Enterprises Exploiting Forest Resources in Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Based on collected data and information from journals, newspapers, internet and reports, the main distribution regions of China’s enterprises in Russia were presented firstly. According to the investigation by questionnaire and telephone, the general situation of Chinese enterprises exploiting forest resources in Russia was introduced and analyzed. The main difficulties faced by Chinese enterprises in Russia were summarized. Future trends faced by Chinese enterprises, such as increasing competition, encoura...

  17. Study of interconnection of financial and tax accounting of profit in Russia and abroad

    OpenAIRE

    Labyntsev Mykola T.; Tsepilova Olena S.

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses the degree of interconnection of financial and tax accounting of profit in Russia and some foreign countries - USA, France and Germany. The legal principle - common law or unified law - is taken as a criterion. The article shows that existence of the system of tax accounting by one tax (organisation profit tax) separately from the financial accounting in Russia from 2002 is not rational. At present Russia actively develops a variant of making financial accounting and tax ...

  18. The EU, Russia and Models of International Society in a Wider Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Makarychev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The research objective of this article is two-fold: On the one hand, this study aims at analysing the multifaceted EU-Russia relations as seen from different theoretical/conceptual approaches. On the other hand, this article examines how the EU-Russia dialogue is organised in sectoral terms – economy, trade, visa regime liberalisation, and security cooperation. Both the promising and problematic areas in the EU-Russia bilateral relations are identified. The need for a more adequate conceptual framework applicable to the EU-Russia relations as well as a new, more efficient, EU-Russian joint strategy is explained.

  19. Special Issue on the Joint China and Russia Conference on Computational Mathematics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Ng; Zhong-Ci Shi; Eugene E. Tyrtyshnikov

    2012-01-01

    The Joint China and Russia Conference on Computational Mathematics was held from November 1 to November 3,2010 at Hong Kong Baptist University.The purpose of the conference is to discuss recent progress in the field of computational mathematics,to promote scholarship and friendship between China and Russia.This is the first time in Hong Kong to organize a joint conference on computational mathematics between China and Russia.Many top scientists in the area of computational mathematics from China and Russia,including academicians and members of Academy of Sciences,attended the conference and presented their research results.

  20. Special Issue on the Joint China and Russia Conference on Computational Mathematics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Joint China and Russia Conference on Computational Mathematics was held from November 1 to November 3,2010 at Hong Kong Baptist University.The purpose of the conference is to discuss recent progress in the field of computational mathematics,to promote scholarship and friendship between China and Russia.This is the first time in Hong Kong to organize a joint conference on computational mathematics between China and Russia.Many top scientists in the area of computational mathematics from China and Russia,including academicians and members of Academy of Sciences,attended the conference and presented their research results.