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Sample records for aids-related opportunistic infections

  1. Opportunistic ocular infections in AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shikha Baisakhiya DOMS; FGO

    2008-01-01

    As the number of HIV infected patients is multiplying exponentially day by day so are the associated ocular complications.The increasing longevity of individuals with HIV disease has resulted in greater numbers of pa-tients with ocular opportunistic infection.By the means of this article we describe various opportunistic ocular infections in AIDS and their clinical manifestations,discussed under four headings;1 )adnexal manifestation;2)anterior segment manifestation;3)posterior segment manifestation;4)neuro ophthalmic manifestation . Herpes zoster ophthalmicus,molluscum contagiosum and Kaposi sarcoma are common adnexal manifestations. Molluscum contagiosum being the commonest.Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV)and herpes simplex virus (HSV) most commonly cause infectious keratitis in HIV-positive patients .As compared to the immunocompetent indi-viduals the frequency of bacterial and fungal keratitis is not more in HIV patients,but it tends to be more se-vere.Posterior segment structures involved in HIV-positive patients include the retina,choroid,and optic nerve head.The herpesvirus family is implicated most commonly in infections of the retina and choroid in HIV positive patients.CMV is the most common cause of retinitis and the commonest intraocular infection in AIDS. Atypical presentations resistance to conventional treatment and higher rate of recurrence make the diagnosis and therapeutic intervention more difficult and challenging.In addition,in one eye,several infections may occur at the same time,rendering the situation more difficult.

  2. [The chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapy of opportunistic infections].

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    Mel'nikova, V M; Gracheva, N M; Belikov, G P; Blatun, L A; Shcherbakova, E G

    1993-01-01

    Actual problems of organization and performance of chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapy of surgical opportunistic infections are discussed with an account of the main principles of and new approaches to the use of antibacterial drugs. The analysis of the authors' observations showed that the pre- and postoperative use of parenteral antibacterial drugs such as cephalosporins (cefazolin and ceftriaxone) and their combinations with aminoglycosides, the simultaneous use of beta-lactams and lysozyme, the local application of new ointments based on polyethylenglycol, foaming agents and gentacycol were prophylactically efficient in patients with high risk of surgical infections. Endolymphatic administration of gentamicin and cefotaxime was highly efficient in the treatment and prophylaxis of severe surgical infections with lymphogenous dissemination of the pathogen or its risk. In the prophylaxis of endogenous infections special attention should be paid to the suppression of the opportunistic intestinal microflora by the use of fluorquinolones and selective decontamination followed by the correction of the intestinal microbiocenosis with probiotics (bifidobacteria), lysozyme and immunological lactoglobulins as dosage forms or dry milk biologically active additives to children diet and dietotherapy. PMID:8085893

  3. Towards New Antifolates Targeting Eukaryotic Opportunistic Infections

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    Liu, J.; Bolstad, D; Bolstad, E; Wright, D; Anderson, A

    2009-01-01

    Trimethoprim, an antifolate commonly prescribed in combination with sulfamethoxazole, potently inhibits several prokaryotic species of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). However, several eukaryotic pathogenic organisms are resistant to trimethoprim, preventing its effective use as a therapeutic for those infections. We have been building a program to reengineer trimethoprim to more potently and selectively inhibit eukaryotic species of DHFR as a viable strategy for new drug discovery targeting several opportunistic pathogens. We have developed a series of compounds that exhibit potent and selective inhibition of DHFR from the parasitic protozoa Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma as well as the fungus Candida glabrata. A comparison of the structures of DHFR from the fungal species Candida glabrata and Pneumocystis suggests that the compounds may also potently inhibit Pneumocystis DHFR.

  4. Imaging of opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opportunistic fungal infection is a common cause of serious morbidity and mortality in the immunocompromised host. Combination of pattern recognition with knowledge of the clinical setting is the best approach to pulmonary infectious processes. The aim of this article is to assess the chest radiographs and CT imaging features of different opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised patients

  5. Toxoplasma gondii infection in Kyrgyzstan: seroprevalence, risk factor analysis, and estimate of congenital and AIDS-related toxoplasmosis.

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    Gulnara Minbaeva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-prevalence, as well as incidence of zoonotic parasitic diseases like cystic echinococcosis, has increased in the Kyrgyz Republic due to fundamental socio-economic changes after the breakdown of the Soviet Union. The possible impact on morbidity and mortality caused by Toxoplasma gondii infection in congenital toxoplasmosis or as an opportunistic infection in the emerging AIDS pandemic has not been reported from Kyrgyzstan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We screened 1,061 rural and 899 urban people to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in 2 representative but epidemiologically distinct populations in Kyrgyzstan. The rural population was from a typical agricultural district where sheep husbandry is a major occupation. The urban population was selected in collaboration with several diagnostic laboratories in Bishkek, the largest city in Kyrgyzstan. We designed a questionnaire that was used on all rural subjects so a risk-factor analysis could be undertaken. The samples from the urban population were anonymous and only data with regard to age and gender was available. Estimates of putative cases of congenital and AIDS-related toxoplasmosis in the whole country were made from the results of the serology. Specific antibodies (IgG against Triton X-100 extracted antigens of T. gondii tachyzoites from in vitro cultures were determined by ELISA. Overall seroprevalence of infection with T. gondii in people living in rural vs. urban areas was 6.2% (95%CI: 4.8-7.8 (adjusted seroprevalence based on census figures 5.1%, 95% CI 3.9-6.5, and 19.0% (95%CI: 16.5-21.7 (adjusted 16.4%, 95% CI 14.1-19.3, respectively, without significant gender-specific differences. The seroprevalence increased with age. Independently low social status increased the risk of Toxoplasma seropositivity while increasing numbers of sheep owned decreased the risk of seropositivity. Water supply, consumption of unpasteurized milk products or undercooked

  6. Effects of Smoking on Non-AIDS-Related Morbidity in HIV-Infected Patients

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    Shirley, Daniel K.; Kaner, Robert J.; Glesby, Marshall J.

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco smoking has many adverse health consequences. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection smoke at very high rates, and many of the comorbidities associated with smoking in the general population are more prevalent in this population. It is likely that a combination of higher smoking rates along with an altered response to cigarette smoke throughout the body in persons with HIV infection leads to increased rates of the known conditions related to smoking. Several AIDS-defining conditions associated with smoking have been reviewed elsewhere. This review aims to summarize the data on non-AIDS-related health consequences of smoking in the HIV-infected population and explore evidence for the potential compounding effects on chronic systemic inflammation due to HIV infection and smoking. PMID:23572487

  7. Opportunistic yeast infections: candidiasis, cryptococcosis, trichosporonosis and geotrichosis.

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    Vázquez-González, Denisse; Perusquía-Ortiz, Ana María; Hundeiker, Max; Bonifaz, Alexandro

    2013-05-01

    Opportunistic yeast infections are diseases caused by fungi which normally are saprophytic and do not cause disease in humans or animals. The prevalence of these diseases has been increasing due to immunosuppressive, corticosteroid, and long-term antibiotic treatment following organ transplantation or after serious metabolic, hematological, or immunological diseases. We review epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects of the four "big" opportunistic yeast infections: candidiasis, cryptococcosis, trichosporonosis, and geotrichosis.

  8. Productive human immunodeficiency virus infection levels correlate with AIDS-related manifestations in the patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mononuclear cells were obtained from 71 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) seropositive subjects presenting and first visit either as asymptomatic or with minor symptoms and with CD4 lymphocytes greater than 550 per mm3 (group A, 35 patients) or as patients with AIDS, AIDS-related illnesses, or CD4 lymphocytes less than 400 per mm3 (group B, 36 patients). After 1-5 years of follow-up, 13 patients of group A had essentially retained their initial status (asymptomatics); the 22 others had suffered clinical or immunological deterioration (progressors). Frozen cells were thawed and submitted to lethal gamma-irradiation in vitro (4500 rads; 1 rad = 0.01 Gy) before they were cultured with normal phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes to determine radiation-resistant HIV expression ex vivo (R-HEV). HIV antigenemia correlated with R-HEV values in 142 samples (r = 0.92, P less than 0.001) but was a less sensitive predictor of disease than R-HEV. R-HEV was detected in all specimens from patients with major AIDS-related illnesses or HIV-associated CD4 lymphopenia. In 77% of the progressors from group A, R-HEV detection preceded the onset of AIDS-associated disease or CD4 lymphopenia by 1 year (average). Conversely, R-HEV was low or was not detected in 36 sequential specimens from the 13 patients who remained asymptomatic over the following 2-5 years. Thus, persistently low HIV expression in vivo predicted a nondiseased state, whereas higher HIV expression levels seemed necessary for disease to occur. These data indicate that R-HEV is related to productive HIV infection in vivo, the latter acting as a determinant of AIDS-related illnesses. In view of this, measurement of HIV expression levels in the patient should be useful in antiviral efficacy trials

  9. An ethnobotanical survey of plants used to manage HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Katima Mulilo, Caprivi region, Namibia

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    Chinsembu Kazhila C

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Katima Mulilo has the highest burden of HIV/AIDS in Namibia. Due to several constraints of the antiretroviral therapy programme, HIV-infected persons still use ethnomedicines to manage AIDS-related opportunistic infections. Despite the reliance on plants to manage HIV/AIDS in Katima Mulilo, there have been no empirical studies to document the specific plant species used by traditional healers to treat AIDS-related opportunistic infections. In this study, an ethnobotanical survey was conducted to record the various plant families, species, and plant parts used to manage different HIV/AIDS-related opportunistic infections in Katima Mulilo, Caprivi region, Namibia. The results showed that a total of 71 plant species from 28 families, mostly the Combretaceae (14%, Anacardiaceae (8%, Mimosaceae (8%, and Ebanaceae (7%, were used to treat conditions such as herpes zoster, diarrhoea, coughing, malaria, meningitis, and tuberculosis. The most plant parts used were leaves (33%, bark (32%, and roots (28% while the least used plant parts were fruits/seeds (4%. Further research is needed to isolate the plants' active chemical compounds and understand their modes of action.

  10. Uncommon opportunistic fungal infections of oral cavity: A review

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    A G Deepa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of opportunistic oral mucosal fungal infections are due to Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus species. Mucor and Cryptococcus also have a major role in causing oral infections, whereas Geotrichum, Fusarium, Rhodotorula, Saccharomyces and Penicillium marneffei are uncommon pathogens in the oral cavity. The broad spectrum of clinical presentation includes pseudo-membranes, abscesses, ulcers, pustules and extensive tissue necrosis involving bone. This review discusses various uncommon opportunistic fungal infections affecting the oral cavity including their morphology, clinical features and diagnostic methods.

  11. Activity of antiretroviral drugs in human infections by opportunistic agents

    OpenAIRE

    Izabel Galhardo Demarchi; Daniela Maira Cardozo; Sandra Mara Alessi Aristides; Ricardo Alberto Moliterno; Thaís Gomes Verzignassi Silveira; Rosilene Fressatti Cardoso; Dennis Armando Bertolini; Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski; Jorge Juarez Vieira Teixeira; Maria Valdrinez Campana Lonardoni

    2012-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is used in patients infected with HIV. This treatment has been shown to significantly decrease opportunist infections such as those caused by viruses, fungi and particularly, protozoa. The use of HAART in HIV-positive persons is associated with immune reconstitution as well as decreased prevalence of oral candidiasis and candidal carriage. Antiretroviral therapy benefits patients who are co-infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human ...

  12. [Cutaneous nocardiosis as an opportunistic infection].

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    Bogaard, H J; Erkelens, G W; Faber, W R; de Vries, P J

    2004-03-13

    A 46-year-old man who had been treated with azathioprine and budesonide for Crohn's disease for the past eight years developed a purulent skin condition on the right ring finger. Despite surgical drainage and treatment with amoxicillin and flucloxacillin, the condition spread itself over the hand and lower arm, partly per continuum and partly in jumps. The patient did not feel ill and there were no systemic symptoms. Ultimately, Nocardia asteroides was cultured from the wound and complete cure was achieved after 8 months' treatment with co-trimoxazole. Infections with Nocardia spp. are rare but may occur more often and run a more fulminant course in patients under treatment with immunosuppressants. Cutaneous nocardiosis generally has a characteristic lymphogenous spreading pattern, but an atypical picture with pustules, pyoderma, cellulitis or abscess formation is also possible. In non-cutaneous nocardiosis there is usually pneumonia or lung abscess, possibly with secondary haematogenous spread to the central nervous system or skin. Culturing Nocardia requires more time than usual but can be promoted by special culture media. Treatment of the infection with co-trimoxazole is the method of choice and is almost always successful in cases of cutaneous nocardiosis.

  13. CLINICAL SPECTRUM OF OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HIV POSITIVE PATIENTS

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    Usmani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection leading to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS causes progressive decline in immunological response in people living with HIV/AIDS, making them susceptible to a variety opportunistic infections (OIs which are responsible for morbidity and mortality. Therefore early diagnosis and management of opportunistic infections reduce the mortality and morbidity in HIV positive patients. CONTEXT : AIMS : To study the demographic variables; spectrum of opportunist ic infections and its correlation with CD4 count in HIV patients. SETTING AND DESIGN : The study was conducted on 200 HIV patients either admitted to Sanjay Gandhi Memorial Hospital or attending ART Center, Sh y am Shah Medical College, Rewa (M.P from Januar y 2013 to October 2014. METHODS AND MATERIAL : A detailed history was recorded with emphasis on personal history, high risk behavior, history of migration, mode of transmission of infection and complete thorough clinical examination was done. Data analysis was done by calculating P value using Chi Square test. RESULTS : Out of 200 HIV patients, most of them (88% belonged to the age group 20 - 49 years, 66% were males and 34% were females. 45% were illiterates, 62% were from low socioeconomic class. Majority of patients were married (79% and 72.2% had seropositive spouse. Unprotected sexual route was the most common (85% mode of transmission; among which heterosexual route was the only mode of transmission. 59.4% of males contracted infection through unprotect ed sex with either commercial sex workers (44.8% or multiple sex partners (14.6%. 61% of patients had history of emigration. Tuberculosis was the most common opportunistic infection (51%, followed by oral candidiasis 30% and chronic diarrhea (9%.Pulmon ary Tuberculosis was the most common form of Tuberculosis (64.7%, followed by tubercular lymphadenopathy (15.7%. CONCLUSION : HIV/AIDS has no vaccine or cure, so prevention is the only

  14. Chest x-ray findings of opportunistic infections

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    Lee, Yul; Jeon, Suk Chul; Lim, Jeong Ki; Park, Jae Hyung; Kim, Chu Wan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-06-15

    The chest x-ray findings of 20 cases of pulmonary opportunistic infection were analyzed according to causative agents. The results were as follows: 1. Final diagnoses of 20 cases of opportunistic infections were tuberculosis in 6 cases, pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in 5 cases, bacterial infection in 7 cases, and fungal infection in 2 cases. 2. The underlying diseases were leukemia in 6 cases, kidney transplantation in 6 cases, lymphoma in 3 cases, nephrotic syndrome in 1 case, nasopharyngeal cancer in 1 case, multiple myeloma in 1 case, agranulocytosis in 1 case, and hypogammaglobulinemia in 1 case. 3. In tuberculosis, all the 6 cases showed severe manifestations such as military tuberculosis, tuberculous pneumonia, moderately advanced tuberculosis and tuberculous pericarditis. 4. In pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, the most frequent findings were bilateral alveolar densities and peripheral field of the lung was saved in most cases. 5. In 2 cases of fungal infections bilateral multiple cavity nodules were noted. 6. In cases of bacterial infection there was more cases of gram negative infection than gram positive and 2 cases of pseudomonas revealed bilateral multiple cavitary nodules.

  15. Chest x-ray findings of opportunistic infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chest x-ray findings of 20 cases of pulmonary opportunistic infection were analyzed according to causative agents. The results were as follows: 1. Final diagnoses of 20 cases of opportunistic infections were tuberculosis in 6 cases, pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in 5 cases, bacterial infection in 7 cases, and fungal infection in 2 cases. 2. The underlying diseases were leukemia in 6 cases, kidney transplantation in 6 cases, lymphoma in 3 cases, nephrotic syndrome in 1 case, nasopharyngeal cancer in 1 case, multiple myeloma in 1 case, agranulocytosis in 1 case, and hypogammaglobulinemia in 1 case. 3. In tuberculosis, all the 6 cases showed severe manifestations such as military tuberculosis, tuberculous pneumonia, moderately advanced tuberculosis and tuberculous pericarditis. 4. In pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, the most frequent findings were bilateral alveolar densities and peripheral field of the lung was saved in most cases. 5. In 2 cases of fungal infections bilateral multiple cavity nodules were noted. 6. In cases of bacterial infection there was more cases of gram negative infection than gram positive and 2 cases of pseudomonas revealed bilateral multiple cavitary nodules

  16. Opportunistic Neurologic Infections in Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarillo, Fritzie; O'Keefe, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality despite the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) especially in the resource-limited regions of the world. Diagnosis of these infections may be challenging because findings on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis and brain imaging are nonspecific. While brain biopsy provides a definitive diagnosis, it is an invasive procedure associated with a relatively low mortality rate, thus less invasive modalities have been studied in recent years. Diagnosis, therefore, can be established based on a combination of a compatible clinical syndrome, radiologic and CSF findings, and understanding of the role of HIV in these infections. The most common CNS opportunistic infections are AIDS-defining conditions; thus, treatment of these infections in combination with HAART has greatly improved survival.

  17. Staphylococcus aureus α toxin potentiates opportunistic bacterial lung infections.

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    Cohen, Taylor S; Hilliard, Jamese J; Jones-Nelson, Omari; Keller, Ashley E; O'Day, Terrence; Tkaczyk, Christine; DiGiandomenico, Antonio; Hamilton, Melissa; Pelletier, Mark; Wang, Qun; Diep, Binh An; Le, Vien T M; Cheng, Lily; Suzich, JoAnn; Stover, C Kendall; Sellman, Bret R

    2016-03-01

    Broad-spectrum antibiotic use may adversely affect a patient's beneficial microbiome and fuel cross-species spread of drug resistance. Although alternative pathogen-specific approaches are rationally justified, a major concern for this precision medicine strategy is that co-colonizing or co-infecting opportunistic bacteria may still cause serious disease. In a mixed-pathogen lung infection model, we find that the Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor α toxin potentiates Gram-negative bacterial proliferation, systemic spread, and lethality by preventing acidification of bacteria-containing macrophage phagosomes, thereby reducing effective killing of both S. aureus and Gram-negative bacteria. Prophylaxis or early treatment with a single α toxin neutralizing monoclonal antibody prevented proliferation of co-infecting Gram-negative pathogens and lethality while also promoting S. aureus clearance. These studies suggest that some pathogen-specific, antibody-based approaches may also work to reduce infection risk in patients colonized or co-infected with S. aureus and disparate drug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial opportunists.

  18. Vaccination approaches against opportunistic fungal infections caused by Aspergillus fumigatus.

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    Reichard, Utz; Herrmann, Sahra; Asif, Abdul R

    2014-01-01

    Although innate immunity primarily combats systemic infections of opportunistic fungi such as Aspergillus and Candida spp., acquired and protective immunoreactions were observed long ago in animal trials following sublethal systemic infections caused by viable fungi or after challenging animals with inactivated fungal cells. Based on these observations, fungal antigens should exist which mediate such protective immunoreactions and have in part already been identified. In this context, this review focuses primarily on the various approaches that have been used to identify protection-mediating Aspergillus-antigens and their rationale. Emphasis is placed on screening methods that have exploited genetic or proteomic approaches on the basis of the corresponding fungal genome projects. Thereby, a survey and description is given of the antigens so far known to be capable of inducing immune responses that protect animals against acquiring lethal systemic aspergillosis.

  19. Epidemic of AIDS related virus (HTLV-III/LAV) infection among intravenous drug abusers.

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    Robertson, J R; Bucknall, A B; Welsby, P D; Roberts, J J; Inglis, J M; Peutherer, J F; Brettle, R P

    1986-02-22

    Stored blood samples from 164 intravenous drug abusers who attended a Scottish general practice were tested for HTLV-III/LAV (human T cell lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy associated virus) infection. Of those tested, 83 (51%) were seropositive, which is well above the prevalence reported elsewhere in Britain and Europe and approaches that observed in New York City. The timing of taking samples of negative sera and continued drug use suggest that as many as 85% of this population might now be infected. The infection became epidemic in late 1983 and early 1984, thereafter becoming endemic. The practice of sharing needles and syringes correlated with seropositivity, which, combined with the almost exclusive intravenous use of heroin and other behavioural patterns, may explain the high prevalence of HTLV-III/LAV infection in the area. Rapid and aggressive intervention is needed to control the spread of infection. PMID:3081158

  20. Gastrointestinal opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus disease

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    Al Anazi Awadh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI opportunistic infections (OIs are commonly encountered at various stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disease. In view of the suppressive nature of the virus and the direct contact with the environment, the GI tract is readily accessible and is a common site for clinical expression of HIV. The subject is presented based on information obtained by electronic searches of peer-reviewed articles in medical journals, Cochrane reviews and PubMed sources. The spectrum of GI OIs ranges from oral lesions of Candidiasis, various lesions of viral infections, hepatobiliary lesions, pancreatitis and anorectal lesions. The manifestations of the disease depend on the level of immunosuppression, as determined by the CD4 counts. The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy has altered the pattern of presentation, resorting mainly to features of antimicrobial-associated colitis and side effects of antiretroviral drugs. The diagnosis of GI OIs in HIV/ acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients is usually straightforward. However, subtle presentations require that the physicians should have a high index of suspicion when given the setting of HIV infection.

  1. The association between HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and perception of risk for infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndugwa Kabwama, Steven; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review tries to elucidate the association between what people know about HIV/AIDS and how they perceive their risk of infection. The initial search for articles yielded 1,595 abstracts, 16 of which met the inclusion criteria. Five studies found a positive correlation, four reported...... a negative correlation and seven found no association between knowledge and risk perception. It was found that the existing psychometrically sound measure of HIV/AIDS risk perception had not been used in any of the studies. The context in which the risk is assessed is pivotal to whether an association...... between knowledge and the perceived risk is found. Biases in judgement such as optimistic bias, psychological distancing, anchoring bias and overconfidence also explain how knowledge may fail to predict risk perception. It was concluded that the association between HIV/AIDS knowledge and risk perception...

  2. HHV-8 infection in patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma in Brazil

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    Keller R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8 in HIV-positive Brazilian patients with (HIV+/KS+ and without Kaposi's sarcoma (HIV+/KS- using PCR and immunofluorescence assays, to assess its association with KS disease, to evaluate the performance of these tests in detecting HHV-8 infection, and to investigate the association between anti-HHV-8 antibody titers, CD4 counts and staging of KS disease. Blood samples from 66 patients, 39 HIV+/KS+ and 27 HIV+/KS-, were analyzed for HHV-8 viremia in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by PCR and HHV-8 antigenemia for latent and lytic infection by immunofluorescence assay. Positive samples for latent nuclear HHV-8 antigen (LNA antibodies were titrated out from 1/100 to 1/409,600 dilution. Clinical information was collected from medical records and risk behavior was assessed through an interview. HHV-8 DNA sequences were detected by PCR in 74.3% of KS+ patients and in 3.7% of KS- patients. Serological assays were similar in detecting anti-LNA antibodies and anti-lytic antigens in sera from KS+ patients (79.5% and KS- patients (18.5%. HHV-8 was associated with KS whatever the method used, i.e., PCR (odds ratio (OR = 7.4, 95% confidence interval (CI = 2.16-25.61 or anti-LNA and anti-lytic antibodies (OR = 17.0, 95%CI = 4.91-59.14. Among KS+ patients, HHV-8 titration levels correlated positively with CD4 counts (rho 0.48, P = 0.02, but not with KS staging. HHV-8 is involved in the development of KS in different geographic areas worldwide, as it is in Brazil, where HHV-8 is more frequent among HIV+ patients. KS severity was associated with immunodeficiency, but no correlation was found between HHV-8 antibody titers and KS staging.

  3. Immunophototherapy for the treatment of AIDS and AIDS-related infections

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    Schlager, Kenneth J.

    1992-06-01

    Immunophototherapy (IPT) is an experimental method of medical treatment that seeks to provide for the selective destruction of diseased cells and microbes such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-T4 cells and the rapid elimination of their toxic by-products from the human body. Photosensitive monoclonal or polyclonal antibody fragments, which are specific to the diseased cell or microbe, will be used to treat acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and related infections. These antibody fragments are tagged with photosensitive compounds and metal colloids and then intravenously injected into the patient. The tagged antibodies quickly and selectively bind to the diseased cells or microbes in the blood stream and affected organs. These cells or microbes are then selectively destroyed by irradiation of these complexes with light of the proper wavelength. This light activates the photosensitive material which then creates singlet oxygen that destroys the microbe or cell. Toxic products of lysis are quickly discharged from the body by activation of the reticuloendothelial system. IPT has been demonstrated by Biotronics to be very effective in the in vitro selective destruction of specified cell types. In a proposed AIDS-treatment research program, IPT will be first demonstrated in vitro for a set of infected blood samples using commercially-available antibodies labeled with appropriate photosensitizers. Efficacy will be determined by a p24 antigen immunodiagnostic test that will indicate the % inhibition in comparison to controls and samples treated with the drug AZT. Subcontracted animal efficacy studies will use a SCID-hu mouse model and PCR/DNA-RNA for endpoint analysis. Toxicity studies of animal (rat) models will be based on post-treatment investigations of lymph nodes, spleen, liver and other organs.

  4. Activity of antiretroviral drugs in human infections by opportunistic agents

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    Izabel Galhardo Demarchi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART is used in patients infected with HIV. This treatment has been shown to significantly decrease opportunist infections such as those caused by viruses, fungi and particularly, protozoa. The use of HAART in HIV-positive persons is associated with immune reconstitution as well as decreased prevalence of oral candidiasis and candidal carriage. Antiretroviral therapy benefits patients who are co-infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8, Epstein-Barr virus, hepatitis B virus (HBV, parvovirus B19 and cytomegalovirus (CMV. HAART has also led to a significant reduction in the incidence, and the modification of characteristics, of bacteremia by etiological agents such as Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase negative staphylococcus, non-typhoid species of Salmonella, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. HAART can modify the natural history of cryptosporidiosis and microsporidiosis, and restore mucosal immunity, leading to the eradication of Cryptosporidium parvum. A similar restoration of immune response occurs in infections by Toxoplasma gondii. The decline in the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis/HIV co-infection can be observed after the introduction of protease inhibitor therapy. Current findings are highly relevant for clinical medicine and may serve to reduce the number of prescribed drugs thereby improving the quality of life of patients with opportunistic diseases.A terapia HAART (terapia antirretroviral altamente ativa é usada em pacientes infectados pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV e demonstrou diminuição significativa de infecções oportunistas, tais como as causadas por vírus, fungos, protozoários e bactérias. O uso da HAART está associado com a reconstituição imunológica e diminuição na prevalência de candidíase oral. A terapia antirretroviral beneficia pacientes co-infectados pelo HIV, v

  5. Use of traditional medicines in the management of HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Tanzania: a case in the Bukoba rural district

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    Hosea Ken M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnobotanical surveys were carried out to document herbal remedies used in the management of HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Bukoba Rural district, Tanzania. The district is currently an epicenter of HIV/AIDS and although over 90% of the population in the district relies on traditional medicines to manage the disease, this knowledge is impressionistic and not well documented. The HIV/AIDS opportunistic conditions considered during the study were Tuberculosis (TB, Herpes zoster (Shingles, Herpes simplex (Genital herpes, Oral candidiasis and Cryptococcal meningitis. Other symptomatic but undefined conditions considered were skin rashes and chronic diarrhea. Methods An open-ended semi-structured questionnaire was used in collecting field information. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the ethnobotanical data collected. Factor of informant consensus (Fic was used to analyze the ethnobotanical importance of the plants. Results In the present study, 75 plant species belonging to 66 genera and 41 families were found to be used to treat one or more HIV/AIDS related infections in the district. The study revealed that TB and oral candidiasis were the most common manifestations of HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections affecting most of the population in the area. It unveils the first detailed account of ethnomedical documentation of plants focusing the management of HIV/AIDS related infections in the district. Conclusion It is concluded that the ethnopharmacological information reported forms a basis for further research to identify and isolate bioactive constituents that can be developed to drugs for the management of the HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections.

  6. Role of upper endoscopy in diagnosing opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ana Luiza Werneck-Silva; Ivete Bedin Prado

    2009-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically decreased opportunistic infections (OIs)in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients.However, gastrointestinal disease continues to account for a high proportion of presenting symptoms in these patients. Gastrointestinal symptoms in treated patients who respond to therapy are more likely to the result of drug-induced complications than OI. Endoscopic evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract remains a cornerstone of diagnosis, especially in patients with advanced immunodeficiency, who are at risk for OI. The peripheral blood CD4 lymphocyte count helps to predict the risk of an OI, with the highest risk seen in HIV-infected patients with low CD4 count (200 cells/mm3). This review provides an update of the role of endoscopy in diagnosing OI in the upper gastrointestinal tract in HIV-infected patients in the era of HAART.

  7. Current laboratory diagnosis of opportunistic enteric parasites in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Opportunistic enteric parasitic infections are encountered in 30-60% of HIV seropositive patients in developed countries and in 90% of patients in developing countries. Once the CD4(+) cell count drops below 200 cells/μl, patients are considered to have developed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), with the risk of an AIDS-defining illness or opportunistic infection significantly increasing. Opportunistic enteric parasites encountered in these patients are Cryptosporidium, Isospora, Cyclospora, and microsporidia; as well as those more commonly associated with gastrointestinal disease, for example, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Strongyloides stercoralis, and also rarely Balantidium coli. In view of AIDS explosion in India, opportunistic enteric parasites are becoming increasingly important and it has to be identified properly. Apart from wet mounts, concentration methods for stool samples and special staining techniques for identification of these parasites, commercially available fecal immunoassays are widely available for the majority of enteric protozoa. Molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, flow cytometry, and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), have also come in the pipeline for early diagnosis of these infections. Proper disposal of the feces to prevent contamination of the soil and water, boiling/filtering drinking water along with improved personal hygiene might go a long way in preventing these enteric parasitic infections. PMID:23961436

  8. Traditional health practitioners' perceptions, herbal treatment and management of HIV and related opportunistic infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Davids; T. Blouws; O. Aboyade; D. Gibson; J.T. de Jong; C. van 't Klooster; G. Hughes

    2014-01-01

    Background: In South Africa, traditional health practitioners? (THPs) explanatory frameworks concerning illness aetiologies are much researched. However there is a gap in the literature on how THPs understand HIV-related opportunistic infections (OIs), i.e. tuberculosis, candidiasis and herpes zoste

  9. Spectrums of opportunistic infections and malignancies in HIV-infected patients in tertiary care hospital, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-related opportunistic infections (OIs and malignancies continued to cause morbidity and mortality in Chinese HIV-infected individuals. The objective for this study is to elucidate the prevalence and spectrums of OIs and malignancies in HIV-infected patients in the Beijing Ditan Hospital. METHODS: The evaluation of the prevalence and spectrums of OIs and malignancies was conducted by using the clinical data of 834 HIV-infected patients admitted in the Beijing Ditan hospital from January 1, 2009, to November 30, 2012. RESULTS: The prevalence and spectrums of OIs and malignancies varied contingent on geographic region, transmission routes, and CD4 levels. We found that tuberculosis was most common OI and prevalence was 32.5%, followed by candidiasis(29.3%, Pneumocystis pneumonia(PCP(22.4%, cytomegalovirus(CMV infection(21.7%, other fungal infections(16.2%, mycobacterium avium complex(MAC(11.3%, cryptococcosis(8.0%, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy(PML(4.4%, Cerebral Toxoplasmosis(3.5% and Penicillium marneffei infection(1.4%; while Lymphoma(2.9%, Kaposi's sarcoma(0.8% and cervix carcinoma(0.3% were emerged as common AIDS-defining malignancies. Pulmonary OI infections were the most prevalent morbidity and mortality in patients in the AIDS stage including pulmonary tuberculosis (26.6% and PCP (22.4%. CMV infection(21.7% was most common viral infection; Fungal OIs were one of most prevalent morbidity in patients in the AIDS stage, including oral candidiasis (29.3%, other fungal infection (16.2%, Cryptococcosis (8.0% and Penicillium marneffei infection (1.4%. We found the low prevalence of AIDS-defining illnesses in central neural system in this study, including progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (4.4%, cerebral toxoplasmosis (3.5%, tuberculosis meningitis (3.2%, cryptococcal meningitis (2.4% and CMV encephalitis (1.1%. In-hospital mortality rate was 4.3 per 100 person-years due to severe OIs, malignancies, and medical

  10. A Multiple Drug Interaction Study of Stavudine with Agents for Opportunistic Infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscitelli, Stephen C.; Kelly, Grace; Walker, Robert E.; Kovacs, Joseph; Falloon, Judith; Davey, Richard T.; Raje, Sangita; Masur, Henry; Polis, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of multiple opportunistic infection medications on stavudine pharmacokinetics were evaluated. Ten patients with CD4 counts of less than 200 cells/mm3 received stavudine (40 mg twice daily) in combination with one to three other drugs used to treat opportunistic infections. Serial blood samples for stavudine concentrations were collected after 1 week of therapy on each regimen and assayed for stavudine by using a validated high-pressure liquid chromatography method. Although the maximum concentration of drug in serum was significantly decreased when the drug was given in combination with three opportunistic infection medications, the area under the concentration-time curve did not significantly differ across various treatment regimens. Stavudine exposure was not significantly altered by multiple concomitant medications. Side effects were minor throughout the 3-month study period. The tolerability of stavudine, combined with its lack of drug interactions, makes it an attractive agent for use as part of a combination regimen. PMID:10049281

  11. Opportunistic infections and malignancies in 231 Danish AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Gerstoft, J; Tauris, P;

    1990-01-01

    diseases caused by cytomegalovirus and atypical mycobacteria tended to occur later in the course of AIDS. Compared with all other AIDS patients, homosexual men were more likely to develop Kaposi's sarcoma, cytomegalovirus chorioretinitis and mucocutaneous herpes simplex virus infection. The proportion...

  12. Atypical presentation of a common opportunistic infection in advanced AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    N. Chandra; Krishna, N; Subbalaxmi, M. V. S.; M. Nageshwar Rao; Raju, Y.S.N.; Y Jyotsna Rani

    2013-01-01

    Intracranial tuberculosis in immunocompromised patients can occasionally mimic central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms radiologically and complicate the decisions regarding management. A 42-year-old male presented with a history of fever and vomitings of 5 days duration. On evaluation he was found to be reactive for human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection with a CD4+ count of 63 cells/mm3 and a viral load of 1,260,779 copies /mL. He was started on highly active antiretroviral ther...

  13. Opportunistic infections and malignancies in 231 Danish AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Gerstoft, J; Tauris, P;

    1990-01-01

    We analysed cumulative disease frequencies in the first 231 adult Danish AIDS patients with life tables. There was a certain hierarchical pattern in the occurrence of complicating diseases. Herpes zoster, Kaposi's sarcoma and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia were early manifestations, whereas...... diseases caused by cytomegalovirus and atypical mycobacteria tended to occur later in the course of AIDS. Compared with all other AIDS patients, homosexual men were more likely to develop Kaposi's sarcoma, cytomegalovirus chorioretinitis and mucocutaneous herpes simplex virus infection. The proportion...... of patients who developed particular diseases changed with calendar time. Most striking was a three to fourfold decrease in diseases caused by cytomegalovirus. In conclusion, the study showed that disease frequencies in patients with AIDS may vary with the patients risk behaviour and duration of AIDS...

  14. Epidemiology of opportunistic invasive fungal infections in China: review of literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Yong; CHEN Min; Thomas Hartmann; YANG Rong-ya; LIAO Wan-qing

    2013-01-01

    Objective To summarize the recent findings on the epidemiology of medically important,opportunistic invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in China and discuss the relevant social,economical reasons and medical factors.Data sources We performed a comprehensive search of both English and Chinese literatures of opportunistic IFIs from China up to April 2012.Study selection Relevant literatures involving researches and cases/case series were identified,retrieved and reviewed.Results The incidence of opportunistic IFIs in China was steadily increasing.The incidence and mortality of IFIs were different in patients with various underlying conditions/diseases,from 4.12% to 41.18% and 9.8% to 60.0%,respectively.Candida species,Aspergillus species and Cryptococcus neoformans species complex were the most frequent isolated pathogens.Other uncommon opportunistic IFIs were also been reported,including trichosporonosis,mucormycosis,hyalohyphomycosis (hyaline hyphomycetes) and phaeohyphomycosis (dematiaceous hyphomycetes).Reports of Chinese patients differed from those of many other countries as there were a higher number of patients without identifiable underlying diseases/conditions.Conclusions Because of the rapid economic development,changing population structure and a growing number of immunocompromised hosts with risk factors,today opportunistic IFIs in China have a significant impact on public health,associated with high morbidity/mortality and higher care costs.Now information related to the epidemiology of opportunistic IFIs in China is still sparse,so we need more organized groups of clinical scientists performing related researches to help the clinicians to obtain more accurate epidemiological characteristics.

  15. Atypical presentation of a common opportunistic infection in advanced AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chandra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial tuberculosis in immunocompromised patients can occasionally mimic central nervous system (CNS neoplasms radiologically and complicate the decisions regarding management. A 42-year-old male presented with a history of fever and vomitings of 5 days duration. On evaluation he was found to be reactive for human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection with a CD4+ count of 63 cells/mm3 and a viral load of 1,260,779 copies /mL. He was started on highly active antiretroviral therapy with tenofovir, emtricitabine, efavirenz, Pneumocystis jiroveci prophylaxis and was discharged. After 5 months he developed aggressive behaviour, irrelevant talking and memory loss. On examination, he was irritable with memory disturbances; no focal neurological signs were evident. Magnetic resonance imaging brain and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS showed a large heterogeneous enhancing ill-defined lesion in the left parietooccipital lobe with a lipid lactate peak suggestive of infective aetiology. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis showed glucose 33 mg/dL, protein 120 mg/dL, 40 cells/mm3 (all lymphocytes, adenosine deaminase 40U/L; Gram's stain was negative, Ziehl-Neelsen stain did not reveal acid-fast bacilli, toxoplasma, cryptococcal antigen tests were negative. Polymerase chain reaction for Epstein-Barr virus was also negative. In view of the clinical setting, CSF analysis supported by MRS findings he was started on antituberculosis treatment (ATT and corticosteroids. Patient showed remarkable improvement clinically and radiologically with significant reduction in the size of the lesion. MRS is a useful non-invasive technique that can help in differentiating tuberculoma from lymphoma.

  16. F-18 FDG PET Evaluation of Opportunistic Infections in Renal Transplant Recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renal transplantation is the most common type of organ transplantation. However, infection is a major complication among renal transplant recipients, including pneumonia, one of the most frequent life-threatening complications of long-term immunosuppression. Invasive fungal infections are among the most common pathogens. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of opportunistic infections are crucial in decreasing mortality. There have been cases reported where the use of F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron mission tomography (PET) was helpful in the diagnosis of fungal disease in immunocompromised patients. Here we present two of such cases

  17. Enteric Opportunistic Parasitic Infections among HIV-Seropositive Patients at Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta D Patel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enteric opportunistic parasitic infections are the major source of diarrheal disease in developing countries mainly in Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected patients. Objective: The study was to detect enteric parasites causing diarrhea and their association with immune status in HIV-seropositive patients. Methods: The present study was conducted in tertiary care teaching Hospital, Baroda between January 2006 to January 2007 involving 100 Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive patients. Stool was examined for enteric parasites by microscopy with special staining methods. Results: A total of 100 HIV sero-positive patients with and without diarrhea were included in the study. Of the 100 patients, the protozoan parasitic infection was found in 28% (28/100. Out of 100 patients, 50 had diarrhea in which parasitic infection was 24 (48% and 4 (4/50 protozoal parasites positive cases did not have diarrhea. A significant difference (p<0.05 was observed in the level of infection of intestinal protozoan between the HIV seropositive with diarrhea and HIV-seropositive without diarrhea. Conclusion Enteric opportunistic parasitic infections were detected in 28% among HIV-seropositive patients. Early detection of enteric parasitic infections will help in the management and to improve the quality of life for HIV-infected individuals. [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(3.000: 190-193

  18. Characterization of a new simian immunodeficiency virus strain in a naturally infected Pan troglodytes troglodytes chimpanzee with AIDS related symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghokeng Avelin F

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on the evolution of natural SIV infection in chimpanzees (SIVcpz and on the impact of SIV on local ape populations are only available for Eastern African chimpanzee subspecies (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, and no data exist for Central chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes, the natural reservoir of the ancestors of HIV-1 in humans. Here, we report a case of naturally-acquired SIVcpz infection in a P.t.troglodytes chimpanzee with clinical and biological data and analysis of viral evolution over the course of infection. Results A male chimpanzee (Cam155, 1.5 years, was seized in southern Cameroon in November 2003 and screened SIV positive during quarantine. Clinical follow-up and biological analyses have been performed for 7 years and showed a significant decline of CD4 counts (1,380 cells/mm3 in 2004 vs 287 in 2009, a severe thrombocytopenia (130,000 cells/mm3 in 2004 vs 5,000 cells/mm3 in 2009, a weight loss of 21.8% from August 2009 to January 2010 (16 to 12.5 kg and frequent periods of infections with diverse pathogens. DNA from PBMC, leftover from clinical follow-up samples collected in 2004 and 2009, was used to amplify overlapping fragments and sequence two full-length SIVcpzPtt-Cam155 genomes. SIVcpzPtt-Cam155 was phylogenetically related to other SIVcpzPtt from Cameroon (SIVcpzPtt-Cam13 and Gabon (SIVcpzPtt-Gab1. Ten molecular clones 5 years apart, spanning the V1V4 gp120 env region (1,100 bp, were obtained. Analyses of the env region showed positive selection (dN-dS >0, intra-host length variation and extensive amino acid diversity between clones, greater in 2009. Over 5 years, N-glycosylation site frequency significantly increased (p Conclusions Here, we describe for the first time the clinical history and viral evolution of a naturally SIV infected P.t.troglodytes chimpanzee. The findings show an increasing viral diversity over time and suggest clinical progression to an AIDS-like disease, showing that

  19. Opportunistic fungi in lake water and fungal infections in associated human population in Dal Lake, Kashmir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandh, Suhaib A; Kamili, Azra N; Ganai, Bashir A; Lone, Bashir A

    2016-04-01

    Natural habitats of opportunistic fungal pathogens are outside of the host; therefore, it is critically important to understand their ecology and routes of transmission. In this study, we investigated the presence of human pathogenic opportunistic fungi in lake water and incidence of fungal infections in associated population in Kashmir, India. Six hundred forty water samples were taken on seasonal basis from a wide network of sampling stations of the lake for an extended period of two years for screening their occurrence. The samples were inoculated onto rose bengal agar, malt extract agar, potato dextrose agar and other specified culture media supplemented with Chloramphenicol and Streptomycin followed by incubation at 37 °C. All the samples were positive for fungi, which were later identified by sequencing the rDNA internal transcribed spacer region aided by classical morphological culture techniques and physiological profiling. The whole process led to the isolation of sixteen species of opportunistic fungal pathogens belonging to genus Aspergillus, Candida, Penicillium, Cryptococcus, Fusarium, Rhizopus and Mucor in decreasing order of prevalence. Furthermore, 20% population (n = 384) of Dal inhabitants was examined for possible fungal infections and it was observed that only 8.07% individuals were positive for fungal infections with 4.68% skin infection cases, 2.34% onychomycosis cases and 1.04% candidiasis cases. Scrapings from onychomycosis and candidiasis patients showed the presence of Aversicolor and Calbicans respectively, resembling exactly the strains isolated from the lake water. However, the skin infection was because of a dermatophyte not isolated for the lake water. Higher prevalence of infection (6.77%) was seen in people using lake water followed by a positive prevalence of 1.30% using tap water. The results of present study suggest that the lake inhabitants are at a greater risk of getting life threatening fungal diseases which may lead to

  20. Opportunistic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  1. Variation in genes of beta-glucan recognition pathway and susceptibility to opportunistic infections in HIV-positive patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosentul, D.C.; Plantinga, T.S.; Papadopoulos, A.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Antoniadou, A.; Venselaar, H.; Kullberg, B.J.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, E.J.; Netea, M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Opportunistic infections are the main cause of morbidity and death among HIV-positive patients. Most of these infections are linked to the immunodeficiency due to low CD4+ counts. However, not all patients with low CD4+ counts are equally susceptible to infections, and we hypothesize that variabilit

  2. Non-opportunistic intestinal parasitic infections among HIV-infected individuals at Wolaita Sodo Hospital, South Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amsalu Arota Amado; Fiseha Wadilo Wada; Fithamlak Solomon Bisetegn; Yishak Abreham Leka

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To determine the prevalence of non-opportunistic intestinal helminthic and protozoal infections amongHIV-infected individuals and to determine socio-demographic determinants of intestinal parasitosis. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted onHIV-infected individuals attending anti-retroviral therapy clinic of Wolaita Sodo Hospital. Stool in wet mount preparation and formal-ether concentration technique were used to diagnose intestinal parasitic infection. Socio-demographic variables were collected by using questionnaire.Chi-square test was used to test the associations between intestinal parasitosis and socio-demographic variables. Results: The overall prevalence of non-opportunistic intestinal parasitic infection was 32.4% out of which 11.0% was protozoal infection and 21.4% was helminthic infection. The most common intestinal parasite detected wasAscaris lumbricoides with 12.7% prevalence followed byGiardia lamblia with 7.5% prevalence. The prevalence ofStrongyloides stercoralis, hookworm species,Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar,Schistosoma mansoni and Taenia species was 2.9%, 1.2%, 3.5%, 1.7% and 2.3% respectively. There was no significant difference in prevalence of intestinal parasite infection with regard to age, sex, residence area, job type and religion of participants but there was a significant association between the educational status and intestinal parasitic infection. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was higher among illiterate participants. Conclusions:Ascaris lumbricoides was the most common intestinal parasite detected inHIV-infected individuals.Giardia lamblia was the most common protozoal parasite observed. Prevalence of intestinal helminthic infection was higher than protozoal infection. Intestinal parasitosis was significantly associated with an educational status of individuals.

  3. Yield of diagnostic tests for opportunistic infections in AIDS: a survey of 33 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, P C; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Olesen, B;

    1988-01-01

    To examine the therapeutic consequences of diagnostic tests for AIDS-related infections, case records from 33 deceased AIDS patients were reviewed; 23 were autopsied. Determination of serum antibody titres was not important. In particular, there was no relation between titres and isolation....../7 disseminated infections with atypical mycobacteria were only revealed at autopsy, despite numerous cultures in vivo. Liver biopsies were not helpful. Diagnostic procedures for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia by lung biopsy caused pneumothorax in 3/15 patients; bronchoalveolar lavage or treatment....../prophylaxis without diagnosis could be considered. In 8 autopsies, microscopy was suggestive of cerebral toxoplasmosis, but only 1 patient had presented important clinical symptoms. We suggest a schedule with regular microbiologic and parasitic examinations and few antibody tests, but with more antigen tests....

  4. Antimicrobial therapy for the treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS patients: a critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seddon J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Jo Seddon1, Sanjay Bhagani21Department of Infectious Diseases, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK; 2Department of Infection and Immunity, Royal Free Hospital NHS Trust, London, UKAbstract: The widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART has entirely changed the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and dramatically reduced the rates of opportunistic infections (OI. However, OI continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality in both developed countries, where presentation with advanced HIV infection is common, and also in developing countries where ART is less widely available. Evidence to direct OI guidelines is partly limited by the fact that many large-scale studies date from the pre-ART era and more recent studies are sometimes poorly powered due to the falling rates of OI. Treatment of OI is now known to be as much about antimicrobials as about immune reconstitution with ART, and recent studies help guide the timing of initiation of ART in different infections. OI have also become complicated by the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome phenomenon which may occur once successful immune recovery begins. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole has long been one of the most important antibiotics in the treatment and prevention of OI and remains paramount. It has a broad spectrum of activity against Pneumocystis jiroveci, toxoplasmosis, and bacterial infections and has an important role to play in preventing life-threatening OI. New advances in treating OI are coming from a variety of quarters: in cytomegalovirus eye disease, the use of oral rather than intravenous drugs is changing the face of therapy; in cryptococcal meningitis, improved drug formulations and combination therapy is improving clearance rates and reducing drug toxicities; and in gut disease, the possibility of rapid immune restitution with ART is replacing the need for antimicrobials against cryptosporidia and microsporidia.Keywords: HIV

  5. Bioengineering T cells to target carbohydrate to treat opportunistic fungal infection

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaresan, Pappanaicken R.; Manuri, Pallavi R.; Albert, Nathaniel D.; Maiti, Sourindra; Singh, Harjeet; Mi, Tiejuan; Roszik, Jason; Rabinovich, Brian; Olivares, Simon; Krishnamurthy, Janani; Zhang, Ling; Najjar, Amer M.; Huls, M. Helen; Lee, Dean A.; Champlin, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with compromised T-cell function are at risk for opportunistic fungal infections. We have developed a novel approach to restore immunity by using a fungal pattern-recognition receptor Dectin-1 to redirect T-cell specificity to carbohydrate antigen in the fungal cell wall. We did so by genetically modifying T cells using the nonviral Sleeping Beauty gene-transfer system to enforce expression of a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) that recapitulates the specificity of Dectin-1 (D-CAR). T...

  6. Opportunistic diseases in HIV-infected patients in Gabon following the administration of highly active antiretroviral therapy: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okome-Nkoumou, Madeleine; Guiyedi, Vincent; Ondounda, Magloire; Efire, Nora; Clevenbergh, Philippe; Dibo, Mireille; Dzeing-Ella, Arnaud

    2014-02-01

    Opportunistic diseases cause substantial morbidity and mortality to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) leading to immune reconstitution is the most effective treatment of preventing opportunistic diseases. This retrospective study established an epidemiologic profile of opportunistic diseases 10 years after the introduction of HAART. The HIV antiretroviral therapy-naive patients matching inclusion criteria were included. The primary outcome was the prevalence of opportunistic diseases. From January 1, 2002 to September 30, 2010, 654 opportunistic diseases were identified in 458 patients. Pulmonary tuberculosis, herpes zoster, cerebral toxoplasmosis, oral candidiasis, and severe pneumonia accounted for 22.05%, 15.94%, 14.19%, 14.19%, and 9.39%, respectively. Cryptococcal meningitis and pneumocystosis accounted for 0.44% and 0.21%, respectively. The prevalence of opportunistic diseases in Gabon remains high. New guidelines emphasize the importance of initiating antiretroviral therapy early to reconstitute the immune system, and reduce disease risk, and treat the primary opportunistic infection of pulmonary tuberculosis.

  7. 建筑工人艾滋病相关行为及HIV感染状况调查%AIDS- related Behaviors and HIV Infection Status Among Construction Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何波; 农丽萍; 张建明; 黄祖斌; 钟海东

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore AIDS - related behaviors and HIV infection status among construction workers in Pingxiang city for effective interventions on high risk behavior. Methods A cluster sampling method was adopted and 405 workers from 9 construction sites in Pingxiang city were selected from January to March 2011. Sexual behaviors including marriage sex, commercial sex and non - marriage/commercial casually sex were analyzed as well as HIV/AIDS related knowledge awareness, drug using and HIV, Syphilis and HCV test results in laboratory. Result A total of 405 construction workers were selected and investigated, with the HIV infection rate of 0. 49% , syphilis infection rate of 3. 95% , and HCV infection rate of 0. 99%. The awareness rate of AIDS -related knowledge (who could answer more than 6 items) was 72. 28% among the workers. The percentage of having sex with regular partners within the past year was 93.24% , and the rate of using condom each time was only 8. 69%. The rate of having non - marriage/commercial casual sex was 5. 68% in the past year. And 13. 39% of investiged male construction workers had had commercial sex in the past year with the rate of 62. 22% using condom each time. Also the rate was 0. 74% of drug using. Single factor analysis shows that the rate of commercial sex behavior is related to both education level and the AIDS - related knowledge awareness among the male construction workers ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion There was synergistic effect of multiple high risks related to HIV among construction workers in Pingxiang. Those construction workers were becoming the high risk and bridge group of AIDS infection and transmission. Effective interventions on high risk behavior should be carried out for HIV/AIDS prevention and control.%目的 了解凭祥市建筑工人艾滋病(AIDS)相关行为与艾滋病病毒( HIV)感染状况,以便采取有针对性的高危行为干预措施.方法 于2011 - 01/03,采用整群抽样方法抽取凭祥市9

  8. Vegetable microbiomes: is there a connection among opportunistic infections, human health and our 'gut feeling'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Gabriele; Erlacher, Armin; Smalla, Kornelia; Krause, Robert

    2014-11-01

    The highly diverse microbiomes of vegetables are reservoirs for opportunistic and emerging pathogens. In recent years, an increased consumption, larger scale production and more efficient distribution of vegetables together with an increased number of immunocompromised individuals resulted in an enhanced number of documented outbreaks of human infections associated with the consumption of vegetables. Here we discuss the occurrence of potential pathogens in vegetable microbiomes, the impact of farming and processing practices, and plant and human health issues. Based on these results, we discuss the question if vegetables can serve as a source of infection for immunocompromised individuals as well as possible solutions to avoid outbreaks. Moreover, the potentially positive aspects of the vegetables microbiome for the gut microbiota and human health are presented.

  9. [Microbiological results of bronchoalveolar lavage that was performed for opportunistic pulmonary infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülcü, Aylin; Sevinç, Can; Esen, Nuran; Kilinç, Oğuz; Uçan, Eyüp Sabri; Itil, Oya; Cimrin, Arif Hikmet; Kömüs, Nuray; Sener, Gülper; Akkoçlu, Atila; Gülay, Zeynep; Yücesoy, Mine

    2006-01-01

    Between 2001-2002; in 62 cases, 33 (53%) male, 29 (47%) female, mean age 51.4 +/- 18.1 years) bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed for diagnosis of opportunistic pulmonary infection and specimens were evaluated for results of microbiological examinations. There was hematological malignancy in 18 (29%) and solid organ malignancy in 13 (21%) cases. Thirty-one (50%) cases were immunocompromised for reasons other than malignancy. By endoscopic evaluation endobronchial lesion was seen in 2 (3%) cases, indirect tumor signs were seen in 2 (3%) cases and signs of infection were seen in 11 (18%) cases. Forty-even (76%) cases were endoscopically normal. Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) direct examination was positive in 3 (5%) cases. In 4 (6%) cases mycobacterial culture was positive, Mycobacterium tuberculosis-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was also positive in these four cases. Examination of gram-stained smears for bacteria was associated with infection in 14 (23%) cases. Bacteriologic cultures were positive for single potential pathogen in 10 (16%) cases, and for mixed pathogens in 7 (11%) cases for a total number of 17 (27%). Fungal cultures were positive in 3 (5%) cases all of which had hematological malignancy. As a result in 24 (39%) cases microbiological agent of infection is determined: in four mycobacteria, in 17 bacteria other than mycobacteria and in three fungi. PMID:17001542

  10. [Microbiological results of bronchoalveolar lavage that was performed for opportunistic pulmonary infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülcü, Aylin; Sevinç, Can; Esen, Nuran; Kilinç, Oğuz; Uçan, Eyüp Sabri; Itil, Oya; Cimrin, Arif Hikmet; Kömüs, Nuray; Sener, Gülper; Akkoçlu, Atila; Gülay, Zeynep; Yücesoy, Mine

    2006-01-01

    Between 2001-2002; in 62 cases, 33 (53%) male, 29 (47%) female, mean age 51.4 +/- 18.1 years) bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed for diagnosis of opportunistic pulmonary infection and specimens were evaluated for results of microbiological examinations. There was hematological malignancy in 18 (29%) and solid organ malignancy in 13 (21%) cases. Thirty-one (50%) cases were immunocompromised for reasons other than malignancy. By endoscopic evaluation endobronchial lesion was seen in 2 (3%) cases, indirect tumor signs were seen in 2 (3%) cases and signs of infection were seen in 11 (18%) cases. Forty-even (76%) cases were endoscopically normal. Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) direct examination was positive in 3 (5%) cases. In 4 (6%) cases mycobacterial culture was positive, Mycobacterium tuberculosis-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was also positive in these four cases. Examination of gram-stained smears for bacteria was associated with infection in 14 (23%) cases. Bacteriologic cultures were positive for single potential pathogen in 10 (16%) cases, and for mixed pathogens in 7 (11%) cases for a total number of 17 (27%). Fungal cultures were positive in 3 (5%) cases all of which had hematological malignancy. As a result in 24 (39%) cases microbiological agent of infection is determined: in four mycobacteria, in 17 bacteria other than mycobacteria and in three fungi.

  11. Time to HAART Initiation after Diagnosis and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in Patients with AIDS in Latin America.

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    Brenda Crabtree-Ramírez

    Full Text Available Since 2009, earlier initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART after an opportunistic infection (OI has been recommended based on lower risks of death and AIDS-related progression found in clinical trials. Delay in HAART initiation after OIs may be an important barrier for successful outcomes in patients with advanced disease. Timing of HAART initiation after an OI in "real life" settings in Latin America has not been evaluated.Patients in the Caribbean, Central and South America network for HIV Epidemiology (CCASAnet ≥18 years of age at enrolment, from 2001-2012 who had an OI before HAART initiation were included. Patients were divided in an early HAART (EH group (those initiating within 4 weeks of an OI and a delayed HAART (DH group (those initiating more than 4 weeks after an OI. All patients with an AIDS-defining OI were included. In patients with more than one OI the first event reported was considered. Calendar trends in the proportion of patients in the EH group (before and after 2009 were estimated by site and for the whole cohort. Factors associated with EH were estimated using multivariable logistic regression models.A total of 1457 patients had an OI before HAART initiation and were included in the analysis: 213 from Argentina, 686 from Brazil, 283 from Chile, 119 from Honduras and 156 from Mexico. Most prevalent OI were Tuberculosis (31%, followed by Pneumocystis pneumonia (24%, Invasive Candidiasis (16% and Toxoplasmosis (9%. Median time from OI to HAART initiation decreased significantly from 5.7 (interquartile range [IQR] 2.8-12.1 weeks before 2009 to 4.3 (IQR 2.0-7.1 after 2009 (p<0.01. Factors associated with starting HAART within 4 weeks of OI diagnosis were lower CD4 count at enrolment (p-<0.001, having a non-tuberculosis OI (p<0.001, study site (p<0.001, and more recent years of OI diagnosis (p<0.001.The time from diagnosis of an OI to HAART initiation has decreased in Latin America coinciding with the

  12. Time to HAART Initiation after Diagnosis and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in Patients with AIDS in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda; Caro-Vega, Yanink; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Wolff, Marcelo; Cortes, Claudia P.; Padgett, Denis; Carriquiry, Gabriela; Fink, Valeria; Jayathilake, Karu; Person, Anna K.; McGowan, Catherine; Sierra-Madero, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Background Since 2009, earlier initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) after an opportunistic infection (OI) has been recommended based on lower risks of death and AIDS-related progression found in clinical trials. Delay in HAART initiation after OIs may be an important barrier for successful outcomes in patients with advanced disease. Timing of HAART initiation after an OI in “real life” settings in Latin America has not been evaluated. Methods Patients in the Caribbean, Central and South America network for HIV Epidemiology (CCASAnet) ≥18 years of age at enrolment, from 2001–2012 who had an OI before HAART initiation were included. Patients were divided in an early HAART (EH) group (those initiating within 4 weeks of an OI) and a delayed HAART (DH) group (those initiating more than 4 weeks after an OI). All patients with an AIDS-defining OI were included. In patients with more than one OI the first event reported was considered. Calendar trends in the proportion of patients in the EH group (before and after 2009) were estimated by site and for the whole cohort. Factors associated with EH were estimated using multivariable logistic regression models. Results A total of 1457 patients had an OI before HAART initiation and were included in the analysis: 213 from Argentina, 686 from Brazil, 283 from Chile, 119 from Honduras and 156 from Mexico. Most prevalent OI were Tuberculosis (31%), followed by Pneumocystis pneumonia (24%), Invasive Candidiasis (16%) and Toxoplasmosis (9%). Median time from OI to HAART initiation decreased significantly from 5.7 (interquartile range [IQR] 2.8–12.1) weeks before 2009 to 4.3 (IQR 2.0–7.1) after 2009 (p<0.01). Factors associated with starting HAART within 4 weeks of OI diagnosis were lower CD4 count at enrolment (p-<0.001), having a non-tuberculosis OI (p<0.001), study site (p<0.001), and more recent years of OI diagnosis (p<0.001). Discussion The time from diagnosis of an OI to HAART initiation has

  13. Changing mortality profile among HIV-infected patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: shifting from AIDS to non-AIDS related conditions in the HAART era.

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    Beatriz Grinsztejn

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We describe temporal trends in the mortality rates and factors associated with AIDS and non-AIDS related mortality at the Evandro Chagas Clinical Research Institute (IPEC, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ. METHODS: Adult patients enrolling from 1986 through 2009 with a minimum follow up of 60 days were included. Vital status was exhaustively checked using patients' medical charts, through active contact with individuals and family members and by linkage with the Rio de Janeiro Mortality database using a previously validated algorithm. The CoDe protocol was used to establish the cause of death. Extended Cox proportional hazards models were used for multivariate modeling. RESULTS: A total of 3530 individuals met the inclusion criteria, out of which 868 (24.6% deceased; median follow up per patient was 3.9 years (interquartile range 1.7-9.2 years. The dramatic decrease in the overall mortality rates was driven by AIDS-related causes that decreased from 9.19 deaths/100PYs n 1986-1991 to 1.35/100PYs in 2007-2009. Non-AIDS related mortality rates remained stable overtime, at around 1 death/100PYs. Immunodeficiency significantly increased the hazard of both AIDS-related and non-AIDS-related causes of death, while HAART use was strongly associated with a lower hazard of death from either cause. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm the remarkable decrease in AIDS-related mortality as the HIV epidemic evolved and alerts to the conditions not traditionally related to HIV/AIDS which are now becoming more frequent, needing careful monitoring.

  14. Neuroretinal Degeneration in HIV Patients Without Opportunistic Ocular Infections in the cART Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkaya, Nazli; Wit, Ferdinand; Schlingemann, Reinier; Verbraak, Franciscus

    2015-10-01

    Subtle structural and functional retinal abnormalities, termed 'HIV-associated Neuroretinal Disorder (HIV-NRD)', have been reported in HIV patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), without infectious retinitis or any apparent fundus abnormalities otherwise. In this review, we provide an overview of studies investigating HIV-NRD in HIV patients without opportunistic ocular infections in the cART era, and try to elucidate underlying mechanisms and associated risk factors. Most studies focused on patients with severe immune-deficiency and demonstrated that patients with nadir CD4 countsdifficulties in activities, such as reading or driving, thereby affecting quality of life. Since HIV has become a chronic disease, its long-term effects with respect to visual function loss become more important, as is recently emphasized by a longitudinal study, reporting that AIDS patients with HIV-NRD have higher risks of developing bilateral visual impairment and even blindness than patients without HIV-NRD. The question remains whether patients with high (>350 cells/μL) nadir CD4 counts and well-suppressed HIV infection on cART remain at risk for HIV-NRD, as this group constitutes a growing part of the aging HIV-infected population. PMID:26258992

  15. A Standardized Algorithm for Determining the Underlying Cause of Death in HIV Infection as AIDS or non-AIDS Related: Results from the EuroSIDA Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalska, Justyna D; Mocroft, Amanda; Ledergerber, Bruno;

    2011-01-01

    are a natural consequence of an increased awareness and knowledge in the field. To monitor and analyze changes in mortality over time, we have explored this issue within the EuroSIDA study and propose a standardized protocol unifying data collected and allowing for classification of all deaths as AIDS or non......-AIDS related, including events with missing cause of death. Methods: Several classifications of the underlying cause of death as AIDS or non-AIDS related within the EuroSIDA study were compared: central classification (CC-reference group) based on an externally standardised method (the CoDe procedures), local...

  16. AIDS-related myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Rafiq A.; Yasmeen, Shagufta; Munn, Robert; Ruebner, Boris H.; Ellis, William G.

    1999-09-01

    Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is often associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and wasting is one of the defining clinical features of AIDS. Muscular weakness due to myopathy may develop at any stage of HIV infection. We report two illustrative cases of HIV-associated myopathies. One was due to inflammatory myosits most likely directly related to the HIV infection, and the other was most likely the result of mitochondrial damage due to zidovudine, a nucleoside analogue commonly used in treating HIV infection. Biopsies from both patients showed alterations of myofiber structures, of varying severity, culminating in necrosis, lipid droplets, and lymphoplasmocytic inflammatory response. The zidovudine-treated patient also showed distinctive mitochondrial changes, predominantly enlargement, variation in shape and size, and disorganization of the cristae. These two types of HIV-associated inflammatory myopathies are reviewed, along with other HIV-associated myopathies, including HIV wasting syndrome, nemaline rod myopathy, pyomyositis, rhabdomyolysis, cardiomyopathy, and other miscellaneous myopathies associated with HIV infection. PMID:11810429

  17. Clinico-microbiological study of opportunistic infection in HIV seropositive patients

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    Sangeeta D Patel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of respiratory, gastrointestinal and other pathogens in 100 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV seropositive patients. Settings: This study was carried out on randomly selected 100 HIV seropositive patients from S. S. G. Hospital during the period from Jan 2006 to Jan 2007. Materials and Methods: Sputum samples, stool samples and oral swabs were collected from all the patients and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF was collected from symptomatic patients and processed as per the standard protocol. Sputum samples were examined by microscopy and cultured for bacterial respiratory pathogens. Stool samples were concentrated and examined by microscopy for enteric parasites. Oral swabs and CSF were also examined microscopically and cultured for fungal pathogens. CSF was also examined for bacterial pathogens. Results: A total of 101 pathogens were detected in 60 patients. More than one pathogen was observed in 30 patients. Candida was the commonest isolate (32.67%, followed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (22.71% and Cryptosporidium parvum (19.8%. Conclusions: Since opportunistic infections are a major cause of mortality and morbidity in HIV seropositive patients, an early diagnosis and effective treatment are required to tackle them. The type of pathogens infecting HIV patients varies from region to region, and therefore such patients should be constantly screened for these pathogens.

  18. A study of utilization pattern, efficacy and safety of drugs prescribed for opportunistic infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus infected patients

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    Jigar D Kapadia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim was to evaluate the utilization pattern, efficacy and safety of drugs prescribed for opportunistic infections (OIs in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive patients. Materials and Methods: In this observational, prospective, single center study, HIV positive patients were followed-up for a period of 1 year to record the OIs; their clinical course and outcome. Utilization pattern, efficacy and safety of the drugs used were evaluated. Rationality of treatment was assessed using National AIDS Control Organization and Standard Treatment Guidelines. Results: A total of 222 OIs were detected in 134 patients. Majority of patients (90.2% were adults. The commonest OIs included tuberculosis (TB (89, oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC (37, bacterial infections (30 and chronic diarrhea (22. Use of supportive drugs and empirical treatment of certain OIs contributed to a higher number of drugs (average of 3.5 drugs per prescription. Drugs, prescribed in accordance with the above mentioned guidelines, were effective in most cases. Drugs were well-tolerated with only two serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs reported. Majority of ADRs were associated with anti TB drugs. Conclusion: Tuberculosis, oropharyngeal candidiasis, bacterial infections and chronic diarrhea are the commonest OIs. Overall, a rational approach to therapy and good tolerability and efficacy of drugs was observed. Empirical treatment of infections should be minimized.

  19. STUDY OF CHANGES IN OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS AFTER ONE YEAR OF ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY IN HIV INFECTED PATIENTS IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE IN NORTH BENGAL

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    Biswadev Basu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are conflicting data regarding incidence of Opportunistic Infections in newly diagnosed HIV positive patients on ART. In this article, we studied incidence of Opportunistic Infections in newly diagnosed HIV positive in a tertiary care centre in North Bengal after one year of ART. One hundred and twenty patients were followed for one year after initiating ART. The most common opportunistic infections were Tuberculosis, Candidial infection, skin infections and diarrhea. At the baseline, 32 cases were present with tuberculosis (Pulmonary: 10, 6 sputum -ve and 4 sputum +ve, extrapulmonary: 22. Total patients with candidial infections were 15 (Oral: 12, Oesophageal: 3. After the 6 months of followup 13 patients presented with diarrhoea, 8 cases presented with oral candidiasis, 6 cases presented with tuberculosis. At 12 months of followup, 6 patients presented with tuberculosis, 4 cases with oral candidiasis and 3 cases with diarrhoea. Opportunistic infections at baseline were 60.4% among the study population, while after 6 and 12 months of ART it decreased to 33.7% and 16.8% respectively.

  20. [Pathology of the internal organs and central nervous system in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (with special reference to opportunistic infections)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, T; Chinaglia, D; Riviera, L; Capricci, E; Gullotta, F; Spigolon, G; Bauer, A L

    1990-01-01

    Extracerebral and cerebral pathology in AIDS (with particular emphasis on the opportunistic infections). The Authors present the extracerebral pathology of 27 cases of AIDS observed at the Department of Pathology of Milan and the cerebral pathology of 80 cases of AIDS collected by three Institutes (Department of Pathology of Milan, Department of Pathology of Rimini and Department of Neuropathology of Münster) with particular emphasis on the pathology of the opportunistic infections. In the adults' group, the most frequent infections are the protozoan ones (T. gondii) followed with equal incidence by the viral and fungal diseases. In the pediatric group the viral diseases are the most frequently seen. Almost all of the adults show multiple infections in the same organ or in different organs. Diffuse lesions with heavy pathologic fields were observed also without tissue reaction. As to cerebral pathology AIDS' patients with opportunistic infections show focal symptoms, whereas the so called "subacute microglial encephalitis" generally appears as a demential syndrome. In cases with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy JC virus was always found and in one case also SV 40 - and BK virus. The diffuse demyelinization in some cases of HIV-Encephalopathy is aspecific. In HIV-positive newborns with cerebral signs, the lesions are characterized by oedema, spongiosis and microcalcifications of the basal ganglia; these are aspecific lesions which can be found in toxic and infectious encephalopathies.

  1. Miliary tuberculosis: a severe opportunistic infection in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients

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    Priscilla S. Freire

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction One of the main issues in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE patients is infection, such as tuberculosis (TB. Of note, SLE patients are susceptible to pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB. However, to our knowledge, this contagious disease was rarely reported in pediatric lupus population, particularly diffuse or miliary TB. Therefore, from January 1983 to December 2011, 5,635 patients were followed-up at our Pediatric Rheumatology Unit and 285 (5% of them met the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for SLE. Case reports Four (1.4% of our JSLE patients had disseminated TB and were described herein. All of them were female gender, received BCG vaccination and did not have a history of TB household contact. The median of current age at TB diagnosis and the period between JSLE and TB diagnosis were 17 years old (range 14-20 and 5.5 years (range 2-7, respectively. All patients developed miliary TB during the course of the disease. The median of SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K was 4 (2-16 and the patients were treated with immunosuppressive agents (glucocorticoid, azathioprine and/or intravenous cyclophosphamide. Two of them presented sepsis and TB diagnosis was only established at autopsy, especially with lungs, central nervous system and abdominal involvements. Anti-TB therapy (isoniazid, rifampicin and pyrazinamide was indicated in the other two TB cases, however they deceased. Discussion Miliary TB is a rare and severe opportunist infection in pediatric lupus population. This study reinforces the importance of routine searches for TB in JSLE patients.

  2. Opportunistic infections in relation to antiretroviral status among AIDS patients from south India

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    S Srirangaraj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a need to generate data from India on relative frequencies of specific opportunistic infections (OIs in different regions and their relation to the choice of commonly used generic highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART regimens. Objectives: To document the prevailing prevalence pattern of OIs both before and after HAART, to look for reduction in OIs following HAART, to assess the risk of developing new OIs within 6 months of HAART initiation and to see if there is any difference in the risk of developing a new OI within 6 months of HAART initiation, for those on Efavirenz (EFV-based regimens and Nevirapine (NVP-based regimens. Materials and Methods: In a prospective observational cohort study conducted in South India involving 108 ART-naive AIDS patients, different pathogens were isolated and identified using standard laboratory techniques. Data analysis was done using SPSS software (version 16.0. Risk of developing an OI after HAART initiation was assessed using the likelihood ratio test from Cox regression models. Results: Tuberculosis (53.4%, oral Candidiasis (27.2% and Herpes Zoster (14.7% were the common infections seen. There was a drastic reduction of 96.59% in OI events after 6 months of HAART. The risk of developing an OI within 6 months of HAART initiation was 5.56%. Time to development of an OI in the first 6 months of HAART was shorter for the NVP-based regimens than with EFV-based regimens, but this difference was not statistically significant (HR=0.891, 95% CI: 0.179-4.429; P=0.888. Conclusion: Tuberculosis is the most important OI before initiation of HAART. Both EFV and NVP-based regimens are equally efficacious in controlling OIs.

  3.  Mycolic acids – potential biomarkers of opportunistic infections caused by bacteria of the suborder Corynebacterineae

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    Konrad Kowalski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available  Mycolic acids are one of the basic elements of the cell wall structure of bacteria belonging to the suborder Corynebacterineae, constituting from 20�0to 40�0of dry weight. Additionally, they show high structural diversity within each family and species. Nowadays, profiles of mycolic acids are widely described for the genus Mycobacterium, the causative agent of tuberculosis. However, the suborder Corynebacterineae also includes many representatives of opportunistic human pathogens, e.g. Dietzia, Gordonia, Nocardia and Rhodococcus. Currently, an increased infection risk caused by this group of microorganisms especially in immunocompromised patients has been observed. Better knowledge of mycolic acid profiles for Corynebacterineae may allow identification of mycolic acids as diagnostic markers in the detection of opportunistic bacterial infections. Modern techniques of chemical analysis, including mass spectrometry, may enable the development of new chemotaxonomic methods for the detection and differentiation of bacteria within the suborder Corynebacterineae.

  4. Vegetable microbiomes: is there a connection among opportunistic infections, human health and our ‘gut feeling'?

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Gabriele; Erlacher, Armin; Smalla, Kornelia; Krause, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The highly diverse microbiomes of vegetables are reservoirs for opportunistic and emerging pathogens. In recent years, an increased consumption, larger scale production and more efficient distribution of vegetables together with an increased number of immunocompromised individuals resulted in an enhanced number of documented outbreaks of human infections associated with the consumption of vegetables. Here we discuss the occurrence of potential pathogens in vegetable microbiomes, the impact of...

  5. SURVEY OF HOUSE RAT INTESTINAL PARASITES FROM SURABAYA DISTRICT, EAST JAVA, INDONESIA THAT CAN CAUSE OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HUMANS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, R H

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of house rat zoonotic intestinal parasites from Surabaya District, East Java, Indonesia that have the potential to cause opportunistic infection in humans. House rat fecal samples were collected from an area of Surabaya District with a dense rat population during May 2015. Intestinal parasites were detected microscopically using direct smear of feces stained with Lugol's iodine and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stains. The fecal samples were also cultured for Strongyloides stercoralis. Ninety-eight house rat fecal samples were examined. The potential opportunistic infection parasite densities found in those samples were Strongyloides stercoralis in 53%, Hymenolepis nana in 42%, Cryptosporidium spp in 33%, and Blastocystis spp in 6%. This is the first report of this kind in Surabaya District. Measures need to be taken to control the house rat population in the study area to reduce the risk of the public health problem. Keywords: zoonotic intestinal parasites, opportunistic infection, house rat, densely populated area, Indonesia PMID:27244955

  6. SURVEY OF HOUSE RAT INTESTINAL PARASITES FROM SURABAYA DISTRICT, EAST JAVA, INDONESIA THAT CAN CAUSE OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HUMANS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, R H

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of house rat zoonotic intestinal parasites from Surabaya District, East Java, Indonesia that have the potential to cause opportunistic infection in humans. House rat fecal samples were collected from an area of Surabaya District with a dense rat population during May 2015. Intestinal parasites were detected microscopically using direct smear of feces stained with Lugol's iodine and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stains. The fecal samples were also cultured for Strongyloides stercoralis. Ninety-eight house rat fecal samples were examined. The potential opportunistic infection parasite densities found in those samples were Strongyloides stercoralis in 53%, Hymenolepis nana in 42%, Cryptosporidium spp in 33%, and Blastocystis spp in 6%. This is the first report of this kind in Surabaya District. Measures need to be taken to control the house rat population in the study area to reduce the risk of the public health problem. Keywords: zoonotic intestinal parasites, opportunistic infection, house rat, densely populated area, Indonesia

  7. Urine Stasis Predisposes to Urinary Tract Infection by an Opportunistic Uropathogen in the Megabladder (Mgb Mouse.

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    Brian Becknell

    Full Text Available Urinary stasis is a risk factor for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI. Homozygous mutant Megabladder (Mgb-/- mice exhibit incomplete bladder emptying as a consequence of congenital detrusor aplasia. We hypothesize that this predisposes Mgb-/- mice to spontaneous and experimental UTI.Mgb-/-, Mgb+/-, and wild-type female mice underwent serial ultrasound and urine cultures at 4, 6, and 8 weeks to detect spontaneous UTI. Urine bacterial isolates were analyzed by Gram stain and speciated. Bladder stones were analyzed by x-ray diffractometry. Bladders and kidneys were subject to histologic analysis. The pathogenicity of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS isolated from Mgb-/- urine was tested by transurethral administration to culture-negative Mgb-/- or wild-type animals. The contribution of urinary stasis to CONS susceptibility was evaluated by cutaneous vesicostomy in Mgb-/- mice.Mgb-/- mice develop spontaneous bacteriuria (42% and struvite bladder stones (31% by 8 weeks, findings absent in Mgb+/- and wild-type controls. CONS was cultured as a solitary isolate from Mgb-/- bladder stones. Bladders and kidneys from mice with struvite stones exhibit mucosal injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. These pathologic features of cystitis and pyelonephritis are replicated by transurethral inoculation of CONS in culture-negative Mgb-/- females, whereas wild-type animals are less susceptible to CONS colonization and organ injury. Cutaneous vesicostomy prior to CONS inoculation significantly reduces the quantity of CONS recovered from Mgb-/- urine, bladders, and kidneys.CONS is an opportunistic uropathogen in the setting of urinary stasis, leading to enhanced UTI incidence and severity in Mgb-/- mice.

  8. Urine Stasis Predisposes to Urinary Tract Infection by an Opportunistic Uropathogen in the Megabladder (Mgb) Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becknell, Brian; Mohamed, Ahmad Z.; Li, Birong; Wilhide, Michael E.; Ingraham, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Urinary stasis is a risk factor for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI). Homozygous mutant Megabladder (Mgb-/-) mice exhibit incomplete bladder emptying as a consequence of congenital detrusor aplasia. We hypothesize that this predisposes Mgb-/- mice to spontaneous and experimental UTI. Methods Mgb-/-, Mgb+/-, and wild-type female mice underwent serial ultrasound and urine cultures at 4, 6, and 8 weeks to detect spontaneous UTI. Urine bacterial isolates were analyzed by Gram stain and speciated. Bladder stones were analyzed by x-ray diffractometry. Bladders and kidneys were subject to histologic analysis. The pathogenicity of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS) isolated from Mgb-/- urine was tested by transurethral administration to culture-negative Mgb-/- or wild-type animals. The contribution of urinary stasis to CONS susceptibility was evaluated by cutaneous vesicostomy in Mgb-/- mice. Results Mgb-/- mice develop spontaneous bacteriuria (42%) and struvite bladder stones (31%) by 8 weeks, findings absent in Mgb+/- and wild-type controls. CONS was cultured as a solitary isolate from Mgb-/- bladder stones. Bladders and kidneys from mice with struvite stones exhibit mucosal injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. These pathologic features of cystitis and pyelonephritis are replicated by transurethral inoculation of CONS in culture-negative Mgb-/- females, whereas wild-type animals are less susceptible to CONS colonization and organ injury. Cutaneous vesicostomy prior to CONS inoculation significantly reduces the quantity of CONS recovered from Mgb-/- urine, bladders, and kidneys. Conclusions CONS is an opportunistic uropathogen in the setting of urinary stasis, leading to enhanced UTI incidence and severity in Mgb-/- mice. PMID:26401845

  9. Prevalent Opportunistic Infections Associated with HIV-positive Children 0-5 years in Benin City, Nigeria

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    Imade, P. E.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 620 HIV positive children 0-5 years attending University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, were examined in this study. They were grouped into less than 1 year and 1-5 years based on CDC classification system. 218 children were under 1 year and 402 were 1-5 years. The overall results showed that malaria infection recorded the highest prevalence with 71.10% in less than 1 year and 76.37% in 1-5 years. This was followed by Oral Candidiasis 38.07% in less than 1 year and 50% in 1-5 years. Bacteraemia had 23.40% and 30.60% in less than 1 year and 1-5 years respectively. Diarrhoea, 14.22% in less than 1 year and 17.66% in 1-5 years. Otitis media had 10.55% and 10.95% in less than 1 year and 1-5 years respectively. Similarly, 590 apparently healthy HIV-negative children within the same age group were evaluated for the presence of these infections. There was a statistical significance between opportunistic infections and HIV infection (P < 0.001. Malaria infection was the most prevalent opportunistic infection in this population and may probably be due to environmental condition of this locality as well as the low immune status of the children.

  10. Nutri-medicinal plants used in the management of HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in western Uganda : documentation, phytochemistry and bioactivity evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Asiimwe, Savina

    2015-01-01

    As a result of the AIDS epidemic, many people are immunocompromised and opportunistic infections are common. Medicinal plants constitute one of the fundaments of HIV treatment and are commonly used in management of HIV–related ailments, and also to counteract the side effects of antiretroviral therapy. This study documents and evaluates nutri-medicinal plants traditionally used in the management of opportunistic infections associated with HIV/AIDS in western Uganda. A six-stage process of doc...

  11. Parasite Genotypically Related to a Monoxenous Trypanosomatid of Dog's Flea Causing Opportunistic Infection in an HIV Positive Patient

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    Pacheco Raquel S

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available An HIV positive patient presenting a clinical picture of visceral leishmaniasis co-infection was submitted to a bone marrow aspiration after admission to hospital. Amastigotes forms were seen in the bone marrow aspirate and the parasite grew in culture as promastigotes. Molecular analyses showed that the flagellates isolated did not belong to the genera Leishmania, Trypanosoma or Sauroleishmania. It was not possible to establish infection in laboratory animals. In vitro culture of mouse peritoneal macrophages revealed the invasion of the host cells by the flagellates and their killing 48 hr after infection. Opportunistic infection with an insect trypanosomatid was suspected. Further hybridization analyses against a pannel of different monoxenous and heteroxenous trypanosomatids showed kDNA cross-homology with Leptomonas pulexsimulantis a trypanosomatid found in the dog's flea

  12. Magnitude of opportunistic infections and associated factors in HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy in eastern Ethiopia

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    Mitiku H

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Habtamu Mitiku, Fitsum Weldegebreal, Zelalem Teklemariam Haramaya University, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Harar, Ethiopia Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of opportunistic infections (OIs and associated factors among HIV-infected adults on anti-retroviral therapy (ART in Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia. Patients and methods: A hospital-based retrospective study was conducted in 358 HIV-infected adult patients on ART from April to June 2014. Data were collected through review of clinical records. The data was entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 16.0. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the association of each independent variable with occurrence of OIs. A 95% confidence interval (CI and P-value less than 0.05 were considered as significant association. Results: A total of 358 patients were included in the study, in which majority (68.4% were females. The mean age of patients was 34 (standard deviation [SD] ±9.8 years. The overall of prevalence of OIs among HIV/AIDS patients on ART was 48%. The highest prevalent rates of OIs observed were tuberculosis (TB (21.23%, followed by Herpes zoster (11.2% and oral candidiasis (9.5%. Baseline CD4 cell count <200 cells/mm3 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =1.645, 95% CI =2.187, 3.983, baseline World Health Organization (WHO clinical stage III (AOR =2.801, 95% CI =1.958, 7.165 and IV (AOR =3.856; 95% CI =2.691, 10.390, and not using prophylaxis (AOR =1.912, 95% CI =1.444, 3.824 were found to have strong association with acquisition of OIs. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of OIs observed in this study. Baselines CD4 count of <200 cells/mm3, advanced WHO clinical stages, and not using prophylaxis were found to be predictors of OIs. Interventions were aimed at promoting early HIV testing and enrollment of HIV-infected individuals into ART services needed before CD4

  13. Characterization of a new simian immunodeficiency virus strain in a naturally infected Pan troglodytes troglodytes chimpanzee with AIDS related symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Aghokeng Avelin F; Tamoufe Ubald; Djoko Cyrille F; Nana Ahmadou; Rousset Dominique; Foupouapouognigni Yacouba; Bibila Godwin; LeBreton Matthew; Nerrienet Eric; Etienne Lucie; Mpoudi-Ngole Eitel; Delaporte Eric; Peeters Martine; Wolfe Nathan D; Ayouba Ahidjo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Data on the evolution of natural SIV infection in chimpanzees (SIVcpz) and on the impact of SIV on local ape populations are only available for Eastern African chimpanzee subspecies (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii), and no data exist for Central chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes), the natural reservoir of the ancestors of HIV-1 in humans. Here, we report a case of naturally-acquired SIVcpz infection in a P.t.troglodytes chimpanzee with clinical and biological data a...

  14. 江苏省男性HIV感染者/AIDS患者AIDS相关支原体感染情况分析%Analysis for infection of AIDS-related mycoplasma in male HIV carrier and AIDS patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周良佳; 吴建茹; 朱一; 徐金水; 傅更锋; 王蓓

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解HIV感染者或AIDS患者AIDS相关支原体生殖支原体(Mycoplasma genitalium,Mg)、发酵支原体(Mycoplasma fermentans,Mf)、穿通支原体(Mycoplasma penetrans,Mpe)和梨支原体(Mycoplasma pirum,Mpi)的感染状况并分析其与疾病发展的关系,为进一步研究AIDS相关支原体在HIV感染者/AIDS患者免疫功能变化中的作用提供依据.方法 对江苏省312名男性HIV感染者/AIDS患者采用流行病学横断面调查的方法,在调查对象知情同意的基础上开展问卷调查,同时采集首段尿、静脉血标本.用PCR法检测支原体,流式细胞仪检测外周血CD4+T淋巴细胞,ELISA双抗体夹心法检测细胞因子水平.结果 江苏省男性HIV感染者/AIDS患者中,除无Mpe感染外,存在其他3种AIDS相关支原体Mg、Mf、Mpi的感染,检出率分别为26.9%、13.8%和21.8%.Mf的感染率在不同CD4+T细胞水平者间的差异有统计学意义(x2=11.775,P=0.003).对男性HIV感染者/AIDS合并AIDS相关支原体感染者血清细胞因子水平进行分析,合并支原体感染组的IL-4水平(4.437pg/mL)高于单纯HIV感染组(1.922 pg/mL),IL-6水平(0.431 pg/mL)低于单纯HIV感染组(0.532 pg/mL),差异均有统计学意义(P<0.001).多因素logistic回归分析结果显示,苏南地区较苏北地区AIDS相关支原体感染危险性高(OR=2.388,95%CI:1.212 ~4.706),而苏中较苏南地区AIDS相关支原体感染危险性低(OR=0.447,95% CI:0.253 ~0.790);HIV感染者/AIDS患者积极进行抗逆转录病毒治疗者发生AIDS相关支原体感染的危险性较小(OR=0.545,95%CI:0.311~0.955).结论 江苏省男性HIV感染者/AIDS患者存在较高AIDS相关支原体的感染;支原体感染与机体免疫状况具有一定的相关性,但其关联机制还需要进一步深入探讨.%Objective To investigate the prevalence of infection with AIDS-related mycoplasma, including Mycoplasma genitalium ( Mg) , Mycoplasma fermentans ( Mf) , Mycoplasma

  15. Absolute level of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection is not predictive of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Baarle, Debbie; Wolthers, Katja C; Hovenkamp, Egbert; Niesters, Hubert G M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Miedema, Frank; Van Oers, Marinus H J

    2002-01-01

    To study whether Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) load can be used to predict the occurrence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma (AIDS-NHL), we determined EBV load longitudinally for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. EBV load in peripheral blood mo

  16. Increase in non-AIDS related conditions as causes of death among HIV-infected individuals in the HAART era in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio G Pacheco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 1996, Brazil became the first developing country to provide free and universal access to HAART. Although a decrease in overall mortality has been documented, there are no published data on the impact of HAART on causes of death among HIV-infected individuals in Brazil. We assessed temporal trends of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD, diabetes mellitus (DM and other conditions generally not associated with HIV-infection among persons with and without HIV infection in Brazil between 1999 and 2004. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Odds ratios were used to compare causes of death in individuals who had HIV/AIDS listed on any field of the death certificate with those who did not. Logistic regression models were fitted with generalized estimating equations to account for spatial correlation; co-variables were added to the models to control for potential confounding. Of 5,856,056 deaths reported in Brazil between 1999 and 2004 67,249 (1.15% had HIV/AIDS listed on the death certificate and non-HIV-related conditions were listed on 16.3% in 1999, increasing to 24.1% by 2004 (p<0.001. The adjusted average yearly increases were 8% and 0.8% for CVD (p<0.001, and 12% and 2.8% for DM (p<0.001, for those who had and did not have HIV/AIDS listed on the death certificate, respectively. Similar results were found for these conditions as underlying causes of death. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In Brazil between 1999 and 2004 conditions usually considered not to be related to HIV-infection appeared to become more likely causes of death over time than reported causes of death among individuals who had HIV/AIDS listed on the death certificate than in those who did not. This observation has important programmatic implications for developing countries that are scaling-up access to antiretroviral therapy.

  17. Hemophagocytic Syndrome Associated with Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in a Patient with AIDS Related Burkitt’s Leukemia/Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Kanıtez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has markedly decreased human immunodeficiency virus- (HIV- related mortality and the incidence of opportunistic infections. The dramatic reduction in HIV-1 RNA and increase in CD4 lymphocyte count mean a recovery in immune function. This restoration in immune function may be associated with paradoxical deterioration in subclinical opportunistic infections in some patients, a condition called immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS. IRIS, a “paradoxical” inflammatory response to either previously treated or subclinical infections or noninfectious diseases, can manifest during the restoration phase of immunity hemophagocytic syndrome (HS which is a very rare complication in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS. We describe a case of hemophagocytic syndrome associated with IRIS in a patient with AIDS related Burkitt’s leukemia/lymphoma (BL. IRIS was probably the cause of hemophagocytosis for our patient. Zoster infection may facilitate to IRIS. With the increasing number of people with HIV infection and the accompanying use of HAART, much more clinical manifestations of IRIS will be experienced especially in patients given high dose chemotherapy, just like in our case.

  18. The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa activates the DNA double-strand break signaling and repair pathway in infected cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly hazardous DNA double-strand breaks can be induced in eukaryotic cells by a number of agents including pathogenic bacterial strains. We have investigated the genotoxic potential of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen causing devastating nosocomial infections in cystic fibrosis or immunocompromised patients. Our data revealed that infection of immune or epithelial cells by P. aeruginosa triggered DNA strand breaks and phosphorylation of histone H2AX (γH2AX), a marker of DNA double-strand breaks. Moreover, it induced formation of discrete nuclear repair foci similar to gamma-irradiation-induced foci, and containing γH2AX and 53BP1, an adaptor protein mediating the DNA-damage response pathway. Gene deletion, mutagenesis, and complementation in P. aeruginosa identified ExoS bacterial toxin as the major factor involved in γH2AX induction. Chemical inhibition of several kinases known to phosphorylate H2AX demonstrated that Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) was the principal kinase in P. aeruginosa-induced H2AX phosphorylation. Finally, infection led to ATM kinase activation by an auto-phosphorylation mechanism. Together, these data show for the first time that infection by P. aeruginosa activates the DNA double-strand break repair machinery of the host cells. This novel information sheds new light on the consequences of P. aeruginosa infection in mammalian cells. As pathogenic Escherichia coli or carcinogenic Helicobacter pylori can alter genome integrity through DNA double-strand breaks, leading to chromosomal instability and eventually cancer, our findings highlight possible new routes for further investigations of P. aeruginosa in cancer biology and they identify ATM as a potential target molecule for drug design. (authors)

  19. HIV/AIDS相关性慢性腹泻患者感染空肠弯曲菌的临床分析%Infections of Campylobacter Jejuni among Patients with HIV/AIDS-related Chronic Diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华文浩; 王慧珠; 赵辉; 李敏; 张燕; 田敬华; 王玉光

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the Campylobacter jejuni infection status of HIV/AIDS patients with chronic diarrhea in Beijing, Henan, and Xinjiang.Methods Micro - aerobic cultivation of stool specimens were carried out in 253 cases of HIV/AIDS patients with chronic diarrhea in Beijing, Henan, and Xinjiang.The colonies were identified according to morphology, Gram staining, and results frombiochemical reactions.Results Two strains of Campylobacter jejuni were identified from the 253 cases of HIV/AIDS - related chronic diarrhea ( infection rate: 0.8% ).Conclusion It is important that monitoring for Campylobacter jejuni be carried out in high risk patients for prevention and control of the infection of the bacteria.%目的 了解北京、河南、新疆三地HIV/AIDS相关性慢性腹泻患者空肠弯曲菌的感染状况.方法 对北京、河南、新疆三地253例HIV/AIDS慢性腹泻患者的粪便标本进行微需氧培养,根据菌落的形态、菌体的革兰染色及生化反应进行鉴定.结果 从253例HIV/AIDS相关性慢性腹泻患者的粪便中共检出2株空肠弯曲菌,感染率为0.8%.结论 加强空肠弯曲菌的监测是预防和控制空肠弯曲菌病的重要手段.

  20. Spectrum of Opportunistic Infections and Risk Factors for In-Hospital Mortality of Admitted AIDS Patients in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bin; Sun, Jianjun; Cai, Rentian; Shen, Yinzhong; Liu, Li; Wang, Jiangrong; Zhang, Renfang; Shen, Jiayin; Lu, Hongzhou

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the frequency and the spectrum of major opportunistic infections (OIs), evaluate the major clinical factors associated with each specific OI, and identify the risk factors for in-hospital death among HIV patients in East China.A retrospective cohort study was made including all the HIV-infected patients who were admitted for the first time to the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center during June 1, 2013 to June 1, 2015. The demographic and clinical data were collected. Comparison of continuous variables was analyzed by one-way ANOVA and rank sum test. Person χ test and Fisher exact test were applied to analyze the categorical variables. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to determine the risk for the occurrence of in-hospital death.In total, 920 patients were enrolled with age of 41.59 ± 13.36 years and 91% male. Median CD4 was 34 (IQR, 13-94) cells/μL. Among these patients, 94.7% acquired OIs while the rest developed malignancies. Pneumocystis pneumonia and bacterial coinfection (42.1%) was found to be the most common OIs, followed by tuberculosis (31.4%), CMV (20.9%), Cryptococcosis (9.0%), and MAC infection (5.2%). Of the above 5 major OIs, CMV-infected patients had the lowest median CD4 cell count 22.50 (IQR, 7.50-82.00) while the patients with tuberculosis infection had the highest count 61.00 (IQR, 27.00-176.00). In-hospital death rate was 4.2 per 100 person-years among these patients. Of note, admitted patients with 2 types of OIs (2.20, 95% CI 1.39-3.48) and those patients who were 40-year old or older (1.75, 95% CI 1.10-2.78) had a higher risk of such death.Pneumocystis pneumonia and tuberculosis were still the leading causes for the admission of HIV-infected patients in East China, and these patients tended to have very low CD4 cell counts. It is believed that expanding the HIV screening test and pushing the infected ones get ART earlier is required for generating a more successful HIV management strategy.

  1. Multicenter Outbreak of Infections by Saprochaete clavata, an Unrecognized Opportunistic Fungal Pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Vaux, Sophie; Criscuolo, Alexis; Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Diancourt, Laure; Tarnaud, Chloé; Vandenbogaert, Matthias; Brisse, Sylvain; Coignard, Bruno; Dromer, Françoise; ,; Garcia-Hermoso, Dea; Blanc, Catherine; Hoinard, Damien; Lortholary, Olivier; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rapidly fatal cases of invasive fungal infections due to a fungus later identified as Saprochaete clavata were reported in France in May 2012. The objectives of this study were to determine the clonal relatedness of the isolates and to investigate possible sources of contamination. A nationwide alert was launched to collect cases. Molecular identification methods, whole-genome sequencing (WGS), and clone-specific genotyping were used to analyze recent and historical isolates, and a c...

  2. Banana infecting fungus, Fusarium musae, is also an opportunistic human pathogen: are bananas potential carriers and source of fusariosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triest, David; Stubbe, Dirk; De Cremer, Koen; Piérard, Denis; Detandt, Monique; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2015-01-01

    During re-identification of Fusarium strains in the BCCM™/IHEM fungal collection by multilocus sequence-analysis we observed that five strains, previously identified as Fusarium verticillioides, were Fusarium musae, a species described in 2011 from banana fruits. Four strains were isolated from blood samples or biopsies of immune-suppressed patients and one was isolated from the clinical environment, all originating from different hospitals in Belgium or France, 2001-2008. The F. musae identity of our isolates was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis using reference sequences of type material. Absence of the gene cluster necessary for fumonisin biosynthesis, characteristic to F. musae, was also the case for our isolates. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing revealed no important differences in their susceptibility compared to clinical F. verticillioides strains and terbinafine was the most effective drug. Additional clinical F. musae strains were searched by performing BLAST queries in GenBank. Eight strains were found, of which six were keratitis cases from the U.S. multistate contact lens-associated outbreak in 2005 and 2006. The two other strains were also from the U.S., causing either a skin infection or sinusitis. This report is the first to describe F. musae as causative agent of superficial and opportunistic, disseminated infections in humans. Imported bananas might act as carriers of F. musae spores and be a potential source of infection with F. musae in humans. An alternative hypothesis is that the natural distribution of F. musae is geographically a lot broader than originally suspected and F. musae is present on different plant hosts.

  3. Opportunistic infection of Aspergillus and bacteria in captive Cape vultures (Gyps coprotheres)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen Chege; Judith Howlett; Majid Al Qassimi; Arshad Toosy; Joerg Kinne; Vincent Obanda

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe clinical signs, pathology, diagnosis and treatment of Cape vultures in which Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) and mixed species of bacteria were isolated. Methods: Six Cape vultures sourced from South Africa for exhibition at Al Ain Zoo developed illness manifesting as anorexia, dyspnea, polyuria and lethargy. Three vultures died manifesting‘‘pneumonia-like syndrome’’. These three vultures were necropsied and gross lesions recorded, while organ tissues were collected for histopathology. Internal organs were swabbed for bacteriology and mycology. From live vultures, blood was collected for hematology and biochemistry, oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were collected for mycology and bacteriology. Results: A. fumigatus was isolated from the three dead vultures and two live ones that eventually survived. One of the dead vulture and two live vultures were co-infected with A. fumigatus and mixed species of bacteria that included Clostridium perfringens, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Escherichia, Proteus, Enterococcus and Enterbacter. One of the Cape vulture and a Lappet-faced vulture, however, were free of Aspergillus or bacterial infections. At necropsy, intestinal hemorrhages were observed and the lungs were overtly congested with granulomas present on caudal air sac. Histopathological examinations demonstrated granulomatous lesions that were infiltrated by mononuclear cells and giant cells. Conclusions: Aspergillosis is a persistent threat to captive birds and we recommend routine health assessments so that early diagnosis may prompt early treatment. It is likely that prompt prophylaxis by broad spectrum antibiotics and antifungals medication contributed to the survival of some of the vultures.

  4. [Intraspecies diversity of Trichosporon asahii as the causative agent of opportunistic fungal infection and summer-type hypersensitivity pneumonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Trichosporon asahii is the major causative agent of the opportunistic infection trichosporonosis, and also causes summer-type hypersensitivity pneumonitis (SHP). Random amplification of polymorphic DNA analysis was used to determine the intraspecies diversity of T. asahii isolates from clinical specimens,the houses of SHP patients, and environmental material. Clinical isolates formed a cluster, characterized by a 90% matching coefficient, but they did not cluster with strains isolated from SHP patients houses or environmental sources. The biochemical characteristics of T. asahii isolates from the three sources were compared, and a phenogram was constructed. One of the two clusters included most of the clinical isolates and strains isolated from the houses, and the other cluster included most of the environmental isolates. There was a remarkable difference in the abilities of the strains belonging to these clusters to utilize several compounds. These results suggest that the genetic diversity and biochemical characteristics of T. asahii are related to the source of the isolates. In addition, based on the IGS1 sequence, which is located between the 26S and 5S rRNA genes, we identified five genotypes of T. asahii, which is a major causative agent of deep-seated trichosporonosis. Of the five genotypes, three were isolates that originated in Japan, whereas two were American isolates. IGS sequence analysis shows great potential as a new epidemiological tool. PMID:12590253

  5. Oral-resident natural Th17 cells and γδ T cells control opportunistic Candida albicans infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Heather R; Peterson, Alanna C; Brane, Lucas; Huppler, Anna R; Hernández-Santos, Nydiaris; Whibley, Natasha; Garg, Abhishek V; Simpson-Abelson, Michelle R; Gibson, Gregory A; Mamo, Anna J; Osborne, Lisa C; Bishu, Shrinivas; Ghilardi, Nico; Siebenlist, Ulrich; Watkins, Simon C; Artis, David; McGeachy, Mandy J; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2014-09-22

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is an opportunistic fungal infection caused by Candida albicans. OPC is frequent in HIV/AIDS, implicating adaptive immunity. Mice are naive to Candida, yet IL-17 is induced within 24 h of infection, and susceptibility is strongly dependent on IL-17R signaling. We sought to identify the source of IL-17 during the early innate response to candidiasis. We show that innate responses to Candida require an intact TCR, as SCID, IL-7Rα(-/-), and Rag1(-/-) mice were susceptible to OPC, and blockade of TCR signaling by cyclosporine induced susceptibility. Using fate-tracking IL-17 reporter mice, we found that IL-17 is produced within 1-2 d by tongue-resident populations of γδ T cells and CD3(+)CD4(+)CD44(hi)TCRβ(+)CCR6(+) natural Th17 (nTh17) cells, but not by TCR-deficient innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) or NK cells. These cells function redundantly, as TCR-β(-/-) and TCR-δ(-/-) mice were both resistant to OPC. Whereas γδ T cells were previously shown to produce IL-17 during dermal candidiasis and are known to mediate host defense at mucosal surfaces, nTh17 cells are poorly understood. The oral nTh17 population expanded rapidly after OPC, exhibited high TCR-β clonal diversity, and was absent in Rag1(-/-), IL-7Rα(-/-), and germ-free mice. These findings indicate that nTh17 and γδ T cells, but not ILCs, are key mucosal sentinels that control oral pathogens.

  6. Opportunistic Music

    OpenAIRE

    Hachet, Martin; Kian, Arash; Berthaut, Florent; Franco, Jean-Sébastien; Desainte-Catherine, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    International audience; While mixed reality has inspired the development of many new musical instruments, few approaches explore the potential of mobile setups. We present a new musical interaction concept, called "opportunistic music". It allows musicians to recreate a hardware musical controller using any objects of their immediate environment. This approach benefits from the physical properties of real objects for controlling music. Our prototype is based on a stereo-vision tracking system...

  7. Multicenter Outbreak of Infections by Saprochaete clavata, an Unrecognized Opportunistic Fungal Pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaux, Sophie; Criscuolo, Alexis; Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Diancourt, Laure; Tarnaud, Chloé; Vandenbogaert, Matthias; Brisse, Sylvain; Coignard, Bruno; Garcia-Hermoso, Dea; Blanc, Catherine; Hoinard, Damien; Lortholary, Olivier; Bretagne, Stéphane; Thiolet, Jean-Michel; de Valk, Henriette; Courbil, Rémi; Chabanel, Anne; Simonet, Marion; Maire, Francoise; Jbilou, Saadia; Tiberghien, Pierre; Blanchard, Hervé; Venier, Anne-Gaëlle; Bernet, Claude; Simon, Loïc; Sénéchal, Hélène; Pouchol, Elodie; Angot, Christiane; Ribaud, Patricia; Socié, G.; Flèche, M.; Brieu, Nathalie; Lagier, Evelyne; Chartier, Vanessa; Allegre, Thierry; Maulin, Laurence; Lanic, Hélène; Tilly, Hervé; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Pihet, Marc; Schmidt, Aline; Kouatchet, Achille; Vandamme, Yves-Marie; Ifrah, Norbert; Mercat, Alain; Accoceberry, Isabelle; Albert, Olivier; Leguay, Thibaut; Rogues, Anne-Marie; Bonhomme, Julie; Reman, Oumédaly; Lesteven, Claire; Poirier, Philippe; Chabrot, Cécile Molucon; Calvet, Laure; Baud, Olivier; Cambon, Monique; Farkas, Jean Chistophe; Lafon, Bruno; Dalle, Frédéric; Caillot, Denis; Lazzarotti, Aline; Aho, Serge; Combret, Sandrine; Facon, Thierry; Sendid, Boualem; Loridant, Séverine; Louis, Terriou; Cazin, Bruno; Grandbastien, Bruno; Bourgeois, Nathalie; Lotthé, Anne; Cartron, Guillaume; Ravel, Christophe; Colson, Pascal; Gaudard, Philippe; Bonmati, Caroline; Simon, Loic; Rabaud, Christian; Machouart, Marie; Poisson, Didier; Carp, Diana; Meunier, Jérôme; Gaschet, Anne; Miquel, Chantal; Sanhes, Laurence; Ferreyra, Milagros; Leibinger, Franck; Geudet, Philippe; Toubas, Dominique; Himberlin, Chantal; Bureau-Chalot, Florence; Delmer, Alain; Favennec, Loïc; Gargala, Gilles; Michot, Jean-Baptiste; Girault, Christophe; David, Marion; Leprêtre, Stéphane; Jardin, Fabrice; Honderlick, Pierre; Caille, Vincent; Cerf, Charles; Cassaing, Sophie; Recher, Christian; Picard, Muriel; Protin, Caroline; Huguet, Françoise; Huynh, Anne; Ruiz, Jean; Riu-Poulenc, Béatrice; Letocart, Philippe; Marchou, Bruno; Verdeil, Xavier; Cavalié, Laurent; Chauvin, Pamela; Iriart, Xavier; Valentin, Alexis; Bouvet, Emmanuelle; Delmas-Marsalet, Béatrice; Jeblaoui, Asma; Kassis-Chikhani, Najiby; Mühlethaler, Konrad; Zimmerli, Stefan; Zalar, Polona; Sánchez-Reus, Ferran; Gurgui, Merce

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rapidly fatal cases of invasive fungal infections due to a fungus later identified as Saprochaete clavata were reported in France in May 2012. The objectives of this study were to determine the clonal relatedness of the isolates and to investigate possible sources of contamination. A nationwide alert was launched to collect cases. Molecular identification methods, whole-genome sequencing (WGS), and clone-specific genotyping were used to analyze recent and historical isolates, and a case-case study was performed. Isolates from thirty cases (26 fungemias, 22 associated deaths at day 30) were collected between September 2011 and October 2012. Eighteen cases occurred within 8 weeks (outbreak) in 10 health care facilities, suggesting a common source of contamination, with potential secondary cases. Phylogenetic analysis identified one clade (clade A), which accounted for 16/18 outbreak cases. Results of microbiological investigations of environmental, drug, or food sources were negative. Analysis of exposures pointed to a medical device used for storage and infusion of blood products, but no fungal contamination was detected in the unused devices. Molecular identification of isolates from previous studies demonstrated that S. clavata can be found in dairy products and has already been involved in monocentric outbreaks in hematology wards. The possibility that S. clavata may transmit through contaminated medical devices or can be associated with dairy products as seen in previous European outbreaks is highly relevant for the management of future outbreaks due to this newly recognized pathogen. This report also underlines further the potential of WGS for investigation of outbreaks due to uncommon fungal pathogens. PMID:25516620

  8. Diagnosis and Management of AIDS-related Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Johanson

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of illness associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS has been increasing since the initial description in 1981. While virtually all organ systems may be affected, the gastrointestinal tract appears to be a major target. Diarrhea is the most common symptom, affecting up to half of all AIDS patients during the course of their disease. Although diarrhea occurs frequently, its optimal management remains controversial. An extensive evaluation including stool studies and endoscopic biopsies of both the colon and small intestine has been widely recommended to identify all potential pathogenic organisms. An alternative approach is a more limited evaluation consisting of stool and blood cultures followed by symptomatic treatment with antidiarrheal agents if no specific organisms are identified. The clinical presentation of the most common opportunistic pathogens are reviewed, including several recently discovered organisms. Recommendations for treatment are followed by a brief discussion of management strategies used to care for patients with AIDS-related diarrhea.

  9. Utility of Molecular Identification in Opportunistic Mycotic Infections: a Case of Cutaneous Alternaria infectoria Infection in a Cardiac Transplant Recipient

    OpenAIRE

    Lo Cascio, G.; M. Ligozzi; Maccacaro, L.; Fontana, R

    2004-01-01

    We report on a case of cutaneous infection caused by Alternaria infectoria in a cardiac transplant recipient. A rapid molecular diagnosis was obtained by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer domain of the 5.8S ribosomal DNA region amplified from colonies developed on Sabouraud medium. Treatment consisted of a combination of systemic antifungal therapy, first with amphotericin B and then with itraconazole.

  10. The Effect of Switching to Second-Line Antiretroviral Therapy on the Risk of Opportunistic Infections Among Patients Infected With Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadhani, Habib O; Bartlett, John A; Thielman, Nathan M; Pence, Brian W; Kimani, Stephen M; Maro, Venance P; Mwako, Mtumwa S; Masaki, Lazaro J; Mmbando, Calvin E; Minja, Mary G; Lirhunde, Eileen S; Miller, William C

    2016-01-01

    Background.  Due to the unintended potential misclassifications of the World Health Organization (WHO) immunological failure criteria in predicting virological failure, limited availability of treatment options, poor laboratory infrastructure, and healthcare providers' confidence in making switches, physicians delay switching patients to second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART). Evaluating whether timely switching and delayed switching are associated with the risk of opportunistic infections (OI) among patients with unrecognized treatment failure is critical to improve patient outcomes. Methods.  A retrospective review of 637 adolescents and adults meeting WHO immunological failure criteria was conducted. Timely and delayed switching to second-line ART were defined when switching happened at second-line ART on the risk of developing OI. Results.  Of 637 patients meeting WHO immunological failure criteria, 396 (62.2%) switched to second-line ART. Of those switched, 230 (58.1%) were delayed. Switching to second-line ART reduced the risk of OI (adjusted hazards ratio [AHR], 0.4; 95% CI, .2-.6). Compared with patients who received timely switch after failure diagnosis was made, those who delayed switching were more likely to develop OI (AHR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-4.3). Conclusion.  Delayed switching to second-line ART after failure diagnosis may increase the risk of OI. Serial immunological assessment for switching patients to second-line ART is critical to improve their outcomes.

  11. Strategies to reduce mortality and morbidity due to AIDS-related cryptococcal meningitis in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, Jose E; Augusto C. Penalva de Oliveira; Dauar, Rafi F.; Boulware, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Latin America is the region with the third most AIDS-related cryptococcal meningitis infections globally. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has reduced the number of infections; however, the number of deaths and the case-fatality rate continues to be unacceptable. In this review, we focus on the burden of AIDS-related cryptococcosis in Latin America and discuss potential strategies to reduce early mortality from Cryptococcus. In this review, we highlight the importance of: (1) earl...

  12. Opportunistic Pathogenic Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Uma

    Advances in medical research, made during the last few decades, have improved the prophylactic, diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities for variety of infections/diseases. However, many of the prophylactic and therapeutic procedures have been seen in many instances to exact a price of host-vulnerability to an expanding group of opportunistic pathogens and yeasts are one of the important members in it. Fortunately amongst the vast majority of yeasts present in nature only few are considered to have the capability to cause infections when certain opportunities predisposes and these are termed as ‘opportunistic pathogenic yeasts.’ However, the term ‘pathogenic’ is quite tricky, as it depends of various factors of the host, the ‘bug’ and the environment to manifest the clinical infection. The borderline is expanding. In the present century with unprecedented increase in number of immune-compromised host in various disciplines of health care settings, where any yeast, which has the capability to grow at 37 ° C (normal body temperature of human), can be pathogenic and cause infection in particular situation

  13. Desarrollo de neoplasias e infecciones definitorias de sida después de iniciar la terapia antirretroviral de alta eficacia Development of AIDS-related malignancies and infections after starting HAART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Warley

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la incidencia de neoplasias e infecciones definitorias de Sida (NIDS y los posibles factores asociados a su desarrollo luego de iniciada la terapia antirretroviral de alta eficacia (HAART analizamos las historias clínicas de los pacientes que iniciaron tratamiento entre julio 2003 y octubre 2007. Todos recibieron profilaxis con trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol y azitromicina según la recomendación actual. Evaluamos el desarrollo de NIDS en los 6 meses posteriores al inicio de la terapia y su asociación con variables clínicas y epidemiológicas. Analizamos 235 historias clínicas: 118 mujeres (50.2% y 117 hombres (49.8%. Observamos 11 casos de NIDS: 3 formas pulmonares y 3 ganglionares de tuberculosis, 3 meningitis por Criptococcus neoformans, 1 chagoma cerebral y 1 linfoma no Hodgkin. Presentar recuento de células CD4 menor a 100 o 150 células/ml se asoció con riesgo de desarrollar NIDS. La media de células CD4 fue 73 en los pacientes que desarrollaron NIDS y 143 en los que no la desarrollaron. No hubo asociación con las otras variables analizadas. En pacientes con CD4 menor a 150 células/ml observamos un caso de chagoma cerebral entre 4 con serología reactiva para Chagas, y ninguno de toxoplasmosis cerebral entre 46 con serología reactiva para toxoplasmosis. Concluimos que la tasa de incidencia de NIDS fue del 4.7%, siendo tuberculosis en primer lugar y criptococosis en segundo las enfermedades más frecuentemente observadas. Presentar bajo recuento de células CD4 se asoció de manera significativa al desarrollo de NIDS. Debería reevaluarse el rol de la quimioprofilaxis.In order to evaluate the incidence rate and possible risk factors associated with AIDS-related malignancies and infections (ARMI we performed data analysis of clinical charts of HIV patients in two hospital cohorts, that started high activity antiretroviral therapy (HAART between July 2003 and October 2007. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and

  14. AIDS-related lymphomas in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Bolarinwa

    2009-10-01

    weeks of admission into the hospital. The prevalence of AIDS-related lymphomas is 2.3% compared to 4.4% found in the general population. However, it is interesting that no single case of AIDS-associated BL was seen, despite the fact that Burkitt's lymphoma is endemic in this part of the world. All the patients presented at a very advanced stage of the disease with significantly shortened survival.

  15. The relationship between expressed HIV/AIDS-related stigma and beliefs and knowledge about care and support of people living with AIDS in families caring for HIV-infected children in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamra, M; Ross, M W; Karuri, K; Orrs, M; D'Agostino, A

    2005-10-01

    At the end of 2001, AIDS-related deaths had left an estimated 900,000 living orphans in Kenya (UNAIDS/WHO Epidemiology fact sheet, Kenya report, 2004). Many of those orphans are also HIV+. In Eastern Kenya, the Lea Toto Kangemi Outreach Program provides support to families caring for HIV+ children, many of whom are orphaned or soon to be orphaned. A major challenge for these families is the stigma attached to the family. In 2003, the Kangemi Program conducted a household survey of client families. We examined markers of expressed stigma and the association between expressed stigma and other demographic and belief/knowledge domains. The focus of the present study was the specific belief/knowledge domain surrounding care/support of HIV+ persons. Our goal was to explore this domain in the Kangemi families and to examine its relationship to expressed stigma. We created an AIDS-related stigma scale from selected items in the household survey and cross-tabulated stigma scores with care/support knowledge items. We found significant associations between less expressed stigma and greater care/support knowledge. Our results have implications for interventions that reduce expressed stigma and/or improve quality of care.

  16. Activation and coagulation biomarkers are independent predictors of the development of opportunistic disease in patients with HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodger, Alison J; Fox, Zoe; Lundgren, Jens;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Activation and coagulation biomarkers were measured within the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) trial. Their associations with opportunistic disease (OD) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients were examined. METHODS: Inflammatory (high......-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP], interleukin-6 [IL-6], amyloid-A, and amyloid-P) and coagulation (D-dimer and prothrombin-fragment 1+2) markers were determined. Conditional logistic regression analyses were used to assess associations between these biomarkers and risk of OD. RESULTS: The 91 patients who...

  17. Aids-Related Cancers in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbulaiteye, Sam M.

    2014-07-01

    Thank you Professor Zichichi for inviting me to give a talk about AIDS-related cancers in Africa. Let me begin by congratulating the team that organized the 46th Session of the Erice International Seminar Series, whose theme is THE ROLE OF SCIENCE IN THE THIRD MILLENIUM. I also congratulate the scientists from 38 countries who are attending these seminars. They are perpetuating the principle of SCIENCE WITHOUT SECRETS in the true spirit espoused by Archimedes, Galileo, and Fermi. It is a wonderful honor for me to be here to shed some light on the health impacts of the HIV epidemic in the area of cancer...

  18. Determination of potentially toxic heavy metals in traditionally used medicinal plants for HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Determine As, Cr, Ni and Pb in traditional plants used to treat HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections. ► Metal levels and provisional tolerable weekly intake levels lower than WHO permissive maximum levels. ► Cr > Pb > As > Ni. ► Consumption of traditional medicinal plants are not health-comprising with respect to metals. - Abstract: The determination of four potentially toxic heavy metals, arsenic, chromium, lead and nickel in twelve plant species used for the treatment of perceived HIV and AIDS-associated opportunistic infections by traditional healers in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana, a metal mining area, was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicinal plants; Dichrostachys cinerea, Maerua angolensis, Mimusops zeyheri, Albizia anthelmintica, Plumbago zeylanica, Combretum imberbe, Indigofera flavicans, Clerodendrum ternatum, Solanum panduriforme, Capparis tomentosa, Terminalia sericea and Maytenus senegalensis contained heavy metals in varying quantities: arsenic 0.19–0.54 μg g−1, chromium 0.15–1.27 μg g−1, lead 0.12–0.23 μg g−1 and nickel 0.09–0.21 μg g−1 of dry weight. Chromium was found to be the most abundant followed by arsenic and lead. Nickel was undetectable in nine plant species. M. senegalensis contained the largest amounts of arsenic, chromium and lead. All metals determined were below the WHO permissive maximum levels. The possible maximum weekly intakes of the heavy metals following treatment regimes were insignificant compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake levels recommended by WHO and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. This suggests that heavy metal exposure to patients originating from consumption of traditional medicinal plant preparations is within non health-compromising limits.

  19. Determination of potentially toxic heavy metals in traditionally used medicinal plants for HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okatch, Harriet, E-mail: okatchh@mopipi.ub.bw [Department of Chemistry, University of Botswana, Private Bag UB 00704, Gaborone (Botswana); Ngwenya, Barbara [Okavango Research Institute, University of Botswana, Maun (Botswana); Raletamo, Keleabetswe M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Botswana, Private Bag UB 00704, Gaborone (Botswana); Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Botswana, Gaborone (Botswana); Centre for Scientific Research, Indigenous Knowledge and Innovation (CESRIKI), P.O. Box 758, Gaborone (Botswana)

    2012-06-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determine As, Cr, Ni and Pb in traditional plants used to treat HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal levels and provisional tolerable weekly intake levels lower than WHO permissive maximum levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cr > Pb > As > Ni. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Consumption of traditional medicinal plants are not health-comprising with respect to metals. - Abstract: The determination of four potentially toxic heavy metals, arsenic, chromium, lead and nickel in twelve plant species used for the treatment of perceived HIV and AIDS-associated opportunistic infections by traditional healers in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana, a metal mining area, was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicinal plants; Dichrostachys cinerea, Maerua angolensis, Mimusops zeyheri, Albizia anthelmintica, Plumbago zeylanica, Combretum imberbe, Indigofera flavicans, Clerodendrum ternatum, Solanum panduriforme, Capparis tomentosa, Terminalia sericea and Maytenus senegalensis contained heavy metals in varying quantities: arsenic 0.19-0.54 {mu}g g{sup -1}, chromium 0.15-1.27 {mu}g g{sup -1}, lead 0.12-0.23 {mu}g g{sup -1} and nickel 0.09-0.21 {mu}g g{sup -1} of dry weight. Chromium was found to be the most abundant followed by arsenic and lead. Nickel was undetectable in nine plant species. M. senegalensis contained the largest amounts of arsenic, chromium and lead. All metals determined were below the WHO permissive maximum levels. The possible maximum weekly intakes of the heavy metals following treatment regimes were insignificant compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake levels recommended by WHO and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. This suggests that heavy metal exposure to patients originating from consumption of traditional medicinal plant preparations is within non health-compromising limits.

  20. HIV and AIDS-related knowledge among women in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals who are aware of the risk of infection and perceive themselves to be at risk of infection are more likely to take action to prevent HIV infection. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Iraqi women. Methods A secondary analysis of the 2000 Multiple Cluster Indicator Survey (MICS for Iraq was carried out to assess the extent of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge among Iraqi women. Results The majority of the 22,997 respondents were age 15–24 years (44.3%, currently married (51.4%, and resided in urban areas (71.7%. About 1 in 4 (26.0% of the study participants had no formal education. Only 49.9% had heard of HIV/AIDS. Overall, 60.5% did not know that HIV can be transmitted through blood transfusion. Meanwhile, 98.5% of the respondents did not know that HIV can be transmitted from mother to child through breast milk. Only 0.7% of the respondents reported that HIV cannot be transmitted through mosquito bites. The proportion of the respondents who had adequate knowledge on HIV/AIDS was 9.8%. Adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS was negatively associated with being married, poor, having low education, and residing in rural areas. Conclusion Findings from this study indicate that adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Iraqi is very limited and associated with marital status, education, wealth, and place of residence. This information may be of use in the design, targeting, monitoring and evaluation of programs aimed at improving HIV and AIDS related knowledge in Iraq.

  1. Safe interruption of maintenance therapy against previous infection with four common HIV-associated opportunistic pathogens during potent antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Ole; Reiss, Peter; Uberti-Foppa, Caterina;

    2002-01-01

    maintenance therapy for cytomegalovirus (CMV) end-organ disease, disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection, cerebral toxoplasmosis, and extrapulmonary cryptococcosis in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Seven European HIV cohorts. PATIENTS: 358...... identified: 162 for CMV disease, 103 for MAC infection, 75 for toxoplasmosis, and 39 for cryptococcosis. During 781 person-years of follow-up, five patients had relapse. Two relapses (one of CMV disease and one of MAC infection) were diagnosed after maintenance therapy was interrupted when the CD4 lymphocyte....... One relapse (toxoplasmosis) was diagnosed after maintenance therapy interruption at a CD4 lymphocyte count greater than 200 x 10(6) cells/L for 15 months. The overall incidences of recurrent CMV disease, MAC infection, toxoplasmosis, and cryptococcosis were 0.54 per 100 person-years (95% CI, 0.07 to 1...

  2. Correlation analysis between lympocyte counts and opportunistic infections in 210 cases of HIV / AIDS patients%210例HIV/AIDS患者淋巴细胞计数与机会性感染相关分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许超宇; 张宇锋; 朱宇佳; 陈昌枝; 覃琼芬; 梁世寅; 李仕雄

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the relation between lymphocyte counts and opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS patients in order to provide reference for the treatment, primary and secondary prophylaxis for HIV/ AIDS patients with opportunistic infections. Methods The total infection rate and type of 210 patients with HIV/AIDS were analyzed. According to lymphocyte counts, patients were divided into two groups; lymphocyte counts more than 1 300 /μi and less than 1 300 /μl. Differences of infection rate of opportunistic infections between two groups were compared. Results The total infection rate of opportunistic infections in 210 cases of HIV/AIDS patients was 86.7%.The major opportunistic infections were oral candidiasis (56.2%), bacterial pneumonia (46.7%), tuberculosis (42.4%), sepsis (21.4% ) and infectious diarrhea (20.5%). The infection incidence in the group of patients with lymphocyte counts less than 1 300/μl (93.6%) was significantly higher than that of patients with lymphocyte counts more than 1 300 /μl (55.3%) (P<0.05). With the decline of lymphocyte counts,the incidence of opportunistic infections increased. Conclusions HIV/AIDS patients have a high incidence of opportunistic infections. Lymphocyte counts was an independent risk factor of opportunistic infections in HIV/ AIDS patients. Therefore, lymphocyte counts of HIV/AIDS patients should be monitored regularly to strengthen the primary and secondary prophylaxis of opportunistic infections.%目的 分析HIV/AIDS患者总淋巴细胞计数(TLC)与机会性感染的关系,为HIV/AIDS患者机会性感染的治疗及一级、二级预防提供参考依据.方法 对2009年6月至2011年5月210例HIV/AIDS患者的淋巴细胞及出现的机会性感染进行分析.将患者分为TLC>1 300个/μl组(G1组)和TLC≤1 300个/μl组(G2组),比较两组患者机会性感染发生率的差异.结果 210例HIV/AIDS患者机会性感染的总感染率为86.7%,主要的机会性

  3. Host genetic background influences the response to the opportunistic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection altering cell-mediated immunity and bacterial replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura De Simone

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common cause of healthcare-associated infections including pneumonia, bloodstream, urinary tract, and surgical site infections. The clinical outcome of P. aeruginosa infections may be extremely variable among individuals at risk and patients affected by cystic fibrosis. However, risk factors for P. aeruginosa infection remain largely unknown. To identify and track the host factors influencing P. aeruginosa lung infections, inbred immunocompetent mouse strains were screened in a pneumonia model system. A/J, BALB/cJ, BALB/cAnNCrl, BALB/cByJ, C3H/HeOuJ, C57BL/6J, C57BL/6NCrl, DBA/2J, and 129S2/SvPasCRL mice were infected with P. aeruginosa clinical strain and monitored for body weight and mortality up to seven days. The most deviant survival phenotypes were observed for A/J, 129S2/SvPasCRL and DBA/2J showing high susceptibility while BALB/cAnNCrl and C3H/HeOuJ showing more resistance to P. aeruginosa infection. Next, one of the most susceptible and resistant mouse strains were characterized for their deviant clinical and immunological phenotype by scoring bacterial count, cell-mediated immunity, cytokines and chemokines profile and lung pathology in an early time course. Susceptible A/J mice showed significantly higher bacterial burden, higher cytokines and chemokines levels but lower leukocyte recruitment, particularly neutrophils, when compared to C3H/HeOuJ resistant mice. Pathologic scores showed lower inflammatory severity, reduced intraluminal and interstitial inflammation extent, bronchial and parenchymal involvement and diminished alveolar damage in the lungs of A/J when compared to C3H/HeOuJ. Our findings indicate that during an early phase of infection a prompt inflammatory response in the airways set the conditions for a non-permissive environment to P. aeruginosa replication and lock the spread to other organs. Host gene(s may have a role in the reduction of cell-mediated immunity playing a critical role in

  4. Host genetic background influences the response to the opportunistic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection altering cell-mediated immunity and bacterial replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, Maura; Spagnuolo, Lorenza; Lorè, Nicola Ivan; Rossi, Giacomo; Cigana, Cristina; De Fino, Ida; Iraqi, Fuad A; Bragonzi, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common cause of healthcare-associated infections including pneumonia, bloodstream, urinary tract, and surgical site infections. The clinical outcome of P. aeruginosa infections may be extremely variable among individuals at risk and patients affected by cystic fibrosis. However, risk factors for P. aeruginosa infection remain largely unknown. To identify and track the host factors influencing P. aeruginosa lung infections, inbred immunocompetent mouse strains were screened in a pneumonia model system. A/J, BALB/cJ, BALB/cAnNCrl, BALB/cByJ, C3H/HeOuJ, C57BL/6J, C57BL/6NCrl, DBA/2J, and 129S2/SvPasCRL mice were infected with P. aeruginosa clinical strain and monitored for body weight and mortality up to seven days. The most deviant survival phenotypes were observed for A/J, 129S2/SvPasCRL and DBA/2J showing high susceptibility while BALB/cAnNCrl and C3H/HeOuJ showing more resistance to P. aeruginosa infection. Next, one of the most susceptible and resistant mouse strains were characterized for their deviant clinical and immunological phenotype by scoring bacterial count, cell-mediated immunity, cytokines and chemokines profile and lung pathology in an early time course. Susceptible A/J mice showed significantly higher bacterial burden, higher cytokines and chemokines levels but lower leukocyte recruitment, particularly neutrophils, when compared to C3H/HeOuJ resistant mice. Pathologic scores showed lower inflammatory severity, reduced intraluminal and interstitial inflammation extent, bronchial and parenchymal involvement and diminished alveolar damage in the lungs of A/J when compared to C3H/HeOuJ. Our findings indicate that during an early phase of infection a prompt inflammatory response in the airways set the conditions for a non-permissive environment to P. aeruginosa replication and lock the spread to other organs. Host gene(s) may have a role in the reduction of cell-mediated immunity playing a critical role in the control of P

  5. Estudo temporal das doenças associadas à AIDS no Brasil, 1980-1999 Temporal trends in AIDS-associated opportunistic infections in Brazil, 1980-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Drew Crosland Guimarães

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram estimadas as incidências de condições associadas (CA à AIDS/100 casos de AIDS em adultos (> 12 anos, a nível nacional, de 1980 a maio de 1999. A análise incluiu qui-quadrado e regressão linear simples. As CA analisadas foram candidíase (CD, tuberculose (TB, pneumonia por Pneumocystis carinii (PCP, neurotoxoplasmose(NT, Herpes, Sarcoma de Kaposi (SK, meningite criptocócica (MC e infecções por protozoários (IP. As incidências acumuladas/100 casos de AIDS foram: CD = 59, TB = 26, PCP = 23, NT = 15, Herpes = 12, SK = 5, MC = 4 e IP = 4. A tendência anual indicou queda estatisticamente significativa em todas as CA. Entretando, houve aumento na incidência de TB (b = 0,39 e NT (b = 0,20, para as regiões Nordeste e Centro-Oeste, respectivamente. TB apresentou maior incidência entre aqueles com baixa escolaridade (Trends in annual incidence of reported AIDS-associated opportunistic infections (OI/100 adults > 12 years old among AIDS cases were estimated at the national level in Brazil from 1980 through May 1999. The analysis included chi-square and linear regression modeling. The opportunistic infections included: candidiasis (CD, tuberculosis (TB, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP, neurotoxoplasmosis (NT, Kaposi sarcoma (KS, cryptococcal meningitis (CM, and protozoa infections (PI. The overall cumulative incidence rates/100 reported AIDS cases were: CD = 59, TB = 26, PCP = 23, NT = 15, KS = 5, CM = 4, and PI = 4. Annual trends indicated a statistically significant decline in all OIs. However, in the Northeast and Central-West regions there were increases in TB (b = 0.39 and NT (b = 0.20, respectively. TB showed a higher incidence among individuals with less schooling (< 8 years, while PCP and KS had higher incidence rates among those with 8 or more years of schooling, despite similar downward trends. Access to antiretroviral therapy and OI prophylaxis may partially explain these results. However, data reliability

  6. Safe interruption of maintenance therapy against previous infection with four common HIV-associated opportunistic pathogens during potent antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Ole; Reiss, Peter; Uberti-Foppa, Caterina;

    2002-01-01

    with CMV, MAC, Toxoplasma gondii, or Cryptococcus neoformans in patients with HIV infection can be interrupted after sustained CD4 count increases to greater than 200 (or possibly 100 to 200) x 10(6) cells/L for at least 6 months after the start of potent antiretroviral therapy....

  7. Can chemoprophylaxis against opportunistic infections be discontinued after an increase in CD4 cells induced by highly active antiretroviral therapy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, O; Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Pedersen, C;

    1999-01-01

    /100 PY follow-up (95% confidence interval, 0.0-3.2). No cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus chorioretinitis, or disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection were observed. Follow-up time for these was, however, limited. CONCLUSION: PCP-chemoprophylaxis can be safely discontinued after HAART...

  8. AIDS-related mycoses: the way forward

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Gordon D.; Meintjes, Graeme; Kolls, Jay K.; Gray, Clive; Horsnell, William

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of fungal infections to the morbidity and mortality of HIV-infected individuals is largely unrecognized. A recent meeting highlighted several priorities that need to be urgently addressed, including improved epidemiological surveillance, increased availability of existing diagnostics and drugs, more training in the field of medical mycology, and better funding for research and provision of treatment, particularly in developing countries.

  9. 血清IL-25与HIV合并机会性感染的相关性%Relationships between serum concentration of interleukin-25 and opportunistic infections in patients with HIV infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈婵; 李孟英; 谭可平; 甘琼萍; 陆晖; 沈扬林; 覃国琦

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)感染者血清IL-25水平与机会性感染的关系。方法收集55例HIV感染者的临床资料,并应用ELISA法检测血清IL-25浓度,流式细胞术检测CD4+ T细胞计数,分析两者与HIV感染者发生机会性感染的相关性。结果55例患者中有44例(80.00%)发生机会性致病菌感染,其中26例(47.27%)发生口腔念珠菌感染。发生机会性感染组患者血清IL-25水平较未发生感染组高[(946.45±1652.84)pg/ml vs (107.58±167.33)pg/ml,P <0.01),CD4+ T细胞计数降低[(87.54±110.60)cell/μl vs (298.60±211.91)cell/μl,P <0.05)。发生口腔念珠菌感染组较未发生感染组患者血清IL-25增高[(1247.78±1877.48)pg/ml vs (358.09±944.31)pg/ml,P<0.05),CD4+ T细胞计数降低[(48.56±74.90)cell/μl vs (200.04±182.79)cell/μl,P <0.05)。相关性分析显示,IL-25浓度、CD4+ T细胞计数分别与发生机会性感染、口腔白色念珠菌感染呈正相关、负相关(P <0.01)。结论 IL-25可能参与HIV感染者发生机会性感染后的免疫反应,高IL-25水平可能与HIV感染者易患机会性感染、口腔念珠菌感染有关。%Objective To investigate the relationships of serum concentration of interleukin-25 (IL-25) and opportunistic infections of patients with HIV infection. Methods The serum samples and the clinical information of 55 cases with HIV infection were collected. The serum concentrations of IL-25 and CD4+ T-cell count were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and flow cytometry, respectively. Results There were 44 cases (80.00%) suffering with opportunistic infections among 55 cases and 26 cases (47.27%) were infected with oral candidiasis. Higher serum level of IL-25 [(946.45 ± 1652.84) pg/ml vs (107.58 ± 167.33) pg/ml, P < 0.01] and lower CD4+ T-cell count [(48.56 ± 74.90 cell/μl vs (200.04 ± 182.79) cell/μl, P < 0.01] were

  10. 河南省经血感染艾滋病病人机会感染疾病谱分布%Clinical research into the spectra of opportunistic infections in AIDS patients infected via blood transmission in Henan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨萱; 孙燕; 何云; 赵清霞; 马永虹; 安永辉; 王双利; 张静; 刘春礼

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨河南省经血感染艾滋病(AIDS)病人机会感染疾病谱的分布状况.方法 对2000年7月-2010年12月,在郑州市第六人民医院治疗的2 027例AIDS病人的临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果 (1)2 027例病人共发生3 613例次机会感染,主要为呼吸系统(76.17%)和消化系统感染(47.95%),最常见的机会感染依次为细菌性肺炎(35.22%)、口腔念珠菌感染(32.17%)、肺结核(20.37%)、肺孢子菌肺炎(PCP) (15.29%).(2)其中的711例病人按CD4细胞计数不同分5组,PCP和各种感染性腹泻在CD4<50个/mm3组所占比例最高(30.82%、23.29%),口腔念珠菌感染和隐球菌脑膜炎在50~99个/mm3组比例最高(33.63%、6.19%),肺结核在100~199个/mm3组比例最高(28.68%),各种痒疹在200~349个/mm3组比例最高(17.24%).按合并机会感染数量不同分5组,各组CD4细胞计数相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 AIDS病人机会感染疾病谱因国家、地区和人种不同,甚至传播途径不同有所差异,各种机会感染的发病比例在不同CD4水平有所不同;随着CD4细胞计数下降,发生机会感染的数量逐渐增加.%Objective To explore the spectra of opportunistic infections in AIDS patients infected via blood transmission in Henan and their correlation with CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts. Methods The clinical data of 2 027 AIDS patients infected via blood transmission from July 2000 to December 2010, treated in the department of infectious disease of our hospital, were retrospectively analyzed. Results (l)The 2 027 AIDS patients experienced 3 613 cases/episodes of HIV-related opportunistic infections ,involving respiratory (76.17%)and gastrointestinal (47. 95%) systems. The most common opportunistic infections were : bacterial pneumonia (35.22%), oral candidiasis (32.17%), pulmonary tuberculosis(20. 37%), and pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (15.29%). (2) In 711 patients, who were divided into 5 groups according to

  11. Positron emission tomography in patients suffering from HIV-1 infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathekge, Mike [University Hospital of Pretoria, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pretoria (South Africa); Goethals, Ingeborg; Wiele, Christophe van de [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Maes, Alex [AZ Groening, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium)

    2009-07-15

    This paper reviews currently available PET studies performed either to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection or to assess the value of PET imaging in the clinical decision making of patients infected with HIV-1 presenting with AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies. FDG PET has shown that HIV-1 infection progresses by distinct anatomical steps, with involvement of the upper torso preceding involvement of the lower part of the torso, and that the degree of FDG uptake relates to viral load. The former finding suggests that lymphoid tissues are engaged in a predictable sequence and that diffusible mediators of activation might be important targets for vaccine or therapeutic intervention strategies. In lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients, limited available data support the hypothesis that stavudine-related lipodystrophy is associated with increased glucose uptake by adipose tissue as a result of the metabolic stress of adipose tissue in response to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). Finally, in early AIDS-related dementia complex (ADC), striatal hypermetabolism is observed, whereas progressive ADC is characterized by a decrease in subcortical and cortical metabolism. In the clinical setting, PET has been shown to allow the differentiation of AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies, and to allow monitoring of side effects of HAART. However, in patients suffering from HIV infection and presenting with extracerebral lymphoma or other human malignancies, knowledge of viraemia is essential when interpreting FDG PET imaging. (orig.)

  12. Positron emission tomography in patients suffering from HIV-1 infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews currently available PET studies performed either to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection or to assess the value of PET imaging in the clinical decision making of patients infected with HIV-1 presenting with AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies. FDG PET has shown that HIV-1 infection progresses by distinct anatomical steps, with involvement of the upper torso preceding involvement of the lower part of the torso, and that the degree of FDG uptake relates to viral load. The former finding suggests that lymphoid tissues are engaged in a predictable sequence and that diffusible mediators of activation might be important targets for vaccine or therapeutic intervention strategies. In lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients, limited available data support the hypothesis that stavudine-related lipodystrophy is associated with increased glucose uptake by adipose tissue as a result of the metabolic stress of adipose tissue in response to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). Finally, in early AIDS-related dementia complex (ADC), striatal hypermetabolism is observed, whereas progressive ADC is characterized by a decrease in subcortical and cortical metabolism. In the clinical setting, PET has been shown to allow the differentiation of AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies, and to allow monitoring of side effects of HAART. However, in patients suffering from HIV infection and presenting with extracerebral lymphoma or other human malignancies, knowledge of viraemia is essential when interpreting FDG PET imaging. (orig.)

  13. Angioinvasive opportunistic filamentous mycoses in immunocompromised patients

    OpenAIRE

    Saraiya, Ami; Weinstein, Mara; Khetarpal, Shilpi; Kyei, Angela; Piliang, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Immunocompromised individuals are at greater risk for disseminated fungal infections. Immunocompromised individuals in the community have increased because of medical advances, thereby increasing the incidence and prevalence of opportunistic mycoses [1]. The following case series illustrates the importance of having a high clinical suspicion for skin manifestations concerning for deep fungal infections.

  14. Care Centre visits to married people living with HIV ? An indicator for measuring AIDS -related stigma & discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Green, David Andrew; Devi, Shyamala; Paulraj, Louis S

    2007-01-01

    Abstract We tested whether observation of the presence and relationship of attendants (i.e. those that accompany upon admission) and visitors to a sample of 230 (128 male, 102 female) married HIV-positive people in an HIV care centre provides an indicator of caregiving AIDS-related stigma and discrimination. Sensitivity to gender, location (urban vs. rural), age (35) and source of infection (spouse vs. non-spouse) ? factors considered to modulate AIDS-related stigma and discriminat...

  15. IPv6 Opportunistic Encryption

    OpenAIRE

    Castelluccia, Claude; Montenegro, Gabriel

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an Opportunistic Encryption scheme for IPv6. Our proposal relies on IPv6 Anycast, Authorization certificates and Crypto-Based Identifier- s (CBID) to provide secure and easily deployable Opportunistic Encryption in IPv6. Unlike existing schemes, our proposal does not rely on any global Third Trusted Party (such as DNSSEC or a PKI). Hence, we claim it is more secure, easier to deploy and more robust.

  16. IMMUNOMODULATORS IN OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Toptygina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The immune status and the level of specific antibodies to Cytomegalovirus (121 patients or Mycoplasma pneumoniae (129 patients were tested in 250 patients aged 19–56 years old. This cohort was divided for three groups. Seventy eight patients with low level of CD3+CD4+ lymphocytes and normal rates of other parameters of immune status were jointed in Group 1. The second group was presented by 85 patients with low level of CD3+CD4+ and high level of CD3+CD8+ lymphocytes. Eighty seven patients with lymphopenia were distinguished in Group 3. All patients were treated with antiviral or antibacterial and immunomodulatory drugs. Three schemes of immunomodulatory therapy including imunofanum, polyoxidonium, cycloferonum, glutoxim, immunomax in different combination were used. In three weeks after treatment in 72,4% of patients no clinical symptoms as well as normalization of immune status indices and decrease of specific antibodies titers were observed. Sixty nine patients reported improvement of subjective health status, however they had high level of specific antibodies. Immunological examination of these patients after second course of immunomodulatory therapy confirmed their convalescence. It was shown that the condition of immune status determines effect of the different immunomodulators.

  17. Lung function abnormalities in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus with and without overt pneumonitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, R J; Roussak, C; Forster, S M; Harris, J R; Pinching, A J; Mitchell, D. M.

    1988-01-01

    Pulmonary function was measured in 169 male patients seropositive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The transfer factor for carbon monoxide (TLCO) in symptom free patients and patients with persistent generalised lymphadenopathy was normal (greater than 83% of predicted values). Patients with the AIDS related complex, non-pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma, and non-pulmonary non-Kaposi sarcoma AIDS (that is, opportunist infections affecting other organs) had lower mean values for TLCO (77%, 7...

  18. Brief Communication: Economic Comparison of Opportunistic Infection Management With Antiretroviral Treatment in People Living With HIV/AIDS Presenting at an NGO Clinic in Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John KR

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART usage in India is escalating. With the government of India launching the free HAART rollout as part of the "3 by 5" initiative, many people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA have been able to gain access to HAART medications. Currently, the national HAART centers are located in a few district hospitals (in the high- and medium-prevalence states and have very stringent criteria for enrolling PLHA. Patients who do not fit these criteria or patients who are too ill to undergo the prolonged wait at the government hospitals avail themselves of nongovernment organization (NGO services in order to take HAART medications. In addition, the government program has not yet started providing second-line HAART (protease inhibitors. Hence, even with the free HAART rollout, NGOs with the expertise to provide HAART continue to look for funding opportunities and other innovative ways of making HAART available to PLHA. Currently, no study from Indian NGOs has compared the direct and indirect costs of solely managing opportunistic infections (OIs vs HAART. Objective Compare direct medical costs (DMC and nonmedical costs (NMC with 2005 values accrued by the NGO and PLHA, respectively, for either HAART or exclusive OI management. Study design Retrospective case study comparison. Setting Low-cost community care and support center - Freedom Foundation (NGO, Bangalore, south India. Patients Retrospective analysis data on PLHA accessing treatment at Freedom Foundation between January 1, 2003 and January 1, 2005. The HAART arm included case records of PLHA who initiated HAART at the center, had frequent follow-up, and were between 18 and 55 years of age. The OI arm included records of PLHA who were also frequently followed up, who were in the same age range, who had CD4+ cell counts Results At 2005 costs, the median DMC plus NMC in the OI group was 21,335 Indian rupees (Rs (mean Rs 24,277/- per patient per year (pppy

  19. Strategies to reduce mortality and morbidity due to AIDS-related cryptococcal meningitis in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose E. Vidal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Latin America is the region with the third most AIDS-related cryptococcal meningitis infections globally. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has reduced the number of infections; however, the number of deaths and the case-fatality rate continues to be unacceptable. In this review, we focus on the burden of AIDS-related cryptococcosis in Latin America and discuss potential strategies to reduce early mortality from Cryptococcus. In this review, we highlight the importance of: (1 earlier HIV diagnosis and HAART initiation with retention-in-care to avoid AIDS; (2 pre-HAART cryptococcal antigen (CRAG screening with preemptive fluconazole treatment; (3 better diagnostics (e.g. CRAG testing; and (4 optimal treatment with aggressive management of intracranial pressure and induction therapy with antifungal combination. Implementation of these strategies can reduce cryptococcal-related deaths, improve care, and reduce healthcare costs.

  20. 艾滋病合并机会性感染的临床特征和诊疗分析%Analysis on Clinical Features of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Combined with Opportunistic Infections and Its Diagnosis and Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵贺红; 冯萍; 肖贵宝; 徐开菊; 杨志勇

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨艾滋病患者合并机会性感染的临床特征并评价其治疗效果.方法 回顾分析2003年-2009年53例确诊为艾滋病患者的临床资料,对患者合并机会性感染的临床特征,包括发生机会性感染的时间、发生机会性感染时CD+T细胞计数、起病急缓、严重程度等,进行观察和分析,并给予国家推荐的标准治疗方案进行治疗,通过临床症状、病毒载量、CD+T细胞计数、影像学监测进行疗效分析,随访时间为初治至出院后6年.结果 53例艾滋病患者均为重症感染,41例为混合感染,其中2个以上部位感染者为36例(67.9%),2种以上病原体感染者为28例(52.8%),3种以上病原体感染者13例(24.5%).最常见的机会性感染为结核35.8%(19/53);其次为卡氏肺孢子菌肺炎30.2%(16/53);败血症20.8%(11/53),此外,尚有隐球菌感染15.1%(8/53)、弓形虫感染3.8%(2/53)、带状疱疹病毒感染7.5%(4/53)、念珠菌感染17.0%(9/53)、巨细胞病毒感染7.5%(4/53)、合并乙肝11.3%(6/53)、丙肝3.8%(2/53).机会性感染治疗有效率为77.4%(41/53),病死率为22.6%(12/53),其中隐球菌脑膜炎或混合感染者病死率最高.结论艾滋病患者在CD+T细胞计数<350/mm3时各种机会感染明显升高,且随着CD+4T细胞计数的下降呈增高趋势,艾滋病合并机会性感染最常见的是结核,其次卡氏肺孢子菌肺炎;合并结核的治疗效果较好,合并隐球菌脑病的病死率最高.早期启动高效抗逆转录病毒治疗效果好.%Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) combined with opportunistic infections and its treatment. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 53 patients diagnosed to have AIDS in our hospital between 2003 and 2009. The clinical features (such as time of the onset of opportunistic infections, CD4+ T cells value at the onset, severity of the infection, etc

  1. Panax ginseng has anti-infective activity against opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa by inhibiting quorum sensing, a bacterial communication process critical for establishing infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Z; Kong, K F; Wu, H;

    2010-01-01

    immune systems and cystic fibrosis. The QS systems of P. aeruginosa use N-acylated homoserine lactone (AHL) as signal molecules. Previously we have demonstrated that Panax ginseng treatment allowed the animals with P. aeruginosa pneumonia to effectively clear the bacterial infection. We postulated......A and LasB and down-regulated the synthesis of the AHL molecules. Ginseng has a negative effect on the QS system of P. aeruginosa, may explain the ginseng-dependent bacterial clearance from the animal lungs in vivo in our previous animal study. It is possible that enhancing and repressing activities...... of ginseng are mutually exclusive as it is a complex mixture, as shown with the HPLC analysis of the hot water extract. Though ginseng is a promising natural synergetic remedy, it is important to isolate and evaluate the ginseng compounds associated with the anti-QS activity....

  2. 艾滋病抗病毒治疗后机会感染的变化和分布状况%The change and the spectra of opportunistic infections in AIDS patients after antiretroviral treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨萱; 孙燕; 何云; 赵清霞; 安永辉; 马永虹; 王双利; 张静; 刘春礼

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨艾滋病(AIDS)抗病毒治疗后机会感染疾病谱的变化及分布状况.方法 采用回顾性分析的方法,对2006年9月-2008年12月期间,在郑州市第六人民医院接受门诊及住院治疗的128例HIV/AIDS病人,抗病毒治疗前后机会感染发生情况进行总结分析.结果 (1) 128例HIV/AIDS病人中,高效抗反转录病毒疗法(HAART)治疗3-12月期间共发生100例次机会感染,主要为呼吸系统(46.09%)和消化系统(11.72%)感染,其中前4位机会感染是细菌性肺炎(29.69%)、肺结核(9.38%)、口腔念珠菌感染(7.81%)、带状疱疹(3.91%);与HAART治疗前相比,治疗后机会感染中细菌性肺炎、肺结核占绝大多数(86.46%),存在一定比例的口腔念珠菌感染和带状疱疹,AIDS晚期常见的机会感染如肺孢子菌肺炎、感染性腹泻及消耗综合征、中枢神经系统病变发病明显减少.(2) 128例HIV/AIDS病人HAART治疗前机会感染发病率为80.47%,治疗后3-6月时下降至28.13%,治疗6-12月时为25.89%,3组相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).HAART治疗后同时合并多种机会感染的病例减少.结论 HAART治疗后的机会感染发病率明显下降,机会感染疾病谱较治疗前有所不同,同时合并多种机会感染的几率减少.%Objective To explore the change and the spectra of opportunistic infections in AIDS patients after antiretroviral treatment. Methods One hundred and twenty eight ambulatory and hospitalized HIV/AIDS cases were retrospectively analyzed to summarize the characteristics of opportunistic infeccions occurring pre and post highly active anti-retroviral treatmem(HAART)in the department of infectious disease of our hospital, from September of 2006 to December of 2008. Results (1) The 128 HIV/AIDS patients experienced HIV-related opportunistic infections for 100 case-episodes after HAART for 3-12 months,involving respiratory system(46. 09%) and gastrointestinal system(11. 72%). The top 4

  3. Validation of AIDS-related mortality in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taffa Negussie

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality data are used to conduct disease surveillance, describe health status and inform planning processes for health service provision and resource allocation. In many countries, HIV- and AIDS-related deaths are believed to be under-reported in government statistics. Methods To estimate the extent of under-reporting of HIV- and AIDS-related deaths in Botswana, we conducted a retrospective study of a sample of deaths reported in the government vital registration database from eight hospitals, where more than 40% of deaths in the country in 2005 occurred. We used the consensus of three physicians conducting independent reviews of medical records as the gold standard comparison. We examined the sensitivity, specificity and other validity statistics. Results Of the 5276 deaths registered in the eight hospitals, 29% were HIV- and AIDS-related. The percentage of HIV- and AIDS-related deaths confirmed by physician consensus (positive predictive value was 95.4%; however, the percentage of non-HIV- and non-AIDS-related deaths confirmed (negative predictive value was only 69.1%. The sensitivity and specificity of the vital registration system was 55.7% and 97.3%, respectively. After correcting for misclassification, the percentage of HIV- and AIDS--related deaths was estimated to be in the range of 48.8% to 54.4%, depending on the definition. Conclusion Improvements in hospitals and within government offices are necessary to strengthen the vital registration system. These should include such strategies as training physicians and coders in accurate reporting and recording of death statistics, implementing continuous quality assurance methods, and working with the government to underscore the importance of using mortality statistics in future evidence-based planning.

  4. Predicting AIDS-related events using CD4 percentage or CD4 absolute counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donabedian Haig

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extent of immunosuppression and the probability of developing an AIDS-related complication in HIV-infected people is usually measured by the absolute number of CD4 positive T-cells. The percentage of CD4 positive cells is a more easily measured and less variable number. We analyzed sequential CD4 and CD8 numbers, percentages and ratios in 218 of our HIV infected patients to determine the most reliable predictor of an AIDS-related event. Results The CD4 percentage was an unsurpassed predictor of the occurrence of AIDS-related events when all subsets of patients are considered. The CD4 absolute count was the next most reliable, followed by the ratio of CD4/CD8 percentages. The value of CD4 percentage over the CD4 absolute count was seen even after the introduction of highly effective HIV therapy. Conclusion The CD4 percentage is unsurpassed as a parameter for predicting the onset of HIV-related diseases. The extra time and expense of measuring the CD4 absolute count may be unnecessary.

  5. Radio station acceptance of AIDS-related advertising messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotfeld, H J; Abernethy, A M

    1991-06-01

    Survey responses were received from the managers of 630 radio stations, who reported which type of AIDS-related commercials or public service announcements they are willing to accept for broadcast. The authors examine whether the public interest can outweigh fear of offending audience segments and discuss ways health education planners can increase acceptance of AIDS-related commercials. For planning a public health campaign, both the number and types of stations that will accept various public health messages are important if the messages are to reach high risk demographic groups. PMID:10111400

  6. Multihop Wireless Networks Opportunistic Routing

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Kai; Li, Ming

    2011-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to opportunistic routing an emerging technology designed to improve the packet forwarding reliability, network capacity and energy efficiency of multihop wireless networks This book presents a comprehensive background to the technological challenges lying behind opportunistic routing. The authors cover many fundamental research issues for this new concept, including the basic principles, performance limit and performance improvement of opportunistic routing compared to traditional routing, energy efficiency and distributed opportunistic routing protocol desig

  7. AIDS related knowledge, attitude and practice and HIV infection status among floating population in Ningbo%浙江省宁波市流动人口感染艾滋病的脆弱性因素及感染现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琰; 张丹丹; 洪航

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解宁波市流动人口艾滋病相关知识、态度、行为现状及艾滋病病毒/感染者(HIV/AIDS)感染情况,为制定流动人口艾滋病防控策略提供参考依据.方法 分层整群抽样法对本地4类流动人门开展面对面问卷调查,留取血样进行HIV和梅毒抗体检测.采用SPSS 16.0软件包对资料进行分析.结果 4002例调查对象艾滋病相关知识知晓率为65.9%,不同场所流动人口知晓率差异有统计学意义(x2 =59.355,P<0.001),性别( OR=1.172,95% CI:1.019 ~1.248)、年龄(OR =0.656,95% CI:0.550 ~0.783)、婚姻状况(OR=1.440,95% CI:1.209 ~1.715)、文化程度(OR=1.598,95% CI:1.374~1.859)、接受过咨询检测(OR =2.164,95%CI:1.537~3.048)是流动人口艾滋病相关知识知晓与否的影响因素.29.7%的调查对象对艾滋病病毒感染者/患者持不歧视态度.最近一次与固定性伴性行为安全套使用率为20.5%(464/2258),最近一次商业性行为安全套使用率为62.2%(56/90),最近一次同性性行为安全套使用率为42.9% (6/14).4002名流动人口的HIV阳性检出率为0.15%,梅毒阳性检出率为0.72%.结论 文化程度不高、艾滋病相关知识缺乏、对艾滋病患者歧视态度普遍、存在高危行为且安全套使用率低是流动人口感染艾滋病的脆弱性因素,对这一群体务必加强宣传教育和行为干预.%Objective To understand the AIDS related knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) and HIV infection status among floating population in Ningbo and provide scientific evidence for developing prevention and control strategy. Methods Through stratified cluster sampling, a face to face questionnaire survey was conducted in 4 floating population groups, the blood samples were collected from the participants to detect HIV and syphilis antibodies, and the data were analyzed by using software SPSS 16.0. Results The awareness rate of AIDS related knowledge was 65. 9% according to 4002

  8. AIDS-Related Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in the Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash Vishnu; Aboulafia, David M.

    2012-01-01

    In economically developed countries, AIDS-related lymphoma (ARL) accounts for a large proportion of malignances in HIV-infected individuals. Since the introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in 1996, epidemiology and prognosis of ARL have changed. While there is a slight increase in the incidence of Hodgkin’s lymphoma in HIV-infected individuals, use of HAART has contributed to a decline in the incidence of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) and also a decrease in the overall ...

  9. Radiological and histological findings characteristic of AIDS related Burkitt lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixian Luo

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: AIDS-related Burkitt lymphoma is radiologically shown as lymphadenopathy and multi-organ involvement. Diffuse tumor cells with moderate sizes exist in intra- and extra-nodal tissues, characterized by stars-in-the-sky sign. Immunohistochemically, both CD10 and CD20 are positive, and the positive rate of Ki67 is almost up to 100%.

  10. [Acetaminophen-induced hypothermia, an AIDS related side-effect? About 4 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denes, Eric; Amaniou, Monique; Rogez, Jean-Philippe; Weinbreck, Pierre; Merle, Louis

    2002-10-01

    Hypothermia is an uncommon side effect of acetaminophen. We report 4 cases of HIV-infected patients who developed hypothermia after intravenous injection of propacetamol (the parenteral formulation of acetaminophen). The mechanism of this hypothermia is unknown. AIDS-induced changes in the metabolism of acetaminophen, could be an explanation. AIDS-associated opportunistic diseases may account for part of the mechanism. These hypothermias occur within 6 hours after the injection, are well tolerated and regress spontaneously. PMID:12486392

  11. Distribution and drug resistance analysis of opportunistic infection pathogenic bacteria in elderly patients with diabetes mellitus%老年糖尿病机会感染病原菌分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚福会; 柴茂凤

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria in elderly patients with diabetes mellitus, and to provide reliable and scientific basis for clinical treatment.Methods:Collected from our hospital inpatient treatment of elderly diabetic patients with opportunistic infections in patients with totally (January2010-December2011),248specimens,125patho gens were isolated ,using the France bio-Merieux ATB-new production of bacterial identification and susceptibility analysis system and supporting the identification and susceptibility andpanels on the separation of bacteria identification and susceptibility testing. Results: Totally 248 specimens, 125 pathogens were isolated,and the positive rate is 50.4%,The gram negative bacteria accounted for 69.9%, gram positive bacteria accounted for 21.6%, fungi accounted for 8.8%. The detection rate of major pathogens in descending order: Escherichia coli,Pseudomonas aeruginosa, pneumonia grams Klebsiella pneumoniae,Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus,Candida albicans, and Acinetobacter.Conclusions:Opportunistic infections in elderly patients with opportunistic infections are gram negative bacteria, including Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the main infection bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and fungal infection rate increased gradually. Therefore, clinicians should pay more attention to the monitoring of pathogenic bacteria in elderly patients with diabetes, rational use of antimicrobial agents, control the incidence of opportunistic infections, and reduce the occurrence of drug resistant strains.%目的:探讨老年糖尿病机会感染患者病原菌的分布及耐药性,为临床提供可靠而科学的治疗依据。方法:收集我院2010年1月至2011年12月住院治疗的老年糖尿病合并机会感染患者的送检标本,248份标本中,共分离出125株病原菌,采用法国生物-梅里埃公司生产的ATB-new细菌鉴定及药敏分析系统

  12. Inhibitory effect of some phytochemicals in the growth of yeasts potentially causing opportunistic infections Efeito inibitório de alguns fitoconstituintes sobre o crescimento de leveduras potencialmente causadoras de infecções oportunistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igara O. Lima

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic infections caused by yeasts have been characterized as emerging diseases all over the world and this has caused the search for new products capable of inhibiting the survival of their etiological agents. In this study the sensitivity of some yeast potentially causing infections to alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, citral and eugenol was evaluated. All phytochemicals showed inhibitory action on the assayed yeast strains: Candida. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, C. stellatoidea, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and Cryptococcus neoformans, presenting their MIC values in the range of 1 and 4%. The phytochemicals presented effectiveness to provide high fungicide effect in a short time. These data support the possible use of some phytochemicals as useful tools to control the occurrence of opportunistic infections caused by yeasts.Infecções oportunistas causadas por leveduras têm sido caracterizadas como doenças emergentes em todo o mundo e este fenômeno tem levado ao desenvolvimento de novos produtos capazes de inibir a sobrevivência de seus agentes etiológicos. Este estudo avaliou o perfil de sensibilidade de leveduras potencialmente causadoras de infecções oportunistas frente aos fitoconstituintes alfa-pineno, beta-pineno, citral e eugenol. Todos os fitoconstituintes mostraram ação inibitória sobre as leveduras ensaiadas, as quais foram Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, C. stellatoidea, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis e Cryptococcus neoformans, tendo valores de CIM oscilando entre 1 e 4%. Os fitoconstituintes mostraram eficácia para provocar um alto efeito fungicida em curto tempo de ação. Estes dados subsidiam o possível uso de alguns fitoconstituintes como ferramentas úteis para controlar a ocorrência de infecções oportunistas causadas por leveduras.

  13. HIV 相关性中枢神经系统感染的诊断思路%The diagnosis of HIV-associated central nervous system opportunistic infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚启明

    2013-01-01

    人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)感染患者若出现中枢神经系统机会性感染,即符合美国疾病控制与预防中心1993 年修订的真性获得性免疫缺陷综合征(艾滋病)期的诊断标准,临床上属于危重患者.病原微生物涉及病毒、细菌、分枝杆菌、真菌、寄生虫等,临床症状与体征、实验室检查等亦与非免疫缺陷患者有所不同,尤其是经抗HIV 治疗后,仍可出现病情加重或新的感染发生,对临床医师极具挑战意义.及时明确诊断是临床治疗转归的基础.%Opportunistic infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are very common and severe complications of advanced immunodeficiency in patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, which are included in the diagnostic criteria for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) defining conditions according to 1993 Revised Classification System for HIV Infection and Expanded Surveillance Case Definition for AIDS among Adolescents and Adults published by USA Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The etiologic microorganisms of CNS opportunistic infections include virus, bacteria, fungus, mycobacterium and parasite. The clinical symptoms, signs and laboratory examinations of these diseases are different from that of patients with non- immunodeficiency. Even in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), worsening conditions or new infections may occur. Therefore, prompt diagnosis and treatment of such disorders are critical. The immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in HIV - 1 infected patients in the initiating antiretroviral therapy results from restored immunity to specific infectious or non - infectious antigens. This study reviews the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis of some common CNS disorders in HIV - 1 infected patients. Physicians caring for such patients must be aware of the new diagnostic modalities and therapeutic options of these

  14. Corynebacterium striatum infecting a malignant cutaneous lesion: the emergence of an opportunistic pathogen Corynebacterium striatum infectando lesão cutânea maligna: a emergência de um patógeno oportunista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Vargas Superti

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We described a case of a 27-year old male patient with skin and soft tissue infection of a neoplastic lesion caused by Corynebacterium striatum, an organism which has been rarely described as a human pathogen. Identification was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Successful treatment with penicillin was achieved. The role of the C. striatum as an emerging opportunistic pathogen is discussed.Descrevemos infecção de lesão neoplásica em paciente masculino de 27 anos, envolvendo pele e partes moles, causada por Corynebacterium striatum, um microrganismo raramente descrito como patógeno humano. A identificação foi confirmada por seqüenciamento de DNA. O paciente foi tratado com penicilina, com sucesso. O papel do C. striatum como patógeno oportunista é discutido.

  15. HIV感染患者上消化道机会性感染及胃镜检查结果分析%Opportunistic Infections of Upper Gastrointestinal Tract in HIV-Positive Patients and Analysis of Gastroscopic Results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗晓岚; 金瑞; 吕富靖

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]To explore the opportunistic infections such as Helicobacter pylori(Hp) infection, peptic ulcer, cytomegalo-virus(CMV) infection and Candida esophagitis in HIV-positive patients. [Methods] Totally 181 patients(122 HIV-positive and 59 HIV-negative) with gastrointestinal symptoms underwent gastroscopy. Hp infection in biopsy mucous membrane was examined by u-sing rapid urease method and Warthin-Starry silver staining. Immunohistochemical method was used to detect CMV infection. Candida esophagitis was determined by using cytology brush smear. [Results] Most gastrointestinal symptoms in HIV-positive patients were lack of specificity. Gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, dysphagia and swallow pain in HIV-positive group were obviously higher than those in control group( P <0. 01). The prevalence of Hp in HIV-positive group was 22. 1% (27/122) which was obviously lower than that in control group(40. 7% , 24/59, P <0. 01) , and was closely related to CD4 cell count. The prevalence of peptic ulcer in HIV-positive group was obviously lower than that in control group(13. 6 % vs 4. 1 % , P <0. 05). The prevalence of CMV infection and Candida esophagitis in HIV-positive group were 4. 9%(6/122) and 15. 6%(19/122) respectively, but those in control group were negative. [Conclusion] HIV-positive patients have the prevalence of opportunistic infection of upper digestive tract. The incidence of Hp infection and peptic ulcer in HIV-positive patients are lower than those in common people, which suggests that the pathogenesis of HIV-positive patients is different from that of common people.%[目的]探讨HIV感染患者幽门螺杆菌(Helicobacter pylori,Hp)感染及消化性溃疡特点、巨细胞病毒(CMV)及霉菌性食管炎等机会性感染检出情况.[方法]对181例有消化道症状的患者(HIV阳性组122例,对照组59例)行胃镜检查,对活检黏膜行快速尿素酶及病理Warthin-Starry银染检测Hp感染情况、免疫组化检测CMV感染

  16. Autograft HIV-DNA Load Predicts HIV-1 Peripheral Reservoir After Stem Cell Transplantation for AIDS-Related Lymphoma Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Zanussi, Stefania; Bortolin, Maria Teresa; Pratesi, Chiara; Tedeschi, Rosamaria; Basaglia, Giancarlo; Abbruzzese, Luciano; Mazzucato, Mario; Spina, Michele; Vaccher, Emanuela; Tirelli, Umberto; Rupolo, Maurizio; Michieli, Mariagrazia; Di Mascio, Michele; De Paoli, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is a widely used procedure for AIDS-related lymphomas, and it represents an opportunity to evaluate strategies curing HIV-1 infection. The association of autograft HIV-DNA load with peripheral blood HIV-1 reservoir before ASCT and its contribution in predicting HIV-1 reservoir size and stability during combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) after transplantation are unknown. Aiming to obtain information suggesting new functional cure strategies b...

  17. Detection of polyomavirus simian virus 40 tumor antigen DNA in AIDS-related systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilchez, Regis A.; Lednicky, John A.; Halvorson, Steven J.; White, Zoe S.; Kozinetz, Claudia A.; Butel, Janet S.

    2002-01-01

    Systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma (S-NHL) is a common malignancy during HIV infection, and it is hypothesized that infectious agents may be involved in the etiology. Epstein-Barr virus DNA is found in pathogenesis. We analyzed AIDS-related S-NHL samples, NHL samples from HIV-negative patients, peripheral blood leukocytes from HIV-infected and -uninfected patients without NHL, and lymph nodes without tumors from HIV-infected patients. Specimens were examined by polymerase chain reaction analysis with use of primers specific for an N-terminal region of the oncoprotein large tumor antigen ( T-ag ) gene conserved among all three polyomaviruses (simian virus 40 [SV40], JC virus, and BK virus). Polyomavirus T-ag DNA sequences, proven to be SV40-specific, were detected more frequently in AIDS-related S-NHL samples (6 of 26) than in peripheral blood leukocytes from HIV-infected patients (6 of 26 vs. 0 of 69; p =.0001), NHL samples from HIV-negative patients (6 of 26 vs. 0 of 10; p =.09), or lymph nodes (6 of 26 vs. 0 of 7; p =.16). Sequences of C-terminal T-ag DNA from SV40 were amplified from two AIDS-related S-NHL samples. Epstein-Barr virus DNA sequences were detected in 38% (10 of 26) AIDS-related S-NHL samples, 50% (5 of 10) HIV-negative S-NHL samples, and 57% (4 of 7) lymph nodes. None of the S-NHL samples were positive for both Epstein-Barr virus DNA and SV40 DNA. Further studies of the possible role of SV40 in the pathogenesis of S-NHL are warranted.

  18. Primary pulmonary AIDS-related lymphoma Linfoma primario de pulmón en un paciente con sida

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Corti; VILLAFAÑE, María F.; Norberto Trione; Ricardo Schtirbu; Marina Narbaitz

    2005-01-01

    Extranodal involvement is common in lymphomas associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, primary pulmonary AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is very rare and only few reports were published in the medical literature. Clinical presentation is nonspecific, with "B" and respiratory symptoms. Also, patients were with advanced immunodeficiency at the time of diagnosis. Generally, chest radiography showed peripheral nodules...

  19. Clinical presentation and opportunistic infections in HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan; Jespersen, Sanne; Katzenstein, Terese L;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Better understanding of HIV-2 infection is likely to affect the patient care in areas where HIV-2 is prevalent. In this study, we aimed to characterize the clinical presentations among HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, newly...... diagnosed HIV patients attending the HIV outpatient clinic at Hospital Nacional Simão Mendes in Guinea-Bissau were enrolled. Demographical and clinical data were collected and compared between HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients. RESULTS: A total of 169 patients (76% HIV-1, 17% HIV-2 and 6......% HIV 1/2) were included in the study between 21 March 2012 and 14 December 2012. HIV-1 seropositive patients were younger than HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 seropositive patients, but no difference in sex was observed. Patients with HIV-1 and HIV-1/2 had a lower baseline CD4 cell count than HIV-2 seropositive...

  20. Morganella morganii, a non-negligent opportunistic pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Zhu, Junmin; Hu, Qiwen; Rao, Xiancai

    2016-09-01

    Morganella morganii belongs to the tribe Proteeae of the Enterobacteriaceae family. This species is considered as an unusual opportunistic pathogen that mainly causes post-operative wound and urinary tract infections. However, certain clinical M. morganii isolates present resistance to multiple antibiotics by carrying various resistant genes (such as blaNDM-1, and qnrD1), thereby posing a serious challenge for clinical infection control. Moreover, virulence evolution makes M. morganii an important pathogen. Accumulated data have demonstrated that M. morganii can cause various infections, such as sepsis, abscess, purple urine bag syndrome, chorioamnionitis, and cellulitis. This bacterium often results in a high mortality rate in patients with some infections. M. morganii is considered as a non-negligent opportunistic pathogen because of the increased levels of resistance and virulence. In this review, we summarized the epidemiology of M. morganii, particularly on its resistance profile and resistant genes, as well as the disease spectrum and risk factors for its infection.

  1. 云南孟连县HIV感染者机会性致病肠道原虫感染现状调查%Survey on the status of infection with opportunistic intestinal protozoa in HIV-infected individuals in Menglian County, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓艳; 孙晓东; 宋竹芬; 杨锐; 聂仁华; 王正友

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current status of infection with opportunistic intestinal protozoa in HlV-infec-ted individuals in Menglian County. Methods An epidemiological survey was carried out by random sampling of 46 confirmed cases of HIV in Menglian County. Fresh fecal samples were collected and HIV-infected individuals were surveyed house to house. Cysts of Giardia lamblia were detected microscopically using Lugol's iodine staining and Cryptosporidi-um oocysts were detected using auramine-phenol staining and confirmed using modified acid-fast staining. Results In 11 cases, patients had a parasitic infection, and the rate of infection was 23. 91%. Two of the patients were infected with hookworms, 5 were infected with Endameba histolytica , 1 was infected with Endolimax nana, 2 were infected with E. Coli, and 1 was infected with G. Lamblia. Cryptosporidia were not detected. Conclusion HIV-infected patients should be routinely tested for opportunistic intestinal protozoa.%目的 了解云南孟连县HIV感染者机会性致病肠道原虫的感染情况. 方法 随机抽样孟连县HIV确诊病例46例,入户问卷调查,收集新鲜粪便标本,用直接涂片卢戈氏碘液染色法检查蓝氏贾第鞭毛虫包囊、用金铵一酚改良抗酸染色法检查隐孢子虫卵囊. 结果 46份粪便标本检出寄生虫感染11份,感染率为23.91%,其中钩虫2份,溶组织内阿米巴5份,微小内蜒阿米巴1份,结肠内阿米巴2份,蓝氏贾第鞭毛虫1份,未检出隐孢子虫. 结论 HIV感染者机会性致病肠道原虫检测应列入常规检测项目.

  2. Investigation and analysis on AIDS-related knowledge, attitude, behaviors and the infection state of HIV among different types of male homosexuals%某市不同类型MSM艾滋病知识态度行为和HIV感染情况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕金伟; 程周祥; 杨康生; 豆正东; 成国明; 方艳姣; 安洲; 范引光

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解芜湖市不同类型男男性行为者(men who have sex with men,MSM)艾滋病知识、态度、性行为学特征和艾滋病病毒(human immunodeficiency virus,HIV)感染情况,为实施MSM艾滋病高危行为干预提供科学依据.方法 采用分类滚雪球抽样调查的方法,招募MSM进行问卷调查,并采集静脉血样进行HIV、梅毒、丙型肝炎病毒(hepatitis C virus,HCV)的血清学检测.结果 共调查MSM 422名,不同类型MSM年龄、婚姻状况、文化程度等构成比差异均有统计学意义(均有P <0.05),不同类型MSM艾滋病相关知识知晓率差异有统计学意义(x2=67.92,P<0.001),其中其他型MSM知晓率高达95.1%.酒吧型MSM获得艾滋病相关服务人数高于网络型、公园型和其他型.422名MSM最近半年均与同性发生过性行为,酒吧型MSM每次都用安全套的率最高,为32.6%;11.6%的MSM与同性存在商业性行为,发生商业性行为时安全套使用率低.30.6% MSM存在异性性行为,HIV抗体阳性率为4.3%;梅毒抗体阳性率为9.0%,HCV抗体阳性率为0.7%;各类型MSM的HIV抗体阳性率差异有统计学意义(x2 =8.63,P=0.030).结论 不同类型MSM存在艾滋病知识与行为分离的现象;应在不同类型的MSM人群中采取不同的艾滋病相关知识教育形式和高危行为干预措施.%Objective To investigate AIDS-related knowledge,attitude and sexual behaviors among different types of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Wuhu,and to provide basis for AIDS high risk behaviors intervention.Methods Data from MSM by classification snowball sampling,we investigated MSM by using questionnaires.Results 422 MSM were investigated,there was significant difference in age,marriage,education background and so on (all P < 0.05).There was statistically significant difference in the rate of the knowledge of AIDS-related service among different types of MSM (x2 =67.92,P <0.001),that of MSM from other types was 95.1

  3. HIV/AIDS合并中枢神经系统机会性感染73例临床分析%Seventy-three AIDS patients complicated with opportunistic infections of central nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张薇; 代丽丽; 易银; 牟丹蕾; 郭彩萍; 吴昊

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨HIV感染及AIDS患者群(HIV/AIDS)的各种中枢神经系统机会性感染(opportunistic infections,OIs)情况,以提高诊断水平及临床治愈率,改善预后.方法 统计73例HIV/AIDS中枢神经系统OIs的临床数据,分析其临床表现、实验室检查结果和头颅影像学表现,评价其疗效及预后.结果 73例HIV/AIDS的中枢神经系统OIs中,新型隐球菌性脑膜炎36例(49.3%),弓形体脑炎18例(24.7%),结核性脑膜炎5例(6.8%),HIV脑病5例(6.8%),进行性多灶性脑白质病4例(5.5%),巨细胞病毒性脑炎3例(4.1%),原因不明急性脑梗死2例(2.7%).好转47例,占64.3%;死亡8例,占11.0%;病情无改善、自动出院18例,占24.7%.结论 HIV/AIDS中枢神经系统的OIs诊断困难,病死率高.HIV/AIDS患者,尤其是CD4+T淋巴细胞计数<200/μl者,一旦出现中枢神经系统症状,应尽早进行脑脊液及头颅影像学等相关检查,如条件允许,行脑活体组织检查更有助于明确诊断.早诊断、早治疗是降低HIV/AIDS各种中枢神经系统OIs病死率以及提高治愈率的关键.%Objective To investigate the opportunistic infections (Ois) of central nervous system in HIV/AIDS patients so as to increase the diagnostic level and the curative rate, and improve the prognosis. Methods Clinical data of 73 AIDS patients complicated with the Ois of central nervous system were collected, the clinical menifestations, laboratory test results and head CT or MRI findings were analyzed, and the treatment efficacy and the prognosis were evaluated. Results Among the 73 patients, 36 (49.3%) were complicated with cryptoeocal meningitis, 18 (24.7%) with toxoplasmosis, 5 (6.8%) with tuberculous meningitis, 5 (6.8% ) with HIV encephalopathy, 4 (5.5%) with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, 3 (4.1%) with CMV encephalitis and 2 (2.7%) with cerebral infarction of unknown reason. Totally 47 patients (64.3%) recovered completely or improved partially, 8 (11

  4. Differential Survival for Men and Women with HIV/AIDS-Related Neurologic Diagnoses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha L Carvour

    Full Text Available Neurologic complications of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS frequently lead to disability or death in affected patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether survival patterns differ between men and women with HIV/AIDS-related neurologic disease (neuro-AIDS.Retrospective cohort data from a statewide surveillance database for HIV/AIDS were used to characterize survival following an HIV/AIDS-related neurologic diagnosis for men and women with one or more of the following conditions: cryptococcosis, toxoplasmosis, primary central nervous system lymphoma, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, and HIV-associated dementia. A second, non-independent cohort was formed using university-based cases to confirm and extend the findings from the statewide data. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to compare the survival experiences for men and women in the cohorts. Cox regression was employed to characterize survival while controlling for potential confounders in the study population.Women (n=27 had significantly poorer outcomes than men (n=198 in the statewide cohort (adjusted hazard ratio=2.31, 95% CI: 1.22 to 4.35, and a similar, non-significant trend was observed among university-based cases (n=17 women, 154 men. Secondary analyses suggested that this difference persisted over the course of the AIDS epidemic and was not attributable to differential antiretroviral therapy responses among men and women.The survival disadvantage of women compared to men should be confirmed and the mechanisms underlying this disparity elucidated. If this relationship is confirmed, targeted clinical and public health efforts might be directed towards screening, treatment, and support for women affected by neuro-AIDS.

  5. Opportunistic Resource Usage in CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzer, Peter [RWTH Aachen U.; Hufnagel, Dirk [Fermilab; Dykstra, D. [Fermilab; Gutsche, O. [Fermilab; Tadel, M. [UC, San Diego; Sfiligoi, I. [UC, San Diego; Letts, J. [UC, San Diego; Wuerthwein, F. [UC, San Diego; McCrea, A. [UC, San Diego; Bockelman, B. [Nebraska U.; Fajardo, E. [Andes U., Merida; Linares, L. [Andes U., Merida; Wagner, R. [TI, San Diego; Konstantinov, P. [Sofiya, Inst. Nucl. Res.; Blumenfeld, B. [Johns Hopkins U.; Bradley, D. [Wisconsin U., Madison

    2014-01-01

    CMS is using a tiered setup of dedicated computing resources provided by sites distributed over the world and organized in WLCG. These sites pledge resources to CMS and are preparing them especially for CMS to run the experiment's applications. But there are more resources available opportunistically both on the GRID and in local university and research clusters which can be used for CMS applications. We will present CMS' strategy to use opportunistic resources and prepare them dynamically to run CMS applications. CMS is able to run its applications on resources that can be reached through the GRID, through EC2 compliant cloud interfaces. Even resources that can be used through ssh login nodes can be harnessed. All of these usage modes are integrated transparently into the GlideIn WMS submission infrastructure, which is the basis of CMS' opportunistic resource usage strategy. Technologies like Parrot to mount the software distribution via CVMFS and xrootd for access to data and simulation samples via the WAN are used and will be described. We will summarize the experience with opportunistic resource usage and give an outlook for the restart of LHC data taking in 2015.

  6. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazhila C. Chinsembu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Faced with critical shortages of staff, long queues, and stigma at public health facilities in Livingstone, Zambia, persons who suffer from HIV/AIDS-related diseases use medicinal plants to manage skin infections, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, cough, malaria, and oral infections. In all, 94 medicinal plant species were used to manage HIV/AIDS-related diseases. Most remedies are prepared from plants of various families such as Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. More than two-thirds of the plants (mostly leaves and roots are utilized to treat two or more diseases related to HIV infection. Eighteen plants, namely, Achyranthes aspera L., Lannea discolor (Sond. Engl., Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Capparis tomentosa Lam., Cleome hirta Oliv., Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson, Euclea divinorum Hiern, Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol., Acacia nilotica Delile, Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach. Milne-Redh., Dichrostachys cinerea (L. Wight and Arn., Abrus precatorius L., Hoslundia opposita Vahl., Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd. Schumach., Ficus sycomorus L., Ximenia americana L., and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., were used to treat four or more disease conditions. About 31% of the plants in this study were administered as monotherapies. Multiuse medicinal plants may contain broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. However, since widely used plants easily succumb to the threats of overharvesting, they need special protocols and guidelines for their genetic conservation. There is still need to confirm the antimicrobial efficacies, pharmacological parameters, cytotoxicity, and active chemical ingredients of the discovered plants.

  7. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinsembu, Kazhila C

    2016-01-01

    Faced with critical shortages of staff, long queues, and stigma at public health facilities in Livingstone, Zambia, persons who suffer from HIV/AIDS-related diseases use medicinal plants to manage skin infections, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, cough, malaria, and oral infections. In all, 94 medicinal plant species were used to manage HIV/AIDS-related diseases. Most remedies are prepared from plants of various families such as Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. More than two-thirds of the plants (mostly leaves and roots) are utilized to treat two or more diseases related to HIV infection. Eighteen plants, namely, Achyranthes aspera L., Lannea discolor (Sond.) Engl., Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Capparis tomentosa Lam., Cleome hirta Oliv., Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson, Euclea divinorum Hiern, Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol., Acacia nilotica Delile, Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach.) Milne-Redh., Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight and Arn., Abrus precatorius L., Hoslundia opposita Vahl., Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd.) Schumach., Ficus sycomorus L., Ximenia americana L., and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., were used to treat four or more disease conditions. About 31% of the plants in this study were administered as monotherapies. Multiuse medicinal plants may contain broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. However, since widely used plants easily succumb to the threats of overharvesting, they need special protocols and guidelines for their genetic conservation. There is still need to confirm the antimicrobial efficacies, pharmacological parameters, cytotoxicity, and active chemical ingredients of the discovered plants. PMID:27069489

  8. Stimulating Creativity Through Opportunistic Software Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obrenovic, Z.; Gasevic, D.; Eliëns, A.

    2008-01-01

    Using opportunistic software development principles in computer engineering education encourages students to be creative and to develop solutions that cross the boundaries of diverse technologies. A framework for opportunistic software development education helps to create a space in which students

  9. AIDS-related reasons for gay men's adoption of celibacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, K; Raveis, V H

    1993-01-01

    Since it was first recognized that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection could be sexually transmitted, celibacy has been advocated by some as the only unequivocally effective adaptation for avoiding the risk of infection. Others, however, have countered that few will be willing to be celibate and, further, that such behavior may have adverse psychosocial consequences. As part of a qualitative study of gay men's sexual decision-making in the context of the AIDS/HIV epidemic, we identified a subsample of respondents who had adopted celibacy for varying periods of time as an adaptation to the threat of AIDS/HIV infection. A content analysis of these men's interviews revealed 5 principal themes relating their reasons for choosing celibacy. PMID:8297710

  10. HIV/AIDS-related Discrimination in Shanxi Rural Areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI YANG; KONG-LAI ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    In order to explore the features of discrimination against people with HIV/AIDS in rural areas, a community-based intervention was carried out in two pilot communities of X County of Shanxi Province from September 2002 to October 2003. Methods Data were collected using qualitative methods (in-depth interview and focus group discussion) and anonymously structured questionnaires. Results (1) Severe discrimination against people infected with HIV/AIDS was revealed in the target communities. However, the response to HIV/AIDS was different in each community. (2) People were reluctant to disclose their HIV status or get tested for HIV, which endangered their sexual partners to contract HIV through unprotected sexual intercourses. (3) Attitudes towards people infected with HIV/AIDS varied. (4) Public education promoted a better understanding of HIV/AIDS which in turn improved community attitudes and behaviors towards people with HIV/AIDS. Conclusion HIV/AIDS-related discrimination undermines both individuals' and communities' responses to HIV/AIDS and may be a serious obstacle towards effective HIV/AIDS prevention and control.

  11. Free-living amoebae as opportunistic and non-opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Frederick L; Visvesvara, Govinda S

    2004-08-01

    Knowledge that free-living amoebae are capable of causing human disease dates back some 50 years, prior to which time they were regarded as harmless soil organisms or, at most, commensals of mammals. First Naegleria fowleri, then Acanthamoeba spp. and Balamuthia mandrillaris, and finally Sappinia diploidea have been recognised as etiologic agents of encephalitis; Acanthamoeba spp. are also responsible for amoebic keratitis. Some of the infections are opportunistic, occurring mainly in immunocompromised hosts (Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia encephalitides), while others are non-opportunistic (Acanthamoeba keratitis, Naegleria meningoencephalitis, and cases of Balamuthia encephalitis occurring in immunocompetent humans). The amoebae have a cosmopolitan distribution in soil and water, providing multiple opportunities for contacts with humans and animals, as evidenced by antibody titers in surveyed human populations. Although, the numbers of infections caused by these amoebae are low in comparison to other protozoal parasitoses (trypanosomiasis, toxoplasmosis, malaria, etc.), the difficulty in diagnosing them, the challenge of finding optimal antimicrobial treatments and the morbidity and relatively high mortality associated with, in particular, the encephalitides have been a cause for concern for clinical and laboratory personnel and parasitologists. This review presents information about the individual amoebae: their morphologies and life-cycles, laboratory cultivation, ecology, epidemiology, nature of the infections and appropriate antimicrobial therapies, the immune response, and molecular diagnostic procedures that have been developed for identification of the amoebae in the environment and in clinical specimens.

  12. Epidemiology and Ecology of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs) that persist and grow in household plumbing, habitats they share with humans. Infections caused by these OPPPs involve individuals with preexis...

  13. Measuring HIV/AIDS-Related Stigma across South Africa: A Versatile and Multidimensional Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Edward A.; Miller, Jacqueline A.; Newsome, Valerie; Sofolahan, Yewande A.; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing HIV/AIDS-related stigma is critical in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Although national campaigns and prevention programs have been implemented across South Africa to address this critical concern, assessing the impact of these initiatives is difficult as it requires that measurement of HIV/AIDS-related stigma is uniform and comparable…

  14. Opportunistic yeast pathogens: reservoirs, virulence mechanisms, and therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polvi, Elizabeth J; Li, Xinliu; O'Meara, Teresa R; Leach, Michelle D; Cowen, Leah E

    2015-06-01

    Life-threatening invasive fungal infections are becoming increasingly common, at least in part due to the prevalence of medical interventions resulting in immunosuppression. Opportunistic fungal pathogens of humans exploit hosts that are immunocompromised, whether by immunosuppression or genetic predisposition, with infections originating from either commensal or environmental sources. Fungal pathogens are armed with an arsenal of traits that promote pathogenesis, including the ability to survive host physiological conditions and to switch between different morphological states. Despite the profound impact of fungal pathogens on human health worldwide, diagnostic strategies remain crude and treatment options are limited, with resistance to antifungal drugs on the rise. This review will focus on the global burden of fungal infections, the reservoirs of these pathogens, the traits of opportunistic yeast that lead to pathogenesis, host genetic susceptibilities, and the challenges that must be overcome to combat antifungal drug resistance and improve clinical outcome. PMID:25700837

  15. Plumbing of hospital premises is a reservoir for opportunistically pathogenic microorganisms: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Margaret M; Armbruster, Catherine R; Arduino, Matthew J

    2013-01-01

    Several bacterial species that are natural inhabitants of potable water distribution system biofilms are opportunistic pathogens important to sensitive patients in healthcare facilities. Waterborne healthcare-associated infections (HAI) may occur during the many uses of potable water in the healthcare environment. Prevention of infection is made more challenging by lack of data on infection rate and gaps in understanding of the ecology, virulence, and infectious dose of these opportunistic pathogens. Some healthcare facilities have been successful in reducing infections by following current water safety guidelines. This review describes several infections, and remediation steps that have been implemented to reduce waterborne HAIs.

  16. Alveolar damage in AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Prentø, P; Junge, Jette;

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is the most common and serious of the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Despite this, many basic aspects in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated P carinii pneumonia are unknown. We therefore undertook a light and electron microscopic study of transbronchial...... biopsy specimens to compare pathologic features of P carinii pneumonia and other HIV-related lung diseases. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: Thirty-seven consecutive HIV-infected patients undergoing a diagnostic bronchoscopy. RESULTS: P carinii pneumonia was characterized by an increase in inflammation, edema...... with P carinii pneumonia, whereas none without P carinii pneumonia had this finding (p pneumonia. The changes may form...

  17. AIDS- Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior Survey among the "Migrant" Population in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-fang ZHOU; Xiao-ming SUN; Jonanne Mantell; Xiao-mei RU; Yong WEN

    2007-01-01

    Objective To realize AIDS related knowledge, attitude and behavior among floating people in China and discuss its influencial factors, and to provide the evidence for how to prevent AIDS in floating population.Methods The data were collected from the "Sex and Reproductive Health Baseline Survey among Floating People in China" conducted in March 2004. The standard questionnaires were used to interview altogether 4 900 floating people from 6 provinces.Results Nearly 95.4 % of them had heard about AIDS, but only 0.5% can judge all the transmitted ways and no-transmitted ways correctly, 45.9% believed that we need to isolate the HIV positive people. Only 65.7% knew that using condom can preventive HIV infection, 43.7% showed their understanding about the man who has long time no sexual life has sex with a sexual worker. About 13.6%floating people chose condom as FP method and among them only 34.6% used condom every time.Conclusion Chinese floating people are lack of AIDS knowledge. Most of them do not practise Safe Sex Activity. We need to give more intervention to the floating population.

  18. Survey of AIDS Related KAB Among Immigrant Female Factory Workers in Dongguan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何群; 刘树芳; 王晔; 凌莉; 杨放

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To understand the HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors (KAB) among immigrant female factory workers(IFFW). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among IFFWs sampled from several joint- venture and private factories in Dongguan city. Results: Out of 175 sampled workers, 165 qualified for inclusion and the median age was 22. The resultsshowed that the IFFWs had low levels of knowledge about HIV/AIDS, and held many misconceptions. Thirty three of 76 (43.4%) unmarried IFFWs had premarital sexual contact, and more than half of these contacts were one-night stands (54.5%). More than one quarter of the women(25.9%) never used condoms, 49.4% sometimes used condoms and 24.7% used condoms every time. Twenty-eight women (31.8%) had an induced abortion because of an unexpected pregnancy. Fourteen (14.9%) had been infected with STDs, and four IFFWs(2.8%)had tried drugs before the interview. Conclusion: In order to empower the IFFWs in the city to protect themselves from HIV, and to contain the rapid spread of HIV in our province, targeted HIV/AIDS health promotion programs should be urgently implemented among IFFWs in Dongguan city. The programs should be designed to improve the knowledge of HIV, to promote condom use, and to reduce risky behaviors.

  19. Alveolar damage in AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Prentø, P; Junge, Jette;

    1997-01-01

    biopsy specimens to compare pathologic features of P carinii pneumonia and other HIV-related lung diseases. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: Thirty-seven consecutive HIV-infected patients undergoing a diagnostic bronchoscopy. RESULTS: P carinii pneumonia was characterized by an increase in inflammation, edema......, exudate, fibrosts, type II pneumocyte proliferation, and cellular infiltration of the alveolar wall when compared with other lung diseases (all p type I pneumocyte. Erosion of type I pneumocytes was observed in 13 of 15 patients...... with P carinii pneumonia, whereas none without P carinii pneumonia had this finding (p type II pneumocyte was not observed. CONCLUSION: Inflammation, interstitial fibrosis, and alveolar epithelial erosion are characteristic features of P carinii pneumonia. The changes may form...

  20. Opportunistic Identification of Vertebral Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Judith E

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are powerful predictors of future fracture, so, their identification is important to ensure that patients are commenced on appropriate bone protective or bone-enhancing therapy. Risk factors (e.g., low bone mineral density and increasing age) and symptoms (back pain, loss of height) may herald the presence of vertebral fractures, which are usually confirmed by performing spinal radiographs or, increasingly, using vertebral fracture assessment with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanners. However, a large number (30% or more) of vertebral fractures are asymptomatic and do not come to clinical attention. There is, therefore, scope for opportunistic (fortuitous) identification of vertebral fractures from various imaging modalities (radiographs, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and radionuclide scans) performed for other clinical indications and which include the spine in the field of view, with midline sagittal reformatted images from computed tomography having the greatest potential for such opportunistic detection. Numerous studies confirm this potential for identification but consistently find underreporting of vertebral fractures. So, a valuable opportunity to improve the management of patients at increased risk of future fracture is being squandered. Educational training programs for all clinicians and constant reiteration, stressing the importance of the accurate and clear reporting of vertebral fractures ("you only see what you look for"), can improve the situation, and automated computer-aided diagnostic tools also show promise to solve the problem of this underreporting of vertebral fractures. PMID:26412139

  1. AIDS-related Pneumocystis jirovecii genotypes in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gal, Solène; Blanchet, Denis; Damiani, Céline; Guéguen, Paul; Virmaux, Michèle; Abboud, Philippe; Guillot, Geneviève; Kérangart, Stéphane; Merle, Cédric; Calderon, Enrique; Totet, Anne; Carme, Bernard; Nevez, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    The study described Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) multilocus typing in seven AIDS patients living in French Guiana (Cayenne Hospital) and seven immunosuppressed patients living in Brest, metropolitan France (Brest Hospital). Archival P. jirovecii specimens were examined at the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) locus using a PCR-RFLP technique, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 and ITS 2 and the mitochondrial large subunit rRNA (mtLSUrRNA) gene using PCR and sequencing. Analysis of typing results were combined with an analysis of the literature on P. jirovecii mtLSUrRNA types and ITS haplotypes. A wild DHPS type was identified in six Guianese patients and in seven patients from metropolitan France whereas a DHPS mutant was infected in the remaining Guianese patient. Typing of the two other loci pointed out a high diversity of ITS haplotypes and an average diversity of mtLSUrRNA types in French Guiana with a partial commonality of these haplotypes and types described in metropolitan France and around the world. Combining DHPS, ITS and mtLSU types, 12 different multilocus genotypes (MLGs) were identified, 4 MLGs in Guianese patients and 8 MLGs in Brest patients. MLG analysis allows to discriminate patients in 2 groups according to their geographical origin. Indeed, none of the MLGs identified in the Guianese patients were found in the Brest patients and none of the MLGs identified in the Brest patients were found in the Guianese patients. These results show that in French Guiana (i) PCP involving DHPS mutants occur, (ii) there is a diversity of ITS and mtLSUrRNA types and (iii) although partial type commonality in this territory and metropolitan France can be observed, MLG analysis suggests that P. jirovecii organisms from French Guiana may present specific characteristics.

  2. Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Increasingly Important Pathogens in Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph O. Falkinham

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens are responsible for a significant number of infections whose origin has been traced to drinking water. These opportunistic pathogens represent an emerging water borne disease problem with a major economic cost of at least $1 billion annually. The common features of this group of waterborne pathogens include: disinfectant-resistance, pipe surface adherence and biofilm formation, growth in amoebae, growth on low organic concentrations, and growth at low oxygen levels. Their emergence is due to the fact that conditions resulting from drinking water treatment select for them. As such, there is a need for novel approaches to reduce exposure to these pathogens. In addition to much-needed research, controls to reduce numbers and human exposure can be instituted independently by utilities and homeowners and hospital- and building-operators.

  3. Morganella morganii, a non-negligent opportunistic pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Morganella morganii belongs to the tribe Proteeae of the Enterobacteriaceae family. This species is considered as an unusual opportunistic pathogen that mainly causes post-operative wound and urinary tract infections. However, certain clinical M. morganii isolates present resistance to multiple antibiotics by carrying various resistant genes (such as blaNDM-1, and qnrD1, thereby posing a serious challenge for clinical infection control. Moreover, virulence evolution makes M. morganii an important pathogen. Accumulated data have demonstrated that M. morganii can cause various infections, such as sepsis, abscess, purple urine bag syndrome, chorioamnionitis, and cellulitis. This bacterium often results in a high mortality rate in patients with some infections. M. morganii is considered as a non-negligent opportunistic pathogen because of the increased levels of resistance and virulence. In this review, we summarized the epidemiology of M. morganii, particularly on its resistance profile and resistant genes, as well as the disease spectrum and risk factors for its infection.

  4. Case of relapsed AIDS-related plasmablastic lymphoma treated with autologous stem cell transplantation and highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Goto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Plasmablastic lymphoma is a rare and aggressive malignancy strongly associated with HIV infection. The refractory/relapsed disease rate is high, and the survival rate is characteristically poor. There are no satisfactory salvage regimens for relapsed cases. We successfully performed autologous stem cell transplantation using a regimen consisting of MCNU (ranimustine, etoposide, cytarabine, and melphalan in a Japanese patient with relapsed AIDS-related plasmablastic lymphoma of the oral cavity. Highly active antiretroviral therapy continued during the therapy. Therapy-related toxicity was tolerable, and a total of 40 Gy of irradiation was administered after autologous stem cell transplantation. The patient has remained in complete remission for 16 months since transplantation.

  5. Gene expression profile of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS) is a proliferation of aberrant vascular structures lined by spindle cells, and is caused by a gammaherpes virus (HHV8/KSHV). Its course is aggravated by co-infection with HIV-1, where the timing of infection with HIV-1 and HHV8 is important for the clinical outcome. In order to better understand the pathogenesis of KS, we have analysed tissue from two AIDS-KS lesions, and from normal skin by serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was then used to validate the results. The expression profile of AIDS-related KS (AIDS-KS) reflects an active process in the skin. Transcripts of HHV8 were found to be very low, and HIV-1 mRNA was not detected by SAGE, although it could be found using RT-PCR. Comparing the expression profile of AIDS-KS tissue with publicly available SAGE libraries suggested that AIDS-KS mRNA levels are most similar to those in an artificially mixed library of endothelial cells and leukocytes, in line with the description of KS lesions as containing spindle cells with endothelial characteristics, and an inflammatory infiltrate. At least 64 transcripts were found to be significantly elevated, and 28 were statistically downregulated in AIDS-KS compared to normal skin. Five of the upregulated mRNAs, including Tie 1 and sialoadhesin/CD169, were confirmed by semi-quantitative PCR to be elevated in additional AIDS-KS biopsies. Antibodies to sialoadhesin/CD169, a known marker of activated macrophages, were shown to specifically label tumour macrophages. The expression profile of AIDS-KS showed 64 genes to be significantly upregulated, and 28 genes downregulated, compared with normal skin. One of the genes with increased expression was sialoadhesin (CD169). Antibodies to sialoadhesin/CD169 specifically labelled tumour-associated macrophages, suggesting that macrophages present in AIDS-KS lesions belong to a subset of human CD169+ macrophages

  6. 人类免疫缺陷病毒,艾滋病病毒1型艾滋病患者CD4+T淋巴细胞水平与机会感染及病毒载量的相关性分析%Correlation of CD4+T lymphocyte level with opportunistic infections and viral load in AIDS patients infected with HIV-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铃; 古雪; 敬雨佳; 李芸; 梅小平

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the correlation of CD4+T cell level with HIV load and opportunistic infections in AIDS patients with type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). Methods The plasma load of HIV-1 RNA was detected using real-time PCR OBASAmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan automatic viral load meter (Roche), and CD4+ T lymphocytes were counted by flow cytometry (FACSCOUNT) absolute counting method for 95 patients with AIDS of HIV-1 infection. Results The majority of the patients with HIV-1 type AIDS were mainly married male farmers with low education level at the age of 35-50 years. They got the infection mainly through sexual transmission. Opportunis-tic infections most commonly occurred in the respiratory system (90 times, 51.5%) and bacterial pneumonia account-ed for the highest incidence (48 times, 27.4%). Based on CD4+T lymphocyte count level the opportunistic infections were divided into 5 groups. Bacterial pneumonia, Pneumoaystis carrii pneumonia, pulmonary tuberculosis, oral Candi-da infection, cryptococcal meningitis, infectious diarrhea and herpes simplex were significantly different among the 5 groups ( 0.05);CD4+T细胞计数低于200个/μl时,机会感染发生例次率为97.7%;病毒量<103拷贝/ml的AIDS中,以CD4+T细胞数在200~399个/μl的个体较多(75%),病毒量≥105拷贝/ml的AIDS中,CD4+T细胞数在<200个/μl的个体45例(73.8%);CD4+T淋巴细胞值与病毒载量对数值呈负相关(=-0.34,<0.01)。结论 AIDS患者机会性感染的发生率高,随病毒载量上升CD4+T淋巴细胞数呈现不同程度的下降趋势,CD4+T细胞计数是AIDS患者发生机会性感染的独立危险因素,加强对患者CD4+T细胞计数观察是预测机会性感染的重要手段。

  7. Opportunistic tangible user interfaces for augmented reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Steven; Feiner, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Opportunistic Controls are a class of user interaction techniques that we have developed for augmented reality (AR) applications to support gesturing on, and receiving feedback from, otherwise unused affordances already present in the domain environment. By leveraging characteristics of these affordances to provide passive haptics that ease gesture input, Opportunistic Controls simplify gesture recognition, and provide tangible feedback to the user. In this approach, 3D widgets are tightly coupled with affordances to provide visual feedback and hints about the functionality of the control. For example, a set of buttons can be mapped to existing tactile features on domain objects. We describe examples of Opportunistic Controls that we have designed and implemented using optical marker tracking, combined with appearance-based gesture recognition. We present the results of two user studies. In the first, participants performed a simulated maintenance inspection of an aircraft engine using a set of virtual buttons implemented both as Opportunistic Controls and using simpler passive haptics. Opportunistic Controls allowed participants to complete their tasks significantly faster and were preferred over the baseline technique. In the second, participants proposed and demonstrated user interfaces incorporating Opportunistic Controls for two domains, allowing us to gain additional insights into how user interfaces featuring Opportunistic Controls might be designed. PMID:19910657

  8. 人类免疫缺陷病毒,艾滋病病毒1型艾滋病患者CD4+T淋巴细胞水平与机会感染及病毒载量的相关性分析%Correlation of CD4+T lymphocyte level with opportunistic infections and viral load in AIDS patients infected with HIV-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铃; 古雪; 敬雨佳; 李芸; 梅小平

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析人类免疫缺陷病毒,艾滋病病毒-1(HIV-1)型艾滋病(AIDS)患者体内CD4+T淋巴细胞水平与艾滋病病毒载量及机会性感染的相关性。方法通过Real- time PCR OBASAmpliPrep/COBAS Taq-Man全自动病毒载量仪(Roche公司)和流式细胞仪(FACSCOUNT)绝对计数法对95例HIV-1型AIDS患者定量检测血浆中HIV-1 RNA和CD4+T淋巴细胞数。结果低文化程度的35~50岁已婚男性农民是HIV-1型AIDS患者的多见人群,主要通过性传播途径感染;机会感染最常见部位是呼吸系统感染90例次(51.5%);机会感染发病率最多的是细菌性肺炎48例次(27.4%);根据CD4+T淋巴细胞计数分层水平分为5组,细菌性肺炎、卡氏肺孢子虫肺炎、肺结核、口腔念珠菌感染、隐球菌脑膜炎、感染性腹泻及单纯疱疹各自在5组间比较差异有统计学意义(0.05);CD4+T细胞计数低于200个/μl时,机会感染发生例次率为97.7%;病毒量<103拷贝/ml的AIDS中,以CD4+T细胞数在200~399个/μl的个体较多(75%),病毒量≥105拷贝/ml的AIDS中,CD4+T细胞数在<200个/μl的个体45例(73.8%);CD4+T淋巴细胞值与病毒载量对数值呈负相关(=-0.34,<0.01)。结论 AIDS患者机会性感染的发生率高,随病毒载量上升CD4+T淋巴细胞数呈现不同程度的下降趋势,CD4+T细胞计数是AIDS患者发生机会性感染的独立危险因素,加强对患者CD4+T细胞计数观察是预测机会性感染的重要手段。%Objective To analyze the correlation of CD4+T cell level with HIV load and opportunistic infections in AIDS patients with type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). Methods The plasma load of HIV-1 RNA was detected using real-time PCR OBASAmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan automatic viral load meter (Roche), and CD4+ T lymphocytes were counted by flow cytometry (FACSCOUNT) absolute counting method for 95 patients with AIDS of HIV-1 infection. Results

  9. Child Abuse and Aids-Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior among Adolescents in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonim-Nevo, Vered; Mukuka, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To research the correlation between physical and sexual abuse by family members and AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy and behavior among urban and rural adolescents in Zambia. Sample: The sample comprises 3,360 adolescents, aged 10-19, from urban and rural Zambia; 2,160 of them attended school, while 1,200 of them did…

  10. Distance-Based Opportunistic Mobile Data Offloading

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaofeng Lu; Pietro Lio'; Pan Hui

    2016-01-01

    Cellular network data traffic can be offload onto opportunistic networks. This paper proposes a Distance-based Opportunistic Publish/Subscribe (DOPS) content dissemination model, which is composed of three layers: application layer, decision-making layer and network layer. When a user wants new content, he/she subscribes on a subscribing server. Users having the contents decide whether to deliver the contents to the subscriber based on the distance information. If in the meantime a content ow...

  11. Economic transactions, opportunistic behavior and protective mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    and other co-operators. This paper is concerned with the latter type of risk and the protection against it. Six protective mechanisms, which may serve as safeguards against opportunistic behavior, are presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to reputation effects. It is noted that such...... effects may account for the lack of opportunistic behavior with which networks are often credited. No protective mechanism is, however, effective under all circumstances....

  12. Integrated Routing Protocol for Opportunistic Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Anshul Verma; Dr. Anurag Srivastava

    2012-01-01

    In opportunistic networks the existence of a simultaneous path is not assumed to transmit a message between a sender and a receiver. Information about the context in which the users communicate is a key piece of knowledge to design efficient routing protocols in opportunistic networks. But this kind of information is not always available. When users are very isolated, context information cannot be distributed, and cannot be used for taking efficient routing decisions. In such cases, context o...

  13. Survey on AIDS related knowledge and attitude among married people of childbearing age in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying; Cheng Yi-min; Huang Na; Guo Xin; Wu Jun-qing; Ru Xiao-mei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To learn about the current circumstances surrounding AIDS related knowledge, attitudes and relevant influential factors, and to provide recommendations for HIV/AIDS prevention and control.Methods: A cross sectional study was designed by the cluster sampling method, and a self-administered, closed, and anonymous questionnaire was administered. There were a total of 4,800 married people of childbearing age, from six counties, during the period November through December, 2003.Results: There were 4,693 valid questionnaires and the validity rate was 97.78%. The general correct rate of AIDS knowledge of the respondents was 63.60%. Factors such as sex, age, place of registered permanent residence and different areas had influence on the level of AIDS knowledge. Respondents knew more about AIDS transmission related knowledge than non-transmission related knowledge. Only 30.6% of respondents had heard about volunteer counseling and testing(VCT)of AIDS, and just 8.5% of them thought that they had the possibility of being infected with HIV/AIDS, 64.5% of participants were afraid of AIDS, 66.5% of them thought that HIV positive people should be quarantined, 74.1% of them held that HIV positive people should be forbidden to go to public places, and they would not like to have dinner (68.8%), shake hands (67.8%), or work (63.4%)with HIV positive people. Respondents of different sex, registered permanent residence, education and living places had different attitudes towards HIV/AIDS.Conclusion: The AIDS knowledge level of respondents is below the goal of 75% up to 2005 brought forward by National AIDS Office of China. It is very important to strengthen the Information, Education, Communication (IEC) on AIDS non-transmission related knowledge among married people of childbearing age, especially those who are younger, lower educated and female. Furthermore, the knowledge about VCT should be publicized. More than half of the respondents have negative attitudes towards

  14. Exploratory development of the data mining in the relationship between CD4+ cell counts and the opportunistic infection among AIDS patients%数据挖掘在艾滋病病人CD4+T淋巴细胞与机会性感染关系的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩建超; 徐艳; 贺一; 谢渝中; 赵攀; 黄成瑜

    2012-01-01

    目的 利用数据挖掘技术分析艾滋病(AIDS)病人CD4+T淋巴细胞与机会性感染的关系,以期对合并机会性感染的AIDS病人的早期预防性用药提供决策支持.方法 使用数据挖掘中的C4.5决策树算法,分析重庆市公共卫生医疗救治中心2003-2008年的207例AIDS病人的相关数据.结果 AIDS病人的CD4+T淋巴细胞值在A(0-50)区间,合并感染卡氏肺孢子虫肺炎(PCP)机会很大(概率为82.35%).如果没有感染PCP,但是感染了隐球性脑膜炎(NMY),其CD4+T淋巴细胞值在A(0-50)区间;既没有感染PCP,也没有感染NMY,但合并感染丙型肝炎(丙肝)及乙型肝炎(乙肝)者,其CD4+T淋巴细胞值在D(201-300)区间;没有感染PCP,也没有感染NMY,但合并感染丙肝未感染乙肝,其CD4+T淋巴细胞值在C(101 -200)区间.结论 通过使用数据挖掘技术中的决策树算法,得出AIDS病人CD4+T淋巴细胞值在某一个区间,更容易合并某一种机会性感染,CD4+T淋巴细胞值与机会性感染有着重要的关系.%Objective To analyze the relationship between CD4+ cell counts of AIDS patients and the opportunistic infection by utilizing the data mining technology, and to provide decision-making support for an early preventive medication among AIDS patients who were complicated with opportunistic infections. Methods The C4. 5 decision tree algorithm of data mining was considered as the main method. Interrelated data of 207 AIDS patients from Chongqing Public Health and Medical Service Center between 2005 and 2008 were collected as study samples. Results AIDS patients whose CD/ cell value lay in A (0-50) sector had a higher opportunity to be infected with pneumocystis carinii pneumoni(PCP) ;for those infected with cryptococcal meningitis(NMY)without PCP, the CD/ cell value lay in A sector. For those who were co-infected with hepatitis C and hepatitis B,but with neither PCP nor meningitis, the CD/ cell value lay in D(201 - 300)sector;if the patients were only

  15. Evaluation of Opportunistic Routing Algorithms on Opportunistic Mobile Sensor Networks with Infrastructure Assistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, Viet-Duc; Scholten, Hans; Havinga, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Recently the increasing number of sensors integrated in smartphones, especially the iPhone and Android phones, has motivated the development of routing algorithms for Opportunistic Mobile Sensor Networks (OppMSNs). Although there are many existing opportunistic routing algorithms, researchers still

  16. Differences of HIV/AIDS Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Between Commercial Sex Workers and Their Clients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世英; 张顺祥; AbdullahASM

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To compare the HIV/AIDS related knowledge,attitudes and pratices (KAP) among the commercial sex workers (CSWs) with that of their clients in Shenzhen. Methods: A total of 124 female CSWs and 155 men,detained for selling or purchasing sexual services, were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Results: CSWs scored higher than their clients on AIDS/HIV knowledge scores, though the difference was not significant and both groups only scored near 50%. ""Almost always""condom use rates were significantly higher for CSWs. Most of the women but fewer men knew condom use could prevent HIV/AIDS infection. The main reason for not using condoms among the women was the unwillingness of their customers. A higher proportion of the CSWs (9.7%) than men (2.6%) had ever used illegal drugs. The mean age of first sexual intercourse (18.2±2.1) and first commercial sex (20.2±3.9)among the CSWs were lower than that of the men (22.2±0.3and 27.1 ± 0.6, respectively). Conclusion: New health education programs promoting condom use should be developed to raise awareness about HIV/AIDS, particularly among men. CSWs and clients are high-risk groups for HIV/AIDS infection and transmission.

  17. Survey of HIV/AIDS-related Knowledge, Attitude and Determinants in Urban Residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何群; 杨放; 林鹏; 王晔; 刘勇鹰; 付笑冰; 赵茜茜

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To provide references for HIV/AIDS-re-lated health education strategies through survey on HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitude and determi-nants of HIV/AIDS awareness.Methods: The study subjects were selected by ran-dom interception in a downtown street of Guangzhou city on World AIDS Day-December 1,2002. The uni-form questionnaires were finished by means of self-administration.Results: Two hundred questionnaires were distrib-uted and 147 qualified questionnaires were collected.The results showed, the awareness rate of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge was 63.3%, and awareness rate of transmission routes was 76.2 %, whilst non-transmis-sion route was 60.5 %; the awareness rate of trans-mission was 59.2%; the awareness rate of prevention was 47.0%; the positive attitude to people living with HIV/AIDS was 65.6%. Multiple variable Logistic re-gression analysis showed the determinants of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge were education level, age,marital status and gender, of which people with high level of education, young age and the group of male and married had better awareness of HIV/AIDS.Conclusion: Current HIV/AIDS-related knowledge of urban residents is relativly low, especially for the non-transmission route, hence further HIV/AIDS-re-lated education should be strengthened, especially fo-cusing on non-transmission route to eliminate dis-crimination over people living with HIV/AIDS.Further, education efforts also should be put on fe-male population, unmarried population and poorly edu-cated population.

  18. US Supreme Court allows limits on AIDS-related insurance benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, R

    2000-01-01

    In a ruling issued on 10 January 2000 with respect to Doe v Mutual of Omaha Insurance, the US Supreme Court refused to review a lower-court decision allowing an insurance company to limit health-care benefits for AIDS-related claims to less than one-tenth of what it pays under the same policies for expenses related to other illnesses. The lower court had ruled that anti-discrimination legislation does not apply to insurance policies.

  19. Performance analysis of opportunistic nonregenerative relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2013-01-01

    Opportunistic relaying in cooperative communication depends on careful relay selection. However, the traditional centralized method used for opportunistic amplify-and-forward protocols requires precise measurements of channel state information at the destination. In this paper, we adopt the max-min criterion as a relay selection framework for opportunistic amplify-and-forward cooperative communications, which was exhaustively used for the decode-and-forward protocol, and offer an accurate performance analysis based on exact statistics of the local signal-to-noise ratios of the best relay. Furthermore, we evaluate the asymptotical performance and deduce the diversity order of our proposed scheme. Finally, we validate our analysis by showing that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results over Rayleigh fading channels, and we compare the max-min relay selection with their centralized channel state information-based and partial relay selection counterparts.

  20. Opportunistic spectrum utilization in vehicular communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Nan

    2016-01-01

    This brief examines current research on improving Vehicular Networks (VANETs), examining spectrum scarcity due to the dramatic growth of mobile data traffic and the limited bandwidth of dedicated vehicular communication bands and the use of opportunistic spectrum bands to mitigate congestion. It reviews existing literature on the use of opportunistic spectrum bands for VANETs, including licensed and unlicensed spectrum bands and a variety of related technologies, such as cognitive radio, WiFi and device-to-device communications. Focused on analyzing spectrum characteristics, designing efficient spectrum exploitation schemes, and evaluating the date delivery performance when utilizing different opportunistic spectrum bands, the results presented in this brief provide valuable insights on improving the design and deployment of future VANETs.

  1. Economic transactions, opportunistic behavior and protective mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    Whenever actors participate in transactions they expose themselves to risks of various kinds. Some of these risks are attributable to events outside the control of the participants and are unavoidable. Others originate in, or are aggrevated by, opportunistic actions undertaken by contract partners...... and other co-operators. This paper is concerned with the latter type of risk and the protection against it. Six protective mechanisms, which may serve as safeguards against opportunistic behavior, are presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to reputation effects. It is noted that such...

  2. Identification of quorum-sensing regulated proteins in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa by proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arevalo-Ferro, C.; Hentzer, Morten; Reil, G.;

    2003-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen which is responsible for severe nosocomial infections in immunocompromised patients and is the major pathogen in cystic fibrosis. The bacterium utilizes two interrelated quorum-sensing (QS) systems, which rely...

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Nocardia jinanensis, an Opportunistic Bacterial Pathogen That Causes Cellulitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabortti, Alolika; Li, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Nocardia jinanensis, an opportunistic pathogen that can cause skin infections, reveals genes that may contribute to the lifestyle and pathogenicity of N. jinanensis. The genome also reveals the biosynthetic capacity of N. jinanensis in producing mycolic acids, siderophores, and other polyketide and nonribosomal peptide-derived secondary metabolites. PMID:27445366

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Nocardia jinanensis, an Opportunistic Bacterial Pathogen That Causes Cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabortti, Alolika; Li, Jinming; Liang, Zhao-Xun

    2016-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Nocardia jinanensis, an opportunistic pathogen that can cause skin infections, reveals genes that may contribute to the lifestyle and pathogenicity of N. jinanensis The genome also reveals the biosynthetic capacity of N. jinanensis in producing mycolic acids, siderophores, and other polyketide and nonribosomal peptide-derived secondary metabolites. PMID:27445366

  5. Aids-related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: a retrospective study in a referral center in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, José E; Penalva de Oliveira, Augusto C; Fink, Maria Cristina D S; Pannuti, Cláudio S; Trujillo, J Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Few data are available about progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) from Brazil. The objectives of this study were to describe the main features of patients with PML and estimate its frequency among AIDS patients with central nervous system (CNS) opportunistic diseases admitted to the Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas, São Paulo, Brazil, from April 2003 to April 2004. A retrospective and descriptive study was performed. Twelve (6%) cases of PML were identified among 219 patients with neurological diseases. The median age of patients with PML was 36 years and nine (75%) were men. Nine (75%) patients were not on antiretroviral therapy at admission. The most common clinical manifestations were: focal weakness (75%), speech disturbances (58%), visual disturbances (42%), cognitive dysfunction (42%), and impaired coordination (42%). The median CD4+ T-cell count was 45 cells/microL. Eight (67%) of 12 patients were laboratory-confirmed with PML and four (33%) were possible cases. Eleven (92%) presented classic PML and only one case had immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS)-related PML. In four (33%) patients, PML was the first AIDS-defining illness. During hospitalization, three patients (25%) died as a result of nosocomial pneumonia and nine (75%) were discharged to home. Cases of PML were only exceeded by cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis, cryptococcal meningoencephalitis, and CNS tuberculosis, the three more frequent neurologic opportunistic infections in Brazil. The results of this study suggest that PML is not an uncommon HIV-related neurologic disorder in a referral center in Brazil.

  6. Incentive mechanisms for Opportunistic Cloud Computing Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, Eric; Olesen, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Opportunistic Cloud Computing Service (OCCS) is a social network approach to the provisioning and management of cloud computing services for enterprises. The OCCS network may suffer from the free riding problem where members are selfish and will only want to use services on the platform without...

  7. Environmental Variation Generates Environmental Opportunist Pathogen Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, Jani; Kaitala, Veijo; Laakso, Jouni; Ruokolainen, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Many socio-economically important pathogens persist and grow in the outside host environment and opportunistically invade host individuals. The environmental growth and opportunistic nature of these pathogens has received only little attention in epidemiology. Environmental reservoirs are, however, an important source of novel diseases. Thus, attempts to control these diseases require different approaches than in traditional epidemiology focusing on obligatory parasites. Conditions in the outside-host environment are prone to fluctuate over time. This variation is a potentially important driver of epidemiological dynamics and affect the evolution of novel diseases. Using a modelling approach combining the traditional SIRS models to environmental opportunist pathogens and environmental variability, we show that epidemiological dynamics of opportunist diseases are profoundly driven by the quality of environmental variability, such as the long-term predictability and magnitude of fluctuations. When comparing periodic and stochastic environmental factors, for a given variance, stochastic variation is more likely to cause outbreaks than periodic variation. This is due to the extreme values being further away from the mean. Moreover, the effects of variability depend on the underlying biology of the epidemiological system, and which part of the system is being affected. Variation in host susceptibility leads to more severe pathogen outbreaks than variation in pathogen growth rate in the environment. Positive correlation in variation on both targets can cancel the effect of variation altogether. Moreover, the severity of outbreaks is significantly reduced by increase in the duration of immunity. Uncovering these issues helps in understanding and controlling diseases caused by environmental pathogens.

  8. Economic transactions, opportunistic behavior and protective mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    Whenever actors participate in transactions they expose themselves to risks of various kinds. Some of these risks are attributable to events outside the control of the participants and are unavoidable. Others originate in, or are aggrevated by, opportunistic actions undertaken by contract partners...

  9. CD4+细胞计数与HIV相关症状及机会性感染的相关性分析%An analysis of the correlation between CD4+ cell counts and opportunistic infections in patients with HIV/AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘曦; 李春娜; 丁立; 陈慧丽; 黄珊凤

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析CD4+细胞水平与艾滋病病毒(Human immunodeficiency virus,HIV)相关症状及机会性感染的相关性.方法 回顾中山大学附属第五医院122例HIV感染者/艾滋病病人初治病例,按CD4+细胞计数水平分为A、B、C3个组,分析各组HIV相关症状及机会性感染的相关性.结果 A组(CD4+细胞<100个/mm3)与C组(CD4+细胞201~350个/mm3)、B组(CD4+细胞100~200个/mm3)与C组出现发热的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).A组与C组出现腹泻的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).A组与B组发生鹅口疮、口腔毛状白斑的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);A组与C组发生鹅口疮、口腔毛状白斑、皮肤损害、结核病(包括肺结核、肺外结核)、卡氏肺孢子虫肺炎、播散性真菌病的差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 CD4+细胞201~350个/mm3的病人出现HIV相关症状较轻,并发严重机会性感染的概率较小,早期抗病毒治疗有利于提高AIDS病人的生活质量.%Objective To analyze the correlation between CD4+ cell counts and the related symptoms of human im-mume deficiency virus (HIV) as well as the opportunistic infections in patients with HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) (HIV/AIDS). Method Totally, 122 HIV/AIDS patients with initial antiretroviral therapy in the Fifth Hospital Affiliated to Sun Yat-sen University were classified by CD4+ cell counts into Group A (CD4+ cell counts<100/mm3), group B (CD4+ cell counts 100 -200/mm3), and group C (CD4+ cell counts 201 -350/mm3). The correlation between HIV related symptoms and opportunistic infection in the three groups was analyzed. Results The differences in fever between group A and group C, and between group B and C were statistically significant (P<0. 05). The difference in diarrhea between groups A and C was statistically significant(P<0. 05). The differ-ences in oral thrush and hairy leukoplakia between groups A and B, and those in oral thrush and hairy leukoplakia, skin

  10. Effective but costly, evolved mechanisms of defense against a virulent opportunistic pathogen in Drosophila melanogaster.

    OpenAIRE

    Yixin H Ye; Chenoweth, Stephen F.; McGraw, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Drosophila harbor substantial genetic variation for antibacterial defense, and investment in immunity is thought to involve a costly trade-off with life history traits, including development, life span, and reproduction. To understand the way in which insects invest in fighting bacterial infection, we selected for survival following systemic infection with the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa in wild-caught Drosophila melanogaster over 10 generations. We then examined genome-wide...

  11. Loss of competition in the outside host environment generates outbreaks of environmental opportunist pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, Jani; Ruokolainen, Lasse; Kaitala, Veijo; Laakso, Jouni

    2013-01-01

    Environmentally transmitted pathogens face ecological interactions (e.g., competition, predation, parasitism) in the outside-host environment and host immune system during infection. Despite the ubiquitousness of environmental opportunist pathogens, traditional epidemiology focuses on obligatory pathogens incapable of environmental growth. Here we ask how competitive interactions in the outside-host environment affect the dynamics of an opportunist pathogen. We present a model coupling the classical SI and Lotka-Volterra competition models. In this model we compare a linear infectivity response and a sigmoidal infectivity response. An important assumption is that pathogen virulence is traded off with competitive ability in the environment. Removing this trade-off easily results in host extinction. The sigmoidal response is associated with catastrophic appearances of disease outbreaks when outside-host species richness, or overall competition pressure, decreases. This indicates that alleviating outside-host competition with antibacterial substances that also target the competitors can have unexpected outcomes by providing benefits for opportunist pathogens. These findings may help in developing alternative ways of controlling environmental opportunist pathogens. PMID:24244752

  12. Loss of competition in the outside host environment generates outbreaks of environmental opportunist pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Anttila

    Full Text Available Environmentally transmitted pathogens face ecological interactions (e.g., competition, predation, parasitism in the outside-host environment and host immune system during infection. Despite the ubiquitousness of environmental opportunist pathogens, traditional epidemiology focuses on obligatory pathogens incapable of environmental growth. Here we ask how competitive interactions in the outside-host environment affect the dynamics of an opportunist pathogen. We present a model coupling the classical SI and Lotka-Volterra competition models. In this model we compare a linear infectivity response and a sigmoidal infectivity response. An important assumption is that pathogen virulence is traded off with competitive ability in the environment. Removing this trade-off easily results in host extinction. The sigmoidal response is associated with catastrophic appearances of disease outbreaks when outside-host species richness, or overall competition pressure, decreases. This indicates that alleviating outside-host competition with antibacterial substances that also target the competitors can have unexpected outcomes by providing benefits for opportunist pathogens. These findings may help in developing alternative ways of controlling environmental opportunist pathogens.

  13. Application of diffusion tensor imaging in AIDS patients with brain opportunistic diseases: A comparative study of tuberculosis and toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-le Chu

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Quantitative DTI is valuable for diagnosis and differential diagnosis of patients with AIDS-associated infections, and also could provide references for clinical physicians for proper medications. The quantitative FA value could help better reveal different changes of microstructural integrity between different opportunistic infections.

  14. HIV and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination: a conceptual framework and implications for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard; Aggleton, Peter

    2003-07-01

    Internationally, there has been a recent resurgence of interest in HIV and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination, triggered at least in part by growing recognition that negative social responses to the epidemic remain pervasive even in seriously affected communities. Yet, rarely are existing notions of stigma and discrimination interrogated for their conceptual adequacy and their usefulness in leading to the design of effective programmes and interventions. Taking as its starting point, the classic formulation of stigma as a 'significantly discrediting' attribute, but moving beyond this to conceptualize stigma and stigmatization as intimately linked to the reproduction of social difference, this paper offers a new framework by which to understand HIV and AIDS-related stigma and its effects. It so doing, it highlights the manner in which stigma feeds upon, strengthens and reproduces existing inequalities of class, race, gender and sexuality. It highlights the limitations of individualistic modes of stigma alleviation and calls instead for new programmatic approaches in which the resistance of stigmatized individuals and communities is utilized as a resource for social change. PMID:12753813

  15. Opportunistic Migration in Spatial Evolutionary Games

    CERN Document Server

    Buesser, Pierre; Antonioni, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    We study evolutionary games in a spatial diluted grid environment in which agents strategically interact locally but can also opportunistically move to other positions within a given migration radius. Using the imitation of the best rule for strategy revision, it is shown that cooperation may evolve and be stable in the Prisoner's Dilemma game space for several migration distances but only for small game interaction radius while the Stag Hunt class of games become fully cooperative. We also show that only a few trials are needed for cooperation to evolve, i.e. searching costs are not an issue. When the stochastic Fermi strategy update protocol is used cooperation cannot evolve in the Prisoner's Dilemma if the selection intensity is high in spite of opportunistic migration. However, when imitation becomes more random, fully or partially cooperative states are reached in all games for all migration distances tested and for short to intermediate interaction radii.

  16. Opportunistic migration in spatial evolutionary games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesser, Pierre; Tomassini, Marco; Antonioni, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    We study evolutionary games in a spatial diluted grid environment in which agents strategically interact locally but can also opportunistically move to other positions within a given migration radius. Using the imitation of the best rule for strategy revision, it is shown that cooperation may evolve and be stable in the Prisoner's Dilemma game space for several migration distances but only for small game interaction radius while the Stag Hunt class of games become fully cooperative. We also show that only a few trials are needed for cooperation to evolve, i.e., searching costs are not an issue. When the stochastic Fermi strategy update protocol is used cooperation cannot evolve in the Prisoner's Dilemma if the selection intensity is high in spite of opportunistic migration. However, when imitation becomes more random, fully or partially cooperative states are reached in all games for all migration distances tested and for short to intermediate interaction radii.

  17. Environmental Variation Generates Environmental Opportunist Pathogen Outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Anttila

    Full Text Available Many socio-economically important pathogens persist and grow in the outside host environment and opportunistically invade host individuals. The environmental growth and opportunistic nature of these pathogens has received only little attention in epidemiology. Environmental reservoirs are, however, an important source of novel diseases. Thus, attempts to control these diseases require different approaches than in traditional epidemiology focusing on obligatory parasites. Conditions in the outside-host environment are prone to fluctuate over time. This variation is a potentially important driver of epidemiological dynamics and affect the evolution of novel diseases. Using a modelling approach combining the traditional SIRS models to environmental opportunist pathogens and environmental variability, we show that epidemiological dynamics of opportunist diseases are profoundly driven by the quality of environmental variability, such as the long-term predictability and magnitude of fluctuations. When comparing periodic and stochastic environmental factors, for a given variance, stochastic variation is more likely to cause outbreaks than periodic variation. This is due to the extreme values being further away from the mean. Moreover, the effects of variability depend on the underlying biology of the epidemiological system, and which part of the system is being affected. Variation in host susceptibility leads to more severe pathogen outbreaks than variation in pathogen growth rate in the environment. Positive correlation in variation on both targets can cancel the effect of variation altogether. Moreover, the severity of outbreaks is significantly reduced by increase in the duration of immunity. Uncovering these issues helps in understanding and controlling diseases caused by environmental pathogens.

  18. [Genetic virulence markers of opportunistic bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, V M

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of opportunistic bacteria phenotypic and genetic virulence markers indicates that pathogenicity formation is based on a structural modification of bacterial DNA which is linked with migration of interbacterial pathogenicity "islands" genetic determinants. Structural organization features of these mobile genetic elements determine high expression probability, and PCR detection of pathogenicity "islands" determinants that control adhesins, invasins, cytotoxic and cytolitic toxines synthesis may indicate etiopathogenetic significance of clinical isolates.

  19. Pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms in caves

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-Moral Sergio; Hermosin Bernardo; Boiron Patrick; Rodriguez-Nava Veronica; Laiz Leonila; Jurado Valme; Saiz-Jimenez Cesareo

    2010-01-01

    With today’s leisure tourism, the frequency of visits to many caves makes it necessary to know about possible potentially pathogenic microorganisms in caves, determine their reservoirs, and inform the public about the consequences of such visits. Our data reveal that caves could be a potential danger to visitors because of the presence of opportunistic microorganisms, whose existence and possible development in humans is currently unknown.

  20. Mobile opportunistic networks architectures, protocols and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Denko, Mieso K

    2011-01-01

    Widespread availability of pervasive and mobile devices coupled with recent advances in networking technologies make opportunistic networks one of the most promising communication technologies for a growing number of future mobile applications. Covering the basics as well as advanced concepts, this book introduces state-of-the-art research findings, technologies, tools, and innovations. Prominent researchers from academia and industry report on communication architectures, network algorithms and protocols, emerging applications, experimental studies, simulation tools, implementation test beds,

  1. Opportunistic hearing screening in elderly inpatients

    OpenAIRE

    Ramdoo, Krishan; Bowen, Jordan; Dale, Oliver T; Corbridge, Rogan; Chatterjee, Apurba; Gosney, Margot A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of occult hearing loss in elderly inpatients, to evaluate feasibility of opportunistic hearing screening and to determine subsequent provision of hearing aids. Materials and methods: Subjects (>65 years) were recruited from five elderly care wards. Hearing loss was detected by a ward-based hearing screen comprising patient-reported assessment of hearing disability and a whisper test. Subjects failing the whisper test or reporting hearing difficulties wer...

  2. Opportunistic assessment of hearing in elderly inpatients

    OpenAIRE

    Ramdoo, Krishan; Bowen, Jordan; Dale, Oliver T; Corbridge, Rogan; Chatterjee, Apurba; Gosney, Margot A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of occult hearing loss in elderly inpatients, to evaluate feasibility of opportunistic hearing screening and to determine subsequent provision of hearing aids. Materials and methods: Subjects (>65 years) were recruited from five elderly care wards. Hearing loss was detected by a ward-based hearing screen comprising patient-reported assessment of hearing disability and a whisper test. Subjects failing the whisper test or reporting hearing difficulti...

  3. Trends in overall opportunistic illnesses, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, cerebral toxoplasmosis andMycobacterium avium complex incidence rates over the 30 years of the HIV epidemic: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Coelho

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The natural history of HIV infection has changed dramatically after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Currently, opportunistic illnesses still represent a major cause of death and hospitalization in this population. In this study, we review the trends in opportunistic illnesses incidence rates and compare the results observed in high-income settings with that for low/middle-income settings, with special attention given to studies from Brazil. METHODS: We systematically searched Pubmed, Web of Science, Lilacs and Google scholar for publications on HIV associated opportunistic illness. Studies reporting rates based on person-time for all opportunistic illnesses and/or the three opportunistic infections of interest, namely,Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, cerebral toxoplasmosis, and Mycobacterium avium complex were included. RESULTS: Significant reductions in the incidence rates were demonstrated for opportunistic illnesses overall and also for the specific opportunistic infections included in the present study, both in high and low/middle-income settings. Out of the 37 studies included in the present review, almost 70% were from high-income settings. All the studies conducted in low/middle-income settings were single center studies and four were from Brazil. We found no study from Brazil reporting annual incidence rates of opportunistic illnesses. CONCLUSIONS: Opportunistic illnesses remain an important public health problem. To better guide health policies in low/middle-income settings, multicenter cohort studies should be encouraged. Studies from Brazil are urgently needed to assess the current burden of opportunistic illnesses in our population and to support the planning of HIV/AIDS health care services organization.

  4. Radiological characteristics of AIDS- related lymphoma; Aspectos radiologicos dos linfomas no paciente com SIDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Gloria Maria Martins G. [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radiologia; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia

    1996-11-01

    The epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) increased the incidence of lymphoma, particularly the non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma. The lymphoma in immune deficient patients is usually high-grade, very aggressive and with poor prognostic. We report the radiologic characteristics of AIDS-related lymphoma in 19 patients and correlate with the literature. The disease was predominant in homosexual male patients, with mean age of 38 years. The radiological characteristics are nonspecific to differential diagnosis, but we must suspect of lymphoma. We found ring-enhanced lesions in the radiologic studies of central nervous system. Hylar and mediastinal lymphadenopath, nodules and alveolar infiltration were detected on thoracic examinations. Abdominal examinations showed hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, hepatic focal lesions and thickneded with distorted mucosa in the alimentary tract. Bone involvement presented as focal and disseminated destructive lesions. (author) 41 refs., 10 figs.

  5. Dermatofitose por Tricophyton rubrum como infecção oportunista em pacientes com doença de Cushing Dermatophytosis caused by Tricophyton rubrum as an opportunistic infection in patients with Cushing disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isy Peixoto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O dermatófito Trichophyton rubrum é um agente comum nas micoses superficiais, podendo apresentar lesões extensas pauci-inflamatórias de evolução crônica, especialmente em imunocomprometidos. O hipercortisolismo, na síndrome de Cushing, aumenta o risco de infecções, resultado do efeito imunossupressor dos glicocorticóides. Os casos relatados apresentam duas formas distintas de dermatofitose, em pacientes com doença de Cushing, causadas por Tricophyton rubrum e posterior remissão após normalização da cortisolemia.Trichophyton rubrum is a common agent found in superficial mycoses, which present ample nonin?ammatory lesions, with chronic evolution, especially in immunocompromised patients. The hypercortisolism in Cushing's syndrome increases the risk of infections as a result of the immunosuppressive effect of glucocorticoids. The reported cases here refer to two different types of dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum in patients with Cushing's disease, resistant to antifungal treatment. The disease remitted after the levels of cortisol went back to normal.

  6. The political context of AIDS-related stigma and knowledge in a South African township community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Brian; Vandormael, Alain; Kershaw, Trace; Grobbelaar, Janis

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the presentation of AIDS-related stigma and knowledge within the political context of the South African government's response to the AIDS epidemic. It was during the 2000 - 2004 period that key government officials publicly challenged the orthodox views of HIV/AIDS, with the South African president, Thabo Mbeki, actively positing the primary role of poverty and other socio-economic stressors in the progression of the AIDS epidemic. This discursive position had real-time effects for AIDS policy-making and ultimately delayed the implementation of a national antiretroviral (ARV) rollout programme. Consequently this position was criticised by commentators in the media and elsewhere for contributing to an already widespread climate of AIDS stigmatization and misinformation. To shed more light on these claims we conducted a survey in 2005 in Atteridgeville, a South African township, and compared results with those of a similar survey conducted shortly after ARV medications became available in 2004. Results indicated a reduction in AIDS stigma levels across the 1-year period, and that those participants who endorsed contentious political views (such as those expressed by key government officials) were more likely to have a higher level of AIDS-related stigma than those who disagreed. Nevertheless, this study cautions against drawing a causal relationship between the South African government's position and IDS-stigmatizing attitudes, and suggests that further political and social factors be accounted for in an attempt to gain a fuller understanding of this seemingly complex relationship. PMID:18709210

  7. Analysis of trends in total deaths and AIDS-related deaths certified at Mosvold Hospital, Ingwavuma, KwaZulu-Natal, from 2003 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C H Vaughan Williams

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To analyse mortality trends from deaths registered at Mosvold Hospital, Ingwavuma, KwaZulu-Natal, and possible impact of programmes to treat and prevent HIV infection. Design. Longitudinal study of death certifications from 2003 to 2008. Setting. Mosvold Hospital mortuary, Ingwavuma. Subjects. Counterfoils of form 83/BI-1663, Notification/Register of Death/Stillbirths (Republic of South Africa, Department of Home Affairs, completed at Mosvold Hospital from January 2003 to December 2008. Outcome measures. Age at death, cause of death, patterns of deaths grouped by age, gender and cause of death. Results. AIDS-related deaths were the cause of 53% of deaths, particularly affecting the 20 - 59-year and under-5 age groups. Since 2005 there has been a decline in deaths in the 20 - 59 age group and an increase in average age at death. Conclusions. The decrease in mortality from 2005 may be associated with antiretroviral roll-out reducing mortality from AIDS-related illnesses.

  8. HIV/AIDS合并感染机会性致病原虫血清流行病学分析%Serum epidemiological analysis of opportunistic infection of pathogenic protozoa in HIV/AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞杏林; 陈守义; 高凯; 麦惠霞; 韩志刚; 徐慧芳; 杨智聪

    2015-01-01

    Objective Monitoring Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium and Giardia′s serum antibody of HIV patients to understand the rate of infection and prevalence. Methods Based on cross-sectional sampling method, 450 confirm HIV-positive blood samples were collected as HIV group samples, and 180 samples were collected from healthy people as control group in the second half of 2013. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect serum IgG antibodies of Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Results In HIV group, the IgG positive rates of Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium and Giardia were 7.1%(32/450), 17.3%(78/450) and 16.2%(73/450), respectively. In normal group, the IgG positive rates of Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium and Giardia were 4.4%(8/180), 11.1%(20/180) and 11.7%(21/180), respectively. In the HIV group, three kinds of protozoa were significantly higher than those of the normal group. Among them, Cryptosporidium positive rate was significantly higher in the HIV group than that of the normal group (χ2=3.789, P<0.05). Toxoplasma antibody positive rate of male was 7.7%and was significantly higher than that of females, 2.1%(χ2=4.49, P<0.05). The Toxoplasma antibody positive rate of ethnic minorities was 30.0%(3/7)and was significantly higher than that of the Han ethnic group (χ2=10.386, P<0.05). Conclusion HIV/AIDS patients were more susceptible to Cryptosporidium infection than normal people;Cryptosporidium and Giardia infection are often accompanied with HIV/AIDS.%目的:检测人类免疫缺陷病毒感染者/艾滋病患者(HIV/AIDS)合并感染弓形虫、隐孢子虫和蓝氏贾第鞭毛虫(贾第虫)的血清抗体,了解原虫感染率和流行状况。方法采用横断面调查方法,随机抽取2013年8-12月HIV抗体阳性者450例和正常人180名,使用酶联免疫法检测弓形虫、隐孢子虫和贾第虫血清IgG抗体。结果 HIV组合并感染率为25.33%(114/450),弓形虫、隐孢子虫和贾

  9. HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination: accounts of HIV-positive Caribbean people in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Moji; Elam, Gillian; Gerver, Sarah; Solarin, Ijeoma; Fenton, Kevin; Easterbrook, Philippa

    2008-09-01

    This paper explores the effects of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination (HASD) on HIV-positive Caribbean people in the Caribbean and the UK. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were held with a purposively selected group of 25 HIV-positive people of Caribbean origin, using primary selection criteria of sex, age, sexuality and country of birth. Interviews with respondents revealed that they are keenly aware of the stigma surrounding HIV/AIDS, which some attribute to a particularly Caribbean combination of fear of contamination, homophobia, and ignorance, reinforced by religious beliefs. In fact, religion serves a double role: underpinning stigma and assisting in coping with HIV. HASD has usually occurred where respondents have lost or do not have control over disclosure. Compared to UK-born respondents, the accounts of Caribbean-born respondents, most of whom were born in Jamaica, include more reports of severe HASD, particularly violence and employment discrimination. All respondents mobilise a variety of strategies in order to avoid HASD, which have implications for their social interactions and emotional well being. While some manage to avoid the "spoiled identity" of the stigmatised, thereby creating their own understandings of HIV infection, these may remain individual-level negotiations. HASD affects HIV-positive Caribbean people at home and in the diaspora in a variety of ways: emotionally, mentally, financially, socially and physically. Interventions specifically addressing stigma and discrimination must be formulated for the UK's Caribbean population. Tackling stigma and discrimination requires more than education; it requires "cultural work" to address deeply entrenched notions of sexuality.

  10. Primary pulmonary AIDS-related lymphoma Linfoma primario de pulmón en un paciente con sida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Corti

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Extranodal involvement is common in lymphomas associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. However, primary pulmonary AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is very rare and only few reports were published in the medical literature. Clinical presentation is nonspecific, with "B" and respiratory symptoms. Also, patients were with advanced immunodeficiency at the time of diagnosis. Generally, chest radiography showed peripheral nodules or cavitary masses. Primary pulmonary lymphoma associated with AIDS is generally a high-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Epstein-Barr virus is strongly associated with the pathogenesis of these tumors. We report a patient with AIDS and primary pulmonary lymphoma which clinical presentation was a total atelectasis of the left lung.El compromiso extranodal es frecuente en los linfomas asociados con la enfermedad debida al virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana y su consecuencia, el síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida. Sin embargo, el linfoma pulmonar primario es muy raro y solo existen pocos casos publicados en la literatura. La presentación clínica de esta complicación es inespecífica, con síntomas "B" y manifestaciones respiratorias. Generalmente, la radiografía de tórax muestra nódulos periféricos o masas que pueden cavitarse y los pacientes presentan inmunodeficiencia severa al momento del diagnóstico. El linfoma pulmonar primario asociado con el sida es un tumor de alto grado, de células B y asociado en su patogenia con el virus de Epstein-Barr. Se relata un caso de linfoma primario de pulmón que se presentó bajo la forma radiológica de una atelectasia global del pulmón izquierdo.

  11. Improving Diagnosis and Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Infections : Experimental Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van den Berg (Sanne)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that causes a variety of infections, ranging from mild skin infections like furuncles and impetigo, to severe, lifethreatening infections including endocarditis, osteomyelitis and pneumonia. Invasive infections are freq

  12. Trust Management System for Opportunistic Cloud Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, Eric

    2013-01-01

    We have over the past three years been working on the feasibility of Opportunistic Cloud Services (OCS) for enterprises. OCS is about enterprises strategically contributing and utilizing spare IT resources as cloud services. One of the major challenges that such a platform faces is data security...... and trust management issues. This paper presents a trust management system for OCS platforms. It models the concept of trust and applies it to OCS platforms. The trust model and the trust management system are verified through the simulation of the computation of the trust values with Infrastructure...

  13. The development of AIDS or AIDS-related conditions in a cohort of HIV antibody-positive homosexual men during a 3-year follow-up period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Kolby, P; Sindrup, J;

    1989-01-01

    , were 18% and 34%. The cumulative incidence of immune deficiency defined as CD4 lymphocytes less than 0.5 x 10(9) l-1 was 70% at 3 years. Absence of antibodies to p24 antigen, HIV antigenaemia, CD4 lymphocytes less than 0.3 x 10 l-1 and elevated serum level of IgA were significantly associated......One hundred and thirty-three homosexual men seropositive for the antibody against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were enrolled in a prospective study in 1984-85. The 3-year cumulative incidences of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related conditions, by life-table analyses...... with the development of AIDS. There was no association between disease progression and persistent generalized lymphadenopathy. When adjusted to the probable year of infection, these results are in accordance with previous cohort studies. It is concluded that most, or all, subjects seropositive for HIV will develop...

  14. Screening prior to biological therapy in Crohn's disease : Adherence to guidelines and prevalence of infections. Results from a multicentre retrospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Have, Mike; Belderbos, Tim D. G.; Fidder, Herma H.; Leenders, Max; Dijkstra, Gerard; Peters, Charlotte P.; Eshuis, Emma J.; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y.; Siersema, Peter D.; van Oijen, Martijn G. H.; Oldenburg, Bas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Screening for opportunistic infections prior to starting biological therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease is recommended. Aims: To assess adherence to screening for opportunistic infections prior to starting biological therapy in Crohn's disease patients and its yield. Meth

  15. Integrated Routing Protocol for Opportunistic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshul Verma

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In opportunistic networks the existence of a simultaneous path is not assumed to transmit a message between a sender and a receiver. Information about the context in which the users communicate is a key piece of knowledge to design efficient routing protocols in opportunistic networks. But this kind of information is not always available. When users are very isolated, context information cannot be distributed, and cannot be used for taking efficient routing decisions. In such cases, context oblivious based schemes are only way to enable communication between users. As soon as users become more social, context data spreads in the network, and context based routing becomes an efficient solution. In this paper we design an integrated routing protocol that is able to use context data as soon as it becomes available and falls back to dissemination-based routing when context information is not available. Then, we provide a comparison between Epidemic and PROPHET, these are representative of context oblivious and context aware routing protocols. Our results show that integrated routing protocol is able to provide better result in term of message delivery probability and message delay in both cases when context information about users is available or not.

  16. Interactions between the tropical sea anemone Aiptasia pallida and Serratia marcescens, an opportunistic pathogen of corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krediet, Cory J; Meyer, Julie L; Gimbrone, Nicholas; Yanong, Roy; Berzins, Ilze; Alagely, Ali; Castro, Herman; Ritchie, Kim B; Paul, Valerie J; Teplitski, Max

    2014-06-01

    Coral reefs are under increasing stress caused by global and local environmental changes, which are thought to increase the susceptibility of corals to opportunistic pathogens. In the absence of an easily culturable model animal, the understanding of the mechanisms of disease progression in corals remains fairly limited. In the present study, we tested the susceptibility of the tropical sea anemone Aiptasia pallida to an opportunistic coral pathogen (Serratia marcescens). A. pallida was susceptible to S. marcescens PDL100 and responded to this opportunistic coral pathogen with darkening of the tissues and retraction of tentacles, followed by complete disintegration of polyp tissues. Histological observations revealed loss of zooxanthellae and structural changes in eosinophilic granular cells in response to pathogen infection. A screen of S. marcescens mutants identified a motility and tetrathionate reductase mutants as defective in virulence in the A. pallida infection model. In co-infections with the wild-type strain, the tetrathionate reductase mutant was less fit within the surface mucopolysaccharide layer of the host coral Acropora palmata.

  17. Oi! - Opportunistic Data Transmission Based on Wi-Fi Direct

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, Luis; Sofia, Rute C.; Mendes, Paulo; Moreira, Waldir

    2016-01-01

    This demo presents Oi!, an opportunistic data transmission tool. Implemented on Android and available as open-source, Oi! relies on social interaction, device-to-device short-range wireless transmission, as well as on history of contact duration to perform opportunistic data transmission. In this demo we show how Oi! can be used with intermittent Internet access between sources and destinations, to transmit data in a reliable and yet opportunistic way.

  18. Context- and Social-aware Middleware for Opportunistic Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Boldrini, Chiara; Conti, Marco; Delmastro, Franca; Passarella, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Opportunistic networks are multi-hop ad hoc networks in which nodes opportunistically exploit any pair-wise contact to share and forward content, without requiring any pre-existing Internet infrastructure. Opportunistic networks tolerate partitions, long disconnections, and topology instability in general. In this challenging environment, leveraging users' mobility represents the most effective way to deliver content to interested users. In this paper we propose a context- and social-aware mi...

  19. AIDS-Related Stigma and Mental Disorders among People Living with HIV: A Cross-Sectional Study in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Siyan Yi; Pheak Chhoun; Samedy Suong; Kouland Thin; Carinne Brody; Sovannary Tuot

    2015-01-01

    Background AIDS-related stigma and mental disorders are the most common conditions in people living with HIV (PLHIV). We therefore conducted this study to examine the association of AIDS-related stigma and discrimination with mental disorders among PLHIV in Cambodia. Methods A two-stage cluster sampling method was used to select 1,003 adult PLHIV from six provinces. The People Living with HIV Stigma Index was used to measure stigma and discrimination, and a short version of general health que...

  20. [Aids-related toxoplasma-encephalitis presenting with acute psychotic episode].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilniczky, Sándor; Debreczeni, Róbert; Kovács, Tibor; Várkonyi, Viktória; Barsi, Péter; Szirmai, Imre

    2006-07-20

    The most frequent neurological manifestations of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome-(AIDS) are Cerebral Toxoplasmosis, Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma (PCNSL), Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) and AIDS-encephalitis (AIDS-dementia complex, multinucleated giant cell encephalitis, HIV-encephalopathy). Neurological complications usually occur in the advanced stages of the disease, and they are uncommon in the beginning as presenting illness, but may result in life-threatening condition or in death. Rarely the disease presents as a neuropsychiatric illness in an undiagnosed AIDS patient, delaying a proper diagnosis. We present the case of a 34 years old patient treated for AIDS-related Toxoplasma-encephalitis in our department. His illness started as an acute psychosis followed by rapid mental and somatic decline, leading to death in three months. His HIV-seropositivity was not known at his admission, and the extraneural manifestations were slight. The diagnosis was established by serology, imaging methods and histopathological investigation. After presenting the medical history and results of autopsy studies of the patient we discuss the problems of the differential diagnosis, especially regarding the findings of the imaging methods.

  1. AIDS as social construction: text mining of AIDS-related information in the Italian press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Andrea; Giacchetta, Agnese; Langher, Viviana

    2016-09-01

    Given the relevance of AIDS as a public health problem in the Italian context and of the role of mass media in the social construction of the phenomenon, the aim of the present study is twofold: (1) to explore the main AIDS-related themes in the Italian popular press; (2) to analyse the temporal trends of AIDS representations over the last decades. For the research, we decided to consult Italian newspaper articles produced between 1985 and 1990 and between 2005 and 2010 using the archives of the main two national newspapers (La Repubblica and Corriere della Sera), resulting in an overall sample of 446 newspaper articles. A computer-aided content analysis allowed the detection of five different thematic domains (clusters), respectively focused on: Medical care (7.47%), Family support (37.03%), Science and religion debate (27%), Social exclusion (17.6%) and Healthcare policies (10.9%). These thematic domains are conceived along two main latent dimensions (factors) which explain 72.47% of the data variance which respectively deal with: (1) Attitudes towards people with AIDS (care versus avoidance) and (2) Social mandate on AIDS (powerlessness versus control). The study results also reveal the potential evolution of representations of people with AIDS over time: from stigmatised subjects who represent a risk for the entire society within a climate of social control to people progressively symbolised as frail subjects that need to be taken care of. PMID:26923156

  2. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN THE OPPORTUNISTIC PATHOGEN STENOTROPHOMONAS MALTOPHILIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Blanca Sánchez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an environmental bacterium found in the soil, associated with plants and animals, and in aquatic environments. It is also an opportunistic pathogen now causing an increasing number of nosocomial infections. The treatment of S. maltophilia is quite difficult given its intrinsic resistance to a number of antibiotics, and because it is able to acquire new resistances via horizontal gene transfer and mutations. Certainly, strains resistant to quinolones, cotrimoxale and/or cephalosporins - antibiotics commonly used to treat S. maltophilia infections - have emerged. The increasing number of available S. maltophilia genomes has allowed the identification and annotation of a large number of antimicrobial and heavy metal resistance genes. Most encode inactivating enzymes and efflux pumps, but information on their role in intrinsic and acquired resistance is limited. Non-typical antibiotic resistance mechanisms that also form part of the intrinsic resistome have been identified via mutant library screening. These include non-typical antibiotic resistance genes, such as bacterial metabolism genes, and non-inheritable resistant phenotypes, such as biofilm formation and persistence. Their relationships with resistance are complex and require further study.

  3. Preventing Opportunistic Infections in HIV (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that grows in soil and areas contaminated with bat or bird droppings; it is more common in ... as expressly permitted in this Agreement, any copying, distribution or modification of the Licensed Materials is strictly ...

  4. Enabling opportunistic resources for CMS Computing Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hufnagel, Dick [Fermilab

    2015-11-19

    With the increased pressure on computing brought by the higher energy and luminosity from the LHC in Run 2, CMS Computing Operations expects to require the ability to utilize “opportunistic” resources — resources not owned by, or a priori configured for CMS — to meet peak demands. In addition to our dedicated resources we look to add computing resources from non CMS grids, cloud resources, and national supercomputing centers. CMS uses the HTCondor/glideinWMS job submission infrastructure for all its batch processing, so such resources will need to be transparently integrated into its glideinWMS pool. Bosco and parrot wrappers are used to enable access and bring the CMS environment into these non CMS resources. Here we describe our strategy to supplement our native capabilities with opportunistic resources and our experience so far using them.

  5. Common Features of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph O. Falkinham

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently it has been estimated that the annual cost of diseases caused by the waterborne pathogens Legionella pneumonia, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is $500 million. For the period 2001–2012, the estimated cost of hospital admissions for nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease, the majority caused by M. avium, was almost $1 billion. These three waterborne opportunistic pathogens are normal inhabitants of drinking water—not contaminants—that share a number of key characteristics that predispose them to survival, persistence, and growth in drinking water distribution systems and premise plumbing. Herein, I list and describe these shared characteristics that include: disinfectant-resistance, biofilm-formation, growth in amoebae, growth at low organic carbon concentrations (oligotrophic, and growth under conditions of stagnation. This review is intended to increase awareness of OPPPs, identify emerging OPPPs, and challenge the drinking water industry to develop novel approaches toward their control.

  6. Common features of opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkinham, Joseph O

    2015-04-24

    Recently it has been estimated that the annual cost of diseases caused by the waterborne pathogens Legionella pneumonia, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is $500 million. For the period 2001-2012, the estimated cost of hospital admissions for nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease, the majority caused by M. avium, was almost $1 billion. These three waterborne opportunistic pathogens are normal inhabitants of drinking water--not contaminants--that share a number of key characteristics that predispose them to survival, persistence, and growth in drinking water distribution systems and premise plumbing. Herein, I list and describe these shared characteristics that include: disinfectant-resistance, biofilm-formation, growth in amoebae, growth at low organic carbon concentrations (oligotrophic), and growth under conditions of stagnation. This review is intended to increase awareness of OPPPs, identify emerging OPPPs, and challenge the drinking water industry to develop novel approaches toward their control.

  7. Directional Navigation Improves Opportunistic Communication for Emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Kokuti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel direction based shortest path search algorithm to guide evacuees during an emergency. It uses opportunistic communications (oppcomms with low-cost wearable mobile nodes that can exchange packets at close range of a few to some tens of meters without help of an infrastructure. The algorithm seeks the shortest path to exits which are safest with regard to a hazard, and is integrated into an autonomous Emergency Support System (ESS to guide evacuees in a built environment. The algorithm proposed that ESSs are evaluated with the DBES (Distributed Building Evacuation Simulator by simulating a shopping centre where fire is spreading. The results show that the directional path finding algorithm can offer significant improvements for the evacuees.

  8. Alleviate Cellular Congestion Through Opportunistic Trough Filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichuan Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for cellular data service has been skyrocketing since the debut of data-intensive smart phones and touchpads. However, not all data are created equal. Many popular applications on mobile devices, such as email synchronization and social network updates, are delay tolerant. In addition, cellular load varies significantly in both large and small time scales. To alleviate network congestion and improve network performance, we present a set of opportunistic trough filling schemes that leverage the time-variation of network congestion and delay-tolerance of certain traffic in this paper. We consider average delay, deadline, and clearance time as the performance metrics. Simulation results show promising performance improvement over the standard schemes. The work shed lights on addressing the pressing issue of cellular overload.

  9. Hybridizing Evolutionary Algorithms with Opportunistic Local Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gießen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    There is empirical evidence that memetic algorithms (MAs) can outperform plain evolutionary algorithms (EAs). Recently the first runtime analyses have been presented proving the aforementioned conjecture rigorously by investigating Variable-Depth Search, VDS for short (Sudholt, 2008). Sudholt...... raised the question if there are problems where VDS performs badly. We answer this question in the affirmative in the following way. We analyze MAs with VDS, which is also known as Kernighan-Lin for the TSP, on an artificial problem and show that MAs with a simple first-improvement local search...... outperform VDS. Moreover, we show that the performance gap is exponential. We analyze the features leading to a failure of VDS and derive a new local search operator, coined Opportunistic Local Search, that can easily overcome regions of the search space where local optima are clustered. The power...

  10. Financial burden of morbidity in HIV infected adults in Manipur, India: comparison between patients with different co-infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngaihte EN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The negative impact of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS is seen to have lessened with the introduction of the highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART. However, there is a few consensus on whether the introduction of HAART has significantly relieved the economic burden of HIV/AIDS, particularly with regards to out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHAs and the possible differential impact of HIV/AIDS care and treatment on PLHAs with different co-infection. The health related expenditure of HIV-infected adults with different co-infections who are at different stage of treatment is reported and analysed in this paper.Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected from 496 PLHA respondents through interview schedule. Respondents were also asked to report all costs due to the PLHA's infection in the reference period. Differences in the components of costs were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software version 20.0.Results: There was no statistically significant relationship between presence or absence of opportunistic infections (OI and the amount of expenditure incurred on all other component of costs except the expenditure on medicine. The difference in mean expenditure for medicines, test and others were statistically significant between those on Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART and the pre-ART group at 95% level of confidence. The mean costs incurred on all components of costs were significantly different across different types of OI/co-infection.Conclusions: The cost of healthcare for those infected with HIV is significant even when there is free provision of HIV/AIDS related care and treatment. The costs of healthcare are significant especially with the presence of certain specific co-infection.

  11. Opportunistic hearing screening in elderly inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishan Ramdoo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of occult hearing loss in elderly inpatients, to evaluate feasibility of opportunistic hearing screening and to determine subsequent provision of hearing aids. Materials and methods: Subjects (>65 years were recruited from five elderly care wards. Hearing loss was detected by a ward-based hearing screen comprising patient-reported assessment of hearing disability and a whisper test. Subjects failing the whisper test or reporting hearing difficulties were offered formal audiological assessment. Results: Screening was performed on 51 patients aged between 70 and 95 years. Of the patients, 21 (41% reported hearing loss and 16 (31% failed the whisper test. A total of 37 patients (73% were referred for audiological assessment with 17 (33% found to have aidable hearing loss and 11 were fitted with hearing aids (22%. Discussion: This study highlights the high prevalence of occult hearing loss in elderly inpatients. Easy two-step screening can accurately identify patients with undiagnosed deafness resulting in significant proportions receiving hearing aids. Key sentences Approximately 14% of the elderly population use hearing aids despite a reported prevalence of deafness in up to 55%. The use of hearing aids is associated with an improvement in physical, emotional, mental and social well-being. An easy screening test for hearing loss consists of patient-reported hearing loss and a whisper test. Opportunistic screening of elderly inpatients resulted in referral of 73% of screened patients for formal audiology. Of the screened patients, 22% were provided with hearing aids.

  12. The relationship between Chinese construction workers' HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour: a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, B; Guo, H Q; Liu, J; Zuo, T M; Zhang, Y; Sun, G

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in migrant urban construction workers using structural equation modelling (SEM). A cross-sectional study was conducted among 428 male subjects on three building sites in Shenyang City. The SEM model of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour was built using LISREL version 8.5 and it fitted the data well, as shown by an adjusted goodness of fit index of 0.82 and a root mean square error of approximation of 0.094. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS was closely correlated with attitudes and behaviour. Age was an important factor affecting HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour. These findings suggest that increasing HIV/AIDS-related knowledge could improve the attitude and behaviour of migrant urban construction workers, enabling them to avoid high-risk behaviour that increases the spread of HIV/AIDS. Any intervention used will need to take the important factor of age into consideration.

  13. Independent risk of mechanical ventilation for AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia associated with bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophilia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, D; Emborg, J; Elkjaer, J;

    2001-01-01

    The use of mechanical ventilation (MV) for AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) has varied over time. The introduction of adjunctive corticosteroid therapy has changed the pathophysiology of PCP. In the present study, we attempted to identify factors predictive of severe respiratory...

  14. Linking the occurrence of cutaneous opportunistic fungal invaders with elemental concentrations in false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouton, Marnel; Przybylowicz, Wojciech; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, Jolanta; Postma, Ferdinand; Thornton, Meredith; Archer, Edward; Botha, Alfred

    2015-10-01

    Cetaceans, occupying the top levels in marine food chains, are vulnerable to elevated levels of potentially toxic trace elements, such as aluminium (Al), mercury (Hg) and nickel (Ni). Negative effects associated with these toxic metals include infection by opportunistic microbial invaders. To corroborate the link between the presence of cutaneous fungal invaders and trace element levels, skin samples from 40 stranded false killer whales (FKWs) were analysed using culture techniques and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy. Twenty-two skin samples yielded 18 clinically relevant fungal species. While evidence for bioaccumulation of Hg in the skin of the FKWs was observed, a strong link was found to exist between the occurrence of opportunistic fungal invaders and higher Al : Se and Al : Zn ratios. This study provides indications that elevated levels of some toxic metals, such as Al, contribute to immunotoxicity rendering FKWs susceptible to colonization by cutaneous opportunistic fungal invaders.

  15. Linking the occurrence of cutaneous opportunistic fungal invaders with elemental concentrations in false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouton, Marnel; Przybylowicz, Wojciech; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, Jolanta; Postma, Ferdinand; Thornton, Meredith; Archer, Edward; Botha, Alfred

    2015-10-01

    Cetaceans, occupying the top levels in marine food chains, are vulnerable to elevated levels of potentially toxic trace elements, such as aluminium (Al), mercury (Hg) and nickel (Ni). Negative effects associated with these toxic metals include infection by opportunistic microbial invaders. To corroborate the link between the presence of cutaneous fungal invaders and trace element levels, skin samples from 40 stranded false killer whales (FKWs) were analysed using culture techniques and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy. Twenty-two skin samples yielded 18 clinically relevant fungal species. While evidence for bioaccumulation of Hg in the skin of the FKWs was observed, a strong link was found to exist between the occurrence of opportunistic fungal invaders and higher Al : Se and Al : Zn ratios. This study provides indications that elevated levels of some toxic metals, such as Al, contribute to immunotoxicity rendering FKWs susceptible to colonization by cutaneous opportunistic fungal invaders. PMID:26034019

  16. Phaeohyphomycoses, Emerging Opportunistic Diseases in Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Seyedmousavi, S.; Guillot, J; Hoog, de, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging fungal diseases due to black yeasts and relatives in domestic or wild animals and in invertebrates or cold- and warm-blooded vertebrates are continually being reported, either as novel pathogens or as familiar pathogens affecting new species of hosts. Different epidemiological situations can be distinguished, i.e., occurrence as single infections or as zoonoses, and infection may occur sporadically in otherwise healthy hosts. Such infections are found mostly in mammals but also in co...

  17. A graph model for opportunistic network coding

    KAUST Repository

    Sorour, Sameh

    2015-08-12

    © 2015 IEEE. Recent advancements in graph-based analysis and solutions of instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) trigger the interest to extend them to more complicated opportunistic network coding (ONC) scenarios, with limited increase in complexity. In this paper, we design a simple IDNC-like graph model for a specific subclass of ONC, by introducing a more generalized definition of its vertices and the notion of vertex aggregation in order to represent the storage of non-instantly-decodable packets in ONC. Based on this representation, we determine the set of pairwise vertex adjacency conditions that can populate this graph with edges so as to guarantee decodability or aggregation for the vertices of each clique in this graph. We then develop the algorithmic procedures that can be applied on the designed graph model to optimize any performance metric for this ONC subclass. A case study on reducing the completion time shows that the proposed framework improves on the performance of IDNC and gets very close to the optimal performance.

  18. Opportunistic Relay Selection with Cooperative Macro Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chia-Hao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply a fully opportunistic relay selection scheme to study cooperative diversity in a semianalytical manner. In our framework, idle Mobile Stations (MSs are capable of being used as Relay Stations (RSs and no relaying is required if the direct path is strong. Our relay selection scheme is fully selection based: either the direct path or one of the relaying paths is selected. Macro diversity, which is often ignored in analytical works, is taken into account together with micro diversity by using a complete channel model that includes both shadow fading and fast fading effects. The stochastic geometry of the network is taken into account by having a random number of randomly located MSs. The outage probability analysis of the selection differs from the case where only fast fading is considered. Under our framework, distribution of the received power is formulated using different Channel State Information (CSI assumptions to simulate both optimistic and practical environments. The results show that the relay selection gain can be significant given a suitable amount of candidate RSs. Also, while relay selection according to incomplete CSI is diversity suboptimal compared to relay selection based on full CSI, the loss in average throughput is not too significant. This is a consequence of the dominance of geometry over fast fading.

  19. Exploiting volatile opportunistic computing resources with Lobster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Anna; Wolf, Matthias; Mueller, Charles; Tovar, Ben; Donnelly, Patrick; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Brenner, Paul; Lannon, Kevin; Hildreth, Mike; Thain, Douglas

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of high energy physics experiments using the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) can be limited by availability of computing resources. As a joint effort involving computer scientists and CMS physicists at Notre Dame, we have developed an opportunistic workflow management tool, Lobster, to harvest available cycles from university campus computing pools. Lobster consists of a management server, file server, and worker processes which can be submitted to any available computing resource without requiring root access. Lobster makes use of the Work Queue system to perform task management, while the CMS specific software environment is provided via CVMFS and Parrot. Data is handled via Chirp and Hadoop for local data storage and XrootD for access to the CMS wide-area data federation. An extensive set of monitoring and diagnostic tools have been developed to facilitate system optimisation. We have tested Lobster using the 20 000-core cluster at Notre Dame, achieving approximately 8-10k tasks running simultaneously, sustaining approximately 9 Gbit/s of input data and 340 Mbit/s of output data.

  20. Impact of Strangers on Opportunistic Routing Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-Yan Yuan; Hua-Dong Ma; Peng-Rui Duan

    2013-01-01

    Routing is one of the challenging tasks in Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs),due to the lack of global knowledge and sporadic contacts between nodes.Most existing studies take a greedy scheme in data forwarding process,i.e.,only nodes with higher utility values than current carriers can be selected as relays.They lack an in-depth investigation on the main features of the optimal paths in Epidemic.These features are vital to any forwarding scheme that tends to make a trade-off between packet delivery delay and cost.This is mainly because Epidemic provides an upper bound on cost and a lower bound on delivery delay.Therefore,a deep understanding of these features is useful to make informed forwarding decisions.In this paper,we try to explore these features by observing the roles of different social relationships in the optimal paths through a set of real datasets.These datasets provide evidence that strangers have two sides in data forwarding process,and that the importance of strangers shows a decreasing trend along the forwarding paths.Using this heuristic knowledge,we propose STRON,a distributed and lightweight forwarding scheme.The distributed feature makes it very suitable for opportunistic scenarios and the low communication and computation features make it easy to be integrated with state-of-the-art work.The trace-driven simulations obviously confirm its effectiveness,especially in terms of packet delivery delay and cost.

  1. OIoT: a platform to manage opportunistic IoT communities

    OpenAIRE

    López Nuevo, David Andrés; Royo Vallés, María Dolores; Medina Medina, Esunly; Meseguer Pallarès, Roc

    2015-01-01

    Opportunistic Internet of Things (IoT) extends the concept of opportunistic networking combining human users carrying mobile devices and smart things. It explores the relationships between humans and the opportunistic connection of smart objects. This paper presents a software infrastructure, named Opportunistic IoT Platform (OIoT), which helps developers to create and manage opportunistic IoT communities between smart devices. The platform enables the creation of opportunistic IoT communitie...

  2. Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Potential Hazards Exposure of employees to community and nosocomial infections, e.g., Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) . Nosocomial infections are infections that occur from exposure to infectious ...

  3. Opportunistic transmitter selection for selfless overlay cognitive radios

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2013-11-01

    We propose an opportunistic strategy to grant channel access to the primary and secondary transmitters in causal selfless overlay cognitive radios over block-fading channels. The secondary transmitter helps the primary transmitter by relaying the primary messages opportunistically, aided by a buffer to store the primary messages temporarily. The optimal channel-aware transmitter- selection strategy is the solution of the maximization of the average secondary rate under the average primary rate requirement and the buffer stability constraints. Numerical results demonstrate the gains of the proposed opportunistic selection strategy. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. Individual attitudes and perceived social norms: Reports on HIV/AIDS-related stigma among service providers in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Wu, Zunyou; Lin, Chunqing; Wen, Yi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined HIV/AIDS-related stigma among Chinese service providers by comparing their personal attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS with their perception of social norms related to people living with HIV/AIDS. We randomly selected three provincial hospitals, four city/prefecture hospitals, 10 county hospitals, 18 township health clinics, and 54 village clinics from Yunnan, China. Doctors and nurses were randomly sampled proportionally to the doctor-nurse ratio of each hospita...

  5. Validation of the integration of HIV and AIDS related nursing competencies into the undergraduate nursing curriculum in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regis R. Marie Modeste

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Being in its fourth decade, HIV remains an epidemic that requires combined efforts for the global fight. The strategies planned and implemented in the fight against HIV include reversing and halting the spread of HIV, increasing health care access, and strengthening the health care system. South Africa has made the fight one of its top priorities, and has developed plans to increase the role of nurses in the management of HIV, demonstrating its willingness, commitment and progress in the fight against HIV.Objective: This article presents the validation process conducted to confirm the integration and mapping of the HIV and AIDS related nursing competencies into the four-year Bachelor of Nursing programme at a university in South Africa.Methods: This study adopted a constructivist paradigm, using a qualitative approach, applyingthe design step of the process model of curriculum development, to validate the inte gration of the mapped HIV and AIDS related nursing competencies into the undergraduate nursing curriculum.Results: For each competency, outcomes were developed for each year. Participants confirmed completeness of outcomes and appropriateness of the mapping of the HIV and AIDS related outcomes into the nursing curriculum, as well as the feasibility and practicability of the integration.Conclusion: Required resources for integration of HIV and AIDS related nursing competencies, such as human resources and nurse educators’ continued personal development were identified, as well as barriers to integration, and measures to eliminate them were discussed. The importance of integration of HIV and AIDS nursing competencies into the curriculum was reiterated.

  6. Growth regulation of simian and human AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines by TGF-β1 and IL-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Laura S

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (AIDS-NHL is the second most frequent cancer associated with AIDS, and is a frequent cause of death in HIV-infected individuals. Experimental analysis of AIDS-NHL has been facilitated by the availability of an excellent animal model, i.e., simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (SAIDS in the rhesus macaque consequent to infection with simian immunodeficiency virus. A recent study of SAIDS-NHL demonstrated a lymphoma-derived cell line to be sensitive to the growth inhibitory effects of the ubiquitous cytokine, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta. The authors concluded that TGF-beta acts as a negative growth regulator of the lymphoma-derived cell line and, potentially, as an inhibitory factor in the regulatory network of AIDS-related lymphomagenesis. The present study was conducted to assess whether other SAIDS-NHL and AIDS-NHL cell lines are similarly sensitive to the growth inhibitory effects of TGF-beta, and to test the hypothesis that interleukin-6 (IL-6 may represent a counteracting positive influence in their growth regulation. Methods Growth stimulation or inhibition in response to cytokine treatment was quantified using trypan blue exclusion or colorimetric MTT assay. Intracellular flow cytometry was used to analyze the activation of signaling pathways and to examine the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins and distinguishing hallmarks of AIDS-NHL subclass. Apoptosis was quantified by flow cytometric analysis of cell populations with sub-G1 DNA content and by measuring activated caspase-3. Results Results confirmed the sensitivity of LCL8664, an immunoblastic SAIDS-NHL cell line, to TGF-beta1-mediated growth inhibition, and further demonstrated the partial rescue by simultaneous treatment with IL-6. IL-6 was shown to activate STAT3, even in the presence of TGF-beta1, and thereby to activate proliferative and anti-apoptotic pathways. By comparison, human AIDS-NHL cell lines

  7. Achieving fairness by aggregate power allocation in opportunistic cooperation networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Jianfei; Zhong Zhangdui; Ai Bo

    2009-01-01

    Within a wireless opportunistic network, one of the lucky users gets an opportunity to utilize the whole radio resource. However some of the unlucky users keep silent during an unexpected period resulting from severe wireless environment and imperfect scheduling algorithms. An opportunistic cooperation protocol is proposed that can achieve equivalent performance measured in terms of outage probability, in which scheme the opportunistic user helps to relay what need retransmitting indicated by the destination and selects the appropriate power allocation to pursue fairness. The proposed scheme deploys superposition coding and successive interference cancellation at relay and destination, respectively. To improve the spectral efficiency, the modified cooperation architecture involves two opportunistic users which work in turn. The simulation results demonstrate that the protocol obtains better performance compared with the conventional methods.

  8. Opportunistic quantum network coding based on quantum teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Tao; Du, Gang; Liu, Jian-wei

    2016-04-01

    It seems impossible to endow opportunistic characteristic to quantum network on the basis that quantum channel cannot be overheard without disturbance. In this paper, we propose an opportunistic quantum network coding scheme by taking full advantage of channel characteristic of quantum teleportation. Concretely, it utilizes quantum channel for secure transmission of quantum states and can detect eavesdroppers by means of quantum channel verification. What is more, it utilizes classical channel for both opportunistic listening to neighbor states and opportunistic coding by broadcasting measurement outcome. Analysis results show that our scheme can reduce the times of transmissions over classical channels for relay nodes and can effectively defend against classical passive attack and quantum active attack.

  9. An Analytical Approach to Opportunistic Transmission under Rayleigh Fading Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Yousaf Bin Zikria; Sung Won Kim; Heejung Yu; Seung Yeob Nam

    2015-01-01

    In cognitive radio sensor networks, the routing methods including multiple relays have been extensively studied to achieve higher throughput and lower end-to-end delay. As one of innovative approaches, the opportunistic routing scheme was proposed. In this paper, the effectiveness of the opportunistic transmission in terms of reliability and delay of transmission is verified with an analytical way. For the analysis, we establish the probabilistic model with respect to distance and the number ...

  10. Traffic distribution and network capacity analysis in social opportunistic networks

    OpenAIRE

    Soelistijanto, B; Howarth, MP

    2012-01-01

    Social opportunistic networks are intermittently connected mobile ad hoc networks (ICNs) that exploit human mobility to physically carry messages between disconnected parts of the network. Human mobility thus plays an essential role in the performance of forwarding protocols in the networks, and people's movements are in turn affected by their social interactions with each other. In this paper we present an analysis of the traffic distribution among the nodes of social opportunistic networks ...

  11. Minimum-Delay Service Provisioning in Opportunistic Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Borgia, Eleonora; Conti, Marco; Passarella, Andrea; Kumar, Mohan

    2010-01-01

    Opportunistic networks are (ad hoc) networks created dynamically by exploiting contacts between pairs of mobile devices that come within communication range. This networking paradigm overcomes main limitations of conventional MANETs, related to the fact that, due to mobility and energy conservation issues, it is often not practical to maintain connected multihop paths among nodes. While forwarding in opportunistic networking has been explored, investigations into asynchronous service provisio...

  12. Opportunistic Wireless Relay Networks: Diversity-Multiplexing Tradeoff

    CERN Document Server

    Abouelseoud, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Opportunistic analysis has traditionally relied on independence assumptions that break down in many interesting and useful network topologies. This paper develops techniques that expand opportunistic analysis to a broader class of networks, proposes new opportunistic methods for several network geometries, and analyzes them in the high-SNR regime. For each of the geometries studied in the paper, we analyze the opportunistic DMT of several relay protocols, including amplify-and-forward, decode-and-forward, compress-and-forward, non-orthogonal amplify-forward, and dynamic decode-forward. Among the highlights of the results: in a variety of multi-user single-relay networks, simple selection strategies are developed and shown to be DMT-optimal. It is shown that compress-forward relaying achieves the DMT upper bound in the opportunistic multiple-access relay channel as well as in the opportunistic nxn user network with relay. Other protocols, e.g. dynamic decode-forward, are shown to be near optimal in several cas...

  13. Opportunistic MSPA Demonstration #1: Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, D. S.; Finley, S. G.; Heckman, D. P.; Lay, N. E.; Lush, C. M.; MacNeal, B. E.

    2015-02-01

    The Opportunistic Multiple Spacecraft Per Antenna (OMSPA) concept seeks to provide smallsat missions with a low-attributed-aperture-fee technique for obtaining routine downlink in a manner that is very low cost to the Deep Space Network (DSN). Unlike traditional MSPA in which the number of spacecraft that can be supported is limited by the number of available receivers, OMSPA makes use of a digital recorder at each station that is capable of capturing IF signals from every spacecraft in the antenna beam within the frequency bands of interest. When smallsat missions see one or more opportunities to intercept the traditionally scheduled antenna beam of a "host" spacecraft, they can transmit open loop during those opportunities. Via a secure Internet site, the smallsat mission operators can then retrieve relevant portions of the digital recording for subsequent demodulation and decoding or subscribe to a service that does it for them. The demonstration discussed in this article was intended to provide prospective smallsat users and the DSN, as the prospective service provider, with demonstrable proof that the OMSPA concept is, in fact, an operationally viable means for obtaining routine downlink telemetry. To do this, the demonstration began by treating Mars Odyssey as a "smallsat" and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) as the "host" spacecraft. Using a specially created Beam Intercept Planning System (BIPS) and a DSN 7-Day Schedule Cross-Comparison (7-DSC) tool, opportunities were identified when Mars Odyssey would be transmitting while in MRO's ground antenna beam. Existing Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Science Receivers (VSRs) were used to record the Mars Odyssey downlink telemetry during these opportunities. The recordings were played back to a secure server outside the Flight Operations Network firewall, but inside the JPL firewall. The demonstration team's signal processing personnel retrieved the recordings from this secure server and downloaded them

  14. [Acanthamoeba spp. as opportunistic pathogens parasites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrillón, Juan C; Orozco, Lina P

    2013-04-01

    Among free-living amoeba in nature, species of the genus Acanthamoeba have been associated with human disease. These amoeba are among the most abundant protozoa in nature due to its cosmopolitan distribution and are able to survive in a wide variety of habitats because its low demand for food and in harsh environments by forming structures known as cysts. However, ecological changes and incursion of its different habitats have made this organism can invade a host and live as parasites within him. That's why this type of protozoa are known as amphizoic organism, because human can be constituted as its host, causing infections in the central nervous system, disseminated infections in skin and lungs, and keratitis. Thus, since an increase in the number of cases of Acanthamoeba infections has occurred worldwide, these protozoa have become increasingly important as agents of human disease. This review summarizes what is known of this kind of free-living amoeba, focusing on the biology, ecology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and human defense mechanism against infection by the amoeba.

  15. Human Exportin-1 is a Target for Combined Therapy of HIV and AIDS Related Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline Boons

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Infection with HIV ultimately leads to advanced immunodeficiency resulting in an increased incidence of cancer. For example primary effusion lymphoma (PEL is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma with very poor prognosis that typically affects HIV infected individuals in advanced stages of immunodeficiency. Here we report on the dual anti-HIV and anti-PEL effect of targeting a single process common in both diseases. Inhibition of the exportin-1 (XPO1 mediated nuclear transport by clinical stage orally bioavailable small molecule inhibitors (SINE prevented the nuclear export of the late intron-containing HIV RNA species and consequently potently suppressed viral replication. In contrast, in CRISPR-Cas9 genome edited cells expressing mutant C528S XPO1, viral replication was unaffected upon treatment, clearly demonstrating the anti-XPO1 mechanism of action. At the same time, SINE caused the nuclear accumulation of p53 tumor suppressor protein as well as inhibition of NF-κB activity in PEL cells resulting in cell cycle arrest and effective apoptosis induction. In vivo, oral administration arrested PEL tumor growth in engrafted mice. Our findings provide strong rationale for inhibiting XPO1 as an innovative strategy for the combined anti-retroviral and anti-neoplastic treatment of HIV and PEL and offer perspectives for the treatment of other AIDS-associated cancers and potentially other virus-related malignancies.

  16. HIV and AIDS related knowledge, sources of information, and reported need for further education among dental students in Sudan- a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åstrøm Anne

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the HIV and AIDS-related knowledge among dental students provides a crucial foundation for efforts aimed at developing an appropriate dental curriculum on HIV and AIDS, and for attracting the attention of dental school educators towards the subject. Purposes Focusing on a census of dental students attending their 3rd, 4th and 5th study year at publicly – and privately funded dental faculties in Khartoum, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and socio-economic correlates of dental students' knowledge, sources of information and reported need for further education related to HIV and AIDS. Methods At the time of the survey (March–May 2007, the total number of dental students registered was 782 of which 642 (response rate 82%, mean age 21.7 year, 72% girls completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in supervised class room settings. Results A total of 49% and 86% had correct sum scores with respect to knowledge of transmission through contamination and through shaking hands and eating, respectively. About half the dental students recognized a need for further education across HIV related issues, varying from 75% (basic HIV/AIDS related issues to 84% (patient management. Only 38% of the students had correct sum scores regarding various occupational groups at risk for contacting HIV and AIDS. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that compared to privately funded dental school students, publicly funded dental school students were less likely to have correct knowledge about modes of HIV transmission (OR = 0.6 and occupational risk groups (OR = 0.6 and to have received information from lectures/health care workers (OR = 0.5. Conclusion Students attending privately funded schools were more knowledgeable about various HIV related issues than students from publicly funded schools. About half of the students investigated had received HIV/AIDS information from various sources and reported need

  17. Miniaturized and High-Throughput Assays for Analysis of T-Cell Immunity Specific for Opportunistic Pathogens and HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Li Pira, G.; Ivaldi, F.; Starc, N.; Landi, F.; Locatelli, F; Rutella, S; Tripodi, G; Manca, F

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring of antigen-specific T-cell responses is valuable in numerous conditions that include infectious diseases, vaccinations, and opportunistic infections associated with acquired or congenital immune defects. A variety of assays that make use of peripheral lymphocytes to test activation markers, T-cell receptor expression, or functional responses are currently available. The last group of assays calls for large numbers of functional lymphocytes. The number of cells increases with the nu...

  18. An Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Susceptibility Pattern of Multidrug Resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: An Emerging Global Opportunistic Pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra

    2015-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia) is a Gram-negative bacillus, an opportunistic pathogen, particularly among nosocomial infections. Multi-drug resistant strains are associated with very high rate of morbidity and mortality in severely immunocompromised patients. Present study was designed to evaluate the effect of biofield treatment against multidrug resistant S. maltophilia. Clinical sample of S. maltophilia was collected and divided into two groups i.e. control and biofield trea...

  19. An Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Susceptibility Pattern of Multidrug Resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: An Emerging Global Opportunistic Pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ( S. maltophilia ) is a Gram-negative bacillus, an opportunistic pathogen, particularly among nosocomial infections. Multi-drug resistant strains are associated with very high rate of morbidity and mortality in severely immunocompromised patients. Present study was designed to evaluate the effect of biofield treatment against multidrug resistant S. maltophilia . Clinical sample of S. maltophilia was collected and divided into two groups i.e. control and biofield t...

  20. On the Capacity of Hybrid Wireless Networks with Opportunistic Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Le

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the capacity of hybrid wireless networks with opportunistic routing (OR. We first extend the opportunistic routing algorithm to exploit high-speed data transmissions in infrastructure network through base stations. We then develop linear programming models to calculate the end-to-end throughput bounds from multiple source nodes to single as well as multiple destination nodes. The developed models are applied to study several hybrid wireless network examples. Through case studies, we investigate several factors that have significant impacts on the hybrid wireless network capacity under opportunistic routing, such as node transmission range, density and distribution pattern of base stations (BTs, and number of wireless channels on wireless nodes and base stations. Our numerical results demonstrate that opportunistic routing could achieve much higher throughput on both ad hoc and hybrid networks than traditional unicast routing (UR. Moreover, opportunistic routing can efficiently utilize base stations and achieve significantly higher throughput gains in hybrid wireless networks than in pure ad hoc networks especially with multiple-channel base stations.

  1. The challenge of AIDS-related malignancies in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie J Sasco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the lengthening of life expectancy among HIV-positive subjects related to the use of highly active antiretroviral treatments, an increased risk of cancer has been described in industrialized countries. The question is to determine what occurs now and will happen in the future in the low income countries and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where more than two-thirds of all HIV-positive people live in the world. The objective of our paper is to review the link between HIV and cancer in sub-Saharan Africa, putting it in perspective with what is already known in Western countries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Studies for this review were identified from several bibliographical databases including Pubmed, Scopus, Cochrane, Pascal, Web of Science and using keywords "HIV, neoplasia, epidemiology and Africa" and related MesH terms. A clear association was found between HIV infection and AIDS-classifying cancers. In case-referent studies, odds ratios (OR were ranging from 21.9 (95% Confidence Interval (CI 12.5-38.6 to 47.1 (31.9-69.8 for Kaposi sarcoma and from 5.0 (2.7-9.5 to 12.6 (2.2-54.4 for non Hodgkin lymphoma. The association was less strong for invasive cervical cancer with ORs ranging from 1.1 (0.7-1.2 to 1.6 (1.1-2.3, whereas ORs for squamous intraepithelial lesions were higher, from 4.4 (2.3-8.4 to 17.0 (2.2-134.1. For non AIDS-classifying cancers, squamous cell conjunctival carcinoma of the eye was associated with HIV in many case-referent studies with ORs from 2.6 (1.4-4.9 to 13.0 (4.5-39.4. A record-linkage study conducted in Uganda showed an association between Hodgkin lymphoma and HIV infection with a standardized incidence ratio of 5.7 (1.2-17 although OR in case-referent studies ranged from 1.4 (0.7-2.8 to 1.6 (1.0-2.7. Other cancer sites found positively associated with HIV include lung, liver, anus, penis, vulva, kidney, thyroid and uterus and a decreased risk of female breast cancer. These results so far based on a

  2. Recruiting Chinese American adolescents to HIV/AIDS-related research: a lesson learned from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Hui; Salman, Ali; Wang, Fan

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this article was to report identified barriers and challenges experienced in the recruiting process of Chinese American adolescents to a cross-sectional HIV/AIDS-related study. Snowball sampling method was used to recruit Chinese American adolescents from Chinese American communities in a U.S. Midwestern state. Barriers and challenges to recruitment were reviewed and analyzed from Chinese cultural perspectives in the hope of aiding researchers and health care providers understand and facilitate future recruitment of Chinese Americans for HIV/AIDS prevention studies. Barriers to recruitment were found related to the taboo topic of sexual issues in Chinese culture, unawareness and denial of HIV/AIDS risks, authoritarian parenting style in Chinese culture, and the required active consents. Facilitating factors of recruiting Chinese American adolescents to future HIV/AIDS prevention research or intervention programs are discussed. Information provided in this article may increase nurses' awareness of various barriers that they might encounter when they conduct research or address HIV/AIDS-related topics of Chinese American adolescents. PMID:20974090

  3. Effective but costly, evolved mechanisms of defense against a virulent opportunistic pathogen in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixin H Ye

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila harbor substantial genetic variation for antibacterial defense, and investment in immunity is thought to involve a costly trade-off with life history traits, including development, life span, and reproduction. To understand the way in which insects invest in fighting bacterial infection, we selected for survival following systemic infection with the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa in wild-caught Drosophila melanogaster over 10 generations. We then examined genome-wide changes in expression in the selected flies relative to unselected controls, both of which had been infected with the pathogen. This powerful combination of techniques allowed us to specifically identify the genetic basis of the evolved immune response. In response to selection, population-level survivorship to infection increased from 15% to 70%. The evolved capacity for defense was costly, however, as evidenced by reduced longevity and larval viability and a rapid loss of the trait once selection pressure was removed. Counter to expectation, we observed more rapid developmental rates in the selected flies. Selection-associated changes in expression of genes with dual involvement in developmental and immune pathways suggest pleiotropy as a possible mechanism for the positive correlation. We also found that both the Toll and the Imd pathways work synergistically to limit infectivity and that cellular immunity plays a more critical role in overcoming P. aeruginosa infection than previously reported. This work reveals novel pathways by which Drosophila can survive infection with a virulent pathogen that may be rare in wild populations, however, due to their cost.

  4. Causes of mortality among tuberculosis and HIV co-infected patients in Chiang Rai, Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantipong P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pacharee Kantipong,1 Kuniko Murakami,2 Saiyud Moolphate,3 Myo Nyein Aung,4,5 Norio Yamada21Chiang Rai Prachanukroh Hospital, Thailand; 2Japan Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association, Tokyo, Japan; 3TB/HIV Research Project, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 4Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan; 5Department of Epidemiology, University of Public Health, Yangon, MyanmarBackground: The case fatality rate in patients with tuberculosis (TB associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has been particularly high in Chiang Rai, Northern Thailand. It was almost 50% before the introduction of antiretroviral therapy in the last decade, and was still at 28% in 2008, despite expanding access to antiretroviral therapy. Reviewing the causes of death may lead to further understanding of the timeline and natural history of TB-HIV coinfection, and in so doing help to devise an effective prevention strategy in Chiang Rai. In this study, we aimed to investigate the distribution of confirmed causes of death in patients coinfected with TB and HIV in Chiang Rai, describe the causes of such deaths along the timeline of TB treatment, and identify predictors of each cause of death.Methods: In this retrospective study, we reviewed the causes of death for 331 patients who died of TB-HIV coinfection at Chiang Rai Prachanukroh Hospital from 2005 to 2008. Causes of death were confirmed by reviewing medical records, vital registration, and the TB register in the province, as well as obtaining reconfirmation by two experienced HIV physicians.Results: The confirmed causes of death were TB (39%, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS-related opportunistic infections other than TB (AOI (29%, and other systemic diseases which were neither TB nor AIDS-related opportunistic infections (nonTB-nonAOI (16%. The definitive cause could not be confirmed in the remaining 16% of deaths. After starting the TB

  5. Joint opportunistic scheduling and network coding for bidirectional relay channel

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we consider a two-way communication system in which two users communicate with each other through an intermediate relay over block-fading channels. We investigate the optimal opportunistic scheduling scheme in order to maximize the long-term average transmission rate in the system assuming symmetric information flow between the two users. Based on the channel state information, the scheduler decides that either one of the users transmits to the relay, or the relay transmits to a single user or broadcasts to both users a combined version of the two users\\' transmitted information by using linear network coding. We obtain the optimal scheduling scheme by using the Lagrangian dual problem. Furthermore, in order to characterize the gains of network coding and opportunistic scheduling, we compare the achievable rate of the system versus suboptimal schemes in which the gains of network coding and opportunistic scheduling are partially exploited. © 2013 IEEE.

  6. MOSDEN: A Scalable Mobile Collaborative Platform for Opportunistic Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Prakash Jayaraman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobile smartphones along with embedded sensors have become an efficient enabler for various mobile applications including opportunistic sensing. The hi-tech advances in smartphones are opening up a world of possibilities. This paper proposes a mobile collaborative platform called MOSDEN that enables and supports opportunistic sensing at run time. MOSDEN captures and shares sensor data acrossmultiple apps, smartphones and users. MOSDEN supports the emerging trend of separating sensors from application-specific processing, storing and sharing. MOSDEN promotes reuse and re-purposing of sensor data hence reducing the efforts in developing novel opportunistic sensing applications. MOSDEN has been implemented on Android-based smartphones and tablets. Experimental evaluations validate the scalability and energy efficiency of MOSDEN and its suitability towards real world applications. The results of evaluation and lessons learned are presented and discussed in this paper.

  7. Opportunistic Collaborative Beamforming with One-Bit Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Pun, Man-On; Poor, H Vincent

    2008-01-01

    An energy-efficient opportunistic collaborative beamformer with one-bit feedback is proposed for ad hoc sensor networks over Rayleigh fading channels. In contrast to conventional collaborative beamforming schemes in which each source node uses channel state information to correct its local carrier offset and channel phase, the proposed beamforming scheme opportunistically selects a subset of source nodes whose received signals combine in a quasi-coherent manner at the intended receiver. No local phase-precompensation is performed by the nodes in the opportunistic collaborative beamformer. As a result, each node requires only one-bit of feedback from the destination in order to determine if it should or shouldn't participate in the collaborative beamformer. Theoretical analysis shows that the received signal power obtained with the proposed beamforming scheme scales linearly with the number of available source nodes. Since the the optimal node selection rule requires an exhaustive search over all possible subs...

  8. Scale-Free Opportunistic Networks: is it Possible?

    CERN Document Server

    Ferretti, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    The coupling of scale-free networks with mobile unstructured networks is certainly unusual. In mobile networks, connections active at a given instant are constrained by the geographical distribution of mobile nodes, and by the limited signal strength of the wireless technology employed to build the ad-hoc overlay. This is in contrast with the presence of hubs, typical of scale-free nets. However, opportunistic (mobile) networks possess the distinctive feature to be delay tolerant; mobile nodes implement a store, carry and forward strategy that permits to disseminate data based on a multi-hop route, which is built in time, when nodes encounter other ones while moving. In this paper, we consider opportunistic networks as evolving graphs where links represent contacts among nodes arising during a (non-instantaneous) time interval. We discuss a strategy to control the way nodes manage contacts and build "opportunistic overlays". Based on such an approach, interesting overlays can be obtained, shaped following giv...

  9. Efficient scheduling request algorithm for opportunistic wireless access

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon

    2011-08-01

    An efficient scheduling request algorithm for opportunistic wireless access based on user grouping is proposed in this paper. Similar to the well-known opportunistic splitting algorithm, the proposed algorithm initially adjusts (or lowers) the threshold during a guard period if no user sends a scheduling request. However, if multiple users make requests simultaneously and therefore a collision occurs, the proposed algorithm no longer updates the threshold but narrows down the user search space by splitting the users into multiple groups iteratively, whereas the opportunistic splitting algorithm keeps adjusting the threshold until a single user is found. Since the threshold is only updated when no user sends a request, it is shown that the proposed algorithm significantly alleviates the burden of the signaling for the threshold distribution to the users by the scheduler. More importantly, the proposed algorithm requires a less number of mini-slots to make a user selection given a certain scheduling outage probability. © 2011 IEEE.

  10. Opportunistic and other intestinal parasites among HIV/AIDS patients attending Gambi higher clinic in Bahir Dar city, North West Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abebe Alemu; Yitayal Shiferaw; Gebeyaw Getnet; Aregaw Yalew; Zelalem Addis

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine the magnitude of opportunistic and non-opportunistic intestinal parasitic infections amongHIV/AIDS patients in Bahir Dar.Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted amongHIV/ AIDS patients attending Gambi higher clinic from April1- May30, 2009. Convenient sampling technique was employed to identify the study subjects and hence a total of248subjects were included. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data of patients. Stool samples were examined by direct saline, iodine wet mount, formol-ether sedimentation concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Results: Out of248 enrolled in the study,171(69.0%) (90 males and81 females) were infected with one or more intestinal parasites. The highest rate of intestinal parasites were observed amongHIV/AIDS patients (80.3%, 151/188), and the infection rate of HIV negative individuals was 33.3% (20/60). Cryptosporidum parvum(43.6%),Isospora belli (15.5%) andBlastocystis hominis (10.5%)were opportunistic parasites that were found only inHIV/AIDS patients.Conclusions:Opportunistic parasite infections are common health problem among HIV/ AIDS patients in the study area. Therefore, early detection and treatment of these parasites are important to improve the quality of life ofHIV/AIDS patients.

  11. AIDS-related stigma and mental disorders among people living with HIV: a cross-sectional study in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyan Yi

    Full Text Available AIDS-related stigma and mental disorders are the most common conditions in people living with HIV (PLHIV. We therefore conducted this study to examine the association of AIDS-related stigma and discrimination with mental disorders among PLHIV in Cambodia.A two-stage cluster sampling method was used to select 1,003 adult PLHIV from six provinces. The People Living with HIV Stigma Index was used to measure stigma and discrimination, and a short version of general health questionnaire (GHQ-12 was used to measure mental disorders. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted.The reported experiences of discrimination in communities in the past 12 months ranged from 0.8% for reports of being denied health services to 42.3% for being aware of being gossiped about. Internal stigma was also common ranging from 2.8% for avoiding going to a local clinic and/or hospital to 59.6% for deciding not to have (more children. The proportions of PLHIV who reported fear of stigma and discrimination ranged from 13.9% for fear of being physically assaulted to 34.5% for fear of being gossiped about. The mean score of GHQ-12 was 3.2 (SD = 2.4. After controlling for several potential confounders, higher levels of mental disorders (GHQ-12≥ 4 remained significantly associated with higher levels of experiences of stigma and discrimination in family and communities (AOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.4-2.6, higher levels of internal stigma (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.2-2.3, and higher levels of fear of stigma and discrimination in family and communities (AOR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.2.AIDS-related stigma and discrimination among PLHIV in Cambodia are common and may have potential impacts on their mental health conditions. These findings indicate a need for community-based interventions to reduce stigma and discrimination in the general public and to help PLHIV to cope with this situation.

  12. Toddler "Functionally Cured" of HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mississippi Medical Center led a team of laboratory investigators who provided HIV antiretroviral therapy for 18 months to a baby ... The landmark discovery was made by two pediatric HIV experts, Deborah ... findings at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections ( ...

  13. Iterative group splitting algorithm for opportunistic scheduling systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon

    2014-05-01

    An efficient feedback algorithm for opportunistic scheduling systems based on iterative group splitting is proposed in this paper. Similar to the opportunistic splitting algorithm, the proposed algorithm adjusts (or lowers) the feedback threshold during a guard period if no user sends a feedback. However, when a feedback collision occurs at any point of time, the proposed algorithm no longer updates the threshold but narrows down the user search space by dividing the users into multiple groups iteratively, whereas the opportunistic splitting algorithm keeps adjusting the threshold until a single user is found. Since the threshold is only updated when no user sends a feedback, it is shown that the proposed algorithm significantly alleviates the signaling overhead for the threshold distribution to the users by the scheduler. More importantly, the proposed algorithm requires a less number of mini-slots than the opportunistic splitting algorithm to make a user selection with a given level of scheduling outage probability or provides a higher ergodic capacity given a certain number of mini-slots. © 2013 IEEE.

  14. Analysis of full-duplex relay networks with opportunistic scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Shao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This Letter addresses a two-hop decode-and-forward relay system with full-duplex relaying and opportunistic scheduling. Exact expressions for outage probability, average capacity and symbol error rate are presented in an independent identically distributed Rayleigh fading environment. Numerical and simulated results show the validity of the analytical results.

  15. Opportunistic Beacon Networks: Information Dissemination via Wireless Network Identifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Türkes, Okan; Scholten, Hans; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents OBN, a universal opportunistic ad hoc networking model particularly intended for smart mobile devices. It enables fast and lightweight data dissemination in wireless community networks through the utilization of universally-available wireless network identifiers. As a ubiquitous

  16. Modelling the healthcare costs of an opportunistic chlamydia screening programme

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, E; Lamontagne, D; Johnston, A; Pimenta, J; Fenton, K; Edmunds, W.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the average cost per screening offer, cost per testing episode and cost per chlamydia positive episode for an opportunistic chlamydia screening programme (including partner management), and to explore the uncertainty of parameter assumptions, based on the costs to the healthcare system.

  17. AnonySense: Opportunistic and Privacy-Preserving Context Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triandopoulos, Nikolaos; Kapadia, Apu; Cornelius, Cory;

    2008-01-01

    Opportunistic sensing allows applications to "task" mobile devices to measure context in a target region. For example, one could leverage sensor-equipped vehicles to measure traffic or pollution levels on a particular street, or users' mobile phones to locate (Bluetooth-enabled) objects in their ...

  18. Research progress of HIV/AIDS related lymphoma%HIV/AIDS 相关淋巴瘤研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王迪; 冯艳玲

    2015-01-01

    HIV /AIDS related lymphoma (ARL)are a group of heterogeneity of neoplasms,and they have poor prognosis.The factors of pathogenesis elucidated in recent years include immune injury caused by HIV,EB virus infection and genetic changes.There are four pathological types of ARL,including diffuse large B cell lymphoma,Burkitt lymphoma,plasmablastic lymphoma and primary effusion lymphoma.Morphological characteristics,immunophenotype markers and clinical data should be combined to make diagnosis and differen-tial diagnosis,which will facilitate timely treatment and improve prognosis.%人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)/获得性免疫缺陷综合征(AIDS)相关淋巴瘤(ARL)是一组异质性肿瘤,预后较差。近年来阐明的发病机制包括 HIV 引起的免疫损伤、EB 病毒的感染及基因的改变。ARL 的病理类型主要有4种,即弥漫大 B 细胞淋巴瘤、Burkitt 淋巴瘤、原发渗出性淋巴瘤和浆母细胞淋巴瘤。形态学特征、免疫标记和遗传学特点的联合应用有助于诊断和鉴别诊断,从而有利于及时治疗和改善预后。

  19. Noisy mean field game model for malware propagation in opportunistic networks

    KAUST Repository

    Tembine, Hamidou

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present analytical mean field techniques that can be used to better understand the behavior of malware propagation in opportunistic large networks. We develop a modeling methodology based on stochastic mean field optimal control that is able to capture many aspects of the problem, especially the impact of the control and heterogeneity of the system on the spreading characteristics of malware. The stochastic large process characterizing the evolution of the total number of infected nodes is examined with a noisy mean field limit and compared to a deterministic one. The stochastic nature of the wireless environment make stochastic approaches more realistic for such types of networks. By introducing control strategies, we show that the fraction of infected nodes can be maintained below some threshold. In contrast to most of the existing results on mean field propagation models which focus on deterministic equations, we show that the mean field limit is stochastic if the second moment of the number of object transitions per time slot is unbounded with the size of the system. This allows us to compare one path of the fraction of infected nodes with the stochastic trajectory of its mean field limit. In order to take into account the heterogeneity of opportunistic networks, the analysis is extended to multiple types of nodes. Our numerical results show that the heterogeneity can help to stabilize the system. We verify the results through simulation showing how to obtain useful approximations in the case of very large systems. © 2012 ICST Institute for Computer Science, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering.

  20. Who needs the assumption of opportunistic behavior? Transaction cost economics does not!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    2000-01-01

    The assumption of opportunistic behavior, familiar from transaction cost economics, has been and remains highly controversial. But opportunistic behavior, albeit undoubtedly an extremely important form of motivation, is not a necessary condition for the contractual problems studied by transaction...

  1. Insights on the Horizontal Gene Transfer of Carbapenemase Determinants in the Opportunistic Pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Gabriela Jorge; Domingues, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a driving force to the evolution of bacteria. The fast emergence of antimicrobial resistance reflects the ability of genetic adaptation of pathogens. Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged in the last few decades as an important opportunistic nosocomial pathogen, in part due to its high capacity of acquiring resistance to diverse antibiotic families, including to the so-called last line drugs such as carbapenems. The rampant selective pressure and genetic exchange of resistance genes hinder the effective treatment of resistant infections. A. baumannii uses all the resistance mechanisms to survive against carbapenems but production of carbapenemases are the major mechanism, which may act in synergy with others. A. baumannii appears to use all the mechanisms of gene dissemination. Beyond conjugation, the mostly reported recent studies point to natural transformation, transduction and outer membrane vesicles-mediated transfer as mechanisms that may play a role in carbapenemase determinants spread. Understanding the genetic mobilization of carbapenemase genes is paramount in preventing their dissemination. Here we review the carbapenemases found in A. baumannii and present an overview of the current knowledge of contributions of the various HGT mechanisms to the molecular epidemiology of carbapenem resistance in this relevant opportunistic pathogen.

  2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    use of conventional antimicrobial compounds in many cases cannot eradicate biofilms, there is an urgent need to develop alternative measures to combat biofilm infections. The present review is focussed on the important opportunistic pathogen and biofilm model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Initially...

  3. Research progress of AIDS-related cancer%艾滋病相关性肿瘤研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚宏霞; 刘杰; 林洪生

    2013-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma,non-hodgkin's lymphoma and invasive cervical was named AIDS-related cancer.This article introduces the appeal tumor research progress of modem medicine,and raises that antivirus、immune reconstitution and antitumor are the key factors in the treatment of AIDS-related cancer.Traditional Chinese medicine may play a role in the following aspect:relieve antiviral drug adverse reaction,have some antiviral effect,adjust the immune function,enhance efficacy and decrease toxicity of radiotherapy.According to the patients' immune function and the treatment phase,etc.It will contribute to improve the patients'lives and prolong the survival period to establish reasonable and comprehensive treatment strategies and to combine holistie therapy with individual therapy.%卡波西肉瘤、非霍奇金淋巴瘤及侵入性宫颈癌被命名为艾滋病相关性肿瘤,该文介绍了上述肿瘤现代医学研究进展,提出抗病毒、免疫重建及抗肿瘤是艾滋病相关性肿瘤治疗的关键因素.中医药在减轻艾滋病抗病毒药物的不良反应、发挥抗病毒作用、调节患者免疫功能、配合化放疗减毒增效以及稳定肿瘤病灶等方面能够发挥作用,根据患者免疫功能、治疗阶段等因素,制定合理的综合治疗策略,整体治疗和个体化治疗相结合,将有助于提高艾滋病相关性肿瘤患者的生存质量,延长生存期.

  4. Discussion on treatment of AIDS related diarrhea from spleen%艾滋病相关性腹泻从脾论治的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翠芳; 李峰; 王玉光

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨艾滋病相关性腹泻从脾论治的理论依据.方法:通过研究古代文献中泄泻与脾的关系的论述,结合现代免疫学及分子生物学对脾的功能研究以及艾滋病相关性腹泻临床治疗方面的报道,分析脾在艾滋病相关性腹泻发生过程中所起的作用以及艾滋病相关性腹泻从脾论治的可行性.结果:脾在艾滋病相关性腹泻的发生、发展过程中起举足轻重的作用.结论:对艾滋病相关性腹泻进行临床治疗,必须重视脾的作用.%Objective: To explore the treatment theoretical basis of AIDS related diarrhea from spleen. Methods: According to the research of ancient literature on relationship between spleen and diarrhea, combination with immunology, molecular biology and clinical treatment of AIDS related diarrhea, to explore the important role of spleen in AIDS related diarrhea and the feasibility of AIDS related diarrhea treated from spleen. Results: Spleen has a important role in the processes, development of AIDS related diarrhea. Conclusion: To treat AIDS related diarrhea, and the role of spleen must be emphasized.

  5. Benefits and performance of ATLAS approaches to utilizing opportunistic resources

    CERN Document Server

    Filip\\v{c}i\\v{c}, Andrej; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    ATLAS has been extensively exploring possibilities of using computing resources extending beyond conventional grid sites in the WLCG fabric to deliver as many computing cycles as possible and thereby enhance the significance of the Monte-Carlo samples to deliver better physics results. The difficulties of using such opportunistic resources come from architectural differences such as unavailability of grid services, the absence of network connectivity on worker nodes or inability to use standard authorization protocols. Nevertheless, ATLAS has been extremely successful in running production payloads on a variety of sites, thanks largely to the job execution workflow design in which the job assignment, input data provisioning and execution steps are clearly separated and can be offloaded to custom services. To transparently include the opportunistic sites in the ATLAS central production system, several models with supporting services have been developed to mimic the functionality of a full WLCG site. Some are e...

  6. Error-rate performance analysis of opportunistic regenerative relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate an opportunistic relaying scheme where the selected relay assists the source-destination (direct) communication. In our study, we consider a regenerative opportunistic relaying scheme in which the direct path can be considered unusable, and takes into account the effect of the possible erroneously detected and transmitted data at the best relay. We first derive the exact statistics of each hop, in terms of probability density function (PDF). Then, the PDFs are used to determine accurate closed form expressions for end-to-end bit-error rate (BER) of binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation where the detector may use maximum ration combining (MRC) or selection combining (SC). Finally, we validate our analysis by showing that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results over linear network (LN) architecture and considering Rayleigh fading channels. © 2011 IEEE.

  7. Opportunistic spectrum access in cognitive radio based on channel switching

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of a cognitive radio transceiver that can monitor multiple channels and opportunistically use any one of them should it be available. In our work, we propose and compare two different opportunistic channel access schemes. The first scheme applies when the secondary user (SU) has access to only one channel. The second scheme applies when the SU has access to multiple channels but can at a given time monitor and access only one channel. Two switching strategies, namely the switch and examine and the switch and stay strategies, are proposed. For these proposed access schemes, we investigate their performance by deriving the analytical expression of the novel metric of the average access duration and the average waiting time and based on these two metrics a time average SU throughput formula is proposed to predict the performance of the secondary cognitive system. © 2012 ICST.

  8. Accurate Performance Analysis of Opportunistic Decode-and-Forward Relaying

    CERN Document Server

    Tourki, Kamel; Alouni, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate an opportunistic relaying scheme where the selected relay assists the source-destination (direct) communication. In our study, we consider a regenerative opportunistic relaying scheme in which the direct path can be considered unusable, and takes into account the effect of the possible erroneously detected and transmitted data at the best relay. We first derive statistics based on exact probability density function (PDF) of each hop. Then, the PDFs are used to determine accurate closed form expressions for end-to-end bit-error rate (BER) of binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation. Furthermore, we evaluate the asymptotical performance analysis and the diversity order is deduced. Finally, we validate our analysis by showing that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results over different network architectures.

  9. New results on performance analysis of opportunistic regenerative relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate an opportunistic relaying scheme where the selected relay assists the source-destination (direct) communication. In our study, we consider a regenerative opportunistic relaying scheme in which the direct path may be unusable, and takes into account the effect of the possible erroneously detected and transmitted data at the selected relay. We first derive the signal-to-noise (SNR) statistics for each hop, which are used to determine accurate closed form expressions for end-to-end bit-error rate (BER) of binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation and end-to-end outage probability for a transmission rate R over Rayleigh fading channels. Furthermore, we evaluate the asymptotical performance and deduce the diversity order. Finally, we validate our analysis by showing that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results over linear network architecture. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Outage rates and outage durations of opportunistic relaying systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hadzi-Velkov, Zoran; 10.1109/LCOMM.2010.02.091683

    2010-01-01

    Opportunistic relaying is a simple yet efficient cooperation scheme that achieves full diversity and preserves the spectral efficiency among the spatially distributed stations. However, the stations' mobility causes temporal correlation of the system's capacity outage events, which gives rise to its important second-order outage statistical parameters, such as the average outage rate (AOR) and the average outage duration (AOD). This letter presents exact analytical expressions for the AOR and the AOD of an opportunistic relaying system, which employs a mobile source and a mobile destination (without a direct path), and an arbitrary number of (fixed-gain amplify-and-forward or decode-and-forward) mobile relays in Rayleigh fading environment.

  11. Node-Dependence-Based Dynamic Incentive Algorithm in Opportunistic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiyun Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic networks lack end-to-end paths between source nodes and destination nodes, so the communications are mainly carried out by the “store-carry-forward” strategy. Selfish behaviors of rejecting packet relay requests will severely worsen the network performance. Incentive is an efficient way to reduce selfish behaviors and hence improves the reliability and robustness of the networks. In this paper, we propose the node-dependence-based dynamic gaming incentive (NDI algorithm, which exploits the dynamic repeated gaming to motivate nodes relaying packets for other nodes. The NDI algorithm presents a mechanism of tolerating selfish behaviors of nodes. Reward and punishment methods are also designed based on the node dependence degree. Simulation results show that the NDI algorithm is effective in increasing the delivery ratio and decreasing average latency when there are a lot of selfish nodes in the opportunistic networks.

  12. A Game Theoretic Approach to Distributed Opportunistic Scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Banchs, Albert; Serrano, Pablo; Widmer, Joerg

    2011-01-01

    Distributed Opportunistic Scheduling (DOS) is inherently harder than conventional opportunistic scheduling due to the absence of a central entity that has knowledge of all the channel states. With DOS, stations contend for the channel using random access; after a successful contention, they measure the channel conditions and only transmit in case of a good channel, while giving up the transmission opportunity when the channel conditions are poor. The distributed nature of DOS systems makes them vulnerable to selfish users: by deviating from the protocol and using more transmission opportunities, a selfish user can gain a greater share of the wireless resources at the expense of the well-behaved users. In this paper, we address the selfishness problem in DOS from a game theoretic standpoint. We propose an algorithm that satisfies the following properties: (i) when all stations implement the algorithm, the wireless network is driven to the optimal point of operation, and (ii) one or more selfish stations cannot...

  13. Opportunistic filamentous mycoses: aspergillosis, mucormycosis, phaeohyphomycosis and hyalohyphomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perusquía-Ortiz, Ana María; Vázquez-González, Denisse; Bonifaz, Alexandro

    2012-09-01

    Opportunistic filamentous mycoses are widely distributed all over the world. They are rarely observed in Europe but are common in developing countries. The most common are the aspergilloses (due to Aspergillus spp.) mostly in neutropenia and immunosuppression; the mucormycoses characterized by rapid progression in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis; the phaeohyphomycoses due to pigmented fungi causing either a mild superficial or a very serious deep disease and the hyalohyphomycoses due to hyaline filamentous fungi (Fusarium spp., Pseudallescheria spp., Scopulariopsis spp.). Cutaneous manifestations are usually secondary to dissemination from pulmonary or visceral disease; primary cases are less frequent and due to direct inoculation into the skin. We review epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic data on the four most important opportunistic filamentous mycoses: aspergillosis, mucormycosis, phaeohyphomycosis and hyalohyphomycosis.

  14. Opportunistic Channel Scheduling for Ad Hoc Networks with Queue Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lei; Wang, Yongchao

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a distributed opportunistic channel access strategy in ad hoc network is proposed. We consider the multiple sources contend for the transmission opportunity, the winner source decides to transmit or restart contention based on the current channel condition. Owing to real data assumption at all links, the decision still needs to consider the stability of the queues. We formulate the channel opportunistic scheduling as a constrained optimization problem which maximizes the system average throughput with the constraints that the queues of all links are stable. The proposed optimization model is solved by Lyapunov stability in queueing theory. The successive channel access problem is decoupled into single optimal stopping problem at every frame and solved with Lyapunov algorithm. The threshold for every frame is different, and it is derived based on the instantaneous queue information. Finally, computer simulations are conducted to demonstrate the validity of the proposed strategy.

  15. Accurate performance analysis of opportunistic decode-and-forward relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate an opportunistic relaying scheme where the selected relay assists the source-destination (direct) communication. In our study, we consider a regenerative opportunistic relaying scheme in which the direct path may be considered unusable, and the destination may use a selection combining technique. We first derive the exact statistics of each hop, in terms of probability density function (PDF). Then, the PDFs are used to determine accurate closed form expressions for end-to-end outage probability for a transmission rate R. Furthermore, we evaluate the asymptotical performance analysis and the diversity order is deduced. Finally, we validate our analysis by showing that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results over different network architectures. © 2011 IEEE.

  16. Pathogenic and opportunistic free-living amoebae: Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri, and Sappinia diploidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visvesvara, Govinda S; Moura, Hercules; Schuster, Frederick L

    2007-06-01

    Among the many genera of free-living amoebae that exist in nature, members of only four genera have an association with human disease: Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri and Sappinia diploidea. Acanthamoeba spp. and B. mandrillaris are opportunistic pathogens causing infections of the central nervous system, lungs, sinuses and skin, mostly in immunocompromised humans. Balamuthia is also associated with disease in immunocompetent children, and Acanthamoeba spp. cause a sight-threatening infection, Acanthamoeba keratitis, mostly in contact-lens wearers. Of more than 30 species of Naegleria, only one species, N. fowleri, causes an acute and fulminating meningoencephalitis in immunocompetent children and young adults. In addition to human infections, Acanthamoeba, Balamuthia and Naegleria can cause central nervous system infections in animals. Because only one human case of encephalitis caused by Sappinia diploidea is known, generalizations about the organism as an agent of disease are premature. In this review we summarize what is known of these free-living amoebae, focusing on their biology, ecology, types of disease and diagnostic methods. We also discuss the clinical profiles, mechanisms of pathogenesis, pathophysiology, immunology, antimicrobial sensitivity and molecular characteristics of these amoebae.

  17. The Intraperitoneal Transcriptome of the Opportunistic Pathogen Enterococcus faecalis in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Muller

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive lactic acid intestinal opportunistic bacterium with virulence potential. For a better understanding of the adapation of this bacterium to the host conditions, we performed a transcriptome analysis of bacteria isolated from an infection site (mouse peritonitis by RNA-sequencing. We identified a total of 211 genes with significantly higher transcript levels and 157 repressed genes. Our in vivo gene expression database reflects well the infection process since genes encoding important virulence factors like cytolysin, gelatinase or aggregation substance as well as stress response proteins, are significantly induced. Genes encoding metabolic activities are the second most abundant in vivo induced genes demonstrating that the bacteria are metabolically active and adapt to the special nutrient conditions of the host. α- and β- glucosides seem to be important substrates for E. faecalis inside the host. Compared to laboratory conditions, the flux through the upper part of glycolysis seems to be reduced and more carbon may enter the pentose phosphate pathway. This may reflect the need of the bacteria under infection conditions to produce more reducing power for biosynthesis. Another important substrate is certainly glycerol since both pathways of glycerol catabolism are strongly induced. Strongly in vivo induced genes should be important for the infection process. This assumption has been verified in a virulence test using well characterized mutants affected in glycerol metabolism. This showed indeed that mutants unable to metabolize this sugar alcohol are affected in organ colonisation in a mouse model.

  18. An Improved Directed Diffusion Protocol based on Opportunistic Routing

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Xu; Yixian Yang; Yang Xin; Hongliang Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Researchers are paying more and more attention to the application of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), where routing is one of the vital techniques. An advanced Directed Diffusion protocol, named DDOR, is presented in this paper based on Opportunistic Routing to improve the disadvantage of mono-forwarder of traditional routing protocol. Packet head has been modified in order to implement a forwarder list in DDOR. Instead of fixed next-hop forwarding in transmission, DDOR selects the optimal no...

  19. Efficient location privacy-aware forwarding in opportunistic mobile networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zakhary, Sameh; Radenkovic, Milena; Benslimane, Abderrahim

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel fully distributed and collaborative k-anonymity protocol (LPAF) to protect users’ location information and ensure better privacy while forwarding queries/replies to/from untrusted location-based service (LBS) over opportunistic mobile networks (OppMNets. We utilize a lightweight multihop Markov-based stochastic model for location prediction to guide queries toward the LBS’s location and to reduce required resources in terms of retransmission overheads. We develop a...

  20. Congestion Control Strategy for Opportunistic Network Based on Message Values

    OpenAIRE

    Deng-yin Zhang; Min Yang; Lei Cui

    2014-01-01

    To solve the congestion problem in opportunistic networks, a congestion control strategy based on message deleting and transferring(DATM) is proposed. The congested node calculates the storage value of each message according to the forwarding probability and TTL of message, then deletes the message with the minimum storage value and transfers the message with the minimum forwarding probability to neighboring nodes. The neighboring nodes calculate the receiving value of the message according t...

  1. Opportunistic Relaying without CSI: Optimizing Variable-Rate HARQ

    OpenAIRE

    Khosravirad, Saeed R.; Szczecinski, Leszek; Labeau, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the opportunistic relaying based on HARQ transmission over the block-fading channel with absence of channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter nodes. We assume that both the source and the relay are allowed to vary their transmission rate between the HARQ transmission rounds. We solve the problem of throughput maximization with respect to the transmission rates using double-recursive Dynamic Programming. Simplifications are also proposed to diminish the complexity of the op...

  2. 艾滋病相关性肺动脉高压诊治近况%AIDS Related Pulmonary Hypertension Diagnosis and Treatment Status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨萍; 赵贺红(综述); 冯萍(审校)

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency disease (AIDS) has become the most serious disaster diseases for humanity.With widely application of antiretroviral therapy,the survival time of patients with HIV and opportunistic infections largely under control non-infectious complications, including pulmonary aterial hypertension (PAH) by more and more at ention in the international.In fact,has become an independent disorder for death of HIV-infected patients.The pathogenesis of HIV infection leads to pulmonary hypertension has not been ful y elucidated.Lack of specific clinical manifestations;treatment have a lot of restrictions compared with idiopathic pulmonary hypertension and poor prognosis.SO early detection and intervention can improve the quality of life and survival of HIV-PAH patients. In the process of the treatment of people living with HIV can not explain the symptoms associated with cardiac and pulmonary in Clinical, consideration should be given to HIV-related PAH (HRPH)[1].%获得性人类免疫缺陷病已经成为人类疾病史上的灾难性疾病,随着抗逆转录病毒治疗的广泛应用,HIV(Human Immunodeficiency Virus)患者的生存时间及机会性感染在很大程度上得到控制,而非感染性并发症包括肺动脉高压在国际上受到越来越多的重视,实际上肺动脉高压已成为HIV感染患者死亡的独立危险因素。 HIV感染导致肺动脉高压的发病机制尚未完全阐明,其临床表现缺乏特异性,治疗上较特发性性肺动脉高压又有很多限制,预后较差,早期发现和干预可提高患者的生活质量和生存率。在HIV感染者的治疗过程中,出现不能解释的与心肺相关症状时,应考虑到HIV相关的肺动脉高压,并及时给予干预以期提高HIV患者的生存率。

  3. Leapfrog: Optimal opportunistic Routing in Probabilistically Contacted Delay Tolerant Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Jun Xiao; Liu-Sheng Huang; Qun-Feng Dong; An Liu; Zhen-Guo Yang

    2009-01-01

    Delay tolerant networks (DTNs)experience frequent and long lasting network disconnection due to various reasons such as mobility.power management.and scheduling.One primary concern in DTNs is to route messages to keep the end-to-end delivery delay as low as possible.In this paper,we study the single-copy message routing problem and propose an optimal opportunistic routing strategy--Leapfrog Routing--for probabilistically contacted DTNs where nodes encounter or contact in some fixed probabilities.We deduce the iterative computation formulate of minimum expected opportunistic delivery delay from each node to the destination and discover that under the optimal opportunistic routing strategy,messages would be delivered from high-delay node to low-delay node in the leapfrog manner.Rigorous theoretical analysis shows that such a routing strategy is exactly the optimal among all possible ones.Moreover,we apply the idea of Reverse Dijkstra algorithm to design an algorithm.When a destination iS given,this algorithm can determine for each node the routing selection function under the Leapfrog Routing strategy.The computation overhead of this algorithm is only O(n~2) where n is the number of nodes in the network.In addition,through extensive simulations based on real DTN traces,we demonstrate that our algorithm can significantly outperform the previous ones.

  4. Location-Aided Reliable Routing for Opportunistic Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Yang; Zhi Ren; Jibi Li

    2012-01-01

    In our study, we investigate the problem of location-based routing in opportunistic networks. Due to the uncertainty of end-to-end paths between sources and destinations, the classical location-based ad hoc routing protocols cannot adapt to the environment of opportunistic networks, which leads to the decrease of the delivery rate of data. To address it, we propose in this paper a novel location-aided routing protocol which is suitable for opportunistic networks. In our protocol, a node can send location information on demand by using prediction mechanism, and when sending a data packet, the node chooses multiple neighbors which are closer to the destination as next hops. If the candidate neighbors do not exist, the node carries the data till it meets a proper neighbor or the destination. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that our proposed protocol outperforms DREAM (Distance Routing Effect Protocol Mobility) and one of its improved versions, BFDREAM (Boundary Forwarding DREAM), in terms of the delivery rate and overhead.

  5. Opportunistic Pathogens Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) and Legionella spp. Colonise Model Shower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Giglio, Steven; Bentham, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Legionella spp. and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) are opportunistic pathogens of public health concern. Hot water systems, including showers, have been identified as a potential source of infection. This paper describes the colonization of Legionella and MAC on the flexible tubing within a model potable shower system, utilizing thermostatic mixing and a flexible shower head. A MAC qPCR method of enumeration was also developed. MAC and Legionella spp. were detected within the biofilm at maximum concentrations of 7.0 × 104 and 2.0 × 103 copies/cm2 PVC tubing respectively. No significant changes were observed between sample of the flexible shower tubing that dried between uses and those that remained filled with water. This suggested the “unhooking” showerheads and allowing them to dry is not an effective method to reduce the risk of Legionella or MAC colonisation. PMID:26213977

  6. The unfinished nature of rights-informed HIV- and AIDS-related education: an analysis of three school-based initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Miedema; C. Maxwell; P. Aggleton

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, there has been growing investment in concepts of rights in the areas of HIV prevention, care and treatment, including HIV- and AIDS-related education delivered in schools. Despite this increasing commitment to the notion of rights, few efforts appear to have been made to unde

  7. With and With"out": The Bereavement Experiences of Gay Men Who Have Lost a Partner to Non-AIDS-Related Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornjatkevyc, Nina L.; Alderson, Kevin G.

    2011-01-01

    This study gives voice to the experiences of gay men who have lost a partner to non-AIDS-related causes, a subject that has received little attention in the psychological literature. Interviews were conducted with 8 gay men. An analysis informed by hermeneutic phenomenology generated themes and contextualized meanings regarding the participants'…

  8. Memory CD4+ T cells are required for optimal NK cell effector functions against the opportunistic fungal pathogen Pneumocystis murina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michelle N; Zheng, Mingquan; Ruan, Sanbao; Kolls, Jay; D'Souza, Alain; Shellito, Judd E

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the role of NK cells or their interplay with other immune cells during opportunistic infections. Using our murine model of Pneumocystis pneumonia, we found that loss of NK cells during immunosuppression results in substantial Pneumocystis lung burden. During early infection of C57B/6 CD4(+) T cell-depleted mice, there were significantly fewer NK cells in the lung tissue compared with CD4(+) T cell-intact animals, and the NK cells present demonstrated decreased upregulation of the activation marker NKp46 and production of the effector cytokine, IFN-γ. Furthermore, coincubation studies revealed a significant increase in fungal killing when NK cells were combined with CD4(+) T cells compared with either cell alone, which was coincident with a significant increase in perforin production by NK cells. Finally, however, we found through adoptive transfer that memory CD4(+) T cells are required for significant NK cell upregulation of the activation marker NK group 2D and production of IFN-γ, granzyme B, and perforin during Pneumocystis infection. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate a role for NK cells in immunity to Pneumocystis pneumonia, as well as to establish a functional relationship between CD4(+) T cells and NK cells in the host response to an opportunistic fungal pathogen.

  9. The distribution of Aspergillus spp. opportunistic parasites in hives and their pathogenicity to honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Kirsten; Fazio, Géraldine; Jensen, Annette B; Hughes, William O H

    2014-03-14

    Stonebrood is a disease of honey bee larvae caused by fungi from the genus Aspergillus. As very few studies have focused on the epidemiological aspects of stonebrood and diseased brood may be rapidly discarded by worker bees, it is possible that a high number of cases go undetected. Aspergillus spp. fungi are ubiquitous and associated with disease in many insects, plants, animals and man. They are regarded as opportunistic pathogens that require immunocompromised hosts to establish infection. Microbiological studies have shown high prevalences of Aspergillus spp. in apiaries which occur saprophytically on hive substrates. However, the specific conditions required for pathogenicity to develop remain unknown. In this study, an apiary was screened to determine the prevalence and diversity of Aspergillus spp. fungi. A series of dose-response tests were then conducted using laboratory reared larvae to determine the pathogenicity and virulence of frequently occurring isolates. The susceptibility of adult worker bees to Aspergillus flavus was also tested. Three isolates (A. flavus, Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus phoenicis) of the ten species identified were pathogenic to honey bee larvae. Moreover, adult honey bees were also confirmed to be highly susceptible to A. flavus infection when they ingested conidia. Neither of the two Aspergillus fumigatus strains used in dose-response tests induced mortality in larvae and were the least pathogenic of the isolates tested. These results confirm the ubiquity of Aspergillus spp. in the apiary environment and highlight their potential to infect both larvae and adult bees.

  10. Hospital Water Supply as a Potential Source of Opportunistic Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. T. El-Zanfaly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Egypt as well as in many other developing countries, there are no specific standards for hospital water. Even water is free from the traditional bacterial indicators, it may represent a source of health hazards especially for elderly, children and patients under dialysis due to the presence of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria. The study was carried out on the bacteriological water quality at the intakes as well as the end of water treatment train of two water treatment plants that supplying three hospitals located in Greater Cairo, Egypt with water that used for different purposes. Samples of the raw water supply for the two water treatment plants (Nile River water showed ranges of 102-105 cfu mL-1, 102-104 MPN 100 mL-1, 102-104 MPN 100 mL-1 and 102-103 MPN 100 mL-1 for Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC bacteria, Total Coliforms (TC, Fecal Coliforms (FC and Fecal Streptococci (FS, respectively. Treated water showed considerable reduction in HPC while the other bacterial indicators reached the undetectable level. The distribution system impact on treated water quality was limited to causing an increase in HPC bacteria. A study was carried out to determine the presence of Pseudomonas aeuginosa, Aeromonas spp. and Staphylococcus aureus in hospitals tap water, water reservoirs, as well as water for preparation of hemodialysis fluids. Although the post-chlorinated water in both water treatment plants was free from bacterial indicators, it still contaminated with the three studied opportunistic pathogenic bacteria. The detected opportunistic pathogens may be attributed to the distribution system condition and/or the presence of storage tanks. Hemodialysis water samples showed the higher percentage of P. aeruginosa isolates which represent a major source of health risk to patient’s attending dialysis process in hospitals and clinics. The presence of opportunistic bacteria in drinking water and dialysate with absence of coliform and low HPC

  11. Heterogeneous Community-based mobility model for human opportunistic network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Liang; Dittmann, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Human opportunistic networks can facilitate wireless content dissemination while humans are on the move. In such a network, content is disseminated via nodes relaying and nodes mobility (human mobility). Thus it is essential to understand and model the real human mobility. We present a...... heterogeneous community-based random way-point (HC-RWP) mobility model that captures the four important properties of real human mobility. These properties are based on both intuitive observations of daily human mobility and analysis of empirical mobility traces. By discrete event simulation, we show HC...

  12. Survey on Opportunistic Networks in Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushik.C.P

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Delay Tolerant Network is an emerging research field in Mobile sensor network. It use forwarding technique to transmit the message from source to destination, there is no complete path between sources to destination. Due to mobility of nodes there is frequent change in node paten and difficult to find the path, there is chance that message keep on forwarded inside the network. In this paper we made detail survey on Opportunistic Routing Protocol in mobile network, and in that node getting the message form neighbor node and moving away from Sink. We proposed a technique in Gradient based Routing Protocol to solve node moving away from sink with message.

  13. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria in natural, industrial and clinical settings predominantly live in biofilms, i.e., sessile structured microbial communities encased in self-produced extracellular matrix material. One of the most important characteristics of microbial biofilms is that the resident bacteria display...... a remarkable increased tolerance toward antimicrobial attack. Biofilms formed by opportunistic pathogenic bacteria are involved in devastating persistent medical device-associated infections, and chronic infections in individuals who are immune-compromised or otherwise impaired in the host defense. Because...... the use of conventional antimicrobial compounds in many cases cannot eradicate biofilms, there is an urgent need to develop alternative measures to combat biofilm infections. The present review is focussed on the important opportunistic pathogen and biofilm model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Initially...

  14. Mycobacterial Infections in AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ross Hill

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains uniquely important among acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS-associated opportunistic infections: it presents the greatest public health hazard worldwide, is the most readily curable, and is largely preventable with existing means. Given the expanding pool of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seropositive persons, particularly in developing nations where Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a leading health problem, one can expect a continued rise in TB cases during the 1990s. Global efforts to eliminate TB are now inextricably entwined with the effectiveness of measures to curtail the HIV epidemic. Mycobacterium avium complex infection, currently an intractable late complication of aids, may increase in clinical importance as success in managing other opportunistic infections and HIV disease itself improves. Understanding of the pathogenesis and management of mycobacterial diseases should increase rapidly given the renewed research spurred on by the advent of HIV.

  15. "A PCR-RFLP Method to Identification of the Important Opportunistic Fungi: Candida Species, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus famigatus and Fusarium solani"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Mirhendi

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Deep-seated fungal infection present with non specific symptoms and involove a large number of different organisms. DNA-based technology offers for eariler detection of fungal pathogens and then earlier initiation of antifungal therapy. In this study universal primers common to almost all fungi were used to amplification of internal transcribe spacer 1 and 2 region. Subsequent restriction enzyme analysis of PCR products, using HpaII allows us to identify the most medically opportunistic important fungi: Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. kruzei, C. guilliermondi, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium solani, according to sizely different bands in polyacrilamid gel electrophoresis. It seems that this panel of PCR-RFLP could be a rapid and useful molecular approach in diagnostic studies of invasive opportunistic fungal infections.

  16. Liver Enzymes Abnormalities among Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Experienced and HAART Naïve HIV-1 Infected Patients at Debre Tabor Hospital, North West Ethiopia: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melashu Balew Shiferaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver disease has emerged as the most common non-AIDS-related cause of death in HIV patients. However, there is limited data regarding this condition including our setting in Ethiopia. Hence, liver enzyme abnormalities among highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART experienced and HAART naïve patients were assessed in this study. A total of 164 HAART experienced and 164 HAART naïve patients were studied. Blood specimen was collected to determine alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, CD4 count, and viral hepatitis. The prevalence of liver enzyme abnormality was 20.1% and 22.0% among HAART experienced and HAART naïve patients, respectively. The HAART experienced patients had higher mean ALT than HAART naïve patients (P=0.002. Viral hepatitis (AOR = 6.02; 95% CI = 1.87–19.39, opportunistic infections (AOR = 2.91; 95% CI = 1.04–8.19, current CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 (AOR = 2.16; 95% CI = 1.06–4.39, and male sex (AOR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.001–3.33 were associated with elevated ALT and/or AST. In conclusion, liver enzyme abnormalities were high in both HAART experienced and HAART naïve HIV-1 infected patients. Hence, monitoring and management of liver enzyme abnormalities in HIV-1 infected patients are important in our setting.

  17. HIV/aids related home based care practices among primary health care workers in Ogun state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Amoran

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS is fast becoming a chronic disease with the advent of antiretroviral drugs, therefore making home based care key in the management of chronically ill HIV/AIDS patient. The objective of this study was to determine the perception and practice of health care workers on HIV/AIDS related home based care in the health facilities in Ogun state, Nigeria. Methods This study is an analytical cross-sectional study. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to obtain a representative sample of the primary health care workers in Ogun state. An interviewer administered structured questionnaire was administered by trained health workers to elicit the required information. Result A total of 350 health care workers were interviewed, 70% of the respondents could adequately describe the components of home based care. Only 38.7% were aware of the National guideline on home based care practices and 17.1% believe that home based care will not significantly improve the prognosis of PLWAs. Few 19.1% had ever been trained or ever involved 16.6% in home based care practices. Only 20 [5.7%] are involved on a weekly basis, 16 [4.6%] monthly and 22 [6.3%] quarterly. Reasons given for non implementation of home based care are inadequate number of healthcare workers 45%, lack of political will 24.4%, lack of implementation by facility managers 14% and inadequate funds 16.6%. Factors that were significantly associated with the practice of home based care were perception of its relevance in improving prognosis [OR = 54.21, C.I = 23.22-129.52] and presence of a support group in the facility [OR = 4.80, C.I = 2.40-9.57]. There was however no statistically significant relationship between adequate knowledge of home based care [OR = 0.78, C.I = 0.39-1.54] and previous training on home based care (OR = 1.43, C.I = 0.66-3.06]. Conclusion The practice of home based care for HIV/AIDS among the study population is low

  18. 类获得性免疫缺陷(阴性HIV)“患者”的流行病学调查%Epidemiological investigation of cases with complained AIDS-related complex (HIV negative)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雅琼; 林辉; 于磊; 王清青; 王太武; 马翔宇; 凌华; 吴国辉; 张路

    2013-01-01

    目的 对社区类获得性免疫缺陷(AIDS)综合征(阴性HIV)“患者”进行病因探索.方法 采用定性系统分析筛检国内外相关综合征报道病例,探索类AIDS综合征“患者”临床特征可能的聚类属性;通过现况调查掌握“患者”人群的一般特征和临床特征.结果 定性系统分析显示,目前在世界范围,与类AIDS综合征(阴性HIV)“患者”相似的疾病有2种,即CD4+T淋巴细胞缺陷综合征(ICL)和非结核分枝杆菌感染(NTM感染);通过174例网络调查和52例现场观察,发现“患者”人群以男性为主,青、中年为主;在国内分布地区广泛;主诉症状涉及呼吸道、消化道、皮肤、肌肉、骨骼和神经系统;根据症状特点,病程有急性期和稳定期之分;群体症状及体征为:淋巴结部位肿胀感、骨痛、肌肉“跳”(痛)、淋巴结节、皮肤结节(皮疹)、舌苔白厚、关节弹响、皮肤干燥;52例“患者”检测发现CD4+T淋巴细胞< 500/μL 17例(32.69%)、CD4/CD8比值异常16例(30.77%)、干扰素-γ抗体阳性17例(36.69%)和PPD阳性39例(++~+++,75.00%);高危险性行为是可疑的暴露因素之一.结论 类AIDS综合征(阴性HIV)“患者”现象不能完全用心理因素予以解释,其呈现的临床特征有明显的一致性和规律性,亟待开展深入研究进行分析.%Objective To investigate the possible causes of AIDS-related complex (HIV negative) in community population. Methods Qualitative systematic analysis was used to screen the cases with AIDS-related complex (HIV negative) that had been reported. The possible clustering types of the clinical features of AIDS-related complex were explored based on a cross-section study that had been conducted to observe the personality and clinical features of the cases with AIDS-related complex. Results The qualitative systematic analysis suggested that the idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia (ICL) and infection of

  19. The role and regulation of catalase in respiratory tract opportunistic bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Mia M; Fan, Xin

    2014-09-01

    Respiratory tract bacterial pathogens are the etiologic agents of a variety of illnesses. The ability of these bacteria to cause disease is imparted through survival within the host and avoidance of pathogen clearance by the immune system. Respiratory tract pathogens are continually bombarded by reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may be produced by competing bacteria, normal metabolic function, or host immunological responses. In order to survive and proliferate, bacteria have adapted defense mechanisms to circumvent the effects of ROS. Bacteria employ the use of anti-oxidant enzymes, catalases and catalase-peroxidases, to relieve the effects of the oxidative stressors to which they are continually exposed. The decomposition of ROS has been shown to provide favorable conditions in which respiratory tract opportunistic bacterial pathogens such as Haemophilus influenzae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Legionella pneumophila, and Neisseria meningitidis are able to withstand exposure to highly reactive molecules and yet survive. Bacteria possessing mutations in the catalase gene have a decreased survival rate, yet may be able to compensate for the lack of catalatic activity if peroxidatic activity is present. An incomplete knowledge of the mechanisms by which catalase and catalase-peroxidases are regulated still persists, however, in some bacterial species, a regulatory factor known as OxyR has been shown to either up-regulate or down-regulate catalase gene expression. Yet, more research is still needed to increase the knowledge base in relation to this enzyme class. As with this review, we focus on major respiratory tract opportunistic bacterial pathogens in order to elucidate the function and regulation of catalases. The importance of the research could lead to the development of novel treatments against respiratory bacterial infections.

  20. Structural and Biochemical Analysis of Tyrosine Phosphatase Related to Biofilm Formation A (TpbA) from the Opportunistic Pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    OpenAIRE

    Kun Xu; Shanshan Li; Wen Yang; Kan Li; Yuwei Bai; Yueyang Xu; Jin Jin; Yingying Wang; Mark Bartlam

    2015-01-01

    Biofilms are important for cell communication and growth in most bacteria, and are responsible for a number of human clinical infections and diseases. TpbA (PA3885) is a dual specific tyrosine phosphatase (DUSP) that negatively regulates biofilm formation in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 by converting extracellular quorum sensing signals into internal gene cascade reactions that result in reduced biofilm formation. We have determined the three-dimensional crystal stru...

  1. A Novel Cooperative Opportunistic Routing Scheme for Underwater Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreyshi, Seyed Mohammad; Shahrabi, Alireza; Boutaleb, Tuleen

    2016-01-01

    Increasing attention has recently been devoted to underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) because of their capabilities in the ocean monitoring and resource discovery. UWSNs are faced with different challenges, the most notable of which is perhaps how to efficiently deliver packets taking into account all of the constraints of the available acoustic communication channel. The opportunistic routing provides a reliable solution with the aid of intermediate nodes' collaboration to relay a packet toward the destination. In this paper, we propose a new routing protocol, called opportunistic void avoidance routing (OVAR), to address the void problem and also the energy-reliability trade-off in the forwarding set selection. OVAR takes advantage of distributed beaconing, constructs the adjacency graph at each hop and selects a forwarding set that holds the best trade-off between reliability and energy efficiency. The unique features of OVAR in selecting the candidate nodes in the vicinity of each other leads to the resolution of the hidden node problem. OVAR is also able to select the forwarding set in any direction from the sender, which increases its flexibility to bypass any kind of void area with the minimum deviation from the optimal path. The results of our extensive simulation study show that OVAR outperforms other protocols in terms of the packet delivery ratio, energy consumption, end-to-end delay, hop count and traversed distance. PMID:26927118

  2. Opportunistic spectrum sharing in software defined wireless network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Yang; Yong Li; Depeng Jin; Li Su; Lieguang Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the world has witnessed a rapid growth in mobile and wireless networks (MWNs) which significantly change human life. However, proliferating mobile de-mands lead to several intractable chal enges that MWN has to face. Software-defined network is expected as a promising way for future network and has captured growing attention. Network virtualization is an essential feature in software-defined wireless network (SDWN), and it brings two new entities, physical networks and virtual networks. Accordingly, efficiently assigning spectrum resource to virtual networks is one of the fundamental problems in SDWN. Directly orienting towards the spectrum resource al o-cation problem, firstly, the fluctuation features of virtual network requirements in SDWN are researched, and the opportunistic spectrum sharing method is introduced to SDWN. Then, the prob-lem is proved as NP-hardness. After that, a dynamic programming and graph theory based spectrum sharing algorithm is proposed. Simulations demonstrate that the opportunistic spectrum sharing method conspicuously improves the system performance up to around 20%–30%in SDWN, and the proposed algorithm achieves more efficient performance.

  3. A Novel Cooperative Opportunistic Routing Scheme for Underwater Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreyshi, Seyed Mohammad; Shahrabi, Alireza; Boutaleb, Tuleen

    2016-01-01

    Increasing attention has recently been devoted to underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) because of their capabilities in the ocean monitoring and resource discovery. UWSNs are faced with different challenges, the most notable of which is perhaps how to efficiently deliver packets taking into account all of the constraints of the available acoustic communication channel. The opportunistic routing provides a reliable solution with the aid of intermediate nodes' collaboration to relay a packet toward the destination. In this paper, we propose a new routing protocol, called opportunistic void avoidance routing (OVAR), to address the void problem and also the energy-reliability trade-off in the forwarding set selection. OVAR takes advantage of distributed beaconing, constructs the adjacency graph at each hop and selects a forwarding set that holds the best trade-off between reliability and energy efficiency. The unique features of OVAR in selecting the candidate nodes in the vicinity of each other leads to the resolution of the hidden node problem. OVAR is also able to select the forwarding set in any direction from the sender, which increases its flexibility to bypass any kind of void area with the minimum deviation from the optimal path. The results of our extensive simulation study show that OVAR outperforms other protocols in terms of the packet delivery ratio, energy consumption, end-to-end delay, hop count and traversed distance.

  4. Opportunistic Cognitive Relaying: A Win-Win Spectrum Sharing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Haiyan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A cost-effective spectrum sharing architecture is proposed to enable the legacy noncognitive secondary system to coexist with the primary system. Specifically, we suggest to install a few intermediate nodes, namely, the cognitive relays, to conduct the spectrum sensing and coordinate the spectrum access. To achieve the goal of win-win between primary and secondary systems, the cognitive relay may act as a cooperator for both of them, and an Opportunistic Cognitive Relaying (OCR scheme is specially devised. In this scheme, the cognitive relay opportunistically switches among three different working modes, that is, Relay for Primary Link (RPL, Relay for Secondary Link (RSL, or Relay for Neither of the Links (RNL, respectively, based on the channel-dependent observation of both systems. In addition, the transmit power for cognitive relay and secondary transmitter in each mode are optimally determined by maximizing the transmission rate of secondary system while keeping or even reducing the outage probability of primary system. Simulation results validate the efficiency of the proposed spectrum sharing scheme.

  5. Cyclostationary Beacon for Assisting Spectrum Sensing in Opportunistic Spectrum Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kaiser

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio is a promising solution to the problem of spectrum scarcity by means of allowing secondary radio networks access the spectrum opportunistically. One of the most important issues in cognitive radio is how to detect existing over-the-air signals reliably. Not a few literatures have reported that signals could be detected via their inherent or embedded properties. However, this approach may not be reliable and flexible enough for all kinds of signals with different modulation types. In this paper, we propose a type of multitone beacon signal carrying cyclostationary signatures, which is able to enhance the reliability and efficiency of signal detection at low cost of spectrum overhead. This beacon not only can indicate the presence or absence of user signal but also can reveal some other information helpful to opportunistic spectrum access through the information bits carried on its cyclostationary signatures. It could be applied to device/network identification, indication of spectrum allocation and spectrum rendezvous, both for primary and secondary users. Based on our previous work reported in [1], the generation and detection algorithm of the beacon signal are extended with improved spectral efficiency. Performance is discussed with both computer simulation and testbed validation.

  6. Opportunistic Adaptive Transmission for Network Coding Using Nonbinary LDPC Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cocco Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Network coding allows to exploit spatial diversity naturally present in mobile wireless networks and can be seen as an example of cooperative communication at the link layer and above. Such promising technique needs to rely on a suitable physical layer in order to achieve its best performance. In this paper, we present an opportunistic packet scheduling method based on physical layer considerations. We extend channel adaptation proposed for the broadcast phase of asymmetric two-way bidirectional relaying to a generic number of sinks and apply it to a network context. The method consists of adapting the information rate for each receiving node according to its channel status and independently of the other nodes. In this way, a higher network throughput can be achieved at the expense of a slightly higher complexity at the transmitter. This configuration allows to perform rate adaptation while fully preserving the benefits of channel and network coding. We carry out an information theoretical analysis of such approach and of that typically used in network coding. Numerical results based on nonbinary LDPC codes confirm the effectiveness of our approach with respect to previously proposed opportunistic scheduling techniques.

  7. Psychological predictors of opportunistic snacking in the absence of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Stephanie H; White, Melanie J; Finlayson, Graham; King, Neil A

    2015-08-01

    Increased frequency of eating in the absence of homeostatic need, notably through snacking, is an important contributor to overconsumption and may be facilitated by increased availability of palatable food in the obesogenic environment. Opportunistic initiation of snacking is likely to be subject to individual differences, although these are infrequently studied in laboratory-based research paradigms. This study examined psychological factors associated with opportunistic initiation of snacking, and predictors of intake in the absence of homeostatic need. Fifty adults (mean age 34.5years, mean BMI 23.9kg/m(2), 56% female) participated in a snack taste test in which they ate a chocolate snack to satiation, after which they were offered an unanticipated opportunity to initiate a second eating episode. Trait and behavioural measures of self control, sensitivity to reward, dietary restraint and disinhibited eating were taken. Results showed that, contrary to expectations, those who initiated snacking were better at inhibitory control compared with those who did not initiate. However, amongst participants who initiated snacking, intake (kcal) was predicted by higher food reward sensitivity, impulsivity and BMI. These findings suggest that snacking initiation in the absence of hunger is an important contributor to overconsumption. Consideration of the individual differences promoting initiation of eating may aid in reducing elevated eating frequency in at-risk individuals.

  8. CARDIOVASCULAR ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS WITH HIV INFECTION: A BOLT IN BLUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the consistent findings among various studies on HIV has been simultaneous multiorgan dysfunction. Cardiovascular disorders are now most common cause of mortality worldwide. With more effective and widespread treatment of HIV in resource-rich settings, morbidity and mortality from non-AIDS-related events have surpassed those from AIDS-related events with cardiovascular diseases emerging as an important cause of death in HIV-infected patients relative to the decreasing incidence of opportunistic disease. Various studies have reported a 1.5-fold increase in the rate of cardiovascular events in HIV-infected individuals compared to control populations. MATERIAL AND METHODS The aim of the study was to the find the prevalence and types of different cardiovascular abnormalities in HIV positive patients and assess their association with CD4 counts. Consecutive 82 patients, HIV positive patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria and giving informed consent were included in the study. All patients were subjected to history taking and a detailed physical examination. Blood counts, renal function tests, lipid profile and CD4 counts were estimated and patients were subjected to 12-lead ECG, chest X-ray and 2D/Colour Doppler Echocardiogram. RESULTS Of the 82 patients studied 47.46% had evidence of cardiovascular involvement, out of which 12% had clinical features of heart failure while electrocardiographic changes were seen in 35% of patients in the form of sinus tachycardia (27%, QTc prolongation (10% and left sided chamber enlargements (6%. Echocardiographic abnormalities were noted in 39 patients (47.56% including fractional shortening associated with systolic dysfunction (26.8%. The mean CD4 count in patients with echocardiographic abnormalities was found to be 58.87±29.80, whereas in patients without echocardiographic abnormalities it was 136.53±38.80 (p<0.0001. CONCLUSION High frequencies of cardiac abnormalities, both symptomatic and

  9. HIV and AIDS related knowledge, sources of information, and reported need for further education among dental students in Sudan- a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Åstrøm Anne; Nasir Elwalid; David Jamil; Ali Rouf

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Information on the HIV and AIDS-related knowledge among dental students provides a crucial foundation for efforts aimed at developing an appropriate dental curriculum on HIV and AIDS, and for attracting the attention of dental school educators towards the subject. Purposes Focusing on a census of dental students attending their 3rd, 4th and 5th study year at publicly – and privately funded dental faculties in Khartoum, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and socio-ec...

  10. Disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection with IRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinchao Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Penicillium marneffei infection is an endemic opportunistic infection for AIDS patients that can be found in south Asia. Fever and typical skin lesions are the most commonly seen symptoms. Our case describes an AIDS patient with Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS presented with liver masses and skin lesions whose blood, bone marrow and ascites culture were all identified with P. marneffei.

  11. Optimistic Opportunistic Routing Techniques for Wireless Sensor Networks: -A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Anuradha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Secure and optimistic routing is very important and significant task in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN. In multi-hop communication, selection of routing path between the sensor nodes in the sensor field is essential and also important. Based on the coordination, time based, token based and network coding based techniques the data packets are forwarded from the source to the destination through the intermediate nodes in the network called Opportunistic Routing (OR. Compared with traditional routing, the OR uses the broadcast nature of transmission which greatly increases the wireless network throughput, reliability. In order to support higher node density in WSN, the selection of the most optimistic, flexible, dynamic and reliable OR mechanism and OR protocol are important. In this study the various OR mechanisms and OR protocol are identified and design issues like delivery ratio, packet transmission rate, communication pattern, reliability rate, throughput and fault tolerance are discussed and the comparative results are also tabulated.

  12. Hopping control channel MAC protocol for opportunistic spectrum access networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jing-tuan; JI Hong; MAO Xu

    2010-01-01

    Opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) is considered as a promising approach to mitigate spectrum scarcity by allowing unlicensed users to exploit spectrum opportunities in licensed frequency bands. Derived from the existing channel-hopping multiple access (CHMA) protocol,we introduce a hopping control channel medium access control (MAC) protocol in the context of OSA networks. In our proposed protocol,all nodes in the network follow a common channel-hopping sequence; every frequency channel can be used as control channel and data channel. Considering primary users' occupancy of the channel,we use a primary user (PU) detection model to calculate the channel availability for unlicensed users' access. Then,a discrete Markov chain analytical model is applied to describe the channel states and deduce the system throughput. Through simulation,we present numerical results to demonstrate the throughput performance of our protocol and thus validate our work.

  13. Opportunistic microorganisms in individuals with lesions of denture stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida; Toledo, Bruna Costa; Santos, Camila Teles; Pereira Costa, Anna Carolina Borges; Back-Brito, Graziella Nuernberg; Kaminagakura, Estela; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate, quantify, identify, and compare opportunistic microorganisms (Candida and Staphylococcus genera and Enterobacteriaceae/Pseudomonadaceae families) from prosthesis-fitting surfaces, the hard palate, and mouth rinses of individuals wearing removable maxillary prosthesis with (50) and without (50) lesions of denture stomatitis (DS). The strains were collected and identified using phenotypic, biochemical and molecular tests. The counts of microorganisms were significantly higher in the group of individuals with DS (P < 0.05). C. albicans was the most frequently isolated yeast species in both groups, following by C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. Six isolates were identified as C. dubliniensis. S. aureus and S. epidermidis were the most frequent Staphylococcus species in both groups. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the predominant species in both groups. The association between Candida spp. and bacteria isolated in this study with DS suggests that these microorganisms may play important roles in the establishment and persistence of this disease.

  14. An Improved Directed Diffusion Protocol based on Opportunistic Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Xu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Researchers are paying more and more attention to the application of wireless sensor networks (WSNs, where routing is one of the vital techniques. An advanced Directed Diffusion protocol, named DDOR, is presented in this paper based on Opportunistic Routing to improve the disadvantage of mono-forwarder of traditional routing protocol. Packet head has been modified in order to implement a forwarder list in DDOR. Instead of fixed next-hop forwarding in transmission, DDOR selects the optimal node to forward. DDOR mechanism can effectively save energy of WSNs by decreasing the hops from sources to sinks, thereby extends the life of WSNs. A large number of simulations prove that DDOR is feasible. Compared with Directed Diffusion, DDOR does decrease the energy consumption on packets forwarding

  15. Congestion Control Strategy for Opportunistic Network Based on Message Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng-yin Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To solve the congestion problem in opportunistic networks, a congestion control strategy based on message deleting and transferring(DATM is proposed. The congested node calculates the storage value of each message according to the forwarding probability and TTL of message, then deletes the message with the minimum storage value and transfers the message with the minimum forwarding probability to neighboring nodes. The neighboring nodes calculate the receiving value of the message according to the forwarding probability and free buffer capacity of this message. The congested node transfers the message to the neighboring node with the maximum receiving value. The message will be deleted when there is no neighboring node to receive it. The algorithm is more targeted at deleting messages. Besides, it combines the strategy of transferring message. Therefore, it can deal with the congestion more efficiently. The message arrival rate is improved significantly and the end-to-end delay is also reduced to some extent.

  16. Optimizing Cooperative Cognitive Radio Networks with Opportunistic Access

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2012-09-16

    Optimal resource allocation for cooperative cognitive radio networks with opportunistic access to the licensed spectrum is studied. Resource allocation is based on minimizing the symbol error rate at the receiver. Both the cases of all-participate relaying and selective relaying are considered. The objective function is derived and the constraints are detailed for both scenarios. It is then shown that the objective functions and the constraints are nonlinear and nonconvex functions of the parameters of interest, that is, source and relay powers, symbol time, and sensing time. Therefore, it is difficult to obtain closed-form solutions for the optimal resource allocation. The optimization problem is then solved using numerical techniques. Numerical results show that the all-participate system provides better performance than its selection counterpart, at the cost of greater resources. © 2012 Ammar Zafar et al.

  17. Sinabro: A Smartphone-Integrated Opportunistic Electrocardiogram Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sungjun; Lee, Dongseok; Kim, Jeehoon; Lee, Youngki; Kang, Seungwoo; Seo, Sangwon; Park, Kwangsuk

    2016-03-11

    In our preliminary study, we proposed a smartphone-integrated, unobtrusive electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring system, Sinabro, which monitors a user's ECG opportunistically during daily smartphone use without explicit user intervention. The proposed system also monitors ECG-derived features, such as heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV), to support the pervasive healthcare apps for smartphones based on the user's high-level contexts, such as stress and affective state levels. In this study, we have extended the Sinabro system by: (1) upgrading the sensor device; (2) improving the feature extraction process; and (3) evaluating extensions of the system. We evaluated these extensions with a good set of algorithm parameters that were suggested based on empirical analyses. The results showed that the system could capture ECG reliably and extract highly accurate ECG-derived features with a reasonable rate of data drop during the user's daily smartphone use.

  18. Sinabro: A Smartphone-Integrated Opportunistic Electrocardiogram Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungjun Kwon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In our preliminary study, we proposed a smartphone-integrated, unobtrusive electrocardiogram (ECG monitoring system, Sinabro, which monitors a user’s ECG opportunistically during daily smartphone use without explicit user intervention. The proposed system also monitors ECG-derived features, such as heart rate (HR and heart rate variability (HRV, to support the pervasive healthcare apps for smartphones based on the user’s high-level contexts, such as stress and affective state levels. In this study, we have extended the Sinabro system by: (1 upgrading the sensor device; (2 improving the feature extraction process; and (3 evaluating extensions of the system. We evaluated these extensions with a good set of algorithm parameters that were suggested based on empirical analyses. The results showed that the system could capture ECG reliably and extract highly accurate ECG-derived features with a reasonable rate of data drop during the user’s daily smartphone use.

  19. Exact performance analysis of decode-and-forward opportunistic relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate a dual-hop decode-and-forward opportunistic relaying scheme where the source may or may not be able to communicate directly with the destination. In our study, we consider a regenerative relaying scheme in which the decision to cooperate takes into account the effect of the possible erroneously detected and transmitted data at the best relay. We derive an exact closed-form expression for the end-to-end bit-error rate (BER) of binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation based on the exact statistics of each hop. Unlike existing works where the analysis focused on high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime, such results are important to enable the designers to take decisions regarding practical systems that operate at low SNR regime. We show that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results.

  20. Opportunistic splitting for scheduling using a score-based approach

    KAUST Repository

    Rashid, Faraan

    2012-06-01

    We consider the problem of scheduling a user in a multi-user wireless environment in a distributed manner. The opportunistic splitting algorithm is applied to find the best group of users without reporting the channel state information to the centralized scheduler. The users find the best among themselves while requiring just a ternary feedback from the common receiver at the end of each mini-slot. The original splitting algorithm is modified to handle users with asymmetric channel conditions. We use a score-based approach with the splitting algorithm to introduce time and throughput fairness while exploiting the multi-user diversity of the network. Analytical and simulation results are given to show that the modified score-based splitting algorithm works well as a fair scheduling scheme with good spectral efficiency and reduced feedback. © 2012 IEEE.

  1. DATA FORWARDING IN OPPORTUNISTIC NETWORK USING MOBILE TRACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Poonguzharselvi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic networks are usually formed spontaneously by mobile devices equipped with short range wireless communication interfaces. The idea is that an end-to-end connection may never be present. Designing and implementing a routing protocol to support both service discovery and delivery in such kinds of networks is a challenging problem on account of frequent disconnections and topology changes. In these networks one of the most important issues relies on the selection of the best intermediate node to forward the messages towards the destination. This paper presents a mobile trace based routing protocol that uses the location information of the nodes in the network. Using the trace information, next hop is selected to forward the packets to destination. Data forwarding is done via the selected nodes. The effectiveness is shown using simulation.

  2. Opportunistic microorganisms in patients undergoing antibiotic therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Maria Rodrigues Querido

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial therapy may cause changes in the resident oral microbiota, with the increase of opportunistic pathogens. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of Candida, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae in the oral cavity of fifty patients undergoing antibiotic therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis and systemically healthy controls. Oral rinsing and subgingival samples were obtained, plated in Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol, mannitol agar and MacConkey agar, and incubated for 48 h at 37ºC. Candida spp. and coagulase-positive staphylococci were identified by phenotypic tests, C. dubliniensis, by multiplex PCR, and coagulase-negative staphylococci, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp., by the API systems. The number of Candida spp. was significantly higher in tuberculosis patients, and C. albicans was the most prevalent specie. No significant differences in the prevalence of other microorganisms were observed. In conclusion, the antimicrobial therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis induced significant increase only in the amounts of Candida spp.

  3. Opportunistic Cooperative Reliable Transmission Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Guo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The high reliability requirement of data transmission in wireless sensor networks has been a large challenge due to the random mobility and network topoloy instability, as well as restriction of energy consumption and system life time. In this work, the relationship matirx of distance and speed was created at first. Then the binay tree of mobility and reliabiliy was proposed based on the distance relationship matrix. The optimal relay nodes with high reliabiliy were selected by seeking the binay tree. The high reliable opportunistic cooperative data transmission scheme was presnted finally. The outcome of both mathematical analysis and NS simulation indicate that the proposed mechanism is superior to the traditional data transmission mechnism such as the reliability, system throughput and energy efficiency and so on.

  4. Outage analysis of opportunistic decode-and-forward relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate a dual-hop opportunistic decode-and-forward relaying scheme where the source may or not be able to communicate directly with the destination. We first derive statistics based on exact probability density function (PDF) of each hop. Then, the PDFs are used to determine closed-form outage probability expression for a transmission rate R. Furthermore, we evaluate the asymptotic outage performance and the diversity order is deduced. Unlike existing works where the analysis focused on high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime, such results are important to enable the designers to take decisions regarding practical systems that operate at low SNR regime. We show that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results under practical assumption of unbalanced hops. © 2010 IEEE.

  5. The Opportunistic Transmission of Wireless Worms between Mobile Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Rhodes, C J

    2008-01-01

    The ubiquity of portable wireless-enabled computing and communications devices has stimulated the emergence of malicious codes (wireless worms) that are capable of spreading between spatially proximal devices. The potential exists for worms to be opportunistically transmitted between devices as they move around, so human mobility patterns will have an impact on epidemic spread. The scenario we address in this paper is proximity attacks from fleetingly in-contact wireless devices with short-range communication range, such as Bluetooth-enabled smart phones. An individual-based model of mobile devices is introduced and the effect of population characteristics and device behaviour on the outbreak dynamics is investigated. We show through extensive simulations that in the above scenario the resulting mass-action epidemic models remain applicable provided the contact rate is derived consistently from the underlying mobility model. The model gives useful analytical expressions against which more refined simulations ...

  6. Biofilms and the survival of opportunistic pathogens in recycled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, M.; Ford, T.; Maki, J. S.; Mitchell, R.

    1991-01-01

    Microorganisms are likely to develop an organic film on pipes, water reservoirs and filters used for waste water reclamation during extended missions in space. These biofilms can serve to protect and concentrate potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Our investigation has emphasized the survival strategy of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in distilled water. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were used as test organisms. Cultures were incubated at 10 degrees, 25 degrees, and 37 degrees C. No viable Staphylococcus cells were detected after the first week of incubation. P. aeruginosa, however, survived in distilled water up to 5 months at all three temperatures tested. The starved cells were able to form a biofilm layer on stainless steel. The cells exhibited a negative surface charge. The charge may be involved in the adhesion of this bacterium to metal substrata. We are currently investigating the importance of adhesion in the survival of this and other potential human pathogens found in water recycling systems.

  7. Distributed opportunistic spectrum sharing in cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Hawa, Mohammed

    2016-05-19

    In cases where the licensed radio spectrum is underutilized, cognitive radio technology enables cognitive devices to sense and then dynamically access this scarce resource making the most out of it. In this work, we introduce a simple and intuitive, yet powerful and efficient, technique that allows opportunistic channel access in cognitive radio systems in a completely distributed fashion. Our proposed method achieves very high values of spectrum utilization and throughput. It also minimizes interference between cognitive base stations and the primary users licensed to use the spectrum. The algorithm responds quickly and efficiently to variations in the network parameters and also achieves a high degree of fairness between cognitive base stations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Scabies mites alter the skin microbiome and promote growth of opportunistic pathogens in a porcine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearl M Swe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The resident skin microbiota plays an important role in restricting pathogenic bacteria, thereby protecting the host. Scabies mites (Sarcoptes scabiei are thought to promote bacterial infections by breaching the skin barrier and excreting molecules that inhibit host innate immune responses. Epidemiological studies in humans confirm increased incidence of impetigo, generally caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, secondary to the epidermal infestation with the parasitic mite. It is therefore possible that mite infestation could alter the healthy skin microbiota making way for the opportunistic pathogens. A longitudinal study to test this hypothesis in humans is near impossible due to ethical reasons. In a porcine model we generated scabies infestations closely resembling the disease manifestation in humans and investigated the scabies associated changes in the skin microbiota over the course of a mite infestation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a 21 week trial, skin scrapings were collected from pigs infected with S. scabies var. suis and scabies-free control animals. A total of 96 skin scrapings were collected before, during infection and after acaricide treatment, and analyzed by bacterial 16S rDNA tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing. We found significant changes in the epidermal microbiota, in particular a dramatic increase in Staphylococcus correlating with the onset of mite infestation in animals challenged with scabies mites. This increase persisted beyond treatment from mite infection and healing of skin. Furthermore, the staphylococci population shifted from the commensal S. hominis on the healthy skin prior to scabies mite challenge to S. chromogenes, which is increasingly recognized as being pathogenic, coinciding with scabies infection in pigs. In contrast, all animals in the scabies-free cohort remained relatively free of Staphylococcus throughout the trial. CONCLUSIONS

  9. Cellular immune responses in HIV-negative immunodeficiency with anti-interferon-γ antibodies and opportunistic intracellular microorganisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiraprapa Wipasa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cell-mediated immunity plays a crucial role in resistance to intracellular infection. We previously reported antibodies against interferon-gamma (IFN-γ in HIV- negative (HIV- patients with acquired immunodeficiency presenting with repeated episodes of disseminated infection caused by uncommon opportunistic intracellular fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens. This follow-up study aimed to investigate cellular immune responses in these unusual patients. METHODS: Twenty HIV- patients presenting with ≥2 episodes of culture- or histopathologic-proven opportunistic infections were enrolled along with age- and sex-matched controls comprised of 20 HIV+ patients plus 20 healthy adults. Monocyte phenotyping and intracellular cytokine production were determined by staining with specific antibodies followed by flow cytometry. Anti-interferon-γ antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and inducible nitric oxide synthase by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: There were no differences among cases, HIV+, and healthy controls in the percentage of monocytes, or CD68 and HLA-DR expression on their surfaces. FcR1 (CD119 expression on monocytes was significantly higher in cases than in HIV+ (p<0.05 and healthy controls (p<0.01, suggesting the presence of activated monocytes in the circulation. Interleukin (IL-2 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α production in CD4 cells were significantly lower in cases than in healthy controls (p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively. CD8 production of TNF-α among cases was significantly lower than that of healthy controls (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Immunodeficiency in HIV- individuals with repeated infections with intracellular pathogens may be associated with one or more of the abnormal immune responses reflected by the reduced production of both IL-2 by CD4 T cells and TNF-α by CD4 T cells and CD8 T cells, as well as presence of anti-IFN-γ antibody, as previously reported.

  10. Understanding Culture and Its Influence on HIV/AIDS-Related Communication Among Minority Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Ambar; Dillon, Patrick J; Romero-Daza, Nancy

    2016-11-01

    Scholarly research and government surveillance reports demonstrate that African American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) bear an inequitable burden of new HIV infections. Among the estimated 31,896 HIV infections attributed to male-to-male sexual contact in 2011, approximately 62% occurred in African American (38.2%) and Latino (23.5) MSM. Simultaneously, recent scholarship on minority MSM and HIV/AIDS reports a dearth of qualitative communication research that address this health issue. This manuscript reports a research study that seeks to fill this gap in health communication theory and praxis. Through in-depth interviews with 17 MSM of color, this article draws upon the culture-centered approach to demonstrate how cultural and contextual nuances, (in)access to structural resources, and participants' agentive capacity to act upon available knowledge/resources influences the ways they manage (the threat of) HIV/AIDS. PMID:27007012

  11. Understanding Culture and Its Influence on HIV/AIDS-Related Communication Among Minority Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Ambar; Dillon, Patrick J; Romero-Daza, Nancy

    2016-11-01

    Scholarly research and government surveillance reports demonstrate that African American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) bear an inequitable burden of new HIV infections. Among the estimated 31,896 HIV infections attributed to male-to-male sexual contact in 2011, approximately 62% occurred in African American (38.2%) and Latino (23.5) MSM. Simultaneously, recent scholarship on minority MSM and HIV/AIDS reports a dearth of qualitative communication research that address this health issue. This manuscript reports a research study that seeks to fill this gap in health communication theory and praxis. Through in-depth interviews with 17 MSM of color, this article draws upon the culture-centered approach to demonstrate how cultural and contextual nuances, (in)access to structural resources, and participants' agentive capacity to act upon available knowledge/resources influences the ways they manage (the threat of) HIV/AIDS.

  12. Management of Infection in the Post-Cardiac-Transplant Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Zeluff, Barry; Gentry, Layne O.

    1987-01-01

    In reviewing our post-transplant experience with infection in 192 cardiac transplant patients, * we have noticed a pattern. During the first month following transplantation, the patient seldom has an opportunistic infection, but is in danger of nosocomial infection (84 episodes in 57 patients). These include wound infection, and infections of the lungs, blood, and urinary tract. After the first month, and for the duration of the first year following transplantation, nosocomial infections beco...

  13. Outage probability of opportunistic decode-and-forward relaying over Nakagami-m fading channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHUAI Gang; ZHANG Bao-zhi; LIU Xing-mei; GAO Li

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the outage probability behavior of a relay network over Nakagami-m fading channels is analyzed. Both reactive and proactive opportunistic decode-and-forward (DAF) strategies are considered. The closed-form solutions to the outage probabilities on both opportunistic DAF strategies are derived. Simulation results conf'Lrrn the presented mathematical analysis.

  14. Members of native coral microbiota inhibit glycosidases and thwart colonization of coral mucus by an opportunistic pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krediet, Cory J; Ritchie, Kim B; Alagely, Ali; Teplitski, Max

    2013-05-01

    The outcome of the interactions between native commensal microorganisms and opportunistic pathogens is crucial to the health of the coral holobiont. During the establishment within the coral surface mucus layer, opportunistic pathogens, including a white pox pathogen Serratia marcescens PDL100, compete with native bacteria for available nutrients. Both commensals and pathogens employ glycosidases and N-acetyl-glucosaminidase to utilize components of coral mucus. This study tested the hypothesis that specific glycosidases were critical for the growth of S. marcescens on mucus and that their inhibition by native coral microbiota reduces fitness of the pathogen. Consistent with this hypothesis, a S. marcescens transposon mutant with reduced glycosidase and N-acetyl-glucosaminidase activities was unable to compete with the wild type on the mucus of the host coral Acropora palmata, although it was at least as competitive as the wild type on a minimal medium with glycerol and casamino acids. Virulence of the mutant was modestly reduced in the Aiptasia model. A survey revealed that ∼8% of culturable coral commensal bacteria have the ability to inhibit glycosidases in the pathogen. A small molecular weight, ethanol-soluble substance(s) produced by the coral commensal Exiguobacterium sp. was capable of the inhibition of the induction of catabolic enzymes in S. marcescens. This inhibition was in part responsible for the 10-100-fold reduction in the ability of the pathogen to grow on coral mucus. These results provide insight into potential mechanisms of commensal interference with early colonization and infection behaviors in opportunistic pathogens and highlight an important function for the native microbiota in coral health. PMID:23254513

  15. What It Takes to Be a Pseudomonas aeruginosa? The Core Genome of the Opportunistic Pathogen Updated.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Valot

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen able to thrive in highly diverse ecological niches and to infect compromised patients. Its genome exhibits a mosaic structure composed of a core genome into which accessory genes are inserted en bloc at specific sites. The size and the content of the core genome are open for debate as their estimation depends on the set of genomes considered and the pipeline of gene detection and clustering. Here, we redefined the size and the content of the core genome of P. aeruginosa from fully re-analyzed genomes of 17 reference strains. After the optimization of gene detection and clustering parameters, the core genome was defined at 5,233 orthologs, which represented ~ 88% of the average genome. Extrapolation indicated that our panel was suitable to estimate the core genome that will remain constant even if new genomes are added. The core genome contained resistance determinants to the major antibiotic families as well as most metabolic, respiratory, and virulence genes. Although some virulence genes were accessory, they often related to conserved biological functions. Long-standing prophage elements were subjected to a genetic drift to eventually display a G+C content as higher as that of the core genome. This contrasts with the low G+C content of highly conserved ribosomal genes. The conservation of metabolic and respiratory genes could guarantee the ability of the species to thrive on a variety of carbon sources for energy in aerobiosis and anaerobiosis. Virtually all the strains, of environmental or clinical origin, have the complete toolkit to become resistant to the major antipseudomonal compounds and possess basic pathogenic mechanisms to infect humans. The knowledge of the genes shared by the majority of the P. aeruginosa isolates is a prerequisite for designing effective therapeutics to combat the wide variety of human infections.

  16. Proteogenomics of Candida tropicalis--An Opportunistic Pathogen with Importance for Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Keshava K; Patil, Arun H; Patel, Krishna; Dey, Gourav; Madugundu, Anil K; Renuse, Santosh; Kaviyil, Jyothi E; Sekhar, Raja; Arunima, Aryashree; Daswani, Bhavna; Kaur, Inderjeet; Mohanty, Jyotirmaya; Sinha, Ranjana; Jaiswal, Sangeeta; Sivapriya, S; Sonnathi, Yeshwanth; Chattoo, Bharat B; Gowda, Harsha; Ravikumar, Raju; Prasad, T S Keshava

    2016-04-01

    The frequency of Candida infections is currently rising, and thus adversely impacting global health. The situation is exacerbated by azole resistance developed by fungal pathogens. Candida tropicalis is an opportunistic pathogen that causes candidiasis, for example, in immune-compromised individuals, cancer patients, and those who undergo organ transplantation. It is a member of the non-albicans group of Candida that are known to be azole-resistant, and is frequently seen in individuals being treated for cancers, HIV-infection, and those who underwent bone marrow transplantation. Although the genome of C. tropicalis was sequenced in 2009, the genome annotation has not been supported by experimental validation. In the present study, we have carried out proteomics profiling of C. tropicalis using high-resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry. We identified 2743 proteins, thus mapping nearly 44% of the computationally predicted protein-coding genes with peptide level evidence. In addition to identifying 2591 proteins in the cell lysate of this yeast, we also analyzed the proteome of the conditioned media of C. tropicalis culture and identified several unique secreted proteins among a total of 780 proteins. By subjecting the mass spectrometry data derived from cell lysate and conditioned media to proteogenomic analysis, we identified 86 novel genes, 12 novel exons, and corrected 49 computationally-predicted gene models. To our knowledge, this is the first high-throughput proteomics study of C. tropicalis validating predicted protein coding genes and refining the current genome annotation. The findings may prove useful in future global health efforts to fight against Candida infections. PMID:27093108

  17. Individual attitudes and perceived social norms: Reports on HIV/AIDS-related stigma among service providers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Wu, Zunyou; Lin, Chunqing; Wen, Yi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined HIV/AIDS-related stigma among Chinese service providers by comparing their personal attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS with their perception of social norms related to people living with HIV/AIDS. We randomly selected three provincial hospitals, four city/prefecture hospitals, 10 county hospitals, 18 township health clinics, and 54 village clinics from Yunnan, China. Doctors and nurses were randomly sampled proportionally to the doctor-nurse ratio of each hospital or clinic. Lab technicians were over-sampled in order to include an adequate representation in the analysis. A total of 1,101 service providers participated in a voluntary, anonymous survey where demographic characteristics, individual attitude and perceived social norms toward people living with HIV/AIDS, discrimination intent at work, general prejudicial attitude and knowledge on HIV/AIDS were measured. A majority of the sample demonstrated a similarity between their personal views and what they thought most people in society believe. Multiple logistic regressions revealed that participants who were younger or reported personal contact with people living with HIV/AIDS were significantly more likely to report personal attitudes toward the population that were more liberal than their perceived social norms. Holding a more liberal personal attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS than perceived social norms was significantly and negatively related to the level of discrimination intent at work, perceived discrimination at interpersonal level and the level of general prejudicial attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Results underscored the importance of understanding social norms and personal attitudes in studying HIV-related stigma and called for the incorporation of existing human capital into future HIV stigma reduction programs. Cette étude a examiné le VIH/SIDA lié à stigmatisation parmi les agences chinoises fournissant des soins en comparant leurs attitudes

  18. HIV/AIDS related knowledge, risk perception, attitude and sexual behavior of working women staying in hostels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Arun

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection poses a formidable threat to women′s health. Already, in India, women account for 21.3% of all AIDS cases. In metropolitan cities women living alone in hostels and having independent income, may have a liberal life style and chances of practising high risk sexual behaviour is greater. This study was conducted to assess the risks and risk perception of such women. Among eighty-nine hostel residents, AIDS awareness was 92.1%. Very few respondents had adequate knowledge about modes of transmission and methods of prevention. Risk perception was poor, however high risk behaviour was less commonly practised by this group.

  19. Actinomyces and Nocardia Infections in Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shahindokht Bassiri-Jahromi; Aida Doostkam

    2011-01-01

    Objective : Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited disorder of the Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced oxidase complex characterized by recurrent bacterial and fungal infections. Disseminated infection by combination of opportunistic agents is being increasingly reported in CGD patients. We presented in the retrospective review of medical records, the etiology, presentation, clinical characteristics the infections detected, predisposing condition and outcome of no...

  20. Individual attitudes and perceived social norms: Reports on HIV/AIDS-related stigma among service providers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Wu, Zunyou; Lin, Chunqing; Wen, Yi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined HIV/AIDS-related stigma among Chinese service providers by comparing their personal attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS with their perception of social norms related to people living with HIV/AIDS. We randomly selected three provincial hospitals, four city/prefecture hospitals, 10 county hospitals, 18 township health clinics, and 54 village clinics from Yunnan, China. Doctors and nurses were randomly sampled proportionally to the doctor-nurse ratio of each hospital or clinic. Lab technicians were over-sampled in order to include an adequate representation in the analysis. A total of 1,101 service providers participated in a voluntary, anonymous survey where demographic characteristics, individual attitude and perceived social norms toward people living with HIV/AIDS, discrimination intent at work, general prejudicial attitude and knowledge on HIV/AIDS were measured. A majority of the sample demonstrated a similarity between their personal views and what they thought most people in society believe. Multiple logistic regressions revealed that participants who were younger or reported personal contact with people living with HIV/AIDS were significantly more likely to report personal attitudes toward the population that were more liberal than their perceived social norms. Holding a more liberal personal attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS than perceived social norms was significantly and negatively related to the level of discrimination intent at work, perceived discrimination at interpersonal level and the level of general prejudicial attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Results underscored the importance of understanding social norms and personal attitudes in studying HIV-related stigma and called for the incorporation of existing human capital into future HIV stigma reduction programs. Cette étude a examiné le VIH/SIDA lié à stigmatisation parmi les agences chinoises fournissant des soins en comparant leurs attitudes

  1. Differences between the course of the drug addict's HIV infection and that of other HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gölz, J

    1993-11-01

    Drug addicts have, in general, a less complicated course of HIV infection than homosexual HIV patients. They show fewer opportunistic infections and tumors. But this advantage is lost by unnecessary complications due to their psychic disorders. Their non-compliance and concealment of signs of disease lead to worse outcomes of infections, which could be well-treated or prevented. PMID:8300042

  2. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anus-an opportunistic cancer in HIV-positive male homosexuals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pascal Gervaz; Alexandra Calmy; Ymer Durmishi; Abdelkarim S Allal; Philippe Morel

    2011-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) is a common cancer in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- infected population, and its incidence continues to increase in male homosexuals. Combined chemoradiation with mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil was poorly tolerated by severely immunocompromised patients in the early 1990s. In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), however, recent data indicate that: (1) most HIV patients with anal cancer can tolerate standard chemotherapy regimens; and (2) this approach is associated with survival rates similar to those of HIV-negative patients. However, HIV-positive patients with SCCA are much younger, more likely to develop local tumor recurrence, and ultimately die from anal cancer than immune competent patients. Taken together, these findings suggest that anal cancer is an often fatal neoplasia in middle- aged HIV-positive male homosexuals. In this population, SCCA is an opportunistic disease resulting in patients with suboptimal immune function from persistent papillomaviruses (HPVs). Large-scale cancer-prevention strategies (routine anuscopy and anal papanicolaou testing) should be implemented in this population. In addition, definitive eradication of oncogenic HPVs within the anogenital mucosa of high-risk individuals might require a proactive approach with repeated vaccination.

  3. Genomics of adaptation during experimental evolution of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Wong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation is likely to be an important determinant of the success of many pathogens, for example when colonizing a new host species, when challenged by antibiotic treatment, or in governing the establishment and progress of long-term chronic infection. Yet, the genomic basis of adaptation is poorly understood in general, and for pathogens in particular. We investigated the genetics of adaptation to cystic fibrosis-like culture conditions in the presence and absence of fluoroquinolone antibiotics using the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Whole-genome sequencing of experimentally evolved isolates revealed parallel evolution at a handful of known antibiotic resistance genes. While the level of antibiotic resistance was largely determined by these known resistance genes, the costs of resistance were instead attributable to a number of mutations that were specific to individual experimental isolates. Notably, stereotypical quinolone resistance mutations in DNA gyrase often co-occurred with other mutations that, together, conferred high levels of resistance but no consistent cost of resistance. This result may explain why these mutations are so prevalent in clinical quinolone-resistant isolates. In addition, genes involved in cyclic-di-GMP signalling were repeatedly mutated in populations evolved in viscous culture media, suggesting a shared mechanism of adaptation to this CF-like growth environment. Experimental evolutionary approaches to understanding pathogen adaptation should provide an important complement to studies of the evolution of clinical isolates.

  4. Destruction of Opportunistic Pathogens via Polymer Nanoparticle-Mediated Release of Plant-Based Antimicrobial Payloads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Dahlia N; Amato, Douglas V; Mavrodi, Olga V; Braasch, Dwaine A; Walley, Susan E; Douglas, Jessica R; Mavrodi, Dmitri V; Patton, Derek L

    2016-05-01

    The synthesis of antimicrobial thymol/carvacrol-loaded polythioether nanoparticles (NPs) via a one-pot, solvent-free miniemulsion thiol-ene photopolymerization process is reported. The active antimicrobial agents, thymol and carvacrol, are employed as "solvents" for the thiol-ene monomer phase in the miniemulsion to enable facile high capacity loading (≈50% w/w), excellent encapsulation efficiencies (>95%), and elimination of all postpolymerization purification processes. The NPs serve as high capacity reservoirs for slow-release and delivery of thymol/carvacrol-combination payloads that exhibit inhibitory and bactericidal activity (>99.9% kill efficiency at 24 h) against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including both saprophytic (Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922) and pathogenic species (E. coli ATCC 43895, Staphylococcus aureus RN6390, and Burkholderia cenocepacia K56-2). This report is among the first to demonstrate antimicrobial efficacy of essential oil-loaded nanoparticles against B. cenocepacia - an innately resistant opportunistic pathogen commonly associated with debilitating respiratory infections in cystic fibrosis. Although a model platform, these results point to promising pathways to particle-based delivery of plant-derived extracts for a range of antimicrobial applications, including active packaging materials, topical antiseptics, and innovative therapeutics. PMID:26946055

  5. Evaluation of two novel barcodes for species recognition of opportunistic pathogens in Fusarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hatmi, Abdullah M S; Van Den Ende, A H G Gerrits; Stielow, J Benjamin; Van Diepeningen, Anne D; Seifert, Keith A; McCormick, Wayne; Assabgui, Rafik; Gräfenhan, Tom; De Hoog, G Sybren; Levesque, C André

    2016-02-01

    The genus Fusarium includes more than 200 species of which 73 have been isolated from human infections. Fusarium species are opportunistic human pathogens with variable aetiology. Species determination is best made with the combined phylogeny of protein-coding genes such as elongation factor (TEF1), RNA polymerase (RPB2) and the partial β-tubulin (BT2) gene. The internal transcribed spacers 1, 2 and 5.8S rRNA gene (ITS) have also been used, however, ITS cannot discriminate several closely related species and has nonorthologous copies in Fusarium. Currently, morphological approaches and tree-building methods are in use to define species and to discover hitherto undescribed species. Aftter a species is defined, DNA barcoding approaches can be used to identify species by the presence or absence of discrete nucleotide characters. We demonstrate the potential of two recently discovered DNA barcode loci, topoisomerase I (TOP1) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK), in combination with other routinely used markers such as TEF1, in an analysis of 144 Fusarium strains belonging to 52 species. Our barcoding study using TOP1 and PKG provided concordance of molecular data with TEF1. The currently accepted Fusarium species sampled were well supported in phylogenetic trees of both new markers.

  6. Oxidative stress response to menadione and cumene hydroperoxide in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida glabrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Cuéllar-Cruz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Candida glabrata is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that can cause severe invasive infections and can evade phagocytic cell clearance. We are interested in understanding the virulence of this fungal pathogen, in particular its oxidative stress response. Here we investigated C. glabrata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans responses to two different oxidants: menadione and cumene hydroperoxide (CHP. In log-phase, in the presence of menadione, C. glabrata requires Cta1p (catalase, while in a stationary phase (SP, Cta1p is dispensable. In addition, C. glabrata is less resistant to menadione than C. albicans in SP. The S. cerevisiae laboratory reference strain is less resistant to menadione than C. glabrata and C. albicans; however S. cerevisiaeclinical isolates (CIs are more resistant than the lab reference strain. Furthermore, S. cerevisiae CIs showed an increased catalase activity. Interestingly, in SP C. glabrata and S. cerevisiae are more resistant to CHP than C. albicans and Cta1p plays no apparent role in detoxifying this oxidant.

  7. Lymphocyte transformation response to pokeweed mitogen as a predictive marker for development of AIDS and AIDS related symptoms in homosexual men with HIV antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B; Lindhardt, B O; Gerstoft, J;

    1987-01-01

    To identify factors that may predict the development of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS related symptoms various immunological measurements were studied in a group of homosexual men attending screening clinics for AIDS in Copenhagen. Fifty seven men whose ratio of T helper...... lymphocytes to T suppressor lymphocytes (CD4:CD8 ratio) was less than 1.0 before the study began were included. Forty two were positive for antibody to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), of whom 38 were reinvestigated after a median observation period of 10 months. Among the seropositive men...

  8. HIV/AIDS related mortality among adult medical patients in a tertiary health institution in South-South, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gyuse AN; Bassey IE; Udonwa NE; Okokon IB; Philip-Ephraim EE

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the causes of death among human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients as a step to planning strategies to improve mortality from this condition.Methods: This study retrospectively analyzed the mortality pattern of adult HIV/AIDS patients in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital from January 2005 to December 2007. The data were obtained from sexually transmitted infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (STI/AIDS) clinic register, admissions and discharge/death registers as well as the patients' case records and the hospitals monthly mortality reviews. Information obtained included age, sex, diagnosis and cause(s) of death. The causes of death considered were the directcauses of death, since the originating antecedent cause of death is the same in all the patients, in this case, HIV/AIDS. Data was analysed using Epi Info 2002.Results: The total number of mortalities during the study period was 350,100 were HIV positive representing 28.6% of all deaths. While advanced HIV/AIDS disease was the leading cause of death in our study representing 27.0%, tuberculosis was the single leading cause of deaths in HIV/AIDS patients constituting about 24.0% of deaths. This was followed by sepsis and septicaemia (13.0%), meningitis and encephalitis, and anaemia accounting for 11.0%, while respiratory diseases constituted 5.0% of the mortality burden. The highest number of deaths occurred in those aged between 21-50 years (82.0%).Conclusions: The study has shown that HIV/AIDS is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in our hospital. The causes of death reflect the varied spectrum of infection and other forms of organ involvement that affect HIV/AIDS patients. The present dismal situation of adult patients living with HIV/AIDS calls for enhanced strategies to decrease the mortality trend observed in Nigeria and sub-Saharan Africa.

  9. Optimal Sensing for Opportunistic Spectrum Access in Cognitive Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrullah Armi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic Spectrum Access (OSA brings new research challenges in MAC protocol design. It allows unlicensed users to share licensed spectrum in space and time with no or little interference to Primary Users (PUs. When designing an OSA MAC protocol, one of the most difficult but important problem is how the unlicensed users decide when and which channel they should sense and access without conflicting the communications among PUs. To solve this problem, the unlicensed users should have the ability of adaptively and dynamically seeking and exploiting opportunities in both licensed and unlicensed spectrum and along both the time and the frequency dimensions. Secondary Users (SUs as unlicensed users are required to sense radio frequency band, and when PU are detected, they must vacate the channel immediately within certain amount of time. Due to hardware and energy constraints, full spectrum availability cannot be sensed as well as they do not monitor when there is no data to be transmitted. In this paper, we study MAC protocol design and optimal sensing for OSA in Cognitive Radio (CR ad hoc network under Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP algorithm that maximizes achievable throughput for SUs with sufficient protection to PUs. Furthermore, we study tractable greedy algorithm to reduce the complexity of POMDP calculation. The derivation of greedy approach proves that sensing problem can be solved either optimally or approximate the optimal solution. Computer simulation is used to evaluate the performances both of optimal and sub optimal strategy.

  10. Effect of threshold quantization in opportunistic splitting algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon

    2011-12-01

    This paper discusses algorithms to find the optimal threshold and also investigates the impact of threshold quantization on the scheduling outage performance of the opportunistic splitting scheduling algorithm. Since this algorithm aims at finding the user with the highest channel quality within the minimal number of mini-slots by adjusting the threshold every mini-slot, optimizing the threshold is of paramount importance. Hence, in this paper we first discuss how to compute the optimal threshold along with two tight approximations for the optimal threshold. Closed-form expressions are provided for those approximations for simple calculations. Then, we consider linear quantization of the threshold to take the limited number of bits for signaling messages in practical systems into consideration. Due to the limited granularity for the quantized threshold value, an irreducible scheduling outage floor is observed. The numerical results show that the two approximations offer lower scheduling outage probability floors compared to the conventional algorithm when the threshold is quantized. © 2006 IEEE.

  11. On Myopic Sensing for Multi-Channel Opportunistic Access

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Qing; Liu, Keqin

    2007-01-01

    We consider a multi-channel opportunistic communication system where the states of these channels evolve as independent and statistically identical Markov chains (the Gilbert-Elliot channel model). A user chooses one channel to sense and access in each slot and collects a reward determined by the state of the chosen channel. The objective is to design a sensing policy for channel selection to maximize the average reward. In this paper, we study the structure, optimality, and performance of the myopic sensing policy. We show that the myopic sensing policy has a simple robust structure that reduces channel selection to a counting procedure and obviates the need for knowing the channel transition probabilities. The optimality of this simple policy is established for the two-channel case and conjectured for the general case based on extensive simulations. The performance of the myopic sensing policy is analyzed, which, based on the optimality of myopic sensing, characterizes the maximum throughput of a multi-chan...

  12. Optimal Sensing for Opportunistic Spectrum Access in Cognitive Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrullah Armi, Naufal M. Saad, M. Zuki Yusoff, Muhammad Arshad

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most difficult thing but important problem when designing an OSA (Opportunistic Spectrum Access MAC protocol is how the unlicensed users decide when and which channel they should sense and access without conflicting the communications among PUs. To solve this problem, the unlicensed users should have the ability of adaptively and dynamically seeking and exploiting opportunities in both licensed and unlicensed spectrum and along both of the time and the frequency dimensions. Secondary Users (SUs as unlicensed users are required to sense radio frequency band, and when PU are detected, they must vacate the channel immediately within certain amount of time. Due to hardware and energy constraints, full spectrum availability cannot be sensed as well as they do not monitor when there is no data to be transmitted. In this paper, we study MAC protocol design and optimal sensing for OSA in Cognitive Radio (CR ad hoc network under Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP algorithm that maximizes achievable throughput for SUs with sufficient protection to PUs. The bandwith effect to number of bit transmitted in one slot and tractable greedy algorithm to reduce the complexity of POMDP calculation was studied as well. The derivation of greedy approach proves that sensing problem can be solved either optimally or approximate the optimal solution. Computer simulation is used to evaluate the performances both of optimal and sub optimal strategy.

  13. Opportunistic pathogens relative to physicochemical factors in water storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bahry, S N; Elshafie, A E; Victor, R; Mahmoud, I Y; Al-Hinai, J A

    2011-06-01

    Household water in Oman, as well as in other countries in the region, is stored in tanks placed on house roofs that can be subjected to physicochemical factors which can promote microbial growth, including pathogens and opportunistic pathogens which pose health risks. Water samples were collected from 30 houses in a heavily populated suburb of Muscat. The tanks used were either glass reinforced plastic (GRP), polyethylene or galvanised iron (GI). Heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms, faecal coliforms and iron sulphur bacteria varied significantly in the three tanks. Yeast and mould count showed significant variations. Isolation of Aeromonas spp., fluorogenic and pathogenic Pseudomonas, Pasteurella, Salmonella, Serratia and Tatumella, and Yersinia and Legionella in biofilms varied in the three tanks. The fungi isolates in the three tanks were Penicillium, Cladosporium and Aspergillus. Nephelometric turbidity unit, threshold odour number and free chlorine varied significantly in the three tanks. True colour unit values did not show a significant difference; however, GRP tanks had algae, autotrophic and pigmented microorganisms. In addition, GI tanks had sediments and corrosion. The results of this investigation are important to evaluate the status of the present household water tanks in countries with high annual temperatures, which may affect public health.

  14. Single-dose fluconazole versus standard 2-week therapy for oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients: a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamza, O.J.; Matee, M.I.N.; Bruggemann, R.J.M.; Moshi, M.J.; Simon, E.N.; Mugusi, F.; Mikx, F.H.M.; Lee, H.A.L. van der; Verweij, P.E.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal candidiasis is the most common opportunistic infection affecting patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Because of convenience, cost, and reluctance to complicate antiretroviral treatment regimens, single-dose fluconazole may be a favorable regimen for

  15. Recognizing and Conducting Opportunistic Experiments in Education: A Guide for Policymakers and Researchers. REL 2014-037

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Alexandra; Berk, Jillian; Akers, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    An opportunistic experiment is a type of randomized controlled trial that studies the effects of a planned intervention or policy change with minimal added disruption and cost. This guide defines opportunistic experiments and provides examples, discusses issues to consider when identifying potential opportunistic experiments, and outlines the…

  16. Viral Infection in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Cukuranovic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are among the most common causes of opportunistic infection after transplantation. The risk for viral infection is a function of the specific virus encountered, the intensity of immune suppression used to prevent graft rejection, and other host factors governing susceptibility. Although cytomegalovirus is the most common opportunistic pathogen seen in transplant recipients, numerous other viruses have also affected outcomes. In some cases, preventive measures such as pretransplant screening, prophylactic antiviral therapy, or posttransplant viral monitoring may limit the impact of these infections. Recent advances in laboratory monitoring and antiviral therapy have improved outcomes. Studies of viral latency, reactivation, and the cellular effects of viral infection will provide clues for future strategies in prevention and treatment of viral infections. This paper will summarize the major viral infections seen following transplant and discuss strategies for prevention and management of these potential pathogens.

  17. Toward distributed relay selection for opportunistic amplify-and-forward transmission

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2011-05-01

    Opportunistic relaying in cooperative communication depends on careful relay selection. However the traditional centralized method used for opportunistic Amplify-and-Forward (OAF) protocols requires precise measurements of channel state information (CSI) at the destination (CSI-OAF). In this paper, we propose a distributed relay selection framework for opportunistic AF (D-OAF) cooperative communications and offer an accurate performance analysis based on exact statistics of the local signalto- noise ratios of the best relay. Furthermore, we validate our analysis by showing that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results over different network architectures, and we compare our new results with their CSI-based counterparts. © 2011 IEEE.

  18. Inappropriately low aldosterone concentrations in adults with AIDS-related diarrhoea in Zambia: a study of response to fluid challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumayi Ruth

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic diarrhoea is one of the most debilitating consequences of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa and it carries a high mortality rate. We report unexpectedly low concentrations of circulating aldosterone in 12 patients (6 men, 6 women in the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, who all had diarrhoea for over one month. Changes in serum electrolytes, blood pressure, Karnofsky score and serum aldosterone concentration were being monitored during a short study of responses to saline infusion (3 litres/24 h over 72 hours. Findings At baseline, 9/12 (75% of the patients were hyponatraemic, 10/11 (91% were hypokalaemic, and 6/12 (50% had undetectable aldosterone concentrations. Blood pressure and Karnofsky score rose and creatinine concentration fell in response to the infusion. Conclusion Circulating aldosterone concentrations were inappropriately low and complicate the profound electrolyte deficiencies resulting from chronic diarrhoea. Management of these deficiencies needs to be more aggressive than is currently practised and consideration should be given to a formal clinical trial of mineralocorticoid replacement in these severely ill patients. If the inappropriately low aldosterone reflects a general adrenal failure, it may explain a considerable proportion of the high mortality seen both before and after initiation of anti-retroviral therapy.

  19. Non-Orthogonal Opportunistic Beamforming: Performance Analysis and Implementation

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Minghua

    2012-04-01

    Aiming to achieve the sum-rate capacity in multi-user multi-antenna systems where $N_t$ antennas are implemented at the transmitter, opportunistic beamforming (OBF) generates~$N_t$ orthonormal beams and serves $N_t$ users during each channel use, which results in high scheduling delay over the users, especially in densely populated networks. Non-orthogonal OBF with more than~$N_t$ transmit beams can be exploited to serve more users simultaneously and further decrease scheduling delay. However, the inter-beam interference will inevitably deteriorate the sum-rate. Therefore, there is a tradeoff between sum-rate and scheduling delay for non-orthogonal OBF. In this context, system performance and implementation of non-orthogonal OBF with $N>N_t$ beams are investigated in this paper. Specifically, it is analytically shown that non-orthogonal OBF is an interference-limited system as the number of users $K \\\\to \\\\infty$. When the inter-beam interference reaches its minimum for fixed $N_t$ and~$N$, the sum-rate scales as $N\\\\ln\\\\left(\\\\frac{N}{N-N_t}\\ ight)$ and it degrades monotonically with the number of beams $N$ for fixed $N_t$. On the contrary, the average scheduling delay is shown to scale as $\\\\frac{1}{N}K\\\\ln{K}$ channel uses and it improves monotonically with $N$. Furthermore, two practical non-orthogonal beamforming schemes are explicitly constructed and they are demonstrated to yield the minimum inter-beam interference for fixed $N_t$ and $N$. This study reveals that, if user traffic is light and one user can be successfully served within a single transmission, non-orthogonal OBF can be applied to obtain lower worst-case delay among the users. On the other hand, if user traffic is heavy, non-orthogonal OBF is inferior to orthogonal OBF in terms of sum-rate and packet delay.

  20. Cook Inlet Beluga Opportunistic Sightings, 1975 to 2015 (NCEI Accession 0142326)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As a part of National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) management of the endangered Cook Inlet beluga whale population, a database of opportunistic beluga whale...

  1. OPPORTUNISTIC ASPERGILLUS PATHOGENS MEASURED IN HOME AND HOSPITAL TAP WATER BY MOLD SPECIFIC QUANTITATIVE PCR (MSQPCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opportunistic fungal pathogens are a concern because of the increasing number of immunocompromised patients. The goal of this research was to test a simple extraction method and rapid quantitative PCR (QPCR) measurement of the occurrence of potential pathogens, Aspergillus fumiga...

  2. Scaling up ATLAS Event Service to production levels on opportunistic computing platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Benjamin, Douglas; The ATLAS collaboration; Ernst, Michael; Guan, Wen; Hover, John; Lesny, David; Maeno, Tadashi; Nilsson, Paul; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; van Gemmeren, Peter; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Wang, Fuquan; Wenaus, Torre

    2016-01-01

    Continued growth in public cloud and HPC resources is on track to exceed the dedicated resources available for ATLAS on the WLCG. Examples of such platforms are Amazon AWS EC2 Spot Instances, Edison Cray XC30 supercomputer, backfill at Tier 2 and Tier 3 sites, opportunistic resources at the Open Science Grid (OSG), and ATLAS High Level Trigger farm between the data taking periods. Because of specific aspects of opportunistic resources such as preemptive job scheduling and data I/O, their efficient usage requires workflow innovations provided by the ATLAS Event Service. Thanks to the finer granularity of the Event Service data processing workflow, the opportunistic resources are used more efficiently. We report on our progress in scaling opportunistic resource usage to double-digit levels in ATLAS production.

  3. Scaling up ATLAS Event Service to production levels on opportunistic computing platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Benjamin, Douglas; The ATLAS collaboration; Ernst, Michael; Guan, Wen; Hover, John; Lesny, David; Maeno, Tadashi; Nilsson, Paul; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; van Gemmeren, Peter; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Wang, Fuquan; Wenaus, Torre

    2016-01-01

    Continued growth in public cloud and HPC resources is on track to overcome the dedicated resources available for ATLAS on the WLCG. Example of such platforms are Amazon AWS EC2 Spot Instances, Edison Cray XC30 supercomputer, backfill at the Tier-2 and Tier-3 sites, opportunistic resources at the Open Science Grid, and ATLAS High Level Trigger farm between the data taking periods. Because of opportunistic resources specifics such as preemptive job scheduling and data I/O, their efficient usage requires workflow innovations provided by the ATLAS Event Service. Thanks to the finer granularity of the Event Service data processing workflow, the opportunistic resources are used more efficiently. We report on our progress in scaling opportunistic resource usage to double-digit levels in ATLAS production.

  4. Occurrence of Opportunistic Pathogens Legionella pneumophila and non-tuberculous mycobacteria in hospital plumbing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occurrence of Opportunistic Pathogens Legionella pneumophila and non-tuberculous mycobacteria in hospital plumbing systems Jill Hoelle, Michael Coughlin, Elizabeth Sotkiewicz, Jingrang Lu, Stacy Pfaller, Mark Rodgers, and Hodon Ryu U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati...

  5. Exploiting Opportunistic Resources for ATLAS with ARC CE and the Event Service

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, David; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    With ever-greater computing needs and fixed budgets, big scientific experiments are turning to opportunistic resources as a means to add much-needed extra computing power. These resources can be very different in design from the resources that comprise the Grid computing of most experiments, therefore exploiting these resources requires a change in strategy for the experiment. The resources may be highly restrictive in what can be run or in connections to the outside world, or tolerate opportunistic usage only on condition that tasks may be terminated without warning. The ARC CE with its non-intrusive architecture is designed to integrate resources such as High Performance Computing (HPC) systems into a computing Grid. The ATLAS experiment developed the Event Service primarily to address the issue of jobs that can be terminated at any point when opportunistic resources are needed by someone else. This paper describes the integration of these two systems in order to exploit opportunistic resources for ATLAS in...

  6. AFSC/NMML: Cook Inlet Beluga Opportunistic Sightings, 1975 to 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As a part of National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) management of the endangered Cook Inlet beluga whale population, a database of opportunistic beluga whale...

  7. Who needs the assumption of opportunistic behavior? Transaction cost economics does not!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    2000-01-01

    The assumption of opportunistic behavior, familiar from transaction cost economics, has been and remains highly controversial. But opportunistic behavior, albeit undoubtedly an extremely important form of motivation, is not a necessary condition for the contractual problems studied by transaction...... cost economics to occur. A broader category of motivation, inappropriate motivation, which is such a necessary condition, is presented and discussed, and a number of implications are presented....

  8. Cloud Platform Based on Mobile Internet Service Opportunistic Drive and Application Aware Data Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Ge Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Because the static cloud platform cannot satisfy the diversity of mobile Internet service and inefficient data mining problems, we presented a reliable and efficient data mining cloud platform construction scheme based on the mobile Internet service opportunistic driving and application perception. In this scheme, first of all data selection mechanism was established based on mobile Internet service opportunistic drive. Secondly, through the cloud platform different cloud and channel aware, n...

  9. 彝族人群艾滋病知识行为状况分析%Analysis of AIDS related knowledge and behavior of Yi minority people

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚毅

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ( HIV/AIDS) related knowledge and behavioral characters among Yi people and to investigate HIV /AIDS related risk factors . Methods Questionnaire survey was conducted and the contents of the questionnaire covered the sociodemographic characters , hygienic habits , sanitation knowledge , HIV/AIDS related knowledge and attitudes , sexual behaviors and the drug use history as well .Results The illiteracy rate of respondents was 76.0 %, 87.5 %of respondents were farmers ,and the awareness rate of HIV/AIDS knowledge was 50 %around .The multi-sexual partner and the drug using phenomenon existed among the unmarried respondents .Conclusion Yi people have HIV/AIDS risk behaviors and it ’ s necessary to adopt the pertinent controlling measures .%目的:了解彝族人群艾滋病防治知识知晓情况,探索人群行为特点和影响艾滋病在该人群中流行的原因。方法对彝族人群开展问卷调查,内容包括人口学特征、生活习惯、基本卫生常识、艾滋病相关知识、态度、近期性行为、吸毒史等。结果调查对象文盲占76.0%,农民占87.5%,艾滋病防治知识知晓率不高,为50%左右,非“在婚”人群有多性伴和吸毒现象。结论彝族人群存在艾滋病传播的各种高危行为,有感染艾滋病的风险,需要采取有针对性的防治措施。

  10. Induction of Protective Immunity to Cryptococcal Infection in Mice by a Heat-Killed, Chitosan-Deficient Strain of Cryptococcus neoformans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Upadhya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is a major opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes fatal meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised individuals and is responsible for a large proportion of AIDS-related deaths. The fungal cell wall is an essential organelle which undergoes constant modification during various stages of growth and is critical for fungal pathogenesis. One critical component of the fungal cell wall is chitin, which in C. neoformans is predominantly deacetylated to chitosan. We previously reported that three chitin deacetylase (CDA genes have to be deleted to generate a chitosan-deficient C. neoformans strain. This cda1Δ2Δ3Δ strain was avirulent in mice, as it was rapidly cleared from the lungs of infected mice. Here, we report that clearance of the cda1Δ2Δ3Δ strain was associated with sharply spiked concentrations of proinflammatory molecules that are known to be critical mediators of the orchestration of a protective Th1-type adaptive immune response. This was followed by the selective enrichment of the Th1-type T cell population in the cda1Δ2Δ3Δ strain-infected mouse lung. Importantly, this response resulted in the development of robust protective immunity to a subsequent lethal challenge with a virulent wild-type C. neoformans strain. Moreover, protective immunity was also induced in mice vaccinated with heat-killed cda1Δ2Δ3Δ cells and was effective in multiple mouse strains. The results presented here provide a strong framework to develop the cda1Δ2Δ3Δ strain as a potential vaccine candidate for C. neoformans infection.

  11. Induction of Protective Immunity to Cryptococcal Infection in Mice by a Heat-Killed, Chitosan-Deficient Strain of Cryptococcus neoformans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhya, Rajendra; Lam, Woei C.; Maybruck, Brian; Specht, Charles A.; Levitz, Stuart M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cryptococcus neoformans is a major opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes fatal meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised individuals and is responsible for a large proportion of AIDS-related deaths. The fungal cell wall is an essential organelle which undergoes constant modification during various stages of growth and is critical for fungal pathogenesis. One critical component of the fungal cell wall is chitin, which in C. neoformans is predominantly deacetylated to chitosan. We previously reported that three chitin deacetylase (CDA) genes have to be deleted to generate a chitosan-deficient C. neoformans strain. This cda1Δ2Δ3Δ strain was avirulent in mice, as it was rapidly cleared from the lungs of infected mice. Here, we report that clearance of the cda1Δ2Δ3Δ strain was associated with sharply spiked concentrations of proinflammatory molecules that are known to be critical mediators of the orchestration of a protective Th1-type adaptive immune response. This was followed by the selective enrichment of the Th1-type T cell population in the cda1Δ2Δ3Δ strain-infected mouse lung. Importantly, this response resulted in the development of robust protective immunity to a subsequent lethal challenge with a virulent wild-type C. neoformans strain. Moreover, protective immunity was also induced in mice vaccinated with heat-killed cda1Δ2Δ3Δ cells and was effective in multiple mouse strains. The results presented here provide a strong framework to develop the cda1Δ2Δ3Δ strain as a potential vaccine candidate for C. neoformans infection. PMID:27165801

  12. Genome-wide identification of small RNAs in the opportunistic pathogen Enterococcus faecalis V583.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouki Shioya

    Full Text Available Small RNA molecules (sRNAs are key mediators of virulence and stress inducible gene expressions in some pathogens. In this work we identify sRNAs in the gram positive opportunistic pathogen Enterococcus faecalis. We characterized 11 sRNAs by tiling microarray analysis, 5' and 3' RACE-PCR, and Northern blot analysis. Six sRNAs were specifically expressed at exponential phase, two sRNAs were observed at stationary phase, and three were detected during both phases. Searches of putative functions revealed that three of them (EFA0080_EFA0081 and EFB0062_EFB0063 on pTF1 and pTF2 plasmids, respectively, and EF0408_EF04092 located on the chromosome are similar to antisense RNA involved in plasmid addiction modules. Moreover, EF1097_EF1098 shares strong homologies with tmRNA (bi-functional RNA acting as both a tRNA and an mRNA and EF2205_EF2206 appears homologous to 4.5S RNA member of the Signal Recognition Particle (SRP ribonucleoprotein complex. In addition, proteomic analysis of the ΔEF3314_EF3315 sRNA mutant suggests that it may be involved in the turnover of some abundant proteins. The expression patterns of these transcripts were evaluated by tiling array hybridizations performed with samples from cells grown under eleven different conditions some of which may be encountered during infection. Finally, distribution of these sRNAs among genome sequences of 54 E. faecalis strains was assessed. This is the first experimental genome-wide identification of sRNAs in E. faecalis and provides impetus to the understanding of gene regulation in this important human pathogen.

  13. Prevalence of AIDS-related high risk behaviors among men who have sex with men with STI%不同性传播感染MSM艾滋病高危行为对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于增照; 李洋; 史同新; 李秀芳; 张北川; 王燕飞

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨男男性行为者(MSM)中近1年内曾患性传播感染(STI)者与未患STI者的艾滋病(AIDS)高危行为状况.方法 采用滚雪球法进行横断面调查;应用SPSS 13.0软件对9个城市2 134名MSM进行匿名问卷分析,比较患STI者与未患STI者AIDS高危行为差异.结果 患STI者中累计同性肛交性伴数、近6个月同性肛交性伴数中位数分别为20、3个,均高于未患STI者的7、2个;近1年内,患STI者中有28.8% (95/330)曾参加群交,24.7%(81/328)向同性买性,44.1%(146/331)性交时出血,均高于未患STI者的17.0%(289/1 697)、11.4%(189/1 657)、24.4%(417/1 706)(P=0.000);患STI者中有67.3%(181/269)近1次同性肛交时使用安全套,低于未患STI者的76.9%(964/1 253)(x2=11.065,P=0.001);患STI者艾滋病病毒(HIV)感染率为4.03%(14/347),明显高于未患STI者的1.96% (35/1 787) (x2=5.582,P=0.018).结论 MSM中患STI者具有更多的AIDS高危行为,需加强对其进行健康干预.%Objective To investigate the prevalence of AIDS-related high risk behaviors among men who have sex with men(MSM) ever infected by sexually transmitted disease(STI) within previous one year.Methods Snowball sampiing and an anonymous questionnaire survey were adopted for a cross-sectional study to compare the differences in high risk behaviors related to AIDS between MSM with STI and without STI experience in nine cities.SPSS 13.0 statistical software was used in data analysis.Results Among the 2 134 MSM,compared to the MSM without STI experience,the MSM with STI had a significant higher number of total sexual partners of anal sex with same sex and the number of anal sex in the previous six months,with the medians of 20.0 and 3.0,respectively.In the previous year,28.8 % (95/330)of MSM with STI participated in group sex,24.7% (81/328)had commercial homosex,44.1% (146/331)reported bleeding while having sexual intercourse,with significant differences compared to those of MSM

  14. Opportunistic infections and AIDS malignancies early after initiating combination antiretroviral therapy in high-income countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodi, Sara; Del Amo, Julia; Moreno, Santiago; Bucher, Heiner C.; Furrer, Hansjakob; Logan, Roger; Sterne, Jonathan; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Jarrín, Inma; Phillips, Andrew; Olson, Ashley; Van Sighem, Ard; Reiss, Peter; Sabin, Caroline; Jose, Sophie; Justice, Amy; Goulet, Joseph; Miró, José M.; Ferrer, Elena; Meyer, Laurence; Seng, Rémonie; Vourli, Georgia; Antoniadou, Anastasia; Dabis, Francois; Vandenhede, Mari-Anne; Costagliola, Dominique; Abgrall, Sophie; Hernán, Miguel A.; Hernan, Miguel; Bansi, L.; Hill, T.; Sabin, C.; Dunn, D.; Porter, K.; Glabay, A.; Orkin, C.; Thomas, R.; Jones, K.; Fisher, M.; Perry, N.; Pullin, A.; Churchill, D.; Gazzard, B.; Nelson, M.; Asboe, D.; Bulbeck, S.; Mandalia, S.; Clarke, J.; Delpech, V.; Anderson, J.; Munshi, S.; Post, F.; Easterbrook, P.; Khan, Y.; Patel, P.; Karim, F.; Duffell, S.; Gilson, R.; Man, S.-L.; Williams, I.; Gompels, M.; Dooley, D.; Schwenk, A.; Ainsworth, J.; Johnson, M.; Youle, M.; Lampe, F.; Smith, C.; Grabowska, H.; Chaloner, C.; Ismajani Puradiredja, D.; Bansi, L.; Hill, T.; Phillips, A.; Sabin, C.; Walsh, J.; Weber, J.; Kemble, C.; Mackie, N.; Winston, A.; Leen, C.; Wilson, A.; Bezemer, D.O.; Gras, L.A.J.; Kesselring, A.M.; Van Sighem, A.I.; Zaheri, S.; Van Twillert, G.; Kortmann, W.; Branger, J.; Prins, J.M.; Kuijpers, T.W.; Scherpbier, H.J.; Van Der Meer, J.T.M.; Wit, F.W.M.N.; Godfried, M.H.; Reiss, P.; Van Der Poll, T.; Nellen, F.J.B.; Lange, J.M.A.; Geerlings, S.E.; Van Vugt, M.; Pajkrt, D.; Bos, J.C.; van der Valk, M.; Grijsen, M.L.; Wiersinga, W.J.; Brinkman, K.; Blok, W.L.; Frissen, P.H.J.; Schouten, W.E.M.; Van Den Berk, G.E.L.; Veenstra, J.; Lettinga, K.D.; Mulder, J.W.; Vrouenraets, S.M.E.; Lauw, F.N.; Van Eeden, A.; Verhagen, D.W.M.; Van Agtmael, M.A.; Perenboom, R.M.; Claessen, F.A.P.; Bomers, M.; Peters, E.J.G.; Richter, C.; Van Der Berg, J.P.; Gisolf, E.H.; Schippers, E.F.; Van Nieuwkoop, C.; Van Elzakker, E.P.; Leyten, E.M.S.; Gelinck, L.B.S.; Pronk, M.J.H.; Bravenboer, B.; Kootstra, G.J.; Delsing, C.E.; Sprenger, H.G.; Doedens, R.; Scholvinck, E.H.; Van Assen, S.; Bierman, W.F.W.; Soetekouw, R.; Ten Kate, R.W.; Van Vonderen, M.G.A.; Van Houte, D.P.F.; Kroon, F.P.; Van Dissel, J.T.; Arend, S.M.; De Boer, M.G.J.; Jolink, H.; Ter Vollaard, H.J.M.; Bauer, M.P.; Weijer, S.; El Moussaoui, R.; Lowe, S.; Schreij, G.; Oude Lashof, A.; Posthouwer, D.; Koopmans, P.P.; Keuter, M.; Van Der Ven, A.J.A.M.; Ter Hofstede, H.J.M.; Dofferhoff, A.S.M.; Warris, A.; Van Crevel, R.; van der Ende, Marchina E.; De Vries-Sluijs, T.E.M.S.; Schurink, C.A.M.; Nouwen, J.L.; Nispen Tot Pannerden, M.H.; Verbon, A.; Rijnders, B.J.A.; Van Gorp, E.C.M.; Hassing, R.J.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Hartwig, N.G.; Driessen, G.J.A.; Den Hollander, J.G.; Pogany, K.; Juttmann, J.R.; Van Kasteren, M.E.E.; Hoepelman, A.I.M.; Mudrikova, T.; Schneider, M.M.E.; Jaspers, C.A.J.J.; Ellerbroek, P.M.; Oosterheert, J.J.; Arends, J.E.; Wassenberg, M.W.M.; Barth, R.E.; Geelen, S.P.M.; Wolfs, T.F.W.; Bont, L.J.; Van Den Berge, M.; Stegeman, A.; Groeneveld, P.H.P.; Alleman, M.A.; Bouwhuis, J.W.; Barin, F.; Burty, C.; Duvivier, C.; Enel, P.; Fredouille-Heripret, L.; Gasnault, J.; Khuong, M.A.; Mahamat, A.; Pilorgé, F.; Tattevin, P.; Salomon, Valérie; Jacquemet, N.; Abgrall, S.; Costagliola, D.; Grabar, S.; Guiguet, M.; Lanoy, E.; Lièvre, L.; Mary-Krause, M.; Selinger-Leneman, H.; Lacombe, J.M.; Potard, V.; Bricaire, F.; Herson, S.; Katlama, C.; Simon, A.; Desplanque, N.; Girard, P.M.; Meynard, J.L.; Meyohas, M.C.; Picard, O.; Cadranel, J.; Mayaud, C.; Pialoux, G.; Clauvel, J.P.; Decazes, J.M.; Gerard, L.; Molina, J.M.; Diemer, M.; Sellier, P.; Bentata, M.; Honoré, P.; Jeantils, V.; Tassi, S.; Mechali, D.; Taverne, B.; Bouvet, E.; Crickx, B.; Ecobichon, J.L.; Matheron, S.; Picard-Dahan, C.; Yeni, P.; Berthé, H.; Dupont, C.; Chandemerle, C.; Mortier, E.; De Truchis, P.; Tisne-Dessus, D.; Weiss, L.; Salmon, D.; Auperin, I.; Gilquin, J.; Roudière, L.; Viard, J.P.; Boué, F.; Fior, R.; Delfraissy, J.F.; Goujard, C.; Jung, C.; Lesprit, Ph.; Vittecoq, D.; Fraisse, P.; Lang, J.M.; Rey, D.; Beck-Wirth, G.; Stahl, J.P.; Lecercq, P.; Gourdon, F.; Laurichesse, H.; Fresard, A.; Lucht, F.; Bazin, C.; Verdon, R.; Chavanet, P.; Arvieux, C.; Michelet, C.; Choutet, P.; Goudeau, A.; Maître, M.F.; Hoen, B.; Eglinger, P.; Faller, J.P.; Borsa-Lebas, F.; Caron, F.; Reynes, J.; Daures, J.P.; May, T.; Rabaud, C.; Berger, J.L.; Rémy, G.; Arlet-Suau, E.; Cuzin, L.; Massip, P.; Thiercelin Legrand, M.F.; Pontonnier, G.; Viget, N.; Yasdanpanah, Y.; Dellamonica, P.; Pradier, C.; Pugliese, P.; Aleksandrowicz, K.; Quinsat, D.; Ravaux, I.; Tissot-Dupont, H.; Delmont, J.P.; Moreau, J.; Gastaut, J.A.; Poizot-Martin, I.; Retornaz, F.; Soubeyrand, J.; Galinier, A.; Ruiz, J.M.; Allegre, T.; Blanc, P.A.; Bonnet-Montchardon, D.; Lepeu, G.; Granet-Brunello, P.; Esterni, J.P.; Pelissier, L.; Cohen-Valensi, R.; Nezri, M.; Chadapaud, S.; Laffeuillade, A.; Billaud, E.; Raffi, F.; Boibieux, A.; Peyramond, D.; Livrozet, J.M.; Touraine, J.L.; Cotte, L.; Trepo, C.; Strobel, M.; Bissuel, F.; Pradinaud, R.; Sobesky, M.; Cabié, A.; Gaud, C.; Contant, M.; Aubert, V.; Barth, J.; Battegay, M.; Bernasconi, E.; Böni, J.; Bucher, H.C.; Burton-Jeangros, C.; Calmy, A.; Cavassini, M.; Egger, M.; Elzi, L.; Fehr, J.; Fellay, J.; Furrer, H.; Haerry, D.; Fux, C.A.; Gorgievski, M.; Günthard, H.; Hasse, B.; Hirsch, H.H.; Hösli, I.; Kahlert, C.; Kaiser, L.; Keiser, O.; Klimkait, T.; Kovari, H.; Ledergerber, B.; Martinetti, G.; Martinez De Tejada, B.; Metzner, K.; Müller, N.; Nadal, D.; Pantaleo, G.; Rauch, A.; Regenass, S.; Rickenbach, M.; Rudin, C.; Schmid, P.; Schultze, D.; Schöni-Affolter, F.; Schüpbach, J.; Speck, R.; Taffé, P.; Tarr, P.; Telenti, A.; Trkola, A.; Vernazza, P.; Weber, R.; Yerly, S.; Casabona, J.; Gallois, A.; Esteve, A.; Podzamczer, D.; Murillas, J.; Gatell, J.M.; Manzardo, C.; Tural, C.; Clotet, B.; Ferrer, E.; Riera, M.; Segura, F.; Navarro, G.; Force, L.; Vilaró, J.; Masabeu, A.; García, I.; Guadarrama, M.; Cifuentes, C.; Dalmau, D.; Jaen, À.; Agustí, C.; Montoliu, A.; Pérez, I.; Gargoulas, Freyra; Blanco, J.L.; Garcia-Alcaide, F.; Martínez, E.; Mallolas, J.; López-Dieguez, M.; García-Goez, J.F.; Sirera, G.; Romeu, J.; Jou, A.; Negredo, E.; Miranda, C.; Capitan, M.C.; Saumoy, M.; Imaz, A.; Tiraboschi, J.M.; Murillo, O.; Bolao, F.; Peña, C.; Cabellos, C.; Masó, M.; Vila, A.; Sala, M.; Cervantes, M.; Jose Amengual, Ma.; Navarro, M.; Penelo, E.; Barrufet, P.; Bejarano, G.; Molina, J.; Guadarrama, M.; Alvaro, M.; Mercadal, J.; Fernandez, Juanse; Ospina, Jesus E.; Muñoz, M.A.; Caro-Murillo, A.M.; Sobrino, P.; Jarrín, I.; Gomez Sirvent, J.L.; Rodríguez, P.; Aleman, M.R.; Alonso, M.M.; Lopez, A.M.; Hernandez, M.I.; Soriano, V.; Labarga, P.; Barreiro, P.; Medrano, J.; Rivas, P.; Herrero, D.; Blanco, F.; Vispo, M.E.; Martín, L.; Ramírez, G.; De Diego, M.; Rubio, R.; Pulido, F.; Moreno, V.; Cepeda, C.; Hervás, Rl.; Iribarren, J.A.; Arrizabalaga, J.; Aramburu, M.J.; Camino, X.; Rodrí-guez-Arrondo, F.; Von Wichmann, M.A.; Pascual, L.; Goenaga, M.A.; Gutierrez, F.; Masia, M.; Ramos, J.M.; Padilla, S.; Sanchez-Hellín, V.; Bernal, E.; Escolano, C.; Montolio, F.; Peral, Y.; Berenguer, J.; Lopez, J.C.; Miralles, P.; Cosín, J.; Sanchez, M.; Gutierrez, I.; Ramírez, M.; Padilla, B.; Vidal, F.; Sanjuan, M.; Peraire, J.; Veloso, S.; Vilades, C.; Lopez-Dupla, M.; Olona, M.; Vargas, M.; Aldeguer, J.L.; Blanes, M.; Lacruz, J.; Salavert, M.; Montero, M.; Cuéllar, S.; De Los Santos, I.; Sanz, J.; Oteo, J.A.; Blanco, J.R.; Ibarra, V.; Metola, L.; Sanz, M.; Pérez-Martínez, L.; Sola, J.; Uriz, J.; Castiello, J.; Reparaz, J.; Arriaza, M.J.; Irigoyen, C.; Moreno, S.; Antela, A.; Casado, J.L.; Dronda, F.; Moreno, A.; Pérez, M.J.; López, D.; Gutiérrez, C.; Hernández, B.; Pumares, M.; Martí, P.; García, L.; Page, C.; García, F.; Hernández, J.; Peña, A.; Muñoz, L.; Parra, J.; Viciana, P.; Leal, M.; López-Cortés, L.F.; Trastoy, M.; Mata, R.; Justice, A.C.; Fiellin, D.A.; Rimland, D.; Jones-Taylor, C.; Oursler, K.A.; Titanji, R.; Brown, S.; Garrison, S.; Rodriguez-Barradas, M.; Masozera, N.; Goetz, M.; Leaf, D.; Simberkoff, M.; Blumenthal, D.; Leung, J.; Butt, A.; Hoffman, E.; Gibert, C.; Peck, R.; Mattocks, K.; Braithwaite, S.; Brandt, C.; Bryant, K.; Cook, R.; Conigliaro, J.; Crothers, K.; Chang, J.; Crystal, S.; Day, N.; Erdos, J.; Freiberg, M.; Kozal, M.; Gandhi, N.; Gaziano, M.; Gerschenson, M.; Good, B.; Gordon, A.; Goulet, J.L.; Hernán, M.A.; Kraemer, K.; Lim, J.; Maisto, S.; Miller, P.; Mole, L.; O'Connor, P.; Papas, R.; Robins, J.M.; Rinaldo, C.; Roberts, M.; Samet, J.; Tierney, B.; Whittle, J.; Babiker, A.; Brettle, R.; Darbyshire, J.; Gilson, R.; Goldberg, D.; Hawkins, D.; Jaffe, H.; Johnson, A.; McLean, K.; Pillay, D.; Cursley, Adam; Ewings, Fiona; Fairbrother, Keith; Louisa Gnatiuc, S.L.; Murphy, Brendan; Douglas, G.; Kennedy, N.; Pritchard, J.; Andrady, U.; Rajda, N.; Maw, R.; McKernan, S.; Drake, S.; Gilleran, G.; White, D.; Ross, J.; Toomer, S.; Hewart, R.; Wilding, H.; Woodward, R.; Dean, G.; Heald, L.; Horner, P.; Glover, S.; Bansaal, D.; Eduards, S.; Carne, C.; Browing, M.; Das, R.; Stanley, B.; Estreich, S.; Magdy, A.; O'Mahony, C.; Fraser, P.; Hayman, B.; Jebakumar, S.P.R.; Joshi, U.; Ralph, S.; Wade, A.; Mette, R.; Lalik, J.; Summerfield, H.; El-Dalil, A.; France, J.A.; White, C.; Robertson, R.; Gordon, S.; McMillan, S.; Morris, S.; Lean, C.; Vithayathil, K.; McLean, L.; Winter, A.; Gale, D.; Jacobs, S.; Tayal, S.; Short, L.; Roberts, M.; Green, S.; Williams, G.; Sivakumar, K.; Bhattacharyya, N.D.; Monteiro, E.; Minton, J.; Dhar, J.; Nye, F.; De Souza, C.B.; Isaksen, A.; McDonald, L.; McLean, K.; Franca, A.; Hawkins, D.; William, L.; Jendrulek, I.; Peters, B.; Shaunak, S.; El-Gadi, S.; Easterbrook, P.J.; Mazhude, C.; Gilson, R.; Johnstone, R.; Fakoya, A.; McHale, J.; Waters, A.; Kegg, S.; Mitchell, S.; Byrne, P.; Johnson, M.; Rice, P.; Fidler, S.; Mullaney, S.A.; McCormack, S.; David, D.; Melville, R.; Phillip, K.; Balachandran, T.; Mabey-Puttock, S.; Sukthankar, A.; Murphy, C.; Wilkins, E.; Ahmad, S.; Tayal, S.; Haynes, J.; Evans, E.; Ong, E.; Das, R.; Grey, R.; Meaden, J.; Bignell, C.; Loay, D.; Peacock, K.; Girgis, M.R.; Morgan, B.; Palfreeman, A.; Wilcox, J.; Tobin, J.; Tucker, L.; Saeed, A.M.; Chen, F.; Deheragada, A.; Williams, O.; Lacey, H.; Herman, S.; Kinghorn, D.; Devendra, V.S.; Wither, J.; Dawson, S.; Rowen, D.; Harvey, J.; Wilkins, E.; Bridgwood, A.; Singh, G.; Chauhan, M.; Kellock, D.; Young, S.; Dannino, S.; Kathir, Y.; Rooney, G.; Currie, J.; Fitzgerald, M.; Devendra, S.; Keane, F.; Booth, G.; Green, T.; Arumainayyagam, J.; Chandramani, S.; Rajamanoharan, S.; Robinson, T.; Curless, E.; Gokhale, R.; Tariq, A.; Roberts, M.; Williams, O.; Luzzi, G.; FitzGerald, M.; Fairley, I.; Wallis, F.; Smit, E.; Ward, F.; Molina, J.M.; Loze, B.; Morlat, P.; Bonarek, M.; Bonnet, F.; Nouts, C.; Louis, I.; Raffi, F.; Reliquet, V.; Sauser, F.; Biron, C.; Mounoury, O.; Hue, H.; Brosseau, D.; Delfraissy, J.F.; Goujard, C.; Ghosn, J.; Rannou, M.T.; Bergmann, J.F.; Badsi, E.; Rami, A.; Diemer, M.; Parrinello, M.; Girard, P.M.; Samanon-Bollens, D.; Campa, P.; Tourneur, M.; Desplanques, N.; Livrozet, J.M.; Jeanblanc, F.; Chiarello, P.; Makhloufi, D.; Blanc, A.P.; Allègre, T.; Reynes, J.; Baillat, V.; Lemoing, V.; Merle De Boever, C.; Tramoni, C.; Cabié, A.; Sobesky, G.; Abel, S.; Beaujolais, V.; Pialoux, G.; Slama, L.; Chakvetadze, C.; Berrebi, V.; Yeni, P.; Bouvet, E.; Fournier, I.; Gerbe, J.; Trepo, C.; Koffi, K.; Augustin-Normand, C.; Miailhes, P.; Thoirain, V.; Brochier, C.; Thomas, R.; Souala, F.; Ratajczak, M.; Beytoux, J.; Jacomet, C.; Gourdon, F.; Rouveix, E.; Morelon, S.; Dupont, C.; Olivier, C.; Lortholary, O.; Dupont, B.; Viard, J.P.; Maignan, A.; Ragnaud, J.M.; Raymond, I.; Leport, C.; Jadand, C.; Jestin, C.; Longuet, P.; Boucherit, S.; Sereni, D.; Lascoux, C.; Prevoteau, F.; Sobel, A.; Levy, Y.; Lelièvre, J.D.; Lascaux, A.S.; Dominguez, S.; Dumont, C.; Aumâitre, H.; Delmas, B.; Saada, M.; Medus, M.; Guillevin, L.; Salmon, D.; Tahi, T.; Yazdanpanah, Y.; Pavel, S.; Marien, M.C.; Drenou, B.; Beck-Wirth, G.; Beck, C.; Benomar, M.; Katlama, C.; Tubiana, R.; Ait Mohand, H.; Chermak, A.; Ben Abdallah, S.; Bentata, M.; Touam, F.; Hoen, B.; Drobacheff, C.; Folzer, A.; Massip, P.; Obadia, M.; Prudhomme, L.; Bonnet, E.; Balzarin, F.; Pichard, E.; Chennebault, J.M.; Fialaire, P.; Loison, J.; Galanaud, P.; Boué, F.; Bornarel, D.; Verdon, R.; Bazin, C.; Six, M.; Ferret, P.; Weiss, L.; Batisse, D.; Gonzales-Canali, G.; Tisne-Dessus, D.; Devidas, A.; Chevojon, P.; Turpault, I.; Lafeuillade, A.; Cheret, A.; Philip, G.; Morel, P.; Timsit, J.; Herson, S.; Amirat, N.; Simon, A.; Brancion, C.; Cabane, J.; Picard, O.; Tredup, J.; Stein, A.; Ravault, I.; Chavanet, C.; Buisson, M.; Treuvetot, S.; Choutet, P.; Nau, P.; Bastides, F.; May, T.; Boyer, L.; Wassoumbou, S.; Oksenhendeler, E.; Gérard, L.; Bernard, L.; De Truchis, P.; Berthé, H.; Domart, Y.; Merrien, D.; Greder Belan, A.; Gayraud, M.; Bodard, L.; Meudec, A.; Beuscart, C.; Daniel, C.; Pape, E.; Vinceneux, P.; Simonpoli, A.M.; Zeng, A.; Fournier, L.; Fuzibet, J.G.; Sohn, C.; Rosenthal, E.; Quaranta, M.; Dellamonica, P.; Chaillou, S.; Sabah, M.; Audhuy, B.; Schieber, A.; Moreau, P.; Niault, M.; Vaillant, O.; Huchon, G.; Compagnucci, A.; De Lacroix Szmania, I.; Richier, L.; Lamaury, I.; Saint-Dizier, F.; Garipuy, D.; Gastaut, J.A.; Drogoul, M.P.; Poizot Martin, I.; Fabre, G.; Lambert De Cursay, G.; Abraham, B.; Perino, C.; Lagarde, P.; David, F.; Roche-Sicot, J.; Saraux, J.L.; Leprêtre, A.; Fampin, B.; Uludag, A.; Morin, A.S.; Bletry, O.; Zucman, D.; Regnier, A.; Girard, J.J.; Quinsat, D.T.; Heripret, L.; Grihon, F.; Houlbert, D.; Ruel, M.; Chemlal, K.; Caron, F.; Debab, Y.; Tremollieres, F.; Perronne, V.; Lepeu, G.; Slama, B.; Perré, P.; Miodovski, C.; Guermonprez, G.; Dulioust, A.; Boudon, P.; Malbec, D.; Patey, O.; Semaille, C.; Deville, J.; Remy, G.; Béguinot, I.; Galanaud, P.; Boue, F.; Chambrin, V.; Pignon, C.; Estocq, G.A.; Levy, A.; Delfraissy, J.F.; Goujard, C.; Duracinsky, M.; Le Bras, P.; Ngussan, M.S.; Peretti, D.; Medintzeff, N.; Lambert, T.; Segeral, O.; Lezeau, P.; Laurian, Y.; Weiss, L.; Buisson, M.; Piketty, C.; Karmochkine, M.; Batisse, D.; Eliaszewitch, M.; Jayle, D.; Tisne-Dessus, D.; Kazatchkine, M.; Leport, C.; Colasante, U.; Jadand, C.; Jestin, C.; Duval, X.; Nouaouia, W.; Boucherit, S.; Vilde, J.L.; Girard, P.M.; Bollens, D.; Binet, D.; Diallo, B.; Meyohas, M.C.; Fonquernie, L.; Lagneau, J.L.; Salmon, D.; Guillevin, L.; Tahi, T.; Launay, O.; Pietrie, M.P.; Sicard, D.; Stieltjes, N.; Michot, J.; Sobel, A.; Levy, Y.; Bourdillon, F.; Lascaux, A.S.; Lelievre, J.D.; Dumont, C.; Dupont, B.; Obenga, G.; Viard, J.P.; Maignan, A.; Vittecoq, D.; Escaut, L.; Bolliot, C.; Bricaire, F.; Katlama, C.; Schneider, L.; Herson, S.; Simon, A.; Iguertsira, M.; Stein, A.; Tomei, C.; Ravaux, I.; Dhiver, C.; Tissot Dupont, H.; Vallon, A.; Gallais, J.; Gallais, H.; Gastaut, J.A.; Drogoul, M.P.; Fabre, G.; Dellamonica, P.; Durant, J.; Mondain, V.; Perbost, I.; Cassuto, J.P.; Karsenti, J.M.; Venti, H.; Fuzibet, J.G.; Rosenthal, E.; Ceppi, C.; Quaranta, M.; Krivitsky, J.A.; Bentata, M.; Bouchaud, O.; Honore, P.; Sereni, D.; Lascoux, C.; Delgado, J.; Rouzioux, C.; Burgard, M.; Boufassa, L.; Peynet, J.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Del Amo, J.; Alvarez, D.; Monge, S.; Muga, R.; Sanvisens, A.; Clotet, B.; Tor, J.; Bolao, F.; Rivas, I.; Vallecillo, G.; Del Romero, J.; Raposo, P.; Rodríguez, C.; Vera, M.; Hurtado, I.; Belda, J.; Fernandez, E.; Alastrue, I.; Santos, C.; Tasa, T.; Juan, A.; Trullen, J.; Garcia De Olalla, P.; Cayla, J.; Masdeu, E.; Knobel, H.; Mirò, J.M.; Sambeat, M.A.; Guerrero, R.; Rivera, E.; Guerrero, R.; Marco, A.; Quintana, M.; Gonzalez, C.; Castilla, J.; Guevara, M.; De Mendoza, C.; Zahonero, N.; Ortíz, M.; Paraskevis, D.; Touloumi, G.; Pantazis, N.; Bakoyannis, G.; Gioukari, V.; Antoniadou, A.; Papadopoulos, A.; Petrikkos, G.; Daikos, G.; Psichogiou, M.; Gargalianos-Kakolyris, P.; Xylomenos, G.; Katsarou, O.; Kouramba, A.; Ioannidou, P.; Kordossis, T.; Kontos, A.; Lazanas, M.; Chini, M.; Tsogas, N.; Panos, G.; Paparizos, V.; Leuow, K.; Kourkounti, S.; Sambatakou, H.; Mariolis, I.; Skoutelis, A.; Papastamopoulos, V.; Baraboutis, I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is little information on the incidence of AIDS-defining events which have been reported in the literature to be associated with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) after combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation. These events include tuberculosis, mycobacteri

  15. Chaetomium-like fungi causing opportunistic infections in humans: a possible role for extremotolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, Sarah A.; Khan, Ziauddin; Wang, Xue-wei; Moussa, Tarek A. A.; Al-Zahrani, Hassan S.; Almaghrabi, Omar A.; Sutton, Deanna A.; Ahmad, S.; Groenewald, Johannes Z.; Alastruey-Izquierdo, A.; Diepeningen, Anne; Menken, S. B. J.; Najafzadeh, M. J.; Crous, Pedro W.; Cornely, Oliver; Hamprecht, Axel; Vehreschild, Maria J. G. T.; Kindo, A. J.; de Hoog, G. Sybren

    2016-01-01

    Members of the family Chaetomiaceae are ubiquitous ascosporulating fungi commonly, which reside in soil enriched with manure or cellulosic materials. Their role as human pathogens is largely ignored. However, the ability of some species to grow at high temperature enables them to play an important r

  16. Chaetomium-like fungi causing opportunistic infections in humans: a possible role for extremotolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Ahmed; Z. Khan; X. Wang; T.A.A. Moussa; H.S. Al-Zahrani; O.A. Almaghrabi; D.A. Sutton; S. Ahmad; J.Z. Groenewald; A. Alastruey-Izquierdo; A. van Diepeningen; S.B.J. Menken; M.J. Najafzadeh; P.W. Crous; O. Cornely; A. Hamprecht; M.J.G.T. Vehreschild; A.J. Kindo; G.S. de Hoog

    2015-01-01

    Members of the family Chaetomiaceae are ubiquitous ascosporulating fungi commonly, which reside in soil enriched with manure or cellulosic materials. Their role as human pathogens is largely ignored. However, the ability of some species to grow at high temperature enables them to play an important r

  17. Mycobacterium avium complex enteritis in HIV-infected patient

    OpenAIRE

    Masahiro Ishikane; Junko Tanuma

    2014-01-01

    Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection is an important AIDS-defining opportunistic infection. The introduction of antimicrobial prophylaxis and antiretroviral therapy (ART) markedly reduced the incidence of disseminated MAC infection and improved the survival of affected individuals. However, it seems that patients with new or recurrent MAC infection are still encountered in clinical practice. Our images captured the characteristic endoscopic findings of MAC duodenitis. The ...

  18. Factors influencing cerebrospinal fluid and plasma HIV-1 RNA detection rate in patients with and without opportunistic neurological disease during the HAART era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleixo Agdemir W

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the central nervous system, HIV replication can occur relatively independent of systemic infection, and intrathecal replication of HIV-1 has been observed in patients with HIV-related and opportunistic neurological diseases. The clinical usefulness of HIV-1 RNA detection in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of patients with opportunistic neurological diseases, or the effect of opportunistic diseases on CSF HIV levels in patients under HAART has not been well defined. We quantified CSF and plasma viral load in HIV-infected patients with and without different active opportunistic neurological diseases, determined the characteristics that led to a higher detection rate of HIV RNA in CSF, and compared these two compartments. Methods A prospective study was conducted on 90 HIV-infected patients submitted to lumbar puncture as part of a work-up for suspected neurological disease. Seventy-one patients had active neurological diseases while the remaining 19 did not. Results HIV-1 RNA was quantified in 90 CSF and 70 plasma samples. The HIV-1 RNA detection rate in CSF was higher in patients with neurological diseases, in those with a CD4 count lower than 200 cells/mm3, and in those not receiving antiretroviral therapy, as well as in patients with detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA. Median viral load was lower in CSF than in plasma in the total population, in patients without neurological diseases, and in patients with toxoplasmic encephalitis, while no significant difference between the two compartments was observed for patients with cryptococcal meningitis and HIV-associated dementia. CSF viral load was lower in patients with cryptococcal meningitis and neurotoxoplasmosis under HAART than in those not receiving HAART. Conclusion Detection of HIV-1 RNA in CSF was more frequent in patients with neurological disease, a CD4 count lower than 200 cells/mm3 and detectable plasma HIV-1. Median HIV-1 RNA levels were generally lower in CSF than in

  19. Heterogeneous Epidemic Model for Assessing Data Dissemination in Opportunistic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rozanova, Liudmila; Alekseev, Vadim; Temerev, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    that amount of data transferred between network nodes possesses a Pareto distribution, implying scale-free properties. In this context, more heterogeneity in susceptibility means the less severe epidemic progression, and, on the contrary, more heterogeneity in infectivity leads to more severe epidemics...... — assuming that the other parameter (either heterogeneity or susceptibility) stays fixed. The results are general enough to be useful for estimating the epidemic progression with no significant acquired immunity — in the cases where Pareto distribution holds....

  20. Circovirus in domestic and wild carnivores: An important opportunistic agent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccaria, Guendalina; Malatesta, Daniela; Scipioni, Gabriella; Di Felice, Elisabetta; Campolo, Marco; Casaccia, Claudia; Savini, Giovanni; Di Sabatino, Daria; Lorusso, Alessio

    2016-03-01

    Circoviruses are relatively novel pathogens with increased importance in canids. In this study, we first screened the presence of dog circovirus (DogCV) by molecular methods from a total number of 389 internal organ samples originating from 277 individuals of domestic dogs and wild animals including wolves, foxes and badgers. All the animals originated from Central-Southern Italy, specifically from Abruzzi and Molise regions, areas hosting several natural parks. DogCV was detected in 9/34 wolves (P=26.4%; IC 95%: 14.6-43.1%), 8/209 dogs (P=3.8%; IC 95%: 1.9-7.3%), 0/24 foxes (P=0%; IC 95%: 0-13.8%), 1/10 badgers (P=10%; IC 95%: 1.79-40.4%). However, all DogCV positive animals were shown to be infected at least by an additional key pathogen, including canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine parvovirus type 2. All wolves, but one, presenting DogCV in the internal tissues suffered from CDV infection. The DNA purified from 17 DogCV infected organs was used for whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. PMID:26848830

  1. Monitoring of opportunistic and pathogenic microorganisms in surgical departments of Dniprodzerzhynsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Donets

    2013-03-01

    microorganisms to antibiotics. To do that, we use the disc diffusion method. The antibiogram tests of isolated bacterial strains used Mueller-Hinton agar. According to the data obtained we assign of microorganisms to certain category of sensitivity: sensitive, moderately resistant or resistant. Monitoring of prevalent microorganisms showed that 61% (893 of 1464 isolates were gram-positive bacteria, 696 strains of them are staphylococci. 477 of these are identified as S. aureus, representing 68.5% of all Staphylococcus. We found coagulase negative staphylococci in 192 patients, and the strains of S. haemolyticus are dominated. Strains of the family Streptococcaceae isolated from 197 patients. Among them the E. faecalis accounted for 66% of the total number of Streptococcus. Gram negative bacteria were presented by the families Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonaceae. Enterobacteriaceae accounted for 90.7% (518 of 571. E. coli plays the leading role and accounted for 42% of all Enterobacteriaceae. The strains of P. aeruginosa were identified in 53 patients. S. haemolyticus has played an important role as a pathogen as well as S. aureus. Its resistance to antibiotics is much higher than that of S. aureus. Although S. haemolyticus is opportunistic coagulase negative, it can be isolated from patients not only with chronic, but with acute infection. Thus nowadays the strains of S. haemolyticus gained high pathogenic and virulent properties.

  2. AIDS related knowledge and risk behaviors investigation among the female commercial sex works in a county of Guangxi%广西某县CSW艾滋病相关知识及危险行为调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄广兰; 翟庆秀

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解暗娼(CSW)基本情况、艾滋病相关行为及梅毒、艾滋病病毒(HIV)感染情况,为今后艾滋病防控工作提供科学依据.方法 采取横断面调查分层抽样的方法,对广西某县城区的高、中、低宾馆及桑拿房、按摩足浴保健中心等娱乐场所中301名CSW进行面对面访谈,填写匿名调查问卷.结果 调查发现CSW年龄较小、文化程度低、性生活频率高、艾滋病知识知晓率低,多数人出现过性病症状,患病后只有62.50%选择到正规医院治疗,艾滋病病毒感染率为0.66%,梅毒感染率为4.36%.结论 该县CSW人群中存在艾滋病传播的潜在危险因素,应采取进一步的预防干预措施.%Objective To understand the basic information of female commercial sex works and AIDS related behaviors and syphilis and HIV infection status, in order to provide scientific basis for future AIDS prevention and control. Method During July to September in 2011, taking a cross - sectional survey design, adopting stratified sampling method to select 301 female commercial sex works which worked in guesthouses, sauna, massage foot health centers and other places, carrying out face to face interview and fill in anonymous questionnaire. Results The survey found that the FSWs were younger, low education level, without job skills, high frequency sexual life, low awareness of AIDS. Most of the people had venereal symptoms, only 62. 50% them went to the normal hospitals. The HIV infection rate was 0. 66% , syphilis was 4. 36%. Conclusions There were HIV potential risk factors among the females commercial sex works, we should take further preventive interventions

  3. Optimising social information by game theory and ant colony method to enhance routing protocol in opportunistic networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chander Prabha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data loss and disconnection of nodes are frequent in the opportunistic networks. The social information plays an important role in reducing the data loss because it depends on the connectivity of nodes. The appropriate selection of next hop based on social information is critical for improving the performance of routing in opportunistic networks. The frequent disconnection problem is overcome by optimising the social information with Ant Colony Optimization method which depends on the topology of opportunistic network. The proposed protocol is examined thoroughly via analysis and simulation in order to assess their performance in comparison with other social based routing protocols in opportunistic network under various parameters settings.

  4. Conserved natural IgM antibodies mediate innate and adaptive immunity against the opportunistic fungus Pneumocystis murina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapaka, Rekha R; Ricks, David M; Alcorn, John F; Chen, Kong; Khader, Shabaana A; Zheng, Mingquan; Plevy, Scott; Bengtén, Eva; Kolls, Jay K

    2010-12-20

    Host defense against opportunistic fungi requires coordination between innate and adaptive immunity for resolution of infection. Antibodies generated in mice vaccinated with the fungus Pneumocystis prevent growth of Pneumocystis organisms within the lungs, but the mechanisms whereby antibodies enhance antifungal host defense are poorly defined. Nearly all species of fungi contain the conserved carbohydrates β-glucan and chitin within their cell walls, which may be targets of innate and adaptive immunity. In this study, we show that natural IgM antibodies targeting these fungal cell wall carbohydrates are conserved across many species, including fish and mammals. Natural antibodies bind fungal organisms and enhance host defense against Pneumocystis in early stages of infection. IgM antibodies influence recognition of fungal antigen by dendritic cells, increasing their migration to draining pulmonary lymph nodes. IgM antibodies are required for adaptive T helper type 2 (Th2) and Th17 cell differentiation and guide B cell isotype class-switch recombination during host defense against Pneumocystis. These experiments suggest a novel role for the IgM isotype in shaping the earliest steps in recognition and clearance of this fungus. We outline a mechanism whereby serum IgM, containing ancient specificities against conserved fungal antigens, bridges innate and adaptive immunity against fungal organisms.

  5. Joint Network Coding and Opportunistic Scheduling for the Bidirectional Relay Channel

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2013-05-27

    In this paper, we consider a two-way communication system in which two users communicate with each other through an intermediate relay over block-fading channels. We investigate the optimal opportunistic scheduling scheme in order to maximize the long-term average transmission rate in the system assuming symmetric information flow between the two users. Based on the channel state information, the scheduler decides that either one of the users transmits to the relay, or the relay transmits to a single user or broadcasts to both users a combined version of the two users’ transmitted information by using linear network coding. We obtain the optimal scheduling scheme by using the Lagrangian dual problem. Furthermore, in order to characterize the gains of network coding and opportunistic scheduling, we compare the achievable rate of the system versus suboptimal schemes in which the gains of network coding and opportunistic scheduling are partially exploited.

  6. Public policy and regulatory implications for the implementation of Opportunistic Cloud Computing Services for Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, Eric; Olesen, Henning; Henten, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Opportunistic Cloud Computing Services (OCCS) is a social network approach to the provisioning and management of cloud computing services for enterprises. This paper discusses how public policy and regulations will impact on OCCS implementation. We rely on documented publicly available government...... and corporate policies on the adoption of cloud computing services and deduce the impact of these policies on their adoption of opportunistic cloud computing services. We conclude that there are regulatory challenges on data protection that raises issues for cloud computing adoption in general; and the lack...... of a single globally accepted data protection standard poses some challenges for very successful implementation of OCCS for companies. However, the direction of current public and corporate policies on cloud computing make a good case for them to try out opportunistic cloud computing services....

  7. Opportunistic Routing with Congestion Diversity in Wireless Ad-hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bhorkar, Abhijeet; Javidi, Tara

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of routing packets across a multi-hop network consisting of multiple sources of traffic and wireless links while ensuring bounded expected delay. Each packet transmission can be overheard by a random subset of receiver nodes among which the next relay is selected opportunistically. The main challenge in the design of minimum-delay routing policies is balancing the trade-off between routing the packets along the shortest paths to the destination and distributing traffic according to the maximum backpressure. Combining important aspects of shortest path and backpressure routing, this paper provides a systematic development of a distributed opportunistic routing policy with congestion diversity ({D-ORCD}). {D-ORCD} uses a measure of draining time to opportunistically identify and route packets along the paths with an expected low overall congestion. {D-ORCD} is proved to ensure a bounded expected delay for all networks and under any admissible traffic. Furthermore, this paper proposes a p...

  8. Improved Power-Delay Trade-off in Wireless Networks Using Opportunistic Routing

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, Won-Yong; Lee, Yong H

    2009-01-01

    We study the benefits of opportunistic routing in wireless networks by examining how the power and delay scale as the number of source-destination (S-D) pairs in the network increases. The scaling behavior of conventional multi-hop transmission that does not employ opportunistic routing is also examined for comparison. Our results indicate that opportunistic routing can exhibit a better power--delay trade-off than that of conventional routing by providing up to a logarithmic boost in the scaling law. Such a gain is possible since the receivers can tolerate more interference due to the increased received signal power provided by the multi-user diversity (MUD) gain, which means having more simultaneous transmissions is possible. Computer simulations for both routing schemes are also performed, which show trends consistent with our analytical predictions.

  9. A Unified Approach to Optimal Opportunistic Spectrum Access under Collision Probability Constraint in Cognitive Radio Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a cognitive radio system with one primary channel and one secondary user, and then we introduce a channel-usage pattern model and a fundamental access scheme in this system. Based on this model and fundamental access scheme, we study optimal opportunistic spectrum access problem and formulate it as an optimization problem that the secondary user maximizes spectrum holes utilization under the constraint of collision tolerable level. And then we propose a unified approach to solve this optimization problem. According to the solution of the optimization problem, we analyze and present optimal opportunistic spectrum access algorithms in several cases that the idle period follows uniform distribution, exponential distribution, and Pareto or generalized Pareto distribution. Theoretical analysis and simulation results both show that the optimal opportunistic spectrum access algorithms can maximize spectrum holes utilization under the constraint that the collision probability is bounded below collision tolerable level. The impact of sensing error is also analyzed by simulation.

  10. The Prevalence of Different Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission Routes and Knowledge about AIDS in Infected People with HIV in Sirjan

    OpenAIRE

    Mahin Behzadpour; Narges Khanjani

    2012-01-01

    Background & Objective: The immune system of Patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is weekend because of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and they become vulnerable to several opportunistic and non-opportunistic pathogens and different carcinomas. IV drug abuse, sexual contact, occupational transmission, blood transfusion and maternal-fetal transmission are well known transmission routes for HIV infection. This study was under taken to investigate the prevalenc...

  11. Switch Based Opportunistic Spectrum Access for General Primary User Traffic Model

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

    2012-06-18

    This letter studies cognitive radio transceiver that can opportunistically use the available channels of primary user (PU). Specifically, we investigate and compare two different opportunistic channel access schemes. The first scheme applies when the secondary user (SU) has access to only one channel. The second scheme, based on channel switching mechanism, applies when the SU has access to multiple channels but can at a given time monitor and access only one channel. For these access schemes, we derive the exact analytical results for the novel performance metrics of average access time and average waiting time under general PU traffic models.

  12. Distributed SIR-Aware Opportunistic Access Control for D2D Underlaid Cellular Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zheng; Kountouris, Marios

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a distributed interference and channel-aware opportunistic access control technique for D2D underlaid cellular networks, in which each potential D2D link is active whenever its estimated signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) is above a predetermined threshold so as to maximize the D2D area spectral efficiency. The objective of our SIR-aware opportunistic access scheme is to provide sufficient coverage probability and to increase the aggregate rate of D2D links by harnes...

  13. Opportunistic relaying in multipath and slow fading channel: Relay selection and optimal relay selection period

    KAUST Repository

    Sungjoon Park,

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we present opportunistic relay communication strategies of decode and forward relaying. The channel that we are considering includes pathloss, shadowing, and fast fading effects. We find a simple outage probability formula for opportunistic relaying in the channel, and validate the results by comparing it with the exact outage probability. Also, we suggest a new relay selection algorithm that incorporates shadowing. We consider a protocol of broadcasting the channel gain of the previously selected relay. This saves resources in slow fading channel by reducing collisions in relay selection. We further investigate the optimal relay selection period to maximize the throughput while avoiding selection overhead. © 2011 IEEE.

  14. Performance analysis of adaptive modulation for cognitive radios with opportunistic access

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yunfei

    2011-06-01

    The performance of adaptive modulation for cognitive radio with opportunistic access is analyzed by considering the effects of spectrum sensing and primary user traffic for Nakagami-m fading channels. Both the adaptive continuous rate scheme and the adaptive discrete rate scheme are considered. Numerical results show that spectrum sensing and primary user traffic cause considerable degradation to the bit error rate performance of adaptive modulation in a cognitive radio system with opportunistic access to the licensed channel. They also show that primary user traffic does not affect the link spectral efficiency performance of adaptive modulation, while the spectrum sensing degrades the link spectral efficiency performance. © 2011 IEEE.

  15. Investigation of cognitive status of hospital cleaning workers about the AIDS related knowledge%医院保洁人员对艾滋病相关知识的认知状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽芹; 陈东方; 夏亮; 孟萌; 陈瑜; 杨晓红

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the currently cognitive status on AIDS related knowledge among hospital clean‐ing workers so as to put forward reasonable proposals and measures .METHODS Totally 165 cleaning workers were investigated with self‐designed questionnaire by random cluster sampling in Jul .2014 in the hospital .RESULTS In 165 cleaning workers ,147 of them knew about AIDS and the awareness rate was 89 .9% .The correct rate about the fact that the seeming healthy people may be AIDS infected was 43 .6% ;the completely correct rate on three major transmission route of AIDS were 78(47 .3% ) ,the average knowledge rate was 62 .6% .A total of 148 clean‐ing workers knew that skin puncture by medical machines can increase the chance of acquiring AIDS and the awareness rate was 89 .7% .The investigation objects suffered fear and worry at different levels towards AIDS in‐fected people ,115 (69 .7% )people believed that AIDS patients should be given the same medical service ,only 79 (47 .9% )were still willing to work with friends who suffered AIDS ;all 165 subjects were willing to be trained on the AIDS related knowledge and the training approaches they mainly chose were to watch image data such as video and propaganda film ,and centralized instruction .CONCLUSION The cognitive status of hospital cleaning workers on AIDS related knowledge was not optimistic;managers should strengthen the training and education on AIDS knowledge ,establish the hospital cleaning workers occupational protection rules and regulations ,and enhance the self‐protection ability of the cleaning workers .%目的:了解医院保洁人员对艾滋病相关知识的认知现状,为提出合理化建议和措施提供依据。方法自行设计调查表,采用整群抽样的方法,2014年7月对医院165名保洁人员进行调查。结果165名医院保洁人员中,147人知晓艾滋病,知晓率为89.1%;认为每个人均有可能感染艾滋病者有72人,知晓率为43.6

  16. Performance of systematic and non-systematic ('opportunistic') screening mammography: a comparative study from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bihrmann, Kristine; Jensen, Allan; Olsen, Anne Helene;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Evaluation and comparison of the performance of organized and opportunistic screening mammography. METHODS: Women attending screening mammography in Denmark in 2000. The study included 37,072 women attending organized screening. Among these, 320 women were diagnosed with breast cancer...

  17. Understanding Opportunistic Networking for Emergency Services: Analysis of One Year of GPS Traces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabrero Barros, S.; García, R.; Pañeda, X.G.; Melendi, D.

    2015-01-01

    Opportunistic networking can help emergency services in both their daily operation and disaster relief. This idea has been extensively explored in previous research, but most studies are based on little knowledge of real mobility. In order to support future research, this paper analyses one year of

  18. Opportunistic feeding behaviour of rough-toothed dolphins Steno bredanensis off Mauritania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Addink, M.J.; Smeenk, C.

    2001-01-01

    A small group of rough-toothed dolphins Steno bredanensis was observed at the outer edge of the Banc d’Arguin, Mauritania. The animals were feeding opportunistically around a trawling research vessel. Hunting behaviour and mother-calf interactions are described

  19. Opportunistic mobile air pollution monitoring: A case study with city wardens in Antwerp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bossche, Joris; Theunis, Jan; Elen, Bart; Peters, Jan; Botteldooren, Dick; De Baets, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore the potential of opportunistic mobile monitoring to map the exposure to air pollution in the urban environment at a high spatial resolution. Opportunistic mobile monitoring makes use of existing mobile infrastructure or people's common daily routines to move measurement devices around. Opportunistic mobile monitoring can also play a crucial role in participatory monitoring campaigns as a typical way to gather data. A case study to measure black carbon was set up in Antwerp, Belgium, with the collaboration of city employees (city wardens). The Antwerp city wardens are outdoors for a large part of the day on surveillance tours by bicycle or on foot, and gathered a total of 393 h of measurements. The data collection is unstructured both in space and time, leading to sampling bias. A temporal adjustment can only partly counteract this bias. Although a high spatial coverage was obtained, there is still a rather large uncertainty on the average concentration levels at a spatial resolution of 50 m due to a limited number of measurements and sampling bias. Despite of this uncertainty, large spatial patterns within the city are clearly captured. This study illustrates the potential of campaigns with unstructured opportunistic mobile monitoring, including participatory monitoring campaigns. The results demonstrate that such an approach can indeed be used to identify broad spatial trends over a wider area, enabling applications including hotspot identification, personal exposure studies, regression mapping, etc. But, they also emphasize the need for repeated measurements and careful processing and interpretation of the data.

  20. Danish General Practitioners' Use of Prostate-Specific Antigen in Opportunistic Screening for Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Kasper; Søndergaard, Jens; Larsen, Pia Veldt;

    2013-01-01

    Background. The use of prostate-specific antigen test has markedly increased in Danish general practice in the last decade. Despite the national guidelines advice against PSA screening, opportunistic screening is supposed to be the primary reason for this increased number of PSA tests performed. ...

  1. Opportunistic Interference Mitigation Achieves Optimal Degrees-of-Freedom in Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Bang Chul; Shin, Won-Yong

    2010-01-01

    We introduce an opportunistic interference mitigation (OIM) for cellular networks, where a user scheduling strategy is utilized in uplink $K$-cell environments with time-invariant channel coefficients and base stations (BSs) having $M$ receive antennas. In the OIM scheme, each BS opportunistically selects a set of users who generate the minimum interference to the other BSs. We consider two OIM protocols according to the number $S$ of simultaneously transmitting users per cell: an opportunistic interference nulling (OIN) and an opportunistic interference alignment (OIA). Then, their performance is analyzed in terms of degrees-of-freedom (DoFs). It is shown that $KM$ DoFs are achievable under the OIN protocol with $M$ selected users per cell, while the OIA scheme with $S$ selected users (smaller than $M$) achieves $KS$ DoFs. Assuming that $N$ denotes the total number of users in a cell, we also analyze the scaling condition between system parameters $K$, $M$, $N$, $S$, and the received signal-to-noise ratio su...

  2. BLESSED with opportunistic beacons: a lightweight data dissemination model for smart mobile ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Türkes, Okan; Scholten, Hans; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces BLESSED, a universal opportunistic ad hoc networking model intended for smart mobile devices. It enables fast and lightweight data dissemination in wireless community networks through the complementary utilization of the IEEE 802.11 and Bluetooth Low Energy standards. As a ubiq

  3. Friend-to-friend short message service with opportunistic Wi-Fi beacons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Türkes, Okan; Scholten, Hans; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study introduces Oppline, an ad hoc opportunistic short message service that can be collaboratively used by everyone who has a smart mobile device. The data exchange method of Oppline is built on top of the universal Wi-Fi standard, thus expedites platform-independent integration of related mob

  4. Research of opportunistic behavior in the market of non-standard products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Sergeyevna Grigoryeva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the characteristic features of opportunistic behavior in the markets of complex products not subject to standardization by the example of rendering services during constructionandassembling operations. Methods analysis synthesis collection and description of empirical data. Results a significant amount of theoretical material has been analyzed budgets of constructionandassembling operations have been analyzed normative documents have been studied. A poll of quantity surveyors supervisors of constructionandassembling operations consumers of services and works have been carried out. The differences were revealed in the kinds of opportunistic behavior in the nonstandard products markets compared to the standard products markets the results of those surveys were presented in the earlier works by the author. Scientific novelty it has been shown that in case of individual elaboration of each project due to the uniqueness of the result of economic activity as a single complex the opportunistic behavior has such prerequisites as high costs for measurements and control of the quantity and quality of the rendered services and used materials lack of professional competencies of the consumers in the sphere of activity of the producer. Practical value the key provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in the scientific and educational activity when viewing the issues of opportunistic revelations between economic subjects. nbsp

  5. Channel access delay and buffer distribution of two-user opportunistic scheduling schemes in wireless networks

    KAUST Repository

    Hossain, Md Jahangir

    2010-07-01

    In our earlier works, we proposed rate adaptive hierarchical modulation-assisted two-best user opportunistic scheduling (TBS) and hybrid two-user scheduling (HTS) schemes. The proposed schemes are innovative in the sense that they include a second user in the transmission opportunistically using hierarchical modulations. As such the frequency of information access of the users increases without any degradation of the system spectral efficiency (SSE) compared to the classical opportunistic scheduling scheme. In this paper, we analyze channel access delay of an incoming packet at the base station (BS) buffer when our proposed TBS and HTS schemes are employed at the BS. Specifically, using a queuing analytic model we derive channel access delay as well as buffer distribution of the packets that wait at BS buffer for down-link (DL) transmission. We compare performance of the TBS and HTS schemes with that of the classical single user opportunistic schemes namely, absolute carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR)-based single user scheduling (ASS) and normalized CNR-based single user scheduling (NSS). For an independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) fading environment, our proposed scheme can improve packet\\'s access delay performance compared to the ASS. Selected numerical results in an independent but non-identically distributed (i.n.d.) fading environment show that our proposed HTS achieves overall good channel access delay performance. © 2010 IEEE.

  6. Performance analysis of multichannel medium access control algorithms for opportunistic spectrum access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawelczak, P.; Pollin, S.; So, H.-S.W.; Bahai, A.R.S.; Prasad, R.V.; Hekmat, R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, different control channel (CC) implementations for multichannel medium access control (MAC) algorithms are compared and analyzed in the context of opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) as a function of spectrum-sensing performance and licensed user activity. The analysis is based on a d

  7. Opportunistic Interference Cancellation Evaluation in Cognitive Radios under Power Control Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suriano, Ferdinando; De Rango, Floriano; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This work considers a cognitive radio (secondary system) that operates under the interference of a WiMAX-like legacy (primary) system. The secondary terminals have knowledge of the codebooks used in the primary system and can apply Opportunistic Interference Cancellation (OIC): if the channel...

  8. Fatal lower limb infection by Trichosporon asahii in an immunocompetent patient

    OpenAIRE

    Baka, Stavroula; Tsouma, Iliana; Kouskouni, Evangelia

    2014-01-01

    Trichosporon asahii can cause superficial skin infections and can be an opportunistic pathogen that produces potentially fatal systemic infections in immunocompromised hosts. We report a case of lower limb infection due to T. asahii in an immunocompetent patient who displayed no evidence of underlying disease but developed an ultimately lethal T. asahii systemic infection. There is a strong possibility that our patient had been colonized at the site infection as part of the normal skin flora....

  9. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in the era of antiretroviral therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Velásquez, Jorge N; Bibiana A Ledesma; Nigro, Monica G; Natalia Vittar; Nestor Rueda; Luis De Carolis; Olga Figueiras; Silvana Carnevale; Marcelo Corti

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a severe opportunistic infection in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The lung is a major site of infection after the central nervous system. In this report we described two cases of pneumonia due to Toxoplasma gondii infection in HIV patients with antiretroviral therapy. Clinical and radiological abnormalities are not specific. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis should be considered in HIV-infected patients with late stage of HIV, CD4 count less than 100 c...

  10. IgM, IgG and IgA rheumatoid factors and circulating immune complexes in patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex with serological abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procaccia, S; Lazzarin, A; Colucci, A; Gasparini, A; Forcellini, P; Lanzanova, D; Foppa, C U; Novati, R; Zanussi, C

    1987-01-01

    To investigate some humoral aspects which may reflect the involvement of B lymphocytes in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), we used an enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) to determine the levels of IgM, IgG and IgA rheumatoid factors (RF) in 16 patients suffering from full-blown AIDS and 32 patients with AIDS-related complex (ARC), in the clinical form of lymphoadenopathy syndrome (LAS), compared with 40 healthy, young heterosexual subjects. Both AIDS and ARC patients showed a greater incidence of high IgM RF levels, with mean values significantly higher than controls, but with no differences between the two pathological groups. IgG RF behaviour was similar in the two patient populations and the healthy subjects. IgA RF were significantly raised in AIDS and ARC. Further information on RF was obtained by determination of the immunoglobulin levels of the respective isotypes in the same patients. Mean IgG levels were above normal in AIDS and ARC patients, but the latter group showed a higher incidence of increased values and higher mean levels. The IgA isotype was significantly increased mainly in AIDS patients. The behaviour of IgM was virtually the same in the three groups studied. A difference between AIDS and ARC patients was established by the detection of circulating immune-complexes (IC) by the C1q-binding and CIC-conglutinin assays. IC were significantly high, by both methods, only in the ARC group, but normal or very low in AIDS. These overall findings suggest once again the impairment of B cell function in AIDS, with prevalent hyperactivation in ARC and exhaustion in full-blown AIDS, and apparent preservation, in the latter group, of the antibody responses which are more closely related to the activity of subsets of T helper cells. PMID:3608224

  11. 娱乐场所女性服务人员艾滋歧视及其对艾滋病防治服务依从性的影响%AIDS-Related Discrimination and its Effects on Prevention Service Adherence among Female Entertainment Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石国政; 殷方兰; 吴杰; 郭丽华; RobertS.Remis; 钟平

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] To investigate AIDS-related discrimination among female entertainment workers (FEWs) and its effect on prevention service adherence. [ Methods ] A total of 126 FEWs were randomly selected from Juyuan New Area as the study subjects, interviewed with an unified questionnaire for socio-demographic, behavioral, cognition and AIDS-related discrimination status, and tested for HIV, HSV-2, syphilis, gonorrhea and Chlamydia trachomatis with blood and urine samples. [ Results ] Among the 126 FEWs investigated, 31.75% came from large KTVs, 62.70% from small hair salons, 2.38% from small foot care stores, and 3.17% from small bathrooms. None was HIV-positive and 22.22% was infected with sexually transmitted diseases (STD). The mean score of AIDS-related discrimination was 4.19 ± 1.61. AIDS-related discrimination had a statistical relationship with the level of AIDS knowledge (x2=5.184, P=0.023). Only 23.81% had HIV tests ever, and "don't know where to go to get a test" and "chance of having AIDS is low" were the main reasons for not to get a test. Those having STD-related symptoms in the past one month accounted for 61.90%, and 70.51% saw a doctor. Those who went for routine STD check-ups in the past one year taken 50.00%, and the mean of STD checkups were 1.79 ± 0.99. In their last sexual encounter, 96.83% used condoms when having sex with clients, but 45.74% did so when with regular sexual partners. The proportion of having a miscarriage ever was 11.11%, and 65.87% for an abortion ever. The times of miscarriage and abortion varied from 1 to 7, with the median of 1. Those using contraceptives accounted for 97.62%, among which 66.67% chose condoms. X2 test showed AIDS-related discrimination had a statistical relationship with HIV test (x2=5.936,P=0.015) and sexually transmitted infection rate (x2=4.829, P=0.028). [ Conclusion ] AIDS-related discrimination is common among FEWs. HIV prevention service adherence is far from being satisfactory, and AIDS-related

  12. Central nervous system manifestations of HIV infection in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Reena; Andronikou, Savvas; Plessis, Jaco du; Plessis, Anne-Marie du; Maydell, Arthur [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa); Toorn, Ronald van [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2009-06-15

    Vertically transmitted HIV infection is a major problem in the developing world due to the poor availability of antiretroviral agents to pregnant women. HIV is a neurotrophic virus and causes devastating neurological insults to the immature brain. The effects of the virus are further compounded by the opportunistic infections and neoplasms that occur as a result of the associated immune suppression. This review focuses on the imaging features of HIV infection and its complications in the central nervous system. (orig.)

  13. Opportunistic or event-driven maintenance at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) uses a maintenance management philosophy that is best described as opportunistic or event-driven. Opportunistic maintenance can be defined as a systematic method of collecting, investigating, pre-planning, and publishing a set of proposed maintenance tasks and acting on them when there is an unscheduled failure or repair ''opportunity''. Opportunistic maintenance can be thought of as a modification of the run-to-fail maintenance management philosophy. This maintenance plan was adopted and developed to improve the overall availability of SLAC's linear accelerator, beam delivery systems, and associated controls, power systems, and utilities. In the late 1980's, as the technical complexity of the accelerator facility increased, variations on a conventional maintenance plan were used with mixed results. These variations typically included some type of regular periodic interruption to operations. The periodic shutdowns and unscheduled failures were additive and resulted in unsatisfactory availability. Maintenance issues are evaluated in a daily meeting that includes the accelerator managers, maintenance supervisors and managers, safety office personnel, program managers, and accelerator operators. Lists of pending maintenance tasks are made available to the general SLAC population by a World Wide Web site on a local internet. A conventional information system which pre-dates the WWW site is still being used to provide paper copies to groups that are not yet integrated into the WWW system. The local internet provides real time maintenance information, allowing people throughout the facility to track progress on tasks with essentially real-time status updates. With the introduction of opportunistic maintenance, the accelerator's availability has been measurably better. This paper will discuss processes, rolls and responsibilities of key maintenance groups, and management tools developed to support opportunistic maintenance

  14. Public health implications of Acanthamoeba and multiple potential opportunistic pathogens in roof-harvested rainwater tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, K A; Ahmed, W; Palmer, A; Sidhu, J P S; Hodgers, L; Toze, S; Haas, C N

    2016-10-01

    A study of six potential opportunistic pathogens (Acanthamoeba spp., Legionella spp., Legionella longbeachae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare) and an accidental human pathogen (Legionella pneumophila) in 134 roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW) tank samples was conducted using quantitative PCR (qPCR). All five opportunistic pathogens and accidental pathogen L. pneumophila were detected in rainwater tanks except Legionella longbeachae. Concentrations ranged up to 3.1×10(6) gene copies per L rainwater for Legionella spp., 9.6×10(5) gene copies per L for P. aeruginosa, 6.8×10(5) gene copies per L for M. intracellulare, 6.6×10(5) gene copies per L for Acanthamoeba spp., 1.1×10(5) gene copies per L for M. avium, and 9.8×10(3) gene copies per L for L. pneumophila. Among the organisms tested, Legionella spp. (99% tanks) were the most prevalent followed by M. intracellulare (78%). A survey of tank-owners provided data on rainwater end-uses. Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. were enumerated using culture-based methods, and assessed for correlations with opportunistic pathogens and L. pneumophila tested in this study. Opportunistic pathogens did not correlate well with FIB except E. coli vs. Legionella spp. (tau=0.151, P=0.009) and E. coli vs. M. intracellulare (tau=0.14, P=0.015). However, M. avium weakly correlated with both L. pneumophila (Kendall's tau=0.017, P=0.006) and M. intracellulare (tau=0.088, P=0.027), and Legionella spp. also weakly correlated with M. intracellulare (tau=0.128, P=0.028). The presence of these potential opportunistic pathogens in tank water may present health risks from both the potable and non-potable uses documented from the current survey data. PMID:27336236

  15. Public health implications of Acanthamoeba and multiple potential opportunistic pathogens in roof-harvested rainwater tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, K A; Ahmed, W; Palmer, A; Sidhu, J P S; Hodgers, L; Toze, S; Haas, C N

    2016-10-01

    A study of six potential opportunistic pathogens (Acanthamoeba spp., Legionella spp., Legionella longbeachae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare) and an accidental human pathogen (Legionella pneumophila) in 134 roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW) tank samples was conducted using quantitative PCR (qPCR). All five opportunistic pathogens and accidental pathogen L. pneumophila were detected in rainwater tanks except Legionella longbeachae. Concentrations ranged up to 3.1×10(6) gene copies per L rainwater for Legionella spp., 9.6×10(5) gene copies per L for P. aeruginosa, 6.8×10(5) gene copies per L for M. intracellulare, 6.6×10(5) gene copies per L for Acanthamoeba spp., 1.1×10(5) gene copies per L for M. avium, and 9.8×10(3) gene copies per L for L. pneumophila. Among the organisms tested, Legionella spp. (99% tanks) were the most prevalent followed by M. intracellulare (78%). A survey of tank-owners provided data on rainwater end-uses. Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. were enumerated using culture-based methods, and assessed for correlations with opportunistic pathogens and L. pneumophila tested in this study. Opportunistic pathogens did not correlate well with FIB except E. coli vs. Legionella spp. (tau=0.151, P=0.009) and E. coli vs. M. intracellulare (tau=0.14, P=0.015). However, M. avium weakly correlated with both L. pneumophila (Kendall's tau=0.017, P=0.006) and M. intracellulare (tau=0.088, P=0.027), and Legionella spp. also weakly correlated with M. intracellulare (tau=0.128, P=0.028). The presence of these potential opportunistic pathogens in tank water may present health risks from both the potable and non-potable uses documented from the current survey data.

  16. Miniaturized and high-throughput assays for analysis of T-cell immunity specific for opportunistic pathogens and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li Pira, Giuseppina; Ivaldi, Federico; Starc, Nadia; Landi, Fabiola; Locatelli, Franco; Rutella, Sergio; Tripodi, Gino; Manca, Fabrizio

    2014-04-01

    Monitoring of antigen-specific T-cell responses is valuable in numerous conditions that include infectious diseases, vaccinations, and opportunistic infections associated with acquired or congenital immune defects. A variety of assays that make use of peripheral lymphocytes to test activation markers, T-cell receptor expression, or functional responses are currently available. The last group of assays calls for large numbers of functional lymphocytes. The number of cells increases with the number of antigens to be tested. Consequently, cells may be the limiting factor, particularly in lymphopenic subjects and in children, the groups that more often require immune monitoring. We have developed immunochemical assays that measure secreted cytokines in the same wells in which peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are cultured. This procedure lent itself to miniaturization and automation. Lymphoproliferation and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay have been adapted to a miniaturized format. Here we provide examples of immune profiles and describe a comparison between miniaturized assays based on cytokine secretion or proliferation. We also demonstrate that these assays are convenient for use in testing antigen specificity in established T-cell lines, in addition to analysis of PBMC. In summary, the applicabilities of miniaturization to save cells and reagents and of automation to save time and increase accuracy were demonstrated in this study using different methodological approaches valuable in the clinical immunology laboratory.

  17. Opportunistic Gram-negative rods' capability of creating biofilm structures on polivynyl chloride and styrene-acronitrile copolymer surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabielska, Julia; Kunicka-Styczyńska, Alina; Rajkowska, Katarzyna; Tyfa, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Biofilms are highly organized microbial communities displaying high resistance to disinfectants and other external environmental factors. Medical equipment, such as stents and catheters, can be colonized by a variety of bacteria including opportunistic pathogens circulating in the environment and dangerous to immunocompromised patients. Application of materials resistant to biofilm formation will minimize the risk of patients' infection. Hence, the aim of this research was to determine the biofilm growth of environmental bacteria isolates on polyvinyl chloride and styrene-acronitrile copolymer surfaces. Nine strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia and Serratia liquefacies) isolated from cosmetics, and a reference P. aeruginosa strain ATCC 15442, were tested. The ability and dynamics of biofilm formation on intubation catheters (30°C, up to 24 h) in bacterial growth cultures (10(7)-10(8) CFU/ml) was investigated, with subsequent sonication and quantification by agar plate count method. The results indicated that all the tested bacteria expressed a strong ability for the polymer surface adhesion, reaching 4.6 to 6.7 log CFU/cm(2) after 30 minutes. Moreover, for the majority of strains, the level of 24-hour biofilm production was from 6.67-7.61 log CFU/cm(2). This research indicates that the environmental strains circulating between the cosmetics and patients may pose a threat of biofilm formation on medical equipment surfaces, and presumably in the clinical surroundings as well. PMID:26619252

  18. 商业人身保险涉及的艾滋病相关问题探讨%Analysis of issues of HIV/AIDS related commercial life insurance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳; 陈清峰

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the issues of HIV/AIDS related commercial life insurance and explore the ways to tackle them in perspectives of conflicting views.Methods Literature concerning these issues were reviewed.Resuits Three conflicting views were present in regards to HIV/AIDS related commercial life insurance: 1)Whether differential treatments concerning HIV/AIDS related commercial life insurance constituted discrimination and stigma; 2)Whether provision of HIV/AIDS related insurance would impact on risk management and control of insurance companies; 3) Whether HIV/AIDS related life insurance is part of social responsibilities undertaken by insurance companies.Conclusion Three issues have led to the conflicting views in regards to HIV/AIDS related commercial life insurance: 1)Perceptions on features of commercial insurance could influence understanding of HIV/AIDS discrimination and stigma in commercial life insurance; 2)Insurance companies are faced with pricing and "non-moral"judgment of HIV/AIDS related risk; 3) There is different understanding of relation between HIV/AIDS related life insurance and social responsibilities of insurance companies.Hence, it is suggested that HIV/AIDS related risk,and scientific definition of differential treatments and HIV/AIDS discrimination in commercial life insurance be objectively assessed, regulations on exclusion clauses of commercial life insurance concerning HIV/AIDS be enhanced,and participation by insurance companies in the fight against HIV/AIDS be promoted.%目的 从艾滋病相关商业人身保险服务现状及针对这些现状的不同观点人手,理清艾滋病相关商业人身保险服务所面临的问题,探讨解决商业人身保险涉及的艾滋病相关问题.方法 采取文献研究方法.结果 对艾滋病相关商业人身保险服务主要有三个对立观点:商业人身保险服务中,艾滋病相关的区别对待是否构成歧视;将艾滋病纳入商业人身保险责任范围,是否对

  19. Keeping Pace with Criminals: An Extended Study of Designing Patrol Allocation against Adaptive Opportunistic Criminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Game theoretic approaches have recently been used to model the deterrence effect of patrol officers’ assignments on opportunistic crimes in urban areas. One major challenge in this domain is modeling the behavior of opportunistic criminals. Compared to strategic attackers (such as terrorists who execute a well-laid out plan, opportunistic criminals are less strategic in planning attacks and more flexible in executing well-laid plans based on their knowledge of patrol officers’ assignments. In this paper, we aim to design an optimal police patrolling strategy against opportunistic criminals in urban areas. Our approach is comprised by two major parts: learning a model of the opportunistic criminal (and how he or she responds to patrols and then planning optimal patrols against this learned model. The planning part, by using information about how criminals responds to patrols, takes into account the strategic game interaction between the police and criminals. In more detail, first, we propose two categories of models for modeling opportunistic crimes. The first category of models learns the relationship between defender strategy and crime distribution as a Markov chain. The second category of models represents the interaction of criminals and patrol officers as a Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN with the number of criminals as the unobserved hidden states. To this end, we: (i apply standard algorithms, such as Expectation Maximization (EM, to learn the parameters of the DBN; (ii modify the DBN representation that allows for a compact representation of the model, resulting in better learning accuracy and the increased speed of learning of the EM algorithm when used for the modified DBN. These modifications exploit the structure of the problem and use independence assumptions to factorize the large joint probability distributions. Next, we propose an iterative learning and planning mechanism that periodically updates the adversary model. We

  20. Analysis of needs for AIDS related health services among MSM in Shanghai%上海地区MSM人群艾滋病相关的需求分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙乔; 许磊; 张枭; 蔡晓峰; 毛军; 康来仪; Steele S; Myers T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To learn the demographic characteristics and needs for AIDS-related health services among MSM in Shanghai, analyze the factors that influence their participation in HIV tests, and provide suggestions for the improvement of the interventions to the high-risk behaviors related with AIDS among MSM. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out to collect information about demographic characteristics, living conditions, social networks and sexual behaviors, history of HIV tests and HIV infections among selected MSM in Shanghai. A total of 314 eligible MSM with different ages and income levels were face-to-face surveyed with questionnaires in 2010. Results Among the MSM investigated, 68. 5/%(215/314) were from other provinces. Only-male sex partners, mainly-male sex partners, male and female sex partners each half and mainly-female sex partners accounted for 64. 0 %'(201/ 314), 21. 7%(68/314),7. 0%(22/314) and 7. 3% (23/314) .respectively. 73. 9%(232/314)of the subjects had history of HIV tests and 63. 4% (199/314) were tested in the past 2 years. The main reason for not taking HIV tests was that the subjects did not believe in the possibility of getting infected. Their suggestions included being given more health education, more care, more understanding and less discrimination, and providing more free and quality condoms. Conclusion The MSM in Shanghai have greater needs for AIDS related health interventions. Strengthened publicity and education for eliminating discrimination against AIDS, provision of more care and understanding for the MSM population and promotion of free and quality condoms to meet their health and psychological needs will play an important role in pursuing effective prevention and control of AIDS transmission.%目的 了解上海地区男男性行为人群(Men who have sex with men,MSM)的社会学特征及艾滋病相关的健康需求,分析该人群主动参与艾滋病病毒(Human immunodeficiency virus,HIV)抗体检测的情况,

  1. Intracellular pathogens within alveolar macrophages in a patient with HIV infection: diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Shinha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In HIV-infected individuals, macrophages, the key defense effector cells, manifest defective activity in their interactions with a wide variety of opportunistic pathogens, including fungi and protozoa. Understanding the morphological characteristics of intracellular opportunistic pathogens in addition to their pathogenesis is of critical importance to provide optimal therapy, thereby decreasing morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients. We herein present a case of disseminated histoplasmosis confused with disseminated visceral leishmaniasis in an HIV-infected individual from Guyana who developed intracellular organisms within alveolar macrophages

  2. Detection of thoracic infections by nuclear medicine techniques in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, E.L.; Sanger, J.J. (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1989-11-01

    The challenge of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for nuclear medicine has been the early detection of related intrathoracic opportunistic infections, inflammatory conditions, and neoplasms. Gallium-67 citrate scanning has proved a sensitive test not only for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia but for many of the other opportunistic infections and malignancies, including mycobacterial infections and lymphoma. Patterns and intensity of gallium uptake may suggest more specific diagnoses. Indium-111-labeled white blood cells may also be a valuable diagnostic tool in the AIDS patient.41 references.

  3. Cooperative Cloud Service Aware Mobile Internet Coverage Connectivity Guarantee Protocol Based on Sensor Opportunistic Coverage Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the Internet coverage ratio and provide connectivity guarantee, based on sensor opportunistic coverage mechanism and cooperative cloud service, we proposed the coverage connectivity guarantee protocol for mobile Internet. In this scheme, based on the opportunistic covering rules, the network coverage algorithm of high reliability and real-time security was achieved by using the opportunity of sensor nodes and the Internet mobile node. Then, the cloud service business support platform is created based on the Internet application service management capabilities and wireless sensor network communication service capabilities, which is the architecture of the cloud support layer. The cooperative cloud service aware model was proposed. Finally, we proposed the mobile Internet coverage connectivity guarantee protocol. The results of experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has excellent performance, in terms of the security of the Internet and the stability, as well as coverage connectivity ability.

  4. Optimality of Multichannel Myopic Sensing in the Presence of Sensing Error for Opportunistic Spectrum Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimization problem for the performance of opportunistic spectrum access is considered in this study. A user, with the limited sensing capacity, has opportunistic access to a communication system with multiple channels. The user can only choose several channels to sense and decides whether to access these channels based on the sensing information in each time slot. Meanwhile, the presence of sensing error is considered. A reward is obtained when the user accesses a channel. The objective is to maximize the expected (discounted or average reward accrued over an infinite horizon. This problem can be formulated as a partially observable Markov decision process. This study shows the optimality of the simple and robust myopic policy which focuses on maximizing the immediate reward. The results show that the myopic policy is optimal in the case of practical interest.

  5. Characterization and Identification of Two Opportunistic Human Bacterial Pathogens in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Yuan-chan; XIE Guan-lin; ZHANG Li-xin; AN Gilmyong; FANG Yuan; LUO Jin-yan; HAO Xiao-juan; ZHAO Si-feng

    2006-01-01

    Burkholderia cepacia (Bc) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) are both biocontrol agents in agriculture and opportunistic human pathogens in hospitals. Effective management and utilization practice is needed to understand their characteristics and distribution in rice. During the last decade, the two opportunistic human pathogens were detected in 631 samples of rice seed and 117 samples of rice plant in plain, highland and mountainous rice growing areas of China. Bc and Pa were primarily differentiated by common bacteriological characteristics and pathogenic tests and then identified into species by Biolog and FAME tests. However,the genotypes of Bc still could not be distinguished. It has been noted that the Bc and Pa mainly existed in rice root with the highest distribution frequency in plain areas ( 6.1% and 16.1%) and lowest in the mountainous areas (1.0% and 7.8%).

  6. Buffer Management and Hybrid Probability Choice Routing for Packet Delivery in Opportunistic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daru Pan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the features of long connection delays, frequent network partitions, and topology unsteadiness, the design of opportunistic networks faces the challenge of how to effectively deliver data based only on occasional encountering of nodes, where the conventional routing schemes do not work properly. This paper proposes a hybrid probability choice routing protocol with buffer management for opportunistic networks. A delivery probability function is set up based on continuous encounter duration time, which is used for selecting a better node to relay packets. By combining the buffer management utility and the delivery probability, a total utility is used to decide whether the packet should be kept in the buffer or be directly transmitted to the encountering node. Simulation results show that the proposed routing outperforms the existing one in terms of the delivery rate and the average delay.

  7. 2009-2011年北京市西城区暗娼艾滋病知识行为调查分析%Investigation and analysis on AIDS-related knowledge and behaviors among female sex workers in Xicheng district of Beijing from 2009-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 李民; 于建平; 闵婕; 张向军; 韩强

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解2009-2011年北京市西城区暗娼(FSW)人群艾滋病知识认知水平、行为特征和人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)、梅毒感染率,为开展有针对性的行为干预和宣教工作提供依据.方法 使用问卷每年对200人进行艾滋病防治相关知识与行为调查;采集静脉血标本,检测HIV、梅毒螺旋体抗体.结果 2009-2011年,FSW的艾滋病知识知晓率分别为77.5%、81.0%和99.0%,差异有统计学意义(X2=43.78,P<0.01).最近1次商业性行为时安全套使用率分别为56.5%、46.0%和93.0% (P <0.01).梅毒检出率分别为1.5%、1.0%和1.0%,HIV抗体阳性检出率分别为0.5%、0、0.结论 2009-2011年,北京市西城区FSW人群艾滋病知识知晓率逐年上升.2011年最近1次商业性行为时安全套使用率较2009和2010年明显上升,但安全套坚持使用率仍较低,应继续加强安全套推广工作,继续做好对该人群艾滋病性病的宣传教育及干预工作.%[Objective]To understand the status of AIDS-related knowledge and behavior characteristics, as well as the infection rate of HIV and syphilis among female sex workers ( FSWs) in Xicheng district of Beijing from 2009-2011, provide the basis for implementing behavioral intervention and health education. [ Methods]An investigation about AIDS-related knowledge and behaviors was conducted in 200 FSWs with questionnaires every year. The venous blood samples were collected for HIV and syphilis detection. [Results]During 2009-2011, the awareness rate of AIDS-related knowledge among FSWs was respectively 77. 5% , 81. 0% and 99.0% , and the difference was significant ( x2=43. 78 ,P <0. 01). The condom use rate in the recent commercial sexual activity was respectively 56. 5% , 46. 0% and 93. 0% (P < 0. 01). The detection rate of syphilis was respectively 1.5%, 1.0% and 1.0%. The detection rate of HIV antibody was respectively 0. 5% , 0 and 0. [ Conclusion]From 2009 to 2011, the awareness rate of AIDS-related

  8. Mobile Opportunistic Services for Experience Sharing : Via a NetInf Android Application

    OpenAIRE

    Moradinia, Pourya; Sakhi, Imal

    2014-01-01

    Information-Centric Networking (ICN) is a new research area concerning creating a new network architecture that would be more suitable for both current and the future's network. The MOSES (Mobile Opportunistic Services for Experience Sharing) project is part of this development. The project works with the development and demonstration of the Network of Information (NetInf) protocol, which is an implementation of the ICN concept. This Master’s thesis project is part of the MOSES project and ai...

  9. Energy Efficient Four Level Cooperative Opportunistic Communication for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohokale, Vandana M.; Inamdar, Sandeep; Prasad, Neeli R.;

    2013-01-01

    consumption due to collaborative transmissions. This paper proposes a new cooperative opportunistic four level model for IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN).The average per node energy consumption is observed merely about 0.17mJ for the cooperative wireless communication which proves...... the proposed mechanism to be energy efficient. This paper further proposes four levels of cooperative data transmission from source to destination to improve network coverage with energy efficiency....

  10. Heuristic Approach to Select Opportunistic Routing Forwarders (HASORF) to Enhance Throughput for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Yousaf Bin Zikria; Summera Nosheen; Jin-Ghoo Choi; Sung Won Kim

    2015-01-01

    Biological schemes provide useful resources for designing adaptive routing protocols for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The key idea behind using bioinspired routing is to find the optimal path to the destination. Similarly, the idea of opportunistic routing (OR) is to find the least number of hops to deliver the data to the destination. Numerous routing schemes have been proposed in WSNs while targeting various performance goals, such as throughput, delay, and link quality. Rec...

  11. Indoor Positioning Using Opportunistic Multi-Frequency RSS With Foot-Mounted INS

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Reliable and accurate positioning systems are expected to significantly improve the safety for first responders and enhance their operational efficiency. To be effective, a first responder positioning systemmust provide room level accuracy during extended time periods of indoor operation. This thesis presents a system which combines a zero-velocity-update (ZUPT) aided inertial navigation system (INS), using a foot-mounted inertial measurement unit (IMU), with the use of opportunistic multi-fr...

  12. Exploiting Spatial Interference Alignment and Opportunistic Scheduling in the Downlink of Interference Limited Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kuchi, Kiran

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the performance of single stream and multi-stream spatial multiplexing (SM) systems employing opportunistic scheduling in the presence of interference. In the proposed downlink framework, every active user reports the post-processing signal-to-interference-plus-noise-power-ratio (post-SINR) or the receiver specific mutual information (MI) to its own transmitter using a feedback channel. The combination of scheduling and multi-antenna receiver processing leads to subst...

  13. Evaluation of bluetooth low energy for drone-led opportunistic sensor data collection

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar Romero, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    This document presents a study of Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) in opportunistic data collection scenarios. An overview of BLE protocol stack is examined making emphasis in the Link Layer states and roles, PDU and connection and timing. An introduction to the BLE121LR module is reviewed with its general characteristics such as current consumption and range. A brief description of the software tools that Bluegiga provides to configure the module is shown. Four projects were build; one for the bro...

  14. An Information-theoretic Model for Knowledge Sharing in Opportunistic Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    ElSherief, Mai; Elbatt, Tamer; Zahran, Ahmed; Helmy, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we establish fundamental limits on the performance of knowledge sharing in opportunistic social net- works. In particular, we introduce a novel information-theoretic model to characterize the performance limits of knowledge sharing policies. Towards this objective, we first introduce the notions of knowledge gain and its upper bound, knowledge gain limit, per user. Second, we characterize these quantities for a number of network topologies and sharing policies. This work constit...

  15. A Wireless Video Transmission Scheme Based on MAC-independent Opportunistic Routing &Encoding Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Liu; Li Chen; Lifeng Sun; Shiqiang Yang

    2010-01-01

    It is a tremendous challenge to transmit real-time video streams over wireless sensor network because of the poor wireless communication conditions and the high requirements of video transmission. The opportunistic routing protocol can take advantage of the broadcast nature of wireless communication and can improve transfer throughput significantly. But the bigger size of transmission unit also increases the end-to-end delay at the same time. In order to overcome this problem and improve the ...

  16. Social-aware Opportunistic Routing Protocol based on User's Interactions and Interests

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Waldir; Mendes, Paulo; Sargento, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, routing proposals must deal with a panoply of heterogeneous devices, intermittent connectivity, and the users' constant need for communication, even in rather challenging networking scenarios. Thus, we propose a Social-aware Content-based Opportunistic Routing Protocol, SCORP, that considers the users' social interaction and their interests to improve data delivery in urban, dense scenarios. Through simulations, using synthetic mobility and human traces scenarios, we compare the per...

  17. Dermatophytes, related keratinophilic and opportunistic fungi in indoor dust of houses and hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Singh I; Mishra A; Kushwaha RKS

    2009-01-01

    Dermatophytes, related keratinophilic and opportunistic fungi were isolated from indoor dust samples of 46 hospitals and 47 houses in Kanpur. A total of 19 fungi represented by 11 genera were isolated by the hair-baiting technique from 230 and 235 samples from hospitals and houses respectively. The isolated fungi are Acremonium implicatum (Indian Type Culture Collection) ITCC 5266 , A. strictum (Germplasm Centre for Keratinophilic Fungi) GPCK 1137 , Aphanoascus fulvescens GPCK 1081 , ...

  18. Opportunistic Hybrid Transport Protocol (OHTP) for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Yousaf Bin Zikria; Summera Nosheen; Farruh Ishmanov; Sung Won Kim

    2015-01-01

    The inefficient assignment of spectrum for different communications purposes, plus technology enhancements and ever-increasing usage of wireless technology is causing spectrum scarcity. To address this issue, one of the proposed solutions in the literature is to access the spectrum dynamically or opportunistically. Therefore, the concept of cognitive radio appeared, which opens up a new research paradigm. There is extensive research on the physical, medium access control and network layers. T...

  19. CROR: Coding-Aware Opportunistic Routing in Multi-Channel Cognitive Radio Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Xiaoxiong; Qin, Yang; Yang, Yuanyuan; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive radio (CR) is a promising technology to improve spectrum utilization. However, spectrum availability is uncertain which mainly depends on primary user's (PU's) behaviors. This makes it more difficult for most existing CR routing protocols to achieve high throughput in multi-channel cognitive radio networks (CRNs). Inter-session network coding and opportunistic routing can leverage the broadcast nature of the wireless channel to improve the performance for CRNs. In this paper we pres...

  20. Sensor Data Quality Processing for Vital Signs with Opportunistic Ambient Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Sadek, Ibrahim; BISWAS, Jit; Yongwei, Zhu; Haihong, Zhang; MANIYERI, Jayachandran; Zhihao, Chen; Teng, TEO Ju; Huat, Ng Soon; Mohktari, Mounir

    2016-01-01

    International audience Opportunistic ambient sensing involves placement of sensors appropriately so that intermittent contact can be made unobtrusively for gathering physiological signals for vital signs. In this paper, we discuss the results of our quality processing system used to extract heart rate from ballistocardiogram signals obtained from a micro-bending fiber optic sensor pressure mat. Visual inspection is used to label data into informative and non-informative classes based on th...

  1. Low-Feedback Opportunistic Scheduling Schemes for Wireless Networks with Heterogenous Users

    KAUST Repository

    Rashid, Faraan

    2012-07-01

    Efficient implementation of resource sharing strategies in a multi-user wireless environment can improve the performance of a network significantly. In this thesis we study various scheduling strategies for wireless networks and handle the problem of opportunistically scheduling transmissions using channel aware schemes. First we propose a scheme that can handle users with asymmetric channel conditions and is opportunistic in the sense that it exploits the multi-user diversity of the network. The scheme requires the users to have a priori knowledge of their channel distributions. The associated overhead is limited meaning it offers reduced feedback load, that does not scale with the increasing number of users. The main technique used to shrink the feedback load is the contention based distributed implementation of a splitting algorithm that does not require explicit feedback to the scheduler from every user. The users find the best among themselves, in a distributed manner, while requiring just a ternary broadcast feedback from the scheduler at the end of each mini-slot. In addition, it can also handle fairness constraints in time and throughput to various degrees. Next we propose another opportunistic scheduler that offers most of the benefits of the previously proposed scheme but is more practical because it can also handle heterogenous users whose channel distributions are unknown. This new scheme actually reduces the complexity and is also more robust for changing traffic patterns. Finally we extend both these schemes to the scenario where there are fixed thresholds, this enables us to handle opportunistic scheduling in practical systems that can only transmit over finite number of discrete rates with the additional benefit that full feedback session, even from the selected user, is never required.

  2. Analytical evaluation of adaptive-modulation-based opportunistic cognitive radio in nakagami-m fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yunfei

    2012-09-01

    The performance of adaptive modulation for cognitive radio with opportunistic access is analyzed by considering the effects of spectrum sensing, primary user (PU) traffic, and time delay for Nakagami- m fading channels. Both the adaptive continuous rate scheme and the adaptive discrete rate scheme are considered. Numerical examples are presented to quantify the effects of spectrum sensing, PU traffic, and time delay for different system parameters. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  3. Fungal infections in neutropenic cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Invasive fungal infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients with prolonged neutropenia following chemotherapy. Recent trends indicate a change toward infections by Aspergillus species, non-albicans species of Candida, and previously uncommon fungal pathogens. These have decreased susceptibility to current antifungal agents. In the last decade there has been much effort to find solutions for these changing trends. This article reviews current approaches to prevention and treatment of opportunistic fungal infections in postchemotherapy neutropenic patients and discussion future antifungal approaches and supportive methods. (author)

  4. Location Prediction-Based Data Dissemination Using Swarm Intelligence in Opportunistic Cognitive Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Swarm intelligence is widely used in the application of communication networks. In this paper we adopt a biologically inspired strategy to investigate the data dissemination problem in the opportunistic cognitive networks (OCNs. We model the system as a centralized and distributed hybrid system including a location prediction server and a pervasive environment deploying the large-scale human-centric devices. To exploit such environment, data gathering and dissemination are fundamentally based on the contact opportunities. To tackle the lack of contemporaneous end-to-end connectivity in opportunistic networks, we apply ant colony optimization as a cognitive heuristic technology to formulate a self-adaptive dissemination-based routing scheme in opportunistic cognitive networks. This routing strategy has attempted to find the most appropriate nodes conveying messages to the destination node based on the location prediction information and intimacy between nodes, which uses the online unsupervised learning on geographical locations and the biologically inspired algorithm on the relationship of nodes to estimate the delivery probability. Extensive simulation is carried out on the real-world traces to evaluate the accuracy of the location prediction and the proposed scheme in terms of transmission cost, delivery ratio, average hops, and delivery latency, which achieves better routing performances compared to the typical routing schemes in OCNs.

  5. Opportunistic maintenance and adaptation of warranty maintenance tasks for Power Plant equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. McGibney

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes a link between opportunistic maintenance literature and warranty analysis of a power plant. A new plant warranty maintenance tasks are observed over a two year period. The main aim is to see how opportunistic maintenance could be incorporated when the warranty period has elapsed. The paper examine the warranty period maintenance task list and propose adequate methods for assessing opportunistic maintenance as a preventive maintenance task in order to ensure reliability and availability of the plant equipment. Statistical approach is used to give an insight to the plant equipment status and a modeling approach is proposed to also assess maintenance information defined by experts in the context of actual operating regimes. This study focuses on the power plant‟s critical equipment. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA is conducted on the power plant Booster Fans. This gives an insight about equipment failure mode patterns and maintenance requirements. A simulation example is presented based in the failure modes results obtained and a graphical display of optimum preventive maintenance schedule cost curves is also presented.

  6. GLXP BMT: Lunar Lander Mission Definition & Opportunistic Science during Nominal Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenarejo, P.; Mammarella, M.; Zaballa, M.; Claramunt, X.; García, C.; Martínez, A.

    2012-09-01

    The GLXP BMT "MoonRaise" mission is the Barcelona Moon Team Lunar Lander and Lunar exploration mission within the GLXP initiative. GMV is the mission technical leader and is in charge of the primary mission analysis that will later derive into the different mission subsystems and elements requirements and specifications for design and manufacturing. The classical scientific missions pivot around the scientific requirement and most of the mission elements design have the final purpose of fulfilling with the scientific requirements. This has the advantage of producing a dedicated mission to cope with all the scientific objectives (design-toperformance). The main drawback being the usually high mission complexity and cost. The GLXP BMT "MoonRaise" mission is a low cost mission and, thus, design-to-cost approach is used instead. Even if the "MoonRaise" mission will have some dedicated scientific objectives and dedicated resources, the maximization of the scientific content of the mission is a challenge in itself, and emphasis has to be placed in the imagination and achievement of opportunistic science while in nominal (nonscientific) operational phases. This paper presents the GLXP BMT "MoonRaise" mission architecture and mission approach and will identify potential opportunistic science targets with minimum impact on the Lunar Lander module and Rover module systems and at quasi-zero cost. The first section/s will be devoted to analyse the mission aspects, while the later section/s will be devoted to identification of interesting opportunistic science.

  7. Asymmetric competition prevents the outbreak of an opportunistic species after coral reef degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rivero, Manuel; Bozec, Yves-Marie; Chollett, Iliana; Ferrari, Renata; Schönberg, Christine H L; Mumby, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    Disturbance releases space and allows the growth of opportunistic species, excluded by the old stands, with a potential to alter community dynamics. In coral reefs, abundances of fast-growing, and disturbance-tolerant sponges are expected to increase and dominate as space becomes available following acute coral mortality events. Yet, an increase in abundance of these opportunistic species has been reported in only a few studies, suggesting certain mechanisms may be acting to regulate sponge populations. To gain insights into mechanisms of population control, we simulated the dynamics of the common reef-excavating sponge Cliona tenuis in the Caribbean using an individual-based model. An orthogonal hypothesis testing approach was used, where four candidate mechanisms-algal competition, stock-recruitment limitation, whole and partial mortality-were incorporated sequentially into the model and the results were tested against independent field observations taken over a decade in Belize, Central America. We found that releasing space after coral mortality can promote C. tenuis outbreaks, but such outbreaks can be curtailed by macroalgal competition. The asymmetrical competitive superiority of macroalgae, given by their capacity to pre-empt space and outcompete with the sponge in a size-dependant fashion, supports their capacity to steal the opportunity from other opportunists. While multiple system stages can be expected in coral reefs following intense perturbation macroalgae may prevent the growth of other space-occupiers, such as bioeroding sponges, under low grazing pressure. PMID:26753672

  8. ETX Metric for Extremely Opportunistic Routing to Improve the Performance of Hybrid Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumathy S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobility in wireless networks has paved way for a n ew paradigm of communication in this era. Exploit ing the optimal routing technique for hybrid wireless n etworks which brings in a balance of the overheads in infrastructure based and infrastructure less networ k is essential. Routing protocol design for hybrid wireless network is critical in order to improve th e performance and reliability of the network. Opportunistic Routing (OR technique attempts to de al with unreliable transmissions by utilizing the broadcast nature of the wireless medium. Due to mu lti-hop nature of ad hoc networks, Opportunistic Routing provides lesser throughput than expected wh en minimum hop count metric is used. To combat the above limitations, an Extremely Opportunistic Routi ng(ExOR scheme with Expected Transmission count(ETX metric is proposed and implemented in a hybrid scenario. The simulation study reveals that this routing technique efficiently utilizes resourc es and improves the end-to-end throughput and packe t delivery ratio in hybrid wireless networks

  9. Opportunistic Hybrid Transport Protocol (OHTP) for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Zikria, Yousaf; Nosheen, Summera; Ishmanov, Farruh; Kim, Sung Won

    2015-01-01

    The inefficient assignment of spectrum for different communications purposes, plus technology enhancements and ever-increasing usage of wireless technology is causing spectrum scarcity. To address this issue, one of the proposed solutions in the literature is to access the spectrum dynamically or opportunistically. Therefore, the concept of cognitive radio appeared, which opens up a new research paradigm. There is extensive research on the physical, medium access control and network layers. The impact of the transport layer on the performance of cognitive radio ad hoc sensor networks is still unknown/unexplored. The Internet's de facto transport protocol is not well suited to wireless networks because of its congestion control mechanism. We propose an opportunistic hybrid transport protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc sensor networks. We developed a new congestion control mechanism to differentiate true congestion from interruption loss. After such detection and differentiation, we propose methods to handle them opportunistically. There are several benefits to window- and rate-based protocols. To exploit the benefits of both in order to enhance overall system performance, we propose a hybrid transport protocol. We empirically calculate the optimal threshold value to switch between window- and rate-based mechanisms. We then compare our proposed transport protocol to Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)-friendly rate control, TCP-friendly rate control for cognitive radio, and TCP-friendly window-based control. We ran an extensive set of simulations in Network Simulator 2. The results indicate that the proposed transport protocol performs better than all the others. PMID:26694396

  10. Opportunistic Hybrid Transport Protocol (OHTP) for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Zikria, Yousaf; Nosheen, Summera; Ishmanov, Farruh; Kim, Sung Won

    2015-12-15

    The inefficient assignment of spectrum for different communications purposes, plus technology enhancements and ever-increasing usage of wireless technology is causing spectrum scarcity. To address this issue, one of the proposed solutions in the literature is to access the spectrum dynamically or opportunistically. Therefore, the concept of cognitive radio appeared, which opens up a new research paradigm. There is extensive research on the physical, medium access control and network layers. The impact of the transport layer on the performance of cognitive radio ad hoc sensor networks is still unknown/unexplored. The Internet's de facto transport protocol is not well suited to wireless networks because of its congestion control mechanism. We propose an opportunistic hybrid transport protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc sensor networks. We developed a new congestion control mechanism to differentiate true congestion from interruption loss. After such detection and differentiation, we propose methods to handle them opportunistically. There are several benefits to window- and rate-based protocols. To exploit the benefits of both in order to enhance overall system performance, we propose a hybrid transport protocol. We empirically calculate the optimal threshold value to switch between window- and rate-based mechanisms. We then compare our proposed transport protocol to Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)-friendly rate control, TCP-friendly rate control for cognitive radio, and TCP-friendly window-based control. We ran an extensive set of simulations in Network Simulator 2. The results indicate that the proposed transport protocol performs better than all the others.

  11. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections in cystic fibrosis: insights into pathogenic processes and treatment strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassett, Daniel J; Korfhagen, Thomas R; Irvin, Randall T;

    2010-01-01

    CF airway mucus can be infected by opportunistic microorganisms, notably Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Once organisms are established as biofilms, even the most potent antibiotics have little effect on their viability, especially during late-stage chronic infections. Better understanding of the mechani...... of the mechanisms used by P. aeruginosa to circumvent host defenses and therapeutic intervention strategies is critical for advancing novel treatment strategies....

  12. Ranitidine improves certain cellular immune responses in asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsøn, H J; Svenningsen, A; Moesgaard, F;

    1991-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is characterized by a progressive impairment in immunocompetence leading to severe opportunistic infections and malignancies. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the potential impact of immunomodulation by oral ranitidine, 600 mg daily, for 28...

  13. ROLE OF POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION IN THE COMPLEX DIAGNOSTICS OF UROGENITAL INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Gorelova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The present day there is no universally accepted algorithm for the application of PCR for the diagnostics of urogenital infections and interpretation of results. At the same time, the application of PCR for diagnostics of infection by opportunistic such pathogens as M. hominis, U. parvum can make the antibiotictherapy to be unnecessary.

  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 interaction: Pathogenesis and disease modulation in dual infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Mayanja-Kizza

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, we look at the clinical and immunological impact of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) on HIV-1 infection and disease. We show that, unlike other HIV related opportunistic infections, successful treatment of MTB disease may in some patients be associated with some degree of decrease in

  15. ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION OF HIV, TB AND THEIR CO-INFECTION STATUS ANALYSIS IN RAJASTHAN STATE IN THE YEAR 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Dhamija Jas; Mittal,, M.; Bhatheja; Sharma; Garg; Akash; Maheshwari

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sparse published data are available in indexed journals regarding burden of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection in Tuberculosis (TB) cases in Rajasthan. OBJECTIVE: HIV infection is a global pandemic which may trigger the occurrence of opportunistic infections, Tuberculosis (TB) being very common. There is strong association between HIV, TB co-infection and a high mortality among HIV-infected TB patients. Therefore this study is undertaken to evaluate status of HIV, TB and...

  16. Determinations of the First Aid-Related Knowledge Levels of the Mothers Having Children at the Age of 0-6 and Who Live in The Mugla Number Two Health Clinic District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgun Turasay

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The study was planned to determinate the first-aid-related knowledge levels of the mothers with a child aged 0-6. METHOD: The universe of the study consist of 772 mothers having a child aged 0-6 and living in Mugla II Number Health Clinic district. Study was carried out on 561 mothers who accepted. The questionnaire which applied used consist of 64 questions in sum, 8 of which are to solicit personal information and 54 to solicit first-aid-related knowledge level. RESULTS: In the study, first–aid related knowledge situation of mothers having a child aged 0-6 was found 28.74 9.44 out of 54 points and was ascertained that they known first-aid. Statistically significant difference was found between their age groups, their levels of education, their working situations, their situations about obtaining information, their experiments of cases requiring first-aid and knowledge points (p<0.05. CONLUSION: The first-aid topics best know by the mothers were found to be; burn, sun stroke and frost, and the least know were animal savages and insect bites. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(3.000: 217-224

  17. Gender characteristics and HIV/AIDS related knowledge awareness and behaviors of transgender women%跨性别女性的特征及艾滋病相关知识行为调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈吴康; 张晓菲; 吕翠霞; 董蕾; 杜以慧; 傅继华

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand the gender characteristics,HIV/AIDS related knowledge awareness and behaviors of transgender women.Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted among the transgender women recruited through snowball sampling in Jinan in 2014,and descriptive epidemiologic analysis was conducted on the survey results.Results A total of 55 transgender women were surveyed,all of them were male physically and female psychologically.Serious gender conflict occurred in 27 subjects (49.1%),and very serious gender conflict occurred in 8 subjects (14.5%).Thirty subjects dressed up as a man in social life,accounting for 54.5%;25 subjects dressed up as a women in social life,accounting for 45.5%.The average awareness rate of HIV/AIDS related knowledge was 57.9%(22/38).The awareness of knowledge about AIDS associated behaviors,such as multi sex partner and anal sex,was poor.For the lovers or sexual partners,58.2% of the subjects (32/55) would choose males and 50.9% of the subjects (28/55) had chosen males,and for the sex partner at latest sex,63.6%(35/55) of the subjects had chosen males.Up to 56.3% of the subjects had sex with casual sexual partners (net friends and partners of one-night stand) at latest sex behavior.Among the subjects surveyed,18(32.7%) never used condoms;29(52.7%) used condoms occasionally;4(7.3%) used condoms frequently and 4(7.3%) used condoms at each sex.Conclusions AIDS associated high risk behaviors were common among the transgender women,such as unprotected anal sex,multiple sexual partners,frequent sex and poor condom use.It is necessary to conduct the study of the HIV infection prevention in transgender women.%目的 了解跨性别女性(male-to-female,MTF)的性别特征、对艾滋病知识的知晓情况及其艾滋病相关行为状况.方法 2014年在济南市采用滚雪球法招募MTF进行间卷调查,采用描述性流行病学的方法分析该人群的艾滋病知识知晓情况及

  18. Proteomics approach to understand reduced clearance of mycobacteria and high viral titers during HIV-mycobacteria co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganji, Rakesh; Dhali, Snigdha; Rizvi, Arshad; Sankati, Swetha; Vemula, Mani Harika; Mahajan, Gaurang; Rapole, Srikanth; Banerjee, Sharmistha

    2016-03-01

    Environmental mycobacteria, highly prevalent in natural and artificial (including chlorinated municipal water) niches, are emerging as new threat to human health, especially to HIV-infected population. These seemingly harmless non-pathogenic mycobacteria, which are otherwise cleared, establish as opportunistic infections adding to HIV-associated complications. Although immune-evading strategies of pathogenic mycobacteria are known, the mechanisms underlying the early events by which opportunistic mycobacteria establish infection in macrophages and influencing HIV infection are unclear. Proteomics of phagosome-enriched fractions from Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) mono-infected and HIV-M. bovis BCG co-infected THP-1 cells by LC-MALDI-MS/MS revealed differential distribution of 260 proteins. Validation of the proteomics data showed that HIV co-infection helped the survival of non-pathogenic mycobacteria by obstructing phagosome maturation, promoting lipid biogenesis and increasing intracellular ATP equivalents. In turn, mycobacterial co-infection up-regulated purinergic receptors in macrophages that are known to support HIV entry, explaining increased viral titers during co-infection. The mutualism was reconfirmed using clinically relevant opportunistic mycobacteria, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium phlei that exhibited increased survival during co-infection, together with increase in HIV titers. Additionally, the catalogued proteins in the study provide new leads that will significantly add to the understanding of the biology of opportunistic mycobacteria and HIV coalition. PMID:26332641

  19. Members of native coral microbiota inhibit glycosidases and thwart colonization of coral mucus by an opportunistic pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Cory J Krediet; Ritchie, Kim B.; Alagely, Ali; Teplitski, Max

    2012-01-01

    The outcome of the interactions between native commensal microorganisms and opportunistic pathogens is crucial to the health of the coral holobiont. During the establishment within the coral surface mucus layer, opportunistic pathogens, including a white pox pathogen Serratia marcescens PDL100, compete with native bacteria for available nutrients. Both commensals and pathogens employ glycosidases and N-acetyl-glucosaminidase to utilize components of coral mucus. This study tested the hypothes...

  20. The Role of Opportunistic Punishment in the Evolution of Cooperation: An application of stochastic dynamics to public good game

    OpenAIRE

    Huhh, Jun-Sok

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of opportunistic punisher who may act selfishly to free-ride cooperators or not to be exploited by defectors. To consider opportunistic punisher, we make a change to the sequence of one-shot public good game; instead of putting action choice first before punishment, the commitment of punishment is declared first before choosing the action of each participant. In this commitment-first setting, punisher may use information about her team, and may defect to increase...

  1. Multiple Intracranial Aneurysms in HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Sumeet R; Gupta, Anju; Gupta, Vivek; Singhi, Pratibha D

    2016-08-01

    Neurological findings in HIV are common and include cognitive impairment, microcephaly, nonspecific white matter lesions and seizures. Cerebral vasculopathy and stroke are uncommon and may be due to primary HIV vasculopathy or opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis and cryptococcal meningitis. The authors describe a 7-y-old boy who presented with severe headache and was detected to have aneurysmal bleed due to intracranial aneurysm. PMID:27072660

  2. 1Molecular basis of Staphylococcus epidermidis infections

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most important member of the coagulase-negative staphylococci and one of the most abundant colonizers of human skin. While for a long time regarded as innocuous, it has been identified as the most frequent cause of device-related infections occurring in the hospital setting and is therefore now recognized as an important opportunistic pathogen. S. epidermidis produces a series of molecules that provide protection from host defenses. Specifically, many protein...

  3. HIV/AIDS-related knowledge awareness and risk behaviors among injection drug users in Maanshan, China: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Baifeng; Zhu, Yu; Guo, Rui; Ding, Shushu; Zhang, Zhen; Cai, Huaying; Zhu, Hongbin; Wen, Yufeng

    2016-01-01

    Background Unsafe injection practices significantly increase the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among injection drug users (IDUs). Little is known about how demographic characteristics of IDUs are linked to HIV-related risk behaviors in the central regions of China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted at Mandatory Detoxification Centers (MDCs) and the community in Maanshan, China. Results Of the 916 IDUs, 96.4 % reported a history of heroin use during the past...

  4. HIV阴性MSM人群艾滋病相关行为特征及其干预效果%A Research on HIV/AIDS Related Behavior Characteristics and Their Intervention Effect among HIV Negative MSM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡高峰; 马瞧勤; 潘晓红; 周欣; 姚丹

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the HIV/AIDS related behavior characteristics and their intervention effect among HIV negative MSM. Methods Sexual behaviors including: homosexual anal intercourse and heterosexual behavior, and the condom use were analyzed using the base line data of the program of the MSM intervention cohoit study in 201 1. Results During the last 3 months, 87, 32% of 339 MSM had homosexual anal intercourse, in which 52.03% had more than 1 male sex partner; 72. 57% had anal intercourse with regular male sex partners, in which 40. 65% insisted on using condoms; 49. 26% had casual homosexual anal intercourse, in which the persistence rate of using condoms was 50. 90% ; 76. 70% received face to face health education, whose condom use rate ( 80. 16% ) and HIV testing rate (69.62% ) were both higher than the rates ( 60. 53% and 28%, respectively) of those without intervention ( P < 0. 05 and P< 0.01, respectively ). Conclusion With a high rate of homosexual anal intercourse, multiple sex partners and low condom use, MSM are at high risk of infecting and diffusing HIV/AIDS and STDs, which requires improving the interventions urgently.%目的 分析HIV抗体阴性MSM人群艾滋病相关行为特征,探讨干预效果.方法 利用浙江省2011年MSM干预队列基线调查资料,分析MSM人群性行为及安全套使用等情况.结果 在最近3个月,339名MSM中有87.32%的人发生同性非商业性肛交,其中52.03%的人有2个或2个以上同性非商业性伴;72.57%的人与同性固定性伴发生肛交,其中40.65%的人坚持使用安全套;49.26%的人发生同性临时性伴肛交,其中50.90%的人坚持使用安全套;76.70%的人接受面对面宣传干预,其最近1次同性临时性伴肛交安全套使用率80.16%高于未接受干预者60.53%(P <0.05),HIV检测率69.62%高于未干预者28.00%(P <0.01).结论 MSM人群同性肛交发生率高,多性伴现象普遍,安全套使用率低,处于艾滋病感染和传播的高风险状态,干预措施亟需进一步完善.

  5. HIV prevalence and AIDS-related risk factors among foreign female sex workers in Dehong, Yunnan Province%云南省德宏州外籍暗娼艾滋病感染及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项丽芬; 方可芬; 梅红英; 尹留香; 杨建华; 杨炳丽; 段松; 何纳; 唐仁海; 许娟; 高洁; 杨跃诚; 叶润华; 刘志远; 李蕊; 杨忠桔

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate HIV prevalence and AIDS-related risk factors among foreign female sex workers in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan Province. Methods A door to door survey to all the entertainments in three border counties of Dehong Prefecture was conducted to identify foreign female sex workers. A face-to-face anonymous questionnaire was administrated to collect the information of social demography, AIDS prevention related services and high risk behaviors, etc. A blood sample of 5mL was collected for HIV antibody testing. Results A total of 238 subjects were approached. Among them HIV prevalence was 4. 2%; 34. 5% did not use condoms consistently when having sex with clients. Multi factors non-conditional logistic regression analysis showed that the HIV infection risk among the 23-26 years old group was 10. 8 times as high as among the 22 or less years old group and was 7. 8 times among those having not used condoms in the last sex behavior with client as high as among those using condoms; the risk factors of having unprotected sex included no awareness of the AIDS knowledge (OR = 4. 4,95% CI:1. 9-10. 2), age > 26 (OR = 2. 4,95%CI:1. 0-5. 7) and working locally≥6 months there (OR = 2. 8,95%CI: 1. 6 -5. 1). Conclusion The HIV prevalence among foreign female sex workers in Dehong Prefecture is relatively high, and the consistent condom use in sex behaviors is low. It is urgent to enforce AIDS prevention programs targeting at foreign female sex workers in Dehong Prefecture.%目的 了解云南省德宏州外籍暗娼艾滋病病毒(HIV)感染及相关因素状况.方法 运用普查方法,对德宏州3个边境县(市)全部暗娼活动场所的外籍暗娼进行调查.匿名问卷调查收集社会人口学、艾滋病防治服务及高危行为等信息,并抽取5毫升静脉血进行HIV抗体血清学检测.结果 共有238名外籍暗娼接受调查,HIV感染率为4.2%.34.5%最近1个月与客人发生性行为时未坚持使用安全套.多因素非条

  6. Opportunistic virus DNA levels after pediatric stem cell transplantation: serostatus matching, anti-thymocyte globulin, and total body irradiation are additive risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullberg-Lindh, C; Mellgren, K; Friman, V; Fasth, A; Ascher, H; Nilsson, S; Lindh, M

    2011-04-01

    Viral opportunistic infections remain a threat to survival after stem cell transplantation (SCT). We retrospectively investigated infections caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus type 6 (HHV6), or adenovirus (AdV) during the first 6-12 months after pediatric SCT. Serum samples from 47 consecutive patients were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. DNAemia at any time point occurred for CMV in 47%, for EBV in 45%, for HHV6 in 28%, and for AdV in 28%. Three patients (6.3%) died of CMV-, EBV-, or AdV-related complications 4, 9, and 24 weeks after SCT, respectively, representing 21% of total mortality. These 3 cases were clearly distinguishable by DNAemia increasing to high levels. Serum positivity for CMV immunoglobulin G in either recipient or donor at the time of SCT, total body irradiation, and anti-thymocyte globulin conditioning were independent risk factors for high CMV or EBV DNA levels. We conclude that DNAemia levels help to distinguish significant viral infections, and that surveillance and prophylactic measures should be focused on patients with risk factors in whom viral complications rapidly can become fatal.

  7. Imipenem resistance in nonfermenters causing nosocomial urinary tract infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Taneja N; Maharwal S; Sharma Meera

    2003-01-01

    Nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli (nonfermenters) have emerged as important nosocomial pathogens causing opportunistic infections in immunocompromised hosts. These organisms show high level of resistance to b-lactam agents, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. Imipenem is a carbapenem antibiotic, which can be very useful for treatment of infections caused by nonfermenters. Eighty-five nonfermenters causing nosocomial UTI were tested for MIC to imipenem by agar dilution method. Resistance t...

  8. Noninfectious Pulmonary Complications of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Staitieh, Bashar; Guidot, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the retrovirus responsible for the development of AIDS. Its profound impact on the immune system leaves the host vulnerable to a wide range of opportunistic infections not seen in individuals with a competent immune system. Pulmonary infections dominated the presentations in the early years of the epidemic, and infectious and noninfectious lung diseases remain the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in persons living with HIV desp...

  9. Peptide-based Antifungal Therapies against Emerging Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Matejuk, A.; Leng, Q.; Begum, M.D.; Woodle, M.C.; Scaria, P.; Chou, S-T; Mixson, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    Acquired drug resistance to mycotic infections is rapidly emerging as a major medical problem. Opportunistic fungal infections create therapeutic challenges, particularly in high risk immunocompromised patients with AIDS, cancer, and those undergoing transplantation. Higher mortality and/or morbidity rates due to invasive mycosis have been increasing over the last 20 years, and in light of growing resistance to commonly used antibiotics, novel antifungal drugs and approaches are required. Cur...

  10. Cronobacter spp.--opportunistic food-borne pathogens. A review of their virulence and environmental-adaptive traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Ziad W; Al Mousa, Waseem; Elbetieha, Ahmed; Al Nabulsi, Anas; Tall, Ben D

    2014-08-01

    The genus Cronobacter consists of a diverse group of Gram-negative bacilli and comprises seven species: Cronobacter sakazakii, Cronobacter malonaticus, Cronobacter muytjensii, Cronobacter turicensis, Cronobacter dublinensis, Cronobacter universalis and Cronobacter condimenti. Cronobacter are regarded as opportunistic pathogens, and have been implicated in newborn and infant infections, causing meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis and bacteraemia or sepsis. Cronobacter virulence is believed to be due to multiple factors. Some strains were found to produce diarrhoea or cause significant fluid accumulation in suckling mice. Two iron acquisition systems (eitCBAD and iucABCD/iutA), Cronobacter plasminogen activator gene (cpa), a 17 kb type VI secretion system (T6SS), and a 27 kb filamentous haemagglutinin gene (fhaBC) and associated putative adhesins locus are harboured on a family of RepFIB-related plasmids (pESA3 and pCTU1), suggesting that these are common virulence plasmids; 98% of 229 tested Cronobacter strains possessed these plasmids. Even though pESA3 and pCTU1 share a common backbone composed of the repA gene and eitCBAD and iucABCD/iutA gene clusters, the presence of cpa, T6SS and FHA loci depended on species, demonstrating a strong correlation with the presence of virulence traits, plasmid type and species. Other factors were observed, in that Cronobacter form biofilms, and show unusual resistance to heat, dry and acid stress growth conditions. The outer-membrane protein A is probably one of the best-characterized virulence markers of Cronobacter. Furthermore, it was reported that Cronobacter employ phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase/Akt signalling, which activates protein kinase C-α and impairs the host cell's mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, in order to invade cells. Cronobacter can also use immature dendritic cells and macrophages to escape the immune response. This review addresses the various virulence and environmental-adaptive characteristics

  11. [Microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bernaldo de Quirós, Juan Carlos; Delgado, Rafael; García, Federico; Eiros, José M; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl

    2007-12-01

    Currently, there are around 150,000 HIV-infected patients in Spain. This number, together with the fact that this disease is now a chronic condition since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, has generated an increasing demand on the clinical microbiology laboratories in our hospitals. This increase has occurred not only in the diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic diseases, but also in tests related to the diagnosis and therapeutic management of HIV infection. To meet this demand, the Sociedad de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clinica (Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology) has updated its standard Procedure for the microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection. The main advances related to serological diagnosis, plasma viral load, and detection of resistance to antiretroviral drugs are reviewed in this version of the Procedure.

  12. Adenovirus infection in immunocompromised patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Rynans

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Human adenoviruses belong to the Adenoviridae family and they are divided into seven species, including 56 types. Adenoviruses are common opportunistic pathogens that are rarely associated with clinical symptoms in immunocompetent patients. However, they are emerging pathogens causing morbidity and mortality in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplants, HIV infected patients and patients with primary immune deficiencies. Clinical presentation ranges from asymptomatic viraemia to respiratory and gastrointestinal disease, haemorrhagic cystitis and severe disseminated illness. There is currently no formally approved therapy for the treatment of adenovirus infections.This article presents current knowledge about adenoviruses, their pathogenicity and information about available methods to diagnose and treat adenoviral infections.

  13. Anthropogenic disturbance can determine the magnitude of opportunistic species responses on marine urban infrastructures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Airoldi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coastal landscapes are being transformed as a consequence of the increasing demand for infrastructures to sustain residential, commercial and tourist activities. Thus, intertidal and shallow marine habitats are largely being replaced by a variety of artificial substrata (e.g. breakwaters, seawalls, jetties. Understanding the ecological functioning of these artificial habitats is key to planning their design and management, in order to minimise their impacts and to improve their potential to contribute to marine biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Nonetheless, little effort has been made to assess the role of human disturbances in shaping the structure of assemblages on marine artificial infrastructures. We tested the hypothesis that some negative impacts associated with the expansion of opportunistic and invasive species on urban infrastructures can be related to the severe human disturbances that are typical of these environments, such as those from maintenance and renovation works. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Maintenance caused a marked decrease in the cover of dominant space occupiers, such as mussels and oysters, and a significant enhancement of opportunistic and invasive forms, such as biofilm and macroalgae. These effects were particularly pronounced on sheltered substrata compared to exposed substrata. Experimental application of the disturbance in winter reduced the magnitude of the impacts compared to application in spring or summer. We use these results to identify possible management strategies to inform the improvement of the ecological value of artificial marine infrastructures. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that some of the impacts of globally expanding marine urban infrastructures, such as those related to the spread of opportunistic, and invasive species could be mitigated through ecologically-driven planning and management of long-term maintenance of these structures. Impact mitigation is a

  14. Opportunistic Hybrid Transport Protocol (OHTP for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousaf Bin Zikria

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The inefficient assignment of spectrum for different communications purposes, plus technology enhancements and ever-increasing usage of wireless technology is causing spectrum scarcity. To address this issue, one of the proposed solutions in the literature is to access the spectrum dynamically or opportunistically. Therefore, the concept of cognitive radio appeared, which opens up a new research paradigm. There is extensive research on the physical, medium access control and network layers. The impact of the transport layer on the performance of cognitive radio ad hoc sensor networks is still unknown/unexplored. The Internet’s de facto transport protocol is not well suited to wireless networks because of its congestion control mechanism. We propose an opportunistic hybrid transport protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc sensor networks. We developed a new congestion control mechanism to differentiate true congestion from interruption loss. After such detection and differentiation, we propose methods to handle them opportunistically. There are several benefits to window- and rate-based protocols. To exploit the benefits of both in order to enhance overall system performance, we propose a hybrid transport protocol. We empirically calculate the optimal threshold value to switch between window- and rate-based mechanisms. We then compare our proposed transport protocol to Transmission Control Protocol (TCP-friendly rate control, TCP-friendly rate control for cognitive radio, and TCP-friendly window-based control. We ran an extensive set of simulations in Network Simulator 2. The results indicate that the proposed transport protocol performs better than all the others.

  15. Two-user opportunistic scheduling using hierarchical modulations in wireless networks with heterogenous average link gains

    KAUST Repository

    Hossain, Md Jahangir

    2010-03-01

    Our contribution, in this paper, is two-fold. First, we analyze the performance of a hierarchical modulation-assisted two-best user opportunistic scheduling (TBS) scheme, which was proposed by the authors, in a fading environment where different users have different average link gains. Specifically, we present a new expression for the spectral efficiency (SE) of the users and using this expression, we compare the degrees of fairness (DOF) of the TBS scheme with that of classical single user opportunistic scheduling schemes, namely, absolute carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) based single-best user scheduling (SBS) and normalized CNR based proportional fair scheduling (PFS) schemes. The second contribution is that we propose a new hybrid two-user opportunistic scheduling (HTS) scheme based on our earlier proposed TBS scheme. This HTS scheme selects the first user based on the largest absolute CNR value among all the users while the second user is selected based on the ratios of the absolute CNRs to the corresponding average CNRs of the remaining users. The total transmission rate i.e., the constellation size is selected according to the absolute CNR of the first best user. The total transmission rate is then allocated among these selected users by joint consideration of their absolute CNRs and allocated number of information bit(s) are transmitted to them using hierarchical modulations. Numerical results are presented for a fading environment where different users experience independent but non-identical (i.n.d.) channel fading. These selected numerical results show that the proposed HTS scheme can considerably increase the system\\'s fairness without any degradation of the link spectral efficiency (LSE) i.e., the multiuser diversity gain compared to the classical SBS scheme. These results also show that the proposed HTS scheme has a lower fairness in comparison to the PFS scheme which suffers from a considerable degradation in LSE. © 2010 IEEE.

  16. Site-occupancy distribution modeling to correct population-trend estimates derived from opportunistic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kery, M.; Royle, J. Andrew; Schmid, H.; Schaub, M.; Volet, B.; Hafliger, G.; Zbinden, N.

    2010-01-01

    Species' assessments must frequently be derived from opportunistic observations made by volunteers (i.e., citizen scientists). Interpretation of the resulting data to estimate population trends is plagued with problems, including teasing apart genuine population trends from variations in observation effort. We devised a way to correct for annual variation in effort when estimating trends in occupancy (species distribution) from faunal or floral databases of opportunistic observations. First, for all surveyed sites, detection histories (i.e., strings of detection-nondetection records) are generated. Within-season replicate surveys provide information on the detectability of an occupied site. Detectability directly represents observation effort; hence, estimating detectablity means correcting for observation effort. Second, site-occupancy models are applied directly to the detection-history data set (i.e., without aggregation by site and year) to estimate detectability and species distribution (occupancy, i.e., the true proportion of sites where a species occurs). Site-occupancy models also provide unbiased estimators of components of distributional change (i.e., colonization and extinction rates). We illustrate our method with data from a large citizen-science project in Switzerland in which field ornithologists record opportunistic observations. We analyzed data collected on four species: the widespread Kingfisher (Alcedo atthis. ) and Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus. ) and the scarce Rock Thrush (Monticola saxatilis. ) and Wallcreeper (Tichodroma muraria. ). Our method requires that all observed species are recorded. Detectability was <1 and varied over the years. Simulations suggested some robustness, but we advocate recording complete species lists (checklists), rather than recording individual records of single species. The representation of observation effort with its effect on detectability provides a solution to the problem of differences in effort encountered

  17. Persistent infection with metallo-beta-lactamase and extended spectrum β-lactamase producer Morganella morganii in a patient with urinary tract infection after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leylabadlo, Hamed Ebrahimzadeh; Kafil, Hossein Samadi; Yousefi, Mehdi; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Organ transplant recipients under immunosuppressive therapy have a highly increased risk of acquiring unusual opportunistic infections. Diagnosis of the etiology of infection may be difficult in clinical manifestations, which need further histological and biological investigations. Here in we report, for the 1(st) time in the Iran, a Morganella morganii isolate harboring blaVIM, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV genes after kidney transplantation with persistent urinary infections.

  18. Methodology for the conceptual design of a robust and opportunistic system-of-systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Diana Noonan

    Systems are becoming more complicated, complex, and interrelated. Designers have recognized the need to develop systems from a holistic perspective and design them as Systems-of-Systems (SoS). The design of the SoS, especially in the conceptual design phase, is generally characterized by significant uncertainty. As a result, it is possible for all three types of uncertainty (aleatory, epistemic, and error) and the associated factors of uncertainty (randomness, sampling, confusion, conflict, inaccuracy, ambiguity, vagueness, coarseness, and simplification) to affect the design process. While there are a number of existing SoS design methods, several gaps have been identified: the ability to modeling all of the factors of uncertainty at varying levels of knowledge; the ability to consider both the pernicious and propitious aspects of uncertainty; and, the ability to determine the value of reducing the uncertainty in the design process. While there are numerous uncertainty modeling theories, no one theory can effectively model every kind of uncertainty. This research presents a Hybrid Uncertainty Modeling Method (HUMM) that integrates techniques from the following theories: Probability Theory, Evidence Theory, Fuzzy Set Theory, and Info-Gap theory. The HUMM is capable of modeling all of the different factors of uncertainty and can model the uncertainty for multiple levels of knowledge. In the design process, there are both pernicious and propitious characteristics associated with the uncertainty. Existing design methods typically focus on developing robust designs that are insensitive to the associated uncertainty. These methods do not capitalize on the possibility of maximizing the potential benefit associated with the uncertainty. This research demonstrates how these deficiencies can be overcome by identifying the most robust and opportunistic design. In a design process it is possible that the most robust and opportunistic design will not be selected from the set

  19. Outage and ser performance of an opportunistic multi-user underlay cognitive network

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed

    2012-10-01

    Consider a multi-user underlay cognitive network where multiple cognitive users concurrently share the spectrum with a primary network and a single secondary user is selected for transmission. The channel is assumed to have independent but not identical Nakagami-m fading. Closed form expressions for the outage performance and the symbol-error-rate performance of the opportunistic multi-user secondary network are derived when a peak interference power constraint is imposed on the secondary network in addition to the limited peak transmit power of each secondary user. © 2012 IEEE.

  20. Outage Analysis of Opportunistic Cooperative Ad Hoc Networks with Randomly Located Nodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Wen Xing; Hai-Chuan Ding; Guang-Hua Yang; Shao-Dan Ma; Ze-Song Fei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,an opportunistic cooperative ad hoc sensor network with randomly located nodes is analyzed.The randomness of nodes' locations is captured by a homogeneous Poisson point process.The effect of imperfect interference cancellation is also taken into account in the analysis.Based on the theory of stochastic geometry,outage probability and cooperative gain are derived.It is demonstrated that explicit performance gain can be achieved through cooperation.The analyses are corroborated by extensive simulation results and the analytical results can thus serve as a guideline for wireless sensor network design.