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Sample records for ailanthus altissima swingle

  1. A new cerebroside from fruits of Ailanthus altissima Swingle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chun-Chao; Shao, Jian-Hua; Wang, Nan; Li, Xian; Wang, Jin-Hui

    2006-11-01

    A new cerebroside and three known cycloartan triterpenes were isolated from fruits of Ailanthus altissima Swingle. Their structures were identified as 1-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(2S, 3R, 4E, 9E)-2-(2'R-hydroxyhexadecenoy)-4, 9-octadecadiene-1, 3-diol (1), 9, 19-cyclolanost-23 (Z)-ene-3beta, 25-diol (2), cycloart-25-ene-3beta, 24R-diol (3), and cycloart-25-ene-3beta, 24S-diol (4) by means of chemical and spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 2, 3, and 4 were isolated from genus Ailanthus for the first time. The analgesic activity of 1 was also evaluated.

  2. Antimicrobial constituents from fruits of Ailanthus altissima SWINGLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chun-Chao; Shao, Jian-Hua; Li, Xian; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Peng

    2005-10-01

    A new naturally occurring sterol, compound 5, and six known stigmasterols were isolated from fruits of Ailanthus altissima Swingle by repeated column chromatography and RP-HPLC. Their structures were identified as, 5alpha-stigmastane-3,6-dione (1), 3beta-hydroxystigmast-5-en-7-one (2), stigmast-5-ene-3beta, 7alpha-diol (3), 6alpha-hydroxystigmast-4-en-3-one (4), 5alpha-stigmastane-3beta, 6beta-diol (5), stigmast-4-ene-3beta, 6alpha-diol (6), stigmast-5-ene-3beta, 7alpha, 20xi-triol (7) by spectral analysis and comparison with the published data. These compounds have not been reported from genus Ailanthus, whereas compound 7 was identified by NMR for the first time. In addition, the 95% ethanol extract and compounds from the fruits of Ailanthus altissima SWINGLE were assayed for in vitro antimicrobial activity. The extract was potent active against the assayed bacteria while compounds 3 and 7 exhibited moderate activity.

  3. Antiproliferative effects of tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima Swingle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feo, Vincenzo; Martino, Laura De; Santoro, Angelo; Leone, Arturo; Pizza, Cosimo; Franceschelli, Silvia; Pascale, Maria

    2005-03-01

    Tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima Swingle) was evaluated for its cytotoxic and antiproliferative activities by a bioassay-oriented study. Cytotoxicity observed in HeLa cells was time-dependent; the treatment with 10 microg/mL of the root chloroform extract reduced cell viability by 56% at 24 h and 29% at 48 h of exposure, whereas no effect was recorded in the controls. Significant effects were observed also for chromatographic fractions and the pure isolated alkaloid 1-methoxy-canthin-6-one. After 72 h of incubation cell viability was less than 10% for all treatments. A possible apoptotic effect was evaluated by monitoring the presence of hypodiploid elements in HeLa cells as well as in SAOS, U87MG and U-937 tumor cell lines. The cells incubated for different times with the active extract, fraction and pure alkaloid isolated from A. altissima showed a remarkable increase in the apoptosis. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. A New Canthinone-Type Alkaloid Isolated from Ailanthus altissima Swingle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Hye Mi; Lee, Jin Su; Sezirahiga, Jurdas; Kwon, Jaeyoung; Jeong, Miran; Lee, Dongho; Choi, Jung-Hye; Jang, Dae Sik

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation of the chemical constituents of the stem barks of Ailanthus altissima has resulted in the isolation of six canthinone-type alkaloids, including a new compound, (R)-5-(1-hydroxyethyl)-canthine-6-one (1...

  5. Protein patterns and chemical constituents of Ailanthus altissima (Miller) Swingle and Ailanthus excelsa Roxb.

    OpenAIRE

    Bayçu, Gülriz; Said, Ataa; Farag, Ahmed; Rashed, Khaled

    2010-01-01

     There is a growing interest in correlating biochemical constituents of plants with their taxonomic properties. Generally the genus Ailanthus is noted for the presence of quassinoids, alkaloids, lipids, fatty acids, terpenoids and some proteins. In this study, we aimed to investigate the similarities and/or differences in the chemical constituents and protein patterns of different Ailanthus species. We assume that our parameters may be used as an additional tool for chemotaxonomic st...

  6. Influence of nitrogen form on growth of invasive species Acer negundo L. and Ailanthus altissima (Mill. swingle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Matilda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Relative amounts of nutrients, especially nitrogen, the most abundant macro-element, and also the distribution of ammonium ions in relation to nitrate ions, in the soils of different ecosystems, are determined by many factors. The most important are: temperature, pH of substrate, accumulation of organic matter, presence of allelopathic compounds, degree of oxygenation, etc. The ability of plants to adapt to these variations influences their production of bio-mass, the rate of expansion in different habitats, and the impact on ecosystem and biodiversity. This paper analyzes the impact of different forms of nitrogen (NO3 - and NH4 + on the growth of seedlings of invasive species Acer negundo L. and Ailanthus altissima (Mill. Swingle. The results show that nitrogen nutrition only in the form of NH4 + ions significantly affects the reduction in shoot dry weight. Compared to the nutrition with both forms of nitrogen together, aerial parts of Ailanthus altissima were reduced by 62.5%, and leaf area by 66.7%, while Acer negundo seedlings had reduction in dry mass of aboveground part by 89.5%, root by 81.2% and leaf area by 85.8%. Nutrition with nitrate form of nitrogen led to a proportionally small, but statistically significant decrease in dry mass of aboveground parts and roots as well as leaf area of Acer negundo, while in Ailanthus altissima seedlings, it was only the mass reduction of aboveground parts that was significantly influenced, so it can be assumed that this species is more resistant to the lack of both forms of nitrogen. The fact that both species produced significantly more biomass when nitrogen was present in both forms may be important in controlling the spread of alien species, or in their potential use in phytoremediation.

  7. Samara size versus dispersal and seedling establishment in Ailanthus altissima (Miller) Swingle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, J A; Jimenez, M D; Gomez, A

    2009-03-01

    We have specifically carried out a greenhouse experiment to assess relationship between samara weight and seed success. Relationship assessed as dispersal potential, germination level, germination rate and early seedling mass for the invasive species Ailanthus altissima. For this purpose, we considered two close stands as seeds source. We found no correlation between samara size and neither germination level, germination rate, nor seedling mass, but a positive correlation with samara projected area. These results suggest that samara weight is not directly related to germination, dispersal and invasion potential neither. Nevertheless, stands differed in the invasion potential of their samaras; one stand presented samaras with higher projected area per weight unit whereas the other one presented samaras that produced heavier seedlings. Whatever the origin, (genetic or environmental) of this differences it should be advantageous for a colonizing invader species such as A. altissima since it could imply a wider range of habitats susceptible to invasion.

  8. Isolation of phytotoxic compounds from tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima swingle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feo, Vincenzo; De Martino, Laura; Quaranta, Emilia; Pizza, Cosimo

    2003-02-26

    The aqueous root extract of Ailanthus altissima showed allelopathic activity against radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. "Saxa"), garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.), and purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) seeds. A bioassay-oriented purification of active extracts, chromatographic fractions, and compounds demonstrated dose-dependent activity on germination and radicle growth of test seeds; radish seed was the most sensitive to allelochemicals. Active compounds have been isolated: ailanthone, ailanthinone, chaparrine, and ailanthinol B (quassinoid derivatives); the alkaloid 1-methoxycanthin-6-one is not active. The compound with greatest inhibitory activity is ailanthone. The data obtained suggest a possible use of tree-of-heaven root extracts or of its active constituents as natural herbicides.

  9. The effect of elevated Zn concentrations on seed germination and young seedling growth of Ailanthus altissima (Mill. swingle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuilov Slađana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some heavy metals such as Zn are essential micronutrients for plants. However, in a high concentration in soils they could cause repression of growth with toxicity symptoms. It is therefore very important to investigate the species that are tolerant to high concentration of zinc which have the ability to survive on soils contaminated with heavy metals. This paper presents an investigation of the effect of elevated Zn concentrations on the germination and seedling growth of the invasive tree species Ailanthus altissima (Swingle Mill., aimed at a better understanding of its adaptation ability to heavy metal stress and potential use in phytoremediation. Seeds of Ailanthus altissima were treated with Zn concentrations of 25, 100 and 250 μM in form of zinc sulfate. After germination, the seedlings at the stage of first leaf development were transferred into a growing chamber in the hydroponic system where zinc sulfate was added in the concentrations of 100, 250 and 500 μM. The results showed that Zn treatments, including the highest concentration, have caused a reduction in seed germination parameters. Considering the hypocotyl and radicle length, there was no significant statistical difference among the treatments, but further growth of young seedlings in hydroponics under high concentrations of Zn, cause an inhibition of the root system growth and repress development of assimilating organs. Seeds and seedlings of A. altissima are tolerant to elevated Zn concentrations at early stages of development. However, later on with leaves development, the inhibitory effect of the strongest concentrations is expressed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Studying climate change and its influence on the environment: impacts, adaptation and mitigation

  10. Ailanthus altissima (Miller) Swingle fruit - new acyl β-sitosteryl glucoside and in vitro pharmacological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sohail; Hussain, Aftab; Mehmood, Ansar; Mehmood, Rashad; Perveen, Shagufta; Imran, Muhammad

    2016-01-21

    β-Sitosterol-3-O-(6'-O-13"-octadecenoyl)-β-D-glucoside (1), a new acyl β-sitosteryl glucoside, along with three known compounds β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucoside (2), β-sitosterol (3) and methyl gallate (4) have been isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of methanolic extract of Ailanthus altissima fruits. Their structures were elucidated through spectroscopic data including 2D NMR, ESI-MS, methanolysis and oxidative cleavage of double bond. Antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic, phytotoxic and insecticidal activities were evaluated of compound 1, crude extract and its fractions so far for the first time. Pharmacological activities results showed that n-butanol fraction was good active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi bacteria, and moderate active against Microsporum canis fungus. Crude extract, n-butanol and aqueous fractions showed good cytotoxicity. Moreover, compound 1, extract and all fractions showed notable phytotoxicity at higher concentrations, whereas all inactive against assayed insects.

  11. A New Canthinone-Type Alkaloid Isolated from Ailanthus altissima Swingle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Mi Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation of the chemical constituents of the stem barks of Ailanthus altissima has resulted in the isolation of six canthinone-type alkaloids, including a new compound, (R-5-(1-hydroxyethyl-canthine-6-one (1, and five known compounds (2–6. Moreover, four phenyl propanoids (7–10, two lignans (11 and 12, two triterpenoids (13 and 14 and a fatty acid (15 having previously known chemical structures were isolated during the same course of this study. The structure of the new compound was elucidated by physical (m.p., [α]D and spectroscopic data (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 2D NMR, and HR-DART-MS interpretation and its absolute configuration was determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD data and quantum chemical calculations. The inflammatory activities of the isolates were screened on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO, a proinflammatory mediator, in RAW 264.7 cells. Among these isolated compounds, six compounds exhibited significant inhibition of NO production, with IC50 values in the range of 5.92 ± 0.9 to 15.09 ± 1.8 μM.

  12. A New Canthinone-Type Alkaloid Isolated from Ailanthus altissima Swingle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Mi; Lee, Jin Su; Sezirahiga, Jurdas; Kwon, Jaeyoung; Jeong, Miran; Lee, Dongho; Choi, Jung-Hye; Jang, Dae Sik

    2016-05-16

    The present investigation of the chemical constituents of the stem barks of Ailanthus altissima has resulted in the isolation of six canthinone-type alkaloids, including a new compound, (R)-5-(1-hydroxyethyl)-canthine-6-one (1), and five known compounds (2-6). Moreover, four phenyl propanoids (7-10), two lignans (11 and 12), two triterpenoids (13 and 14) and a fatty acid (15) having previously known chemical structures were isolated during the same course of this study. The structure of the new compound was elucidated by physical (m.p., [α]D) and spectroscopic data (¹H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, 2D NMR, and HR-DART-MS) interpretation and its absolute configuration was determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data and quantum chemical calculations. The inflammatory activities of the isolates were screened on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO), a proinflammatory mediator, in RAW 264.7 cells. Among these isolated compounds, six compounds exhibited significant inhibition of NO production, with IC50 values in the range of 5.92 ± 0.9 to 15.09 ± 1.8 μM.

  13. Chemical composition and phytotoxic effects of essential oils obtained from Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) swingle cultivated in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ayeb-Zakhama, Asma; Ben Salem, Saoussen; Sakka-Rouis, Lamia; Flamini, Guido; Ben Jannet, Hichem; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2014-08-01

    Ailanthus altissima Mill. Swingle (Simaroubaceae), also known as tree of heaven, is used in the Chinese traditional medicine as a bitter aromatic drug for the treatment of colds and gastric diseases. In Tunisia, Ailanthus altissima is an exotic tree, which was introduced many years ago and used particularly as a street ornamental tree. Here, the essential oils of different plant parts of this tree, viz., roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and samaras (ripe fruits), were obtained by hydrodistillation. In total, 69 compounds, representing 91.0-97.2% of the whole oil composition, were identified in these oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The root essential oil was clearly distinguishable for its high content in aldehydes (hexadecanal (1); 22.6%), while those obtained from flowers and leaves were dominated by oxygenated sesquiterpenes (74.8 and 42.1%, resp.), with caryophyllene oxide (4) as the major component (42.5 and 22.7%, resp.). The samara oil was rich in the apocarotenoid derivative hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (6; 58.0%), and the oil obtained from stems was characterized by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (54.1%), mainly β-caryophyllene (18.9%). Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses separated the five essential oils into four groups, each characterized by the major oil constituents. Contact tests showed that the germination of lettuce seeds was totally inhibited by all the essential oils except of the samara oil at a dose of 1 mg/ml. The flower oil also showed a significant phytotoxic effect against lettuce germination at 0.04 and 0.4 mg/ml (-55.0 ± 3.5 and -85.0 ± 0.7%, resp.). Moreover, the root and shoot elongation was even more affected by the oils than germination. The inhibitory effect of the shoot and root elongation varied from -9.8 to -100% and from -38.6 to -100%, respectively. Total inhibition of the elongation (-100%) at 1 mg/ml was detected for all the oils, with the exception of the samara oil (-74.7 and -75.1% for roots and shoots, resp

  14. Heat shock, visible light or high calcium augment the cytotoxic effects of Ailanthus altissima (Swingle) leaf extracts against Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Claudia Valentina; Lungu, Liliana; Cristache, Ligia Florentina; Ciuculescu, Crinu; Danet, Andrei Florin; Farcasanu, Ileana Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    To gain new insight into the antimicrobial potential of Ailanthus altissima Swingle, ethanol leaf extracts were evaluated for the antifungal effects against the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisae. The extracts inhibited the yeast growth in a dose-dependent manner, and this effect could be augmented by heat shock, exposure to visible light or exposure to high concentrations of Ca(2+). Using transgenic yeast cells expressing the Ca(2+)-dependent photoprotein, aequorin, it was found that the leaf extracts induced cytosolic Ca(2+) elevation. Experiments on yeast mutants with defects in Ca(2+) transport demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of the A. altissima leaf extracts (AaLEs) was mediated by transient pulses of Ca(2+) ions which were released into the cytosol predominantly from the vacuole. The investigation of the antifungal synergies involving AaLEs may contribute to the development of optimal and safe combination therapies for the treatment of drug-resistant fungal infections.

  15. Zur Verbreitung, Vergesellschaftung und Einbürgerung des Götterbaumes (Ailanthus altissima [Mill.] Swingle) in Mitteleuropa

    OpenAIRE

    Kowarik, Ingo; Böcker, Reinhard

    1984-01-01

    Nach einer kurzen Übersicht über die weltweite Kultur von Ailanthus altissima werden spontane Verbreitung, Vergesellschaftung und Einbürgerung in Mitteleuropa erörtert und mit Angaben aus anderen Teilen Europas verglichen. Als entscheidender Klimafaktor für die Ausbildung der nördlichen Arealgrenze, die quer durch das Norddeutsche Tiefland verläuft, ist eine lange Vegetationsperiode mit hoher sommerlicher Wärmesumme anzusehen. Ailanthus fehlt in den kühleren Küstengebieten sowie in Gebirge...

  16. Review on Invasive Tree of Heaven (Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle) Conflicting Values: Assessment of Its Ecosystem Services and Potential Biological Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladonja, Barbara; Sušek, Marta; Guillermic, Julia

    2015-10-01

    Globally, invasions by alien plants are rapidly increasing in extent and severity, leading to large-scale ecosystem degradation. One of the most widespread invasive alien plant species in Europe and North America, Tree of Heaven (Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle) was introduced intentionally for use as an ornamental plant in the 18th century. Since then, it has spread and is now frequently found in a number of countries. Today, Tree of Heaven is considered one of the worst invasive plant species in Europe and is also listed as invasive in North America and many other countries. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment is one of many systems trying to list and categorize biological services to humans and to provide a tool for identifying services delivered by natural ecosystems. Invasive species have generally caused degradation of the services, have a major impact on the environment, and are threatening biodiversity and reducing overall species abundance and diversity. On the other hand, some invasive species can provide services useful to human well-being. In the present review A. altissima impacts on ecosystems are identified and positive influences on some ecosystem services are weighed against the negative effects on the environment and human health. The aim of the present review is to resume the general knowledge of A. altissima, group available references on distribution and ecology according to countries, compare ecosystem services provided or enhanced by A. altissima presence and the negative effects it causes, identify gaps in current knowledge, and give recommendations for future lines of research.

  17. Review on Invasive Tree of Heaven ( Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle) Conflicting Values: Assessment of Its Ecosystem Services and Potential Biological Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladonja, Barbara; Sušek, Marta; Guillermic, Julia

    2015-10-01

    Globally, invasions by alien plants are rapidly increasing in extent and severity, leading to large-scale ecosystem degradation. One of the most widespread invasive alien plant species in Europe and North America, Tree of Heaven ( Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle) was introduced intentionally for use as an ornamental plant in the 18th century. Since then, it has spread and is now frequently found in a number of countries. Today, Tree of Heaven is considered one of the worst invasive plant species in Europe and is also listed as invasive in North America and many other countries. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment is one of many systems trying to list and categorize biological services to humans and to provide a tool for identifying services delivered by natural ecosystems. Invasive species have generally caused degradation of the services, have a major impact on the environment, and are threatening biodiversity and reducing overall species abundance and diversity. On the other hand, some invasive species can provide services useful to human well-being. In the present review A. altissima impacts on ecosystems are identified and positive influences on some ecosystem services are weighed against the negative effects on the environment and human health. The aim of the present review is to resume the general knowledge of A. altissima, group available references on distribution and ecology according to countries, compare ecosystem services provided or enhanced by A. altissima presence and the negative effects it causes, identify gaps in current knowledge, and give recommendations for future lines of research.

  18. The effects of iron deficiency on lead accumulation in Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunisijević Bojović, Danijela; Dukić, Matilda; Maksimović, Vuk; Skočajić, Dragana; Suručić, Ljiljana

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the effects of root Fe deficiency on the uptake and translocation of toxic metals can be important for improving the phytoremediation strategies of polluted soils. The present study investigated how Fe nutritional status affects the uptake and root-to-shoot-translocation of Pb in hydroponically grown seedlings of (Mill.) Swingle. The interactions of Fe deficiency and Pb were assessed by measuring the root Fe(III) reductase activity, carboxylic acids concentration in root exudates, root and shoot biomass, and accumulation of Pb and other metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu) in roots and leaves of Fe-sufficient (+Fe) and Fe-deficient (-Fe) plants. The results indicate that Fe deficiency induced 18-fold higher Fe(III) reductase activity in roots compared with +Fe plants, which was followed by increased root exudation of citric acid (28.2 ± 1.39 in +Fe and 498 ± 256.4 μmol g DW 2 h in -Fe plants). Iron deficiency also induces a significant decrease of root and shoot dry weight compared with the control +Fe plants, whereas 2-wk Pb (20 μM) treatment did not influence root and shoot growth. Iron-sufficient plants accumulated more Pb (56.8 ± 17.29 μg g) in leaves than -Fe plants (21.5 ± 8.10 μg g). Two weeks of exposure to Pb significantly decreased Fe(III) reductase activity and accumulation of Fe, Zn, and Mn in the roots of -Fe plants. It is hypothesized that 2 wk of root exposure to Pb blocks functioning of a specific Fe transport system activated under Fe deficiency. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  19. 椿皮挥发油化学成分的GC-MS分析%Analysis of the Essential Oil from Ailanthus altissima ( Mill. ) Swingle with GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄方明; 白志川; 李群芳

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The aim was to study the chemical constituents of essential components from Ailanthus altissima ( Mill. ) Swingle.[ Method] The essential oil from Ailanthus altissima was extracted using steam distillation. The chemical components of the essential oil were analyzed by GC-MS. [ Result] Fifty-three compounds were identified from the essential oil,which accounted for 88.02% of the volatile fraction. The main constituents of the oil were ( + ) -Spathulenol ( 11.59% ), cis-α-Copaene-8-ol ( 8.37 % ), α-Copaene ( 5.87% ),△ -Cadinene (5.76%) ,α-Cubebene(4.40% ). [ Conclusion] The method is effective for analyzing essential oil from Ailanthus altissima because of many advantages, such as simple, rapid, good resolution and high sensitivity.%[目的]通过研究椿皮挥发油的化学成分,为椿皮的开发利用提供理论依据.[方法]运用水蒸气蒸馏法提取椿皮挥发油,采用气相色谱-质谱联用技术(GC-MS)对挥发油成分进行分离鉴定,并采用面积归-化法确定各成分的相对百分含量.[结果]从椿皮挥发油中共鉴定出53个化学成分,占挥发油总量的88.02%,其中相对百分含量较高的有(+)-Spa-thulenol(11.59%)、顺-α-可巴烯-8-醇(8.37%)、α-胡椒烯(5.87%)、△-杜松烯(5.76%)、α-荜澄茄油烯(4.40%).[结论]该法简便、快速、灵敏度高,分离度好,是分析椿皮挥发油成分的有效手段.

  20. Ailanthus altissima swingle has anti-anaphylactic effect and inhibits inflammatory cytokine expression via suppression of nuclear factor-kappaB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae-Hee; Choi, In-Young; Kim, Su-Jin; Moon, Phil-Dong; Seo, Jae-Uk; Kim, Jae-Joong; An, Nyeon-Hyung; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Min-Ho; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2010-01-01

    Ailanthus altissima swingle (ailanthic cortex, AAS) has been used as a traditional medicine for fever, bleeding, infection, and inflammation for many years in Korea. However, its mechanisms have not been examined. In the present study, we investigate the effect of AAS on the mast-cell-mediated allergic and inflammatory reaction using in vivo and in vitro models and elucidate its molecular mechanisms. AAS significantly inhibited compound 48/48-induced edema and systemic anaphylaxis. AAS significantly inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. AAS inhibited histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMCs) in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, AAS significantly inhibited production of inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8 on the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-stimulated human mast cell line, HMC-1 cells. AAS inhibits the IgE or stem cell factor-induced TNF production on RPMCs. In activated HMC-1 cells, the expression level of NF-kappaB/Rel A protein increased in the nucleus, whereas the level of NF-kappaB/Rel A in the nucleus was decreased by AAS treatment. In addition, AAS inhibited the PMACI-induced IkappaBalpha degradation. In conclusion, the present results indicate that AAS has potent anti-anaphylactic and anti-inflammatory properties.

  1. 红叶臭椿离体快繁技术的研究%Study on the Factors Affecting Ailanthus altissima Swingle,Treeof Heaeven Rapid Micropropagation in the Vitro Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕明; 许以太

    2012-01-01

    Study on the causation affecting Ailanthus altissima Swingle, Treeof Heaeven rapid micropropagation , using stem--segment of Ailanthus altissirna Swingle,Treeof Heaeven as explant. This thesis indicate that starting culture medium MS--6--BA lmg/L -IAA 0. 2mg/L+sugar 30g,splitting culture medium MS--6--BA 3.0mg/L+IBA 0. 3mg/L+ sugar 30g, rooted culture medium 1/2MS+ NAA0.3mg/L+sugar 30g%利用红叶臭椿(Ailanthus altissima Swingle,Treeof Heaeven)茎段为外植体,对影响红叶臭椿离体快繁的原因进行了分析。研究结果表明:适宜红叶臭椿的启动培养基为Ms+6-BA1mg/L+IAA0.2mg/L+蔗糖30g,分化培养基为Ms+6-BA3.0mg/L+IBA0.3mg/L 4-糖30,生根培养基为1/2MS+NAA0.3mg/L+蔗糖30g。

  2. Aerial detection of Ailanthus altissima: a cost-effective method to map an invasive tree in forested landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanne Rebbeck; Aaron Kloss; Michael Bowden; Cheryl Coon; Todd F. Hutchinson; Louis Iverson; Greg Guess

    2015-01-01

    We present an aerial mapping method to efficiently and effectively identify seed clusters of the invasive tree, Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle across deciduous forest landscapes in the eastern United States. We found that the ideal time to conduct aerial digital surveys is early to middle winter, when Ailanthus seed...

  3. Cytotoxic quassinoids from Ailanthus altissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Wen-Jing; Su, Chang; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Xu, Li-Peng; He, Rong-Rong; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2013-02-01

    Two new quassinoids, altissinol A (1) and B (7), together with 12 known quassinoids, were isolated from the 95% ethanol extract of the barks of Ailanthus altissima. The structures of the new compounds (1 and 7) were determined on the basis of the spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR. The cytotoxic potential of all isolates were evaluated in vitro against three human hepatoma cell lines. Quassinoids 1-7 displayed potent cytotoxic activities against human hepatoma Hep3B and HepG2 cell lines. Interestingly, compounds 2, 3, and 5 exhibited cytotoxic activity against multidrug resistance HepG2/ADM cell line with IC(50) value 4.3-fold more sensitive to Doxorubicin (DOX). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evidence for allelopathy by tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisey, R M

    1990-06-01

    Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle contains one or more phytotoxic compounds in roots and leaves. Activity is higher in roots, where it occurs primarily in the bark. Powdered root bark and leaflets strongly inhibited growth of garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.) when mixed with soil in Petri dishes (ID50 values=0.03 g root bark, 0.6 g leaflet/dish). The toxic material was readily extracted by methanol but not dichloromethane. Pieces of root bark mixed with soil at 2, 1, and 0.5 g/pot reduced cress biomass in the greenhouse, whereas methanol-extracted root bark did not. The inhibitory effect ofAilanthus tissues in soil was short-lived (≤4 weeks in pots in greenhouse, ≤3 days in Petri dishes in laboratory). Inhibition by root bark was sometimes superseded by stimulation. FreshAilanthus root segments placed in or on soil reduced growth of nearby cress seedlings. Fine roots were more inhibitory than coarse, and inhibition became more pronounced with increased time of soil exposure to roots. Soil collected nearAilanthus roots in the field supported reduced radicle growth of cress compared to control soil. In contrast, stemflow fromAilanthus trees stimulated cress growth. The results suggest allelopathy caused by toxin exudation from roots may contribute to the aggressiveness and persistence ofAilanthus in certain habitats.

  5. Distribution and demographics of Ailanthus altissima in an oak forest landscape managed with timber harvesting and prescribed fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanne Rebbeck; Todd Hutchinson; Louis Iverson; Daniel Yaussy; Timothy Fox

    2017-01-01

    Ailanthus altissima ((Mill.) Swingle, tree-of-heaven), an exotic invasive tree that is common throughout much of the eastern United States, can invade and expand dramatically when forests are disturbed. Anecdotal evidence suggests that fire facilitates its spread, but the relationship between fire and this prolific invasive tree is poorly...

  6. First report of Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium nonalfalfae on tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima) in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Rebbeck; M.A. Malone; D.P.G. Short; M.T. Kasson; E.S. O' Neal; D.D. Davis

    2013-01-01

    Verticillium wilt of the highly invasive tree-of-heaven [Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle], caused by Verticillium nonalfalfae Interbitzin et al. (1), formerly classified as V. albo-atrum Reinke and Berthold, has been reported in the United States from two states: Pennsylvania (2) and Virginia (3). Infected...

  7. Herbicide activity of extracts from Ailanthus altissima (Simaroubaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersini, Cristiano; Bergamin, Massimo; Aroulmoji, Vincent; Baldini, Sanzio; Picchio, Rodolfo; Pesce, Patricia Gutierrez; Ballarin, Luca; Murano, Erminio

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to isolate and characterize ailanthone-rich materials from the bark of the deciduous tree Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle and to assess their herbicide activity on selected herbaceous species. Ailanthone-rich fractions were obtained from A. altissima bark by extraction with dichloromethane and ethyl acetate and subsequent purification of these crude extracts, and of the remaining water mixture after solvent extraction, by means of gel permeation chromatography. A number of fractions were isolated and characterized for ailanthone content. A dichloromethane fraction was shown to contain 92% w/w of ailanthone, as demonstrated by HPLC and NMR analysis. A significant pre-emergence herbicide activity was found for most of the extracts which was directly correlated to ailanthone concentration. A remarkable combined pre- and post-emergence herbicide activity was found for a specific fraction. These results indicate that the bark of A. altissima may represent an interesting source for the production of natural herbicides for use in agriculture.

  8. Effect of Natural Brassinolide on Germination of Ailanthus altissima Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Kai-rong; Zhang Wei-bing; Li Hui-ke

    2005-01-01

    The germination capacity of Ailanthus altissima seeds improved after the seeds were soaked with different concentrations of natural brassinolide (NBR). The germination rate and germination energy of the seeds increased by 17.6% and 18.8%, and treatment, compared with the control. After hypocotyls ofA. altissima were treated with NBR, the elongation of the hypocotyls inA. altissima hypocotyls.

  9. Drought resistance of Ailanthus altissima: root hydraulics and water relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifilò, P; Raimondo, F; Nardini, A; Lo Gullo, M A; Salleo, S

    2004-01-01

    Drought resistance of Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle is a major factor underlying the impressively wide expansion of this species in Europe and North America. We studied the specific mechanism used by A. altissima to withstand drought by subjecting potted seedlings to four irrigation regimes. At the end of the 13-week treatment period, soil water potential was -0.05 MPa for well-watered control seedlings (W) and -0.4, -0.8 and -1.7 MPa for drought-stressed seedlings (S) in irrigation regimes S1, S2 and S3, respectively. Root and shoot biomass production did not differ significantly among the four groups. A progressively marked stomatal closure was observed in drought-stressed seedlings, leading to homeostasis of leaf water potential, which was maintained well above the turgor loss point. Root and shoot hydraulics were measured with a high-pressure flow meter. When scaled by leaf surface area, shoot hydraulic conductance did not differ among the treated seedlings, whereas root hydraulic conductance decreased by about 20% in S1 and S2 seedlings and by about 70% in S3 seedlings, with respect to the well-watered control value. Similar differences were observed when root hydraulic conductance was scaled by root surface area, suggesting that roots had become less permeable to water. Anatomical observations of root cross sections revealed that S3 seedlings had shrunken cortical cells and a multilayer endodermal-like tissue that probably impaired soil-to-root stele water transport. We conclude that A. altissima seedlings are able to withstand drought by employing a highly effective water-saving mechanism that involves reduced water loss by leaves and reduced root hydraulic conductance. This water-saving mechanism helps explain how A. altissima successfully competes with native vegetation.

  10. A new quassinoid, ailantinol H from Ailanthus altissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Sadaaki; Fukamiya, Narihiko; Okano, Masayoshi; Koike, Kazuo

    2006-10-01

    A new quassinoid, ailantinol H, was isolated from a methanol extract of the aerial parts of Ailanthus altissima collected in Taiwan. Its structure was established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR and HREIMS spectroscopic methods.

  11. Characterization of Ailanthus altissima Veneer Modified by Urea-formaldehyde Pre-polymer with Compression Drying

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miao, Xinwei; Chen, Heyu; Lang, Qian; Bi, Zeng; Zheng, Xue; Pu, Junwen

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Ailanthus altissima wood has received increased attention in China. Although Ailanthus altissima has a number of advantages, such as fast-growing character and high density, the low dimensional stability is a restraining factor...

  12. Does the invasive species Ailanthus altissima threaten floristic diversity of temperate peri-urban forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motard, Eric; Muratet, Audrey; Clair-Maczulajtys, Danielle; Machon, Nathalie

    2011-12-01

    We examined the influence of the invasive species Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle on the understory of the Fontainebleau forest, a peri-urban forest of Paris (France), by comparing invaded versus control plots. We performed floristic inventories in fixed plots around the base of A. altissima vs native trees in different habitat types of the forest. Our findings suggest that the understory vegetation is significantly poorer and more common under A. altissima than under the other tree species and that the floristic composition is significantly different. Furthermore, the number of A. altissima root suckers growing in the plots was significantly negatively correlated with floristic richness. This effect can be attributed to both interspecific competition and allelopathic properties of A. altissima. These results give an estimate of the threat to biodiversity ascribed to A. altissima in the Fontainebleau forest. Copyright © 2011 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. [Lignans from barks of Ailanthus altissima].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Zhang, Jian; Tang, Shao-Nan; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2016-12-01

    Eleven lignans were isolated from the ethanol extract of the barks of Ailanthus altissima through various column chromatography methods including silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS and HPLC. By physical, chemical and comprehensive spectroscopic methods, their structures were identified as (+)-neoolivil(1), prunustosanan AI (2), (7S,8R)-guaiacyl-glycerol-β-O-4'-neolignan (3), (7R,8S)-guaiacyl-glycerol-β-O-4'-neolignan (4), (7S,8R)-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-[4-(3-hydroxypropyl)-2,6-dimethoxyphenoxy]-1,3-propanediol(5), pinnatifidanin B V (6), pinnatifidanin B VI (7), (7R,7'R,7″S,8S,8'S,8″S)-4',4″-dihydroxy-3,3',3″,5-tetramethoxy-7,9':7',9-diepoxy-4,8″-oxy-8,8'-sesquineolignan-7″,9″-diol (8), hedyotol D (9), 5-(2-propenyl)-7-methoxy-2-(3,4-methylenediovxyphenyl)benzofuran (10), and (7R,8S,7'E)-guaiacyl-glycerol-β-O-4'-sinapyl ether(11).All of these compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  14. Production of cytotoxic canthin-6-one alkaloids by Ailanthus altissima plant cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L A; Harris, A; Phillipson, J D

    1983-01-01

    Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle was established as callus- and cell-suspension cultures. Canthin-6-one and 1-methoxycanthin-6-one were isolated by a combination of preparative tlc and preparative hplc. The two alkaloids were identified by their uv, ms, and 1H-nmr spectra. The combined yield of the two alkaloids was 1.38% of dry weight from callus and 1.27% of dry weight from cell suspensions. The cytotoxicities of canthin-6-one, 1-methoxycanthin-6-one, 5-methoxycanthin-6-one, and canthin-6-one-3-N-oxide to guinea pig ear keratinocytes have been compared, and the IC50 values range from 1.11 to 5.76 micrograms/ml. There is no significant difference in activity among these four cytotoxic alkaloids.

  15. [Study on chemical constituents from flowers of Ailanthus altissima].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Ke-Qin; Tang, Wen-Zhao; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2012-10-01

    To isolate and identify the chemical constituents from the flowers of Ailanthus altissima. Macroporous adsorptive resins (DM130), Silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS were employed for the isolation and purification of chemical constituents. The structures were identified on the basis of spectral data and physicochemical examination. Eight compounds were isolated and identified as follows: brevifolin (1), brevifolin carboxylic acid (2), methyl brevifolin carboxylate (3), ellagic acid (4), diethyl-2,2',3,3',4,4'- hexahydroxybiphenyl-6,6'-dicarboxylate (5), rutin (6), gallic acid (7), ethyl gallate (8). Compounds 1 -5 are isolated from this genus for the first time.

  16. [Chemical constituents from fruits of Ailanthus altissima].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunchao; Shao, Jianhua; Li, Xian

    2009-09-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents from the extract of the fruits of Ailanthus altissimrna. Twelve compounds were isolated by chromatography and identified by spectral data. The compounds obtained were identified as (+)-isolariciresinol (1), isolariciresinol 9-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), gallic acid (3), D-sorbitol (4), vanillin (5), 6,7-dihydroxy-coumarin (6), stigmast-4-en-3-one (7), 5alpha, 8alpha-epidioxy-ergosta-6,9 (11), 22E-trien-3beta-ol (8), ergosta-4,6,8 (14), 22E-tetraen-3-one (9), cycloeucalenol (10), lupeol (11), betulinic acid (12). Compounds 1-12 were isolated from this genus for the first time.

  17. Ailanthus altissima interfers with beneficial symbionts and negetively [sic] impacts oak regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenise M. Bauman; Caitlin Byrne; Shiv. Hiremath

    2013-01-01

    The invasion of Tree-of-Heaven (Ailanthus altissima) has been documented in disturbed landscapes leading to biodiversity loss and degradation of ecosystem function. Ailanthus interferes with the restoration of native species by its aggressive growth habit, alteration of nutrient cycles, and allelopathic chemical production. Recent...

  18. Ailanthus, tree-of-heaven update, a northeast regional biological control project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott M. Salom; Loke T. Kok; Nathan Herrick; Tom McAvoy; Donald Davis; Mark Schall; Matt Kasson; Du Yu-Zhou; Ji Hailong; He Xiao; Richard Reardon

    2009-01-01

    The tree-of-heaven (TOH), Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle (Sapindales: Simaroubaceae), is an invasive weed tree distributed throughout most of the continental United States. It is a hardy pioneer species that...

  19. Terpenylated coumarins as SIRT1 activators isolated from Ailanthus altissima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dao, Trong-Tuan; Tran, Tien-Lam; Kim, Jayeon;

    2012-01-01

    Four new terpenylated coumarins (1-4) were isolated from the stem bark of Ailanthus altissima by bioactivity-guided fractionation using an in vitro SIRT1 deacetylation assay. Their structures were identified as (2'R,3'R)-7-(2',3'-dihydroxy-3',7'-dimethylocta-6'-enyloxy)-6,8-dimethoxycoumarin (1), 6......,8-dimethoxy-7-(3',7'-dimethylocta-2',6'-dienyloxy)coumarin (2), (2'R,3'R,6'R)-7-(2',3'-dihydroxy-6',7'-epoxy-3',7'-dimethyloctaoxy)-6,8-dimethoxycoumarin (3), and (2'R,3'R,4'S,5'S)-6,8-dimethoxy-7-(3',7'-dimethyl-4',5'-epoxy-2'-hydroxyocta-6'-enyloxy)coumarin (4). Compounds 1-4 strongly enhanced SIRT1...... activity in an in vitro SIRT1-NAD/NADH assay and an in vivo SIRT1-p53 luciferase assay. These compounds also increased the NAD-to-NADH ratio in HEK293 cells. The present results suggest that terpenylated coumarins from A. altissima have a direct stimulatory effect on SIRT1 deacetylation activity and may...

  20. Terpenylated coumarins as SIRT1 activators isolated from Ailanthus altissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Trong-Tuan; Tran, Tien-Lam; Kim, Jayeon; Nguyen, Phi-Hung; Lee, Eun-Hee; Park, Junsoo; Jang, Ik-Soon; Oh, Won-Keun

    2012-07-27

    Four new terpenylated coumarins (1-4) were isolated from the stem bark of Ailanthus altissima by bioactivity-guided fractionation using an in vitro SIRT1 deacetylation assay. Their structures were identified as (2'R,3'R)-7-(2',3'-dihydroxy-3',7'-dimethylocta-6'-enyloxy)-6,8-dimethoxycoumarin (1), 6,8-dimethoxy-7-(3',7'-dimethylocta-2',6'-dienyloxy)coumarin (2), (2'R,3'R,6'R)-7-(2',3'-dihydroxy-6',7'-epoxy-3',7'-dimethyloctaoxy)-6,8-dimethoxycoumarin (3), and (2'R,3'R,4'S,5'S)-6,8-dimethoxy-7-(3',7'-dimethyl-4',5'-epoxy-2'-hydroxyocta-6'-enyloxy)coumarin (4). Compounds 1-4 strongly enhanced SIRT1 activity in an in vitro SIRT1-NAD/NADH assay and an in vivo SIRT1-p53 luciferase assay. These compounds also increased the NAD-to-NADH ratio in HEK293 cells. The present results suggest that terpenylated coumarins from A. altissima have a direct stimulatory effect on SIRT1 deacetylation activity and may serve as lead molecules for the treatment of some age-related disorders.

  1. Host-range testing of Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a candidate for biological control of tree-of-heaven, Ailanthus altissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, N J; McAvoy, T J; Snyder, A L; Salom, S M; Kok, L T

    2012-02-01

    Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle, tree-of-heaven, is an invasive species native to Asia. It first was introduced into the United States in the 1700 s and now is distributed throughout much of North America. Mechanical and chemical controls are current suppression tactics, however, implementation is costly. A weevil, Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Harold), was identified in China and imported for quarantine testing in 2004 as a potential biological control agent. Host specificity tests on adult feeding, larval development, and oviposition of this weevil were conducted from 2007 to 2011 on A. altissima and 29 nontarget species. Eucryptorrhynchus brandti adults fed significantly more on A. altissima foliage when compared with all test species. Range of means for feeding on A. altissima was 32.5-106.5 mm(2)/adult/d. In no-choice tests, Simarouba glauca DC, Leitneria floridana Chapm., and Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F., had feeding rates of only 10, 49, and 10%, respectively, compared with the level of feeding on A. altissima. The mean range of adult feeding by E. brandti on all other test species was <7% of feeding on A. altissima (0.0-3.3 ± 5.0 mm(2)/adult/d). In the no-choice larval inoculation tests, larval development only occurred in two of 10 L. floridana seedlings compared with seven of 10 A. altissima seedlings. In the no-choice oviposition tests, oviposition and subsequent larval development did not occur in L. floridiana, whereas all seven A. altissima seedlings supported oviposition and subsequent larval development. The weevil did not appear to be a threat to L. floridana or any other nontarget species tested. Therefore, we conclude that Eucryptorrhynchus brandti is highly host specific to A. altissima.

  2. De verwildering van Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle (Hemelboom) in Rotterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andeweg, Remko

    1997-01-01

    The Tree-of-heaven is widely naturalized in South- and Southeast-Europe and has its Northwestern border in Germany, with outposts in urban environments. This area is expected to spread towards the Netherlands. Recent discovery of seedlings in Rotterdam and other places may show a start of this

  3. Ailanthus Altissima and Phragmites Australis for chromium removal from a contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Ezio; Fratino, Umberto; Petrella, Andrea; Torretta, Vincenzo; Rada, Elena Cristina

    2016-08-01

    The comparative effectiveness for hexavalent chromium removal from irrigation water, using two selected plant species (Phragmites australis and Ailanthus altissima) planted in soil contaminated with hexavalent chromium, has been studied in the present work. Total chromium removal from water was ranging from 55 % (Phragmites) to 61 % (Ailanthus). After 360 days, the contaminated soil dropped from 70 (initial) to 36 and 41 mg Cr/kg (dry soil), for Phragmites and Ailanthus, respectively. Phragmites accumulated the highest amount of chromium in the roots (1910 mg Cr/kg(dry tissue)), compared with 358 mg Cr/kg(dry tissue) for Ailanthus roots. Most of chromium was found in trivalent form in all plant tissues. Ailanthus had the lowest affinity for Cr(VI) reduction in the root tissues. Phragmites indicated the highest chromium translocation potential, from roots to stems. Both plant species showed good potentialities to be used in phytoremediation installations for chromium removal.

  4. The behaviour of Ailanthus altissima weed and its effects on natural ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotiadis, G; Kyriazopoulos, A P; Fraggakis, I

    2011-11-01

    Ailanthus altissima is an invasive species for the native flora of Greece and it could pose a serious threat to the biodiversity and the functioning of ecosystems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the spreading of Ailanthus altissima in urban and non urban areas of North and Central Greece and also to evaluate the effects of its spreading on species composition and floristic diversity in natural ecosystems. The spreading of Ailanthus altissima in urban areas is very intense, mainly in abandoned places (35.29%). It is commonly found in non urban areas of Greece, especially in hedgerows of arable lands (36%) and adjacent wetlands (17%). It is less common in forests (4%), shrublands (11%) and grasslands (9%). The spread of Ailanthus altissima in urban and natural ecosystems is relatively recent. Although it has been recorded at altitudes of up to 640 m, it usually appears at low altitudes of up to 200 m. Floristic diversity was found to be higher in the stands that it dominated (H' = 1.574, H' = 1.890) in comparison to stands that were dominated by Quercuspubescens (H' = 1.468) or Q. coccifera (H' = 1.716). This may be contributed to the fact that in those stands synanthropic species, which are usually found in regions of intense human activity, were present together with typical forest vegetation species.

  5. Mycorrhizal associations in Ailanthus altissima (Simaroubaceae) from forested and non-forested sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia D. Huebner; Carolyn McQuattie; Joanne Rebbeck

    2007-01-01

    Ailanthus altissima tree seedlings were excavated from each of two habitats: (1) a forest adjacent to a trail and stream and (2) a non-forested steep, barren slope adjacent to a major highway. Each seedling root system was examined for colonization by mycorrhizal structures using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The roots were...

  6. Genetic structure of the invasive tree Ailanthus altissima in eastern United States cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston R. Aldrich; Joseph S. Briguglio; Shyam N. Kapadia; Minesh U. Morker; Ankit Rawal; Preeti Kalra; Cynthia D. Huebner; Gary K. Greer

    2010-01-01

    Ailanthus altissima is an invasive tree from Asia. It now occurs in most US states, and although primarily an urban weed, it has become a problem in forested areas especially in the eastern states. Little is known about its genetic structure. We explore its naturalized gene pool from 28 populations, mostly of the eastern US where infestations are...

  7. Monitoring Phenology of Ailanthus altissima in North West Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shahbazi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Major climate changes problems in the world have attracted attentions to the phenology and have improved studies in this field. Quantitative investigation of phenology, through recording the colour of different parts of plants can be a complement for quantitative method in determining exact appearance of the phenomena. In the present study the phenological characteristics of Ailanthus altissima has been identified, using two different methods including descriptive and digital repeated photography. In descriptive observations four trees in the campus of Isfahan University of Technology has been biweekly recorded for seven years and appearance of the phenomena has been registered. Digital photography of different parts of tree was accomplished for four years. The photo spectrum of the leaf and fruit of the tree were produced and the colors were analyzed in RGB system, with the resolution of eight bites (28 for each color. By determining the proportion of each primary color the tint was achieved, which can be easily interpreted. For determining the effect of temperature on colour changing in time, the 2G-RB Index was used. According to the descriptive observations of the flowering occurs from the beginning of May to the beginning of June and fruiting occurs in late June. In colour changing diagrams the intersection of green wavelength with red in late October exhibits a revolution in leaves colour. In the fruit colour diagrams, the first intersection takes place in coincidence with the appearance of green fruits and the second coincidence with the changing of colour from green to brown. Quantitative analysis indicates a significant correlation (P ≥ 0.05 between temperature and 2G-RB Index for both leaf and fruit.

  8. Antitumour activity of 2-dihydroailanthone from the bark of Ailanthus altissima against U251.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruxing; Xu, Qian; Liu, Lei; Liang, Xiujun; Cheng, Luyang; Zhang, Manli; Shi, Qingwen

    2016-09-01

    Context The bark of Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle (Simaroubaceae) is traditionally used to treat ascariasis, diarrhoea, spermatorrhoea, bleeding and gastrointestinal diseases. Objective The objective of this study is to investigate the antitumour activity and mechanism of 2-dihydroailanthone isolated from A. altissima. Materials and methods The U251 cells were treated with 1.00, 4.00 and 8.00 μg/mL of 2-dihydroailanthone for 48 h and the normal cells treated with 20.00 μg/mL of 2-dihydroailanthone were tested as well. Proliferation inhibition of 2-dihydroailanthone on the cells was tested by MTT. Apoptosis and cell-cycle distribution in U251 cells with 1.00, 3.00 and 5.80 μg/mL of 2-dihydroailanthone for 48 h were determined by flow cytometry, respectively. The expression of the apoptosis-related genes and proteins was analysed by RT-PCR and Western blot method, respectively. Results MTT assay revealed that 2-dihydroailanthone inhibited U251 cells proliferation. The cell viability of U251 cells was 62.82, 31.34 and 25.58%, and that of three normal cells was 72.75, 82.74 and 44.92%, respectively. Flow cytometry assay showed that 2-dihydroailanthone induced apoptosis and G0/G1 phase cycle arrest towards U251 cells. The late apoptotic cells were 11.37, 21.73 and 33.83%, and the cells cycle distributed in the G0/G1 accounted for 48.85, 62.77 and 64.40%, respectively. The Western blot and RT-PCR assay showed that up-regulation of pro-apoptotic bax protein and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic bcl-2 protein as well as their mRNA on U251 cells might be related to the apoptosis induction and proliferation inhibition. Conclusion An important bioactive component, 2-dihydroailanthone, has antitumour effects, enlightening a novel source of phytomedicines in tumour therapy.

  9. Potential for using Verticillium albo-atrum as a biocontrol agent for tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald D. Davis; Matthew Kasson; Mark. Schall

    2011-01-01

    Extensive, unprecedented wilt and mortality of the highly invasive, exotic tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima) occurred recently within mixed hardwood forests in south-central Pennsylvania. Until this study, the cause of the epidemic was unknown.

  10. Two new alkaloidal glycosides from the root bark of Ailanthus altissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L-P; Wang, J-Y; Wang, W; Cui, Y-X; Cheng, D-L

    2007-01-01

    Two new alkaloidal glycosides, canthin-6-one-5-o-beta-D-xylopyranosyl- (1 --> 6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and canthin-6-one-1-o-beta-D-xylopyranosyl- (1 --> 6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2) named ailantcanthinosides A and B, were isolated from the root bark of Ailanthus altissima. Their structures were elucidated by one-and two-dimensional (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, FAB-MS, HRESI-MS spectra and chemical methods.

  11. Comparative pathogenicity, biocontrol efficacy, and multilocus sequence typing of Verticillium nonalfalfae from the invasive Ailanthus altissima and other hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasson, M T; Short, D P G; O'Neal, E S; Subbarao, K V; Davis, D D

    2014-03-01

    Verticillium wilt, caused by Verticillium nonalfalfae, is currently killing tens of thousands of highly invasive Ailanthus altissima trees within the forests in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Virginia and is being considered as a biological control agent of Ailanthus. However, little is known about the pathogenicity and virulence of V. nonalfalfae isolates from other hosts on Ailanthus, or the genetic diversity among V. nonalfalfae from confirmed Ailanthus wilt epicenters and from locations and hosts not associated with Ailanthus wilt. Here, we compared the pathogenicity and virulence of several V. nonalfalfae and V. alfalfae isolates, evaluated the efficacy of the virulent V. nonalfalfae isolate VnAa140 as a biocontrol agent of Ailanthus in Pennsylvania, and performed multilocus sequence typing of V. nonalfalfae and V. alfalfae. Inoculations of seven V. nonalfalfae and V. alfalfae isolates from six plant hosts on healthy Ailanthus seedlings revealed that V. nonalfalfae isolates from hosts other than Ailanthus were not pathogenic on Ailanthus. In the field, 100 canopy Ailanthus trees were inoculated across 12 stands with VnAa140 from 2006 to 2009. By 2011, natural spread of the fungus had resulted in the mortality of >14,000 additional canopy Ailanthus trees, 10,000 to 15,000 Ailanthus sprouts, and nearly complete eradication of Ailanthus from several smaller inoculated stands, with the exception of a few scattered vegetative sprouts that persisted in the understory for several years before succumbing. All V. nonalfalfae isolates associated with the lethal wilt of Ailanthus, along with 18 additional isolates from 10 hosts, shared the same multilocus sequence type (MLST), MLST 1, whereas three V. nonalfalfae isolates from kiwifruit shared a second sequence type, MLST 2. All V. alfalfae isolates included in the study shared the same MLST and included the first example of V. alfalfae infecting a non-lucerne host. Our results indicate that V. nonalfalfae is host adapted and

  12. Surgery for a tree surgeon? Acute presentation of contact dermatitis due to Ailanthus altissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Warren O; Paget, James T; Mackenzie, Duncan

    2013-03-01

    A tree surgeon presented to hospital with multiple blackening, non-blanching regions of skin on both forearms, following exposure to sap from the 'tree of heaven' (Ailanthus altissima). A referral to plastic surgery was made to consider debridement. Following input from the national poisons centre and dermatology, conservative management with emollient was undertaken. The lesions blistered and exfoliated and were treated with topical steroid and oral antihistamines. Resolving erythema was the only symptom at three weeks. A. altissima, also known as the 'tree of heaven' has known toxins in its bark, leaves and flowers but is also commonly used in folk medicine. Two previous cases of contact dermatitis are reported in the literature but not with acute photo documentation of the lesions or with surgical referral. This demonstrates an important lesson that debridement would not be the appropriate management despite the initial presentation. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Gone with the wind and the stream: Dispersal in the invasive species Ailanthus altissima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planchuelo, Greg; Catalán, Pablo; Delgado, Juan Antonio

    2016-05-01

    Dispersal is a key process in plant invasions and is strongly related to diaspore morphology. Often, dispersal comprises more than one step, and morphologies adapted to a primary dispersal mechanism can aid or detract from a secondary one. The aim of this work was to assess the relationship between primary wind dispersal and secondary water dispersal in Ailanthus altissima, an invasive tree species. Wind and water dispersal potential and their association with the morphological characteristics of samaras were assessed under controlled conditions to ensure the repeatability of the measurements. We found a direct positive relationship between primary wind and secondary water dispersal in A. altissima. The main morphological characteristics of the samara that affected the success of the two types of dispersal were side perimeter and mass. However, a possibility of dispersal specialisation exists, as one morphological characteristic (samara width) affects wind dispersal negatively but water dispersal positively, and dispersal potential and samara morphology have been shown to differ across individuals.

  14. A new seco-neolignan glycoside from the root bark of Ailanthus altissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qing-Wei; Ouyang, Ming-An; Wu, Zu-Jian

    2012-01-01

    A new seco-neolignan glycoside, seco-dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol-4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, together with eight known compounds, were obtained from the EtOH extract of the root bark of Ailanthus altissima. Their structures were elucidated based on the spectroscopic data. Three neolignan glycosides including 7,9,9'-trihydroxy-3,3',5'-trimethoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan-4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, sonchifolignan B and citrusin B exhibited moderate in vitro inhibitory effect on tobacco mosaic virus replication with IC₅₀ values 0.30, 0.35 and 0.26 mmol L⁻¹, respectively.

  15. Antiplasmodial activity of extracts and quassinoids isolated from seedlings of Ailanthus altissima (Simaroubaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunade, Adewole L; Bikoff, Rachel E; Casper, Steven J; Oksman, Anna; Goldberg, Daniel E; Lewis, Walter H

    2003-06-01

    Extracts and isolated compounds from seedlings of Ailanthus altissima, were assessed for antiplasmodial activity in vitro. Two quassinoids, ailanthone and 6alpha-tigloyloxychaparrinone, isolated from the active extracts showed activity against both chloroquine-resistant and chloroquine-sensitive strains of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Only ailanthone demonstrated low toxicity against the Vero cell line (kidney cells from the African green monkey). This is the first report of the isolation and antiplasmodial activity of 6alpha-tigloyloxychaparrinone from this species. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Shinjulactone O, a new quassinoid from the root bark of Ailanthus altissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Lin; Yuan, Yong-Liang; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Li, Fei; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2014-01-01

    A new quassinoid, shinjulactone O (1), and seven known quassinoids, were isolated from the 50% ethanol extract of the root bark of Ailanthus altissima. The structures of these compounds were determined based on spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR. Their cytotoxic activities were evaluated on the tumour cell lines MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, HepG2 and A549 cells, as well as the normal HUVEC line in vitro. Compounds 1-8 exhibited different levels of inhibitory activity against tumour cell lines.

  17. Evaluation of washing procedures for pollution analysis of Ailanthus altissima leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    A study of nine different washing procedures using Alconox, HCl and Na2 EDTA for use on Ailanthus altissima leaves in particulate pollutant analyses was conducted. Leaf mineral analyses of washed and unwashed samples were carried out for Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn by atomic absorption spectrometry, for Cl by a specific ion electrode and for Ti by a spectrophotometric procedure. The data showed that a procedure consisting of washing by hand with 1% Alconox, followed by 0.01M Na2 EDTA, was most effective in removing surface Fe, Cu, Zn and Ti and led to little change in lead K or Cl.

  18. Three new quassinoids, ailantinol E, F, and G, from Ailanthus altissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Sadaaki; Fukamiya, Narihiko; Okano, Masayoshi; Koyama, Junko; Koike, Kazuo; Tokuda, Harukuni; Aoi, Wataru; Takayasu, Junko; Kuchide, Masashi; Nishino, Hoyoku

    2003-04-01

    Three new quassinoids, ailantinol E (1), ailantinol F (2), and ailantinol G (3), and related compounds were isolated from Ailanthus altissima grown in Taiwan. Their structures were elucidated from spectral evidence. Each new quassinoid was evaluated for its antitumor promoting effects against Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation introduced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in Raji cells. The new quassinoids were found to show potent activity without showing any cytotoxicity. The screening for inhibitors against nitric oxide donor action was also conducted using the new quassinoids and some standard samples.

  19. The ecological niche and reciprocal prediction of the disjunct distribution of an invasive species: the example of Ailanthus altissima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Albright; Hao Chen; Lijun Chen; Qinfeng Guo

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the ecological niches of invasive species in native and introduced ranges can inform management as well as ecological and evolutionary theory. Here, we identified and compared factors associated with the distribution of an invasive tree, Ailanthus altissima, in both its native Chinese and introduced US ranges and predicted potential US...

  20. Anti-inflammatory activity of Ailanthus altissima in ovalbumin-induced lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Mei Hua; Yook, Jumin; Lee, Eunkyung; Lin, Chang Xin; Quan, Zhejiu; Son, Kun Ho; Bae, Ki Hwan; Kim, Hyun Pyo; Kang, Sam Sik; Chang, Hyeun Wook

    2006-05-01

    As part of an ongoing investigation to find bioactive medicinal herbs exerting anti-inflammation activity, the effect of an ethanol extract from the parts of Ailanthus altissima (Simaroubaceae) was evaluated in both in vitro and in in vivo system. The ethanol extract of A. altissima (EAa) inhibited generation of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) dependent phases of prostaglandin D2 in bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 214.6 microg/ml. However, this compound did not inhibit COX-2 protein expression up to a concentration of 400 microg/ml in the BMMC, indicating that EAa directly inhibits COX-2 activity. In addition, EAa inhibited leukotriene C4 production with an IC50 value of 25.7 microg/ml. Furthermore, this compound inhibited degranulation reaction in a dose dependent manner, with an IC50 value of 27.3 microg/ml. Ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice were orally pretreated with EAa before aerosol challenges. EAa reduced the eosinophil infiltration into the airway and the eotaxin, IL-4, and IL-13 mRNA expression levels. These results suggest that the anti-inflammation activity of A. altissima in OVA-induced lung inflammation may occur in part via the down regulation of T(H)2 cytokines and eotaxin transcripts as well as the inhibition of inflammatory mediators.

  1. Seasonal trends in separability of leaf reflectance spectra for Ailanthus altissima and four other tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, Aaron

    This project investigated the spectral separability of the invasive species Ailanthus altissima, commonly called tree of heaven, and four other native species. Leaves were collected from Ailanthus and four native tree species from May 13 through August 24, 2008, and spectral reflectance factor measurements were gathered for each tree using an ASD (Boulder, Colorado) FieldSpec Pro full-range spectroradiometer. The original data covered the range from 350-2500 nm, with one reflectance measurement collected per one nm wavelength. To reduce dimensionality, the measurements were resampled to the actual resolution of the spectrometer's sensors, and regions of atmospheric absorption were removed. Continuum removal was performed on the reflectance data, resulting in a second dataset. For both the reflectance and continuum removed datasets, least angle regression (LARS) and random forest classification were used to identify a single set of optimal wavelengths across all sampled dates, a set of optimal wavelengths for each date, and the dates for which Ailanthus is most separable from other species. It was found that classification accuracy varies both with dates and bands used. Contrary to expectations that early spring would provide the best separability, the lowest classification error was observed on July 22 for the reflectance data, and on May 13, July 11 and August 1 for the continuum removed data. This suggests that July and August are also potentially good months for species differentiation. Applying continuum removal in many cases reduced classification error, although not consistently. Band selection seems to be more important for reflectance data in that it results in greater improvement in classification accuracy, and LARS appears to be an effective band selection tool. The optimal spectral bands were selected from across the spectrum, often with bands from the blue (401-431 nm), NIR (1115 nm) and SWIR (1985-1995 nm), suggesting that hyperspectral sensors with

  2. Kinetic study on hydrolysis of biomass (Ailanthus altissima chips) by using alkaline-glycerol solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucuk, M.M. [Yuzuncu Yil University, Van (Turkey). Educational Faculty; Demirbas, A. [Technical University of the Black Sea, Trabzon (Turkey). Educational Faculty

    1999-07-01

    This paper is about the kinetics of hydrolysis of biomass (Ailanthus altissima) using an aqueous alkaline-glycerol solution. The study was performed at four temperature levels (438, 458, 478 and 498 K) and for different times (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 hours). The solution concentration was constant (75 g glycerol, 25.0 g water, 10% NaOH and 10.0 g wood chips). After conversion has been determined, the fractional weight loss (-1/W{sub o}dW/dt) was found to be a function of the amount of wood residue (f(W)) and the reaction rate constant (k). The order of reaction (n) and activation energy (E{sub a}) were calculated. The results were, respectively, 1.32 x 10{sup -2} s{sup -1}, 1.16, and 19.5 kJ mol{sup -1}. (author)

  3. Tetracyclic triterpenoids and terpenylated coumarins from the bark of Ailanthus altissima ("Tree of Heaven").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zhi-Lai; Xiong, Juan; Wu, Shi-Biao; Zhu, Jing-Jing; Hong, Jun-Lin; Zhao, Yun; Xia, Gang; Hu, Jin-Feng

    2013-02-01

    Tetracyclic triterpenoids (named as altissimanins A-E, 1-5) and a terpenylated coumarin (denominated as altissimacoumarin G, 6), along with fifteen known compounds (7-21) were isolated from the bark of Ailanthus altissima. Structures of compounds 1-6 were established by spectroscopic methods and chemical transformations. Altissimanin A (1) is a tirucallane-type triterpenoid bearing an uncommon oxetane ring in the side-chain, while altissimanins D (4) and E (5) are two unprecedented dimers each consisting of one tirucallane-type and one dammarane-type triterpenoid moiety. All the isolates were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects against a small panel of human cancer cell lines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic Structure of the Invasive Tree Ailanthus altissima in Eastern United States Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preston R. Aldrich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ailanthus altissima is an invasive tree from Asia. It now occurs in most US states, and although primarily an urban weed, it has become a problem in forested areas especially in the eastern states. Little is known about its genetic structure. We explore its naturalized gene pool from 28 populations, mostly of the eastern US where infestations are especially severe. Five microsatellite markers were used to examine presumed neutral genetic variation. Results show a gene pool that is moderately diverse and sexually active and has significant but small genetic differences among populations and little correspondence between geographic and genetic distance. These findings are consistent with a model of multiple introductions followed by high rates of gene exchange between cities and regions. We propose movement along road and railway systems as the chief mode of range expansion.

  5. Chronological changes in canopy hydrometeorological dynamics may aid invasion of a globally invasive species (Ailanthus altissima Mill. tree of heaven)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stan, J. T., II; Sadeghi, S. M. M.; Pypker, T. G.; Friesen, J.

    2016-12-01

    We examined the effect of a globally-invasive species, Ailanthus altissima, on canopy hydrometeorological processes. Throughfall (TF), stemflow (SF) and interception loss (I) were measured in a chronosequence of three A. altissima stands (planted 1975, 1985, 1995). Canopy structural and ecohydrological parameters varied with age: woody area index (WAI), ratio of wet canopy evaporation and rainfall rates, and stem drainage coefficient increased; while leaf area index (LAI), canopy water storage, and gap fraction declined. This corresponded to increased SF and decreased TF across annual, seasonal, and inter-storm scales. Changes in canopy hydrologic flow paths (TF v. SF) may be advantageous to invasive species as the promotion of SF with canopy age may increase water supply to the roots and help distribute allelopathic chemicals through the soil. Further research is needed on the correlation between canopy architecture of A. altissima invasion and the distribution of water and chemicals to soils.

  6. Acaricidal properties of an Ailanthus altissima bark extract against Psoroptes cuniculi and Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaobin; Fang, Chunlin; Yang, Guangyou; Xie, Yue; Nong, Xiang; Zhu, Junyang; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yan, Qigui

    2014-02-01

    The potential acaricidal properties of an Ailanthus altissima bark extract were assessed against two common species of animal ectoparasitic mites, Psoroptes cuniculi and Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi, in vitro. A. altissima bark extract was obtained by ethanol thermal circumfluence and tested at four concentrations (1.0, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 g/ml) on mites collected from rabbits. Compared to the fenvalerate treatment group, the A. altissima bark exhibited significant acaricidal properties for both mite species treated. The extract of concentrations of 1.0, 0.5 and 0.25 g/ml killed all tested S. scabiei within 7 h, however, only 1.0 and 0.5 g/ml of extract killed all treated P. cuniculi. The median lethal time (LT50) values at 1, 0.5 and 0.25 g/ml were 0.60, 0.78, 1.48 h for S. scabiei and 0.74, 1.29, 3.33 h for P. cuniculi. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for P. cuniculi was approximately 1.6 times that for S. scabiei var. cuniculi at 4 h. The extract showed stronger toxicity against S. scabiei than against P. cuniculi. Mortality rates increased with increasing concentration of extract administered and with increasing time post-treatment, indicating that the acaricidal activity of A. altissima bark extract is both time-dependent and dose-dependent. This is the first report on acaricidal activity of A. altissima against P. cuniculi and S. scabiei var. cuniculi. It indicates that A. altissima contain potential acaricidal compounds. Our study is the first step to develop potentially novel compounds from A. altissima for the effective control of mites in livestock.

  7. Adsorption of acid blue 1 on activated carbon produced from the wood of Ailanthus altissima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. K. Bangash

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon prepared from the wood of Ailanthus altissima, at 400 and 800ºC was used to adsorb acid blue 1 from aqueous solution at 10ºC and 45ºC. Characterization by XRD, SEM, EDS and FTIR shows that the surfaces contain functional groups like carboxyl which disappear at 800 ºC and thus favor the exposure of more porous structural surfaces which enhance the adsorption capacity. Relatively high amounts of carbon with respect to oxygen were found with the increase in activation temperature. First order, Bangham and parabolic models were found to fit the adsorption kinetic data. The reaction rate increased with the increase in temperature of adsorption/activation. Thermodynamic parameters like ΔE≠ , ΔH≠ , ΔS≠ and ΔG≠ were calculated. The negative values of ΔS≠ reflect the decrease in the disorder of the system at the solid-solution interface, during adsorption. Gibbs free energy ( ΔG≠ represents the driving force for the affinity of dye for the carbon and it decreased with the increase in adsorption/activation temperature.

  8. Plant growth regulatory effect and insecticidal activity of the extracts of the Tree of Heaven (Ailanthus altissima L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Chris J

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an urgent need to explore and utilize naturally occurring products for combating harmful agricultural and public health pests. Secondary metabolites in the leaves of the Tree of Heaven, Ailanthus altissima L. have been reported to be herbicidal and insecticidal. The mode of action, however, of the active compounds in A. altissima are not understood. In this paper, we report the chemical characteristics of the herbicidal and insecticidal components in this tree, and will discuss the effect of light on the bioactivity of the active components. Results Extracts from the fresh leaves of A. altissima showed a strong plant germination/growth inhibitory effect in laboratory bioassays against alfalfa (Medicago sativa. The effect was dose-dependent. The growth inhibitory components were in the methylene chloride soluble fraction of the extract. The effect was greater in the light than in the dark. Other fractions had plant growth enhancing effect at lower concentrations. The extract was slightly insecticidal against yellow fever mosquito larvae (Aedes aegypti. Conclusions The extract or its semi-purified fractions of A. altissima were strong plant growth inhibitors, therefore good candidates as potential environmentally safe and effective agricultural pest management agents. The finding that light affects the activity will be useful in the application of such natural products.

  9. Plant growth regulatory effect and insecticidal activity of the extracts of the Tree of Heaven (Ailanthus altissima L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Rong; Romanchuk, Frieda E; Peterson, Chris J; Coats, Joel R

    2002-01-01

    There is an urgent need to explore and utilize naturally occurring products for combating harmful agricultural and public health pests. Secondary metabolites in the leaves of the Tree of Heaven, Ailanthus altissima L. have been reported to be herbicidal and insecticidal. The mode of action, however, of the active compounds in A. altissima are not understood. In this paper, we report the chemical characteristics of the herbicidal and insecticidal components in this tree, and will discuss the effect of light on the bioactivity of the active components. Extracts from the fresh leaves of A. altissima showed a strong plant germination/growth inhibitory effect in laboratory bioassays against alfalfa (Medicago sativa). The effect was dose-dependent. The growth inhibitory components were in the methylene chloride soluble fraction of the extract. The effect was greater in the light than in the dark. Other fractions had plant growth enhancing effect at lower concentrations. The extract was slightly insecticidal against yellow fever mosquito larvae (Aedes aegypti). The extract or its semi-purified fractions of A. altissima were strong plant growth inhibitors, therefore good candidates as potential environmentally safe and effective agricultural pest management agents. The finding that light affects the activity will be useful in the application of such natural products.

  10. Foliar response of an Ailanthus altissima clone in two sites with different levels of ozone-pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravano, Elisabetta; Giulietti, Valentina; Desotgiu, Rosanna; Bussotti, Filippo; Grossoni, Paolo; Gerosa, Giacomo; Tani, Corrado

    2003-01-01

    Ozone sensitivity of Ailanthus altissima leaves is due to low leaf density and large intercellular spaces. - Potted plants of Ailanthus altissima, produced by root suckers coming from a single symptomatic mother tree, were placed in two sites in the vicinity of Florence (central Italy), with different levels of ozone pollution. These plants were kept in well watered conditions during the period May-September 1999. In the high pollution site (Settignano-SET) the level of ozone exposure (AOT40) reached at the end of the season a value of 31 ppm h, whereas in the 'low pollution' site (Cascine-CAS) the exposure to ozone was 11 ppm h. A. altissima showed foliar symptoms in early July at SET and in the second half of July at CAS when exposure values reached 5 ppm h at both sites. However, at the end of August the conditions of the plantlets were rather similar in both sites. Microscopic and ultrastructural analysis were performed at the first onset of symptoms at SET (the CAS leaflets were asymptomatic). Observing the upper leaf surface where the brown stipples were visible, it was found that the cells of the palisade mesophyll displayed loss of chlorophyll and the organelles in the cytoplasm were damaged. Swelling of thylacoids was observed in the CAS leaflets, thus indicating the possible onset of a pre-visual damage. The injured cells were separated from the healthy ones by a layer of callose. We conclude that the sensitivity to ozone of A. altissima leaves is related to its leaf structure, with low leaf density and large intercellular spaces. Cell walls, as well as acting as mechanical barriers against the spread of ozone within the cell, also provide important detoxifying processes.

  11. Nematicidal activity of (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and (E)-2-decenal from Ailanthus altissima against Meloidogyne javanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Ntalli, Nikoletta G; Aissani, Nadhem; Cavoski, Ivana; Angioni, Alberto

    2012-02-01

    Methanol extracts of various plant parts of Ailanthus altissima were tested against the root knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica . Extracts of bark (ABE), wood (AWE), roots (ARE), and leaves (ALE) from A. altissima were investigated against freshly hatched second-stage juveniles (J(2)). AWE was the most active extract, with EC(50/3d) of 58.9 mg/L, while ALE, ARE, and ABE did not show nematicidal activity. The chemical composition of the extracts of A. altissima was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (E)-2-undecenal, (E)-2-decenal, hexanal, nonanal, and furfural were the most prominent constituents. (E,E)-2,4-Decadienal, (E)-2-decenal, and furfural showed the highest nematicidal activity against M. javanica , with EC(50/1d) = 11.7, 20.43, and 21.79 mg/L, respectively, while the other compounds were inactive at the concentrations tested. The results obtained showed that AWE and its constituents (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and (E)-2-decenal could be considered as potent botanical nematicidal agents.

  12. Constituents of the stem barks of Ailanthus altissima and their potential to inhibit LPS-induced nitric oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Mi; Kim, Su Jung; Kim, Ha-Yeong; Ryu, Byeol; Kwak, Hokwang; Hur, Jonghyun; Choi, Jung-Hye; Jang, Dae Sik

    2015-03-01

    Three new canthinone type alkaloids, canthin-6-one-1-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), canthin-6-one-1-O-[6-O-(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (2) and canthin-6-one-1-O-[2-β-D-apiofuranosyl-6-O-(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (3) were isolated from the stem barks of Ailanthus altissima together with four quassinoids (4-7), seven phenylpropanoids (8-14) and a lignan of previously known structure (15). The inflammatory activities of the 15 isolates were screened on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO), a proinflammatory mediator, in RAW 264.7 cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Foliar response of an Ailanthus altissima clone in two sites with different levels of ozone-pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravano, Elisabetta; Giulietti, Valentina; Desotgiu, Rosanna; Bussotti, Filippo; Grossoni, Paolo; Gerosa, Giacomo; Tani, Corrado

    2003-01-01

    Potted plants of Ailanthus altissima, produced by root suckers coming from a single symptomatic mother tree, were placed in two sites in the vicinity of Florence (central Italy), with different levels of ozone pollution. These plants were kept in well watered conditions during the period May-September 1999. In the high pollution site (Settignano-SET) the level of ozone exposure (AOT40) reached at the end of the season a value of 31 ppm h, whereas in the "low pollution" site (Cascine-CAS) the exposure to ozone was 11 ppm h. A. altissima showed foliar symptoms in early July at SET and in the second half of July at CAS when exposure values reached 5 ppm h at both sites. However, at the end of August the conditions of the plantlets were rather similar in both sites. Microscopic and ultrastructural analysis were performed at the first onset of symptoms at SET (the CAS leaflets were asymptomatic). Observing the upper leaf surface where the brown stipples were visible, it was found that the cells of the palisade mesophyll displayed loss of chlorophyll and the organelles in the cytoplasm were damaged. Swelling of thylacoids was observed in the CAS leaflets, thus indicating the possible onset of a pre-visual damage. The injured cells were separated from the healthy ones by a layer of callose. We conclude that the sensitivity to ozone of A. altissima leaves is related to its leaf structure, with low leaf density and large intercellular spaces. Cell walls, as well as acting as mechanical barriers against the spread of ozone within the cell, also provide important detoxifying processes.

  14. Studies on Ailanthus altissima cell suspension cultures. Uptake of L-[methyl-(14)C]methionine and incorporation of label into 1-methoxycanthin-6-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L A; Hay, C A; Phillipson, J D; Roberts, M F

    1987-06-01

    Time-course studies of the uptake of L-[methyl (14)C]-methionine have shown rapid uptake by Ailanthus altissima cells when fed at weekly stages throughout the growth cycle. The radio-label from [(14)C]-methionine was shown to be incorporated into 1-methoxycanthin-6-one with the highest level of incorporation being achieved with cells fed late in the growth phase.

  15. Exploring the utility of a GIScience approach to modeling invasive species: A case study of Ailanthus altissima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes, Arthur

    This thesis investigated the potential for integration of remotely sensed and GIS data into an agent-based modeling environment in order to model seed dispersal and subsequent establishment of windborne seeds. In order to explore the applicability of agent-based modeling to predicting seed dispersal, a case study was carried out using the representative example species Ailanthus altissima, an invasive tree found throughout North America's temperate regions. Seed movement was modeled in two stages, primary and secondary dispersal; primary dispersal was calibrated using existing field data, while secondary dispersal was calibrated only qualitatively. Establishment potential was accounted for probabilistically, based on landuse type. Environmental controls on seed movement and establishment were accounted for with several remotely sensed datasets. The general model characteristics and structure are representative of a potential class of predictive models that incorporate raster data and vector-based seed movement. Agent-based modeling provides a link between raster and vector data and processing methods, and is therefore a potential tool for projects involving both raster and vector data types as well as vector processing. Because seed dispersal and establishment modeling benefits from incorporating both of these data types, it was found that the agent-based approach provided an appropriate framework for modeling the phenomenon, while further research is necessary to fully parameterize and field-validate the model.

  16. Contrasts between whole-plant and local nutrient levels determine root growth and death in Ailanthus altissima (Simaroubaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fengqin; Mou, Paul P; Weiner, Jacob; Li, Shuo

    2014-05-01

    • There is an ongoing debate about the importance of whole-plant control vs. local modular mechanisms for root growth. We conducted a split-root experiment with different patch/background levels of nitrogen to examine whether local root growth and death are controlled by local resource levels or at the whole-plant level.• Three microrhizotrons with 0, 10, and 100 µg N/g growth medium levels (74 g growth medium each) were attached to pots of high or low soil N in which one Ailanthus altissima individual was growing. One fine root was guided into each of the microrhizotrons and photographed every 4 d. Plants were harvested after 28 d; root growth and mortality in the microrhizotrons were recorded. Changes in root length, number of laterals, and interlateral length were determined from the photos and analyzed.• While overall plant growth was influenced by background N level, both patch and background N levels influenced root growth and mortality in patches. Local roots proliferated most when the patch N level was high and background level low, and they proliferated least and showed highest mortality when patch N was low and the background level high.• The fate of roots growing in a patch is influenced by the resource environment of the plant's other roots as well as the resource levels in the patch itself. Thus, the growth and death of roots in patches is determined by both modular and whole-plant mechanisms. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  17. Can the life-history strategy explain the success of the exotic trees Ailanthus altissima and Robinia pseudoacacia in Iberian floodplain forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Díez, Pilar; Valle, Guillermo; González-Muñoz, Noelia; Alonso, Álvaro

    2014-01-01

    Ailanthus altissima and Robina pseudoacacia are two successful invasive species of floodplains in central Spain. We aim to explain their success as invaders in this habitat by exploring their phenological pattern, vegetative and sexual reproductive growth, and allometric relations, comparing them with those of the dominant native tree Populus alba. During a full annual cycle we follow the timing of vegetative growth, flowering, fruit set, leaf abscission and fruit dispersal. Growth was assessed by harvesting two-year old branches at the peaks of vegetative, flower and fruit production and expressing the mass of current-year leaves, stems, inflorescences and infrutescences per unit of previous-year stem mass. Secondary growth was assessed as the increment of trunk basal area per previous-year basal area. A. altissima and R. pseudoacacia showed reproductive traits (late flowering phenology, insect pollination, late and long fruit set period, larger seeds) different from P. alba and other native trees, which may help them to occupy an empty reproductive niche and benefit from a reduced competition for the resources required by reproductive growth. The larger seeds of the invaders may make them less dependent on gaps for seedling establishment. If so, these invaders may benefit from the reduced gap formation rate of flood-regulated rivers of the study region. The two invasive species showed higher gross production than the native, due to the higher size of pre-existing stems rather than to a faster relative growth rate. The latter was only higher in A. altissima for stems, and in R. pseudoacacia for reproductive organs. A. altissima and R. pseudoacacia showed the lowest and highest reproductive/vegetative mass ratio, respectively. Therefore, A. altissima may outcompete native P. alba trees thanks to a high potential to overtop coexisting plants whereas R. pseudoacacia may do so by means of a higher investment in sexual reproduction.

  18. Can the life-history strategy explain the success of the exotic trees Ailanthus altissima and Robinia pseudoacacia in Iberian floodplain forests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Castro-Díez

    Full Text Available Ailanthus altissima and Robina pseudoacacia are two successful invasive species of floodplains in central Spain. We aim to explain their success as invaders in this habitat by exploring their phenological pattern, vegetative and sexual reproductive growth, and allometric relations, comparing them with those of the dominant native tree Populus alba. During a full annual cycle we follow the timing of vegetative growth, flowering, fruit set, leaf abscission and fruit dispersal. Growth was assessed by harvesting two-year old branches at the peaks of vegetative, flower and fruit production and expressing the mass of current-year leaves, stems, inflorescences and infrutescences per unit of previous-year stem mass. Secondary growth was assessed as the increment of trunk basal area per previous-year basal area. A. altissima and R. pseudoacacia showed reproductive traits (late flowering phenology, insect pollination, late and long fruit set period, larger seeds different from P. alba and other native trees, which may help them to occupy an empty reproductive niche and benefit from a reduced competition for the resources required by reproductive growth. The larger seeds of the invaders may make them less dependent on gaps for seedling establishment. If so, these invaders may benefit from the reduced gap formation rate of flood-regulated rivers of the study region. The two invasive species showed higher gross production than the native, due to the higher size of pre-existing stems rather than to a faster relative growth rate. The latter was only higher in A. altissima for stems, and in R. pseudoacacia for reproductive organs. A. altissima and R. pseudoacacia showed the lowest and highest reproductive/vegetative mass ratio, respectively. Therefore, A. altissima may outcompete native P. alba trees thanks to a high potential to overtop coexisting plants whereas R. pseudoacacia may do so by means of a higher investment in sexual reproduction.

  19. Managing tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima) in parks and protected areas: a case study of Rondeau Provincial Park (Ontario, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloche, Colette; Murphy, Stephen D

    2006-06-01

    The Carolinian Life Zone in southwestern Ontario, Canada is valued because it represents an almost disjunct ecosystem (i.e., one that is typical of the mid-Atlantic United States, rather than the rest of Canada or the nearby states in the United States). The landscape of the Carolinian Life Zone has undergone dramatic transformation, especially in recent decades as agriculture, urbanization, and recreation have intensified. One of the most apparent changes is the invasion of exotic plant species that exacerbates the need for mass restoration efforts. Within the Carolinian Life Zone, Rondeau Provincial Park has experienced an influx of nonindigenous, invasive species in recent years. Tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima) is one example. The infestation is still relatively localized to (mainly) the park, slowly spreading, and manageable as long as something is done immediately. We examined the effects of hand-pulling and mulching, cut stump and glyphosate application, cut stump alone, and the EZJect Capsule Injection System (using glyphosate) on the management of A. altissima within the park. Cut stump and glyphosate treatment was most effective and efficient in its control of young A. altissima shoots because it limits disturbance and has acceptable capital and operating costs. Hand-pulling and mulching was the second choice, mainly because of the risk of additional disturbance that increased shoot densities 1 year after treatment. Cut stump alone was not effective, worsened the infestation, and is not recommended for this species. The EZJect system was effective at managing mature, seed-producing shoots, although the somewhat higher capital costs mean that the system probably should be purchased for management of several invasive tree species to make it more cost-effective.

  20. 臭椿治理铜污染土壤的实验测定%Ailanthus altissima, An Effective Remediate Tree Species for Copper Polluted Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任嘉斌; 杨艳; 陈密; 牟溥; 胡凤琴; 徐广志; 孙丽

    2014-01-01

    The wide spread and serious soil pollution in our country has threatened the economic development,and needs to be treated seriously. Bioremediation is currently an effective soil pollution control and environment-friendly technology. .Ailanthus altissima(tree of heaven) is one of the most stress tolerate and fast-growing native tree species in China, and has the potential to be used as a pollution mediating tree species in a variety of adverse environmental condition. This study examined the copper (Cu) uptake capability ofAilanthus altissima under four levels of soil Cu contents(0, 29, 57 and 86 mg·kg-1) and three soil nutrition treatments (organic, inorganic fertilizers or no fertilization) for 35 days following complete randomized design. The results demonstrated that 1) the growth ofAilanthus altissima was not affected by the Cu treatments; 2) plant growth was significantly affected by the soil nutrition with the highest growth achieved in the inorganic fertilization treatment; 3) The Cu contents of leaf, stem and root increased and then slowed as the soil Cu content increased, but the changes among the leaf, stem and root were not synchronous; 4) soil nutrition affected the root Cu content, but not that of leaf and stem. The maximum Cu content in the plant tissues was120μg·g-1, and the ratio ofw(Cu in leaf):w(Cu in stem):w(Cu in roots) was about 2:1:2. The results demonstrated that Ailanthus altissima is an effective and promising plant species in mediating Cu contaminated soils.%臭椿(Ailanthus altissima)具有很强的抗逆性,能适应多种不良的环境,在中国广泛分布,是一个很有潜力的修复铜污染土壤的物种。通过种植实验检验臭椿修复铜污染土壤的能力。臭椿实生苗移植于4种不同铜的质量分数(0、29、57和86 mg·kg-1)、3种不同的施肥处理(对照、有机肥、无机肥)的土壤,经过5周种植,测量臭椿根、茎、叶的铜含量及各部分生

  1. Will a fungus save us from the Ailanthus invasion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Lorenzini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid growth rate, prolific fruiting and vegetative reproduction from root sprouts, ready germination and extended root system, allelopathic effects, resistance to herbivory combined to tolerance to environmentally stressful conditions such as infertile sites, make Ailanthus altissima (Mill. Swingle (also known as Heaven tree, Simaroubaceae a noxious and highly invasive tree in all countries where it has been introduced and is become naturalized. After a brief historical trait of the importance of the presence of this plant and the complexity of eradication campaigns based on manual cutting and herbicide treatments, the note illustrates the possible role as a candidate mycoherbicide of a soilborne fungal wilt agent (Verticillium nonalfalfae H.W. Platt, R.M. Bostock, R.M. Davis & Subbarao recently described in the USA and also reported from Austria.

  2. The Role of Native Tree Species on Leaf Breakdown Dynamics of the Invasive Tree of Heaven ( Ailanthus altissima) in an Urban Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, C.; Healey, B.

    2005-05-01

    Anthropogenic disturbance of ecosystem processes is increasingly being explored in urban settings. One profound impact is the striking increase in the distribution of invasive plant species. For example, Tree of Heaven (Ailanthus altissima, TOH), introduced into the U.S. from Asia in 1784, is a successful colonist of recently deforested habitats. As a result, remnant patches in urban ecosystems have become overrun with this tree species, excluding native species via fast growth and allelopathy. While suffering from human-induced degradation, urban streams still support food webs that function to process riparian-derived organic matter (e.g., leaves, wood). The purpose of this study was to (1) estimate leaf litter breakdown of native tree leaves and those of TOH in an urban stream, (2) study the detritivore feeding rate of the same leaf species, and (3) determine if increasing native species richness of leaf litter can alter breakdown of TOH leaves. Field manipulations of leaf pack composition were done in a highly urbanized stream (>30% upstream urban land use) in Baltimore County, Maryland, USA. This was complimented by a series of laboratory feeding experiments employing similar leaf treatments and local shredding invertebrate taxa. Breakdown of TOH alone was extremely rapid, significantly exceeding that of all native tree species employed. Furthermore, mixing TOH with native tree species, red maple and white oak, substantially reduced TOH decay compared to decay of TOH alone. However, supporting laboratory studies showed that TOH was a preferred resource by shredding invertebrates over all native species. Subsequent analysis of the structural integrity of all leaf species revealed that TOH was the least resistant to force, possibly explaining the counterintuitive decrease of TOH decay in mixtures. We interpret this as meaning the stream invertebrates, while preferring to consume TOH, appeared not to influence TOH decay in mixtures with native species. Instead

  3. Isolation and identification of chemical constituents from the fruits of Ailanthus altissima(Mill.)Swingle%凤眼草化学成分的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵春超; 邵建华; 张玉伟; 曹丹丹; 王金辉; 李铣

    2009-01-01

    目的 对凤眼草的质量分数95%乙醇提取物进行分离并鉴定.方法 采用硅胶柱色谱、聚酰胺柱色谱等方法分离纯化,1H-NMR、13C-NMR等方法进行结构鉴定.结果 分离得到5个黄酮类化合物,分别鉴定为kaempferol(1)、quercetin(2)、kaempferol 3,7-O-bis-α-L-rhamnopyranoside(3)、kaempferol-3-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside(4)、quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyrano-side(5).结论 化合物3~5为首次从臭椿属植物中分离得到.

  4. Antiasthmatic activity of luteolin-7-O-glucoside from Ailanthus altissima through the downregulation of T helper 2 cytokine expression and inhibition of prostaglandin E2 production in an ovalbumin-induced asthma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Meihua; Yang, Ju Hye; Lee, Eunkyung; Lu, Yue; Kwon, Soonyoul; Son, Kun Ho; Son, Jong Keun; Chang, Hyeun Wook

    2009-09-01

    Previously, we reported that an ethanol extract of Ailanthus altissima has antiinflammatory activity in an ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized murine asthmatic model. To determine the biological compounds from this plant, luteolin-7-O-glucoside (L7G) was isolated and its antiasthmatic activity was evaluated in an in vivo murine asthmatic model. L7G (10 to 100 mg/kg, per os (p.o.)) reduced the amount of eosinophil infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in a dose-dependent manner. In comparison, dexamethasone (5 mg/kg, p.o.), which was used as a positive control, also strongly inhibited the number of infiltrating eosinophils. L7G inhibited both the prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and serum immunoglobulin E level in BAL fluid in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, L7G inhibited the transcript profiles of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13 mRNA expression levels in the murine asthma model, as determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). These results suggest that the antiasthmatic activity of L7G in OVA-induced lung inflammation may occur in part via the downregulation of T helper 2 cytokine transcripts as well as the inhibition of PGE(2) production.

  5. Studies on volatiles compounds from leaf of Ailanthus altissima extracts by simultaneous distillation extractor and solid phase micro-extraction%固相微萃取和同时蒸馏萃取法分析臭椿叶挥发性组分的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大鹏; 曹逸霞; 陈乃中; 马菲; 于艳雪; 李志红; 陈洪俊

    2013-01-01

    Volatiles Compounds from Leaf of Ailanthus altissima were extracted by simultaneous distillation extractor (SDE) and solid phase micro - extraction (SPME) respectively. Their constituents were analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry, and totally 42 compounds of 8 kinds were identified, which included 22 ole-fins, 6 alcohols, 6 anes, 2 ketones, 2 esters, 2 aromatic hydrocarbons, 1 acids and 1 phenols. The alcohols , anes and ketones were more by SPME than SDE ,while olefins was less. In the same time, phenol compound and aromatic hydrocarbon compounds was detected respectively in SPME and SDE extracts only. Some compounds were repellent of special insects.%本实验采用同时蒸馏萃取法(simultaneous distillation extraction,SDE)和固相微萃取法(solid phase micro-extraction,SPME)提取臭椿(Ailanthus altissima)叶片的挥发性物质,经气相色谱/质谱联用仪分析,共检测出8类42种挥发性化合物,挥发物中烯类最多,22种,其次是醇类6种、烷烃类6种,另外酮类、酯类、芳香烃类、酸类和酚类分别检测出2、2、2、1、1种.采用SPME法提取的挥发性化合物中醇类、酮类和烷烃类的种类多于SDE法,烯类少于SDE法.酚类物质仅在SPME法检出,而芳香烃类仅在SDE法检出.检测到的挥发物组分中有对昆虫起驱避作用的成分.

  6. Studying the effects of management practices on Ailanthus populations in Ohio forests: A research update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanne Rebbeck; Todd Hutchinson; Louis Iverson; Daniel Yaussy; Robert Boyles; Michael. Bowden

    2010-01-01

    Although commonly perceived as an urban and roadside problem, Ailanthus altissima is a highly invasive non-native tree that is present in many forested landscapes in the eastern U.S. It has been a persistent feature of eastern U.S. landscapes since its introduction to North America as an ornamental shade tree in Philadelphia in 1784.

  7. Quassinoids from Ailanthus excelsa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Bipin Chandra; Pandey, Anuj; Sharma, Ram Prakash; Khare, Anakshi

    2003-02-01

    Three quassinoids, 1, 2 and 3, 4-dihydro excelsin 3 were isolated from the stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa, along with five known quassinoids excelsin, glaucarubine, ailanthinone, glaucarubinone and glaucarubolone. The glaucarubolone has been isolated for the first time from this plant. The structural elucidation is based on the analysis of spectroscopic data.

  8. 植物吸收根的增殖和生长与养分变异的关系——臭椿、翠菊、加拿大一枝黄花分根实验的启示%Proliferation and growth of plant fine roots and the influences from nutrient variation——implications from the split-root experiments of Ailanthus altissima, Callistephus chinensis and Solidago canadensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡凤琴; 牟溥

    2013-01-01

    Aims Modular theory of plants considers plant roots are relatively independent in resource absorbing and responding to heterogeneous soil environments, particularly resource environments. According to the cost-benefit theory, proliferation, growth and death of individual absorbing roots (modules) depend upon their resource uptake related to the carbon costs of their construction and maintenance, with a certain time-lag. Thus we hypothesized that: 1) a root will die when available nutrients are below a certain low threshold and last for a certain period and 2) new roots will emerge when available nutrients are above a certain high threshold and last for a certain period. Methods We designed a greenhouse split-root experiment using three plant species: Ailanthus altissima, Callistephus chinensis and Solidago canadensis. The plants were grown individually in pots, and then three fine roots (uptaking roots) per plant were carefully sorted and placed in three plastic vessels of about 70 mL with one root per vessel. Three nutrient levels of 0, 20 and 200 ug N·g-1 soil were applied in the three vessels. These roots were carefully exposed and photographed every four days, and the numbers of lateral roots, the length of 1st order laterals and the root length were evaluated. Repeated-measure ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. Important findings The numbers of laterals and total root length differed significantly among the three species and under the three N levels. Both lateral numbers and total root length were the least in the 0 ug N·g-1 treatment for A. altissima, and the highest in the 200 μg N·g-1 level for S. canadensis. The length of 1st order laterals was less responsive than the other two measures. No fine roots were found dead during the experiment. These results demonstrated that the different species had different growth rates of fine roots under the same N treatments as expected, and indicated that different species may have different N thresholds

  9. Immunoproteomics of tree of heaven (Ailanthus atltissima) pollen allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Fateme; Majd, Ahmad; Shahali, Youcef; Ghahremaninejad, Farrokh; Shokouhi Shoormasti, Raheleh; Pourpak, Zahra

    2017-02-10

    Ailanthus altissima pollen (AAP) is considered as an emerging cause of respiratory allergy in United States, Italy and Iran. However, the allergenic composition of AAP is still unknown and has yet to be characterized. The present study aimed to identify AAP allergens using a proteomics-based approach. For this purpose, optimized AAP protein extracts were analyzed using 1D- and 2D- gel electrophoresis and confronted to twenty sera from individuals with respiratory allergy during the AAP season. Candidate allergens were detected using the serum from an allergic patient with clinical history of AAP pollinosis. IgE-binding spots were identified using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry and database searching. According to our results, AAP extracts were rich in proteins (up to 16.25mg/ml) with a molecular-weight distribution ranging from 10 to 175kDa. Two-D electrophoresis of AAP extracts revealed 125 protein spots from which 13 were IgE reactive. These IgE-binding proteins were identified as enolase, calreticulin, probable pectate lyase 6, conserved hypothetical protein and ras-related protein RHN1-like. By our knowledge, this study is the first report identifying AAP allergens. These findings will open up further avenues for the diagnosis and immunotherapy of the AAP allergy as well as for the cloning and molecular characterization of relevant allergens. Ailanthus altissima colonizes new areas every year in Iran and is spreading aggressively worldwide. According to USDA, the tree of heaven is now present as an invasive plant in 30 states in US (www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/plants/treeheaven.shtml) and come to dominate large areas in many regions. Up to now, several cases of allergy to A. altissima pollen have been reported in United States, Italy and Iran [1-4]. However, there is still no information on the sensitizing allergens and the molecular origin of these clinical symptoms, which constitutes a serious threat to patients suffering from respiratory allergies in these

  10. Chemical Constituents of Ailanthus triphysa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    漆淑华; 吴大刚; 马云保; 罗晓东

    2003-01-01

    Two new compounds,8(14),15-isopimaradiene-2α,3α,19-triol(1),and 6α,7β-dihydroxy-17(20)-cis-5α-pregna-16-one(2),together with four known copounds,a oxygenated rare phyllocladane,phyllocladan-16α,19-diol(3),kaempferol-3-0-β-D-galactopyranosied,kaempferol-3-0-α-L-rhamnopyranoside and scopoletin, were isolated from the leaves of Ailanthus tripysa.Structures of 1-3 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data as compared with related compounds.

  11. Efficacy of herbicide treatments for controlling residual sprouting of tree-of-heaven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Bowker; Jeff. Stringer

    2011-01-01

    Tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima [Mill.] Swingle) is one of the most widely distributed exotic invasive tree species in the United States and has become naturalized throughout the central hardwood forest. It opportunistically establishes in areas associated with silvicultural regeneration treatments and extirpation often requires the targeting of...

  12. An old remedy for a new problem? Identification of Ooencyrtus kuvanae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) as egg parasitoids of spotted lanternfly, Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotted Lanternfly (SLF), Lycorma delicatula (White) is a recently introduced pest of Tree-of-Heaven, Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle in North America. Natural enemy surveys for this pest in Pennsylvania in 2016 recovered an encyrtid egg parasitoid from both field collections and laboratory rear...

  13. Antibacterial activity of Ailanthus excelsa (Roxb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimali, M; Jain, D C; Darokar, M P; Sharma, R P

    2001-03-01

    The antibacterial activity of different fractions of a methanol extract obtained from the dried stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa (Roxb) was studied using different bacterial strains. The ethyl acetate fraction inhibited the growth of all test bacteria. The MIC of the EA fraction was found to be 6 mg/disc. Copyright -Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Phenolic substances in Ailanthus glandulosa Desf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekala Karolina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the isolation and identification of phenolic acids from fruit and leaves of Ailanthus glandulosa Desf. The methods used in the isolation and identification of the compounds were: isolation of phenolic acids modified by Ibrahim and Towers, acidic and alkaline hydrolysis by Schmidtlein and Herrmann and identification of phenolic acids in the isolated fraction of two-dimensional thin layer chromatography (TLC on cellulose plates. In the course of the study, the presence of phenolic acids in leaves and fruit of Ailanthus glandulosa Desf was confirmed. Overall, proportions of 15 phenolic acids were found and identified in the analyzed material. These are: gallic acid, ellagic acid, caffeic acid, gentisic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, m-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, syryngic acid, vanillic acid, salicylic acid, 2-hydroxy-4- methoxybenzoic acid, 2,5-dimethoxycinnamic, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and 3 other compounds named A, B, C, whose identification was not possible due to the lack of suitable reference patterns. Studies have shown that leaves and fruit of the plant Ailanthus glandulosa Desf. contain a large number of phenolic acids which possess many important pharmacological activities.

  15. Anti-plasmodial activity of Ailanthus excelsa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Agli, Mario; Galli, Germana V; Parapini, Silvia; Basilico, Nicoletta; Taramelli, Donatella; Said, Ataa; Rashed, Khaled; Bosisio, Enrica

    2008-02-01

    The anti-plasmodial activity of Ailanthus excelsa stem bark was investigated. The methanolic extract inhibited in vitro growth of chloroquine-sensitive (D10) and resistant strains (W2) of Plasmodium falciparum (IC50 4.6 and 2.8 microg/ml, respectively). The effect was retained in the chloroform fraction (3.1 and 2.1 microg/ml, respectively). The anti-plasmodial activity could be ascribed to the impairment of haemoglobin degradation through the inhibition of plasmepsin II activity (IC50 of 13.43+/-1.74 microg/ml) and of the haem detoxification to haemozoin.

  16. Studies on the constituents of Ailanthus integrifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosuge, K; Mitsunaga, K; Koike, K; Ohmoto, T

    1994-08-01

    A new phenolic glycoside, 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenol-1-(6-xylopyranosyl)glucopyranoside, was isolated together with twenty known compounds identified as koaburaside, 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenol, 5,7-dihydroxychromone-7-neohesperidoside, naringin, neoeriocitrin, p-coumaric acid, vanillin, vanillic acid, coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid, trans-triacontyl-4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamate, p-methoxycinnamic acid, 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone, 2-(1-hydroxyethyl)naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione, 2-acetylnaphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione, 2-(1-hydroxyethyl)-6-methoxynaphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione, 2-acetyl-6-methoxynaphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione, specioside, jioglutin C and rehmaglutin D from the bark of Ailanthus integrifolia Lamk (Simaroubaceae).

  17. New malabaricane triterpenes from the oleoresin of Ailanthus malabarica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achanta, Prabhakar S; Gattu, Rajesh Kumar; Belvotagi, Adavi Rao V; Akkinepally, Raghuram Rao; Bobbala, Ravi Kumar; Achanta, Appa Rao V N

    2015-01-01

    Ten malabaricane type triterpenes were isolated from the oleoresin of Ailanthus malabarica, out of which six (1-6) were new. For three of the known compounds (7-9), NMR assignments are being reported for the first time. Compound 10, a known one, is a new report from this source. The structures were established by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The oleoresin and some of the isolates did not possess antimicrobial activity and did not lyse RBCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Review of Invasive Riparian Trees that Impact USACE Ecosystem Restoration Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    part of the woody structure in southwest riparian habitats (Stromberg et al. 2009). Tree-of-Heaven ( Ailanthus altissima). Figure 3. Tree-of...Heaven ( Ailanthus altissima) (Photo credit: Chuck Bargeron, University of Georgia). The Tree-of-Heaven ( Ailanthus altissima) is a tree native to...and forest fauna in Eastern North America. Forests 3:840-852. Hoshovsky, M. C. 1986. Element Stewardship Abstract for Ailanthus altissima, Tree-of

  19. Transcriptome analysis of root response to citrus blight based on the newly assembled Swingle citrumelo draft genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunzeng; Barthe, Gary; Grosser, Jude W; Wang, Nian

    2016-07-08

    Citrus blight is a citrus tree overall decline disease and causes serious losses in the citrus industry worldwide. Although it was described more than one hundred years ago, its causal agent remains unknown and its pathophysiology is not well determined, which hampers our understanding of the disease and design of suitable disease management. In this study, we sequenced and assembled the draft genome for Swingle citrumelo, one important citrus rootstock. The draft genome is approximately 280 Mb, which covers 74 % of the estimated Swingle citrumelo genome and the average coverage is around 15X. The draft genome of Swingle citrumelo enabled us to conduct transcriptome analysis of roots of blight and healthy Swingle citrumelo using RNA-seq. The RNA-seq was reliable as evidenced by the high consistence of RNA-seq analysis and quantitative reverse transcription PCR results (R(2) = 0.966). Comparison of the gene expression profiles between blight and healthy root samples revealed the molecular mechanism underneath the characteristic blight phenotypes including decline, starch accumulation, and drought stress. The JA and ET biosynthesis and signaling pathways showed decreased transcript abundance, whereas SA-mediated defense-related genes showed increased transcript abundance in blight trees, suggesting unclassified biotrophic pathogen was involved in this disease. Overall, the Swingle citrumelo draft genome generated in this study will advance our understanding of plant biology and contribute to the citrus breeding. Transcriptome analysis of blight and healthy trees deepened our understanding of the pathophysiology of citrus blight.

  20. Effect of Citrus aurantifolia swingle essential oils on methyl mercaptan production of Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindya Prima Yusinta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Halitosis is a term used to describe an unpleasant odors emanating timely from oral cavity. The unpleasant smell of breath most common caused from volatile sulphure compound (VSC. Methyl mercaptan is the major component of VSC. P. gingivalis produced large amount of methyl mercaptan. The essential oils of Citrus aurantifolia swingle contain antibacterial component. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of essential oil of Citrus aurantifolia swingle on the production of methyl mercaptan compounds in P. gingivalis. Methods: Bacterial suspension of P. gingivalis in TSB medium with 108 CFU/ml concentration cultured in a microplate and added by the essential oils of Citrus aurantifolia swingle with 1%, 2%, 3% and 4% concentration. Distilled water was used as negative control and 0.2% Chlorhexidine mouthwash was used as a positive control. Microplate was incubated anaerobically for 48 hours. After the periode of incubation, 0.6% methionine as the exogenous substrate and 0.06% DTNB as a reagen for determining methyl mercaptan concentration were added to each wells. The microplate was futher incubated for 12 hours. Concentration of methyl mercaptan produced by the P. gingivalis was measured spectrophotometrically using microplate reader at 415 nm. Results: One-way ANOVA showed that the essential oil of Citrus aurantifolia swingle take effect on the concentration of methyl mercaptan produced by P. gingivalis. LSD test results indicated that there was a significant difference of methyl mercaptan concentration between treatment groups of the essential oils of Citrus aurantifolia swingle and distilled water that used as negative control. Conclusion: The essential oil of Citrus aurantifolia swingle has decreased the production of methyl mercaptan produced by P. gingivalis.Latar belakang: Halitosis adalah istilah yang digunakan untuk menggambarkan bau tidak sedap yang berasal dari rongga mulut. Penyebab utama halitosis

  1. Gastroprotective and antisecretory effects of Ailanthus excelsa (Roxb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanchauski, Larissa S; Broto, Ana Paula G S; Moraes, Thiago M; Nasser, Ana Lúcia M; Said, Ataa; Hawas, Usama W; Rashed, Khaled; Vilegas, Wagner; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia A

    2010-01-01

    Ailanthus excelsa (Roxb), an Egyptian medicinal species highly important for treating numerous diseases, was investigated against experimentally induced gastric ulcer in rodents. We evaluated the gastroprotective effect of four extracts (petroleum ether, diethyl ether, chloroform, and methanol) of A. excelsa bark by using the ethanol-induced gastric lesion model. The pretreatment of animals with methanolic, petroleum ether, and chloroformic extracts (100 mg/kg, oral (p.o.)) from A. excelsa significantly reduced gastric lesion induced by ulcerogenic agent (56, 47, and 70%, respectively) when compared with animals pretreated with vehicle. However, the diethyl ether pretreatment led to the least gastric lesion damage (83%), similar to the standard antiulcer drug, cimetidine, at the same dose (100 mg/kg, p.o.). The lower effective dose of diethyl ether extract, as well as cimetidine, given by intraduodenal route, significantly increased the pH values and reduced the acid output of gastric juice. Sterols, triterpenes,and quassinoids are present in the diethyl ether extract of A. excelsa stem bark, which presented the best gastroprotective action among the studied extracts. Our study confirmed the traditional indications of A. excelsa for the treatment of gastric ulcer.

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in the Invasive Herb Solidago altissima (Asteraceae

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    Yuzu Sakata

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed in the perennial herb Solidago altissima from populations within its introduced range in Japan to assess its population structure and to facilitate tracking of invasion expansion. Methods and Results: Using 454 pyrosequencing, 16 microsatellite primer sets were developed for S. altissima. The primer sets were tested on 70 individuals sampled from three populations in Japan. The primers amplified di- and trinucleotide repeats with five to 25 alleles per locus, and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.46 to 0.92. Conclusions: These results indicate the utility of primers in S. altissima for future research on a wide range of applications, including tracking of invasion dynamics and investigating population genetics of the species.

  3. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in the invasive herb Solidago altissima (Asteraceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Yuzu; Kaneko, Shingo; Hayano, Azusa; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Ohgushi, Takayuki; Isagi, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed in the perennial herb Solidago altissima from populations within its introduced range in Japan to assess its population structure and to facilitate tracking of invasion expansion. • Methods and Results: Using 454 pyrosequencing, 16 microsatellite primer sets were developed for S. altissima. The primer sets were tested on 70 individuals sampled from three populations in Japan. The primers amplified di- and trinucleotide repeats with five to 25 alleles per locus, and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.46 to 0.92. • Conclusions: These results indicate the utility of primers in S. altissima for future research on a wide range of applications, including tracking of invasion dynamics and investigating population genetics of the species. PMID:25202531

  4. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia Swingle) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Wei; Zeng, Wei-Cai; Xu, Pei-Yu; Lan, Ya-Jia; Zhu, Rui-Xue; Zhong, Kai; Huang, Yi-Na; Gao, Hong

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the main constituents of the essential oil isolated from Fortunella crassifolia Swingle peel by hydro-distillation, and to test the efficacy of the essential oil on antimicrobial activity. Twenty-five components, representing 92.36% of the total oil, were identified by GC-MS analysis. The essential oil showed potent antimicrobial activity against both Gram-negative (E. coli and S. typhimurium) and Gram-positive (S. aureus, B. cereus, B. subtilis, L. bulgaricus, and B. laterosporus) bacteria, together with a remarkable antifungal activity against C. albicans. In a food model of beef extract, the essential oil was observed to possess an effective capacity to control the total counts of viable bacteria. Furthermore, the essential oil showed strongly detrimental effects on the growth and morphological structure of the tested bacteria. It was suggested that the essential oil from Fortunella crassifolia Swingle peel might be used as a natural food preservative against bacteria or fungus in the food industry.

  5. Production of interstocked 'Pera' sweet orange nursey trees on 'Volkamer' lemon and 'Swingle' citrumelo rootstocks

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    Girardi Eduardo Augusto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Incompatibility among certain citrus scion and rootstock cultivars can be avoided through interstocking. 'Pera' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck nursery tree production was evaluated on 'Swingle' citrumelo (Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf x Citrus paradisi Macf and 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana Pasquale incompatible rootstocks, using 'Valencia' and 'Hamlin' sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, 'Sunki' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka, and 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tanaka as interstocks. Citrus nursery trees interstocked with 'Pera' sweet orange on both rootstocks were used as control. 'Swingle' citrumelo led to the highest interstock bud take percentage, the greatest interstock height and rootstock diameter, as well as the highest scion and root system dry weight. Percentage of 'Pera' sweet orange dormant bud eye was greater for plants budded on 'Sunki' mandarin than those budded on 'Valencia' sweet orange. No symptoms of incompatibility were observed among any combinations of rootstocks, interstocks and scion. Production cycle can take up to 17 months with higher plant discard.

  6. Pengaruh Ekstrak Kulit Jeruk Nipis (Citrus Aurantifolia Swingle Konsentrasi 10% Terhadap Aktivitas Enzim Glukosiltransferase Streptococcus mutans

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    Zenia Adindaputri U

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans merupakan bakteri yang berperan sebagai agen utama penyebab karies gigi, yang memiliki enzim glukosiltransferase (GTF. Enzim GTF akan mengubah sukrosa menjadi fruktosa dan glukan. Salah satu herbal tradisional yang dapat berperan sebagai antibakteri adalah kulit jeruk nipis (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle yang mengandung polifenol terutama flavonoid. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh ekstrak kulit jeruk nipis (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle konsentrasi 10% terhadap aktivitas enzim GTF Streptococcus mutans. Penelitian ini menggunakan ekstrak kulit jeruk nipis konsentrasi 10% sebagai perlakuan, chlorhexidine gluconate 0,12% sebagai kontrol positif, serta akuades steril sebagai kontrol negatif. Metode penelitian ini terdiri dari tiga tahap yaitu penyiapan ekstrak kulit jeruk nipis konsentrasi 10%, penyiapan enzim GTF dari supernatan Streptococcus mutans, dan pengujian aktivitas enzim GTF melalui analisis konsentrasi fruktosa dengan menggunakan High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Pembacaan luas area fruktosa dilakukan berdasarkan waktu retensi. Satu unit aktivitas enzim GTF di definisikan sebagai 1 µmol fruktosa/ml dari enzim/jam. Selanjutnya data yang diperoleh dianalisis secara statistik dengan one way ANOVA.Hasil perhitungan aktivitas enzim GTF dengan one way ANOVA menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikan antara kelompok perlakuan dengan kelompok kontrol negatif (p<0,05, dan tidak terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan dengan kontrol positif. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah ekstrak kulit jeruk nipis konsentrasi 10% dapat menghambat aktivitas enzim glukosiltransferase Streptococcus mutans.  The Influence of 10% Concentrate of Citrus Aurantifolia Swingle on The Activities of Streptococcus Mutans Glucocyl Transferase Enzyme. Streptococcus mutans is a bacteria which has glucosyl transferase (GTF enzyme and acts as the main agent that causes dental caries. GTF enzyme will convert sucrose into fructose and glucan

  7. Seed longevity and dormancy state in a disturbance-dependent forest herb, Ageratina altissima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mame E. Redwood; Glenn R. Matlack; Cynthia D. Huebner

    2016-01-01

    Does seed dormancy allow disturbance-oriented forest herbs such as Ageratina altissima to persist in heterogeneous natural communities? To document seed longevity and dormancy state, Ageratina seeds were buried in nylon mesh bags in second-growth forest stands in south-eastern Ohio, USA. Bags were recovered at 2-month intervals...

  8. Projecting potential distribution of Eucryptorrhynchus scrobiculatus Motschulsky and E. brandti (Harold) under historical climate and RCP 8.5 scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yingchao; Luo, Wen; Zhang, Ganyu; Wen, Junbao

    2017-08-22

    Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle and its variant A. altissima var. Qiantouchun are notorious invasive weeds. Two weevils, Eucryptorrhynchus scrobiculatus (ESC) and E. brandti (EBR) are considered as candidates for biological control of A. altissima. The aim of this study was to model the potential distributions of ESC and EBR using CLIMEX 4.0. The projected potential distributions of ESC and EBR included almost all current distribution areas of A. altissima, except Southeast Asia. Under historical climate, potential distribution area of EBR is larger than that of ESC, 46.67 × 10(6) km(2) and 35.65 × 10(6) km(2), respectively. For both ESC and EBR, climate change expanded the northern boundary of potential distributions northward approximately 600 km by the middle of 21st century, and 1000 km by the end of 21st century under RCP 8.5. However, the suitable range decreased to the south in the Southern Hemisphere because of heat stress. The modelled potential distributions of ESC and EBR in the United States demonstrated that the climate was suitable for both weevils. Therefore, considering only climate suitability, both ESC and EBR can be considered as potential biological control agents against A. altissima with some confidence that climatic conditions are likely suitable.

  9. Effect of heat treatments on the essential oils of kumquat (Fortunella margarita Swingle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Li-Wen; Sheu, Ming-Jen; Lin, Li-Yun; Wu, Chun-Ta; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Lin, Wen-Hsin; Lee, Meng-Chieh; Chen, Hsin-Chun

    2013-01-15

    Kumquats (Fortunella margarita Swingle) cultivated in Taiwan are eaten raw or made into candied fruit or fruit tea. For the experiments described in this paper, essential oils were obtained from kumquat peels or whole fruit by cold pressing, steam distillation or heating in water at 90°C for 15 min followed by steam distillation. The volatile components contained in the essential oils were identified by direct injection (DI) or headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography (GC). A total of 43 compounds were identified, of which 37 were verified by DI/GC and 31 by HS-SPME/GC. Hot water heating increased the yields of essential oils from both peels and whole fruit. The principal constituents of the oils were similar except for the minor compounds, including linalool, terpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol, the levels of which increased after steam distillation. The whole fruit also contained higher levels of terpene alcohols.

  10. Hypoglycemic activity of Ailanthus excelsa leaves in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, W; Genta, S; Said, A; Farag, A; Rashed, K; Sánchez, S

    2008-03-01

    The hypoglycemic activity of a 70% methanol extract from the leaves of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. (Simaroubaceae) was studied in normal, transiently hyperglycemic and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of the extract at doses of 14, 70 and 350 mg/kg body weight caused no significant changes in fasting blood glucose levels of normal rats. In an oral glucose tolerance test, the extract produced a significant decrease in glycemia 90 min after the glucose pulse. Daily administration of A. excelsa extract for 60 days produced a significant hypoglycemic effect in diabetic animals. In addition, this treatment improved the altered renal function observed in diabetic control rats. This study suggests that Ailanthus leaf extract could be potentially useful for post-prandial hyperglycemia treatment.

  11. Ecological application of biotic resistance to control the invasion of an invasive plant, Ageratina altissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Chaeho; Lee, Eun Ju

    2017-04-01

    Biotic resistance is the ability of species in a community to limit the invasion of other species. However, biotic resistance is not widely used to control invasive plants. Experimental, functional, and modeling approaches were combined to investigate the processes of invasion by Ageratina altissima (white snakeroot), a model invasive species in South Korea. We hypothesized that (1) functional group identity would be a good predictor of biotic resistance to A. altissima, whereas a species identity effect would be redundant within a functional group, and (2) mixtures of species would be more resistant to invasion than monocultures. We classified 37 species of native plants into three functional groups based on seven functional traits. The classification of functional groups was based primarily on differences in life longevity and woodiness. A competition experiment was conducted based on an additive competition design with A. altissima and monocultures or mixtures of resident plants. As an indicator of biotic resistance, we calculated a relative competition index (RCI avg) based on the average performance of A. altissima in a competition treatment compared with that of the control where only seeds of A. altissima were sown. To further explain the effect of diversity, we tested several diversity-interaction models. In monoculture treatments, RCI avg of resident plants was significantly different among functional groups but not within each functional group. Fast-growing annuals (FG1) had the highest RCI avg, suggesting priority effects (niche pre-emption). RCI avg of resident plants was significantly greater in a mixture than in a monoculture. According to the diversity-interaction models, species interaction patterns in mixtures were best described by interactions between functional groups, which implied niche partitioning. Functional group identity and diversity of resident plant communities were good indicators of biotic resistance to invasion by introduced A. altissima

  12. Two new tetracyclic triterpenes from the heartwood of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Pullela V; Rao, R Ranga; Rao, J Madhusudana

    2006-08-01

    Two new dammarane-type triterpenes, ailexcelone and ailexcelol, together with ocotillone, malabaricol, epoxymalabaricol, lupeol, and sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside were isolated from the heartwood of Ailanthus excelsa. The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of 1D- and 2D-NMR data. Ocotillone, malabaricol and epoxymalabaricol were isolated for the first time from A. excelsa. All of the isolates were tested for their antifungal activity.

  13. Long-term preservation of eri and ailanthus silkworms using frozen gonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumori, Hisayoshi; Lee, Jung; Fujii, Tsuguru; Kajiura, Zenta; Banno, Yutaka

    2017-08-01

    Cryopreservation of eri and ailanthus silkworms using frozen gonads was investigated. First, we evaluated the freeze tolerance of ovary and testis in the eri silkworm, which showed high tolerance. Mating between frozen ovary-transplanted females and frozen testis-transplanted males produced 163.0 eggs, yielding 105.7 larvae per moth. In a second experiment, we tested the use of the eri silkworm as a host insect for gonad transplantation from ailanthus silkworm donors. A high success ratio for laid and hatched eggs was demonstrated for ovary transplantation (97.8 and 51.3 eggs per moth, respectively). For testis transplantation, however, the average number of hatched larvae was low (12.0). Mating between host eri females and males in which both frozen ovary and testis of the ailanthus silkworm had been transplanted produced 6.4 fertilized eggs per host moth. Our success in using cross subspecies cryopreservation between these wild silkworms could lead to the alternative use of hosts between species in other insects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Produção de prolina e suscetibilidade ao glufosinato de amônio em plantas transgênicas de citrumelo Swingle Proline production by transgenic plants of Swingle citrumelo and susceptibility to glufosinate ammonium

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    Cristine Elizabeth Alvarenga Carneiro

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sensibilidade de plantas transgênicas de citrumelo Swingle com elevada produção de prolina, ao herbicida glufosinato de amônio. As plantas utilizadas apresentavam a inserção do gene mutante da enzima delta1-pirrolina-5-carboxilato sintetase (P5CS, responsável pela biossíntese de prolina. A expressão do gene p5cs em plantas transgênicas causou aumento nas quantidades de prolina em tecidos foliares, em até cinco vezes, quando comparadas às plantas-controle tratadas com 200 µM de glufosinato de amônio. As plantas transgênicas acumularam maior quantidade de NH4+ nas folhas, em relação às plantas não-transgênicas. Os danos causados pelo herbicida foram avaliados in vitro, utilizando-se discos foliares cultivados em meio MS com diferentes concentrações de glufosinato de amônio. Observou-se maior clorose em discos foliares das plantas transgênicas, o que comprova a maior suscetibilidade de plantas de citrumelo Swingle com alta produção de prolina ao herbicida.The objective of this work was to evaluate the susceptibility to glufosinate ammonium of transgenic plants of Swingle citrumelo with high proline production. The mutant gene of the enzyme delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS, the rate-limiting enzyme in proline biosynthesis, was inserted into Swingle citrumelo plants. The expression of the gene p5cs caused up to 5-fold increase on the proline content in leaf tissues of transgenic plants treated with 200 µM glufosinate ammonium, when compared with control plants. Leaves of transgenic plants accumulated higher amounts of NH4+ than the nontransgenic control. The herbicide toxicity was evaluated using leaf disks cultivated in MS medium, containing different concentrations of glufosinate ammonium. The severity of the chlorosis, observed in leaf disks of transgenic plants, confirmed the higher susceptibility of Swingle citrumelo plants, with high proline production, to this

  15. Sweeteners from plants--with emphasis on Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) and Siraitia grosvenorii (Swingle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Rahul S; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Rader, Jeanne I

    2013-05-01

    In addition to their widely recognized use as dietary supplement ingredients, plant-derived compounds are increasingly used as natural sweeteners. The search for nonnutritive sweeteners has been stimulated over the last 20-30 years by concern over demonstrated or suspected relationships between consumption of sucrose and high-fructose corn syrups and a variety of health-related conditions. In the USA, there is increased use of plant extracts known to contain highly sweet terpenoids. Purified extracts of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) containing the diterpene glycosides stevioside and rebaudioside A are popular as sweeteners and are also used as dietary supplements, and soft drinks and nutritional and energy shakes incorporating extracts of Siraitia grosvenorii (Swingle) fruits containing sweet triterpene glycosides such as mogroside V are also on the market. Here, we review recent studies on these two important sources of noncaloric natural sweeteners, including analytical methods used to identify and quantify specific constituents and structural features relating to their sweetness. We also review the generally recognized as safe status of specific components and their status with respect to review by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

  16. Fatty acid composition as a tool for screening alternative feedstocks for production of biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acid (FA) composition was used as a screening tool for the selection of feedstocks high in monounsaturated content for evaluation as biodiesel. The feedstocks were ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima), anise (Pimpinella anisum), arugula (Eruca vesicaria), camelina (Camelina sativa), coriander (Cori...

  17. Fatty acid profile as a basis for screening feedstocks for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acid (FA) profile was used as a screening tool for the selection of feedstocks high in monounsaturated content for evaluation as biodiesel. The feedstocks were ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima), anise (Pimpinella anisum), arugula (Eruca vesicaria), camelina (Camelina sativa), coriander (Coriandr...

  18. Bronchodilator activity of aqueous extract of stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Bhujbal, S S; Deoda, R S; Mudgade, S C

    2010-03-01

    Biologically active compounds from natural sources are of interest as possible new drugs for infectious diseases. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. has been used in Indian system of medicine in the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, cold, colic pain, etc. Stem bark of A. excelsa Roxb. has been used as a decoction in traditional claims. So, our traditional claims enforced us to evaluate its bronchodilator activity. We have evaluated its bronchodilator activity in milk-induced leukocytosis and eosinophilia, clonidine-induced mast cell degranulation, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung histopathology models. The aqueous extract of stem bark in doses of 100, 200, 400 mg/kg showed significant activity.

  19. The antineoplastic quassinoids of Simaba cuspidata spruce and Ailanthus grandis Prain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonsky, J; Varon, Z; Moretti, C; Pettit, G R; Herald, C L; Rideout, J A; Saha, S B; Khastgir, H N

    1980-01-01

    The South American Simaba cuspidata Spruce and North Indian Ailanthus grandis Prain were investigated as sources of potentially useful antineoplastic agents. Both of these Simaroubaceae plant species were found to produce 6 alpha-tigloyloxychaparrinone (4a) and the new quassinoid 6 alpha-tigloyloxychaparrin (3b). The latter structure was determined by interpretation of spectral data and oxidation to 6 alpha-tigloyloxychaparrinone (4a). While both glycol 3b and alpha-ketol 4a were found to significantly inhibit growth of the murine P388 lymphocytic leukemia cell line, only the alpha-ketol (4a) inhibited growth of the corresponding in vivo system.

  20. Caracterização dos frutos e germinação de sementes dos porta-enxertos trifoliata Flying Dragon e citrumelo Swingle Characterization of fruits and seeds germination of rootstock trifoliata Flying Fragon and citrumelo Swingle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Almendagna Rodrigues

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se realizar a caracterização fitotécnica dos frutos e avaliar o efeito da remoção do tegumento da semente e do uso do GA3 e do bioestimulante (Stimulate® sobre a germinação de sementes dos porta-enxertos de citros Flying Dragon e citrumelo Swingle. A caracterização fitotécnica compreendeu a massa do fruto, o diâmetro transversal e longitudinal e a espessura da "casca" e a contagem de sementes viáveis e inviáveis por fruto. Realizou-se um experimento para cada porta-enxerto, em casa de vegetação sob nebulização intermitente, e as avaliações foram a cada 3 dias, após o início do processo germinativo, verificando-se porcentagem de germinação e índice de velocidade de germinação. A utilização do GA3 e a retirada do tegumento em sementes do porta-enxerto Flying Dragon aumentam a porcentagem de germinação e o índice de velocidade de germinação, e para o porta-enxerto citrumelo Swingle, a retirada do tegumento das sementes aumenta a porcentagem de germinação e o índice de velocidade de germinação.The objective was phytotechnical characterization of fruits, assess the effect of removing the husk of the seed, the influence of GA3 and growth promoter (Stimulate® on the germination of seeds of rootstock Flying Dragon and citrumelo Swingle. The phytotechnical characterization included the weight of the fruit, transverse and longitudinal diameter and thickness of the "peel" and the counting of viable and unviable seeds per fruit. There was an experiment for each rootstock in green house under intermitent mist and the evaluations were every 3 days after the beginning of the germination process, there is percentage of germination and germination speed. The use of GA3 and removal of seed husk of the rootstock Flying Dragon increase the germination percentage and germination speed, and the rootstock citrumelo Swingle removal of the husk of seeds increase the germination percentage and the germination speed.

  1. Production of an allelopathic polyacetylene in hairy root cultures of goldenrod (Solidago altissima L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoguchi, Masahiko; Ogawa, Satoshi; Furukawa, Sanae; Kondo, Hirokiyo

    2003-04-01

    Hairy roots of goldenrod (Solidago altissima L.) were induced by infecting axenic plants with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4. Growth and allelopathic polyacetylene (cis-dehydromatricaria ester, cis-DME) production of two independent hairy root clones were examined in several culture media and light regimes. cis-DME contents in hairy roots were at the same level as those in normal roots. cis-DME production in root cultures was several-fold lower than that of native plants and greatly repressed by light.

  2. Genetic Diversity Assessment of Acid Lime (Citrus Aurantifolia Swingle Landraces of Eastern Nepal Using RAPD Markers

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    NN Munankarmi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle is an important commercial fruit crop, cultivated from terai to high hill landscapes of Nepal. However, production and productivity is very low due to various reasons including infestations by various diseases and pests, lack of diseases and pests resistant and high yielding varieties. In this context, determination of genetic variation at molecular level is fundamental to citrus breeders for the development of elite cultivars with desirable traits. In the present study, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD marker technique has been employed to assess genetic diversity in 60 acid lime landraces representing different agro-ecological zones of eastern Nepal. Nine selected arbitrary primers generated 79 RAPD fragments of which 75 were polymorphic (94.94%. Phenogram was constructed by NTSYSPC ver. 2.21i using UPGMA cluster analysis based on Jaccard’s similarity coefficient to deduce overall genetic diversity and relationships of the acidlime genotypes under study. Sixty acid lime landraces formed seven clusters and similarity value ranged from 38% to 98% with an average of 72%. Genetic variation at different agro-ecological zones was assessed using Popgene ver. 1.32 and found 47% to 69.6% polymorphism. Shannon’s index and Nei’s gene diversity showed highest level of acid lime diversity in Terai zone (PPB, 69.62%; H, 0.213; I, 0.325 followed by mid-hill zone (PPB, 67.09%; H, 0.208; I, 0.317. The results obtained will be useful to citrus breeders for elite cultivar development. The RAPD-PCR technique is found to be the rapid and effective tool for genetic diversity assessment in acid lime landraces of Nepal.

  3. Antennal sensilla of Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis (Olivier) and Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Harold) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qian-Qian; Liu, Zhen-Kai; Chen, Chong; Wen, Junbao

    2013-09-01

    Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and E. brandti (Harold) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are the two most important pests of tree-of-heaven, Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle and its variety Ailanthus altissima var. Qiantouchun in China. They are also considered potential biological control agents for tree-of-heaven in North America. In this study, the external morphologies and antennal sensilla of both species were examined using scanning electron microscopy to better understand their host-finding mechanisms. Eleven morphological sensilla types were recorded, that is, Böhm bristles, six types of sensilla chaetica (Sch. 1-6), two types of sensilla basiconica (Sb. 1-2), and two types of sensilla trichodea (St. 1-2). Sch. 5 were absent from the antennae of E. chinensis, while Sch. 2 were absent from the antennae of E. brandti. Abundant cuticular pores were present on the antennae of both species. Three types of sensilla on the antennae of E. chinensis that were not found in a previous study, and ten different types of sensilla on the antennae of E. brandti were identified for the first time. The possible functions of the sensilla types are discussed based on a comparison with previous studies. Four types of sensilla (Sb. 1, Sb. 2, St. 2, and Sch. 6) on the antennae of both species indicate chemoreception may play a significant role in host location. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Estrogenic and serotonergic butenolides from the leaves of Piper hispidum Swingle (Piperaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Joanna L; Chen, Yegao; Zhang, Hongjie; Huang, Yue; Krunic, Alecjev; Orjala, Jimmy; Veliz, Mario; Soni, Kapil K.; Soejarto, Djaja Doel; Caceres, Armando; Perez, Alice; Mahady, Gail B

    2010-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Our previous work has demonstrated that several plants in the Piperaceae family are commonly used by the Q’eqchi Maya of Livingston, Guatemala to treat amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and pain. Extracts of Piper hispidum Swingle (Piperaceae), bound to the estrogen (ER) and serotonin (5-HT7) receptors. Aim of the study To investigate the estrogenic and serotonergic activities of P. hispidum extracts in functionalized assays, identify the active chemical constituents in the leaf extract, and test these compounds as agonists or antagonists of ER and 5-HT7. Materials and methods The effects of the P. hispidum leaf extracts were investigated in estrogen reporter gene and endogenous gene assays in MCF-7 cells to determine if the extracts acted as an estrogen agonist or antagonist. In addition, the active compounds were isolated using ER- and 5-HT7 receptor bioassay-guided fractionation. The structures of the purified compounds were identified using high-resolution LC-MS and NMR spectroscopic methods. The ER- and 5-HT7-agonist effects of the purified chemical constituents were tested in a 2ERE-reporter gene assay in MCF-7 cells and in serotonin binding and functionalized assays. Results Three butenolides including one new compound (1) were isolated from the leaves of P. hispidum, and their structures were determined. Compound 1 bound to the serotonin receptor 5-HT7 with IC50 values of 16.1 and 8.3 μM, respectively, and using GTP shift assays, compound 1 was found to be a partial agonist of the 5-HT7 receptor. The P. hispidum leaf extracts, as well as compounds 2 and 3 enhanced the expression of estrogen responsive reporter and endogenous genes in MCF-7 cells, demonstrating estrogen agonist effects. Conclusions Extracts of P. hispidum act as agonists of the ER and 5-HT7 receptors. Compound 1, a new natural product, identified as 9, 10-methylenedioxy-5,6-Z-fadyenolide, was isolated as the 5-HT7 agonist. Compounds 2 and 3 are reported for the

  5. Initial horticultural performance of nine ‘Persian’ lime selections grafted onto Swingle citrumelo

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    Magno Guimarães Santos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT ‘Persian’ lime (PL [Citrus latifolia (Yu. Tanaka Tanaka] is an important species both for domestic fresh fruit consumption in Brazil as well as the export market, since the country is one of the largest producers in the world despite the fact that, in commercial plantations, it is still not uncommon to find trees with low productivity and high plant vigor of unknown origin. Selections of Persian lime ‘CNPMF–2000’, ‘CNPMF–2001’, ‘CNPMF–01’, ‘CNPMF–02’, ‘IAC–5’, ‘IAC–5.1’, ‘Bearss’, ‘Persian–58’, and ‘5059’, were therefore grafted onto Swingle citrumelo [C. paradisi Macfad. cv. Duncan × Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.] rootstocks and evaluated in Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil in a field experiment conducted in a completely randomized block design with five replications and two trees per plot. The biometric attributes (canopy height, diameter and volume, yield parameters (yield during the off-season harvest period, yield per plant, production efficiency, and fruit quality traits, were evaluated. The ‘CNPMF–2001’, ‘CNPMF–01’, ‘CNPMF–02’, ‘IAC–5’, and ‘Bearss’ selections had 5-11 % shorter trees than the other cultivars. ‘CNPMF–01’, ‘CNPMF–02’, ‘Persian–58’, and ‘5059’ presented higher yield efficiency values, between 3.1-3.4 kg m−3, and higher yield levels during the off-season harvest periods. The ‘Bearss’, ‘Persian–58’, ‘CNPMF–2000’, ‘IAC–5.1’ and ‘5059’ selections had more acid fruits and the latter three, smaller fruits. Based on their horticultural performance up to eight years of age, ‘CNPMF–01’, ‘CNPMF–02’, ‘Persian–58’ and ‘5059’ selections were the most promising varieties of Persian lime.

  6. Inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) by flavonoids isolated from Ailanthus excelsa (Roxb) (Simaroubaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Said, Ataa; Tundis, Rosa; Rashed, Khaled; Statti, Giancarlo Antonio; Hufner, Antje; Menichini, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    In our screening program for antihypertensive properties of plants, the leaves of Ailanthus excelsa (Roxb), a plant used in Egyptian traditional medicine, were analysed. Chromatographic separation of A. excelsa MeOH extract yielded six flavonoids for the first time from this species, namely apigenin, luteolin, kaempferol-3-O-alpha-arabinopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-beta-galactopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-alpha-arabinopyranoside and luteolin-7-O-beta-glucopyranoside. The in vitro hypotensive activities of the MeOH extract and the isolated compounds were elucidated. All the flavonoids tested exhibited ACE inhibitory activity, in particular the most active compound was kaempferol-3-O-beta-galactopyranoside with an IC(50) value of 260 microm.

  7. Ailanthusins A-G and nor-lupane triterpenoids from Ailanthus triphysa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongnest, Sanit; Boonsombat, Jutatip; Prawat, Hunsa; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Somsak

    2017-02-01

    Bioactivity-guided chemical investigation of the CH2Cl2 and CH2Cl2MeOH extracts of the stem and stem bark material of Ailanthus tryphysa (Simaroubaceae) led to the isolation of five cycloapotirucallanes, ailanthusins A-E, two malabaricanes, ailanthusins F-G, and one nor-lupane triterpenoid, 29-nor-lup-1-ene-3,20-dione along with twenty known compounds. Their structures were elucidated through the application of extensive spectroscopic methods, and the structure of ailanthusin A was further confirmed by single crystal X-ray analysis. Several malabaricane derivatives were prepared from malabaricol and, together with some of the isolates, were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against human cancer and normal cell lines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An Old Remedy for a New Problem? Identification of Ooencyrtus kuvanae (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an Egg Parasitoid of Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Houping; Mottern, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Spotted Lanternfly, Lycorma delicatula (White) is a recently introduced pest of Tree-of-Heaven, Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle in North America. Natural enemy surveys for this pest in Pennsylvania in 2016 recovered an encyrtid egg parasitoid from both field collections and laboratory rearing of field-collected L. delicatula egg masses. Both molecular and morphological data confirm that the egg parasitoids are Ooencyrtus kuvanae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Ooencyrtus kuvanae (Howard) is primarily an egg parasitoid of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), and was introduced to North America in 1908 for gypsy moth biological control. Although O. kuvanae is known to attack multiple host species, to our knowledge, this is the first report of O. kuvanae as a primary parasitoid of a non-lepidopteran host. Potential of O. kuvanae in the biological control of L. delicatula in North America and research needs are discussed. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  9. Antiasthmatic and antiallergic potential of methanolic extract of leaves of Ailanthus excelsa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was antiasthmatic potential of methanolic extract of leaves of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb., Simaroubaceae. Traditionally or in Indian system of medicine, A. excelsa is used in the treatment of asthma, cough, colic pain, cancer, diabetes and also used as antispasmodic, antifertility, bronchodilator. Stem bark of A. excelsa already reported for its potential against asthma. The pollens of Ailanthus excelsa reported allergic in nature and the time of collection of leaves were important in this study, generally the flowering stage of plant was avoided for the collection due to maximum chance of pollens at that time. Methanolic extract of leaves of A. excelsa was evaluated using in vitro goat tracheal chain preparation model and in vivo- Milk induced leucocytosis, eosinophilia, Clonidine induced catalepsy in mice model while Passive paw anaphylaxis and Clonidine induced mast cell degranulation in rat model. The extract showed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, quassonoids and test was also positive for alkaloids and steroids. The extract also showed the presence of quercetin which is flavonoid and detected on the preparative TLC plate with the help of standard quercetin. Dose response studies of methanolic extract of leaves of A. excelsa Roxb. were conducted at 100 µg mL-1 in vitro and 100, 200, 400 mg kg-1 p.o. in vivo models. The treatment with methanolic extract of A. excelsa at different dose level showed the significant (*p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001 antiasthmatic activity. Inhibition or decrease the release of inflammatory mediators potentiates the antiasthmatic as well as antiallergic activity of methanolic extract of leaves of A. excelsa.

  10. Antifertility activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Ailanthus excelsa (Roxb): an ethnomedicines used by tribals of Nilgiris region in Tamilnadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, V; Suresh, B; Sathishkumar, M N; Elango, K; Srinivasan, R

    2007-05-30

    The practice of traditional medicine for the control of fertility in Nilgris is based on the use of plant medicine for many years. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb (Simaroubaceae) (HEA) has been studied in rats to explore its antifertility activity. A strong antiimplantation (72%) and abortifacient activity (56%) was observed at the tested dose levels (200 and 400mg/kg, p.o.). The extract shows further more, significant (P<0.05) increase in uterine weight in immature ovariectomised rats. Simultaneous administration of extract with ethinyl estradiol cause significant antiestrogenic activity. All these observations suggest that hydroalcoholic extract of Ailanthus excelsa has antifertility effect.

  11. Estudio Preliminar de las Propiedades de la Semilla de Limón Mexicano (Citrus aurantifolia swingle para su Posible Aprovechamiento Preliminary Study of the Properties of Mexican Lime Seed (Citrus aurantifolia swingle for its Possible Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Arriola-Guevara

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se obtuvieron propiedades clave de la semilla de limón mexicano (Citrus aurantifolia swingle para su posible aprovechamiento en la industria de alimentos. Se consideraron propiedades físicas, composición, toxicidad en roedores (prueba de dosis letal media y toxicidad crónica y actividad germicida (prueba de halos de inhibición y efectividad germicida. La semilla contiene 21% de proteínas, 39% de aceite vegetal y 29% de fibra, especialmente lignina en cantidad considerable, lo que hace viable su uso como materia prima para nutracéuticos o alimentos funcionales. La toxicidad de la semilla resultó nula por lo que es apta para el consumo humano. Se encontró cierta efectividad germicida para Candida albicans 85.77% (población Inicial = 0.304*10(8 UFC/ml y para Escherichia coli 91.447% (población Inicial = 190*10(8 UFC/ml, por lo que puede ser usada como ingrediente en germicidas.Key properties of seed of Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia swingle were studied for potential uses by the food industry. Characteristics considered included physical properties, composition, toxicity to rodents (average lethal dose and chronic toxicity, as well as germicidal activity (inhibition rings and germicidal effectiveness. The seed contained 21% protein, 39% vegetable oil and 29% fiber, particularly lignin. The seed could potentially be used as a basic component for nutritional supplements or functional food products. The toxicity was nil, and thus seed derivatives were safe for human consumption. Some germicidal effectiveness was found against Candida albicans, 85.77% (starting population = 0.304*10(8 UFC/ml, and against Escherichia coli, 91.447% (starting population = 190*10(8 UFC/ml, suggesting seed extracts could be used as an ingredient in germicidal products.

  12. Biocontrol Potential of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes against Ailanthus Defoliator, Eligma narcissus (Cram.

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    N.S. Bai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Eligma narcissus is recognised as a serious pest of Ailanthus in Southern India and defoliation of Ailanthus by this pest causes apparent loss of growth increment. The common control methods for this pest is mostly insecticides and the concern about the environmental effects of chemical insecticides, has emphasised the use of environmentally more benign microbial agents. Among entomopathogens, Fungi are the most explored and often act as important natural control agents that limit insect populations. On this point of view, Bio efficacy of 25 isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae was assessed to establish their virulence against E. narcissus in the laboratory and effective formulations of two potent isolates were subsequently evaluated in the field. MIS7 and MIS13 were more effective among the different isolates evaluated against E. narcissus. The median lethal concentration (LC50 of all the isolates ranged from 6.46×105 conidia/ml to 628.92×105 conidia/ml. Median lethal concentration of (LT50 of 4.9 and 5.4 days were recorded for MIS7 and MIS13 respectively at a concentration of 1× 107 conidia/ml. Virulence tests of the isolates MIS7 and MIS13 and 0.5% Pongamia pinnata seed oil, individually and in different combinations, indicated improved efficacy of the isolates when used in combination and also when combined with seed oil. Formulations composed of “MIS7+MIS13+0.5% Pongamia pinnata seed oil” and “MIS7+MIS13” proved to be superior against E. narcissus, causing 76.30% and 93.93% mortality, respectively. Field evaluation of the formulation MIS7+MIS13+0.5% Pongamia pinnata seed oil recorded 5.79 larvae per plant resulting in 60.53% reduction of infestation while the formulation, MIS7+MIS13 showed 53.76% reduction of infestation with 6.56 larvae per plant. The observations from this study suggest the prospects of using the entomopathogenic fungus, M. anisopliae for the control of E. narcissus.

  13. Antihistaminic activity of aqueous extract of stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Bhat, Z A; Singh, P; Bhujbal, S S; Deoda, R S

    2011-07-01

    Biologically active compounds from natural sources are of interest as possible new drugs for different diseases. Over many centuries humans have been mining the bounties of nature for discovering natural products that have been used for the treatment of all human diseases. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. (Simaroubaceae) is widely used in the Indian system of medicine as an antiasthmatic, antispasmodic, bronchodilator, anticolic pain, anticancer, antidiabetic etc. The plant was also reported for its antiasthmatic, bronchodilatory, antiallegic and many more such activities. To evaluate the antihistaminic activity of aqueous extract of stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. We have studied the effect of aqueous extract of stem barks of A. excelsa Roxb. at a doses 100 μg/mL in the isolated goat tracheal chain preparation in vitro and 100, 200, 400 mg/kg doses orally in passive paw anaphylaxis in rat, clonidine-induced catalepsy in mice models in vivo for its antihistaminic activity. Aqueous extract of stem barks of A. excelsa Roxb. significantly (***P<0.001) inhibits the percentage contraction at concentration of 100 μg/mL in goat tracheal chain preparation. A. excelsa Roxb. extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg oral) and dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) also significantly reduced (**P<0.01) the paw volume at fourth hour and the percentage inhibition was found to be 13.98%, 28.49%, 42.47% and 46.77% respectively. The aqueous extract of stem barks of A. excelsa Roxb. (100, 200, 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and chlorpheniramine maleate (10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly inhibited (*P<0.05, **P< 0.01) clonidine-induced catalepsy in mice at 150 min after the administration of clonidine. The aqueous extract of stem bark of A. excelsa Roxb. possess significant antihistaminic activity (H1-antagonist) and can be attributed to bronchodilating, anti-inflammatory, adaptogenic activity etc. Hence detailed study needs to be conducted to evaluate the phytoconstituent responsible for the above mentioned results

  14. In vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of flavonoids from Ailanthus excelsa (Roxb.) (Simaroubaceae) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Ataa; Tundis, Rosa; Hawas, Usama W; El-Kousy, Salah M; Rashed, Khaled; Menichini, Federica; Bonesi, Marco; Huefner, Antje; Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Menichinib, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the chemical composition, and the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of Ailanthus excelsa, a plant used in Egyptian traditional medicine. Chromatographic separation of a methanol extract of A. excelsa leaves yielded four flavones, namely apigenin (1), apigenin 7-O-beta-glucoside (2), luteolin (3), and luteolin 7-O-beta-glucoside (4), and seven flavonols, namely kaempferol (5), kaempferol 3-O-alpha-arabinoside (6), kaempferol 3-O-beta-galactoside (7), quercetin (8), quercetin 3-O-alpha-arabinoside (9), quercetin 3-O-beta-galactoside (10), and quercetin 3-O-rutinoside (11). The A. excelsa extract tested in different in vitro systems (DPPH and FRAP assays) showed significant antioxidant activity. The potential antiproliferative activity of the A. excelsa extract and isolated flavonoids against five human cancer cell lines such as ACHN, COR-L23, A375, C32, and A549 was investigated in vitro by the SRB assay in comparison with one normal cell line, 142BR. The extract exhibited the highest inhibitory activity against C32 cells with an IC50 value of 36.5 microg ml(-1). Interesting activity against COR-L23 was found with 10 (IC50 value of 3.2 microg ml(-1)). Compounds 1 and 3 inhibited cell growth in both amelanotic melanoma and malignant melanoma cells.

  15. Insulin secretion stimulating effects of mogroside V and fruit extract of luo han kuo (Siraitia grosvenori Swingle) fruit extract..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Zheng, Yan; Ebersole, Jeff; Huang, Chi-fu

    2009-11-01

    Luo han kuo fruit (Siraitia grosvenori Swingle), a fruit native to China, has been used as a natural sweetening agent for centuries and has been reported to be beneficial for diabetic population. However, limited research has been conducted to elucidate the relationship between the sweetening action and biological parameters that may be related to potential health benefits of LHK fruit (Luo Han Kuo fruit). The present study examined the effect of LHK fruit and its chemical components on insulin secretion using an in vitro cell model system. Mogroside V is the most abundant and the sweetest chemical component among the mogrosides in LHK fruit. The experimental data demonstrated that the crude LHK extract stimulated the secretion of insulin in pancreatic beta cells; furthermore, pure mogroside V isolated from LHK fruit also exhibited a significant activity in stimulating insulin secretion by the beta cells, which could partially be responsible for the insulin secretion activity of LHK fruit and fruit extract. The current study supports that LHK fruit/extract has the potential to be natural sweetener with a low glycemic index, and that mogroside V, possible other related mogrosides, can provide a positive health impact on stimulating insulin secretion.

  16. Transformação genética de citrumelo Swingle (Citrus paradisi Macf. × Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.) com o gene marcador fosfomanose isomerase (pmi) - DOI: 10.4025/actasciagron.v27i3.1473

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, José Geraldo Zaparoli; UEL; Faria, Ricardo Tadeu de; UEL; Vieira, Luiz Gonzaga Esteves; IAPAR; Molinari, Hugo Bruno Correa; IAPAR

    2008-01-01

    Um protocolo de transformação usando manose como agente seletivo foi avaliado para transformação genética do porta-enxerto citrumelo Swingle. Dois experimentos independentes foram conduzidos visando definir a curva de resposta para determinar a menor concentração de manose capaz de inibir a multiplicação de brotos. Baseando-se nesses resultados, 5,0 mM de manose foi utilizado para a transformação genética de citrumelo Swingle. Plantas transgênicas foram obtidas via Agrobacterium tumefaciens, ...

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Ailanthus silkmoth, Samia cynthia cynthia (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Yang-Hu; Chen, Mo; Yao, Rui; Li, Yu-Ping; Liu, Teng; Jin, Xin; Wang, Li-peng; Su, Jun-Fang; Li, Xi-Sheng; Liu, Yan-Qun

    2013-09-10

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the Ailanthus silkmoth, Samia cynthia cynthia (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) was determined. The circular genome is 15,345 bp long, and presents a typical gene organization and order for sequenced mitogenomes of Bombycidea species. The nucleotide composition of the genome is highly A+T biased, accounting for 79.86%. The AT skew of the genome is slightly negative, indicating the occurrence of more Ts than As, as found in other Saturniidae species. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) are initiated by ATN codons, except for COI and COII, which are tentatively designated by CGA and GTG, respectively, as observed in other insects. Four of 13 PCGs, including COI, COII, ATP6, and ND3, harbor the incomplete termination codons, T or TA. With an exception for tRNASer(AGN), all other tRNAs can form a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA. The 359 bp A+T-rich region of S. c. cynthia contains non-repetitive sequences, but harbors several features common to the Bombycidea insects, including the motif ATAGA followed by a poly-T stretch of 19 bp, a microsatellite-like (AT)7 element preceded by the ATTTA motif, and a poly-A element upstream tRNAMet. The phylogenetic analyses support the morphology-based current hypothesis that Bombycidae and Saturniidae are monophyletic. Our result confirms that Saturniini and Attacini form a reciprocal monophyletic group within Saturniidae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Produção de prolina e suscetibilidade ao glufosinato de amônio em plantas transgênicas de citrumelo Swingle.

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro,Cristine Elizabeth Alvarenga; Molinari, Hugo Bruno Correa; Andrade,Giselly Aparecida; Pereira,Luiz Filipe Protasio; VIEIRA,LUIZ GONZAGA ESTEVES

    2011-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sensibilidade de plantas transgênicas de citrumelo Swingle com elevada produção de prolina, ao herbicida glufosinato de amônio. As plantas utilizadas apresentavam a inserção do gene mutante da enzima delta1-pirrolina-5-carboxilato sintetase (P5CS), responsável pela biossíntese de prolina. A expressão do gene p5cs em plantas transgênicas causou aumento nas quantidades de prolina em tecidos foliares, em até cinco vezes, quando comparadas às plantas-contro...

  19. A Quantitative Method for the Measurement of Three Benzofuran Ketones in Rayless Goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) and White Snakeroot (Ageratine altissima) by HPLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    White snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) and rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) can cause “trembles” and “milk sickness” in livestock and humans, respectively. Tremetol, a complex mixture of sterols and derivatives of methyl ketone benzofuran has been extracted from white snakeroot and rayless gol...

  20. Caracterização dos frutos e germinação de sementes dos porta-enxertos trifoliata Flying Dragon e citrumelo Swingle

    OpenAIRE

    Filipe Almendagna Rodrigues; Gustavo de Faria Freitas; Rodrigo Amato Moreira; Moacir Pasqual

    2010-01-01

    Objetivou-se realizar a caracterização fitotécnica dos frutos e avaliar o efeito da remoção do tegumento da semente e do uso do GA3 e do bioestimulante (Stimulate®) sobre a germinação de sementes dos porta-enxertos de citros Flying Dragon e citrumelo Swingle. A caracterização fitotécnica compreendeu a massa do fruto, o diâmetro transversal e longitudinal e a espessura da "casca" e a contagem de sementes viáveis e inviáveis por fruto. Realizou-se um experimento para cada porta-enxerto, em casa...

  1. Inhibition of Advanced Glycation End-Product Formation and Antioxidant Activity by Extracts and Polyphenols from Scutellaria alpina L. and S. altissima L.

    OpenAIRE

    Izabela Grzegorczyk-Karolak; Krzysztof Gołąb; Jakub Gburek; Halina Wysokińska; Adam Matkowski

    2016-01-01

    Methanolic extracts from the aerial parts and roots of two Scutellaria species, S. alpina and S. altissima, and five polyphenols from these plants demonstrated a significant ability to inhibit the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) in vitro. S. alpina, which is richer in polyphenolic compounds, had strong antiglycation properties. These extracts demonstrated also high activity in the FRAP (ferric-reducing antioxidant power), antiradical (DPPH) and lipid peroxidation inhibition...

  2. Caracterização dos frutos e germinação de sementes dos porta-enxertos trifoliata Flying Dragon e citrumelo Swingle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Almendagna Rodrigues

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se realizar a caracterização fitotécnica dos frutos e avaliar o efeito da remoção do tegumento da semente e do uso do GA3 e do bioestimulante (Stimulate® sobre a germinação de sementes dos porta-enxertos de citros Flying Dragon e citrumelo Swingle. A caracterização fitotécnica compreendeu a massa do fruto, o diâmetro transversal e longitudinal e a espessura da "casca" e a contagem de sementes viáveis e inviáveis por fruto. Realizou-se um experimento para cada porta-enxerto, em casa de vegetação sob nebulização intermitente, e as avaliações foram a cada 3 dias, após o início do processo germinativo, verificando-se porcentagem de germinação e índice de velocidade de germinação. A utilização do GA3 e a retirada do tegumento em sementes do porta-enxerto Flying Dragon aumentam a porcentagem de germinação e o índice de velocidade de germinação, e para o porta-enxerto citrumelo Swingle, a retirada do tegumento das sementes aumenta a porcentagem de germinação e o índice de velocidade de germinação.

  3. Explosive Ordnance Disposal Proficiency Range and Multi-Purpose Contingency Training Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    umbellata), Russian olive ( Elaeagnus angustifolia ), beggar-ticks (Bidens polylepis), tall fescue (Festuca elatior), purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria...wineberry (Rubus phoenicolasius), tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima), oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus), autumn olive ( Elaeagnus

  4. Environmental Assessment for the Upgrade of the Andrews Air Force Base Airfield Security System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-01

    Russian olive ( Elaeagnus angustifolia ), beggar-ticks (Bidens polylepis), tall fescue (Festuca elatior), purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria...wineberry (Rubus phoenicolasius), tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima), oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus), autumn olive ( Elaeagnus umbellata

  5. Environmental Assessment for the National Capital Region Readiness Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    of-heaven 17 (Ailanthus altissima), oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus), autumn olive ( Elaeagnus 18 umbellata), Russian olive ( Elaeagnus ... angustifolia ), beggar-ticks (Bidens polylepis), tall fescue 19 (Festuca elatior), purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), Korean lespedeza (Lespedeza

  6. 金橘脚腐病病原菌鉴定%Identification of the pathogen causing foot rot of Fortunella margarita (Lour.)Swingle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丽; 赵小龙; 吴礽超; 李红叶

    2011-01-01

    金橘[ Fortunella margarita( Lout.)Swingle]为芸香科( Rutaceae)柑橘亚科(Aurantioideae)金柑属(Fortunella)多年生常绿木本植物,原产于我国,全国各柑橘产区均有栽培.广西桂林阳朔地区盛产金橘,随着金橘树栽培面积的扩大,病害逐渐加重.其中,尤以金橘脚腐病最为突出.金橘脚腐病主要发生在近地面的根茎部,表现为皮层组织腐烂、流胶;轻者植株生长衰退、果小、产量降低、品质变劣,重者全株枯死,给当地果农造成巨大经济损失.脚腐病在世界各柑橘产区均有发生,一般认为引起柑橘脚腐的病原是疫霉属(Phytophthora spp.)真菌,在不同国家或地区,种类有所不同.%Foot rot of kumquat [Fortunella margarita (Lour. ) Swingle] is a big problem in Guilin, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, where kumquat is one of the main cash crops. The affected trees decline gradually and finally wilt as the lesion girding the trunk. The suspected pathogen isolates of Phytophthora citrophtho-ra, which identified by morphology, were always obtained from affected trunks. The pathogenicity of those isolates were confirmed by inoculating the representative isolate GLC15 on kumquat seedlings, shoots and branches . The identification was further confirmed by alignment the sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and translation elongation factor 1 alpha gene (TEF-lot) , amplified by PCR. The sequences were deposited in GenBank with accession numbers GU133068 (ITS) and HQ637486 (TEF-la), while the pathogen culture was deposited in Institute of Biotechnology, Zhejiang University.

  7. Influence of different levels of aluminum on the development of citrus rootstock swingle citrumelo (Citrus paradisi mcf. x Poncirus trifoliata raf. in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique dos Santos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at evaluating the influence of different levels of aluminum on the physiological parameters of the citrus rootstock Swingle Citrumelo in hydroponic solution. The experiment was carried out with a completely randomized design with three replications, subdivided in several lots. The levels of aluminum used were: 0, 7.5, 15, 22.5 and 30 mg L-1 in form of AlCl3.6H2O in nutrient solution. Following physiological parameters were evaluated: specific and relative foliar area, relative foliar mass, and the ratio of aerial part dry matter/root system dry matter. The results showed that aluminum did not influence the parameters evaluated except the specific foliar area, which decreased starting at the 7.5 mg L-1 level.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência de diferentes níveis de alumínio nos parâmetros fisiológicos do porta-enxerto cítrico citrumeleiro Swingle em cultivo hidropônico. O experimento foi conduzido seguindo o delineamento estatístico inteiramente casualizado, com 3 repetições, em parcelas subdivididas. Os níveis de alumínio utilizados foram: 0, 7,5, 15, 22,5 e 30 mg L-1, na forma de AlCl3 6.H2O em solução nutritiva. Foram avaliados os parâmetros fisiológicos área foliar específica, razão de área foliar e massa foliar, relação matéria seca da parte aérea/matéria seca do sistema radicular. De acordo com os resultados obtidos nestas condições, conclui-se que os níveis de alumínio não influenciaram nos valores dos parâmetros acima discutidos, excetuando-se a AFE, havendo decréscimos destes valores a partir de 7,5 mg L-1 de alumínio.

  8. Tolerância à dessecação e influência do tegumento na germinação de sementes de citrumelo 'swingle' (Citrus paradisi MACF X Poncirus trifoliata (L RAF. Tolerance to desiccation and integument influence on the germination of swingle citrumelo (Citrus paradisi MACF X Poncirus trifoliata (L RAF. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Zucareli

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a tolerância à dessecação e a influência do tegumento na germinação de sementes de citrumelo 'Swingle'. As sementes foram extraídas manualmente e, em seguida, foi determinado o grau de umidade das sementes. Foi retirada uma amostra referente ao tratamento com o maior grau de umidade (48% a ser estudado, e as demais foram submetidas à secagem em estufa com circulação forçada de ar (32±2ºC, visando à obtenção dos outros tratamentos com diferentes graus de umidade. O teste de germinação foi instalado em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, num fatorial 6x2 (grau de umidade x presença ou ausência de tegumento, com quatro repetições de 25 sementes por parcela. Após a obtenção de cada tratamento as sementes foram tratadas com o fungicida Thiabendazole (0,4g.kg-1, semeadas em folhas de papel toalha umedecidas e confeccionados rolos que foram mantidos em câmara de germinação a 25ºC sob luz constante. As avaliações foram realizadas a cada sete dias até o 35º dia, sendo determinadas as porcentagens de germinação na primeira contagem, plântulas anormais, sementes mortas, sementes dormentes e germinação total. Também foram calculados o tempo médio e o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância, e as médias, comparadas pelo teste Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. As sementes toleraram a dessecação até baixos níveis de umidade (16%, e a retirada do tegumento favoreceu o processo germinativo em sementes de citrumelo 'Swingle'.The current work aimed to study the tolerance to desiccation and the integument influence on the germination of seeds of Swingle citrumelo. Seeds were manually extracted and their humidity degree was determined. A sample of the group showing the highest humidity degree (48% was separated to be studied and the remaining samples were subjected to desiccation in an oven with forced air

  9. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF Ailanthus excelsa ROXB IN MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION POST MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION: STUDY IN CHRONIC ISCHEMIC RAT MODEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Thia study evaluates the effects of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb methanolic extract (AER-ME) in rats induced with Myocardial Infarction (MI) followed by transplantation of MSCs. Rats were induced with MI by ligation technique of left coronary artery. The sham-operated the control and AER-ME treated group of rats received transplantation of PKH-26 and marked MSCs followed by normal saline and AER-ME treatment (200mg/kg/day of AER-ME extract) respectively for 30 days. Parameters such as cardiac function, inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis and differentiation of MSCs (angiogenesis) were evaluated. Histological studies of infracted myocardium reveled anti-inflammatory activity of AER-ME treatment. Oxidative stress parameters revealed decrease in levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx) activity significantly indicating antioxidant activity of the extract. There was a reduction in cell death rate of treated rats due to the decrease in apoptotic index with prolongation of MI when compared to both control and sham-operated groups. The expression of Fas protein was parallel to apoptotic index. The vascular density increased significantly in extract treated group. The treatment showed improved cardiac activity with decreased left ventricular end diastolic (LVEDP) and arterial pressure while the left ventricular end systolic pressure (LVEP) and dp/dtmax increased significantly when compared to both control and sham-operated groups respectively showing the protective effect of the extract as necessitated by the transplantation of MSCs. The study marked the protective outcomes of AER-ME treatment for MSCs in microenvironment of infracted myocardium by improving their viability and increasing differentiation into cardiomyocytes.

  10. Experimental Paper. The effect of different development stages on the quantity and quality of the essential oil of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm. Swingle in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esfahani Razieh Ebadati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Mexican lime tree with the scientific name of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm. Swingle have great economic value because of its essential oil with a unique flavour. Objective: The essential oils from the peel of C. aurantifolia were collected during three development periods. Methods: The essential oil was analyzed by capillary GC and GC-MS. Results: The essential oil yields (v/w% were 1.54%, 0.88% and 1.23%, respectively. The highest oil yield was obtained at stage I (1.54% v/w. The analysis of the essential oil indicated that limonene, β-pinene, geranial, neral and γ-terpinene were the main compounds of all samples. At the first stage, the highest percentages belonged to limonene (39.38%, geranial (14.32% and neral (11.01%. On the other hand, the highest percentages of β-pinene and γ-terpinene (24.25% and 8.92%, respectively were found at the final stage. Conclusion: Therefore, it is concluded that the harvest time has a considerable effect on the content and amount of lime fruit essential oil.

  11. Inhibitory effects of Momordica grosvenori Swingle extracts on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate-induced skin inflammation and tumor promotion in mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerawatanakorn, Monthana; Yang, Ji-Rui; Tsai, Mei-Ling; Lai, Ching-Shu; Ho, Chi-Tang; Pan, Min-Hsiung

    2014-02-01

    Our previous data showed that the Momordica grosvenori Swingle extract (MSE) exhibited the anti-inflammatory effect through markedly suppressed LPS-induced up-regulation of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and ODC (ornithine decarboxylase) gene expression in RAW 264.7 cells. Regarding the link between inflammation and carcinogenesis, we further investigated the bio-molecular mechanisms of both anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities in vivo using a TPA (12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate)-stimulated mouse skin model. Pretreatment with MSE in mouse skin has led to the reduction of TPA-induced nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) subunits as well as phosphorylation of IκBα and p65 subsequent reduction of IκBα degradation. In addition, the MSE inhibitory effect on upstream of NFκB was found to involve the transcriptional effects of MAPK signaling as indicated by strong suppression on TPA-induced activation of extracellular signal regulate kinase (ERK)1/2, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)1/2, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt. Moreover, MSE significantly inhibited 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-TPA-induced skin tumor formation in mice measured by the tumor multiplicity of papillomas at 20 weeks. The results suggested that MSE contained promising functional ingredients capable of preventing inflammation-associated tumorigenesis.

  12. Secretory Cavity Development and Its Relationship with the Accumulation of Essential Oil in Fruits of Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis (Noot.) Swingle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    She-Jian Liang; Hong Wu; Xuan Lun; Dong-Wen Lu

    2006-01-01

    The developmental types of secretory cavities in Citrus remain controversial. The relationship between secretory cavity development and the accumulation of essential oil in fruits of Citrus species is also unknown. In order to develop better insights into these problems, histological, histochemical, and cytochemical methods were used to investigate secretory cavity development and the accumulation of essential oil at different developmental stages of fruits of Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis (Noot.) Swingle.The results indicate that the secretory cavity of the variety seemed to originate from an epidermal cell and a subepidermal cell. These two cells underwent successive divisions, resulting in the formation of two parts: (i) a conical cap; and (ii) a globular gland. The formation of the lumen was schizolysigenous. Regular changes in the size of vacuoles and the accumulation of essential oil were revealed during the process of secretory cavity development. In addition, when fruits were a light yellow or golden color, the structure of secretory cavities was well developed and the content of essential oil in a single fruit reached a maximum. It would be most appropriate to collect the fruit as a medicinal material at this time.

  13. 罗汉果的药理作用和毒性研究进展%Research Advance of Pharmacological Effects and Toxicity of Siraitia grosvenorii(Swingle)C.Jeffrey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏; 李啸红

    2011-01-01

    Siraitia grosvenorii (Swingle) C. Jeffrey is a Chinese traditional drug as well as one of traditional exported commodities from China. It has become one of the most important economic crops in Guangxi. Siraitia grosvenorii (Swingle) C. Jeffrey has the following distinct characteristics: high sweetness, low calories, and not pathogenic of diabetes and caries. They have been listed by the National Ministry of Health and Chinese Medicine Administration as the first “List of Categories of Foods and Drags”. Moreover, they are widely used as ideal natural sweetening agents. As the prospect of application is good, there have been constant documentary reports of the pharmacological effects and toxicity of Siraitia grosvenorii (Swingle) C. Jeffreys over the recent years. The article summarizes the pharmacological effects and toxicity of corsvenor momordica fruits,and gives an outlook of the future research of its genetic toxicity on the basis of its dual characters as a medicine and also as a food.%罗汉果是中国传统中药,也是中国传统出口商品之一,已成为广西重要的经济作物.近年来有关罗汉果的各种产品不断增加,关于罗汉果药理作用和毒性研究的文献报道也逐渐增多.本文就罗汉果的药理作用和毒性研究情况作一概述,根据其作为药食两用品种的特点,就其系统开展罗汉果潜在遗传毒性研究的必要性进行了阐述.

  14. Comparative study on the antioxidant capacity and cholinesterase inhibitory activity of Citrus aurantifolia Swingle, C. aurantium L., and C. bergamia Risso and Poit. peel essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tundis, Rosa; Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Bonesi, Marco; Menichini, Federica; Mastellone, Vincenzo; Colica, Carmela; Menichini, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The interest in medicinal plant research and in the aroma-therapeutic effects of essential oils in humans has increased in recent years, especially for the treatment of pathologies of relevant social impact such as Alzheimer's disease. The present study was taken up to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity of the peel essential oils from three Citrus species, C. aurantifolia Swingle, C. aurantium L., and C. bergamia Risso & Poit. Essential oils were analyzed by GC and GC-MS and they contain mainly limonene, α-pinene, β-pinene, γ-terpinene, and linalyl acetate. C. aurantifolia oil showed the highest radical scavenging activity on ABTS assay (IC₅₀ value of 19.6 μg/mL), while C. bergamia exhibited a good antioxidant activity evaluated by the β-carotene bleaching test (IC₅₀ = 42.6 μg/mL after 60 min of incubation). C. aurantifolia inhibited more selectively AChE. Obtained data suggest a potential use of Citrus oils as a valuable new flavor with functional properties for food or nutraceutical products with particular relevance to supplements for the elderly. The demonstrated antioxidant activity and procholinesterase properties of Citrus essential oils suggested their use as a new potential source of natural antioxidant to added as extra-nutrient for using in food industries as a valuable new flavor with functional properties for food or nutraceutical products with particular relevance to supplements for the elderly. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. A green and facile approach for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Ailanthus excelsa leaves, evaluation of its antibacterial and anticancer efficacy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Vinmathi; S Justin Packia Jacob

    2015-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles possess a wide range of applications especially in the field of medicine and this has stimulated the need for synthesizing them. Conventionally, chemical methods are used, which are hazardous and energy consuming. Therefore an eco-friendly and facile means of synthesizing nanoparticles is needed to replace the chemical method of synthesis. In the present study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized in a cost-effective and environment-friendlymanner using aqueous leaf extract of Ailanthus excelsa—a medicinal tree used in the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, cold, abdominal pain, etc. The leaf extract helped in the bioreduction of silver ions yielding silver nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticles thus biosynthesized were characterized using UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles were also found to exhibit excellent antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and anticancer effect against MCF-7 cell line.

  16. A novel triterpenoid isolated from the root bark of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb (Tree of Heaven), AECHL-1 as a potential anti-cancer agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavhale, Manish S; Kumar, Santosh; Mishra, Shri Hari; Sitasawad, Sandhya L

    2009-01-01

    We report here the isolation and characterization of a new compound Ailanthus excelsa chloroform extract-1 (AECHL-1) (C(29)H(36)O(10); molecular weight 543.8) from the root bark of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. The compound possesses anti-cancer activity against a variety of cancer cell lines of different origin. AECHL-1 treatment for 12 to 48 hr inhibited cell proliferation and induced death in B16F10, MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and PC3 cells with minimum growth inhibition in normal HEK 293. The antitumor effect of AECHL-1 was comparable with that of the conventional antitumor drugs paclitaxel and cisplatin. AECHL-1-induced growth inhibition was associated with S/G(2)-M arrests in MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and PC3 cells and a G(1) arrest in B16F10 cells. We observed microtubule disruption in MCF-7 cells treated with AECHL-1 in vitro. Compared with control, subcutaneous injection of AECHL-1 to the sites of tumor of mouse melanoma B16F10 implanted in C57BL/6 mice and human breast cancer MCF-7 cells in athymic nude mice resulted in significant decrease in tumor volume. In B16F10 tumors, AECHL-1 at 50 microg/mouse/day dose for 15 days resulted in increased expression of tumor suppressor proteins P53/p21, reduction in the expression of the oncogene c-Myc, and downregulation of cyclin D1 and cdk4. Additionally, AECHL-1 treatment resulted in the phosphorylation of p53 at serine 15 in B16F10 tumors, which seems to exhibit p53-dependent growth inhibitory responses. The present data demonstrate the activity of a triterpenoid AECHL-1 which possess a broad spectrum of activity against cancer cells. We propose here that AECHL-1 is a futuristic anti-cancer drug whose therapeutic potential needs to be widely explored for chemotherapy against cancer.

  17. Allelopathic Effects of Invasive Woody Plant Species in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CSISZÁR, Ágnes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathy may play an important role in the invasion success of adventive plant species.The aim of this study was to determine the allelopathic potential of invasive woody plant species occurringin Hungary. Juglone index of fourteen invasive woody plant species in Hungary was determined by themethod of Szabó (1997, comparing the effects of juglone and substance extracted of plant species withunknown allelopathic potential on the germination rate, shoot length and rooth length of white mustard(Sinapis alba L. used as receiver species. Results have proven a more or less expressed allelopathicpotential in case of all species. The juglone index at higher concentration extracts (5 g dry plant materialextracted with 100 ml distilled water of almost every studied species approaches to 1 or is above 1, thismeans the effect of the extracts is similar to juglone or surpasses it. In terms of juglone index, theallelopathic potential of false indigo (Amorpha fruticosa L., tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima (Mill.Swingle and hackberry (Celtis occidentalis L. were the highest. Besides these species the treatment withthe extracts of black walnut (Juglans nigra L., black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh. and green ash(Fraxinus pennsylvanica MARSH. var. subintegerrima (Vahl Fern. reduced extremely significantly thegermination rate, shoot and root length, compared to the control.

  18. 齿茎长突叶蝉的生物学特性和防治%Bionomics of Batrachomorphus dentatus and its control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫家河; 李洪敬; 彭红英; 周希政; 高丙东

    2006-01-01

    齿茎长突叶蝉Batrachomorphus deniatus Kuoh是危害国槐(Sophora japonica L.)、合欢(Albizia julibrissin Durazz)、臭椿(Ailanthus altissima Swingle)、苦楝(Melia azedaeach L.)等树木的新害虫.首次明确了该虫的寄主,记述其幼期形态特征、生物学特性、天敌种类.在山东商河1年发生2代,以卵在寄主枝条皮层内越冬.成虫寿命最长可达78 d,羽化后17~21 d开始产卵,产卵主要在傍晚前后进行.在若虫期用20%吡虫啉4 000倍液和1.0%阿维菌素5 000倍液喷雾防治,杀虫率分别达到98.5%和99.3%.

  19. Comparing the Sexual Reproductive Success of Two Exotic Trees Invading Spanish Riparian Forests vs. a Native Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabra-Rivas, Isabel; Castro-Díez, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    A widely accepted hypothesis in invasion ecology is that invasive species have higher survival through the early stages of establishment than do non-invasive species. In this study we explore the hypothesis that the sexual reproductive success of the invasive trees Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle and Robinia pseudoacacia L. is higher than that of the native Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl., all three species coexisting within the riparian forests of Central Spain. We compared different stages of the early life cycle, namely seed rain, seed infestation by insects, seed removal by local fauna, seed germination under optimal conditions and seedling abundance between the two invasive trees and the native, in order to assess their sexual reproductive success. The exotic species did not differ from the native reference (all three species displaying high seed rain and undergoing seed losses up to 50% due to seed removal by the local fauna). Even if the exotic R. pseudoacacia showed a high percentage of empty and insect-parasited seeds along with a low seedling emergence and the exotic A. altissima was the species with more viable seeds and of higher germinability, no differences were found regarding these variables when comparing them with the native F. angustifolia. Unsuitable conditions might have hampered either seedling emergence and survival, as seedling abundance in the field was lower than expected in all species -especially in R. pseudoacacia-. Our results rather suggest that the sexual reproductive success was not higher in the exotic trees than in the native reference, but studies focusing on long-term recruitment would help to shed light on this issue.

  20. Comparative Identification of Aerial Roots of Ficus microcarpa Linn. f. and Ficus altissima Bl.%榕树与高山榕气生根的比较鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜佳丽; 杜勤; 王振华; 田军

    2015-01-01

    Objective To find out evidence for the identification of the aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa Linn. f. and F. altissima Bl.. Methods The fresh aerial roots of the two kinds of plants were collected. The appearance traits were observed by stereoscopy. The velamen surface, cross section of root tip, cross section of the posterior root and powder of two kinds of aerial roots were observed under microscope. Results The number of aerial roots of F. microcarpa Linn. f. was more than that of F. altissima Bl., while the diameter was less than that of F. altissima Bl.. Differences were shown in primary xylems of the transverse section of root tip and posterior root of the two kinds of aerial roots, there were 5-7 vascular bundles in F. microcarpa Linn. f. and 7-10 vascular bundles in F. altissima Bl.. As for the powder, the powder of F. microcarpa Linn. f. was yellowish brown, while that of F. altissima Bl. was reddish brown; F. altissima Bl. had more fibers and longer diameter than F. microcarpa Linn. f. and had cluster crystals in order. Conclusion The appearance and microstructure features showed by the results can be used to distinguish the aerial roots of F. microcarpa Linn. f. and F. altissima Bl..%[目的] 为区分榕树 (Ficus microcarpa Linn. f.) 和高山榕 (F. altissima Bl.) 气生根提供参考依据. [方法] 采集新鲜榕树和高山榕的气生根作为样品, 采用体视镜进行外观形态鉴别; 采用显微镜对2种植物气生根根被表面、 根尖横切面、 根尖后部横切面以及粉末进行显微鉴别. [结果] 外观形态鉴别: 榕树气生根数目多于高山榕, 直径小于高山榕; 根尖及根尖后部横切面: 初生木质部束不同, 榕树为五至七原型, 高山榕为七至十原型; 粉末: 榕树粉末为黄棕色, 高山榕粉末为红棕色, 高山榕纤维更多, 直径更大, 有簇晶排列成行. [结论] 上述特征可较好地鉴别榕树和高山榕气生根, 将为2种药材的鉴别及临床用药提供安全可靠的科学依据.

  1. A novel triterpenoid isolated from the root bark of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb (Tree of Heaven, AECHL-1 as a potential anti-cancer agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish S Lavhale

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We report here the isolation and characterization of a new compound Ailanthus excelsa chloroform extract-1 (AECHL-1 (C(29H(36O(10; molecular weight 543.8 from the root bark of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. The compound possesses anti-cancer activity against a variety of cancer cell lines of different origin. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: AECHL-1 treatment for 12 to 48 hr inhibited cell proliferation and induced death in B16F10, MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and PC3 cells with minimum growth inhibition in normal HEK 293. The antitumor effect of AECHL-1 was comparable with that of the conventional antitumor drugs paclitaxel and cisplatin. AECHL-1-induced growth inhibition was associated with S/G(2-M arrests in MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and PC3 cells and a G(1 arrest in B16F10 cells. We observed microtubule disruption in MCF-7 cells treated with AECHL-1 in vitro. Compared with control, subcutaneous injection of AECHL-1 to the sites of tumor of mouse melanoma B16F10 implanted in C57BL/6 mice and human breast cancer MCF-7 cells in athymic nude mice resulted in significant decrease in tumor volume. In B16F10 tumors, AECHL-1 at 50 microg/mouse/day dose for 15 days resulted in increased expression of tumor suppressor proteins P53/p21, reduction in the expression of the oncogene c-Myc, and downregulation of cyclin D1 and cdk4. Additionally, AECHL-1 treatment resulted in the phosphorylation of p53 at serine 15 in B16F10 tumors, which seems to exhibit p53-dependent growth inhibitory responses. CONCLUSIONS: The present data demonstrate the activity of a triterpenoid AECHL-1 which possess a broad spectrum of activity against cancer cells. We propose here that AECHL-1 is a futuristic anti-cancer drug whose therapeutic potential needs to be widely explored for chemotherapy against cancer.

  2. Study on the Processing Technology of Fermented Wine of Momordica grosvenori Swingle%发酵型罗汉果酒的生产工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪元; 蒋向军

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The purpose of research is to study the processing technology of fermented wine of Momordica grosvenori Swingle and the technology conditions. [ Method] Fresh fruits of M. Grosvenori were used as raw material to produce fermented wine of M. Grosvenori. The effects of yeast strain,fermentation temperature,the initial pH.the initial sugar content on the quality of fresh M. Grosvenori wine and the fermentation technology parameters were studied through single factor and orthogonal test. [ Result] The yeast strain,fermentation temperature, the initial pH.the initial sugar content all had significant effects on the flavor and sensory quality of raw wine. Specific flavor of M. Grosvenori wine was produced by using yellow rice wine yeast as the fermentation strain. When5% activated yellow rice wine yeast was inoculated to M. Grosvenori juice before main fermentation with the initial sugar content of 17% and initial pH of 3.6 and fermented about 7 d at 22t, the raw wine had the best quality. [ Conclusion] The residual sugar content in raw wine of produced M. Grosvenori wine was about 3.8% and the alcoholicity reached 10% , The produced wine was rich in lots of fruit with full - bodied, yellowish brown and glossy.%[目的]研究发酵型鲜罗汉果果酒生产工艺及工艺条件.[方法]以罗汉果鲜果为原料,酿制发酵型罗汉果酒,通过单因素和正交优化试验研究酵母菌种、发酵温度、初始pH和初始糖度对鲜罗汉果酒品质的影响及其发酵工艺参数.[结果]发酵菌种、发酵前初始糖度、初始pH值、发酵温度都显著影响原酒的风味和感官品质.采用黄酒酵母作为发酵菌种可产生独特的罗汉果酒风味.主发酵前将果浆初始糖度调整为17%,pH调整至3.6,接入活化后的黄酒酵母5%,在22℃下发酵7d左右,所得原酒的品质最好.[结论]酿制的罗汉果酒原酒残糖含量约3.8%,酒精含量达10%,酒体黄褐色,有光泽,果香浓郁.

  3. Synthesis of nanoparticles composed of silver and silver chloride for a plasmonic photocatalyst using an extract from a weed Solidago altissima (goldenrod)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vemu Anil; Uchida, Takashi; Mizuki, Toru; Nakajima, Yoshikata; Katsube, Yoshihiro; Hanajiri, Tatsuro; Maekawa, Toru

    2016-03-01

    Phytosynthesis of nanomaterials is advantageous since it is economical, ecofriendly, and simple, and, what is more, in the synthetic protocols, nontoxic chemicals and biocompatible materials are used. Here, a green synthetic methodology of nanoparticles (NPs) composed of silver (Ag) and silver chloride (AgCl) NPs is developed using a leaf extract of Solidago altissima as a reducing agent for the first time. Utilization of a terrestrial weed for the synthesis of Ag and AgCl NPs is a novel environmentally friendly approach considering that no toxic chemicals, external halide source, or elaborate experimental procedures are included in the process. The optical properties and elemental compositions of as-synthesized Ag and AgCl NPs are well characterized, and the degradation of an organic dye, i.e., rhodamine B (RhB), is investigated using the Ag and AgCl NPs. We find that degradation of RhB is effectively achieved thanks to both surface plasmon resonance and semiconductor properties of Ag and AgCl NPs. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering and antibacterial activities are also examined. The present approach to the synthesis of NPs using a weed may encourage the utilization of hazardous plants for the creation of novel nanomaterials.

  4. Inhibition of Advanced Glycation End-Product Formation and Antioxidant Activity by Extracts and Polyphenols from Scutellaria alpina L. and S. altissima L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorczyk-Karolak, Izabela; Gołąb, Krzysztof; Gburek, Jakub; Wysokińska, Halina; Matkowski, Adam

    2016-06-14

    Methanolic extracts from the aerial parts and roots of two Scutellaria species, S. alpina and S. altissima, and five polyphenols from these plants demonstrated a significant ability to inhibit the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) in vitro. S. alpina, which is richer in polyphenolic compounds, had strong antiglycation properties. These extracts demonstrated also high activity in the FRAP (ferric-reducing antioxidant power), antiradical (DPPH) and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. Among the pure compounds, baicalin was the strongest glycation inhibitor (90.4% inhibition at 100 μg/mL), followed by luteolin (85.4%). Two other flavone glycosides had about half of this activity. Verbascoside was similar to the reference drug aminoguanidine (71.2% and 75.9%, respectively). The strong correlation observed between AGE inhibition and total flavonoid content indicated that flavonoids contribute significantly to antiglycation properties. A positive correlation was also observed between antiglycative and antioxidant activities. The studied skullcap species can be considered as a potential source of therapeutic agents for hyperglycemia-related disorders.

  5. Inhibition of Advanced Glycation End-Product Formation and Antioxidant Activity by Extracts and Polyphenols from Scutellaria alpina L. and S. altissima L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Grzegorczyk-Karolak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extracts from the aerial parts and roots of two Scutellaria species, S. alpina and S. altissima, and five polyphenols from these plants demonstrated a significant ability to inhibit the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE in vitro. S. alpina, which is richer in polyphenolic compounds, had strong antiglycation properties. These extracts demonstrated also high activity in the FRAP (ferric-reducing antioxidant power, antiradical (DPPH and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. Among the pure compounds, baicalin was the strongest glycation inhibitor (90.4% inhibition at 100 μg/mL, followed by luteolin (85.4%. Two other flavone glycosides had about half of this activity. Verbascoside was similar to the reference drug aminoguanidine (71.2% and 75.9%, respectively. The strong correlation observed between AGE inhibition and total flavonoid content indicated that flavonoids contribute significantly to antiglycation properties. A positive correlation was also observed between antiglycative and antioxidant activities. The studied skullcap species can be considered as a potential source of therapeutic agents for hyperglycemia-related disorders.

  6. Multidimensional enantio gas chromtography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-combustion-isotopic ratio mass spectrometry for the authenticity assessment of lime essential oils (C. aurantifolia Swingle and C. latifolia Tanaka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorsi, Ivana; Sciarrone, Danilo; Schipilliti, Luisa; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi; Dugo, Giovanni

    2012-02-24

    This article focuses on the genuineness assessment of Lime oils (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle and C. latifolia Tanaka), by Multi Dimensional Gas Chromatography (MDGC) to determine the enantiomeric distribution of α-thujene, camphene, β-pinene, sabinene, α-phellandrene, β-phellandrene, limonene, linalool, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol and by gas chromatography-combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) to determine the isotopic ratios of α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, α-terpineol, neral, geranial, β-caryophyllene, trans-α-bergamotene, germacrene B. To the author's knowledge this is the first attempt to assess the authenticity and differentiate Persian Lime from Key lime oils by GC-C-IRMS. The results of the two analytical approaches were compared. The simultaneous use of the two techniques provides more reliable capability to detect adulteration in Citrus essential oils. In fact, in some circumstance only one of the two techniques allows to discriminate adulterated or contaminated oils. In cases where only small anomalies are detected by the two techniques due to subtle adulterations, their synergic use allows to express judgments. The advantage of both techniques is the low number of components the analyst must evaluate, reducing the complexity of the data necessary to deal with. Moreover, the conventional analytical approach based on the evaluation of the whole volatile fraction can fail to reveal the quality of the oils, if the adulteration is extremely subtle. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 酶解法测定罗汉果深加工柱流液中β构型糖含量的研究%Studies on to measure the contents of β-oriented saccharides in the residues of column chromatography from the processing of Siraitia grosvenorii Swingle by enzyme decomposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄世好; 康如龙; 苏小建; 张道平; 刘倩

    2012-01-01

    This study was to measure the contents of β-oriented saccharides in the residues of column chromatography from the processing of Siraitia grosvenorii Swingle by enzyme decomposition in order to provide a theoretical basis for the further study of Siraitia grosvenorii Swingle.and improve its utilization and economic benefits. By measuring the content of saccharides in the residues of column chromatography from the processing of Siraitia grosvenorii Swingle, the total reducing saccharides was 23.50% and the free reducing saccharides was 12.55%.When the 0.05g β-amylase was added in the optimal condition of enzymatic hydrolysis, that pH value 4.5; temperature 45℃; time of heating 40min, the content of β-oriented saccharides in the dried solid of column residues was 3.85%.%本研究是用酶解的方法测定罗汉果深加工柱流液中β构型糖的含量,为进一步研究和利用罗汉果资源,提高其利用率增加经济效益提供理论基础.首先测得罗汉果深加工柱流液中总糖含量为23.50%,游离还原糖含量为12.97%;在β-葡萄糖苷酶最佳酶水解条件pH值为4.5,温度为45℃,加热时间为40min,β-葡萄糖苷酶用量为0.2g下,测得柱流液干燥固体中β构型糖的含量为3.43%.

  8. Changes in composition, structure and aboveground biomass over seventy-six years (1930-2006) in the Black Rock Forest, Hudson Highlands, southeastern New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, W S F; Griffin, K L; Roth, H; Turnbull, M H; Whitehead, D; Tissue, D T

    2008-04-01

    We sought to quantify changes in tree species composition, forest structure and aboveground forest biomass (AGB) over 76 years (1930-2006) in the deciduous Black Rock Forest in southeastern New York, USA. We used data from periodic forest inventories, published floras and a set of eight long-term plots, along with species-specific allometric equations to estimate AGB and carbon content. Between the early 1930s and 2000, three species were extirpated from the forest (American elm (Ulmus americana L.), paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and black spruce (Picea mariana (nigra) (Mill.) BSP)) and seven species invaded the forest (non-natives tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle) and white poplar (Populus alba L.) and native, generally southerly distributed, southern catalpa (Catalpa bignonioides Walt.), cockspur hawthorn (Crataegus crus-galli L.), red mulberry (Morus rubra L.), eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) and slippery elm (Ulmus rubra Muhl.)). Forest canopy was dominated by red oak and chestnut oak, but the understory tree community changed substantially from mixed oak-maple to red maple-black birch. Density decreased from an average of 1500 to 735 trees ha(-1), whereas basal area doubled from less than 15 m(2) ha(-1) to almost 30 m(2) ha(-1) by 2000. Forest-wide mean AGB from inventory data increased from about 71 Mg ha(-1) in 1930 to about 145 Mg ha(-1) in 1985, and mean AGB on the long-term plots increased from 75 Mg ha(-1) in 1936 to 218 Mg ha(-1) in 1998. Over 76 years, red oak (Quercus rubra L.) canopy trees stored carbon at about twice the rate of similar-sized canopy trees of other species. However, there has been a significant loss of live tree biomass as a result of canopy tree mortality since 1999. Important constraints on long-term biomass increment have included insect outbreaks and droughts.

  9. Análisis de la invasión del hábitat ribereño por tres árboles exóticos en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cabra-Rivas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio diagnostica y valora la invasión de las especies exóticas Ailanthus altissima (Mill. Swingle, Robinia pseudoacacia L. y Ulmus pumila L. en hábitats ribereños españoles. Se recorrieron las riberas de los ríos Henares, Oria y el tramo medio del río Ebro en busca de rodales de estas tres especies, con la intención de determinar el grado de invasión de cada zona y especie, así como las características de los rodales y de los hábitats que ocupan cada una de ellas. Se anotó el origen (plantado/espontáneo, tamaño, densidad y características del hábitat (bióticas, abióticas e influencia humana de todos ellos. El grado de invasión fue mayor en la ribera del Henares, donde existe una mayor influencia antrópica y densidad de fuentes de propágulos. Cada especie presentó un mayor grado de invasión en una zona diferente. Los rodales espontáneos de las riberas del Henares y del Ebro son pequeños comparados con los del Oria. Las tres especies coexisten en hábitats con alta disponibilidad de luz, baja competencia y fuerte influencia antrópica, pero también pueden ocupar zonas de mayor cobertura arbórea. Las diferentes condiciones del hábitat en que se plantaron las especies y el hábitat donde se naturalizan podrían explicarse en gran medida por los mecanismos de dispersión utilizados por cada una.

  10. 8种落叶乔木抗旱性相关叶片的解剖结构%Drought Resistance of Eight Deciduous Trees and Anatomical Structure of Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟晓巧; 任媛媛; 刘艳萍; 王念; 王文君

    2013-01-01

    为了探索适合进行屋顶绿化的落叶乔木,对其抗旱性进行早期评价。选取屋顶绿化试验区中的8种常见的庭院观赏落叶乔木为试验材料,观察并统计其10项叶片解剖结构指标,利用模糊数学法中的隶属函数法,对这8种落叶乔木进行了抗旱性综合评价。结果显示:其抗旱性由强到弱的顺序为:构树、黄连木、白榆、刺槐、枣树、臭椿、火炬树、白蜡。利用灰色系统理论,对10项叶片解剖结构指标与抗旱性的关联度进行了分析,探讨其在植物抗旱过程中所起到的作用。%We chose eight kinds of common deciduous trees in roof greening test region to explore the adapted plants in roof greening and evaluate their drought resistance .We observed and statistically analyzed ten anatomical structure indexes of leaves for comprehensive evaluation on drought resistance by applying subordinate function.The drought resistance capabil-ity order from strong to the weak is Broussonetia Papyrifera, Pistacia Chinensis Bunge, Ulmus pumila, Robnia pseudoaca-cia, Ziziphus jujube, Ailanthus altissima ( Mill.) Swingle and Rhus typhina.The correlation of drought resistance and ana-tomical structure indexes was analyzed with grey correlative analysis.

  11. Assessment of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi status and heavy metal accumulation characteristics of tree species in a lead-zinc mine area: potential applications for phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yurong; Liang, Yan; Ghosh, Amit; Song, Yingying; Chen, Hui; Tang, Ming

    2015-09-01

    To select suitable tree species associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for phytoremediation of heavy metal (HM) contaminated area, we measured the AMF status and heavy metal accumulation in plant tissues in a lead-zinc mine area, Northwest China. All 15 tree species were colonized by AM fungi in our investigation. The mycorrhizal frequency (F%), mycorrhizal colonization intensity (M%) and spore density (SP) reduced concomitantly with increasing Pb and Zn levels; however, positive correlations were found between arbuscule density (A%) and soil total/DTPA-extractable Pb concentrations. The average concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in plant samples were 168.21, 96.61, 41.06, and 0.79 mg/kg, respectively. Populus purdomii Rehd. accumulated the highest concentrations of Zn (432.08 mg/kg) and Cu (140.85 mg/kg) in its leaves. Considerable amount of Pb (712.37 mg/kg) and Cd (3.86 mg/kg) were concentrated in the roots of Robinia pseudoacacia Linn. and Populus simonii Carr., respectively. Plants developed different strategies to survive in HM stress environment: translocating more essential metals (Zn and Cu) into the aerial parts, while retaining more toxic heavy metals (Pb and Cd) in the roots to protect the above-ground parts from damage. According to the translocation factor (TF), bioconcentration factor (BCF), growth rate and biomass production, five tree species (Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle, Cotinus coggygria Scop., P. simonii, P. purdomii, and R. pseudoacacia) were considered to be the most suitable candidates for phytoextraction and/or phytostabilization purposes. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that the efficiency of phytoremediation was enhanced by AM symbioses, and soil pH, Pb, Zn, and Cd levels were the main factors influencing the HM accumulation characteristics of plants.

  12. Chemotherapy of Rodent Malaria. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    A.stephensi. (X 26,000) 95 During the course of routine EM screening of our colony of A.stephensi for the presence of pathogenic micro-organisms such as...Warhurst, D.C. Antimalarial activity of Ailanthus altissima stem. In: Phytochemical Society of Europe Symposium on biologically active natural

  13. Effects of exotic invasive trees on nitrogen cycling: a case study in Central Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro-Diez, P.; González-Muñoz, N.; Alonso, A.; Gallardo, A.; Poorter, L.

    2009-01-01

    We assess the hypothesis that rates of nitrogen transformations in the soil are altered upon replacement of native by exotic trees, differing in litter properties. Ailanthus altissima and Robinia pseudoacacia, two common exotic trees naturalized in the Iberian Peninsula, were compared with the nativ

  14. China Report: Science and Technology, No. 209. China Addresses Environmental Issues -- 1/83

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-12

    acacia decurrens. In the north, we can plant poplar, ailanthus altissima, and scholartree. Water hyacinth can be massively planted in the water areas...being provided them by the collec- tive or by the state. They may exchange labor with other peas- ants and have ownership of any trees or fruit

  15. Contrasting secondary growth and water use efficiency patterns in native and exotic trees co-occurring in inner Spain riparian forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González Muñoz, N.; Linares, J.C.; Castro-Diez, P.; Sass-Klaassen, U.G.W.

    2015-01-01

    Aim of study: The invasive trees Ailanthus altissima and Robinia pseudoacacia are widely spreading in inner Spain riparian forests, where they co-occur with the natives Fraxinus angustifolia and Ulmus minor. In a climate change context, we aimed to identify some of the species traits that are leadin

  16. Effects of exotic invasive trees on nitrogen cycling: a case study in Central Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro-Diez, P.; González-Muñoz, N.; Alonso, A.; Gallardo, A.; Poorter, L.

    2009-01-01

    We assess the hypothesis that rates of nitrogen transformations in the soil are altered upon replacement of native by exotic trees, differing in litter properties. Ailanthus altissima and Robinia pseudoacacia, two common exotic trees naturalized in the Iberian Peninsula, were compared with the

  17. Natural enemies of the spotted lanternfly in Asia and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotted lanternfly, Lycorma delicatula, is a sporadic pest of Tree-of-Heaven, Ailanthus altissima. The native range of L. delicatula includes China, Taiwan and Vietnam but it invaded Korea in 2004, Japan in 2009, and the U. S. in 2014. In North America, it is now found in eastern Pennsylvania with...

  18. Delignification of biomass using alkaline glycerol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucuk, M. [YYU Educational Facility, Van (Turkey)

    2005-10-15

    Ailanthus altissima and Spruce orientalis chips were delignified by using glycerol as a solvent and alkaline-gliycerol with and without catalyst at different temperatures (438, 458, 478, and 498 K) in atmospheric pressure, and results were compared with the other organic solvent systems. (Author)

  19. Contrasting secondary growth and water use efficiency patterns in native and exotic trees co-occurring in inner Spain riparian forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González Muñoz, N.; Linares, J.C.; Castro-Diez, P.; Sass-Klaassen, U.G.W.

    2015-01-01

    Aim of study: The invasive trees Ailanthus altissima and Robinia pseudoacacia are widely spreading in inner Spain riparian forests, where they co-occur with the natives Fraxinus angustifolia and Ulmus minor. In a climate change context, we aimed to identify some of the species traits that are

  20. Plants as Sources of Antimalarial Drugs Part. 1. In vitro Test Method for the Evaluation of Crude Extracts from Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'neill, M J; Bray, D H; Boardman, P; Phillipson, J D; Warhurst, D C

    1985-10-01

    An IN VITRO antimalarial test, utilising the inhibition of uptake of [G- (3)H]-hypoxanthine into PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM cultured in human blood, has been used to assess the activity of crude extracts of ARTEMISIA ANNUA and A. VULGARIS (Compositae) and of BRUCEA JAVANICA, AILANTHUS ALTISSIMA, and SIMABA CEDRON (Simaroubaceae).

  1. A taxonomic review of Attevidae (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutoidea) from China with descriptions of two new species and a revised identity of the Ailanthus webworm moth, Atteva fabriciella, from the Asian tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Wu, Chun-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    This review describes four species of Atteva (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutoidea: Attevidae) from China, including two new species: A. wallengreni n. sp. and A. yanguifella n. sp. The taxonomic identity of the Ailanthus webworm moth from South and Southeast Asia is revised with a designation of neotype for Phalaena (Tinea) fabriciella Swederus. Lectotypes of Atteva brucea Moore and A. niviguttella Walker are designated. Atteva brucea is synonymized with A. fabriciella. Synonymy of Atteva niviguttella and A. fabriciella is reconfirmed. The previous Chinese records of A. fabriciella were based on confusions with A. wallengreni n. sp. Confirmed specimens of A. fabriciella from China are reported. A pair of confused species, A. fabriciella and A. wallengreni n. sp., are distinguished by the number of white dots on the forewings and the genital features. Another confused pair, A. niveigutta and A. yanguifella n. sp., are compared by external and genital features. All type specimens of the described species are illustrated and compared with the conspecific specimens from various countries of the Asian tropics. Keys to all the species from China are provided.

  2. The contents and structure of a-oriented saccharides in the residues of column chromatography from the processing of Siraitia grosvenorii Swingle by enzyme-decomposition%酶解法测定罗汉景深加工市主流液中α构型糖含量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康如龙; 苏小建; 张道平; 刘倩; 黄继来

    2012-01-01

    This study is to measure the contents and structure of a-oriented sacchaddes in the residues of column chromatography from the processing of Siraitia grosvenorii Swingle through enzyme- decomposition in order to provide a theoretical basis for the further study of Siraitia grosvenorii Swing~e. And improve its utilization and economic benefits. By measuring the content of saccharides in the residues of column chromatography from the processing of Siraitia grosvenorii Swingle, the total reducing saccharides is 23.50% and the free reducing saccharides is 12.55%. When the 0.4 g a-glycoside hydrolase is added in the optimal condition of enzymatic hydrolysis, that is pH5.5, temperature 65 ℃, time of heating 1 h, the content of (]-oriented saccharides in the dried solid of column residues is 6.78%.%用酶解的方法测定罗汉果深加工柱流液中糖的α型结构及含量,为进一步研究和利用罗汉果资源,提高其利用率增加经济效益提供理论基础。首先测得罗汉果深加工柱流液中总还原糖含量为23.50%和游离还原糖含量为12.55%;在α-糖苷酶最佳酶水解条件pH值为5.5、温度为65℃、加热时间为1h、α-糖苷酶用量为0.4g下,测得柱流液干燥固体中仪构型糖的含量为6.78%。

  3. Androgenesis in Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) swingle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, H C; Sharma, A K

    1985-07-01

    Embryoids were differentiated from anthers of C. aurantifolia which were first floated on a modified Murashige and Skoog's liquid medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l N(6)-benzylaminopurine and 1 mg/l indole-3-acetic acid for 20-30 d, followed by 30 d culture in semisolid Schenk and Hildebrandt's medium having the same growth hormones. Embryoids originated from within the anther lobes. Initially, a few embryoids were formed by each anther; later, they multiplied rapidly by the production of new embryoids from the hypocotyl and cotyledon portions of the original embryoids. The embryoids could develop into plantlets, which were all diploid (2n=18). The androgenic plants grew normally in soil.

  4. Soil biota drive expression of genetic variation and development of population-specific feedbacks in an invasive plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felker-Quinn, Emmi; Bailey, Joseph K; Schweitzer, Jennifer A

    2011-06-01

    Invasive plant species alter soils in ways that may affect the success of subsequent generations, creating plant-soil feedbacks. Ailanthus altissima is an invasive tree introduced two centuries ago to North America. We hypothesized that geographically distinct populations of A. altissima have established feedbacks specific to their local environment, due to soil communities cultivated by A. altissima. We collected seeds and soils from three populations in the eastern United States, and in the greenhouse reciprocally planted all families in all collected soils as well as in a control mixed soil, and in soils that had been irradiated for sterilization. There were positive plant-soil feedbacks for two populations in the live field-collected soils, but strong negative feedbacks for the third population. There were no population-level performance differences or feedbacks in the sterilized population locale soils, supporting a soil biotic basis for feedbacks and for the expression of genetic differentiation in A. altissima. If populations of Ailanthus altissima vary in the extent to which they benefit from and promote these plant-soil biota feedbacks, the interaction between invader and invaded community may be more important in determining the course of invasion than are the characteristics of either alone.

  5. Nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio na nutrição e na produção de mudas de laranjeira 'Valência', enxertada sobre citrumeleiro 'Swingle' Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on nutrition and production of seedlings of 'Valencia' orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato de Mello Prado

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em estufa telada na FCAV/Unesp Câmpus Jaboticabal-SP, durante o período de novembro de 2005 a janeiro de 2007. O estudo teve por objetivo avaliar componentes do desenvolvimento e do estado nutricional de mudas de laranjeira 'Valência', enxertada sobre citrumeleiro 'Swingle', cultivado em substrato, em função de doses de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3³ + 1, sendo 3 fatores (nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio, 3 doses e uma testemunha (sem adubação, com 3 repetições. A unidade experimental foi constituída de uma muda de laranjeira por sacolas de 5 dm-3, contendo 2,5 kg de substrato casca de Pinus e vermiculita. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pela aplicação das seguintes doses de nutrientes em mg por dm³ de substrato: N1/2:459, N1:918 e N2:1836; P1/2:92, P1:184 e P2: 368; K1/2:438, K1:876 e K2:1752. Aos 424 dias após a semeadura, as plantas foram divididas em raízes e parte aérea para a determinação da massa da matéria seca, altura, área foliar, diâmetro do caule e conteúdo de nutrientes. As adubações com N, P e K proporcionaram maior crescimento e maior acúmulo de N, P e K na parte aérea e nas raízes das mudas de laranjeira, em substrato de casca de Pinus e vermiculita, em relação à testemunha. A dose de 459 mg dm-3 de N e as doses de P e K 184 e 876 mg dm-3, respectivamente, proporcionaram melhor crescimento da parte aérea das mudas; porém, na dose recomendada de N de 918 mg dm-3, ocorreu maior crescimento do sistema radicular.The experiment was led in a protected greenhouse in the FCAV/Unesp, Jaboticabal Campus -SP, during the period of November of 2005 to January of 2007. The study objective was to evaluate the development of components and the nutritional state of seedlings of 'Valencia' orange grafted on lemon tree citrumelo 'Swingle' rootstock, in function of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium

  6. Temporal variation of the total nitrogen concentration in aereal organs of nitrogen fixing and non fixing riparian species

    OpenAIRE

    Llinares, F.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in nitrogen concentration was determinated in samples of Alnus glutinosa, Elaeagnus angustifolia, Populus x canadiensis and Ailanthus altissima leaves, petioles and branches periodically during a year. Maximum nitrogen percentage was found in diazotrophic species (Alnus and Elaeagnus) and the nitrogen retranslocation form branches was higher (2.5 times) in no fixing species. Se estudian 10s cambios en la concentración de nitrógeno en Alnus glutinosa, Elaeagnus angustifolia, Populus...

  7. Ecophysiological Response of Plants to Combined Pollution from Heavy-duty Vehicles and Industrial Emissions in Higher Humidity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Xia Cui; Gao-Ming Jiang; Shu-Li Niu; Chuang-Dao Jiang; Mei-Zhen Liu; Shun-Li Yu; Lei-Ming Gao

    2006-01-01

    Pollution can be aggravated in industrial areas if traffic exhausts are mixed with industrial emissions under high humidity conditions. Plants growing in such environments may suffer from severe stress. The impact of vehicle emissions on urban vegetation in an industrial area in Qingdao, China, was investigated by studying seven plant species at visible, physiological and chemical levels. The traits of plant species in certain environmental conditions were compared between a clear area, Badaguan (BDG), and polluted area,Roadside (RS). We found that foliar sulfur uptake for all species was not significantly high at RS compared with BDG, although the sulfur content of atmosphere and surface soils at RS were much higher than those at BDG. For Ailanthus altissima Swingle, the content of foliar pigment and net photosynthesis rate (PN)decreased by 20%. Meanwhile, leaves became incrassate and no visible leaf damage was noted, suggesting this species could adapt well to pollution. A 50% decrease in PN occurred in Hibiscus syriacus L., but there was no statistical change in content of chlorophyll a and b and water uptake. Also, thickened leaves may prevent the pollutant from permeation. Foliar water content was still at a low level, although a water compensation mechanism was established for Fraxinus chinensis Rosb. reflected by low water potential and high water use efficiency. More adversely, a 65% decrease in PN happened inevitably with the significant decomposition of photosynthetic pigments, which exhibited visible damage. We also noted in one evergreen species (Magnolia grandiflora L.) that water absorption driven by low water potential should be helpful to supply water loss induced by strong stomatal transpiration and maintain normal growth. Furthermore, photosynthetic pigment content did not decline statistically, but supported a stable net assimilation. Two herbaceous species, Poa annua L. and Ophiopogon japonicus Ker-Gawl., were very tolerant to adverse stress

  8. Insulin secretion stimulating effects of mogroside Ⅴ and fruit extract of Luo Han Kuo (Siraitia grosvenori Swingle) fruit extract%罗汉果提取物和罗汉果苷Ⅴ对胰岛素分泌的调节作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周英; 郑艳; EBERSOLE Jeff; 黄赤夫

    2009-01-01

    罗汉果作为一种保健食品和甜味剂已有长期的应用,有报道认为罗汉果及其提取物对糖尿病有一定的防治作用,然而目前还未见对其相关活性成分以及活性的报道.本研究运用鼠β细胞系细胞PIN-5F研究了罗汉果提取物以及罗汉果苷Ⅴ对于胰岛素分泌的影响.本研究结果显示.罗汉果提取物和罗汉果苷Ⅴ对胰岛素分泌有显著的促进作用.本研究从细胞水平揭示了罗汉果和罗汉果苷Ⅴ对于糖尿病人具有血糖调节作用,提示罗汉果提取物以及罗汉果苷对于Ⅱ型糖尿病的防治作用.%Luo Hart Kuo fruit (Siraitia grosvenori Swingle), a fruit native to China, has been used as a natural sweetening agent for centuries and has been reported to be beneficial for diabetic population. However, limited research has been conducted to elucidate the relationship between the sweetening action and biological parameters that may be related to potential health benefits of LHK fruit (Luo Han Kuo fruit). The present study examined the effect of LHK fruit and its chemical components on insulin secretion using an in vitro cell model system. Mogroside Ⅴ is the most abundant and the sweetest chemical component among the mogrosides in LHK fruit. The experimental data demonstrated that the crude LHK extract stimulated the secretion of insulin in pancreatic beta cells; furthermore, pure mogroside Ⅴ isolated from LHK fruit also exhibited a significant activity in stimulating insulin secretion by the beta cells, which could partially be responsible for the insulin secretion activity of LHK fruit and fruit extract. The current study supports that LHK fruit/extract has the potential to be natural sweetener with a low glycemie index, and that mogroside Ⅴ, possible other related mogrosides, can provide a positive health impact on stimulating insulin secretion.

  9. “Planta Hortifuga” in Flora of the Continental Part of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Hulina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The term “planta hortifuga“ refers to all cultivated plant species that have escaped from cultivation and grow spontaneously in different natural, semi-natural or manmade habitats. List of “planta hortifuga” (Tab.1 consists of 120 taxa. Traits are given for each species: Raunkiaer’s life-form groups, taxonomic rank (family and species, geographical origin, use value, invaded habitat, invasive behavior and harm impact, where it is evident. Only a few species of “planta hortifuga” have reached a high degree of the naturalization and realize up to now in places dramatically increasing in distribution and density. Such invasive species are the americanophytes: Asclepias syriaca, Helianthus tuberosus, Solidago spp., Echinocystis lobata, Amorpha fruticosa and Robinia pseudacacia; then Asiatic species: Impatiens spp., Reynoutria japonica and Ailanthus altissima. These are a threat to the survival of autochthonous plants and the stability of communities. From an agronomical point of view particularly dangerous species are: Echinocystis lobata, Panicum capillare, P. miliaceum ssp. agricolum, and Abutilon theophrasti. The species Amorpha fruticosa and Robinia pseudacacia have caused the harm in forestry while the species Amorpha fruticosa has coused harm in drainage systems. The species of plants that are harmful to human health are: Rhus typhina, Asclepias syriaca, Solidago spp., Robinia pseudacacia, Wistaria sinensis, Ailanthus altissima and Artemisia absinthium. Plant species Asclepias syriaca, Robinia pseudacacia and Ailanthus altissima may be harmful to animals. Results of this investigation may be used for assesing the risk of spreading cultivated plants out of their places of cultivation. These results illustrate why it is necessary to pay attention to appearance of cultivated species out of their place of the cultivation.

  10. Potential Germination Success of Exotic and Native Trees Coexisting in Central Spain Riparian Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cabra-Rivas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared potential germination success (i.e., percentage of produced seeds that germinate under optimal conditions, the percentage of empty and insect-damaged seeds, germinability (Gmax, and time to germination (Tgerm between the exotics Ailanthus altissima, Robinia pseudoacacia, and Ulmus pumila and two coexisting native trees (Fraxinus angustifolia and Ulmus minor in the riparian forests of Central Spain. Additionally, we tested the effect of seed age, seed bank type (canopy or soil and population on Gmax and Tgerm of A. altissima and R. pseudoacacia, which are seed-banking species. Species ranked by their potential germination success were A. altissima > U. pumila > R. pseudoacacia > U. minor > F. angustifolia. The combination of a high Gmax and negligible seed insect-damage provided A. altissima with a potential germination advantage over the natives, which were the least successful due to an extremely high percentage of empty seeds or a very low Gmax. R. pseudoacacia showed high vulnerability to insect seed predation which might be compensated with the maintenance of persistent seed banks with high Gmax. Gmax and Tgerm were strongly affected by seed age in the seed-banking invaders, but between-seed bank variation of Gmax and Tgerm did not show a consistent pattern across species and populations.

  11. Effect of Ailanthus Excelsa Against Cyclophosphamide Induced Genotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Paithankar, Vivek; Kewatkar, Shailesh; Deshpande, Supriya; Karchuli, Manwendra

    2014-01-01

    Mutagenicity refers to the induction of permanent transmissible changes in the amount or structure of the genetic material of cells or organisms. These changes may involve a single gene or gene segment, a block of genes or chromosomes.

  12. Antifungal activity of the stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, B C; Pandey, Anuj; Chaurasia, Leena; Pal, Mahesh; Sharma, R P; Khare, Anakshi

    2003-12-01

    The methanol extract of stem barks of Alianthus excelsa was partitioned with chloroform. The chloroform extract showed fungistatic and fungicidal activity against Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, Penicillium frequentence, P. notatum and Botrytis cinerea.

  13. Comparación del "Tabog" (Swinglea glutinosa Merr con el limón "rugoso" (Citrus jambhiri Swingle y la mandarina "Cleopatra" (C. reticulata Swingle como porta-injerto para la lima acida ''Tahiti" (C. aurantifolia Swingle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restrepo C. Orlando

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available At the C.N.I.-I.C.A. Palmira, fruit trees program the influence of "Tabog" Swinglea glutinosa was evaluated as rootstock for acid lime "Tahiti" Citrus aurantifolia, taking into account the following aspects: development and productivility of the trees quality and growth of fruits, demands of nutriments, and resistance or susceptibility to pest and disease; comparing its behavior with the commercial rootstocks rough, lemon C. jambhiri and mandarina, "Cleopatra" C. reticulata.En el C.N.l. Palmira del Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (lCA, se evaluó la influencia del "Tabog" Swinglea glutinosa como porta-injerto para la lima "Tahiti " Citrus aurantifolia, teniendo en cuenta los siguientes aspectos: desarrollo y productividad del árbol, calidad y desarrollo de los frutos, exigencias de nutrimentos, resistencia o susceptibilidad a plagas y enfermedades; comparando su comportamiento con los porta-injertos comerciales limón "Rugoso" C. jambhiri y la mandarina "Cleopatra " C. reticulata.

  14. Biological recultivation with the use of fine-grained carbon waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuczynska, I.; Haber, Z. (University of Mining and Metallurgy, Cracow (Poland). Institute of Mineral Processing and Natural Resources Utilization)

    1993-01-01

    Studies use of black coal mining waste (50% ash content, 2% sulfur content) for recultivation of a municipal landfill. The coal mining waste was decarbonized and desulfurized in a hydrocyclone, yielding a waste fraction with 70% ash content and 0.7% sulfur. This waste fraction was applied as a 25-30 cm thick cover over a municipal landfill site containing rubble, plastics, glass, wood, paper, etc. A peat and fertilizer mixture was added. This cover was 15 cm deep after natural compaction. Some 130 trees of different species, 100 bushes and different grass types were planted; plant growth was monitored for 3 years. No further cultivation of the plants was provided in that period, during which a serious drought and frosts occurred. Very good growth of the plants Populus alba, Robinia pseudoacacia, Malus purpurea, Ailanthus altissima, Eleagnus angustifolia, Ligustrum vulgare and the grass types Elymus arenaria and Phalaris arundinacea was observed. 1 ref.

  15. Thorough investigation of the oxygen heterocyclic fraction of lime (Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rosaria; Russo, Marina; De Grazia, Selenia; Grasso, Elisa; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2014-04-01

    Reversed-phase-HPLC analysis by means of superficially porous silica particle columns (fused-core) was applied to the investigation of flavonoids, coumarins, and psoralens in lime juice samples. Hesperidin (367.0 ± 16.0 ppm) and eriocitrin (148.0 ± 7.9 ppm) were the most abundant flavonoids. Fifteen coumarins and furocoumarins were determined, including bergamottin (29.6 ± 1.1 ppm), 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin (16.5 ± 0.6 ppm), and oxypeucedanin hydrate (9.9 ± 0.5 ppm) as predominant compounds. These molecules are today well known for their beneficial effects on human health. As a consequence, the present study, beyond investigating for the first time the chemical composition of lime juice, highlights also its health-promoting qualities, due to its content of flavonoids and coumarins. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Effect of skin coatings on prolonging shelf life of kagzi lime fruits (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisen, Abhay; Pandey, Sailendra Kumar; Patel, Neha

    2012-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the influence of chemical and oil coatings on storage life of kagzi lime fruits. Fruits were harvested at physiological light green mature stage and treated with different concentrations of chemicals viz., Cacl2 and KMnO4 and edible coatings viz., (coconut oil, mustard oil, sesamum oil, castor oil and liquid paraffin wax). After treatment, fruits were kept at ambient condition (25-30 °C, 60-70% RH) till 18 days and analyzed for various physical and chemical parameters like PLW, marketable fruits retained, TSS, acidity, ascorbic acid, juice content and also organoleptic values. The results revealed that edible oil emulsion coating particularly coconut oil had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) effect on reduction of the physiological loss in weight (9.67%) and maximum marketable fruits retained (70%), total soluble solids (8.43%), ascorbic acid (49.93 mg/100 ml juice), acidity (1.52%) and juice content (42.34%) of fruits. Similarly, application of this oil emulsion coating acceptable for sensory quality parameters such as appearance, flavour, taste, external colour and no incidence of moulds & their growth up to 18 days of storage.

  17. As (V) biosorption in an aqueous solution using chemically treated lemon (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Rangel, Vania Marilyn; Cortés-Martínez, Raúl; Villanueva, Ruth Alfaro Cuevas; Garnica-Romo, Ma Guadalupe; Martínez-Flores, Héctor Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The use of biosorbents to remove metals and metalloids from contaminated water systems has gained great usage in various parts of the world. The objective of the current study was to test lemon peels as biosorbents for As (V). Lemon peels were chemically characterized and arsenic contact experiments were performed to determine the adsorption capacity of the peels using different empirical models. The model that fit the experimental data was the Lagergren empirical model with a correlation coefficient of R= 0.8841. The results show that lemon peels were able to retain 474.8 μg of As (V)/g of biosorbent. Lemon agro-industrial waste can be useful in the removal of heavy metals, such as arsenic, from aqueous media. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Preparation of Fortunella Swingle Jelly%金柑果肉果冻的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏其乐; 邢建荣; 陈剑兵; 邵敏; 郑美瑜; 程绍南; 丁良飞

    2008-01-01

    以金柑为主要原料研制金柑果肉果冻.实验结果表明10%金柑果汁、1.1%果冻粉、30°Brix糖液煮制金柑以及15%的糖金柑的工艺配方制得的产品风味较好,糖金柑的最佳煮制时间为8 min.

  19. Possibilities of cultivating ornamental trees and shrubs under conditions of air pollution with oxides of sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bialobok, S.; Bartkowiak, S.; Rachwal, L.

    1974-01-01

    The field work conducted has shown that high concentrations of SO/sub 2/ in the air can be withstood by the following trees and shrubs. Trees: Acer campestris, A. platanoides, Ailanthus altissima, Aesculus hippocastanum, Morus alba, Platanus acerifolia, Pinus strobur, P. nigra, Populus Berolinensis, P. candicans, P. Hybr. 27, P. Marilandica, P. simonii, P. Serotina, Quercus robus, Robinia pseudoacacia. Shrubs: Caragana arborescens, Crataegus oxyacantha, C. monogyna, Cerasus mehaleb, Forsythia/most of the species and varieties/, Ligustrum vulgare, Philadelphus coronaria, Ptelea trifoliata, Sambucus nigra, Salix caprea, Sorbaria sorbifolia, Sorbus aucuparia, Taxus baccata. For the selection of trees and shrubs in the laboratory, high concentrations of SO/sub 2/ were used (60-150 ppm for a period of 10 minutes). Experiments were conducted on cut shrubs kept in the gas chambers. In order to estimate the degree of their injury, they were transferred to a shaded greenhouse. A concentration of 65 ppm of SO/sub 2/ could be withstood by the following Forsythias: Forsythia intermedia Primulina, F. Densiflora, F. Spectabilis, F. giraldina, F. suspensa, F. koreana, F. ovata, F. japonica and Hippophae rhamnoides. A concentration of 130 ppm could be withstood only by F. intermedia Vitelina. A similarly high concentration of SO/sub 2/ could be withstood by shoots and leaves of Ailanthus girladii Duclouxii and by Platanus acerifolia. From among the lilacs Syringa pekinensis and S. amurensis proved resistant to high concentrations of SO/sub 2/.

  20. Establishment Success of Coexisting Native and Exotic Trees Under an Experimental Gradient of Irradiance and Soil Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Muñoz, Noelia; Castro-Díez, Pilar; Fierro-Brunnenmeister, Natalia

    2011-10-01

    The exotic trees Ailanthus altissima, Robinia pseudoacacia, Acer negundo and Elaeagnus angustifolia coexist with the native trees Fraxinus angustifolia and Ulmus minor in river banks of central Spain. Similarly, the exotic trees Acacia dealbata and Eucalyptus globulus co-occur with the natives Quercus pyrenaica and Pinus pinaster in Northwest Spain. We aimed to identify the environmental conditions that favour or hamper the establishment success of these species. In spring 2008, seeds of the studied species were sown under an experimental gradient of light (100, 65, 35, 7% of full sunlight) combined with three levels of soil moisture (mean soil water potential = -0.97, -1.52 and -1.77 MPa.). During the first growing season we monitored seed emergence and seedling survival. We found that the effect of light on the establishment success was stronger than the effect of soil moisture. Both exotic and native species of central Spain showed a good performance under high light, A. negundo being the most shade tolerant . Water shortage diminished E. angustifolia and A. altissima success. Among NW Spain species, A. dealbata and P. pinaster were found to be potential competitors for colonizing high-irradiance scenarios, while Q. pyrenaica and E. globulus were more successful under moderate shade. High soil moisture favoured E. globulus but not A. dealbata establishment. These results contribute to understand some of the factors controlling for spatial segregation between coexisting native and exotic tree species, and can help to take decisions orientated to the control and management of these exotic species.

  1. Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Infestations in Tree Borders and Subsequent Patterns of Abundance in Soybean Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, B L; Kuhar, T P; Herbert, D A; Brewster, C C; Hogue, J W; Aigner, J D

    2017-04-01

    The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an important pest of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) in the Mid-Atlantic United States. In order to assess the influence of nonmanaged wooded borders on H. halys infestation patterns in soybean, 12 soybean fields in Orange and Madison Counties, VA, were sampled each week from July to October in 2013 or 2014 for H. halys. At each location, five 2-min visual counts of H. halys life stages were made on tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima Mill.) and other favorable host trees along a wooded border, on the adjacent soybean edge, 15 m into the soybean field, and 30 m into the field. Seasonal data showed a clear trend at all locations of H. halys densities building up on A. altissima-dominated wooded borders in July, then, gradually moving into adjacent soybean field edges later in the summer. Halyomorpha halys did not move far from the invading field edge, with approximately half as many bugs being present at 15 m into the field and very few being detected 30 m into the field. These results have implications for continued monitoring and management using field border sprays, particularly on edges adjacent to woods. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Integración de impactos ecológicos causados por plantas exóticas invasoras: propuesta metodológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Castro-Díez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanto en España como en Europa existen demasiadas plantas exóticas invasoras para poder afrontar la gestión de todas ellas, por lo que es necesario priorizar las más nocivas. Sin embargo, ello requiere disponer de medidas cuantitativas, sistemáticas y comparables de su impacto. La información disponible es desigual en cuanto a los criterios y variables para medir impactos y por tanto difícil de integrar. Proponemos el siguiente método para integrar medidas de impactos procedentes de distintos estudios: 1 Búsqueda de casos de estudio, 2 cálculo de tamaños del efecto; 3 clasificación de los casos por nivel de organización, 4 integración de los tamaños del efecto para cada especie y nivel de impacto con técnicas de meta-análisis, y 5 estima de un índice de fiabilidad (basado en el número de casos y otro de consistencia (basado en la heterogeneidad entre casos. Aplicamos este método para estimar los impactos en España de tres árboles invasores (Ailanthus altissima, Robinia pseudoacacia y Ulmus pumila. Encontramos 50 casos para A. altissima, 39 para R. pseudoacacia y 15 para U. pumila. Los impactos en el nivel de ecosistema (fertilidad fueron los más estudiados, mientras que los de comunidad e individuo están menos documentados. Robinia pseudoacacia tiende a incrementar la fertilidad, mientras que A. altissima no altera esta propiedad. La metodología propuesta tiene la ventaja de permitir estimar el impacto con datos de estudios diversos, pero su aplicación está limitada por la disponibilidad de casos de estudio.

  3. Genetic value pollenizer lines of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris var. altissima Doell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. О. Яценко

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The features of sugar beet polygerm seed populations were studied. The ways of creation of combinationaluable pollenizers line –– component hybrid on sterile base were improve. The environment conditions had influenced on reaction of different types of genic interactions in specific sets of hybrids. The positive effects of interaction is a part of heterosis effects. It is proved that plasticity and stability effect depend on environment condition where genotype realization occurs.

  4. Propagación vegetativa de la lima ácida Tahiti Citrus aurantifolia (Christm swingle, por medio de enraizamiento de estacas Vegetative spreading of sour lime Tahiti Citrus aurantifolia (Christm swingle per rooting sticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baena García Diosdado

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En el ensayo definitivo adelantado en el Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario - Palmira, se evaluaron concentraciones de 150 y 250 ppm de ácido indolbutírico, tiempos de inmersión de 30 y 45 min., estacas con y sin disminución del área foliar, dos sustratos (cascarilla de arroz y una mezcla de suelo más arena, así como también la supresión de las tradicionales tapas de lienzo a las cámaras de propagación del sustrato suelo más arena. El porcentaje de formación de callo por el tipo de estímulo utilizado, fue similar en los dos sustratos. Los mejores resultados se obtuvieron con el tipo de estaca con hojas. La respuesta a las diferentes concentraciones de AIB fue relativamente similar. El tiempo de inmersión afectó en forma significativa el número de raíces, con promedio de seis raíces por estaca cuando se sometió a 45 mino de inmersión.

    At Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario - Palmira was made the present study. In the final essay was evaluated concentrations of 150 and 250 ppm of indolbutiric acid, inmersion times of 30 and 45 min., sticks with and without decreasing of leaf area, two substratum (rice's hust and a mix of soil plus sand, so also non- put covers of tinen cloth over propagation chambers of substratum soil plus sand. The percentage of caIlous formation by the kind of stimulus used, it was similar in both substratums. The best results were found in kind of stick with leaf. The answer of concentrations were similar. Time of inmersion affected in significant way the number of roots, getting six roots in average, when it's used 45 min. of inmersion.

  5. Influence of postharvest hot water treatment on nutritional and functional properties of kumquat (Fortunella japonica Lour. Swingle Cv. Ovale) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirra, Mario; Palma, Amedeo; D'Aquino, Salvatore; Angioni, Alberto; Minello, Elisabeth V; Melis, Marinella; Cabras, Paolo

    2008-01-23

    The present study investigated the influence of a hot water dip (HWD) for 2 min at 50 degrees C, a standard and effective treatment for postharvest decay control of citrus fruit, on the nutritional and health-related properties of kumquats. The results show that most of the parameters examined, including titratable acidity, soluble solids content, maturity index, glucose, fructose, sucrose, ascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid, alpha- and gamma-tocopherols, beta-carotene, zeaxantin, rhoifolin, and antioxidant activity, were not significantly affected by treatment. The levels of beta-cryptoxanthin, narirutin, and total flavonoids increased after HWD, whereas lutein and total phenols decreased. The concentration of the essential oil and the relative percentage of the individual components of the essential oil were not affected by HWD except for the minor compound p-menta-1,5-dien-1-ol, which increased after HWD. After storage, lower levels of glucose, total sugars, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin and lutein were recorded in HWD fruit. A decrease in antioxidant activity and increases in alpha-tocopherol and total vitamin E were found both in control and HWD fruit. The influence of HWD at 50 degrees C for 2 min on individual nutraceuticals and health-related properties was thus generally low and may depend on storage conditions.

  6. Post harvest physiconutritional changes in Kagzi limes (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) treated with selected oil emulsions and diphenyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, P; Dashora, L K

    2000-01-01

    Influence of oil emulsions and diphenyl on post-harvest physiconutritional changes in Kagzi limes (Citrus aurantifolia) was studied. During twelve days of storage, physiological loss in weight (PLW) and rotting were at a minimum in fruits treated with Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) oil plus diphenyl; juice content was at a maximum in mustard oil + diphenyl treated fruits. With the advancement of storage period, total soluble solids were increased while ascorbic acid and acidity of fruits decreased. Mustard oil plus diphenyl supported maximum ascorbic acid (25.60 mg/100 ml juice) and minimum total soluble solids (9.03%).

  7. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) using optimized systems for epicotyls and cotelydons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epicotyl and internodal stem segments provide the predominantly used explants for regeneration of transgenic citrus plants following co-cultivation with Agrobacterium. Previous reports using epicotyls segments from Mexican lime have shown low affinity for Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection which re...

  8. Acute and subchronic toxicity study of the water extract from root of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm. et Panz. Swingle in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanjana Jaijoy

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute and subchronic toxicities of the water extract from the roots of Citrus aurantifolia were studied in both male and female rats. Oral administration of the extract at a single dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight (5 male, 5 female did not produce signs of toxicity, behavioral changes, mortality or differences on gross appearance of internal organs. The subchronic toxicity was determined by oral feeding the test substance at the doses of 300, 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight for 90 days (10 male, 10 female. The examinations of signs, animal behavior and health monitoring showed no signs of abnormalities in the test groups as compared to the controls. The test and control groups (on the 90th day and the satellite group (on the 118th day were analyzed by measuring their final body and organ weights, taking necropsy, and examining hematological parameters, blood clinical chemistry and histopathology features. The oral administration of 1,200 mg/kg/ day of the extract of C. aurantifolia in male and female rats caused a significant increase in the liver enzymes, which remained within the normal range, but did not produce a significant histopathological change in the internal organs. In conclusion, the extract from the roots of C. aurantifolia administered orally did not cause acute or subchronic toxicities to male and female rats.

  9. Establishment success of coexisting native and exotic trees under an experimental gradient of irradiance and soil moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Muñoz, Noelia; Castro-Díez, Pilar; Fierro-Brunnenmeister, Natalia

    2011-10-01

    The exotic trees Ailanthus altissima, Robinia pseudoacacia, Acer negundo and Elaeagnus angustifolia coexist with the native trees Fraxinus angustifolia and Ulmus minor in river banks of central Spain. Similarly, the exotic trees Acacia dealbata and Eucalyptus globulus co-occur with the natives Quercus pyrenaica and Pinus pinaster in Northwest Spain. We aimed to identify the environmental conditions that favour or hamper the establishment success of these species. In spring 2008, seeds of the studied species were sown under an experimental gradient of light (100, 65, 35, 7% of full sunlight) combined with three levels of soil moisture (mean soil water potential = -0.97, -1.52 and -1.77 MPa.). During the first growing season we monitored seed emergence and seedling survival. We found that the effect of light on the establishment success was stronger than the effect of soil moisture. Both exotic and native species of central Spain showed a good performance under high light, A. negundo being the most shade tolerant. Water shortage diminished E. angustifolia and A. altissima success. Among NW Spain species, A. dealbata and P. pinaster were found to be potential competitors for colonizing high-irradiance scenarios, while Q. pyrenaica and E. globulus were more successful under moderate shade. High soil moisture favoured E. globulus but not A. dealbata establishment. These results contribute to understand some of the factors controlling for spatial segregation between coexisting native and exotic tree species, and can help to take decisions orientated to the control and management of these exotic species.

  10. Use of atomic absorption spectrometry in assessment of biomonitor plants for lead, cadmium and copper pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokce, Kaya; Mehmet, Yaman

    2012-01-01

    Eleven plant species were collected from the vicinity of lead-battery plant in the city of Gaziantep, Turkey. Lead, cadmium and copper concentrations in the soil and leaves of plants were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Lead, Cd and Cu concentrations in the soil samples taken from battery area were found to be in the ranges of 304-602, 0.4-0.44 and 31-37 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Significantly increased lead concentration up to 2 750 mg x kg(-1) was found in the leaves of Eleagnus angustifolia L. plant. The lead concentrations in the other plant leaves taken from 50 m around battery factory followed the order Ailanthus altissima > Morus sp. > Juglans regia L. > Ficus carica L. > Cydonia oblonga Miller > Prunus x domestica L. The plants, Populus nigra L. , Eleagnus angustifolia L. and Salix sp. were found useful for Cd, and the plant, Eleagnus angusti folia L. for Pb, to be considered as potential biomonitor. Especially, leaves of trees and plants taken from the distance of 50 m from battery plant have relatively higher Pb concentrations. Therefore, people who and animals which live in this area and benefit from these soil and plants have vital risks.

  11. Pollen analysis of natural honeys from the central region of Shanxi, North China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yan Song

    Full Text Available Based on qualitative and quantitative melissopalynological analyses, 19 Chinese honeys were classified by botanical origin to determine their floral sources. The honey samples were collected during 2010-2011 from the central region of Shanxi Province, North China. A diverse spectrum of 61 pollen types from 37 families was identified. Fourteen samples were classified as unifloral, whereas the remaining samples were multifloral. Bee-favoured families (occurring in more than 50% of the samples included Caprifoliaceae (found in 10 samples, Laminaceae (10, Brassicaceae (12, Rosaceae (12, Moraceae (13, Rhamnaceae (15, Asteraceae (17, and Fabaceae (19. In the unifloral honeys, the predominant pollen types were Ziziphus jujuba (in 5 samples, Robinia pseudoacacia (3, Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (2, Sophora japonica (1, Ailanthus altissima (1, Asteraceae type (1, and Fabaceae type (1. The absolute pollen count (i.e., the number of pollen grains per 10 g honey sample suggested that 13 samples belonged to Group I (<20,000 pollen grains, 4 to Group II (20,000-100,000, and 2 to Group III (100,000-500,000. The dominance of unifloral honeys without toxic pollen grains and the low value of the HDE/P ratio (i.e., honey dew elements/pollen grains from nectariferous plants indicated that the honey samples are of good quality and suitable for human consumption.

  12. Physicochemical characteristics of ambient particles settling upon leaf surfaces of urban plants in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lei; LIU Lian-you; GAO Shang-yu; HASI Eer-dun; WANG Zhi

    2006-01-01

    Particulate pollution is a serious health problem throughout the world, exacerbating a wide range of respiratory and vascular illnesses in urban areas. Urban plants play an important role in reducing particulate pollution. Physicochemical characteristics of ambient particles settling upon leaf surfaces of eleven roadside plants at four sites of Beijing were studies. Results showed that density of particles on the leaf surfaces greatly varied with plant species and traffic condition. Fraxinus chinensis, Sophora japonica, Ailanthus altissima, Syringa oblata and Prunus persica had larger densities of particles among the tall species. Due to resuspension of road dust,the densities of particles ofEuonymus japonicus and Parthenocissus quinquefolia with low sampling height were 2-35 times to other taller tree species. For test plant species, micro-roughness of leaf surfaces and density of particles showed a close correlation. In general, the larger micro-roughness of leaf surfaces is, the larger density of particles is. Particles settling upon leaf surfaces were dominantly PM10 (particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter; 98.4%) and PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter; 64.2%) which were closely relative to human health. Constant elements of particles were C, O, K, Ca, Si,earth dust or industrial emission and SO2, H2SO4 or sulfate. NaCl was derived from sea salt.

  13. Woody-biomass production in Michigan: species, genotype, and cultural investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.O.

    1984-01-01

    A stepwise approach was adopted in 1978 for developing a comprehensive woody-biomass production system for Michigan. The program consisted of four phases: 1) identification of the most promising biomass species through trial plantings on abandoned agricultural fields and cleared forest stands, 2) preliminary yield comparisons of several species growing in existing experimental plantations, 3) species improvement using standard tree improvement techniques, and 4) development of cultural techniques designed to optimize woody-biomass yield from energy plantations. This dissertation summarizes results of research in each of these areas. Species recommendations for each of three climatic zones in Michigan are based on survival and growth of 23 species at nine oil-field sites after four growing seasons. Pinus sylvestris, P. banksiana, P. resinosa, P. nigra x P. densiflora, Larix leptolepis, Alnus glutinosa, and Picea abies are recommended for use in the Upper Peninsula; Pinus sylvestris, P. resinosa, P. nigra x P. densiflora, Larix leptolepis, Alnus glutinosa, Picea abies, and Quercus robur are recommended for use in the northern Lower Peninsula; and Pinus sylvestris, Alnus glutinosa, Larix leptolepis, Populus, Quercus robur, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, and Salix are recommended for use in the southern Lower Peninsula of Michigan. Yield predictor equations were developed and yields analyzed for 13 species. The best yielding species in the older plantations (14- 16-years old) were Pinus nigra x P. densiflora and Betula alleghaniensis. The best species in the group of younger plantations (five- to nine-years old) were a Populus hybrid mixture and Ailanthus altissima.

  14. Molecular screening of Chinese medicinal plants for progestogenic and anti-progestogenic activity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H M Manir Ahmed; Jan-Ying Yeh; Yi-Chia Tang; Winston Teng-Kuei Cheng; Bor-Rung Ou

    2014-06-01

    Estrogen and progestins have adverse effects, and many of these adverse effects are caused by progestins. Due to this, many women choose to use botanical alternatives for hormone replacement therapy, which does not trigger steroidogenic properties. Therefore, it is necessary to screen these herbs for progestogenic and anti-progestogenic properties. Extract of 13 Chinese medicinal plants were analysed for progestogenic and anti-progestogenic activities by using progesterone response element-driven luciferase reporter gene bioassay. MTT assay was carried out to investigate the cytotoxic effect of herb extract on PAE cells. Among the 13 herbs, Dipsacus asperoides extract exhibited progestogenic activity, and 10 species – Cortex eucommiae, Folium artemisiae argyi, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Angelica sinensis, Atractylodes macrocephala koidz, Scutellaria baicalensis, Cuscuta chinensis, Euscaphis japonica, Ailanthus altissima, and Dioscorea opposita – were recognized to have anti-progestogenic like activities. Extract of Dipsacus asperoides demonstrated dose-dependent progestogenic activity, and the progestogenic activity of 100 g/mL extracts was equivalent to 31.45 ng/mL progesterone activity. Herbs extracts that exhibited anti-progestogenic-like activity also inhibited the 314.46 ng/mL progesterone activity in a dose-response manner. None of the herb extracts shown significant toxic effect on PAE cells at 40–100 g/mL compared to control. This discovery will aid selection of suitable herbs for hormone replacement therapy.

  15. Incidence of ozone symptoms on vegetation within a National Wildlife Refuge in New Jersey, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Donald D. [Department of Plant Pathology, Ecology Program, Penn State Institutes of the Environment, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16803 (United States)]. E-mail: ddd2@psu.edu; Orendovici, Teodora [Department of Plant Pathology, Ecology Program, Penn State Institutes of the Environment, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16803 (United States)

    2006-10-15

    During 1993-1996 and 2001-2003, we evaluated the percentage of plants (incidence) exhibiting ozone-induced foliar symptoms on vegetation within a National Wildlife Refuge located along the Atlantic Ocean coast of New Jersey, USA. Incidence varied among plant species and years. Bioindicator plants most sensitive to ozone, across all years, included native common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) and wild grape (Vitis spp.), as well as introduced tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima). Less sensitive bioindicators included Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) and winged sumac (Rhus coppolina). Black cherry (Prunus serotina) and sassafras (Sassafras albidum) were least sensitive. The greatest incidence of ozone symptoms, across all plant species, occurred in 1996, followed by 2001 > 1995 > 1994 > 1993 > 2003 > 2002. A model was developed that showed a statistically significant relationship between incidence of ozone symptoms and the following parameters: plant species, Palmer Drought Severity Index, and the interaction of W126 x N100 measures of ambient ozone. - Vegetation in a National Wildlife Refuge containing a Class I wilderness area exhibits foliar symptoms from ambient ozone.

  16. Development of Molecular Methods for Identification of Schizophyllum commune from Clinical Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzina, Walter; Lang-Loidolt, Doris; Braun, Hannes; Freudenschuss, Kurt; Stammberger, Heinz

    2001-01-01

    In the last 50 years, to our knowledge, only 16 cases of diseases caused by Schizophyllum commune in humans have been reported. Within only 6 months, we found four isolates of this basidiomycetous fungus, obtained from patients suffering from chronic sinusitis. The cultures of the isolated fungi showed neither clamp connections nor fruiting bodies (basidiocarps), which are distinctive features for S. commune, but fast-growing cottony white mycelium only. This was harvested, and DNA was extracted. The internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was amplified with fungus-specific primers, and the PCR products were sequenced. Two strains of S. commune, collected from branches of a European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) and a tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima), respectively; four specimens from the herbarium of the Institute of Botany, Karl-Franzens-University Graz; and two strains from internationally known culture collections (CBS 340.81 [ATCC 44201] and CBS 405.96) were investigated in the same way. The sequence data of all strains were compared and showed homology of over 99% in this 660-bp-long fragment of rDNA. With these results, a map of restriction enzyme cutting sites and a primer set specific for S. commune were created for reliable identification of this human pathogenic fungus. PMID:11427544

  17. Use of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry in Assessment of Biomonitor Plants for Lead, Cadmium and Copper Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gokce Kaya; Mehmet Yaman

    2012-01-01

    Eleven plant species were collected from the vicinity of lead-battery plant in the city of Gaziantep,Turkey.Lead,cadmium and copper concentrations in the soil and leaves of plants were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry.Lead,Cd and Cu concentrations in the soil samples taken from battery area were found to be in the ranges of 304~602,0.4~0.44 and 31~37 mg · kg-1,respectively.Significantly increased lead concentration up to 2 750 mg · kg-1 was found in the leaves of Eleagnus angustifolia L.plant.The lead concentrations in the other plant leaves taken from 50 m around battery factory followed the order Ailanthus altissima >Morus sp.> Juglans regia L.> Ficus carica L.>Cydonia oblonga Miller> Prunus x domestica L.The plants,Populus nigra L.,Eleagnus angustifolia L.and Salix sp.were found useful for Cd,and the plant,Eleagnus angustifolia L.for Pb,to be considered as potential biomonitor.Especially,leaves of trees and plants taken from the distance of 50 m from battery plant have relatively higher Pb concentrations.Therefore,people who and animals which live in this area and benefit from these soil and plants have vital risks.

  18. Species-specific reversal of stem xylem embolism after a prolonged drought correlates to endpoint concentration of soluble sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Tadeja; Casolo, Valentino; Luglio, Jessica; Bertuzzi, Stefano; Trifilo', Patrizia; Lo Gullo, Maria A; Nardini, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Recent reports on tree mortality associated with anomalous drought and heat have raised interest into processes underlying tree resistance/resilience to water stress. Hydraulic failure and carbon starvation have been proposed as main causes of tree decline, with recent theories treating water and carbon metabolism as interconnected processes. We subjected young plants of two native (Quercus pubescens [Qp] and Prunus mahaleb [Pm]) and two invasive (Robinia pseudoacacia [Rp] and Ailanthus altissima [Aa]) woody angiosperms to a prolonged drought leading to stomatal closure and xylem embolism, to induce carbon starvation and hydraulic failure. At the end of the treatment, plants were measured for embolism rates and NSC content, and re-irrigated to monitor recovery of xylem hydraulics. Data highlight different hydraulic strategies in native vs invasive species under water stress, and provide physiological explanations for species-specific impacts of recent severe droughts. Drought-sensitive species (Qp and Rp) suffered high embolism rates and were unable to completely refill xylem conduits upon restoration of water availability. Species that better survived recent droughts were able to limit embolism build-up (Pm) or efficiently restored hydraulic functionality after irrigation (Aa). Species-specific capacity to reverse xylem embolism correlated to stem-level concentration of soluble carbohydrates, but not to starch content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. The complete mitochondrial genomes of two weevils, Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis and E. brandti: conserved genome arrangement in Curculionidae and deficiency of tRNA-Ile gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhen-Kai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The weevils Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis and Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, are two of the most important pests of the tree-of-heaven, Ailanthus altissima, which is found throughout China. In this study, the complete mitogenomes of the two weevils have been sequenced using Illumina HiSeqTM 2000. The mitogenomes of E. chinensis and E. brandti are 15,628bp and 15,597bp long with A+T contents of 77.7% and 76.6%, respectively. Both species have typical circular mitochondrial genomes that encode 36 genes. Except the deficiency of tRNA-Ile, the gene composition and order of E. chinensis and E. brandti are identical to the inferred ancestral gene arrangement of insects. In both mitochondrial genomes, the start codons for COI and ND1 are AAT and TTG, respectively. A5bp motif (TACTA is detected in intergenic region between the tRNA-Ser (UCN and ND1 genes. The ATP8/ATP6 and ND4L/ND4 gene pairs appear to overlap four or seven nucleotides (ATAA/ATGATAA in different reading frames. The complete sequences of AT-rich region have two regions including tandem repeats. The study identifies useful genetic markers for studying the population genetics, molecular identification and phylogeographics of Eucryptorrhynchus weevils. The features of the mitochondrial genomes are expected to be valuable in

  20. Woody invasions of urban trails and the changing face of urban forests in the great plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, K.T.; Allen, C.R.; Alai, A.; Clements, G.; Kessler, A.C.; Kinsell, T.; Major, A.; Stephen, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Corridors such as roads and trails can facilitate invasions by non-native plant species. The open, disturbed habitat associated with corridors provides favorable growing conditions for many non-native plant species. Bike trails are a corridor system common to many urban areas that have not been studied for their potential role in plant invasions. We sampled five linear segments of urban forest along bike trails in Lincoln, Nebraska to assess the invasion of woody non-native species relative to corridors and to assess the composition of these urban forests. The most abundant plant species were generally native species, but five non-native species were also present: white mulberry (Morus alba), common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica), tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima), honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.) and elm (Ulmus spp.). The distribution of two of the woody species sampled, common buckthorn and honeysuckle, significantly decreased with increasing distance from a source patch of vegetation (P = 0.031 and 0.030). These linear habitats are being invaded by non-native tree and shrub species, which may change the structure of these urban forest corridors. If non-native woody plant species become abundant in the future, they may homogenize the plant community and reduce native biodiversity in these areas. ?? 2011 American Midland Naturalist.

  1. Relationship Between Woody Plant Colonization and Typha L. Encroachment in Stormwater Detention Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb, Priscilla Bocskor; Day, Susan D.; Wynn-Thompson, Theresa M.; Seiler, John R.

    2013-10-01

    We studied stormwater detention basins where woody vegetation removal was suspended for 2 years in Virginia, USA to determine if woody vegetation can control Typha populations and how early woody plant succession interacts with Typha, other herbaceous vegetation, and site factors. Distribution and composition of woody vegetation, Typha and non- Typha herbaceous vegetation biomass, and site factors were assessed at 100 plots in four basins ranging in age from 7 to 17 years. A greenhouse study examined the interaction of shade and soil moisture on Typha biomass and persistence. Principal component analysis identified an environmental gradient associated with greater water table depths and decreased elevation that favored Typha but negatively influenced woody vegetation. Elevation was correlated with litter layer distribution, suggesting that initial topography influences subsequent environmental characteristics and thus plant communities. Soil organic matter at 0-10 cm ranged from 5.4 to 12.7 %. Woody plants present were native species with the exception of Ailanthus altissima and Pyrus calleryana. In the greenhouse, shade and reduced soil moisture decreased Typha biomass and rhizome length. The shade effect was strongest in flooded plants and the soil moisture effect was strongest for plants in full sun. Typha in dry soil and heavy shade had 95 % less total biomass and 83 % smaller rhizomes than Typha in flooded soil and full sun, but even moderate soil moisture reductions decreased above- and below-ground biomass by 63 and 56 %, respectively. Suspending maintenance allows restoration of woody vegetation dominated by native species and may suppress Typha invasion.

  2. Assessing current and projected suitable habitats for tree-of-heaven along the Appalachian Trail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John; Wang, Yeqiao; August, Peter V

    2014-01-01

    The invasion of ecosystems by non-native species is a major driver of biodiversity loss worldwide. A critical component of effective land management to control invasion is the identification and active protection of areas at high risk of future invasion. The Appalachian Trail Decision Support System (A.T.-DSS) was developed to inform regional natural resource management by integrating remote sensing data, ground-based measurements and predictive modelling products. By incorporating NASA's remote sensing data and modelling capacities from the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS), this study examined the current habitat suitability and projected suitable habitat for the invasive species tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima) as a prototype application of the A.T.-DSS. Species observations from forest surveys, geospatial data, climatic projections and maximum entropy modelling were used to identify regions potentially susceptible to tree-of-heaven invasion. The modelling result predicted a 48% increase in suitable area over the study area, with significant expansion along the northern extremes of the Appalachian Trail.

  3. 北京地区主要行道树树种适应性评价及病虫害防治%Adaptability Assessment and Pest Control for Major Avenue Tree Species in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国静; 杨伟强

    2012-01-01

    通过2009和2010年对行道树生长情况的调查,初步总结北京地区现有十余个行道树树种的生长、生态习性、主要病虫害发生规律及防治方法;考虑极端天气的耐受能力以及应用前景,特别推荐适应性强的传统树种"杨、柳、榆、槐、椿"以及栾树、白蜡作行道树,建议减少悬铃木、银杏等适应性差的树种的使用。%Through the investigation of avenue tree growth in 2009 - 2010, the growth, ecological properties, and oc- currence rules of main pests and their control methods were preliminarily summarized. In view of the tolerance capaci- ty against extreme weather and the application prospect, the conventional species including Populus, Salix matsu- dana, Ulmus pumila, Sophora japonica, Ailanthus altissima, as well as additionally Koelreuteria paniculata and Fraxinus velutina, were strongly recommend as avenue trees in Beijing. It was suggested that the use of species like Platanus and Ginkgo biloba with poor adaptability should be reduced

  4. Ephedra alte (Joint Pine: An Invasive, Problematic Weedy Species in Forestry and Fruit Tree Orchards in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal R. Qasem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008–2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked.

  5. Ephedra alte (joint pine): an invasive, problematic weedy species in forestry and fruit tree orchards in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasem, Jamal R

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008-2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked.

  6. Pollution resistance assessment of existing landscape plants on Beijing streets based on air pollution tolerance index method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng-Qian; Liu, Yan-Ju; Chen, Xing; Yang, Zheng; Zhu, Ming-Hao; Li, Yi-Ping

    2016-10-01

    Various plant species of green belt in urban traffic area help to reduce air pollution and beautify the city environment. Those plant species growing healthily under long-term atmospheric pollution environment are considered to be resilient. This study aims to identify plant species that are more tolerant to air pollution from traffic and to give recommendations for future green belt development in urban areas. Leaf samples of 47 plant species were collected from two heavy traffic roadside sites and one suburban site in Beijing during summer 2014. Four parameters in leaves were separately measured including relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content (TCH), leaf-extract pH (pH), and ascorbic acid (AA). The air pollution tolerance index (APTI) method was adopted to assess plants' resistance ability based on the above four parameters. The tolerant levels of plant species were classified using two methods, one by comparing the APTI value of individual plant to the average of all species and another by using fixed APTI values as standards. Tolerant species were then selected based on combination results from both methods. The results showed that different tolerance orders of species has been found at the three sampling sites due to varied air pollution and other environmental conditions. In general, plant species Magnolia denudata, Diospyros kaki, Ailanthus altissima, Fraxinus chinensis and Rosa chinensis were identified as tolerant species to air pollution environment and recommend to be planted at various location of the city, especially at heavy traffic roadside.

  7. Toxicity of white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) compounds to adult and larval lifestages of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because of increasing insecticide resistance, new pesticides are needed. Flowering plants have been the source of useful pesticides in the past. We studied 15 chemicals isolated from a poisonous pasture plant for activity against the yellow fever mosquito. We found that dehydrotremetone was effectiv...

  8. Identity of the ailanthus webworm moth (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae, a complex of two species: evidence from DNA barcoding, morphology and ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wilson

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available During extensive ongoing campaigns to inventory moths of North America and Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG, northwestern Costa Rica, we discovered that morphologically similar yponomeutid moths were assigned two different names, Atteva ergatica Walsingham in Costa Rica and A. punctella (Stoll in North America, but had identical DNA barcodes. Combining DNA barcoding, morphology and food plant records also revealed a complex of two sympatric species that are diagnosable by their DNA barcodes and their facies in Costa Rica. However, neither of the names could be correctly applied to either species, as A. ergatica is a junior synonym and A. punctella a junior homonym. By linking our specimens to type material through morphology and DNA barcoding, we determined that the ACG dry forest species, distributed from Costa Rica to southern Quebec and Ontario, should be called A. aurea, whereas the similar and marginally sympatric ACG rain forest species found in Central America should be called A. pustulella. Neotypes are designated for Phalaena Tinea punctella Stoll, 1781 and Deiopeia aurea Fitch, 1857. Atteva floridana has identical barcodes to A. aurea and provisionally maintained as a synonym.

  9. 樗蚕生物学特性的研究%STUDIES ON BIONOMICS OF AILANTHUS SILKWORM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张树平; 赵秀玲; 黄大庄; 范继红; 宋起图

    1999-01-01

    樗蚕(Philosamia cynthia Walker et Felder)在保定1 a发生2~3代,以2代为主,以蛹在茧内于树上越冬.越冬代成虫羽化高峰期为5月8日,第1代成虫羽化高峰期为7月16日.4龄幼虫排粪量为26粒/头.4龄幼虫期平均抓着力为42 g,5龄幼虫平均抓着力为195 g.樗蚕性比为雌:雄=1:1.03.在河北省主要寄主植物有臭椿、臭檀、花椒、枣树、泡桐等,另外有13种植物,共18种,分别隶属于16科.

  10. A test of genotypic variation in specificity of herbivore-induced responses in Solidago altissima L. (Asteraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uesugi, A.; Poelman, E.H.; Kessler, A.

    2013-01-01

    Plant-induced responses to multiple herbivores can mediate ecological interactions among herbivore species, thereby influencing herbivore community composition in nature. Several studies have indicated high specificity of induced responses to different herbivore species. In addition, there may be ge

  11. A test of genotypic variation in specificity of herbivore-induced responses in Solidago altissima L. (Asteraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uesugi, A.; Poelman, E.H.; Kessler, A.

    2013-01-01

    Plant-induced responses to multiple herbivores can mediate ecological interactions among herbivore species, thereby influencing herbivore community composition in nature. Several studies have indicated high specificity of induced responses to different herbivore species. In addition, there may be

  12. Co-occurrence of aflatoxin B(1) and cyclopiazonic acid in sour lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) during post-harvest pathogenesis by Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamba, Rozy; Sumbali, Geeta

    2005-04-01

    During hot and humid seasons, extensive rot of sour lime was observed to be caused by Aspergillus flavus. In view of this, investigations were undertaken to obtain data on the production of various toxins by A. flavus during post harvest pathogenesis of sour lime. Sixty percent of the pathogenic A. flavus isolates were detected to be aflatoxin B(1) producers in sour lime tissue. It was also noted that thirty three percent of aflatoxigenic A. flavus isolates had the potential to coproduce cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). Such aflatoxigenic isolates produced quantitatively more CPA (ranging from 250.0 to 2501.3 microg/kg) than aflatoxin B(1) (ranging from 141.3 to 811.7 microg/kg) in the affected sour lime. This study demonstrates for the first time that sour lime are a favourable substrate for aflatoxin B(1) and cyclopiazonic acid production by A. flavus isolates. This is of great concern to the health of consumers.

  13. Enzymatic hydrolysis of Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis(Noot.) swingle%药用佛手柑酶水解条件的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟秀茵; 黄晓钰

    2005-01-01

    目的:研究纤维素酶水解药用佛手柑的最佳条件.方法:通过正交实验方案测定不同酶解条件佛手柑的酶解率,并比较酶解浆液的营养成分.结果:纤维素酶水解佛手柑的最佳条件为:T=60℃,pH=4.5,S=8.0%,E/S=1.0%,t=1.5 h,此条件下酶解率可达 64.6%.所得的酶解浆液可溶性糖、游离氨基酸总量、黄酮等营养成分均比水浸出液及酸解液高.结论:合适的酶解处理能较好地提高佛手柑的使用价值.

  14. Antidepressant effects of Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis swingle from Sichuan province%川佛手提取物对小鼠的抗抑郁作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芦红; 吴月霞; 杨丽嘉; 李继成; 张伟; 刘娜

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究川佛手提取物的抗抑郁作用.方法:采用水蒸气蒸馏法制备川佛手挥发油,采用回流提取法制备川佛手水提浸膏I、川佛手水提后醇提浸膏Ⅱ和Ⅲ、石油醚浸膏、乙酸乙酯浸膏和正丁醇浸膏,以生理盐水为空白对照,氟西汀为阳性对照药,采用小鼠强迫游泳实验和小鼠悬尾实验测定上述提取物实验4 min内对小鼠游泳和悬尾的不动时间的影响.结果:与空白对照组[(142.30±9.97)s]相比,阳性对照药氟西汀组、川佛手挥发油组、浸膏Ⅱ组、浸膏Ⅲ组小鼠游泳时不动时间均缩短[(80.80 ±6.33)、(77.20 ±10.73)、(107.40 ±12.28)和(78.30 ±9.33)s,F=11.080,P<0.001],而浸膏I组[(141.30 ±6.09)s]效果不明显.与空白对照组[(115.60 ±6.44)s]相比,氟西汀组、正丁醇浸膏组小鼠悬尾不动时间均缩短[(82.50 ±4.54)和(91.00 ±8.04)s,F=5.548,P=0.015].结论:川佛手具有一定的抗抑郁作用.%Aim: To study the antidepressant effects of the extracts of Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis from Sichuan province. Methods:Preparing the volatile oils of bergamot by steam distillation. Reflux extraction was used to prepared aqueous extract, ethanol extract after water extraction, petroleum ether extract, ethyl acetate extract and butanol extract of bergamot. Rat forced swimming tests (FST) and its tail suspension test(TST) were carried out to explore the effects of the above-mentioned extracts on swimming and tail suspension immobility time by choosing normal saline and fluoxetine as blank and positive control, respectively. Results:Compared with the blank control group[ ( 142.30 ± 9.97 ) s], fluoxetine,bergamot essential oil, extract Ⅱ and Ⅲ shortened mice swimming immobility time[ ( 80.80 ± 6.33 ), ( 77.20 ± 10.73 ),( 107.40 ± 12.28), and ( 78.30 ± 9.33 ) s; F = 1 1. 080, P < 0.001 ]. Further experiments showed that n-butanol extracts reduced mice swimming immobility time. Compared with the blank control group[ ( 115.60 ±6.44)s], both fluoxetine and nbutanol extracts shortened mice tail suspension immobility time [ ( 82.50 ± 4. 54 ) and ( 91.00 ± 8.04 ) s, F = 5. 548, P =0.015 ]. Conclusion: Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis from Sichuan Province extracts possess the antidepressant properties.

  15. Desverdecimento e Conservação em Pós-Colheita de Frutos de Kunquat (Fortunella margarita, Swingle em Resposta a Tratamentos com Ethephon e Cera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V. da MOTA

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por finalidade verificar o efeito da aplicação de cera e de vários níveis de ethephon no desverdecimento e na conservação em pós-colheita de frutos de kunquat. Os frutos, colhidos no ponto de quebra de cor, foram tratados com soluções de ethephon a 250, 500 e 1000 ppm acrescidas de 0,3 ppm de Agral, ou encerados com Stafresh. Os frutos foram selecionados visualmente por tamanho e cor e após o tratamento, foram armazenados a temperatura ambiente (26°C ± 1°C, 50 a 60% UR. Foram feitas avaliações diárias quanto a perda de peso, textura, sólidos solúveis totais (°Brix, e degradação da clorofila. Todos os tratamentos com ethephon promoveram a degradação da clorofila. A taxa de desverdecimento aumentou proporcionalmente ao aumento na concentração de ethephon. O uso da cera reduziu tanto a perda de massa quanto a taxa de desverdecimento. Não houve diferenças na textura ou no °Brix dos frutos tratados em relação ao controle. Não foi verificada alteração nas características organolépticas dos frutos tratados tanto com ethephon quanto com Stafresh.This work was carried out to verify the effect of waxing and ethephon levels on postharvest conservation and degreening of kunquat fruits. Fruits harvested at the color break stage were treated with ethephon solutions at 250, 500 and 1000 ppm + 0.3 ppm Agral, or waxed with Stafresh. Fruits were visually selected for size and color, and after the treatment were stored at room temperature (26°C ± 1°C, 50 to 60% RH. Fruits were daily evaluated for weight loss, texture, total soluble solids (°Brix, and chlorophyll degradation. All ethephon treatments were effective in promoting chlorophyll breakdown. The rate of degreening increased proportionally to the increase in ethephon concentration. Waxing reduced both weight loss and the rate of degreening. There were no differences in both texture and °Brix for treated fruits in relation to control. No off-flavor was noticed in fruits treated with either ethephon or Stafresh.

  16. Influencia del secado sobre la captación de agua de pectina extraída a partir del citrus x aurantifolia swingle

    OpenAIRE

    Grunauer Espinoza, Cecilia Catalina

    2009-01-01

    En el presente estudio se analizó el efecto de la temperatura durante la etapa de secado de la pectina y su resultado sobre la capacidad de gelificación. Esta investigación busca evitar la disociación de los grupos metilester del ácido poligalacturónico y establece una temperatura óptima en la cual la pectina sufra una menor pérdida de su calidad lo que permitirá que la molécula de pectina permanezca más esterificada, incrementando su gelificacion. Para esta investigación se empleó limones...

  17. Secondary wind dispersal enhances long-distance dispersal of an invasive species in urban road corridors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Kowarik

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Roads contribute to habitat fragmentation and function as dispersal barriers for many organisms. At the same time many nonnative plant species are associated with road systems, a relationship that has been explained by the availability of disturbed habitats along roadsides and traffic-mediated dispersal of species. By studying secondary wind dispersal (SWD over paved ground in an urban road corridor, we add the perspective of corridor-specific, but traffic-independent dispersal processes to the complex dispersal systems along roads. We analyzed (1 the seed shadow of an invasive tree Ailanthus altissima along a sidewalk subsequent to a strong wind and (2 the movements of painted samaras of this species released at ground level at the same site to identify the functioning of SWD. For the first experiment, we searched for samaras in the vicinity of an isolated tree three days after a strong wind. For the second experiment, we tracked the movement of the released samaras repeatedly over a period of 9–11 days, approximated probability-distance functions to the frequency distribution of samaras along the transect for different times after release, and related nearby measured wind data to changes in dispersal kernels. Single samaras from an isolated tree formed a seed shadow that extended for a distance of 456m and fragments of fruit clusters traveled up to 130m. Forty-twopercent of the sampled samaras were moved >100 m. The second experiment revealed that painted samaras released on the ground were moved up to 150m over the pavement. Dispersal distances increased with time after seed release. A significant increase in the scale parameter b of the dispersal kernel with higher wind sums above 3.7 m/s illustrates a threshold for movement of samaras over the ground. Habitat shifts to safe sites for germination occurred during SWD, and different types of pavement influenced these processes. Smooth-surfaced pavement enhanced SWD, while cobbles with

  18. Short Rotation Forestry (SRF in a Mediterranean Environment Under Limited Energy Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Lovelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is comparing the two year performance (diameter, total height and mortality of twenty tree and shrub species in a semi arid environment. The research also wants to supply recommendation on the agronomic cropping techniques in areas where rainfall is the main limiting factor and water use is strictly limited. Woody biomass is gaining increasing importance for energy production in Italy. During the last five years, roughly 5000 ha of Short Rotation Forestry (SRF have been planted, mostly in northern Italy, especially using poplar clones. However, in Southern Italy, due to the poor rainfall and the lack of knowledge existing on the species to use, few groves have been established. The studied groves were set in December 2005 in a Mediterranean area where the total year rainfall is not higher than 600 mm (mostly in autumn and winter. Twenty species (Salix cinerea, Ulmus carpinifolia, Corylus avellana, Spartium junceum, Acer saccharinum, Morus alba, Saphora japonica, Eleagnus angustifolia, Fraxinus angustifolia (var oxicarpa, Sambucus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Populus nigra, Albizia julibrissis, Populus alba, Salix alba, Ailanthus altissima, Alnus cordata, Ficus carica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Celtis australis were planted in “collection” plots and set in singular plots on single rows (3 m X 0.5 m spacing. Six species (R. pseudoacacia, P. nigra, P. alba, S. nigra, E. camaldulensis, and A. altissima were planted in eighteen random “experimental” split-plots, using single and twin rows (0.5 m spacing between plants. Plots had a rectangular plant spacing (3 m between singular and twin rows, 0.5 m on each row. Plant density was roughly 6670 cuttings ha-1 in “collection” plots with singular rows and 10950 cuttings ha-1 in “experimental” plots using single and twin rows. The expected harvest interval ranges from 2 to 5 years, depending on the first results. In the “collection” plots, the first results showed

  19. 大兴沙地中11个树种基于根系形态的适应性%Adaptability of Eleven Tree Species Based on Root Characteristics in Daxing Sandy Land, Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴源; 徐程扬; 袁士保; 陈华; 段树生

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the adaptability of 11 tree species in Daxing sandy land in Beijing according to aboveground growth, root vertical distribution, and root morphological variation by means of systematic clustering. Results showed that tree height, diameter at breast height, shoot length, shoot relative growth, root length, root surface area, root volume and specific root length were obviously different among the eleven tree species (p<0.001). Strong differentiation of fine roots was observed in Ailanthus altissima, Catalpa bungei, and relative strong differentiation of fine roots in Gleditsia sinensis, Sabina chinensis and Koelreuteria paniculate, indicating that these tree species were drought resistant by using more soil resources. The drought avoidance of Ziziphus jujuba, Elaeagnus angustifolia and Hippophae rhamnoides was observed by decreasing fine roots less than 2 mm in diameter, increasing medium roots 2? mm or more than 5 mm in diameter, and deepening root distribution. Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica was drought tolerant by decreasing the growth of aboveground parts and root system; while Moms alba trees exhibited poor adaptability to sandy land.%通过地上生长量、根系垂直分布和形态特征分析以及系统聚类分析,对11个树种在北京大兴沙地生长的适宜性进行了研究.结果表明:各树种的树高、直径、新梢生长量和相对生长以及根系长度、根系表面积、根系体积和比根长等指标均有极显著的差异(p<0.001).其中,臭椿(Ailanthus altissima)、楸树(Catalpa bungei)细根分化极强,皂角(Gleditsia sinensis)、圆柏(Sabina chinensis和栾树(Koelreuteria paniculata)根系分化能力较强,通过较高的土壤资源消耗体现抗旱能力;酸枣(Ziziphus jujuba)、沙枣(Elaeagnus angustifolia)和沙棘(Hippophae rhamnoides)通过降低直径小于2 mm根系分化、提高直径2~5mm和大于5 mm根系生长和分布深度体现

  20. Ground-level ozone distribution pattern in summer of Beijing and its foliar injury effect upon plants%北京夏季地表臭氧污染分布特征及其对植物的伤害效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红星; 孙旭; 姚余辉; 万五星; 肖扬; 孙滨峰; William J.Manning; 韩春萌; 郜世奇

    2014-01-01

    臭氧是重要的空气氧化剂,适当浓度的臭氧可以消菌杀毒,但过高浓度的臭氧可能对生物健康构成威胁.随着城市汽车保有量的迅速上升,臭氧的前体物氮氧化物和VOCs排放增多,臭氧浓度随之不断升高,地表臭氧污染日趋严重.地表臭氧的分布特征以及其对植物的胁迫伤害效应引起了人们的重视.是通过监测北京夏季地表臭氧污染分布规律,鉴定是否有植物受到臭氧伤害,以及受伤害植物的种类及地理分布特征,为城市与区域臭氧风险评估提供依据.从2012年7月4日到8月30日,采用被动采样分析的方法,在北京东北、西北、西南、东南郊区以及城区设置了10个研究样点,监测平均臭氧浓度的变化.同时,运用“森林健康专家咨询系统”鉴定植物受臭氧伤害的特征.结果表明:(1)监测期间,北京西部和北部山区的臭氧浓度高于平原地区;在平原地区,公园中的臭氧浓度高于道旁绿化带;山区的臭氧浓度平均为105.39 μg/m3,公园中为68.49μg/m3,道旁绿化带为56.54 μg/m3;(2)在北京的公园和山区发现了18种植物符合“森林健康专家咨询系统”所述臭氧伤害特征,有五叶地锦(Parthenocissus quinquefolia)、核桃(Juglans regia)、臭椿(Ailanthus altissima)、喇叭花(Pharbitis purpurea)、桑树(Morus alba)、榆树(Ulmus pumila)、国槐(Sophora japonica)金叶槐(Sophora japonica f.flavi-rameus)、木槿(Hibiscus syriacus)、重瓣棣棠花(Kerria japonica)、山香(Hyptis suaveolens)、决明(Cassia tora)、毛白杨(Populus tomentosa、黄花柳(Salix caprea)、大花地榆(Sanguisorba sitchensis)、火炬树(Rhus typhina)、大豆(Glycine max)、向日葵(Helianthus annuus);没有在道旁绿化带的植物叶片发现臭氧伤害症状;(3)臭椿(Ailanthus altissima)幼树臭氧伤害症状明显,易于辨认,且臭椿出现频率最高,是分布广泛的乡土树种,适合作为臭氧污染指示植物.

  1. Evaluation of the Potential Use of Agricultural and Forestial Waste in Spawn Production of Medicinal Mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tavana

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Spawn quality plays an important role in successful production of medicinal mushrooms. In this study, firstly, to determine the optimum temperature for mycelia growth of G. lucidum, four basal media, including seeds of wheat, barley, millet and Abies sp. wood chip were studied separately at 25±1˚C and 29±1˚C. In the second section, in order to achieve suitable the mycelia growth, barley, wheat and millet seeds were mixed with different ratios of agriculture waste including wheat bran (10, 20 and 30% dry weight and millet peel (20, 40 and 60% dry weight and also Abies sp wood chips (20, 30, 50 and 60% dry weight as forestial waste. In the final section, several forestial waste including sawdusts (Platanus orientalis, Acer sp, Robinia peseudoacacia, Ailanthus altissima, Fagus orientals, Alnus subcordata and Populas alba were used as medium for spawn production. In the first experiment, a higher mycelia growth rate (8.92 mm/day was obtained by applying wheat seed at 29±1˚C. In the second experiment, the results showed that higher mycelia growth rate was obtained by using wheat with 10% wheat bran (9.66 mm/day. In the final section of spawn production, R. peseudoacacia sawdust (C/N=25.84 was generated higher growth rate (9.36 mm/day. Also, using supplements containing nitrogen (N such as sawdust and bran, encourage mycelium growth and with increasing C/N ratios more than 61.3 decreased growth rate due to reduce N amount.

  2. Plant Invasions Associated with Change in Root-Zone Microbial Community Structure and Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R Rodrigues

    Full Text Available The importance of plant-microbe associations for the invasion of plant species have not been often tested under field conditions. The research sought to determine patterns of change in microbial communities associated with the establishment of invasive plants with different taxonomic and phenetic traits. Three independent locations in Virginia, USA were selected. One site was invaded by a grass (Microstegium vimineum, another by a shrub (Rhamnus davurica, and the third by a tree (Ailanthus altissima. The native vegetation from these sites was used as reference. 16S rRNA and ITS regions were sequenced to study root-zone bacterial and fungal communities, respectively, in invaded and non-invaded samples and analyzed using Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology (QIIME. Though root-zone microbial community structure initially differed across locations, plant invasion shifted communities in similar ways. Indicator species analysis revealed that Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs closely related to Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Ascomycota increased in abundance due to plant invasions. The Hyphomonadaceae family in the Rhodobacterales order and ammonia-oxidizing Nitrospirae phylum showed greater relative abundance in the invaded root-zone soils. Hyphomicrobiaceae, another bacterial family within the phyla Proteobacteria increased as a result of plant invasion, but the effect associated most strongly with root-zones of M. vimineum and R. davurica. Functional analysis using Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt showed bacteria responsible for nitrogen cycling in soil increased in relative abundance in association with plant invasion. In agreement with phylogenetic and functional analyses, greater turnover of ammonium and nitrate was associated with plant invasion. Overall, bacterial and fungal communities changed congruently across plant invaders, and support the hypothesis that

  3. Doprinos istraživanju slobodnih i glikozidno vezanih isparljivih spojeva od 2001. do 2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerković, I.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This review paper presents a contribution to the research of free and glycosidically bound volatiles in the 2001-2006 period obtained by work in the Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and Technology, University of Split, Croatia. Many terpene structures, phenylpropane derivatives (Fig. 6, as well as aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, carbonyls, fatty acids and others were identified (Fig. 5. The chemotypes of Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum, Artemisia absinthium and Myrtus communis were determined and some uninvestigated or insufficiently investigated plants (Micromeria juliana, Sequaoiadendron giganteum, Populus nigra, Prunus mahaleb, Ailanthus altissima and others were analyzed. A newly developed method of co-distillation enabled isolation of unstable volatile compounds without formation of artefacts (Fig. 1.The volatile aglycones liberated by enzymatic hydrolysis of the corresponding glycosides were aliphatic and phenylpropanoic derivatives, as well as monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and others (Fig. 7. Only partial similarity was observed in the composition of volatile aglycones and corresponding free volatiles of the same plant.Furthermore, glucosides of ubiquitous monoterpene and aliphatic alcohols and phenols were prepared by Koenigs-Knorr glucosylation (Fig. 8, by enzymatic condensation and transglucosidation from cellobiose (Fig. 11 and by direct glucosylation with FeCl3 (Fig. 13. The products were characterized by GC-MS analysis of prepared tetraacetyl glucosides. Fragment ion characteristics of the aglucone moiety were present in all mass spectra, along with the fragments obtained from acetylated glucose (Fig. 12 and Fig. 14. Acetylated glucosides were separable on the HP-101 column, Fig. 9 (even diastereomeric tetraacetyl ß-glucosides of enantiomeric alcohols, Fig. 10.

  4. Screening of non-commercial woody plants as biomass fuel producers. Reporting period: June 1, 1978-January 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragsdale, H.L.; Skeen, J.N.

    1979-01-01

    We are meeting our primary objective of identifying noncommercial woody plant species which may be potentially useful as biomass fuel producers. During the eight months we have had funding, we have completed or can realistically project completion of each task scheduled in our 1978 proposal. These tasks include: Species Identification, Literature Screening, Biomass Fuel Species Garden Selection - Establishment - Preparation, and Propagation of Ailanthus altissima. In addition to the timely completion of our scheduled Year-1 tasks, we have initiated Year-2 tasks including Collection of Seed/Rootstock, Culture of Seed/Rootstock, and the Selection of an Upper Coastal Plain Field Site. Through an intensive, goal-oriented literature review we are evaluating the 23 most-promising species to select 10 of them for field trials against Cottonwood and Sycamore in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain. The intensive literature analysis focuses on the physiological/ecological characteristics of the 25 woody plant species. Utilizing manual and computer database searches, 700 papers have been collected from 3000 titles of potential interest. Each paper has been evaluated as an element of a comprehensive Species Information Outline. A task specific computer program is being used to accumulate the titles and to organize them by species, and/or outline categories such as Growth, Pollutant Effects, Environmental Effects, and Propagation Techniques. One important result of our literature analysis is that we have found a deficiency of research on mineral nutrient efficiency and pollution tolerance of woody plants. Our evaluation of the literature will be used in selecting, this spring, 10 of the 25 promising plants for field tests. The literature and computer program will also be used to develop formal written summaries for each species. 13 references, 6 tables.

  5. Mountain Matokit and Vrgorac city: a new localities of threatened and invasive plant taxa in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Vukojević

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is first inventarisation of threatened and invasive vascular plants on the rocky grasslands situated on northern slopes of mountain Matokit and abandoned arable land in vicinity of town of Vrgorac. These sites represent a new site for the Croatian flora. This research was conducted in year 2010 and 2011. We found 11 species of threatened vascular plants that by the Red Book (Nikolić and Topić [14] and Flora Croatica Database (Nikolić [13] and 15 invasive species, according to preliminary list of invasive alien species (IAS in Croatia (Boršić et al. [3]. In this paper the habitat of some species, their distribution in Croatia, life forms and floral elements are described. It was found that threatened species occur exclusively on the rocky grassland habitat, except two species: critically endangered (CR Papaver argemone and endangered (EN Hibiscus trionum which were recorded on arable land. All inventoried invasive species, were recorded at the abandoned arable land, except the species Robinia pseudoacacia. Tendency for uncontrolled spread showed species Ailanthus altissima and Ambrosia artemisiifolia. Habitats of rocky grassland are on the stage of secondary succession (healing with the forest, and on the arable land the spread of invasive species exist (due to socio-economic changes: abandonment of agriculture and animal husbandry, and depopulation of the population. The results of these studies are contribution to the distribution map of threatened and invasive species in Croatia, and to the conservation of grassland habitat study area, as well as to preventing of the spread of invasive species.

  6. Plant Invasions Associated with Change in Root-Zone Microbial Community Structure and Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Richard R; Pineda, Rosana P; Barney, Jacob N; Nilsen, Erik T; Barrett, John E; Williams, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    The importance of plant-microbe associations for the invasion of plant species have not been often tested under field conditions. The research sought to determine patterns of change in microbial communities associated with the establishment of invasive plants with different taxonomic and phenetic traits. Three independent locations in Virginia, USA were selected. One site was invaded by a grass (Microstegium vimineum), another by a shrub (Rhamnus davurica), and the third by a tree (Ailanthus altissima). The native vegetation from these sites was used as reference. 16S rRNA and ITS regions were sequenced to study root-zone bacterial and fungal communities, respectively, in invaded and non-invaded samples and analyzed using Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology (QIIME). Though root-zone microbial community structure initially differed across locations, plant invasion shifted communities in similar ways. Indicator species analysis revealed that Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) closely related to Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Ascomycota increased in abundance due to plant invasions. The Hyphomonadaceae family in the Rhodobacterales order and ammonia-oxidizing Nitrospirae phylum showed greater relative abundance in the invaded root-zone soils. Hyphomicrobiaceae, another bacterial family within the phyla Proteobacteria increased as a result of plant invasion, but the effect associated most strongly with root-zones of M. vimineum and R. davurica. Functional analysis using Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) showed bacteria responsible for nitrogen cycling in soil increased in relative abundance in association with plant invasion. In agreement with phylogenetic and functional analyses, greater turnover of ammonium and nitrate was associated with plant invasion. Overall, bacterial and fungal communities changed congruently across plant invaders, and support the hypothesis that nitrogen

  7. High biological variability of plastids, photosynthetic pigments and pigment forms of leaf primordia in buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solymosi, Katalin; Morandi, Dominique; Bóka, Károly; Böddi, Béla; Schoefs, Benoît

    2012-05-01

    To study the formation of the photosynthetic apparatus in nature, the carotenoid and chlorophyllous pigment compositions of differently developed leaf primordia in closed and opening buds of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) and horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) as well as in closed buds of tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima P. Mill.) were analyzed with HPLC. The native organization of the chlorophyllous pigments was studied using 77 K fluorescence spectroscopy, and plastid ultrastructure was investigated with electron microscopy. Complete etiolation, i.e., accumulation of protochlorophyllide, and absence of chlorophylls occurred in the innermost leaf primordia of common ash buds. The other leaf primordia were partially etiolated in the buds and contained protochlorophyllide (0.5-1 μg g(-1) fresh mass), chlorophyllides (0.2-27 μg g(-1) fresh mass) and chlorophylls (0.9-643 μg g(-1) fresh mass). Etio-chloroplasts with prolamellar bodies and either regular or only low grana were found in leaves having high or low amounts of chlorophyll a and b, respectively. After bud break, etioplast-chloroplast conversion proceeded and the pigment contents increased in the leaves, similarly to the greening processes observed in illuminated etiolated seedlings under laboratory conditions. The pigment contents and the ratio of the different spectral forms had a high biological variability that could be attributed to (i) various light conditions due to light filtering in the buds resulting in differently etiolated leaf primordia, (ii) to differences in the light-exposed and inner regions of the same primordia in opening buds due to various leaf folding, and (iii) to tissue-specific slight variations of plastid ultrastructure.

  8. Species Structure of Plants in the Báb Forest Clearcuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilková Ivana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we have summarized the results of a research which was realized in the Báb forest (Veľký Báb, Nitra upland. The target of the research is the evaluation of species composition in the clearcuts in 2012. In the Báb forest, during spring records there were 80 and during summer records 102 taxa of taxons recorded. The woody plants of spring and summer reports were mainly represented by typical forest species. Moreover, these are woody plants of forest open parts and there are also two invasive woody Ailanthus altissima, Robinia pseudoacacia plants documented. During the summer reports, three new woody plants Clematis vitalba, Lonicera caprifolium, Ulmus minor appeared in the herb layer. Herbs are represented during the spring reports by typical spring ephemeroids, geophytes and forest herbs presenting the spring synusia. During the summer reports, ephemeroids are absent and there were new species, mainly Alliaria petiolata, Convallaria majalis, Lithospermum purpurocaeruleum, Melica nutans of forest herbs reported. In the clearcut areas also clearcut, synanthropic, mainly Cirsium vulgare, Lamium purpureum, Sambucus ebulus, Serratula tinctoria, Torilis japonica and invasive species Aster lanceolatus, A. novi-belgii agg., Erigeron annuus ssp. annuus, Impatiens parviflora occurred. Generally, we can state that the diversity of clearcut plant taxa is high. Taxa are represented by forest woody plants, woody plants of clearcuts, forest open parts and forest edges. Within clearcut herbs, there are typical forest species of oak-hornbeam forests represented, species of clearcuts and human-influenced posts and there are also invasive taxa found

  9. Thermal analysis of energy crops. Part 1. The applicability of a macro-thermobalance for biomass studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, R.A.; Groenli, M.G.; Hustad, J.E. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Meszaros, E.; Varhegyi, G.; Mohai, I. [Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 17 (Hungary); Marosvoelgyi, B. [Institute of Energetics, University of West Hungary, Sopron (Hungary)

    2008-01-15

    In this work young shoots of poplar (Populus euramericana), tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima) and pellets of a type of energy grass (Agropyron) were studied in order to get information about the applicability of these biomass materials for energy production by direct combustion. During the combustion of plant materials three main processes take place: (1) formation of volatiles, (2) burning of volatiles and (3) burn-off of the produced char. The thermal behavior of the samples was studied with the help of a macro-thermobalance built at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Pyrolysis experiments have been performed in inert atmosphere to get a deeper insight into the formation of volatile products, whereas measurements in oxidative atmosphere have provided information about the burn-off of the samples, as well. In addition to monitoring the weight loss of the samples, the analysis of the evolved gases was carried out with gas chromatography (GC). The TG and DTG curves and the profiles of the evolved gases obtained in the pyrolysis experiments are similar in the case of the poplar and the tree of heaven samples implying that the thermal behavior of these crops is alike, whereas those of the energy grass sample show significant differences. The decomposition of poplar occurs at a lower temperature in the presence of oxygen than that of energy grass. The evolution curves of the monitored products also exhibit differences. The results will be interpreted in terms of the chemical composition of the samples determined by proximate and ultimate analysis. (author)

  10. Análisis de la gestión de las plantas exóticas en los espacios naturales españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Andreu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El impacto de las invasiones biológicas no sólo queda restringido al medio ambiente sino que también repercute sobre la economía, la sociedad y la salud humana. En este estudio se han analizado los impactos y medidas de gestión de las plantas exóticas naturalizadas (invasoras y no invasoras en España, mediante encuestas a responsables de las distintas administraciones públicas. En total, en España se están gestionando 109 especies vegetales exóticas en 14 Comunidades Autónomas. Muchas de estas especies se encuentran en espacios protegidos compitiendo con especies nativas, algunas de ellas endémicas. Las especies gestionadas en más Comunidades Autónomas son Carpobrotus spp., Eucalyptus spp., Acacia spp., Cortaderia selloana y Ailanthus altissima. El coste total de esta gestión es de 50,487.637 y va destinada mayoritariamente a la reducción poblacional de estas especies mediante métodos mecánicos. La especie que ha ocasionado un mayor coste de gestión es Eucalyptus spp., seguido de Eichhornia crassipes y Pennisetum setaceum. La Comunidad Autónoma donde ha habido más inversión es Andalucía, y en segundo lugar Extremadura y Canarias. Se desconocen los costes monetarios exactos de muchas de las actuaciones realizadas, lo que dificulta mucho una cuantificación económica precisa.

  11. The effect of leaf area reduction on the yield and quality of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. altissima Döll.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radim Cerkal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The yield of sugar beet is directly affected by LAI (leaf area index and values of LAD (leaf area duration. The integral leaf area plays, except for other factors, an important role during the damage or reduction of leaf apparatus. There are many sources of leaf damage: natural disasters (hailstorm, diseases, pests (including game browsing etc. The intensity of the root production and quality differs in relation to the growth stage of the damage plant. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of losses in the root yield and the quality of sugar beet upon gradual reduction of the leaf area. Two diploid varieties Monza and Compact were used in the small-plot trials conducted in years 2004 to 2006 (in the experimental station Žabčice – maize production region, zone K2, average altitude 184 m, soil type was classified as gley fluvisoil, soil is medium heavy to heavy, clay-loam to loam type. The leaf area was manually reduced by 25% and 50% at BBCH 18–19 growth phase (8–9 leaves unfolded. The results were statistically evaluated by analysis of variance and testing by Tukey test (at the significance level α = 5%. Reduction of the leaf area was reflected on the decrease of the root yield by 1 to 10% depending on the year of harvest. In addition, the stressful state of the plants after defoliation resulted in the decrease of the yield of polarization sugar per hectare, namely by 0.45 to 1.66 t.ha–1. In 2005, the leaf area reduction caused a rise of the α-amino nitrogen content. The rise in the potassium and sodium cations content caused by the leaf area reduction also increased the sugar content in the treacle (by 0.1 to 0.16%. The increasing leaf area reduction lead to decreasing of yield of polarization sugar. However, this descent was statistically significant in harvest year 2006 only.

  12. High temperature fast reactor for hydrogen production in Brazil; Reator nuclear rapido de altissima temperatura para producao de hidrogenio no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Jamil A. do; Ono, Shizuca; Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F. [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA-IEAv), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Estudos Avancados]. E-mail: jamil@ieav.cta.br

    2008-07-01

    The main nuclear reactors technology for the Generation IV, on development phase for utilization after 2030, is the fast reactor type with high temperature output to improve the efficiency of the thermo-electric conversion process and to enable applications of the generated heat in industrial process. Currently, water electrolysis and thermo chemical cycles using very high temperature are studied for large scale and long-term hydrogen production, in the future. With the possible oil scarcity and price rise, and the global warming, this application can play an important role in the changes of the world energy matrix. In this context, it is proposed a fast reactor with very high output temperature, {approx} 1000 deg C. This reactor will have a closed fuel cycle; it will be cooled by lead and loaded with nitride fuel. This reactor may be used for hydrogen, heat and electricity production in Brazil. It is discussed a development strategy of the necessary technologies and some important problems are commented. The proposed concept presents characteristics that meet the requirements of the Generation IV reactor class. (author)

  13. PROCENTAJE DE PSILIDOS PORTADORES DE Canidatus Liberibacter asiaticus Y SU RELACION CON LA INCIDENCIA DE HLB EN CINCO HUERTAS COMERCIALES DE LIMON MEXICANO {Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) Swingle} EN EL ESTADO DE COLIMA MEXICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian citrus psyllids (Diaphorina citri) were individually analyzed by qPCR to detect Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas). The psyllids were collected in Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia) trees in five commercial orchards in Tecomán and Manzanillo, Colima with severe symptoms of classical mott...

  14. Expressão gênica diferencial de laranja Pêra Rio (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) e Lima Ácida 'Galego' (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) em resposta à infecção por Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri

    OpenAIRE

    Cavallini, Juliana da Silva [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    The citrus agribusiness is very important to the Brazilian economy, but the increase of diseases in the last decade has caused great economic losses to the sector. The citrus canker, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xac), is a serious disease that attacks all citrus species economically important worldwide and there is not an effective method for its control. In this study, RNASeq was used to analyze the transcriptional profiles of two contrasting citrus genotypes regar...

  15. Rapid and sensitive analysis of 27 underivatized free amino acids, dipeptides, and tripeptides in fruits of Siraitia grosvenorii Swingle using HILIC-UHPLC-QTRAP(®)/MS (2) combined with chemometrics methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guisheng; Wang, Mengyue; Li, Yang; Peng, Ying; Li, Xiaobo

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, a new strategy based on chemical analysis and chemometrics methods was proposed for the comprehensive analysis and profiling of underivatized free amino acids (FAAs) and small peptides among various Luo-Han-Guo (LHG) samples. Firstly, the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) parameters were optimized using Plackett-Burman (PB) screening and Box-Behnken designs (BBD), and the following optimal UAE conditions were obtained: ultrasound power of 280 W, extraction time of 43 min, and the solid-liquid ratio of 302 mL/g. Secondly, a rapid and sensitive analytical method was developed for simultaneous quantification of 24 FAAs and 3 active small peptides in LHG at trace levels using hydrophilic interaction ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole linear ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-UHPLC-QTRAP(®)/MS(2)). The analytical method was validated by matrix effects, linearity, LODs, LOQs, precision, repeatability, stability, and recovery. Thirdly, the proposed optimal UAE conditions and analytical methods were applied to measurement of LHG samples. It was shown that LHG was rich in essential amino acids, which were beneficial nutrient substances for human health. Finally, based on the contents of the 27 analytes, the chemometrics methods of unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA) and supervised counter propagation artificial neural network (CP-ANN) were applied to differentiate and classify the 40 batches of LHG samples from different cultivated forms, regions, and varieties. As a result, these samples were mainly clustered into three clusters, which illustrated the cultivating disparity among the samples. In summary, the presented strategy had potential for the investigation of edible plants and agricultural products containing FAAs and small peptides.

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16394-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DA-FP_17446 Citrus sinensis phloem Citrus sinen... 46 7.4 1 ( CX669060 ) UCRCP01_041_F07_T3 Swing...le citrumelo nematode-cha... 46 7.4 1 ( CX667587 ) UCRCP01_032_A11_T3 Swingle citrumelo nema

  17. CHANGES IN THE ACTIVE FLOODPLAIN VEGETATION OF THE SZIGETKÖZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. BARABAS

    2011-01-01

    , a 30 m wide belt of white willow (Salix alba has developed. Above this, a zone of water-demanding tall forb community has established which tolerates temporary inundation. Further away up to the original shoreline, a strip of vegetation composed of box elder (Acer negundo has appeared. Unlike the white willow belt, this zone developed slowly. At first, knee-high box elder saplings vegetated in the dry grassland, but once their roots has reached permanently wet soil layers, their growth has greatly accelerated. In the former riverbed, the mass appearance of invasive plants (Acer negundo, Ailanthus altissima, Solidago gigantea, Aster lanceolatus, Fallopia x bohemica raises serious concerns for nature protection.

  18. CHANGES IN THE ACTIVE FLOODPLAIN VEGETATION OF THE SZIGETKÖZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. HAHN

    2011-04-01

    , a 30 m wide belt of white willow (Salix alba has developed. Above this, a zone of water-demanding tall forb community has established which tolerates temporary inundation. Further away up to the original shoreline, a strip of vegetation composed of box elder (Acer negundo has appeared. Unlike the white willow belt, this zone developed slowly. At first, knee-high box elder saplings vegetated in the dry grassland, but once their roots has reached permanently wet soil layers, their growth has greatly accelerated. In the former riverbed, the mass appearance of invasive plants (Acer negundo, Ailanthus altissima, Solidago gigantea, Aster lanceolatus, Fallopia x bohemica raises serious concerns for nature protection.

  19. Towards Biological Restoration of Tehran Megalopolis River Valleys- Case Study: Farahzad River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, Nafishe; Oveis Torabi, Seyed; Akhani, Hossein

    2017-04-01

    surrounding steep slopes. The rare local endemic Convolvulus gracillimus still occurs in surrounding dry slopes. Ailanthus altissima is an invasive introduced tree largely occupied disturbed habitats and slopes of the valley associated with large number of ruderals belonging to genera Amaranthus, Bassia, Chenopodium, Echinochloa, Heliotropium, Tribulus etc. Restoration plan include 1. Study of past biological and geomorphological conditions of the area based on remnants of vegetation and aerial and satellite imaginary data 2. Survey of present environmental conditions of the area including identification native and introduced plants and animals, assessing the degree of originality of existing vegetation and cultural landscapes and abiotic factors. 3. Soil reclamation and topography improvements towards cultivation and/or formation of natural vegetation.

  20. Response of Vegetation in Northern China to Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, H.; Huang, R.

    2009-05-01

    (Sophora japonica), tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima), yellow locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina), and gingko (Ginkgo biloba) have also been pushing northward to Huhhot, (41 degree N)Chifeng (42 degree N) and Tongliao (43 degree N), Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Alpine timberline has also been moved to higher altitude in Wutai Mt., Shanxi Province and Changbaishan Mt., Jilin Province. Although global warming seems to benefit agriculture in some cases, considering the decrease of wetness, the perspective is still uncertain. Drought and frost hazard are stress factors for the vegetation introduced to the northern areas. Chinese scholars are carefully watching the trend.

  1. 生态景观林树种选择定量研究%Tree species selection for an ecological landscape forest at Qingshan Lake, Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马俊; 韦新良; 尤建林; 徐小军

    2008-01-01

    树种选择是生态景观林营建中重要的技术要素.以浙江省青山湖国家森林公园为研究对象,针对当地的自然环境条件、生态建设与旅游发展的要求,制订了树种选择标准.根据专家建议,以树种的生物学特性、观赏特性和生态功能作为生态景观林树种选择的主要依据,确定了形态习性、生长速度、土壤适应性和抗病虫性等12个树种评价指标,采用5级评分制对每一项指标进行量化分级,并运用层次分析法确定了各个指标的权重,为研究区生态景现林树种选择提出了一个完整的评价指标体系和数量化评价模型.应用树种评价模型对研究区41个绿化树种进行了综合评价.结果表明:合欢Albizzia julibrissin,枫香 Liquidamba formosana,乌桕Sapium sebiferum,黄连木 Pistacia chinensis,臭椿Ailanthus altissima.银杏 Ginkgo biloba等落叶树种综合性状良好;苦槠Castanopsis sclerophylla,樟树Cinnamomum camphora,深山含笑Michelia maudiae和木荷Schima superba等常绿树种综合性状较好.但因合欢分枝较低,不宜做大面积绿化树种,建议选择枫香、乌桕、苦槠和樟树作为青山湖国家森林公园生态景观林建设的基调树种.表2参64

  2. Adaptability Evaluation on Tested Tree Species in The Middle Mountain Regions of Semi-arid Valleys in The Upper Minjiang River%岷江上游半干旱河谷中山区试验树种适应性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超; 程秦明; 冯正波; 邵慧敏

    2011-01-01

    The survival percentage,growth and adaptability of the ten tested tree species,which were cultivated at altitudes of 1 800 m~2 000 m in Dagou areas of Maoxian county,Sichuan,had been evaluated in this paper.The results revealed that the survival percentage of the tested tree species was affected by the heredity,ecological habit of its own,natural surroundings and interferences of mankind activities under the set and concrete habitat conditions.Acer davidii,Betula luminifera,Ailanthus altissima,Aesculus wilsonii were proved to be very adaptive to the local surroundings and can be used as materials restoring the local vegetation by means of measuring the high growth and making sure the differential sequence of tree species mentioned above,further combined field survey on the character of anti-adversity.Rhododendron davidii,Prunus davidiana,Liquidambar acalycina,Juglans cathayensis were proved to be adaptive to the local surroundings,but further study and observation were needed in order to ascertain the usage scheme.On the other hand,Ginkgo biloba and Davidia involucrate were proved that they couldn't be used as forestation materials.%本文评价了四川茂县大沟地区海拔1800~2000m的区段10个供试树种的成活率、生长量和适应性。结果表明:在设定的具体生境条件下,供试树种的成活率受到自身遗传、生态习性及其自然环境与人类活动干扰的影响,通过对高生长量的测试确定了上述树种的生长量差异序列,并进一步结合对抗逆性的现场调查确定青榨槭、光皮桦、臭椿、天师栗很适应当地的环境,可以作为当地植被恢复的材料使用;腺果杜鹃、山桃、枫香、野核桃适宜当地环境,但尚需作进一步研究观察,以便确定使用方案;而银杏与珙桐不能作为营林材料利用。

  3. Contrasting secondary growth and water-use efficiency patterns in native and exotic trees co-occurring in inner Spain riparian forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia González-Muñoz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The invasive trees Ailanthus altissima and Robinia pseudoacacia are widely spreading in inner Spain riparian forests, where they co-occur with the natives Fraxinus angustifolia and Ulmus minor. In a climate change context, we aimed to identify some of the species traits that are leading these species to success (Basal Area Increment (BAI and water-use efficiency (iWUE. We also aimed to describe the main environmental variables controlling studied species BAI. Area of study: Riparian forests of central Spain Material and Methods: We measured tree-ring width and converted it to basal area increment (BAI; intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE was estimated from tree ring carbon isotopes (δ13C. We compared the BAI and iWUE of the last 20 years between origins (native vs exotic and among species. For each species, we evaluated iWUE and BAI relationships. Linear mixed-effect models were performed to identify the main environmental variables (temperature, precipitation, river flow affecting BAI. Main result: Native trees showed higher mean BAI than invaders, mainly due to the rising growth rate of U. minor. Invaders showed higher mean iWUE than natives. We did not find significant correlations between iWUE and BAI in any case. Warm temperatures in autumn positively affected the BAI of the natives, but negatively that of the invaders. Research highlights: The contrasting effect of autumn temperatures on native and invasive species BAI suggests that invaders will be more hampered by the rising temperatures predicted for this century. The higher iWUE found for the invaders did not translate into increased radial growth, suggesting that drought stress may have prevented them of taking advantage of increased atmospheric CO2 for a faster growth. These findings point out that neither climate change nor rising CO2 seem to enhance the success of study invasive species over the natives in riparian forests of central Spain. Furthermore, the low BAI

  4. 北京不同类型居住区树种组成结构及其三维空间配置%Tree species composition and three-dimensional configure in different types of residential areas in Beijing.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郄光发; 任启文; 李伟; 杨颖; 王成

    2011-01-01

    Taking three types of residential areas in Beijing as the objects, this paper analyzed the tree species composition, relative important value, and three-dimensional configure in diameter at breast height (DBH) , height, and crown coverage. In all types of the residential areas, there existed common key tree species, and also, unique dominant species. Populus tomentosa, Sophora japonica, and Platycladus orientalis were the common key species with higher important value; tall and straight species Paidewnia fortunei, Cedrus deodara, P. Canadensis, and Ginkgo biioba were the important species in enterprise-institution residential areas; traditionally native species such as Ailanthus altissima, Fraxinus chinensis, and Ziziphus jujube were the essential components in Hutong residential areas; and excellent landscape tree species such as Robinia pseudoacacia, Pinus tabulaeformis, Salix babylonicay and S. Japonica cv. Pendula had valuable traits in mixed residential areas. As for the tree species three-dimensional configure, the overall distribution in DBH, height, and crown coverage in the three types of residential areas all presented a great development potential, being still at a rapid growth phase. With larger green space,enterprise-institution residential areas had significantly higher tree density, crown coverage, average DBH, and height than the other two types of residential areas; due to the limited green land, Hutong residential areas were difficult to increase the green biomass to a higher level; whereas mixed residential areas had considerable potential in the increase of green space.%以北京城区3种不同类型居住区为对象,对其树种组成、相对重要程度以及在胸径、树高和树冠等级上的三维空间配置结构进行了分析.结果表明:不同类型居住区既有相同的核心树种又有各自的特色主导树种,其中,毛白杨(Populus tomentosa)、国槐(Sophora japonica)和侧柏(Platycladus orientalis)是各类居住

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15777-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available I_CAAK1416.fwd NIH_XGC_tropBrn3 Xenopus (Silura... 52 0.12 1 ( CX669961 ) UCRCP01_048_B01_T7 Swing...le citrumelo nematode-cha... 52 0.12 1 ( CX665057 ) UCRCP01_014_A10_T7 Swingle citrumelo ne...ne BRAMY1000038, 5' end, mRN... 48 1.9 1 ( CX669960 ) UCRCP01_048_B01_T3 Swingle citrumelo nematode-cha... 4

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15351-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1_020_C04, 5'end. 46 4.3 1 ( CX669000 ) UCRCP01_041_B10_T7 Swingle citrumelo nema...tode-cha... 46 4.3 1 ( CX665004 ) UCRCP01_013_G04_T7 Swingle citrumelo nematode-cha... 46 4.3 1 ( CX665003 ) UCRCP01_013_G04_T3 Swing

  7. Preliminary Evidence for Rootstock Effects on HLB Infection Frequency and Disease Severity in Sweet Orange and ‘SugarBelle’ Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Grosser, J. W.; Das, S.; Gmitter, Jr., F. G.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that root system collapse is involved with HLB-induced tree decline, especially with trees on Swingle and Carrizo.  Phytophthora resistance appears to be breaking down in HLB-infected trees on Swingle.  Other stresses caused by blight, nematodes, cold, etc. also appear to be interacting with HLB to increase HLB disease frequency and severity.  Improved rootstocks could help to mitigate these problems, allowing for sustainable production under appropriate nutrition. We...

  8. Geographical Distribution, Ecological Position, and Formation Causes of Temperate Zone Sparse Forest in China%中国温带疏林的地理分布、生态地位及成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于顺利

    2011-01-01

    中国分布的疏林类型众多,除了在热带分布的疏林(或稀树干草原)外,还有温带阔叶疏林和温带山地针叶疏林两种生态系统,具体包括榆树( Ulmus pumila)疏林、天山云杉(Picea schrekiana)疏林、侧柏(Platycladus orientalis)疏林、杜松(Juniperusngida)疏林、樟子松(Pinus sylvestnis var.mongolica)疏林、西藏落叶松(Larix tibetica)疏林、亚东冷杉(Abies densa)疏林、巨柏(Cupressus gigantea)疏林、大果圆柏(Sabina tibetica)疏林、滇藏方枝柏(Sabina wallichiana)疏林、方枝柏(Sabina saltuaria)疏林、大果红杉(Larix potaninii var.macrocarpa)疏林、西藏柏木(Cupressus torulosa)疏林、密枝圆柏(Sabina convallium)疏林、长叶松(Pinus roxburghii)疏林、云南松(Pinus yunnanensis)疏林、川西云杉(Picea likiangensis var.balfouriana)疏林、黄榆(Ulmusmacrocarpa)疏林、臭椿(Ailanthus altissima)疏林等生态系统类型,疏林生态系统(或疏林植被)应该是介于森林和草原(或灌丛)之间的一种过渡的植被类型,是一种地带性植被类型.疏林的分布是系列生态因子综合作用的结果,但其决定因子是水分.在中国大陆,沿纬度梯度从低到高的地带性植被应为雨林、季雨林、常绿阔叶林、落叶阔叶林、疏林、灌丛或草原,从东到西沿经度梯度依次为(阔叶和针叶)森林、(阔叶和针叶)疏林、草原、荒漠.在高原地区,沿海拔梯度的分布从低到高主要是森林、疏林、灌丛、草原或草甸.与森林、灌丛和草原相比,疏林的分布面积相对较小.中国疏林的分布区域大体位于农牧交错带地区,即从森林到草原过渡的地区.对疏林成因的理解,有利于区域生态恢复措施的选择.%China possesses various types of sparse forests. Except sparse forests in tropic regions of China, other two types of sparse forests are classified, namely, temperate zone spare forests and temperate zone mountain spare forests. In

  9. Effects of MET and DPC on Photosynthesis Characters and Fruit Quality of Siraitia grosvenorii (Swingle) C.Jeffrey%多效唑和缩节胺对罗汉果光合特性及果实品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周凤珏; 王泽平; 许鸿源; 梁琼月; 韦战飞; 刘超; 余乃明

    2013-01-01

    为探索多效唑(MET)和缩节胺(DPC)对罗汉果光合特性与果实品质的影响.以青皮果品系的罗汉果组培苗为材料,按常规使用浓度MET 50 mg·L-1和DPC 1500 mg·L-1,在植株上棚去顶后,进行叶面喷施,清水作对照.结果表明:MET和DPC均能提高罗汉果叶片的叶绿素含量与净光合速率,增加罗汉果果实干物质,尤其是甜甙和总糖含量,果实品质得到改善.%This research explored the effects of MET and DPC on the photosynthesis characters and fruit qualities of Siraitia grosverwrii. U-sing tissue-cultured Siraitia grosvenorii seedlings as testing materials, 50 mg o L-1 MET and 1500 mg o L-1 DPC were spayed onto plant leaves in accordance with the routine concentration; the results were then compared with that of the control group. It was found that MET and DPC could increase the chloroghyll content, net photosynthetic characteristics, dry matter content, mogroside V , and carbohydrate, thereby improving the fruit quality of Siratia grosvenorii.

  10. Experimental rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) toxicosis in horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) sporadically poisons horses and other livestock in the southwestern United States. Similar to livestock poisoning by white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) in the midwestern United States, previous research suggests that benzofuran ketones (BFK: tremetone, dehy...

  11. Long-Term Effects of Dredging Operations Program. Collation and Interpretation of Data for Times Beach Confined Disposal Facility, Buffalo, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    tenuifolia hispida 4 Glyceria striata 0 Taraxacum officinale -1 Hordeum juba turn 5 Thalictrum dasycarpum 3 Impatiens capensis 2 Tovara virginiana 5 Iris...fragilis - Taraxacum officinale A3 Populus deltoides 2, 3, 3, 4, 5, 5, 9 Lvs Sts Rts Rhs FRS 95 Sohidago altissima - Poa compressa - Poa pratensis - Rhus...I Solidago altissima I Convolvulus sepium 3 Solidago gigantea 6 Cornus stolonifera 4 Sphenopholis intermedia I Cynanchum nigrum 0 Taraxacum off

  12. Efecto de las condiciones de almacenamiento sobre la germinación de la semilla de dos patrones de cítricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera Q.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Semillas de los patrones de cítricos Citrus volkameriana y citrumelo var. Swingle (Citrus paradisi x Poncirus trifoliata fueron almacenadas a 5ºC y tres contenidos de humedad: 17%, 20% y 23% en C. Volkameriana, y 24%, 27% y 30% en Swingle. Se utilizó tres tipos de empaque para almacenar la semilla: bolsa de polietileno doble, bolsa de papel dentro de bolsa de polietileno y bolsa de polietileno con arena con un contenido de humedad del 16%. Los resultados mostraron que Swingle perdió más rápidamente su germinación. Las semillas de C. volkameriana y Swingle conservaron su capacidad germinativa por mayor tiempo cuando se almacenaron a un 23% y un 24% de humedad, respectivamente. El tipo de empaque afectó la calidad fisiológica de las semillas, ya que C. volkameriana conservó una mayor germinación en bolsa de polietileno con arena, mientras que Swingle obtuvo sus mayores valores en bolsa de papel dentro de bolsa de polietileno.

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01276-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 42 0.032 2 ( EY785994 ) CR05-C3-700-074-G06-CT.F Mandarin fruit, developm... 42 0.032 2 ( CX665776 ) UCRCP01_018_G07_T3 Swing...at 38 DAFB C... 36 1.7 2 ( CX671154 ) UCRCP01_055_D05_T3 Swingle citrumelo nemato...S00-C1-100-051-A05-CT.F Sweet orange leaf, green... 36 1.7 2 ( CX671155 ) UCRCP01_055_D05_T7 Swingle citrume... ( CX673016 ) UCRCS10_1H11_g Madame Vinous Sweet Orange Multipl... 36 1.7 2 ( CX665054 ) UCRCP01_014_A09_T3 Swing... clone: ANT2_0321, 5'-end sequ... 36 1.7 2 ( CX665055 ) UCRCP01_014_A09_T7 Swingle citrumelo nematode-cha...

  14. Desenvolvimento e produtividade da tangerina "Fairchild" sobre quatro porta-enxertos Development and yield of 'Fairchild' mandarin on four rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Espinoza-Núñez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi avaliado o desenvolvimento vegetativo, a produção e a qualidade de frutos da tangerina "Fairchild" [(tangerina "Clementina" (C. clementina Hort. ex. Tan. x tangelo "Orlando" (C. paradisi Macf. x C. reticulata Blanco] sobre os porta-enxertos limão "Cravo" (C. limonia Osbeck, citrumelo "Swingle" (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf., tangerina "Cleópatra" (C. reshni Hort. ex Tan. e tangelo "Orlando" (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf. em Bebedouro, SP, em experimento instalado em 1997. Plantas enxertadas em citrumelo "Swingle" apresentaram menor porte, maior produção acumulada de frutos nas safras 2005 e 2006, maior eficiência de produção (kgm-3 e menor índice de alternância de produção. A qualidade dos frutos não foi influenciada em função dos porta-enxertos. O citrumelo "Swingle" foi considerado cultivar porta-enxerto adequado para utilização com tangerina "Fairchild".The vegetative development, fruit yield and quality of 'Fairchild' mandarin [('Clementine' mandarin (C. clementina Hort. ex. Tan. x 'Orlando' tangelo (C. paradisi Macf. x C. reticulata Blanco] was evaluated on 'Rangpur' lime (C. limonia Osbeck, 'Swingle' citrumelo (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf., 'Cleopatra' mandarin (C. reshni Hort. ex Tan. and 'Orlando' tangelo (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf. rootstocks in an experiment installed in Bebedouro, SP, Brazil in 1997. 'Fairchild' trees budded on 'Swingle' citrumelo were smaller, had higher cumulative yield in 2005 and 2006 seasons, higher yield efficiency (kgm-3, showed lower alternate bearing index. Fruit quality was not affected by the rootstock. 'Swingle' citrumelo was considered an adequate rootstock for 'Fairchild' mandarin.

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U02738-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -057-E09-CT.F Sweet orange fruit, deve... 36 1.7 3 ( CX663729 ) UCRCP01_005_F03_T3 Swingle citrumelo nematod..... 36 1.7 3 ( CX665774 ) UCRCP01_018_G06_T3 Swingle citrumelo nematode-cha... 36 1.7 3 ( BT053952 ) Zea mays... ZM... 36 2.0 2 ( DY297825 ) IC0AAA93DD12RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 36 2.1 3 ( CX665775 ) UCRCP01_018_G06_T7 Swing

  16. In given article results of studying of a selection material of a beet sugar (Beta vulgaris L. ssp.vulgaris var. altissima Doell (Ms-lines and pollinators the Ivanovo skilled-selection station under program «Betaintercross» are considered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. С. Лейбович

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the results of studying breeding material of sugar beet (MS-lines and many-seeded pollinators of Ivanivsk Variety Testing Station in the framework of Beta-Intercross Program. Betaintercross Breeding Program for Sugar Beet has been developed by, and is implemented in, the Institute for Bioenergy Crops, formerly known as Sugar Beets Institute (ISB. Ivansivsk Variety Testing Station has been fully engaged into implementation of the Program since 1996. Key task for the Program is to draw genetic potential of breeding materials of sugar beet of the Institute research entities, namely Bila Tserkva Breeding Research Station, Ivanivsk Breeding Research Station, Uladovo-Liulinets Breeding Research Station, Uman Breeding Research Station, Ialtushkivka Breeding Research Station, as well as domestic and foreign companies with the view of maximizing the effect of heterosis use with the view of producing highly productive hybrids of new generation. Over various years, apart from various experimental re-search entities of the Institute, such companies as KWS  (Germany, Novi Sad Institute (Serbia, Ramon (Russia,  Danisco Seed (Denmark, Belorus ZDS and others have taken part [in the above Program].  The article provides key principles for the Program implementation scheme and its method. The cooperation has enabled to produce a range of highly productive hybrids listed in the State Register capable of competing at today’s market of sugar beet seed.   Among these there are hybrids produced jointly with Ivanivsk Research Breeding Station, in particular: Romul   (2005, Prometei (2008, Ramses (2009, Risolt (2007,   Kvarta (2010, Zluka (2010, ITSB 0801 (2011, ITSB 0802   (2011, ITSB 0904 (2012, ITSB 0905 (2012.

  17. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05205-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 668195 ) UCRCP01_036_C01_T7 Swingle citrumelo nematode-cha... 60 4e-05 2 ( CB2932... 2 ( EX446854 ) Volcani_7_22_H6 Volcani07 Citrus reticulata x Cit... 60 4e-05 2 ( CX668194 ) UCRCP01_036_C01_T3 Swing

  18. Performance of 'Okitsu' Satsuma Mandarin on nine rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuleide Hissano Tazima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mandarins have become increasingly valued as citrus fruits for the fresh market due to the easy peeling, attractive flavor, and health and nutritional properties. Plant growth and yield, and characteristics of fruits of 'Okitsu' Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. trees grafted on nine rootstocks were evaluated in Londrina, northern Paraná, Brazil. The rootstocks were: 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osb.; 'Cleopatra' (Citrus reshni hort. ex Tanaka and 'Sunki' mandarins (Citrus sunki hort. ex Tanaka; 'C-13' [Citrus sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.] and 'Carrizo' citranges [C. sinensis × P. trifoliata (L. Raf.]; 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana V. Ten. & Pasq.; trifoliate orange [P. trifoliata (L. Raf.; 'Caipira DAC' sweet orange [C. sinensis (L. Osb.] and 'Swingle' citrumelo [Citrus paradisi Macfad. cv. Duncan × P. trifoliata (L. Raf.]. The highest plant growth was for the trees on 'Cleopatra' mandarin and 'Caipira DAC' sweet orange. In contrast, the smallest size was for the trees on 'Volkamer' lemon and trifoliate orange. The largest difference between the trunk diameter below and above the grafting point was induced by 'Swingle' citrumelo. Trees of 'Okitsu' Satsuma mandarin on 'Swingle' citrumelo presented the highest yield, while 'C-13', 'Carrizo', 'Sunki', and 'Swingle' induced the largest fruit masses. With regard to fruit characteristics, 'Carrizo' and trifoliate orange induced the best ratio and juice content. Based on theoretical values, 'Rangpur' lime and 'Volkamer' lemon induced the lowest yields

  19. Molecular characterization and pathogenicity assays of Colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent for lime anthracnose in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several distorted Mexican lime [Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm). Swingle] fruit, leaf, and twig samples with lime anthracnose symptoms were collected from three trees in residential areas of Brownsville, Texas. The causal fungal organism, Colletotrichum acutatum J. H. Simmonds was isolated from leave...

  20. 北京市29种园林植物滞留大气细颗粒物能力研究%FineParticle-retaining Capability of Twenty-nine LandscapePlant Species in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵松婷; 李新宇; 李延明

    2015-01-01

    In order to research retention capacity of airborne particulate matters (PM) by common plants, 29 species of representative plants in Beijing were chosen to systematically analyze the characteristics of deposition of PM with different size on them by using direct sampling, electron microscope analysis, image processing and statistical analysis methods. The results showed that: (1) Over 94% of PM deposition on plants’ leaf surface were PM10(DP≤10μm), PM2.5(DP≤2.5μm) accounted for over 85%, whereas, coarse particles accounted for less than 6%; The average volume percentage of PM10 was 71.3%, that of PM2.5 was 4.22%~26.14%, and the average volume percentage of coarse particulate was over 28.7%. (2) There are great difference in the per unit leaf area particulate adhesion ability among different tree species, The amount of particle-retaining per unit area byCedusdeodara(3.405 g·m-2)is 43 times that ofSalix pendula(0.079 g·m-2). The amount of particle-retaining per unit area byBuxusmicrophylla(6.102 g·m-2)is 28 times higher than that ofCercischinensis(0.213 g·m-2).(3) The capability of PM2.5 detained by 29 kinds of plants in every unit leaf area showed thatBuxusmicrophyllahad better PM retention ability than other shrubs, which could reach 1.168 g·m-2. Within arbor species, Ginkgo biloba had the best PM retention ability, which could reach 0.225g·m-2. (4) The capability of PM2.5 detained by the whole 29 kinds of plants showed thatSophora japonica ,Ginkgo biloba ,Ailanthus altissima, Populustomentosa, Salix matsudana, Sabina chinensisandEucommiaulmoideshad better PM retention ability than other arbor species, Within shrubs and vines species, Amygdalustriloba, Hibiscus syriacus, Malus sparkler, Syringa oblateandBuxusmicrophyllahad better PM retention ability. (5) whether the groove on the plant leaf surface formed by arranged cells or through a variety of strip protuberance, wave protrusions and ridges, as long as the groove is more intense and of greater

  1. Anatomical and Physiological Responses of Citrus Trees to Varying Boron Availability Are Dependent on Rootstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Geisa L; Zambrosi, Fernando C B; Tanaka, Francisco A O; Boaretto, Rodrigo M; Quaggio, José A; Ribeiro, Rafael V; Mattos, Dirceu

    2016-01-01

    In Citrus, water, nutrient transport and thereby fruit production, are influenced among other factors, by the interaction between rootstock and boron (B) nutrition. This study aimed to investigate how B affects the anatomical structure of roots and leaves as well as leaf gas exchange in sweet orange trees grafted on two contrasting rootstocks in response to B supply. Plants grafted on Swingle citrumelo or Sunki mandarin were grown in a nutrient solution of varying B concentration (deficient, adequate, and excessive). Those grafted on Swingle were more tolerant to both B deficiency and toxicity than those on Sunki, as revealed by higher shoot and root growth. In addition, plants grafted on Sunki exhibited more severe anatomical and physiological damages under B deficiency, showing thickening of xylem cell walls and impairments in whole-plant leaf-specific hydraulic conductance and leaf CO2 assimilation. Our data revealed that trees grafted on Swingle sustain better growth under low B availablitlity in the root medium and still respond positively to increased B levels by combining higher B absorption and root growth as well as better organization of xylem vessels. Taken together, those traits improved water and B transport to the plant canopy. Under B toxicity, Swingle rootstock would also favor plant growth by reducing anatomical and ultrastructural damage to leaf tissue and improving water transport compared with plants grafted on Sunki. From a practical point of view, our results highlight that B management in citrus orchards shall take into account rootstock varieties, of which the Swingle rootstock was characterized by its performance on regulating anatomical and ultrastructural damages, improving water transport and limiting negative impacts of B stress conditions on plant growth.

  2. Anatomical and Physiological Responses of Citrus Trees to Varying Boron Availability Is Dependent on Rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geisa Lima Mesquita

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In Citrus, water, nutrient transport and thereby fruit production, are influenced among other factors, by the interaction between rootstock and boron (B nutrition. This study aimed to investigate how B affects the anatomical structure of roots and leaves as well as leaf gas exchange in sweet orange trees grafted on two contrasting rootstocks in response to B supply. Plants grafted on Swingle citrumelo or Sunki mandarin were grown in a nutrient solution of varying B concentration (deficient, adequate, and excessive. Those grafted on Swingle were more tolerant to both B deficiency and toxicity than those on Sunki, as revealed by higher shoot and root growth. In addition, plants grafted on Sunki exhibited more severe anatomical and physiological damages under B deficiency, showing thickening of xylem cell walls and impairments in whole-plant, leaf-specific hydraulic conductance and leaf CO2 assimilation. Our data revealed that trees grafted on Swingle sustain better growth under low B availablitlity in the root medium and still respond positively to increased B levels by combining higher B absorption and root growth as well as better organization of xylem vessels. Taken together, those traits improved water and B transport to the plant canopy. Under B toxicity, Swingle rootstock would also favor plant growth by reducing anatomical and ultrastructural damage to leaf tissue and improving water transport compared with plants grafted on Sunki. From a practical point of view, our results highlight that B management in citrus orchards shall take into account rootstock varieties, of which the Swingle rootstock was characterized by its performance on regulating anatomical and ultrastructural damages, improving water transport and limiting negative impacts of B stress conditions on plant growth.

  3. A MONOGRAPH OF THE GENUS NEESIA * Blume (Bombacaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOEPADMO SOEPADMO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 1     Eight species are described:  N. altissima, synandra, glabra, koster-mansiana, malayana, parpurascens, piluliflora and strigosa.2     N. kostermansiana is a species new to science.3     N. glabra and synandra, formerly included in N. altissima are reinstated  as distinct species.4     The area of distribution of the genus covers Lower Siam, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java and Borneo, with Borneo as centre.

  4. Efeito da baixa temperatura noturna e do porta-enxerto na variação diurna das trocas gasosas e na atividade fotoquímica de laranjeira 'Val��ncia' Effects of low night temperature and rootstocks on diurnal variation of leaf gas exchange rates and photochemical activity of 'Valência' sweet orange plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Favero São Pedro Machado

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A redução da fotossíntese durante o inverno pode ser induzida por noites frias, mesmo quando as condições durante o dia não são limitantes. Laranjais são formados com plantas enxertadas, sendo o porta-enxerto citrumeleiro 'Swingle' recomendado em áreas onde há ocorrência de baixas temperaturas. Todavia, os mecanismos fisiológicos pelos quais as plantas apresentam melhor crescimento e produção são pouco conhecidos. O objetivo deste estudo foi testar a hipótese de que o efeito da baixa temperatura noturna na fotossíntese de laranjeiras é dependente do porta-enxerto utilizado, com o citrumeleiro 'Swingle' (Citrus paradisi x Poncirus trifoliata induzindo maior tolerância ao frio noturno se comparado ao limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia. Laranjeiras 'Valência' (Citrus sinensis com seis meses, cultivadas em sacolas plásticas (5 L, foram expostas por 12 h à temperatura noturna de 20 e 8 ºC. O tratamento térmico foi realizado em câmara de crescimento, sendo apenas a parte aérea das plantas expostas às distintas temperaturas. Medidas do curso diurno das trocas gasosas e da atividade fotoquímica foram realizadas em condições ambientais naturais. O resfriamento noturno causou maior redução da assimilação de CO², da condutância estomática e da transpiração em laranjeira 'Valência' sobre limoeiro 'Cravo' quando comparado às plantas sobre 'Swingle'. Após o tratamento de frio, as eficiências máxima (Fv/Fm e operacional (Fq'/Fm' do fotossistema II diminuíram nas plantas sobre 'Cravo' e mantiveram-se praticamente inalteradas nas plantas enxertadas em 'Swingle'. Portanto, o porta-enxerto 'Swingle' induziu maior eficiência fotossintética em condições de frio noturno às plantas de laranjeira 'Valência' quando comparado ao porta-enxerto 'Cravo'. A queda da assimilação de CO² em plantas resfriadas foi devida à menor condutância estomática e menor eficiência aparente de carboxilação, ou seja, resultante de

  5. PRODUÇÃO E DESENVOLVIMENTO DA TANGERINEIRA-'MONTENEGRINA' PROPAGADA POR ENXERTIA E ESTAQUIA, NO RIO GRANDE DO SUL MANDARIN CV. 'MONTENEGRINA' PRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT PROPAGATED BY CUTTINGS AND GRAFTING IN RIO GRANDE DO SUL STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GILMAR SCHÄFER

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A tangerineira-'Montenegrina' (Citrus deliciosa Ten., devido às boas características de sabor, conservação e colheita tardia dos frutos, é muito apreciada e cultivada no Rio Grande do Sul. Os pomares comerciais são praticamente formados por mudas enxertadas sobre Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. Devido à escassez de informações relativas à combinação desta cultivar com outros porta-enxertos, bem como sua propagação por estaquia, esta pesquisa objetivou estudar o comportamento inicial de plantas enxertadas sobre citrange 'Troyer' (Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. x P. trifoliata, citrumelo 'Swingle' (C. paradisi Macf. x P. trifoliata e P. trifoliata e de plantas propagadas por estaquia. O experimento foi instalado na Estação Experimental Agronômica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, em junho de 1989, delineado em blocos casualisados, com cinco plantas úteis por parcela e quatro repetições. Os resultados compreenderam as primeiras safras ocorridas de 1993 a 1998. O citrumeleiro 'Swingle' foi o porta-enxerto que melhores resultados apresentou, aumentando a eficiência produtiva da tangerineira-'Montenegrina', cultivada na Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul, sendo que o Poncirus trifoliata diminuiu o desenvolvimento vegetativo das copas e induziu baixa eficiência produtiva. A propagação por estaquia não ofereceu vantagens em relação à enxertia sobre citrumeleiro 'Swingle' e citrangeiro 'Troyer'.The mandarin 'Montenegrina' (Citrus deliciosa Ten. yield from plants propagated either by grafting or cutting was evaluated at the 'Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul' experimental agronomic station, southern Brazil, from 1993 to 1998. Three rootstocks were used in the grafted plants. The rootstocks studied were: 'Swingle' citrumelo [Citrus paradisi Macf. x Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.] 'Troyer' citrange (Citrus sinensis x P. trifoliata and trifoliate orange (P. trifoliata. The work was done using a randomized

  6. Protocols for Callus and Somatic Embryo Initiation for Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae): Influence of Explant Type, Sugar, and Plant Growth Regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    A significant work on callus induction and somatic embryogenesis was realized for Hibiscus sabdariffa. Two genotypes (Hibiscus sabdariffa and Hibiscus sabdariffa var. altissima) two sugars (sucrose and glucose) and three concentrations (1 %, 2%, 3%) of each sugar, 3 explant types (root, hypocotyl, c...

  7. Habitat Development at Eight Corps of Engineers Sites: Feasibility and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    fruit Lippia spp. Green ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica Greenhaw Crataegus viridus Groundsel tree Baccharis halimifolia Gulf cordgrass Spartina spartinae...Hawthorn Crataegus spathulata Horsesugar Symplocos tinctoria Ironweed Veronia altissima Ironwood Carpinus caroliniana Live oak Quercus virginiana...rush Juncus effusus Southern dewberry Rubus trivalis Southern red oak Quercus falcata Stiff dogwood Cornus foemina Sugarberry Celtis laevigata Swamp

  8. FECUNDITY OF FICUS WHITEFLY, SINGHIELLA SIMPLEX (HEMIPTERA: ALEYRODIDAE), AND ITS PREDATION BY DELPHASTUS CATALINAE (COLEOPTERA: COCCINELLIDAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficus Whitefly (Singhiella simplex) was first reported in Miami-Dade County in August 2007. This invasive pest causes infested plants to exhibit leaf yellowing, followed by leaf drop. The pest has been recorded on multiple ficus hosts including Ficus benjamina, F. altissima, F. bengalensis, F. micro...

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16278-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7 4 ( CX051766 ) UCRCS09_41H07_b Ruby Orange Developing Seed cDNA ... 172 1e-47 3 ( CX663268 ) UCRCP01_002_D01_T7 Swing...oto... 168 3e-45 3 ( CX644800 ) UCRPT02_7D04_b Poncirus trifoliata Roots with Iro... 165 3e-45 3 ( CX663267 ) UCRCP01_002_D01_T3 Swin... 165 1e-42 2 ( DT214471 ) UCRCP01_040_A10_T72 Swingle citrumelo nematode-ch... 165 1e-42 2 ( CX050262 ) UCRC...... 165 1e-42 2 ( CX663349 ) UCRCP01_003_D04_T7 Swingle citrumelo nematode-cha......CN191129 ) UCRCS06_0004J24_r Washington Navel Orange Stored ... 165 1e-42 2 ( CX663348 ) UCRCP01_003_D04_T3 Swing

  10. Performance of 'Oneco' mandarin on six rootstocks in South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Pereira Gonzatto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the effect of six rootstocks on yield, fruit quality, and growth of 'Oneco' mandarin during the first seven harvesting seasons, in Butiá, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The rootstocks evaluated were: 'Swingle' citrumelo (Citrus paradisi × Poncirus trifoliata, 'Caipira' orange (C. sinensis, 'Troyer' citrange (C. sinensis × P. trifoliata, 'Rangpur' lime (C. limonia, 'Volkamer' lemon (C. volkameriana, and 'Flying Dragon' trifoliata orange (P. trifoliata var. monstrosa. Plants budded onto 'Flying Dragon' had the lowest vegetative development, which indicates the dwarfing characteristics of this rootstock, and had the highest mean production efficiency, despite low yield. Plants grafted on 'Volkamer' lemon and 'Rangpur' lime had the highest alternate bearing. Under the experimental conditions evaluated, the most adequate rootstocks for mandarin 'Oneco' are 'Swingle' citrumelo and 'Troyer' citrange, regarding fruit yield and quality.

  11. Performance of 'Oneco' mandarin on six rootstocks in South Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    Mateus Pereira Gonzatto; Alisson Pacheco Kovaleski; Eduardo Cesar Brugnara; Roberto Luis Weiler; Ivar Antônio Sartori; Jurandir Gonçalves de Lima; Renar João Bender; Sergio Francisco Schwarz

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the effect of six rootstocks on yield, fruit quality, and growth of 'Oneco' mandarin during the first seven harvesting seasons, in Butiá, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The rootstocks evaluated were: 'Swingle' citrumelo (Citrus paradisi × Poncirus trifoliata), 'Caipira' orange (C. sinensis), 'Troyer' citrange (C. sinensis × P. trifoliata), 'Rangpur' lime (C. limonia), 'Volkamer' lemon (C. volkameriana), and 'Flying Dragon' trifoliata orange (P. trifo...

  12. Performance of 'Oneco' mandarin on six rootstocks in South Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzatto,Mateus Pereira; Kovaleski, Alisson Pacheco; Brugnara, Eduardo Cesar; Weiler,Roberto Luis; Sartori, Ivar Antonio; Lima, Jurandir Goncalves de; Bender, Renar João; Schwarz,Sergio Francisco

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the effect of six rootstocks on yield, fruit quality, and growth of 'Oneco' mandarin during the first seven harvesting seasons, in Butiá, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The rootstocks evaluated were: 'Swingle' citrumelo (Citrus paradisi × Poncirus trifoliata), 'Caipira' orange (C. sinensis), 'Troyer' citrange (C. sinensis × P. trifoliata), 'Rangpur' lime (C. limonia), 'Volkamer' lemon (C. volkameriana), and 'Flying Dragon' trifoliata orange (P. trifo...

  13. Investigation on Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities, Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents of Some Thai Edible Plants as an Alternative for Antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, J. H.; S. Cho; Paik, H. D.; Choi, C. W.; Nam, K. T.; Hwang, S. G.; Kim, S.K.

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to examine the antibacterial and antioxidative properties of seven edible plants from Thailand to develop alternative antibiotics as feed additives. The plants include Citrus aurantifolia Swingle (Lime) fruits and its leaves, Sesbania grandiflora L. (Agati sesbania) leaves, Piper sarmentosum Roxb (Wild betal) leaves, Curcuma domestica Valeton (Turmeric) roots, Morinda citrifolia L. (Beach mulberry) leaves, Cassia siamea britt (Siamea cassia) leaves, and Cocos nucifera L. ...

  14. Sweet orange trees grafted on selected rootstocks fertilized with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium Laranjas-doce sobre diferentes porta-enxertos adubadas com nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio

    OpenAIRE

    José Antônio Quaggio; Dirceu Mattos Junior; Heitor Cantarella; Eduardo Sanches Stuchi; Otávio Ricardo Sempionato

    2004-01-01

    The majority of citrus trees in Brazil are grafted on 'Rangpur lime' (Citrus limonia Osb.) rootstock. Despite its good horticultural performance, search for disease tolerant rootstock varieties to improve yield and longevity of citrus groves has increased. The objective of this work was to evaluate yield efficiency of sweet oranges on different rootstocks fertilized with N, P, and potassium. Tree growth was affected by rootstock varieties; trees on 'Swingle' citrumelo [Poncirus trifoliata (L....

  15. Sweet orange trees grafted on selected rootstocks fertilized with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.

    OpenAIRE

    Quaggio José Antônio; Mattos Junior Dirceu; Cantarella Heitor; Stuchi Eduardo Sanches; Sempionato Otávio Ricardo

    2004-01-01

    The majority of citrus trees in Brazil are grafted on 'Rangpur lime' (Citrus limonia Osb.) rootstock. Despite its good horticultural performance, search for disease tolerant rootstock varieties to improve yield and longevity of citrus groves has increased. The objective of this work was to evaluate yield efficiency of sweet oranges on different rootstocks fertilized with N, P, and potassium. Tree growth was affected by rootstock varieties; trees on 'Swingle' citrumelo [Poncirus trifoliata (L....

  16. Quassinoids and Their Chemotaxonomic Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anakshi Khare

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The quassinoids are a group of complex, highly oxygenated, degraded triterpene mostly found in Simaroubaceae family. Two quassinoids (degraded triterpenes, 1 and 2 were isolated first time from the stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa. Compound 1 is C19 quassinoid. C19 quassinoid derived biogenetically from a C20 quassinoid, via a 1,2 –dioxo derivative. The structural elucidation is based on the analysis of spectroscopic data. Interest in these quassinoids has increased enormously in recent years due in part to the finding of the American National Cancer Institute that these compounds display marked antileukamic activity. The ways in which plants interact with other organisms in an environment are complex. Ailanthus also produces toxins in its root, bark and leaves. These toxins inhibit the growth of other plants. The isolated quassinoids are currently being studied as a possible source of a natural herbicide. Extracts of this plant have anti-insect activity and anti-tuberculosis activity.

  17. Animals and trees: food for thought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Openshaw, K.

    1979-01-01

    In many areas of Africa, combining tree-growing with animal rearing is advantageous, as the trees provide shade, animal fodder and timber for fuel and building, while grazing animals reduce the fire hazard from ground vegetation and improve soil fertility through droppings. Acacia albida, Prosopis cineraria, P. chilensis, leucaena leucocephala and Ailanthus excelsa are discussed as promising fodder trees, and an appendix is included with notes on 21 other trees for fodder or the production of medicines.

  18. Effect of Giberellic Acid, Hot water, Fresh & Fermented Tomato Juice on the Germination of some Ficus Species Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud I. Yagi

    2014-01-01

    Two separate experiments were carried out to study the effect of some pre-germination soaking treatments on seed germination of four different Ficus species including: Ficus benjamin, Ficus altissima, Ficus religiosa, and Ficus benghalensis. Two experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions. pe-germination soaking treatments used included: soaking in GA3 (100 p.p.m) for two hours; soaking in fresh tomato juice for 24 hours, soaking in fermented tomato juice for 24 hours, and soaki...

  19. Diversité floristique sous canopée en plantation forestière de Mangombe-Edea (Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makombu, G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Floristic diversity under canopy in forest plantation of Mangombe-Edea (Cameroon. Trees plantation of Mangombe is situated in rain forest of low altitude. Six plots among which one of Mansonia altissima (A.Chev. A.Chev., 2 of Lovoa trichilioides Harms, 3 of Terminalia ivorensis A.Chev. and one perturbed natural forest are concerned by this study. The work consisted to the evaluation of the floristic diversity under canopy in order to appreciate the influence of forest plantation on natural regeneration. A total of 26 families, 42 genders and 46 species were censured. Meliaceae and Apocynaceae are present in all the plots. In plot one of T. ivorensis, M. altissima and natural forest, the low value of equitability of Pielou traduces the dominance of flora by few species and the transitory situation of the ecosystem. On contrary the rest of plots present a good repartition of individuals among the species. One can notice a weak organization of the ecologic system in M. altissima plot, this corresponds to favourable conditions of environment for installation of many species represented by a few number of individuals. Shannon indices, relatively low in plot one of T. ivorensis characterize an ecosystem where one species is dominant. Globally, the regeneration under canopy is reconstituted progressively and remains less diversified than the nearest natural forest. Creation of genetic pool through selective entertainment under canopy will permit polycyclic management of plots for sustainable production of wood.

  20. Leaf-level nitrogen use efficiency: definition and importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Tadaki

    2012-07-01

    Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) has been widely used to study the relationship between nitrogen uptake and dry mass production in the plant. As a subsystem of plant nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), I have defined leaf-level NUE as the surplus production (gross production minus leaf respiration) per unit amount of nitrogen allocated to the leaf, with factorization into leaf nitrogen productivity (NP) and mean residence time of leaf nitrogen (MRT). These concepts were applied to two herbaceous stands: a perennial Solidago altissima stand and an annual Amaranthus patulus stand. S. altissima had more than three times higher leaf NUE than A. patulus due to nearly three times longer MRT of leaf N. In both species, NUE and NP were higher at the leaf level than at the plant level, because most leaf N is involved directly in the photosynthetic activity and because leaf surplus production is higher than the plant net production. MRT was longer at the plant level. The more than twice as long MRT at the plant level as at the leaf level in S. altissima was due to a large contribution of nitrogen storage belowground in the winter in this species. Thus, comparisons between a perennial and an annual system and between plant- and leaf-level NUE with their components revealed the importance of N allocation, storage, recycling, and turnover of organs for leaf photosynthetic production and plant dry mass growth.

  1. 狗牙根和牛鞭草的消浪减蚀作用%Role of Cynodon dactylon L.and Hemarthria altissimain wave attenuation and erosion control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟荣华; 贺秀斌; 鲍玉海; 杨克君; 高进长; 吕发友

    2015-01-01

    Soil erosion and bank degradation is a major post-dam concern regarding the riparian zone of Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). The development and succession of vegetation are the main countermeasures, especially to enhance bank stability and mitigate soil erosion. Thus, the role of forCynodon dactylon(L.) Pers.andHemarthria altissima(Poir.) Stapf et C. E. Hubb. inwave attenuation and erosion control was measured via the flume experiments. The results showed that the two grass species play an important role in wave attenuation and erosion control. The effects of wave attenuation and erosion control capabilities for the two species were different. The mean wave dissipation coefficient (MWDC) for Cynodon dactylon(L.) Pers. andHemarthria altissima (Poir.) Stapf et C. E. Hubb. were 0.37 and 0.30, respectively, with the wave period of 1.2 s to 1.5 s. Nevertheless, the values of MWDCfor Hemarthria altissima(Poir.) Stapf et C. E. Hubb.was similar toCynodon dactylon(L.) Pers.(ranged from 0.15 to 0.30) when the wave period was between 0.8 s to 1.2 s. The MWDCvalues of 0.43 and 0.30 were responded forCynodon dactylon(L.) Pers. under 80% and 40% area coverage, respectively. In contrast, the MWDCvalues forHemarthria altissima (Poir.) Stapf et C. E. Hubb. were 0.35 and 0.24, respectively, under two different coverage. The MWDCvalues forCynodon dactylon(L.) Pers. with a wave height of 8 and 4 cm were 0.34 and 0.39, respectively; whilst, the ones forHemarthria altissima (Poir.) Stapf et C. E. Hubb. were 0.15 and 0.32, respectively. The MWDCvalues showed generally increasing trend with increasing wave period. Species studied also significantly reduced wave induced soil erosion. The results of washout tests indicated the soil erosion modulus decreased with increasing eroded time. The largest erosion modulus was measured for bare land (799.40 g/(m2·min)), followed byHemarthria altissima(Poir.) Stapf et C. E. Hubb. (57.28 g/(m2·min)),Cynodon dactylon(L.) Pers.(17.63 g/(m2·min)). When

  2. Avaliação de citrandarins e outros híbridos de trifoliata como porta-enxertos para citros em São Paulo Performance of citrandarins and others trifoliate hybrids rootstocks in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Blumer

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Laranjeiras Valência enxertadas em citrandarins e outros híbridos de trifoliata foram plantadas em 1988, em Itirapina (SP, num Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo textura arenosa e conduzidas sem irrigação. O citrandarin Sunki x English (1.628, sem diferir estatisticamente de Cleópatra x Rubidoux (1.660, Cleópatra x English (710, Cleópatra x Swingle (715 e do trangpur Cravo x Carrizo (717, induziu a maior produção de frutos nas cinco primeiras colheitas do experimento (1991-1995, sendo que os três primeiros foram os mais produtivos nas três últimas colheitas. Os citranges Troyer e Carrizo foram significativamente inferiores aos citrandarins Sunki x English (1.628, Cleópatra x Rubidoux (1.660 e Cleópatra x English (710 em todos os anos, exceto 1994. Nenhuma das plantas apresentou sintomas de suscetibilidade à tristeza ou ao declínio. Os seedlings dos porta-enxertos diferiram quanto à área lesionada pela inoculação com Phytophthora parasitica. Os citrandarins Cleópatra x Swingle (1.587, Cleópatra x Trifoliata (1.574, Cleópatra x Rubidoux (1.600, Clementina x Trifoliata (1.615 e o limão Cravo x citrange Carrizo (717 foram significativamente mais resistentes que Cleópatra x Christian (712, Sunki x English (1.628, Cleópatra x Swingle (715 e Cleópatra x English (710.Valencia sweet orange trees budded onto citrandarins and others trifoliate hybrids rootstocks from the USDA Horticultural Research Laboratory, Fort Pierce, Florida, were planted in 1988 on a sandy textured Oxisol in São Paulo State, Brazil, and managed without irrigation. Tristeza and blight diseases are endemic in this area. Trees of Sunki x English (1.628, Cleopatra x Rubidoux (1.660, Cleopatra x English (710, Cleopatra x Swingle (715 and Rangpur lime x Carrizo citrange (717, produced the highest cumulative yields in the first five crops (1991-1995. The first three rootstocks induced the highest crops in the last three years. Carrizo and Troyer citranges had the lowest

  3. A set of primers for analyzing chloroplast DNA diversity in Citrus and related genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yunjiang; de Vicente, M Carmen; Meng, Haijun; Guo, Wenwu; Tao, Nengguo; Deng, Xiuxin

    2005-06-01

    Chloroplast simple sequence repeat (cpSSR) markers in Citrus were developed and used to analyze chloroplast diversity of Citrus and closely related genera. Fourteen cpSSR primer pairs from the chloroplast genomes of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and Arabidopsis were found useful for analyzing the Citrus chloroplast genome (cpDNA) and recoded with the prefix SPCC (SSR Primers for Citrus Chloroplast). Eleven of the 14 primer pairs revealed some degree of polymorphism among 34 genotypes of Citrus, Fortunella, Poncirus and some of their hybrids, with polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranging from 0.057 to 0.732, and 18 haplotypes were identified. The cpSSR data were analyzed with NTSYS-pc software, and the genetic relationships suggested by the unweighted pair group method based on arithmetic means (UPGMA) dendrogram were congruent with previous taxonomic investigations: the results showed that all samples fell into seven major clusters, i.e., Citrus medica L., Poncirus, Fortunella, C. ichangensis Blanco, C. reticulata Swingle, C. aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle and C. grandis (L.) Osbeck. The results of previous studies combined with our cpSSR analyses revealed that: (1) Calamondin (C. madurensis Swingle) is the result of hybridization between kumquat (Fortunella) and mandarin (C. reticulata), where kumquat acted as the female parent; (2) Ichang papeda (C. ichangensis) has a unique taxonomic status; and (3) although Bendiguangju mandarin (C. reticulata) and Satsuma mandarin (C. reticulata) are similar in fruit shape and leaf morphology, they have different maternal parents. Bendiguangju mandarin has the same cytoplasm as sweet orange (C. sinensis), whereas Satsuma mandarin has the cytoplasm of C. reticulata. Seventeen PCR products from SPCC1 and 21 from SPCC11 were cloned and sequenced. The results revealed that mononucleotide repeats as well as insertions and deletions of small segments of DNA were associated with SPCC1 polymorphism, whereas polymorphism

  4. Investigation on antibacterial and antioxidant activities, phenolic and flavonoid contents of some thai edible plants as an alternative for antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J H; Cho, S; Paik, H D; Choi, C W; Nam, K T; Hwang, S G; Kim, S K

    2014-10-01

    This study was aimed to examine the antibacterial and antioxidative properties of seven edible plants from Thailand to develop alternative antibiotics as feed additives. The plants include Citrus aurantifolia Swingle (Lime) fruits and its leaves, Sesbania grandiflora L. (Agati sesbania) leaves, Piper sarmentosum Roxb (Wild betal) leaves, Curcuma domestica Valeton (Turmeric) roots, Morinda citrifolia L. (Beach mulberry) leaves, Cassia siamea britt (Siamea cassia) leaves, and Cocos nucifera L. (Coconut) peels. The plants were extracted by methanol, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. Antibacterial activities with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined by agar diffusion assay against Escherichia coli, Burkholderia sp., Haemopilus somnus, Haemopilus parasuis, and Clostridium perfringens that were considered pathogenic strains in livestock infection. Methanol extracts of C. aurantifolia Swingle fruits and leaves showed the broadest spectrum of antibacterial activities except for C. perfringens. Butanol extract of S. grandiflora L. leaves showed the strongest activity against Burkholderia sp. with MIC, 135 μg/mL. P. sarmentosum Roxb leaves showed antibacterial activities against E. coli, Burkholderia sp. and H. parasuis. Ethyl acetate and water extracts from C. domesitca Valeton roots showed MIC of 306 μg/mL and 183 μg/mL, respectively against only C. perfringens. Antioxidative activity was determined by 2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl photometric assay. The methanol extracts of C. aurantifolia Swingle fruits and P. sarmentosum Roxb leaves showed the highest antioxidant activity among all the extracts with 3.46 mg/mL and 2.70 mg/mL effective concentration 50% (EC50) values, respectively. Total contents of phenolics and flavonoids were measured from the plant extracts. Methanol extracts of S. grandiflora L. and chloroform extracts of C. domestica Valeton were found to have the highest amount of total phenolics, 41.7 and 47.8

  5. Volatile composition and biological activity of key lime Citrus aurantifolia essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadaro, Federica; Costa, Rosaria; Circosta, Clara; Occhiuto, Francesco

    2012-11-01

    The essential oil of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) Swingle fruits (limes) was studied for its potential spasmolytic effects in relation to its chemical composition. The essential oil, extracted by hydrodistillation (HD), was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The antispasmodic activity was evaluated on isolated rabbit jejunum, aorta and uterus. The results indicated that the essential oil of C. aurantifolia possesses important spasmolytic properties, which are likely to be due to its major constituents, limonene (58.4%), beta-pinene (15.4%), gamma-terpinene (8.5%), and citral (4.4%).

  6. A REVIEW ON CITRON-PHARMACOGNOSY, PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND MEDICINAL USES

    OpenAIRE

    Meena A.K; Kandale Ajit; Rao M.M.; Panda P; Reddy Govind

    2011-01-01

    The citron is a fragrant fruit with the botanical name Citrus medica, which applies to both the Swingle and Tanaka systems. It is a prominent member in the genus Citrus, belonging to the Rutaceae or Rue family, sub-family Aurantioideae. The citron is unlike the more common citrus species like the lemon or orange. While the most popular fruits are peeled to consume their pulpy and juicy segments, the citron's pulp is very dry, containing only little insipid juice. Moreover, the main content of...

  7. Níveis de alumínio e acúmulo de macronutrientes em porta-enxertos cítricos em cultivo hidropônico Aluminum levels and macronutrient accumulation in citrus rootstocks in hydroponic solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique dos Santos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência de diferentes níveis de alumínio no acúmulo de macronutrientes pelos porta-enxertos cítricos limoeiro Cravo e citrumeleiro Swingle, sob cultivo hidropônico. Os tratamentos utilizados em condições de casa de vegetação seguiram o delineamento estatístico inteiramente casualizado, com 3 repetições, em parcelas subdivididas. Os níveis de alumínio utilizados foram: 0, 7,5, 15, 22,5 e 30 mg L-1, na forma de AlCl3.6 H2O. Determinaram-se o acúmulo de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S e do Al da matéria seca vegetal, relacionando-os com os pesos da matéria seca da parte aérea (folhas e caule e raízes durante o período de 84 dias, com coletas de plantas a cada 14 dias. Conclui-se que, com adição a partir de 7,5 mg L-1 de alumínio em solução nutritiva ocorreram alterações fisiológicas e reduções significativas no acúmulo de macronutrientes associado à redução nos pesos da matéria seca das folhas, caule e raízes das plantas de citrumelo Swingle.The aim of this research was to study the influence of different levels of aluminum on macronutrient contents of citrus rootstocks of the `Rangpur' lime and the `Swingle' citrumelo, in hydroponic solution. The treatments, established under greenhouse conditions, followed a completely randomized experimental design, with 3 replications, distributed in split-plots. The levels of aluminum were: 0; 7.5; 15; 22.5 and 30 mg L-1, applied as AlCl3.6 H2O. The evaluated chemical plant parameters were the concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Al and dry weight of leaves, stem and root system. The results showed that with adition of 7.5 mg L-1 of Al to the nutrient solution there was a significant decrese of nutrient contents and a decrese in leave, stem and root system dry weight of `Swingle' citrumelo.

  8. Porta-enxertos para a tangerineira 'Michal' no Rio Grande do Sul Rootstocks for 'Michal' tangerine in Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Cesar Brugnara; Sergio Francisco Schwarz; Otto Carlos Koller; Renar João Bender; Roberto Luis Weiler; Mateus Pereira Gonzatto; Gilmar Schäfer; Flávia Targa Martins; Jurandir Gonçalves de Lima

    2009-01-01

    A tangerineira 'Michal' (Citrus clementina x C. tangerina) poderá ser uma boa alternativa ao Rio Grande do Sul como cultivar copa para produção de frutos em época precoce. No entanto, há falta de informações sobre seu comportamento em cultivo nas condições ambientais desse Estado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento das plantas, a produção e a qualidade dos frutos da tangerineira 'Michal' enxertada sobre cinco porta-enxertos: citrangeiro 'Troyer', citrumeleiro 'Swingle', l...

  9. Porta-enxertos para a tangerineira 'Michal' no Rio Grande do Sul Rootstocks for 'Michal' tangerine in Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cesar Brugnara

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A tangerineira 'Michal' (Citrus clementina x C. tangerina poderá ser uma boa alternativa ao Rio Grande do Sul como cultivar copa para produção de frutos em época precoce. No entanto, há falta de informações sobre seu comportamento em cultivo nas condições ambientais desse Estado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento das plantas, a produção e a qualidade dos frutos da tangerineira 'Michal' enxertada sobre cinco porta-enxertos: citrangeiro 'Troyer', citrumeleiro 'Swingle', limoeiro 'Cravo', tangerineira 'Sunki' e trifoliata 'Flying Dragon', na Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: a altura das plantas, a circunferência do tronco, a área de projeção da copa (APC, o número e a massa (MF de frutos produzidos, a relação MF/APC (IP, o teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST, a acidez total titulável (ATT e a relação SST/ATT do suco, além do tamanho dos frutos e do rendimento de suco. O citrumeleiro 'Swingle' promoveu bom vigor, boa produção, bom IP, bons níveis de SST e de ATT da 'Michal', enquanto o limoeiro 'Cravo' conferiu bom vigor, boa produção, bom IP e bom tamanho dos frutos, ambos podendo ser indicados como porta-enxertos em pomares de tangerineira 'Michal'.'Michal' tangerine (Citrus clementina x C. tangerina can be a good choice as canopy for early maturing fruit production in Rio Grande do Sul. The limitation is the lack of information about its performance and management. The aim of this research was to evaluate the development, production and fruit quality of 'Michal' tangerine grafted on five rootstocks: 'Troyer' citrange, 'Swingle' citrumelo, 'Cravo' lemon, 'Sunki' tangerine and 'Flying Dragon' trifoliate orange, in the Depressão Central of Rio Grande do Sul. The following variables were evaluated: plant height; trunk circumference; canopy projection area (APC; produced fruit number and weight (MF; MF/APC relation (IP; juice total soluble solids

  10. Investigation on Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities, Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents of Some Thai Edible Plants as an Alternative for Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to examine the antibacterial and antioxidative properties of seven edible plants from Thailand to develop alternative antibiotics as feed additives. The plants include Citrus aurantifolia Swingle (Lime fruits and its leaves, Sesbania grandiflora L. (Agati sesbania leaves, Piper sarmentosum Roxb (Wild betal leaves, Curcuma domestica Valeton (Turmeric roots, Morinda citrifolia L. (Beach mulberry leaves, Cassia siamea britt (Siamea cassia leaves, and Cocos nucifera L. (Coconut peels. The plants were extracted by methanol, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. Antibacterial activities with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC were determined by agar diffusion assay against Escherichia coli, Burkholderia sp., Haemopilus somnus, Haemopilus parasuis, and Clostridium perfringens that were considered pathogenic strains in livestock infection. Methanol extracts of C. aurantifolia Swingle fruits and leaves showed the broadest spectrum of antibacterial activities except for C. perfringens. Butanol extract of S. grandiflora L. leaves showed the strongest activity against Burkholderia sp. with MIC, 135 μg/mL. P. sarmentosum Roxb leaves showed antibacterial activities against E. coli, Burkholderia sp. and H. parasuis. Ethyl acetate and water extracts from C. domesitca Valeton roots showed MIC of 306 μg/mL and 183 μg/mL, respectively against only C. perfringens. Antioxidative activity was determined by 2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl photometric assay. The methanol extracts of C. aurantifolia Swingle fruits and P. sarmentosum Roxb leaves showed the highest antioxidant activity among all the extracts with 3.46 mg/mL and 2.70 mg/mL effective concentration 50% (EC50 values, respectively. Total contents of phenolics and flavonoids were measured from the plant extracts. Methanol extracts of S. grandiflora L. and chloroform extracts of C. domestica Valeton were found to have the highest amount of total phenolics, 41.7 and 47

  11. Desenvolvimento vegetativo, produção e qualidade de frutos da tangerina 'Fremont' sobre quatro porta-enxertos Growth, yield and fruit quality of 'Fremont' mandarin on four rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Espinoza Núñez

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento vegetativo, produção e qualidade de frutos da tangerina 'Fremont' (C. clementina Hort. ex Tan. X C. reticulata Blanco sobre os porta-enxertos limão 'Cravo' (C. limonia Osbeck, citrumelo 'Swingle' (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf., tangerina 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan. e tangelo 'Orlando' (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf., foi instalado um experimento em Bebedouro-SP, em 1997. Embora diferenças na produção tenham sido registradas em função dos porta-enxertos, nos anos de 2003 a 2005, a produção acumulada nas safras de 2000 a 2006 não revelou influência dos mesmos. Os valores do índice de alternância de produção e eficiência de produção não foram influenciados pelos porta-enxertos. O teor de sólidos solúveis, bem como acidez total foram superiores nos frutos das plantas enxertadas sobre citrumelo 'Swingle' e tangerina 'Cleópatra'. Os valores de volume da copa e diâmetro do tronco foram superiores nas árvores sobre tangelo 'Orlando' e tangerina 'Cleópatra'.An experiment was installed in Bebedouro, SP, Brazil in 1997, with the aim of evaluate the effect of the rootstocks 'Rangpur' lime (C. limonia Osbeck, 'Swingle' citrumelo (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf., 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan. and 'Orlando' tangelo (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf. on plant growth, yield and fruit quality of 'Fremont' mandarin (C. clementina Hort. ex Tan. X C. reticulata Blanco. Despite that differences in yield have been registered related to the rootstocks between 2003 to 2005; cumulative yield from 2000 to 2006 seasons was not affected by the rootstock. Alternate bearing index and yield efficiency values were not influenced by the rootstocks. Fruits from trees on 'Swingle' citrumelo and 'Cleópatra' mandarin had higher values of total soluble solids concentration and total acids. Trunk diameter and canopy volume values were higher in

  12. Electrophysiological responses of chafer beetle, Holotrichia serrata (F. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae

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    Kesavan Subaharan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The chafer beetle, Holotrichia serrata F. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae in its larval stage is a serious pest on sugarcane, vegetables, groundnut and coconut in many parts of India. The antennal response of adults to host volatiles and pheromone gland extracts was assessed by electroantennography. Among the preferred host of H. serrata, the volatiles from neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss leaf extract elicited higher antennal response than gulmohar Delonix regia L. flowers and Ailanthus excelsa (Roxb leaf extracts. The order of response was the same irrespective of the sex. In general the antennal response to pheromone gland and host extracts was higher in males than in females.

  13. Quassinoid inhibition of AP-1 function does not correlate with cytotoxicity or protein synthesis inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutler, John A; Kang, Moon-Il; Robert, Francis; Clement, Jason A; Pelletier, Jerry; Colburn, Nancy H; McKee, Tawnya C; Goncharova, Ekaterina; McMahon, James B; Henrich, Curtis J

    2009-03-27

    Several quassinoids were identified in a high-throughput screening assay as inhibitors of the transcription factor AP-1. Further biological characterization revealed that while their effect was not specific to AP-1, protein synthesis inhibition and cell growth assays were inconsistent with a mechanism of simple protein synthesis inhibition. Numerous plant extracts from the plant family Simaroubaceae were also identified in the same screen; bioassay-guided fractionation of one extract (Ailanthus triphylla) yielded two known quassinoids, ailanthinone (3) and glaucarubinone (4), which were also identified in the pure compound screening procedure.

  14. Seed production of woody plants in conditions of environment pollution by metallurgical industry emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. V. Gritzay

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of environment pollution by metallurgical industry emissions on woody plants bearing parameters was examined. The results obtained show the decrease of bearing rate, diminution of seeds, fruits and seed cells sizes in woody plants affected by technogenic emissions. Attenuation of the 1000 seeds’ weight was established. Incresing the amount of fruits with development deviations was ascertained. It was found aplasia and abnormal form of the samara fruit of ash and ailanthus trees, arcuation and narrowing of some parts of the catalpa fruitcases. Practical recommendations on using seeds’ sensitive parameters in biomonitoring of woody phytocenoses under technogenic stressful conditions are proposed.

  15. Dynamics of tree damage due to coke-chemical industry gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyukina, Zh.T.; Obraztsova, V.I.

    1971-01-01

    Weekly examination of decoloration, spotting, lifetime, and xenomorphism of leaves and tree growths (height and volume) were made during 1968-1969 on a series of 10 to 15-year-old trees exposed to atmospheres polluted with sulfur compounds, phenols, ammonia, and coal dust. Injury to trees was observed. Harmful changes were most pronounced in older trees, and decreased in poplar, ailanthus, mulberry, acacia, English elm, and were smallest in privet. A direct relation was observed between the extent of xenomorphism and plant resistance to polluting gases.

  16. Airborne Pollen Grains Of Afyon, Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adem BICAKCI; Süheyla ERGUN; Sevcan TATLIDIL; Hulusi MALYER; Sabri OZYURT; Ahmet AKKAYA; Nihat SAPAN

    2002-01-01

    The airborne pollen grains of Afyon have been studied for a two-year period (1999-2000) with a Durham sampler. A total of 14 367 pollen grains belonging to 40 taxa have been identified and recorded with some unidentified ones. Of them, 6 732 were identified in 1999 and 7 635 in 2000. Of the total pollen grains, 69.67% were arboreal, 26.64% non-arboreal and 3.68 % unidentified. The majority of the investigated pollen grains were from Pinus, Gramineae, Cupressaceae, Platanus, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Quercus, Ailanthus, Moraceae, Juglans, Salix, Cedrus and Rosaceae. The highest level of pollen grains was in May.

  17. STUDY ON FREEZING RESISTANCE OF 5 CITRUS SOMATIC HYBRIDS%5个柑桔体细胞杂种的抗寒性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓伯勋; 曾凤

    2001-01-01

    研究了5个柑桔细胞杂种的抗寒性,其结果是伏令夏橙+宜昌橙( C. sinensis Osb. cv. Valencia + C.ichangensis Swingle)抗-11℃、伏令夏橙+‘key'来檬( C. sinensis Osb. cv. Valencia + C. aurantifolia cv. Key lime)抗-7.59℃、伏令夏橙+宁波金柑( C. sinensis Osb. cv. Valencia + Fortunella crassifolia Swingle cv. Meiwa)抗-9.54℃、哈姆林甜橙+粗柠檬( C. sinensis Osb.cv. Hamlin + C .jamhiri L. )抗-7.1℃,哈姆林甜橙+飞龙枳( Citrus sinensis Osb. cv. Hamlin + Poncirus trifoliata Raf. cv. Flying Dragon)抗-12.89℃、并且证明了5个体细胞杂种的抗寒性均介于两亲本之间.其中哈姆林甜橙+飞龙枳杂种、伏令夏橙+宜昌橙杂种的抗寒性均高于其它几个组合.还证明了柑桔体细胞杂种的抗寒能力几乎不受栽培管理水平的影响.

  18. 佛手采后致病青霉的分离鉴定%Identification of Penicillium species causing post-harvest diseases of finger citron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永强; 杨佳妮; 陈文荣; 路梅; 郭卫东

    2011-01-01

    Golden Finger citron (Citrusmedica var. Sarcodactylis Swingle), one of the traditional specialities of Jinhua.Zhejiang Province, has high ornamental and medicinal value. Green mould is the major fungus disease of Citrus fruits, causing substantial economic losses during the storage of post-harvest. To identify the exact species of the pathogenic fungus, an isolate belonged to genus Penicillium was isolated from the infected Golden Finger citron. Kochs postulation was completed by wounded-inoculation with the conidial suspension of Penicillium sp. On health Golden Finger. It was identified as Penicillium digitatum based on morphological characters and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) analysis. This result would be helpful for controlling post-harvest disease.%佛手(Citrusmedica var.sarcodactylis Swingle)又名九爪木、五指橘、佛手柑,为芸香科柑橘属常绿小乔木.主产于闽、粤、川、浙等省,其中浙江金华“金佛手”最为著名,被称为“果中之仙品,世上之奇卉”.其果形美观、色泽金黄、香味浓郁,具有药用价值高、贮藏期长的特点[1],是金华地区的传统特产之一.

  19. Caracterização de híbridos de Poncirus trifoliata e de outros porta-enxertos de citros no Estado da Bahia Characterization of Poncirus trifoliata hybrids and other citrus rootstocks in the State of Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Sampaio Passos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos visando à caracterização de híbridos de Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. e porta-enxertos tradicionais foram realizados no sentido de se conhecer o seu comportamento nas condições tropicais do Estado da Bahia. Foram tomadas medidas de altura, diâmetro e peso de frutos, número de sementes por fruto e por quilo, bem como contagem de embriões, taxa de poliembrionia, percentagens de germinação e de vingamento de borbulhas na enxertia, em mais de 34 acessos, a maioria introduzida da Califórnia - EUA. Os dados obtidos estimulam o uso de alguns híbridos de trifoliata, como os das tangerineiras 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni hort. ex Tanaka e 'Sunki' (C. sunki hort. ex Tanaka com os trifoliatas 'Swingle' e 'English'.Studies on characterization of trifoliate hybrids and traditional rootstocks were accomplished in order to know their behavior under tropical conditions in the State of Bahia. Measurements of the height, diameter and weight of the fruits were taken, number of seeds per fruit and per kilo were counted, as well as number of embryos, polyembryony and germination rate and grafting in 34 accessions, mostly introduced from California, USA. The obtained data encourage the use of some trifoliate hybrids, as those from crosses between 'Cleopatra' mandarin (C. reshni hort. ex Tanaka and 'Sunki' mandarin (C. sunki hort. ex Tanaka with 'Swingle' and 'English' trifoliate.

  20. Níveis de alumínio e o desenvolvimento de porta-enxertos cítricos em cultivo hidropônico: I. Parâmetros biométricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Carlos Henrique dos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência de diferentes níveis de alumínio nos parâmetros biométricos dos porta-enxertos cítricos limoeiro Cravo e citrumeleiro Swingle em cultivo hidropônico. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação em Botucatu, SP. Os tratamentos seguiram o delineamento estatístico inteiramente casualizado, com 3 repetições, em parcelas subdivididas. Os níveis de alumínio utilizados foram: 0; 7,5; 15; 22,5 e 30 mg L-1, na forma de AlCl3 6.H2O em solução nutritiva. Foram avaliados os parâmetros biométricos altura, número de folhas, diâmetro do caule, área foliar, comprimento e volume de raízes. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, conclui-se que o citrumeleiro Swingle apresentou-se mais sensível ao alumínio, sendo que, a partir de 7,5 mg L-1 houve redução nos valores destes parâmetros, enquanto que o limoeiro Cravo mostrou-se mais tolerante aos níveis de alumínio.

  1. Iridoid patterns of genus Plantago L. and their systematic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskova, Rilka; Evstatieva, Ljubka; Handjieva, Nedjalka; Popov, Simeon

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of 14 iridoid glucosides in 14 Plantago L. species (44 samples corresponding to 18 taxa) was shown. P. tenuiflora and P. gentianoides were studied for iridoids for the first time. The iridoid patterns showed a good correlation with morphological and other chemical features of the representatives of genus Plantago. The studied species are grouped together according to the iridoid patterns: species containing mainly aucubin (P. major, P. cornuti, P. gentianoides); species containing aucubin and aucubin derivatives (P. subulata, P. media); species containing aucubin and catalpol (P. lanceolata, P. altissima, P. argentea, P. lagopus, P. atrata); species containing aucubin and plantarenaloside (P. afra, P. scabra).

  2. Eficiência fotoquímica de gramíneas forrageiras tropicais submetidas à deficiência hídrica

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Manoel Messias Pereira da; Vasquez Hernán Maldonado; Bressan-Smith Ricardo; Silva José Fernando Coelho da; Erbesdobler Eleonora D'Avila; Andrade Junior Paulo Sérgio Cruz de

    2006-01-01

    Neste estudo, as espécies capim-setária (Setaria anceps Stapf.), capim-hemárthria (Hemarthria altissima [Poir] Stapf. & Hubbard), capim-do-nilo (Acroceras macrum Stapf.) e capim-angola (Brachiaria purpurascens [Raddi] Henr.) foram submetidos à deficiência hídrica moderada a seca com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do déficit hídrico sobre as características de fluorescência da clorofila. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação, em blocos ao acaso, constituídos pelas quatro espécies cu...

  3. Respostas morfogênicas de gramíneas forrageiras tropicais sob diferentes condições hídricas do solo

    OpenAIRE

    Manoel Messias Pereira da Silva; Hernan Maldonado Vasquez; Ricardo Enrique Bressan-Smith; José Fernando Coelho da Silva; Eleonora D'Avila Erbesdobler; Paulo Sérgio Cruz de Andrade Junior

    2005-01-01

    Quatro gramíneas forrageiras (Setaria anceps Stapf., Hemarthria altissima [Poir] Stapf. & Hubbard, Acroceras macrum Stapf. e Brachiaria purpurascens [Raddi] Henr.), foram estabelecidas por mudas, em vasos plásticos com diferentes condições hídricas, para se avaliar algumas características morfogênicas e estruturais. As irrigações foram controladas pela pesagem individual dos vasos e pela saturação relativa à porosidade total (SRPT) para cada nível hídrico do solo. Utilizou-se o delineamento d...

  4. Frações de carboidratos de quatro gramíneas tropicais em diferentes idades de corte e doses de adubação nitrogenada Carbohydrate fractions of tropical grasses at different cutting ages and under nitrogen fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Henriques,L.T.; Coelho da Silva,J.F.; Detmann, E.; Vasquez,H.M.; Pereira,O.G.

    2007-01-01

    Avaliaram-se as frações de carboidratos dos capins setária (Setaria anceps Stapf), hemarthria (Hemarthria altissima [Poir] Stapf. & Hubbard), angola (Brachiaria purpurascens [Raddi] Henr.) e acroceres (Acroceras macrum Stapf.) adubados com 0, 100, 200, 300 e 400kg de N/ha na forma de sulfato de amônio e colhidos aos 28, 42, 56 e 70 dias de idade. Os cortes foram realizados a 20cm do solo para o capim-setária e a 10cm para as demais espécies. As frações dos carboidratos das forrageiras foram i...

  5. ETHNO-VETERINARY MEDICINAL USAGE OF FLORA OF GREATER CHOLISTAN DESERT (PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRAZ M. KHAN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A study on the ethno-veterinary usage of wild medicinal plants of Greater Cholistan desert of Pakistan was conducted from January, 2007 to December, 2008. Information regarding 35 plant species was collected. According to the results, Blepharis sindica was used as galactagogue. Butea monosperma, Calotropis procera and Phyllanthus nirurii were used as emollient, demulcent and antiphlogistic. Amaranthus trilocular, Capparis decidua, Clerodendron phlomoides, Phyllanthus nirurii and Ricinus communis were used as carminative and stomachic. Capparis decidua and Calotropis procera were used as appetizer. Prosopis glandulosa had anodyne properties, Achyranthes aspera had antilithic, while Pedalium murex, Tribulus terrestris and Barleria prionites had diuretic value. Achyranthes aspera, Argemone mexicana, Balanites aegyptiaca, Butea monosperma, Cassia senna, Citrullus colocynthis and Vitex negundo were used as vermifuge. Alhagi camelorum and Balanites aegyptiaca had aperient properties. Barleria prionites and Mollugo nudicaulis had their role in the ripening of an abscess. Ricinus communis and Salvadora oleoides aided in the removal of placenta and lochia. Anamitra cocculus and Argemone mexicana were used as febrifuge. Aerva javanica, Ailanthus excelsa, Amaranthus trilocular, Capparis decidua were used in diarrhoea and dysentery. Argemone mexicana and Ailanthus excelsa were used in ague.

  6. Performance of ‘Okitsu’ satsuma mandarin trees on different rootstocks in Northwestern Parana State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuleide Hissano Tazima

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the State of Paraná, citrus production is based mainly on Rangpur lime rootstock, which has good results with the established cultivars. However, research is needed into rootstocks for use with cultivars that remain to be commercially exploited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the vegetative development and yield of ‘Okitsu’ satsuma mandarin plants (Citrus unshiu Marc., as well as fruit quality, budded on nine rootstocks in the Northwest State of Paraná, Brazil. The orchard was established at the Experimental Station of the Agronomic Institute of Paraná-IAPAR, Paranavaí, PR, in January 2001. The experimental design was randomized blocks with nine treatments, three replications, and two plants per plot. The rootstocks were Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osb., Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni hort. ex Tanaka, C-13 citrange [Citrus sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata orange (L. Raf.], Volkamer lemon (Citrus volkameriana V. Ten. e Pasq., Carrizo citrange [C. sinensis × P. trifoliata (L. Raf.], Sunki mandarin (Citrus sunki hort. ex Tanaka, trifoliate orange [P. trifoliata (L. Raf. ], Swingle citrumelo [Citrus paradisi Macfad. cv. Duncan × P. trifoliata (L. Raf.], and Caipira DAC sweet orange [C. sinensis (L. Osb.]. The largest plant canopy to ‘Okitsu’ was induced by Cleopatra and the lowest by trifoliata, with 37.1 m3 and 9.9 m3, respectively. The highest relationship between scion and rootstock trunk diameter was observed for the plants budded on Swingle. The largest accumulated yields per plant over eight seasons were induced by Volkamer, Rangpur, Caipira DAC, Cleopatra, and Carrizo, ranging from 867.3 to 989.6 kg. These rootstocks also induced the largest fruit mass, along with Sunki, ranging from 173.3 to 188.0 g. Trifoliate induced accumulated production of 52.5% in relation to Rangpur lime. Rangpur, Carrizo, trifoliate, and Swingle induced the largest averages for the ratio, ranging from 10.41 to 10.79. For orchard

  7. Monitoring the viability of citrus rootstocks seeds stored under refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Alves de Carvalho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The citrus nursery tree is produced through the bud grafting process, in which rootstock is usually grown from seed germination. The objective of this research was to evaluate, in two dissimilar environmental conditions, the viability and polyembryony expression of five citrus rootstocks seeds stored in different periods under refrigeration. The rootstock varieties evaluated were: Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osb. cv. Limeira, Trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf. cv. Limeira, Citrumelo (P. trifoliata x C. paradisi Macf. cv. Swingle, Sunki mandarin (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka and Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq. cv. Catania 2. The experimental design was the randomized blocks in a 11 x 5 x 2 factorial scheme, evaluating from time zero to the tenth month of storage, the five varieties of rootstock in two environments: germination and growth B.O.D type chamber (Biological Oxygen Demand - Eletrolab Brand Model FC 122 at 25 °C; and greenhouse seedbed with partial temperature control (22 °C to 36 °C and humidity control (75-85%. The plot had 24 seeds in four replicates, using trays with substrate in greenhouse and Petri dishes with filter paper in B.O.D. chamber. The seed germination rate and polyembryony expression were evaluated monthly. It was concluded that Trifoliate and Citrumelo Swingle seeds can be stored for up to seven months, while Volkamer lemon, Rangpur lime and Sunki seeds can be stored for up to ten months. The polyembryony expression rate was slightly higher when measured in greenhouse than in B.O.D. chamber and remained stable in both environments until the seventh month, from which dropped sharply. Citrumelo Swingle seeds expressed the highest polyembryony rate (18.8%, followed by Rangpur lime and Volkamer lemon (average value of 13.7%, Sunki (9.4% and Trifoliate (3.2%. Despite some differences among varieties, the viability of rootstock stored seeds can be monitored either in the greenhouse or in B

  8. In vitro antibacterial potential of someVitex species against human pathogenic bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krishnan Kannathasan; Annadurai Senthilkumar; Venugopalan Venkatesalu

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To study the antibacterial activity of the leaf methanol extracts of five different species ofVitex namely,Vitex altissima (V. altissima),Vitex diversifolia (V. diversifolia),Vitex negundo(V. negundo),Vitex peduncularis (V. peduncularis) andVitex trifolia (V. trifolia). Methods: Antibacterial assay was carried out by using disc diffusion method, determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC)and minimum bactericidal concentrations(MBC)against five strains of Gram-positive and seven strains of Gram-negative human pathogenic bacterial strains.Results: The results of antibacterial activity ofVitex species showed that the extracts possessed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. TheV. peduncularis possessed the highest activity against all the microorganisms screened. It produced a zone of inhibition ranged between (11.000± 0.577) and(22.670 ± 0.667) mm and theMIC values were from 62.5 to1 000.0 μg/mL and theMBCvalues were from 125.0to2 000.0μg/mL.Conclusions:Based on the present study, V. peduncularis is recommended for the isolation of antibacterial molecule responsible for the activity against the tested human pathogenic bacterial strains.

  9. A switch from mutualist to exploiter is reflected in smaller egg loads and increased larval mortalities in a 'cheater' fig wasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiang-Bo; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Quinnell, Rupert J.; Compton, Stephen G.; Yang, Da-Rong

    2014-05-01

    The interaction between the hundreds of Ficus species and their specific pollinating fig wasps (Agaonidae) presents a striking example of mutualism. Foundress fig wasps pollinate fig flowers, but also lay their eggs in (and gall) some of them. Only two cases of cheating fig wasps (that fail to pollinate) have been reported, from two continents, suggesting that there is a cost to abandoning pollination. Reasons for the rarity of cheating are a major question in fig biology, because persistence of the mutualism depends on fig wasps continuing to pollinate. A cost in terms of reduced reproductive success among cheaters could be one explanation. Here we compare the behavior and reproduction of an undescribed Eupristina sp., a cheater that coexists with the pollinator Eupristina altissima on Ficus altissima in southern China. Adult females of both species fought with conspecifics when they were seeking entry through the ostiole into receptive figs, but there was no fighting with heterospecifics. Despite a similar body size, female pollinators contained more eggs than female cheaters. Pollinators and cheaters produced similar number of galls, and although almost twice as many flowers were galled in figs entered by two compared to one foundress, larval mortality was greatly increased when two foundresses were present. Larval mortality was also significantly higher for cheaters compared to pollinators, independent of the number of foundresses. Ovules galled by the cheater were thus significantly less likely to result in adult offspring, suggesting that there are significant costs associated with abandoning the mutualism.

  10. Morphological analyses suggest a new taxonomic circumscription for Hymenaea courbaril L. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae

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    Isys Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hymenaea is a genus of the Resin-producing Clade of the tribe Detarieae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae with 14 species. Hymenaea courbaril is the most widespread species of the genus, ranging from southern Mexico to southeastern Brazil. As currently circumscribed, H. courbaril is a polytypic species with six varieties: var. altissima, var. courbaril, var. longifolia, var. stilbocarpa, var. subsessilis, and var. villosa. These varieties are distinguishable mostly by traits related to leaflet shape and indumentation, and calyx indumentation. We carried out morphometric analyses of 14 quantitative (continuous leaf characters in order to assess the taxonomy of H. courbaril under the Unified Species Concept framework. Cluster analysis used the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA based on Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrices. Principal Component Analyses (PCA were carried out based on the same morphometric matrix. Two sets of Analyses of Similarity and Non Parametric Multivariate Analysis of Variance were carried out to evaluate statistical support (1 for the major groups recovered using UPGMA and PCA, and (2 for the varieties. All analyses recovered three major groups coincident with (1 var. altissima, (2 var. longifolia, and (3 all other varieties. These results, together with geographical and habitat information, were taken as evidence of three separate metapopulation lineages recognized here as three distinct species. Nomenclatural adjustments, including reclassifying formerly misapplied types, are proposed.

  11. Morphological analyses suggest a new taxonomic circumscription for Hymenaea courbaril L. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Isys Mascarenhas; Funch, Ligia Silveira; de Queiroz, Luciano Paganucci

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hymenaea is a genus of the Resin-producing Clade of the tribe Detarieae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) with 14 species. Hymenaea courbaril is the most widespread species of the genus, ranging from southern Mexico to southeastern Brazil. As currently circumscribed, Hymenaea courbaril is a polytypic species with six varieties: var. altissima, var. courbaril, var. longifolia, var. stilbocarpa, var. subsessilis, and var. villosa. These varieties are distinguishable mostly by traits related to leaflet shape and indumentation, and calyx indumentation. We carried out morphometric analyses of 14 quantitative (continuous) leaf characters in order to assess the taxonomy of Hymenaea courbaril under the Unified Species Concept framework. Cluster analysis used the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) based on Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrices. Principal Component Analyses (PCA) were carried out based on the same morphometric matrix. Two sets of Analyses of Similarity and Non Parametric Multivariate Analysis of Variance were carried out to evaluate statistical support (1) for the major groups recovered using UPGMA and PCA, and (2) for the varieties. All analyses recovered three major groups coincident with (1) var. altissima, (2) var. longifolia, and (3) all other varieties. These results, together with geographical and habitat information, were taken as evidence of three separate metapopulation lineages recognized here as three distinct species. Nomenclatural adjustments, including reclassifying formerly misapplied types, are proposed. PMID:25009440

  12. Herbivore exclusion drives the evolution of plant competitiveness via increased allelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, Akane; Kessler, André

    2013-05-01

    The 'Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability (EICA)' hypothesis predicts the evolution of plant invasiveness in introduced ranges when plants escape from their natural enemies. So far, the EICA hypothesis has been tested by comparing plant vigor from native and invasive populations, but these studies are confounded by among-population differences in additional environmental factors and/or founder effects. We tested the major prediction of EICA by comparing the competitive ability (CA) of Solidago altissima plants originating from artificial selection plots in which we manipulated directly the exposure to above-ground herbivores. In a common garden experiment, we found an increase in inter-specific, but not intra-specific, CA in clones from herbivore exclusion plots relative to control plots. The evolutionary increase in inter-specific CA coincided with the increased production of polyacetylenes, whose major constituent was allelopathic against a heterospecific competitor, Poa pratensis, but not against conspecifics. Our results provide direct evidence that release from herbivory alone can lead to an evolutionary increase in inter-specific CA, which is likely to be mediated by the increased production of allelopathic compounds in S. altissima. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. CREATION AND HYBRID IDENTIFICATION OF THE SEXUAL PROGENIES USING CITRUS SOMATIC HYBRID AS POLLEN PARENT%柑橘体细胞杂种有性后代的创造及杂种鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊华林; 邓秀新

    2005-01-01

    以异源四倍体柑橘体细胞杂种[哈姆林甜橙(Citrus sinensis Osbeck)+粗柠檬(C.jambhiriLuss)]为父本与二倍体单胚类型宜本杂4号[华农本地早橘(C.reticulata Blanco)×宜昌橙(C.ichangensis Swingle)]杂交,采用胚抢救技术获得了110株有性后代植株,通过染色体计数及倍性分析仪鉴定,其中93株植株为3倍体,余下的17株植株为2倍体.RAPD分析表明:获得的有性后代植株均为杂种.

  14. Characterization of limes (Citrus aurantifolia) grown in Bhutan and Indonesia using high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penjor, Tshering; Mimura, Takashi; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Yamamoto, Masashi; Nagano, Yukio

    2014-04-30

    Lime [Citrus aurantifolia (Cristm.) Swingle] is a Citrus species that is a popular ingredient in many cuisines. Some citrus plants are known to originate in the area ranging from northeastern India to southwestern China. In the current study, we characterized and compared limes grown in Bhutan (n = 5 accessions) and Indonesia (n = 3 accessions). The limes were separated into two groups based on their morphology. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) separated the eight accessions into two clusters. One cluster contained four accessions from Bhutan, whereas the other cluster contained one accession from Bhutan and the three accessions from Indonesia. This genetic classification supported the morphological classification of limes. The analysis suggests that the properties associated with asexual reproduction, and somatic homologous recombination, have contributed to the genetic diversification of limes.

  15. Comparison of antifungal activities of Vietnamese citrus essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hung, Pham; Chi, Pham Thi Lan; Phi, Nguyen Thi Lan

    2013-03-01

    Citrus essential oils (EOs) are volatile compounds from citrus peels and widely used in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps and aromatherapy. In this study, inhibition of citrus EOs extracted from Vietnamese orange (Citrus sinensis), mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), pomelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) on the growth of plant pathogenic fungi, Mucor hiemalis, Penicillium expansum and Fusarium proliferatum was investigated. The EOs of the citrus peels were obtained by cold-pressing method and the antifungal activity of EOs was evaluated using the agar dilution method. The results show that the EOs had significant antifungal activity. Lime EO was the best inhibitor of M. hiemalis and F. proliferatum while pomelo EO was the most effective against P. expansum. These results indicate that citrus EOs can be used as antifungal natural products in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.

  16. Porta-enxertos para a lima-ácida-'Tahiti' na região de Bebedouro, SP Rootstocks for 'Tahiti' acid lime in Bebedouro region, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ ORLANDO DE FIGUEIREDO

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi instalado um experimento de seleção de porta-enxertos para a lima-ácida-'Tahiti' (Citrus latifolia Tanaka, em dezembro de 1988, na Estação Experimental de Citricultura de Bebedouro-SP, com o objetivo de conhecer seu comportamento e oferecer novas opções de plantio para as condições ecológicas semelhantes às daquela região. A variedade copa, originária do BAG-Citros do IAC, localizado no Centro de Citricultura Sylvio Moreira, Cordeirópolis-SP, é um clone nucelar de 'Tahiti', denominado IAC-5. Os porta-enxertos, que tiveram a mesma origem, foram: tangerinas-'Sunki' (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka; 'Cleópatra'(Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.; 'Batangas' e 'Oneco' (Citrus reticulata Blanco; trifoliata-EEL (Poncirus trifoliata Raf.; limão-'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osbeck; limão-'Volkameriano Catania 2' (Citrus volkameriana Tan. & Pasq.; tangelo-'Orlando' (C. reticulata Blanco x Citrus paradisi Macf.; citrumelo-'Swingle' (P. trifoliata Raf. X C.paradisi Macf.; citrange-'Morton' (P. trifoliata Raf. X C. sinensis (L. Osbeck e laranja-'Caipira DAC' (C. sinensis (L. Osbeck. Com relação à produção, avaliada no período de 1991 a 1998, os porta-enxertos de melhor comportamento foram o tangelo-'Orlando', citrange-'Morton' e citrumelo-'Swingle'. As mais baixas produções ocorreram nos porta-enxertos de tangerina e de laranja-'Caipira DAC'. O limão-'Cravo' apresentou produção intermediária e proporcionou curta vida útil às plantas.In 1988 an experiment was established in Bebedouro, SP (Brazil, in order to evaluate eleven rootstocks for 'Tahiti' lime (Citrus latifolia Tanaka. Scion variety was the IAC 5 cultivar, from IAC germplasm bank at Cordeirópolis, SP; all rootstocks were also obtained at that institution. A randomized blocks design was used as statistical model, with eleven blocks and one plant per treatment. The eleven treatments were: 'Sunki' (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka, 'Cleópatra'(Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan., 'Batangas

  17. Fruit quality of 'Tahiti' lime (Citrus latifolia Tanak grafted on twelve different rootstocks Qualidade de frutos de limeira-ácida 'Tahiti' (Citrus latifolia Tanaka enxertada em doze porta-enxertos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sanches Stuchi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the effect of twelve rootstocks on fruit quality of the nucellar clone IAC-5 of 'Tahiti' lime, (Citrus latifolia Tanaka and the influence of fruit position on tree in fruit quality was evaluated in the Citrus Experimental Station of Bebedouro (EECB, located in the Bebedouro county, state of São Paulo, Brazil. A 8.0 x 5.0m planting frame was utilized. The evaluated rootstocks were: 'Carrizo' citrange (C. sinensis (L. Osbeck x Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.; the hybrids 'Rangpur' lime x 'Swingle' citrumello (C. limonia Osbeck x P. trifoliata Raf and 'Changsha' x 'English Small'(C. sunki Hort. ex Tan. x P. trifoliata Raf.; the mandarins 'Sun Chu Sha Kat' (C. reticulata Blanco and 'Sunki' (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka; the 'Rangpur' limes 'Cravo Limeira' and ' Cravo FCAV' (C. limonia Osbeck; the 'Swingle' citrumello (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf.; the 'Orlando' tangelo (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf. and the trifoliates cvs. 'Rubidoux', 'FCAV' and 'Flying Dragon' (P. trifoliata Raf.. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, with twelve treatments, six replicates and one plant per plot. The rootstocks induced differences in fruit quality; however, all the evaluated quality characteristics were within the values considered as normal and acceptable for the variety, constituting good alternative rootstocks for the 'Rangpur' lime. Additionally, the fruit position in the plant (northeastern or southwestern had a significant influence on the external fruit color regardless of the rootstock.No presente trabalho, avaliou-se a influência de doze porta-enxertos sobre a qualidade dos frutos da lima-ácida 'Tahiti' (Citrus latifolia Tanaka, clone 'IAC-5', amostrados em duas posições nas plantas, em experimento conduzido na Estação de Citricultura de Bebedouro, em um pomar de três anos. O espaçamento utilizado foi de 8.0 x 5.0m. Os porta-enxertos utilizados foram: citrangeiro 'Carrizo' (C. sinensis (L

  18. 佛手多糖的营养作用与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉山; 龚正礼

    2003-01-01

    @@ 佛手(bergamot)又名佛手柑,学名citrus medica L. var sarcodactylis(Noot)Swingle,为芸香科柑橘属香橼的变种,常绿小乔木或灌木.佛手果形奇异,状如五指,是闻香赏果的花卉珍品.佛手的花、叶和果实均可入药,其中佛手果含有柠檬油素、橙皮甙、佛手内脂等化合物,其醇提取物对大鼠肠管有明显的抑制作用,具有行气止痛、宽中祛痰、舒肝解郁、健胃止吐等功效.

  19. Caracterização de frutos e poliembrionia em sementes de 'flying dragon' e de híbridos de porta-enxerto de citros Fruit characterization and seed polyembryony of 'flying dragon' and of hybrids citrus rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Amato Moreira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A diversificação de porta-enxertos é uma realidade no momento atual da citricultura brasileira, devido aos inúmeros problemas fitossanitários que vêm sendo recorrentes. Neste contexto, algumas alternativas já são implementadas, como a utilização de alguns híbridos produzidos a partir do melhoramento convencional e por variedades já consagradas na citricultura. O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de caracterizar os frutos e avaliar a germinação e a poliembrionia das sementes de híbridos e alguns porta-enxertos convencionais. Para caracterização, foram colhidas, ao acaso, 12 amostras (frutos de cada porta-enxerto. Na avaliação do percentual de germinação, índice de velocidade de germinação e poliembrionia, foi utilizado o esquema fatorial 5 (porta-enxertos: híbridos UFLAD-2, UFLAD-3 e UFLAD-4, citrumeleiro 'Swingle' e o Poncirus trifoliata var. monstrosa 'Flying Dragon' x 2 (com e sem a remoção do tegumento da semente, sendo utilizadas quatro repetições. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que: O tamanho do fruto não influenciou no rendimento de sementes. A remoção do tegumento acelerou o tempo de germinação das sementes em todos os porta-enxertos e proporcionou maior percentual de germinação. A poliembrionia não afetou o processo de germinação das sementes. Os porta-enxertos UFLAD-2, UFLAD-3, UFLAD-4 e citrumeleiro 'Swingle' apresentam potencial para serem utilizados como porta-enxertos na propagação de algumas variedades cítricas.The diversification of the rootstocks is a reality at the moment of the brazilian citriculture, due many problems that have been recurring. In this context some alternatives are already a reality as the use of some hybrids produced through conventional breeding and varieties already used in citrus. This work was carried out aiming to characterize the fruit and evaluate the germination and the polyembryony of the seed. For characterization were randomly

  20. Production of Citrus Intergeneric Tetraploid Somatic Hybrids Plant from Elec-tricity-mediated Protoplast Fusion%电场诱导原生质体融合获得柑橘属间四倍体体细胞杂种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘继红; 胡春根; 邓秀新

    2002-01-01

    采用电融合方法诱导澳洲指橘(Microcitrus papuana Swingle)悬浮系原生质体与桠柑(Citrusreticulata Blanco)叶肉原生质体融合,得到了再生植株.染色体检查表明再生植株为四倍体(2n=4x=36),6个10-mer碱基随机引物PCR扩增结果表明,尽管再生植株带型表现多样,但仍然可以证明为体细胞杂种.对再生植株田间生长异常的现象进行了讨论.

  1. Assignments of 1H and 13C NMR Signals of Mogroside IVa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGJian-ye; YANGXiu-wei

    2003-01-01

    Aim To investigate the structure of mogroside IVa isolated from traditional Chinese medicine fructus momordicae [fruits of Siraitia grosvenori (Swingle) C. Jeffery] and summarize the NMR characteristics of the structure. Methods Cormnon extraction, separafion and purification methods were used. Various NMR techniques including 1H NMR,13C NMR, DEPT, 1H-1H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, NOESY and molecular model simulated by comtmter were used to elucidate the structure. Results 1H and 13C NMR signals of mogroside IVa were assigned, and spectroscopic basis was obtained for identification of such type of compounds. Conclusion 1D and 2D NMR techniques including 1H-1H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, NOESY spectra are powerful tools for structure analysis. The structure determined by NMR methods is identical with energy minimized conformation simulated by computer.

  2. Evaluation of three rootstocks root system for acid lime ‘tahiti’ at Piauí state/ Sistema radicular de três porta-enxertos para lima ácida ‘tahiti’ no estado do Piauí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeodato Ari Cavalcante Salviano

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the development of the root system of three rootstocks for ‘Tahiti’acid lime [Citrus latifolia (Yu.Tanaka Tanaka]: Rangpur lime (C. limonia Osbeck; Swingle citrumelo [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. x C. paradisi Macf.]; Flying Dragon trifoliate (P. trifoliata (L. Raf.var. (FD – in the soil and environment conditions of the county of José de Freitas, Piauí, located on 04º 52' latitude S and 42º 42' longitude W and 110 m of altitude, in Aw climate. It was used the trench method. A wooden frame divided into 0.1 x 0.2 m parts was fixed in the soil profile and a digital photograph was taken from each part. These photographs were analyzed by software SIARCS 3.0 for sizing of the root system and the data gotten, submitted to the analysis of variance with Tukey test at the level of 5% of probability. The experimental design was entirely randomized, with three treatments (rootstocks and four replications (trenches. The root systems of the rootstocks had 90% of concentration until the depth of 0,4 m, and it was observed that 60% of the roots were concentrated in the first 0,2 m. The root system of the Rangpur lime demonstrated to be superior, in lenght (cm.200 cm-² to the Flying Dragon trifoliate and Swingle citrumelo root systems.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento radicular de três porta-enxertos para lima ácida ‘Tahiti’ [Citrus latifolia (Yu.Tanaka Tanaka]: limão Cravo (C. limonia Osbeck; citrumelo Swingle [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. x C. paradisi Macf.]; trifoliata Flying Dragon (P. trifoliata (L. Raf.var. (FD, no município de José de Freitas, Piauí, localizado a 04º 52’ latitude S e 42º 42’ longitude W, e altitude de 110m, onde predomina clima Aw. Foram abertas trincheiras com quatro repetições, para colocação de quadro-gabarito de madeira, com divisórias de 0,1 m na profundidade por 0,2 m na largura, perfazendo cinco camadas na profundidade e seis posi

  3. RAPD-based genetic analysis of offsprings from the sexual cross using allotetraploid citrus somatic hybrid as pollen parent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI HuaLin; DENG XiuXin

    2007-01-01

    Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, ChinaThirty-one polymorphic decamer primers were selected to genotype 92 progenies from the cross between Yiben No,4, a monoembryonic diploid F1 hybrid of Citrus reticulata Blanco cv Huanongbendizao tangerine and C. ichangensis Swingle, and [Hamlin sweet orange + Rough lemon], an allotetraploid somatic hybrid of Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Hamlin and C. jambhiri Lush cv. Rough Lemon. x2(Chi-square) analysis of RAPD markers in the progenies indicated they were randomly transmitted from the four donor parents, without significant difference between the diploids and triploids. However,these progenies were clustered into three major groups using dendrogram constructed by UPGMA,skewed to three parents in certain degrees, 15 (13 triploids and 2 diploids) to Hamlin, 16 (9 and 7) to Yiben No. 4, and 61 (57 and 4) to [Hamlin sweet orange + Rough Lemon] from which genomic contribution was predominant in progenies, respectively.

  4. RAPD-based genetic analysis of offsprings from the sexual cross using allotetraploid citrus somatic hybrid as pollen parent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Thirty-one polymorphic decamer primers were selected to genotype 92 progenies from the cross be- tween Yiben No.4, a monoembryonic diploid F1 hybrid of Citrus reticulata Blanco cv Huanongbendizao tangerine and C. ichangensis Swingle, and [Hamlin sweet orange + Rough lemon], an allotetraploid somatic hybrid of Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Hamlin and C. jambhiri Lush cv. Rough Lemon. χ2 (Chi-square) analysis of RAPD markers in the progenies indicated they were randomly transmitted from the four donor parents, without significant difference between the diploids and triploids. However, these progenies were clustered into three major groups using dendrogram constructed by UPGMA, skewed to three parents in certain degrees, 15 (13 triploids and 2 diploids) to Hamlin, 16 (9 and 7) to Yiben No. 4, and 61 (57 and 4) to [Hamlin sweet orange + Rough Lemon] from which genomic contribu- tion was predominant in progenies, respectively.

  5. Micromycetes sensitiveness to heavy metals

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    O. N. Korinovskaya

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of 33 micromycete species to nitric compounds of copper, lead, zinc, nickel and cadmium has been determined. Absidia butleri Lendn, Mortierella vanesae Dixon-Stewart, Cunninghamella echinulata Thaxte, Curvularia tuberculata Jain, Cladosporium cladosporiodes (Fresen G. A. de Vries and Fusarium solani (C. Mart. Appel et Wollenw are sensitive to minimal content of the heavy metals (0.75 of maximum permissible concentration (MPC in the growth medium. At the same time Trixoderma longibrachiatiim Rifai, Alternaria alternatа (Fr. Keissl and Penicillium sp. 4 demonstrated moderate growth under maximal concentration (50 MPC. It is determined that minimal content of the heavy metals in the initial stage of influence (up to 48 h promotes growth of only Fusarium oxysporum E. F. Sm. et Swingle, while retards growth of the other species.

  6. A escarificação química e o desenvolvimento inicial de porta-enxertos cítricos Chemical scarification and initial development of citric rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Lima Teixeira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a emergência e o desenvolvimento vegetativo de diferentes porta-enxertos cítricos provenientes de sementes escarificadas quimicamente. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2 x 4 (escarificação x porta-enxertos, com três blocos, e cada parcela constituída por 20 tubetes. O tratamento químico realizado nas sementes constituiu-se de uma solução composta por 0,5 L de hipoclorito de sódio (NaClO a 12%, 3 mL de ácido clorídrico (HCl e 20 g de hidróxido de sódio comercial (NaOH, dissolvidos em 1L de água. Os porta-enxertos avaliados foram o 'Trifoliata' (Poncirus trifoliata [L.] Raf., o citrangeiro 'C37' [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. x Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck.], o citrumeleiro 'Swingle' [P. trifoliata x (L. Raf. x C. paradisi Macf.] e a tangerineira 'Sunki' (C. sunki hort. ex Tan.. Os porta-enxertos 'C37' e 'Trifoliata' beneficiaram-se da escarificação química do tegumento, apresentando maior velocidade e taxa de emergência das plântulas e maior taxa de emergência, aos 45 dias após a semeadura (DAS. Por outro lado, os porta-enxertos 'Swingle' e 'Sunki' apresentaram uma redução da emergência das plântulas, quando suas sementes foram submetidas à escarificação química do tegumento. As plantas de 'C37' e 'Trifoliata', oriundas de sementes escarificadas, apresentaram diâmetro ao nível do colo e acúmulo de massa seca significativamente superiores aos 150 DAS, em relação às plantas oriundas de sementes com o tegumento intacto.The aim of this study was to evaluate emergence and vegetative development of different citric rootstocks derived from chemically scarified seeds. A randomized block design was used in a 2x4 factorial (scarification x rootstocks with three blocks. Each plot had 20 plastic tubes. The seed chemical treatment was a solution composed by 0.5 L of 12 % sodium hypochlorite (NaClO, 3 mL of chloridric acid (HCl and 20g of

  7. Vigor, produtividade e qualidade de frutos de quatro tangerineiras e híbridos sobre quatro porta-enxertos Vegetative growth, yield and fruit quality of four mandarin and hybrid cultivars on four rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sanches Stuchi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o desenvolvimento vegetativo, a produção e a qualidade de frutos das cultivares-copa 'Swatow' (Citrus reticulata Blanco, 'Ellendale' [C. reticulata x C. sinensis (L. Osbeck], 'Fortune' (C. clementina hort. ex Tanaka x C. tangerina hort. ex Tanaka e 'Nova' [C. clementina x (C. paradisi Macfad. x C. reticulata] sobre limoeiro 'Cravo' (C. limonia Osbeck, citrumeleiro 'Swingle' (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata (L. Raf., tangelereiro 'Orlando' (C. reticulata x C. paradisi e tangerineira 'Cleópatra' (C. reshni hort. ex Tanaka, de 2000 a 2006. O experimento foi instalado em Bebedouro-SP, em outubro de 1997. As variáveis analisadas foram: produção anual e produção acumulada de todas as cultivares para todos os anos (2000 a 2006, qualidade de frutos em 2005 e 2006 (massa, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total, ratio, volume da copa, diâmetro do tronco da copa, eficiência de produção (Kg frutos/m³ copa e índice de alternância de produção. A produção acumulada e a qualidade de frutos das cultivares testadas não foram influenciadas pelos porta-enxertos. O citrumelo 'Swingle' induziu menor porte às plantas das cultivares-copa. O tangelo 'Nova' apresentou características adequadas à comercialização in natura. A tangerineira 'Swatow' produziu frutos de qualidade semelhante aos de tangerineira 'Ponkan'. O tangor 'Ellendale' e a tangerineira 'Fortune' apresentaram produção de frutos baixa e irregular.Plant growth, yield, and fruit quality of 'Swatow' (Citrus reticulata Blanco, 'Ellendale' (C. reticulata x Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, 'Fortune' (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan. x Citrus tangerina Hort. ex Tan. e 'Nova' [(C. clementina x (Citrus paradisi Macf. x C. reticulata] mandarins budded on 'Rangpur' lime (C. limonia Osbeck, 'Swingle' citrumelo (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf., 'Orlando' tangelo (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf., and 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan. were evaluated, from 2000

  8. EFEITO DA COMPOSIÇÃO DO SUBSTRATO NA FORMAÇÃO DE MUDAS DE LARANJEIRA `PERA'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A.A. MOURÃO FILHO

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O efeito de cinco composições de substratos na produção de mudas de laranjeira `Pêra' (Citrus sinensis, L. Osbeck foi estudado sobre três porta-enxertos (limoeiro `Cravo', Citrus limonia, L. Osbeck; tangerineira `Cleópatra', Citrus reticulata, Blanco; e citrumeleiro `Swingle', Citrus paradisi x Poncirus trifoliata. O experimento obedeceu ao delineamento estatístico de blocos aleatorizados em esquema fatorial 5 x 3 (substratos x porta-enxertos. As composições de misturas utilizadas como substrato e respectivas combinações volumétricas foram: 1 Terra (100%; 2 Terra (33% + areia fina (33% + esterco bovino curtido (33%; 3 Terra (33% + vermiculita (33% + esterco bovino curtido (33%; 4 Terra (33% + raspas de madeira (33% + esterco bovino curtido (33%; 5 Terra (25% + raspas de madeira (25% + areia fina (25% + esterco bovino curtido (25%. A análise dos resultados revelou que plantas de limoeiro `Cravo' e citrumeleiro `Swingle' apresentaram maior desenvolvimento do que as de tangerineira `Cleópatra'. A mistura de materiais com solo mostrou-se vantajosa e induziu à formação de plantas mais desenvolvidas do que aquelas em substrato constituído de terra exclusivamente. A composição do substrato influenciou diferentemente no desenvolvimento de cada porta-enxerto, mas de uma forma geral, composições contento 1/3 de volume de solo e 1/3 de volume de esterco bovino proporcionaram bons resultados para os três porta-enxertos estudados.To verify the effect of five substrate mixtures on the development of young sweet orange trees (Citrus sinensis cv. `Pera', this study used the rootstocks Ranpur lime (Citrus limonia L. Osbeck, Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reticulata, Blanco, and Swingle citrumelo (Citrus paradisi x Poncirus trifoliata. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, 5 x 3 factorial (substrates x rootstocks. The different materials and their proportion studied were, respectively: 1 Soil (100%; 2 Soil (33% + fine sand (33

  9. Produção de frutos e incidência de cancro cítrico em laranjeiras "Monte Parnaso" enxertadas sobre sete porta-enxertos Fruit production and incidence of citrus canker lesions on "Monte Parnaso" navel orange budded on seven rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadete Reis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Porta-enxertos de citros podem exercer influência sobre a produção de frutos e suscetibilidade das plantas ao cancro cítrico. Este trabalho objetivou selecionar porta-enxertos que induzam elevado índice de produtividade e menor suscetibilidade das copas de laranjeiras-de-umbigo "Monte Parnaso"(Citrus sinensis à bactéria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, causadora do cancro cítrico (CC. O experimento foi desenvolvido em um pomar experimental com 10 anos de idade, plantado em espaçamento de 2,5 x 6,0m, no município de Butiá, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições, usando duas plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos constaram dos seguintes porta-enxertos: limoeiros "Cravo" (C. limonia e "Volkameriano" (C. volkameriana., trifoliata "Flying Dragon" (Poncirus trifoliata., laranjeira "Caipira" (C. sinensis, citrangeiro "Troyer" (C. sinensis x P. trifoliata, tangerineira "Sunki" (C. sunki. e citrumeleiro "Swingle" (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: incidência de CC em folhas e frutos em toda a planta e em ramos previamente selecionados, em diversas épocas. Verificou-se que as plantas enxertadas sobre citrumeleiro "Swingle" apresentaram o maior índice de produtividade e, à semelhança do "Flying Dragon", a menor incidência de CC, tanto nas folhas como nos frutos. Além disso, verificou-se também que as plantas enxertadas sobre os limoeiros "Cravo" e "Volkameriana", apesar de produzirem as mais elevadas cargas de frutos, foram as mais suscetíveis ao CC.Citrus rootstocks can exert some influences on fruit production and susceptibility of the plants to citrus canker (CC. This research was performed aiming to select rootstocks which induce higher productivity index and lower susceptibility of 'Monte Parnaso' navel orange (Citrus sinensis trees to the bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. The research was carried out in an

  10. Holographic fluctuations and the principle of minimal complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chemissany, Wissam [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Leibniz Universität Hannover,Appelstr. 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Department of Mechanical Engineering, MIT,Cambridge MA 02139 (United States); Osborne, Tobias J. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Leibniz Universität Hannover,Appelstr. 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2016-12-14

    We discuss, from a quantum information perspective, recent proposals of Maldacena, Ryu, Takayanagi, van Raamsdonk, Swingle, and Susskind that spacetime is an emergent property of the quantum entanglement of an associated boundary quantum system. We review the idea that the informational principle of minimal complexity determines a dual holographic bulk spacetime from a minimal quantum circuit U preparing a given boundary state from a trivial reference state. We describe how this idea may be extended to determine the relationship between the fluctuations of the bulk holographic geometry and the fluctuations of the boundary low-energy subspace. In this way we obtain, for every quantum system, an Einstein-like equation of motion for what might be interpreted as a bulk gravity theory dual to the boundary system.

  11. Holographic fluctuations and the principle of minimal complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Chemissany, Wissam

    2016-01-01

    We discuss, from a quantum information perspective, recent proposals of Maldacena, Ryu, Takayanagi, van Raamsdonk, Swingle, and Susskind that spacetime is an emergent property of the quantum entanglement of an associated boundary quantum system. We review the idea that the informational principle of minimal complexity determines a dual holographic bulk spacetime from a minimal quantum circuit U preparing a given boundary state from a trivial reference state. We describe how this idea may be extended to determine the relationship between the fluctuations of the bulk holographic geometry and the fluctuations of the boundary low-energy subspace. In this way we obtain, for every quantum system, an Einstein-like equation of motion for what might be interpreted as a bulk gravity theory dual to the boundary system.

  12. Holographic fluctuations and the principle of minimal complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemissany, Wissam; Osborne, Tobias J.

    2016-12-01

    We discuss, from a quantum information perspective, recent proposals of Maldacena, Ryu, Takayanagi, van Raamsdonk, Swingle, and Susskind that spacetime is an emergent property of the quantum entanglement of an associated boundary quantum system. We review the idea that the informational principle of minimal complexity determines a dual holographic bulk spacetime from a minimal quantum circuit U preparing a given boundary state from a trivial reference state. We describe how this idea may be extended to determine the relationship between the fluctuations of the bulk holographic geometry and the fluctuations of the boundary low-energy subspace. In this way we obtain, for every quantum system, an Einstein-like equation of motion for what might be interpreted as a bulk gravity theory dual to the boundary system.

  13. Substratos e recipientes para a produção de porta-enxertos de citros irrigados por subcapilaridade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Giuliani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento do porta-enxerto, do substrato e do recipiente são fundamentais para a definição do período necessário para produzir mudas cítricas de qualidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a emergência de plântulas e o desenvolvimento vegetativo de seis porta-enxertos cítricos, cultivados em dois substratos e mantidos em diferentes recipientes, em sementeira, irrigados por subcapilaridade. Foram testados dois substratos comerciais e a semeadura foi realizada em tubetes com 50cm³, tubetes com 120cm³ e bandejas de isopor contendo 72 células com volume de 120cm³. Os seis porta-enxertos cítricos avaliados foram: Trifoliata [Poncirus trifoliata [L.] Raf.]; Flying Dragon [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. var. monstrosa]; limoeiro Volkameriano (Citrus volkameriana Pasq., citrangeiro Fepagro C37 [P. trifoliata x Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck.], tangerineira Sunki (C. sunki hort. ex Tan. e citrumeleiro Swingle (P. trifoliata x C. paradisi. Avaliou-se emergência, altura e diâmetro das plantas ao longo do cultivo em casa de vegetação. Em laboratório, avaliou-se massa fresca e seca da parte aérea e raiz, número de folhas, área foliar por folha e área foliar por planta. Nas avaliações de emergência de plântulas, a tangerineira Sunki, o limoeiro Volkameriano e o citrumeleiro Swingle apresentaram maiores taxas em relação ao Trifoliata, ao citrangeiro Fepagro C 37 e ao Flying Dragon. Ao empregar-se o sistema de irrigação por subcapilaridade, o substrato comercial 1 é recomendado para todos recipientes. O substrato comercial 2 somente deve ser empregado em bandejas alveoladas de 120 cm³.

  14. Paleogeographic interpretation of several Eocene floral assemblages from Coast Range of northwestern Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ries, J.E.

    1989-04-01

    Several freshwater and brackish water deposits are exposed throughout the Coast Range of northwestern Oregon. Occurring as interbeds in the Tillamook Volcanic Sequence and the Cowlitz Formation, these strata are stratigraphically equivalent to hydrocarbon bearing strata in the Mist gas field to the north. From analysis of macrofossils, species appear to be present from two different paleoaltitude zones. A coastal swamp stream deposit has produced specimens of Sabalites, Platanophyllum, Alnus, Lastera, and rooted Equisetum. Both floristic and physiognomic analysis of the flora indicates a moist subtropical climate. Deposits exposed in the Tillamook uplands are apparently lacustrine shales. The flora preserved is not as diverse, represented by specimens of Cornus, Chamaecyparis, Ailanthus, Pinus, and Picea. The climate here appears significantly more temperate than the assemblage preserved to the northeast, although deposited at approximately the same time. This difference can be explained by the existence of volcanic uplands backing the coastal swamp.

  15. The problematic of the geographical expansion of invasive alien species. Analysis and distribution of two species in the province of Avila and initiatives for the minimization of their effects; La problematica de la expansion geografica de las especies exoticas invasoras. Analisis y distribucion de dos especies en la provincia de Avila e iniciativas para la minimizacion de sus efectos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Quiroga, F.

    2012-07-01

    Invasive alien species currently constitute a serious threat for biodiversity and large economic losses. The risks associated to its introduction are in constant growth due to the increase of trade, tourism, transport and market globalization. Examples of these species can be found in the fauna such as the red swamp or Louisiana crawfish and in the flora as the ailanthus, which affect a great deal of the Spanish provinces, as that of Avila where they will be analyzed in greater detail. Because of it, the development of an effective action against its invasion through a series of measures, as well as the development and implementation of a legal framework, in addition to the information of the citizens are essential aspects for eradication or to mitigate its expansion. (Author)

  16. Metcalfa pruinosa (Say (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha anew harmful species for entomofauna of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Ljubodrag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the early autumn 2006, a Nonarctic species of cicadas Metcalfa pruinosa (Say (Auchenorrhyncha: Flatidae was identified in Belgrade (Košutnjak. In Europe, this species was identified for the first time in Italy in 1979. In Slovenia, it was identified in 1990 in west Istria, and in 2001 in the neighbourhood of Ljubljana. In the park forest Košutnjak (Belgrade mass occurrence of M. pruinosa was recorded in the area of about 5 ha. The larvae developed on woody species in the genera: Acer, Aesculus, Gleditchia Robinia, Ailanthus, Populus, Platanus, Prunus, Pyrus, Ulmus, Tilia, Cornus Fraxinus, Quercus and Thuja, što is konstatovano based on damages of larvae while numerous adults were found on trees and branches of the same plants.

  17. Paleogeographic reconstruction of northwestern Oregon based on Eocene freshwater deposition in accreted terrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ries, J.E.

    1989-03-01

    Freshwater deposits exposed in the Coast Range of Oregon have been identified by the absence of marine organisms, significant floral remains, and the identification of a freshwater fish assemblage. These facies have been correlated with foraminiferal and lithologic horizons from test wells from the Mist Gas field of northwestern Oregon. Consistent records of inner neritic and marginal marine deposition in the Narizian stage, upper Cowlitz Formation, suggest the existence of an Eocene volcanic archipelago. Foraminiferal correlation through this stage is complicated by the absence of stratigraphically significant species in several of the wells. Floral remains from exposed sections have provided diverse elements, allowing paleogeographic reconstruction. A sea level coastal swamp was dominated by a subtropical flora consisting of Sabalites, Platanophyllum, and Equisetum. The swamp was apparently backed by higher altitude volcanic uplands dominated by a more temperate flora including Cornus, Chamaecyparis, Ailanthus, Pinus, and Picea.

  18. Evaluation of selected Indian traditional folk medicinal plants against Mycobacterium tuberculosis with antioxidant and cytotoxicity study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawde K. V

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate different solvent extracts of selected Indian traditional medicinal plant against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, its antioxidant potential and cytotoxicity. Methods: Acacia catechu (L. Willd (Root extract and Ailanthus excelsa Roxb., leaf extracts of Aegle marmelos Corr., Andrographis paniculata Nees. and Datura metel L. were sequentially extracted in water, ethanol, chloroform and hexane and evaluated for their anti-tuberculosis (TB activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis using agar diffusion assay. The zone of inhibition ( at 20 and 40 mg/ ml was measured and MIC were calculated. The results were compared with Rifampicin as a standard anti TB drug. The extracts were also evaluated for DPPH and OH radical scavenging activities to understand their antioxidant potential. MTT based cytotoxicity assay was used for evaluating cytotoxicity of the selected samples against Chang liver cells. Results: The selected botanicals were sequentially extracted in water, ethanol, chloroform and hexane and tested for growth inhibition of M. tuberculosi. The hexane extract of A. catechu root and ethanol extract of A. paniculata leaf showed promising activity against M. tuberculosis while remaining extracts showed moderate anti TB activity. The samples were found to possess considerable DPPH and OH radical scavenging activities with no demonstrable cytotoxicity against Chang liver cells. Conclusions: Five traditional medicinal plants were selected for the present study. The selection of medicinal plants was based on their traditional usage for the treatment of tuberculosis, asthma and chronic respiratory diseases. Herein we report for the first time, the anti TB activity of root extracts of Acacia catechu and Ailanthus excelsa while leaf extract of Andrographis paniculata, Aegle marmelos and Datura metel. The study holds importance in the midst of multi drug resistance (MDR crisis in the TB management, since it unravels the scientific basis

  19. Phytoremediation potential of wild plants growing on soil contaminated with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čudić, Vladica; Stojiljković, Dragoslava; Jovović, Aleksandar

    2016-09-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs higher plants to cleanup contaminated environments, including metal-polluted soils. Because it produces a biomass rich in extracted toxic metals, further treatment of this biomass is necessary. The aim of our study was to assess the five-year potential of the following native wild plants to produce biomass and remove heavy metals from a polluted site: poplar (Populus ssp.), ailanthus (Ailanthus glandulosa L.), false acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), ragweed (Artemisia artemisiifolia L.), and mullein (Verbascum thapsus L). Average soil contamination with Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, and As in the root zone was 22,948.6 mg kg-1, 865.4 mg kg-1, 85,301.7 mg kg-1, 3,193.3 mg kg-1, 50.7 mg kg-1, 41.7 mg kg-1,and 617.9 mg kg-1, respectively. We measured moisture and ash content, concentrations of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, and As in the above-ground parts of the plants and in ash produced by combustion of the plants, plus gross calorific values. The plants' phytoextraction and phytostabilisation potential was evaluated based on their bioconcentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF). Mullein was identified as a hyperaccumulator for Cd. It also showed a higher gross calorific value (19,735 kJ kg-1) than ragweed (16,469 kJ kg-1).The results of this study suggest that mullein has a great potential for phytoextraction and for biomass generation, and that ragweed could be an effective tool of phytostabilisation.

  20. Plant genetics shapes inquiline community structure across spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutsinger, Gregory M; Cadotte, Marc W; Sanders, Nathan J

    2009-04-01

    Recent research in community genetics has examined the effects of intraspecific genetic variation on species diversity in local communities. However, communities can be structured by a combination of both local and regional processes and to date, few community genetics studies have examined whether the effects of instraspecific genetic variation are consistent across levels of diversity. In this study, we ask whether host-plant genetic variation structures communities of arthropod inquilines within distinct habitat patches--rosette leaf galls on tall goldenrod (Solidago altissima). We found that genetic variation determined inquiline diversity at both local and regional spatial scales, but that trophic-level responses varied independently of one another. This result suggests that herbivores and predators likely respond to heritable plant traits at different spatial scales. Together, our results show that incorporating spatial scale is essential for predicting the effects of genetically variable traits on different trophic levels and levels of diversity within the communities that depend on host plants.

  1. Cinética da degradação ruminal dos carboidratos de quatro gramíneas tropicais em diferentes idades de corte e doses de adubação nitrogenada: técnica de produção de gases

    OpenAIRE

    Edenio Detmann; José Fernando Coelho da Silva; Hernán Maldonado Vásquez; Lara Toledo Henriques; Ismail Ramalho Haddade

    2009-01-01

    Objetivou-se neste experimento avaliar a cinética de degradação ruminal dos capins setária (Setaria anceps Stapf), hemarthria (Hemarthria altissima [Poir] Stapf. & Hubbard), angola (Brachiaria purpurascens [Raddi] Henr.) e acroceres (Acroceras macrum Stapf.) adubados com 0, 100, 200, 300 ou 400 kg de N/ha e colhidos aos 28, 42, 56 ou 70 dias de idade. Os resultados foram avaliados por intermédio de análise de fatores. Após redução e avaliação da variação conjunta total das variáveis, optou-se...

  2. Frações dos compostos nitrogenados de quatro gramíneas tropicais em diferentes idades de corte e doses de adubação nitrogenada

    OpenAIRE

    Henriques,L.T.; Coelho da Silva,J.F.; Detmann, E.; Vásquez,H.M.; Pereira,O.G.

    2007-01-01

    Avaliaram-se as frações dos compostos nitrogenados dos capins setária (Setaria anceps Stapf), hemarthria (Hemarthria altissima [Poir] Stapf. & Hubbard), angola (Brachiaria purpurascens [Raddi] Henr.) e acroceres (Acroceras macrum Stapf.) adubados com 0, 100, 200, 300 e 400kg de nitrogênio/ha e colhidos aos 28, 42, 56 e 70 dias de idade, utilizando-se análise de fatores. Após redução e avaliação da variação conjunta total das variáveis, optou-se pela adoção de três fatores, os quais englobaram...

  3. TEMPORAL ORGANIZATION OF GOAT GRAZING IN ARUANA AND HEMARTRIA PASTURES PREFERÊNCIA DE CAPRINOS EM PASTEJO: EFEITO DA ALTURA DE DOSSÉIS DAS FORRAGEIRAS ARUANA E HEMÁRTRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Simionato de Barros

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Goats behavior in pastures is not so known but it is very important for goats performance. Structural characteristics of Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Aruana and Hemarthria altissima cv. Flórida pastures and preference of goats in grazing were evaluated. The experiment was performed in Campo Largo – PR, at March, 2004. Two grasses were studied Aruana (A and Hemartria (H at two canopy heights Lower (1 and Higher (2, placed in randomized blocks in factorial arrangement and three replications. Nine goats were distributed in three experimental blocks of 672m2. Height, forage dry matter and leaf, stem and dead material dry matter from pastures were taken. Grazing preference, bite rate and bite depth from animals were studied. Taller patches and higher tillers were significantly more grazed (p<0.05. Relation between tiller height and bite depth was linear and positive (p<0.01 for treatments A1, H1 and H2 Increase of Hemarthria grass height caused bite rate decreasing of goats (p<0.05. It was concluded that preference of goats was determined by structural characteristics of grass and not by forage species.  

    KEY WORDS: Bites, grasses, Hemarthria altissima, Panicum maximum, tillers.
    O comportamento alimentar dos caprinos em pastagens cultivadas é pouco estudado, mas tem grande importância no desempenho dos animais. Avaliaram-se a estrutura das forrageiras Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Aruana e Hemarthria altissima cv. Flórida e a preferência de caprinos em pastejo. Desenvolveu-se o experimento no município de Campo Largo, PR, em março de 2004. Utilizaram-se aruana (A e hemártria (H em duas alturas, menor (1 e maior (2, alocadas em delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso em arranjo fatorial com três repetições. Foram utilizados nove caprinos distribuídos em três piquetes de 672 m2. No pasto, procedeu-se à determinação da altura, das massas de forragem e dos componentes folha, colmo e material senescente. A prefer

  4. A Sustainable Approach to Fabricating Ag Nanoparticles/PVA Hybrid Nanofiber and Its Catalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongde Meng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ag nanoparticles were synthesized by using Ficus altissima Blume leaf extract as a reducing agent at room temperature. The resulting Ag nanoparticles/PVA mixture was employed to create Ag nanoparticles/PVA (polyvinyl alcohol hybrid nanofibers via an electrospinning technique. The obtained nanofibers were confirmed by means of UV-Vis spectroscopy, The X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and then tested to catalyze KBH4 reduction of methylene blue (MB. The catalytic results demonstrate that the MB can be reduced completely within 15 min. In addition, the Ag nanoparticles/PVA hybrid nanofibers show reusability for three cycles with no obvious losses in degradation ratio of the MB.

  5. Host-Associated Differentiation: The Gape-and-Pinch Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen B. Heard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological speciation via host shifting has contributed to the astonishing diversity of phytophagous insects. The importance for host shifting of trait differences between alternative host plants is well established, but much less is known about trait variation within hosts. I outline a conceptual model, the “gape-and-pinch” (GAP model, of insect response to host-plant trait variation during host shifting and host-associated differentiation. I offer four hypotheses about insect use of plant trait variation on two alternative hosts, for insects at different stages of host-associated differentiation. Collectively, these hypotheses suggest that insect responses to plant trait variation can favour or oppose critical steps in herbivore diversification. I provide statistical tools for analysing herbivore trait-space use, demonstrate their application for four herbivores of the goldenrods Solidago altissima and S. gigantea, and discuss their broader potential to advance our understanding of diet breadth and ecological speciation in phytophagous insects.

  6. Studies on the antioxidant properties of extracts from the roots and shoots of two Scutellaria species in human blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorczyk-Karolak, Izabela; Wysokińska, Halina; Olas, Beata

    2015-01-01

    We determined the in vitro antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from the shoots and roots of Scutellaria species (S. altissima and S. alpina) against the action of strong oxidants: hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and H2O2+Fe(2+) (donor of hydroxyl radicals) on plasma proteins and lipids. Lipid peroxidation in human plasma was measured by the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). Protein oxidation was measured by quantitation of thiol group. We observed that the extracts (5-50 µg ml(-1)) containing phenolic compounds from both Scutellaria species distinctly reduced oxidation of lipids and proteins in human plasma treated with H2O2. These results also indicated that the extracts have a protective effect against oxidative damage to the human plasma lipids and proteins by induced hydroxyl radical. The main components of the plant materials analysed were flavonoids, present as aglycones (luteolin) or glycosides (cynaroside, baicalin, wogonoside). In all of the extracts, the phenylethanoid verbascoside was also found. The properties of the tested plant extracts were also compared with the action of a well characterised commercial antioxidative polyphenolic extract from the berries of Aronia melanocarpa (Aronox(®)). The comparative studies indicated that the analysed plant extracts were comparable to or even more effective in reducing the oxidation processes than the A. melanocarpa extract. The present study suggests that natural extracts from S. altissima and S. alpina have antioxidant activities and, therefore, may be beneficial in the prevention of diseases related to oxidant stress, such as cancer, cardiovascular, and inflammatory diseases.

  7. Monitoring the viability of citrus rootstocks seeds stored under refrigeration Monitoramento da viabilidade de sementes porta-enxertos de citros armazenados em câmara fria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Alves de Carvalho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The citrus nursery tree is produced through the bud grafting process, in which rootstock is usually grown from seed germination. The objective of this research was to evaluate, in two dissimilar environmental conditions, the viability and polyembryony expression of five citrus rootstocks seeds stored in different periods under refrigeration. The rootstock varieties evaluated were: Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osb. cv. Limeira, Trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf. cv. Limeira, Citrumelo (P. trifoliata x C. paradisi Macf. cv. Swingle, Sunki mandarin (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka and Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq. cv. Catania 2. The experimental design was the randomized blocks in a 11 x 5 x 2 factorial scheme, evaluating from time zero to the tenth month of storage, the five varieties of rootstock in two environments: germination and growth B.O.D type chamber (Biological Oxygen Demand - Eletrolab Brand Model FC 122 at 25 °C; and greenhouse seedbed with partial temperature control (22 °C to 36 °C and humidity control (75-85%. The plot had 24 seeds in four replicates, using trays with substrate in greenhouse and Petri dishes with filter paper in B.O.D. chamber. The seed germination rate and polyembryony expression were evaluated monthly. It was concluded that Trifoliate and Citrumelo Swingle seeds can be stored for up to seven months, while Volkamer lemon, Rangpur lime and Sunki seeds can be stored for up to ten months. The polyembryony expression rate was slightly higher when measured in greenhouse than in B.O.D. chamber and remained stable in both environments until the seventh month, from which dropped sharply. Citrumelo Swingle seeds expressed the highest polyembryony rate (18.8%, followed by Rangpur lime and Volkamer lemon (average value of 13.7%, Sunki (9.4% and Trifoliate (3.2%. Despite some differences among varieties, the viability of rootstock stored seeds can be monitored either in the greenhouse or in B

  8. Avaliação de cinco seleções de laranjeira 'valência' sobre dois porta-enxertos Evaluation of five valencia sweet oranges selection on two rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Tomasetto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar cinco seleções de laranjeira 'Valência', quanto ao potencial industrial e de consumo in natura com relação às variedades 'Natal' e 'Valência', enxertadas sobre o citrumeleiro 'Swingle' (experimento I e a tangerineira 'Sunki' (experimento II. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na Estação Experimental de Citricultura de Bebedouro (E.E.C.B.-SP. A implantação dos experimentos foi em fevereiro de 2001, sob espaçamentos de 7,0 m entre linhas e 5,0 m entre plantas (285 plantas/ha e 7,0 m entre linhas e 3,0m entre plantas (476 plantas/ha, respectivamente, para os experimentos I e II. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, duas plantas por parcela, quatro repetições e 7 tratamentos, constituídos pelas seguintes variedades-copa: 1 'Natal'; 2 'Valência'; 3 'Valência-Don João'; 4 'Valência-late-Burjasot' IVIA 35-2; 5 'Valência-Rohde-Red' SRA-36; 6 'Valência-Temprana' IVIA25; 7 'Valência Camphell'. A seleção 'Valência late' é a que se destaca por ser a que mais se assemelhou às variedades tradicionais Valência e Natal.The aim of the current work was to compare five Valencia sweet oranges selection with industrial potential and in nature consumption with the varieties 'Natal'and 'Valencia' on two rootstocks: 'Swingle' (experiment I and 'Sunki' (experiment II when it comes as yield and with technological index. Two experiments were set up on February 2001, in Bebedouro city, São Paulo state, Brazil. The spacements were 7.0 m between rows with 5.0 m between trees and 7.0 m between rows with 3.0 m between trees, respectively for experiment I and experiment II. The experimental design used was randomized blocks, with four replications and two trees per plot. The crown varieties tested were 1 'Natal', 2 'Valência', 3 'Valência Don João', 4 'Valência late Burjasot' IVIA 35-2, 5 'Valência Rohde Red' SRA-36, 6 'Valência Temprana' IVIA-25, 7 'Valência Campbell'. The varieties

  9. Bacteria as growth-promoting agents for citrus rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giassi, Valdionei; Kiritani, Camila; Kupper, Katia Cristina

    2016-09-01

    The microbial community plays an essential role in maintaining the ecological balance of soils. Interactions between microorganisms and plants have a major influence on the nutrition and health of the latter, and growth-promoting rhizobacteria can be used to improve plant development through a wide range of mechanisms. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate bacteria as growth-promoting agents for citrus rootstocks. A total of 30 bacterial isolates (11 of Bacillus spp., 11 actinobacteria, and 8 lactic acid bacteria) were evaluated in vitro for indoleacetic acid production, phosphate solubilization, and nitrogen (N) fixation. In vivo testing consisted of growth promotion trials of the bacterial isolates that yielded the best results on in vitro tests with three rootstocks: Swingle citrumelo [Citrus×paradisi Macfad cv. Duncan×Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.], Sunki mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan), and rangpur (Citrus×limonia Osbeck). The parameters of interest were height, number of leaves, stem diameter, shoot and root dry mass, and total dry mass at 150days after germination. The results showed that most bacterial isolates were capable of IAA production. Only one lactic acid bacterium isolate (BL06) solubilized phosphate, with a high solubilization index (PSI>3). In the actinobacteria group, isolates ACT01 (PSI=2.09) and ACT07 (PSI=2.01) exhibited moderate phosphate-solubilizing properties. Of the Bacillus spp. isolates, only CPMO6 and BM17 solubilized phosphate. The bacterial isolates that most fixated nitrogen were BM17, ACT11, and BL24. In the present study, some bacteria were able to promote growth of citrus rootstocks; however, this response was dependent on plant genotype and isolate. Bacillus spp. BM16 and CPMO4 were able to promote growth of Swingle citrumelo. In Sunki mandarin plants, the best treatment results were obtained with BM17 (Bacillus sp.) and ACT11 (actinobacteria). For Rangpur lime rootstock, only BM05 (Bacillus sp

  10. Analysis of the nutritional components and feeding values of commonly used roughages%常用粗饲料营养成分和饲用价值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳; 王之盛; 张晓明; 吴发莉; 邹华围

    2015-01-01

    protein (SCP),and non-protein nitrogen (NPN)in Lo-lium perenne ,Hemarthria altissima and sweet potato stem were significantly higher than those in corn stover and rice straw.In contrast,contents of neutral detergent fiber (NDF)and acid detergent fiber (ADF)in L. perenne ,H .altissima and sweet potato stem were significantly lower than those in corn stover and rice straw. The L.perenne and sweet potato stem had higher levels of sugar (CA)and rapidly degraded pure protein (PB1 ) than the other roughages analyzed.Compared to corn stover and rice straw,H .altissima,L.perenne and sweet potato stem had higher levels of starch,pectin (CB1),non-structural carbohydrates (NSC)and slowly degraded pure protein (PB3 ).Rice straw had the highest levels of available fiber (CB2 ),and corn stover had the highest levels of carbohydrate (CHO),unavailable fiber (CC)and intermediately degraded pure protein (PB2 ).The amino acid (AA)components of the roughages were significantly different,with different poten-tials for supplying limiting amino acid (LAA).Among the roughages analyzed,L.perenne had the highest level of total amino acids (TAA),essential amino-acid (EAA)and LAA,while corn stover and rice straw had the lowest.L.perenne had higher levels of digestible dry matter (DDM)and relative feed value (RFV)than the other roughages.The contents of dry matter intake (DMI)and RFV in sweet potato stem were significant-ly higher than those in H .altissima,while the contents of DMI,DDM and RFV in corn stover and rice straw were the lowest levels,with no significant differences between them.Therefore,L.perenne has the highest nutrient value and H .altissima and sweet potato stem are mid-range,while corn stover and rice straw have the lowest nutrient value.

  11. Mixed s -sourcery: Building many-body states using bubbles of nothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swingle, Brian; McGreevy, John

    2016-10-01

    We recently introduced the idea of s -sourcery [B. Swingle and J. McGreevy, Phys. Rev. B 93, 045127 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.045127], a general formalism for building many-body quantum ground states using renormalization-group-inspired quantum circuits. Here we define a generalized notion of s -sourcery that applies to mixed states and study its properties and applicability. For our examples we focus on thermal states of local Hamiltonians. We prove a number of theorems establishing the prevalence of mixed s -source fixed points, giving results for free fermion models, conformal field theories, holographic models, and topological phases. Thermal double states (also called thermofield double states) and the machinery of approximate conditional independence are used heavily in the constructions. For a large class of models we provide an information theoretic argument for the existence of a local Hamiltonian whose ground state is the thermal double state, and in some cases we construct such a Hamiltonian.

  12. Artificial sweeteners as a sugar substitute: Are they really safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arun; Amarnath, S.; Thulasimani, M.; Ramaswamy, S.

    2016-01-01

    Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) have become an important part of everyday life and are increasingly used nowadays in a variety of dietary and medicinal products. They provide fewer calories and far more intense sweetness than sugar-containing products and are used by a plethora of population subsets for varying objectives. Six of these agents (aspartame, saccharine, sucralose, neotame, acesulfame-K, and stevia) have previously received a generally recognized as safe status from the United States Food and Drug Administration, and two more (Swingle fruit extract and advantame) have been added in the recent years to this ever growing list. They are claimed to promote weight loss and deemed safe for consumption by diabetics; however, there is inconclusive evidence to support most of their uses and some recent studies even hint that these earlier established benefits regarding NNS use might not be true. There is a lack of properly designed randomized controlled studies to assess their efficacy in different populations, whereas observational studies often remain confounded due to reverse causality and often yield opposite findings. Pregnant and lactating women, children, diabetics, migraine, and epilepsy patients represent the susceptible population to the adverse effects of NNS-containing products and should use these products with utmost caution. The overall use of NNS remains controversial, and consumers should be amply informed about the potential risks of using them, based on current evidence-based dietary guidelines. PMID:27298490

  13. Evaluation of four phloem-specific promoters in vegetative tissues of transgenic citrus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, M; Ananthakrishnan, G; Jaromin, M K; Brlansky, R H; Grosser, J W

    2012-01-01

    'Mexican' lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) was transformed with constructs that contained chimeric promoter-gus gene fusions of phloem-specific rolC promoter of Agrobacterium rhizogenes, Arabidopsis thaliana sucrose-H(+) symporter (AtSUC2) gene promoter of Arabidopsis thaliana, rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) promoter and sucrose synthase l (RSs1) gene promoter of Oryza sativa (rice). Histochemical β-glucuronidase (GUS) analysis revealed vascular-specific expression of the GUS protein in citrus. The RTBV promoter was the most efficient promoter in this study while the RSs1 promoter could drive low levels of gus gene expression in citrus. These results were further validated by reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction and northern blotting. Southern blot analysis confirmed stable transgene integration, which ranged from a single insertion to four copies per genome. The use of phloem-specific promoters in citrus will allow targeted transgene expression of antibacterial constructs designed to battle huanglongbing disease (HLB or citrus greening disease), associated with a phloem-limited Gram-negative bacterium.

  14. REVITALISASI KONSERVASI TUMBUHAN OBAT KELUARGA (TOGA GUNA MENINGKATKAN KESEHATAN DAN EKONOMI KELUARGA MANDIRI DI DESA CONTOH LINGKAR KAMPUS IPB DARMAGA BOGOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Hikmat

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants and traditional medicine for along ago are important role in the health care, stamina maintain, and treat diseases. Therefore medicinal plants and traditional medicines have strong root in the part of community up to now. Research on revitalization of family medicinal plant (TOGA conservation done at Kampong Pabuaran (Cibanteng village, and Kampong Gunung Leutik ( Benteng village, results indicated that research locations have completely medicinal plants diversity for medicine all diseases of village communities mentioned. Number of medicinal plants found at Gunung Leutik and Pabuaran Sawah Kampong (Cibanteng and Benteng Villages were 237 spesies, and 95 spesies often used by respondents mentioned villages. Species number of medicinal plants have potential to expand based on use value of these species treat main diseases of community villages Gunung Leutik and Pabuaran Sawah Villages (Benteng and Cibanteng were 15 spesies, such as: sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata (Burm.F Ness., meniran (Phyllanthus niruri L., takokak (Solanum torvum L., pegagan (Centella asiatica (L. Urban., temulawak (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb., jahe (Zingiber officinale-purpurea Rosc., jeruk nipis (Citrus aurantifolia (Christm & Panz Swingle, binahong (Anredera cordifolia, mahkota dewa (Phaleria macrocarpus (Sheff. Boerl., rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa, pule pandak (Rauvolfia serpentine (L. Benth. ex. Kurz., sangitan (Sambucus javanica Reinw., sirih (Piper betle L., brotowali (Tinospora crispa, and kenikir (Cosmos caudatus

  15. Repellent activity of some essential oils against Simulium species in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, S; Dhiman, Sunil; Rabha, Bipul; Bhola, R K; Singh, Lokendera

    2012-01-01

    Use of repellents seems to be most reliable method of personal protection against annoyance and infections associated with haematophagous insects. We have investigated the biting activity of Simulium and tested the repellency of five essential oils extracted from Homalomena aromatica Schott (Alismatales: Araceae), Pogostemon heyneanus Bentham (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), Citrus aurantifolia Swingle (Sapindales: Rutaceae), Vitex negundo L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), and Ageratum conzoides L. (Asterales: Asteraceae) on the human volunteers against Simulium (blackflies) in three locations of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Blackflies preferred biting legs (> 79%) as compared to hand and face with profound biting activity during 1000-1100 h (> 23%) and 1500 - 1600 h (> 28%). The essential oil extracted from Homalomena aromatica, Vitex negundo and Ageratum conizoides provided > 2 h protection at 5% concentration and > 5 h protection at 10% concentration in all the three testing locations. The repellency of Homalomena aromatica, Vitex negundo and Ageratum conizoides essential oils after 6 h application was > 50% at 5% concentration and > 90% at 10% concentration. The study provides evidence for the potential of these essential oils in developing new repellents against blackflies.

  16. Avaliação genética de seleções e híbridos de limões cravo, volkameriano e rugoso como porta-enxertos para laranjeiras Valência na presença da morte súbita dos citros Genetic evaluation of selections and hybrids of rangpur lime, volkamer and rough lemons rootstocks for Valência orange trees in the presence of the citrus sudden death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgino Pompeu Junior

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo realizar a avaliação genética da produção de frutos, eficiência produtiva e altura de laranjeiras Valência (Citrus sinensis enxertadas em seleções e híbridos dos limões Cravo (C. limonia, Volkameriano (C. volkameriana e Rugoso (C. jambhiri, em área endêmica para morte súbita dos citros (MSC. Foram avaliados 36 genótipos desses porta-enxertos, representados por cinco plantas cada, avaliados em cinco safras, do terceiro ao sétimo ano após o plantio. Sete dos genótipos avaliados apresentaram plantas com sintomas de MSC até o sétimo ano: Rangpur Otaheite orange 12901 (859, Rangpur Red Lime D.33.30 (866, Limão-Cravo EEL (871, Rangpur Borneo red (874, Citrus kokhai (1649, Limão-Rugoso 58329 (1655 e Limão- Cravo x Swingle B (1695. Para os genótipos que não manifestaram sintomas da doença, foram estimados parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos e realizada a predição de valores genéticos dos indivíduos, visando à seleção e ao melhoramento genético para as características citadas, empregando-se o método REML/BLUP (máxima verossimilhança restrita/melhor predição linear não viciada. A análise de produção de frutos de cinco safras mostrou acurácia seletiva de 84,59%, tornando-se desnecessária a avaliação de maior número de safras. A seleção dos sete melhores genótipos proporcionou ganhos genéticos de 11,5% na produção de frutos, enquanto a do melhor genótipo conferiu ganho genético de 16,3%. As maiores médias genéticas preditas (>70,0 kg.pl-1 para produção de frutos foram obtidas pelos genótipos Limão-Cravo- Ipanema (1522, Santa- Bárbara-Red- Lime (884, Limão- Cravo- Limeira (863, Limão- Cravo- Taquaritinga (869, Limão- Rugoso- do -Cabo (1643, Rangpur- Rose Lime (868 e Limão- Cravo- da- Califórnia (1467. Já a acurácia seletiva da eficiência produtiva, para quatro colheitas, foi 77,4%. Para este caráter, as maiores médias genéticas (>8,0 kg.m-3 foram dos

  17. Evaluation of the Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Oxytetracycline and Its Control Effect Against Citrus Huanglongbing via Trunk Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiahuai; Wang, Nian

    2016-12-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) or greening is a devastating bacterial disease that has destroyed millions of trees and is associated with phloem-residing 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las) in Florida. In this study, we evaluated the spatiotemporal dynamics of oxytetracycline in planta and its control effect against HLB via trunk injection. Las-infected 'Hamlin' sweet orange trees on 'Swingle' citrumelo rootstock at the early stage of decline were treated with oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC) using trunk injection with varying number of injection ports. Spatiotemporal distribution of OTC and dynamics of Las populations were monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography method and qPCR assay, respectively. Uniform distribution of OTC throughout tree canopies and root system was achieved 2 days postinjection. High levels of OTC (>850 µg/kg) were maintained in leaf and root for at least 1 month and moderate OTC (>500 µg/kg) persisted for more than 9 months. Reduction of Las populations in root system and leaves of OTC-treated trees were over 95% and 99% (i.e., 1.76 and 2.19 log reduction) between 2 and 28 days postinjection. Conditions of trees receiving OTC treatment were improved, fruit yield was increased, and juice acidity was lowered than water-injected control even though their differences were not statistically significant during the test period. Our study demonstrated that trunk injection of OTC could be used as an effective measure for integrated management of citrus HLB.

  18. Chemotaxonomic study of Citrus, Poncirus and Fortunella genotypes based on peel oil volatile compounds--deciphering the genetic origin of Mangshanyegan (Citrus nobilis Lauriro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuihua Liu

    Full Text Available Volatile profiles yielded from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis provide abundant information not only for metabolism-related research, but also for chemotaxonomy. To study the chemotaxonomy of Mangshanyegan, its volatile profiles of fruit and leaf and those of 29 other genotypes of Citrus, Poncirus, and Fortunella were subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Results showed that 145 identified (including 64 tentatively identified and 15 unidentified volatile compounds were detected from their peel oils. The phylogenetic analysis of peel oils based on hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA demonstrated a good agreement with the Swingle taxonomy system, in which the three genera of Citrus, Poncirus, and Fortunella were almost completely separated. As to Citrus, HCA indicated that Citrophorum, Cephalocitrus, and Sinocitrus fell into three subgroups, respectively. Also, it revealed that Mangshanyegan contain volatile compounds similar to those from pummelo, though it is genetically believed to be a mandarin. These results were further supported by the principal component analysis of the peel oils and the HCA results of volatile profiles of leaves in the study.

  19. Citrus rootstocks influence the population densities of pest mites

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    Rafael Rocha da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus are attacked by pest mites such as the citrus rust mite Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead (Acari: Eriophyidae and the spider mite Tetranychus mexicanus (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae. However, little is known on citrus rootstocks influencing pest mites. We aimed to evaluate the influence of rootstocks on population densities of pest mites on the sweet oranges 'Pera CNPMF D-6' and 'Valencia Tuxpan' throughout time. Adults of both mite species were monthly counted during 19 months from June 2011 to February 2013. Rootstocks influenced the populations of pest mites, since lower densities of P. oleivora were found on 'Pera CNPMF D-6' sweet orange grafted on the hybrid TSKC × CTTR - 002 and on 'Swingle' citrumelo in comparison with the hybrid LVK × LCR - 010, 'Red' rough lime and 'Santa Cruz' rangpur lime as rootstocks. Similarly, lower densities of T. mexicanus were found on 'Valencia Tuxpan' sweet orange grafted on the hybrid HTR-051 in comparison to 'Indio' citrandarin, 'Sunki Tropical' mandarin and LVK × LCR - 010 as rootstocks. We concluded that densities of the mites P. oleivora and T. mexicanus on the sweet oranges 'Pera CNPMF D-6' and 'Valencia Tuxpan' were affected in some periods of the year by some rootstocks, suggesting influence of some genotypes on these pests.

  20. Comparison between diploid and tetraploid citrus rootstocks: morphological characterization and growth evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divanilde Guerra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tetraploid citrus rootstocks may present different morphological characteristics and growth when compared to diploid ones. This worked aimed at comparing morphological characteristics and height growth of diploid and tetraploid plants from the rootstocks 'Swingle' citrumelo [C. paradise Macf. x Poncirus trifoliate (L. Raf], citrange 'Troyer' (C. sinensis (L. Osb. x P. trifoliata and citranges 'Fepagro C 13' and 'Fepagro C 37' [C. sinensis cv. Pêra x P. trifoliata] during twelve months. Diploid (2n=18 and tetraploid (2n=36 plants originated from the same seed were identified, cultivated and evaluated every 45 days regarding color, height, petiole length, leaf length and central leaflet width. Significant differences were observed for the evaluated characteristics: the average of petiole length was 1.78 cm in the diploid and 0.99 cm in the tetraploid plants; the average of leaf length was 2.32 cm in the diploid and 2.95 cm in the tetraploid plants; the average of central leaflet width was 1.33 cm in the diploid and 1.69 cm in the tetraploid plants. Moreover, tetraploid plants had darker and thicker leaves than the diploid ones. Variation regarding height was observed and the diploid plants presented higher growth than the tetraploid ones. As tetraploid plants are smaller, have a slow height growth and wider and longer leaves.

  1. PODER CALORÍFICO Y MATERIAL INORGÁNICO EN LA CORTEZA DE SEIS ÁRBOLES FRUTALES

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    Ricardo Martínez-Pérez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El poder calorífico y el contenido de sustancias minerales (cenizas se determinaron en la corteza de seis especies arbóreas frutales (Annona cherimola Mill., Citrus aurantifolia Swingle, Malus domestica Borkh., Psidium guajava L., Prunus dulcis [Mill.] D. A. Webb y Tamarindus indica L.. Las cenizas obtenidas fueron analizadas mediante rayos X. Los valores encontrados de poder calorífico variaron de 3,453.49 kcal•kg-1 en T. indica a 4,076.10 kcal•kg-1 en P. guajava. En el caso de las cenizas, los resultados fluctuaron de 5.76 % en P. guajava a 21.93 % en T. indica. Se observó que un contenido mayor de minerales en las cortezas tiende a disminuir su poder calorífico. Los elementos químicos comunes en las muestras analizadas fueron calcio, potasio, magnesio, fósforo y azufre. No se detectaron metales pesados en las muestras de la corteza.

  2. Sweet orange trees grafted on selected rootstocks fertilized with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaggio José Antônio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of citrus trees in Brazil are grafted on 'Rangpur lime' (Citrus limonia Osb. rootstock. Despite its good horticultural performance, search for disease tolerant rootstock varieties to improve yield and longevity of citrus groves has increased. The objective of this work was to evaluate yield efficiency of sweet oranges on different rootstocks fertilized with N, P, and potassium. Tree growth was affected by rootstock varieties; trees on 'Swingle' citrumelo [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. × C. paradisi Macf.] presented the smallest canopy (13.3 m³ in the fifth year after tree planting compared to those on 'Rangpur lime' and 'Cleopatra' mandarin [C. reshni (Hayata hort. ex Tanaka] grown on the same grove. Although it was observed an overall positive relationship between canopy volume and fruit yield (R² = 0.95**, yield efficiency (kg m-3 was affected by rootstocks, which demonstrated 'Rangpur lime' superiority in relation to Cleopatra. Growth of citrus trees younger than 5-yr-old might be improved by K fertilization rates greater than currently recommended in Brazil, in soils with low K and subjected to nutrient leaching losses.

  3. Artificial sweeteners as a sugar substitute: Are they really safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS have become an important part of everyday life and are increasingly used nowadays in a variety of dietary and medicinal products. They provide fewer calories and far more intense sweetness than sugar-containing products and are used by a plethora of population subsets for varying objectives. Six of these agents (aspartame, saccharine, sucralose, neotame, acesulfame-K, and stevia have previously received a generally recognized as safe status from the United States Food and Drug Administration, and two more (Swingle fruit extract and advantame have been added in the recent years to this ever growing list. They are claimed to promote weight loss and deemed safe for consumption by diabetics; however, there is inconclusive evidence to support most of their uses and some recent studies even hint that these earlier established benefits regarding NNS use might not be true. There is a lack of properly designed randomized controlled studies to assess their efficacy in different populations, whereas observational studies often remain confounded due to reverse causality and often yield opposite findings. Pregnant and lactating women, children, diabetics, migraine, and epilepsy patients represent the susceptible population to the adverse effects of NNS-containing products and should use these products with utmost caution. The overall use of NNS remains controversial, and consumers should be amply informed about the potential risks of using them, based on current evidence-based dietary guidelines.

  4. Anatomy of Leaves from 6 Types of Suaeda in Tarim Basin%塔里木盆地碱蓬属6种植物叶的解剖学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨赵平; 贾露

    2011-01-01

    We used olefin section to study anatomy of the leaves from 6 types of Suaeda from Tarim Basin of Xinjiang , it showed that there were different adaptive structures in the trees for salty environment where these leaves of the trees lived: (1) Three species of Suaeda, Suaeda stellatiflora, S.prostrata and S.kosinskyi having extruding growth of outer flank on epidermic cells, while that of it in S.arcuata, Suaeda rigida and S.altissima were not significantly extruding; (2) The mesophyll in the leaves of 6 species of trees were with a ring palisade shape, and there differentiated a layer of storage tissue with rare or no chloroplast for water in epidermic tissue of S.prostrate, S.kosinsky and S.arcuata; ( 3 ) The cells in palisade tissue of S.rigida were small and with more layers of cells, and that of S.kosinsky were not well-differentiated but turn into many storage tissues; (4 ) The main vein of S.rigid and 5.altissima were differentiated into a layer of cambium, but not found in other 4 species.%采用石蜡切片法观察了塔里木盆地的碱蓬属6种植物的解剖结构,表明碱蓬属6种植物具不同的适应盐生生境的结构特征:(1)星花碱蓬、平卧碱蓬与肥叶碱蓬表皮细胞外侧壁常外凸生长,五蕊碱蓬、硬枝碱蓬与高碱蓬外凸生长不明显;(2)碱蓬属6种植物叶肉为环栅型,特别的是平卧碱蓬、肥叶碱蓬与五蕊碱蓬表皮下分化出了一层不含或含极少叶绿肥体的贮藏组织;(3)硬枝碱蓬栅栏组织细胞的形态小、细胞的层数较多,而肥叶碱蓬叶肉栅栏不发达,分化出了大量的贮藏组织;(4)硬枝碱蓬与高碱蓬的主脉维管束内分化出了1层形成层而另外4种没有形成层.

  5. Perennial grasses for recovery of the aggregation capacity of a reconstructed soil in a coal mining area in southern Brazil

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    Lizete Stumpf

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a soil after surface coal mining involves heavy machinery traffic during the topographic regeneration of the area, resulting in compaction of the relocated soil layers. This leads to problems with water infiltration and redistribution along the new profile, causing water erosion and consequently hampering the revegetation of the reconstructed soil. The planting of species useful in the process of soil decompaction is a promising strategy for the recovery of the soil structural quality. This study investigated the influence of different perennial grasses on the recovery of reconstructed soil aggregation in a coal mining area of the Companhia Riograndense de Mineração, located in Candiota-RS, which were planted in September/October 2007. The treatments consisted of planting: T1- Cynodon dactylon cv vaquero; T2 - Urochloa brizantha; T3 - Panicum maximun; T4 - Urochloa humidicola; T5 - Hemarthria altissima; T6 - Cynodon dactylon cv tifton 85. Bare reconstructed soil, adjacent to the experimental area, was used as control treatment (T7 and natural soil adjacent to the mining area covered with native vegetation was used as reference area (T8. Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were collected in October/2009 (layers 0.00-0.05 and 0.10-0.15 m to determine the percentage of macro- and microaggregates, mean weight diameter (MWD of aggregates, organic matter content, bulk density, and macro- and microporosity. The lower values of macroaggregates and MWD in the surface than in the subsurface layer of the reconstructed soil resulted from the high degree of compaction caused by the traffic of heavy machinery on the clay material. After 24 months, all experimental grass treatments showed improvements in soil aggregation compared to the bare reconstructed soil (control, mainly in the 0.00-0.05 m layer, particularly in the two Urochloa treatments (T2 and T4 and Hemarthria altissima (T5. However, the great differences between the

  6. Frações de carboidratos de quatro gramíneas tropicais em diferentes idades de corte e doses de adubação nitrogenada Carbohydrate fractions of tropical grasses at different cutting ages and under nitrogen fertilization

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    L.T. Henriques

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as frações de carboidratos dos capins setária (Setaria anceps Stapf, hemarthria (Hemarthria altissima [Poir] Stapf. & Hubbard, angola (Brachiaria purpurascens [Raddi] Henr. e acroceres (Acroceras macrum Stapf. adubados com 0, 100, 200, 300 e 400kg de N/ha na forma de sulfato de amônio e colhidos aos 28, 42, 56 e 70 dias de idade. Os cortes foram realizados a 20cm do solo para o capim-setária e a 10cm para as demais espécies. As frações dos carboidratos das forrageiras foram influenciadas pela idade de corte, observando-se com avanço da idade elevação dos teores de carboidratos não fibrosos, especialmente aos 56 dias de idade para os capins-hemarthria e angola e aos 70 dias para setária e acroceres. Os maiores teores de carboidratos fibrosos foram obtidos aos 42 dias em todas as forrageiras. A inclusão de níveis crescentes de adubação nitrogenada contribuiu para redução dos teores de carboidratos fibrosos da parede celular, porém os carboidratos não fibrosos não apresentaram respostas evidentes quanto à adubação nitrogenada.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the levels of 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400kg of nitrogen/ha fertilization and the cutting ages at 28, 42, 56 and 70 days on the carbohydrate fractions of the tropical grasses Setaria (Setaria anceps Stapf, Limpo (Hemarthria altissima [Poir] Stapf. & Hubbard, California (Brachiaria purpurascens [Raddi] Henr. and Nilo (Acroceras macrum Stpaf. The cuts were made 20cm upper from the ground for Setaria and 10cm for the other species. The fractions of the carbohydrates of the grasses were affected by the age of cut, as the older the forage the higher the non-fibrous carbohydrate content, especially at 56 days for Limpo grass and California grass and at 70 days for Setaria and Nilo grasses. The highest percentages of fibrous carbohydrate were observed at 42 days for all the grasses. The increasing levels of nitrogen fertilization contributed for the

  7. 植物提取物对油茶主要病害的抑菌作用%Inhibition effects of plant extracts against major diseases of Camellia oleifera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建宏; 刘君昂; 邓小军; 布婷婷

    2011-01-01

    采用生长速率法初步筛选了20种植物的水提取物对油茶软腐病菌、炭疽病菌的生物活性.结果表明:丁香、黄芩、芦荟、穿心莲、金银花的水提物对油茶炭疽病菌,软腐病菌的抑制率均可达60%以上,其中丁香提取物的抑菌效果最好分别达到96.2%、98.2%.不同植物提取物对油茶的主要病害都有一定的预防作用.不同植物提取物的林间防治效果表明:当丁香、黄芩提取物及茶皂素的质量比为1:1;1时,对油茶主要病害的防治效果最好,可达80%,同时可以将油茶的病果率降低约60%.%Using growth rate method, biological activities of water extracts from 20 different plants were tested against Colletotrichum gloeos porioides and Agaricodochium camellia. The results show the inhibition rates of the extracts of Syzygium aromaticum, Scutellaria altissima ,Aloe vera , Lonicera japonica, Lonicera japonica against both tested pathogens were more than 60%. The inhibition effects of Syzygium aromaticum against both tested pathogens were the best, respectively 96. 2% and 98. 2%. Different plant extracts had certain prevention effects on the both pathogens. The protection effects of different plant extracts in the field show that when the mass ratio of Syzygium aromaticum extracts, Scutellaria altissima extracts and tea saponin was 1∶1∶1, the protection effects achieved about 80% and the rate of diseased fruits decreased about 60%.

  8. A study of skin sensitivity to various allergens by skin prick test in patients of nasobronchial allergy

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    Prasad R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study skin sensitivity to various allergens in patients of nasobronchial allergy. Materials and Methods: 2880 skin prick tests with 60 allergens were performed in 48 patients of nasobronchial allergy. Results: Most common offending allergens were insects (21.2%, followed by dusts (12.0%, pollens (7.8%, animal dander (3.1%, and fungi (1.3%. The common insect antigen were locust female (33.3% followed by locust male (25%, grasshopper (20.8%, cricket (16.7%, cockroach female (16.7% and cockroach male (14.6%. Common dust allergens were house dust, wheat dust, cotton mill and paper dust. Among pollens, Amaranthus spinosus, Argemone mexicana, Adhatoda vasica, Ailanthus and Cannabis were found to be common allergens. In animal danders common offending allergens were cow dander and dog dander. Among fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria teneis and Fusarium sodani were common allergens. Patients of bronchial asthma had associated allergic rhinitis in 80% cases. Conclusion: Common allergens in patients of nasobronchial allergy were identified. The data may prove useful in of allergen avoidance and immunotherapy in these patients.

  9. Seasonal variations of airborne pollen in Allahabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahney, Manju; Chaurasia, Swati

    2008-01-01

    Using a Burkard 7-day volumetric sampler a survey of airborne pollen grains in Allahabad was carried out from December 2004--November 2005 to assess the qualitative and quantitative occurrence of pollen grains during different months of the year, and to characterize the pollen seasons of dominant pollen types in the atmosphere of Allahabad. 80 pollen types were identified out of the total pollen catch of 3,416.34 pollen grains/m(3). Bulk of the pollen originated from anemophilous trees and grasses. Thirteen pollen types recorded more than 1 % of the annual total pollen catch. Holoptelea integrifolia formed the major component of the pollen spectrum constituting 46.21 % of the total pollen catch followed by Poaceae, Azadirachta indica, Ailanthus excelsa, Putranjiva roxburghii, Parthenium hysterophorus, Ricinus communis, Brassica compestris, Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae, Madhuca longifolia, Syzygium cumini, other Asteraceae and Aegle marmelos. Highest pollen counts were obtained in the month of March and lowest in July. The pollen types recorded marked the seasonal pattern of occurrence in the atmosphere. February-May was the principal pollen season with maximum number of pollen counts and pollen types. Chief sources of pollen during this period were arboreal taxa. September-October was the second pollen season with grasses being the main source of pollen. Airborne pollen spectrum reflected the vegetation of Allahabad, except for Alnus sp., which grows in the Himalayan region. A significant negative correlation was found of daily pollen counts with minimum temperature, relative humidity and rainfall.

  10. Foliar nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in trees in environmentally toxic plastic industry area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sett, Rupnarayan; Soni, Bhawna

    2013-04-01

    In plants, nitrogen deficiency causes stunted growth and chlorosis or yellowing of the leaves due to decreased levels of chlorophyll, while excess nitrogen uptake may cause dark green overly vigorous foliage which may have increased susceptibility to disease and insect attacks. Phosphorus is an important nutrient in crop production, since many soils in their native state do not have sufficient available phosphorus to maximize crop yield. Potassium deficiency may cause necrosis or interveinal chlorosis. Plastics are synthetic or semi-synthetic moldable organic solids that are organic polymers of high molecular mass, most commonly derived from petrochemicals; these polymers are based on chains of carbon atoms alone or with oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen. Plastic is a non- biodegradable major toxic pollutant. It pollutes earth and leads to air pollution and water pollution. Merely there is any safe way to dispose the hazardous plastic wastes. The study was targeted to estimate foliar level of NPK content of three plant species, viz. Cassia tora (Herb), Ailanthus excelsa (Tree) and Dalbergia sissoo (Tree) from polluted areas associated to polythene-industries as well as control areas having least pollution, where all the parameters were found to be higher than the control experiments.

  11. Analysis of IgE binding proteins of mesquite (Prosopis juliflora) pollen and cross-reactivity with predominant tree pollens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhyani, Anamika; Arora, Naveen; Gaur, Shailendra N; Jain, Vikram K; Sridhara, Susheela; Singh, Bhanu P

    2006-01-01

    Pollen from the mesquite tree, Prosopis juliflora, is an important source of respiratory allergy in tropical countries. Our aim was to partially characterize the IgE binding proteins of P. juliflora pollen extract and study cross-reactivity with prevalent tree pollen allergens. Intradermal tests with P. juliflora and five other tree pollen extracts were performed on respiratory allergy patients from Bikaner (arid) and Delhi (semi arid). Prosopis extract elicited positive skin reactions in 71/220 of the patients. Sera were collected from 38 of these 71 patients and all demonstrated elevated specific IgE to P. juliflora. Immunoblotting with pooled patients' sera demonstrated 16 IgE binding components, with components of 24, 26, 29, 31, 35, 52, 58, 66 and 95 kDa recognized by more than 80% of individual patients' sera. P. juliflora extract is allergenically potent requiring 73 ng of self-protein for 50% inhibition of IgE binding in ELISA inhibition. Cross-inhibition assays showed close relationship among P. juliflora, Ailanthus excelsa, Cassia siamea and Salvadora persica. IgE binding components of 14, 41, 52 and 66 kDa were shared allergens whereas 26 and 29 kDa were specific to P. juliflora. The findings suggest that purification of cross-reactive allergens will be helpful for diagnosis and immunotherapy of tree pollen allergic patients.

  12. Analysis of Airborne Pollen Fall in Edirne,Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adem BICAKCI; Goksel OLGUN; Mehmet AYBEKE; Perihan ERKAN; Hulusi MALYER

    2004-01-01

    In the atmosphere of Edirne 12 691 pollen grains belonging to 42 taxa were identified by using of Durham sampler in 2000 and 2001. A total of 6 189 pollen grains per cm2 were recorded in 2000 and a total of 6 502 pollen grains per cm2 in 2001. Total pollen grains consisted of 71.81% grains from arboreal plants, 25.88% grains from non-arboreal plants and 2.31% unidentified pollen grains. Pollen from the following taxa were also found to be prevalent in the atmosphere of Edirne: Gramineae, Pinus sp., Quercus sp.,Cupressaceae/Taxaceae, Platanus sp., Salix sp., Morus sp., Populus sp., Carpinus sp., Juglans sp.,Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Fraxinus sp., Fagus sp., Ulmus sp., Ailanthus sp., Alnus sp., Ostrya sp.,Helianthus sp. The season of maximum pollen fall was from April to June, with a prevalence of arboreal pollen in the first month, and of pollen from non-arboreal plants in the last months of the year.

  13. Analysis of Airborne Pollen Fall in Edirne, Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AdemBICAKCI; GokselOLGUN; MehmetAYBEKE; PerihanERKAN; HulusiMALYER

    2004-01-01

    In the atmosphere of Edirne 12 691 pollen grains belonging to 42 taxa were identified by using of Durham sampler in 2000 and 2001. A total of 6 189 pollen grains per cm2 were recorded in 2000 and a total of 6 502 pollen grains per cm2 in 2001. Total pollen grains consisted of 71.81% grains from arboreal plants, 25.88% grains from non-arboreal plants and 2.31% unidentified pollen grains. Pollen from the following taxa were also found to be prevalent in the atmosphere of Edirne: Gramineae, Pinus sp., Quercus sp., Cupressaceae/Taxaceae, Platanus sp., Salix sp., Morus sp., Populus sp., Carpinus sp., Juglans sp., Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Fraxinus sp., Fagus sp., Ulmus sp., Ailanthus sp., Alnus sp., Ostrya sp., Helianthus sp. The season of maximum pollen fall was from April to June, with a prevalence of arboreal pollen in the first month, and of oollen from non-arboreal olants in the last months of the vear.

  14. The palynomorphological characteristics of Anthemis in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANXHELA DAUTI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Anthemis L. is the second largest genus of the tribe Anthemideae of Asteraceae family. It comprises about 210 species, distributed widely in Europe, south-west Asia, north and north-east Africa and extending into extreme southern Arabia and tropical east Africa. The plants of genus Anthemis are annual and perennial herbs with beautiful and attractive flowers. The article includes the palynomorphological study of the main members of genus Anthemis in Albania. In this article submitted comparative features of the species: Anthemis altissima , Anthemis carpatica, Anthemis chia, Anthemis orientalis, Anthemis tomentosa, Anthemis triumfetti, Anthemis arvensis and Anthemis tinctoria. The material for the study was obtained in National Herbarium in Tirana. For the study of palynomorphological features are analyzed 31 pollen grains from each species. The treatment of material is made with acetolysis method and basic fuchsine. The fixing of pollen grains is made with glycerin gelatin. The study and photos of pollen grains are realized with light microscope with 1000x power. The pollen grains of plants above are spheroidal or oblate spheroidal, three furrows three pores. The exine appears thick and has two-layers. The sculpture of exine is echinate. The work is part of the palynological study of general members in Asteraceae family in our country.

  15. Comparison of different cover crop mulches and extracts on inhibition of crop and weed growth

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    Sturm, Domonic Johannes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Weed suppression of cover crops is a result of competition for light, space, water and nutrients and the release of allelochemicals in the soil. Two laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted to analyse biochemical effects of extracts and mulches of Fagopyrum tataricum (L. Gaertn., Raphanus sativus var. oleiformis Pers. and a cover crop mixture on germination and plant growth of the crop plants maize (Zea mays L. and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris var. altissima Döll. and the weeds Chenopodium album L., Matricaria chamomilla L. and Stellaria media (L. Vill.. In the first experiment, aqueous cover crop extracts were applied on crop and weed seeds in germination assays. Germination rate, mean germination time and root length of crops and weeds were measured. In experiment 2, the influence of cover crop mulch on germination rate and dry weight of the test plants was determined after a period of 21 days. Significant reductions of the root length for all test plants were observed in experiment 1. Additionally, mean germination time was extended for crops and weeds by all cover crops. Germination rate and dry matter of crops and weeds were decreased significantly in experiment 2 compared to the untreated control. Root length, germination rate and mean germination time in germination tests in experiment 1 were found to be correlated with biomass of crops and weeds in experiment 2. This work reveals the important role of biochemical effects on weed suppression by cover crops.

  16. Non-additive effects of genotypic diversity increase floral abundance and abundance of floral visitors.

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    Mark A Genung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the emerging field of community and ecosystem genetics, genetic variation and diversity in dominant plant species have been shown to play fundamental roles in maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function. However, the importance of intraspecific genetic variation and diversity to floral abundance and pollinator visitation has received little attention. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using an experimental common garden that manipulated genotypic diversity (the number of distinct genotypes per plot of Solidago altissima, we document that genotypic diversity of a dominant plant can indirectly influence flower visitor abundance. Across two years, we found that 1 plant genotype explained 45% and 92% of the variation in flower visitor abundance in 2007 and 2008, respectively; and 2 plant genotypic diversity had a positive and non-additive effect on floral abundance and the abundance of flower visitors, as plots established with multiple genotypes produced 25% more flowers and received 45% more flower visits than would be expected under an additive model. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide evidence that declines in genotypic diversity may be an important but little considered factor for understanding plant-pollinator dynamics, with implications for the global decline in pollinators due to reduced plant diversity in both agricultural and natural ecosystems.

  17. Potencial forrageiro de gramíneas em condições de baixas temperaturas e altitude elevada

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    Botrel Milton de Andrade

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido no Município de Santo Antônio do Pinhal, localizado na Serra da Mantiqueira na região do Vale do Paraíba, SP, com o objetivo de estudar o potencial de gramíneas forrageiras, para identificar as espécies mais tolerantes ao frio e capazes de proporcionar boa cobertura vegetal ao solo. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, em três repetições, com parcelas de 5 x 5 m. Os tratamentos consistiram de 16 gramíneas forrageiras. As espécies Hemarthria altissima e Setaria anceps se destacaram quanto à taxa mensal de produção de matéria seca, teor de proteína bruta, cobertura vegetal do solo e tolerância a geadas. Portanto, entre as espécies avaliadas, são estas as mais indicadas para a formação de pastagens nas áreas montanhosas da região do Vale do Paraíba.

  18. Herbal medicines for wound healing among tribal people in Southern India: Ethnobotanical and Scientific evidences

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    M Ayyanar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Results of an ethnobotanical study of wound healing treatments among the tribal people of Tirunelveli hills in southern India are presented. A total of 46 plants belonging to 44 genera and 26 families have been documented for their therapeutic use against wounds and related injuries such as cuts, burns, bruises caused by external injury, boils, sores, abscess and wounds created during delivery. Leaves were the most frequently utilized plant part and most herbal remedies are prepared as paste and applied externally; in some cases medicinal preparations were also administered orally. Of the plants collected in the present study none of the plants have been reported to have such specific wound healing compounds except Areca catechu and Scoparia dulcis. The present study suggested that further clinical experimentation is needed to scientifically evaluate these widely used herbal remedies for possible bioactive effects. Industrial Relevance: The study of ethnomedical systems and herbal medicines as therapeutic agents of a paramount importance in addressing health problems of traditional communities and third world countries as well as industrialized societies. Of the reported plants,  Acalypha indica, Anacardium occidentale, Areca catechu, Calotropis gigantea, Cissampelos pareira, Cleome viscosa, Eupatorium odoratum, Euphorbia hirta, Ficus racemosa, Ixora coccinia, Morinda pubescens, Opuntia dillenii, Pongamia pinnata, Scoparia dulcis and Vitex altissima were studied in animal models for wound healing, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity on the basis of their use in traditional medicine as wound healers and these plants can be used to formulate drugs in pharmaceutical companies.

  19. Effect of Scutellariae herba extracts in experimental model of skin burns: histological and immunohistochemical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejenaru, Cornelia; Mogoşanu, George Dan; Bejenaru, Ludovic Everard; BiŢă, Andrei; Bălşeanu, Tudor Adrian; Ionică, Floriana Elvira

    2016-01-01

    The skin burns are an issue of great interest and seriousness in the public health domain, by their destructive features. Natural medicinal products are extensively used from ancient times, in ethnopharmacology, for the treatment of skin injuries (burns, wounds, ulcerations) due to the local modulation of the cellular response, in terms of emollient, demulcent, astringent, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, epithelizing, wound-healing, immunomodulatory and antioxidant effects. Histological and immunohistochemical assessment of antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, astringent and cicatrizing effects of Scutellariae (altissimae, galericulatae, hastifoliae) herba extracts administered in the form of 20% topical preparations (cold-creams), in experimental model of third degree skin burns, at Wistar rats. Caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid derivatives were identified in all herbal samples. The most active was the cold-cream with 20% Scutellariae hastifoliae herba soft extract, promoting the neoangiogenesis vessels and granulation tissue. Flavonoids, tannins and polyphenol carboxylic acids are the main active principles responsible for antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, astringent and cicatrizing effects of herbal extracts. Beeswax, from the formulation of cold-creams, acts as emollient, epithelizing, cicatrizing and biostimulator.

  20. 南方主要绿化树种对重金属的积累特性%Trees' Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals in the Soil of South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炜鹏; 陈金林; 黄全能; 王擎运; 赵好; 薛丹

    2007-01-01

    研究了南方主要绿化树种对重金属的积累特性,结果表明:同一树种中Pb、Cd、Hg、As的含量差异较大,相同元素在不同树种中的含量也存在一定差异,不同树种的重金属含量一般随环境污染程度的增加而升高,即从高至低依次为市区、近郊、远郊,市区树种中Pb、Cd、Hg、As的平均含量分别比远郊的增加62%、103%、187%、104%.垂枝榕(Ficus beniamina 'Exotica')、菩提树(F.religiosa)、凤凰木(Delonix regia)、南洋杉(Araucaria cunninghamii)分别对Pb、Cd、Hg、As的积累作用较大,宜用这些树木进行重金属污染的治理和修复,洋紫荆(Bauhinia variegata)、南洋杉、高山榕(F.altissima)、小叶榕(F.microcarpa)分别对Pb、Cd、Hg、As的抗性最小、即敏感性最强,可用于重金属污染的监测.

  1. 佛山市禅城区行道树调查研究%An Investigation on Roadside Trees of Chancheng District of Foshan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪斌; 陈李利; 周贱平; 钟惠红; 余凤英

    2007-01-01

    通过对佛山市禅城区205条道路的调查,结果表明,禅城区共应用了58种(含变种)乔木作行道树,其分别属26科44属,其中乡土树种占65.52%,常绿乔木占74.14%;47种生长良好;细叶榕(Ficusmicrocarpa )、芒果(Mangifera indica )、大叶榕(Ficus virens var.sublanceolata )、大花紫薇(Lagerstroemia speciosa)、垂叶榕(Ficus benjamina )、木棉(Bombax ceiba)、高山榕(Ficus altissima)、阴香(Cinnamomum burmanii )、白兰花(Michelia alba )以及红花羊蹄甲(Bauhinia blakeana )等10种乔木是禅城区行道树种群的骨干树种.

  2. Screening of lectins from South American plants used as affinity ligands to purify rhEPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.I. Amadeo

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Two groups of isoforms of rhEPO, at a concentration of 300 µg/ml, were tested as putative inhibitors of the lectinic hemagglutination reaction in order to obtain affinity ligand(s for hormone purification: groups I (pI: 3.80; 3.89; 3.95; 4.07, 4.15 and 4.26 and groups II (pI: 4.15, 4.26; 4.38; 4.51; 4.72 and 4.93 Crude extracts from the vegetable materials Abrus precatorious (Abrin, Artocarpus incisa (Frutalin, Artocarpus integrifolia (Jacalin, Canavalia ensiformes (ConA, Canavalia brasiliensis (Conbr, Cratylia floribunda, Dioclea altissima (DAL, Dioclea grandiflora (DGL, Erythrina vellutina (EVL, Erythrina cristagalli, Lutaelburgia auriculata (lectin not fully characterized yet, Lycopersicum esculentum (LEA, Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA, Ricinus communis (Ricin and Triticum vulgaris (WGA were used. Only some of the galactose-specific lectins and the GlcNAc-specific lectins showed rapid full inhibition of the hemagglutination reaction for the less acidic isoforms and the total isoforms of rhEPO, respectively. On this basis, the selected lectins were purified by affinity chromatoghraphy and covalently coupled to cyanogen bromide activated Sepharose® (Amersham-Pharmacia. CHO.K1 cell culture supernatant containing rhEPO was loaded onto the lectin resins and the recoveries were calculated by using specific elutions.

  3. Light-Dependent Betanin Production by Transformed Cells of Sugar Beet

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    Višnja Besendorfer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to transform sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. altissima cells using Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a wild octopine strain B6S3, and to study metabolic changes associated with the transformation. From the primary tumours on leaf fragments, two tumour lines were established: one pale green and the other red-violet in colour. The red-violet pigment was identified by means of high-performance liquid chromatography as betanin. Betanin production is strongly light-dependent. To enhance the betanin yield, nutrient media with different carbohydrates like sucrose, a combination of glucose and fructose, or only glucose or only fructose were tested. The selection of carbohydrate affected betanin production and yield. It was observed that the production of betanin per g of dry mass was 20–40 % higher on simple carbohydrates, especially fructose, than on sucrose or the combination of glucose and fructose. However, due to higher biomass production on the medium with sucrose, the highest total yield of betanin was obtained in the presence of sucrose. The most suitable time for possible betanin extraction was between days 7 and 14 for tissue grown on sucrose. The tumour line seems to be promising as an alternative source of betanin as well as a model to study sugar-regulated genes involved in tissue morphology control.

  4. Distribution, host plants and natural enemies of sugar beet root aphid (Pemphigus fuscicornis In Slovakia

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    Tóth Peter

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2003-2004, field surveys were realized to observe the distribution of sugar beet aphid, Pemphigus fuscicornis (K o c h (Sternorrhyncha Pemphigidae in southwestern Slovakia. The research was carried out at 60 different localities with altitudes 112-220 m a. s. l. Sugar beet root aphid was recorded at 30 localities. The aphid was recorded in Slovakia for the first time, but its occurrence was predicted and symptoms and harmfulness overlooked by now. The presence of P. fuscicornis was investigated on roots of various plants from Chenopodiaceae. The most important host plants were various species of lambsquarters (above all Chenopodium album. Furthermore sugar beet (Beta vulgaris provar. altissima, red beet (B. vulgaris provar. conditiva and oraches (Atriplex spp act as host plants. Infestation of sugar beet by P. fuscicornis never exceeded 5% at single locality in Slovakia. Dry and warm weather create presumptions for strong harmfulness. In Slovakia, Chenopodium album is a very important indicator of sugar beet aphid presence allowing evaluation of control requirements. During the study, the larvae of Thaumatomyia glabra (Diptera: Chloropidae were detected as important natural enemies of sugar beet aphid. The species occurred at each location evaluated.

  5. Avaliação genética de seleções e híbridos de limões cravo, volkameriano e rugoso como porta-enxertos para laranjeiras Valência na presença da morte súbita dos citros

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    Jorgino Pompeu Junior

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo realizar a avaliação genética da produção de frutos, eficiência produtiva e altura de laranjeiras Valência (Citrus sinensis enxertadas em seleções e híbridos dos limões Cravo (C. limonia, Volkameriano (C. volkameriana e Rugoso (C. jambhiri, em área endêmica para morte súbita dos citros (MSC. Foram avaliados 36 genótipos desses porta-enxertos, representados por cinco plantas cada, avaliados em cinco safras, do terceiro ao sétimo ano após o plantio. Sete dos genótipos avaliados apresentaram plantas com sintomas de MSC até o sétimo ano: Rangpur Otaheite orange 12901 (859, Rangpur Red Lime D.33.30 (866, Limão-Cravo EEL (871, Rangpur Borneo red (874, Citrus kokhai (1649, Limão-Rugoso 58329 (1655 e Limão- Cravo x Swingle B (1695. Para os genótipos que não manifestaram sintomas da doença, foram estimados parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos e realizada a predição de valores genéticos dos indivíduos, visando à seleção e ao melhoramento genético para as características citadas, empregando-se o método REML/BLUP (máxima verossimilhança restrita/melhor predição linear não viciada. A análise de produção de frutos de cinco safras mostrou acurácia seletiva de 84,59%, tornando-se desnecessária a avaliação de maior número de safras. A seleção dos sete melhores genótipos proporcionou ganhos genéticos de 11,5% na produção de frutos, enquanto a do melhor genótipo conferiu ganho genético de 16,3%. As maiores médias genéticas preditas (>70,0 kg.pl-1 para produção de frutos foram obtidas pelos genótipos Limão-Cravo- Ipanema (1522, Santa- Bárbara-Red- Lime (884, Limão- Cravo- Limeira (863, Limão- Cravo- Taquaritinga (869, Limão- Rugoso- do -Cabo (1643, Rangpur- Rose Lime (868 e Limão- Cravo- da- Califórnia (1467. Já a acurácia seletiva da eficiência produtiva, para quatro colheitas, foi 77,4%. Para este caráter, as maiores médias genéticas (>8,0 kg.m-3 foram dos

  6. Desenvolvimento vegetativo e custo de produção de porta-enxertos de citros em recipientes para fins de subenxertia Vegetative development and production cost of citrus rootstocks in containers for inarching

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    Eduardo Augusto Girardi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento vegetativo e estimar o custo de produção de 11 porta-enxertos de citros para fins de subenxertia, em diferentes recipientes. Avaliaram-se limão 'Cravo' clone Limeira (Citrus limonia Osbeck; citrumelo 'Swingle' (Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. x Citrus paradisi Macf.; tangerina 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tanaka; tangerina 'Sunki' (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka; limão 'Volkameriano' clone Catânia 2 (Citrus volkameriana Pasquale; laranja 'Caipira' clone DAC (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck; limão 'Rugoso da África' clone Mazoe (Citrus jambhiri Lush.; Poncirus trifoliata 'Davis A'; tangerina 'Sun Shu Sha Kat' (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka; tangerina 'Sunki' clone 2506 ou Fruto Grande (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka e Poncirus trifoliata 'Barnes'. Foram utilizados tubetes de 290 mL, sacolas de 1,7 L, e porta-enxertos transplantados de tubetes de 75 mL para sacolas de polietileno de 1,7 e 4,5 L. Porta-enxertos produzidos diretamente em sacolas de 1,7 L atingem ponto ideal de subenxertia em menor tempo, de 100 a 150 dias após a semeadura, e permitem a obtenção de plantas maiores e com sistema radicular adequado, porém com custo de produção superior ao sistema de produção em tubetes de 290 mL.The vegetative development and the estimation of the production cost of eleven citrus rootstocks for inarching were evaluated in different containers. 'Rangpur' lime cultivar Limeira (Citrus limonia Osbeck; 'Swingle' citrumelo (Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. x Citrus paradisi Macf.; 'Cleópatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tanaka; 'Sunki' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka; 'Volkamer' lemon cultivar Catânia 2 (Citrus volkameriana Pasquale; 'Caipira' sweet orange cultivar DAC (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck; 'Rugoso da África' rough lemon cultivar Mazoe (Citrus jambhiri Lush.; Poncirus trifoliata cultivar Davis A; 'Sun Shu Sha Kat' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka; 'Sunki' mandarin

  7. Citrus asymmetric somatic hybrids produced via fusion of gamma-irradiated and iodoacetamide-treated protoplasts Híbridos somáticos assimétricos de citros produzidos pela fusão de protoplastos irradiados e tratados com iodoacetamida

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    Claudine Maria de Bona

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to produce citrus somatic asymmetric hybrids by fusing gamma-irradiated protoplasts with iodoacetamide-treated protoplasts. Protoplasts were isolated from embryogenic suspension cells of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfad. cultivars Ruby Red and Flame, sweet oranges (C. sinensis Osbeck 'Itaboraí', 'Natal', Valencia', and 'Succari', from 'Satsuma' (C. unshiu Marcow. and 'Changsha' mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco and 'Murcott' tangor (C. reticulata x C. sinensis. Donor protoplasts were exposed to gamma rays and receptor protoplasts were treated with 3 mmol L-1 iodoacetamide (IOA, and then they were fused for asymmetric hybridization. Asymmetric embryos were germinated, and the resulting shoots were either grafted onto sour orange, rough lemon or 'Swingle' (C. paradisi x Poncirus trifoliata x 'Sunki' mandarin rootstock seedlings, or rooted after dipping their bases in indol-butyric acid (IBA solution. The products were later acclimatized to greenhouse conditions. Ploidy was analyzed by flow cytometry, and hybridity was confirmed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP analysis of plantlet DNAsamples. The best treatment was the donor-recipient fusion combination of 80 Gy-irradiated 'Ruby Red' protoplasts with 20 min IOA-treated 'Succari' protoplasts. Tetraploid and aneuploid plants were produced. Rooting recalcitrance was solved by dipping shoots' stems in 3,000 mg L-1 IBA solution for 10 min.O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir híbridos somáticos assimétricos de citros pela fusão de protoplastos irradiados com raios gama e protoplastos tratados com iodoacetamida. Protoplastos foram isolados de suspensões celulares embriogênicas de pomelo (Citrus paradisi Macfad., cultivares Ruby Red e Flame, de laranja doce (C. sinensis Osbeck 'Itaboraí', 'Natal', Valencia' e 'Succari', de tangerinas 'Satsuma' (C. unshiu Marcow. e 'Changsha' (C. reticulata Blanco e de tangor 'Murcott' (C. reticulata x C. sinensis

  8. Mudas de laranjeira 'valência' sobre dois porta-enxertos e sob diferentes manejos de adubação 'Valencia' sweet orange nursery trees on two rootstocks under different fertilizer managements

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    Eduardo Augusto Girardi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O manejo da adubação é uma das principais práticas culturais para a produção de mudas cítricas em cultivo protegido. Avaliou-se o efeito de seis tipos de manejo das adubações comercialmente recomendadas na produção de mudas de laranjeira 'Valência' [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] enxertada sobre os porta-enxertos limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osbeck e citrumeleiro 'Swingle' [Citrus paradisi Macf. x Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.]. As avaliações foram conduzidas a partir da transplantação dos porta-enxertos até 180 dias após a enxertia, em viveiro empresarial, em Conchal-SP. Os manejos corresponderam a duas soluções de fertilizantes solúveis aplicadas isoladamente, soluções de fertilizante solúveis associadas a fertilizante de liberação controlada e aplicação exclusiva de fertilizante de liberação controlada. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o fatorial 2 x 6 (porta-enxerto x manejo da adubação, em blocos casualizados, com três repetições e 12 mudas na parcela. O limoeiro 'Cravo' induziu maior crescimento ao enxerto. O crescimento vegetativo das mudas foi similar após o uso de fertilizantes solúveis ou de liberação controlada, apesar da grande variação de quantidades totais de nutrientes fornecidas às plantas. Desta forma, o viveirista poderá optar pelo manejo mais econômico ou prático, conforme as condições locais.The fertilizer program is a major practice for screened citrus nursery tree production. The effect of six fertilizer programs commercially recommended was evaluated on the production of 'Valência' sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] nursery trees budded on rootstocks 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck and 'Swingle' citrumelo [Citrus paradisi Macf. x Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.]. Experimental work was carried out from rootstock transplant until 180 days after budding, in a citrus nursery in Conchal, SP, Brazil. Fertilizer managements consisted of two soluble fertilizers

  9. Morte súbita dos citros: suscetibilidade de seleções de limão-cravo e uso de interenxertos Citrus sudden death: susceptibility of rangpur lime selections and the use of interstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgino Pompeu Junior

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A morte súbita dos citros é uma doença que afeta cultivares de laranjas e tangerinas enxertadas nos limões-Cravo e Volkameriano. Ela foi observada em plantas com dois a seis anos de idade que, após mostrarem sintomas gerais de declínio, entraram em colapso e morreram. A retirada da casca dos porta-enxertos suscetíveis revela o amarelecimento na região cambial, sendo esse o sintoma-diagnóstico da doença e que precede os sintomas da copa. As plantas enxertadas nas tangerinas Cleópatra e Sunki, no trifoliata e no citrumelo Swingle, não mostram sintomas da doença. A transmissão por borbulha e a evolução espacial sugerem que a morte súbita dos citros seja causada por patógeno transmitido por vetor alado. Com o objetivo de selecionar porta-enxertos tolerantes à doença, laranjeiras Valência enxertadas em 254 porta-enxertos foram plantadas em maio de 2003 e 2004 em solos onde foram erradicados pomares afetados pela morte súbita dos citros e próximos a pomares afetados pela doença. Em novembro de 2006, o sintoma-diagnóstico da doença estava presente em dez seleções de limão-Cravo: Santa Barbara red lime, Borneo red lime, Limão-Cravo Taquaritinga, Rangpur India C-26-1, Rangpur rose lemon, Rangpur Kusaie lime, Rangpur red lime D-33-40, Rangpur Egyptian lime, Rangpur lemon India e Japanshe citroen. A presença de interenxerto de trifoliata ou de tangerina Cleópatra, entre o limão-Cravo e a laranja Valência, não impediu a manifestação da doença.Citrus sudden death (CSD or morte súbita dos citros affects sweet orange cultivars and some mandarin trees grafted on Rangpur lime and Volkamer lemon rootstocks. The disease was observed in trees with ages ranging from two to six years; after showing general decline symptoms, the affected trees suddenly collapse and die. Trees on Cleopatra and Sunki mandarins, 'Swingle' citrumelo and trifoliate orange showed no symptoms of CSD. Cambial yellowing in the rootstock can be observed

  10. Potencial de obtenção de novos porta-enxertos em cruzamentos envolvendo limoeiro 'Cravo', laranjeira 'Azeda', tangerineira 'Sunki' e híbridos de Poncirus Trifoliata Potential of obtaining new rootstocks in crosses among 'Rangpur' lime, 'Sour' orange, 'Sunki' mandarin and Poncirus Trifoliata

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    Walter dos Santos Soares Filho

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O limoeiro 'Cravo' e a laranjeira 'Azeda' são importantes porta-enxertos de citros. Com o objetivo de explorar seu potencial genético, distintas seleções de limoeiro 'Cravo', empregadas como parentais femininos, foram cruzadas com seleções de laranjeira 'Azeda', tangerineira 'Sunki Maravilha' e híbridos de Poncirus trifoliata. Semelhantemente, seleções de 'Azeda' foram hibridadas com seleções de 'Cravo' e híbridos de P. trifoliata. Avaliaram-se a taxa de vingamento de frutos, a porcentagem de híbridos no conjunto total de indivíduos obtidos (zigóticos e nucelares, a altura e o diâmetro do caule destes, em torno dos 12 meses de idade. O cruzamento entre limoeiro 'Cravo', seleções comum e 'Santa Cruz', com tangerineira 'Sunki 'Maravilha' resultou nas maiores taxas de vingamento de frutos (média de 87,5% e maior percentual de híbridos (média de 64,0%, sendo estes relativamente vigorosos, segundo comparações com seedlings nucelares desse limoeiro. Quanto às hibridações envolvendo a laranjeira 'Azeda', mostraram-se promissoras 'Azeda Jacarandá' x (tangerineira 'Cleópatra' x P. trifoliata seleção 'Swingle 245', pela relativamente elevada taxa de vingamento de frutos (50%, boa porcentagem de híbridos (32,3% e possibilidade de obtenção de híbridos vigorosos, e laranjeira 'Azeda' comum x limoeiro 'Cravo' seleções comum e 'Santa Cruz', pela possibilidade de obtenção de híbridos vigorosos e em quantidades relativamente altas, em torno de 40% de plantas híbridas.'Rangpur' lime and 'Sour' orange are important citrus rootstocks. Aiming to explore their genetic potential, several 'Rangpur' lime selections, as female parents, were crossed with 'Sour' orange selections, 'Sunki Maravilha' mandarin and Poncirus trifoliata hybrids. In the same way, 'Sour' orange selections were crossed with 'Rangpur' lime selections and P. trifoliata hybrids. Parameters evaluated were: fruit set, percentage of hybrids out of the total number

  11. Absorção radicular e foliar de 65Zn e sua redistribuição em laranjeiras Foliar and radicular absorption of 65Zn and its redistribution in citrus plant

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    Raul Henrique Sartori

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a contribuição do Zn aplicado nas folhas e no solo para os órgãos desenvolvidos após a aplicação. Plantas de laranjeiras 'Valência' (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck enxertadas em citrumeleiro 'Swingle'(Citrus paradisi Macfad. cv. Duncan x Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. foram utilizadas para os dois experimentos conduzidos em casa de vegetação. No primeiro experimento, laranjeiras com 5 anos, conduzidas em substrato, foram pulverizadas com 80 ml de solução com 65ZnCl2 na concentração de 0,25 g L-1 Zn, durante o florescimento. No segundo experimento, foram transplantadas mudas e laranjeiras com 5 anos, para vasos com solo arenoso. As mudas receberam aplicação de 65ZnSO4.7H2O no plantio, e as laranjeiras, com 5 anos em cobertura. Após a emissão de novos fluxos de crescimento, o material vegetal foi colhido, seco e submetido à extração nitroperclórico. No extrato, foi determinado o Zn total e o 65Zn em cintilador sólido. A adubação foliar aumentou o teor de Zn nas folhas que receberam a aplicação. O Zn aplicado no solo, tanto em plantio como em cobertura, aumentou os teores de Zn nos órgãos que nasceram após a aplicação.The objective of this work was to evaluate the contribution of the Zn applied on the leaves and on the soil to the organs gown after the placation. Orange trees 'Valencia' variety (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck budded on 'Swingle' citrumelo (Citrus paradisi Macfad. Cv. Duncan x Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. were used in both experiments carried out in greenhouse. In the first experiment, five-year-old orange trees, grown in substrate, were sprayed with 80 mL/tree of a solution containing 65ZnCl2 in the concentration of 0.25 g L-1 Zn, when they were emitting flowering process. In the second experiment, five-year-old orange trees and young orange trees were grown on sandy soil. The 65ZnSO4.7H2O was applied in the young trees in the planting period, and in the orange trees with

  12. Compensatory Feeding Following a Predator Removal Program : Detection and Mechanisms, 1982-1996 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, James H.

    2002-02-28

    Predator removal is one of the oldest management tools in existence, with evidence that ancient Greeks used a bounty reward for wolves over 3,000 years ago (Anonymous 1964). Efforts to control predators on fish have been documented in scientific journals for at least 60 years (Eschmeyer 1937; Lagler 1939; Foerster and Ricker 1941; Smith and Swingle 1941; Jeppson and Platts 1959), and has likely been attempted for much longer. Complete eradication of a target species from a body of water has rarely been the objective of predator removal programs, which instead have attempted to eliminate predators from specific areas, to reduce the density or standing stock of predators, or to kill the largest individuals in the population (Meronek et al. 1996). In evaluating management programs that remove only part of a predator population, the compensatory response(s) of the remaining predators must be considered. Some potential compensatory responses by remaining individuals include increased reproductive output, increased growth rate, or increased consumption of certain prey species (Jude et al. 1987). If compensation by predators that remain in the system following a removal effort occurs, it may reduce the effectiveness of the predator control program. Northern pike-minnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis (formerly called northern squawfish) consume juvenile salmon in rivers, lakes, and reservoirs in British Columbia, Washington, Idaho, Oregon, and California. Northern pikeminnow have been estimated to consume about 11% of all juvenile salmon that migrate through John Day Reservoir on the Columbia River (Rieman et al. 1991). Modeling studies suggested that removal of 20% of the northern pikeminnow population in John Day Reservoir would result in a 50% decrease in predation-related mortality of juvenile salmon migrating through this reach (Beamesderfer et al. 1991). Since the early 1940's, other programs have been implemented to remove northern pikeminnow, with hopes of

  13. Bioactive compounds from Mexican lime ( Citrus aurantifolia ) juice induce apoptosis in human pancreatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Jaiprakash R; Chidambara Murthy, K N; Jayaprakasha, G K; Chetti, Mahadev B; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2009-11-25

    Lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) is one of the major citrus fruits and widely consumed, but there is limited evidence about its health-promoting properties. Hence, an investigation was conducted to understand the chemopreventive effects of lime juice on pancreatic cancer cells and the possible mechanism for induction of apoptosis using Panc-28 cells. Freeze-dried lime juice was extracted with different solvents, such as chloroform, acetone, MeOH, and MeOH/water (8:2). The chloroform extract showed the highest (85.4 and 90%) radical-scavenging activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) methods at 624 microg/mL, whereas the MeOH/water extract showed the lowest (<20%) activity. The active components were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a C-18 column as rutin, neohesperidin, hesperidin, and hesperitin. Furthermore, the limonoids identified are limonexic acid, isolimonexic acid, and limonin. All of the extracts of lime juice inhibited Panc-28 cancer cell growth. The MeOH extract exhibited the maximum activity, with an IC50 value of 81.20 microg/mL after 72 h. The inhibition of Panc-28 cells was in the range of 73-89%, at 100 microg/mL at 96 h. The involvement of apoptosis in induction of cytotoxicity was confirmed by expression of Bax, Bcl-2, casapase-3, and p53. The results of the present study clearly indicate that antioxidant activity is proportionate to the content of flavonoids and proliferation inhibition ability is proportionate to the content of both flavonoids and limonoids.

  14. Determination of Volatile Flavour Profiles of Citrus spp. Fruits by SDE-GC-MS and Enantiomeric Composition of Chiral Compounds by MDGC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Joon Ho; Khan, Naeem; Jamila, Nargis; Hong, Young Shin; Nho, Eun Yeong; Choi, Ji Yeon; Lee, Cheong Mi; Kim, Kyong Su

    2017-09-01

    Citrus fruits are known to have characteristic enantiomeric key compounds biosynthesised by highly stereoselective enzymatic mechanisms. In the past, evaluation of the enantiomeric ratios of chiral compounds in fruits has been applied as an effective indicator of adulteration by the addition of synthetic compounds or natural components of different botanical origin. To analyse the volatile flavour compounds of Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka (yuzu), Citrus limon BURM. f. (lemon) and Citrus aurantifolia Christm. Swingle (lime), and determine the enantiomeric ratios of their chiral compounds for discrimination and authentication of extracted oils. Volatile flavour compounds of the fruits of the three Citrus species were extracted by simultaneous distillation extraction and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The enantiomeric composition (ee%) of chiral camphene, sabinene, limonene and β-phellandrene was analysed by heart-cutting multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sixty-seven (C. junos), 77 (C. limon) and 110 (C. aurantifolia) volatile compounds were identified with limonene, γ-terpinene and linalool as the major compounds. Stereochemical analysis (ee%) revealed 1S,4R-(-) camphene (94.74, 98.67, 98.82), R-(+)-limonene (90.53, 92.97, 99.85) and S-(+)-β-phellandrene (98.69, 97.15, 92.13) in oil samples from all three species; R-(+)-sabinene (88.08) in C. junos; and S-(-)-sabinene (81.99, 79.74) in C. limon and C. aurantifolia, respectively. The enantiomeric composition and excess ratios of the chiral compounds could be used as reliable indicators of genuineness and quality assurance of the oils derived from the Citrus fruit species. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. 广佛手中总多糖含量的分光光度法测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小凤; 程荷凤

    2004-01-01

    佛手俗称五指柑又称福寿柑是芸香科柑橘属植物[Citrus medica L.var sarcodactylis(Noot.)Swingle]或[Fructus Citri Sarcodactylis]的成熟果实.广东、广西、福建、云南等地有栽培,供药用已有较长历史.佛手中的香柑内脂和柠檬内脂具有平喘、祛痰之功效[1],布枯叶苷和橙皮苷又具有抗炎、抗病毒的功效[2].传统中药主要以水煎剂入药,佛手柑中水溶性成分多糖[3]可能是药物的有效成分之一,而多糖作为免疫调节剂在抗肿瘤、抗病毒及抗衰老等方面已得到很好开发和利用[5].佛手多糖在药理学、病理学上的研究还有待开发,其含量的测定也未见报道.本文采用苯酚-硫酸分光光度法[4]对广东产的佛手水煎液中的多糖成分进行了含量测定.……

  16. Dinâmica de nutrientes na solução do solo em pomar fertirrigado de citros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Regina de Souza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a dinâmica de nutrientes na solução do solo após a aplicação, via fertirrigação, de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio a laranjeiras. O experimento foi realizado entre setembro de 2007 e outubro de 2009, em pomares de laranjeiras 'Valência' e 'Hamlin', enxertadas sobre citrumeleiro 'Swingle'. Foram avaliadas cinco doses de N, P2O5 e K2O (0, 25, 50, 100 e 200% da dose recomendada. A solução do solo foi extraída a 30 e 60 cm de profundidade, com o auxílio de extratores com cápsulas porosas. Foram realizadas 11 avaliações durante o período experimental, com as extrações iniciadas após 12 horas das fertirrigações. O aumento das doses reduziu o pH (pH~3,5, na maior dose, e aumentou a condutividade elétrica (CE~1,5 dS m-1, na maior dose e os teores de NH4, NO3, P, K, Mn e Zn na solução do solo, nas duas profundidades amostradas. Nos meses com maior precipitação pluvial, houve perda potencial de nutrientes por lixiviação, pois maiores concentrações de NO3, K e B foram observadas à profundidade de 60 cm. A análise da solução do solo, obtida por extratores com cápsula de cerâmica porosa, pode ser considerada ferramenta auxiliar para monitorar e avaliar a disponibilidade de nutrientes às plantas.

  17. Vector control and foliar nutrition to maintain economic sustainability of bearing citrus in Florida groves affected by huanglongbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansly, Philip A; Arevalo, H Alejandro; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Jones, Moneen M; Hendricks, Katherine; Roberts, Pamela D; Roka, Fritz M

    2014-03-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening is a bacterial disease vectored by the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) causing tree decline, and yield loss. Vector control and foliar nutrition are used in Florida to slow the spread of HLB and mitigate debilitating effects of the disease. A four year replicated field study was initiated February 2008 in a 5.2-ha commercial block of young 'Valencia' orange trees employing a factorial design to evaluate individual and compound effects of vector management and foliar nutrition. Insecticides were sprayed during tree dormancy and when psyllid populations exceeded a nominal threshold. A mixture consisting primarily of micro- and macro-nutrients was applied three times a year corresponding to the principal foliar flushes. Differences in ACP numbers from five- to 13-fold were maintained in insecticide treated and untreated plots. Incidence of HLB estimated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), rose from 30% at the beginning of the study to 95% in only 18 months. Highest yields all four years were seen from trees receiving both foliar nutrition and vector control. Production for these trees in the fourth year was close to the pre-HLB regional average for 10 year old 'Valencia' on 'Swingle'. Nevertheless, at current juice prices, the extra revenue generated from the combined insecticide and nutritional treatment did not cover the added treatment costs. This experiment demonstrated that vector control, especially when combined with enhanced foliar nutrition, could significantly increase yields in a citrus orchard with high incidence of HLB. Economic thresholds for both insecticide and nutrient applications are needed under different market and environmental conditions. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Effect of Salinity Stress on Chloride, Sodium, Potassium, Chlorophyll and Soluble Sugars Content in Citrus Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Golein

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To determine salinity-tolerant genotypes among the citrus germplasm present in Kotra collection, a greenhouse experiment was carried out as factorial, completely randomized design with three replications, at four levels of NaCl (0, 2, 4 and 6 dS/m and 10 unknown genotypes, for 16 weeks. Cleopatra mandarin and Swingle Citromelo, as tolerant (control and sensitive cultivars, respectively, were used. After 6 months of seedlings growth in pots containing equal amounts of perlite, sand and garden soil, the irrigation water, containing different concentrations of sodium chloride was applied every 5 days (considering climatic conditions and plant requirements. At the end of the experiment, concentration of chloride and sodium in leaf and root, chlorophyll a and b and total chlorophyll content and concentration of soluble sugars in leaves were measured. Results showed that salinity increased chloride and sodium concentration in root and leaf. The lowest level of accumulation of chloride in leaf was related to genotype g9 and Cleopatra mandarin. Potassium concentration and chlorophyll a and b content decreased with salinity, while the interaction of genotype and salinity did not show significant difference in these characteristics. Genotypes were different in content of soluble sugars, in response to salinity. Based on the results, genotype g9, because of the lowest increase in leaf chloride content and also the lower decrease in total chlorophyll content, in comparison with most of the studied genotypes, can be considered as a tolerant genotype to salinity stress, and could be utilized in breeding programs of rootstocks.

  19. Laranjeiras 'Valência' enxertadas em híbridos de trifoliata

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    Pompeu Jr. Jorgino

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O limão Cravo é o principal porta-enxerto da citricultura paulista. Sua suscetibilidade ao declínio dos citros e à gomose de Phytophthora reduz a produtividade, onera os tratos culturais e as colheitas e encurta a vida útil dos pomares. É necessário selecionar outros porta-enxertos tolerantes ou resistentes aos fatores bióticos e abióticos limitantes à citricultura paulista. Procuram-se também porta-enxertos nanicantes visando maior produtividade por área, aumento da eficiência e redução nos custos das inspeções e dos controles de pragas e doenças e nas colheitas. Os estudos vem se concentrando na seleção de clones e de híbridos de trifoliata. Laranjeiras 'Valência' enxertadas em híbridos de trifoliata produzidos no USDA foram plantadas em 1986 em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo, no município de Pirassununga, SP, próximo a pomares afetados pelo declínio dos citros e conduzidas sem irrigação. Nas oito primeiras colheitas os citrandarins Changsha ×English Small e Sunki × Benecke proporcionaram, em média, as maiores produções em frutos e em sólidos solúveis por planta. As menores produções foram obtidas com os citranges Carrizo e Troyer tetraplóides. A tangerina Miaray e o híbrido Smooth Flat Seville ´ citrumelo Swingle mostraram ser intolerantes à tristeza dos citros.

  20. Caracterização morfológica, determinação do número de embriões e taxa de poliembrionia em três porta-enxertos híbridos de citros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divanilde Guerra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tendo em vista inúmeros problemas fitossanitários que vêm acometendo a citricultura brasileira, a diversificação de porta-enxertos é uma necessidade prioritária. Híbridos de porta-enxertos estão sendo desenvolvidos por programas de melhoramento genético de citros, os quais devem ser avaliados quanto a características morfológicas e de produção. Por esse motivo, o objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar folhas e frutos, determinar o número de embriões por semente e avaliar a taxa de poliembrionia de três porta-enxertos híbridos: citranges 'Fepagro C 13', 'Fepagro C 37' e 'Fepagro C 41' e compará-los a três porta-enxertos já utilizados na sustentação dos pomares de citros: Trifoliata, citrumelo 'Swingle' e citrange 'Troyer'. Pouca variação foi observada na caracterização morfológica das folhas, porém na caracterização dos frutos foram verificadas diferenças. Destacam-se os citranges 'Fepagro C 13' e 'Fepagro C 37' que produziram, na média, muitas sementes por fruto, ou seja, 24,2 e 35,0, sendo muitas viáveis, 19,2 e 21,2 e estas portando bom número de embriões, 5,0 e 3,1, além de altas taxas de poliembrionia, 84 e 92% respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos com os dois híbridos demonstram que eles possuem bom potencial para serem utilizados como plantas doadoras de sementes para porta-enxertos de citros.

  1. Citrus asymmetric somatic hybrids produced via fusion of gamma-irradiated and iodoacetamide-treated protoplasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bona, Claudine Maria de [Instituto Agronomico do Parana (IAPAR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: debona@iapar.br; Gould, Jean Howe [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Ecosystem Science and Management], e-mail: gould@tamu.edu; Miller Junior, J. Creighton [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Horticultural Sciences], e-mail: jcmillerjr@tamu.edu; Stelly, David [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences], e-mail: stelly@tamu.edu; Louzada, Eliezer Silva [Texas A and M University, Kingsville, TX (United States). Citrus Center], e-mail: e-louzada@tamu.edu

    2009-05-15

    The objective of this study was to produce citrus somatic asymmetric hybrids by fusing gamma.irradiated protoplasts with iodoacetamide-treated protoplasts. Protoplasts were isolated from embryogenic suspension cells of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfad.) cultivars Ruby Red and Flame, sweet oranges (C. sinensis Osbeck) 'Itaborai', 'Natal', Valencia', and 'Succari', from 'Satsuma' (C. unshiu Marcow.) and 'Changsha' mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco) and 'Murcott' tangor (C. reticulata x C. sinensis). Donor protoplasts were exposed to gamma rays and receptor protoplasts were treated with 3 mmol L{sup -1} iodoacetamide (IOA), and then they were fused for asymmetric hybridization. Asymmetric embryos were germinated, and the resulting shoots were either grafted onto sour orange, rough lemon or 'Swingle' (C. paradisi x Poncirus trifoliata) x 'Sunki' mandarin rootstock seedlings, or rooted after dipping their bases in indol.butyric acid (IBA) solution. The products were later acclimatized to greenhouse conditions. Ploidy was analyzed by flow cytometry, and hybridity was confirmed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis of plantlet DNA samples. The best treatment was the donor-recipient fusion combination of 80 Gy.irradiated 'Ruby Red' protoplasts with 20 min IOA.treated 'Succari' protoplasts. Tetraploid and aneuploid plants were produced. Rooting recalcitrance was solved by dipping shoots' stems in 3,000 mg L{sup -1} IBA solution for 10 min. (author)

  2. Immunomodulatory effects of selected Malaysian plants on the CD18/11a expression and phagocytosis activities of leukocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nurul; Hikmah; Harun; Abdi; Wira; Septama; Ibrahim; Jantan

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of 20 methanolic extracts from Malaysian selected plants on CD18/11 a expression and phagocytosis activity of leukocytes using flow cytometry analysis.Methods:The effects of methanolic extracts on CD18/11 a expression and phagocytosis of leukocytes were measured by labelling the cells with CD18-fluorescein isolhiocyanaie and ingestion labelled with Escherichia coli-fluorescein isothiocyanate and then analyzed using flow cytometer.Results:About 12 out of 20 methanolic extracts of selected Malaysian medicinal plants significantly(P≤0.05) inhibited the CD18/1 la expression of leukocytes at both concentrations of 6.25 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL in dose dependent manner.The most active inhibitory was shown in Citrus aurantifolia(Christm.) Swingle and Alpinia galangal(L.) Willd.at dosage 100ug/mL.Moreover,the Orthosiphon aristatus(Blume) Miq(O.aristatus).showed the highest stimulatory activity at the concentration of 100 μg/mL.Other than that,four plant extracts significantly(P<0.05) rose the phagocytosis activities of leukocytes in dose dependent manner.However,Annona muricata L.and O.aristatus showed the highest stimulated activities at the 100 pg/mL concentration.Conclusions:The results suggest that methanolic extracts of Cirrus aurantifolia.Alpinia gaiangal,O.aristatus and Annona muricata are able to modulate innate immune system and can potentially be recognized as therapeutic agents for modulating immune system.

  3. Traditional Small-Size Citrus from Taiwan: Essential Oils, Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Hung Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The calamondin (Citrus microcarpa Bunge and the kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia Swingle are two small-size citrus fruits that have traditionally been consumed in Taiwan; however, there has been a lack of scientific research regarding the active compounds and functionalities of these fruits. Methods: Analysis of volatile composition of essential oil and phytosterol was carried out using Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. Flavonoid and limonoid were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Moreover, antioxidant capacity from their essential oils and extracts were assessed in vitro. Results: The compositions of the essential oils of both fruits were identified, with the results showing that the calamondin and kumquat contain identified 43 and 44 volatile compounds, respectively. In addition, oxygenated compounds of volatiles accounted for 4.25% and 2.04%, respectively, consistent with the fact that oxygenated compounds are generally found in high content in citrus fruits. In terms of flavonoids, the calamondin exhibited higher content than the kumquat, with disomin-based flavonoids being predominant; on the other hand, phytosterol content of kumquat was higher than that of calamondin, with amyrin being the dominant phytosterol. Both of them contain high amounts of limonoids. The ethanol extracts and essential oils of small-sized citrus fruits have been shown to have antioxidant effects, with those effects being closely related to the flavonoid content of the fruit in question. Conclusions: The present study also reviewed antioxidant activity in terms of specific bioactive compounds in order to find the underlying biological activity of both fruits. The calamondin and kumquat have antioxidant effects, which are in turn very important for the prevention of chronic diseases.

  4. Possible utilization of flue-gas desulfurization gypsum and fly ash for citrus production: Evaluation of crop growth response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alva, A.K. (Univ. of Florida, Lake Alfred, FL (United States). Citrus Research and Education Center)

    1994-01-01

    The application of industrial by-products to agricultural land has been a topic of considerable interest during recent years. For the industries, this is an attractive avenue to utilize the by-products rather than land filling. Agriculturists/horticulturists are faced with a new challenge to evaluate the potential advantages of this practice in terms of crop growth, production, and quality as well as effects of such practices on environmental quality. Fly ash and flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum are by-products produced from coal-fired electric power generation plants. There is a growing interest in evaluation of potential benefits of land application of coal combustion by products mixed with organic by-products. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of application of FGD gypsum, fly ash or chicken manure,, or application of the former two in combination with the latter, on soil properties as well as on growth and mineral nutrition of Cleopatra mandarin and Swingle citrumelo rootstock seedlings grown on a Myakka sand. The growth of seedlings of either rootstock improved significantly in soils amended with either FGD gypsum, fly ash, or chicken manure, individually or in combination of either by-product with chicken manure. However, the ranking of various amendments in relation to growth response differed between the two rootstocks. The combined application of all three amendments decreased the growth of both rootstock seedlings significantly as compared to that of seedlings in unamended soil. The application of either FGD gypsum, fly ash, or chicken manure each at 2 g/kg soil increased the concentration of Ca, Ca and K, and Ca and P in the leaves of seedlings, respectively.

  5. Multimodal cues drive host-plant assessment in Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, Joseph M; Meikle, William G; Mafra-Neto, Agenor; Sétamou, Mamoudou; Mangan, Robert; Yang, Chenghai; Malik, Nasir; Adamczyk, John J

    2011-12-01

    Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) transmits the causal agent of Huanglongbing, a devastating disease of citrus trees. In this study we measured behavioral responses of D. citri to combinations of visual, olfactory, and gustatory stimuli in test arenas. Stimuli were presented to the psyllids in droplets or lines of an emulsified wax formulation in two different arena types in no-choice tests. First, when placed on a colored ring situated halfway between the center and perimeter of a petri dish, D. citri spent more time on yellow versus gray rings; however, this response disappeared when either gray or yellow wax droplets were applied. When the psyllids were presented with droplets scented with terpenes, the response to both scent and color was increased. The addition of a dilute (≍0.1 M) sucrose solution to the wax droplets increased the magnitude of D. citri responses. Next, groups of D. citri were placed on plastic laboratory film covering a sucrose solution, to mimic a leaf surface. Test stimuli were presented via two 'midribs' made from lines of emulsified wax formulation. Probing levels were measured as a function of color saturation and scent composition, and concentration. The test scents were based on qualitatively major volatiles emitted by Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack, Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle, and C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck. The highest probing response was observed on the middle concentration (20-μl scent/10 ml wax formulation) of the C. aurantifolia-scented wax lines. Results indicate that there are interactive effects between the different sensory modalities in directing host-plant assessment behavior.

  6. A new method for measuring auricular inflammation in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado, A; Slama, J T; Stavinoha, W B

    1991-08-01

    The croton oil ear test is widely used to identify prospective topical antiinflammatory drugs. Ear inflammation is produced by applying a 2% solution of croton oil on the ears of mice or rats. The effectiveness of the drug that is dissolved in the croton oil solution can be gauged by comparing the croton oil treated ears with the croton oil plus drug treated ears. The effect is measured following sacrifice of the animal by weighing either the excised ear (Tonelli et al., 1965; Glenn et al., 1978; Swingle et al., 1981; Soliman et al., 1983; Mantione and Rodriguez 1990) or a plug taken from the ear (Tubaro et al., 1985; Davis et al., 1989a; Davis et al., 1989b). Use of this technique for the generation of a time-course evaluation of antiinflammatory activity requires a large amount of the chemical to be tested and the sacrifice of many animals. In other assays, ear thickness has been measured by caliper (Carlson et al., 1985; Maloff et al., 1989) or by dial micrometer (Griswold et al., 1987), which allow multiple measurements to be made, but the pressure on the ear was not reported. In a recent review of pharmacological methods, Chang and Lewis (1989) caution that using calipers to measure ear thickness is subject to operator error and bias. Furthermore, they emphasize care must be taken to not leave the calipers in contact with the ear too long, as it is possible to squeeze substantial amounts of edema fluid out of the ear tissue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Anti-angiogenic and cytotoxicity studies of some medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kwok-Wen; Salhimi, Salizawati Muhamad; Majid, Amin Malik; Chan, Kit-Lam

    2010-06-01

    Angiogenesis plays an important role in tumor formation and proliferation. The development of anti-angiogenic agents to block new blood vessel growth will inhibit metastasis and induce apoptosis of the cancer cells. Nine medicinal plants, Strobilanthes crispus, Phyllanthus niruri, Phyllanthus pulcher, Phyllanthus urinaria, Ailanthus malabarica, Irvingia malayana, Smilax myosotiflora, Tinospora crispa and blumea balsamifera were screened for anti-angiogenic properties using the rat aortic ring assay. Of these, the methanol extracts of Phyllanthus species and Irvingia malayana exhibited the highest activity. At 100 microg/mL, P. pulcher, P. niruri, P. urinaria and I. malayana recorded an inhibition of 78.8 %, 59.5 %, 56.7 % and 46.4 %, respectively, against rat aortic vascular growth. Their activities were further investigated by the tube formation assay involving human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) on Matrigel. I. malayana, P. niruri and P. urinaria showed a significant decrease of 45.5, 37.9 and 35.6 %, respectively, whilst P. pulcher showed a much lower decrease of 15.5 % when compared with that of the rat aortic ring assay. All the plant extracts were evaluated for cytotoxicity on a panel of human cancer cell lines using the MTT assay. None of them displayed acute cytotoxicity. The HPLC of P. niruri, P. urinaria and P. pulcher indicated the extracts contained some identical chromatographic peaks of lignans. Further fractionation of I. malayana yielded betulinic acid reported in this plant for the first time and at 100 microg/mL it exhibited a 67.3 % inhibition of vessel outgrowth and 46.5 % inhibition of tube formation.

  8. Aeroallergens in clinical practice of allergy in India. An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anand B; Kumar, Pawan

    2003-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis are dramatically increasing all over the world including developing countries like India. Today, more than 30 % of the population is known to suffer from one or other allergic ailment. Major causative agents implicated are pollen grains, fungal spores, dust mites, insect debris, animal epithelia, etc. Several aerobiological studies have been conducted in different parts of the country to ascertain aerial concentration and seasonality of pollen grains and fungi. Recently, an "All India Coordinated Project on Aeroallergens and Human Health" was undertaken to discover the quantitative and qualitative prevalence of aerosols at 18 different centres in the country. Predominant airborne pollen are Holoptelea, Poaceae, Asteraceae, Eucalyptus, Casuarina, Putanjiva, Cassia, Quercus, Cocos, Pinus, Cedrus, Ailanthus, Cheno/Amaranth, Cyperus, Argemone, Xanthium, Parthenium and others. Clinical and immunological evaluations have revealed allergenically important texa - some of them for the first time. Allergenically important pollen are Prosopis juliflora, Ricinus communis, Morus, Mallotus, Alnus, Querecus, Cedrus, Argemone, Amaranthus, Chenopodium, Holoptelea, Brassica, Cocos, Cannabis, Parthenium, Cassia and grasses. Further cross-reactivity of the IgE antibodies is a common phenomenon among various pollen allergens. Ricinus communis pollen from commonly growing weeds in India, cross-reacts with latex (Hevea brasiliensis), Mercurialis annua and also with seeds of Ricinus communis - all belonging to family Euphorbiaceae. Areca catechu cross-reacts with other members of Arecaceae such as Phoenix sylvestris, Cocos nucifera and Borassus flabelifer. Several reports on pollen and fruit syndrome have been analyzed. Experiments conducted by us revealed that pollutants (NO(2) and SO(2)) not only affect pollen morphology but also changes their allergenic potency. Immunotherapy with recombinant proteins

  9. Sacred Grove of Punyagiri Hill, Vizianagaram District, AP, India: Ecological And Sociological Study

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    D. Srinivasa Rao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available  Sacred groves are important repositories of rare endangered endemic plants and floral diversity that have been conserved by the local people or communities in a sustainable manner. Sri Umakotilingeswara Swami Temple is a famous Siva Kshetra located in Vizianagaram district of the Andhra Pradesh, India. This holy shrine is situated in the Punyagiri hills, 4 kms away from the Srungavarapu Kota and 62 kms away from the Visakhapatnam (a coastal city of Andhra Pradesh. Two study sites were selected, one was in the sacred grove region another was in forest region. Line transects were used for collection of data on species richness and diversity of the flora. Density and basal area were more in the sacred grove region than the nearby forest region. Some important medicinal and valuable plants were reported in this region, plants such as Saraca asoca (Roxb., Diospyros peregryna (L., Sterculia urens (Roxb., Cleistanthus collinus (Roxb., Ficus relisiosa (L., Strublus aspera (L., Chloroxylon swietenia (L., Firmiana colorata (Roxb., Albizia odoratissima (L., Dalbergia paniculata (Roxb., Dalbergia sisso (Roxb., Azadiricta indica A. Juss., Diospyros chloroxylon (L., Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb., Mangifera indica (L., Eucalyptus globulesv(Labelle, Bombax ceieba (L., Aegle marmelos, Ailanthus excelsa and some important pteridophytes and Bryophytes were reported in the sacred forest of the Punyagiri hills. Extension of the temple buildings and other developmental activities may be threat to the sacred groves. Invasion by the exotic weeds may further degrade the structure and composition of the sacred forests as a whole.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12176 International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, page: 30-47

  10. Investigation of Atmospheric Effects on Retrieval of Sun-Induced Fluorescence Using Hyperspectral Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoya Ni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Significant research progress has recently been made in estimating fluorescence in the oxygen absorption bands, however, quantitative retrieval of fluorescence data is still affected by factors such as atmospheric effects. In this paper, top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiance is generated by the MODTRAN 4 and SCOPE models. Based on simulated data, sensitivity analysis is conducted to assess the sensitivities of four indicators—depth_absorption_band, depth_nofs-depth_withfs, radiance and Fs/radiance—to atmospheric parameters (sun zenith angle (SZA, sensor height, elevation, visibility (VIS and water content in the oxygen absorption bands. The results indicate that the SZA and sensor height are the most sensitive parameters and that variations in these two parameters result in large variations calculated as the variation value/the base value in the oxygen absorption depth in the O2-A and O2-B bands (111.4% and 77.1% in the O2-A band; and 27.5% and 32.6% in the O2-B band, respectively. A comparison of fluorescence retrieval using three methods (Damm method, Braun method and DOAS and SCOPE Fs indicates that the Damm method yields good results and that atmospheric correction can improve the accuracy of fluorescence retrieval. Damm method is the improved 3FLD method but considering atmospheric effects. Finally, hyperspectral airborne images combined with other parameters (SZA, VIS and water content are exploited to estimate fluorescence using the Damm method and 3FLD method. The retrieval fluorescence is compared with the field measured fluorescence, yielding good results (R2 = 0.91 for Damm vs. SCOPE SIF; R2 = 0.65 for 3FLD vs. SCOPE SIF. Five types of vegetation, including ailanthus, elm, mountain peach, willow and Chinese ash, exhibit consistent associations between the retrieved fluorescence and field measured fluorescence.

  11. Density, size and distribution of stomata in 35 rainforest tree species in Central Amazonia Densidade, tamanho e distribuição estomática em 35 espécies de árvores na Amazônia Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angelo Branco Camargo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stomata are turgor-operated valves that control water loss and CO2 uptake during photosynthesis, and thereby water relation and plant biomass accumulation is closely related to stomatal functioning. The aims of this work were to document how stomata are distributed on the leaf surface and to determine if there is any significant variation in stomatal characteristics among Amazonian tree species, and finally to study the relationship between stomatal density (S D and tree height. Thirty five trees (>17 m tall of different species were selected. Stomatal type, density (S D, size (S S and stomatal distribution on the leaf surface were determined using nail polish imprints taken from both leaf surfaces. Irrespective of tree species, stomata were located only on the abaxial surface (hypostomaty, with large variation in both S D and S S among species. S D ranged from 110 mm-2 in Neea altissima to 846 mm-2 in Qualea acuminata. However, in most species S D ranges between 271 and 543 mm-2, with a negative relationship between S D and S S. We also found a positive relationship between S D and tree height (r² = 0.14, p Estômatos são válvulas operadas a turgor que controlam a perda de água e a captura de CO2 durante a fotossíntese. Assim, as relações hídricas e o acumulo de biomassa vegetal são fortemente influenciadas pelo funcionamento estomático. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: documentar como os estômatos estão distribuídos na superfície foliar e determinar se existe variação das características estomáticas entre espécies da Amazônia, estudar a relação entre densidade estomática (S D e altura arbórea. Trinta e cinco árvores (>17 m de altura de diferentes espécies foram selecionadas. Tipo de complexo estomático, S D, tamanho (S S e distribuição na superfície foliar foram determinados utilizando impressões de ambas as superfícies foliares com esmalte incolor. Independente da espécie, os estômatos foram encontrados

  12. 5个榕树品种叶表面微形态结构与滞尘能力比较%Leaf surface microstructures of five Ficus species and comparison of their dust detaining capabilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雪华

    2011-01-01

    [目的]测定不同榕树品种的滞尘能力,为正确选用榕树作为城市绿化树种提供科学依据.[方法]以细叶榕(Ficus microcarpa)、柳叶榕(Ficus heteropleura)、对叶榕(Ficus hispida)、高山榕(Ficus altissima)、黄褐榕(Ficus virens)等5个榕树品种的成熟叶片为试验材料,应用扫描电子显微镜和滤纸恒重法观察叶片表面微形态结构,测定叶片滞尘量,并进行5个榕树品种滞尘能力比较.[结果]5个榕树品种的叶表面在表皮细胞、表皮纤毛、气孔等微形态结构上存在明显差异,对叶榕叶表面结构粗糙,具有蜂窝状的凹坑组织和表皮纤毛;细叶榕有不规则的岛状表皮细胞突起和大小不等的坑状组织,没有表皮纤毛;黄褐榕叶表面支脉细胞突起形成一个个的网格结构,无表皮纤毛;柳叶榕和高山榕叶表面较光滑,均无表皮纤毛.5个榕树品种因叶表面结构不同,滞尘能力也表现出明显差异.[结论]榕树叶片的形态特征是决定榕树叶片滞尘量的关键,5种榕树品种滞尘能力大小依次为:对叶榕>细叶榕>黄褐榕>高山榕>柳叶榕.%[Objective]The present study was conducted to determine the dust detaining capabilities of different Ficus species in order to screen some suitable urban greening Ficus species.[Method]Mature leaves of five Ficus species, viz., Ficus microcarpa, Ficus heteropleura, Ficus hispida, Ficus altissitna and Ficus virens were collected from Haikou City (Hainan, China). Scanning electronic microscope and filter paper constant weight methods were used to observe the leaf surface micro-morphological structures of the five Ficus species, and their dust detaining capabilities were compared.[Result ]The microscopic photos showed significantly different leaf surface micro-morphological structures of the five Ficus species. The leaf surface structure of Ficus hispida was coarse, with honeycomb-like pit tissues and concentrated threadlike cilia. Ficus

  13. Additions to the flora of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verloove, F.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Additions to the flora of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain.- Recent fieldwork in Tenerife, especially in September 2010, yielded several interesting new records of non-native vascular plants. Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, “Asian” Cardamine flexuosa, Cestrum parqui, Digitaria violascens, Ficus lyrata, Ficus rubiginosa, Hoffmannseggia glauca, Hyparrhenia rufa subsp. altissima, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Merremia tuberosa, Passiflora morifolia, Phytolacca dioica, Schefflera actinophylla and Solanum abutiloides are reported for the first time from the Canary Islands, while Eragrostis barrelieri var. pygmaea, Ficus microcarpa, Ipomoea purpurea, Leucaena leucocephala subsp. glabrata, Sechium edule, Tradescantia zebrina and Turnera ulmifolia are new to the flora of the island of Tenerife. New records of Acacia cyclops, Atriplex suberecta, Heliotropium curassavicum, Paspalum dilatatum, P. notatum, Pluchea ovalis, Pulicaria paludosa, Sclerophylax spinescens and Solanum villosum subsp. miniatum confirm their recent expansion on the island of Tenerife. New records are provided for the recently described Sporobolus copei . Finally, Paspalum vaginatum (hitherto possibly confused with P. distichum and Potentilla indica are confirmed from the island of Tenerife.

    Adiciones para la flora de Tenerife (Islas Canarias, España.- Algunos recientes trabajos de campo en Tenerife, especialmente en Septiembre de 2010, trajeron consigo varias nuevas e interesantes adiciones de plantas vasculares no autóctonas. Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, Cardamine flexuosa “Asiática”, Cestrum parqui, Digitaria violascens, Ficus lyrata, Ficus rubiginosa, Hoffmannseggia glauca, Hyparrhenia rufa subsp. altissima, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Merremia tuberosa, Passiflora morifolia, Phytolacca dioica, Schefflera actinophylla y

  14. Cinética da degradação ruminal dos carboidratos de quatro gramíneas tropicais em diferentes idades de corte e doses de adubação nitrogenada: técnica de produção de gases Kinetic parameters of carbohydrates ruminal degradation of four tropical grasses in different cutting ages and nitrogen fertilizer levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenio Detmann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste experimento avaliar a cinética de degradação ruminal dos capins setária (Setaria anceps Stapf, hemarthria (Hemarthria altissima [Poir] Stapf. & Hubbard, angola (Brachiaria purpurascens [Raddi] Henr. e acroceres (Acroceras macrum Stapf. adubados com 0, 100, 200, 300 ou 400 kg de N/ha e colhidos aos 28, 42, 56 ou 70 dias de idade. Os resultados foram avaliados por intermédio de análise de fatores. Após redução e avaliação da variação conjunta total das variáveis, optou-se pela adoção de três fatores, que englobaram 86,4% da variação total: o primeiro fator (Fator 1 associou-se ao volume de gás oriundo das frações de lenta e de rápida degradação e à taxa de degradação da fração rapidamente degradável (Vf1, Vf2 e k2; o segundo fator (Fator 2 associou-se à taxa de degradação de lenta digestão e à latência (k1 e L; e o terceiro fator (Fator 3, por sua vez, associou-se à digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS. Os parâmetros da cinética de degradação foram influenciados pelas idades de corte. A digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca reduziu com o avançar da idade das plantas. A adubação nitrogenada não promoveu respostas evidentes nos parâmetros avaliados. O capim-hemarthria se destacou dos demais em virtude de maior digestibilidade.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of levels 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 kg of nitrogen/ha and cutting ages of 28, 42, 56 and 70 days on the kinetic parameters of ruminal degradation of carbohydrate of the following tropical forages: Setaria grass (Setaria anceps Stapf, Limpo grass (Hemarthria altissima [Poir] Stapf. & Hubbard, California grass (Brachiaria purpurascens [Raddi] Henr. and Nilo grass (Acroceras macrum Stpaf. The results were submitted to a factor analysis. After reduction and evaluation of the combined variation from the total variables, three factors comprising 86.44% of the total variation were considered

  15. Frações dos compostos nitrogenados de quatro gramíneas tropicais em diferentes idades de corte e doses de adubação nitrogenada Fractions of nitrogenous compounds of four tropical grasses in the different cutting ages and nitrogen fertilizer levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. Henriques

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as frações dos compostos nitrogenados dos capins setária (Setaria anceps Stapf, hemarthria (Hemarthria altissima [Poir] Stapf. & Hubbard, angola (Brachiaria purpurascens [Raddi] Henr. e acroceres (Acroceras macrum Stapf. adubados com 0, 100, 200, 300 e 400kg de nitrogênio/ha e colhidos aos 28, 42, 56 e 70 dias de idade, utilizando-se análise de fatores. Após redução e avaliação da variação conjunta total das variáveis, optou-se pela adoção de três fatores, os quais englobaram 85,6% da variação total, em que o primeiro fator associou-se intimamente aos compostos nitrogenados ligados à parede celular (frações B3 e C, o segundo fator associou-se aos compostos nitrogenados protéicos citoplasmáticos de rápida e intermediária degradação (fração B1+B2, e o terceiro fator associou-se aos compostos nitrogenados não-protéicos (NNP (fração A. As frações dos compostos nitrogenados das forrageiras foram influenciadas pela idade de corte, e o avanço da idade das plantas resultou em redução dos teores de NNP. A adubação nitrogenada contribuiu para a elevação dos teores das frações de NNP e B1+B2, e as frações associadas à parede celular não apresentaram respostas evidentes quanto à adubação nitrogenada.The effects of levels of nitrogen fertilizer 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400kg of nitrogen/ha, and cutting ages at 28, 42, 56 and 70 days on nitrogenous compounds of tropical grasses, Setaria grass (Setaria anceps Stapf, Limpo grass (Hemarthria altissima [Poir] Stapf. & Hubbard, California grass (Brachiaria purpurascens [Raddi] Henr. and Nilo grass (Acroceras macrum Stpaf were evaluated, using factor analysis. After reduction and evaluation of the total variation, three selected factors accounted for 85.60% of the total variation, the first factor was strongly associated with nitrogenous compounds of cell wall (fractions B3 and C, the second factor, was related to citoplasmatic protein and to fast and

  16. Organic Matter Fractions and Quality of the Surface Layer of a Constructed and Vegetated Soil After Coal Mining. II - Physical Compartments and Carbon Management Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio dos Anjos Leal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Soils constructed after mining often have low carbon (C stocks and low quality of organic matter (OM. Cover crops are decisive for the recovery process of these stocks, improving the quality of constructed soils. Therefore, the goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of cover crops on total organic C (TOC stocks, C distribution in physical fractions of OM and the C management index (CMI of a soil constructed after coal mining. The experiment was initiated in 2003 with six treatments: Hemarthria altissima (T1, Paspalum notatum (T2, Cynodon dactylon (T3, Urochloa brizantha (T4, bare constructed soil (T5, and natural soil (T6. Soil samples were collected in 2009 from the 0.00-0.03 m layer, and the TOC and C stocks in the physical particle size fractions (carbon in the coarse fraction - CCF, and mineral-associated carbon - MAC and density fractions (free light fraction - FLF; occluded light fraction - OLF, and heavy fraction - HF of OM were determined. The CMI components: carbon pool index (CPI, lability (L and lability index (LI were estimated by both fractionation methods. No differences were observed between TOC, CCF and MAC stocks. The lowest C stocks in FLF and OLF fractions were presented by T2, 0.86 and 0.61 Mg ha-1, respectively. The values of TOC stock, C stock in physical fractions and CMI were intermediate, greater than T5 and lower than T6 in all treatments, indicating the partial recovery of soil quality. As a result of the better adaptation of the species Hemarthria and Brizantha, resulting in greater accumulation of labile organic material, the CPI, L, LI and CMI values were higher in these treatments, suggesting a greater potential of these species for recovery of constructed soils.

  17. Measurement and modeling of rainfall interception by two differently aged secondary forests in upland eastern Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad Ghimire, Chandra; Adrian Bruijnzeel, L.; Lubczynski, Maciek W.; Ravelona, Maafaka; Zwartendijk, Bob W.; van Meerveld, H. J. (Ilja)

    2017-02-01

    Secondary forests occupy a larger area than old-growth rain forests in many tropical regions but their hydrological functioning is still poorly understood. In particular, little is known about the various components of evapotranspiration in these possibly vigorously regenerating forests. This paper reports on a comparison of measured and modeled canopy interception losses (I) from a semi-mature (ca. 20 years) and a young (5-7 years) secondary forest in the lower montane rain forest zone of eastern Madagascar. Measurements of gross rainfall (P), throughfall (Tf), and stemflow (Sf) were made in both forests for one year (October 2014-September 2015) and the revised analytical model of Gash et al. (1995) was tested for the first time in a tropical secondary forest setting. Overall measured Tf, Sf and derived I in the semi-mature forest were 71.0%, 1.7% and 27.3% of incident P, respectively. Corresponding values for the young forest were 75.8%, 6.2% and 18.0%. The high Sf for the young forest reflects the strongly upward thrusting habit of the branches of the dominant species (Psiadia altissima), which favours funneling of P. The value of I for the semi-mature forest is similar to values reported for old-growth tropical lower montane rain forests elsewhere but I for the younger forest is higher than reported for similarly aged tropical lowland forests. These findings can be explained largely by the prevailing low rainfall intensities and the frequent occurrence of small rainfall events. The revised analytical model was able to reproduce measured cumulative I at the two sites accurately and succeeded in capturing the variability in I associated with the seasonal variability in rainfall intensity, provided that Tf-based values for the average wet-canopy evaporation rates were used instead of values derived with the Penman-Monteith equation.

  18. De novo transcriptome analysis and molecular marker development of two Hemarthria species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu eHuang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hemarthria R. Br. is an important genus of perennial forage grasses that is widely used in subtropical and tropical regions. Hemarthria grasses have made remarkable contributions to the development of animal husbandry and agro-ecosystem maintenance; however, there is currently a lack of comprehensive genomic data available for these species. In this study, we used Illumina high-throughput deep sequencing to characterize of two agriculturally important Hemarthria materials, H. compressa ‘Yaan’ and H. altissima ‘1110.’ Sequencing runs that used each of four normalized RNA samples from the leaves or roots of the two materials yielded more than 24 million high-quality reads. After de novo assembly, 137,142 and 77,150 unigenes were obtained for ‘Yaan’ and ‘1110’, respectively. In addition, a total of 86,731 ‘Yaan’ and 48,645 ‘1110’ unigenes were successfully annotated. After consolidating the unigenes for both materials, 42,646 high-quality SNPs were identified in 10,880 unigenes and 10,888 SSRs were identified in 8,330 unigenes. To validate the identified markers, high quality PCR primers were designed for both SNPs and SSRs. We randomly tested 16 of the SNP primers and 54 of the SSR primers and found that the majority of these primers successfully amplified the desired PCR product. In addition, high cross-species transferability (61.11%-87.04% of SSR markers was achieved for four other Poaceae species. The amount of RNA sequencing data that was generated for these two Hemarthria species greatly increases the amount of genomic information available for Hemarthria and the SSR and SNP markers identified in this study will facilitate further advancements in genetic and molecular studies of the Hemarthria genus.

  19. Comprehensive Evaluation and Analysis of Common Garden Tree Species in Jinjiang City, Fujian Province%福建晋江常用园林树种综合评价分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄树渊

    2014-01-01

    Thecommon trees applied for many years in built-up area of Jinjiang City, Fujian were investigated. To understand their growth in Jinjiang, evaluation and analysis of stress resistance, ornamental effect, ecology, dangers, maintenance and other indicators were carried out. The results indicated that the numbers of classⅠ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ andⅣ were 8, 17, 17 and 7, respectively. ClassⅠ, includingFicus microcarpa,Syzygium cumini,Cinnamomum camphora,Ficus virensvar. sublanceolata,Ficus altissima,Khaya senegalensis,Alstonia scholaris andFicus religiosa, could be widely used in urban landscape for their high ecological functions and ornamental effect.%对福建晋江市建成区应用多年的常见乔木进行调查,从抗逆性、景观性、生态性、危害性、养护性等指标进行评价与分析,以了解这些园林树种在晋江地区的适应生长情况。评价结果表明,评为I级,其生态功能及观赏性较高,在城市园林绿化中可广泛推广应用的树种有小叶榕、海南蒲桃、香樟、大叶榕、高山榕、非洲楝、盆架子、菩提榕8种,Ⅱ级和Ⅲ级均有17种,Ⅳ级有7种。

  20. 三种榕树的板根生长特征及其在城市绿化的应用研究%Research of Growth Habit and Deal Strategy on Three Kinds of Figs’ Buttress Root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔卓梦; 葛萌; 甄学宁

    2015-01-01

    Ficus species is widely planted on urban landscaping in Guangzhou. Howerer, the destraction of Banyan buttress root is considered progressirely. Generally,Ficus species owns dereloped buttress root and it is strong enough to brake out the grand, tree pool and wall, etc. The paper selectsFicus microcarpa, F. virensvar. sublanceolata andF. altissima, which are common Banyan and applied mostly in urban lardscaping. The authors stadied the height range and DBH three kinds ofFicus species buttress root after statistic analyzing. Besides, the anthors also evaluated the current treatments of battress root and gave suggestion on the reasonable treatment of buttress root in urban randscaping. The research can be theory reference for solving the issue of destraction ofFicus species buttress root.%榕树在广东城市绿化中颇受青睐。然而,榕树板根的破坏作用也日益被关注。大榕树一般都具有发达的板根,且穿透力强,能够拱破路面、树池和墙体等交通或建筑设施。对小叶榕(Ficus microcarpa)、黄葛榕(F. virensvar. sublanceolata)和高山榕(F. altissima)的板根高度、板根幅度与胸径调查分析,总结3种榕树板根的生长特征,并对现有板根处理措施进行了分析评价,对城市绿化中榕树板根的合理处置提出了建议。

  1. Assess the damage risk of 11 main street trees%11种常用行道树危险度评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡园园; 闫淑君; 吴沙沙; 张采薇; 陈梦依; 张丽鸽

    2015-01-01

    调查与正确评估行道树的危险度,有利于保持景观效果,使城市行道树能够更好、更有效地发挥其应有的作用,降低因行道树倒伏而妨碍交通或对人民生命财产安全造成损失.运用目测树木评估法(VTA)评估法,对福州市常用的11种行道树进行潜在危险度调查与分析.结果表明:垂柳(Salix babylonica Linn.)的潜在危险度指数最高(48.6);潜在危险度指数值达30以上的有白兰(Michelia alba DC.Syst.)、羊蹄甲(Bauhinia purpurea Linn.)和香樟(Cinnamomum camphora Linn.);潜在危险度指数值在20以上的有天竺桂(Cinnamomum japonicum Sieb.)和杧果(Mangifera indica Linn.);麻楝(Chukrasia tabularisA.Juss.)、榕树(Ficus microcarpa Linn.)、大叶榕(Ficus virens Ait.var.sublanceolata)、高山榕(Ficus altissima Bl.Bijdr)和蒲葵[Livistona chinensis(Jacq.)R.Br]等5种行道树的潜在危险度指数值均小于20,潜在危险性相对较小.

  2. Importance of soil solution chemistry and land use to growth and distribution of four woodland grasses in south Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, J.

    1994-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine the effects of soil solution chemistry on growth and distribution of the grasses Festuca altissima, Hordelymus europaeus, Bromus benekenii and Bromus ramosus in south Swedish deciduous woodlands. Laboratory experiments were combined with sampling of soil chemical field data. Particularly emphasized was the simulation of natural soil solution conditions in the experiments. To achieve this, a range of methods were adopted: Initially, woodland soils were used in growth experiments. Soil solutions were obtained by centrifugation of fresh woodland soil. Element concentrations and the share of free cationic Al out of the total Al concentration were measured. Based on these results, synthetic soil solutions were composed for growth experiments in flowing solution culture. I conclude from the results obtained, that high soil solution concentrations of H- or Al-ions are probably the most important factors which exclude the studied grasses from highly acidic solution. The degree H- and Al-toxicity, however, depended on the base cation concentrations of the solution. The results confirm the concept of ion antagonism at uptake sites of the roots as a key mechanism of H- and Al-toxicity. Some additional factors which influence growth and distribution of the grasses were also considered. Historical studies indicate that their restricted distribution even in areas with favourable soil chemical conditions may be related to a negative influence of former land use as wood-pasture or wood-meadow. Observations on permanent plots show that flowering, shoot production and seedling establishment are influenced by both rainfall and woodland management

  3. Epigenomics and bolting tolerance in sugar beet genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébrard, Claire; Peterson, Daniel G.; Willems, Glenda; Delaunay, Alain; Jesson, Béline; Lefèbvre, Marc; Barnes, Steve; Maury, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    In sugar beet (Beta vulgaris altissima), bolting tolerance is an essential agronomic trait reflecting the bolting response of genotypes after vernalization. Genes involved in induction of sugar beet bolting have now been identified, and evidence suggests that epigenetic factors are involved in their control. Indeed, the time course and amplitude of DNA methylation variations in the shoot apical meristem have been shown to be critical in inducing sugar beet bolting, and a few functional targets of DNA methylation during vernalization have been identified. However, molecular mechanisms controlling bolting tolerance levels among genotypes are still poorly understood. Here, gene expression and DNA methylation profiles were compared in shoot apical meristems of three bolting-resistant and three bolting-sensitive genotypes after vernalization. Using Cot fractionation followed by 454 sequencing of the isolated low-copy DNA, 6231 contigs were obtained that were used along with public sugar beet DNA sequences to design custom Agilent microarrays for expression (56k) and methylation (244k) analyses. A total of 169 differentially expressed genes and 111 differentially methylated regions were identified between resistant and sensitive vernalized genotypes. Fourteen sequences were both differentially expressed and differentially methylated, with a negative correlation between their methylation and expression levels. Genes involved in cold perception, phytohormone signalling, and flowering induction were over-represented and collectively represent an integrative gene network from environmental perception to bolting induction. Altogether, the data suggest that the genotype-dependent control of DNA methylation and expression of an integrative gene network participate in bolting tolerance in sugar beet, opening up perspectives for crop improvement. PMID:26463996

  4. Starch biosynthetic genes and enzymes are expressed and active in the absence of starch accumulation in sugar beet tap-root

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Starch is the predominant storage compound in underground plant tissues like roots and tubers. An exception is sugar beet tap-root (Beta vulgaris ssp altissima) which exclusively stores sucrose. The underlying mechanism behind this divergent storage accumulation in sugar beet is currently not fully known. From the general presence of starch in roots and tubers it could be speculated that the lack in sugar beet tap-roots would originate from deficiency in pathways leading to starch. Therefore with emphasis on starch accumulation, we studied tap-roots of sugar beet using parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) as a comparator. Results Metabolic and structural analyses of sugar beet tap-root confirmed sucrose as the exclusive storage component. No starch granules could be detected in tap-roots of sugar beet or the wild ancestor sea beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima). Analyses of parsnip showed that the main storage component was starch but tap-root tissue was also found to contain significant levels of sugars. Surprisingly, activities of four main starch biosynthetic enzymes, phosphoglucomutase, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, starch synthase and starch branching enzyme, were similar in sugar beet and parsnip tap-roots. Transcriptional analysis confirmed expression of corresponding genes. Additionally, expression of genes involved in starch accumulation such as for plastidial hexose transportation and starch tuning functions could be determined in tap-roots of both plant species. Conclusion Considering underground storage organs, sugar beet tap-root upholds a unique property in exclusively storing sucrose. Lack of starch also in the ancestor sea beet indicates an evolved trait of biological importance. Our findings in this study show that gene expression and enzymatic activity of main starch biosynthetic functions are present in sugar beet tap-root during storage accumulation. In view of this, the complete lack of starch in sugar beet tap-roots is enigmatic. PMID

  5. Organic Matter Fractions and Quality of the Surface Layer of a Constructed and Vegetated Soil After Coal Mining. I - Humic Substances and Chemical Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio dos Anjos Leal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available After open coal mining, soils are “constructed”, which usually contain low levels and quality of organic matter (OM. Therefore, the use of plant species for revegetation and reclamation of degraded areas is essential. This study evaluated the distribution of carbon (C in the chemical fractions as well as the chemical characteristics and humification degree of OM in a soil constructed after coal mining under cultivation of perennial grasses. The experiment was established in 2003 with the following treatments: Hemarthria altissima (T1, Paspalum notatum (T2, Cynodon dactilon (T3, Urochloa brizantha (T4, bare constructed soil (T5, and natural soil (T6. In 2009, soil samples were collected from the 0.00-0.03 m layer and the total organic carbon stock (TOC and C stock in the chemical fractions: acid extract (CHCl, fulvic acid (CFA, humic acid (CHA, and humin (CHU were determined. The humic acid (HA fraction was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and the laser-induced fluorescence index (ILIF of OM was also calculated. After six years, differences were only observed in the CHA stocks, which were highest in T1 (0.89 Mg ha-1 and T4 (1.06 Mg ha-1. The infrared spectra of HA in T1, T2 and T4 were similar to T6, with greater contribution of aliphatic organic compounds than in the other treatments. In this way, ILIF decreased in the sequence T5>T3>T4>T1>T2>T6, indicating higher OM humification in T3 and T5 and more labile OM in the other treatments. Consequently, the potential of OM quality recovery in the constructed soil was greatest in treatments T1 and T4.

  6. Chemical composition of various Ephedra species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saida Ibragic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal significance of Ephedra is based on the sympathomimetic properties of ephedrine (E alkaloids. Pharmacological effects depend on the phytocomposition of individual Ephedra species. The aim of this study was to measure the total alkaloids content (TAC, total phenolics content (TPC, and total flavonoids content (TFC and determine their relationship in dry herb of Ephedra major, Ephedra distachya subsp. helvetica, Ephedra monosperma, Ephedra fragilis, Ephedra foeminea, Ephedra alata, Ephedra altissima and Ephedra foliata. Nowadays, medicinal use of Ephedrae herba is limited, but the abuse of its psychostimulants is rising. In this study, TAC, TPC and TFC were determined using spectrophotometric methods. For the first time, ultra-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (UPLC-UV was used for separation and quantification of E-type alkaloids of various Ephedra species. The highest TPC and TFC were found in E. alata (53.3 ± 0.1 mg Gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight, 2.8 mg quercetin equivalents/g dry weight, respectively. The total content of E and pseudoephedrine determined by UPLC-UV varied between 20.8 mg/g dry weight (E. distachya subsp. helvetica and 34.7 mg/g dry weight (E. monosperma. The variable content and ratio between secondary metabolites determined in different Ephedra species reflects their metabolic activities. Utilization of UPLC-UV unveiled that this technique is sensitive, selective, and useful for separation and quantification of different alkaloids in complex biological matrixes. The limit of detection was 5 ng. Application of UPLC-UV can be recommended in quick analyses of E-type alkaloids in forensic medicine and quality control of pharmaceutical preparations. 

  7. An Investigation on Species of Roadside Tree in Southern Subtropical Main Cities of China%南亚热带主要城市行道树树种调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周贱平; 李洪斌; 陈李利; 余凤英; 卢俊鸿; 钟惠红

    2007-01-01

    通过对南亚热带13个主要城市的1667条主要道路行道树生长状况的调查,结果表明,共有101种(含种以下单位)乔木用作行道树.它们分别隶属于32科68属,其中乡土树种占53.47%,常绿乔木占75.25%,其中87.13%的乔木生长良好.研究认为:海南蒲桃(Syzgium cumini)、非洲桃花心木(Khaya sencgalensis )、木棉(Bombax ceiba)、芒果(Mangifera indica)、扁桃(Mangifera persiciformis )、海南红豆(Ormosia pinnata)、秋枫(Bischofia javanica)、细叶榕(Ficus microcarpa)、麻楝(Chukrasia tabularis )、樟树(Cinnamomum camphora )、阴香(Cinnamomum burmanii )、垂叶榕(Ficus bengjamina)、高山榕(Ficus altissima)、尖叶杜英(Elaeocarpus apiculatus )、人面子(Dracontomelon duperreanum )、红花羊蹄甲(Bauhinia blakeana )、凤凰木(Delonix regia)、白兰花(Michelia alba )、大花紫薇(Lagerstroemia speciosa )、糖胶树(Alstonia scholaris )、紫檀(Pterocarpus indicus )、蝴蝶果(Cleidiocarpon cavaleriei )、石栗(Alcurites moluccana )、蒲桃(Syzgium jambos)等24种乔木适宜作为南亚热带城市行道树的骨干树种;大叶榕(Ficus virens var.sublanceolata )、黄槐( Cassia suffurtiosa )等31种乔木可作为行道树一般树种.

  8. 11种常用行道树危险度评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡园园; 闫淑君; 吴沙沙; 张采薇; 陈梦依; 张丽鸽

    2015-01-01

    调查与正确评估行道树的危险度,有利于保持景观效果,使城市行道树能够更好、更有效地发挥其应有的作用,降低因行道树倒伏而妨碍交通或对人民生命财产安全造成损失。运用目测树木评估法(VTA)评估法,对福州市常用的11种行道树进行潜在危险度调查与分析。结果表明:垂柳(Salix babylonica Linn.)的潜在危险度指数最高(48.6);潜在危险度指数值达30以上的有白兰(Michelia alba DC.Syst.)、羊蹄甲(Bauhinia purpurea Linn.)和香樟(Cinnamomum camphora Linn.);潜在危险度指数值在20以上的有天竺桂(Cinnamomum japonicum Sieb.)和杧果(Mangifera indica Linn.);麻楝(Chukrasia tabularis A.Juss.)、榕树(Ficus microcarpa Linn.)、大叶榕(Ficus virens Ait.var.sublanceolata)、高山榕(Ficus altissima Bl.Bijdr)和蒲葵[Livistona chinensis(Jacq.)R.Br]等5种行道树的潜在危险度指数值均小于20,潜在危险性相对较小。

  9. The influence of Brazilian plant extracts on Streptococcus mutans biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele BARNABÉ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen plant extracts obtained from plants from the Brazilian Amazon showed activity against planktonic Streptococcus mutans, an important bacterium involved in the first steps of biofilm formation and the subsequent initiation of several oral diseases. Objective: Our goal was to verify whether plant extracts that showed activity against planktonic S. mutans could prevent the organization of or even disrupt a single-species biofilm made by the same bacteria. Material and Methods: Plant extracts were tested on a single-bacteria biofilm prepared using the Zürich method. Each plant extract was tested at a concentration 5 times higher than its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. Discs of hydroxyapatite were submersed overnight in brain-heart infusion broth enriched with saccharose 5%, which provided sufficient time for biofilm formation. The discs were then submersed in extract solutions for one minute, three times per day, for two subsequent days. The discs were then washed with saline three times, at ten seconds each, after each treatment. Supports were allowed to remain in the enriched medium for one additional night. At the end of the process, the bacteria were removed from the discs by vortexing and were counted. Results: Only two of 19 plant extracts showed activity in the present assay: EB1779, obtained from Dioscorea altissima, and EB1673, obtained from Annona hypoglauca. Although the antibacterial activity of the plant extracts was first observed against planktonic S. mutans, influence over biofilm formation was not necessarily observed in the biofilm model. The present results motivate us to find new natural products to be used in dentistry.

  10. The afterlife of interspecific indirect genetic effects: genotype interactions alter litter quality with consequences for decomposition and nutrient dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genung, Mark A; Bailey, Joseph K; Schweitzer, Jennifer A

    2013-01-01

    Aboveground-belowground linkages are recognized as divers of community dynamics and ecosystem processes, but the impacts of plant-neighbor interactions on these linkages are virtually unknown. Plant-neighbor interactions are a type of interspecific indirect genetic effect (IIGE) if the focal plant's phenotype is altered by the expression of genes in a neighboring heterospecific plant, and IIGEs could persist after plant senescence to affect ecosystem processes. This perspective can provide insight into how plant-neighbor interactions affect evolution, as IIGEs are capable of altering species interactions and community composition over time. Utilizing genotypes of Solidago altissima and Solidago gigantea, we experimentally tested whether IIGEs that had affected living focal plants would affect litter decomposition rate, as well as nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) dynamics after the focal plant senesced. We found that species interactions affected N release and genotype interactions affected P immobilization. From a previous study we knew that neighbor genotype influenced patterns of biomass allocation for focal plants. Here we extend those previous results to show that these changes in biomass allocation altered litter quality, that then altered rates of decomposition and nutrient cycling. Our results provide insights into above- and belowground linkages by showing that, through their effects on plant litter quality (e.g., litter lignin:N), IIGEs can have afterlife effects, tying plant-neighbor interactions to ecosystem processes. This holistic approach advances our understanding of decomposition and nutrient cycling by showing that evolutionary processes (i.e., IIGEs) can influence ecosystem functioning after plant senescence. Because plant traits are determined by the combined effects of genetic and environmental influences, and because these traits are known to affect decomposition and nutrient cycling, we suggest that ecosystem processes can be described as gene

  11. The afterlife of interspecific indirect genetic effects: genotype interactions alter litter quality with consequences for decomposition and nutrient dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Genung

    Full Text Available Aboveground-belowground linkages are recognized as divers of community dynamics and ecosystem processes, but the impacts of plant-neighbor interactions on these linkages are virtually unknown. Plant-neighbor interactions are a type of interspecific indirect genetic effect (IIGE if the focal plant's phenotype is altered by the expression of genes in a neighboring heterospecific plant, and IIGEs could persist after plant senescence to affect ecosystem processes. This perspective can provide insight into how plant-neighbor interactions affect evolution, as IIGEs are capable of altering species interactions and community composition over time. Utilizing genotypes of Solidago altissima and Solidago gigantea, we experimentally tested whether IIGEs that had affected living focal plants would affect litter decomposition rate, as well as nitrogen (N and phosphorous (P dynamics after the focal plant senesced. We found that species interactions affected N release and genotype interactions affected P immobilization. From a previous study we knew that neighbor genotype influenced patterns of biomass allocation for focal plants. Here we extend those previous results to show that these changes in biomass allocation altered litter quality, that then altered rates of decomposition and nutrient cycling. Our results provide insights into above- and belowground linkages by showing that, through their effects on plant litter quality (e.g., litter lignin:N, IIGEs can have afterlife effects, tying plant-neighbor interactions to ecosystem processes. This holistic approach advances our understanding of decomposition and nutrient cycling by showing that evolutionary processes (i.e., IIGEs can influence ecosystem functioning after plant senescence. Because plant traits are determined by the combined effects of genetic and environmental influences, and because these traits are known to affect decomposition and nutrient cycling, we suggest that ecosystem processes can be

  12. Systematics of the southern African genus Ixia (Iridaceae: Crocoideae: 4. Revision of sect. Dichone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The southern African genus Ixia L. comprises ± 90 species from the winter-rainfall zone of the subcontinent. Ixia sect. Dichone (Salisb. ex Baker Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, one of four sections in the genus and currently including 10 species and three varieties, is distinguished by the following floral characters: lower part of the perianth tube filiform and tightly clasping the style; filaments not decurrent; upper part of the perianth tube short to vestigial; style branches involute-tubular and stigmatic only at the tips; and so-called subdidymous anthers. We review the taxonomy of the section, providing complete descriptions and distribution maps, and a key to the species. I. amethystina Manning & Goldblatt is recognized to be a later synonym of I. brevituba G.J.Lewis. Most collections currently included under that name represent another species, here described as I. rigida. We recognize five additional species in the section: early summer-blooming I. altissima from the Cedarberg; I. bifolia from the Caledon District; I. flagellaris, a stoloniferous species from the Cedarberg; I. simulans from the western Langeberg; and I. tenuis from the Piketberg. We also raise to species rank I. micrandra var. confusa and var. minor, as I. confusa and I. minor respectively. Foliar and associated floral variation in the widespread I. scillaris has led us to recognize two new subspecies among its northern populations, broad leaved subsp. latifolia and the dwarfed, smaller flowered subsp. toximontana; subsp. scillaris is restricted to the immediate southwestern Cape, from Darling to Somerset West. Sect. Dichone now has 17 species and two subspecies.

  13. Systematics of the southern African genus Ixia (Iridaceae: Crocoideae: 4. Revision of sect. Dichone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The southern African genus Ixia L. comprises ± 90 species from the winter-rainfall zone of the subcontinent. Ixia sect. Dichone (Salisb. ex Baker Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, one of four sections in the genus and currently including 10 species and three varieties, is distinguished by the following floral characters: lower part of the perianth tube filiform and tightly clasping the style; filaments not decurrent; upper part of the perianth tube short to vestigial; style branches involute-tubular and stigmatic only at the tips; and so-called subdidymous anthers. We review the taxonomy of the section, providing complete descriptions and distribution maps, and a key to the species. I. amethystina Manning & Goldblatt is recognized to be a later synonym of I. brevituba G.J.Lewis. Most collections currently included under that name represent another species, here described as I. rigida. We recognize five additional species in the section: early summer-blooming I. altissima from the Cedarberg; I. bifolia from the Caledon District; I. flagellaris, a stoloniferous species from the Cedarberg; I. simulans from the western Langeberg; and I. tenuis from the Piketberg. We also raise to species rank I. micrandra var. confusa and var. minor, as I. confusa and I. minor respectively. Foliar and associated floral variation in the widespread I. scillaris has led us to recognize two new subspecies among its northern populations, broad leaved subsp. latifolia and the dwarfed, smaller flowered subsp. toximontana; subsp. scillaris is restricted to the immediate southwestern Cape, from Darling to Somerset West. Sect. Dichone now has 17 species and two subspecies.

  14. Capacidade produtiva e qualidade nutricional de gramíneas perenes submetidas a sistema contínuo de cortes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Poczynek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade e as características bromatológicas dos estratos superior e inferior de gramíneas perenes em sistema contínuo de cortes. As cultivares avaliadas foram: Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst cv. Estrela-roxa; Cynodon dactilon (L. Pears cv. Coast-cross 1; Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst cv. Tifton 68; Cynodon ssp. cv. Tifton 85; Cynodon dactilon sp. cv. Jiggs; Hemárthria altissima cv. Roxinha e Penissetum clandestinum cv. Quicuio. Todos os cortes foram realizados no momento em que cada cultivar alcançava 95% de interceptação luminosa. As cutivares Jiggs e Tifton 68, com 21.348 e 21.016kg ha-1, respectivamente, tiveram as maiores produções (P<0,05 de fitomassa seca acumulada. Na média geral dos cortes, o quarto corte apresentou a menor relação estrato superior:inferior em relação aos demais (P<0,05. Em relação ao estrato superior, a Tifton 85 apresentou o maior teor de PB, sendo superior estatisticamente (P<0,05 no primeiro, segundo e quarto cortes, enquanto no terceiro corte a Coast-cross apresentou o maior teor proteico. No geral, as cv. Jiggs e Tifton 68 apresentaram a maior produção de fitomassa acumulada. Já a cv. Tifton 85 foi responsável pelos maiores níveis de PB, enquanto os teores de carboidratos estruturais mantiveram padrão constante, tanto no estrato superior quanto inferior, em sistema de quatro cortes sucessivos.

  15. Response of `Nagpur' mandarin, `Mosambi' sweet orange and `Kagzi' acid lime to gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladaniya, M. S.; Singh, Shyam; Wadhawan, A. K.

    2003-07-01

    The effects of irradiation dose and refrigerated storage conditions on 'Nagpur' mandarin ( Citrus reticulata Blanco), 'Mosambi' sweet orange ( Citrus sinensis Osbeck) and 'Kagzi' acid lime ( Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) were investigated. Mature fruits of these three species were treated with 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 kGy radiation. 'Nagpur' mandarin and 'Mosambi' sweet oranges were stored at 6-7°C and 90-95% r.h. for 75 and 90 days, respectively, while 'Kagzi' acid limes were stored at 8±1°C and 90-95% r.h. for 90 days. Physico-chemical parameters, sensory attributes and respiration rate were measured besides losses and disorders. In 'Nagpur' mandarin, radiation dose upto 1.5 kGy did not cause any rind disorder. Radiation treatments did not reduce the extent of decay. Penicillium rot was delayed in fruit treated with 1.5 kGy, while it appeared early in 0 kGy. Irradiation doses were ineffective to control rots due to Botryodiplodia theobromae and Alternaria citri. Doses upto 1.5 kGy did not cause any significant effect on fruit firmness and juice content; however, total soluble solids increased, while titratable acidity and vitamin 'C' content decreased. Texture and flavour scores as recorded after a week, were not affected by irradiation except in 1.5 kGy. In 'Mosambi' sweet orange, radiation treatments caused peel disorder in the form of brown sunken areas after 90 days and reduced fruit firmness, acidity and vitamin C content. The TSS content was higher in treated fruit. Flavour and texture were not affected by the doses of irradiation used. In treated acid limes (mature yellow), weight loss and decay were higher than untreated fruit (0 kGy) although difference was non-significant. Juice, TSS, titratable acidity and vitamin C contents were significantly less in treated fruit than in 0 kGy. Texture and flavour scores were also less in treated fruit than in 0 kGy. The stem-end rind breakdown was higher in untreated fruit than treated ones although difference was

  16. Studies on isolation、purification、structural identification and its antitumor activity of polysaccharides from Momordica grosvenori swingle’s root%罗汉果根多糖的分离纯化、结构鉴定及抗肿瘤活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜小捷; 卢凤来; 陈换莹; 李典鹏

    2012-01-01

    Polysaccharide(CPS)of Momordica grosvenori swingle's roots was extracted by water extracting-alcohol precipitating method,and then was pufified by DEAE-52 cellulose. Their compositions were analyzed by paper chro-matography and high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). And the effect of CPS on H22 subcutaneous planting of mice was studied. Results:CPS was isolated into five fractionates by DEAE-52 cellulose column chroma-tography,its simple sugars composition included glucose, arabillose and xylose. Compared with model group, each dose group had no significant functions in suppressing tumor growth(inhibition rate<50%) ;Besides,Compared with model group,each dose group had improved influence on the index of thymus(P<0. 01) ,but had reduced influence on the index of spleen(P<0. 01).%采用水提醇沉法提取、DEAE-52纤维素柱粗分离罗汉果根粗多糖(CPS),纸层析结合高效液相色谱分析CPS的单糖组成;同时研究CPS对小鼠H22皮下种植性肿瘤的影响.结果表明:采用DEAE-52纤维素柱粗分离得到5个多糖组分;CPS的单糖组成为:葡萄糖、阿拉伯糖、木糖,其中以葡萄糖为主;与模型对照组比较,CPS各剂量组无明显的抑制肿瘤生长作用(抑瘤率均低于50%);与模型对照组比较,CPS各剂量组小鼠的胸腺指数显著提高,差异极显著(P<0.01);而脾脏指数显著降低,差异极显著(P<0.01).

  17. Evidências científicas para a indicação popular de algumas espécies da família Rutaceae no tratamento de doenças respiratórias na região Sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Correia Campello PRUDENTE, Regina Braga de MOURA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de plantas medicinais como forma de tratamento vem sendo bastante empregada pela população brasileira, sendo a maioria através do uso empírico. Diversas patologias têm sido tratadas através da utilização popular de plantas medicinais, sendo uma das principais as doenças do trato respiratório. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi verificar se existem evidências científicas para o uso popular das espécies de Rutaceae: Citrusaurantiifolia (Christm. Swingle, Citrus aurantiumL., Citrus limonum Risso, Citrus medica L., Citrussinensis Osbeck e Ruta graveolens L. na regiãoSudeste, para problemas respiratórios. Foram considerados artigos sobre estudos farmacológicos envolvendo doenças respiratórias, assim como sobre a ação anti-inflamatória e anti-bacteriana das espécies. A revisão mostrou que a presença de flavonóides, hidrocarbonetos terpênicos e monoterpênicos nos extratos e nos óleos essenciais dessas plantas causam um efeito anti-inflamatório, através da inibição de mediadores pró-inflamatórios iNOS e COX-2; e atividade anti-bacteriana, analisada por meio do método de difusão em disco. O trabalho mostrou que apesar do intenso uso da população da região Sudeste do Brasil de espécies medicinais da família Rutaceae para tratamento de doenças do trato respiratório, ainda existem poucos estudos que evidenciem cientificamente as ações farmacológicas, justificando assim a grande necessidade de estudos clínicos para tratamentos feitos com a utilização das espécies estudadas.

  18. Response of 'Nagpur' mandarin, 'Mosambi' sweet orange and 'Kagzi' acid lime to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladaniya, M.S. E-mail: mslngp@nagpur.dot.net.in; Singh, Shyam; Wadhawan, A.K

    2003-07-01

    The effects of irradiation dose and refrigerated storage conditions on 'Nagpur' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), 'Mosambi' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) and 'Kagzi' acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) were investigated. Mature fruits of these three species were treated with 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 kGy radiation. 'Nagpur' mandarin and 'Mosambi' sweet oranges were stored at 6-7 deg. C and 90-95% r.h. for 75 and 90 days, respectively, while 'Kagzi' acid limes were stored at 8{+-}1 deg. C and 90-95% r.h. for 90 days. Physico-chemical parameters, sensory attributes and respiration rate were measured besides losses and disorders. In 'Nagpur' mandarin, radiation dose upto 1.5 kGy did not cause any rind disorder. Radiation treatments did not reduce the extent of decay. Penicillium rot was delayed in fruit treated with 1.5 kGy, while it appeared early in 0 kGy. Irradiation doses were ineffective to control rots due to Botryodiplodia theobromae and Alternaria citri. Doses upto 1.5 kGy did not cause any significant effect on fruit firmness and juice content; however, total soluble solids increased, while titratable acidity and vitamin 'C' content decreased. Texture and flavour scores as recorded after a week, were not affected by irradiation except in 1.5 kGy. In 'Mosambi' sweet orange, radiation treatments caused peel disorder in the form of brown sunken areas after 90 days and reduced fruit firmness, acidity and vitamin C content. The TSS content was higher in treated fruit. Flavour and texture were not affected by the doses of irradiation used. In treated acid limes (mature yellow), weight loss and decay were higher than untreated fruit (0 kGy) although difference was non-significant. Juice, TSS, titratable acidity and vitamin C contents were significantly less in treated fruit than in 0 kGy. Texture and flavour scores were also less in treated fruit than in 0 kGy. The

  19. Effect of different feeding regimes on pre-weaning growth rumen fermentation and its influence on post-weaning performance of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, R S; Tripathi, M K; Verma, D L; Karim, S A

    2009-10-01

    Influence of pre-weaning live weight on post-weaning growth performance was assessed on thirty-nine 15-day-old Indian native lambs, randomly fed in three equal groups until 180 days of age. During pre-weaning phase lambs were maintained under feeding regimen of grazing (C-0; Control), grazing and ad lib creep mixture supplementation (C-AL) or grazing, with ad lib creep mixture and milk replacer supplementation (C-ALMR). Lambs were allowed to suckle respective dam in morning and evening till 90 days of age, and fed ad lib green leaves of Ailanthus excelsa after grazing. After weaning all lambs were maintained on grazing and ad lib finisher concentrates supplementation. Pre-weaning performance of lambs in terms of weaning weight (17.2 kg), average daily gain (ADG; 154 g) and feed conversion ratio 3.73 was higher (p < 0.01) in C-ALMR lambs but total gain and ADG were similar among three groups during post-weaning phase. However, improved pre-weaning plane of nutrition and growth rate increased (p < 0.01) finishing weight (FW) of lambs in C-AL, 33 kg and C-ALMR, 32 kg. Dry matter intake was significantly (p < 0.01) higher in C-AL and C-ALMR lambs due to combined effect of feeding. Rumen pH was lowest (p = 0.049) in C-AL lambs. Rumen ciliate protozoa population (10(4)/ml) decreased in C-ALMR lambs (4.3) but increased in C-AL lambs (50.0) more so in C-0 Lambs (19.8). Concentrate feeding of C-AL lamb improved nutrient digestibility. Lambs of C-0 group consumed more DM during post-weaning phase that improved growth performance, while nutrient digestibility was not affected by pre-weaning nutrition. Thus, pre-weaning nutrition has significant influence on FW, however influence of milk replacer feeding on lamb growth need further studies.

  20. Caracterização fenológica de variedades do tipo Murcott em três porta-enxertos Phenological characterization of varieties similar to Murcott grafted on three rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Valério Barbasso

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo do desenvolvimento das plantas relacionado com as condições climáticas de uma região permite a elaboração de modelos de previsão que podem ser úteis na programação de colheita. Esses modelos possibilitam prever o início da safra e a duração dos diferentes períodos fenológicos das plantas, assim como auxilia no manejo de práticas agrícolas. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo estudar variedades de tangerinas do tipo Murcott enxertadas em diferentes porta-enxertos, avaliando a resposta fenológica de cada uma delas em função do acúmulo de graus-dia. O experimento foi conduzido no Centro Avançado de Pesquisa Tecnológica do Agronegócio de Citros Sylvio Moreira/IAC, localizado na cidade de Cordeirópolis-SP, durante a safra 2003-2004. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos casualisados e esquema fatorial 5 (variedades copas x 3 (porta-enxertos, com 4 repetições, com uma planta por parcela. As variedades estudadas foram Thomas, Szuwinkon, Szuwinkon x Szinkon-Tizon e Sul da África, tendo como testemunha o tangor Murcott. Essas copas foram enxertadas em limoeiro Cravo, tangerineira Sunki e citrumeleiro Swingle, e plantadas em 1995. Para a caracterização fenológica, foram atribuídas notas de uma escala elaborada para os estádios fenológicos, desde o pré-florescimento até a maturação fisiológica dos frutos, determinando as datas de ocorrência das fases reprodutivas das plantas. Com isso, calculou-se o acúmulo de graus-dia para os subperíodos fenológicos. Pelas características das combinações, existem diferenças nas respostas das plantas, onde: a o acúmulo de graus-dia, da antese até ratio 12, variou de 2.272 GD a 2.836 GD, sendo que as tangerinas Szuwinkon, Szuwinkon x Szinkon-Tizon e Sul da África obtiveram os menores valores (» 2.318 GD, a Murcott cerca de 2.462 GD e a tangerina Thomas os maiores valores (» 2.791 GD; foram observadas diferenças de 20 dias do florescimento até ratio 12

  1. Field determintation of young acid lime plants transpiration by the stem heat balance method Determinação da transpiração de plantas jovens de lima ácida a campo pelo método de balanço de calor caulinar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Antonio Coelho Filho

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The stem heat balance method (HBM measures sap flow (SF in plants, and can be used to estimate daily transpiration flow. It is a powerful technique for water relations and irrigation field studies, but it has to be tested in species of particular interest. This paper discusses effectiveness of the HBM to estimate transpiration of young acid lime plants (Citrus latifolia Tan. cv. Tahiti, grafted on citrumelo cv. Swingle (Poncirus trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf., in the field using commercial gauges (model SAG10-ws, Dynamax Inc., Huston, in Piracicaba, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. SF was correlated to transpiration determined by weighing lysimeters and by a steady-state null-balance porometer. The mean ratio between daily values of SF and lysimetric measurements was practically unitary, showing a mean difference of only 0.05%, being the comparisons of values in periods shorter than 24 hours impaired by effect of wind turbulence on lysimeters. The same occurred (mean difference of 0.38% when SF and canopy transpiration estimated from porometer measurements were compared in 20-min periods, but transpiration tended to exceed SF in periods of higher transpiration and data dispersion was high (r² = 0.48. An analysis of the sources errors of the techniques was done, including the comparison of the daily course of SF and net radiation. Despite of the dispersion of the comparative data between the HBM and the other two techniques, HBM had a good performance, permitting to recommend its use in studies of water relations in young citrus plants under field conditions.O método de balanço de calor caulinar (MBC é usado na estimativa de fluxo de seiva (SF de plantas herbáceas e lenhosas, sendo uma ferramenta útil na determinação de transpiração em estudos de relações hídricas e no manejo da irrigação. É recomendável testar o seu desempenho em espécies de interesse. Neste estudo ele foi testado em plantas jovens de lima ácida (Citrus

  2. Inversão da sacarose utilizando ácido cítrico e suco de limão para preparo de dieta energética de Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 Inversion of the sucrose using citric acid and lemon juice for preparing energetic diet of Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758

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    Deodoro Magno Brighenti

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Em época de escassez de néctar, pode-se fornecer ao enxame uma suplementação alimentar utilizando "açúcar invertido" que é obtido pela hidrólise da sacarose em meio ácido por aquecimento, formando uma mistura de glicose e frutose. O ácido normalmente utilizado em tal reação é o ácido cítrico, no entanto, diante da dificuldade de pequenos produtores apícolas em obterem tal produto comercialmente, uma alternativa seria substituí-lo pela utilização de suco de limões. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a inversão da sacarose em dietas para operárias de Apis mellifera, empregando-se o ácido cítrico e sucos de limões. Prepararam-se 21 soluções aquosas de açúcar cristal na proporção de 100 g/100 mL, colocando-se em cada uma 1,0; 2,0; 3,0; 5,0; 10,0; 15,0 ou 20,0 mL de suco dos limões Galego [Citrus aurantifolia (C. Swingle], Tahiti [Citrus latifolia Tanaka] ou Cravo [Citrus limonia (L. Osbeck]. Além dessas, outras seis soluções aquosas de açúcar na mesma proporção foram preparadas adicionando-se 0,1; 0,16; 0,3; 0,5 e 0,7 g de ácido cítrico e uma para testemunha. Quantificou-se a inversão pelo método de Somogyi-Nelson. Para o limão Cravo foi encontrada a menor porcentagem de inversão. Em relação a adição de ácido cítrico, constatou-se que ao colocar 0,1 g, a inversão foi estimada em 12,2% enquanto que, com a adição de 0,16 g, a inversão seria de 18,8%. A quantidade máxima de ácido cítrico a ser adicionada foi estimada em 0,18 g adotando como critério o pH médio de 3,3 dos méis de abelhas africanizadas. Para os sucos dos limões Galego, Tahiti e Cravo, quando utilizados como substitutos do ácido cítrico, estimou-se a quantidade máxima a ser adicionada sendo igual a 2,1; 3,6 e 5,3 mL, respectivamente, para cada 100 g de açúcar em 100 mL de água, para o pH fixado em 3,3. Considerando-se a inversão e o pH, o suco do limão Tahiti forneceu melhores resultados.In times of

  3. Observações citológicas em citrus: V. poliploidia em relação à densidade e ao tamanho dos estomas em Citrus e outros gêneros das Aurantioideae.

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    C. A. Krug

    1944-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho dois aspectos diversos são analisados referentes às relações entre poliploidia e os caracteres dos estomas em Citrus e outros gêneros próximos. Na primeira parte analisam-se os dados apresentados por Hirano (5 sôbre a densidade dos estomas em numerosos representantes da sub-família das Aurantioidex à luz da sua constituição citológica. Esperava-se poder explicar a grande variabilidade desta densidade, pela possível existência de formas poliplóides. A contagem dos cromosômios de muitas plantas por êle utilizadas na Estação Experimental de Riverside, Califórnia, e uma extensa pesquisa bibliográfica, visando esclarecer a constituição cromosômica daquelas variedades, espécies e gêneros que não puderam ser analisados, revelaram, porém, que, provàvelmente, apenas no grupo de Citrus aurantifolia Swingle, existem duas variedades triplóides, sendo tôdas as demais diplóides. Sòmente naquele caso é que a variabilidade na densidade dos estornas pôde ser explicada pela diferença no número de cromosômios. No restante do material estudado por Hirano, as diferenças no número de estornas por unidade de área devem ser atribuídas, de preferência, a grande variabilidade da constituição genética. Na segunda parte apresentam-se os resultados de uma detalhada análise sôbre a área dos estomas e a sua variabilidade em formas cítricas di- tri- e tetraplóides, numa tentativa de separar êstes poliplóides sem recorrer à contagem dos cromosômios. Um total de 36 indivíduos pertencendo a 5 espécies diferentes foram estudados. Agrupando-se cs valores obtidos em ordem decrescente de área dos estornas, verifica-se uma série contínua, associando-se, entretanto, os di- tri- e tetraplóides em três grupos separados. Notaram-se diferenças estatisticamente significantes tanto entre as médias dos três grupos, como entre os limites extremos de grupos consecutivos e também dentro dêles. A variabilidade

  4. Nutrient content of biomass components of Hamlin sweet orange trees Conteúdo de nutrientes em componentes da biomassa de laranjeira hamlin

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    Dirceu Mattos Jr.

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the nutrient distribution in trees is important to establish sound nutrient management programs for citrus production. Six-year-old Hamlin orange trees [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb.] on Swingle citrumelo [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. x Citrus paradisi Macfad.] rootstock, grown on a sandy Entisol in Florida were harvested to investigate the macro and micronutrient distributions of biomass components. The biomass of aboveground components of the tree represented the largest proportion of the total. The distribution of the total tree dry weight was: fruit = 30.3%, leaf = 9.7%, twig = 26.1%, trunk = 6.3%, and root = 27.8%. Nutrient concentrations of recent mature leaves were in the adequate to optimal range as suggested by interpretation of leaf analysis in Florida. Concentrations of Ca in older leaves and woody tissues were much greater than those in the other parts of the tree. Concentrations of micronutrients were markedly greater in fibrous root as compared to woody roots. Calcium made up the greatest amount of nutrient in the citrus tree (273.8 g per tree, followed by N and K (234.7 and 181.5 g per tree, respectively. Other macronutrients comprised about 11% of the total nutrient content of trees. The contents of various nutrients in fruits were: N = 1.20, K = 1.54, P = 0.18, Ca = 0.57, Mg = 0.12, S = 0.09, B = 1.63 x 10-3, Cu = 0.39 x 10-3, Fe = 2.1 x 10-3, Mn = 0.38 10-3, and Zn = 0.40 10-3 (kg ton-1. Total contents of N, K, and P in the orchard corresponded to 66.5, 52.0, and 8.3 kg ha-1, respectively, which were equivalent to the amounts applied annually by fertilization.A compreensão da distribuição de nutrientes na árvore é importante para o estabelecimento de programas de manejo nutricional eficientes para a produção de citros. Árvores de laranjeira Hamlin [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb.] em citrumelo Swingle [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. x Citrus paradisi Macfad.], com 6 anos de idade, cultivadas num Entisol da Fl

  5. Melissa officinalis L. extract – an effective remedy

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    Karol Terlecki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lemon balm is the popular name of Melissa officinalis L. Melissa comes from the Greek word Mélissa meaning honeybee. Within the species were distinguished three subspecies: M. officinalis ssp. altissima Arcangeli, M. officinalis ssp. officinalis, and M. officinalis ssp. indora Boran. These are the plants from Lamiaceae group, native to the Mediterranean, but also widespread distributed in moderate and subtropical climate regions. M. officinalis is commonly used for nervous complaints, lower abdominal disorders and more recently in the treatment of Herpes simplex lesions. Leaves are pharmacopeia material. In the fresh herb a content of balm oil is 0.01-0.10% and in the dried leaves from 0.1% up to 0.3%. The main components of M. officinalis usually are: citronellal (approximately 40% of content of balm oil, citral, neral, linalool, flavonoids, chlorogenic, ferulic, rosmarinic (4% of content of balm oil and caffeic acid. The aim of the study was to analyze the literature date about the application of balm extract and oil in the contemporary medicine. The latest studies showed the evidence that the alcoholic lemon balm leaves extract has antihyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic effects. Thus could be used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 or dyslipidemia by the activation of receptors PPAR playing the major role in glucose and lipids metabolism. Another importance of the lemon balm leaves extract is its antiviral activity, owes to rosmarinic acid. Melissa extract demonstrates high virucidal activity even at very low concentrations; it demonstrates low toxicity and inhibits HSV-1 attachment to host cells in vitro. The volatile oils included in lemon balm inhibit the replication of HSV-2. Moreover, the rosmarinic acid found out to be cytotoxic against Human Colon Cancer Cell Line. The substance contained in an alcoholic extract from M. officinalis turned out to be anti-proliferative and decrease in cell number neoplasmatic cell

  6. Structural Characteristics and Carbon Storage of Avenue Trees in Main Roads of Tianhe District%天河区主要道路行道树结构特征与碳储量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈婷婷; 鲍戈平

    2016-01-01

    Avenue trees in five main roads of Tianhe District of Guangzhou City was investigated .Carbon storage of avenue trees were estimated by BEF(Biomass Expansion Factor) function method.Results showed that there were 10 kinds of avenue trees using in these roads, including Mangifera indica, Ficus microcarpa, Ficus virens, Ficus altissima , Ficus benjamina, Chorisia speciose, Terminalia mantaly, Archontophoenix al-exandrae, Cinnamomum camphora ( L.) Presl and Syzygium cumini.Tree height of the main avenue trees investigated averaged from 6.0 to 8.0 m, and the average DBH was 25 ±5 cm.Among the ten kinds of measured trees, Ficus virens had the highest carbon storage per plant which was 0.153 t, while Chorisia speciose had the lowest carbon storage per plant which was 0.038 t.For the average carbon density of arboreal forest a-mong the measured trees, Mangifera indica had lager value than other species.However, Chorisia speciose still had the lowest one.%对广州天河区5条主要道路行道树进行了调查,并采用生物量转换因子连续函数法对行道树的碳储量进行估算。结果表明:天河区主要道路常用行道树共计10种,分别为杧果、小叶榕、大叶榕、高山榕、垂榕、美丽异木棉、小叶榄仁、假槟榔、樟、海南葡桃。行道树树高一般6.0~8.0 m,胸径一般为25±5 cm。大叶榕的单株生物量、单株碳储量均最高,对应值分别为0.308 t、0.153 t,其碳汇能力最强;美丽异木棉的含量则最低,对应值分别为0.077 t、0.038 t,其碳汇能力最弱。另外,杧果单位面积生物量及碳密度较其他树种高,而美丽异木棉的含量仍最低。

  7. 硫污染对9种园林植物叶片硫含量与叶绿素荧光参数的影响%Effect of SO2 on leave's sulfer content and chlorophyll fluorescence of gardens plants in Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪渊; 张冬鹏; 黄俊华

    2006-01-01

    对深圳市9种园林植物叶片硫含量,以及硫处理对叶片光合作用参数的影响进行了初步研究.这9种植物分别为红背桂(Excoccaria cochinchinensis)、黄脉爵床(Sanchezia nobilis)、大叶变叶木(Codiaeum variegatum)、基及树(Saruma henryi)、短穗鱼尾葵(Caryota mitis)、小叶榕(Ficus microcarpa var.pusillifolia)、高山榕(Ficus altissima)、海桐(Pittosporum tobira)和黄叶假连翘(Duranta repens cv.\\'Dwarf Yellow\\').在温度25℃条件下分别在光照和黑暗条件,用NaHSO3和蒸馏水浸泡各植物叶圆片24 h,共形成4种处理.采用PAM-2100荧光仪测定叶绿素荧光参数.在自然状况下采集的黄脉爵床叶片含硫量最高,远高于其他植物,具有较高的富集能力,含量最低的是大叶变叶术.用蒸馏水浸泡后,9种植物叶片的硫含量的变化很少.在NaHSO3处理下,有7种植物叶片的硫含量显著提高,增加最多的是自然条件下富集能力最低的大叶变叶木.取自不同大气SO2污染环境的被测试植物显示,除海桐外,小南山的其它 8种植物叶片含硫量都大于世博园植物叶片的含硫量.小南山9种植物的Fv/Fm值也都低于世博园,说明在污染较严重的情况下可以通过测定植物叶片的Fv/Fm值来进行现场监测.

  8. 工业污染地6种乔木树种重金属累积特征研究%Accumulation of heavy metals in six trees in industrial pollution area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余娜; 何淑琼; 卢雅莉; 陈红跃; 康敏明

    2010-01-01

    黄埔区是广州市工业污染较严重的地区,其中龟山是由污染导致土壤严重退化的典型地段.该地段植被退化,土壤重金属质量分数较高.为了探讨在这种工业污染区生存的植物对重金属的吸收能力以及不同树种吸收能力间的差异,选择该地段的台湾相思(Acacia confusa)、刺竹(Blumeana schult)、尾叶桉(Eucalypt urophylla)、高山榕(Ficus altissima)、小叶榕(Ficus microcarpa)和潺槁树(Litsea glutinosa)等6种乔木树种,采集其根、枝、叶等部位,测定Pb、zn、Cu和cd的质量分数.结果表明:4种重金属在乔木中累积量大小依次是:znPbCuCd,Zn累积量最大,为664.98mg·kg-1,Cd最小,仅为4.42mg·kg-1;各种重金属在乔木不同部位的累积量大小是:细根粗根叶子枝条,细根中各重金属累积量最大,为368.15 mg·kg-1;6种乔木树种抗重金属能力比较,小叶榕重金属累积量均为455.60 mg·kg-1,抗性最好;尾叶桉和潺槁树重金属累积量较多,均为179.86和221.63 mg·kg-1,抗性较好;高山榕重金属累积量均为114.41 mg·kg-1,抗性中等;台湾相思和刺竹分别为78.04和96.41 mg·kg-1,抗性较差.

  9. Mudanças na estrutura da vegetação lenhosa em três porções da mata de galeria do Córrego Bacaba (1999-2006, Nova Xavantina-MT

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    Aline Miguel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo, realizado na Mata de Galeria do córrego Bacaba (14º41'S e 52º20'W, em Nova Xavantina, MT, avaliou as mudanças na estrutura da vegetação no período de 1999 a 2006. Em 1999, foram demarcadas 141 parcelas permanentes em três porções da mata (alto, meio e baixo, em um gradiente topográfico, e medidos os indivíduos com CAP ≥ 15 cm. No inventário de 2006, os indivíduos foram remedidos e os recrutas, computados. Em 2006, amostraram-se 135 espécies, 113 gêneros e 49 famílias. A posição hierárquica das espécies apresentou mudanças expressivas em relação a 1999. Na porção do alto, as espécies com maior valor de importância (VI foram: Astrocaryum vulgare, Diospyros guianensis e Calophyllum brasiliense. Essa porção pode ter sido a mais afetada pelo fogo que atingiu a área em 2001, visto que uma espécie típica de ambientes antropizados passou a ocupar a primeira posição de VI. No meio, as espécies mais importantes em 2006 foram: Aspidosperma subincanum, Tetragastris altissima e Hymenaea courbaril. No baixo, apenas Mauritia flexuosa manteve a mesma posição do inventário anterior, e a maior alteração hierárquica foi apresentada pelas espécies pioneiras, sugerindo um fechamento da vegetação. Entre as 10 espécies de maior VI em 2006, nenhuma foi comum às três porções da mata. Características estruturais distintas da vegetação entre áreas geograficamente tão próximas podem estar relacionadas à heterogeneidade do ambiente. As mudanças no VI registradas nas espécies das três porções de mata reforçam a ideia de que esta apresenta elevada dinâmica.

  10. 江门市主要绿化植物的绿色指数%Green Index of Main Greening Plants in Jiangmen City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡砚秋; 王祥林; 苏志尧

    2014-01-01

    Greening plants are the core resources for ecological benefits and aesthetic value of urban green space. In this paper, SPAD value, or the relative chlorophyll content, was applied to urban landscape studies to improve the quantitative green evaluation of city greening plants and provide reference points. Results showed that, except for Ficus altissima and Livistona chinensis, SPAD value of different greening plants was significantly different, which changed correspondingly with tree DBH(diameter at breast height) and height in each species. DBH and leaf SPAD value showed a significant positive correlation in all species except Livistona chinensis and Syngonium podophyllum. For tall arbor tree species, SPAD value of roadside individuals was higher than those growing in park. However, for understory plants, the result was just opposite. Our study suggests that SPAD value is a good indicator to reflect plant growth conditions and growth habitat, and has great prospects for application in the urban landscape studies.%绿化植物是城市绿地实现生态效益及美学价值的核心元素。文章将SPAD叶绿素仪测定相对叶绿素含量的方法应用于城市园林绿化研究,以期为城市绿化植物的绿色定量评价研究提供参考。研究表明,不同绿化植物的SPAD值存在显著差异,除蒲葵、高山榕外,各物种SPAD值变化趋势与胸径、株高变化趋势一致。除蒲葵与白蝴蝶外,其余物种植株胸径与叶片SPAD值间存在显著正相关,叶片SPAD值随植株胸径增加而增大。高大乔木物种道路旁植株SPAD值高于公园植株;对于林下植物,结果则相反,表现为公园中植株高于道路旁。植物的SPAD值对植物生长状况及生长环境均有良好的表征,在城市园林绿化研究中有良好的应用前景。

  11. Los Pteridófitos de un bosque subandino en el municipio de Albán, Cundinamarca (Colombia

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    Triana Moreno Luz Amparo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el tratamiento taxonómico de los helechos y plantas afines de un bosque subandino localizado en el municipio de Albán, al occidente de Cundinamarca, entre 1.900 y 2.100 m de altitud. El área de estudio comprende una su erficie de 70 ha, de las cuales 22 corres-ponden a un relicto de bosque subandino. Allí se registran 107 especies distribuidas en
    45 géneros (38% de los géneros colombianos y 21 familias (60% de las familias del país,   resultados importantes teniendo en cuenta que el área muestreada es relativamente pequeña.  Para cada categoría taxonómica se presentan claves, descripciones y anotaciones de composición y distribución. También se presenta una guía ilustrada de las especies más frecuentes, que incluye descripciones cortas en un lenguaje sencillo para facilitar la comprensión por parte de cualquier lector; estas se acompañan de fotografías e íconos que permiten una mejor y rápida identificación. Las familias con mayor número de géneros son Polypodiaceae con siete,
    Dryopteridaceae con seis, Pteridaceae con cuatro y Cyatheaceae y Dennstaedtiaceae con tres cada una. Los géneros más diversos son Asplenium con ocho especies, Polypodium, Pteris y Elaphoglossum con siete, Blechnum, Thelypteris y Diplazium con seis, y Dennstaedtia, Hymenophyllum, Trichomanes,
    Selaginella y Huperzia con tres. De las especies encontradas Blechnum divergens, Blechnum lherminieri, Diplazium ambiguum, Elaphoglossum piloselloides, Huperzia amentacea, Hypolepis repens, Polybotrya caudata, Pteris altissima, Thelypteris grandis y Trichomanes reptans son nuevos registros para Cundinamarca. La mayoría de las especies (46% son exclusivamente terrestres y dentro de éstas las más abundantes son Asplenium flabellulatum en el bosque, Equisetum bogotense, Thelypteris rudis y Pityrogramma ebenea en el borde de las quebradas y Thelypteris rudis y Pteridium arachnoideum en los pastizales. En cuanto a las epífitas (20

  12. 榕-蜂系统中影响传粉榕小蜂繁殖及存活的因素研究%Research on effecting factors for reproduction and survivability of pollinating fig wasps in fig-fig wasps mutualism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媛; 邓国宾; 李宗波

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between pollinating fig wasps (Agaonidae) and their host fig trees (Ficus) is a striking example of an ob-ligate pollination mutualism .Agaonidae resource is the key factor which hinges fig-fig wasps reproduction .To test the influences of sea-sonal change , length of female phase and foundress age on the wasps offspring numbers , abortion ratio and body length of wasps off-spring, we performed manually-controlling experiments on two important Ficus species distributed in Xishuangbanna , Ficus semicordata and Ficus altissima.The experimental results revealed that seasonal change had no significant influence on wasps offspring numbers and abortion ratio , while it had significant impact on offspring body size .Furthermore , prominent negative influences can be found either a-long with the increase in age of foundress , or with the extension of female phase of figs , such as lower offspring numbers , higher abor-tive percentage and shorter body length of offspring .%榕属植物( Ficus)及其传粉昆虫榕小蜂( Agaonidae )是自然界协同进化的经典模型,榕小蜂资源是实现榕-蜂繁殖衔接的重要因素。对分布在西双版纳地区的两种重要榕属植物:鸡嗉子榕( Ficus semicordata)和高榕( Ficus altissima)进行人工控制性放蜂实验,分别验证季节变化、母代雌蜂年龄、榕果雌花期延长对小蜂后代数量、败育率和后代体长的影响。结果表明:季节变化对小蜂后代数量、败育率无影响,而对小蜂后代体大小有一定影响。而随着母代雌蜂年龄的增加和榕果雌花期的延长,都会对小蜂后代数量产生负面影响,使败育率上升,后代体长变小。这一结果有助于了解榕-蜂系统对互利共生双方繁殖的调节,为进一步研究榕-蜂系统的稳定性提供了依据。

  13. Eficiência fotoquímica de gramíneas forrageiras tropicais submetidas à deficiência hídrica Photochemical efficiency of tropical forage grasses submitted to water deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Messias Pereira da Silva

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, as espécies capim-setária (Setaria anceps Stapf., capim-hemárthria (Hemarthria altissima [Poir] Stapf. & Hubbard, capim-do-nilo (Acroceras macrum Stapf. e capim-angola (Brachiaria purpurascens [Raddi] Henr. foram submetidos à deficiência hídrica moderada a seca com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do déficit hídrico sobre as características de fluorescência da clorofila. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação, em blocos ao acaso, constituídos pelas quatro espécies cultivadas sob dois regimes hídricos (irrigado e não-irrigado, em três repetições. Durante a indução da deficiência hídrica, foram monitoradas as seguintes variáveis de fluorescência da clorofila a: fluorescência inicial (F0, fluorescência máxima (Fm, rendimento quântico máximo do PSII (Fv/Fm, taxa relativa de transporte de elétrons (ETR, quenching fotoquímico (qP e quenching não fotoquímico (qN. Após dez dias de submissão ao estresse hídrico, os valores de Fo e Fm decresceram em todas as espécies. Os menores valores de Fv/Fm foram encontrados no capim-do-nilo e no capim-setária, o que configura baixo rendimento fotoquímico nessas espécies sob déficit hídrico, ao contrário do capim-hemárthria, que apresentou valores similares em ambos os tratamentos. Os valores mais altos de qN foram registrados no capim-hemárthria e no capim-angola, demonstrando boa capacidade dessas espécies em dissipar a energia luminosa absorvida em excesso para manter baixo estado de redução nos aceptores primários de elétrons do PSII. Em geral, as curvas de ETR em resposta ao fluxo de fótons fotossintéticos mostraram-se distintas entre os tratamentos, sendo mais pronunciadas no capim-do-nilo. Nessa espécie, a eficiência dos transportadores de elétrons do PSII foi seriamente comprometida pelo déficit hídrico.In this study, individuals of setariagrass (Setaria anceps Stapf., limpograss (Hemarthria altissima [Poir] Stapf. & Hubbard

  14. Respostas morfogênicas de gramíneas forrageiras tropicais sob diferentes condições hídricas do solo Morphogenic and structural responses of tropical forage grasses to different soil moisture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Messias Pereira da Silva

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Quatro gramíneas forrageiras (Setaria anceps Stapf., Hemarthria altissima [Poir] Stapf. & Hubbard, Acroceras macrum Stapf. e Brachiaria purpurascens [Raddi] Henr., foram estabelecidas por mudas, em vasos plásticos com diferentes condições hídricas, para se avaliar algumas características morfogênicas e estruturais. As irrigações foram controladas pela pesagem individual dos vasos e pela saturação relativa à porosidade total (SRPT para cada nível hídrico do solo. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três repetições, em que os tratamentos consistiram de quatro espécies, submetidas a quatro níveis hídricos: deficiência hídrica (50% de SRTP (D; controle (100% de SRTP (C; alagamento 1 (120% de SRTP (A1 e alagamento 2 (150% de SRTP (A2. Foram identificados três perfilhos basais vaso-1, para as mensurações da morfogênese e das características estruturais das plantas: taxa de aparecimento de folhas individuais (TAP, filocrono de folhas individuais (FIL, taxa de alongamento de folhas individuais (TAL, comprimento final da lâmina foliar (CF, número total de folhas expandidas (FT e número total de folhas verdes (FV. A TAL e o FIL foram inversamente proporcionais para o capim-setária, que apresentou resposta linear para a umidade no solo, enquanto os demais capins tiveram respostas quadráticas. O capim-hemárthria apresentou as maiores TAP para maior umidade do solo. O CF, aos 45 dias de rebrota, seguiu a tendência da TAL, com maiores valores para o capim-setária, alcançando até 0,34 m. O capim-hemárthria apresentou os maiores valores de CF entre as gramíneas de menor porte, em todos os níveis hídricos solo. Tanto o FT quanto o FV tiveram efeito significativo das gramíneas na interação com o nível hídrico dos vasos. O capim-hemárthria mostrou os maiores números de FT e FV em todos os níveis hídricos, com até 12 folhas perfilho-1. As diferenças estruturais observadas entre as esp

  15. Relationship Between Leaf Vein Splitting and Mineral Nutrition of Citrus%柑橘叶脉开裂症与矿质营养的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 谢钟琛; 谢文龙; 吴兴明; 施清

    2011-01-01

    柑橘叶脉开裂症属于多病因的病症,缺Mg或缺B均可导致发病,对'纽荷尔'脐橙[Citrus sinensis(L.)Osbeck'Newhall']的缺Mg叶脉开裂症病株,在生长季4月采用1.0%硝酸镁叶面喷施矫治2~3次,可有效降低病叶发生.通过福建柑橘产区普查,由缺Mg引起叶脉开裂症占86.2%,其次为B与Mg共同缺乏,缺B仅占2.3%.不同品种缺Mg叶脉开裂的感病顺序为:纽荷尔脐橙>琯溪蜜柚,其它发病品种还有金柑、早熟温州蜜柑、瓯柑.采用易感品种纽荷尔脐橙与抗性品种椪柑互为中间砧高接比对发现,纽荷尔脐橙对Mg和B的吸收能力低于椪柑,对K的吸收高于椪柑,这可能是纽荷尔脐橙易患叶脉开裂症的原因.缺Mg和缺B病症的最显著的区别为,缺Mg叶脉开裂多位于叶片项部"∧"形黄化部位;缺B叶脉开裂症病叶呈绿色不黄化;Mg、B缺乏症的病叶主脉和侧脉明显开裂与全叶黄化,或叶脉开裂达基部"∧"形绿色区域.%This study confirmed that leaf vein splitting of citrus was multi-pathogeny caused by both Mg-deficiency and B-deficiency. Spraying 1.0% Mg(NO3)2· 6H2O had significant effect on remedying leaf vein splitting of‘ Newhall’ [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] caused by Mg-deficiency in April. According to the investigation in Fujian citrus orchards, 86.2% of leaf vein splitting was suffered from Mg-deficiency, 11.5% from Mg-deficiency and B-deficiency, only 2.3% from B-deficiency. Infection rates of leaf vein splitting caused by Mg-deficiency ranked in descending order was as follow: Newhall navel orange, ‘Guanxi-miyou' [C. grandis (L.) Osbeck]. Other infected varieties included ‘Kumquat’(Fortunella crassifolia Swingle), Satsuma mandarin (C. unshiu Marc. ‘Early variety’ ) and ‘Ougan’(C. suavissima Hort. ex Tanaka). Leaf vein splitting susceptible variety Newhall [C. sinensis(L. )Osbeck]and resistant varieties Ponkan ( C. reticulate Blanco) were used as intermediate stocks in graft

  16. CARACTERIZAÇÃO DE FRUTOS E PROPAGAÇÃO DE PORTA-ENXERTOS HÍBRIDOS DE CITROS EM AMBIENTE PROTEGIDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA JÚLIA DA SILVA RODRIGUES

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A diversificação de uso de porta-enxertos de citros é importante no Brasil devido à presença de diversos estresses abióticos e bióticos, além da busca por atributos horticulturais desejáveis como nanismo, alta eficiência de produção e indução de boa qualidade aos frutos. Para a seleção de um genótipo com potencial de uso como porta-enxerto, porém, o desempenho na fase de propagação também é relevante. Assim, caracterizaram-se os frutos e avaliou-se a propagação em ambiente protegido de porta-enxertos híbridos de citros obtidos ou selecionados pelo Programa de Melhoramento Genético de Citros da Embrapa: citrandarins ‘Indio’, ‘Riverside’ e ‘San Diego’, híbridos HTR-051, TSKC x (LCR x TR-040 e 059, LVK x LCR-010 e 038, TSKC x CTTR-002, TSKC x CTSW-041 e LCR x TR-001, além das variedades comerciais citrumelo ‘Swingle 4475’, trifoliata ‘Flying Dragon’, limoeiro ‘Cravo Santa Cruz’ e tangerineira ‘Sunki Tropical’. Foram avaliados variáveis biométricas, fisiológicas e coeficientes técnicos. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e 50 plantas na parcela ou 20 frutos por genótipo, conforme a avaliação. Citrumelo ‘Swingle’ e LVK x LCR-010 apresentaram alta produção de sementes por fruto, enquanto HTR-051 e LCR x TR-001 produziram as menores quantidades. A poliembrionia foi superior para TSKC x CTTR-002, TSKC x (LCR x TR–040, LCR x TR-001, citrandarins ‘Indio’, ‘Riverside’ e ‘San Diego’ e tangerineira ‘Sunki Tropical’, tendo trifoliata ‘Flying Dragon’ e LVK x LCR-010 apenas 45% de poliembrionia média. A emergência de citrandarin ‘Riverside’ foi mais rápida e uniforme em relação aos demais genótipos. O crescimento vegetativo da parte aérea e do sistema radicular foi superior para citrandarin ‘Riverside’, TSKC x (LCR x TR-059, tangerineira ‘Sunki Tropical’, citrumelo ‘Swingle’ e limoeiro ‘Cravo’ e seus h

  17. A REVIEW ON CITRON-PHARMACOGNOSY, PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND MEDICINAL USES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena A K

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The citron is a fragrant fruit with the botanical name Citrus medica, which applies to both the Swingle and Tanaka systems. It is a prominent member in the genus Citrus, belonging to the Rutaceae or Rue family, sub-family Aurantioideae. The citron is unlike the more common citrus species like the lemon or orange. While the most popular fruits are peeled to consume their pulpy and juicy segments, the citron's pulp is very dry, containing only little insipid juice. Moreover, the main content of a citron is the thick white rind, which is very adherent to the segments, and cannot be separated from them easily. Thus, from ancient through medieval times, the citron was used mainly for medical purposes: to combat sea sickness, pulmonary troubles, intestinal ailments, and other disorders. The essential oil of the flavedo (the outermost, pigmented layer of rind was also regarded as an antibiotic. Citron juice with honey was considered an effective antidote to poison. In India, the peel is a remedy for dysentery and is eaten to overcome halitosis. The distilled juice is given as a sedative. The candied peel is sold in China as a stomachic, stimulant, expectorant and tonic. In West Tropical Africa, the citron is used only as a medicine, particularly against rheumatism. The flowers are used medicinally by the Chinese. In Malaya, a decoction of the fruit is taken to drive off evil spirits. A decoction of the shoots of wild plants is administered to improve appetite, relieve stomachache and expel intestinal worms. The leaf juice, combined with that of Polygonum and Indigofera is taken after childbirth. A leaf infusion is given as an antispasmodic. In Southeast Asia, citron seeds are given as a vennifuge. In Panama, they are ground up and combined with other ingredients and given as an antidote for poison. The essential oil of the peel is regarded as an antibiotic.The citron fruit is usually ovate or oblong, narrowing towards the stylar end. However, the

  18. Domestic Wastewater Depuration Using a Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland and Theoretical Surface Optimization: A Case Study under Dry Mediterranean Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Andreo-Martínez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The wastewater generated by isolated houses without access to public sewers can cause environmental problems, like the contamination of aquifers with nitrates and phosphates, as occurs in southeastern Spain. The effectiveness of a previously built horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HF-CW was studied over two years as a possible solution. This HF-CW measured 27 m2; it was planted with Phragmites australis(Cav. Trin. Ex Steuds sp. Altissima and the parameters studied were those required by European Union (EU legislation and adopted by Spain. Average abatement efficiency rates, for the first and the second year of study, were: biochemical oxygen demand over five days (BOD5 (96.4%, 92.0%, chemical oxygen demand (COD (84.6%, 77.7%, total suspended solids(TSS (94.8%,89.9%,total nitrogen(TN(79.5%,66.0%,ammonium nitrogen(NH4+-N(98.8%, 86.6% and total phosphorous (TP (83.7%, 82.8%. Average abatement efficiency for nitrate nitrogen (NO3−-N (−1280.5%, −961.1% and nitrite nitrogen (NO2−-N (−5.8%, −40.0% were negative because its content in influent wastewater was very low and they appear mainly from influent NH4+-N, as a result of purification processes carried out in the HF-CW bed. The abatement rates make the system suitable to produce discharges into the environment in accordance with Spanish law. It is noteworthy that the HF-CW patch suffered an episode of bed drying during the summer of 2013, whereby the causes were related to system oversizing and high evapotranspiration in the area. As a consequence, the decrease in the abatement of water pollutants during the second year can be attributed to the creation of preferential water flow paths and short circuits through the constructed wetland (CW bed. As a result of the oversizing of the CW, a theoretical resizing based on BOD5, TSS, TN or TP is proposed. The calculated values for the redesign were: 5.22 m2 considering DBO5, 0.18 m2 considering TSS, 10.14 m2 considering

  19. Balanço de nutrientes na produção de mudas cítricas cultivadas em substrato Nutrient balance for citrus nurseries production in substrate under screen-house

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Ronchini Boaventura

    2004-08-01

    sistema de adubação deve considerar principalmente a questão dos custos dos fertilizantes, pois a principal vantagem apontada para os fertilizantes de liberação lenta, que é diminuir as perdas por lixiviação, não foi observada nesse estudo.The production of healthy and vigorous nursery trees in protected environment is the strategy adopted by Brasilian citrus industry to avoid diseases propagation and to improve citrus grove efficiency. A mandatory program for citrus nursery trees certification was established, in the State of São Paulo in 2001, which determine that the nurseries must be produced in pathogen free substrate under screen-house conditions. There are little scientific information on nutrient demand, fertilizer sources and management to advise this program. This project was set up in order to determine nutrient balance for Valencia sweet orange nurseries production, on two rootstocks (Rangpur lime and Swingle citrumelo using two fertilizer management programs (fertirrigation and slow release fertilizers. The demands of nutrient were evaluated monthly, summing up 250 days. The treatments were arranged in a 2 x 2 x 8 factorial experiment with four replications. The results showed that substrate have both sink and source effects on nutrient availability to nurseries. The N, K e P losses by leaching were respectively of 8, 26 and 12% when the nutrient was applied by fertirrigation and respectively of 7, 56 and 10% for slow release fertilizers. Thus, the advantage of slow release fertilizers to decrease nutrient losses by leaching in relation to fertirrigation was not observed in citrus nursery production in screen-house.

  20. On Nutrient Losses in Flowers and Fruits of Statsuma,Lemon and Kumquat%温州蜜柑和柠檬及金柑的花果脱落养分损耗比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王男麒; 彭良志; 冉渝; 黄翼; 周薇; 邢飞; 朱春钊

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient Losses in dropped and Fruits of Statsuma,Lemon and Kumquat have been studied in Okitsu Wase satsuma (Citrus unshiu Marc.cv.Okitsu wase),Eureka lemon (Citrus limon Burm.f.)and Round kumquat (Fortunella japonica Swingle)adult trees.Results show that the nutrient element con-tent in flower buds and dropped flower buds and flowers of the 3 varieties were N 2.53% ~ 3.34%;P 0.23%~0.30%;K 1.58%~2.25%;Ca,Mg and S content were 0.15%~0.75%;Fe,Mn,Zn,Cu and B content were 9.6 ~ 66.6 mg/kg.B content was significantly higher in dropped flowers than in flower dropped buds,but other nutrient element content in dropped are close to in dropped buds.For the same organs,the content of each nutrient element varied with small differences among the 3 varieties.Com-pared with dropped buds and flowers,N and P content in young dropped fruits greatly decreased and Fe content increased obviously for Okitsu Wase satsuma,and the average decreases of 10.29% N and 13.85%P were measured,but the changes of other nutrient element content are not obviously.While for Eureka lemon and Round kumquat,almost all nutrient element content in dropped young fruits greatly increased, and reached the significance level (p flower bud drops > young fruit drops for Okitsu Wase satsuma,and young fruits drops >flower drops > flower buds drops for Eureka lemon ,and flowers drops > young fruits drops > flower buds drops for Round kumquat.Okitsu Wase satsuma had the biggest losses of nutrient elements caused by those drops,and followed by Eureka lemon and Round kumquat.Therefore,for citrus varieties tending to flower abundantly,it is important to control flower bud differentiation and blossom.%以成年兴津温州蜜柑、尤力克柠檬和圆金柑为材料,研究落蕾、落花和脱落幼果的养分含量及脱落损耗.结果表明:3个品种的落蕾和落花营养元素含量为 N 2.53%~3.43%,P 0.23%~0.30%,K 1.58%~2.25%,Ca、Mg 和 S 含量为0.15%~0.75%,Fe、Mn、Zn、Cu 和 B 含量为9.6~66.6 mg

  1. Etiology of three recent diseases of citrus in São Paulo State: sudden death, variegated chlorosis and huanglongbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bové, Joseph Marie; Ayres, Antonio Juliano

    2007-01-01

    The state of São Paulo (SSP) is the first sweet orange growing region in the world. Yet, the SSP citrus industry has been, and still is, under constant attack from various diseases. In the 1940s, tristeza-quick decline (T-QD) was responsible for the death of 9 million trees in SSP. The causal agent was a new virus, citrus tristeza virus (CTV). The virus was efficiently spread by aphid vectors, and killed most of the trees grafted on sour orange rootstock. Control of the disease resided in replacing sour orange by alternative rootstocks giving tolerant combinations with scions such as sweet orange. Because of its drought resistance, Rangpur lime became the favourite alternative rootstock, and, by 1995, 85% of the SSP sweet orange trees were grafted on this rootstock. Therefore, when in 1999, many trees grafted on Rangpur lime started to decline and suddenly died, the spectre of T-QD seemed to hang over SSP again. By 2003, the total number of dead or affected trees was estimated to be over one million. The new disease, citrus sudden death (CSD), resembles T-QD in several aspects. The two diseases have almost the same symptoms, they spread in time and space in a manner strikingly similar, and the pathological anatomy of the bark at the bud union is alike. Transmission of the CSD agent by graft-inoculation has been obtained with budwood inoculum taken not only on CSD-affected trees (grafted on Rangpur lime), but also on symptomless trees (grafted on Cleopatra mandarin) from the same citrus block. This result shows that symptomless trees on Cleopatra mandarin are tolerant to the CSD agent. Trees on rootstocks such as Sunki mandarin or Swingle citrumelo are also tolerant. Thus, in the CSD-affected region, control consists in replacing Rangpur lime with compatible rootstocks, or in approach-grafting compatible rootstock seedlings to the scions of trees on Rangpur lime (inarching). More than 5 million trees have been inarched in this way. A new disease of sweet orange

  2. 北京市丰台区美国白蛾发生特点与防治技术研究%Occurrence Characters and Control Techniques of the American White Moth, Hyphantria cunea (Drury), in Fengtai, Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓燕

    2011-01-01

    September, which were the key periods of control.Thity-five kinds of plants can be attacked by the American white moth, and chinar, ailanthus, a white mulberry, an elm tree and white wax were severely affected.The larval of American white moth can spread by human beings' long- distance transport.In 2010, we found 123 distribution sites of this pest by placing 450 traps in Fengtai Couty.Effective control methods were as follows: ( 1 ) strengthen the quarantine limits and detection surveys; ( 2 ) wipe out the sweep where the young larval assembled; ( 3 ) concentratively kill the older larva in the tree 1 meter high from the ground before they get down; ( 4 ) Release parasitoids Chouioia eunea Yang to control old larvae; ( 5 ) Pest control can be achieved by spraying trunks against larvae with Mieyouniao No.3, Triflumuron, Diflubenzuron, Cypermethrin.The pest was reduced 98%. (6) Large-scale spraying by planes.The damaged plants were reduced consecutively in 2008-2010, respectively 2 567, 1 428 and 987 plants.Control methods had obviously effects.

  3. Research on leaf anatomical structures of 13 Ficus plants and their adaptabilities to environment%13种榕属植物的叶片结构及其对环境的适应性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴叶辉; 王琳; 邢福武; 肖德兴

    2012-01-01

    layer of epi- dermis; 2 species have the upper epidermis of 4 to 5 layers, 3 species with 3 to 4 layers, 6 species with 2 to 3 layers, 1 specie with 2 layers. Stomas in a sunken form distribute in lower epidermis, the guard cells, together with the second layer cells of lower epidermis, exist in the same plane, whereas the guard cells of F. virens Air. and E religiosa Linn. together with the cells of the first layer of lower epider- mis exist in the same plane. Scanning electron microscopy showed that F. elastica cv. Decora Burgundy, F. elastica var. variegata, F. elastica Roxb. ex Hornem., F. altissima BI., F. microcarpa cv. Golden Leaves, F. benjaminacv. Golden Princess, E drupacea Thunb., F. pandurata Hance, F. benjamina IAnn., F. stenophyllaHwsml. and F. microcarpa Linn. f. have outer stomatal rims, and their stomas are sunken;while F. virens Ait. and F. religiosa Linn. do not have outer stomatal rims, and their stomas are upward. According to mor- phological characteristics of leaves, the environmental adaptabilities of the 13 ficus plants in garden were discussed by using analysis of variance and multiple comparison.

  4. 三峡水库运行对汉丰湖湿地植物群落及生境的影响%Impact of Operating Three Gorges Reservoir on the Habitat and Plant Community in Hanfeng Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志永; 潘晓洁; 郑志伟; 胡红青; 程丽; 李春辉; 丁庆秋; 万成炎

    2014-01-01

    above ground,height and cover of the plant community were measured and soil samples were collected in three 1 m ×1 m plots along the elevation gradients (160-165 m,166-170 m and 171 -175 m)of each transect. The soil bulk density was measured by the cutting-ring method,and the physio-chemical parameters and the avail-able nutrient content of 90 soil samples at 0-20cm depth were determined and compared with the data from an ear-lier study carried out in 2010.A total of 59 species of vascular plants belonging to 20 genera were recorded,with rich species diversity among Asteraceae,Gramineae and Polygonaceae.Vegetation was dominated by herbaceous plants with percentages of annual and perennial herbs accounting,respectively,for 54.2% and 37.3% of total species.The range of fresh weight in the plant community was 488.3-6586.1 g/m2,the height range was 19.6-102.2 cm and the cover range was 23%-201%,with mean values of2031.5 g/m2,59.2 cm and 109%,respec-tively.The ranges of soil density,pH,organic matter,available nitrogen,available phosphorus and potassium were 1.00-1.60 g/cm3,6.83-8.59,1.40 -22.5 g/kg,6.00 -94.38 mg/kg,1.33 -59.37 mg/kg and 2.50 -219.00 mg/kg,with mean values of 1.32 g/cm3,8.15,10.03 g/kg,29.37 mg/kg,12.18 mg/kg and 46.13 mg/kg,respectively.Plant species with high importance values were Cynodon dactylon (22.84 ±5.78), Hemarthria altissima (16.38 ±13.27,Digitaria sanguinalis (11.10 ±12.27),Echinochloa mitis (10.83 ±3.64) and Setaria viridis (9.56 ±5.38).Monte Carlo testing revealed that pH and concentration of available potassium are the primary environmental variables affecting the importance value of species.Results indicate that variations in the plant community in Hanfeng Lake can be attributed primarily to changes in habitat due to operation of the Three Gorges Reservoir.