WorldWideScience

Sample records for aids-related opportunistic infections

  1. Opportunistic ocular infections in AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shikha Baisakhiya DOMS; FGO

    2008-01-01

    As the number of HIV infected patients is multiplying exponentially day by day so are the associated ocular complications.The increasing longevity of individuals with HIV disease has resulted in greater numbers of pa-tients with ocular opportunistic infection.By the means of this article we describe various opportunistic ocular infections in AIDS and their clinical manifestations,discussed under four headings;1 )adnexal manifestation;2)anterior segment manifestation;3)posterior segment manifestation;4)neuro ophthalmic manifestation . Herpes zoster ophthalmicus,molluscum contagiosum and Kaposi sarcoma are common adnexal manifestations. Molluscum contagiosum being the commonest.Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV)and herpes simplex virus (HSV) most commonly cause infectious keratitis in HIV-positive patients .As compared to the immunocompetent indi-viduals the frequency of bacterial and fungal keratitis is not more in HIV patients,but it tends to be more se-vere.Posterior segment structures involved in HIV-positive patients include the retina,choroid,and optic nerve head.The herpesvirus family is implicated most commonly in infections of the retina and choroid in HIV positive patients.CMV is the most common cause of retinitis and the commonest intraocular infection in AIDS. Atypical presentations resistance to conventional treatment and higher rate of recurrence make the diagnosis and therapeutic intervention more difficult and challenging.In addition,in one eye,several infections may occur at the same time,rendering the situation more difficult.

  2. Opportunistic infection and enteron immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the change in disease structure has been observed in advanced countries as well as Japan accompanying the rapid improvement of medical techniques and the ageing phenomenon of population, and it is said that particularly infestations have changed largely. As the features, the infestation due to the lowering of defense capability on the part of hosts is highlighted rather than the problems on antigen side such as bacteria and viruses. It is difficult to treat the opportunistic infection diseases that those having low resistance are apt to contract. The investigation of the mechanism in the crisis of infestations using X-ray irradiated mice that the authors have carried out is described. The primary defense and the secondary defense of living bodies are explained. The effect of X-ray irradiation is exerted strong to Peyer's patches and mesenterium lymphocytes of the secondary defense. The most important defense mechanism on living body side against bacteria infection is considered to be the exclusion function of livers. It was clarified that the opportunistic infection of X-ray irradiated mice is caused by the collapse of defense, but the macrophages in livers resist up to the end. (K.I.)

  3. Computed tomography in opportunistic lung infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chest radiography in two teenage boys, one with Wiscott-Aldrich's syndrome and one with acute lymphatic leucemia in remission showed increased interstitial pattern. In both computed tomography (CT) of the lungs showed heavy interstitial pneumonia, rather different in appearance but in both cases equal to the CT findings in opportunistic lung infections known from immunoincompetent patients with for instance pneumocystis carinii and/or cytomegalo virus infections. In both patients the CT findings led to lung biopsy establishing the etiologic agent. (orig.)

  4. Opportunistic infections in a renal transplant recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya V. Mysorekar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the present progress in transplantation procedures, there is an improvement in patient and allograft survival. However, the immunosuppression necessary to sustain the allograft predisposes these transplant recipients to infection, which is now a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. We describe a case of a 30-year-old renal transplant recipient with two opportunistic infections, namely, primary cutaneous aspergillosis and intestinal tuberculosis, with terminal enterococcal pleuritis and peritonitis. Control of the degree of immunosuppression, and prompt recognition and treatment of infection are vital for successful organ transplantation.

  5. Opportunistic Infections in Patients with HTLV-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Tanaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As an acquired immunodeficiency, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection is primarily responsible for opportunistic infections in infected patients. However, opportunistic infections also occur in individuals with human T cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 infection. Here, we report opportunistic infections in two Japanese HTLV-1-seropositive patients. The first patient was a 67-year-old male, who had cytomegalovirus infection associated with esophagogastritis and terminal ileitis. The patient was HTLV-1-positive and was diagnosed with smoldering adult T cell leukemia (ATL. High levels of serum soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R; 4,304 U/mL and an increased percentage of CD4+CD25+ T cells (75.5% in peripheral blood were also detected. The second patient was a 78-year-old female, a known asymptomatic HTLV-1 carrier, who presented with persistent herpes zoster, followed by Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. Disease progression of smoldering ATL along opportunistic infections was observed with very high levels of serum sIL-2R (14,058 U/mL and an increased percentage of CD4+CD25+ T cells (87.2% in peripheral blood. In patients with suspected opportunistic infections, both HTLV-1 and HIV should be considered. In HTLV-1-positive patients, an increase in the CD4+CD25+ T cell subset may have its value as a prognostic marker.

  6. Retinitis due to opportunistic infections in Iranian HIV infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdollahi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We tried to evaluate prevalence and characteristics of Iranian HIV infected patients with retinitis due to opportunistic infections. In this cross sectional study, we evaluated 106 HIV infected patients via indirect ophthalmoscopy and slit lamp examination by 90 lens to find retinitis cases. General information and results of ophthalmologic examination were analyzed. Prevalence of retinitis due to opportunistic infections was 6.6%: cytomegalovirus (CMV retinitis 1.88%, toxoplasmosis retinochoroiditis 1.88% and tuberculosis chorioretinitis 2.83%. CD4 count was higher than 50 cell/µlit in both cases with CMV retinitis. Along with increasing survival in the HIV infected patients, the prevalence of complications such as ocular manifestation due to opportunistic infections are increasing and must be more considered.

  7. [The chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapy of opportunistic infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'nikova, V M; Gracheva, N M; Belikov, G P; Blatun, L A; Shcherbakova, E G

    1993-01-01

    Actual problems of organization and performance of chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapy of surgical opportunistic infections are discussed with an account of the main principles of and new approaches to the use of antibacterial drugs. The analysis of the authors' observations showed that the pre- and postoperative use of parenteral antibacterial drugs such as cephalosporins (cefazolin and ceftriaxone) and their combinations with aminoglycosides, the simultaneous use of beta-lactams and lysozyme, the local application of new ointments based on polyethylenglycol, foaming agents and gentacycol were prophylactically efficient in patients with high risk of surgical infections. Endolymphatic administration of gentamicin and cefotaxime was highly efficient in the treatment and prophylaxis of severe surgical infections with lymphogenous dissemination of the pathogen or its risk. In the prophylaxis of endogenous infections special attention should be paid to the suppression of the opportunistic intestinal microflora by the use of fluorquinolones and selective decontamination followed by the correction of the intestinal microbiocenosis with probiotics (bifidobacteria), lysozyme and immunological lactoglobulins as dosage forms or dry milk biologically active additives to children diet and dietotherapy. PMID:8085893

  8. Towards New Antifolates Targeting Eukaryotic Opportunistic Infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.; Bolstad, D; Bolstad, E; Wright, D; Anderson, A

    2009-01-01

    Trimethoprim, an antifolate commonly prescribed in combination with sulfamethoxazole, potently inhibits several prokaryotic species of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). However, several eukaryotic pathogenic organisms are resistant to trimethoprim, preventing its effective use as a therapeutic for those infections. We have been building a program to reengineer trimethoprim to more potently and selectively inhibit eukaryotic species of DHFR as a viable strategy for new drug discovery targeting several opportunistic pathogens. We have developed a series of compounds that exhibit potent and selective inhibition of DHFR from the parasitic protozoa Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma as well as the fungus Candida glabrata. A comparison of the structures of DHFR from the fungal species Candida glabrata and Pneumocystis suggests that the compounds may also potently inhibit Pneumocystis DHFR.

  9. Imaging of opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opportunistic fungal infection is a common cause of serious morbidity and mortality in the immunocompromised host. Combination of pattern recognition with knowledge of the clinical setting is the best approach to pulmonary infectious processes. The aim of this article is to assess the chest radiographs and CT imaging features of different opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised patients

  10. Toxoplasma gondii infection in Kyrgyzstan: seroprevalence, risk factor analysis, and estimate of congenital and AIDS-related toxoplasmosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnara Minbaeva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-prevalence, as well as incidence of zoonotic parasitic diseases like cystic echinococcosis, has increased in the Kyrgyz Republic due to fundamental socio-economic changes after the breakdown of the Soviet Union. The possible impact on morbidity and mortality caused by Toxoplasma gondii infection in congenital toxoplasmosis or as an opportunistic infection in the emerging AIDS pandemic has not been reported from Kyrgyzstan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We screened 1,061 rural and 899 urban people to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in 2 representative but epidemiologically distinct populations in Kyrgyzstan. The rural population was from a typical agricultural district where sheep husbandry is a major occupation. The urban population was selected in collaboration with several diagnostic laboratories in Bishkek, the largest city in Kyrgyzstan. We designed a questionnaire that was used on all rural subjects so a risk-factor analysis could be undertaken. The samples from the urban population were anonymous and only data with regard to age and gender was available. Estimates of putative cases of congenital and AIDS-related toxoplasmosis in the whole country were made from the results of the serology. Specific antibodies (IgG against Triton X-100 extracted antigens of T. gondii tachyzoites from in vitro cultures were determined by ELISA. Overall seroprevalence of infection with T. gondii in people living in rural vs. urban areas was 6.2% (95%CI: 4.8-7.8 (adjusted seroprevalence based on census figures 5.1%, 95% CI 3.9-6.5, and 19.0% (95%CI: 16.5-21.7 (adjusted 16.4%, 95% CI 14.1-19.3, respectively, without significant gender-specific differences. The seroprevalence increased with age. Independently low social status increased the risk of Toxoplasma seropositivity while increasing numbers of sheep owned decreased the risk of seropositivity. Water supply, consumption of unpasteurized milk products or undercooked

  11. Postmortem findings and opportunistic infections in HIV-positive patients from a public hospital in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eza, Dominique; Cerrillo, Gustavo; Moore, David A.J.; Castro, Cecilia; Ticona, Eduardo; Morales, Domingo; Cabanillas, Jose; Barrantes, Fernando; Alfaro, Alejandro; Benavides, Alejandro; Rafael, Arturo; Valladares, Gilberto; Arevalo, Fernando; Evans, Carlton A.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    There is a paucity of HIV autopsy data from South America and none that document the postmortem findings in patients with HIV/AIDS in Peru. The purpose of this autopsy study was to determine the spectrum of opportunistic infections and the causes of mortality in HIV-positive patients at a public hospital in Lima. Clinico-epidemiological information regarding HIV infection in Peru is also reviewed. Sixteen HIV-related hospital postmortems, performed between 1999 and 2004, were included in this retrospective analysis. The primary cause of death was established in 12 patients: one died of neoplasia and 11 of infectious diseases, including 3 from pulmonary infection, 7 from disseminated infection, and 2 from central nervous system infection (one case had dual pathology). Opportunistic infections were identified in 14 cases, comprising cytomegalovirus, histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, toxoplasmosis, Pneumocystis pneumonia, aspergillosis, tuberculosis, varicella zoster virus, and cryptosporidiosis. Fourteen patients had at least one AIDS-related disease that had been neither clinically suspected nor diagnosed premortem. Moreover, 82% of the diagnoses considered to be of important clinical significance had not been suspected antemortem. The spectrum and frequency of certain opportunistic infections differed from other South American autopsy studies, highlighting the importance of performing HIV/AIDS postmortems in resource-limited countries where locally specific disease patterns may be observed. PMID:16979302

  12. An ethnobotanical survey of plants used to manage HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Katima Mulilo, Caprivi region, Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinsembu Kazhila C

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Katima Mulilo has the highest burden of HIV/AIDS in Namibia. Due to several constraints of the antiretroviral therapy programme, HIV-infected persons still use ethnomedicines to manage AIDS-related opportunistic infections. Despite the reliance on plants to manage HIV/AIDS in Katima Mulilo, there have been no empirical studies to document the specific plant species used by traditional healers to treat AIDS-related opportunistic infections. In this study, an ethnobotanical survey was conducted to record the various plant families, species, and plant parts used to manage different HIV/AIDS-related opportunistic infections in Katima Mulilo, Caprivi region, Namibia. The results showed that a total of 71 plant species from 28 families, mostly the Combretaceae (14%, Anacardiaceae (8%, Mimosaceae (8%, and Ebanaceae (7%, were used to treat conditions such as herpes zoster, diarrhoea, coughing, malaria, meningitis, and tuberculosis. The most plant parts used were leaves (33%, bark (32%, and roots (28% while the least used plant parts were fruits/seeds (4%. Further research is needed to isolate the plants' active chemical compounds and understand their modes of action.

  13. Productive human immunodeficiency virus infection levels correlate with AIDS-related manifestations in the patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mononuclear cells were obtained from 71 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) seropositive subjects presenting and first visit either as asymptomatic or with minor symptoms and with CD4 lymphocytes greater than 550 per mm3 (group A, 35 patients) or as patients with AIDS, AIDS-related illnesses, or CD4 lymphocytes less than 400 per mm3 (group B, 36 patients). After 1-5 years of follow-up, 13 patients of group A had essentially retained their initial status (asymptomatics); the 22 others had suffered clinical or immunological deterioration (progressors). Frozen cells were thawed and submitted to lethal gamma-irradiation in vitro (4500 rads; 1 rad = 0.01 Gy) before they were cultured with normal phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes to determine radiation-resistant HIV expression ex vivo (R-HEV). HIV antigenemia correlated with R-HEV values in 142 samples (r = 0.92, P less than 0.001) but was a less sensitive predictor of disease than R-HEV. R-HEV was detected in all specimens from patients with major AIDS-related illnesses or HIV-associated CD4 lymphopenia. In 77% of the progressors from group A, R-HEV detection preceded the onset of AIDS-associated disease or CD4 lymphopenia by 1 year (average). Conversely, R-HEV was low or was not detected in 36 sequential specimens from the 13 patients who remained asymptomatic over the following 2-5 years. Thus, persistently low HIV expression in vivo predicted a nondiseased state, whereas higher HIV expression levels seemed necessary for disease to occur. These data indicate that R-HEV is related to productive HIV infection in vivo, the latter acting as a determinant of AIDS-related illnesses. In view of this, measurement of HIV expression levels in the patient should be useful in antiviral efficacy trials

  14. Uncommon opportunistic fungal infections of oral cavity: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A G Deepa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of opportunistic oral mucosal fungal infections are due to Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus species. Mucor and Cryptococcus also have a major role in causing oral infections, whereas Geotrichum, Fusarium, Rhodotorula, Saccharomyces and Penicillium marneffei are uncommon pathogens in the oral cavity. The broad spectrum of clinical presentation includes pseudo-membranes, abscesses, ulcers, pustules and extensive tissue necrosis involving bone. This review discusses various uncommon opportunistic fungal infections affecting the oral cavity including their morphology, clinical features and diagnostic methods.

  15. Activity of antiretroviral drugs in human infections by opportunistic agents

    OpenAIRE

    Izabel Galhardo Demarchi; Daniela Maira Cardozo; Sandra Mara Alessi Aristides; Ricardo Alberto Moliterno; Thaís Gomes Verzignassi Silveira; Rosilene Fressatti Cardoso; Dennis Armando Bertolini; Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski; Jorge Juarez Vieira Teixeira; Maria Valdrinez Campana Lonardoni

    2012-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is used in patients infected with HIV. This treatment has been shown to significantly decrease opportunist infections such as those caused by viruses, fungi and particularly, protozoa. The use of HAART in HIV-positive persons is associated with immune reconstitution as well as decreased prevalence of oral candidiasis and candidal carriage. Antiretroviral therapy benefits patients who are co-infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human ...

  16. CLINICAL SPECTRUM OF OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HIV POSITIVE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usmani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection leading to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS causes progressive decline in immunological response in people living with HIV/AIDS, making them susceptible to a variety opportunistic infections (OIs which are responsible for morbidity and mortality. Therefore early diagnosis and management of opportunistic infections reduce the mortality and morbidity in HIV positive patients. CONTEXT : AIMS : To study the demographic variables; spectrum of opportunist ic infections and its correlation with CD4 count in HIV patients. SETTING AND DESIGN : The study was conducted on 200 HIV patients either admitted to Sanjay Gandhi Memorial Hospital or attending ART Center, Sh y am Shah Medical College, Rewa (M.P from Januar y 2013 to October 2014. METHODS AND MATERIAL : A detailed history was recorded with emphasis on personal history, high risk behavior, history of migration, mode of transmission of infection and complete thorough clinical examination was done. Data analysis was done by calculating P value using Chi Square test. RESULTS : Out of 200 HIV patients, most of them (88% belonged to the age group 20 - 49 years, 66% were males and 34% were females. 45% were illiterates, 62% were from low socioeconomic class. Majority of patients were married (79% and 72.2% had seropositive spouse. Unprotected sexual route was the most common (85% mode of transmission; among which heterosexual route was the only mode of transmission. 59.4% of males contracted infection through unprotect ed sex with either commercial sex workers (44.8% or multiple sex partners (14.6%. 61% of patients had history of emigration. Tuberculosis was the most common opportunistic infection (51%, followed by oral candidiasis 30% and chronic diarrhea (9%.Pulmon ary Tuberculosis was the most common form of Tuberculosis (64.7%, followed by tubercular lymphadenopathy (15.7%. CONCLUSION : HIV/AIDS has no vaccine or cure, so prevention is the only

  17. Chest x-ray findings of opportunistic infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chest x-ray findings of 20 cases of pulmonary opportunistic infection were analyzed according to causative agents. The results were as follows: 1. Final diagnoses of 20 cases of opportunistic infections were tuberculosis in 6 cases, pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in 5 cases, bacterial infection in 7 cases, and fungal infection in 2 cases. 2. The underlying diseases were leukemia in 6 cases, kidney transplantation in 6 cases, lymphoma in 3 cases, nephrotic syndrome in 1 case, nasopharyngeal cancer in 1 case, multiple myeloma in 1 case, agranulocytosis in 1 case, and hypogammaglobulinemia in 1 case. 3. In tuberculosis, all the 6 cases showed severe manifestations such as military tuberculosis, tuberculous pneumonia, moderately advanced tuberculosis and tuberculous pericarditis. 4. In pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, the most frequent findings were bilateral alveolar densities and peripheral field of the lung was saved in most cases. 5. In 2 cases of fungal infections bilateral multiple cavity nodules were noted. 6. In cases of bacterial infection there was more cases of gram negative infection than gram positive and 2 cases of pseudomonas revealed bilateral multiple cavitary nodules

  18. Chest x-ray findings of opportunistic infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yul; Jeon, Suk Chul; Lim, Jeong Ki; Park, Jae Hyung; Kim, Chu Wan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-06-15

    The chest x-ray findings of 20 cases of pulmonary opportunistic infection were analyzed according to causative agents. The results were as follows: 1. Final diagnoses of 20 cases of opportunistic infections were tuberculosis in 6 cases, pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in 5 cases, bacterial infection in 7 cases, and fungal infection in 2 cases. 2. The underlying diseases were leukemia in 6 cases, kidney transplantation in 6 cases, lymphoma in 3 cases, nephrotic syndrome in 1 case, nasopharyngeal cancer in 1 case, multiple myeloma in 1 case, agranulocytosis in 1 case, and hypogammaglobulinemia in 1 case. 3. In tuberculosis, all the 6 cases showed severe manifestations such as military tuberculosis, tuberculous pneumonia, moderately advanced tuberculosis and tuberculous pericarditis. 4. In pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, the most frequent findings were bilateral alveolar densities and peripheral field of the lung was saved in most cases. 5. In 2 cases of fungal infections bilateral multiple cavity nodules were noted. 6. In cases of bacterial infection there was more cases of gram negative infection than gram positive and 2 cases of pseudomonas revealed bilateral multiple cavitary nodules.

  19. Risk Factor Analyses for Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in a Randomized Study of Early vs. Deferred ART during an Opportunistic Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Philip M; Sereti, Irini; Pahwa, Savita; Lederman, Michael M.; Eron, Joseph; Sanne, Ian; Powderly, William; Hogg, Evelyn; Suckow, Carol; Zolopa, Andrew; Komarow, Lauren Hope; Andersen, Janet W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is reported widely in patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, few studies are prospective, and no study has evaluated the impact of the timing of ART when allocated randomly during an acute opportunistic infection (OI). Methodology/Principal Findings: A5164 randomized 282 subjects with AIDS-related OIs (tuberculosis excluded), to early or deferred ART. IRIS was identified prospectively using pre-defined criteria...

  20. Risk Factor Analyses for Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in a Randomized Study of Early vs. Deferred ART during an Opportunistic Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Philip M; Komarow, Lauren; Andersen, Janet; Sereti, Irini; Pahwa, Savita; Lederman, Michael M.; Eron, Joseph; Sanne, Ian; Powderly, William; Hogg, Evelyn; Suckow, Carol; Zolopa, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Background Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is reported widely in patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, few studies are prospective, and no study has evaluated the impact of the timing of ART when allocated randomly during an acute opportunistic infection (OI). Methodology/Principal Findings A5164 randomized 282 subjects with AIDS-related OIs (tuberculosis excluded), to early or deferred ART. IRIS was identified prospectively using pre-defined criteria. ...

  1. Gastrointestinal opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Anazi Awadh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI opportunistic infections (OIs are commonly encountered at various stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disease. In view of the suppressive nature of the virus and the direct contact with the environment, the GI tract is readily accessible and is a common site for clinical expression of HIV. The subject is presented based on information obtained by electronic searches of peer-reviewed articles in medical journals, Cochrane reviews and PubMed sources. The spectrum of GI OIs ranges from oral lesions of Candidiasis, various lesions of viral infections, hepatobiliary lesions, pancreatitis and anorectal lesions. The manifestations of the disease depend on the level of immunosuppression, as determined by the CD4 counts. The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy has altered the pattern of presentation, resorting mainly to features of antimicrobial-associated colitis and side effects of antiretroviral drugs. The diagnosis of GI OIs in HIV/ acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients is usually straightforward. However, subtle presentations require that the physicians should have a high index of suspicion when given the setting of HIV infection.

  2. Epidemic of AIDS related virus (HTLV-III/LAV) infection among intravenous drug abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, J R; Bucknall, A B; Welsby, P D; Roberts, J J; Inglis, J M; Peutherer, J F; Brettle, R P

    1986-02-22

    Stored blood samples from 164 intravenous drug abusers who attended a Scottish general practice were tested for HTLV-III/LAV (human T cell lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy associated virus) infection. Of those tested, 83 (51%) were seropositive, which is well above the prevalence reported elsewhere in Britain and Europe and approaches that observed in New York City. The timing of taking samples of negative sera and continued drug use suggest that as many as 85% of this population might now be infected. The infection became epidemic in late 1983 and early 1984, thereafter becoming endemic. The practice of sharing needles and syringes correlated with seropositivity, which, combined with the almost exclusive intravenous use of heroin and other behavioural patterns, may explain the high prevalence of HTLV-III/LAV infection in the area. Rapid and aggressive intervention is needed to control the spread of infection. PMID:3081158

  3. The association between HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and perception of risk for infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndugwa Kabwama, Steven; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review tries to elucidate the association between what people know about HIV/AIDS and how they perceive their risk of infection. The initial search for articles yielded 1,595 abstracts, 16 of which met the inclusion criteria. Five studies found a positive correlation, four reported...... a negative correlation and seven found no association between knowledge and risk perception. It was found that the existing psychometrically sound measure of HIV/AIDS risk perception had not been used in any of the studies. The context in which the risk is assessed is pivotal to whether an...... association between knowledge and the perceived risk is found. Biases in judgement such as optimistic bias, psychological distancing, anchoring bias and overconfidence also explain how knowledge may fail to predict risk perception. It was concluded that the association between HIV/AIDS knowledge and risk...

  4. HHV-8 infection in patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8 in HIV-positive Brazilian patients with (HIV+/KS+ and without Kaposi's sarcoma (HIV+/KS- using PCR and immunofluorescence assays, to assess its association with KS disease, to evaluate the performance of these tests in detecting HHV-8 infection, and to investigate the association between anti-HHV-8 antibody titers, CD4 counts and staging of KS disease. Blood samples from 66 patients, 39 HIV+/KS+ and 27 HIV+/KS-, were analyzed for HHV-8 viremia in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by PCR and HHV-8 antigenemia for latent and lytic infection by immunofluorescence assay. Positive samples for latent nuclear HHV-8 antigen (LNA antibodies were titrated out from 1/100 to 1/409,600 dilution. Clinical information was collected from medical records and risk behavior was assessed through an interview. HHV-8 DNA sequences were detected by PCR in 74.3% of KS+ patients and in 3.7% of KS- patients. Serological assays were similar in detecting anti-LNA antibodies and anti-lytic antigens in sera from KS+ patients (79.5% and KS- patients (18.5%. HHV-8 was associated with KS whatever the method used, i.e., PCR (odds ratio (OR = 7.4, 95% confidence interval (CI = 2.16-25.61 or anti-LNA and anti-lytic antibodies (OR = 17.0, 95%CI = 4.91-59.14. Among KS+ patients, HHV-8 titration levels correlated positively with CD4 counts (rho 0.48, P = 0.02, but not with KS staging. HHV-8 is involved in the development of KS in different geographic areas worldwide, as it is in Brazil, where HHV-8 is more frequent among HIV+ patients. KS severity was associated with immunodeficiency, but no correlation was found between HHV-8 antibody titers and KS staging.

  5. Immunophototherapy for the treatment of AIDS and AIDS-related infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.

    1992-06-01

    Immunophototherapy (IPT) is an experimental method of medical treatment that seeks to provide for the selective destruction of diseased cells and microbes such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-T4 cells and the rapid elimination of their toxic by-products from the human body. Photosensitive monoclonal or polyclonal antibody fragments, which are specific to the diseased cell or microbe, will be used to treat acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and related infections. These antibody fragments are tagged with photosensitive compounds and metal colloids and then intravenously injected into the patient. The tagged antibodies quickly and selectively bind to the diseased cells or microbes in the blood stream and affected organs. These cells or microbes are then selectively destroyed by irradiation of these complexes with light of the proper wavelength. This light activates the photosensitive material which then creates singlet oxygen that destroys the microbe or cell. Toxic products of lysis are quickly discharged from the body by activation of the reticuloendothelial system. IPT has been demonstrated by Biotronics to be very effective in the in vitro selective destruction of specified cell types. In a proposed AIDS-treatment research program, IPT will be first demonstrated in vitro for a set of infected blood samples using commercially-available antibodies labeled with appropriate photosensitizers. Efficacy will be determined by a p24 antigen immunodiagnostic test that will indicate the % inhibition in comparison to controls and samples treated with the drug AZT. Subcontracted animal efficacy studies will use a SCID-hu mouse model and PCR/DNA-RNA for endpoint analysis. Toxicity studies of animal (rat) models will be based on post-treatment investigations of lymph nodes, spleen, liver and other organs.

  6. In Search for Equilibrium: Immunosuppression Versus Opportunistic Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Tariq; Kramer, Jason; Kopiec, Adam; Jones, Brody; Iskandar, Joy; Ahmad, Khansa; Keshmiri, Hesam; Dia, Muhyaldeen

    2016-02-01

    Post-transplant immunosuppression is necessary to prevent organ rejection. Immunosuppression itself can introduce complications arising from opportunistic infections. We present a case of disseminated blastomycosis manifested only as a skin lesion in an asymptomatic patient post-orthotopic heart transplantation. A 64-year-old female who had recently undergone orthotopic heart transplant for end-stage ischemic cardiomyopathy presented for a scheduled routine cardiac biopsy. The patient had no current complaints other than a crusted plaque noticed at her nasal tip. It initially manifested 6 months after surgery as a pimple that she repeatedly tried to manipulate resulting in redness and crust formation. Her immunosuppressive and prophylactic medications included: mycophenolate, tacrolimus, prednisone, bactrim, acyclovir, valganciclovir, pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine, and fluconazole. On physical examination, she was flushed, with a large and exquisitely tender crusted necrotic lesion involving almost the entire half of the nose anteriorly, the left forehead and right side of the neck. She had decreased air entry over the right lung field as well. A computed tomography (CT) image of the chest was ordered to investigate this concerning physical exam finding in the post-transplant state of this patient on immunosuppressive therapy. Chest CT revealed bilateral nodular pulmonary infiltrates with confluence in the posterior right upper lobe. Blood cultures for aerobic and anerobic organisms were negative. Both excisional biopsy of the nasal cutaneous ulcer and bronchial biopsy demonstrated numerous fungal yeast forms morphologically consistent with Blastomyces. Cultures of both specimens grew Blastomyces dermatitidis, with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) superinfection of the nose. She received 14 days of intravenous (IV) amphotericin B for disseminated blastomycosis and 7 days of IV vancomycin for MRSA. Her symptoms and cutaneous lesions improved and she

  7. Role of upper endoscopy in diagnosing opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ana Luiza Werneck-Silva; Ivete Bedin Prado

    2009-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically decreased opportunistic infections (OIs)in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients.However, gastrointestinal disease continues to account for a high proportion of presenting symptoms in these patients. Gastrointestinal symptoms in treated patients who respond to therapy are more likely to the result of drug-induced complications than OI. Endoscopic evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract remains a cornerstone of diagnosis, especially in patients with advanced immunodeficiency, who are at risk for OI. The peripheral blood CD4 lymphocyte count helps to predict the risk of an OI, with the highest risk seen in HIV-infected patients with low CD4 count (200 cells/mm3). This review provides an update of the role of endoscopy in diagnosing OI in the upper gastrointestinal tract in HIV-infected patients in the era of HAART.

  8. Pneumocystis carinii (jirovecii) pneumonia (PCP): the most common opportunistic infection observed in HIV/AIDS cases at the University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaiah, I; Rohela, M; Tok, E L; Tan, C L; Tan, W H; Teo, W S; Leow, H F

    2012-07-01

    This retrospective study was conducted among 59 HIV/AIDS patients with opportunistic infections admitted to the University Malaya Medical Centre between 2000 and 2009. Fifty-five point nine percent of cases were Chinese, 25.4% were Malays, 11.9% were Indians and 6.8% were of unknown ethnic origin. The male:female ratio was 2.9:1 (44 males and 15 females). The highest prevalence (38.9%) occurred in the 30-39 year old age group. Men comprised 47.7% and women 53.3%; the majority of both were married. The majority of cases were Malaysians (89.8%) and the rest (10.2%) were immigrants. Most of the patients (18.6%) were non-laborers, followed by laborers (11.9%), the unemployed (5.1%) and housewives (3.4%). The most common risk factor was unprotected sexual activity (20.3%). The two most common HIV/AIDS related opportunistic infections were Pneumocystis carinii (jirovecii) pneumonia (PCP) (62.7%) and toxoplasmosis (28.8%). Seventy-two point nine percent of patients had a CD4 count 500 cells/microl. Eleven point nine percent of cases died during study period. A low CD4 count had a greater association with opportunistic infections. Most of the patients presented with fever (44.1%), cough (42.4%) and shortness of breath (28.8%). Detection of the etiologic pathogens aids clinicians in choosing appropriate management strategies. PMID:23077803

  9. A standardized algorithm for determining the underlying cause of death in HIV infection as AIDS or non-AIDS related

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalska, Justyna D; Mocroft, Amanda; Ledergerber, Bruno;

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Analyzing changes in causes of death over time is essential for understanding the emerging trends in HIV population mortality, yet data on cause of death are often missing. This poses analytic limitations, as does the changing approach in data collection by longitudinal studies, which...... are a natural consequence of an increased awareness and knowledge in the field. To monitor and analyze changes in mortality over time, we have explored this issue within the EuroSIDA study and propose a standardized protocol unifying data collected and allowing for classification of all deaths as AIDS...... or non-AIDS related, including events with missing cause of death. Methods: Several classifications of the underlying cause of death as AIDS or non-AIDS related within the EuroSIDA study were compared: central classification (CC-reference group) based on an externally standardised method (the Co...

  10. Traditional health practitioners' perceptions, herbal treatment and management of HIV and related opportunistic infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Davids; T. Blouws; O. Aboyade; D. Gibson; J.T. de Jong; C. van 't Klooster; G. Hughes

    2014-01-01

    Background: In South Africa, traditional health practitioners? (THPs) explanatory frameworks concerning illness aetiologies are much researched. However there is a gap in the literature on how THPs understand HIV-related opportunistic infections (OIs), i.e. tuberculosis, candidiasis and herpes zoste

  11. Opportunistic infections and malignancies in 231 Danish AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Gerstoft, J; Tauris, P;

    1990-01-01

    diseases caused by cytomegalovirus and atypical mycobacteria tended to occur later in the course of AIDS. Compared with all other AIDS patients, homosexual men were more likely to develop Kaposi's sarcoma, cytomegalovirus chorioretinitis and mucocutaneous herpes simplex virus infection. The proportion of...

  12. Typhoid fever as a cause of opportunistic infection: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumminia Salvatore

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Typhoid fever is a systemic infection caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype typhi, which is acquired by ingestion of contaminated food and water. Each year the disease affects at least 16 million persons world-wide, most of whom reside in the developing countries of Southeast Asia and Africa. In Italy the disease is uncommon with a greater number of cases in Southern regions than in Northern ones. Case presentation We report on a 57-year-old Sri-Lankan male affected by typhoid fever, the onset of which was accompanied by oropharyngeal candidiasis. This clinical sign was due to a transient cell-mediated immunity depression (CD4+ cell count was 130 cells/mm3 probably caused by Salmonella typhi infection. Human immunodeficiency virus infection was ruled out. Diagnosis of typhoid fever was made by the isolation of Salmonella typhi from two consecutive blood cultures. The patient recovered after a ten days therapy with ciprofloxacin and his CD4+ cell count improved gradually until normalization within 3 weeks. Conclusion Our patient is the first reported case of typhoid fever associated with oropharyngeal candidiasis. This finding suggests a close correlation between Salmonella typhi infection and transitory immunodepression.

  13. Atypical presentation of a common opportunistic infection in advanced AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    N. Chandra; Krishna, N; Subbalaxmi, M. V. S.; M. Nageshwar Rao; Raju, Y.S.N.; Y Jyotsna Rani

    2013-01-01

    Intracranial tuberculosis in immunocompromised patients can occasionally mimic central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms radiologically and complicate the decisions regarding management. A 42-year-old male presented with a history of fever and vomitings of 5 days duration. On evaluation he was found to be reactive for human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection with a CD4+ count of 63 cells/mm3 and a viral load of 1,260,779 copies /mL. He was started on highly active antiretroviral ther...

  14. Opportunistic infections and malignancies in 231 Danish AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Gerstoft, J; Tauris, P;

    1990-01-01

    We analysed cumulative disease frequencies in the first 231 adult Danish AIDS patients with life tables. There was a certain hierarchical pattern in the occurrence of complicating diseases. Herpes zoster, Kaposi's sarcoma and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia were early manifestations, whereas...... diseases caused by cytomegalovirus and atypical mycobacteria tended to occur later in the course of AIDS. Compared with all other AIDS patients, homosexual men were more likely to develop Kaposi's sarcoma, cytomegalovirus chorioretinitis and mucocutaneous herpes simplex virus infection. The proportion of...... patients who developed particular diseases changed with calendar time. Most striking was a three to fourfold decrease in diseases caused by cytomegalovirus. In conclusion, the study showed that disease frequencies in patients with AIDS may vary with the patients risk behaviour and duration of AIDS, and...

  15. Atypical presentation of a common opportunistic infection in advanced AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chandra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial tuberculosis in immunocompromised patients can occasionally mimic central nervous system (CNS neoplasms radiologically and complicate the decisions regarding management. A 42-year-old male presented with a history of fever and vomitings of 5 days duration. On evaluation he was found to be reactive for human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection with a CD4+ count of 63 cells/mm3 and a viral load of 1,260,779 copies /mL. He was started on highly active antiretroviral therapy with tenofovir, emtricitabine, efavirenz, Pneumocystis jiroveci prophylaxis and was discharged. After 5 months he developed aggressive behaviour, irrelevant talking and memory loss. On examination, he was irritable with memory disturbances; no focal neurological signs were evident. Magnetic resonance imaging brain and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS showed a large heterogeneous enhancing ill-defined lesion in the left parietooccipital lobe with a lipid lactate peak suggestive of infective aetiology. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis showed glucose 33 mg/dL, protein 120 mg/dL, 40 cells/mm3 (all lymphocytes, adenosine deaminase 40U/L; Gram's stain was negative, Ziehl-Neelsen stain did not reveal acid-fast bacilli, toxoplasma, cryptococcal antigen tests were negative. Polymerase chain reaction for Epstein-Barr virus was also negative. In view of the clinical setting, CSF analysis supported by MRS findings he was started on antituberculosis treatment (ATT and corticosteroids. Patient showed remarkable improvement clinically and radiologically with significant reduction in the size of the lesion. MRS is a useful non-invasive technique that can help in differentiating tuberculoma from lymphoma.

  16. Corticosteroids Opportunist Higher Toxoplasma gondii Brain Cysts in Latent Infected Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan A. Elfadaly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic zoonotic protozoan, distinguish superior brain parasite load in immune-suppressed patients. Corticosteroids are popular anti-inflammatory with immune-suppressive long course, it possible opportunist higher T. gondii brain parasite load and reverts encephalitis in latent infected personals. The present study concerns this concept and preferred for recognize different levels of T. gondii brain parasite load and immunoglobulin titers in both corticosteroids treated and untreated latent infected mice groups. A total number of 70 Swiss-Webster mice (12-18 g were divided into four groups, the first and second ones are 30 each (infected-untreated and infected-treated group, the third and fourth 5 each (uninfected-untreated and uninfected-treated control. Administration of glucocorticoid (hydrocortisone sodium succinate at a dose of 50 mg kg–1 (I.M injection 3 times a week with oral administration of dexamethasone sodium phosphate in dose of 2.5 mg kg–1 day–1 per mouse in drinking water for sequence 2 months. The 103 bradyzoites from mice brain of cystogenic ME-49 strain was used for inducing latent infected mice groups at 30 days before corticosteroids therapy. Serum and brain tissue samples were collected for serological assay and parasite load estimation from sacrificed mice. The results showed significance elevation of average percent of brain parasite load and IgM/IgG titers. All values exceeds higher and parallel to the progression of corticosteroids term in infected treated group than the infected-untreated one. In conclusion, long-term corticosteroids therapy possible opportunist higher T. gondii brain parasite load and induce encephalitis in latent infected murine model, imitate this serious condition in T. gondii infected patients who received corticosteroids therapy.

  17. F-18 FDG PET Evaluation of Opportunistic Infections in Renal Transplant Recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renal transplantation is the most common type of organ transplantation. However, infection is a major complication among renal transplant recipients, including pneumonia, one of the most frequent life-threatening complications of long-term immunosuppression. Invasive fungal infections are among the most common pathogens. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of opportunistic infections are crucial in decreasing mortality. There have been cases reported where the use of F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron mission tomography (PET) was helpful in the diagnosis of fungal disease in immunocompromised patients. Here we present two of such cases

  18. Enteric Opportunistic Parasitic Infections among HIV-Seropositive Patients at Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta D Patel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enteric opportunistic parasitic infections are the major source of diarrheal disease in developing countries mainly in Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected patients. Objective: The study was to detect enteric parasites causing diarrhea and their association with immune status in HIV-seropositive patients. Methods: The present study was conducted in tertiary care teaching Hospital, Baroda between January 2006 to January 2007 involving 100 Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive patients. Stool was examined for enteric parasites by microscopy with special staining methods. Results: A total of 100 HIV sero-positive patients with and without diarrhea were included in the study. Of the 100 patients, the protozoan parasitic infection was found in 28% (28/100. Out of 100 patients, 50 had diarrhea in which parasitic infection was 24 (48% and 4 (4/50 protozoal parasites positive cases did not have diarrhea. A significant difference (p<0.05 was observed in the level of infection of intestinal protozoan between the HIV seropositive with diarrhea and HIV-seropositive without diarrhea. Conclusion Enteric opportunistic parasitic infections were detected in 28% among HIV-seropositive patients. Early detection of enteric parasitic infections will help in the management and to improve the quality of life for HIV-infected individuals. [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(3.000: 190-193

  19. The diagnosis of HIV-associated central nervous system opportunistic infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GONG Qi-ming

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic infections of the central nervous system (CNS are very common and severe complications of advanced immunodeficiency in patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection, which are included in the diagnostic criteria for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS defining conditions according to 1993 Revised Classification System for HIV Infection and Expanded Surveillance Case Definition for AIDS among Adolescents and Adults published by USA Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. The etiologic microorganisms of CNS opportunistic infections include virus, bacteria, fungus, mycobacterium and parasite. The clinical symptoms, signs and laboratory examinations of these diseases are different from that of patients with non-immunodeficiency. Even in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, worsening conditions or new infections may occur. Therefore, prompt diagnosis and treatment of such disorders are critical. The immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS in HIV-1 infected patients in the initiating antiretroviral therapy results from restored immunity to specific infectious or non-infectious antigens. This study reviews the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis of some common CNS disorders in HIV-1 infected patients. Physicians caring for such patients must be aware of the new diagnostic modalities and therapeutic options of these diseases.

  20. Opportunistic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  1. Characterization of a new simian immunodeficiency virus strain in a naturally infected Pan troglodytes troglodytes chimpanzee with AIDS related symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghokeng Avelin F

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on the evolution of natural SIV infection in chimpanzees (SIVcpz and on the impact of SIV on local ape populations are only available for Eastern African chimpanzee subspecies (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, and no data exist for Central chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes, the natural reservoir of the ancestors of HIV-1 in humans. Here, we report a case of naturally-acquired SIVcpz infection in a P.t.troglodytes chimpanzee with clinical and biological data and analysis of viral evolution over the course of infection. Results A male chimpanzee (Cam155, 1.5 years, was seized in southern Cameroon in November 2003 and screened SIV positive during quarantine. Clinical follow-up and biological analyses have been performed for 7 years and showed a significant decline of CD4 counts (1,380 cells/mm3 in 2004 vs 287 in 2009, a severe thrombocytopenia (130,000 cells/mm3 in 2004 vs 5,000 cells/mm3 in 2009, a weight loss of 21.8% from August 2009 to January 2010 (16 to 12.5 kg and frequent periods of infections with diverse pathogens. DNA from PBMC, leftover from clinical follow-up samples collected in 2004 and 2009, was used to amplify overlapping fragments and sequence two full-length SIVcpzPtt-Cam155 genomes. SIVcpzPtt-Cam155 was phylogenetically related to other SIVcpzPtt from Cameroon (SIVcpzPtt-Cam13 and Gabon (SIVcpzPtt-Gab1. Ten molecular clones 5 years apart, spanning the V1V4 gp120 env region (1,100 bp, were obtained. Analyses of the env region showed positive selection (dN-dS >0, intra-host length variation and extensive amino acid diversity between clones, greater in 2009. Over 5 years, N-glycosylation site frequency significantly increased (p Conclusions Here, we describe for the first time the clinical history and viral evolution of a naturally SIV infected P.t.troglodytes chimpanzee. The findings show an increasing viral diversity over time and suggest clinical progression to an AIDS-like disease, showing that

  2. Variation in genes of beta-glucan recognition pathway and susceptibility to opportunistic infections in HIV-positive patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosentul, D.C.; Plantinga, T.S.; Papadopoulos, A.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Antoniadou, A.; Venselaar, H.; Kullberg, B.J.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, E.J.; Netea, M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Opportunistic infections are the main cause of morbidity and death among HIV-positive patients. Most of these infections are linked to the immunodeficiency due to low CD4+ counts. However, not all patients with low CD4+ counts are equally susceptible to infections, and we hypothesize that variabilit

  3. Changes in hospitalizations due to opportunistic infections, chronic conditions and other causes among HIV patients (1989–2011. A study in a HIV unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Redondo Sanchez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reduction in mortality and morbidity in HIV patients due to the introduction of HAART have resulted in changes in patterns of hospital admissions. Objective: To examine trends of HIV patients hospital admissions. Design and method: Serial cross-sectional analysis of HIV-hospitalized patients from 1989 to 2011 in an HIV Care Unit. Each hospitalization was classified as major categories: opportunistic infections, other infections, drug-related admissions, chronic hepatopathy, AIDS and non-AIDS-related tumours and chronic medical conditions (COPD, diabetes and as specific diagnosis: tuberculosis, PCP, CMV, bacterial pneumonia and others. We considered 4 periods of time: pre-HAART, 1989–1996; early HAART, 1997–2001; intermediate HAART, 2002–2006; and present HAART, 2007–2011. Results: We evaluated 2588 admissions. 20.7% of patients were unaware of HIV infection before first admission; this proportion did not change along the time (p=0.27. No previous outpatient follow-up was seen in 34.9% of patients. There were differences in diagnosis, mortality, age and mean inpatient stay time (Table 1 between the analyzed periods of time. Conclusions: (i HAART and older age have changed the pattern of hospital admissions with a decrease of OI-related admissions and an increase of chronic diseases and non-AIDS-related tumours and with a decrease in mortality and length of inpatient stay. (ii Proportion of patients with unknown HIV serostatus before admission has not changed along the time. (iii Pneumonia, respiratory tract infection and tuberculosis were the more common causes of admission.

  4. Non-opportunistic intestinal parasitic infections among HIV-infected individuals at Wolaita Sodo Hospital, South Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amsalu Arota Amado; Fiseha Wadilo Wada; Fithamlak Solomon Bisetegn; Yishak Abreham Leka

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To determine the prevalence of non-opportunistic intestinal helminthic and protozoal infections amongHIV-infected individuals and to determine socio-demographic determinants of intestinal parasitosis. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted onHIV-infected individuals attending anti-retroviral therapy clinic of Wolaita Sodo Hospital. Stool in wet mount preparation and formal-ether concentration technique were used to diagnose intestinal parasitic infection. Socio-demographic variables were collected by using questionnaire.Chi-square test was used to test the associations between intestinal parasitosis and socio-demographic variables. Results: The overall prevalence of non-opportunistic intestinal parasitic infection was 32.4% out of which 11.0% was protozoal infection and 21.4% was helminthic infection. The most common intestinal parasite detected wasAscaris lumbricoides with 12.7% prevalence followed byGiardia lamblia with 7.5% prevalence. The prevalence ofStrongyloides stercoralis, hookworm species,Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar,Schistosoma mansoni and Taenia species was 2.9%, 1.2%, 3.5%, 1.7% and 2.3% respectively. There was no significant difference in prevalence of intestinal parasite infection with regard to age, sex, residence area, job type and religion of participants but there was a significant association between the educational status and intestinal parasitic infection. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was higher among illiterate participants. Conclusions:Ascaris lumbricoides was the most common intestinal parasite detected inHIV-infected individuals.Giardia lamblia was the most common protozoal parasite observed. Prevalence of intestinal helminthic infection was higher than protozoal infection. Intestinal parasitosis was significantly associated with an educational status of individuals.

  5. Antimicrobial therapy for the treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS patients: a critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seddon J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Jo Seddon1, Sanjay Bhagani21Department of Infectious Diseases, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK; 2Department of Infection and Immunity, Royal Free Hospital NHS Trust, London, UKAbstract: The widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART has entirely changed the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and dramatically reduced the rates of opportunistic infections (OI. However, OI continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality in both developed countries, where presentation with advanced HIV infection is common, and also in developing countries where ART is less widely available. Evidence to direct OI guidelines is partly limited by the fact that many large-scale studies date from the pre-ART era and more recent studies are sometimes poorly powered due to the falling rates of OI. Treatment of OI is now known to be as much about antimicrobials as about immune reconstitution with ART, and recent studies help guide the timing of initiation of ART in different infections. OI have also become complicated by the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome phenomenon which may occur once successful immune recovery begins. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole has long been one of the most important antibiotics in the treatment and prevention of OI and remains paramount. It has a broad spectrum of activity against Pneumocystis jiroveci, toxoplasmosis, and bacterial infections and has an important role to play in preventing life-threatening OI. New advances in treating OI are coming from a variety of quarters: in cytomegalovirus eye disease, the use of oral rather than intravenous drugs is changing the face of therapy; in cryptococcal meningitis, improved drug formulations and combination therapy is improving clearance rates and reducing drug toxicities; and in gut disease, the possibility of rapid immune restitution with ART is replacing the need for antimicrobials against cryptosporidia and microsporidia.Keywords: HIV

  6. Bioengineering T cells to target carbohydrate to treat opportunistic fungal infection

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaresan, Pappanaicken R.; Manuri, Pallavi R.; Albert, Nathaniel D.; Maiti, Sourindra; Singh, Harjeet; Mi, Tiejuan; Roszik, Jason; Rabinovich, Brian; Olivares, Simon; Krishnamurthy, Janani; Zhang, Ling; Najjar, Amer M.; Huls, M. Helen; Lee, Dean A.; Champlin, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with compromised T-cell function are at risk for opportunistic fungal infections. We have developed a novel approach to restore immunity by using a fungal pattern-recognition receptor Dectin-1 to redirect T-cell specificity to carbohydrate antigen in the fungal cell wall. We did so by genetically modifying T cells using the nonviral Sleeping Beauty gene-transfer system to enforce expression of a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) that recapitulates the specificity of Dectin-1 (D-CAR). T...

  7. 建筑工人艾滋病相关行为及HIV感染状况调查%AIDS- related Behaviors and HIV Infection Status Among Construction Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何波; 农丽萍; 张建明; 黄祖斌; 钟海东

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore AIDS - related behaviors and HIV infection status among construction workers in Pingxiang city for effective interventions on high risk behavior. Methods A cluster sampling method was adopted and 405 workers from 9 construction sites in Pingxiang city were selected from January to March 2011. Sexual behaviors including marriage sex, commercial sex and non - marriage/commercial casually sex were analyzed as well as HIV/AIDS related knowledge awareness, drug using and HIV, Syphilis and HCV test results in laboratory. Result A total of 405 construction workers were selected and investigated, with the HIV infection rate of 0. 49% , syphilis infection rate of 3. 95% , and HCV infection rate of 0. 99%. The awareness rate of AIDS -related knowledge (who could answer more than 6 items) was 72. 28% among the workers. The percentage of having sex with regular partners within the past year was 93.24% , and the rate of using condom each time was only 8. 69%. The rate of having non - marriage/commercial casual sex was 5. 68% in the past year. And 13. 39% of investiged male construction workers had had commercial sex in the past year with the rate of 62. 22% using condom each time. Also the rate was 0. 74% of drug using. Single factor analysis shows that the rate of commercial sex behavior is related to both education level and the AIDS - related knowledge awareness among the male construction workers ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion There was synergistic effect of multiple high risks related to HIV among construction workers in Pingxiang. Those construction workers were becoming the high risk and bridge group of AIDS infection and transmission. Effective interventions on high risk behavior should be carried out for HIV/AIDS prevention and control.%目的 了解凭祥市建筑工人艾滋病(AIDS)相关行为与艾滋病病毒( HIV)感染状况,以便采取有针对性的高危行为干预措施.方法 于2011 - 01/03,采用整群抽样方法抽取凭祥市9

  8. [Antibodies to the infective agents of opportunistic infections in blood of patients with hemoblastosis complicated with pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosh'ian, R E; Rybalkina, T N; Karazhas, N V; Ermakova, T M; Galstian, G M; Osmanov, E A; Vorob'ev, A A

    2006-01-01

    The examination of 112 hematological patients with diagnosed acute and chronic leucosis, lymphoma, myeloma, anemia, melanoma and other diseases revealed not a single subject among these examinees in whom no markers of opportunistic infections were detected. Low titers of antibodies to Pneumocystis carinii, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) were noted in 42%, 46.4% and 40.2% of examinees, respectively. Markers of acute diseases, such as class IgM, IgG antibodies in high titers, as well as P.carinii, CMV, EBV antigens, were detected in 37.5%, 30.4% and 22.3% of patients of a hematological hospital. In the group of comparison (donors) these figures were, respectively, 15.3%, 2.4% and 6.9%. The signs of monoinfection were detected in 11.6% (pneumocystosis), in 10.7% (CMV infection) and in 14.3% (EBV infection), while the markers of two infections, EBV infection and pneumocystosis, were detected in 9.8%, EBV and CMV infections in 11.6%, pneumocystosis and CMV infection in 14.3%; mixed contamination with all three infective agents was detected in 12.5% of the patients. PMID:16758900

  9. Time to HAART Initiation after Diagnosis and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in Patients with AIDS in Latin America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Crabtree-Ramírez

    Full Text Available Since 2009, earlier initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART after an opportunistic infection (OI has been recommended based on lower risks of death and AIDS-related progression found in clinical trials. Delay in HAART initiation after OIs may be an important barrier for successful outcomes in patients with advanced disease. Timing of HAART initiation after an OI in "real life" settings in Latin America has not been evaluated.Patients in the Caribbean, Central and South America network for HIV Epidemiology (CCASAnet ≥18 years of age at enrolment, from 2001-2012 who had an OI before HAART initiation were included. Patients were divided in an early HAART (EH group (those initiating within 4 weeks of an OI and a delayed HAART (DH group (those initiating more than 4 weeks after an OI. All patients with an AIDS-defining OI were included. In patients with more than one OI the first event reported was considered. Calendar trends in the proportion of patients in the EH group (before and after 2009 were estimated by site and for the whole cohort. Factors associated with EH were estimated using multivariable logistic regression models.A total of 1457 patients had an OI before HAART initiation and were included in the analysis: 213 from Argentina, 686 from Brazil, 283 from Chile, 119 from Honduras and 156 from Mexico. Most prevalent OI were Tuberculosis (31%, followed by Pneumocystis pneumonia (24%, Invasive Candidiasis (16% and Toxoplasmosis (9%. Median time from OI to HAART initiation decreased significantly from 5.7 (interquartile range [IQR] 2.8-12.1 weeks before 2009 to 4.3 (IQR 2.0-7.1 after 2009 (p<0.01. Factors associated with starting HAART within 4 weeks of OI diagnosis were lower CD4 count at enrolment (p-<0.001, having a non-tuberculosis OI (p<0.001, study site (p<0.001, and more recent years of OI diagnosis (p<0.001.The time from diagnosis of an OI to HAART initiation has decreased in Latin America coinciding with the

  10. Time to HAART Initiation after Diagnosis and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in Patients with AIDS in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda; Caro-Vega, Yanink; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Wolff, Marcelo; Cortes, Claudia P.; Padgett, Denis; Carriquiry, Gabriela; Fink, Valeria; Jayathilake, Karu; Person, Anna K.; McGowan, Catherine; Sierra-Madero, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Background Since 2009, earlier initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) after an opportunistic infection (OI) has been recommended based on lower risks of death and AIDS-related progression found in clinical trials. Delay in HAART initiation after OIs may be an important barrier for successful outcomes in patients with advanced disease. Timing of HAART initiation after an OI in “real life” settings in Latin America has not been evaluated. Methods Patients in the Caribbean, Central and South America network for HIV Epidemiology (CCASAnet) ≥18 years of age at enrolment, from 2001–2012 who had an OI before HAART initiation were included. Patients were divided in an early HAART (EH) group (those initiating within 4 weeks of an OI) and a delayed HAART (DH) group (those initiating more than 4 weeks after an OI). All patients with an AIDS-defining OI were included. In patients with more than one OI the first event reported was considered. Calendar trends in the proportion of patients in the EH group (before and after 2009) were estimated by site and for the whole cohort. Factors associated with EH were estimated using multivariable logistic regression models. Results A total of 1457 patients had an OI before HAART initiation and were included in the analysis: 213 from Argentina, 686 from Brazil, 283 from Chile, 119 from Honduras and 156 from Mexico. Most prevalent OI were Tuberculosis (31%), followed by Pneumocystis pneumonia (24%), Invasive Candidiasis (16%) and Toxoplasmosis (9%). Median time from OI to HAART initiation decreased significantly from 5.7 (interquartile range [IQR] 2.8–12.1) weeks before 2009 to 4.3 (IQR 2.0–7.1) after 2009 (p<0.01). Factors associated with starting HAART within 4 weeks of OI diagnosis were lower CD4 count at enrolment (p-<0.001), having a non-tuberculosis OI (p<0.001), study site (p<0.001), and more recent years of OI diagnosis (p<0.001). Discussion The time from diagnosis of an OI to HAART initiation has

  11. Neuroretinal Degeneration in HIV Patients Without Opportunistic Ocular Infections in the cART Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkaya, Nazli; Wit, Ferdinand; Schlingemann, Reinier; Verbraak, Franciscus

    2015-10-01

    Subtle structural and functional retinal abnormalities, termed 'HIV-associated Neuroretinal Disorder (HIV-NRD)', have been reported in HIV patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), without infectious retinitis or any apparent fundus abnormalities otherwise. In this review, we provide an overview of studies investigating HIV-NRD in HIV patients without opportunistic ocular infections in the cART era, and try to elucidate underlying mechanisms and associated risk factors. Most studies focused on patients with severe immune-deficiency and demonstrated that patients with nadir CD4 countsdifficulties in activities, such as reading or driving, thereby affecting quality of life. Since HIV has become a chronic disease, its long-term effects with respect to visual function loss become more important, as is recently emphasized by a longitudinal study, reporting that AIDS patients with HIV-NRD have higher risks of developing bilateral visual impairment and even blindness than patients without HIV-NRD. The question remains whether patients with high (>350 cells/μL) nadir CD4 counts and well-suppressed HIV infection on cART remain at risk for HIV-NRD, as this group constitutes a growing part of the aging HIV-infected population. PMID:26258992

  12. Incidence of AIDS-Defining Opportunistic Infections and Mortality during Antiretroviral Therapy in a Cohort of Adult HIV-Infected Individuals in Hanoi, 2007-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanuma, Junko; Lee, Kyu Ha; Haneuse, Sebastien; Matsumoto, Shoko; Nguyen, Dung Thi; Nguyen, Dung Thi Hoai; Do, Cuong Duy; Pham, Thuy Thanh; Nguyen, Kinh Van; Oka, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the prognosis for HIV-infected individuals has improved after antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up, limited data exist on the incidence of AIDS-defining opportunistic infections (ADIs) and mortality during ART in resource-limited settings. Methods HIV-infected adults in two large hospitals in urban Hanoi were enrolled to the prospective cohort, from October 2007 through December 2013. Those who started ART less than one year before enrollment were assigned to the survival analysis. Data on ART history and ADIs were collected retrospectively at enrollment and followed-up prospectively until April 2014. Results Of 2,070 cohort participants, 1,197 were eligible for analysis and provided 3,446 person-years (PYs) of being on ART. Overall, 161 ADIs episodes were noted at a median of 3.20 months after ART initiation (range 0.03–75.8) with an incidence 46.7/1,000 PYs (95% confidence interval [CI] 39.8–54.5). The most common ADI was tuberculosis with an incidence of 29.9/1,000 PYs. Mortality after ART initiation was 8.68/1,000 PYs and 45% (19/45) died of AIDS-related illnesses. Age over 50 years at ART initiation was significantly associated with shorter survival after controlling for baseline CD4 count, but neither having injection drug use (IDU) history nor previous ADIs were associated with poor survival. Semi-competing risks analysis in 951 patients without ADIs history prior to ART showed those who developed ADIs after starting ART were at higher risk of death in the first six months than after six months. Conclusion ADIs were not rare in spite of being on effective ART. Age over 50 years, but not IDU history, was associated with shorter survival in the cohort. This study provides in-depth data on the prognosis of patients on ART in Vietnam during the first decade of ART scale-up. PMID:26939050

  13. Changing mortality profile among HIV-infected patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: shifting from AIDS to non-AIDS related conditions in the HAART era.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Grinsztejn

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We describe temporal trends in the mortality rates and factors associated with AIDS and non-AIDS related mortality at the Evandro Chagas Clinical Research Institute (IPEC, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ. METHODS: Adult patients enrolling from 1986 through 2009 with a minimum follow up of 60 days were included. Vital status was exhaustively checked using patients' medical charts, through active contact with individuals and family members and by linkage with the Rio de Janeiro Mortality database using a previously validated algorithm. The CoDe protocol was used to establish the cause of death. Extended Cox proportional hazards models were used for multivariate modeling. RESULTS: A total of 3530 individuals met the inclusion criteria, out of which 868 (24.6% deceased; median follow up per patient was 3.9 years (interquartile range 1.7-9.2 years. The dramatic decrease in the overall mortality rates was driven by AIDS-related causes that decreased from 9.19 deaths/100PYs n 1986-1991 to 1.35/100PYs in 2007-2009. Non-AIDS related mortality rates remained stable overtime, at around 1 death/100PYs. Immunodeficiency significantly increased the hazard of both AIDS-related and non-AIDS-related causes of death, while HAART use was strongly associated with a lower hazard of death from either cause. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm the remarkable decrease in AIDS-related mortality as the HIV epidemic evolved and alerts to the conditions not traditionally related to HIV/AIDS which are now becoming more frequent, needing careful monitoring.

  14. STUDY OF CHANGES IN OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS AFTER ONE YEAR OF ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY IN HIV INFECTED PATIENTS IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE IN NORTH BENGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswadev Basu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are conflicting data regarding incidence of Opportunistic Infections in newly diagnosed HIV positive patients on ART. In this article, we studied incidence of Opportunistic Infections in newly diagnosed HIV positive in a tertiary care centre in North Bengal after one year of ART. One hundred and twenty patients were followed for one year after initiating ART. The most common opportunistic infections were Tuberculosis, Candidial infection, skin infections and diarrhea. At the baseline, 32 cases were present with tuberculosis (Pulmonary: 10, 6 sputum -ve and 4 sputum +ve, extrapulmonary: 22. Total patients with candidial infections were 15 (Oral: 12, Oesophageal: 3. After the 6 months of followup 13 patients presented with diarrhoea, 8 cases presented with oral candidiasis, 6 cases presented with tuberculosis. At 12 months of followup, 6 patients presented with tuberculosis, 4 cases with oral candidiasis and 3 cases with diarrhoea. Opportunistic infections at baseline were 60.4% among the study population, while after 6 and 12 months of ART it decreased to 33.7% and 16.8% respectively.

  15. AIDS-related myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Rafiq A.; Yasmeen, Shagufta; Munn, Robert; Ruebner, Boris H.; Ellis, William G.

    1999-09-01

    Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is often associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and wasting is one of the defining clinical features of AIDS. Muscular weakness due to myopathy may develop at any stage of HIV infection. We report two illustrative cases of HIV-associated myopathies. One was due to inflammatory myosits most likely directly related to the HIV infection, and the other was most likely the result of mitochondrial damage due to zidovudine, a nucleoside analogue commonly used in treating HIV infection. Biopsies from both patients showed alterations of myofiber structures, of varying severity, culminating in necrosis, lipid droplets, and lymphoplasmocytic inflammatory response. The zidovudine-treated patient also showed distinctive mitochondrial changes, predominantly enlargement, variation in shape and size, and disorganization of the cristae. These two types of HIV-associated inflammatory myopathies are reviewed, along with other HIV-associated myopathies, including HIV wasting syndrome, nemaline rod myopathy, pyomyositis, rhabdomyolysis, cardiomyopathy, and other miscellaneous myopathies associated with HIV infection. PMID:11810429

  16. Risk factor analyses for immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in a randomized study of early vs. deferred ART during an opportunistic infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M Grant

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS is reported widely in patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART. However, few studies are prospective, and no study has evaluated the impact of the timing of ART when allocated randomly during an acute opportunistic infection (OI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A5164 randomized 282 subjects with AIDS-related OIs (tuberculosis excluded, to early or deferred ART. IRIS was identified prospectively using pre-defined criteria. We evaluated associations between IRIS and baseline variables in subjects with follow-up on ART using Wilcoxon and Fisher's exact tests, logistic regression, and Cox models with time-varying covariates. Twenty of 262 (7.6% subjects developed IRIS after a median of 33 days on ART. Subjects with fungal infections (other than pneumocystis developed IRIS somewhat more frequently (OR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.02, 7.2; p-value = 0.06 (using Fisher's exact test. In Cox models, lower baseline and higher on-treatment CD4+ T-cell counts and percentage were associated with IRIS. Additionally, higher baseline and lower on-treatment HIV RNA levels were associated with IRIS. Corticosteroids during OI management and the timing of ART were not associated with the development of IRIS. IMPLICATIONS: In patients with advanced immunosuppression and non-tuberculous OIs, the presence of a fungal infection, lower CD4+ T-cell counts and higher HIV RNA levels at baseline, and higher CD4+ T-cell counts and lower HIV RNA levels on treatment are associated with IRIS. Early initiation of ART does not increase the incidence of IRIS, and concern about IRIS should not prompt deferral of ART. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00055120.

  17. Miliary tuberculosis: a severe opportunistic infection in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla S. Freire

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction One of the main issues in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE patients is infection, such as tuberculosis (TB. Of note, SLE patients are susceptible to pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB. However, to our knowledge, this contagious disease was rarely reported in pediatric lupus population, particularly diffuse or miliary TB. Therefore, from January 1983 to December 2011, 5,635 patients were followed-up at our Pediatric Rheumatology Unit and 285 (5% of them met the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for SLE. Case reports Four (1.4% of our JSLE patients had disseminated TB and were described herein. All of them were female gender, received BCG vaccination and did not have a history of TB household contact. The median of current age at TB diagnosis and the period between JSLE and TB diagnosis were 17 years old (range 14-20 and 5.5 years (range 2-7, respectively. All patients developed miliary TB during the course of the disease. The median of SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K was 4 (2-16 and the patients were treated with immunosuppressive agents (glucocorticoid, azathioprine and/or intravenous cyclophosphamide. Two of them presented sepsis and TB diagnosis was only established at autopsy, especially with lungs, central nervous system and abdominal involvements. Anti-TB therapy (isoniazid, rifampicin and pyrazinamide was indicated in the other two TB cases, however they deceased. Discussion Miliary TB is a rare and severe opportunist infection in pediatric lupus population. This study reinforces the importance of routine searches for TB in JSLE patients.

  18. Opportunistic infections in relation to antiretroviral status among AIDS patients from south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Srirangaraj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a need to generate data from India on relative frequencies of specific opportunistic infections (OIs in different regions and their relation to the choice of commonly used generic highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART regimens. Objectives: To document the prevailing prevalence pattern of OIs both before and after HAART, to look for reduction in OIs following HAART, to assess the risk of developing new OIs within 6 months of HAART initiation and to see if there is any difference in the risk of developing a new OI within 6 months of HAART initiation, for those on Efavirenz (EFV-based regimens and Nevirapine (NVP-based regimens. Materials and Methods: In a prospective observational cohort study conducted in South India involving 108 ART-naive AIDS patients, different pathogens were isolated and identified using standard laboratory techniques. Data analysis was done using SPSS software (version 16.0. Risk of developing an OI after HAART initiation was assessed using the likelihood ratio test from Cox regression models. Results: Tuberculosis (53.4%, oral Candidiasis (27.2% and Herpes Zoster (14.7% were the common infections seen. There was a drastic reduction of 96.59% in OI events after 6 months of HAART. The risk of developing an OI within 6 months of HAART initiation was 5.56%. Time to development of an OI in the first 6 months of HAART was shorter for the NVP-based regimens than with EFV-based regimens, but this difference was not statistically significant (HR=0.891, 95% CI: 0.179-4.429; P=0.888. Conclusion: Tuberculosis is the most important OI before initiation of HAART. Both EFV and NVP-based regimens are equally efficacious in controlling OIs.

  19.  Mycolic acids – potential biomarkers of opportunistic infections caused by bacteria of the suborder Corynebacterineae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Kowalski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available  Mycolic acids are one of the basic elements of the cell wall structure of bacteria belonging to the suborder Corynebacterineae, constituting from 20�0to 40�0of dry weight. Additionally, they show high structural diversity within each family and species. Nowadays, profiles of mycolic acids are widely described for the genus Mycobacterium, the causative agent of tuberculosis. However, the suborder Corynebacterineae also includes many representatives of opportunistic human pathogens, e.g. Dietzia, Gordonia, Nocardia and Rhodococcus. Currently, an increased infection risk caused by this group of microorganisms especially in immunocompromised patients has been observed. Better knowledge of mycolic acid profiles for Corynebacterineae may allow identification of mycolic acids as diagnostic markers in the detection of opportunistic bacterial infections. Modern techniques of chemical analysis, including mass spectrometry, may enable the development of new chemotaxonomic methods for the detection and differentiation of bacteria within the suborder Corynebacterineae.

  20. Vegetable microbiomes: is there a connection among opportunistic infections, human health and our ‘gut feeling'?

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Gabriele; Erlacher, Armin; Smalla, Kornelia; Krause, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The highly diverse microbiomes of vegetables are reservoirs for opportunistic and emerging pathogens. In recent years, an increased consumption, larger scale production and more efficient distribution of vegetables together with an increased number of immunocompromised individuals resulted in an enhanced number of documented outbreaks of human infections associated with the consumption of vegetables. Here we discuss the occurrence of potential pathogens in vegetable microbiomes, the impact of...

  1. Urine Stasis Predisposes to Urinary Tract Infection by an Opportunistic Uropathogen in the Megabladder (Mgb Mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Becknell

    Full Text Available Urinary stasis is a risk factor for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI. Homozygous mutant Megabladder (Mgb-/- mice exhibit incomplete bladder emptying as a consequence of congenital detrusor aplasia. We hypothesize that this predisposes Mgb-/- mice to spontaneous and experimental UTI.Mgb-/-, Mgb+/-, and wild-type female mice underwent serial ultrasound and urine cultures at 4, 6, and 8 weeks to detect spontaneous UTI. Urine bacterial isolates were analyzed by Gram stain and speciated. Bladder stones were analyzed by x-ray diffractometry. Bladders and kidneys were subject to histologic analysis. The pathogenicity of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS isolated from Mgb-/- urine was tested by transurethral administration to culture-negative Mgb-/- or wild-type animals. The contribution of urinary stasis to CONS susceptibility was evaluated by cutaneous vesicostomy in Mgb-/- mice.Mgb-/- mice develop spontaneous bacteriuria (42% and struvite bladder stones (31% by 8 weeks, findings absent in Mgb+/- and wild-type controls. CONS was cultured as a solitary isolate from Mgb-/- bladder stones. Bladders and kidneys from mice with struvite stones exhibit mucosal injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. These pathologic features of cystitis and pyelonephritis are replicated by transurethral inoculation of CONS in culture-negative Mgb-/- females, whereas wild-type animals are less susceptible to CONS colonization and organ injury. Cutaneous vesicostomy prior to CONS inoculation significantly reduces the quantity of CONS recovered from Mgb-/- urine, bladders, and kidneys.CONS is an opportunistic uropathogen in the setting of urinary stasis, leading to enhanced UTI incidence and severity in Mgb-/- mice.

  2. Prevalent Opportunistic Infections Associated with HIV-positive Children 0-5 years in Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imade, P. E.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 620 HIV positive children 0-5 years attending University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, were examined in this study. They were grouped into less than 1 year and 1-5 years based on CDC classification system. 218 children were under 1 year and 402 were 1-5 years. The overall results showed that malaria infection recorded the highest prevalence with 71.10% in less than 1 year and 76.37% in 1-5 years. This was followed by Oral Candidiasis 38.07% in less than 1 year and 50% in 1-5 years. Bacteraemia had 23.40% and 30.60% in less than 1 year and 1-5 years respectively. Diarrhoea, 14.22% in less than 1 year and 17.66% in 1-5 years. Otitis media had 10.55% and 10.95% in less than 1 year and 1-5 years respectively. Similarly, 590 apparently healthy HIV-negative children within the same age group were evaluated for the presence of these infections. There was a statistical significance between opportunistic infections and HIV infection (P < 0.001. Malaria infection was the most prevalent opportunistic infection in this population and may probably be due to environmental condition of this locality as well as the low immune status of the children.

  3. Nutri-medicinal plants used in the management of HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in western Uganda : documentation, phytochemistry and bioactivity evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Asiimwe, Savina

    2015-01-01

    As a result of the AIDS epidemic, many people are immunocompromised and opportunistic infections are common. Medicinal plants constitute one of the fundaments of HIV treatment and are commonly used in management of HIV–related ailments, and also to counteract the side effects of antiretroviral therapy. This study documents and evaluates nutri-medicinal plants traditionally used in the management of opportunistic infections associated with HIV/AIDS in western Uganda. A six-stage process of doc...

  4. Magnitude of opportunistic infections and associated factors in HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy in eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitiku H

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Habtamu Mitiku, Fitsum Weldegebreal, Zelalem Teklemariam Haramaya University, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Harar, Ethiopia Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of opportunistic infections (OIs and associated factors among HIV-infected adults on anti-retroviral therapy (ART in Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia. Patients and methods: A hospital-based retrospective study was conducted in 358 HIV-infected adult patients on ART from April to June 2014. Data were collected through review of clinical records. The data was entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 16.0. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the association of each independent variable with occurrence of OIs. A 95% confidence interval (CI and P-value less than 0.05 were considered as significant association. Results: A total of 358 patients were included in the study, in which majority (68.4% were females. The mean age of patients was 34 (standard deviation [SD] ±9.8 years. The overall of prevalence of OIs among HIV/AIDS patients on ART was 48%. The highest prevalent rates of OIs observed were tuberculosis (TB (21.23%, followed by Herpes zoster (11.2% and oral candidiasis (9.5%. Baseline CD4 cell count <200 cells/mm3 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =1.645, 95% CI =2.187, 3.983, baseline World Health Organization (WHO clinical stage III (AOR =2.801, 95% CI =1.958, 7.165 and IV (AOR =3.856; 95% CI =2.691, 10.390, and not using prophylaxis (AOR =1.912, 95% CI =1.444, 3.824 were found to have strong association with acquisition of OIs. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of OIs observed in this study. Baselines CD4 count of <200 cells/mm3, advanced WHO clinical stages, and not using prophylaxis were found to be predictors of OIs. Interventions were aimed at promoting early HIV testing and enrollment of HIV-infected individuals into ART services needed before CD4

  5. Panax ginseng has anti-infective activity against opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa by inhibiting quorum sensing, a bacterial communication process critical for establishing infection

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Z.; Kong, K.F; Wu, H; Maricic, N.; Ramalingam, B.; Priestap, H.; Quirke, J.M.E.; Høiby, N.; Mathee, K

    2010-01-01

    Virulent factors produced by pathogens play an important role in the infectious process, which is regulated by a cell-to-cell communication mechanism called quorum sensing (QS). Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic human pathogen, which causes infections in patients with compromised immune systems and cystic fibrosis. The QS systems of P. aeruginosa use N-acylated homoserine lactone (AHL) as signal molecules. Previously we have demonstrated that Panax ginseng treatment allowed...

  6. A Case of Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in a Severely Malnourished, HIV-Negative Patient: A Role for Malnutrition in Opportunistic Infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attalla El Halabieh, Nadia; Petrillo, Enrico; Laviano, Alessandro; Delfino, Massimo; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo

    2016-07-01

    Malnutrition increases the risk of infections in patients receiving medical and surgical procedures, but it is not clear whether it may facilitate also the development of opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients not receiving immunosuppressive therapies. Here we report the first case of a non-HIV, severely malnourished woman who developed Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. This report highlights the clinical relevance of malnutrition as a determinant of immune suppression, which in turn may also favor opportunistic infections. Therefore, routine nutrition screening and assessment, as well as timely start of nutrition therapy, should be prioritized in daily clinical practice to reduce complications and improve outcome. PMID:25172049

  7. Characterization of a new simian immunodeficiency virus strain in a naturally infected Pan troglodytes troglodytes chimpanzee with AIDS related symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Aghokeng Avelin F; Tamoufe Ubald; Djoko Cyrille F; Nana Ahmadou; Rousset Dominique; Foupouapouognigni Yacouba; Bibila Godwin; LeBreton Matthew; Nerrienet Eric; Etienne Lucie; Mpoudi-Ngole Eitel; Delaporte Eric; Peeters Martine; Wolfe Nathan D; Ayouba Ahidjo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Data on the evolution of natural SIV infection in chimpanzees (SIVcpz) and on the impact of SIV on local ape populations are only available for Eastern African chimpanzee subspecies (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii), and no data exist for Central chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes), the natural reservoir of the ancestors of HIV-1 in humans. Here, we report a case of naturally-acquired SIVcpz infection in a P.t.troglodytes chimpanzee with clinical and biological data a...

  8. 江苏省男性HIV感染者/AIDS患者AIDS相关支原体感染情况分析%Analysis for infection of AIDS-related mycoplasma in male HIV carrier and AIDS patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周良佳; 吴建茹; 朱一; 徐金水; 傅更锋; 王蓓

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解HIV感染者或AIDS患者AIDS相关支原体生殖支原体(Mycoplasma genitalium,Mg)、发酵支原体(Mycoplasma fermentans,Mf)、穿通支原体(Mycoplasma penetrans,Mpe)和梨支原体(Mycoplasma pirum,Mpi)的感染状况并分析其与疾病发展的关系,为进一步研究AIDS相关支原体在HIV感染者/AIDS患者免疫功能变化中的作用提供依据.方法 对江苏省312名男性HIV感染者/AIDS患者采用流行病学横断面调查的方法,在调查对象知情同意的基础上开展问卷调查,同时采集首段尿、静脉血标本.用PCR法检测支原体,流式细胞仪检测外周血CD4+T淋巴细胞,ELISA双抗体夹心法检测细胞因子水平.结果 江苏省男性HIV感染者/AIDS患者中,除无Mpe感染外,存在其他3种AIDS相关支原体Mg、Mf、Mpi的感染,检出率分别为26.9%、13.8%和21.8%.Mf的感染率在不同CD4+T细胞水平者间的差异有统计学意义(x2=11.775,P=0.003).对男性HIV感染者/AIDS合并AIDS相关支原体感染者血清细胞因子水平进行分析,合并支原体感染组的IL-4水平(4.437pg/mL)高于单纯HIV感染组(1.922 pg/mL),IL-6水平(0.431 pg/mL)低于单纯HIV感染组(0.532 pg/mL),差异均有统计学意义(P<0.001).多因素logistic回归分析结果显示,苏南地区较苏北地区AIDS相关支原体感染危险性高(OR=2.388,95%CI:1.212 ~4.706),而苏中较苏南地区AIDS相关支原体感染危险性低(OR=0.447,95% CI:0.253 ~0.790);HIV感染者/AIDS患者积极进行抗逆转录病毒治疗者发生AIDS相关支原体感染的危险性较小(OR=0.545,95%CI:0.311~0.955).结论 江苏省男性HIV感染者/AIDS患者存在较高AIDS相关支原体的感染;支原体感染与机体免疫状况具有一定的相关性,但其关联机制还需要进一步深入探讨.%Objective To investigate the prevalence of infection with AIDS-related mycoplasma, including Mycoplasma genitalium ( Mg) , Mycoplasma fermentans ( Mf) , Mycoplasma

  9. Absolute level of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection is not predictive of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Baarle, Debbie; Wolthers, Katja C; Hovenkamp, Egbert; Niesters, Hubert G M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Miedema, Frank; Van Oers, Marinus H J

    2002-01-01

    To study whether Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) load can be used to predict the occurrence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma (AIDS-NHL), we determined EBV load longitudinally for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. EBV load in peripheral blood mo

  10. Increase in non-AIDS related conditions as causes of death among HIV-infected individuals in the HAART era in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio G Pacheco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 1996, Brazil became the first developing country to provide free and universal access to HAART. Although a decrease in overall mortality has been documented, there are no published data on the impact of HAART on causes of death among HIV-infected individuals in Brazil. We assessed temporal trends of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD, diabetes mellitus (DM and other conditions generally not associated with HIV-infection among persons with and without HIV infection in Brazil between 1999 and 2004. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Odds ratios were used to compare causes of death in individuals who had HIV/AIDS listed on any field of the death certificate with those who did not. Logistic regression models were fitted with generalized estimating equations to account for spatial correlation; co-variables were added to the models to control for potential confounding. Of 5,856,056 deaths reported in Brazil between 1999 and 2004 67,249 (1.15% had HIV/AIDS listed on the death certificate and non-HIV-related conditions were listed on 16.3% in 1999, increasing to 24.1% by 2004 (p<0.001. The adjusted average yearly increases were 8% and 0.8% for CVD (p<0.001, and 12% and 2.8% for DM (p<0.001, for those who had and did not have HIV/AIDS listed on the death certificate, respectively. Similar results were found for these conditions as underlying causes of death. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In Brazil between 1999 and 2004 conditions usually considered not to be related to HIV-infection appeared to become more likely causes of death over time than reported causes of death among individuals who had HIV/AIDS listed on the death certificate than in those who did not. This observation has important programmatic implications for developing countries that are scaling-up access to antiretroviral therapy.

  11. The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa activates the DNA double-strand break signaling and repair pathway in infected cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly hazardous DNA double-strand breaks can be induced in eukaryotic cells by a number of agents including pathogenic bacterial strains. We have investigated the genotoxic potential of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen causing devastating nosocomial infections in cystic fibrosis or immunocompromised patients. Our data revealed that infection of immune or epithelial cells by P. aeruginosa triggered DNA strand breaks and phosphorylation of histone H2AX (γH2AX), a marker of DNA double-strand breaks. Moreover, it induced formation of discrete nuclear repair foci similar to gamma-irradiation-induced foci, and containing γH2AX and 53BP1, an adaptor protein mediating the DNA-damage response pathway. Gene deletion, mutagenesis, and complementation in P. aeruginosa identified ExoS bacterial toxin as the major factor involved in γH2AX induction. Chemical inhibition of several kinases known to phosphorylate H2AX demonstrated that Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) was the principal kinase in P. aeruginosa-induced H2AX phosphorylation. Finally, infection led to ATM kinase activation by an auto-phosphorylation mechanism. Together, these data show for the first time that infection by P. aeruginosa activates the DNA double-strand break repair machinery of the host cells. This novel information sheds new light on the consequences of P. aeruginosa infection in mammalian cells. As pathogenic Escherichia coli or carcinogenic Helicobacter pylori can alter genome integrity through DNA double-strand breaks, leading to chromosomal instability and eventually cancer, our findings highlight possible new routes for further investigations of P. aeruginosa in cancer biology and they identify ATM as a potential target molecule for drug design. (authors)

  12. Hemophagocytic Syndrome Associated with Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in a Patient with AIDS Related Burkitt’s Leukemia/Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Kanıtez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has markedly decreased human immunodeficiency virus- (HIV- related mortality and the incidence of opportunistic infections. The dramatic reduction in HIV-1 RNA and increase in CD4 lymphocyte count mean a recovery in immune function. This restoration in immune function may be associated with paradoxical deterioration in subclinical opportunistic infections in some patients, a condition called immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS. IRIS, a “paradoxical” inflammatory response to either previously treated or subclinical infections or noninfectious diseases, can manifest during the restoration phase of immunity hemophagocytic syndrome (HS which is a very rare complication in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS. We describe a case of hemophagocytic syndrome associated with IRIS in a patient with AIDS related Burkitt’s leukemia/lymphoma (BL. IRIS was probably the cause of hemophagocytosis for our patient. Zoster infection may facilitate to IRIS. With the increasing number of people with HIV infection and the accompanying use of HAART, much more clinical manifestations of IRIS will be experienced especially in patients given high dose chemotherapy, just like in our case.

  13. Association of interleukin-8 gene polymorphisms in HIV patients with opportunistic infections in Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhivhuho, G A; Nangammbi, T C; Samie, A

    2016-01-01

    Opportunistic infections (OIs) are common among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients; however, genetic susceptibility to these infections has not been studied. Recent studies have shown that interleukin-8 (IL-8) A/T genotype carriers are more susceptible to a variety of diseases. In this study, we showed the effects of IL-8 gene polymorphisms on OIs and symptoms such as sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), tuberculosis (TB), diarrhea, shortness of breath, weight loss, and viral load, in HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients. Genomic DNA was purified from mouthwash samples collected from patients attending HIV centers in the Vhembe district. The IL-8 (-251) A/T locus was genotyped using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The results showed a weak association between the IL-8 AA genotype and OIs such as STDs (P = 0.143), diarrhea (P = 0.906), and TB (P = 0.762). Significant associations were found between the IL-8 AT genotype and weight loss (P = 0.019), shortness of breath (P = 0.043), and skin problems (P = 0.003). Low viral load was also found to be significantly associated with IL-8 AA genotype (P = 0.009). The present study suggests that different IL-8 genotypes are associated with resistance to various OIs. However, further studies using larger samples sizes are needed to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:26985957

  14. Factors associated with development of opportunistic infections in HIV-1 infected adults with high CD4 cell counts: a EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podlekareva, Daria; Mocroft, A; Dragsted, Ulrik Bak;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on factors predicting the development of opportunistic infections (OIs) at higher-than-expected CD4(+) cell counts in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected adults. METHODS: Multivariate Poisson regression models were used to determine factors related to...... the development of groups of OIs above their respective traditional upper CD4(+) cell count thresholds: group 1 (>or=100 cells/ microL), OIs caused by cytomegalovirus, Mycobacterium avium complex, and Toxoplasma gondii; group 2 (>or=200 cells/ microL), Pneumocystis pneumonia and esophageal candidiasis......; and group 3 (>or=300 cells/ microL), pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis. RESULTS: In groups 1, 2, and 3, 71 of 9,219, 125 of 7,934, and 36 of 7,838 patients, respectively, developed >or=1 intragroup OI. The strongest predictor of an OI in groups 1 and 2 was current CD4(+) cell count (for group...

  15. Early antiretroviral therapy reduces AIDS progression/death in individuals with acute opportunistic infections: a multicenter randomized strategy trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Zolopa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Optimal timing of ART initiation for individuals presenting with AIDS-related OIs has not been defined. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A5164 was a randomized strategy trial of "early ART"--given within 14 days of starting acute OI treatment versus "deferred ART"--given after acute OI treatment is completed. Randomization was stratified by presenting OI and entry CD4 count. The primary week 48 endpoint was 3-level ordered categorical variable: 1. Death/AIDS progression; 2. No progression with incomplete viral suppression (ie HIV viral load (VL >or=50 copies/ml; 3. No progression with optimal viral suppression (ie HIV VL <50 copies/ml. Secondary endpoints included: AIDS progression/death; plasma HIV RNA and CD4 responses and safety parameters including IRIS. 282 subjects were evaluable; 141 per arm. Entry OIs included Pneumocytis jirovecii pneumonia 63%, cryptococcal meningitis 12%, and bacterial infections 12%. The early and deferred arms started ART a median of 12 and 45 days after start of OI treatment, respectively. THE DIFFERENCE IN THE PRIMARY ENDPOINT DID NOT REACH STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE: AIDS progression/death was seen in 20 (14% vs. 34 (24%; whereas no progression but with incomplete viral suppression was seen in 54 (38% vs. 44 (31%; and no progression with optimal viral suppression in 67 (48% vs 63 (45% in the early vs. deferred arm, respectively (p = 0.22. However, the early ART arm had fewer AIDS progression/deaths (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.27-0.94 and a longer time to AIDS progression/death (stratified HR = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.30-0.92. The early ART had shorter time to achieving a CD4 count above 50 cells/mL (p<0.001 and no increase in adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Early ART resulted in less AIDS progression/death with no increase in adverse events or loss of virologic response compared to deferred ART. These results support the early initiation of ART in patients presenting with acute AIDS-related OIs, absent major contraindications

  16. Spectrum of Opportunistic Infections and Risk Factors for In-Hospital Mortality of Admitted AIDS Patients in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bin; Sun, Jianjun; Cai, Rentian; Shen, Yinzhong; Liu, Li; Wang, Jiangrong; Zhang, Renfang; Shen, Jiayin; Lu, Hongzhou

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the frequency and the spectrum of major opportunistic infections (OIs), evaluate the major clinical factors associated with each specific OI, and identify the risk factors for in-hospital death among HIV patients in East China.A retrospective cohort study was made including all the HIV-infected patients who were admitted for the first time to the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center during June 1, 2013 to June 1, 2015. The demographic and clinical data were collected. Comparison of continuous variables was analyzed by one-way ANOVA and rank sum test. Person χ test and Fisher exact test were applied to analyze the categorical variables. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to determine the risk for the occurrence of in-hospital death.In total, 920 patients were enrolled with age of 41.59 ± 13.36 years and 91% male. Median CD4 was 34 (IQR, 13-94) cells/μL. Among these patients, 94.7% acquired OIs while the rest developed malignancies. Pneumocystis pneumonia and bacterial coinfection (42.1%) was found to be the most common OIs, followed by tuberculosis (31.4%), CMV (20.9%), Cryptococcosis (9.0%), and MAC infection (5.2%). Of the above 5 major OIs, CMV-infected patients had the lowest median CD4 cell count 22.50 (IQR, 7.50-82.00) while the patients with tuberculosis infection had the highest count 61.00 (IQR, 27.00-176.00). In-hospital death rate was 4.2 per 100 person-years among these patients. Of note, admitted patients with 2 types of OIs (2.20, 95% CI 1.39-3.48) and those patients who were 40-year old or older (1.75, 95% CI 1.10-2.78) had a higher risk of such death.Pneumocystis pneumonia and tuberculosis were still the leading causes for the admission of HIV-infected patients in East China, and these patients tended to have very low CD4 cell counts. It is believed that expanding the HIV screening test and pushing the infected ones get ART earlier is required for generating a more successful HIV management strategy. PMID

  17. Multicenter Outbreak of Infections by Saprochaete clavata, an Unrecognized Opportunistic Fungal Pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Vaux, Sophie; Criscuolo, Alexis; Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Diancourt, Laure; Tarnaud, Chloé; Vandenbogaert, Matthias; Brisse, Sylvain; Coignard, Bruno; Dromer, Françoise; ,; Garcia-Hermoso, Dea; Blanc, Catherine; Hoinard, Damien; Lortholary, Olivier; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rapidly fatal cases of invasive fungal infections due to a fungus later identified as Saprochaete clavata were reported in France in May 2012. The objectives of this study were to determine the clonal relatedness of the isolates and to investigate possible sources of contamination. A nationwide alert was launched to collect cases. Molecular identification methods, whole-genome sequencing (WGS), and clone-specific genotyping were used to analyze recent and historical isolates, and a c...

  18. HIV/AIDS相关性慢性腹泻患者感染空肠弯曲菌的临床分析%Infections of Campylobacter Jejuni among Patients with HIV/AIDS-related Chronic Diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华文浩; 王慧珠; 赵辉; 李敏; 张燕; 田敬华; 王玉光

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the Campylobacter jejuni infection status of HIV/AIDS patients with chronic diarrhea in Beijing, Henan, and Xinjiang.Methods Micro - aerobic cultivation of stool specimens were carried out in 253 cases of HIV/AIDS patients with chronic diarrhea in Beijing, Henan, and Xinjiang.The colonies were identified according to morphology, Gram staining, and results frombiochemical reactions.Results Two strains of Campylobacter jejuni were identified from the 253 cases of HIV/AIDS - related chronic diarrhea ( infection rate: 0.8% ).Conclusion It is important that monitoring for Campylobacter jejuni be carried out in high risk patients for prevention and control of the infection of the bacteria.%目的 了解北京、河南、新疆三地HIV/AIDS相关性慢性腹泻患者空肠弯曲菌的感染状况.方法 对北京、河南、新疆三地253例HIV/AIDS慢性腹泻患者的粪便标本进行微需氧培养,根据菌落的形态、菌体的革兰染色及生化反应进行鉴定.结果 从253例HIV/AIDS相关性慢性腹泻患者的粪便中共检出2株空肠弯曲菌,感染率为0.8%.结论 加强空肠弯曲菌的监测是预防和控制空肠弯曲菌病的重要手段.

  19. Opportunistic infection of Aspergillus and bacteria in captive Cape vultures (Gyps coprotheres)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen Chege; Judith Howlett; Majid Al Qassimi; Arshad Toosy; Joerg Kinne; Vincent Obanda

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe clinical signs, pathology, diagnosis and treatment of Cape vultures in which Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) and mixed species of bacteria were isolated. Methods: Six Cape vultures sourced from South Africa for exhibition at Al Ain Zoo developed illness manifesting as anorexia, dyspnea, polyuria and lethargy. Three vultures died manifesting‘‘pneumonia-like syndrome’’. These three vultures were necropsied and gross lesions recorded, while organ tissues were collected for histopathology. Internal organs were swabbed for bacteriology and mycology. From live vultures, blood was collected for hematology and biochemistry, oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were collected for mycology and bacteriology. Results: A. fumigatus was isolated from the three dead vultures and two live ones that eventually survived. One of the dead vulture and two live vultures were co-infected with A. fumigatus and mixed species of bacteria that included Clostridium perfringens, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Escherichia, Proteus, Enterococcus and Enterbacter. One of the Cape vulture and a Lappet-faced vulture, however, were free of Aspergillus or bacterial infections. At necropsy, intestinal hemorrhages were observed and the lungs were overtly congested with granulomas present on caudal air sac. Histopathological examinations demonstrated granulomatous lesions that were infiltrated by mononuclear cells and giant cells. Conclusions: Aspergillosis is a persistent threat to captive birds and we recommend routine health assessments so that early diagnosis may prompt early treatment. It is likely that prompt prophylaxis by broad spectrum antibiotics and antifungals medication contributed to the survival of some of the vultures.

  20. [Intraspecies diversity of Trichosporon asahii as the causative agent of opportunistic fungal infection and summer-type hypersensitivity pneumonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Trichosporon asahii is the major causative agent of the opportunistic infection trichosporonosis, and also causes summer-type hypersensitivity pneumonitis (SHP). Random amplification of polymorphic DNA analysis was used to determine the intraspecies diversity of T. asahii isolates from clinical specimens,the houses of SHP patients, and environmental material. Clinical isolates formed a cluster, characterized by a 90% matching coefficient, but they did not cluster with strains isolated from SHP patients houses or environmental sources. The biochemical characteristics of T. asahii isolates from the three sources were compared, and a phenogram was constructed. One of the two clusters included most of the clinical isolates and strains isolated from the houses, and the other cluster included most of the environmental isolates. There was a remarkable difference in the abilities of the strains belonging to these clusters to utilize several compounds. These results suggest that the genetic diversity and biochemical characteristics of T. asahii are related to the source of the isolates. In addition, based on the IGS1 sequence, which is located between the 26S and 5S rRNA genes, we identified five genotypes of T. asahii, which is a major causative agent of deep-seated trichosporonosis. Of the five genotypes, three were isolates that originated in Japan, whereas two were American isolates. IGS sequence analysis shows great potential as a new epidemiological tool. PMID:12590253

  1. Opportunistic illnesses in Brazilian children with AIDS: results from two national cohort studies, 1983-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heukelbach Jorg

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HAART has significantly reduced AIDS-related morbidity in children. However, limited evidence is available from developing countries regarding patterns of opportunistic illnesses. We describe these events and their associated factors in children with AIDS in Brazil. Methods This study is based on two representative retrospective multi-center cohorts including a total 1,859 children with AIDS, infected via mother-to-child transmission (MTCT, between 1983-2002. Opportunistic illnesses were described and analyzed over time. The association of demographic, clinical and operational data with the occurrence of opportunistic diseases was assessed. Results In total, 1,218 (65.5% had at least one event of an opportunistic disease. Variables significantly associated with occurrence of these events included: region of residence (OR 2.68-11.33, as compared to the Northern region, age Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (21.9 vs. 13.2%; p Conclusions Despite the significant reduction in recent years, opportunistic illnesses are still common in Brazilian children with AIDS in the HAART era, especially bacterial diseases. The data reinforce the need for scaling up prevention of MTCT, early diagnosis of infection, and improvement of comprehensive pediatric care.

  2. Multicenter Outbreak of Infections by Saprochaete clavata, an Unrecognized Opportunistic Fungal Pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaux, Sophie; Criscuolo, Alexis; Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Diancourt, Laure; Tarnaud, Chloé; Vandenbogaert, Matthias; Brisse, Sylvain; Coignard, Bruno; Garcia-Hermoso, Dea; Blanc, Catherine; Hoinard, Damien; Lortholary, Olivier; Bretagne, Stéphane; Thiolet, Jean-Michel; de Valk, Henriette; Courbil, Rémi; Chabanel, Anne; Simonet, Marion; Maire, Francoise; Jbilou, Saadia; Tiberghien, Pierre; Blanchard, Hervé; Venier, Anne-Gaëlle; Bernet, Claude; Simon, Loïc; Sénéchal, Hélène; Pouchol, Elodie; Angot, Christiane; Ribaud, Patricia; Socié, G.; Flèche, M.; Brieu, Nathalie; Lagier, Evelyne; Chartier, Vanessa; Allegre, Thierry; Maulin, Laurence; Lanic, Hélène; Tilly, Hervé; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Pihet, Marc; Schmidt, Aline; Kouatchet, Achille; Vandamme, Yves-Marie; Ifrah, Norbert; Mercat, Alain; Accoceberry, Isabelle; Albert, Olivier; Leguay, Thibaut; Rogues, Anne-Marie; Bonhomme, Julie; Reman, Oumédaly; Lesteven, Claire; Poirier, Philippe; Chabrot, Cécile Molucon; Calvet, Laure; Baud, Olivier; Cambon, Monique; Farkas, Jean Chistophe; Lafon, Bruno; Dalle, Frédéric; Caillot, Denis; Lazzarotti, Aline; Aho, Serge; Combret, Sandrine; Facon, Thierry; Sendid, Boualem; Loridant, Séverine; Louis, Terriou; Cazin, Bruno; Grandbastien, Bruno; Bourgeois, Nathalie; Lotthé, Anne; Cartron, Guillaume; Ravel, Christophe; Colson, Pascal; Gaudard, Philippe; Bonmati, Caroline; Simon, Loic; Rabaud, Christian; Machouart, Marie; Poisson, Didier; Carp, Diana; Meunier, Jérôme; Gaschet, Anne; Miquel, Chantal; Sanhes, Laurence; Ferreyra, Milagros; Leibinger, Franck; Geudet, Philippe; Toubas, Dominique; Himberlin, Chantal; Bureau-Chalot, Florence; Delmer, Alain; Favennec, Loïc; Gargala, Gilles; Michot, Jean-Baptiste; Girault, Christophe; David, Marion; Leprêtre, Stéphane; Jardin, Fabrice; Honderlick, Pierre; Caille, Vincent; Cerf, Charles; Cassaing, Sophie; Recher, Christian; Picard, Muriel; Protin, Caroline; Huguet, Françoise; Huynh, Anne; Ruiz, Jean; Riu-Poulenc, Béatrice; Letocart, Philippe; Marchou, Bruno; Verdeil, Xavier; Cavalié, Laurent; Chauvin, Pamela; Iriart, Xavier; Valentin, Alexis; Bouvet, Emmanuelle; Delmas-Marsalet, Béatrice; Jeblaoui, Asma; Kassis-Chikhani, Najiby; Mühlethaler, Konrad; Zimmerli, Stefan; Zalar, Polona; Sánchez-Reus, Ferran; Gurgui, Merce

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rapidly fatal cases of invasive fungal infections due to a fungus later identified as Saprochaete clavata were reported in France in May 2012. The objectives of this study were to determine the clonal relatedness of the isolates and to investigate possible sources of contamination. A nationwide alert was launched to collect cases. Molecular identification methods, whole-genome sequencing (WGS), and clone-specific genotyping were used to analyze recent and historical isolates, and a case-case study was performed. Isolates from thirty cases (26 fungemias, 22 associated deaths at day 30) were collected between September 2011 and October 2012. Eighteen cases occurred within 8 weeks (outbreak) in 10 health care facilities, suggesting a common source of contamination, with potential secondary cases. Phylogenetic analysis identified one clade (clade A), which accounted for 16/18 outbreak cases. Results of microbiological investigations of environmental, drug, or food sources were negative. Analysis of exposures pointed to a medical device used for storage and infusion of blood products, but no fungal contamination was detected in the unused devices. Molecular identification of isolates from previous studies demonstrated that S. clavata can be found in dairy products and has already been involved in monocentric outbreaks in hematology wards. The possibility that S. clavata may transmit through contaminated medical devices or can be associated with dairy products as seen in previous European outbreaks is highly relevant for the management of future outbreaks due to this newly recognized pathogen. This report also underlines further the potential of WGS for investigation of outbreaks due to uncommon fungal pathogens. PMID:25516620

  3. Utility of Molecular Identification in Opportunistic Mycotic Infections: a Case of Cutaneous Alternaria infectoria Infection in a Cardiac Transplant Recipient

    OpenAIRE

    Lo Cascio, G.; M. Ligozzi; Maccacaro, L.; Fontana, R

    2004-01-01

    We report on a case of cutaneous infection caused by Alternaria infectoria in a cardiac transplant recipient. A rapid molecular diagnosis was obtained by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer domain of the 5.8S ribosomal DNA region amplified from colonies developed on Sabouraud medium. Treatment consisted of a combination of systemic antifungal therapy, first with amphotericin B and then with itraconazole.

  4. Characterization of a human isolate of Tritrichomonas foetus (cattle/swine genotype) infected by a zoonotic opportunistic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Jun; Kobayashi, Seiki; Osuka, Hanako; Kawahata, Daisuke; Oishi, Tsuyoshi; Sekiguchi, Koji; Hamada, Atsuo; Iwata, Satoshi

    2016-05-01

    Tritrichomonas species flagellates (IMC strain) were isolated from the biliary tract of an individual who had developed cholecystitis as a complication of acquired agammaglobulinemia. Sequence analysis of Tritrichomonas sp. (IMC clone 2 (cl2)) was performed for several genetic regions including the ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 region, the cysteine protease (CP)-1, CP-2 and CP-4 to CP-9 genes, and the cytosolic malate dehydrogenase 1 gene. In addition to comparison of the variable-length DNA repeats in the isolate clone with those in T. foetus (Inui cl2) and the T. mobilensis (U.S.A.: M776 cl2) reference strains, this analysis showed that the Tritrichomonas sp. (IMC cl2) was T. foetus (cattle/swine genotype). Injection of T. foetus (IMC cl2) directly into the livers of CBA mice resulted in liver abscess formation on Day 7. Moreover, inoculation via orogastric intubation caused infection in the cecum on Day 5 in CBA mice co-infected with Entamoeba histolytica (HM-1: IMSS cl6). T. foetus (IMC cl2) was able to grow in YI-S medium for over 20 days, even at 5°C. These results indicate that the T. foetus isolate is able to survive in the feces and edible organ meat of the definitive host for a prolonged period of time, and it is possible that the parasite could infect humans. PMID:26685985

  5. Opportunistic Pathogenic Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Uma

    Advances in medical research, made during the last few decades, have improved the prophylactic, diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities for variety of infections/diseases. However, many of the prophylactic and therapeutic procedures have been seen in many instances to exact a price of host-vulnerability to an expanding group of opportunistic pathogens and yeasts are one of the important members in it. Fortunately amongst the vast majority of yeasts present in nature only few are considered to have the capability to cause infections when certain opportunities predisposes and these are termed as ‘opportunistic pathogenic yeasts.’ However, the term ‘pathogenic’ is quite tricky, as it depends of various factors of the host, the ‘bug’ and the environment to manifest the clinical infection. The borderline is expanding. In the present century with unprecedented increase in number of immune-compromised host in various disciplines of health care settings, where any yeast, which has the capability to grow at 37 ° C (normal body temperature of human), can be pathogenic and cause infection in particular situation

  6. Strategies to reduce mortality and morbidity due to AIDS-related cryptococcal meningitis in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, Jose E; Augusto C. Penalva de Oliveira; Dauar, Rafi F.; Boulware, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Latin America is the region with the third most AIDS-related cryptococcal meningitis infections globally. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has reduced the number of infections; however, the number of deaths and the case-fatality rate continues to be unacceptable. In this review, we focus on the burden of AIDS-related cryptococcosis in Latin America and discuss potential strategies to reduce early mortality from Cryptococcus. In this review, we highlight the importance of: (1) earl...

  7. Assessment of Duration of Staying Free from Acquiring Rehappening Opportunistic Infections among Pre-ART People Living with HIV/AIDS between 2008 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habtamu Mellie Bizuayehu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In regional state of the study area, HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus prevalence is 2.2% and opportunistic infections (OIs occurred in 88.9% of pre-ART (Antiretroviral Therapy people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA. Even though OIs are prevalent in the study area, duration of staying free from acquiring rehappening opportunistic infections and its determinant factors are not studied. Method. The study was conducted in randomly selected 341 adult Pre-ART PLWHA who are included in chronic HIV care. OI free duration was estimated using the actuarial life table and Kaplan Meier survival. Cox proportional-hazard model was used to calculate hazard rate. Result. OIs were rediagnosed in three quarters (75.37% participants. In each week the probability of getting new recurrence OI was about 15.04 per 1000 person weeks. The median duration of not acquiring OI recurrence was 54 weeks. After adjustment, variables associated with recurrence were employment status, marital status, exposure for prophylaxis and adherence to it, CD4 count, and hemoglobin value. Conclusion. Giving prophylaxis and counseling to adhere it, rise in CD4 and hemoglobin level, and enhancing job opportunities should be given for PLWHA who are on chronic HIV care while continuing the care.

  8. Desarrollo de neoplasias e infecciones definitorias de sida después de iniciar la terapia antirretroviral de alta eficacia Development of AIDS-related malignancies and infections after starting HAART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Warley

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la incidencia de neoplasias e infecciones definitorias de Sida (NIDS y los posibles factores asociados a su desarrollo luego de iniciada la terapia antirretroviral de alta eficacia (HAART analizamos las historias clínicas de los pacientes que iniciaron tratamiento entre julio 2003 y octubre 2007. Todos recibieron profilaxis con trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol y azitromicina según la recomendación actual. Evaluamos el desarrollo de NIDS en los 6 meses posteriores al inicio de la terapia y su asociación con variables clínicas y epidemiológicas. Analizamos 235 historias clínicas: 118 mujeres (50.2% y 117 hombres (49.8%. Observamos 11 casos de NIDS: 3 formas pulmonares y 3 ganglionares de tuberculosis, 3 meningitis por Criptococcus neoformans, 1 chagoma cerebral y 1 linfoma no Hodgkin. Presentar recuento de células CD4 menor a 100 o 150 células/ml se asoció con riesgo de desarrollar NIDS. La media de células CD4 fue 73 en los pacientes que desarrollaron NIDS y 143 en los que no la desarrollaron. No hubo asociación con las otras variables analizadas. En pacientes con CD4 menor a 150 células/ml observamos un caso de chagoma cerebral entre 4 con serología reactiva para Chagas, y ninguno de toxoplasmosis cerebral entre 46 con serología reactiva para toxoplasmosis. Concluimos que la tasa de incidencia de NIDS fue del 4.7%, siendo tuberculosis en primer lugar y criptococosis en segundo las enfermedades más frecuentemente observadas. Presentar bajo recuento de células CD4 se asoció de manera significativa al desarrollo de NIDS. Debería reevaluarse el rol de la quimioprofilaxis.In order to evaluate the incidence rate and possible risk factors associated with AIDS-related malignancies and infections (ARMI we performed data analysis of clinical charts of HIV patients in two hospital cohorts, that started high activity antiretroviral therapy (HAART between July 2003 and October 2007. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and

  9. Activation and coagulation biomarkers are independent predictors of the development of opportunistic disease in patients with HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodger, Alison J; Fox, Zoe; Lundgren, Jens;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Activation and coagulation biomarkers were measured within the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) trial. Their associations with opportunistic disease (OD) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients were examined. METHODS: Inflammatory (high......-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP], interleukin-6 [IL-6], amyloid-A, and amyloid-P) and coagulation (D-dimer and prothrombin-fragment 1+2) markers were determined. Conditional logistic regression analyses were used to assess associations between these biomarkers and risk of OD. RESULTS: The 91 patients who...

  10. AIDS-related lymphomas in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Bolarinwa

    2009-10-01

    weeks of admission into the hospital. The prevalence of AIDS-related lymphomas is 2.3% compared to 4.4% found in the general population. However, it is interesting that no single case of AIDS-associated BL was seen, despite the fact that Burkitt's lymphoma is endemic in this part of the world. All the patients presented at a very advanced stage of the disease with significantly shortened survival.

  11. Determination of potentially toxic heavy metals in traditionally used medicinal plants for HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Determine As, Cr, Ni and Pb in traditional plants used to treat HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections. ► Metal levels and provisional tolerable weekly intake levels lower than WHO permissive maximum levels. ► Cr > Pb > As > Ni. ► Consumption of traditional medicinal plants are not health-comprising with respect to metals. - Abstract: The determination of four potentially toxic heavy metals, arsenic, chromium, lead and nickel in twelve plant species used for the treatment of perceived HIV and AIDS-associated opportunistic infections by traditional healers in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana, a metal mining area, was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicinal plants; Dichrostachys cinerea, Maerua angolensis, Mimusops zeyheri, Albizia anthelmintica, Plumbago zeylanica, Combretum imberbe, Indigofera flavicans, Clerodendrum ternatum, Solanum panduriforme, Capparis tomentosa, Terminalia sericea and Maytenus senegalensis contained heavy metals in varying quantities: arsenic 0.19–0.54 μg g−1, chromium 0.15–1.27 μg g−1, lead 0.12–0.23 μg g−1 and nickel 0.09–0.21 μg g−1 of dry weight. Chromium was found to be the most abundant followed by arsenic and lead. Nickel was undetectable in nine plant species. M. senegalensis contained the largest amounts of arsenic, chromium and lead. All metals determined were below the WHO permissive maximum levels. The possible maximum weekly intakes of the heavy metals following treatment regimes were insignificant compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake levels recommended by WHO and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. This suggests that heavy metal exposure to patients originating from consumption of traditional medicinal plant preparations is within non health-compromising limits.

  12. Determination of potentially toxic heavy metals in traditionally used medicinal plants for HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okatch, Harriet, E-mail: okatchh@mopipi.ub.bw [Department of Chemistry, University of Botswana, Private Bag UB 00704, Gaborone (Botswana); Ngwenya, Barbara [Okavango Research Institute, University of Botswana, Maun (Botswana); Raletamo, Keleabetswe M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Botswana, Private Bag UB 00704, Gaborone (Botswana); Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Botswana, Gaborone (Botswana); Centre for Scientific Research, Indigenous Knowledge and Innovation (CESRIKI), P.O. Box 758, Gaborone (Botswana)

    2012-06-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determine As, Cr, Ni and Pb in traditional plants used to treat HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal levels and provisional tolerable weekly intake levels lower than WHO permissive maximum levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cr > Pb > As > Ni. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Consumption of traditional medicinal plants are not health-comprising with respect to metals. - Abstract: The determination of four potentially toxic heavy metals, arsenic, chromium, lead and nickel in twelve plant species used for the treatment of perceived HIV and AIDS-associated opportunistic infections by traditional healers in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana, a metal mining area, was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicinal plants; Dichrostachys cinerea, Maerua angolensis, Mimusops zeyheri, Albizia anthelmintica, Plumbago zeylanica, Combretum imberbe, Indigofera flavicans, Clerodendrum ternatum, Solanum panduriforme, Capparis tomentosa, Terminalia sericea and Maytenus senegalensis contained heavy metals in varying quantities: arsenic 0.19-0.54 {mu}g g{sup -1}, chromium 0.15-1.27 {mu}g g{sup -1}, lead 0.12-0.23 {mu}g g{sup -1} and nickel 0.09-0.21 {mu}g g{sup -1} of dry weight. Chromium was found to be the most abundant followed by arsenic and lead. Nickel was undetectable in nine plant species. M. senegalensis contained the largest amounts of arsenic, chromium and lead. All metals determined were below the WHO permissive maximum levels. The possible maximum weekly intakes of the heavy metals following treatment regimes were insignificant compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake levels recommended by WHO and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. This suggests that heavy metal exposure to patients originating from consumption of traditional medicinal plant preparations is within non health-compromising limits.

  13. Interleukin-7 receptor gene polymorphism at +1237 locus and its effect on susceptibility to opportunistic infections among HIV and AIDS patients in Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samie, A; Moloro, G T; Nangammbi, T C

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, an increasing number of studies have demonstrated correlations between host genetics and susceptibility to diseases. However, few studies have investigated the effects of host genetics on the occurrence of opportunistic infections among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. In the present study, the frequency of the interleukin (IL)-7Rα+1237 A/G single nucleotide polymorphisms was determined in relation to opportunistic infection occurrence among HIV and AIDS patients in the Vhembe District. Demographic, clinical, and socioeconomic status data were collected from patients using a structured questionnaire. Genomic DNA was extracted from mouthwash samples using the QIAmp Blood Mini Kit. Genotyping of the IL-7Rα+1237 gene was conducted using a sequence-specific polymerase chain reaction method. We found that the IL-7Rα+1237 genotype distribution in our study population differed from those in European populations with a predominance of the A/G genotype. Individuals carrying the A/G genotype primarily suffered from chest pain (χ(2) = 5.016, P = 0.025), while individuals carrying the G/G genotype were protected from chest pain but had a higher prevalence of sexually transmitted disease (23 vs 16.9%); however, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.435). Individuals carrying the A/A genotype were more susceptible to diarrhea (32 vs 13.6%) (P = 0.034). Our data will support gene therapy and may be used to modify the course of diseases among HIV patients as well as the general population. Further studies using larger populations are needed to confirm these hypotheses. PMID:25366767

  14. Aids-Related Cancers in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbulaiteye, Sam M.

    2014-07-01

    Thank you Professor Zichichi for inviting me to give a talk about AIDS-related cancers in Africa. Let me begin by congratulating the team that organized the 46th Session of the Erice International Seminar Series, whose theme is THE ROLE OF SCIENCE IN THE THIRD MILLENIUM. I also congratulate the scientists from 38 countries who are attending these seminars. They are perpetuating the principle of SCIENCE WITHOUT SECRETS in the true spirit espoused by Archimedes, Galileo, and Fermi. It is a wonderful honor for me to be here to shed some light on the health impacts of the HIV epidemic in the area of cancer...

  15. Safe interruption of maintenance therapy against previous infection with four common HIV-associated opportunistic pathogens during potent antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Ole; Reiss, Peter; Uberti-Foppa, Caterina;

    2002-01-01

    maintenance therapy for cytomegalovirus (CMV) end-organ disease, disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection, cerebral toxoplasmosis, and extrapulmonary cryptococcosis in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Seven European HIV cohorts. PATIENTS: 358...... identified: 162 for CMV disease, 103 for MAC infection, 75 for toxoplasmosis, and 39 for cryptococcosis. During 781 person-years of follow-up, five patients had relapse. Two relapses (one of CMV disease and one of MAC infection) were diagnosed after maintenance therapy was interrupted when the CD4 lymphocyte....... One relapse (toxoplasmosis) was diagnosed after maintenance therapy interruption at a CD4 lymphocyte count greater than 200 x 10(6) cells/L for 15 months. The overall incidences of recurrent CMV disease, MAC infection, toxoplasmosis, and cryptococcosis were 0.54 per 100 person-years (95% CI, 0.07 to 1...

  16. Can chemoprophylaxis against opportunistic infections be discontinued after an increase in CD4 cells induced by highly active antiretroviral therapy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, O; Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Pedersen, C;

    1999-01-01

    /100 PY follow-up (95% confidence interval, 0.0-3.2). No cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus chorioretinitis, or disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection were observed. Follow-up time for these was, however, limited. CONCLUSION: PCP-chemoprophylaxis can be safely discontinued after HAART...

  17. Radiological characteristics of AIDS- related lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) increased the incidence of lymphoma, particularly the non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The lymphoma in immune deficient patients is usually high-grade, very aggressive and with poor prognostic. We report the radiologic characteristics of AIDS-related lymphoma in 19 patients and correlate with the literature. The disease was predominant in homosexual male patients, with mean age of 38 years. The radiological characteristics are nonspecific to differential diagnosis, but we must suspect of lymphoma. We found ring-enhanced lesions in the radiologic studies of central nervous system. Hylar and mediastinal lymphadenopath, nodules and alveolar infiltration were detected on thoracic examinations. Abdominal examinations showed hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, hepatic focal lesions and thickneded with distorted mucosa in the alimentary tract. Bone involvement presented as focal and disseminated destructive lesions. (author)

  18. HIV and AIDS-related knowledge among women in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals who are aware of the risk of infection and perceive themselves to be at risk of infection are more likely to take action to prevent HIV infection. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Iraqi women. Methods A secondary analysis of the 2000 Multiple Cluster Indicator Survey (MICS for Iraq was carried out to assess the extent of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge among Iraqi women. Results The majority of the 22,997 respondents were age 15–24 years (44.3%, currently married (51.4%, and resided in urban areas (71.7%. About 1 in 4 (26.0% of the study participants had no formal education. Only 49.9% had heard of HIV/AIDS. Overall, 60.5% did not know that HIV can be transmitted through blood transfusion. Meanwhile, 98.5% of the respondents did not know that HIV can be transmitted from mother to child through breast milk. Only 0.7% of the respondents reported that HIV cannot be transmitted through mosquito bites. The proportion of the respondents who had adequate knowledge on HIV/AIDS was 9.8%. Adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS was negatively associated with being married, poor, having low education, and residing in rural areas. Conclusion Findings from this study indicate that adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Iraqi is very limited and associated with marital status, education, wealth, and place of residence. This information may be of use in the design, targeting, monitoring and evaluation of programs aimed at improving HIV and AIDS related knowledge in Iraq.

  19. Disparities in the Magnitude of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-related Opportunistic Infections Between High and Low/Middle-income Countries: Is Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Changing the Trend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iroezindu, MO

    2016-01-01

    Opportunistic infections (OIs) cause significant morbidity/mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals globally. Disparities between high-income countries (HICs) and low/middle-income countries (LMICs) in the magnitude of HIV-related OIs in pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) populations was reviewed, and HAART-induced decline in OIs was further compared between the two settings. Studies published in English from onset of HIV epidemic up to December 2013 were searched in PubMed, Google, Google Scholar, and African Journal online. An article was included if (a) the study was conducted in HIC or LMIC, (b) the age of the participants was ≥12 years, (c) the HAART status of the participants was stated, and (d) various types of OIs were investigated. In predominantly pre-HAART populations, the incidence and prevalence of overall HIV-related OIs in HIC ranged from 5.5 to 50.0 per 100 person-years (PY) and 27.4-56.7%, respectively. In LMIC, the respective overall incidence and prevalence of OIs were 12.2-93.9 per 100 PY and 32.0-77.7%. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, candidiasis, Cytomegalovirus disease, Mycobacterium avium complex disease, and Kaposi's sarcoma were the most frequent OIs in HICs while tuberculosis, candidiasis, chronic diarrhea, and cryptococcosis were predominant in LMICs. The introduction of HAART led to substantial reduction in the incidence of OIs with more impressive percentage decline in HICs (43-97%) compared to 30-79% in LMICs. Disparities in the magnitude of HIV-related OIs between HICs and LMICs are evident both in the pre-HAART and post-HAART era. Efforts to optimize HAART-induced decline in HIV-related OIs should become a global health priority irrespective of prevailing socioeconomic circumstances.

  20. Disparities in the Magnitude of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-related Opportunistic Infections Between High and Low/Middle-income Countries: Is Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Changing the Trend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iroezindu, M O

    2016-01-01

    Opportunistic infections (OIs) cause significant morbidity/mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals globally. Disparities between high-income countries (HICs) and low/middle-income countries (LMICs) in the magnitude of HIV-related OIs in pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) populations was reviewed, and HAART-induced decline in OIs was further compared between the two settings. Studies published in English from onset of HIV epidemic up to December 2013 were searched in PubMed, Google, Google Scholar, and African Journal online. An article was included if (a) the study was conducted in HIC or LMIC, (b) the age of the participants was ≥12 years, (c) the HAART status of the participants was stated, and (d) various types of OIs were investigated. In predominantly pre-HAART populations, the incidence and prevalence of overall HIV-related OIs in HIC ranged from 5.5 to 50.0 per 100 person-years (PY) and 27.4-56.7%, respectively. In LMIC, the respective overall incidence and prevalence of OIs were 12.2-93.9 per 100 PY and 32.0-77.7%. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, candidiasis, Cytomegalovirus disease, Mycobacterium avium complex disease, and Kaposi's sarcoma were the most frequent OIs in HICs while tuberculosis, candidiasis, chronic diarrhea, and cryptococcosis were predominant in LMICs. The introduction of HAART led to substantial reduction in the incidence of OIs with more impressive percentage decline in HICs (43-97%) compared to 30-79% in LMICs. Disparities in the magnitude of HIV-related OIs between HICs and LMICs are evident both in the pre-HAART and post-HAART era. Efforts to optimize HAART-induced decline in HIV-related OIs should become a global health priority irrespective of prevailing socioeconomic circumstances. PMID:27144071

  1. Angioinvasive opportunistic filamentous mycoses in immunocompromised patients

    OpenAIRE

    Saraiya, Ami; Weinstein, Mara; Khetarpal, Shilpi; Kyei, Angela; Piliang, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Immunocompromised individuals are at greater risk for disseminated fungal infections. Immunocompromised individuals in the community have increased because of medical advances, thereby increasing the incidence and prevalence of opportunistic mycoses [1]. The following case series illustrates the importance of having a high clinical suspicion for skin manifestations concerning for deep fungal infections.

  2. AIDS-related mycoses: the way forward

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Gordon D.; Meintjes, Graeme; Kolls, Jay K.; Gray, Clive; Horsnell, William

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of fungal infections to the morbidity and mortality of HIV-infected individuals is largely unrecognized. A recent meeting highlighted several priorities that need to be urgently addressed, including improved epidemiological surveillance, increased availability of existing diagnostics and drugs, more training in the field of medical mycology, and better funding for research and provision of treatment, particularly in developing countries.

  3. Positron emission tomography in patients suffering from HIV-1 infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews currently available PET studies performed either to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection or to assess the value of PET imaging in the clinical decision making of patients infected with HIV-1 presenting with AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies. FDG PET has shown that HIV-1 infection progresses by distinct anatomical steps, with involvement of the upper torso preceding involvement of the lower part of the torso, and that the degree of FDG uptake relates to viral load. The former finding suggests that lymphoid tissues are engaged in a predictable sequence and that diffusible mediators of activation might be important targets for vaccine or therapeutic intervention strategies. In lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients, limited available data support the hypothesis that stavudine-related lipodystrophy is associated with increased glucose uptake by adipose tissue as a result of the metabolic stress of adipose tissue in response to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). Finally, in early AIDS-related dementia complex (ADC), striatal hypermetabolism is observed, whereas progressive ADC is characterized by a decrease in subcortical and cortical metabolism. In the clinical setting, PET has been shown to allow the differentiation of AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies, and to allow monitoring of side effects of HAART. However, in patients suffering from HIV infection and presenting with extracerebral lymphoma or other human malignancies, knowledge of viraemia is essential when interpreting FDG PET imaging. (orig.)

  4. Positron emission tomography in patients suffering from HIV-1 infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathekge, Mike [University Hospital of Pretoria, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pretoria (South Africa); Goethals, Ingeborg; Wiele, Christophe van de [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Maes, Alex [AZ Groening, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium)

    2009-07-15

    This paper reviews currently available PET studies performed either to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection or to assess the value of PET imaging in the clinical decision making of patients infected with HIV-1 presenting with AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies. FDG PET has shown that HIV-1 infection progresses by distinct anatomical steps, with involvement of the upper torso preceding involvement of the lower part of the torso, and that the degree of FDG uptake relates to viral load. The former finding suggests that lymphoid tissues are engaged in a predictable sequence and that diffusible mediators of activation might be important targets for vaccine or therapeutic intervention strategies. In lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients, limited available data support the hypothesis that stavudine-related lipodystrophy is associated with increased glucose uptake by adipose tissue as a result of the metabolic stress of adipose tissue in response to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). Finally, in early AIDS-related dementia complex (ADC), striatal hypermetabolism is observed, whereas progressive ADC is characterized by a decrease in subcortical and cortical metabolism. In the clinical setting, PET has been shown to allow the differentiation of AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies, and to allow monitoring of side effects of HAART. However, in patients suffering from HIV infection and presenting with extracerebral lymphoma or other human malignancies, knowledge of viraemia is essential when interpreting FDG PET imaging. (orig.)

  5. IPv6 Opportunistic Encryption

    OpenAIRE

    Castelluccia, Claude; Montenegro, Gabriel

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an Opportunistic Encryption scheme for IPv6. Our proposal relies on IPv6 Anycast, Authorization certificates and Crypto-Based Identifier- s (CBID) to provide secure and easily deployable Opportunistic Encryption in IPv6. Unlike existing schemes, our proposal does not rely on any global Third Trusted Party (such as DNSSEC or a PKI). Hence, we claim it is more secure, easier to deploy and more robust.

  6. AIDS-related apprehensions among nursing students of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Lal, P; Ingle, G K; Gulati, N

    1999-12-01

    Students from a nursing school of Delhi were surveyed anonymously using a self-administered questionnaire to explore various AIDS-related apprehensions and their possible reasons. The observations revealed that, majority of the students and their families/friends feared that these students were at risk of contracting HIV infection while providing routine patient care. A large number of students also opined that they would feel uncomfortable while talking, hugging, shaking hands, and sharing a room with an HIV positive person. The main reasons for their apprehensions were unsatisfactory anti-AIDS campaigning by the government, non-availability of sufficient protective measures in the health care settings, inadequate professional education related to prevention of HIV infection, and increase in HIV transmission following false sense of security due to excessive condom promotion. Findings of the study imply imparting factual knowledge addressing the concerns and removing misconceptions which influence attitudes and willingness of the nursing students to provide care to the HIV positives/AIDS patients, facts regarding efficacy of various preventive measures, and provision of counselling services in the event of exposure. PMID:10937297

  7. Care Centre visits to married people living with HIV ? An indicator for measuring AIDS -related stigma & discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Green, David Andrew; Devi, Shyamala; Paulraj, Louis S

    2007-01-01

    Abstract We tested whether observation of the presence and relationship of attendants (i.e. those that accompany upon admission) and visitors to a sample of 230 (128 male, 102 female) married HIV-positive people in an HIV care centre provides an indicator of caregiving AIDS-related stigma and discrimination. Sensitivity to gender, location (urban vs. rural), age (35) and source of infection (spouse vs. non-spouse) ? factors considered to modulate AIDS-related stigma and discriminat...

  8. Panax ginseng has anti-infective activity against opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa by inhibiting quorum sensing, a bacterial communication process critical for establishing infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Z; Kong, K F; Wu, H;

    2010-01-01

    ginseng are mutually exclusive as it is a complex mixture, as shown with the HPLC analysis of the hot water extract. Though ginseng is a promising natural synergetic remedy, it is important to isolate and evaluate the ginseng compounds associated with the anti-QS activity....... immune systems and cystic fibrosis. The QS systems of P. aeruginosa use N-acylated homoserine lactone (AHL) as signal molecules. Previously we have demonstrated that Panax ginseng treatment allowed the animals with P. aeruginosa pneumonia to effectively clear the bacterial infection. We postulated that...... the ability to impact the outcome of infections is partly due to ginseng having direct effect on the production of P. aeruginosa virulence factors. The study explores the effect of ginseng on alginate, protease and AHL production. The effect of ginseng extracts on growth and expression of QS...

  9. Brief Communication: Economic Comparison of Opportunistic Infection Management With Antiretroviral Treatment in People Living With HIV/AIDS Presenting at an NGO Clinic in Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John KR

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART usage in India is escalating. With the government of India launching the free HAART rollout as part of the "3 by 5" initiative, many people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA have been able to gain access to HAART medications. Currently, the national HAART centers are located in a few district hospitals (in the high- and medium-prevalence states and have very stringent criteria for enrolling PLHA. Patients who do not fit these criteria or patients who are too ill to undergo the prolonged wait at the government hospitals avail themselves of nongovernment organization (NGO services in order to take HAART medications. In addition, the government program has not yet started providing second-line HAART (protease inhibitors. Hence, even with the free HAART rollout, NGOs with the expertise to provide HAART continue to look for funding opportunities and other innovative ways of making HAART available to PLHA. Currently, no study from Indian NGOs has compared the direct and indirect costs of solely managing opportunistic infections (OIs vs HAART. Objective Compare direct medical costs (DMC and nonmedical costs (NMC with 2005 values accrued by the NGO and PLHA, respectively, for either HAART or exclusive OI management. Study design Retrospective case study comparison. Setting Low-cost community care and support center - Freedom Foundation (NGO, Bangalore, south India. Patients Retrospective analysis data on PLHA accessing treatment at Freedom Foundation between January 1, 2003 and January 1, 2005. The HAART arm included case records of PLHA who initiated HAART at the center, had frequent follow-up, and were between 18 and 55 years of age. The OI arm included records of PLHA who were also frequently followed up, who were in the same age range, who had CD4+ cell counts Results At 2005 costs, the median DMC plus NMC in the OI group was 21,335 Indian rupees (Rs (mean Rs 24,277/- per patient per year (pppy

  10. Lung function abnormalities in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus with and without overt pneumonitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, R J; Roussak, C; Forster, S M; Harris, J R; Pinching, A J; Mitchell, D. M.

    1988-01-01

    Pulmonary function was measured in 169 male patients seropositive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The transfer factor for carbon monoxide (TLCO) in symptom free patients and patients with persistent generalised lymphadenopathy was normal (greater than 83% of predicted values). Patients with the AIDS related complex, non-pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma, and non-pulmonary non-Kaposi sarcoma AIDS (that is, opportunist infections affecting other organs) had lower mean values for TLCO (77%, 7...

  11. Diversity and antifungal resistance patterns of prevalent opportunistic pathogenic yeasts colonizing the oral cavities of asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals, and their relation to CD4 + counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Yeasts are important opportunistic pathogens, in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Yeast species inhabiting the oral mucosa of HIV-infected persons can act as source of oral lesions, especially as the individual progresses towards immunocompromised state. Present study was conducted to evaluate the diversity of yeasts in oral cavities of asymptomatic HIV-infected persons and their association with CD4 + cell counts. Materials and Methods: 100 HIV seropositive subjects and 100 healthy controls were screened for oral yeast carriage using standard procedures. Results: Of the 100 HIV-seropositive persons screened, 48 were colonized by different yeasts, either alone or in association with another species. Candida albicans was the most common species (56.90% while non C. albicans Candida (NCAC accounted for 39.65%. Among NCAC, Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei were most common. One isolate each of rare opportunistic pathogenic yeasts, Geotrichum candidum and Saccharomyces cereviseae, was recovered. The control group had an oral candidal carriage rate of 23%; C. albicans was the predominant species, followed by Candida glabrata, C. tropicalis and Candida parapsilosis. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed no resistance in C. albicans, to the commonly used antifungal agents, whereas resistance or dose dependent susceptibility to fluconazole was observed in some of the NCAC species. Conclusion: Oral carriage of opportunistic pathogenic yeasts was greater in HIV-seropositive persons heading towards immunocompromised state, as evidenced by their CD4 + cell count. The predominant yeast isolated in this study (C. albicans, was found to be susceptible to commonly used antifungals.

  12. [Magnetic resonance in AIDS-related encephalopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdi, G F; Di Biasi, C; D'Agostino, A; Trasimeni, G; Melone, A

    1995-12-01

    Fifty-eight patients with AIDS disease were studied with MR imaging in the aim of detecting the grade of brain involvement. The examinations were performed with a 1.5 Tesla magnet. Thirty-seven showed white matter lesion (63.5%), twenty-five patients showed cerebral atrophy (43%), in eight patients the MR appearance was consistent with toxoplasmosis infection (13.5%), two patients showed a linfoma (3.4%) and two patients micrococcosis (3.4%). Seventeen out of the thirty-seven patients with white matter disease showed focal well circumscribed lesion (46%), while twenty showed diffuse involvement. Between the twenty-five patients with cerebral atrophy, twelve showed a prevalence of the cortical involvement and eight a subcortical atrophy. In five patients a concomitant, cortical and subcortical atrophy was found. Between the eight patients with neurotoxolesion and two of them a widespread encephalitis picture. The MR appearance of the two limphomas was that of periventricular, space occupying, masses. In two patients with micrococcis a nodular aspect of leptomeningeal lesions was found. PMID:8681504

  13. Strategies to reduce mortality and morbidity due to AIDS-related cryptococcal meningitis in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose E. Vidal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Latin America is the region with the third most AIDS-related cryptococcal meningitis infections globally. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has reduced the number of infections; however, the number of deaths and the case-fatality rate continues to be unacceptable. In this review, we focus on the burden of AIDS-related cryptococcosis in Latin America and discuss potential strategies to reduce early mortality from Cryptococcus. In this review, we highlight the importance of: (1 earlier HIV diagnosis and HAART initiation with retention-in-care to avoid AIDS; (2 pre-HAART cryptococcal antigen (CRAG screening with preemptive fluconazole treatment; (3 better diagnostics (e.g. CRAG testing; and (4 optimal treatment with aggressive management of intracranial pressure and induction therapy with antifungal combination. Implementation of these strategies can reduce cryptococcal-related deaths, improve care, and reduce healthcare costs.

  14. Multihop Wireless Networks Opportunistic Routing

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Kai; Li, Ming

    2011-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to opportunistic routing an emerging technology designed to improve the packet forwarding reliability, network capacity and energy efficiency of multihop wireless networks This book presents a comprehensive background to the technological challenges lying behind opportunistic routing. The authors cover many fundamental research issues for this new concept, including the basic principles, performance limit and performance improvement of opportunistic routing compared to traditional routing, energy efficiency and distributed opportunistic routing protocol desig

  15. Creating social spaces to tackle AIDS-related stigma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, C.; Skovdal, Morten; Gibbs, A.

    2011-01-01

    An expanding body of literature explores the role of African church groups in facilitating or hindering the support of people living with AIDS and challenging or contributing to HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Treating church groups as social spaces in which HIV/AIDS-related stigma may potentially be...... challenged, we systematically review this literature, identifying five themes that highlight the complex and contradictory role of the church as a potential agent of health-enhancing social change. In many ways the church perpetuates HIV/AIDS-related stigma through (i) moralistic attitudes and (ii) its...... reinforcement of conservative gender ideologies. However some churches have managed move towards action that makes a more positive contribution to HIV/AIDS management through (iii) promoting various forms of social control for HIV prevention, (iv) contributing to the care and support of the AIDS-affected and (v...

  16. Predicting AIDS-related events using CD4 percentage or CD4 absolute counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donabedian Haig

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extent of immunosuppression and the probability of developing an AIDS-related complication in HIV-infected people is usually measured by the absolute number of CD4 positive T-cells. The percentage of CD4 positive cells is a more easily measured and less variable number. We analyzed sequential CD4 and CD8 numbers, percentages and ratios in 218 of our HIV infected patients to determine the most reliable predictor of an AIDS-related event. Results The CD4 percentage was an unsurpassed predictor of the occurrence of AIDS-related events when all subsets of patients are considered. The CD4 absolute count was the next most reliable, followed by the ratio of CD4/CD8 percentages. The value of CD4 percentage over the CD4 absolute count was seen even after the introduction of highly effective HIV therapy. Conclusion The CD4 percentage is unsurpassed as a parameter for predicting the onset of HIV-related diseases. The extra time and expense of measuring the CD4 absolute count may be unnecessary.

  17. AIDS related thoracic lymphoma: evaluation by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors reviewed five cases of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) related lymphoma to describe the thoracic findings on computed tomography. The patients were followed at Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro and Hospital da Lagoa, from November, 1989 to March 1998. Epidemiological, clinical and pathological data from these patients were quiet variable and pulmonary nodules and masses, hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and thoracic wall masses were observed. AIDS related lymphomas involving the chest are pleomorphic and most commonly extranodal. (author)

  18. Distribution and drug resistance analysis of opportunistic infection pathogenic bacteria in elderly patients with diabetes mellitus%老年糖尿病机会感染病原菌分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚福会; 柴茂凤

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria in elderly patients with diabetes mellitus, and to provide reliable and scientific basis for clinical treatment.Methods:Collected from our hospital inpatient treatment of elderly diabetic patients with opportunistic infections in patients with totally (January2010-December2011),248specimens,125patho gens were isolated ,using the France bio-Merieux ATB-new production of bacterial identification and susceptibility analysis system and supporting the identification and susceptibility andpanels on the separation of bacteria identification and susceptibility testing. Results: Totally 248 specimens, 125 pathogens were isolated,and the positive rate is 50.4%,The gram negative bacteria accounted for 69.9%, gram positive bacteria accounted for 21.6%, fungi accounted for 8.8%. The detection rate of major pathogens in descending order: Escherichia coli,Pseudomonas aeruginosa, pneumonia grams Klebsiella pneumoniae,Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus,Candida albicans, and Acinetobacter.Conclusions:Opportunistic infections in elderly patients with opportunistic infections are gram negative bacteria, including Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the main infection bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and fungal infection rate increased gradually. Therefore, clinicians should pay more attention to the monitoring of pathogenic bacteria in elderly patients with diabetes, rational use of antimicrobial agents, control the incidence of opportunistic infections, and reduce the occurrence of drug resistant strains.%目的:探讨老年糖尿病机会感染患者病原菌的分布及耐药性,为临床提供可靠而科学的治疗依据。方法:收集我院2010年1月至2011年12月住院治疗的老年糖尿病合并机会感染患者的送检标本,248份标本中,共分离出125株病原菌,采用法国生物-梅里埃公司生产的ATB-new细菌鉴定及药敏分析系统

  19. HIV 相关性中枢神经系统感染的诊断思路%The diagnosis of HIV-associated central nervous system opportunistic infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚启明

    2013-01-01

    人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)感染患者若出现中枢神经系统机会性感染,即符合美国疾病控制与预防中心1993 年修订的真性获得性免疫缺陷综合征(艾滋病)期的诊断标准,临床上属于危重患者.病原微生物涉及病毒、细菌、分枝杆菌、真菌、寄生虫等,临床症状与体征、实验室检查等亦与非免疫缺陷患者有所不同,尤其是经抗HIV 治疗后,仍可出现病情加重或新的感染发生,对临床医师极具挑战意义.及时明确诊断是临床治疗转归的基础.%Opportunistic infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are very common and severe complications of advanced immunodeficiency in patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, which are included in the diagnostic criteria for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) defining conditions according to 1993 Revised Classification System for HIV Infection and Expanded Surveillance Case Definition for AIDS among Adolescents and Adults published by USA Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The etiologic microorganisms of CNS opportunistic infections include virus, bacteria, fungus, mycobacterium and parasite. The clinical symptoms, signs and laboratory examinations of these diseases are different from that of patients with non- immunodeficiency. Even in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), worsening conditions or new infections may occur. Therefore, prompt diagnosis and treatment of such disorders are critical. The immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in HIV - 1 infected patients in the initiating antiretroviral therapy results from restored immunity to specific infectious or non - infectious antigens. This study reviews the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis of some common CNS disorders in HIV - 1 infected patients. Physicians caring for such patients must be aware of the new diagnostic modalities and therapeutic options of these

  20. [Acetaminophen-induced hypothermia, an AIDS related side-effect? About 4 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denes, Eric; Amaniou, Monique; Rogez, Jean-Philippe; Weinbreck, Pierre; Merle, Louis

    2002-10-01

    Hypothermia is an uncommon side effect of acetaminophen. We report 4 cases of HIV-infected patients who developed hypothermia after intravenous injection of propacetamol (the parenteral formulation of acetaminophen). The mechanism of this hypothermia is unknown. AIDS-induced changes in the metabolism of acetaminophen, could be an explanation. AIDS-associated opportunistic diseases may account for part of the mechanism. These hypothermias occur within 6 hours after the injection, are well tolerated and regress spontaneously. PMID:12486392

  1. Radiological and histological findings characteristic of AIDS related Burkitt lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixian Luo

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: AIDS-related Burkitt lymphoma is radiologically shown as lymphadenopathy and multi-organ involvement. Diffuse tumor cells with moderate sizes exist in intra- and extra-nodal tissues, characterized by stars-in-the-sky sign. Immunohistochemically, both CD10 and CD20 are positive, and the positive rate of Ki67 is almost up to 100%.

  2. Corynebacterium striatum infecting a malignant cutaneous lesion: the emergence of an opportunistic pathogen Corynebacterium striatum infectando lesão cutânea maligna: a emergência de um patógeno oportunista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Vargas Superti

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We described a case of a 27-year old male patient with skin and soft tissue infection of a neoplastic lesion caused by Corynebacterium striatum, an organism which has been rarely described as a human pathogen. Identification was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Successful treatment with penicillin was achieved. The role of the C. striatum as an emerging opportunistic pathogen is discussed.Descrevemos infecção de lesão neoplásica em paciente masculino de 27 anos, envolvendo pele e partes moles, causada por Corynebacterium striatum, um microrganismo raramente descrito como patógeno humano. A identificação foi confirmada por seqüenciamento de DNA. O paciente foi tratado com penicilina, com sucesso. O papel do C. striatum como patógeno oportunista é discutido.

  3. Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections among HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children: recommendations from CDC, the National Institutes of Health, the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, and the American Academy of Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofenson, Lynne M; Brady, Michael T; Danner, Susie P; Dominguez, Kenneth L; Hazra, Rohan; Handelsman, Edward; Havens, Peter; Nesheim, Steve; Read, Jennifer S; Serchuck, Leslie; Van Dyke, Russell

    2009-09-01

    This report updates and combines into one document earlier versions of guidelines for preventing and treating opportunistic infections (OIs) among HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children, last published in 2002 and 2004, respectively. These guidelines are intended for use by clinicians and other health-care workers providing medical care for HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children in the United States. The guidelines discuss opportunistic pathogens that occur in the United States and one that might be acquired during international travel (i.e., malaria). Topic areas covered for each OI include a brief description of the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of the OI in children; prevention of exposure; prevention of disease by chemoprophylaxis and/or vaccination; discontinuation of primary prophylaxis after immune reconstitution; treatment of disease; monitoring for adverse effects during treatment; management of treatment failure; prevention of disease recurrence; and discontinuation of secondary prophylaxis after immune reconstitution. A separate document about preventing and treating of OIs among HIV-infected adults and postpubertal adolescents (Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents) was prepared by a working group of adult HIV and infectious disease specialists. The guidelines were developed by a panel of specialists in pediatric HIV infection and infectious diseases (the Pediatric Opportunistic Infections Working Group) from the U.S. government and academic institutions. For each OI, a pediatric specialist with content-matter expertise reviewed the literature for new information since the last guidelines were published; they then proposed revised recommendations at a meeting at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in June 2007. After these presentations and discussions, the guidelines underwent further revision, with review and approval by the Working Group, and final

  4. HIV感染患者上消化道机会性感染及胃镜检查结果分析%Opportunistic Infections of Upper Gastrointestinal Tract in HIV-Positive Patients and Analysis of Gastroscopic Results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗晓岚; 金瑞; 吕富靖

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]To explore the opportunistic infections such as Helicobacter pylori(Hp) infection, peptic ulcer, cytomegalo-virus(CMV) infection and Candida esophagitis in HIV-positive patients. [Methods] Totally 181 patients(122 HIV-positive and 59 HIV-negative) with gastrointestinal symptoms underwent gastroscopy. Hp infection in biopsy mucous membrane was examined by u-sing rapid urease method and Warthin-Starry silver staining. Immunohistochemical method was used to detect CMV infection. Candida esophagitis was determined by using cytology brush smear. [Results] Most gastrointestinal symptoms in HIV-positive patients were lack of specificity. Gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, dysphagia and swallow pain in HIV-positive group were obviously higher than those in control group( P <0. 01). The prevalence of Hp in HIV-positive group was 22. 1% (27/122) which was obviously lower than that in control group(40. 7% , 24/59, P <0. 01) , and was closely related to CD4 cell count. The prevalence of peptic ulcer in HIV-positive group was obviously lower than that in control group(13. 6 % vs 4. 1 % , P <0. 05). The prevalence of CMV infection and Candida esophagitis in HIV-positive group were 4. 9%(6/122) and 15. 6%(19/122) respectively, but those in control group were negative. [Conclusion] HIV-positive patients have the prevalence of opportunistic infection of upper digestive tract. The incidence of Hp infection and peptic ulcer in HIV-positive patients are lower than those in common people, which suggests that the pathogenesis of HIV-positive patients is different from that of common people.%[目的]探讨HIV感染患者幽门螺杆菌(Helicobacter pylori,Hp)感染及消化性溃疡特点、巨细胞病毒(CMV)及霉菌性食管炎等机会性感染检出情况.[方法]对181例有消化道症状的患者(HIV阳性组122例,对照组59例)行胃镜检查,对活检黏膜行快速尿素酶及病理Warthin-Starry银染检测Hp感染情况、免疫组化检测CMV感染

  5. Executive Summary: Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children: Recommendations From the National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, and the American Academy of Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siberry, George K; Abzug, Mark J; Nachman, Sharon

    2013-12-01

    The Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections (OIs) in HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children in the United States were developed by a panel of specialists in pediatric HIV infection and infectious diseases from the U.S. government and academic institutions, intended for use by clinicians and health care workers providing medical care for HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children in the United States. For each OI, pediatric specialists with subject matter expertise reviewed the literature for new information since the last guidelines were published (2009) and then proposed revised recommendations that were reviewed and approved by the full Panel and endorsing governmental agencies and professional organizations. This executive summary highlights the most important, rated recommendations for each OI from the full Guidelines document. PMID:26619492

  6. Data Dissemination in Opportunistic Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ciobanu, Radu

    2012-01-01

    Mobile devices integrating wireless short-range communication technologies make possible new applications for spontaneous communication, interaction and collaboration. An interesting approach is to use collaboration to facilitate communication when mobile devices are not able to establish direct communication paths. Opportunistic networks, formed when mobile devices communicate with each other while users are in close proximity, can help applications still exchange data in such cases. In opportunistic networks routes are built dynamically, as each mobile device acts according to the store-carry-and-forward paradigm. Thus, contacts between mobile devices are seen as opportunities to move data towards destination. In such networks data dissemination is done using forwarding and is usually based on a publish/subscribe model. Opportunistic data dissemination also raises questions concerning user privacy and incentives. Such problems are addressed di?erently by various opportunistic data dissemination techniques. ...

  7. Onychomycosis due to opportunistic molds*

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Herrera, Erick Obed; Arroyo-Camarena, Stefanie; Tejada-García, Diana Luz; Porras-López, Carlos Francisco; Arenas, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Onychomycosis are caused by dermatophytes and Candida, but rarely by non- dermatophyte molds. These opportunistic agents are filamentous fungi found as soil and plant pathogens. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of opportunistic molds in onychomycosis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 4,220 cases with onychomycosis, diagnosed in a 39-month period at the Institute of Dermatology and Skin surgery "Prof. Dr. Fernando A. Cordero C." in Guatemala City, and confirmed with a pos...

  8. Onychomycosis and keratomycosis caused by Alternaria sp. A bipolar opportunistic infection in a wood-pulp worker on chronic steroid therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrese, J E; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E

    1996-12-01

    We report a case of Alternaria infection of the nail and cornea in an immunocompromised patient working in the paper-manufacturing industry. This unusual clinical presentation could represent an occupational disorder. The importance of histologic examination of the altered nails is emphasized. The proof of a real nondermatophytic onychomycosis is established only when hyphae of culture-proven molds are shown inside the nail plate. PMID:8989935

  9. Primary pulmonary AIDS-related lymphoma Linfoma primario de pulmón en un paciente con sida

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Corti; VILLAFAÑE, María F.; Norberto Trione; Ricardo Schtirbu; Marina Narbaitz

    2005-01-01

    Extranodal involvement is common in lymphomas associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, primary pulmonary AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is very rare and only few reports were published in the medical literature. Clinical presentation is nonspecific, with "B" and respiratory symptoms. Also, patients were with advanced immunodeficiency at the time of diagnosis. Generally, chest radiography showed peripheral nodules...

  10. Autograft HIV-DNA Load Predicts HIV-1 Peripheral Reservoir After Stem Cell Transplantation for AIDS-Related Lymphoma Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Zanussi, Stefania; Bortolin, Maria Teresa; Pratesi, Chiara; Tedeschi, Rosamaria; Basaglia, Giancarlo; Abbruzzese, Luciano; Mazzucato, Mario; Spina, Michele; Vaccher, Emanuela; Tirelli, Umberto; Rupolo, Maurizio; Michieli, Mariagrazia; Di Mascio, Michele; De Paoli, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is a widely used procedure for AIDS-related lymphomas, and it represents an opportunity to evaluate strategies curing HIV-1 infection. The association of autograft HIV-DNA load with peripheral blood HIV-1 reservoir before ASCT and its contribution in predicting HIV-1 reservoir size and stability during combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) after transplantation are unknown. Aiming to obtain information suggesting new functional cure strategies b...

  11. Detection of polyomavirus simian virus 40 tumor antigen DNA in AIDS-related systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilchez, Regis A.; Lednicky, John A.; Halvorson, Steven J.; White, Zoe S.; Kozinetz, Claudia A.; Butel, Janet S.

    2002-01-01

    Systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma (S-NHL) is a common malignancy during HIV infection, and it is hypothesized that infectious agents may be involved in the etiology. Epstein-Barr virus DNA is found in pathogenesis. We analyzed AIDS-related S-NHL samples, NHL samples from HIV-negative patients, peripheral blood leukocytes from HIV-infected and -uninfected patients without NHL, and lymph nodes without tumors from HIV-infected patients. Specimens were examined by polymerase chain reaction analysis with use of primers specific for an N-terminal region of the oncoprotein large tumor antigen ( T-ag ) gene conserved among all three polyomaviruses (simian virus 40 [SV40], JC virus, and BK virus). Polyomavirus T-ag DNA sequences, proven to be SV40-specific, were detected more frequently in AIDS-related S-NHL samples (6 of 26) than in peripheral blood leukocytes from HIV-infected patients (6 of 26 vs. 0 of 69; p =.0001), NHL samples from HIV-negative patients (6 of 26 vs. 0 of 10; p =.09), or lymph nodes (6 of 26 vs. 0 of 7; p =.16). Sequences of C-terminal T-ag DNA from SV40 were amplified from two AIDS-related S-NHL samples. Epstein-Barr virus DNA sequences were detected in 38% (10 of 26) AIDS-related S-NHL samples, 50% (5 of 10) HIV-negative S-NHL samples, and 57% (4 of 7) lymph nodes. None of the S-NHL samples were positive for both Epstein-Barr virus DNA and SV40 DNA. Further studies of the possible role of SV40 in the pathogenesis of S-NHL are warranted.

  12. AIDS defining opportunistic infections in patients with high CD4 counts in the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART era: things ain’t what they used to be

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Gisler

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: According to reports from observational databases, classic AIDS-defining opportunistic infections (ADOIs occur in patients with CD4 counts above 500/µL on and off cART. Adjudication of these events is usually not performed. However, ADOIs are often used as endpoints, for example, in analyses on when to start cART. Materials and Methods: In the database, Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS database, we identified 91 cases of ADOIs that occurred from 1996 onwards in patients with the nearest CD4 count >500/µL. Cases of tuberculosis and recurrent bacterial pneumonia were excluded as they also occur in non-immunocompromised patients. Chart review was performed in 82 cases, and in 50 cases we identified CD4 counts within six months before until one month after ADOI and had chart review material to allow an in-depth review. In these 50 cases, we assessed whether (1 the ADOI fulfilled the SHCS diagnostic criteria (www.shcs.ch, and (2 HIV infection with CD4 >500/µL was the main immune-compromising condition to cause the ADOI. Adjudication of cases was done by two experienced clinicians who had to agree on the interpretation. Results: More than 13,000 participants were followed in SHCS in the period of interest. Twenty-four (48% of the chart-reviewed 50 patients with ADOI and CD4 >500/µL had an HIV RNA 500/µL was the likely explanation for the ADOI in only seven cases (14%. Other reasons (Table 1 were ADOIs occurring during primary HIV infection in 5 (10% cases, unmasking IRIS in 1 (2% case, chronic HIV infection with CD4 counts 500/ µL, chronic HIV infection is the cause of ADOIs in only a minority of cases. Other immuno-compromising conditions are more likely explanations in one-third of the patients, especially in cases of candida oesophagitis. ADOIs in HIV patients with high CD4 counts should be used as endpoints only with much caution in studies based on observational databases.

  13. Report of AIDS-related lymphoma in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prevalence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related lymphoma (ARL) is increasing in South Korea. The aim of this study is to identify the clinical features of ARL in South Korea. From 1998 through 2006, we retrospectively analysed a total of 23 cases of ARL from seven institutions. The patients consisted of 20 males and 3 females at a median age of 40 (range, 20-72) on diagnosis of AIDS. ARL developed at their median age of 41 (range, 24-72). The histological diagnosis was aggressive B cell lymphoma in the majority, but rare T cell and NK/T cell lymphoma were also included. Ten of 23 (43.5%) was receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) before the diagnosis of ARL. Fifteen of twenty-three patients were given combination chemotherapy with/without radiation, four were given radiation alone, and four did not receive any treatment against medical advice. Of 20 patients followed-up, nine were alive in remission, two alive in disease, one died of treatment related complication, four died of progressive lymphoma, four died of AIDS related causes. The response to treatment included complete response (CR) in eight (44.4%), partial response (PR) in four (22.2%) and progressive disease (PD) in three (16.7%). The response to HARRT was evaluable in 13 patients based on CD4+ cell count and human immnodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load, among which nine (69.2%) responded. Estimated median survival time was 43.9 months. Although the population of patients is small, this is the first clinical data analyses of Korean ARL patients. As a substantial portion of the patients remains alive disease free, the impact of HAART on the clinical course of ARL needs further follow-up and evaluation. (author)

  14. Clinical presentation and opportunistic infections in HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan; Jespersen, Sanne; Katzenstein, Terese L;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Better understanding of HIV-2 infection is likely to affect the patient care in areas where HIV-2 is prevalent. In this study, we aimed to characterize the clinical presentations among HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, newly...... diagnosed HIV patients attending the HIV outpatient clinic at Hospital Nacional Simão Mendes in Guinea-Bissau were enrolled. Demographical and clinical data were collected and compared between HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients. RESULTS: A total of 169 patients (76% HIV-1, 17% HIV-2 and 6......% HIV 1/2) were included in the study between 21 March 2012 and 14 December 2012. HIV-1 seropositive patients were younger than HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 seropositive patients, but no difference in sex was observed. Patients with HIV-1 and HIV-1/2 had a lower baseline CD4 cell count than HIV-2 seropositive...

  15. HIV/AIDS合并中枢神经系统机会性感染73例临床分析%Seventy-three AIDS patients complicated with opportunistic infections of central nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张薇; 代丽丽; 易银; 牟丹蕾; 郭彩萍; 吴昊

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨HIV感染及AIDS患者群(HIV/AIDS)的各种中枢神经系统机会性感染(opportunistic infections,OIs)情况,以提高诊断水平及临床治愈率,改善预后.方法 统计73例HIV/AIDS中枢神经系统OIs的临床数据,分析其临床表现、实验室检查结果和头颅影像学表现,评价其疗效及预后.结果 73例HIV/AIDS的中枢神经系统OIs中,新型隐球菌性脑膜炎36例(49.3%),弓形体脑炎18例(24.7%),结核性脑膜炎5例(6.8%),HIV脑病5例(6.8%),进行性多灶性脑白质病4例(5.5%),巨细胞病毒性脑炎3例(4.1%),原因不明急性脑梗死2例(2.7%).好转47例,占64.3%;死亡8例,占11.0%;病情无改善、自动出院18例,占24.7%.结论 HIV/AIDS中枢神经系统的OIs诊断困难,病死率高.HIV/AIDS患者,尤其是CD4+T淋巴细胞计数<200/μl者,一旦出现中枢神经系统症状,应尽早进行脑脊液及头颅影像学等相关检查,如条件允许,行脑活体组织检查更有助于明确诊断.早诊断、早治疗是降低HIV/AIDS各种中枢神经系统OIs病死率以及提高治愈率的关键.%Objective To investigate the opportunistic infections (Ois) of central nervous system in HIV/AIDS patients so as to increase the diagnostic level and the curative rate, and improve the prognosis. Methods Clinical data of 73 AIDS patients complicated with the Ois of central nervous system were collected, the clinical menifestations, laboratory test results and head CT or MRI findings were analyzed, and the treatment efficacy and the prognosis were evaluated. Results Among the 73 patients, 36 (49.3%) were complicated with cryptoeocal meningitis, 18 (24.7%) with toxoplasmosis, 5 (6.8%) with tuberculous meningitis, 5 (6.8% ) with HIV encephalopathy, 4 (5.5%) with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, 3 (4.1%) with CMV encephalitis and 2 (2.7%) with cerebral infarction of unknown reason. Totally 47 patients (64.3%) recovered completely or improved partially, 8 (11

  16. Investigation and analysis on AIDS-related knowledge, attitude, behaviors and the infection state of HIV among different types of male homosexuals%某市不同类型MSM艾滋病知识态度行为和HIV感染情况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕金伟; 程周祥; 杨康生; 豆正东; 成国明; 方艳姣; 安洲; 范引光

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解芜湖市不同类型男男性行为者(men who have sex with men,MSM)艾滋病知识、态度、性行为学特征和艾滋病病毒(human immunodeficiency virus,HIV)感染情况,为实施MSM艾滋病高危行为干预提供科学依据.方法 采用分类滚雪球抽样调查的方法,招募MSM进行问卷调查,并采集静脉血样进行HIV、梅毒、丙型肝炎病毒(hepatitis C virus,HCV)的血清学检测.结果 共调查MSM 422名,不同类型MSM年龄、婚姻状况、文化程度等构成比差异均有统计学意义(均有P <0.05),不同类型MSM艾滋病相关知识知晓率差异有统计学意义(x2=67.92,P<0.001),其中其他型MSM知晓率高达95.1%.酒吧型MSM获得艾滋病相关服务人数高于网络型、公园型和其他型.422名MSM最近半年均与同性发生过性行为,酒吧型MSM每次都用安全套的率最高,为32.6%;11.6%的MSM与同性存在商业性行为,发生商业性行为时安全套使用率低.30.6% MSM存在异性性行为,HIV抗体阳性率为4.3%;梅毒抗体阳性率为9.0%,HCV抗体阳性率为0.7%;各类型MSM的HIV抗体阳性率差异有统计学意义(x2 =8.63,P=0.030).结论 不同类型MSM存在艾滋病知识与行为分离的现象;应在不同类型的MSM人群中采取不同的艾滋病相关知识教育形式和高危行为干预措施.%Objective To investigate AIDS-related knowledge,attitude and sexual behaviors among different types of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Wuhu,and to provide basis for AIDS high risk behaviors intervention.Methods Data from MSM by classification snowball sampling,we investigated MSM by using questionnaires.Results 422 MSM were investigated,there was significant difference in age,marriage,education background and so on (all P < 0.05).There was statistically significant difference in the rate of the knowledge of AIDS-related service among different types of MSM (x2 =67.92,P <0.001),that of MSM from other types was 95.1

  17. Epidemiology and Ecology of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs) that persist and grow in household plumbing, habitats they share with humans. Infections caused by these OPPPs involve individuals with preexis...

  18. Differential Survival for Men and Women with HIV/AIDS-Related Neurologic Diagnoses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha L Carvour

    Full Text Available Neurologic complications of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS frequently lead to disability or death in affected patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether survival patterns differ between men and women with HIV/AIDS-related neurologic disease (neuro-AIDS.Retrospective cohort data from a statewide surveillance database for HIV/AIDS were used to characterize survival following an HIV/AIDS-related neurologic diagnosis for men and women with one or more of the following conditions: cryptococcosis, toxoplasmosis, primary central nervous system lymphoma, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, and HIV-associated dementia. A second, non-independent cohort was formed using university-based cases to confirm and extend the findings from the statewide data. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to compare the survival experiences for men and women in the cohorts. Cox regression was employed to characterize survival while controlling for potential confounders in the study population.Women (n=27 had significantly poorer outcomes than men (n=198 in the statewide cohort (adjusted hazard ratio=2.31, 95% CI: 1.22 to 4.35, and a similar, non-significant trend was observed among university-based cases (n=17 women, 154 men. Secondary analyses suggested that this difference persisted over the course of the AIDS epidemic and was not attributable to differential antiretroviral therapy responses among men and women.The survival disadvantage of women compared to men should be confirmed and the mechanisms underlying this disparity elucidated. If this relationship is confirmed, targeted clinical and public health efforts might be directed towards screening, treatment, and support for women affected by neuro-AIDS.

  19. Opportunistic yeast pathogens: reservoirs, virulence mechanisms, and therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polvi, Elizabeth J; Li, Xinliu; O'Meara, Teresa R; Leach, Michelle D; Cowen, Leah E

    2015-06-01

    Life-threatening invasive fungal infections are becoming increasingly common, at least in part due to the prevalence of medical interventions resulting in immunosuppression. Opportunistic fungal pathogens of humans exploit hosts that are immunocompromised, whether by immunosuppression or genetic predisposition, with infections originating from either commensal or environmental sources. Fungal pathogens are armed with an arsenal of traits that promote pathogenesis, including the ability to survive host physiological conditions and to switch between different morphological states. Despite the profound impact of fungal pathogens on human health worldwide, diagnostic strategies remain crude and treatment options are limited, with resistance to antifungal drugs on the rise. This review will focus on the global burden of fungal infections, the reservoirs of these pathogens, the traits of opportunistic yeast that lead to pathogenesis, host genetic susceptibilities, and the challenges that must be overcome to combat antifungal drug resistance and improve clinical outcome. PMID:25700837

  20. Data Dissemination in Opportunistic Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ciobanu, Radu; Dobre, Ciprian

    2012-01-01

    Mobile devices integrating wireless short-range communication technologies make possible new applications for spontaneous communication, interaction and collaboration. An interesting approach is to use collaboration to facilitate communication when mobile devices are not able to establish direct communication paths. Opportunistic networks, formed when mobile devices communicate with each other while users are in close proximity, can help applications still exchange data in such cases. In oppo...

  1. Onychomycosis due to opportunistic molds*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Herrera, Erick Obed; Arroyo-Camarena, Stefanie; Tejada-García, Diana Luz; Porras-López, Carlos Francisco; Arenas, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Onychomycosis are caused by dermatophytes and Candida, but rarely by non- dermatophyte molds. These opportunistic agents are filamentous fungi found as soil and plant pathogens. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of opportunistic molds in onychomycosis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 4,220 cases with onychomycosis, diagnosed in a 39-month period at the Institute of Dermatology and Skin surgery "Prof. Dr. Fernando A. Cordero C." in Guatemala City, and confirmed with a positive KOH test and culture. RESULTS: 32 cases (0.76%) of onychomycosis caused by opportunistic molds were confirmed. The most affected age group ranged from 41 to 65 years (15 patients, 46.9%) and females were more commonly affected (21 cases, 65.6%) than males. Lateral and distal subungual onychomycosis (OSD-L) was detected in 20 cases (62.5%). The microscopic examination with KOH showed filaments in 19 cases (59.4%), dermatophytoma in 9 cases (28.1%), spores in 2 cases (6.25%), and filaments and spores in 2 cases (6.25%). Etiologic agents: Aspergillus sp., 11 cases (34.4%); Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, 8 cases (25.0%); Cladosporium sp., 3 cases (9.4%); Acremonium sp., 2 cases (6.25%); Paecilomyces sp., 2 cases (6.25%); Tritirachium oryzae, 2 cases (6.25%); Fusarium sp., Phialophora sp., Rhizopus sp. and Alternaria alternate, 1 case (3.1%) each. CONCLUSIONS: We found onychomycosis by opportunistic molds in 0.76% of the cases and DLSO was present in 62.5%. The most frequent isolated etiological agents were: Aspergillus sp. and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. PMID:26131862

  2. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinsembu, Kazhila C

    2016-01-01

    Faced with critical shortages of staff, long queues, and stigma at public health facilities in Livingstone, Zambia, persons who suffer from HIV/AIDS-related diseases use medicinal plants to manage skin infections, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, cough, malaria, and oral infections. In all, 94 medicinal plant species were used to manage HIV/AIDS-related diseases. Most remedies are prepared from plants of various families such as Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. More than two-thirds of the plants (mostly leaves and roots) are utilized to treat two or more diseases related to HIV infection. Eighteen plants, namely, Achyranthes aspera L., Lannea discolor (Sond.) Engl., Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Capparis tomentosa Lam., Cleome hirta Oliv., Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson, Euclea divinorum Hiern, Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol., Acacia nilotica Delile, Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach.) Milne-Redh., Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight and Arn., Abrus precatorius L., Hoslundia opposita Vahl., Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd.) Schumach., Ficus sycomorus L., Ximenia americana L., and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., were used to treat four or more disease conditions. About 31% of the plants in this study were administered as monotherapies. Multiuse medicinal plants may contain broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. However, since widely used plants easily succumb to the threats of overharvesting, they need special protocols and guidelines for their genetic conservation. There is still need to confirm the antimicrobial efficacies, pharmacological parameters, cytotoxicity, and active chemical ingredients of the discovered plants. PMID:27069489

  3. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazhila C. Chinsembu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Faced with critical shortages of staff, long queues, and stigma at public health facilities in Livingstone, Zambia, persons who suffer from HIV/AIDS-related diseases use medicinal plants to manage skin infections, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, cough, malaria, and oral infections. In all, 94 medicinal plant species were used to manage HIV/AIDS-related diseases. Most remedies are prepared from plants of various families such as Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. More than two-thirds of the plants (mostly leaves and roots are utilized to treat two or more diseases related to HIV infection. Eighteen plants, namely, Achyranthes aspera L., Lannea discolor (Sond. Engl., Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Capparis tomentosa Lam., Cleome hirta Oliv., Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson, Euclea divinorum Hiern, Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol., Acacia nilotica Delile, Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach. Milne-Redh., Dichrostachys cinerea (L. Wight and Arn., Abrus precatorius L., Hoslundia opposita Vahl., Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd. Schumach., Ficus sycomorus L., Ximenia americana L., and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., were used to treat four or more disease conditions. About 31% of the plants in this study were administered as monotherapies. Multiuse medicinal plants may contain broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. However, since widely used plants easily succumb to the threats of overharvesting, they need special protocols and guidelines for their genetic conservation. There is still need to confirm the antimicrobial efficacies, pharmacological parameters, cytotoxicity, and active chemical ingredients of the discovered plants.

  4. Trends in AIDS-defining opportunistic illnesses incidence over 25 years in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Coelho

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the temporal trends in incidence of AIDS-defining opportunistic illnesses in an urban cohort of a middle-income country. METHODS: HIV infected patients aged ≥ 18 years at cohort entry were included in this analysis. We calculated incidence rates per 1000 persons-years of observation for the first opportunistic illness presented after cohort enrollment, from 1987 to 2012. Trends for overall and specific opportunistic illnesses were tested and incidence rate ratios for the most recent calendar period were calculated as the ratio between the incidence rate observed in the most recent period of the study (2009-2012 and the incidence rate observed in first period of the study (1987-1990. RESULTS: Overall, 3378 patients were included in this analysis; of which 1119 (33% patients presented an opportunistic illness during follow up. Incidence rates of all opportunistic illnesses decreased over time, and the overall opportunistic illness incidence rates fell from 295.4/1000 persons-years in 1987-1990 to 34.6/1000 persons-years in 2009-2012. Tuberculosis, esophageal candidiasis, cerebral toxoplasmosis and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia were the most incident opportunistic illnesses in the cohort. Tuberculosis had the highest incidence rate in the study period. The peak in tuberculosis incidence occurred in 1991-1993 (80.8/1000 persons-years. Cerebral toxoplasmosis was the third most incident opportunistic illness in the study, with a peak of incidence of 43.6/1000 persons-year in 1987-1990. CONCLUSIONS: All opportunistic illnesses incidence rates decreased over the years but they still occur in an unacceptable frequency. Tuberculosis co-infection among HIV-infected persists as an important challenge for health care professionals and policy makers in our setting. Impressively high rates of cerebral toxoplasmosis were found suggesting that its incidence among HIV-infected is linked to the high prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii

  5. AIDS-related reasons for gay men's adoption of celibacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, K; Raveis, V H

    1993-01-01

    Since it was first recognized that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection could be sexually transmitted, celibacy has been advocated by some as the only unequivocally effective adaptation for avoiding the risk of infection. Others, however, have countered that few will be willing to be celibate and, further, that such behavior may have adverse psychosocial consequences. As part of a qualitative study of gay men's sexual decision-making in the context of the AIDS/HIV epidemic, we identified a subsample of respondents who had adopted celibacy for varying periods of time as an adaptation to the threat of AIDS/HIV infection. A content analysis of these men's interviews revealed 5 principal themes relating their reasons for choosing celibacy. PMID:8297710

  6. HIV/AIDS-related Discrimination in Shanxi Rural Areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI YANG; KONG-LAI ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    In order to explore the features of discrimination against people with HIV/AIDS in rural areas, a community-based intervention was carried out in two pilot communities of X County of Shanxi Province from September 2002 to October 2003. Methods Data were collected using qualitative methods (in-depth interview and focus group discussion) and anonymously structured questionnaires. Results (1) Severe discrimination against people infected with HIV/AIDS was revealed in the target communities. However, the response to HIV/AIDS was different in each community. (2) People were reluctant to disclose their HIV status or get tested for HIV, which endangered their sexual partners to contract HIV through unprotected sexual intercourses. (3) Attitudes towards people infected with HIV/AIDS varied. (4) Public education promoted a better understanding of HIV/AIDS which in turn improved community attitudes and behaviors towards people with HIV/AIDS. Conclusion HIV/AIDS-related discrimination undermines both individuals' and communities' responses to HIV/AIDS and may be a serious obstacle towards effective HIV/AIDS prevention and control.

  7. Measuring HIV/AIDS-Related Stigma across South Africa: A Versatile and Multidimensional Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Edward A.; Miller, Jacqueline A.; Newsome, Valerie; Sofolahan, Yewande A.; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing HIV/AIDS-related stigma is critical in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Although national campaigns and prevention programs have been implemented across South Africa to address this critical concern, assessing the impact of these initiatives is difficult as it requires that measurement of HIV/AIDS-related stigma is uniform and comparable…

  8. Alveolar damage in AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Prentø, P; Junge, Jette;

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is the most common and serious of the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Despite this, many basic aspects in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated P carinii pneumonia are unknown. We therefore undertook a light and electron microscopic study of transbronchial...... biopsy specimens to compare pathologic features of P carinii pneumonia and other HIV-related lung diseases. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: Thirty-seven consecutive HIV-infected patients undergoing a diagnostic bronchoscopy. RESULTS: P carinii pneumonia was characterized by an increase in inflammation, edema...

  9. Survey of AIDS Related KAB Among Immigrant Female Factory Workers in Dongguan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何群; 刘树芳; 王晔; 凌莉; 杨放

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To understand the HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors (KAB) among immigrant female factory workers(IFFW). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among IFFWs sampled from several joint- venture and private factories in Dongguan city. Results: Out of 175 sampled workers, 165 qualified for inclusion and the median age was 22. The resultsshowed that the IFFWs had low levels of knowledge about HIV/AIDS, and held many misconceptions. Thirty three of 76 (43.4%) unmarried IFFWs had premarital sexual contact, and more than half of these contacts were one-night stands (54.5%). More than one quarter of the women(25.9%) never used condoms, 49.4% sometimes used condoms and 24.7% used condoms every time. Twenty-eight women (31.8%) had an induced abortion because of an unexpected pregnancy. Fourteen (14.9%) had been infected with STDs, and four IFFWs(2.8%)had tried drugs before the interview. Conclusion: In order to empower the IFFWs in the city to protect themselves from HIV, and to contain the rapid spread of HIV in our province, targeted HIV/AIDS health promotion programs should be urgently implemented among IFFWs in Dongguan city. The programs should be designed to improve the knowledge of HIV, to promote condom use, and to reduce risky behaviors.

  10. AIDS- Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior Survey among the "Migrant" Population in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-fang ZHOU; Xiao-ming SUN; Jonanne Mantell; Xiao-mei RU; Yong WEN

    2007-01-01

    Objective To realize AIDS related knowledge, attitude and behavior among floating people in China and discuss its influencial factors, and to provide the evidence for how to prevent AIDS in floating population.Methods The data were collected from the "Sex and Reproductive Health Baseline Survey among Floating People in China" conducted in March 2004. The standard questionnaires were used to interview altogether 4 900 floating people from 6 provinces.Results Nearly 95.4 % of them had heard about AIDS, but only 0.5% can judge all the transmitted ways and no-transmitted ways correctly, 45.9% believed that we need to isolate the HIV positive people. Only 65.7% knew that using condom can preventive HIV infection, 43.7% showed their understanding about the man who has long time no sexual life has sex with a sexual worker. About 13.6%floating people chose condom as FP method and among them only 34.6% used condom every time.Conclusion Chinese floating people are lack of AIDS knowledge. Most of them do not practise Safe Sex Activity. We need to give more intervention to the floating population.

  11. Accessing opportunistic resources with Bosco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosco is a software project developed by the Open Science Grid to help scientists better utilize their on-campus computing resources. Instead of submitting jobs through a dedicated gatekeeper, as most remote submission mechanisms use, it uses the built-in SSH protocol to gain access to the cluster. By using a common access method, SSH, we are able to simplify the interaction with the cluster, making the submission process more user friendly. Additionally, it does not add any extra software to be installed on the cluster making Bosco an attractive option for the cluster administrator. In this paper, we will describe Bosco, the personal supercomputing assistant, and how Bosco is used by researchers across the U.S. to manage their computing workflows. In addition, we will also talk about how researchers are using it, including an unique use of Bosco to submit CMS reconstruction jobs to an opportunistic XSEDE resource.

  12. Immune reconstitution syndrome presenting as probable AIDS-related lymphoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Charlotte B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report an unusual case of HIV-related immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, presenting as suspected AIDS-related lymphoma. Symptoms, initial investigations including fine-needle biopsy and 18F-FDG PET/CT scan were highly compatible with high grade AIDS-related lymphoma, however subsequently IRIS was diagnosed. We discuss pitfalls in the interpretation of diagnostic results in ARL versus IRIS.

  13. Immune reconstitution syndrome presenting as probable AIDS-related lymphoma: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Bo K; Nielsen, Susanne D; Christensen, Charlotte; Helweg-Larsen, Jannik

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: We report an unusual case of HIV-related immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, presenting as suspected AIDS-related lymphoma. Symptoms, initial investigations including fine-needle biopsy and 18F-FDG PET/CT scan were highly compatible with high grade AIDS-related lymphoma, however...... subsequently IRIS was diagnosed. We discuss pitfalls in the interpretation of diagnostic results in ARL versus IRIS....

  14. Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Increasingly Important Pathogens in Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph O. Falkinham

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens are responsible for a significant number of infections whose origin has been traced to drinking water. These opportunistic pathogens represent an emerging water borne disease problem with a major economic cost of at least $1 billion annually. The common features of this group of waterborne pathogens include: disinfectant-resistance, pipe surface adherence and biofilm formation, growth in amoebae, growth on low organic concentrations, and growth at low oxygen levels. Their emergence is due to the fact that conditions resulting from drinking water treatment select for them. As such, there is a need for novel approaches to reduce exposure to these pathogens. In addition to much-needed research, controls to reduce numbers and human exposure can be instituted independently by utilities and homeowners and hospital- and building-operators.

  15. Opportunistic tangible user interfaces for augmented reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Steven; Feiner, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Opportunistic Controls are a class of user interaction techniques that we have developed for augmented reality (AR) applications to support gesturing on, and receiving feedback from, otherwise unused affordances already present in the domain environment. By leveraging characteristics of these affordances to provide passive haptics that ease gesture input, Opportunistic Controls simplify gesture recognition, and provide tangible feedback to the user. In this approach, 3D widgets are tightly coupled with affordances to provide visual feedback and hints about the functionality of the control. For example, a set of buttons can be mapped to existing tactile features on domain objects. We describe examples of Opportunistic Controls that we have designed and implemented using optical marker tracking, combined with appearance-based gesture recognition. We present the results of two user studies. In the first, participants performed a simulated maintenance inspection of an aircraft engine using a set of virtual buttons implemented both as Opportunistic Controls and using simpler passive haptics. Opportunistic Controls allowed participants to complete their tasks significantly faster and were preferred over the baseline technique. In the second, participants proposed and demonstrated user interfaces incorporating Opportunistic Controls for two domains, allowing us to gain additional insights into how user interfaces featuring Opportunistic Controls might be designed. PMID:19910657

  16. 人类免疫缺陷病毒,艾滋病病毒1型艾滋病患者CD4+T淋巴细胞水平与机会感染及病毒载量的相关性分析%Correlation of CD4+T lymphocyte level with opportunistic infections and viral load in AIDS patients infected with HIV-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铃; 古雪; 敬雨佳; 李芸; 梅小平

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析人类免疫缺陷病毒,艾滋病病毒-1(HIV-1)型艾滋病(AIDS)患者体内CD4+T淋巴细胞水平与艾滋病病毒载量及机会性感染的相关性。方法通过Real- time PCR OBASAmpliPrep/COBAS Taq-Man全自动病毒载量仪(Roche公司)和流式细胞仪(FACSCOUNT)绝对计数法对95例HIV-1型AIDS患者定量检测血浆中HIV-1 RNA和CD4+T淋巴细胞数。结果低文化程度的35~50岁已婚男性农民是HIV-1型AIDS患者的多见人群,主要通过性传播途径感染;机会感染最常见部位是呼吸系统感染90例次(51.5%);机会感染发病率最多的是细菌性肺炎48例次(27.4%);根据CD4+T淋巴细胞计数分层水平分为5组,细菌性肺炎、卡氏肺孢子虫肺炎、肺结核、口腔念珠菌感染、隐球菌脑膜炎、感染性腹泻及单纯疱疹各自在5组间比较差异有统计学意义(0.05);CD4+T细胞计数低于200个/μl时,机会感染发生例次率为97.7%;病毒量<103拷贝/ml的AIDS中,以CD4+T细胞数在200~399个/μl的个体较多(75%),病毒量≥105拷贝/ml的AIDS中,CD4+T细胞数在<200个/μl的个体45例(73.8%);CD4+T淋巴细胞值与病毒载量对数值呈负相关(=-0.34,<0.01)。结论 AIDS患者机会性感染的发生率高,随病毒载量上升CD4+T淋巴细胞数呈现不同程度的下降趋势,CD4+T细胞计数是AIDS患者发生机会性感染的独立危险因素,加强对患者CD4+T细胞计数观察是预测机会性感染的重要手段。%Objective To analyze the correlation of CD4+T cell level with HIV load and opportunistic infections in AIDS patients with type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). Methods The plasma load of HIV-1 RNA was detected using real-time PCR OBASAmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan automatic viral load meter (Roche), and CD4+ T lymphocytes were counted by flow cytometry (FACSCOUNT) absolute counting method for 95 patients with AIDS of HIV-1 infection. Results

  17. Opportunistic Behavior in Motivated Learning Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, James; Starzyk, Janusz A; Jachyra, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    This paper focuses on the novel motivated learning (ML) scheme and opportunistic behavior of an intelligent agent. It extends previously developed ML to opportunistic behavior in a multitask situation. Our paper describes the virtual world implementation of autonomous opportunistic agents learning in a dynamically changing environment, creating abstract goals, and taking advantage of arising opportunities to improve their performance. An opportunistic agent achieves better results than an agent based on ML only. It does so by minimizing the average value of all need signals rather than a dominating need. This paper applies to the design of autonomous embodied systems (robots) learning in real-time how to operate in a complex environment. PMID:25291798

  18. Case of relapsed AIDS-related plasmablastic lymphoma treated with autologous stem cell transplantation and highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Goto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Plasmablastic lymphoma is a rare and aggressive malignancy strongly associated with HIV infection. The refractory/relapsed disease rate is high, and the survival rate is characteristically poor. There are no satisfactory salvage regimens for relapsed cases. We successfully performed autologous stem cell transplantation using a regimen consisting of MCNU (ranimustine, etoposide, cytarabine, and melphalan in a Japanese patient with relapsed AIDS-related plasmablastic lymphoma of the oral cavity. Highly active antiretroviral therapy continued during the therapy. Therapy-related toxicity was tolerable, and a total of 40 Gy of irradiation was administered after autologous stem cell transplantation. The patient has remained in complete remission for 16 months since transplantation.

  19. Distance-Based Opportunistic Mobile Data Offloading

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaofeng Lu; Pietro Lio'; Pan Hui

    2016-01-01

    Cellular network data traffic can be offload onto opportunistic networks. This paper proposes a Distance-based Opportunistic Publish/Subscribe (DOPS) content dissemination model, which is composed of three layers: application layer, decision-making layer and network layer. When a user wants new content, he/she subscribes on a subscribing server. Users having the contents decide whether to deliver the contents to the subscriber based on the distance information. If in the meantime a content ow...

  20. Economic transactions, opportunistic behavior and protective mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    and other co-operators. This paper is concerned with the latter type of risk and the protection against it. Six protective mechanisms, which may serve as safeguards against opportunistic behavior, are presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to reputation effects. It is noted that such...... effects may account for the lack of opportunistic behavior with which networks are often credited. No protective mechanism is, however, effective under all circumstances....

  1. ETOR-Efficient Token based Opportunistic Routing

    OpenAIRE

    A. Saichand; Naseer, A. R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an Efficient Token based Opportunistic Routing called ETOR, which is animprovement to the token based coordination approach for opportunistic routing proposed by Economy[1].In Economy, method used for finding the connected candidate order chooses neighbor as the nextcandidate by considering ETX of that neighbor towards the source but it does not consider the linkprobability between the relay candidate and neighbor to be selected. ETOR proposes variant methods forfinding th...

  2. Integrated Routing Protocol for Opportunistic Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Anshul Verma; Dr. Anurag Srivastava

    2012-01-01

    In opportunistic networks the existence of a simultaneous path is not assumed to transmit a message between a sender and a receiver. Information about the context in which the users communicate is a key piece of knowledge to design efficient routing protocols in opportunistic networks. But this kind of information is not always available. When users are very isolated, context information cannot be distributed, and cannot be used for taking efficient routing decisions. In such cases, context o...

  3. Gene expression profile of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS) is a proliferation of aberrant vascular structures lined by spindle cells, and is caused by a gammaherpes virus (HHV8/KSHV). Its course is aggravated by co-infection with HIV-1, where the timing of infection with HIV-1 and HHV8 is important for the clinical outcome. In order to better understand the pathogenesis of KS, we have analysed tissue from two AIDS-KS lesions, and from normal skin by serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was then used to validate the results. The expression profile of AIDS-related KS (AIDS-KS) reflects an active process in the skin. Transcripts of HHV8 were found to be very low, and HIV-1 mRNA was not detected by SAGE, although it could be found using RT-PCR. Comparing the expression profile of AIDS-KS tissue with publicly available SAGE libraries suggested that AIDS-KS mRNA levels are most similar to those in an artificially mixed library of endothelial cells and leukocytes, in line with the description of KS lesions as containing spindle cells with endothelial characteristics, and an inflammatory infiltrate. At least 64 transcripts were found to be significantly elevated, and 28 were statistically downregulated in AIDS-KS compared to normal skin. Five of the upregulated mRNAs, including Tie 1 and sialoadhesin/CD169, were confirmed by semi-quantitative PCR to be elevated in additional AIDS-KS biopsies. Antibodies to sialoadhesin/CD169, a known marker of activated macrophages, were shown to specifically label tumour macrophages. The expression profile of AIDS-KS showed 64 genes to be significantly upregulated, and 28 genes downregulated, compared with normal skin. One of the genes with increased expression was sialoadhesin (CD169). Antibodies to sialoadhesin/CD169 specifically labelled tumour-associated macrophages, suggesting that macrophages present in AIDS-KS lesions belong to a subset of human CD169+ macrophages

  4. Exploratory development of the data mining in the relationship between CD4+ cell counts and the opportunistic infection among AIDS patients%数据挖掘在艾滋病病人CD4+T淋巴细胞与机会性感染关系的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩建超; 徐艳; 贺一; 谢渝中; 赵攀; 黄成瑜

    2012-01-01

    目的 利用数据挖掘技术分析艾滋病(AIDS)病人CD4+T淋巴细胞与机会性感染的关系,以期对合并机会性感染的AIDS病人的早期预防性用药提供决策支持.方法 使用数据挖掘中的C4.5决策树算法,分析重庆市公共卫生医疗救治中心2003-2008年的207例AIDS病人的相关数据.结果 AIDS病人的CD4+T淋巴细胞值在A(0-50)区间,合并感染卡氏肺孢子虫肺炎(PCP)机会很大(概率为82.35%).如果没有感染PCP,但是感染了隐球性脑膜炎(NMY),其CD4+T淋巴细胞值在A(0-50)区间;既没有感染PCP,也没有感染NMY,但合并感染丙型肝炎(丙肝)及乙型肝炎(乙肝)者,其CD4+T淋巴细胞值在D(201-300)区间;没有感染PCP,也没有感染NMY,但合并感染丙肝未感染乙肝,其CD4+T淋巴细胞值在C(101 -200)区间.结论 通过使用数据挖掘技术中的决策树算法,得出AIDS病人CD4+T淋巴细胞值在某一个区间,更容易合并某一种机会性感染,CD4+T淋巴细胞值与机会性感染有着重要的关系.%Objective To analyze the relationship between CD4+ cell counts of AIDS patients and the opportunistic infection by utilizing the data mining technology, and to provide decision-making support for an early preventive medication among AIDS patients who were complicated with opportunistic infections. Methods The C4. 5 decision tree algorithm of data mining was considered as the main method. Interrelated data of 207 AIDS patients from Chongqing Public Health and Medical Service Center between 2005 and 2008 were collected as study samples. Results AIDS patients whose CD/ cell value lay in A (0-50) sector had a higher opportunity to be infected with pneumocystis carinii pneumoni(PCP) ;for those infected with cryptococcal meningitis(NMY)without PCP, the CD/ cell value lay in A sector. For those who were co-infected with hepatitis C and hepatitis B,but with neither PCP nor meningitis, the CD/ cell value lay in D(201 - 300)sector;if the patients were only

  5. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in AIDS-related non-hodgkin′s lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phatak Uday

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Immune Reconstitution syndrome following antiretroviral therapy is common in HIV/AIDS patients due to boosting of immunity. A case is reported here wherein AIDS-related Non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma patient received CHOP regimen and antiretroviral therapy. Patient developed tubercular lymphadenopathy paradoxically as a manifestation of IRIS.

  6. Evaluation of Opportunistic Routing Algorithms on Opportunistic Mobile Sensor Networks with Infrastructure Assistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, Viet-Duc; Scholten, Hans; Havinga, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Recently the increasing number of sensors integrated in smartphones, especially the iPhone and Android phones, has motivated the development of routing algorithms for Opportunistic Mobile Sensor Networks (OppMSNs). Although there are many existing opportunistic routing algorithms, researchers still

  7. Survey on AIDS related knowledge and attitude among married people of childbearing age in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying; Cheng Yi-min; Huang Na; Guo Xin; Wu Jun-qing; Ru Xiao-mei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To learn about the current circumstances surrounding AIDS related knowledge, attitudes and relevant influential factors, and to provide recommendations for HIV/AIDS prevention and control.Methods: A cross sectional study was designed by the cluster sampling method, and a self-administered, closed, and anonymous questionnaire was administered. There were a total of 4,800 married people of childbearing age, from six counties, during the period November through December, 2003.Results: There were 4,693 valid questionnaires and the validity rate was 97.78%. The general correct rate of AIDS knowledge of the respondents was 63.60%. Factors such as sex, age, place of registered permanent residence and different areas had influence on the level of AIDS knowledge. Respondents knew more about AIDS transmission related knowledge than non-transmission related knowledge. Only 30.6% of respondents had heard about volunteer counseling and testing(VCT)of AIDS, and just 8.5% of them thought that they had the possibility of being infected with HIV/AIDS, 64.5% of participants were afraid of AIDS, 66.5% of them thought that HIV positive people should be quarantined, 74.1% of them held that HIV positive people should be forbidden to go to public places, and they would not like to have dinner (68.8%), shake hands (67.8%), or work (63.4%)with HIV positive people. Respondents of different sex, registered permanent residence, education and living places had different attitudes towards HIV/AIDS.Conclusion: The AIDS knowledge level of respondents is below the goal of 75% up to 2005 brought forward by National AIDS Office of China. It is very important to strengthen the Information, Education, Communication (IEC) on AIDS non-transmission related knowledge among married people of childbearing age, especially those who are younger, lower educated and female. Furthermore, the knowledge about VCT should be publicized. More than half of the respondents have negative attitudes towards

  8. Opportunistic spectrum utilization in vehicular communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Nan

    2016-01-01

    This brief examines current research on improving Vehicular Networks (VANETs), examining spectrum scarcity due to the dramatic growth of mobile data traffic and the limited bandwidth of dedicated vehicular communication bands and the use of opportunistic spectrum bands to mitigate congestion. It reviews existing literature on the use of opportunistic spectrum bands for VANETs, including licensed and unlicensed spectrum bands and a variety of related technologies, such as cognitive radio, WiFi and device-to-device communications. Focused on analyzing spectrum characteristics, designing efficient spectrum exploitation schemes, and evaluating the date delivery performance when utilizing different opportunistic spectrum bands, the results presented in this brief provide valuable insights on improving the design and deployment of future VANETs.

  9. Performance analysis of opportunistic nonregenerative relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2013-01-01

    Opportunistic relaying in cooperative communication depends on careful relay selection. However, the traditional centralized method used for opportunistic amplify-and-forward protocols requires precise measurements of channel state information at the destination. In this paper, we adopt the max-min criterion as a relay selection framework for opportunistic amplify-and-forward cooperative communications, which was exhaustively used for the decode-and-forward protocol, and offer an accurate performance analysis based on exact statistics of the local signal-to-noise ratios of the best relay. Furthermore, we evaluate the asymptotical performance and deduce the diversity order of our proposed scheme. Finally, we validate our analysis by showing that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results over Rayleigh fading channels, and we compare the max-min relay selection with their centralized channel state information-based and partial relay selection counterparts.

  10. Economic transactions, opportunistic behavior and protective mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    Whenever actors participate in transactions they expose themselves to risks of various kinds. Some of these risks are attributable to events outside the control of the participants and are unavoidable. Others originate in, or are aggrevated by, opportunistic actions undertaken by contract partners...... and other co-operators. This paper is concerned with the latter type of risk and the protection against it. Six protective mechanisms, which may serve as safeguards against opportunistic behavior, are presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to reputation effects. It is noted that such...

  11. The Vicinity Package for Opportunistic Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Phe-Neau, Tiphaine

    2014-01-01

    Opportunistic networks have grown into a major trend in the wireless network research field. In our work, we relaxed the traditional definition of contact and intercontact times by bringing the notion of vicinity into the game. We first propose to analyze opportunistic/disruption-tolerant networks (DTN) using a node-centered vicinity point of view i.e. we consider that nodes are in k-contact when they remain within a few hops from each other and in k-intercontact otherwise (where k is the max...

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Nocardia jinanensis, an Opportunistic Bacterial Pathogen That Causes Cellulitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabortti, Alolika; Li, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Nocardia jinanensis, an opportunistic pathogen that can cause skin infections, reveals genes that may contribute to the lifestyle and pathogenicity of N. jinanensis. The genome also reveals the biosynthetic capacity of N. jinanensis in producing mycolic acids, siderophores, and other polyketide and nonribosomal peptide-derived secondary metabolites. PMID:27445366

  13. Identification of quorum-sensing regulated proteins in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa by proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arevalo-Ferro, C.; Hentzer, Morten; Reil, G.;

    2003-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen which is responsible for severe nosocomial infections in immunocompromised patients and is the major pathogen in cystic fibrosis. The bacterium utilizes two interrelated quorum-sensing (QS) systems, which rely on...

  14. Differences of HIV/AIDS Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Between Commercial Sex Workers and Their Clients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世英; 张顺祥; AbdullahASM

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To compare the HIV/AIDS related knowledge,attitudes and pratices (KAP) among the commercial sex workers (CSWs) with that of their clients in Shenzhen. Methods: A total of 124 female CSWs and 155 men,detained for selling or purchasing sexual services, were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Results: CSWs scored higher than their clients on AIDS/HIV knowledge scores, though the difference was not significant and both groups only scored near 50%. ""Almost always""condom use rates were significantly higher for CSWs. Most of the women but fewer men knew condom use could prevent HIV/AIDS infection. The main reason for not using condoms among the women was the unwillingness of their customers. A higher proportion of the CSWs (9.7%) than men (2.6%) had ever used illegal drugs. The mean age of first sexual intercourse (18.2±2.1) and first commercial sex (20.2±3.9)among the CSWs were lower than that of the men (22.2±0.3and 27.1 ± 0.6, respectively). Conclusion: New health education programs promoting condom use should be developed to raise awareness about HIV/AIDS, particularly among men. CSWs and clients are high-risk groups for HIV/AIDS infection and transmission.

  15. Trust Management System for Opportunistic Cloud Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, Eric

    2013-01-01

    We have over the past three years been working on the feasibility of Opportunistic Cloud Services (OCS) for enterprises. OCS is about enterprises strategically contributing and utilizing spare IT resources as cloud services. One of the major challenges that such a platform faces is data security...

  16. AIDS-related primary central nervous system lymphoma: a Norwegian national survey 1989–2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a frequent complication in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The objective of this survey was to investigate incidence, clinical features, radiological findings, histologic diagnosis, treatment and outcome for all patients with histologically verified AIDS-related PCNSL diagnosed in Norway in 1989–2003. We identified the patients by chart review of all cases recorded as PCNSL in The Norwegian Cancer Registry (by law recording all cases of cancer in Norway) and all cases recorded as AIDS-related PCNSL in the autopsy registry at a hospital having 67% autopsy rate and treating 59% of AIDS patients in Norway, from 1989 to 2003. Histologic material and radiological images were reviewed. We used person-time techniques to calculate incidence rates of PCNSL among AIDS patients based on recordings on AIDS at the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases (by law recording all cases of AIDS in Norway). Twenty-nine patients had histologically confirmed, newly diagnosed AIDS-related PCNSL in Norway from 1989–2003. Only 2 patients had this diagnosis established while alive. AIDS patients had 5.5% lifetime risk of PCNSL. Their absolute incidence rate of PCNSL per 100 person-years was 1.7 (95%CI: 1.1–2.4) and decreased during the consecutive 5-year periods from 3.6, to 2.5, and to 0.4 (p < 0.001). Median survival from initial symptom of PCNSL was 2.3 months, but one patient was still alive 4 years after completed radiotherapy. This is the first national survey to confirm decreasing incidence of AIDS-related PCNSL. Despite dismal survival in most patients, the possibility of long term survival should prompt more aggressive diagnostics in suspected PCNSL

  17. Survey of HIV/AIDS-related Knowledge, Attitude and Determinants in Urban Residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何群; 杨放; 林鹏; 王晔; 刘勇鹰; 付笑冰; 赵茜茜

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To provide references for HIV/AIDS-re-lated health education strategies through survey on HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitude and determi-nants of HIV/AIDS awareness.Methods: The study subjects were selected by ran-dom interception in a downtown street of Guangzhou city on World AIDS Day-December 1,2002. The uni-form questionnaires were finished by means of self-administration.Results: Two hundred questionnaires were distrib-uted and 147 qualified questionnaires were collected.The results showed, the awareness rate of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge was 63.3%, and awareness rate of transmission routes was 76.2 %, whilst non-transmis-sion route was 60.5 %; the awareness rate of trans-mission was 59.2%; the awareness rate of prevention was 47.0%; the positive attitude to people living with HIV/AIDS was 65.6%. Multiple variable Logistic re-gression analysis showed the determinants of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge were education level, age,marital status and gender, of which people with high level of education, young age and the group of male and married had better awareness of HIV/AIDS.Conclusion: Current HIV/AIDS-related knowledge of urban residents is relativly low, especially for the non-transmission route, hence further HIV/AIDS-re-lated education should be strengthened, especially fo-cusing on non-transmission route to eliminate dis-crimination over people living with HIV/AIDS.Further, education efforts also should be put on fe-male population, unmarried population and poorly edu-cated population.

  18. Loss of competition in the outside host environment generates outbreaks of environmental opportunist pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Anttila

    Full Text Available Environmentally transmitted pathogens face ecological interactions (e.g., competition, predation, parasitism in the outside-host environment and host immune system during infection. Despite the ubiquitousness of environmental opportunist pathogens, traditional epidemiology focuses on obligatory pathogens incapable of environmental growth. Here we ask how competitive interactions in the outside-host environment affect the dynamics of an opportunist pathogen. We present a model coupling the classical SI and Lotka-Volterra competition models. In this model we compare a linear infectivity response and a sigmoidal infectivity response. An important assumption is that pathogen virulence is traded off with competitive ability in the environment. Removing this trade-off easily results in host extinction. The sigmoidal response is associated with catastrophic appearances of disease outbreaks when outside-host species richness, or overall competition pressure, decreases. This indicates that alleviating outside-host competition with antibacterial substances that also target the competitors can have unexpected outcomes by providing benefits for opportunist pathogens. These findings may help in developing alternative ways of controlling environmental opportunist pathogens.

  19. Loss of competition in the outside host environment generates outbreaks of environmental opportunist pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, Jani; Ruokolainen, Lasse; Kaitala, Veijo; Laakso, Jouni

    2013-01-01

    Environmentally transmitted pathogens face ecological interactions (e.g., competition, predation, parasitism) in the outside-host environment and host immune system during infection. Despite the ubiquitousness of environmental opportunist pathogens, traditional epidemiology focuses on obligatory pathogens incapable of environmental growth. Here we ask how competitive interactions in the outside-host environment affect the dynamics of an opportunist pathogen. We present a model coupling the classical SI and Lotka-Volterra competition models. In this model we compare a linear infectivity response and a sigmoidal infectivity response. An important assumption is that pathogen virulence is traded off with competitive ability in the environment. Removing this trade-off easily results in host extinction. The sigmoidal response is associated with catastrophic appearances of disease outbreaks when outside-host species richness, or overall competition pressure, decreases. This indicates that alleviating outside-host competition with antibacterial substances that also target the competitors can have unexpected outcomes by providing benefits for opportunist pathogens. These findings may help in developing alternative ways of controlling environmental opportunist pathogens. PMID:24244752

  20. Application of diffusion tensor imaging in AIDS patients with brain opportunistic diseases: A comparative study of tuberculosis and toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-le Chu

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Quantitative DTI is valuable for diagnosis and differential diagnosis of patients with AIDS-associated infections, and also could provide references for clinical physicians for proper medications. The quantitative FA value could help better reveal different changes of microstructural integrity between different opportunistic infections.

  1. Opportunistic Migration in Spatial Evolutionary Games

    CERN Document Server

    Buesser, Pierre; Antonioni, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    We study evolutionary games in a spatial diluted grid environment in which agents strategically interact locally but can also opportunistically move to other positions within a given migration radius. Using the imitation of the best rule for strategy revision, it is shown that cooperation may evolve and be stable in the Prisoner's Dilemma game space for several migration distances but only for small game interaction radius while the Stag Hunt class of games become fully cooperative. We also show that only a few trials are needed for cooperation to evolve, i.e. searching costs are not an issue. When the stochastic Fermi strategy update protocol is used cooperation cannot evolve in the Prisoner's Dilemma if the selection intensity is high in spite of opportunistic migration. However, when imitation becomes more random, fully or partially cooperative states are reached in all games for all migration distances tested and for short to intermediate interaction radii.

  2. Opportunistic Interference Alignment in MIMO Interference Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Perlaza, Samir Medina; Lasaulce, Samson; Chaufray, Jean Marie

    2008-01-01

    We present two interference alignment techniques such that an opportunistic point-to-point multiple input multiple output (MIMO) link can reuse, without generating any additional interference, the same frequency band of a similar pre-existing primary link. In this scenario, we exploit the fact that under power constraints, although each radio maximizes independently its rate by water-filling on their channel transfer matrix singular values, frequently, not all of them are used. Therefore, by aligning the interference of the opportunistic radio it is possible to transmit at a significant rate while insuring zero-interference on the pre-existing link. We propose a linear pre-coder for a perfect interference alignment and a power allocation scheme which maximizes the individual data rate of the secondary link. Our numerical results show that significant data rates are achieved even for a reduced number of antennas.

  3. Environmental Variation Generates Environmental Opportunist Pathogen Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, Jani; Kaitala, Veijo; Laakso, Jouni; Ruokolainen, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Many socio-economically important pathogens persist and grow in the outside host environment and opportunistically invade host individuals. The environmental growth and opportunistic nature of these pathogens has received only little attention in epidemiology. Environmental reservoirs are, however, an important source of novel diseases. Thus, attempts to control these diseases require different approaches than in traditional epidemiology focusing on obligatory parasites. Conditions in the outside-host environment are prone to fluctuate over time. This variation is a potentially important driver of epidemiological dynamics and affect the evolution of novel diseases. Using a modelling approach combining the traditional SIRS models to environmental opportunist pathogens and environmental variability, we show that epidemiological dynamics of opportunist diseases are profoundly driven by the quality of environmental variability, such as the long-term predictability and magnitude of fluctuations. When comparing periodic and stochastic environmental factors, for a given variance, stochastic variation is more likely to cause outbreaks than periodic variation. This is due to the extreme values being further away from the mean. Moreover, the effects of variability depend on the underlying biology of the epidemiological system, and which part of the system is being affected. Variation in host susceptibility leads to more severe pathogen outbreaks than variation in pathogen growth rate in the environment. Positive correlation in variation on both targets can cancel the effect of variation altogether. Moreover, the severity of outbreaks is significantly reduced by increase in the duration of immunity. Uncovering these issues helps in understanding and controlling diseases caused by environmental pathogens. PMID:26710238

  4. Mobile opportunistic networks architectures, protocols and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Denko, Mieso K

    2011-01-01

    Widespread availability of pervasive and mobile devices coupled with recent advances in networking technologies make opportunistic networks one of the most promising communication technologies for a growing number of future mobile applications. Covering the basics as well as advanced concepts, this book introduces state-of-the-art research findings, technologies, tools, and innovations. Prominent researchers from academia and industry report on communication architectures, network algorithms and protocols, emerging applications, experimental studies, simulation tools, implementation test beds,

  5. Advanced Opportunistic Multiuser Scheduling for Wireless Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, PhuongBang

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation addresses key aspects of opportunistic multiuser scheduling, one of the main components of next generation wireless networks responsible for achieving maximum spectrum efficiency and superior user experience. The main topics include the exploitation of multiuser diversity and spatial frequency reuse while maintaining user fairness, the design and analysis of fair scheduling policies that can provide optimal performance, the utilization of historical channel data in scheduli...

  6. Capital Structure with Opportunistic Stakeholders' Coalitions

    OpenAIRE

    Elie Appelbaum; Sanjay Banerji

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows that stakeholders' multilateral opportunistic behaviour during financial distress may lead to premature liquidation of the firm. Consequently, the firm will use its capital structure to mitigate the costs of such opportunism. Specifically, the firm will reduce its debt so that the probability of multilateral opportunism is zero; namely, it will use only safe debt. The paper predicts that the debt-equity ratio will decrease with risk, the number of contracts, the difficulty in...

  7. Pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms in caves

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-Moral Sergio; Hermosin Bernardo; Boiron Patrick; Rodriguez-Nava Veronica; Laiz Leonila; Jurado Valme; Saiz-Jimenez Cesareo

    2010-01-01

    With today’s leisure tourism, the frequency of visits to many caves makes it necessary to know about possible potentially pathogenic microorganisms in caves, determine their reservoirs, and inform the public about the consequences of such visits. Our data reveal that caves could be a potential danger to visitors because of the presence of opportunistic microorganisms, whose existence and possible development in humans is currently unknown.

  8. Opportunistic hearing screening in elderly inpatients

    OpenAIRE

    Ramdoo, Krishan; Bowen, Jordan; Dale, Oliver T; Corbridge, Rogan; Chatterjee, Apurba; Gosney, Margot A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of occult hearing loss in elderly inpatients, to evaluate feasibility of opportunistic hearing screening and to determine subsequent provision of hearing aids. Materials and methods: Subjects (>65 years) were recruited from five elderly care wards. Hearing loss was detected by a ward-based hearing screen comprising patient-reported assessment of hearing disability and a whisper test. Subjects failing the whisper test or reporting hearing difficulties wer...

  9. Opportunistic assessment of hearing in elderly inpatients

    OpenAIRE

    Ramdoo, Krishan; Bowen, Jordan; Dale, Oliver T; Corbridge, Rogan; Chatterjee, Apurba; Gosney, Margot A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of occult hearing loss in elderly inpatients, to evaluate feasibility of opportunistic hearing screening and to determine subsequent provision of hearing aids. Materials and methods: Subjects (>65 years) were recruited from five elderly care wards. Hearing loss was detected by a ward-based hearing screen comprising patient-reported assessment of hearing disability and a whisper test. Subjects failing the whisper test or reporting hearing difficulti...

  10. AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour among South African street youth: reflections on power, sexuality and the autonomous self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart-Kruger, J; Richter, L M

    1997-09-01

    Street children in South Africa are, in the main, between the ages of 11 and 17 years. Rape, prostitution, sexual bartering and exchange, casual sex and romantic sexual relationships all occur in the experiences of young people who live and work on inner-city streets. In this study, the AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of 141 street youth, living in seven large cities in South Africa, were elicited in focus group discussions. At the time of the study, 79 boys (56%) were living in shelters run by nongovernmental and welfare organisations, while 62 boys (44%) were sleeping "rough". The results, both qualitative and quantitative, indicated that the AIDS knowledge of South African street children was comparable to levels reported for groups of "hard-to-reach" youth in other parts of the world. Fear of HIV infection did not appear in a list of day-to-day priorities constructed by the children, a list dominated by survival concerns with food, money and clothes. However, more than half of the boys conceded that they engaged in sex for money, goods or protection, several boys indicated that they had been raped, and most reported being sexually active with "girlfriends", who themselves frequently engaged in transactional sex. The findings are interpreted in terms of the relationships between power dynamics surrounding race and age, and how they affect self-initiated controls over sexuality and sexual protection. PMID:9255928

  11. HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and behaviors among rural married migrant women in Shandong Province, China: a comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yapei; Kang, Dianmin; Wang, Guoyong; Wei, Chongyi; Tao, Xiaorun; Huang, Tao; Qian, Yuesheng; Zhu, Tiwen; Yang, Shan; Yu, Shaoqi; Wang, Hong; Ma, Wei

    2015-02-01

    Migrant women in China are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. This study described HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and behaviors among married migrant women in Shandong province in comparison to non-migrant local women and identified factors associated with HIV testing history and extramarital sex among married migrant women. A probability-based sample of 1,076 migrant and 1,195 local women were included in the analyses. Compared to local women, married migrant women had lower levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge and were more likely to have had premarital sex, extramarital sex, history of sexually transmitted diseases, and drug use. Less than a quarter of migrant women used condoms consistently in extramarital sex. Only 31.0 % of married migrant women had ever tested for HIV, and the rate of premarital HIV testing was very low. Multivariable analysis showed that married migrant women with a history of extramarital sex were more likely to be from Yunnan province, be living in Yantai city, be in their first marriage, have lower family income, have poor relationship with spouses, use drug, have a history of sexually transmitted diseases, and have lower social support. Our findings provide further evidence that married migrant women are at higher risk for HIV infection and that targeted interventions need to be developed for this population. PMID:25323941

  12. ETOR-Efficient Token based Opportunistic Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Saichand

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an Efficient Token based Opportunistic Routing called ETOR, which is animprovement to the token based coordination approach for opportunistic routing proposed by Economy[1].In Economy, method used for finding the connected candidate order chooses neighbor as the nextcandidate by considering ETX of that neighbor towards the source but it does not consider the linkprobability between the relay candidate and neighbor to be selected. ETOR proposes variant methods forfinding the connected candidate order in token based opportunistic routing by considering both the ETXof the neighbor towards source as well as ETX of the relay towards sending candidate which avoids weakerlinks between its intermediate nodes thereby improving the throughput and reducing the AA Ratio. We alsopropose a solution for reducing the number of hops traversed by the token, which in turn increases thetoken generation speed. Simulation results show that the proposed ETOR approaches perform better thanEconomy approach in terms of AA Ratio, number of hops traversed by the token and number of tokentraversals.

  13. HIV-positive patients’ and their families’ comprehension of HIV- and AIDS-related information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gedina E. de Wet

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite acknowledgement of the importance of sharing HIV- and AIDS-related information with people living with HIV, it is still unclear as to what their actual comprehension is of this information. This research was part of a larger project, Tswaragano, conducted in the North-West Province, South Africa, which explored and described the competence, ability and strengths of the family of the HIV-positive patient during home support. This research focused on Potchefstroom in the North-West Province. This article focuses on research with the objective being to explore and describe the comprehension of HIV-positive patients and their families with regard to HIV- and AIDS-related information, and to formulate recommendations to improve their comprehension of this information. A quantitative, explorative and descriptive survey design was followed. Data were collected by means of questionnaires completed by HIV-positive patients (n= 79 and their family members (n= 34. Descriptive statistical analysis by means of frequency analysis was conducted. Ethical considerations and mechanisms to enhance validity and reliability are discussed. The results indicated that both HIV-positive respondents and their families face social and financial challenges due to unemployment and low income. A strength found in this research is that the majority of respondents are linked to a church, which can be a valuable platform to share information on HIV and AIDS. With regards to sharing, sources and comprehension of HIV- and AIDS-related information, it is apparent that respondents perceived that pre- and post-counselling provided an opportunity for information sharing, but that they need health care workers to spend more time with them, to be non-judgemental and to make more use of visual aids. It furthermore seems that the majority of HIV-positive respondents in this study did comprehend the need for and negotiate for safer sexual practices. It was concluded that although

  14. Trends in overall opportunistic illnesses, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, cerebral toxoplasmosis andMycobacterium avium complex incidence rates over the 30 years of the HIV epidemic: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Coelho

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The natural history of HIV infection has changed dramatically after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Currently, opportunistic illnesses still represent a major cause of death and hospitalization in this population. In this study, we review the trends in opportunistic illnesses incidence rates and compare the results observed in high-income settings with that for low/middle-income settings, with special attention given to studies from Brazil. METHODS: We systematically searched Pubmed, Web of Science, Lilacs and Google scholar for publications on HIV associated opportunistic illness. Studies reporting rates based on person-time for all opportunistic illnesses and/or the three opportunistic infections of interest, namely,Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, cerebral toxoplasmosis, and Mycobacterium avium complex were included. RESULTS: Significant reductions in the incidence rates were demonstrated for opportunistic illnesses overall and also for the specific opportunistic infections included in the present study, both in high and low/middle-income settings. Out of the 37 studies included in the present review, almost 70% were from high-income settings. All the studies conducted in low/middle-income settings were single center studies and four were from Brazil. We found no study from Brazil reporting annual incidence rates of opportunistic illnesses. CONCLUSIONS: Opportunistic illnesses remain an important public health problem. To better guide health policies in low/middle-income settings, multicenter cohort studies should be encouraged. Studies from Brazil are urgently needed to assess the current burden of opportunistic illnesses in our population and to support the planning of HIV/AIDS health care services organization.

  15. HIV and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination: a conceptual framework and implications for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard; Aggleton, Peter

    2003-07-01

    Internationally, there has been a recent resurgence of interest in HIV and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination, triggered at least in part by growing recognition that negative social responses to the epidemic remain pervasive even in seriously affected communities. Yet, rarely are existing notions of stigma and discrimination interrogated for their conceptual adequacy and their usefulness in leading to the design of effective programmes and interventions. Taking as its starting point, the classic formulation of stigma as a 'significantly discrediting' attribute, but moving beyond this to conceptualize stigma and stigmatization as intimately linked to the reproduction of social difference, this paper offers a new framework by which to understand HIV and AIDS-related stigma and its effects. It so doing, it highlights the manner in which stigma feeds upon, strengthens and reproduces existing inequalities of class, race, gender and sexuality. It highlights the limitations of individualistic modes of stigma alleviation and calls instead for new programmatic approaches in which the resistance of stigmatized individuals and communities is utilized as a resource for social change. PMID:12753813

  16. Dermatofitose por Tricophyton rubrum como infecção oportunista em pacientes com doença de Cushing Dermatophytosis caused by Tricophyton rubrum as an opportunistic infection in patients with Cushing disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isy Peixoto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O dermatófito Trichophyton rubrum é um agente comum nas micoses superficiais, podendo apresentar lesões extensas pauci-inflamatórias de evolução crônica, especialmente em imunocomprometidos. O hipercortisolismo, na síndrome de Cushing, aumenta o risco de infecções, resultado do efeito imunossupressor dos glicocorticóides. Os casos relatados apresentam duas formas distintas de dermatofitose, em pacientes com doença de Cushing, causadas por Tricophyton rubrum e posterior remissão após normalização da cortisolemia.Trichophyton rubrum is a common agent found in superficial mycoses, which present ample nonin?ammatory lesions, with chronic evolution, especially in immunocompromised patients. The hypercortisolism in Cushing's syndrome increases the risk of infections as a result of the immunosuppressive effect of glucocorticoids. The reported cases here refer to two different types of dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum in patients with Cushing's disease, resistant to antifungal treatment. The disease remitted after the levels of cortisol went back to normal.

  17. HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing and discriminatory attitudes and recent HIV testing among Beijing men who have sex with men

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xuefeng; Lu, Hongyan; Ma, Xiaoyan; Sun, Yanming; He, Xiong; Li, Chunmei; Raymond, H.F.; McFarland, Willi; Sun, Jiangping; Pan, Stephen W.; Shao, Yiming; Sten H Vermund; Xiao, Yan; Ruan, Yuhua; Jia, Yujiang

    2012-01-01

    The study was to assess the correlates for recent HIV testing and HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing and discriminatory attitudes among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Beijing, China. A cross-sectional study probed demographics, sexual and drug use behaviors, HIV testing, and prevention services. Of 500 participants, 39.3% recently received a test for HIV. Recent testing was independently associated with expressing lower levels of HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing and discriminatory attitudes, more...

  18. Improving Diagnosis and Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Infections : Experimental Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van den Berg (Sanne)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that causes a variety of infections, ranging from mild skin infections like furuncles and impetigo, to severe, lifethreatening infections including endocarditis, osteomyelitis and pneumonia. Invasive infections are freq

  19. Radiological characteristics of AIDS- related lymphoma; Aspectos radiologicos dos linfomas no paciente com SIDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Gloria Maria Martins G. [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radiologia; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia

    1996-11-01

    The epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) increased the incidence of lymphoma, particularly the non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma. The lymphoma in immune deficient patients is usually high-grade, very aggressive and with poor prognostic. We report the radiologic characteristics of AIDS-related lymphoma in 19 patients and correlate with the literature. The disease was predominant in homosexual male patients, with mean age of 38 years. The radiological characteristics are nonspecific to differential diagnosis, but we must suspect of lymphoma. We found ring-enhanced lesions in the radiologic studies of central nervous system. Hylar and mediastinal lymphadenopath, nodules and alveolar infiltration were detected on thoracic examinations. Abdominal examinations showed hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, hepatic focal lesions and thickneded with distorted mucosa in the alimentary tract. Bone involvement presented as focal and disseminated destructive lesions. (author) 41 refs., 10 figs.

  20. Analysis of trends in total deaths and AIDS-related deaths certified at Mosvold Hospital, Ingwavuma, KwaZulu-Natal, from 2003 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C H Vaughan Williams

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To analyse mortality trends from deaths registered at Mosvold Hospital, Ingwavuma, KwaZulu-Natal, and possible impact of programmes to treat and prevent HIV infection. Design. Longitudinal study of death certifications from 2003 to 2008. Setting. Mosvold Hospital mortuary, Ingwavuma. Subjects. Counterfoils of form 83/BI-1663, Notification/Register of Death/Stillbirths (Republic of South Africa, Department of Home Affairs, completed at Mosvold Hospital from January 2003 to December 2008. Outcome measures. Age at death, cause of death, patterns of deaths grouped by age, gender and cause of death. Results. AIDS-related deaths were the cause of 53% of deaths, particularly affecting the 20 - 59-year and under-5 age groups. Since 2005 there has been a decline in deaths in the 20 - 59 age group and an increase in average age at death. Conclusions. The decrease in mortality from 2005 may be associated with antiretroviral roll-out reducing mortality from AIDS-related illnesses.

  1. The political context of AIDS-related stigma and knowledge in a South African township community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Brian; Vandormael, Alain; Kershaw, Trace; Grobbelaar, Janis

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the presentation of AIDS-related stigma and knowledge within the political context of the South African government's response to the AIDS epidemic. It was during the 2000 - 2004 period that key government officials publicly challenged the orthodox views of HIV/AIDS, with the South African president, Thabo Mbeki, actively positing the primary role of poverty and other socio-economic stressors in the progression of the AIDS epidemic. This discursive position had real-time effects for AIDS policy-making and ultimately delayed the implementation of a national antiretroviral (ARV) rollout programme. Consequently this position was criticised by commentators in the media and elsewhere for contributing to an already widespread climate of AIDS stigmatization and misinformation. To shed more light on these claims we conducted a survey in 2005 in Atteridgeville, a South African township, and compared results with those of a similar survey conducted shortly after ARV medications became available in 2004. Results indicated a reduction in AIDS stigma levels across the 1-year period, and that those participants who endorsed contentious political views (such as those expressed by key government officials) were more likely to have a higher level of AIDS-related stigma than those who disagreed. Nevertheless, this study cautions against drawing a causal relationship between the South African government's position and IDS-stigmatizing attitudes, and suggests that further political and social factors be accounted for in an attempt to gain a fuller understanding of this seemingly complex relationship. PMID:18709210

  2. Screening prior to biological therapy in Crohn's disease : Adherence to guidelines and prevalence of infections. Results from a multicentre retrospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Have, Mike; Belderbos, Tim D. G.; Fidder, Herma H.; Leenders, Max; Dijkstra, Gerard; Peters, Charlotte P.; Eshuis, Emma J.; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y.; Siersema, Peter D.; van Oijen, Martijn G. H.; Oldenburg, Bas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Screening for opportunistic infections prior to starting biological therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease is recommended. Aims: To assess adherence to screening for opportunistic infections prior to starting biological therapy in Crohn's disease patients and its yield. Meth

  3. Integrated Routing Protocol for Opportunistic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshul Verma

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In opportunistic networks the existence of a simultaneous path is not assumed to transmit a message between a sender and a receiver. Information about the context in which the users communicate is a key piece of knowledge to design efficient routing protocols in opportunistic networks. But this kind of information is not always available. When users are very isolated, context information cannot be distributed, and cannot be used for taking efficient routing decisions. In such cases, context oblivious based schemes are only way to enable communication between users. As soon as users become more social, context data spreads in the network, and context based routing becomes an efficient solution. In this paper we design an integrated routing protocol that is able to use context data as soon as it becomes available and falls back to dissemination-based routing when context information is not available. Then, we provide a comparison between Epidemic and PROPHET, these are representative of context oblivious and context aware routing protocols. Our results show that integrated routing protocol is able to provide better result in term of message delivery probability and message delay in both cases when context information about users is available or not.

  4. Oi! - Opportunistic Data Transmission Based on Wi-Fi Direct

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, Luis; Sofia, Rute C.; Mendes, Paulo; Moreira, Waldir

    2016-01-01

    This demo presents Oi!, an opportunistic data transmission tool. Implemented on Android and available as open-source, Oi! relies on social interaction, device-to-device short-range wireless transmission, as well as on history of contact duration to perform opportunistic data transmission. In this demo we show how Oi! can be used with intermittent Internet access between sources and destinations, to transmit data in a reliable and yet opportunistic way.

  5. Context- and Social-aware Middleware for Opportunistic Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Boldrini, Chiara; Conti, Marco; Delmastro, Franca; Passarella, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Opportunistic networks are multi-hop ad hoc networks in which nodes opportunistically exploit any pair-wise contact to share and forward content, without requiring any pre-existing Internet infrastructure. Opportunistic networks tolerate partitions, long disconnections, and topology instability in general. In this challenging environment, leveraging users' mobility represents the most effective way to deliver content to interested users. In this paper we propose a context- and social-aware mi...

  6. Primary pulmonary AIDS-related lymphoma Linfoma primario de pulmón en un paciente con sida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Corti

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Extranodal involvement is common in lymphomas associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. However, primary pulmonary AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is very rare and only few reports were published in the medical literature. Clinical presentation is nonspecific, with "B" and respiratory symptoms. Also, patients were with advanced immunodeficiency at the time of diagnosis. Generally, chest radiography showed peripheral nodules or cavitary masses. Primary pulmonary lymphoma associated with AIDS is generally a high-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Epstein-Barr virus is strongly associated with the pathogenesis of these tumors. We report a patient with AIDS and primary pulmonary lymphoma which clinical presentation was a total atelectasis of the left lung.El compromiso extranodal es frecuente en los linfomas asociados con la enfermedad debida al virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana y su consecuencia, el síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida. Sin embargo, el linfoma pulmonar primario es muy raro y solo existen pocos casos publicados en la literatura. La presentación clínica de esta complicación es inespecífica, con síntomas "B" y manifestaciones respiratorias. Generalmente, la radiografía de tórax muestra nódulos periféricos o masas que pueden cavitarse y los pacientes presentan inmunodeficiencia severa al momento del diagnóstico. El linfoma pulmonar primario asociado con el sida es un tumor de alto grado, de células B y asociado en su patogenia con el virus de Epstein-Barr. Se relata un caso de linfoma primario de pulmón que se presentó bajo la forma radiológica de una atelectasia global del pulmón izquierdo.

  7. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN THE OPPORTUNISTIC PATHOGEN STENOTROPHOMONAS MALTOPHILIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Blanca Sánchez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an environmental bacterium found in the soil, associated with plants and animals, and in aquatic environments. It is also an opportunistic pathogen now causing an increasing number of nosocomial infections. The treatment of S. maltophilia is quite difficult given its intrinsic resistance to a number of antibiotics, and because it is able to acquire new resistances via horizontal gene transfer and mutations. Certainly, strains resistant to quinolones, cotrimoxale and/or cephalosporins - antibiotics commonly used to treat S. maltophilia infections - have emerged. The increasing number of available S. maltophilia genomes has allowed the identification and annotation of a large number of antimicrobial and heavy metal resistance genes. Most encode inactivating enzymes and efflux pumps, but information on their role in intrinsic and acquired resistance is limited. Non-typical antibiotic resistance mechanisms that also form part of the intrinsic resistome have been identified via mutant library screening. These include non-typical antibiotic resistance genes, such as bacterial metabolism genes, and non-inheritable resistant phenotypes, such as biofilm formation and persistence. Their relationships with resistance are complex and require further study.

  8. Antibiotic resistance in the opportunistic pathogen Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, María B

    2015-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an environmental bacterium found in the soil, associated with plants and animals, and in aquatic environments. It is also an opportunistic pathogen now causing an increasing number of nosocomial infections. The treatment of S. maltophilia is quite difficult given its intrinsic resistance to a number of antibiotics, and because it is able to acquire new resistances via horizontal gene transfer and mutations. Certainly, strains resistant to quinolones, cotrimoxale and/or cephalosporins-antibiotics commonly used to treat S. maltophilia infections-have emerged. The increasing number of available S. maltophilia genomes has allowed the identification and annotation of a large number of antimicrobial resistance genes. Most encode inactivating enzymes and efflux pumps, but information on their role in intrinsic and acquired resistance is limited. Non-typical antibiotic resistance mechanisms that also form part of the intrinsic resistome have been identified via mutant library screening. These include non-typical antibiotic resistance genes, such as bacterial metabolism genes, and non-inheritable resistant phenotypes, such as biofilm formation and persistence. Their relationships with resistance are complex and require further study. PMID:26175724

  9. Introduction of an opportunistic bacterial cotton pathogen into bolls by the southern green stink bug (Nezara viridula L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, seed and boll rot associated with microorganism infections have had a significantly negative impact on cotton yield in southeastern Cotton Belt states. Based on Koch’s postulates, we previously established that an opportunistic strain of the bacterium Pantoea agglomerans, originall...

  10. Preventing Opportunistic Infections in HIV (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that grows in soil and areas contaminated with bat or bird droppings; it is more common in ... as expressly permitted in this Agreement, any copying, distribution or modification of the Licensed Materials is strictly ...

  11. Directional navigation improves opportunistic communication for emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokuti, Andras; Gelenbe, Erol

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel direction based shortest path search algorithm to guide evacuees during an emergency. It uses opportunistic communications (oppcomms) with low-cost wearable mobile nodes that can exchange packets at close range of a few to some tens of meters without help of an infrastructure. The algorithm seeks the shortest path to exits which are safest with regard to a hazard, and is integrated into an autonomous Emergency Support System (ESS) to guide evacuees in a built environment. The algorithm proposed that ESSs are evaluated with the DBES (Distributed Building Evacuation Simulator) by simulating a shopping centre where fire is spreading. The results show that the directional path finding algorithm can offer significant improvements for the evacuees. PMID:25140633

  12. Hybridizing Evolutionary Algorithms with Opportunistic Local Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gießen, Christian

    raised the question if there are problems where VDS performs badly. We answer this question in the affirmative in the following way. We analyze MAs with VDS, which is also known as Kernighan-Lin for the TSP, on an artificial problem and show that MAs with a simple first-improvement local search...... outperform VDS. Moreover, we show that the performance gap is exponential. We analyze the features leading to a failure of VDS and derive a new local search operator, coined Opportunistic Local Search, that can easily overcome regions of the search space where local optima are clustered. The power of this...... new operator is demonstrated on the Rastrigin function encoded for binary hypercubes. Our results provide further insight into the problem of how to prevent local search algorithms to get stuck in local optima from a theoretical perspective. The methods stem from discrete probability theory and...

  13. Common Features of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph O. Falkinham

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently it has been estimated that the annual cost of diseases caused by the waterborne pathogens Legionella pneumonia, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is $500 million. For the period 2001–2012, the estimated cost of hospital admissions for nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease, the majority caused by M. avium, was almost $1 billion. These three waterborne opportunistic pathogens are normal inhabitants of drinking water—not contaminants—that share a number of key characteristics that predispose them to survival, persistence, and growth in drinking water distribution systems and premise plumbing. Herein, I list and describe these shared characteristics that include: disinfectant-resistance, biofilm-formation, growth in amoebae, growth at low organic carbon concentrations (oligotrophic, and growth under conditions of stagnation. This review is intended to increase awareness of OPPPs, identify emerging OPPPs, and challenge the drinking water industry to develop novel approaches toward their control.

  14. Directional Navigation Improves Opportunistic Communication for Emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Kokuti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel direction based shortest path search algorithm to guide evacuees during an emergency. It uses opportunistic communications (oppcomms with low-cost wearable mobile nodes that can exchange packets at close range of a few to some tens of meters without help of an infrastructure. The algorithm seeks the shortest path to exits which are safest with regard to a hazard, and is integrated into an autonomous Emergency Support System (ESS to guide evacuees in a built environment. The algorithm proposed that ESSs are evaluated with the DBES (Distributed Building Evacuation Simulator by simulating a shopping centre where fire is spreading. The results show that the directional path finding algorithm can offer significant improvements for the evacuees.

  15. Opportunistic Cooperation in Cognitive Femtocell Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Urgaonkar, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    We investigate opportunistic cooperation between unlicensed secondary users and legacy primary users in a cognitive radio network. Specifically, we consider a model of a cognitive network where a secondary user can cooperatively transmit with the primary user in order to improve the latter's effective transmission rate. In return, the secondary user gets more opportunities for transmitting its own data when the primary user is idle. This kind of interaction between the primary and secondary users is different from the traditional dynamic spectrum access model in which the secondary users try to avoid interfering with the primary users while seeking transmission opportunities on vacant primary channels. In our model, the secondary users need to balance the desire to cooperate more (to create more transmission opportunities) with the need for maintaining sufficient energy levels for their own transmissions. Such a model is applicable in the emerging area of cognitive femtocell networks. We formulate the problem...

  16. Alleviate Cellular Congestion Through Opportunistic Trough Filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichuan Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for cellular data service has been skyrocketing since the debut of data-intensive smart phones and touchpads. However, not all data are created equal. Many popular applications on mobile devices, such as email synchronization and social network updates, are delay tolerant. In addition, cellular load varies significantly in both large and small time scales. To alleviate network congestion and improve network performance, we present a set of opportunistic trough filling schemes that leverage the time-variation of network congestion and delay-tolerance of certain traffic in this paper. We consider average delay, deadline, and clearance time as the performance metrics. Simulation results show promising performance improvement over the standard schemes. The work shed lights on addressing the pressing issue of cellular overload.

  17. Antifungal activity of Arctotis arctotoides (L.f.) O. Hoffm. and Gasteria bicolor Haw. against opportunistic fungi associated with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Wilfred M. Otang; Grierson, Donald S.; Ndip, Roland N.

    2012-01-01

    Background : In South Africa where many patients are immunocompromised as a result of the AIDS pandemic, opportunistic fungal infections such as candidiasis caused mainly by Candida albicans are common. Arctotis arctotoides and Gasteria bicolor are two plants which are frequently and commonly used in traditional medicine in the treatment of HIV patients. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the antifungal activity of A. arctotoides and G. bicolor against opportunistic fungi common in...

  18. AIDS-Related Stigma and Mental Disorders among People Living with HIV: A Cross-Sectional Study in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Siyan Yi; Pheak Chhoun; Samedy Suong; Kouland Thin; Carinne Brody; Sovannary Tuot

    2015-01-01

    Background AIDS-related stigma and mental disorders are the most common conditions in people living with HIV (PLHIV). We therefore conducted this study to examine the association of AIDS-related stigma and discrimination with mental disorders among PLHIV in Cambodia. Methods A two-stage cluster sampling method was used to select 1,003 adult PLHIV from six provinces. The People Living with HIV Stigma Index was used to measure stigma and discrimination, and a short version of general health que...

  19. AIDS as social construction: text mining of AIDS-related information in the Italian press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Andrea; Giacchetta, Agnese; Langher, Viviana

    2016-09-01

    Given the relevance of AIDS as a public health problem in the Italian context and of the role of mass media in the social construction of the phenomenon, the aim of the present study is twofold: (1) to explore the main AIDS-related themes in the Italian popular press; (2) to analyse the temporal trends of AIDS representations over the last decades. For the research, we decided to consult Italian newspaper articles produced between 1985 and 1990 and between 2005 and 2010 using the archives of the main two national newspapers (La Repubblica and Corriere della Sera), resulting in an overall sample of 446 newspaper articles. A computer-aided content analysis allowed the detection of five different thematic domains (clusters), respectively focused on: Medical care (7.47%), Family support (37.03%), Science and religion debate (27%), Social exclusion (17.6%) and Healthcare policies (10.9%). These thematic domains are conceived along two main latent dimensions (factors) which explain 72.47% of the data variance which respectively deal with: (1) Attitudes towards people with AIDS (care versus avoidance) and (2) Social mandate on AIDS (powerlessness versus control). The study results also reveal the potential evolution of representations of people with AIDS over time: from stigmatised subjects who represent a risk for the entire society within a climate of social control to people progressively symbolised as frail subjects that need to be taken care of. PMID:26923156

  20. Cellular Immune Responses in HIV-Negative Immunodeficiency with Anti-Interferon-γ Antibodies and Opportunistic Intracellular Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Wipasa, Jiraprapa; Wongkulab, Panuwat; Chawansuntati, Kriangkrai; Chaiwarit, Romanee; Supparatpinyo, Khuanchai

    2014-01-01

    Background Cell-mediated immunity plays a crucial role in resistance to intracellular infection. We previously reported antibodies against interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in HIV− negative (HIV−) patients with acquired immunodeficiency presenting with repeated episodes of disseminated infection caused by uncommon opportunistic intracellular fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens. This follow-up study aimed to investigate cellular immune responses in these unusual patients. Methods Twenty HIV− patient...

  1. Balamuthia mandrillaris, Free-Living Ameba and Opportunistic Agent of Encephalitis, Is a Potential Host for Legionella pneumophila Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Shadrach, Winlet Sheba; Rydzewski, Kerstin; Laube, Ulrike; Holland, Gudrun; Özel, Muhsin; Kiderlen, Albrecht F; Flieger, Antje

    2005-01-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is a free-living ameba and an opportunistic agent of granulomatous encephalitis in humans and other mammalian species. Other free-living amebas, such as Acanthamoeba and Hartmannella, can provide a niche for intracellular survival of bacteria, including the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, Legionella pneumophila. Infection of amebas by L. pneumophila enhances the bacterial infectivity for mammalian cells and lung tissues. Likewise, the pathogenicity of amebas ...

  2. Linking the occurrence of cutaneous opportunistic fungal invaders with elemental concentrations in false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouton, Marnel; Przybylowicz, Wojciech; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, Jolanta; Postma, Ferdinand; Thornton, Meredith; Archer, Edward; Botha, Alfred

    2015-10-01

    Cetaceans, occupying the top levels in marine food chains, are vulnerable to elevated levels of potentially toxic trace elements, such as aluminium (Al), mercury (Hg) and nickel (Ni). Negative effects associated with these toxic metals include infection by opportunistic microbial invaders. To corroborate the link between the presence of cutaneous fungal invaders and trace element levels, skin samples from 40 stranded false killer whales (FKWs) were analysed using culture techniques and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy. Twenty-two skin samples yielded 18 clinically relevant fungal species. While evidence for bioaccumulation of Hg in the skin of the FKWs was observed, a strong link was found to exist between the occurrence of opportunistic fungal invaders and higher Al : Se and Al : Zn ratios. This study provides indications that elevated levels of some toxic metals, such as Al, contribute to immunotoxicity rendering FKWs susceptible to colonization by cutaneous opportunistic fungal invaders. PMID:26034019

  3. Phaeohyphomycoses, Emerging Opportunistic Diseases in Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Seyedmousavi, S.; Guillot, J; Hoog, de, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging fungal diseases due to black yeasts and relatives in domestic or wild animals and in invertebrates or cold- and warm-blooded vertebrates are continually being reported, either as novel pathogens or as familiar pathogens affecting new species of hosts. Different epidemiological situations can be distinguished, i.e., occurrence as single infections or as zoonoses, and infection may occur sporadically in otherwise healthy hosts. Such infections are found mostly in mammals but also in co...

  4. Exploiting volatile opportunistic computing resources with Lobster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Anna; Wolf, Matthias; Mueller, Charles; Tovar, Ben; Donnelly, Patrick; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Brenner, Paul; Lannon, Kevin; Hildreth, Mike; Thain, Douglas

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of high energy physics experiments using the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) can be limited by availability of computing resources. As a joint effort involving computer scientists and CMS physicists at Notre Dame, we have developed an opportunistic workflow management tool, Lobster, to harvest available cycles from university campus computing pools. Lobster consists of a management server, file server, and worker processes which can be submitted to any available computing resource without requiring root access. Lobster makes use of the Work Queue system to perform task management, while the CMS specific software environment is provided via CVMFS and Parrot. Data is handled via Chirp and Hadoop for local data storage and XrootD for access to the CMS wide-area data federation. An extensive set of monitoring and diagnostic tools have been developed to facilitate system optimisation. We have tested Lobster using the 20 000-core cluster at Notre Dame, achieving approximately 8-10k tasks running simultaneously, sustaining approximately 9 Gbit/s of input data and 340 Mbit/s of output data.

  5. Opportunistic Relay Selection with Cooperative Macro Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chia-Hao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply a fully opportunistic relay selection scheme to study cooperative diversity in a semianalytical manner. In our framework, idle Mobile Stations (MSs are capable of being used as Relay Stations (RSs and no relaying is required if the direct path is strong. Our relay selection scheme is fully selection based: either the direct path or one of the relaying paths is selected. Macro diversity, which is often ignored in analytical works, is taken into account together with micro diversity by using a complete channel model that includes both shadow fading and fast fading effects. The stochastic geometry of the network is taken into account by having a random number of randomly located MSs. The outage probability analysis of the selection differs from the case where only fast fading is considered. Under our framework, distribution of the received power is formulated using different Channel State Information (CSI assumptions to simulate both optimistic and practical environments. The results show that the relay selection gain can be significant given a suitable amount of candidate RSs. Also, while relay selection according to incomplete CSI is diversity suboptimal compared to relay selection based on full CSI, the loss in average throughput is not too significant. This is a consequence of the dominance of geometry over fast fading.

  6. Impact of Strangers on Opportunistic Routing Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-Yan Yuan; Hua-Dong Ma; Peng-Rui Duan

    2013-01-01

    Routing is one of the challenging tasks in Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs),due to the lack of global knowledge and sporadic contacts between nodes.Most existing studies take a greedy scheme in data forwarding process,i.e.,only nodes with higher utility values than current carriers can be selected as relays.They lack an in-depth investigation on the main features of the optimal paths in Epidemic.These features are vital to any forwarding scheme that tends to make a trade-off between packet delivery delay and cost.This is mainly because Epidemic provides an upper bound on cost and a lower bound on delivery delay.Therefore,a deep understanding of these features is useful to make informed forwarding decisions.In this paper,we try to explore these features by observing the roles of different social relationships in the optimal paths through a set of real datasets.These datasets provide evidence that strangers have two sides in data forwarding process,and that the importance of strangers shows a decreasing trend along the forwarding paths.Using this heuristic knowledge,we propose STRON,a distributed and lightweight forwarding scheme.The distributed feature makes it very suitable for opportunistic scenarios and the low communication and computation features make it easy to be integrated with state-of-the-art work.The trace-driven simulations obviously confirm its effectiveness,especially in terms of packet delivery delay and cost.

  7. Opportunistic biases: Their origins, effects, and an integrated solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCoster, Jamie; Sparks, Erin A; Sparks, Jordan C; Sparks, Glenn G; Sparks, Cheri W

    2015-09-01

    Researchers commonly explore their data in multiple ways before deciding which analyses they will include in the final versions of their papers. While this improves the chances of researchers finding publishable results, it introduces an "opportunistic bias," such that the reported relations are stronger or otherwise more supportive of the researcher's theories than they would be without the exploratory process. The magnitudes of opportunistic biases can often be stronger than those of the effects being investigated, leading to invalid conclusions and a lack of clarity in research results. Authors typically do not report their exploratory procedures, so opportunistic biases are very difficult to detect just by reading the final version of a research report. In this article, we explain how a number of accepted research practices can lead to opportunistic biases, discuss the prevalence of these practices in psychology, consider the different effects that opportunistic biases have on psychological science, evaluate the strategies that methodologists have proposed to prevent or correct for the effects of these biases, and introduce an integrated solution to reduce the prevalence and influence of opportunistic biases. The recent prominence of articles discussing questionable research practices both in scientific journals and in the public media underscores the importance of understanding how opportunistic biases are created and how we might undo their effects. PMID:26348333

  8. OIoT: a platform to manage opportunistic IoT communities

    OpenAIRE

    López Nuevo, David Andrés; Royo Vallés, María Dolores; Medina Medina, Esunly; Meseguer Pallarès, Roc

    2015-01-01

    Opportunistic Internet of Things (IoT) extends the concept of opportunistic networking combining human users carrying mobile devices and smart things. It explores the relationships between humans and the opportunistic connection of smart objects. This paper presents a software infrastructure, named Opportunistic IoT Platform (OIoT), which helps developers to create and manage opportunistic IoT communities between smart devices. The platform enables the creation of opportunistic IoT communitie...

  9. Opportunistic transmitter selection for selfless overlay cognitive radios

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2013-11-01

    We propose an opportunistic strategy to grant channel access to the primary and secondary transmitters in causal selfless overlay cognitive radios over block-fading channels. The secondary transmitter helps the primary transmitter by relaying the primary messages opportunistically, aided by a buffer to store the primary messages temporarily. The optimal channel-aware transmitter- selection strategy is the solution of the maximization of the average secondary rate under the average primary rate requirement and the buffer stability constraints. Numerical results demonstrate the gains of the proposed opportunistic selection strategy. © 2013 IEEE.

  10. HIV and/or AIDS-related deaths and modifiable risk factors: A descriptive study of medical admissions at Oshakati Intermediate Hospital in Northern Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.K. Mgori

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: High rates of HIV infection have decreased life expectancy in many African countries. Regardless of worldwide efforts to escalate treatment, care and prevention strategies, the number of deaths due to AIDS-related disorders is still high. Local healthcare workers suspect that there are modifiable factors in the care of HIV and/or AIDS patients which can be identified and improved.Aim: To describe the HIV and/or AIDS-related causes of adult mortality and identify modifiable factors amongst patients admitted to Oshakati Intermediate Hospital, northern Namibia.Methods: Data was extracted retrospectively and coded using the modified CoDe protocol for AIDS. Modifiable factors relating to the patient, health system or clinical care were identified using a standardised data collection tool.Results: A total of 177 HIV and/or AIDS patients were identified, 94 (53.1% were male and 120 (68% had a CD4 count of less than 200 cells/mL. The common HIV-related causes of death were tuberculosis (25.9%, renal failure (15.8%, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (11.3%, cryptococcal meningitis (9%, HIV wasting syndrome (7.9% and AIDS-defining malignancy (7.9%. The analysis revealed 281 modifiable factors; patient-related factors were the most common (153 [54.4%], followed by health system factors (97 [34.5%] and healthcare personnel factors (31 [11%].Conclusion: Our findings have highlighted the challenges in overall HIV and/or AIDS inpatient care and surrounding primary care facilities. The identification of specific modifiable factors can be used to reduce mortality by providing training as well as rational monitoring, planning and resource allocation.

  11. Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Potential Hazards Exposure of employees to community and nosocomial infections, e.g., Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) . Nosocomial infections are infections that occur from exposure to infectious ...

  12. Primary effect of chemotherapy on the transcription profile of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Noesel Carel JM

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drugs & used in anticancer chemotherapy have severe effects upon the cellular transcription and replication machinery. From in vitro studies it has become clear that these drugs can affect specific genes, as well as have an effect upon the total transcriptome. Methods Total mRNA from two skin lesions from a single AIDS-KS patient was analyzed with the SAGE (Serial Analysis of Gene Expression technique to assess changes in the transcriptome induced by chemotherapy. SAGE libraries were constructed from material obtained 24 (KS-24 and 48 (KS-48 hrs after combination therapy with bleomycin, doxorubicin and vincristine. KS-24 and KS-48 were compared to SAGE libraries of untreated AIDS-KS, and to libraries generated from normal skin and from isolated CD4+ T-cells, using the programs USAGE and HTM. SAGE libraries were also compared with the SAGEmap database. Results In order to assess the primary response of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS to chemotherapy in vivo, we analyzed the transcriptome of AIDS-KS skin lesions from a HIV-1 seropositive patient at two time points after therapy. The mRNA profile was found to have changed dramatically within 24 hours after drug treatment. There was an almost complete absence of transcripts highly expressed in AIDS-KS, probably due to a transcription block. Analysis of KS-24 suggested that mRNA pool used in its construction originated from poly(A binding protein (PABP mRNP complexes, which are probably located in nuclear structures known as interchromatin granule clusters (IGCs. IGCs are known to fuse after transcription inhibition, probably affecting poly(A+RNA distribution. Forty-eight hours after chemotherapy, mRNA isolated from the lesion was largely derived from infiltrating lymphocytes, confirming the transcriptional block in the AIDS-KS tissue. Conclusions These in vivo findings indicate that the effect of anti-cancer drugs is likely to be more global than up- or downregulation of

  13. Opportunistic quantum network coding based on quantum teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Tao; Du, Gang; Liu, Jian-wei

    2016-04-01

    It seems impossible to endow opportunistic characteristic to quantum network on the basis that quantum channel cannot be overheard without disturbance. In this paper, we propose an opportunistic quantum network coding scheme by taking full advantage of channel characteristic of quantum teleportation. Concretely, it utilizes quantum channel for secure transmission of quantum states and can detect eavesdroppers by means of quantum channel verification. What is more, it utilizes classical channel for both opportunistic listening to neighbor states and opportunistic coding by broadcasting measurement outcome. Analysis results show that our scheme can reduce the times of transmissions over classical channels for relay nodes and can effectively defend against classical passive attack and quantum active attack.

  14. Capacity of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Opportunistic Collaborative Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeone O

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal multihop routing in ad hoc networks requires the exchange of control messages at the MAC and network layer in order to set up the (centralized optimization problem. Distributed opportunistic space-time collaboration (OST is a valid alternative that avoids this drawback by enabling opportunistic cooperation with the source at the physical layer. In this paper, the performance of OST is investigated. It is shown analytically that opportunistic collaboration outperforms (centralized optimal multihop in case spatial reuse (i.e., the simultaneous transmission of more than one data stream is not allowed by the transmission protocol. Conversely, in case spatial reuse is possible, the relative performance between the two protocols has to be studied case by case in terms of the corresponding capacity regions, given the topology and the physical parameters of network at hand. Simulation results confirm that opportunistic collaborative communication is a promising paradigm for wireless ad hoc networks that deserves further investigation.

  15. Capacity of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Opportunistic Collaborative Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Simeone

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimal multihop routing in ad hoc networks requires the exchange of control messages at the MAC and network layer in order to set up the (centralized optimization problem. Distributed opportunistic space-time collaboration (OST is a valid alternative that avoids this drawback by enabling opportunistic cooperation with the source at the physical layer. In this paper, the performance of OST is investigated. It is shown analytically that opportunistic collaboration outperforms (centralized optimal multihop in case spatial reuse (i.e., the simultaneous transmission of more than one data stream is not allowed by the transmission protocol. Conversely, in case spatial reuse is possible, the relative performance between the two protocols has to be studied case by case in terms of the corresponding capacity regions, given the topology and the physical parameters of network at hand. Simulation results confirm that opportunistic collaborative communication is a promising paradigm for wireless ad hoc networks that deserves further investigation.

  16. Minimum-Delay Service Provisioning in Opportunistic Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Borgia, Eleonora; Conti, Marco; Passarella, Andrea; Kumar, Mohan

    2010-01-01

    Opportunistic networks are (ad hoc) networks created dynamically by exploiting contacts between pairs of mobile devices that come within communication range. This networking paradigm overcomes main limitations of conventional MANETs, related to the fact that, due to mobility and energy conservation issues, it is often not practical to maintain connected multihop paths among nodes. While forwarding in opportunistic networking has been explored, investigations into asynchronous service provisio...

  17. Integrating E-mail Service with Opportunistic Network

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Kunkun

    2011-01-01

    Haggle is a networking architecture for content-centric opportunistic communication. Legacy networks and legacy services are possible to be integrated into Haggle. A typical legacy service is email service. The key problem for integrating email service is that data is opportunistically transmitted to any node and any node which has Internet connection could be a potential email gateway. Therefore, one email may find many gateways in Haggle and duplicate emails will be sent to a destination. A...

  18. Traffic distribution and network capacity analysis in social opportunistic networks

    OpenAIRE

    Soelistijanto, B; Howarth, MP

    2012-01-01

    Social opportunistic networks are intermittently connected mobile ad hoc networks (ICNs) that exploit human mobility to physically carry messages between disconnected parts of the network. Human mobility thus plays an essential role in the performance of forwarding protocols in the networks, and people's movements are in turn affected by their social interactions with each other. In this paper we present an analysis of the traffic distribution among the nodes of social opportunistic networks ...

  19. Performance bounds of opportunistic scheduling in wireless networks

    OpenAIRE

    Li, VOK; Geng, Y.; Lam, AYS

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study the performance of opportunistic scheduling in wireless networks from the perspective of information and entropy. In opportunistic scheduling, we allocate a limited number of channels to a certain number of nodes so as to maximize the network performance. Due to the inherent uncertainty of the system input represented by random variables with certain probability distributions, even under the optimal scheduling strategy, we may not achieve the best network performance. ...

  20. Opportunistic Wireless Relay Networks: Diversity-Multiplexing Tradeoff

    CERN Document Server

    Abouelseoud, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Opportunistic analysis has traditionally relied on independence assumptions that break down in many interesting and useful network topologies. This paper develops techniques that expand opportunistic analysis to a broader class of networks, proposes new opportunistic methods for several network geometries, and analyzes them in the high-SNR regime. For each of the geometries studied in the paper, we analyze the opportunistic DMT of several relay protocols, including amplify-and-forward, decode-and-forward, compress-and-forward, non-orthogonal amplify-forward, and dynamic decode-forward. Among the highlights of the results: in a variety of multi-user single-relay networks, simple selection strategies are developed and shown to be DMT-optimal. It is shown that compress-forward relaying achieves the DMT upper bound in the opportunistic multiple-access relay channel as well as in the opportunistic nxn user network with relay. Other protocols, e.g. dynamic decode-forward, are shown to be near optimal in several cas...

  1. Forms and determinants of migration and HIV/AIDS-related stigma on the Mexican-Guatemalan border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, Cesar; Aggleton, Peter; Pridmore, Pat

    2009-12-01

    In this study we examined the origins and consequences of HIV/AIDS-related stigma on the Mexican-Guatemalan border. To explore these issues, an inductive/deductive approach was taken. Data were collected using qualitative methods including nonparticipant observation, in-depth interviews, and informal conversation. Informants included Central American immigrants, locals, and contextual key informants. Findings reveal that gender, social class, and race/ ethnicity function as key determinants of HIV/AIDS-related stigma, but serve also as the basis around which migration-related stigma is constructed within this particular context. These issues need to be taken into account in addressing the vulnerability of mobile populations, as well as the stigma attached to migration and HIV/AIDS. To be effective, responses should be based in the social and contextual realities faced by migrants and mobile populations, and be part of a more general process of empowerment that improves their legal, social, economic, and health status. PMID:19949216

  2. Validation of the integration of HIV and AIDS related nursing competencies into the undergraduate nursing curriculum in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regis R. Marie Modeste

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Being in its fourth decade, HIV remains an epidemic that requires combined efforts for the global fight. The strategies planned and implemented in the fight against HIV include reversing and halting the spread of HIV, increasing health care access, and strengthening the health care system. South Africa has made the fight one of its top priorities, and has developed plans to increase the role of nurses in the management of HIV, demonstrating its willingness, commitment and progress in the fight against HIV.Objective: This article presents the validation process conducted to confirm the integration and mapping of the HIV and AIDS related nursing competencies into the four-year Bachelor of Nursing programme at a university in South Africa.Methods: This study adopted a constructivist paradigm, using a qualitative approach, applyingthe design step of the process model of curriculum development, to validate the inte gration of the mapped HIV and AIDS related nursing competencies into the undergraduate nursing curriculum.Results: For each competency, outcomes were developed for each year. Participants confirmed completeness of outcomes and appropriateness of the mapping of the HIV and AIDS related outcomes into the nursing curriculum, as well as the feasibility and practicability of the integration.Conclusion: Required resources for integration of HIV and AIDS related nursing competencies, such as human resources and nurse educators’ continued personal development were identified, as well as barriers to integration, and measures to eliminate them were discussed. The importance of integration of HIV and AIDS nursing competencies into the curriculum was reiterated.

  3. Individual attitudes and perceived social norms: Reports on HIV/AIDS-related stigma among service providers in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Wu, Zunyou; Lin, Chunqing; Wen, Yi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined HIV/AIDS-related stigma among Chinese service providers by comparing their personal attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS with their perception of social norms related to people living with HIV/AIDS. We randomly selected three provincial hospitals, four city/prefecture hospitals, 10 county hospitals, 18 township health clinics, and 54 village clinics from Yunnan, China. Doctors and nurses were randomly sampled proportionally to the doctor-nurse ratio of each hospita...

  4. A latent trait approach to measuring HIV/AIDS related stigma in healthcare professionals: application of mokken scaling technique

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi, Keivan; Reidpath, Daniel; Allotey, Pascale; Hassali Ahmadi, Mohamed Azmi

    2016-01-01

    The attitudes of healthcare professionals towards HIV positive patients and high risk groups are central to the quality of care and therefore to the management of HIV/AIDS related stigma in health settings. Extant HIV/AIDS stigma scales that measure stigmatising attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS have been developed using scaling techniques such as principal component analysis. This approach has resulted in instruments that are often long. Mokken scale analysis is a nonparametric h...

  5. Opportunistic MSPA Demonstration #1: Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, D. S.; Finley, S. G.; Heckman, D. P.; Lay, N. E.; Lush, C. M.; MacNeal, B. E.

    2015-02-01

    The Opportunistic Multiple Spacecraft Per Antenna (OMSPA) concept seeks to provide smallsat missions with a low-attributed-aperture-fee technique for obtaining routine downlink in a manner that is very low cost to the Deep Space Network (DSN). Unlike traditional MSPA in which the number of spacecraft that can be supported is limited by the number of available receivers, OMSPA makes use of a digital recorder at each station that is capable of capturing IF signals from every spacecraft in the antenna beam within the frequency bands of interest. When smallsat missions see one or more opportunities to intercept the traditionally scheduled antenna beam of a "host" spacecraft, they can transmit open loop during those opportunities. Via a secure Internet site, the smallsat mission operators can then retrieve relevant portions of the digital recording for subsequent demodulation and decoding or subscribe to a service that does it for them. The demonstration discussed in this article was intended to provide prospective smallsat users and the DSN, as the prospective service provider, with demonstrable proof that the OMSPA concept is, in fact, an operationally viable means for obtaining routine downlink telemetry. To do this, the demonstration began by treating Mars Odyssey as a "smallsat" and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) as the "host" spacecraft. Using a specially created Beam Intercept Planning System (BIPS) and a DSN 7-Day Schedule Cross-Comparison (7-DSC) tool, opportunities were identified when Mars Odyssey would be transmitting while in MRO's ground antenna beam. Existing Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Science Receivers (VSRs) were used to record the Mars Odyssey downlink telemetry during these opportunities. The recordings were played back to a secure server outside the Flight Operations Network firewall, but inside the JPL firewall. The demonstration team's signal processing personnel retrieved the recordings from this secure server and downloaded them

  6. Creating social spaces to tackle AIDS-related stigma: reviewing the role of church groups in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C; Skovdal, M; Gibbs, A

    2011-08-01

    An expanding body of literature explores the role of African church groups in facilitating or hindering the support of people living with AIDS and challenging or contributing to HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Treating church groups as social spaces in which HIV/AIDS-related stigma may potentially be challenged, we systematically review this literature, identifying five themes that highlight the complex and contradictory role of the church as a potential agent of health-enhancing social change. In many ways the church perpetuates HIV/AIDS-related stigma through (i) moralistic attitudes and (ii) its reinforcement of conservative gender ideologies. However some churches have managed move towards action that makes a more positive contribution to HIV/AIDS management through (iii) promoting various forms of social control for HIV prevention, (iv) contributing to the care and support of the AIDS-affected and (v) providing social spaces for challenging stigmatising ideas and practices. We conclude that church groups, including church leadership, can play a key role in facilitating or hindering the creation of supportive social spaces to challenge stigma. Much work remains to be done in developing deeper understandings of the multi-layered factors that enable some churches, but not others, to respond effectively to HIV/AIDS. PMID:20668927

  7. Growth regulation of simian and human AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines by TGF-β1 and IL-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Laura S

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (AIDS-NHL is the second most frequent cancer associated with AIDS, and is a frequent cause of death in HIV-infected individuals. Experimental analysis of AIDS-NHL has been facilitated by the availability of an excellent animal model, i.e., simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (SAIDS in the rhesus macaque consequent to infection with simian immunodeficiency virus. A recent study of SAIDS-NHL demonstrated a lymphoma-derived cell line to be sensitive to the growth inhibitory effects of the ubiquitous cytokine, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta. The authors concluded that TGF-beta acts as a negative growth regulator of the lymphoma-derived cell line and, potentially, as an inhibitory factor in the regulatory network of AIDS-related lymphomagenesis. The present study was conducted to assess whether other SAIDS-NHL and AIDS-NHL cell lines are similarly sensitive to the growth inhibitory effects of TGF-beta, and to test the hypothesis that interleukin-6 (IL-6 may represent a counteracting positive influence in their growth regulation. Methods Growth stimulation or inhibition in response to cytokine treatment was quantified using trypan blue exclusion or colorimetric MTT assay. Intracellular flow cytometry was used to analyze the activation of signaling pathways and to examine the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins and distinguishing hallmarks of AIDS-NHL subclass. Apoptosis was quantified by flow cytometric analysis of cell populations with sub-G1 DNA content and by measuring activated caspase-3. Results Results confirmed the sensitivity of LCL8664, an immunoblastic SAIDS-NHL cell line, to TGF-beta1-mediated growth inhibition, and further demonstrated the partial rescue by simultaneous treatment with IL-6. IL-6 was shown to activate STAT3, even in the presence of TGF-beta1, and thereby to activate proliferative and anti-apoptotic pathways. By comparison, human AIDS-NHL cell lines

  8. An Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Susceptibility Pattern of Multidrug Resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: An Emerging Global Opportunistic Pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra

    2015-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia) is a Gram-negative bacillus, an opportunistic pathogen, particularly among nosocomial infections. Multi-drug resistant strains are associated with very high rate of morbidity and mortality in severely immunocompromised patients. Present study was designed to evaluate the effect of biofield treatment against multidrug resistant S. maltophilia. Clinical sample of S. maltophilia was collected and divided into two groups i.e. control and biofield trea...

  9. An Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Susceptibility Pattern of Multidrug Resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: An Emerging Global Opportunistic Pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ( S. maltophilia ) is a Gram-negative bacillus, an opportunistic pathogen, particularly among nosocomial infections. Multi-drug resistant strains are associated with very high rate of morbidity and mortality in severely immunocompromised patients. Present study was designed to evaluate the effect of biofield treatment against multidrug resistant S. maltophilia . Clinical sample of S. maltophilia was collected and divided into two groups i.e. control and biofield t...

  10. On the Capacity of Hybrid Wireless Networks with Opportunistic Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Le

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the capacity of hybrid wireless networks with opportunistic routing (OR. We first extend the opportunistic routing algorithm to exploit high-speed data transmissions in infrastructure network through base stations. We then develop linear programming models to calculate the end-to-end throughput bounds from multiple source nodes to single as well as multiple destination nodes. The developed models are applied to study several hybrid wireless network examples. Through case studies, we investigate several factors that have significant impacts on the hybrid wireless network capacity under opportunistic routing, such as node transmission range, density and distribution pattern of base stations (BTs, and number of wireless channels on wireless nodes and base stations. Our numerical results demonstrate that opportunistic routing could achieve much higher throughput on both ad hoc and hybrid networks than traditional unicast routing (UR. Moreover, opportunistic routing can efficiently utilize base stations and achieve significantly higher throughput gains in hybrid wireless networks than in pure ad hoc networks especially with multiple-channel base stations.

  11. Effective but costly, evolved mechanisms of defense against a virulent opportunistic pathogen in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixin H Ye

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila harbor substantial genetic variation for antibacterial defense, and investment in immunity is thought to involve a costly trade-off with life history traits, including development, life span, and reproduction. To understand the way in which insects invest in fighting bacterial infection, we selected for survival following systemic infection with the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa in wild-caught Drosophila melanogaster over 10 generations. We then examined genome-wide changes in expression in the selected flies relative to unselected controls, both of which had been infected with the pathogen. This powerful combination of techniques allowed us to specifically identify the genetic basis of the evolved immune response. In response to selection, population-level survivorship to infection increased from 15% to 70%. The evolved capacity for defense was costly, however, as evidenced by reduced longevity and larval viability and a rapid loss of the trait once selection pressure was removed. Counter to expectation, we observed more rapid developmental rates in the selected flies. Selection-associated changes in expression of genes with dual involvement in developmental and immune pathways suggest pleiotropy as a possible mechanism for the positive correlation. We also found that both the Toll and the Imd pathways work synergistically to limit infectivity and that cellular immunity plays a more critical role in overcoming P. aeruginosa infection than previously reported. This work reveals novel pathways by which Drosophila can survive infection with a virulent pathogen that may be rare in wild populations, however, due to their cost.

  12. Human Exportin-1 is a Target for Combined Therapy of HIV and AIDS Related Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline Boons

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Infection with HIV ultimately leads to advanced immunodeficiency resulting in an increased incidence of cancer. For example primary effusion lymphoma (PEL is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma with very poor prognosis that typically affects HIV infected individuals in advanced stages of immunodeficiency. Here we report on the dual anti-HIV and anti-PEL effect of targeting a single process common in both diseases. Inhibition of the exportin-1 (XPO1 mediated nuclear transport by clinical stage orally bioavailable small molecule inhibitors (SINE prevented the nuclear export of the late intron-containing HIV RNA species and consequently potently suppressed viral replication. In contrast, in CRISPR-Cas9 genome edited cells expressing mutant C528S XPO1, viral replication was unaffected upon treatment, clearly demonstrating the anti-XPO1 mechanism of action. At the same time, SINE caused the nuclear accumulation of p53 tumor suppressor protein as well as inhibition of NF-κB activity in PEL cells resulting in cell cycle arrest and effective apoptosis induction. In vivo, oral administration arrested PEL tumor growth in engrafted mice. Our findings provide strong rationale for inhibiting XPO1 as an innovative strategy for the combined anti-retroviral and anti-neoplastic treatment of HIV and PEL and offer perspectives for the treatment of other AIDS-associated cancers and potentially other virus-related malignancies.

  13. Six Degrees of Separation to Improve Routing in Opportunistic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos O. Rolim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic Networks are able to exploit social behavior to create connectivity opportunities. Thisparadigm uses pair-wise contacts for routing messages between nodes. In this context we investigated if the“six degrees of separation” conjecture of small-world networks can be used as a basis to route messages inOpportunistic Networks. We propose a simple approach for routing that outperforms some popularprotocols in simulations that are carried out with real world traces using ONE simulator. We conclude thatstatic graph models are not suitable for underlay routing approaches in highly dynamic networks likeOpportunistic Networks without taking account of temporal factors such as time, duration and frequency ofprevious encounters.

  14. Joint opportunistic scheduling and network coding for bidirectional relay channel

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we consider a two-way communication system in which two users communicate with each other through an intermediate relay over block-fading channels. We investigate the optimal opportunistic scheduling scheme in order to maximize the long-term average transmission rate in the system assuming symmetric information flow between the two users. Based on the channel state information, the scheduler decides that either one of the users transmits to the relay, or the relay transmits to a single user or broadcasts to both users a combined version of the two users\\' transmitted information by using linear network coding. We obtain the optimal scheduling scheme by using the Lagrangian dual problem. Furthermore, in order to characterize the gains of network coding and opportunistic scheduling, we compare the achievable rate of the system versus suboptimal schemes in which the gains of network coding and opportunistic scheduling are partially exploited. © 2013 IEEE.

  15. Efficient scheduling request algorithm for opportunistic wireless access

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon

    2011-08-01

    An efficient scheduling request algorithm for opportunistic wireless access based on user grouping is proposed in this paper. Similar to the well-known opportunistic splitting algorithm, the proposed algorithm initially adjusts (or lowers) the threshold during a guard period if no user sends a scheduling request. However, if multiple users make requests simultaneously and therefore a collision occurs, the proposed algorithm no longer updates the threshold but narrows down the user search space by splitting the users into multiple groups iteratively, whereas the opportunistic splitting algorithm keeps adjusting the threshold until a single user is found. Since the threshold is only updated when no user sends a request, it is shown that the proposed algorithm significantly alleviates the burden of the signaling for the threshold distribution to the users by the scheduler. More importantly, the proposed algorithm requires a less number of mini-slots to make a user selection given a certain scheduling outage probability. © 2011 IEEE.

  16. MOSDEN: A Scalable Mobile Collaborative Platform for Opportunistic Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Prakash Jayaraman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobile smartphones along with embedded sensors have become an efficient enabler for various mobile applications including opportunistic sensing. The hi-tech advances in smartphones are opening up a world of possibilities. This paper proposes a mobile collaborative platform called MOSDEN that enables and supports opportunistic sensing at run time. MOSDEN captures and shares sensor data acrossmultiple apps, smartphones and users. MOSDEN supports the emerging trend of separating sensors from application-specific processing, storing and sharing. MOSDEN promotes reuse and re-purposing of sensor data hence reducing the efforts in developing novel opportunistic sensing applications. MOSDEN has been implemented on Android-based smartphones and tablets. Experimental evaluations validate the scalability and energy efficiency of MOSDEN and its suitability towards real world applications. The results of evaluation and lessons learned are presented and discussed in this paper.

  17. Independent risk of mechanical ventilation for AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia associated with bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophilia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, D; Emborg, J; Elkjaer, J;

    2001-01-01

    failure requiring MV amongst patients with PCP treated in the era of adjunctive corticosteroid therapy. Furthermore, we studied factors associated with survival in relation to MV. Of 170 consecutive patients with AIDS-related PCP, 18 (11%) required MV. Thirteen of 18 ventilated patients died (72%). In a...... logistic regression analysis, higher age, increased bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) neutrophilia and a positive BAL cytomegalovirus CMV culture were associated with the need of MV. In multivariate analyses, only BAL neutrophilia remained independently predictive of mechanical ventilation. In conclusion, short...

  18. HIV/aids related home based care practices among primary health care workers in Ogun state, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    E Amoran; O Ogunsola; O Salako; O Alausa

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background HIV/AIDS is fast becoming a chronic disease with the advent of antiretroviral drugs, therefore making home based care key in the management of chronically ill HIV/AIDS patient. The objective of this study was to determine the perception and practice of health care workers on HIV/AIDS related home based care in the health facilities in Ogun state, Nigeria. Methods This study is an analytical cross-sectional study. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to obtain a...

  19. Opportunistic and other intestinal parasites among HIV/AIDS patients attending Gambi higher clinic in Bahir Dar city, North West Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abebe Alemu; Yitayal Shiferaw; Gebeyaw Getnet; Aregaw Yalew; Zelalem Addis

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine the magnitude of opportunistic and non-opportunistic intestinal parasitic infections amongHIV/AIDS patients in Bahir Dar.Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted amongHIV/ AIDS patients attending Gambi higher clinic from April1- May30, 2009. Convenient sampling technique was employed to identify the study subjects and hence a total of248subjects were included. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data of patients. Stool samples were examined by direct saline, iodine wet mount, formol-ether sedimentation concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Results: Out of248 enrolled in the study,171(69.0%) (90 males and81 females) were infected with one or more intestinal parasites. The highest rate of intestinal parasites were observed amongHIV/AIDS patients (80.3%, 151/188), and the infection rate of HIV negative individuals was 33.3% (20/60). Cryptosporidum parvum(43.6%),Isospora belli (15.5%) andBlastocystis hominis (10.5%)were opportunistic parasites that were found only inHIV/AIDS patients.Conclusions:Opportunistic parasite infections are common health problem among HIV/ AIDS patients in the study area. Therefore, early detection and treatment of these parasites are important to improve the quality of life ofHIV/AIDS patients.

  20. Causes of mortality among tuberculosis and HIV co-infected patients in Chiang Rai, Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantipong P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pacharee Kantipong,1 Kuniko Murakami,2 Saiyud Moolphate,3 Myo Nyein Aung,4,5 Norio Yamada21Chiang Rai Prachanukroh Hospital, Thailand; 2Japan Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association, Tokyo, Japan; 3TB/HIV Research Project, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 4Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan; 5Department of Epidemiology, University of Public Health, Yangon, MyanmarBackground: The case fatality rate in patients with tuberculosis (TB associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has been particularly high in Chiang Rai, Northern Thailand. It was almost 50% before the introduction of antiretroviral therapy in the last decade, and was still at 28% in 2008, despite expanding access to antiretroviral therapy. Reviewing the causes of death may lead to further understanding of the timeline and natural history of TB-HIV coinfection, and in so doing help to devise an effective prevention strategy in Chiang Rai. In this study, we aimed to investigate the distribution of confirmed causes of death in patients coinfected with TB and HIV in Chiang Rai, describe the causes of such deaths along the timeline of TB treatment, and identify predictors of each cause of death.Methods: In this retrospective study, we reviewed the causes of death for 331 patients who died of TB-HIV coinfection at Chiang Rai Prachanukroh Hospital from 2005 to 2008. Causes of death were confirmed by reviewing medical records, vital registration, and the TB register in the province, as well as obtaining reconfirmation by two experienced HIV physicians.Results: The confirmed causes of death were TB (39%, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS-related opportunistic infections other than TB (AOI (29%, and other systemic diseases which were neither TB nor AIDS-related opportunistic infections (nonTB-nonAOI (16%. The definitive cause could not be confirmed in the remaining 16% of deaths. After starting the TB

  1. HIV and AIDS related knowledge, sources of information, and reported need for further education among dental students in Sudan- a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åstrøm Anne

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the HIV and AIDS-related knowledge among dental students provides a crucial foundation for efforts aimed at developing an appropriate dental curriculum on HIV and AIDS, and for attracting the attention of dental school educators towards the subject. Purposes Focusing on a census of dental students attending their 3rd, 4th and 5th study year at publicly – and privately funded dental faculties in Khartoum, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and socio-economic correlates of dental students' knowledge, sources of information and reported need for further education related to HIV and AIDS. Methods At the time of the survey (March–May 2007, the total number of dental students registered was 782 of which 642 (response rate 82%, mean age 21.7 year, 72% girls completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in supervised class room settings. Results A total of 49% and 86% had correct sum scores with respect to knowledge of transmission through contamination and through shaking hands and eating, respectively. About half the dental students recognized a need for further education across HIV related issues, varying from 75% (basic HIV/AIDS related issues to 84% (patient management. Only 38% of the students had correct sum scores regarding various occupational groups at risk for contacting HIV and AIDS. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that compared to privately funded dental school students, publicly funded dental school students were less likely to have correct knowledge about modes of HIV transmission (OR = 0.6 and occupational risk groups (OR = 0.6 and to have received information from lectures/health care workers (OR = 0.5. Conclusion Students attending privately funded schools were more knowledgeable about various HIV related issues than students from publicly funded schools. About half of the students investigated had received HIV/AIDS information from various sources and reported need

  2. The challenge of AIDS-related malignancies in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie J Sasco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the lengthening of life expectancy among HIV-positive subjects related to the use of highly active antiretroviral treatments, an increased risk of cancer has been described in industrialized countries. The question is to determine what occurs now and will happen in the future in the low income countries and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where more than two-thirds of all HIV-positive people live in the world. The objective of our paper is to review the link between HIV and cancer in sub-Saharan Africa, putting it in perspective with what is already known in Western countries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Studies for this review were identified from several bibliographical databases including Pubmed, Scopus, Cochrane, Pascal, Web of Science and using keywords "HIV, neoplasia, epidemiology and Africa" and related MesH terms. A clear association was found between HIV infection and AIDS-classifying cancers. In case-referent studies, odds ratios (OR were ranging from 21.9 (95% Confidence Interval (CI 12.5-38.6 to 47.1 (31.9-69.8 for Kaposi sarcoma and from 5.0 (2.7-9.5 to 12.6 (2.2-54.4 for non Hodgkin lymphoma. The association was less strong for invasive cervical cancer with ORs ranging from 1.1 (0.7-1.2 to 1.6 (1.1-2.3, whereas ORs for squamous intraepithelial lesions were higher, from 4.4 (2.3-8.4 to 17.0 (2.2-134.1. For non AIDS-classifying cancers, squamous cell conjunctival carcinoma of the eye was associated with HIV in many case-referent studies with ORs from 2.6 (1.4-4.9 to 13.0 (4.5-39.4. A record-linkage study conducted in Uganda showed an association between Hodgkin lymphoma and HIV infection with a standardized incidence ratio of 5.7 (1.2-17 although OR in case-referent studies ranged from 1.4 (0.7-2.8 to 1.6 (1.0-2.7. Other cancer sites found positively associated with HIV include lung, liver, anus, penis, vulva, kidney, thyroid and uterus and a decreased risk of female breast cancer. These results so far based on a

  3. HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge Among Malaysian Young Adults: Findings From a Nationwide Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Li-Ping

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose HIV/AIDS poses a serious threat to young people, both in Malaysia and throughout the world. A nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about HIV/AIDS among the Malaysian public. This article reports the findings of knowledge about HIV/AIDS among young adults. Methods A total of 1075 young adult respondents aged 15–24 years participated in this survey. The response rate was 82.2%. Results The data indicated that HIV/AIDS knowledge among the respondents was moderate, with a mean knowledge score of 20.1 out of 32 points. The great majority had adequate knowledge of the major routes of HIV transmission, but fewer were aware of other modes of transmission, such as tattooing and piercing, sharing personal items, and breast-feeding from an infected mother. The great majority knew that HIV is not transmitted by mosquito bites, sharing meals, casual contact, and using public swimming pools and toilets. Conclusion Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS exist although generally knowledge on HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention was accurate. Education and intervention programs are needed to increase the level of knowledge and awareness of HIV/AIDS. The findings have important implications for the development of primary HIV/AIDS prevention programs for young adults in Malaysia.

  4. Recruiting Chinese American adolescents to HIV/AIDS-related research: a lesson learned from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Hui; Salman, Ali; Wang, Fan

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this article was to report identified barriers and challenges experienced in the recruiting process of Chinese American adolescents to a cross-sectional HIV/AIDS-related study. Snowball sampling method was used to recruit Chinese American adolescents from Chinese American communities in a U.S. Midwestern state. Barriers and challenges to recruitment were reviewed and analyzed from Chinese cultural perspectives in the hope of aiding researchers and health care providers understand and facilitate future recruitment of Chinese Americans for HIV/AIDS prevention studies. Barriers to recruitment were found related to the taboo topic of sexual issues in Chinese culture, unawareness and denial of HIV/AIDS risks, authoritarian parenting style in Chinese culture, and the required active consents. Facilitating factors of recruiting Chinese American adolescents to future HIV/AIDS prevention research or intervention programs are discussed. Information provided in this article may increase nurses' awareness of various barriers that they might encounter when they conduct research or address HIV/AIDS-related topics of Chinese American adolescents. PMID:20974090

  5. Toddler "Functionally Cured" of HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mississippi Medical Center led a team of laboratory investigators who provided HIV antiretroviral therapy for 18 months to a baby ... The landmark discovery was made by two pediatric HIV experts, Deborah ... findings at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections ( ...

  6. Modelling the healthcare costs of an opportunistic chlamydia screening programme

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, E; Lamontagne, D; Johnston, A; Pimenta, J; Fenton, K; Edmunds, W.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the average cost per screening offer, cost per testing episode and cost per chlamydia positive episode for an opportunistic chlamydia screening programme (including partner management), and to explore the uncertainty of parameter assumptions, based on the costs to the healthcare system.

  7. Opportunistic Beacon Networks: Information Dissemination via Wireless Network Identifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Türkes, Okan; Scholten, Hans; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents OBN, a universal opportunistic ad hoc networking model particularly intended for smart mobile devices. It enables fast and lightweight data dissemination in wireless community networks through the utilization of universally-available wireless network identifiers. As a ubiquitous

  8. Iterative group splitting algorithm for opportunistic scheduling systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon

    2014-05-01

    An efficient feedback algorithm for opportunistic scheduling systems based on iterative group splitting is proposed in this paper. Similar to the opportunistic splitting algorithm, the proposed algorithm adjusts (or lowers) the feedback threshold during a guard period if no user sends a feedback. However, when a feedback collision occurs at any point of time, the proposed algorithm no longer updates the threshold but narrows down the user search space by dividing the users into multiple groups iteratively, whereas the opportunistic splitting algorithm keeps adjusting the threshold until a single user is found. Since the threshold is only updated when no user sends a feedback, it is shown that the proposed algorithm significantly alleviates the signaling overhead for the threshold distribution to the users by the scheduler. More importantly, the proposed algorithm requires a less number of mini-slots than the opportunistic splitting algorithm to make a user selection with a given level of scheduling outage probability or provides a higher ergodic capacity given a certain number of mini-slots. © 2013 IEEE.

  9. AnonySense: Opportunistic and Privacy-Preserving Context Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triandopoulos, Nikolaos; Kapadia, Apu; Cornelius, Cory;

    2008-01-01

    Opportunistic sensing allows applications to "task" mobile devices to measure context in a target region. For example, one could leverage sensor-equipped vehicles to measure traffic or pollution levels on a particular street, or users' mobile phones to locate (Bluetooth-enabled) objects in their ...

  10. Cryptococcal meningitis among HIV infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoharan G

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcal meningitis is an emerging opportunistic infection among HIV infected patients and an important cause of mortality among these patients. The incidence of cryptococcal meningitis varies from place to place. A total of 31 specimens of CSF out of 89 samples processed from known HIV positive cases yielded Cryptococcus neoformans during the period of 3 years. C.neoformans was the most common opportunistic pathogen isolated from CSF samples of these patients with an incidence of 34.8%

  11. Cryptococcal meningitis among HIV infected patients

    OpenAIRE

    Manoharan G; Padmavathy B; Vasanthi S; Gopalte R

    2001-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is an emerging opportunistic infection among HIV infected patients and an important cause of mortality among these patients. The incidence of cryptococcal meningitis varies from place to place. A total of 31 specimens of CSF out of 89 samples processed from known HIV positive cases yielded Cryptococcus neoformans during the period of 3 years. C.neoformans was the most common opportunistic pathogen isolated from CSF samples of these patients with an incidence of 34.8&#x...

  12. Cryptococcal meningitis among HIV infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, G; Padmavathy, B K; Vasanthi, S; Gopalte, R

    2001-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is an emerging opportunistic infection among HIV infected patients and an important cause of mortality among these patients. The incidence of cryptococcal meningitis varies from place to place. A total of 31 specimens of CSF out of 89 samples processed from known HIV positive cases yielded Cryptococcus neoformans during the period of 3 years. C.neoformans was the most common opportunistic pathogen isolated from CSF samples of these patients with an incidence of 34.8% PMID:17664823

  13. AIDS-related stigma and mental disorders among people living with HIV: a cross-sectional study in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyan Yi

    Full Text Available AIDS-related stigma and mental disorders are the most common conditions in people living with HIV (PLHIV. We therefore conducted this study to examine the association of AIDS-related stigma and discrimination with mental disorders among PLHIV in Cambodia.A two-stage cluster sampling method was used to select 1,003 adult PLHIV from six provinces. The People Living with HIV Stigma Index was used to measure stigma and discrimination, and a short version of general health questionnaire (GHQ-12 was used to measure mental disorders. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted.The reported experiences of discrimination in communities in the past 12 months ranged from 0.8% for reports of being denied health services to 42.3% for being aware of being gossiped about. Internal stigma was also common ranging from 2.8% for avoiding going to a local clinic and/or hospital to 59.6% for deciding not to have (more children. The proportions of PLHIV who reported fear of stigma and discrimination ranged from 13.9% for fear of being physically assaulted to 34.5% for fear of being gossiped about. The mean score of GHQ-12 was 3.2 (SD = 2.4. After controlling for several potential confounders, higher levels of mental disorders (GHQ-12≥ 4 remained significantly associated with higher levels of experiences of stigma and discrimination in family and communities (AOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.4-2.6, higher levels of internal stigma (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.2-2.3, and higher levels of fear of stigma and discrimination in family and communities (AOR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.2.AIDS-related stigma and discrimination among PLHIV in Cambodia are common and may have potential impacts on their mental health conditions. These findings indicate a need for community-based interventions to reduce stigma and discrimination in the general public and to help PLHIV to cope with this situation.

  14. Noisy mean field game model for malware propagation in opportunistic networks

    KAUST Repository

    Tembine, Hamidou

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present analytical mean field techniques that can be used to better understand the behavior of malware propagation in opportunistic large networks. We develop a modeling methodology based on stochastic mean field optimal control that is able to capture many aspects of the problem, especially the impact of the control and heterogeneity of the system on the spreading characteristics of malware. The stochastic large process characterizing the evolution of the total number of infected nodes is examined with a noisy mean field limit and compared to a deterministic one. The stochastic nature of the wireless environment make stochastic approaches more realistic for such types of networks. By introducing control strategies, we show that the fraction of infected nodes can be maintained below some threshold. In contrast to most of the existing results on mean field propagation models which focus on deterministic equations, we show that the mean field limit is stochastic if the second moment of the number of object transitions per time slot is unbounded with the size of the system. This allows us to compare one path of the fraction of infected nodes with the stochastic trajectory of its mean field limit. In order to take into account the heterogeneity of opportunistic networks, the analysis is extended to multiple types of nodes. Our numerical results show that the heterogeneity can help to stabilize the system. We verify the results through simulation showing how to obtain useful approximations in the case of very large systems. © 2012 ICST Institute for Computer Science, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering.

  15. Who needs the assumption of opportunistic behavior? Transaction cost economics does not!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    2000-01-01

    The assumption of opportunistic behavior, familiar from transaction cost economics, has been and remains highly controversial. But opportunistic behavior, albeit undoubtedly an extremely important form of motivation, is not a necessary condition for the contractual problems studied by transaction...

  16. Independent risk of mechanical ventilation for AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia associated with bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophilia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, D.; Emborg, J.; Elkjaer, J.;

    2001-01-01

    failure requiring MV amongst patients with PCP treated in the era of adjunctive corticosteroid therapy. Furthermore, we studied factors associated with survival in relation to MV. Of 170 consecutive patients with AIDS-related PCP, 18 (11%) required MV. Thirteen of 18 ventilated patients died (72%). In a...... logistic regression analysis, higher age, increased bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) neutrophilia and a positive BAL cytomegalovirus CMV culture were associated with the need of MV. In multivariate analyses, only BAL neutrophilia remained independently predictive of mechanical ventilation. In conclusion, short......-term mortality remained high after the introduction of adjunctive corticosteroid therapy. BAL neutrophilia may be a useful prognostic marker to identify patients at high risk of requiring mechanical ventilation Udgivelsesdato: 2001/8...

  17. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    use of conventional antimicrobial compounds in many cases cannot eradicate biofilms, there is an urgent need to develop alternative measures to combat biofilm infections. The present review is focussed on the important opportunistic pathogen and biofilm model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Initially...

  18. Research progress of HIV/AIDS related lymphoma%HIV/AIDS 相关淋巴瘤研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王迪; 冯艳玲

    2015-01-01

    HIV /AIDS related lymphoma (ARL)are a group of heterogeneity of neoplasms,and they have poor prognosis.The factors of pathogenesis elucidated in recent years include immune injury caused by HIV,EB virus infection and genetic changes.There are four pathological types of ARL,including diffuse large B cell lymphoma,Burkitt lymphoma,plasmablastic lymphoma and primary effusion lymphoma.Morphological characteristics,immunophenotype markers and clinical data should be combined to make diagnosis and differen-tial diagnosis,which will facilitate timely treatment and improve prognosis.%人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)/获得性免疫缺陷综合征(AIDS)相关淋巴瘤(ARL)是一组异质性肿瘤,预后较差。近年来阐明的发病机制包括 HIV 引起的免疫损伤、EB 病毒的感染及基因的改变。ARL 的病理类型主要有4种,即弥漫大 B 细胞淋巴瘤、Burkitt 淋巴瘤、原发渗出性淋巴瘤和浆母细胞淋巴瘤。形态学特征、免疫标记和遗传学特点的联合应用有助于诊断和鉴别诊断,从而有利于及时治疗和改善预后。

  19. Accurate performance analysis of opportunistic decode-and-forward relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate an opportunistic relaying scheme where the selected relay assists the source-destination (direct) communication. In our study, we consider a regenerative opportunistic relaying scheme in which the direct path may be considered unusable, and the destination may use a selection combining technique. We first derive the exact statistics of each hop, in terms of probability density function (PDF). Then, the PDFs are used to determine accurate closed form expressions for end-to-end outage probability for a transmission rate R. Furthermore, we evaluate the asymptotical performance analysis and the diversity order is deduced. Finally, we validate our analysis by showing that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results over different network architectures. © 2011 IEEE.

  20. Towards a Resource Reservation Approach for an Opportunistic Computing Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced reservation has been used in grid environments to provide quality of service (QoS) and to guarantee resources available at the execution time. However, in grid subtypes, such as opportunistic grid computing, it is a challenge provides QoS and guarantee of availability resources. In this article, we propose a new advanced reservation approach which offers to a user the possibility to select resources in advance for a future utilization. Therefore, the main goal of this proposal is to offer a best effort feature to a user from an opportunistic configuration. In these types of environments, it is not possible to provide QoS, because, usually, there are no guarantees of resources availability and, consequently, the execution of users applications. In addition, this research work provides a way to organize executions, what it can improve the scheduling and system operations. Experimental results, carried out through a case study, shown the efficiency and relevance of our proposal

  1. Opportunistic spectrum access in cognitive radio based on channel switching

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of a cognitive radio transceiver that can monitor multiple channels and opportunistically use any one of them should it be available. In our work, we propose and compare two different opportunistic channel access schemes. The first scheme applies when the secondary user (SU) has access to only one channel. The second scheme applies when the SU has access to multiple channels but can at a given time monitor and access only one channel. Two switching strategies, namely the switch and examine and the switch and stay strategies, are proposed. For these proposed access schemes, we investigate their performance by deriving the analytical expression of the novel metric of the average access duration and the average waiting time and based on these two metrics a time average SU throughput formula is proposed to predict the performance of the secondary cognitive system. © 2012 ICST.

  2. A Game Theoretic Approach to Distributed Opportunistic Scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Banchs, Albert; Serrano, Pablo; Widmer, Joerg

    2011-01-01

    Distributed Opportunistic Scheduling (DOS) is inherently harder than conventional opportunistic scheduling due to the absence of a central entity that has knowledge of all the channel states. With DOS, stations contend for the channel using random access; after a successful contention, they measure the channel conditions and only transmit in case of a good channel, while giving up the transmission opportunity when the channel conditions are poor. The distributed nature of DOS systems makes them vulnerable to selfish users: by deviating from the protocol and using more transmission opportunities, a selfish user can gain a greater share of the wireless resources at the expense of the well-behaved users. In this paper, we address the selfishness problem in DOS from a game theoretic standpoint. We propose an algorithm that satisfies the following properties: (i) when all stations implement the algorithm, the wireless network is driven to the optimal point of operation, and (ii) one or more selfish stations cannot...

  3. Node-Dependence-Based Dynamic Incentive Algorithm in Opportunistic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiyun Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic networks lack end-to-end paths between source nodes and destination nodes, so the communications are mainly carried out by the “store-carry-forward” strategy. Selfish behaviors of rejecting packet relay requests will severely worsen the network performance. Incentive is an efficient way to reduce selfish behaviors and hence improves the reliability and robustness of the networks. In this paper, we propose the node-dependence-based dynamic gaming incentive (NDI algorithm, which exploits the dynamic repeated gaming to motivate nodes relaying packets for other nodes. The NDI algorithm presents a mechanism of tolerating selfish behaviors of nodes. Reward and punishment methods are also designed based on the node dependence degree. Simulation results show that the NDI algorithm is effective in increasing the delivery ratio and decreasing average latency when there are a lot of selfish nodes in the opportunistic networks.

  4. Opportunistic Channel Scheduling for Ad Hoc Networks with Queue Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lei; Wang, Yongchao

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a distributed opportunistic channel access strategy in ad hoc network is proposed. We consider the multiple sources contend for the transmission opportunity, the winner source decides to transmit or restart contention based on the current channel condition. Owing to real data assumption at all links, the decision still needs to consider the stability of the queues. We formulate the channel opportunistic scheduling as a constrained optimization problem which maximizes the system average throughput with the constraints that the queues of all links are stable. The proposed optimization model is solved by Lyapunov stability in queueing theory. The successive channel access problem is decoupled into single optimal stopping problem at every frame and solved with Lyapunov algorithm. The threshold for every frame is different, and it is derived based on the instantaneous queue information. Finally, computer simulations are conducted to demonstrate the validity of the proposed strategy.

  5. New results on performance analysis of opportunistic regenerative relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate an opportunistic relaying scheme where the selected relay assists the source-destination (direct) communication. In our study, we consider a regenerative opportunistic relaying scheme in which the direct path may be unusable, and takes into account the effect of the possible erroneously detected and transmitted data at the selected relay. We first derive the signal-to-noise (SNR) statistics for each hop, which are used to determine accurate closed form expressions for end-to-end bit-error rate (BER) of binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation and end-to-end outage probability for a transmission rate R over Rayleigh fading channels. Furthermore, we evaluate the asymptotical performance and deduce the diversity order. Finally, we validate our analysis by showing that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results over linear network architecture. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Error-rate performance analysis of opportunistic regenerative relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate an opportunistic relaying scheme where the selected relay assists the source-destination (direct) communication. In our study, we consider a regenerative opportunistic relaying scheme in which the direct path can be considered unusable, and takes into account the effect of the possible erroneously detected and transmitted data at the best relay. We first derive the exact statistics of each hop, in terms of probability density function (PDF). Then, the PDFs are used to determine accurate closed form expressions for end-to-end bit-error rate (BER) of binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation where the detector may use maximum ration combining (MRC) or selection combining (SC). Finally, we validate our analysis by showing that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results over linear network (LN) architecture and considering Rayleigh fading channels. © 2011 IEEE.

  7. Outage rates and outage durations of opportunistic relaying systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hadzi-Velkov, Zoran; 10.1109/LCOMM.2010.02.091683

    2010-01-01

    Opportunistic relaying is a simple yet efficient cooperation scheme that achieves full diversity and preserves the spectral efficiency among the spatially distributed stations. However, the stations' mobility causes temporal correlation of the system's capacity outage events, which gives rise to its important second-order outage statistical parameters, such as the average outage rate (AOR) and the average outage duration (AOD). This letter presents exact analytical expressions for the AOR and the AOD of an opportunistic relaying system, which employs a mobile source and a mobile destination (without a direct path), and an arbitrary number of (fixed-gain amplify-and-forward or decode-and-forward) mobile relays in Rayleigh fading environment.

  8. The Intraperitoneal Transcriptome of the Opportunistic Pathogen Enterococcus faecalis in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Muller

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive lactic acid intestinal opportunistic bacterium with virulence potential. For a better understanding of the adapation of this bacterium to the host conditions, we performed a transcriptome analysis of bacteria isolated from an infection site (mouse peritonitis by RNA-sequencing. We identified a total of 211 genes with significantly higher transcript levels and 157 repressed genes. Our in vivo gene expression database reflects well the infection process since genes encoding important virulence factors like cytolysin, gelatinase or aggregation substance as well as stress response proteins, are significantly induced. Genes encoding metabolic activities are the second most abundant in vivo induced genes demonstrating that the bacteria are metabolically active and adapt to the special nutrient conditions of the host. α- and β- glucosides seem to be important substrates for E. faecalis inside the host. Compared to laboratory conditions, the flux through the upper part of glycolysis seems to be reduced and more carbon may enter the pentose phosphate pathway. This may reflect the need of the bacteria under infection conditions to produce more reducing power for biosynthesis. Another important substrate is certainly glycerol since both pathways of glycerol catabolism are strongly induced. Strongly in vivo induced genes should be important for the infection process. This assumption has been verified in a virulence test using well characterized mutants affected in glycerol metabolism. This showed indeed that mutants unable to metabolize this sugar alcohol are affected in organ colonisation in a mouse model.

  9. An Improved Directed Diffusion Protocol based on Opportunistic Routing

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Xu; Yixian Yang; Yang Xin; Hongliang Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Researchers are paying more and more attention to the application of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), where routing is one of the vital techniques. An advanced Directed Diffusion protocol, named DDOR, is presented in this paper based on Opportunistic Routing to improve the disadvantage of mono-forwarder of traditional routing protocol. Packet head has been modified in order to implement a forwarder list in DDOR. Instead of fixed next-hop forwarding in transmission, DDOR selects the optimal no...

  10. Recommendation Based on Opportunistic Information Sharing Between Tourists

    OpenAIRE

    Spindler, Alexandre de; Norrie, Moira C.; Grossniklaus, Michael

    2008-01-01

    We propose a new approach to collaborative filtering in mobile tourist information systems based on spatiotemporal proximity in social contexts. The approach is motivated by a survey of festival visitors confirming that similarities of interests extend beyond events defining specific social contexts. We show how opportunistic information sharing in mobile ad hoc networks can be used to realize decentralized collaborative filtering appropriate for mobile environments and show its equivalence t...

  11. Efficient location privacy-aware forwarding in opportunistic mobile networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zakhary, Sameh; Radenkovic, Milena; Benslimane, Abderrahim

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel fully distributed and collaborative k-anonymity protocol (LPAF) to protect users’ location information and ensure better privacy while forwarding queries/replies to/from untrusted location-based service (LBS) over opportunistic mobile networks (OppMNets. We utilize a lightweight multihop Markov-based stochastic model for location prediction to guide queries toward the LBS’s location and to reduce required resources in terms of retransmission overheads. We develop a...

  12. An integrated view of electoral results and opportunistic policies

    OpenAIRE

    Veiga, Francisco José; Aidt, Toke S.; Veiga, Linda Gonçalves

    2007-01-01

    The literature on political business cycles suggests that politicians systematically manipulate economic conditions before elections. The literature on vote and popularity functions suggests that economic conditions systematically affect election outcomes. This paper integrates these two strands of literature. We use Rogoff (1990)’s model of the rational political business cycle to derive the two-way relationship between the win-margin of the incumbent politician and the size of the opportunist...

  13. Opportunistic Relaying in Wireless Body Area Networks: Coexistence Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Jie; SMITH, DAVID

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a cooperative two-hop communication scheme, together with opportunistic relaying (OR), is applied within a mobile wireless body area network (WBAN). Its effectiveness in interference mitigation is investigated in a scenario where there are multiple closely-located networks. Due to a typical WBAN's nature, no coordination is used among different WBANs. A suitable time-division-multiple-access (TDMA) is adopted as both an intra-network and also an inter-network access scheme. Ext...

  14. Opportunistic Relaying without CSI: Optimizing Variable-Rate HARQ

    OpenAIRE

    Khosravirad, Saeed R.; Szczecinski, Leszek; Labeau, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the opportunistic relaying based on HARQ transmission over the block-fading channel with absence of channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter nodes. We assume that both the source and the relay are allowed to vary their transmission rate between the HARQ transmission rounds. We solve the problem of throughput maximization with respect to the transmission rates using double-recursive Dynamic Programming. Simplifications are also proposed to diminish the complexity of the op...

  15. Location-based Service Discovery and Delivery in Opportunistic Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Le Sommer, Nicolas; Ben Sassi, Salma

    2010-01-01

    Opportunistic networks are usually formed spontaneously by mobile devices equipped with short range wireless communication interfaces. Designing and implementing a routing protocol to support both service discovery and delivery in such kinds of networks is a challenging problem on account of frequent disconnections and topology changes. In these networks one of the most important issues relies on the selection of the best intermediate node(s) to forward the messages towards their destination(...

  16. Opportunistic Pathogens Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) and Legionella spp. Colonise Model Shower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Giglio, Steven; Bentham, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Legionella spp. and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) are opportunistic pathogens of public health concern. Hot water systems, including showers, have been identified as a potential source of infection. This paper describes the colonization of Legionella and MAC on the flexible tubing within a model potable shower system, utilizing thermostatic mixing and a flexible shower head. A MAC qPCR method of enumeration was also developed. MAC and Legionella spp. were detected within the biofilm at maximum concentrations of 7.0 × 104 and 2.0 × 103 copies/cm2 PVC tubing respectively. No significant changes were observed between sample of the flexible shower tubing that dried between uses and those that remained filled with water. This suggested the “unhooking” showerheads and allowing them to dry is not an effective method to reduce the risk of Legionella or MAC colonisation. PMID:26213977

  17. Location-Aided Reliable Routing for Opportunistic Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Yang; Zhi Ren; Jibi Li

    2012-01-01

    In our study, we investigate the problem of location-based routing in opportunistic networks. Due to the uncertainty of end-to-end paths between sources and destinations, the classical location-based ad hoc routing protocols cannot adapt to the environment of opportunistic networks, which leads to the decrease of the delivery rate of data. To address it, we propose in this paper a novel location-aided routing protocol which is suitable for opportunistic networks. In our protocol, a node can send location information on demand by using prediction mechanism, and when sending a data packet, the node chooses multiple neighbors which are closer to the destination as next hops. If the candidate neighbors do not exist, the node carries the data till it meets a proper neighbor or the destination. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that our proposed protocol outperforms DREAM (Distance Routing Effect Protocol Mobility) and one of its improved versions, BFDREAM (Boundary Forwarding DREAM), in terms of the delivery rate and overhead.

  18. 艾滋病相关性肺动脉高压诊治近况%AIDS Related Pulmonary Hypertension Diagnosis and Treatment Status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨萍; 赵贺红(综述); 冯萍(审校)

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency disease (AIDS) has become the most serious disaster diseases for humanity.With widely application of antiretroviral therapy,the survival time of patients with HIV and opportunistic infections largely under control non-infectious complications, including pulmonary aterial hypertension (PAH) by more and more at ention in the international.In fact,has become an independent disorder for death of HIV-infected patients.The pathogenesis of HIV infection leads to pulmonary hypertension has not been ful y elucidated.Lack of specific clinical manifestations;treatment have a lot of restrictions compared with idiopathic pulmonary hypertension and poor prognosis.SO early detection and intervention can improve the quality of life and survival of HIV-PAH patients. In the process of the treatment of people living with HIV can not explain the symptoms associated with cardiac and pulmonary in Clinical, consideration should be given to HIV-related PAH (HRPH)[1].%获得性人类免疫缺陷病已经成为人类疾病史上的灾难性疾病,随着抗逆转录病毒治疗的广泛应用,HIV(Human Immunodeficiency Virus)患者的生存时间及机会性感染在很大程度上得到控制,而非感染性并发症包括肺动脉高压在国际上受到越来越多的重视,实际上肺动脉高压已成为HIV感染患者死亡的独立危险因素。 HIV感染导致肺动脉高压的发病机制尚未完全阐明,其临床表现缺乏特异性,治疗上较特发性性肺动脉高压又有很多限制,预后较差,早期发现和干预可提高患者的生活质量和生存率。在HIV感染者的治疗过程中,出现不能解释的与心肺相关症状时,应考虑到HIV相关的肺动脉高压,并及时给予干预以期提高HIV患者的生存率。

  19. Discussion on treatment of AIDS related diarrhea from spleen%艾滋病相关性腹泻从脾论治的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翠芳; 李峰; 王玉光

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨艾滋病相关性腹泻从脾论治的理论依据.方法:通过研究古代文献中泄泻与脾的关系的论述,结合现代免疫学及分子生物学对脾的功能研究以及艾滋病相关性腹泻临床治疗方面的报道,分析脾在艾滋病相关性腹泻发生过程中所起的作用以及艾滋病相关性腹泻从脾论治的可行性.结果:脾在艾滋病相关性腹泻的发生、发展过程中起举足轻重的作用.结论:对艾滋病相关性腹泻进行临床治疗,必须重视脾的作用.%Objective: To explore the treatment theoretical basis of AIDS related diarrhea from spleen. Methods: According to the research of ancient literature on relationship between spleen and diarrhea, combination with immunology, molecular biology and clinical treatment of AIDS related diarrhea, to explore the important role of spleen in AIDS related diarrhea and the feasibility of AIDS related diarrhea treated from spleen. Results: Spleen has a important role in the processes, development of AIDS related diarrhea. Conclusion: To treat AIDS related diarrhea, and the role of spleen must be emphasized.

  20. A systematic review of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination in India: current understanding and future needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharat, Shalini

    2011-01-01

    HIV/AIDS-related stigma is recognised as a major barrier to HIV prevention efforts and an impediment to mitigating its impact on individuals and communities. This paper reviews the existing research literature on AIDS stigma in India with the objective of documenting the current status of research, highlighting major findings and identifying key gaps remaining. Thirty publications were identified through a careful search of which a majority focused on stigma assessment and very few on stigma measurement, conceptual aspects of stigma or stigma reduction interventions. A few standardised stigma measures are available but more are required to assess causes of stigma among general population and compounded and internalised stigma among positive people. Research exploring linkages between stigma and HIV services uptake or the effect of HIV care and treatment programs on stigma levels are largely missing and need to be prioritised. In addition, more research is needed to advance conceptual understanding of stigma within the cultural context of the country including research on the neglected groups such as, transgender people. Context-specific (health care, community) interventions are needed to address various forms of stigma - enacted, perceived, internalised and layered - including structural approaches besides inter-personal and information-based approaches. A major gap relates to meager research on developing and evaluating stigma reduction interventions and needs priority focus. Overall, the review recommends developing a national agenda on AIDS stigma research and interventions to help realise the government's goal of stigma reduction. PMID:23237728

  1. Heterogeneous Community-based mobility model for human opportunistic network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Liang; Dittmann, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Human opportunistic networks can facilitate wireless content dissemination while humans are on the move. In such a network, content is disseminated via nodes relaying and nodes mobility (human mobility). Thus it is essential to understand and model the real human mobility. We present a...... heterogeneous community-based random way-point (HC-RWP) mobility model that captures the four important properties of real human mobility. These properties are based on both intuitive observations of daily human mobility and analysis of empirical mobility traces. By discrete event simulation, we show HC...

  2. Hospital Water Supply as a Potential Source of Opportunistic Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. T. El-Zanfaly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Egypt as well as in many other developing countries, there are no specific standards for hospital water. Even water is free from the traditional bacterial indicators, it may represent a source of health hazards especially for elderly, children and patients under dialysis due to the presence of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria. The study was carried out on the bacteriological water quality at the intakes as well as the end of water treatment train of two water treatment plants that supplying three hospitals located in Greater Cairo, Egypt with water that used for different purposes. Samples of the raw water supply for the two water treatment plants (Nile River water showed ranges of 102-105 cfu mL-1, 102-104 MPN 100 mL-1, 102-104 MPN 100 mL-1 and 102-103 MPN 100 mL-1 for Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC bacteria, Total Coliforms (TC, Fecal Coliforms (FC and Fecal Streptococci (FS, respectively. Treated water showed considerable reduction in HPC while the other bacterial indicators reached the undetectable level. The distribution system impact on treated water quality was limited to causing an increase in HPC bacteria. A study was carried out to determine the presence of Pseudomonas aeuginosa, Aeromonas spp. and Staphylococcus aureus in hospitals tap water, water reservoirs, as well as water for preparation of hemodialysis fluids. Although the post-chlorinated water in both water treatment plants was free from bacterial indicators, it still contaminated with the three studied opportunistic pathogenic bacteria. The detected opportunistic pathogens may be attributed to the distribution system condition and/or the presence of storage tanks. Hemodialysis water samples showed the higher percentage of P. aeruginosa isolates which represent a major source of health risk to patient’s attending dialysis process in hospitals and clinics. The presence of opportunistic bacteria in drinking water and dialysate with absence of coliform and low HPC

  3. "A PCR-RFLP Method to Identification of the Important Opportunistic Fungi: Candida Species, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus famigatus and Fusarium solani"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Mirhendi

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Deep-seated fungal infection present with non specific symptoms and involove a large number of different organisms. DNA-based technology offers for eariler detection of fungal pathogens and then earlier initiation of antifungal therapy. In this study universal primers common to almost all fungi were used to amplification of internal transcribe spacer 1 and 2 region. Subsequent restriction enzyme analysis of PCR products, using HpaII allows us to identify the most medically opportunistic important fungi: Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. kruzei, C. guilliermondi, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium solani, according to sizely different bands in polyacrilamid gel electrophoresis. It seems that this panel of PCR-RFLP could be a rapid and useful molecular approach in diagnostic studies of invasive opportunistic fungal infections.

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria in natural, industrial and clinical settings predominantly live in biofilms, i.e., sessile structured microbial communities encased in self-produced extracellular matrix material. One of the most important characteristics of microbial biofilms is that the resident bacteria display a...... remarkable increased tolerance toward antimicrobial attack. Biofilms formed by opportunistic pathogenic bacteria are involved in devastating persistent medical device-associated infections, and chronic infections in individuals who are immune-compromised or otherwise impaired in the host defense. Because the...... use of conventional antimicrobial compounds in many cases cannot eradicate biofilms, there is an urgent need to develop alternative measures to combat biofilm infections. The present review is focussed on the important opportunistic pathogen and biofilm model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Initially...

  5. With and With"out": The Bereavement Experiences of Gay Men Who Have Lost a Partner to Non-AIDS-Related Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornjatkevyc, Nina L.; Alderson, Kevin G.

    2011-01-01

    This study gives voice to the experiences of gay men who have lost a partner to non-AIDS-related causes, a subject that has received little attention in the psychological literature. Interviews were conducted with 8 gay men. An analysis informed by hermeneutic phenomenology generated themes and contextualized meanings regarding the participants'…

  6. The development of AIDS or AIDS-related conditions in a cohort of HIV antibody-positive homosexual men during a 3-year follow-up period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Kolby, P; Sindrup, J;

    1989-01-01

    One hundred and thirty-three homosexual men seropositive for the antibody against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were enrolled in a prospective study in 1984-85. The 3-year cumulative incidences of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related conditions, by life-table analyses...

  7. Lymphocyte transformation response to pokeweed mitogen as a predictive marker for development of AIDS and AIDS related symptoms in homosexual men with HIV antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B; Lindhardt, B O; Gerstoft, J;

    1987-01-01

    To identify factors that may predict the development of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS related symptoms various immunological measurements were studied in a group of homosexual men attending screening clinics for AIDS in Copenhagen. Fifty seven men whose ratio of T helper...

  8. Structural and Biochemical Analysis of Tyrosine Phosphatase Related to Biofilm Formation A (TpbA) from the Opportunistic Pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    OpenAIRE

    Kun Xu; Shanshan Li; Wen Yang; Kan Li; Yuwei Bai; Yueyang Xu; Jin Jin; Yingying Wang; Mark Bartlam

    2015-01-01

    Biofilms are important for cell communication and growth in most bacteria, and are responsible for a number of human clinical infections and diseases. TpbA (PA3885) is a dual specific tyrosine phosphatase (DUSP) that negatively regulates biofilm formation in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 by converting extracellular quorum sensing signals into internal gene cascade reactions that result in reduced biofilm formation. We have determined the three-dimensional crystal stru...

  9. A Novel Cooperative Opportunistic Routing Scheme for Underwater Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreyshi, Seyed Mohammad; Shahrabi, Alireza; Boutaleb, Tuleen

    2016-01-01

    Increasing attention has recently been devoted to underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) because of their capabilities in the ocean monitoring and resource discovery. UWSNs are faced with different challenges, the most notable of which is perhaps how to efficiently deliver packets taking into account all of the constraints of the available acoustic communication channel. The opportunistic routing provides a reliable solution with the aid of intermediate nodes' collaboration to relay a packet toward the destination. In this paper, we propose a new routing protocol, called opportunistic void avoidance routing (OVAR), to address the void problem and also the energy-reliability trade-off in the forwarding set selection. OVAR takes advantage of distributed beaconing, constructs the adjacency graph at each hop and selects a forwarding set that holds the best trade-off between reliability and energy efficiency. The unique features of OVAR in selecting the candidate nodes in the vicinity of each other leads to the resolution of the hidden node problem. OVAR is also able to select the forwarding set in any direction from the sender, which increases its flexibility to bypass any kind of void area with the minimum deviation from the optimal path. The results of our extensive simulation study show that OVAR outperforms other protocols in terms of the packet delivery ratio, energy consumption, end-to-end delay, hop count and traversed distance. PMID:26927118

  10. Cyclostationary Beacon for Assisting Spectrum Sensing in Opportunistic Spectrum Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kaiser

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio is a promising solution to the problem of spectrum scarcity by means of allowing secondary radio networks access the spectrum opportunistically. One of the most important issues in cognitive radio is how to detect existing over-the-air signals reliably. Not a few literatures have reported that signals could be detected via their inherent or embedded properties. However, this approach may not be reliable and flexible enough for all kinds of signals with different modulation types. In this paper, we propose a type of multitone beacon signal carrying cyclostationary signatures, which is able to enhance the reliability and efficiency of signal detection at low cost of spectrum overhead. This beacon not only can indicate the presence or absence of user signal but also can reveal some other information helpful to opportunistic spectrum access through the information bits carried on its cyclostationary signatures. It could be applied to device/network identification, indication of spectrum allocation and spectrum rendezvous, both for primary and secondary users. Based on our previous work reported in [1], the generation and detection algorithm of the beacon signal are extended with improved spectral efficiency. Performance is discussed with both computer simulation and testbed validation.

  11. Opportunistic spectrum sharing in software defined wireless network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Yang; Yong Li; Depeng Jin; Li Su; Lieguang Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the world has witnessed a rapid growth in mobile and wireless networks (MWNs) which significantly change human life. However, proliferating mobile de-mands lead to several intractable chal enges that MWN has to face. Software-defined network is expected as a promising way for future network and has captured growing attention. Network virtualization is an essential feature in software-defined wireless network (SDWN), and it brings two new entities, physical networks and virtual networks. Accordingly, efficiently assigning spectrum resource to virtual networks is one of the fundamental problems in SDWN. Directly orienting towards the spectrum resource al o-cation problem, firstly, the fluctuation features of virtual network requirements in SDWN are researched, and the opportunistic spectrum sharing method is introduced to SDWN. Then, the prob-lem is proved as NP-hardness. After that, a dynamic programming and graph theory based spectrum sharing algorithm is proposed. Simulations demonstrate that the opportunistic spectrum sharing method conspicuously improves the system performance up to around 20%–30%in SDWN, and the proposed algorithm achieves more efficient performance.

  12. Opportunistic Cognitive Relaying: A Win-Win Spectrum Sharing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Haiyan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A cost-effective spectrum sharing architecture is proposed to enable the legacy noncognitive secondary system to coexist with the primary system. Specifically, we suggest to install a few intermediate nodes, namely, the cognitive relays, to conduct the spectrum sensing and coordinate the spectrum access. To achieve the goal of win-win between primary and secondary systems, the cognitive relay may act as a cooperator for both of them, and an Opportunistic Cognitive Relaying (OCR scheme is specially devised. In this scheme, the cognitive relay opportunistically switches among three different working modes, that is, Relay for Primary Link (RPL, Relay for Secondary Link (RSL, or Relay for Neither of the Links (RNL, respectively, based on the channel-dependent observation of both systems. In addition, the transmit power for cognitive relay and secondary transmitter in each mode are optimally determined by maximizing the transmission rate of secondary system while keeping or even reducing the outage probability of primary system. Simulation results validate the efficiency of the proposed spectrum sharing scheme.

  13. Care of Patients With HIV Infection: Medical Complications and Comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, Philip; Roder, Navid; Colgate, Emily; Cheeseman, Sarah H

    2016-04-01

    Care of patients with HIV infection starts with diagnosis as soon as possible, preferably at or near the time of acute infection. Opportunistic infections, malignancies, and other conditions develop progressively over time, particularly in untreated patients. The AIDS-defining opportunistic infections most common in the United States include Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, Candida esophagitis, toxoplasmic encephalitis, tuberculosis, disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex, cryptococcal meningitis, and cytomegalovirus retinitis. Specific prophylaxis regimens exist for several opportunistic infections, and effective antiretroviral therapy reduces the risk of most others. Other AIDS-defining conditions include wasting syndrome and HIV encephalopathy. AIDS-defining malignancies include Kaposi sarcoma, systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma, primary central nervous system lymphoma, and invasive cervical cancer. Although not an AIDS-defining condition, anal cancer is common in patients with HIV infection. Other HIV-related conditions include thrombocytopenia, recurrent bacterial respiratory infections, HIV-associated nephropathy, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder. PMID:27092563

  14. Impact of Interventions Targeting Unhealthy Alcohol Use in Kenya on HIV Transmission and AIDS-Related Deaths

    OpenAIRE

    Braithwaite, R. Scott; Nucifora, Kimberly A.; Kessler, Jason; Toohey, Christopher; Mentor, Sherry M; Uhler, Lauren M.; Roberts, Mark S.; Bryant, Kendall

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV remains a major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in Kenya. The effects of behaviors that accompany unhealthy alcohol consumption are a pervasive risk factor for HIV transmission and progression. Our objective was to estimate the portion of HIV infections attributable to unhealthy alcohol use and to evaluate the impact of hypothetical interventions directed at unhealthy alcohol use on HIV infections and deaths. Methods We estimated outcomes over a time horizon of 20 ...

  15. Occult hepatitis B virus infection: A major concern in HIV-infected patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ramezani, Amitis; Banifazl, Mohammad; Mohraz, Minoo; Rasoolinejad, Mehrnaz; Aghakhani, Arezoo

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- infected patients are at risk of acquiring viral hepatitis, due to common routes of transmission. As the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) reduced the frequency of opportunistic infections and improved survival, viral hepatitis emerged as an important cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected cases. Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is characterized by presence of HBV infection without detectable hepatitis B surface ...

  16. Primary effect of chemotherapy on the transcription profile of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drugs & used in anticancer chemotherapy have severe effects upon the cellular transcription and replication machinery. From in vitro studies it has become clear that these drugs can affect specific genes, as well as have an effect upon the total transcriptome. Total mRNA from two skin lesions from a single AIDS-KS patient was analyzed with the SAGE (Serial Analysis of Gene Expression) technique to assess changes in the transcriptome induced by chemotherapy. SAGE libraries were constructed from material obtained 24 (KS-24) and 48 (KS-48) hrs after combination therapy with bleomycin, doxorubicin and vincristine. KS-24 and KS-48 were compared to SAGE libraries of untreated AIDS-KS, and to libraries generated from normal skin and from isolated CD4+ T-cells, using the programs USAGE and HTM. SAGE libraries were also compared with the SAGEmap database. In order to assess the primary response of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS) to chemotherapy in vivo, we analyzed the transcriptome of AIDS-KS skin lesions from a HIV-1 seropositive patient at two time points after therapy. The mRNA profile was found to have changed dramatically within 24 hours after drug treatment. There was an almost complete absence of transcripts highly expressed in AIDS-KS, probably due to a transcription block. Analysis of KS-24 suggested that mRNA pool used in its construction originated from poly(A) binding protein (PABP) mRNP complexes, which are probably located in nuclear structures known as interchromatin granule clusters (IGCs). IGCs are known to fuse after transcription inhibition, probably affecting poly(A)+RNA distribution. Forty-eight hours after chemotherapy, mRNA isolated from the lesion was largely derived from infiltrating lymphocytes, confirming the transcriptional block in the AIDS-KS tissue. These in vivo findings indicate that the effect of anti-cancer drugs is likely to be more global than up- or downregulation of specific genes, at least in this single patient with

  17. HIV/aids related home based care practices among primary health care workers in Ogun state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Amoran

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS is fast becoming a chronic disease with the advent of antiretroviral drugs, therefore making home based care key in the management of chronically ill HIV/AIDS patient. The objective of this study was to determine the perception and practice of health care workers on HIV/AIDS related home based care in the health facilities in Ogun state, Nigeria. Methods This study is an analytical cross-sectional study. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to obtain a representative sample of the primary health care workers in Ogun state. An interviewer administered structured questionnaire was administered by trained health workers to elicit the required information. Result A total of 350 health care workers were interviewed, 70% of the respondents could adequately describe the components of home based care. Only 38.7% were aware of the National guideline on home based care practices and 17.1% believe that home based care will not significantly improve the prognosis of PLWAs. Few 19.1% had ever been trained or ever involved 16.6% in home based care practices. Only 20 [5.7%] are involved on a weekly basis, 16 [4.6%] monthly and 22 [6.3%] quarterly. Reasons given for non implementation of home based care are inadequate number of healthcare workers 45%, lack of political will 24.4%, lack of implementation by facility managers 14% and inadequate funds 16.6%. Factors that were significantly associated with the practice of home based care were perception of its relevance in improving prognosis [OR = 54.21, C.I = 23.22-129.52] and presence of a support group in the facility [OR = 4.80, C.I = 2.40-9.57]. There was however no statistically significant relationship between adequate knowledge of home based care [OR = 0.78, C.I = 0.39-1.54] and previous training on home based care (OR = 1.43, C.I = 0.66-3.06]. Conclusion The practice of home based care for HIV/AIDS among the study population is low

  18. Palliation of AIDS-related primary lymphoma of the brain: observations from a multi-institutional database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To catalogue the presenting symptoms of patients with AIDS who are presumed to have primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). To document the palliative efficacy of cranial irradiation (RT) relative to the endpoints of complete and overall response for the respective symptoms. Methods: An analysis of 163 patients with AIDS-related PCNSL who were evaluated at nine urban hospitals was performed. These patients were treated for PCNSL after the establishment of a tissue diagnosis or on a presumptive basis after failing empiric treatment for toxoplasmosis. All patients were treated between 1983 and 1995 with radiotherapy (median dose-fractionation scheme = 3 Gy x 10) and steroids (>90% dexamethasone). Because multiple fractionation schemes were used, prescriptions were converted to biologically effective doses according to the formula, Gy10 = Total Dose x (1 + fractional dose/α-β); using an α-β value of 10. Results: The overall palliative response rate for the entire group was 53%. In univariate analysis, trends were present associating complete response rates with higher performance status (KPS ≥ 70 vs. KPS ≤ 60 = 17% vs. 5%), female gender (women vs. men = 29% vs. 8%), and the delivery of higher biologically effective doses (BED) of RT (Gy10 > 39 vs. ≤ 39 = 20% vs. 5%). In multivariate analysis of factors predicting complete response, both higher KPS and higher BED retained independent significance. A separate univariate analysis identified high performance status (KPS ≥ 70 vs. KPS ≤ 60 = 71% vs. 47%), and young age (≤ 35 vs. > 35 = 61% vs. 40%) as factors significantly correlating with the endpoint of the overall response. In multivariate analysis, high performance status and the delivery of higher biologically effective doses of irradiation correlated significantly with higher overall response rates. Conclusion: Most AIDS patients who develop symptoms from primary lymphoma of the brain can achieve some palliation from a management

  19. 类获得性免疫缺陷(阴性HIV)“患者”的流行病学调查%Epidemiological investigation of cases with complained AIDS-related complex (HIV negative)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雅琼; 林辉; 于磊; 王清青; 王太武; 马翔宇; 凌华; 吴国辉; 张路

    2013-01-01

    目的 对社区类获得性免疫缺陷(AIDS)综合征(阴性HIV)“患者”进行病因探索.方法 采用定性系统分析筛检国内外相关综合征报道病例,探索类AIDS综合征“患者”临床特征可能的聚类属性;通过现况调查掌握“患者”人群的一般特征和临床特征.结果 定性系统分析显示,目前在世界范围,与类AIDS综合征(阴性HIV)“患者”相似的疾病有2种,即CD4+T淋巴细胞缺陷综合征(ICL)和非结核分枝杆菌感染(NTM感染);通过174例网络调查和52例现场观察,发现“患者”人群以男性为主,青、中年为主;在国内分布地区广泛;主诉症状涉及呼吸道、消化道、皮肤、肌肉、骨骼和神经系统;根据症状特点,病程有急性期和稳定期之分;群体症状及体征为:淋巴结部位肿胀感、骨痛、肌肉“跳”(痛)、淋巴结节、皮肤结节(皮疹)、舌苔白厚、关节弹响、皮肤干燥;52例“患者”检测发现CD4+T淋巴细胞< 500/μL 17例(32.69%)、CD4/CD8比值异常16例(30.77%)、干扰素-γ抗体阳性17例(36.69%)和PPD阳性39例(++~+++,75.00%);高危险性行为是可疑的暴露因素之一.结论 类AIDS综合征(阴性HIV)“患者”现象不能完全用心理因素予以解释,其呈现的临床特征有明显的一致性和规律性,亟待开展深入研究进行分析.%Objective To investigate the possible causes of AIDS-related complex (HIV negative) in community population. Methods Qualitative systematic analysis was used to screen the cases with AIDS-related complex (HIV negative) that had been reported. The possible clustering types of the clinical features of AIDS-related complex were explored based on a cross-section study that had been conducted to observe the personality and clinical features of the cases with AIDS-related complex. Results The qualitative systematic analysis suggested that the idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia (ICL) and infection of

  20. CARDIOVASCULAR ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS WITH HIV INFECTION: A BOLT IN BLUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the consistent findings among various studies on HIV has been simultaneous multiorgan dysfunction. Cardiovascular disorders are now most common cause of mortality worldwide. With more effective and widespread treatment of HIV in resource-rich settings, morbidity and mortality from non-AIDS-related events have surpassed those from AIDS-related events with cardiovascular diseases emerging as an important cause of death in HIV-infected patients relative to the decreasing incidence of opportunistic disease. Various studies have reported a 1.5-fold increase in the rate of cardiovascular events in HIV-infected individuals compared to control populations. MATERIAL AND METHODS The aim of the study was to the find the prevalence and types of different cardiovascular abnormalities in HIV positive patients and assess their association with CD4 counts. Consecutive 82 patients, HIV positive patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria and giving informed consent were included in the study. All patients were subjected to history taking and a detailed physical examination. Blood counts, renal function tests, lipid profile and CD4 counts were estimated and patients were subjected to 12-lead ECG, chest X-ray and 2D/Colour Doppler Echocardiogram. RESULTS Of the 82 patients studied 47.46% had evidence of cardiovascular involvement, out of which 12% had clinical features of heart failure while electrocardiographic changes were seen in 35% of patients in the form of sinus tachycardia (27%, QTc prolongation (10% and left sided chamber enlargements (6%. Echocardiographic abnormalities were noted in 39 patients (47.56% including fractional shortening associated with systolic dysfunction (26.8%. The mean CD4 count in patients with echocardiographic abnormalities was found to be 58.87±29.80, whereas in patients without echocardiographic abnormalities it was 136.53±38.80 (p<0.0001. CONCLUSION High frequencies of cardiac abnormalities, both symptomatic and

  1. Scabies mites alter the skin microbiome and promote growth of opportunistic pathogens in a porcine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearl M Swe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The resident skin microbiota plays an important role in restricting pathogenic bacteria, thereby protecting the host. Scabies mites (Sarcoptes scabiei are thought to promote bacterial infections by breaching the skin barrier and excreting molecules that inhibit host innate immune responses. Epidemiological studies in humans confirm increased incidence of impetigo, generally caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, secondary to the epidermal infestation with the parasitic mite. It is therefore possible that mite infestation could alter the healthy skin microbiota making way for the opportunistic pathogens. A longitudinal study to test this hypothesis in humans is near impossible due to ethical reasons. In a porcine model we generated scabies infestations closely resembling the disease manifestation in humans and investigated the scabies associated changes in the skin microbiota over the course of a mite infestation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a 21 week trial, skin scrapings were collected from pigs infected with S. scabies var. suis and scabies-free control animals. A total of 96 skin scrapings were collected before, during infection and after acaricide treatment, and analyzed by bacterial 16S rDNA tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing. We found significant changes in the epidermal microbiota, in particular a dramatic increase in Staphylococcus correlating with the onset of mite infestation in animals challenged with scabies mites. This increase persisted beyond treatment from mite infection and healing of skin. Furthermore, the staphylococci population shifted from the commensal S. hominis on the healthy skin prior to scabies mite challenge to S. chromogenes, which is increasingly recognized as being pathogenic, coinciding with scabies infection in pigs. In contrast, all animals in the scabies-free cohort remained relatively free of Staphylococcus throughout the trial. CONCLUSIONS

  2. An Improved Directed Diffusion Protocol based on Opportunistic Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Xu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Researchers are paying more and more attention to the application of wireless sensor networks (WSNs, where routing is one of the vital techniques. An advanced Directed Diffusion protocol, named DDOR, is presented in this paper based on Opportunistic Routing to improve the disadvantage of mono-forwarder of traditional routing protocol. Packet head has been modified in order to implement a forwarder list in DDOR. Instead of fixed next-hop forwarding in transmission, DDOR selects the optimal node to forward. DDOR mechanism can effectively save energy of WSNs by decreasing the hops from sources to sinks, thereby extends the life of WSNs. A large number of simulations prove that DDOR is feasible. Compared with Directed Diffusion, DDOR does decrease the energy consumption on packets forwarding

  3. Outage analysis of opportunistic decode-and-forward relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate a dual-hop opportunistic decode-and-forward relaying scheme where the source may or not be able to communicate directly with the destination. We first derive statistics based on exact probability density function (PDF) of each hop. Then, the PDFs are used to determine closed-form outage probability expression for a transmission rate R. Furthermore, we evaluate the asymptotic outage performance and the diversity order is deduced. Unlike existing works where the analysis focused on high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime, such results are important to enable the designers to take decisions regarding practical systems that operate at low SNR regime. We show that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results under practical assumption of unbalanced hops. © 2010 IEEE.

  4. Biofilms and the survival of opportunistic pathogens in recycled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, M.; Ford, T.; Maki, J. S.; Mitchell, R.

    1991-01-01

    Microorganisms are likely to develop an organic film on pipes, water reservoirs and filters used for waste water reclamation during extended missions in space. These biofilms can serve to protect and concentrate potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Our investigation has emphasized the survival strategy of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in distilled water. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were used as test organisms. Cultures were incubated at 10 degrees, 25 degrees, and 37 degrees C. No viable Staphylococcus cells were detected after the first week of incubation. P. aeruginosa, however, survived in distilled water up to 5 months at all three temperatures tested. The starved cells were able to form a biofilm layer on stainless steel. The cells exhibited a negative surface charge. The charge may be involved in the adhesion of this bacterium to metal substrata. We are currently investigating the importance of adhesion in the survival of this and other potential human pathogens found in water recycling systems.

  5. Exact performance analysis of decode-and-forward opportunistic relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate a dual-hop decode-and-forward opportunistic relaying scheme where the source may or may not be able to communicate directly with the destination. In our study, we consider a regenerative relaying scheme in which the decision to cooperate takes into account the effect of the possible erroneously detected and transmitted data at the best relay. We derive an exact closed-form expression for the end-to-end bit-error rate (BER) of binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation based on the exact statistics of each hop. Unlike existing works where the analysis focused on high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime, such results are important to enable the designers to take decisions regarding practical systems that operate at low SNR regime. We show that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results.

  6. Opportunistic splitting for scheduling using a score-based approach

    KAUST Repository

    Rashid, Faraan

    2012-06-01

    We consider the problem of scheduling a user in a multi-user wireless environment in a distributed manner. The opportunistic splitting algorithm is applied to find the best group of users without reporting the channel state information to the centralized scheduler. The users find the best among themselves while requiring just a ternary feedback from the common receiver at the end of each mini-slot. The original splitting algorithm is modified to handle users with asymmetric channel conditions. We use a score-based approach with the splitting algorithm to introduce time and throughput fairness while exploiting the multi-user diversity of the network. Analytical and simulation results are given to show that the modified score-based splitting algorithm works well as a fair scheduling scheme with good spectral efficiency and reduced feedback. © 2012 IEEE.

  7. Hopping control channel MAC protocol for opportunistic spectrum access networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jing-tuan; JI Hong; MAO Xu

    2010-01-01

    Opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) is considered as a promising approach to mitigate spectrum scarcity by allowing unlicensed users to exploit spectrum opportunities in licensed frequency bands. Derived from the existing channel-hopping multiple access (CHMA) protocol,we introduce a hopping control channel medium access control (MAC) protocol in the context of OSA networks. In our proposed protocol,all nodes in the network follow a common channel-hopping sequence; every frequency channel can be used as control channel and data channel. Considering primary users' occupancy of the channel,we use a primary user (PU) detection model to calculate the channel availability for unlicensed users' access. Then,a discrete Markov chain analytical model is applied to describe the channel states and deduce the system throughput. Through simulation,we present numerical results to demonstrate the throughput performance of our protocol and thus validate our work.

  8. Sinabro: A Smartphone-Integrated Opportunistic Electrocardiogram Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sungjun; Lee, Dongseok; Kim, Jeehoon; Lee, Youngki; Kang, Seungwoo; Seo, Sangwon; Park, Kwangsuk

    2016-01-01

    In our preliminary study, we proposed a smartphone-integrated, unobtrusive electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring system, Sinabro, which monitors a user's ECG opportunistically during daily smartphone use without explicit user intervention. The proposed system also monitors ECG-derived features, such as heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV), to support the pervasive healthcare apps for smartphones based on the user's high-level contexts, such as stress and affective state levels. In this study, we have extended the Sinabro system by: (1) upgrading the sensor device; (2) improving the feature extraction process; and (3) evaluating extensions of the system. We evaluated these extensions with a good set of algorithm parameters that were suggested based on empirical analyses. The results showed that the system could capture ECG reliably and extract highly accurate ECG-derived features with a reasonable rate of data drop during the user's daily smartphone use. PMID:26978364

  9. Distributed Opportunistic Scheduling With Two-Level Probing

    CERN Document Server

    S., Chandrashekhar Thejaswi P; Pun, Man-On; Poor, H Vincent; Zheng, Dong

    2009-01-01

    Distributed opportunistic scheduling (DOS) is studied for wireless ad-hoc networks in which many links contend for the channel using random access before data transmissions. Simply put, DOS involves a process of joint channel probing and distributed scheduling for ad-hoc (peer-to-peer) communications. Since, in practice, link conditions are estimated with noisy observations, the transmission rate has to be backed off from the estimated rate to avoid transmission outages. Then, a natural question to ask is whether it is worthwhile for the link with successful contention to perform further channel probing to mitigate estimation errors, at the cost of additional probing. Thus motivated, this work investigates DOS with two-level channel probing by optimizing the tradeoff between the throughput gain from more accurate rate estimation and the resulting additional delay. Capitalizing on optimal stopping theory with incomplete information, we show that the optimal scheduling policy is threshold-based and is character...

  10. The Opportunistic Transmission of Wireless Worms between Mobile Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Rhodes, C J

    2008-01-01

    The ubiquity of portable wireless-enabled computing and communications devices has stimulated the emergence of malicious codes (wireless worms) that are capable of spreading between spatially proximal devices. The potential exists for worms to be opportunistically transmitted between devices as they move around, so human mobility patterns will have an impact on epidemic spread. The scenario we address in this paper is proximity attacks from fleetingly in-contact wireless devices with short-range communication range, such as Bluetooth-enabled smart phones. An individual-based model of mobile devices is introduced and the effect of population characteristics and device behaviour on the outbreak dynamics is investigated. We show through extensive simulations that in the above scenario the resulting mass-action epidemic models remain applicable provided the contact rate is derived consistently from the underlying mobility model. The model gives useful analytical expressions against which more refined simulations ...

  11. Sinabro: A Smartphone-Integrated Opportunistic Electrocardiogram Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungjun Kwon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In our preliminary study, we proposed a smartphone-integrated, unobtrusive electrocardiogram (ECG monitoring system, Sinabro, which monitors a user’s ECG opportunistically during daily smartphone use without explicit user intervention. The proposed system also monitors ECG-derived features, such as heart rate (HR and heart rate variability (HRV, to support the pervasive healthcare apps for smartphones based on the user’s high-level contexts, such as stress and affective state levels. In this study, we have extended the Sinabro system by: (1 upgrading the sensor device; (2 improving the feature extraction process; and (3 evaluating extensions of the system. We evaluated these extensions with a good set of algorithm parameters that were suggested based on empirical analyses. The results showed that the system could capture ECG reliably and extract highly accurate ECG-derived features with a reasonable rate of data drop during the user’s daily smartphone use.

  12. Optimizing Cooperative Cognitive Radio Networks with Opportunistic Access

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2012-09-16

    Optimal resource allocation for cooperative cognitive radio networks with opportunistic access to the licensed spectrum is studied. Resource allocation is based on minimizing the symbol error rate at the receiver. Both the cases of all-participate relaying and selective relaying are considered. The objective function is derived and the constraints are detailed for both scenarios. It is then shown that the objective functions and the constraints are nonlinear and nonconvex functions of the parameters of interest, that is, source and relay powers, symbol time, and sensing time. Therefore, it is difficult to obtain closed-form solutions for the optimal resource allocation. The optimization problem is then solved using numerical techniques. Numerical results show that the all-participate system provides better performance than its selection counterpart, at the cost of greater resources. © 2012 Ammar Zafar et al.

  13. Congestion Control Strategy for Opportunistic Network Based on Message Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng-yin Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To solve the congestion problem in opportunistic networks, a congestion control strategy based on message deleting and transferring(DATM is proposed. The congested node calculates the storage value of each message according to the forwarding probability and TTL of message, then deletes the message with the minimum storage value and transfers the message with the minimum forwarding probability to neighboring nodes. The neighboring nodes calculate the receiving value of the message according to the forwarding probability and free buffer capacity of this message. The congested node transfers the message to the neighboring node with the maximum receiving value. The message will be deleted when there is no neighboring node to receive it. The algorithm is more targeted at deleting messages. Besides, it combines the strategy of transferring message. Therefore, it can deal with the congestion more efficiently. The message arrival rate is improved significantly and the end-to-end delay is also reduced to some extent.

  14. Disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection with IRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinchao Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Penicillium marneffei infection is an endemic opportunistic infection for AIDS patients that can be found in south Asia. Fever and typical skin lesions are the most commonly seen symptoms. Our case describes an AIDS patient with Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS presented with liver masses and skin lesions whose blood, bone marrow and ascites culture were all identified with P. marneffei.

  15. The spectrum of liver diseases in HIV infected individuals at an HIV treatment clinic in Kampala, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Ocama, P.; Katwere, M.; Piloya, T.; Feld, J.; Opio, K. C.; Kambugu, A.; Katabira, E; D. Thomas; Colebunders, R; Ronald, A

    2008-01-01

    Background: Liver diseases are common in patients with HIV due to viral hepatitis B and C co-infections, opportunistic infections or malignancies, antiretroviral drugs and drugs for opportunistic infections. Objective: To describe the spectrum of liver diseases in HIV-infected patients attending an HIV clinic in Kampala, Uganda. Method: Consecutive patients presenting with jaundice, right upper quadrant pain with fever or malaise, ascites and/or tender hepatomegaly were recruited and ...

  16. Management of Infection in the Post-Cardiac-Transplant Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Zeluff, Barry; Gentry, Layne O.

    1987-01-01

    In reviewing our post-transplant experience with infection in 192 cardiac transplant patients, * we have noticed a pattern. During the first month following transplantation, the patient seldom has an opportunistic infection, but is in danger of nosocomial infection (84 episodes in 57 patients). These include wound infection, and infections of the lungs, blood, and urinary tract. After the first month, and for the duration of the first year following transplantation, nosocomial infections beco...

  17. Outage probability of opportunistic decode-and-forward relaying over Nakagami-m fading channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHUAI Gang; ZHANG Bao-zhi; LIU Xing-mei; GAO Li

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the outage probability behavior of a relay network over Nakagami-m fading channels is analyzed. Both reactive and proactive opportunistic decode-and-forward (DAF) strategies are considered. The closed-form solutions to the outage probabilities on both opportunistic DAF strategies are derived. Simulation results conf'Lrrn the presented mathematical analysis.

  18. Members of native coral microbiota inhibit glycosidases and thwart colonization of coral mucus by an opportunistic pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krediet, Cory J; Ritchie, Kim B; Alagely, Ali; Teplitski, Max

    2013-05-01

    The outcome of the interactions between native commensal microorganisms and opportunistic pathogens is crucial to the health of the coral holobiont. During the establishment within the coral surface mucus layer, opportunistic pathogens, including a white pox pathogen Serratia marcescens PDL100, compete with native bacteria for available nutrients. Both commensals and pathogens employ glycosidases and N-acetyl-glucosaminidase to utilize components of coral mucus. This study tested the hypothesis that specific glycosidases were critical for the growth of S. marcescens on mucus and that their inhibition by native coral microbiota reduces fitness of the pathogen. Consistent with this hypothesis, a S. marcescens transposon mutant with reduced glycosidase and N-acetyl-glucosaminidase activities was unable to compete with the wild type on the mucus of the host coral Acropora palmata, although it was at least as competitive as the wild type on a minimal medium with glycerol and casamino acids. Virulence of the mutant was modestly reduced in the Aiptasia model. A survey revealed that ∼8% of culturable coral commensal bacteria have the ability to inhibit glycosidases in the pathogen. A small molecular weight, ethanol-soluble substance(s) produced by the coral commensal Exiguobacterium sp. was capable of the inhibition of the induction of catabolic enzymes in S. marcescens. This inhibition was in part responsible for the 10-100-fold reduction in the ability of the pathogen to grow on coral mucus. These results provide insight into potential mechanisms of commensal interference with early colonization and infection behaviors in opportunistic pathogens and highlight an important function for the native microbiota in coral health. PMID:23254513

  19. Proteogenomics of Candida tropicalis--An Opportunistic Pathogen with Importance for Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Keshava K; Patil, Arun H; Patel, Krishna; Dey, Gourav; Madugundu, Anil K; Renuse, Santosh; Kaviyil, Jyothi E; Sekhar, Raja; Arunima, Aryashree; Daswani, Bhavna; Kaur, Inderjeet; Mohanty, Jyotirmaya; Sinha, Ranjana; Jaiswal, Sangeeta; Sivapriya, S; Sonnathi, Yeshwanth; Chattoo, Bharat B; Gowda, Harsha; Ravikumar, Raju; Prasad, T S Keshava

    2016-04-01

    The frequency of Candida infections is currently rising, and thus adversely impacting global health. The situation is exacerbated by azole resistance developed by fungal pathogens. Candida tropicalis is an opportunistic pathogen that causes candidiasis, for example, in immune-compromised individuals, cancer patients, and those who undergo organ transplantation. It is a member of the non-albicans group of Candida that are known to be azole-resistant, and is frequently seen in individuals being treated for cancers, HIV-infection, and those who underwent bone marrow transplantation. Although the genome of C. tropicalis was sequenced in 2009, the genome annotation has not been supported by experimental validation. In the present study, we have carried out proteomics profiling of C. tropicalis using high-resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry. We identified 2743 proteins, thus mapping nearly 44% of the computationally predicted protein-coding genes with peptide level evidence. In addition to identifying 2591 proteins in the cell lysate of this yeast, we also analyzed the proteome of the conditioned media of C. tropicalis culture and identified several unique secreted proteins among a total of 780 proteins. By subjecting the mass spectrometry data derived from cell lysate and conditioned media to proteogenomic analysis, we identified 86 novel genes, 12 novel exons, and corrected 49 computationally-predicted gene models. To our knowledge, this is the first high-throughput proteomics study of C. tropicalis validating predicted protein coding genes and refining the current genome annotation. The findings may prove useful in future global health efforts to fight against Candida infections. PMID:27093108

  20. Antifungal activity of Arctotis arctotoides (L.f. O. Hoffm. and Gasteria bicolor Haw. against opportunistic fungi associated with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfred M Otang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : In South Africa where many patients are immunocompromised as a result of the AIDS pandemic, opportunistic fungal infections such as candidiasis caused mainly by Candida albicans are common. Arctotis arctotoides and Gasteria bicolor are two plants which are frequently and commonly used in traditional medicine in the treatment of HIV patients. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the antifungal activity of A. arctotoides and G. bicolor against opportunistic fungi common in HIV/AIDS patients. Materials and Methods: The agar diffusion and micro-dilution methods were used to determine the antifungal activities of the medicinal plant extracts against 10 opportunistic fungi. Results: All the hexane and acetone extracts were active against at least one of the fungi with zones of inhibition varying from 8 to 32 mm, while none of the aqueous extracts was active against any of the fungi. The inhibitory activity of the active extracts, based on the overall mean inhibition diameters, was in the order: A. arctotoides (hexane > A. arctotoides (acetone > G. bicolor (hexane > G. bicolor (acetone. The most susceptible fungi, based on the overall mean diameter of growth inhibition, were Candida glabrata, C. krusei, and Microsporum canis, while Cyptococcus neoformans, Trycophyton tonsurans, and Microsporum gypseum were not susceptible to any of the extracts even at 5 mg/ml which was the highest concentration used. Conclusion: This study validates the use of these plants in traditional medicine in the treatment of secondary fungal infections in HIV/AIDS patients.

  1. Belief in AIDS-Related Conspiracy Theories and Mistrust in the Government: Relationship With HIV Testing Among At-Risk Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Chandra L.; WALLACE, STEVEN P.; Newman, Peter A.; Lee, Sung-Jae; Cunningham, William

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: One in 4 persons living with HIV/AIDS is an older adult (age 50 or older); unfortunately, older adults are disproportionately diagnosed in late stages of HIV disease. Psychological barriers, including belief in AIDS-related conspiracy theories (e.g., HIV was created to eliminate certain groups) and mistrust in the government, may influence whether adults undergo HIV testing. We examined relationships between these factors and recent HIV testing among at-risk, older adults. Design and...

  2. The Influence of Personality Disorder Indication, Social Support, and Grief on Alcohol and Cocaine Use among HIV-Positive Adults Coping with AIDS-Related Bereavement

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Nathan B.; Cavanaugh, Courtenay E.; Vaughan, Ellen L.; Connell, Christian M.; Tate, David C.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2007-01-01

    Substance use is prevalent among HIV-positive adults and linked to a number of adverse health consequences; however little is known about risk and protective factors that influence substance use among HIV-positive adults coping with AIDS-related bereavement. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), male gender, diagnostic indications of antisocial and borderline personality disorders (PD), and grief severity were tested as risk factors, and social support as a protective factor, for alcohol ...

  3. HIV and AIDS related knowledge, sources of information, and reported need for further education among dental students in Sudan- a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Åstrøm Anne; Nasir Elwalid; David Jamil; Ali Rouf

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Information on the HIV and AIDS-related knowledge among dental students provides a crucial foundation for efforts aimed at developing an appropriate dental curriculum on HIV and AIDS, and for attracting the attention of dental school educators towards the subject. Purposes Focusing on a census of dental students attending their 3rd, 4th and 5th study year at publicly – and privately funded dental faculties in Khartoum, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and socio-ec...

  4. Actinomyces and Nocardia Infections in Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shahindokht Bassiri-Jahromi; Aida Doostkam

    2011-01-01

    Objective : Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited disorder of the Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced oxidase complex characterized by recurrent bacterial and fungal infections. Disseminated infection by combination of opportunistic agents is being increasingly reported in CGD patients. We presented in the retrospective review of medical records, the etiology, presentation, clinical characteristics the infections detected, predisposing condition and outcome of no...

  5. Differences between the course of the drug addict's HIV infection and that of other HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gölz, J

    1993-11-01

    Drug addicts have, in general, a less complicated course of HIV infection than homosexual HIV patients. They show fewer opportunistic infections and tumors. But this advantage is lost by unnecessary complications due to their psychic disorders. Their non-compliance and concealment of signs of disease lead to worse outcomes of infections, which could be well-treated or prevented. PMID:8300042

  6. Understanding Culture and Its Influence on HIV/AIDS-Related Communication Among Minority Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Ambar; Dillon, Patrick J; Romero-Daza, Nancy

    2016-11-01

    Scholarly research and government surveillance reports demonstrate that African American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) bear an inequitable burden of new HIV infections. Among the estimated 31,896 HIV infections attributed to male-to-male sexual contact in 2011, approximately 62% occurred in African American (38.2%) and Latino (23.5) MSM. Simultaneously, recent scholarship on minority MSM and HIV/AIDS reports a dearth of qualitative communication research that address this health issue. This manuscript reports a research study that seeks to fill this gap in health communication theory and praxis. Through in-depth interviews with 17 MSM of color, this article draws upon the culture-centered approach to demonstrate how cultural and contextual nuances, (in)access to structural resources, and participants' agentive capacity to act upon available knowledge/resources influences the ways they manage (the threat of) HIV/AIDS. PMID:27007012

  7. Genomics of adaptation during experimental evolution of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Wong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation is likely to be an important determinant of the success of many pathogens, for example when colonizing a new host species, when challenged by antibiotic treatment, or in governing the establishment and progress of long-term chronic infection. Yet, the genomic basis of adaptation is poorly understood in general, and for pathogens in particular. We investigated the genetics of adaptation to cystic fibrosis-like culture conditions in the presence and absence of fluoroquinolone antibiotics using the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Whole-genome sequencing of experimentally evolved isolates revealed parallel evolution at a handful of known antibiotic resistance genes. While the level of antibiotic resistance was largely determined by these known resistance genes, the costs of resistance were instead attributable to a number of mutations that were specific to individual experimental isolates. Notably, stereotypical quinolone resistance mutations in DNA gyrase often co-occurred with other mutations that, together, conferred high levels of resistance but no consistent cost of resistance. This result may explain why these mutations are so prevalent in clinical quinolone-resistant isolates. In addition, genes involved in cyclic-di-GMP signalling were repeatedly mutated in populations evolved in viscous culture media, suggesting a shared mechanism of adaptation to this CF-like growth environment. Experimental evolutionary approaches to understanding pathogen adaptation should provide an important complement to studies of the evolution of clinical isolates.

  8. Oxidative stress response to menadione and cumene hydroperoxide in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida glabrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Cuéllar-Cruz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Candida glabrata is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that can cause severe invasive infections and can evade phagocytic cell clearance. We are interested in understanding the virulence of this fungal pathogen, in particular its oxidative stress response. Here we investigated C. glabrata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans responses to two different oxidants: menadione and cumene hydroperoxide (CHP. In log-phase, in the presence of menadione, C. glabrata requires Cta1p (catalase, while in a stationary phase (SP, Cta1p is dispensable. In addition, C. glabrata is less resistant to menadione than C. albicans in SP. The S. cerevisiae laboratory reference strain is less resistant to menadione than C. glabrata and C. albicans; however S. cerevisiaeclinical isolates (CIs are more resistant than the lab reference strain. Furthermore, S. cerevisiae CIs showed an increased catalase activity. Interestingly, in SP C. glabrata and S. cerevisiae are more resistant to CHP than C. albicans and Cta1p plays no apparent role in detoxifying this oxidant.

  9. Destruction of Opportunistic Pathogens via Polymer Nanoparticle-Mediated Release of Plant-Based Antimicrobial Payloads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Dahlia N; Amato, Douglas V; Mavrodi, Olga V; Braasch, Dwaine A; Walley, Susan E; Douglas, Jessica R; Mavrodi, Dmitri V; Patton, Derek L

    2016-05-01

    The synthesis of antimicrobial thymol/carvacrol-loaded polythioether nanoparticles (NPs) via a one-pot, solvent-free miniemulsion thiol-ene photopolymerization process is reported. The active antimicrobial agents, thymol and carvacrol, are employed as "solvents" for the thiol-ene monomer phase in the miniemulsion to enable facile high capacity loading (≈50% w/w), excellent encapsulation efficiencies (>95%), and elimination of all postpolymerization purification processes. The NPs serve as high capacity reservoirs for slow-release and delivery of thymol/carvacrol-combination payloads that exhibit inhibitory and bactericidal activity (>99.9% kill efficiency at 24 h) against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including both saprophytic (Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922) and pathogenic species (E. coli ATCC 43895, Staphylococcus aureus RN6390, and Burkholderia cenocepacia K56-2). This report is among the first to demonstrate antimicrobial efficacy of essential oil-loaded nanoparticles against B. cenocepacia - an innately resistant opportunistic pathogen commonly associated with debilitating respiratory infections in cystic fibrosis. Although a model platform, these results point to promising pathways to particle-based delivery of plant-derived extracts for a range of antimicrobial applications, including active packaging materials, topical antiseptics, and innovative therapeutics. PMID:26946055

  10. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anus-an opportunistic cancer in HIV-positive male homosexuals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pascal Gervaz; Alexandra Calmy; Ymer Durmishi; Abdelkarim S Allal; Philippe Morel

    2011-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) is a common cancer in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- infected population, and its incidence continues to increase in male homosexuals. Combined chemoradiation with mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil was poorly tolerated by severely immunocompromised patients in the early 1990s. In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), however, recent data indicate that: (1) most HIV patients with anal cancer can tolerate standard chemotherapy regimens; and (2) this approach is associated with survival rates similar to those of HIV-negative patients. However, HIV-positive patients with SCCA are much younger, more likely to develop local tumor recurrence, and ultimately die from anal cancer than immune competent patients. Taken together, these findings suggest that anal cancer is an often fatal neoplasia in middle- aged HIV-positive male homosexuals. In this population, SCCA is an opportunistic disease resulting in patients with suboptimal immune function from persistent papillomaviruses (HPVs). Large-scale cancer-prevention strategies (routine anuscopy and anal papanicolaou testing) should be implemented in this population. In addition, definitive eradication of oncogenic HPVs within the anogenital mucosa of high-risk individuals might require a proactive approach with repeated vaccination.

  11. Comparative analysis of glutaredoxin domains from bacterial opportunistic pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NMR structures of the glutaredoxin (GLXR) domains from Br. melitensis and Ba. henselae have been determined as part of the SSGCID initiative. Comparison of the domains with known structures reveals overall structural similarity between these proteins and previously determined E. coli GLXR structures, with minor changes associated with the position of helix 1 and with regions that diverge from similar structures found in the closest related human homolog. Glutaredoxin proteins (GLXRs) are essential components of the glutathione system that reductively detoxify substances such as arsenic and peroxides and are important in the synthesis of DNA via ribonucleotide reductases. NMR solution structures of glutaredoxin domains from two Gram-negative opportunistic pathogens, Brucella melitensis and Bartonella henselae, are presented. These domains lack the N-terminal helix that is frequently present in eukaryotic GLXRs. The conserved active-site cysteines adopt canonical proline/tyrosine-stabilized geometries. A difference in the angle of α-helix 2 relative to the β-sheet surface and the presence of an extended loop in the human sequence suggests potential regulatory regions and/or protein–protein interaction motifs. This observation is consistent with mutations in this region that suppress defects in GLXR–ribonucleotide reductase interactions. These differences between the human and bacterial forms are adjacent to the dithiol active site and may permit species-selective drug design

  12. Effect of threshold quantization in opportunistic splitting algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon

    2011-12-01

    This paper discusses algorithms to find the optimal threshold and also investigates the impact of threshold quantization on the scheduling outage performance of the opportunistic splitting scheduling algorithm. Since this algorithm aims at finding the user with the highest channel quality within the minimal number of mini-slots by adjusting the threshold every mini-slot, optimizing the threshold is of paramount importance. Hence, in this paper we first discuss how to compute the optimal threshold along with two tight approximations for the optimal threshold. Closed-form expressions are provided for those approximations for simple calculations. Then, we consider linear quantization of the threshold to take the limited number of bits for signaling messages in practical systems into consideration. Due to the limited granularity for the quantized threshold value, an irreducible scheduling outage floor is observed. The numerical results show that the two approximations offer lower scheduling outage probability floors compared to the conventional algorithm when the threshold is quantized. © 2006 IEEE.

  13. On Myopic Sensing for Multi-Channel Opportunistic Access

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Qing; Liu, Keqin

    2007-01-01

    We consider a multi-channel opportunistic communication system where the states of these channels evolve as independent and statistically identical Markov chains (the Gilbert-Elliot channel model). A user chooses one channel to sense and access in each slot and collects a reward determined by the state of the chosen channel. The objective is to design a sensing policy for channel selection to maximize the average reward. In this paper, we study the structure, optimality, and performance of the myopic sensing policy. We show that the myopic sensing policy has a simple robust structure that reduces channel selection to a counting procedure and obviates the need for knowing the channel transition probabilities. The optimality of this simple policy is established for the two-channel case and conjectured for the general case based on extensive simulations. The performance of the myopic sensing policy is analyzed, which, based on the optimality of myopic sensing, characterizes the maximum throughput of a multi-chan...

  14. Optimal Sensing for Opportunistic Spectrum Access in Cognitive Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrullah Armi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic Spectrum Access (OSA brings new research challenges in MAC protocol design. It allows unlicensed users to share licensed spectrum in space and time with no or little interference to Primary Users (PUs. When designing an OSA MAC protocol, one of the most difficult but important problem is how the unlicensed users decide when and which channel they should sense and access without conflicting the communications among PUs. To solve this problem, the unlicensed users should have the ability of adaptively and dynamically seeking and exploiting opportunities in both licensed and unlicensed spectrum and along both the time and the frequency dimensions. Secondary Users (SUs as unlicensed users are required to sense radio frequency band, and when PU are detected, they must vacate the channel immediately within certain amount of time. Due to hardware and energy constraints, full spectrum availability cannot be sensed as well as they do not monitor when there is no data to be transmitted. In this paper, we study MAC protocol design and optimal sensing for OSA in Cognitive Radio (CR ad hoc network under Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP algorithm that maximizes achievable throughput for SUs with sufficient protection to PUs. Furthermore, we study tractable greedy algorithm to reduce the complexity of POMDP calculation. The derivation of greedy approach proves that sensing problem can be solved either optimally or approximate the optimal solution. Computer simulation is used to evaluate the performances both of optimal and sub optimal strategy.

  15. Optimal Sensing for Opportunistic Spectrum Access in Cognitive Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrullah Armi, Naufal M. Saad, M. Zuki Yusoff, Muhammad Arshad

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most difficult thing but important problem when designing an OSA (Opportunistic Spectrum Access MAC protocol is how the unlicensed users decide when and which channel they should sense and access without conflicting the communications among PUs. To solve this problem, the unlicensed users should have the ability of adaptively and dynamically seeking and exploiting opportunities in both licensed and unlicensed spectrum and along both of the time and the frequency dimensions. Secondary Users (SUs as unlicensed users are required to sense radio frequency band, and when PU are detected, they must vacate the channel immediately within certain amount of time. Due to hardware and energy constraints, full spectrum availability cannot be sensed as well as they do not monitor when there is no data to be transmitted. In this paper, we study MAC protocol design and optimal sensing for OSA in Cognitive Radio (CR ad hoc network under Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP algorithm that maximizes achievable throughput for SUs with sufficient protection to PUs. The bandwith effect to number of bit transmitted in one slot and tractable greedy algorithm to reduce the complexity of POMDP calculation was studied as well. The derivation of greedy approach proves that sensing problem can be solved either optimally or approximate the optimal solution. Computer simulation is used to evaluate the performances both of optimal and sub optimal strategy.

  16. Recognizing and Conducting Opportunistic Experiments in Education: A Guide for Policymakers and Researchers. REL 2014-037

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Alexandra; Berk, Jillian; Akers, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    An opportunistic experiment is a type of randomized controlled trial that studies the effects of a planned intervention or policy change with minimal added disruption and cost. This guide defines opportunistic experiments and provides examples, discusses issues to consider when identifying potential opportunistic experiments, and outlines the…

  17. Association between commensal bacteria and opportunistic pathogens in the dental plaque of elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, A; Senpuku, H; Motozawa, Y; Yoshihara, A; Hanada, N; Tanzawa, H

    2006-08-01

    Opportunistic infections in the oral cavity of the elderly may increase the incidence of systemic disease. The objective of this study was to investigate the differences in the oral bacterial flora between dependent elderly (inpatients) and independent elderly (community-dwelling residents). After multiple variables were taken into account, inpatients had significantly lower detection rates than community-dwelling residents for alpha-streptococci (p Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (p 0.011) and Actinomyces spp. (p 0.005). Among inpatients, the requirement for a high degree of care was related negatively to detection of alpha-streptococci, but was related significantly to detection of P. aeruginosa (p 0.018) or MRSA (p 0.004). Tube-fed inpatients had a significantly lower detection rate for alpha-streptococci (p 0.041) and a higher detection rate for P. aeruginosa (p 0.004) than those who did not require tube feeding. Inpatients with a history of antibiotic use had a significantly lower detection rate for alpha-streptococci (p 0.049) and a higher detection rate for MRSA (p 0.007) than those without a history of antibiotic use. The detection rates for P. aeruginosa or MRSA in inpatients without alpha-streptococci were higher than in inpatients with alpha-streptococci after controlling for age and gender (P. aeruginosa, p 0.006; MRSA, p 0.001). Overall, detection of alpha-streptococci had an inverse correlation with the detection of P. aeruginosa and MRSA in the oral cavity and is likely to be an indicator of pathogenic bacterial infection. PMID:16842573

  18. Toward distributed relay selection for opportunistic amplify-and-forward transmission

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2011-05-01

    Opportunistic relaying in cooperative communication depends on careful relay selection. However the traditional centralized method used for opportunistic Amplify-and-Forward (OAF) protocols requires precise measurements of channel state information (CSI) at the destination (CSI-OAF). In this paper, we propose a distributed relay selection framework for opportunistic AF (D-OAF) cooperative communications and offer an accurate performance analysis based on exact statistics of the local signalto- noise ratios of the best relay. Furthermore, we validate our analysis by showing that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results over different network architectures, and we compare our new results with their CSI-based counterparts. © 2011 IEEE.

  19. Viral Infection in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Cukuranovic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are among the most common causes of opportunistic infection after transplantation. The risk for viral infection is a function of the specific virus encountered, the intensity of immune suppression used to prevent graft rejection, and other host factors governing susceptibility. Although cytomegalovirus is the most common opportunistic pathogen seen in transplant recipients, numerous other viruses have also affected outcomes. In some cases, preventive measures such as pretransplant screening, prophylactic antiviral therapy, or posttransplant viral monitoring may limit the impact of these infections. Recent advances in laboratory monitoring and antiviral therapy have improved outcomes. Studies of viral latency, reactivation, and the cellular effects of viral infection will provide clues for future strategies in prevention and treatment of viral infections. This paper will summarize the major viral infections seen following transplant and discuss strategies for prevention and management of these potential pathogens.

  20. Individual attitudes and perceived social norms: Reports on HIV/AIDS-related stigma among service providers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Wu, Zunyou; Lin, Chunqing; Wen, Yi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined HIV/AIDS-related stigma among Chinese service providers by comparing their personal attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS with their perception of social norms related to people living with HIV/AIDS. We randomly selected three provincial hospitals, four city/prefecture hospitals, 10 county hospitals, 18 township health clinics, and 54 village clinics from Yunnan, China. Doctors and nurses were randomly sampled proportionally to the doctor-nurse ratio of each hospital or clinic. Lab technicians were over-sampled in order to include an adequate representation in the analysis. A total of 1,101 service providers participated in a voluntary, anonymous survey where demographic characteristics, individual attitude and perceived social norms toward people living with HIV/AIDS, discrimination intent at work, general prejudicial attitude and knowledge on HIV/AIDS were measured. A majority of the sample demonstrated a similarity between their personal views and what they thought most people in society believe. Multiple logistic regressions revealed that participants who were younger or reported personal contact with people living with HIV/AIDS were significantly more likely to report personal attitudes toward the population that were more liberal than their perceived social norms. Holding a more liberal personal attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS than perceived social norms was significantly and negatively related to the level of discrimination intent at work, perceived discrimination at interpersonal level and the level of general prejudicial attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Results underscored the importance of understanding social norms and personal attitudes in studying HIV-related stigma and called for the incorporation of existing human capital into future HIV stigma reduction programs. Cette étude a examiné le VIH/SIDA lié à stigmatisation parmi les agences chinoises fournissant des soins en comparant leurs attitudes

  1. Effect of media use on HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and condom use in sub-Saharan Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minsoo Jung

    Full Text Available It is known that the level of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and the degree of condom use varies by socioeconomic status (SES. However, there is limited research on the effect of mass media use on HIV/AIDS-related cognitive and behavioral outcomes in low-income countries and how it might influence the association between SES and HIV-related outcomes. We investigated the moderating effect of media use on the relationship between SES and HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and condom use in sub-Saharan Africa in terms of communication inequalities. Cross-sectional data from the Demographic Health Surveys from 13 sub-Saharan countries (2004-10 were pooled. Gender-stratified multivariable poisson regression of 151,209 women and 68,890 men were used to calculate adjusted relative ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the associations between SES, media use, HIV-related outcomes, and condom use. We found significant disparities in mass media use among people from different SES groups as well as among countries. Education and wealth are strongly and positively associated with awareness of HIV/AIDS and knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV/AIDS and are significantly associated with condom use. These associations are attenuated when the use of various types of mass media is added to the models, with newspapers showing the strongest effect. The findings of this study suggest that media use has the potential to blunt the impact of socioeconomic status though not completely eliminate it. Thus, we need to pay attention to reducing communication inequalities among social groups and countries to moderate the effect of wealth and SES on HIV/AIDS.

  2. HIV/AIDS related mortality among adult medical patients in a tertiary health institution in South-South, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gyuse AN; Bassey IE; Udonwa NE; Okokon IB; Philip-Ephraim EE

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the causes of death among human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients as a step to planning strategies to improve mortality from this condition.Methods: This study retrospectively analyzed the mortality pattern of adult HIV/AIDS patients in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital from January 2005 to December 2007. The data were obtained from sexually transmitted infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (STI/AIDS) clinic register, admissions and discharge/death registers as well as the patients' case records and the hospitals monthly mortality reviews. Information obtained included age, sex, diagnosis and cause(s) of death. The causes of death considered were the directcauses of death, since the originating antecedent cause of death is the same in all the patients, in this case, HIV/AIDS. Data was analysed using Epi Info 2002.Results: The total number of mortalities during the study period was 350,100 were HIV positive representing 28.6% of all deaths. While advanced HIV/AIDS disease was the leading cause of death in our study representing 27.0%, tuberculosis was the single leading cause of deaths in HIV/AIDS patients constituting about 24.0% of deaths. This was followed by sepsis and septicaemia (13.0%), meningitis and encephalitis, and anaemia accounting for 11.0%, while respiratory diseases constituted 5.0% of the mortality burden. The highest number of deaths occurred in those aged between 21-50 years (82.0%).Conclusions: The study has shown that HIV/AIDS is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in our hospital. The causes of death reflect the varied spectrum of infection and other forms of organ involvement that affect HIV/AIDS patients. The present dismal situation of adult patients living with HIV/AIDS calls for enhanced strategies to decrease the mortality trend observed in Nigeria and sub-Saharan Africa.

  3. Non-Orthogonal Opportunistic Beamforming: Performance Analysis and Implementation

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Minghua

    2012-04-01

    Aiming to achieve the sum-rate capacity in multi-user multi-antenna systems where $N_t$ antennas are implemented at the transmitter, opportunistic beamforming (OBF) generates~$N_t$ orthonormal beams and serves $N_t$ users during each channel use, which results in high scheduling delay over the users, especially in densely populated networks. Non-orthogonal OBF with more than~$N_t$ transmit beams can be exploited to serve more users simultaneously and further decrease scheduling delay. However, the inter-beam interference will inevitably deteriorate the sum-rate. Therefore, there is a tradeoff between sum-rate and scheduling delay for non-orthogonal OBF. In this context, system performance and implementation of non-orthogonal OBF with $N>N_t$ beams are investigated in this paper. Specifically, it is analytically shown that non-orthogonal OBF is an interference-limited system as the number of users $K \\\\to \\\\infty$. When the inter-beam interference reaches its minimum for fixed $N_t$ and~$N$, the sum-rate scales as $N\\\\ln\\\\left(\\\\frac{N}{N-N_t}\\ ight)$ and it degrades monotonically with the number of beams $N$ for fixed $N_t$. On the contrary, the average scheduling delay is shown to scale as $\\\\frac{1}{N}K\\\\ln{K}$ channel uses and it improves monotonically with $N$. Furthermore, two practical non-orthogonal beamforming schemes are explicitly constructed and they are demonstrated to yield the minimum inter-beam interference for fixed $N_t$ and $N$. This study reveals that, if user traffic is light and one user can be successfully served within a single transmission, non-orthogonal OBF can be applied to obtain lower worst-case delay among the users. On the other hand, if user traffic is heavy, non-orthogonal OBF is inferior to orthogonal OBF in terms of sum-rate and packet delay.

  4. OPPORTUNISTIC ASPERGILLUS PATHOGENS MEASURED IN HOME AND HOSPITAL TAP WATER BY MOLD SPECIFIC QUANTITATIVE PCR (MSQPCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opportunistic fungal pathogens are a concern because of the increasing number of immunocompromised patients. The goal of this research was to test a simple extraction method and rapid quantitative PCR (QPCR) measurement of the occurrence of potential pathogens, Aspergillus fumiga...

  5. AFSC/NMML: Cook Inlet Beluga Opportunistic Sightings, 1975 to 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As a part of National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) management of the endangered Cook Inlet beluga whale population, a database of opportunistic beluga whale...

  6. Cook Inlet Beluga Opportunistic Sightings, 1975 to 2015 (NCEI Accession 0142326)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As a part of National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) management of the endangered Cook Inlet beluga whale population, a database of opportunistic beluga whale...

  7. Scaling up ATLAS Event Service to production levels on opportunistic computing platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Benjamin, Douglas; The ATLAS collaboration; Ernst, Michael; Guan, Wen; Hover, John; Lesny, David; Maeno, Tadashi; Nilsson, Paul; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; van Gemmeren, Peter; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Wang, Fuquan; Wenaus, Torre

    2016-01-01

    Continued growth in public cloud and HPC resources is on track to exceed the dedicated resources available for ATLAS on the WLCG. Examples of such platforms are Amazon AWS EC2 Spot Instances, Edison Cray XC30 supercomputer, backfill at Tier 2 and Tier 3 sites, opportunistic resources at the Open Science Grid (OSG), and ATLAS High Level Trigger farm between the data taking periods. Because of specific aspects of opportunistic resources such as preemptive job scheduling and data I/O, their efficient usage requires workflow innovations provided by the ATLAS Event Service. Thanks to the finer granularity of the Event Service data processing workflow, the opportunistic resources are used more efficiently. We report on our progress in scaling opportunistic resource usage to double-digit levels in ATLAS production.

  8. Scaling up ATLAS Event Service to production levels on opportunistic computing platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Benjamin, Douglas; The ATLAS collaboration; Ernst, Michael; Guan, Wen; Hover, John; Lesny, David; Maeno, Tadashi; Nilsson, Paul; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; van Gemmeren, Peter; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Wang, Fuquan; Wenaus, Torre

    2016-01-01

    Continued growth in public cloud and HPC resources is on track to overcome the dedicated resources available for ATLAS on the WLCG. Example of such platforms are Amazon AWS EC2 Spot Instances, Edison Cray XC30 supercomputer, backfill at the Tier-2 and Tier-3 sites, opportunistic resources at the Open Science Grid, and ATLAS High Level Trigger farm between the data taking periods. Because of opportunistic resources specifics such as preemptive job scheduling and data I/O, their efficient usage requires workflow innovations provided by the ATLAS Event Service. Thanks to the finer granularity of the Event Service data processing workflow, the opportunistic resources are used more efficiently. We report on our progress in scaling opportunistic resource usage to double-digit levels in ATLAS production.

  9. Who needs the assumption of opportunistic behavior? Transaction cost economics does not!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    2000-01-01

    The assumption of opportunistic behavior, familiar from transaction cost economics, has been and remains highly controversial. But opportunistic behavior, albeit undoubtedly an extremely important form of motivation, is not a necessary condition for the contractual problems studied by transaction...... cost economics to occur. A broader category of motivation, inappropriate motivation, which is such a necessary condition, is presented and discussed, and a number of implications are presented....

  10. Cloud Platform Based on Mobile Internet Service Opportunistic Drive and Application Aware Data Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Ge Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Because the static cloud platform cannot satisfy the diversity of mobile Internet service and inefficient data mining problems, we presented a reliable and efficient data mining cloud platform construction scheme based on the mobile Internet service opportunistic driving and application perception. In this scheme, first of all data selection mechanism was established based on mobile Internet service opportunistic drive. Secondly, through the cloud platform different cloud and channel aware, n...

  11. How Firms Can Make Credible Commitments That Make Opportunistic Managerial Intervention Less Likely

    OpenAIRE

    Foss, Kirsten; Nicolai J. Foss; Vázquez-Vicente, Xosé H.

    2003-01-01

    Abstract We discuss and empirically examine a firm-level equivalent of the ancient problem of "tying the King’s hands," namely how to maximize managerial intervention for "good cause," while avoiding intervention for "bad cause." Managers may opportunistically intervene when such intervention produces private benefits. Overall firm performance is harmed as a result, because opportunistic managerial intervention harms employee motivation. The central point of the paper is that various mecha...

  12. Opportunistic and Efficient Resource Block Allocation Algorithms for LTE Uplink Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kaddour, Fatima Zohra; Pischella, Mylène; Martins, Philippe; Vivier, Emmanuelle; Mroueh, Lina

    2013-01-01

    This work proposes two new Resource Block (RB) allocation algorithms for the LTE uplink. They take into account the RB adjacency constraint and update the allocation metric. Two different heuristics are proposed: an Opportunistic and Efficient RB allocation Algorithm (OEA) and a Quality of Service based Opportunistic and Efficient RB allocation Algorithm (QoS based OEA). Both algorithms seek to maximize the aggregate throughput and avoid RB wastage unlike other algorithms in the literature. T...

  13. A non-digging zoobenthivorous fish attracts two opportunistic predatory fish associates

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Sazima; Alice Grossman

    2005-01-01

    Following behaviour among reef fishes involves mostly a digging nuclear species while foraging, which attracts opportunistic followers preying on the exposed organisms. The flying gurnard Dactylopterus volitans preys on benthic animals, mostly crustaceans and small fishes, scratching and probing the bottom with the inner rays of its pectoral fins. We recorded the flying gurnard being followed by two opportunistic predators, the yellow jack Caranx bartholomaei and the coney Cephalopholis fulva...

  14. Yield of diagnostic tests for opportunistic infections in AIDS: a survey of 33 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, P C; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Olesen, B;

    1988-01-01

    /prophylaxis without diagnosis could be considered. In 8 autopsies, microscopy was suggestive of cerebral toxoplasmosis, but only 1 patient had presented important clinical symptoms. We suggest a schedule with regular microbiologic and parasitic examinations and few antibody tests, but with more antigen tests....

  15. Study of opportunistic intestinal parasitic infections in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Kumar Mathur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intestinal parasites predominantly coccidian parasites are a common cause for diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive patients. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted during January 2009-December 2010. A total of 1,088 stool samples from 544 seropositive HIV positive cases were examined microscopically for ova and cyst using wet mount preparations and stained smears. Out of 544 patients, 343 had prolonged diarrhea for more than 4 weeks, 57 had acute diarrhea of lesser than 7 days and 144 were asymptomatic cases who attended out-patient department; included in this study after taking consent from patients. Enteric pathogens were detected in 274 (50.36% of the 544 patients. Results and Conclusions: The parasites identified were Cryptosporidium (135, Isospora belli (42, Cyclospora (12, Microsporidia (02, Entamoeba histolytica (49, Hookworm (34. Intestinal parasites in chronic diarrhea were significantly higher than the acute diarrhea (63.05% vs. 7.35%; P < 0.05. Parasitic pathogens were frequently associated with HIV-positive patients with diarrhea in Western India. Stools of all HIV-positive patients with diarrhea should thoroughly be investigated to identify etiologic agents for proper management.

  16. Opportunistic infections and AIDS malignancies early after initiating combination antiretroviral therapy in high-income countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodi, Sara; Del Amo, Julia; Moreno, Santiago; Bucher, Heiner C.; Furrer, Hansjakob; Logan, Roger; Sterne, Jonathan; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Jarrín, Inma; Phillips, Andrew; Olson, Ashley; Van Sighem, Ard; Reiss, Peter; Sabin, Caroline; Jose, Sophie; Justice, Amy; Goulet, Joseph; Miró, José M.; Ferrer, Elena; Meyer, Laurence; Seng, Rémonie; Vourli, Georgia; Antoniadou, Anastasia; Dabis, Francois; Vandenhede, Mari-Anne; Costagliola, Dominique; Abgrall, Sophie; Hernán, Miguel A.; Hernan, Miguel; Bansi, L.; Hill, T.; Sabin, C.; Dunn, D.; Porter, K.; Glabay, A.; Orkin, C.; Thomas, R.; Jones, K.; Fisher, M.; Perry, N.; Pullin, A.; Churchill, D.; Gazzard, B.; Nelson, M.; Asboe, D.; Bulbeck, S.; Mandalia, S.; Clarke, J.; Delpech, V.; Anderson, J.; Munshi, S.; Post, F.; Easterbrook, P.; Khan, Y.; Patel, P.; Karim, F.; Duffell, S.; Gilson, R.; Man, S.-L.; Williams, I.; Gompels, M.; Dooley, D.; Schwenk, A.; Ainsworth, J.; Johnson, M.; Youle, M.; Lampe, F.; Smith, C.; Grabowska, H.; Chaloner, C.; Ismajani Puradiredja, D.; Bansi, L.; Hill, T.; Phillips, A.; Sabin, C.; Walsh, J.; Weber, J.; Kemble, C.; Mackie, N.; Winston, A.; Leen, C.; Wilson, A.; Bezemer, D.O.; Gras, L.A.J.; Kesselring, A.M.; Van Sighem, A.I.; Zaheri, S.; Van Twillert, G.; Kortmann, W.; Branger, J.; Prins, J.M.; Kuijpers, T.W.; Scherpbier, H.J.; Van Der Meer, J.T.M.; Wit, F.W.M.N.; Godfried, M.H.; Reiss, P.; Van Der Poll, T.; Nellen, F.J.B.; Lange, J.M.A.; Geerlings, S.E.; Van Vugt, M.; Pajkrt, D.; Bos, J.C.; van der Valk, M.; Grijsen, M.L.; Wiersinga, W.J.; Brinkman, K.; Blok, W.L.; Frissen, P.H.J.; Schouten, W.E.M.; Van Den Berk, G.E.L.; Veenstra, J.; Lettinga, K.D.; Mulder, J.W.; Vrouenraets, S.M.E.; Lauw, F.N.; Van Eeden, A.; Verhagen, D.W.M.; Van Agtmael, M.A.; Perenboom, R.M.; Claessen, F.A.P.; Bomers, M.; Peters, E.J.G.; Richter, C.; Van Der Berg, J.P.; Gisolf, E.H.; Schippers, E.F.; Van Nieuwkoop, C.; Van Elzakker, E.P.; Leyten, E.M.S.; Gelinck, L.B.S.; Pronk, M.J.H.; Bravenboer, B.; Kootstra, G.J.; Delsing, C.E.; Sprenger, H.G.; Doedens, R.; Scholvinck, E.H.; Van Assen, S.; Bierman, W.F.W.; Soetekouw, R.; Ten Kate, R.W.; Van Vonderen, M.G.A.; Van Houte, D.P.F.; Kroon, F.P.; Van Dissel, J.T.; Arend, S.M.; De Boer, M.G.J.; Jolink, H.; Ter Vollaard, H.J.M.; Bauer, M.P.; Weijer, S.; El Moussaoui, R.; Lowe, S.; Schreij, G.; Oude Lashof, A.; Posthouwer, D.; Koopmans, P.P.; Keuter, M.; Van Der Ven, A.J.A.M.; Ter Hofstede, H.J.M.; Dofferhoff, A.S.M.; Warris, A.; Van Crevel, R.; van der Ende, Marchina E.; De Vries-Sluijs, T.E.M.S.; Schurink, C.A.M.; Nouwen, J.L.; Nispen Tot Pannerden, M.H.; Verbon, A.; Rijnders, B.J.A.; Van Gorp, E.C.M.; Hassing, R.J.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Hartwig, N.G.; Driessen, G.J.A.; Den Hollander, J.G.; Pogany, K.; Juttmann, J.R.; Van Kasteren, M.E.E.; Hoepelman, A.I.M.; Mudrikova, T.; Schneider, M.M.E.; Jaspers, C.A.J.J.; Ellerbroek, P.M.; Oosterheert, J.J.; Arends, J.E.; Wassenberg, M.W.M.; Barth, R.E.; Geelen, S.P.M.; Wolfs, T.F.W.; Bont, L.J.; Van Den Berge, M.; Stegeman, A.; Groeneveld, P.H.P.; Alleman, M.A.; Bouwhuis, J.W.; Barin, F.; Burty, C.; Duvivier, C.; Enel, P.; Fredouille-Heripret, L.; Gasnault, J.; Khuong, M.A.; Mahamat, A.; Pilorgé, F.; Tattevin, P.; Salomon, Valérie; Jacquemet, N.; Abgrall, S.; Costagliola, D.; Grabar, S.; Guiguet, M.; Lanoy, E.; Lièvre, L.; Mary-Krause, M.; Selinger-Leneman, H.; Lacombe, J.M.; Potard, V.; Bricaire, F.; Herson, S.; Katlama, C.; Simon, A.; Desplanque, N.; Girard, P.M.; Meynard, J.L.; Meyohas, M.C.; Picard, O.; Cadranel, J.; Mayaud, C.; Pialoux, G.; Clauvel, J.P.; Decazes, J.M.; Gerard, L.; Molina, J.M.; Diemer, M.; Sellier, P.; Bentata, M.; Honoré, P.; Jeantils, V.; Tassi, S.; Mechali, D.; Taverne, B.; Bouvet, E.; Crickx, B.; Ecobichon, J.L.; Matheron, S.; Picard-Dahan, C.; Yeni, P.; Berthé, H.; Dupont, C.; Chandemerle, C.; Mortier, E.; De Truchis, P.; Tisne-Dessus, D.; Weiss, L.; Salmon, D.; Auperin, I.; Gilquin, J.; Roudière, L.; Viard, J.P.; Boué, F.; Fior, R.; Delfraissy, J.F.; Goujard, C.; Jung, C.; Lesprit, Ph.; Vittecoq, D.; Fraisse, P.; Lang, J.M.; Rey, D.; Beck-Wirth, G.; Stahl, J.P.; Lecercq, P.; Gourdon, F.; Laurichesse, H.; Fresard, A.; Lucht, F.; Bazin, C.; Verdon, R.; Chavanet, P.; Arvieux, C.; Michelet, C.; Choutet, P.; Goudeau, A.; Maître, M.F.; Hoen, B.; Eglinger, P.; Faller, J.P.; Borsa-Lebas, F.; Caron, F.; Reynes, J.; Daures, J.P.; May, T.; Rabaud, C.; Berger, J.L.; Rémy, G.; Arlet-Suau, E.; Cuzin, L.; Massip, P.; Thiercelin Legrand, M.F.; Pontonnier, G.; Viget, N.; Yasdanpanah, Y.; Dellamonica, P.; Pradier, C.; Pugliese, P.; Aleksandrowicz, K.; Quinsat, D.; Ravaux, I.; Tissot-Dupont, H.; Delmont, J.P.; Moreau, J.; Gastaut, J.A.; Poizot-Martin, I.; Retornaz, F.; Soubeyrand, J.; Galinier, A.; Ruiz, J.M.; Allegre, T.; Blanc, P.A.; Bonnet-Montchardon, D.; Lepeu, G.; Granet-Brunello, P.; Esterni, J.P.; Pelissier, L.; Cohen-Valensi, R.; Nezri, M.; Chadapaud, S.; Laffeuillade, A.; Billaud, E.; Raffi, F.; Boibieux, A.; Peyramond, D.; Livrozet, J.M.; Touraine, J.L.; Cotte, L.; Trepo, C.; Strobel, M.; Bissuel, F.; Pradinaud, R.; Sobesky, M.; Cabié, A.; Gaud, C.; Contant, M.; Aubert, V.; Barth, J.; Battegay, M.; Bernasconi, E.; Böni, J.; Bucher, H.C.; Burton-Jeangros, C.; Calmy, A.; Cavassini, M.; Egger, M.; Elzi, L.; Fehr, J.; Fellay, J.; Furrer, H.; Haerry, D.; Fux, C.A.; Gorgievski, M.; Günthard, H.; Hasse, B.; Hirsch, H.H.; Hösli, I.; Kahlert, C.; Kaiser, L.; Keiser, O.; Klimkait, T.; Kovari, H.; Ledergerber, B.; Martinetti, G.; Martinez De Tejada, B.; Metzner, K.; Müller, N.; Nadal, D.; Pantaleo, G.; Rauch, A.; Regenass, S.; Rickenbach, M.; Rudin, C.; Schmid, P.; Schultze, D.; Schöni-Affolter, F.; Schüpbach, J.; Speck, R.; Taffé, P.; Tarr, P.; Telenti, A.; Trkola, A.; Vernazza, P.; Weber, R.; Yerly, S.; Casabona, J.; Gallois, A.; Esteve, A.; Podzamczer, D.; Murillas, J.; Gatell, J.M.; Manzardo, C.; Tural, C.; Clotet, B.; Ferrer, E.; Riera, M.; Segura, F.; Navarro, G.; Force, L.; Vilaró, J.; Masabeu, A.; García, I.; Guadarrama, M.; Cifuentes, C.; Dalmau, D.; Jaen, À.; Agustí, C.; Montoliu, A.; Pérez, I.; Gargoulas, Freyra; Blanco, J.L.; Garcia-Alcaide, F.; Martínez, E.; Mallolas, J.; López-Dieguez, M.; García-Goez, J.F.; Sirera, G.; Romeu, J.; Jou, A.; Negredo, E.; Miranda, C.; Capitan, M.C.; Saumoy, M.; Imaz, A.; Tiraboschi, J.M.; Murillo, O.; Bolao, F.; Peña, C.; Cabellos, C.; Masó, M.; Vila, A.; Sala, M.; Cervantes, M.; Jose Amengual, Ma.; Navarro, M.; Penelo, E.; Barrufet, P.; Bejarano, G.; Molina, J.; Guadarrama, M.; Alvaro, M.; Mercadal, J.; Fernandez, Juanse; Ospina, Jesus E.; Muñoz, M.A.; Caro-Murillo, A.M.; Sobrino, P.; Jarrín, I.; Gomez Sirvent, J.L.; Rodríguez, P.; Aleman, M.R.; Alonso, M.M.; Lopez, A.M.; Hernandez, M.I.; Soriano, V.; Labarga, P.; Barreiro, P.; Medrano, J.; Rivas, P.; Herrero, D.; Blanco, F.; Vispo, M.E.; Martín, L.; Ramírez, G.; De Diego, M.; Rubio, R.; Pulido, F.; Moreno, V.; Cepeda, C.; Hervás, Rl.; Iribarren, J.A.; Arrizabalaga, J.; Aramburu, M.J.; Camino, X.; Rodrí-guez-Arrondo, F.; Von Wichmann, M.A.; Pascual, L.; Goenaga, M.A.; Gutierrez, F.; Masia, M.; Ramos, J.M.; Padilla, S.; Sanchez-Hellín, V.; Bernal, E.; Escolano, C.; Montolio, F.; Peral, Y.; Berenguer, J.; Lopez, J.C.; Miralles, P.; Cosín, J.; Sanchez, M.; Gutierrez, I.; Ramírez, M.; Padilla, B.; Vidal, F.; Sanjuan, M.; Peraire, J.; Veloso, S.; Vilades, C.; Lopez-Dupla, M.; Olona, M.; Vargas, M.; Aldeguer, J.L.; Blanes, M.; Lacruz, J.; Salavert, M.; Montero, M.; Cuéllar, S.; De Los Santos, I.; Sanz, J.; Oteo, J.A.; Blanco, J.R.; Ibarra, V.; Metola, L.; Sanz, M.; Pérez-Martínez, L.; Sola, J.; Uriz, J.; Castiello, J.; Reparaz, J.; Arriaza, M.J.; Irigoyen, C.; Moreno, S.; Antela, A.; Casado, J.L.; Dronda, F.; Moreno, A.; Pérez, M.J.; López, D.; Gutiérrez, C.; Hernández, B.; Pumares, M.; Martí, P.; García, L.; Page, C.; García, F.; Hernández, J.; Peña, A.; Muñoz, L.; Parra, J.; Viciana, P.; Leal, M.; López-Cortés, L.F.; Trastoy, M.; Mata, R.; Justice, A.C.; Fiellin, D.A.; Rimland, D.; Jones-Taylor, C.; Oursler, K.A.; Titanji, R.; Brown, S.; Garrison, S.; Rodriguez-Barradas, M.; Masozera, N.; Goetz, M.; Leaf, D.; Simberkoff, M.; Blumenthal, D.; Leung, J.; Butt, A.; Hoffman, E.; Gibert, C.; Peck, R.; Mattocks, K.; Braithwaite, S.; Brandt, C.; Bryant, K.; Cook, R.; Conigliaro, J.; Crothers, K.; Chang, J.; Crystal, S.; Day, N.; Erdos, J.; Freiberg, M.; Kozal, M.; Gandhi, N.; Gaziano, M.; Gerschenson, M.; Good, B.; Gordon, A.; Goulet, J.L.; Hernán, M.A.; Kraemer, K.; Lim, J.; Maisto, S.; Miller, P.; Mole, L.; O'Connor, P.; Papas, R.; Robins, J.M.; Rinaldo, C.; Roberts, M.; Samet, J.; Tierney, B.; Whittle, J.; Babiker, A.; Brettle, R.; Darbyshire, J.; Gilson, R.; Goldberg, D.; Hawkins, D.; Jaffe, H.; Johnson, A.; McLean, K.; Pillay, D.; Cursley, Adam; Ewings, Fiona; Fairbrother, Keith; Louisa Gnatiuc, S.L.; Murphy, Brendan; Douglas, G.; Kennedy, N.; Pritchard, J.; Andrady, U.; Rajda, N.; Maw, R.; McKernan, S.; Drake, S.; Gilleran, G.; White, D.; Ross, J.; Toomer, S.; Hewart, R.; Wilding, H.; Woodward, R.; Dean, G.; Heald, L.; Horner, P.; Glover, S.; Bansaal, D.; Eduards, S.; Carne, C.; Browing, M.; Das, R.; Stanley, B.; Estreich, S.; Magdy, A.; O'Mahony, C.; Fraser, P.; Hayman, B.; Jebakumar, S.P.R.; Joshi, U.; Ralph, S.; Wade, A.; Mette, R.; Lalik, J.; Summerfield, H.; El-Dalil, A.; France, J.A.; White, C.; Robertson, R.; Gordon, S.; McMillan, S.; Morris, S.; Lean, C.; Vithayathil, K.; McLean, L.; Winter, A.; Gale, D.; Jacobs, S.; Tayal, S.; Short, L.; Roberts, M.; Green, S.; Williams, G.; Sivakumar, K.; Bhattacharyya, N.D.; Monteiro, E.; Minton, J.; Dhar, J.; Nye, F.; De Souza, C.B.; Isaksen, A.; McDonald, L.; McLean, K.; Franca, A.; Hawkins, D.; William, L.; Jendrulek, I.; Peters, B.; Shaunak, S.; El-Gadi, S.; Easterbrook, P.J.; Mazhude, C.; Gilson, R.; Johnstone, R.; Fakoya, A.; McHale, J.; Waters, A.; Kegg, S.; Mitchell, S.; Byrne, P.; Johnson, M.; Rice, P.; Fidler, S.; Mullaney, S.A.; McCormack, S.; David, D.; Melville, R.; Phillip, K.; Balachandran, T.; Mabey-Puttock, S.; Sukthankar, A.; Murphy, C.; Wilkins, E.; Ahmad, S.; Tayal, S.; Haynes, J.; Evans, E.; Ong, E.; Das, R.; Grey, R.; Meaden, J.; Bignell, C.; Loay, D.; Peacock, K.; Girgis, M.R.; Morgan, B.; Palfreeman, A.; Wilcox, J.; Tobin, J.; Tucker, L.; Saeed, A.M.; Chen, F.; Deheragada, A.; Williams, O.; Lacey, H.; Herman, S.; Kinghorn, D.; Devendra, V.S.; Wither, J.; Dawson, S.; Rowen, D.; Harvey, J.; Wilkins, E.; Bridgwood, A.; Singh, G.; Chauhan, M.; Kellock, D.; Young, S.; Dannino, S.; Kathir, Y.; Rooney, G.; Currie, J.; Fitzgerald, M.; Devendra, S.; Keane, F.; Booth, G.; Green, T.; Arumainayyagam, J.; Chandramani, S.; Rajamanoharan, S.; Robinson, T.; Curless, E.; Gokhale, R.; Tariq, A.; Roberts, M.; Williams, O.; Luzzi, G.; FitzGerald, M.; Fairley, I.; Wallis, F.; Smit, E.; Ward, F.; Molina, J.M.; Loze, B.; Morlat, P.; Bonarek, M.; Bonnet, F.; Nouts, C.; Louis, I.; Raffi, F.; Reliquet, V.; Sauser, F.; Biron, C.; Mounoury, O.; Hue, H.; Brosseau, D.; Delfraissy, J.F.; Goujard, C.; Ghosn, J.; Rannou, M.T.; Bergmann, J.F.; Badsi, E.; Rami, A.; Diemer, M.; Parrinello, M.; Girard, P.M.; Samanon-Bollens, D.; Campa, P.; Tourneur, M.; Desplanques, N.; Livrozet, J.M.; Jeanblanc, F.; Chiarello, P.; Makhloufi, D.; Blanc, A.P.; Allègre, T.; Reynes, J.; Baillat, V.; Lemoing, V.; Merle De Boever, C.; Tramoni, C.; Cabié, A.; Sobesky, G.; Abel, S.; Beaujolais, V.; Pialoux, G.; Slama, L.; Chakvetadze, C.; Berrebi, V.; Yeni, P.; Bouvet, E.; Fournier, I.; Gerbe, J.; Trepo, C.; Koffi, K.; Augustin-Normand, C.; Miailhes, P.; Thoirain, V.; Brochier, C.; Thomas, R.; Souala, F.; Ratajczak, M.; Beytoux, J.; Jacomet, C.; Gourdon, F.; Rouveix, E.; Morelon, S.; Dupont, C.; Olivier, C.; Lortholary, O.; Dupont, B.; Viard, J.P.; Maignan, A.; Ragnaud, J.M.; Raymond, I.; Leport, C.; Jadand, C.; Jestin, C.; Longuet, P.; Boucherit, S.; Sereni, D.; Lascoux, C.; Prevoteau, F.; Sobel, A.; Levy, Y.; Lelièvre, J.D.; Lascaux, A.S.; Dominguez, S.; Dumont, C.; Aumâitre, H.; Delmas, B.; Saada, M.; Medus, M.; Guillevin, L.; Salmon, D.; Tahi, T.; Yazdanpanah, Y.; Pavel, S.; Marien, M.C.; Drenou, B.; Beck-Wirth, G.; Beck, C.; Benomar, M.; Katlama, C.; Tubiana, R.; Ait Mohand, H.; Chermak, A.; Ben Abdallah, S.; Bentata, M.; Touam, F.; Hoen, B.; Drobacheff, C.; Folzer, A.; Massip, P.; Obadia, M.; Prudhomme, L.; Bonnet, E.; Balzarin, F.; Pichard, E.; Chennebault, J.M.; Fialaire, P.; Loison, J.; Galanaud, P.; Boué, F.; Bornarel, D.; Verdon, R.; Bazin, C.; Six, M.; Ferret, P.; Weiss, L.; Batisse, D.; Gonzales-Canali, G.; Tisne-Dessus, D.; Devidas, A.; Chevojon, P.; Turpault, I.; Lafeuillade, A.; Cheret, A.; Philip, G.; Morel, P.; Timsit, J.; Herson, S.; Amirat, N.; Simon, A.; Brancion, C.; Cabane, J.; Picard, O.; Tredup, J.; Stein, A.; Ravault, I.; Chavanet, C.; Buisson, M.; Treuvetot, S.; Choutet, P.; Nau, P.; Bastides, F.; May, T.; Boyer, L.; Wassoumbou, S.; Oksenhendeler, E.; Gérard, L.; Bernard, L.; De Truchis, P.; Berthé, H.; Domart, Y.; Merrien, D.; Greder Belan, A.; Gayraud, M.; Bodard, L.; Meudec, A.; Beuscart, C.; Daniel, C.; Pape, E.; Vinceneux, P.; Simonpoli, A.M.; Zeng, A.; Fournier, L.; Fuzibet, J.G.; Sohn, C.; Rosenthal, E.; Quaranta, M.; Dellamonica, P.; Chaillou, S.; Sabah, M.; Audhuy, B.; Schieber, A.; Moreau, P.; Niault, M.; Vaillant, O.; Huchon, G.; Compagnucci, A.; De Lacroix Szmania, I.; Richier, L.; Lamaury, I.; Saint-Dizier, F.; Garipuy, D.; Gastaut, J.A.; Drogoul, M.P.; Poizot Martin, I.; Fabre, G.; Lambert De Cursay, G.; Abraham, B.; Perino, C.; Lagarde, P.; David, F.; Roche-Sicot, J.; Saraux, J.L.; Leprêtre, A.; Fampin, B.; Uludag, A.; Morin, A.S.; Bletry, O.; Zucman, D.; Regnier, A.; Girard, J.J.; Quinsat, D.T.; Heripret, L.; Grihon, F.; Houlbert, D.; Ruel, M.; Chemlal, K.; Caron, F.; Debab, Y.; Tremollieres, F.; Perronne, V.; Lepeu, G.; Slama, B.; Perré, P.; Miodovski, C.; Guermonprez, G.; Dulioust, A.; Boudon, P.; Malbec, D.; Patey, O.; Semaille, C.; Deville, J.; Remy, G.; Béguinot, I.; Galanaud, P.; Boue, F.; Chambrin, V.; Pignon, C.; Estocq, G.A.; Levy, A.; Delfraissy, J.F.; Goujard, C.; Duracinsky, M.; Le Bras, P.; Ngussan, M.S.; Peretti, D.; Medintzeff, N.; Lambert, T.; Segeral, O.; Lezeau, P.; Laurian, Y.; Weiss, L.; Buisson, M.; Piketty, C.; Karmochkine, M.; Batisse, D.; Eliaszewitch, M.; Jayle, D.; Tisne-Dessus, D.; Kazatchkine, M.; Leport, C.; Colasante, U.; Jadand, C.; Jestin, C.; Duval, X.; Nouaouia, W.; Boucherit, S.; Vilde, J.L.; Girard, P.M.; Bollens, D.; Binet, D.; Diallo, B.; Meyohas, M.C.; Fonquernie, L.; Lagneau, J.L.; Salmon, D.; Guillevin, L.; Tahi, T.; Launay, O.; Pietrie, M.P.; Sicard, D.; Stieltjes, N.; Michot, J.; Sobel, A.; Levy, Y.; Bourdillon, F.; Lascaux, A.S.; Lelievre, J.D.; Dumont, C.; Dupont, B.; Obenga, G.; Viard, J.P.; Maignan, A.; Vittecoq, D.; Escaut, L.; Bolliot, C.; Bricaire, F.; Katlama, C.; Schneider, L.; Herson, S.; Simon, A.; Iguertsira, M.; Stein, A.; Tomei, C.; Ravaux, I.; Dhiver, C.; Tissot Dupont, H.; Vallon, A.; Gallais, J.; Gallais, H.; Gastaut, J.A.; Drogoul, M.P.; Fabre, G.; Dellamonica, P.; Durant, J.; Mondain, V.; Perbost, I.; Cassuto, J.P.; Karsenti, J.M.; Venti, H.; Fuzibet, J.G.; Rosenthal, E.; Ceppi, C.; Quaranta, M.; Krivitsky, J.A.; Bentata, M.; Bouchaud, O.; Honore, P.; Sereni, D.; Lascoux, C.; Delgado, J.; Rouzioux, C.; Burgard, M.; Boufassa, L.; Peynet, J.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Del Amo, J.; Alvarez, D.; Monge, S.; Muga, R.; Sanvisens, A.; Clotet, B.; Tor, J.; Bolao, F.; Rivas, I.; Vallecillo, G.; Del Romero, J.; Raposo, P.; Rodríguez, C.; Vera, M.; Hurtado, I.; Belda, J.; Fernandez, E.; Alastrue, I.; Santos, C.; Tasa, T.; Juan, A.; Trullen, J.; Garcia De Olalla, P.; Cayla, J.; Masdeu, E.; Knobel, H.; Mirò, J.M.; Sambeat, M.A.; Guerrero, R.; Rivera, E.; Guerrero, R.; Marco, A.; Quintana, M.; Gonzalez, C.; Castilla, J.; Guevara, M.; De Mendoza, C.; Zahonero, N.; Ortíz, M.; Paraskevis, D.; Touloumi, G.; Pantazis, N.; Bakoyannis, G.; Gioukari, V.; Antoniadou, A.; Papadopoulos, A.; Petrikkos, G.; Daikos, G.; Psichogiou, M.; Gargalianos-Kakolyris, P.; Xylomenos, G.; Katsarou, O.; Kouramba, A.; Ioannidou, P.; Kordossis, T.; Kontos, A.; Lazanas, M.; Chini, M.; Tsogas, N.; Panos, G.; Paparizos, V.; Leuow, K.; Kourkounti, S.; Sambatakou, H.; Mariolis, I.; Skoutelis, A.; Papastamopoulos, V.; Baraboutis, I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is little information on the incidence of AIDS-defining events which have been reported in the literature to be associated with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) after combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation. These events include tuberculosis, mycobacteri

  17. Chaetomium-like fungi causing opportunistic infections in humans: a possible role for extremotolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, Sarah A.; Khan, Ziauddin; Wang, Xue-wei; Moussa, Tarek A. A.; Al-Zahrani, Hassan S.; Almaghrabi, Omar A.; Sutton, Deanna A.; Ahmad, S.; Groenewald, Johannes Z.; Alastruey-Izquierdo, A.; Diepeningen, Anne; Menken, S. B. J.; Najafzadeh, M. J.; Crous, Pedro W.; Cornely, Oliver; Hamprecht, Axel; Vehreschild, Maria J. G. T.; Kindo, A. J.; de Hoog, G. Sybren

    2016-01-01

    Members of the family Chaetomiaceae are ubiquitous ascosporulating fungi commonly, which reside in soil enriched with manure or cellulosic materials. Their role as human pathogens is largely ignored. However, the ability of some species to grow at high temperature enables them to play an important r

  18. Chaetomium-like fungi causing opportunistic infections in humans: a possible role for extremotolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Ahmed; Z. Khan; X. Wang; T.A.A. Moussa; H.S. Al-Zahrani; O.A. Almaghrabi; D.A. Sutton; S. Ahmad; J.Z. Groenewald; A. Alastruey-Izquierdo; A. van Diepeningen; S.B.J. Menken; M.J. Najafzadeh; P.W. Crous; O. Cornely; A. Hamprecht; M.J.G.T. Vehreschild; A.J. Kindo; G.S. de Hoog

    2015-01-01

    Members of the family Chaetomiaceae are ubiquitous ascosporulating fungi commonly, which reside in soil enriched with manure or cellulosic materials. Their role as human pathogens is largely ignored. However, the ability of some species to grow at high temperature enables them to play an important r

  19. Induction of Protective Immunity to Cryptococcal Infection in Mice by a Heat-Killed, Chitosan-Deficient Strain of Cryptococcus neoformans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhya, Rajendra; Lam, Woei C.; Maybruck, Brian; Specht, Charles A.; Levitz, Stuart M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cryptococcus neoformans is a major opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes fatal meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised individuals and is responsible for a large proportion of AIDS-related deaths. The fungal cell wall is an essential organelle which undergoes constant modification during various stages of growth and is critical for fungal pathogenesis. One critical component of the fungal cell wall is chitin, which in C. neoformans is predominantly deacetylated to chitosan. We previously reported that three chitin deacetylase (CDA) genes have to be deleted to generate a chitosan-deficient C. neoformans strain. This cda1Δ2Δ3Δ strain was avirulent in mice, as it was rapidly cleared from the lungs of infected mice. Here, we report that clearance of the cda1Δ2Δ3Δ strain was associated with sharply spiked concentrations of proinflammatory molecules that are known to be critical mediators of the orchestration of a protective Th1-type adaptive immune response. This was followed by the selective enrichment of the Th1-type T cell population in the cda1Δ2Δ3Δ strain-infected mouse lung. Importantly, this response resulted in the development of robust protective immunity to a subsequent lethal challenge with a virulent wild-type C. neoformans strain. Moreover, protective immunity was also induced in mice vaccinated with heat-killed cda1Δ2Δ3Δ cells and was effective in multiple mouse strains. The results presented here provide a strong framework to develop the cda1Δ2Δ3Δ strain as a potential vaccine candidate for C. neoformans infection. PMID:27165801

  20. An Update on Cryptococcosis Among HIV-Infected Persons

    OpenAIRE

    Warkentien, Tyler; Nancy F Crum-Cianflone

    2010-01-01

    Cryptococcus remains an important opportunistic infection in HIV patients despite considerable declines in prevalence during the HAART era. This is particularly apparent in sub-Saharan Africa, where Cryptococcus continues to cause significant mortality and morbidity. This review discusses the microbiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical presentation of cryptococcal infections in HIV patients. Additionally, a detailed approach to the management of cryptococcosis is provided.

  1. HIV INFECTION PRESENTING AS APLASTIC ANEMIA: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Fayaz Ahmad; Lateef Ahmad; Javid; Roohi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Disorders of the hematopoietic system including lym phadenopathy, anemia, leukopenia, and/or thrombocytopenia are common thro ughout the course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and may be t he direct result of HIV infection, manifestations of opportunistic infections and neop lasms, or side effects of therapy. However aplastic anemia due to HIV infection is very rare. Though anemia is seen with advanced disease and associated with poor...

  2. Mycobacterium avium complex enteritis in HIV-infected patient

    OpenAIRE

    Masahiro Ishikane; Junko Tanuma

    2014-01-01

    Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection is an important AIDS-defining opportunistic infection. The introduction of antimicrobial prophylaxis and antiretroviral therapy (ART) markedly reduced the incidence of disseminated MAC infection and improved the survival of affected individuals. However, it seems that patients with new or recurrent MAC infection are still encountered in clinical practice. Our images captured the characteristic endoscopic findings of MAC duodenitis. The ...

  3. Global changes in gene expression by the opportunistic pathogen Burkholderia cenocepacia in response to internalization by murine macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolman Jennifer S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen causing life-threatening infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. The bacterium survives within macrophages by interfering with endocytic trafficking and delaying the maturation of the B. cenocepacia-containing phagosome. We hypothesize that B. cenocepacia undergoes changes in gene expression after internalization by macrophages, inducing genes involved in intracellular survival and host adaptation. Results We examined gene expression by intracellular B. cenocepacia using selective capture of transcribed sequences (SCOTS combined with microarray analysis. We identified 767 genes with significantly different levels of expression by intracellular bacteria, of which 330 showed increased expression and 437 showed decreased expression. Affected genes represented all aspects of cellular life including information storage and processing, cellular processes and signaling, and metabolism. In general, intracellular gene expression demonstrated a pattern of environmental sensing, bacterial response, and metabolic adaptation to the phagosomal environment. Deletion of various SCOTS-identified genes affected bacterial entry into macrophages and intracellular replication. We also show that intracellular B. cenocepacia is cytotoxic towards the macrophage host, and capable of spread to neighboring cells, a role dependent on SCOTS-identified genes. In particular, genes involved in bacterial motility, cobalamin biosynthesis, the type VI secretion system, and membrane modification contributed greatly to macrophage entry and subsequent intracellular behavior of B. cenocepacia. Conclusions B. cenocepacia enters macrophages, adapts to the phagosomal environment, replicates within a modified phagosome, and exhibits cytotoxicity towards the host cells. The analysis of the transcriptomic response of intracellular B. cenocepacia reveals that metabolic adaptation to a new niche plays a major role

  4. Circovirus in domestic and wild carnivores: An important opportunistic agent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccaria, Guendalina; Malatesta, Daniela; Scipioni, Gabriella; Di Felice, Elisabetta; Campolo, Marco; Casaccia, Claudia; Savini, Giovanni; Di Sabatino, Daria; Lorusso, Alessio

    2016-03-01

    Circoviruses are relatively novel pathogens with increased importance in canids. In this study, we first screened the presence of dog circovirus (DogCV) by molecular methods from a total number of 389 internal organ samples originating from 277 individuals of domestic dogs and wild animals including wolves, foxes and badgers. All the animals originated from Central-Southern Italy, specifically from Abruzzi and Molise regions, areas hosting several natural parks. DogCV was detected in 9/34 wolves (P=26.4%; IC 95%: 14.6-43.1%), 8/209 dogs (P=3.8%; IC 95%: 1.9-7.3%), 0/24 foxes (P=0%; IC 95%: 0-13.8%), 1/10 badgers (P=10%; IC 95%: 1.79-40.4%). However, all DogCV positive animals were shown to be infected at least by an additional key pathogen, including canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine parvovirus type 2. All wolves, but one, presenting DogCV in the internal tissues suffered from CDV infection. The DNA purified from 17 DogCV infected organs was used for whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. PMID:26848830

  5. Prevalence of AIDS-related high risk behaviors among men who have sex with men with STI%不同性传播感染MSM艾滋病高危行为对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于增照; 李洋; 史同新; 李秀芳; 张北川; 王燕飞

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨男男性行为者(MSM)中近1年内曾患性传播感染(STI)者与未患STI者的艾滋病(AIDS)高危行为状况.方法 采用滚雪球法进行横断面调查;应用SPSS 13.0软件对9个城市2 134名MSM进行匿名问卷分析,比较患STI者与未患STI者AIDS高危行为差异.结果 患STI者中累计同性肛交性伴数、近6个月同性肛交性伴数中位数分别为20、3个,均高于未患STI者的7、2个;近1年内,患STI者中有28.8% (95/330)曾参加群交,24.7%(81/328)向同性买性,44.1%(146/331)性交时出血,均高于未患STI者的17.0%(289/1 697)、11.4%(189/1 657)、24.4%(417/1 706)(P=0.000);患STI者中有67.3%(181/269)近1次同性肛交时使用安全套,低于未患STI者的76.9%(964/1 253)(x2=11.065,P=0.001);患STI者艾滋病病毒(HIV)感染率为4.03%(14/347),明显高于未患STI者的1.96% (35/1 787) (x2=5.582,P=0.018).结论 MSM中患STI者具有更多的AIDS高危行为,需加强对其进行健康干预.%Objective To investigate the prevalence of AIDS-related high risk behaviors among men who have sex with men(MSM) ever infected by sexually transmitted disease(STI) within previous one year.Methods Snowball sampiing and an anonymous questionnaire survey were adopted for a cross-sectional study to compare the differences in high risk behaviors related to AIDS between MSM with STI and without STI experience in nine cities.SPSS 13.0 statistical software was used in data analysis.Results Among the 2 134 MSM,compared to the MSM without STI experience,the MSM with STI had a significant higher number of total sexual partners of anal sex with same sex and the number of anal sex in the previous six months,with the medians of 20.0 and 3.0,respectively.In the previous year,28.8 % (95/330)of MSM with STI participated in group sex,24.7% (81/328)had commercial homosex,44.1% (146/331)reported bleeding while having sexual intercourse,with significant differences compared to those of MSM

  6. Monitoring of opportunistic and pathogenic microorganisms in surgical departments of Dniprodzerzhynsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Donets

    2013-03-01

    microorganisms to antibiotics. To do that, we use the disc diffusion method. The antibiogram tests of isolated bacterial strains used Mueller-Hinton agar. According to the data obtained we assign of microorganisms to certain category of sensitivity: sensitive, moderately resistant or resistant. Monitoring of prevalent microorganisms showed that 61% (893 of 1464 isolates were gram-positive bacteria, 696 strains of them are staphylococci. 477 of these are identified as S. aureus, representing 68.5% of all Staphylococcus. We found coagulase negative staphylococci in 192 patients, and the strains of S. haemolyticus are dominated. Strains of the family Streptococcaceae isolated from 197 patients. Among them the E. faecalis accounted for 66% of the total number of Streptococcus. Gram negative bacteria were presented by the families Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonaceae. Enterobacteriaceae accounted for 90.7% (518 of 571. E. coli plays the leading role and accounted for 42% of all Enterobacteriaceae. The strains of P. aeruginosa were identified in 53 patients. S. haemolyticus has played an important role as a pathogen as well as S. aureus. Its resistance to antibiotics is much higher than that of S. aureus. Although S. haemolyticus is opportunistic coagulase negative, it can be isolated from patients not only with chronic, but with acute infection. Thus nowadays the strains of S. haemolyticus gained high pathogenic and virulent properties.

  7. Joint Network Coding and Opportunistic Scheduling for the Bidirectional Relay Channel

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2013-05-27

    In this paper, we consider a two-way communication system in which two users communicate with each other through an intermediate relay over block-fading channels. We investigate the optimal opportunistic scheduling scheme in order to maximize the long-term average transmission rate in the system assuming symmetric information flow between the two users. Based on the channel state information, the scheduler decides that either one of the users transmits to the relay, or the relay transmits to a single user or broadcasts to both users a combined version of the two users’ transmitted information by using linear network coding. We obtain the optimal scheduling scheme by using the Lagrangian dual problem. Furthermore, in order to characterize the gains of network coding and opportunistic scheduling, we compare the achievable rate of the system versus suboptimal schemes in which the gains of network coding and opportunistic scheduling are partially exploited.

  8. Opportunistic Routing with Congestion Diversity in Wireless Ad-hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bhorkar, Abhijeet; Javidi, Tara

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of routing packets across a multi-hop network consisting of multiple sources of traffic and wireless links while ensuring bounded expected delay. Each packet transmission can be overheard by a random subset of receiver nodes among which the next relay is selected opportunistically. The main challenge in the design of minimum-delay routing policies is balancing the trade-off between routing the packets along the shortest paths to the destination and distributing traffic according to the maximum backpressure. Combining important aspects of shortest path and backpressure routing, this paper provides a systematic development of a distributed opportunistic routing policy with congestion diversity ({D-ORCD}). {D-ORCD} uses a measure of draining time to opportunistically identify and route packets along the paths with an expected low overall congestion. {D-ORCD} is proved to ensure a bounded expected delay for all networks and under any admissible traffic. Furthermore, this paper proposes a p...

  9. Public policy and regulatory implications for the implementation of Opportunistic Cloud Computing Services for Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, Eric; Olesen, Henning; Henten, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Opportunistic Cloud Computing Services (OCCS) is a social network approach to the provisioning and management of cloud computing services for enterprises. This paper discusses how public policy and regulations will impact on OCCS implementation. We rely on documented publicly available government...... and corporate policies on the adoption of cloud computing services and deduce the impact of these policies on their adoption of opportunistic cloud computing services. We conclude that there are regulatory challenges on data protection that raises issues for cloud computing adoption in general; and...... the lack of a single globally accepted data protection standard poses some challenges for very successful implementation of OCCS for companies. However, the direction of current public and corporate policies on cloud computing make a good case for them to try out opportunistic cloud computing services....

  10. Improved Power-Delay Trade-off in Wireless Networks Using Opportunistic Routing

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, Won-Yong; Lee, Yong H

    2009-01-01

    We study the benefits of opportunistic routing in wireless networks by examining how the power and delay scale as the number of source-destination (S-D) pairs in the network increases. The scaling behavior of conventional multi-hop transmission that does not employ opportunistic routing is also examined for comparison. Our results indicate that opportunistic routing can exhibit a better power--delay trade-off than that of conventional routing by providing up to a logarithmic boost in the scaling law. Such a gain is possible since the receivers can tolerate more interference due to the increased received signal power provided by the multi-user diversity (MUD) gain, which means having more simultaneous transmissions is possible. Computer simulations for both routing schemes are also performed, which show trends consistent with our analytical predictions.

  11. The Prevalence of Different Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission Routes and Knowledge about AIDS in Infected People with HIV in Sirjan

    OpenAIRE

    Mahin Behzadpour; Narges Khanjani

    2012-01-01

    Background & Objective: The immune system of Patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is weekend because of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and they become vulnerable to several opportunistic and non-opportunistic pathogens and different carcinomas. IV drug abuse, sexual contact, occupational transmission, blood transfusion and maternal-fetal transmission are well known transmission routes for HIV infection. This study was under taken to investigate the prevalenc...

  12. Opportunistic relaying in multipath and slow fading channel: Relay selection and optimal relay selection period

    KAUST Repository

    Sungjoon Park,

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we present opportunistic relay communication strategies of decode and forward relaying. The channel that we are considering includes pathloss, shadowing, and fast fading effects. We find a simple outage probability formula for opportunistic relaying in the channel, and validate the results by comparing it with the exact outage probability. Also, we suggest a new relay selection algorithm that incorporates shadowing. We consider a protocol of broadcasting the channel gain of the previously selected relay. This saves resources in slow fading channel by reducing collisions in relay selection. We further investigate the optimal relay selection period to maximize the throughput while avoiding selection overhead. © 2011 IEEE.

  13. Performance analysis of adaptive modulation for cognitive radios with opportunistic access

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yunfei

    2011-06-01

    The performance of adaptive modulation for cognitive radio with opportunistic access is analyzed by considering the effects of spectrum sensing and primary user traffic for Nakagami-m fading channels. Both the adaptive continuous rate scheme and the adaptive discrete rate scheme are considered. Numerical results show that spectrum sensing and primary user traffic cause considerable degradation to the bit error rate performance of adaptive modulation in a cognitive radio system with opportunistic access to the licensed channel. They also show that primary user traffic does not affect the link spectral efficiency performance of adaptive modulation, while the spectrum sensing degrades the link spectral efficiency performance. © 2011 IEEE.

  14. Distributed SIR-Aware Opportunistic Access Control for D2D Underlaid Cellular Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zheng; Kountouris, Marios

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a distributed interference and channel-aware opportunistic access control technique for D2D underlaid cellular networks, in which each potential D2D link is active whenever its estimated signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) is above a predetermined threshold so as to maximize the D2D area spectral efficiency. The objective of our SIR-aware opportunistic access scheme is to provide sufficient coverage probability and to increase the aggregate rate of D2D links by harnes...

  15. Switch Based Opportunistic Spectrum Access for General Primary User Traffic Model

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

    2012-06-18

    This letter studies cognitive radio transceiver that can opportunistically use the available channels of primary user (PU). Specifically, we investigate and compare two different opportunistic channel access schemes. The first scheme applies when the secondary user (SU) has access to only one channel. The second scheme, based on channel switching mechanism, applies when the SU has access to multiple channels but can at a given time monitor and access only one channel. For these access schemes, we derive the exact analytical results for the novel performance metrics of average access time and average waiting time under general PU traffic models.

  16. Bad Apples, Bad Barrels, and the Structure of Marketing Channel Relationships: Analyses of the Propensity for Opportunism and Opportunistic Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Ishida, Chiharu

    2007-01-01

    The theoretical frameworks of transaction cost economics and agency theory are widely used to design appropriate governance structure for constraining opportunism within marketing channels. These approaches generally assume that marketing channel managers are opportunistic, and only economic constraints deter opportunism in exchange relationships. However, some empirical studies have shown that managers do not always behave opportunistically even if conditions permit such behavior. In additio...

  17. Danish General Practitioners' Use of Prostate-Specific Antigen in Opportunistic Screening for Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Kasper; Søndergaard, Jens; Larsen, Pia Veldt;

    2013-01-01

    Background. The use of prostate-specific antigen test has markedly increased in Danish general practice in the last decade. Despite the national guidelines advice against PSA screening, opportunistic screening is supposed to be the primary reason for this increased number of PSA tests performed...

  18. Channel access delay and buffer distribution of two-user opportunistic scheduling schemes in wireless networks

    KAUST Repository

    Hossain, Md Jahangir

    2010-07-01

    In our earlier works, we proposed rate adaptive hierarchical modulation-assisted two-best user opportunistic scheduling (TBS) and hybrid two-user scheduling (HTS) schemes. The proposed schemes are innovative in the sense that they include a second user in the transmission opportunistically using hierarchical modulations. As such the frequency of information access of the users increases without any degradation of the system spectral efficiency (SSE) compared to the classical opportunistic scheduling scheme. In this paper, we analyze channel access delay of an incoming packet at the base station (BS) buffer when our proposed TBS and HTS schemes are employed at the BS. Specifically, using a queuing analytic model we derive channel access delay as well as buffer distribution of the packets that wait at BS buffer for down-link (DL) transmission. We compare performance of the TBS and HTS schemes with that of the classical single user opportunistic schemes namely, absolute carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR)-based single user scheduling (ASS) and normalized CNR-based single user scheduling (NSS). For an independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) fading environment, our proposed scheme can improve packet\\'s access delay performance compared to the ASS. Selected numerical results in an independent but non-identically distributed (i.n.d.) fading environment show that our proposed HTS achieves overall good channel access delay performance. © 2010 IEEE.

  19. Opportunistic Interference Cancellation Evaluation in Cognitive Radios under Power Control Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suriano, Ferdinando; De Rango, Floriano; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This work considers a cognitive radio (secondary system) that operates under the interference of a WiMAX-like legacy (primary) system. The secondary terminals have knowledge of the codebooks used in the primary system and can apply Opportunistic Interference Cancellation (OIC): if the channel...

  20. Opportunistic Interference Mitigation Achieves Optimal Degrees-of-Freedom in Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Bang Chul; Shin, Won-Yong

    2010-01-01

    We introduce an opportunistic interference mitigation (OIM) for cellular networks, where a user scheduling strategy is utilized in uplink $K$-cell environments with time-invariant channel coefficients and base stations (BSs) having $M$ receive antennas. In the OIM scheme, each BS opportunistically selects a set of users who generate the minimum interference to the other BSs. We consider two OIM protocols according to the number $S$ of simultaneously transmitting users per cell: an opportunistic interference nulling (OIN) and an opportunistic interference alignment (OIA). Then, their performance is analyzed in terms of degrees-of-freedom (DoFs). It is shown that $KM$ DoFs are achievable under the OIN protocol with $M$ selected users per cell, while the OIA scheme with $S$ selected users (smaller than $M$) achieves $KS$ DoFs. Assuming that $N$ denotes the total number of users in a cell, we also analyze the scaling condition between system parameters $K$, $M$, $N$, $S$, and the received signal-to-noise ratio su...

  1. Performance of systematic and non-systematic ('opportunistic') screening mammography: a comparative study from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bihrmann, Kristine; Jensen, Allan; Olsen, Anne Helene;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Evaluation and comparison of the performance of organized and opportunistic screening mammography. METHODS: Women attending screening mammography in Denmark in 2000. The study included 37,072 women attending organized screening. Among these, 320 women were diagnosed with breast cancer...

  2. Opportunistic pathogens in roof-captured rainwater samples, determined using quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, W; Brandes, H; Gyawali, P; Sidhu, J P S; Toze, S

    2014-04-15

    In this study, quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used for the detection of four opportunistic bacterial pathogens in water samples collected from 72 rainwater tanks in Southeast Queensland, Australia. Tank water samples were also tested for fecal indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp.) using culture-based methods. Among the 72 tank water samples tested, 74% and 94% samples contained E. coli and Enterococcus spp., respectively, and the numbers of E. coli and Enterococcus spp. in tank water samples ranged from 0.3 to 3.7 log₁₀ colony forming units (CFU) per 100 mL of water. In all, 29%, 15%, 13%, and 6% of tank water samples contained Aeromonas hydrophila, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Legionella pneumophila, respectively. The genomic units (GU) of opportunistic pathogens in tank water samples ranged from 1.5 to 4.6 log₁₀ GU per 100 mL of water. A significant correlation was found between E. coli and Enterococcus spp. numbers in pooled tank water samples data (Spearman's rs = 0.50; P < 0.001). In contrast, fecal indicator bacteria numbers did not correlate with the presence/absence of opportunistic pathogens tested in this study. Based on the results of this study, it would be prudent, to undertake a Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) analysis of opportunistic pathogens to determine associated health risks for potable and nonpotable uses of tank water. PMID:24531256

  3. Performance analysis of multichannel medium access control algorithms for opportunistic spectrum access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawelczak, P.; Pollin, S.; So, H.-S.W.; Bahai, A.R.S.; Prasad, R.V.; Hekmat, R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, different control channel (CC) implementations for multichannel medium access control (MAC) algorithms are compared and analyzed in the context of opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) as a function of spectrum-sensing performance and licensed user activity. The analysis is based on a d

  4. Research of opportunistic behavior in the market of non-standard products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Sergeyevna Grigoryeva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the characteristic features of opportunistic behavior in the markets of complex products not subject to standardization by the example of rendering services during constructionandassembling operations. Methods analysis synthesis collection and description of empirical data. Results a significant amount of theoretical material has been analyzed budgets of constructionandassembling operations have been analyzed normative documents have been studied. A poll of quantity surveyors supervisors of constructionandassembling operations consumers of services and works have been carried out. The differences were revealed in the kinds of opportunistic behavior in the nonstandard products markets compared to the standard products markets the results of those surveys were presented in the earlier works by the author. Scientific novelty it has been shown that in case of individual elaboration of each project due to the uniqueness of the result of economic activity as a single complex the opportunistic behavior has such prerequisites as high costs for measurements and control of the quantity and quality of the rendered services and used materials lack of professional competencies of the consumers in the sphere of activity of the producer. Practical value the key provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in the scientific and educational activity when viewing the issues of opportunistic revelations between economic subjects. nbsp

  5. From Spectrum Pooling to Space Pooling: Opportunistic Interference Alignment in MIMO Cognitive Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Perlaza, S M; Lasaulce, S; Debbah, M

    2009-01-01

    We describe a non-cooperative interference alignment (IA) technique which allows an opportunistic multiple input multiple output (MIMO) link (secondary) to harmlessly coexist with another MIMO link (primary) in the same frequency band. We assume perfect channel knowledge in the primary receiver and transmitter such that capacity is achieved by transmiting along the spatial directions (SD) associated with the singular values of its channel matrix using a water-filling power allocation (PA) scheme. Often, power limitations lead the primary transmitter to leave some of its SD unused. We show that the opportunistic link can transmit its own data if it is possible to align the interference produced on the primary link with such unused SDs. We provide both a processing scheme to perform IA and a PA scheme which maximizes the transmission rate of the opportunistic link. We determine the asymptotes of the achievable transmission rates of the opportunistic link in the regime of large numbers of antennas to show that d...

  6. Opportunistic mobile air pollution monitoring: A case study with city wardens in Antwerp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bossche, Joris; Theunis, Jan; Elen, Bart; Peters, Jan; Botteldooren, Dick; De Baets, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore the potential of opportunistic mobile monitoring to map the exposure to air pollution in the urban environment at a high spatial resolution. Opportunistic mobile monitoring makes use of existing mobile infrastructure or people's common daily routines to move measurement devices around. Opportunistic mobile monitoring can also play a crucial role in participatory monitoring campaigns as a typical way to gather data. A case study to measure black carbon was set up in Antwerp, Belgium, with the collaboration of city employees (city wardens). The Antwerp city wardens are outdoors for a large part of the day on surveillance tours by bicycle or on foot, and gathered a total of 393 h of measurements. The data collection is unstructured both in space and time, leading to sampling bias. A temporal adjustment can only partly counteract this bias. Although a high spatial coverage was obtained, there is still a rather large uncertainty on the average concentration levels at a spatial resolution of 50 m due to a limited number of measurements and sampling bias. Despite of this uncertainty, large spatial patterns within the city are clearly captured. This study illustrates the potential of campaigns with unstructured opportunistic mobile monitoring, including participatory monitoring campaigns. The results demonstrate that such an approach can indeed be used to identify broad spatial trends over a wider area, enabling applications including hotspot identification, personal exposure studies, regression mapping, etc. But, they also emphasize the need for repeated measurements and careful processing and interpretation of the data.

  7. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in the era of antiretroviral therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Velásquez, Jorge N; Bibiana A Ledesma; Nigro, Monica G; Natalia Vittar; Nestor Rueda; Luis De Carolis; Olga Figueiras; Silvana Carnevale; Marcelo Corti

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a severe opportunistic infection in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The lung is a major site of infection after the central nervous system. In this report we described two cases of pneumonia due to Toxoplasma gondii infection in HIV patients with antiretroviral therapy. Clinical and radiological abnormalities are not specific. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis should be considered in HIV-infected patients with late stage of HIV, CD4 count less than 100 c...

  8. Fatal lower limb infection by Trichosporon asahii in an immunocompetent patient

    OpenAIRE

    Baka, Stavroula; Tsouma, Iliana; Kouskouni, Evangelia

    2014-01-01

    Trichosporon asahii can cause superficial skin infections and can be an opportunistic pathogen that produces potentially fatal systemic infections in immunocompromised hosts. We report a case of lower limb infection due to T. asahii in an immunocompetent patient who displayed no evidence of underlying disease but developed an ultimately lethal T. asahii systemic infection. There is a strong possibility that our patient had been colonized at the site infection as part of the normal skin flora....

  9. Opportunistic or event-driven maintenance at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) uses a maintenance management philosophy that is best described as opportunistic or event-driven. Opportunistic maintenance can be defined as a systematic method of collecting, investigating, pre-planning, and publishing a set of proposed maintenance tasks and acting on them when there is an unscheduled failure or repair ''opportunity''. Opportunistic maintenance can be thought of as a modification of the run-to-fail maintenance management philosophy. This maintenance plan was adopted and developed to improve the overall availability of SLAC's linear accelerator, beam delivery systems, and associated controls, power systems, and utilities. In the late 1980's, as the technical complexity of the accelerator facility increased, variations on a conventional maintenance plan were used with mixed results. These variations typically included some type of regular periodic interruption to operations. The periodic shutdowns and unscheduled failures were additive and resulted in unsatisfactory availability. Maintenance issues are evaluated in a daily meeting that includes the accelerator managers, maintenance supervisors and managers, safety office personnel, program managers, and accelerator operators. Lists of pending maintenance tasks are made available to the general SLAC population by a World Wide Web site on a local internet. A conventional information system which pre-dates the WWW site is still being used to provide paper copies to groups that are not yet integrated into the WWW system. The local internet provides real time maintenance information, allowing people throughout the facility to track progress on tasks with essentially real-time status updates. With the introduction of opportunistic maintenance, the accelerator's availability has been measurably better. This paper will discuss processes, rolls and responsibilities of key maintenance groups, and management tools developed to support opportunistic maintenance

  10. Antibiotic Resistance in Acinetobacter Baumannii Strains Isolated from Nosocomial Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Pinar Korkmaz

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen and one of the most important multidrug-resistant microorganisms in hospitals worldwide. A.baumannii most commonly causes ventilator-associated pneumonia and blood stream infections and mortality rates in these infections can reach 35%. In this study, it was aimed to assess the frequency of Acinetobacter baumannii species which were considered to be causative agents of nosocomial infection and their resistance to antimicrobi...

  11. Mortality and morbidity patterns among HIV patients with prognostic markers in a tertiary care hospital in southern India

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeev A; Sharma A

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundOpportunistic infections are an important cause ofmorbidity and mortality in persons infected with HIV. Inrecent years, antiretroviral treatment (ART) and prophylaxisagainst various other opportunistic infections havecontributed to a decrease in AIDS-related mortality. Weconducted a study of HIV infected inpatients in our centreto study the various factors contributing to mortality inHIV/AIDS patients and to study the role of antiretroviraldrugs in increasing longevity.MethodWe retr...

  12. Investigation of cognitive status of hospital cleaning workers about the AIDS related knowledge%医院保洁人员对艾滋病相关知识的认知状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽芹; 陈东方; 夏亮; 孟萌; 陈瑜; 杨晓红

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the currently cognitive status on AIDS related knowledge among hospital clean‐ing workers so as to put forward reasonable proposals and measures .METHODS Totally 165 cleaning workers were investigated with self‐designed questionnaire by random cluster sampling in Jul .2014 in the hospital .RESULTS In 165 cleaning workers ,147 of them knew about AIDS and the awareness rate was 89 .9% .The correct rate about the fact that the seeming healthy people may be AIDS infected was 43 .6% ;the completely correct rate on three major transmission route of AIDS were 78(47 .3% ) ,the average knowledge rate was 62 .6% .A total of 148 clean‐ing workers knew that skin puncture by medical machines can increase the chance of acquiring AIDS and the awareness rate was 89 .7% .The investigation objects suffered fear and worry at different levels towards AIDS in‐fected people ,115 (69 .7% )people believed that AIDS patients should be given the same medical service ,only 79 (47 .9% )were still willing to work with friends who suffered AIDS ;all 165 subjects were willing to be trained on the AIDS related knowledge and the training approaches they mainly chose were to watch image data such as video and propaganda film ,and centralized instruction .CONCLUSION The cognitive status of hospital cleaning workers on AIDS related knowledge was not optimistic;managers should strengthen the training and education on AIDS knowledge ,establish the hospital cleaning workers occupational protection rules and regulations ,and enhance the self‐protection ability of the cleaning workers .%目的:了解医院保洁人员对艾滋病相关知识的认知现状,为提出合理化建议和措施提供依据。方法自行设计调查表,采用整群抽样的方法,2014年7月对医院165名保洁人员进行调查。结果165名医院保洁人员中,147人知晓艾滋病,知晓率为89.1%;认为每个人均有可能感染艾滋病者有72人,知晓率为43.6

  13. Keeping Pace with Criminals: An Extended Study of Designing Patrol Allocation against Adaptive Opportunistic Criminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Game theoretic approaches have recently been used to model the deterrence effect of patrol officers’ assignments on opportunistic crimes in urban areas. One major challenge in this domain is modeling the behavior of opportunistic criminals. Compared to strategic attackers (such as terrorists who execute a well-laid out plan, opportunistic criminals are less strategic in planning attacks and more flexible in executing well-laid plans based on their knowledge of patrol officers’ assignments. In this paper, we aim to design an optimal police patrolling strategy against opportunistic criminals in urban areas. Our approach is comprised by two major parts: learning a model of the opportunistic criminal (and how he or she responds to patrols and then planning optimal patrols against this learned model. The planning part, by using information about how criminals responds to patrols, takes into account the strategic game interaction between the police and criminals. In more detail, first, we propose two categories of models for modeling opportunistic crimes. The first category of models learns the relationship between defender strategy and crime distribution as a Markov chain. The second category of models represents the interaction of criminals and patrol officers as a Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN with the number of criminals as the unobserved hidden states. To this end, we: (i apply standard algorithms, such as Expectation Maximization (EM, to learn the parameters of the DBN; (ii modify the DBN representation that allows for a compact representation of the model, resulting in better learning accuracy and the increased speed of learning of the EM algorithm when used for the modified DBN. These modifications exploit the structure of the problem and use independence assumptions to factorize the large joint probability distributions. Next, we propose an iterative learning and planning mechanism that periodically updates the adversary model. We

  14. 娱乐场所女性服务人员艾滋歧视及其对艾滋病防治服务依从性的影响%AIDS-Related Discrimination and its Effects on Prevention Service Adherence among Female Entertainment Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石国政; 殷方兰; 吴杰; 郭丽华; RobertS.Remis; 钟平

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] To investigate AIDS-related discrimination among female entertainment workers (FEWs) and its effect on prevention service adherence. [ Methods ] A total of 126 FEWs were randomly selected from Juyuan New Area as the study subjects, interviewed with an unified questionnaire for socio-demographic, behavioral, cognition and AIDS-related discrimination status, and tested for HIV, HSV-2, syphilis, gonorrhea and Chlamydia trachomatis with blood and urine samples. [ Results ] Among the 126 FEWs investigated, 31.75% came from large KTVs, 62.70% from small hair salons, 2.38% from small foot care stores, and 3.17% from small bathrooms. None was HIV-positive and 22.22% was infected with sexually transmitted diseases (STD). The mean score of AIDS-related discrimination was 4.19 ± 1.61. AIDS-related discrimination had a statistical relationship with the level of AIDS knowledge (x2=5.184, P=0.023). Only 23.81% had HIV tests ever, and "don't know where to go to get a test" and "chance of having AIDS is low" were the main reasons for not to get a test. Those having STD-related symptoms in the past one month accounted for 61.90%, and 70.51% saw a doctor. Those who went for routine STD check-ups in the past one year taken 50.00%, and the mean of STD checkups were 1.79 ± 0.99. In their last sexual encounter, 96.83% used condoms when having sex with clients, but 45.74% did so when with regular sexual partners. The proportion of having a miscarriage ever was 11.11%, and 65.87% for an abortion ever. The times of miscarriage and abortion varied from 1 to 7, with the median of 1. Those using contraceptives accounted for 97.62%, among which 66.67% chose condoms. X2 test showed AIDS-related discrimination had a statistical relationship with HIV test (x2=5.936,P=0.015) and sexually transmitted infection rate (x2=4.829, P=0.028). [ Conclusion ] AIDS-related discrimination is common among FEWs. HIV prevention service adherence is far from being satisfactory, and AIDS-related

  15. Optimality of Multichannel Myopic Sensing in the Presence of Sensing Error for Opportunistic Spectrum Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimization problem for the performance of opportunistic spectrum access is considered in this study. A user, with the limited sensing capacity, has opportunistic access to a communication system with multiple channels. The user can only choose several channels to sense and decides whether to access these channels based on the sensing information in each time slot. Meanwhile, the presence of sensing error is considered. A reward is obtained when the user accesses a channel. The objective is to maximize the expected (discounted or average reward accrued over an infinite horizon. This problem can be formulated as a partially observable Markov decision process. This study shows the optimality of the simple and robust myopic policy which focuses on maximizing the immediate reward. The results show that the myopic policy is optimal in the case of practical interest.

  16. Low-Feedback Opportunistic Scheduling Schemes for Wireless Networks with Heterogenous Users

    KAUST Repository

    Rashid, Faraan

    2012-07-01

    Efficient implementation of resource sharing strategies in a multi-user wireless environment can improve the performance of a network significantly. In this thesis we study various scheduling strategies for wireless networks and handle the problem of opportunistically scheduling transmissions using channel aware schemes. First we propose a scheme that can handle users with asymmetric channel conditions and is opportunistic in the sense that it exploits the multi-user diversity of the network. The scheme requires the users to have a priori knowledge of their channel distributions. The associated overhead is limited meaning it offers reduced feedback load, that does not scale with the increasing number of users. The main technique used to shrink the feedback load is the contention based distributed implementation of a splitting algorithm that does not require explicit feedback to the scheduler from every user. The users find the best among themselves, in a distributed manner, while requiring just a ternary broadcast feedback from the scheduler at the end of each mini-slot. In addition, it can also handle fairness constraints in time and throughput to various degrees. Next we propose another opportunistic scheduler that offers most of the benefits of the previously proposed scheme but is more practical because it can also handle heterogenous users whose channel distributions are unknown. This new scheme actually reduces the complexity and is also more robust for changing traffic patterns. Finally we extend both these schemes to the scenario where there are fixed thresholds, this enables us to handle opportunistic scheduling in practical systems that can only transmit over finite number of discrete rates with the additional benefit that full feedback session, even from the selected user, is never required.

  17. MONITORING OF OPPORTUNISTIC AND PATHOGENIC MICROORGANISMS IN SURGICAL DEPARTMENTS OF DNIPRODZERZHYNSK

    OpenAIRE

    Donets, N.; Sokolova, I.; Moskalenko, A.; Drobina, A.; Vinnikov, A.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents monitoring results of the spread of opportunistic and pathogenic microorganisms in patients of surgical departments of the Dniprodzerzhynsk city hospital No 7. 1464 strains of bacteria isolated from biological material of the patients from January to December 2012 were studied. Relevant standard methods of research and data interpretation in accordance with the regulatory guidelines were used. The microorganisms’ sensitivity to antibiotics was determined by the disk diffusi...

  18. Heuristic Approach to Select Opportunistic Routing Forwarders (HASORF) to Enhance Throughput for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Yousaf Bin Zikria; Summera Nosheen; Jin-Ghoo Choi; Sung Won Kim

    2015-01-01

    Biological schemes provide useful resources for designing adaptive routing protocols for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The key idea behind using bioinspired routing is to find the optimal path to the destination. Similarly, the idea of opportunistic routing (OR) is to find the least number of hops to deliver the data to the destination. Numerous routing schemes have been proposed in WSNs while targeting various performance goals, such as throughput, delay, and link quality. Rec...

  19. Within-host evolution decreases virulence in an opportunistic bacterial pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Mikonranta, Lauri; Mappes, Johanna; Laakso, Jouni; Ketola, Tarmo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Pathogens evolve in a close antagonistic relationship with their hosts. The conventional theory proposes that evolution of virulence is highly dependent on the efficiency of direct host-to-host transmission. Many opportunistic pathogens, however, are not strictly dependent on the hosts due to their ability to reproduce in the free-living environment. Therefore it is likely that conflicting selection pressures for grow...

  20. Performance Analysis of Cell-Phone Worm Spreading in Cellular Networks through Opportunistic Communications

    OpenAIRE

    YAHUI, W.; Deng, S; Huang, H; Deng, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Worms spreading directly between cell-phones over short-range radio (Bluetooth, WiFi, etc.) are increasing rapidly. Communication by these technologies is opportunistic and has very close relation with the social characteristics of the phone carriers. In this paper, we try to evaluate the impact of different characteristics on the spreading performance of worms. On the other hand, the behaviors of worms may have certain impact, too. For example, worms may make phones be completely dysfunc...

  1. Opportunistic Hybrid Transport Protocol (OHTP) for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Yousaf Bin Zikria; Summera Nosheen; Farruh Ishmanov; Sung Won Kim

    2015-01-01

    The inefficient assignment of spectrum for different communications purposes, plus technology enhancements and ever-increasing usage of wireless technology is causing spectrum scarcity. To address this issue, one of the proposed solutions in the literature is to access the spectrum dynamically or opportunistically. Therefore, the concept of cognitive radio appeared, which opens up a new research paradigm. There is extensive research on the physical, medium access control and network layers. T...

  2. Indoor Positioning Using Opportunistic Multi-Frequency RSS With Foot-Mounted INS

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Reliable and accurate positioning systems are expected to significantly improve the safety for first responders and enhance their operational efficiency. To be effective, a first responder positioning systemmust provide room level accuracy during extended time periods of indoor operation. This thesis presents a system which combines a zero-velocity-update (ZUPT) aided inertial navigation system (INS), using a foot-mounted inertial measurement unit (IMU), with the use of opportunistic multi-fr...

  3. Dermatophytes, related keratinophilic and opportunistic fungi in indoor dust of houses and hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Singh I; Mishra A; Kushwaha RKS

    2009-01-01

    Dermatophytes, related keratinophilic and opportunistic fungi were isolated from indoor dust samples of 46 hospitals and 47 houses in Kanpur. A total of 19 fungi represented by 11 genera were isolated by the hair-baiting technique from 230 and 235 samples from hospitals and houses respectively. The isolated fungi are Acremonium implicatum (Indian Type Culture Collection) ITCC 5266 , A. strictum (Germplasm Centre for Keratinophilic Fungi) GPCK 1137 , Aphanoascus fulvescens GPCK 1081 , ...

  4. An opportunistic array beamforming technique based on binary multiobjective wind driven optimization method.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenkai Zhang; Sana Salous; Hailin Li; Yubo Tian

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel binary version of multiobjective wind driven optimization (WDO) for emitted beamforming of opportunistic array radar, which is assumed as a multiobjective optimization problem. Firstly, the emitted signal model and objective functions of optimization are presented. Then the algorithm proposes a new definition of the position vector of air parcel, and brings a good discretization interpretation of continuous WDO. For multiobjective optimization, the grey relational grade (GR...

  5. Evaluation of bluetooth low energy for drone-led opportunistic sensor data collection

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar Romero, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    This document presents a study of Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) in opportunistic data collection scenarios. An overview of BLE protocol stack is examined making emphasis in the Link Layer states and roles, PDU and connection and timing. An introduction to the BLE121LR module is reviewed with its general characteristics such as current consumption and range. A brief description of the software tools that Bluegiga provides to configure the module is shown. Four projects were build; one for the bro...

  6. Coexistence and Interference Mitigation for Wireless Body Area Networks: Improvements using On-Body Opportunistic Relaying

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Jie; SMITH, DAVID

    2013-01-01

    Coexistence, and hence interference mitigation, across multiple wireless body area networks (WBANs) is an important problem as WBANs become more pervasive. Here, two-hop relay-assisted cooperative communications using opportunistic relaying (OR) is proposed for enhancement of coexistence for WBANs. Suitable time division multiple access (TDMA) schemes are employed for both intra-WBAN and inter-WBANs access protocols. To emulate actual conditions of WBAN use, extensive on-body and inter-body "...

  7. A Wireless Video Transmission Scheme Based on MAC-independent Opportunistic Routing &Encoding Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Liu; Li Chen; Lifeng Sun; Shiqiang Yang

    2010-01-01

    It is a tremendous challenge to transmit real-time video streams over wireless sensor network because of the poor wireless communication conditions and the high requirements of video transmission. The opportunistic routing protocol can take advantage of the broadcast nature of wireless communication and can improve transfer throughput significantly. But the bigger size of transmission unit also increases the end-to-end delay at the same time. In order to overcome this problem and improve the ...

  8. An Information-theoretic Model for Knowledge Sharing in Opportunistic Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    ElSherief, Mai; Elbatt, Tamer; Zahran, Ahmed; Helmy, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we establish fundamental limits on the performance of knowledge sharing in opportunistic social net- works. In particular, we introduce a novel information-theoretic model to characterize the performance limits of knowledge sharing policies. Towards this objective, we first introduce the notions of knowledge gain and its upper bound, knowledge gain limit, per user. Second, we characterize these quantities for a number of network topologies and sharing policies. This work constit...

  9. Heavy Metal Distribution in Opportunistic Beach Nourishment: A Case Study in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Spyros Foteinis; Kallithrakas-Kontos, Nikolaos G.; Costas Synolakis

    2013-01-01

    The existence and distribution of persistent pollutants, such as heavy metals, in coastal sediment used for opportunistic beach nourishment, is a problem that has not received much attention. Here, we assessed the coastal sediments in one restoration project for the occurrence and distribution of heavy metals, by utilizing an Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) system. Heavy metal point sources included (i) the effluents of small industries (tanneries), (ii) wastewater treatment plan...

  10. Social-aware Opportunistic Routing Protocol based on User's Interactions and Interests

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Waldir; Mendes, Paulo; Sargento, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, routing proposals must deal with a panoply of heterogeneous devices, intermittent connectivity, and the users' constant need for communication, even in rather challenging networking scenarios. Thus, we propose a Social-aware Content-based Opportunistic Routing Protocol, SCORP, that considers the users' social interaction and their interests to improve data delivery in urban, dense scenarios. Through simulations, using synthetic mobility and human traces scenarios, we compare the per...

  11. Frequency Distribution of Opportunistic Avian Pathogens in Respiratory Distress Cases of Poultry

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Baker Siddique*, Sajjad-ur-Rahman, Iftikhar Hussain and Ghulam Muhammad1

    2012-01-01

    Involvement of opportunistic pathogens in the respiratory distress cases of poultry was detected from the poultry flocks scattered in some districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Serum plate agglutination (SPA) test for serological screening of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) were performed separately and it revealed 80% flocks were sero-positive among respiratory distress cases. Specimen samples including trachea (n=157), lungs (n=40), spleen (n=93), oral (n=201) and nasal ...

  12. Sensor Data Quality Processing for Vital Signs with Opportunistic Ambient Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Sadek, Ibrahim; BISWAS, Jit; Yongwei, Zhu; Haihong, Zhang; MANIYERI, Jayachandran; Zhihao, Chen; Teng, TEO Ju; Huat, Ng Soon; Mohktari, Mounir

    2016-01-01

    International audience Opportunistic ambient sensing involves placement of sensors appropriately so that intermittent contact can be made unobtrusively for gathering physiological signals for vital signs. In this paper, we discuss the results of our quality processing system used to extract heart rate from ballistocardiogram signals obtained from a micro-bending fiber optic sensor pressure mat. Visual inspection is used to label data into informative and non-informative classes based on th...

  13. Allelopathic Interactions between the Opportunistic Species Ulva prolifera and the Native Macroalga Gracilaria lichvoides

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Dong; Gao, Zhengquan; Zhang, Xiaowen; Fan, Xiao; Wang, Yitao; Li, Demao; Wang, Wei; Zhuang, Zhimeng; Ye, Naihao

    2012-01-01

    Allelopathy, one type of direct plant competition, can be a potent mechanism through which plant communities are structured. The aim of this study was to determine whether allelopathic interactions occur between the opportunistic green tide-forming species Ulva prolifera and the native macroalga Gracilaria lichvoides, both of which were collected from the coastline of East China sea. In laboratory experiments, the presence of G. lichvoides at 1.25 g wet weight L−1 significantly inhibited grow...

  14. Opportunistic capacity and error exponent regions for compound channel with feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Mahajan, Aditya; Tatikonda, Sekhar

    2009-01-01

    Variable length communication over a compound channel with feedback is considered. Traditionally, capacity of a compound channel without feedback is defined as the maximum rate that is determined before the start of communication such that communication is reliable. This traditional definition is pessimistic. In the presence of feedback, an opportunistic definition is given. Capacity is defined as the maximum rate that is determined at the end of communication such that communication is relia...

  15. Exploiting Spatial Interference Alignment and Opportunistic Scheduling in the Downlink of Interference Limited Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kuchi, Kiran

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the performance of single stream and multi-stream spatial multiplexing (SM) systems employing opportunistic scheduling in the presence of interference. In the proposed downlink framework, every active user reports the post-processing signal-to-interference-plus-noise-power-ratio (post-SINR) or the receiver specific mutual information (MI) to its own transmitter using a feedback channel. The combination of scheduling and multi-antenna receiver processing leads to subst...

  16. OLFServ: an Opportunistic and Location-Aware Forwarding Protocol for Service Delivery in Disconnected MANETs

    OpenAIRE

    Le Sommer, Nicolas; Mahéo, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Handheld devices equipped with Wi-Fi interfaces are widespread nowadays. These devices can form disconnected mobile ad hoc networks (DMANETs) spontaneously. These net- works may allow service providers, such as local authorities, to deliver new kinds of services in a wide area (e.g. a city) without resorting to the infrastructure-based networks of mobile phone operators. This paper presents OLFServ, a new opportunistic and location-aware forwarding protocol for service discovery and delivery ...

  17. Analytical evaluation of adaptive-modulation-based opportunistic cognitive radio in nakagami-m fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yunfei

    2012-09-01

    The performance of adaptive modulation for cognitive radio with opportunistic access is analyzed by considering the effects of spectrum sensing, primary user (PU) traffic, and time delay for Nakagami- m fading channels. Both the adaptive continuous rate scheme and the adaptive discrete rate scheme are considered. Numerical examples are presented to quantify the effects of spectrum sensing, PU traffic, and time delay for different system parameters. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  18. Opportunistic maintenance and adaptation of warranty maintenance tasks for Power Plant equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. McGibney

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes a link between opportunistic maintenance literature and warranty analysis of a power plant. A new plant warranty maintenance tasks are observed over a two year period. The main aim is to see how opportunistic maintenance could be incorporated when the warranty period has elapsed. The paper examine the warranty period maintenance task list and propose adequate methods for assessing opportunistic maintenance as a preventive maintenance task in order to ensure reliability and availability of the plant equipment. Statistical approach is used to give an insight to the plant equipment status and a modeling approach is proposed to also assess maintenance information defined by experts in the context of actual operating regimes. This study focuses on the power plant‟s critical equipment. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA is conducted on the power plant Booster Fans. This gives an insight about equipment failure mode patterns and maintenance requirements. A simulation example is presented based in the failure modes results obtained and a graphical display of optimum preventive maintenance schedule cost curves is also presented.

  19. Opportunistic Hybrid Transport Protocol (OHTP) for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Zikria, Yousaf; Nosheen, Summera; Ishmanov, Farruh; Kim, Sung Won

    2015-01-01

    The inefficient assignment of spectrum for different communications purposes, plus technology enhancements and ever-increasing usage of wireless technology is causing spectrum scarcity. To address this issue, one of the proposed solutions in the literature is to access the spectrum dynamically or opportunistically. Therefore, the concept of cognitive radio appeared, which opens up a new research paradigm. There is extensive research on the physical, medium access control and network layers. The impact of the transport layer on the performance of cognitive radio ad hoc sensor networks is still unknown/unexplored. The Internet's de facto transport protocol is not well suited to wireless networks because of its congestion control mechanism. We propose an opportunistic hybrid transport protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc sensor networks. We developed a new congestion control mechanism to differentiate true congestion from interruption loss. After such detection and differentiation, we propose methods to handle them opportunistically. There are several benefits to window- and rate-based protocols. To exploit the benefits of both in order to enhance overall system performance, we propose a hybrid transport protocol. We empirically calculate the optimal threshold value to switch between window- and rate-based mechanisms. We then compare our proposed transport protocol to Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)-friendly rate control, TCP-friendly rate control for cognitive radio, and TCP-friendly window-based control. We ran an extensive set of simulations in Network Simulator 2. The results indicate that the proposed transport protocol performs better than all the others. PMID:26694396

  20. Asymmetric competition prevents the outbreak of an opportunistic species after coral reef degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rivero, Manuel; Bozec, Yves-Marie; Chollett, Iliana; Ferrari, Renata; Schönberg, Christine H L; Mumby, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    Disturbance releases space and allows the growth of opportunistic species, excluded by the old stands, with a potential to alter community dynamics. In coral reefs, abundances of fast-growing, and disturbance-tolerant sponges are expected to increase and dominate as space becomes available following acute coral mortality events. Yet, an increase in abundance of these opportunistic species has been reported in only a few studies, suggesting certain mechanisms may be acting to regulate sponge populations. To gain insights into mechanisms of population control, we simulated the dynamics of the common reef-excavating sponge Cliona tenuis in the Caribbean using an individual-based model. An orthogonal hypothesis testing approach was used, where four candidate mechanisms-algal competition, stock-recruitment limitation, whole and partial mortality-were incorporated sequentially into the model and the results were tested against independent field observations taken over a decade in Belize, Central America. We found that releasing space after coral mortality can promote C. tenuis outbreaks, but such outbreaks can be curtailed by macroalgal competition. The asymmetrical competitive superiority of macroalgae, given by their capacity to pre-empt space and outcompete with the sponge in a size-dependant fashion, supports their capacity to steal the opportunity from other opportunists. While multiple system stages can be expected in coral reefs following intense perturbation macroalgae may prevent the growth of other space-occupiers, such as bioeroding sponges, under low grazing pressure. PMID:26753672

  1. Location Prediction-Based Data Dissemination Using Swarm Intelligence in Opportunistic Cognitive Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Swarm intelligence is widely used in the application of communication networks. In this paper we adopt a biologically inspired strategy to investigate the data dissemination problem in the opportunistic cognitive networks (OCNs. We model the system as a centralized and distributed hybrid system including a location prediction server and a pervasive environment deploying the large-scale human-centric devices. To exploit such environment, data gathering and dissemination are fundamentally based on the contact opportunities. To tackle the lack of contemporaneous end-to-end connectivity in opportunistic networks, we apply ant colony optimization as a cognitive heuristic technology to formulate a self-adaptive dissemination-based routing scheme in opportunistic cognitive networks. This routing strategy has attempted to find the most appropriate nodes conveying messages to the destination node based on the location prediction information and intimacy between nodes, which uses the online unsupervised learning on geographical locations and the biologically inspired algorithm on the relationship of nodes to estimate the delivery probability. Extensive simulation is carried out on the real-world traces to evaluate the accuracy of the location prediction and the proposed scheme in terms of transmission cost, delivery ratio, average hops, and delivery latency, which achieves better routing performances compared to the typical routing schemes in OCNs.

  2. On the Optimality of Opportunistic Interference Alignment in 3-Transmitter MIMO Interference Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jung Hoon; Love, David J

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose opportunistic interference alignment (OIA) for three-transmitter multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) interference channels (ICs). In the proposed OIA scheme, each transmitter has its own user group that consists of $K$ users, and each transmitter opportunistically selects the user whose received interference signals are most aligned. Thus, three-transmitter MIMO IC is opportunistically constructed by three transmitters and their selected users. Contrary to conventional IA, perfect channel information for all of the interference links is not required at the transmitter. Each user just needs to feed back one scalar value in the proposed OIA scheme. When the number of receive antennas is $N_R$ (with $N_R=2M$) and the number of transmit antennas is $N_T$ (with $N_T\\ge M$), we prove that each transmitter can achieve $M$ degrees of freedom (DoF) as the number of users in each group goes to infinity ($K\\to\\infty$), in comparison with the $\\frac{2M}{3}$ DoF known to be achievable in the th...

  3. Loss of Social Behaviours in Populations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infecting Lungs of Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiricny, Natalie; Molin, Søren; Foster, Kevin;

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is an opportunistic, bacterial pathogen causing persistent and frequently fatal infections of the lung in patients with cystic fibrosis. Isolates from chronic infections differ from laboratory and environmental strains in a range of traits and this is widely interpreted as...

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections in cystic fibrosis: insights into pathogenic processes and treatment strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassett, Daniel J; Korfhagen, Thomas R; Irvin, Randall T;

    2010-01-01

    CF airway mucus can be infected by opportunistic microorganisms, notably Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Once organisms are established as biofilms, even the most potent antibiotics have little effect on their viability, especially during late-stage chronic infections. Better understanding of the mechani...... mechanisms used by P. aeruginosa to circumvent host defenses and therapeutic intervention strategies is critical for advancing novel treatment strategies....

  5. Ranitidine improves certain cellular immune responses in asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsøn, H J; Svenningsen, A; Moesgaard, F;

    1991-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is characterized by a progressive impairment in immunocompetence leading to severe opportunistic infections and malignancies. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the potential impact of immunomodulation by oral ranitidine, 600 mg daily, for 28...

  6. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 interaction: Pathogenesis and disease modulation in dual infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Mayanja-Kizza

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, we look at the clinical and immunological impact of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) on HIV-1 infection and disease. We show that, unlike other HIV related opportunistic infections, successful treatment of MTB disease may in some patients be associated with some degree of decrease in

  7. Fungal infections in neutropenic cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Invasive fungal infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients with prolonged neutropenia following chemotherapy. Recent trends indicate a change toward infections by Aspergillus species, non-albicans species of Candida, and previously uncommon fungal pathogens. These have decreased susceptibility to current antifungal agents. In the last decade there has been much effort to find solutions for these changing trends. This article reviews current approaches to prevention and treatment of opportunistic fungal infections in postchemotherapy neutropenic patients and discussion future antifungal approaches and supportive methods. (author)

  8. Disseminated cryptococcosis in a patient with advanced HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    A. Krishna Prasad; M.V.S. Subbalaxmi; P. Umabala; T. Roshni Paul; Mallikarjun Shetty

    2014-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients has prolonged survival and reduced the frequency of opportunistic infections (OI). However, following starting of antiretroviral therapy (ART), some patients experience a paradoxical worsening of clinical condition termed as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) an entity, characterized by an excessive inflammatory response to a preexisting antigen or pathogen. Cryptococcus neoformans is one of the important pa...

  9. The implication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rybtke, Morten T; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Høiby, Niels;

    2011-01-01

    Biofilm formation by bacteria is recognized as a major problem in chronic infections due to their recalcitrance against the immune defense and available antibiotic treatment schemes. The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa has drawn special attention in this regard due to its severity of...

  10. 商业人身保险涉及的艾滋病相关问题探讨%Analysis of issues of HIV/AIDS related commercial life insurance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳; 陈清峰

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the issues of HIV/AIDS related commercial life insurance and explore the ways to tackle them in perspectives of conflicting views.Methods Literature concerning these issues were reviewed.Resuits Three conflicting views were present in regards to HIV/AIDS related commercial life insurance: 1)Whether differential treatments concerning HIV/AIDS related commercial life insurance constituted discrimination and stigma; 2)Whether provision of HIV/AIDS related insurance would impact on risk management and control of insurance companies; 3) Whether HIV/AIDS related life insurance is part of social responsibilities undertaken by insurance companies.Conclusion Three issues have led to the conflicting views in regards to HIV/AIDS related commercial life insurance: 1)Perceptions on features of commercial insurance could influence understanding of HIV/AIDS discrimination and stigma in commercial life insurance; 2)Insurance companies are faced with pricing and "non-moral"judgment of HIV/AIDS related risk; 3) There is different understanding of relation between HIV/AIDS related life insurance and social responsibilities of insurance companies.Hence, it is suggested that HIV/AIDS related risk,and scientific definition of differential treatments and HIV/AIDS discrimination in commercial life insurance be objectively assessed, regulations on exclusion clauses of commercial life insurance concerning HIV/AIDS be enhanced,and participation by insurance companies in the fight against HIV/AIDS be promoted.%目的 从艾滋病相关商业人身保险服务现状及针对这些现状的不同观点人手,理清艾滋病相关商业人身保险服务所面临的问题,探讨解决商业人身保险涉及的艾滋病相关问题.方法 采取文献研究方法.结果 对艾滋病相关商业人身保险服务主要有三个对立观点:商业人身保险服务中,艾滋病相关的区别对待是否构成歧视;将艾滋病纳入商业人身保险责任范围,是否对

  11. ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION OF HIV, TB AND THEIR CO-INFECTION STATUS ANALYSIS IN RAJASTHAN STATE IN THE YEAR 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Dhamija Jas; Mittal,, M.; Bhatheja; Sharma; Garg; Akash; Maheshwari

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sparse published data are available in indexed journals regarding burden of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection in Tuberculosis (TB) cases in Rajasthan. OBJECTIVE: HIV infection is a global pandemic which may trigger the occurrence of opportunistic infections, Tuberculosis (TB) being very common. There is strong association between HIV, TB co-infection and a high mortality among HIV-infected TB patients. Therefore this study is undertaken to evaluate status of HIV, TB and...

  12. Pseudomonas aeruginosa adapts its iron uptake strategies in function of the type of infections

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelis, Pierre; Dingemans, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative γ-Proteobacterium which is known for its capacity to colonize various niches, including some invertebrate and vertebrate hosts, making it one of the most frequent bacteria causing opportunistic infections. P. aeruginosa is able to cause acute as well as chronic infections and it uses different colonization and virulence factors to do so. Infections range from septicemia, urinary infections, burn wound colonization, and chronic colonization of the lung...

  13. Analysis of needs for AIDS related health services among MSM in Shanghai%上海地区MSM人群艾滋病相关的需求分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙乔; 许磊; 张枭; 蔡晓峰; 毛军; 康来仪; Steele S; Myers T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To learn the demographic characteristics and needs for AIDS-related health services among MSM in Shanghai, analyze the factors that influence their participation in HIV tests, and provide suggestions for the improvement of the interventions to the high-risk behaviors related with AIDS among MSM. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out to collect information about demographic characteristics, living conditions, social networks and sexual behaviors, history of HIV tests and HIV infections among selected MSM in Shanghai. A total of 314 eligible MSM with different ages and income levels were face-to-face surveyed with questionnaires in 2010. Results Among the MSM investigated, 68. 5/%(215/314) were from other provinces. Only-male sex partners, mainly-male sex partners, male and female sex partners each half and mainly-female sex partners accounted for 64. 0 %'(201/ 314), 21. 7%(68/314),7. 0%(22/314) and 7. 3% (23/314) .respectively. 73. 9%(232/314)of the subjects had history of HIV tests and 63. 4% (199/314) were tested in the past 2 years. The main reason for not taking HIV tests was that the subjects did not believe in the possibility of getting infected. Their suggestions included being given more health education, more care, more understanding and less discrimination, and providing more free and quality condoms. Conclusion The MSM in Shanghai have greater needs for AIDS related health interventions. Strengthened publicity and education for eliminating discrimination against AIDS, provision of more care and understanding for the MSM population and promotion of free and quality condoms to meet their health and psychological needs will play an important role in pursuing effective prevention and control of AIDS transmission.%目的 了解上海地区男男性行为人群(Men who have sex with men,MSM)的社会学特征及艾滋病相关的健康需求,分析该人群主动参与艾滋病病毒(Human immunodeficiency virus,HIV)抗体检测的情况,

  14. Proteomics approach to understand reduced clearance of mycobacteria and high viral titers during HIV-mycobacteria co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganji, Rakesh; Dhali, Snigdha; Rizvi, Arshad; Sankati, Swetha; Vemula, Mani Harika; Mahajan, Gaurang; Rapole, Srikanth; Banerjee, Sharmistha

    2016-03-01

    Environmental mycobacteria, highly prevalent in natural and artificial (including chlorinated municipal water) niches, are emerging as new threat to human health, especially to HIV-infected population. These seemingly harmless non-pathogenic mycobacteria, which are otherwise cleared, establish as opportunistic infections adding to HIV-associated complications. Although immune-evading strategies of pathogenic mycobacteria are known, the mechanisms underlying the early events by which opportunistic mycobacteria establish infection in macrophages and influencing HIV infection are unclear. Proteomics of phagosome-enriched fractions from Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) mono-infected and HIV-M. bovis BCG co-infected THP-1 cells by LC-MALDI-MS/MS revealed differential distribution of 260 proteins. Validation of the proteomics data showed that HIV co-infection helped the survival of non-pathogenic mycobacteria by obstructing phagosome maturation, promoting lipid biogenesis and increasing intracellular ATP equivalents. In turn, mycobacterial co-infection up-regulated purinergic receptors in macrophages that are known to support HIV entry, explaining increased viral titers during co-infection. The mutualism was reconfirmed using clinically relevant opportunistic mycobacteria, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium phlei that exhibited increased survival during co-infection, together with increase in HIV titers. Additionally, the catalogued proteins in the study provide new leads that will significantly add to the understanding of the biology of opportunistic mycobacteria and HIV coalition. PMID:26332641

  15. Members of native coral microbiota inhibit glycosidases and thwart colonization of coral mucus by an opportunistic pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Cory J Krediet; Ritchie, Kim B.; Alagely, Ali; Teplitski, Max

    2012-01-01

    The outcome of the interactions between native commensal microorganisms and opportunistic pathogens is crucial to the health of the coral holobiont. During the establishment within the coral surface mucus layer, opportunistic pathogens, including a white pox pathogen Serratia marcescens PDL100, compete with native bacteria for available nutrients. Both commensals and pathogens employ glycosidases and N-acetyl-glucosaminidase to utilize components of coral mucus. This study tested the hypothes...

  16. 1Molecular basis of Staphylococcus epidermidis infections

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most important member of the coagulase-negative staphylococci and one of the most abundant colonizers of human skin. While for a long time regarded as innocuous, it has been identified as the most frequent cause of device-related infections occurring in the hospital setting and is therefore now recognized as an important opportunistic pathogen. S. epidermidis produces a series of molecules that provide protection from host defenses. Specifically, many protein...

  17. Multiple Intracranial Aneurysms in HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Sumeet R; Gupta, Anju; Gupta, Vivek; Singhi, Pratibha D

    2016-08-01

    Neurological findings in HIV are common and include cognitive impairment, microcephaly, nonspecific white matter lesions and seizures. Cerebral vasculopathy and stroke are uncommon and may be due to primary HIV vasculopathy or opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis and cryptococcal meningitis. The authors describe a 7-y-old boy who presented with severe headache and was detected to have aneurysmal bleed due to intracranial aneurysm. PMID:27072660

  18. Use of a population-based survey to determine incidence of AIDS-defining opportunistic illnesses among HIV-positive persons receiving medical care in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullivan Patrick S

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosis of an opportunistic illness (OI in a person with HIV infection is a sentinel event, indicating opportunities for improving diagnosis of HIV infection and secondary prevention efforts. In the past, rates of OIs in the United States have been calculated in observational cohorts, which may have limited representativeness. Methods We used data from a 1998 population-based survey of persons in care for HIV infection to demonstrate the utility of population-based survey data for the calculation of OI rates, with inference to populations in care for HIV infection in three geographic areas: King County Washington, selected health districts in Louisiana, and the state of Michigan. Results The overall OI rate was 13.8 per 100 persons with HIV infection in care during 1998 (95% CI, 10.2–17.3. In 1998, an estimated 11.3% of all persons with HIV in care in these areas had at least one OI diagnosis (CI, 8.8–13.9. The most commonly diagnosed OIs were Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP (annual incidence 2.4 per 100 persons, CI 1.0–3.8 and cytomegalovirus retinitis (annual incidence 2.4 per 100 persons, CI 1.0–3.7. OI diagnosis rates were higher in Michigan than in the other two geographic areas, and were different among patients who were white, black and of other races, but were not different by sex or history of injection drug use. Conclusion Data from population-based surveys – and, in the coming years, clinical outcomes surveillance systems in the United States – can be used to calculate OI rates with improved generalizability, and such rates should be used in the future as a meaningful indicator of clinical outcomes in persons with HIV infection in care.

  19. 2009-2011年北京市西城区暗娼艾滋病知识行为调查分析%Investigation and analysis on AIDS-related knowledge and behaviors among female sex workers in Xicheng district of Beijing from 2009-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 李民; 于建平; 闵婕; 张向军; 韩强

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解2009-2011年北京市西城区暗娼(FSW)人群艾滋病知识认知水平、行为特征和人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)、梅毒感染率,为开展有针对性的行为干预和宣教工作提供依据.方法 使用问卷每年对200人进行艾滋病防治相关知识与行为调查;采集静脉血标本,检测HIV、梅毒螺旋体抗体.结果 2009-2011年,FSW的艾滋病知识知晓率分别为77.5%、81.0%和99.0%,差异有统计学意义(X2=43.78,P<0.01).最近1次商业性行为时安全套使用率分别为56.5%、46.0%和93.0% (P <0.01).梅毒检出率分别为1.5%、1.0%和1.0%,HIV抗体阳性检出率分别为0.5%、0、0.结论 2009-2011年,北京市西城区FSW人群艾滋病知识知晓率逐年上升.2011年最近1次商业性行为时安全套使用率较2009和2010年明显上升,但安全套坚持使用率仍较低,应继续加强安全套推广工作,继续做好对该人群艾滋病性病的宣传教育及干预工作.%[Objective]To understand the status of AIDS-related knowledge and behavior characteristics, as well as the infection rate of HIV and syphilis among female sex workers ( FSWs) in Xicheng district of Beijing from 2009-2011, provide the basis for implementing behavioral intervention and health education. [ Methods]An investigation about AIDS-related knowledge and behaviors was conducted in 200 FSWs with questionnaires every year. The venous blood samples were collected for HIV and syphilis detection. [Results]During 2009-2011, the awareness rate of AIDS-related knowledge among FSWs was respectively 77. 5% , 81. 0% and 99.0% , and the difference was significant ( x2=43. 78 ,P <0. 01). The condom use rate in the recent commercial sexual activity was respectively 56. 5% , 46. 0% and 93. 0% (P < 0. 01). The detection rate of syphilis was respectively 1.5%, 1.0% and 1.0%. The detection rate of HIV antibody was respectively 0. 5% , 0 and 0. [ Conclusion]From 2009 to 2011, the awareness rate of AIDS-related

  20. Noninfectious Pulmonary Complications of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Staitieh, Bashar; Guidot, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the retrovirus responsible for the development of AIDS. Its profound impact on the immune system leaves the host vulnerable to a wide range of opportunistic infections not seen in individuals with a competent immune system. Pulmonary infections dominated the presentations in the early years of the epidemic, and infectious and noninfectious lung diseases remain the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in persons living with HIV desp...

  1. Peptide-based Antifungal Therapies against Emerging Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Matejuk, A.; Leng, Q.; Begum, M.D.; Woodle, M.C.; Scaria, P.; Chou, S-T; Mixson, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    Acquired drug resistance to mycotic infections is rapidly emerging as a major medical problem. Opportunistic fungal infections create therapeutic challenges, particularly in high risk immunocompromised patients with AIDS, cancer, and those undergoing transplantation. Higher mortality and/or morbidity rates due to invasive mycosis have been increasing over the last 20 years, and in light of growing resistance to commonly used antibiotics, novel antifungal drugs and approaches are required. Cur...

  2. Interleukin-23-Mediated Inflammation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pulmonary Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Dubin, Patricia J.; Martz, Ashley; Eisenstatt, Jessica R.; Fox, Michael D.; Logar, Alison; Kolls, Jay K.

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that is capable of causing acute and chronic pulmonary infection in the immunocompromised host. In the case of cystic fibrosis (CF), chronic P. aeruginosa infection causes increased mortality by promoting overly exuberant airway inflammation and cumulative lung damage. Identifying the key regulators of this inflammation may lead to the development of new therapies that improve P. aeruginosa-related mortality. We report here that interleukin-...

  3. Imipenem resistance in nonfermenters causing nosocomial urinary tract infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Taneja N; Maharwal S; Sharma Meera

    2003-01-01

    Nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli (nonfermenters) have emerged as important nosocomial pathogens causing opportunistic infections in immunocompromised hosts. These organisms show high level of resistance to b-lactam agents, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. Imipenem is a carbapenem antibiotic, which can be very useful for treatment of infections caused by nonfermenters. Eighty-five nonfermenters causing nosocomial UTI were tested for MIC to imipenem by agar dilution method. Resistance t...

  4. Ocular infection caused by Psychrobacter immobilis acquired in the hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Gini, G A

    1990-01-01

    The name Psychrobacter immobilis recently has been proposed for a group of chiefly psychrotrophic, aerobic, gram-negative, nonmotile, oxidase-positive coccobacilli commonly found associated with fish, processed meat, and poultry products. This article reports an ocular infection in a 12-day-old newborn who acquired the infection in the hospital, probably because of frequent manipulations in a closed aerated incubator. Also, this report intends to alert microbiologists to opportunistic infecti...

  5. Determinations of the First Aid-Related Knowledge Levels of the Mothers Having Children at the Age of 0-6 and Who Live in The Mugla Number Two Health Clinic District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgun Turasay

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The study was planned to determinate the first-aid-related knowledge levels of the mothers with a child aged 0-6. METHOD: The universe of the study consist of 772 mothers having a child aged 0-6 and living in Mugla II Number Health Clinic district. Study was carried out on 561 mothers who accepted. The questionnaire which applied used consist of 64 questions in sum, 8 of which are to solicit personal information and 54 to solicit first-aid-related knowledge level. RESULTS: In the study, first–aid related knowledge situation of mothers having a child aged 0-6 was found 28.74 9.44 out of 54 points and was ascertained that they known first-aid. Statistically significant difference was found between their age groups, their levels of education, their working situations, their situations about obtaining information, their experiments of cases requiring first-aid and knowledge points (p<0.05. CONLUSION: The first-aid topics best know by the mothers were found to be; burn, sun stroke and frost, and the least know were animal savages and insect bites. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(3.000: 217-224

  6. Gender characteristics and HIV/AIDS related knowledge awareness and behaviors of transgender women%跨性别女性的特征及艾滋病相关知识行为调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈吴康; 张晓菲; 吕翠霞; 董蕾; 杜以慧; 傅继华

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand the gender characteristics,HIV/AIDS related knowledge awareness and behaviors of transgender women.Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted among the transgender women recruited through snowball sampling in Jinan in 2014,and descriptive epidemiologic analysis was conducted on the survey results.Results A total of 55 transgender women were surveyed,all of them were male physically and female psychologically.Serious gender conflict occurred in 27 subjects (49.1%),and very serious gender conflict occurred in 8 subjects (14.5%).Thirty subjects dressed up as a man in social life,accounting for 54.5%;25 subjects dressed up as a women in social life,accounting for 45.5%.The average awareness rate of HIV/AIDS related knowledge was 57.9%(22/38).The awareness of knowledge about AIDS associated behaviors,such as multi sex partner and anal sex,was poor.For the lovers or sexual partners,58.2% of the subjects (32/55) would choose males and 50.9% of the subjects (28/55) had chosen males,and for the sex partner at latest sex,63.6%(35/55) of the subjects had chosen males.Up to 56.3% of the subjects had sex with casual sexual partners (net friends and partners of one-night stand) at latest sex behavior.Among the subjects surveyed,18(32.7%) never used condoms;29(52.7%) used condoms occasionally;4(7.3%) used condoms frequently and 4(7.3%) used condoms at each sex.Conclusions AIDS associated high risk behaviors were common among the transgender women,such as unprotected anal sex,multiple sexual partners,frequent sex and poor condom use.It is necessary to conduct the study of the HIV infection prevention in transgender women.%目的 了解跨性别女性(male-to-female,MTF)的性别特征、对艾滋病知识的知晓情况及其艾滋病相关行为状况.方法 2014年在济南市采用滚雪球法招募MTF进行间卷调查,采用描述性流行病学的方法分析该人群的艾滋病知识知晓情况及

  7. Opportunistic Hybrid Transport Protocol (OHTP for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousaf Bin Zikria

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The inefficient assignment of spectrum for different communications purposes, plus technology enhancements and ever-increasing usage of wireless technology is causing spectrum scarcity. To address this issue, one of the proposed solutions in the literature is to access the spectrum dynamically or opportunistically. Therefore, the concept of cognitive radio appeared, which opens up a new research paradigm. There is extensive research on the physical, medium access control and network layers. The impact of the transport layer on the performance of cognitive radio ad hoc sensor networks is still unknown/unexplored. The Internet’s de facto transport protocol is not well suited to wireless networks because of its congestion control mechanism. We propose an opportunistic hybrid transport protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc sensor networks. We developed a new congestion control mechanism to differentiate true congestion from interruption loss. After such detection and differentiation, we propose methods to handle them opportunistically. There are several benefits to window- and rate-based protocols. To exploit the benefits of both in order to enhance overall system performance, we propose a hybrid transport protocol. We empirically calculate the optimal threshold value to switch between window- and rate-based mechanisms. We then compare our proposed transport protocol to Transmission Control Protocol (TCP-friendly rate control, TCP-friendly rate control for cognitive radio, and TCP-friendly window-based control. We ran an extensive set of simulations in Network Simulator 2. The results indicate that the proposed transport protocol performs better than all the others.

  8. A Hierarchical Distance Sampling Approach to Estimating Mortality Rates from Opportunistic Carcass Surveillance Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, Steve E; Gimenez, Olivier; Choquet, Rémi; Getz, Wayne M

    2013-04-01

    Distance sampling is widely used to estimate the abundance or density of wildlife populations. Methods to estimate wildlife mortality rates have developed largely independently from distance sampling, despite the conceptual similarities between estimation of cumulative mortality and the population density of living animals. Conventional distance sampling analyses rely on the assumption that animals are distributed uniformly with respect to transects and thus require randomized placement of transects during survey design. Because mortality events are rare, however, it is often not possible to obtain precise estimates in this way without infeasible levels of effort. A great deal of wildlife data, including mortality data, is available via road-based surveys. Interpreting these data in a distance sampling framework requires accounting for the non-uniformity sampling. Additionally, analyses of opportunistic mortality data must account for the decline in carcass detectability through time. We develop several extensions to distance sampling theory to address these problems.We build mortality estimators in a hierarchical framework that integrates animal movement data, surveillance effort data, and motion-sensor camera trap data, respectively, to relax the uniformity assumption, account for spatiotemporal variation in surveillance effort, and explicitly model carcass detection and disappearance as competing ongoing processes.Analysis of simulated data showed that our estimators were unbiased and that their confidence intervals had good coverage.We also illustrate our approach on opportunistic carcass surveillance data acquired in 2010 during an anthrax outbreak in the plains zebra of Etosha National Park, Namibia.The methods developed here will allow researchers and managers to infer mortality rates from opportunistic surveillance data. PMID:24224079

  9. Two-user opportunistic scheduling using hierarchical modulations in wireless networks with heterogenous average link gains

    KAUST Repository

    Hossain, Md Jahangir

    2010-03-01

    Our contribution, in this paper, is two-fold. First, we analyze the performance of a hierarchical modulation-assisted two-best user opportunistic scheduling (TBS) scheme, which was proposed by the authors, in a fading environment where different users have different average link gains. Specifically, we present a new expression for the spectral efficiency (SE) of the users and using this expression, we compare the degrees of fairness (DOF) of the TBS scheme with that of classical single user opportunistic scheduling schemes, namely, absolute carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) based single-best user scheduling (SBS) and normalized CNR based proportional fair scheduling (PFS) schemes. The second contribution is that we propose a new hybrid two-user opportunistic scheduling (HTS) scheme based on our earlier proposed TBS scheme. This HTS scheme selects the first user based on the largest absolute CNR value among all the users while the second user is selected based on the ratios of the absolute CNRs to the corresponding average CNRs of the remaining users. The total transmission rate i.e., the constellation size is selected according to the absolute CNR of the first best user. The total transmission rate is then allocated among these selected users by joint consideration of their absolute CNRs and allocated number of information bit(s) are transmitted to them using hierarchical modulations. Numerical results are presented for a fading environment where different users experience independent but non-identical (i.n.d.) channel fading. These selected numerical results show that the proposed HTS scheme can considerably increase the system\\'s fairness without any degradation of the link spectral efficiency (LSE) i.e., the multiuser diversity gain compared to the classical SBS scheme. These results also show that the proposed HTS scheme has a lower fairness in comparison to the PFS scheme which suffers from a considerable degradation in LSE. © 2010 IEEE.

  10. Exact outage analysis of incremental decode-and-forward opportunistic relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate a dual-hop decode-andforward opportunistic relaying scheme where the selected relay chooses to cooperate only if the source-destination channel is of an unacceptable quality. In our study, we derive exact closed-form expression for the outage probability based on the exact statistics of each hop. Furthermore, we perform asymptotic analysis and we deduce the diversity order of the scheme. We validate our analysis by showing that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results over different network architectures. © 2010 IEEE.

  11. New resource allocation scheme for cognitive relay networks with opportunistic access

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, a new resource allocation scheme to minimize Symbol Error rate (SER) for relay assisted cognitive radio networks is studied. A cognitive relay network with amplify-and-forward (AF) fixed gain relays and opportunistic access to the licensed spectrum is considered. The SER objective function and the optimization constraints are derived first. The resource allocation algorithm is then derived using the Langrangian multiplier method. Closed form expressions are derived for the source and relay powers and, symbol time. Analytical results show that the optimal power allocation follows an extended water-filling solution. © 2012 IEEE.

  12. Outage and ser performance of an opportunistic multi-user underlay cognitive network

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed

    2012-10-01

    Consider a multi-user underlay cognitive network where multiple cognitive users concurrently share the spectrum with a primary network and a single secondary user is selected for transmission. The channel is assumed to have independent but not identical Nakagami-m fading. Closed form expressions for the outage performance and the symbol-error-rate performance of the opportunistic multi-user secondary network are derived when a peak interference power constraint is imposed on the secondary network in addition to the limited peak transmit power of each secondary user. © 2012 IEEE.

  13. Service time analysis of secondary packet transmission with opportunistic channel access

    KAUST Repository

    Usman, Muneer

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive radio transceiver can opportunistically access the underutilized channels of primary systems for new wireless services. The secondary transmission may be interrupted by the primary user\\'s transmission. To facilitate the delay analysis of such secondary packet transmission, we study the resulting extended delivery time for a fixed-size secondary packet that includes both transmission time and waiting time. In particular we derive the exact distribution functions of extended delivery time of secondary transmission for both continuous sensing and periodic sensing cases. Selected numerical results are presented for illustrating the mathematical formulation.

  14. Energy efficiency of Opportunistic and Efficient Resource Block Allocation Algorithms for LTE Uplink Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kaddour, Fatima Zohra; Emmanuelle, Vivier; Pischella, Mylène; Mroueh, Lina; Martins, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The energy efficiency in wireless networks is a central concern of research. We propose in this paper a new energy efficiency scheme which allocates the mobile's transmission power in function of the allocated Resource Blocks (RB) and the channel conditions of the user on the allocated RBs. We focus on the energy efficiency of the Opportunistic and Efficient Resource Block Allocation (OEA) algorithm and its variant adapted to the Quality of Service (QoS) of the traffics: the QoS based OEA for...

  15. Power Control in Opportunistic and Efficient Resource Block Allocation Algorithms for Green LTE Uplink Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kaddour, Fatima Zohra; Emmanuelle, Vivier; Pischella, Mylène; Mroueh, Lina; Martins, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The energy efficiency in wireless networks is currently a central concern of research. We propose in this paper a new energy efficiency scheme which allocates the mobile's transmission power in function of the allocated Resource Blocks (RB) and the channel conditions of the user on the allocated RBs. We focus on the energy efficiency of the Opportunistic and Efficient Resource Block Allocation (OEA) algorithm and its variant adapted to the Quality of Service (QoS) of the traffics: the QoS bas...

  16. Location Aware Opportunistic Bandwidth Sharing between Static and Mobile Users with Stochastic Learning in Cellular Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyay, Arpan; Błaszczyszyn, Bartłomiej; Altman, Eitan

    2016-01-01

    We consider location-dependent opportunistic bandwidth sharing between static and mobile downlink users in a cellular network. Each cell has some fixed number of static users. Mobile users enter the cell, move inside the cell for some time and then leave the cell. In order to provide higher data rate to mobile users, we propose to provide higher bandwidth to the mobile users at favourable times and locations, and provide higher bandwidth to the static users in other times. We formulate the pr...

  17. Cater: an Opportunistic Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Local Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Mullins, Barry E.

    1997-01-01

    An adaptive MAC protocol is developed and analyzed that offers a "best case" scenario by allowing the MAC to control medium parameters thereby fully exploiting the channel of an ad hoc wireless LAN. This new, opportunistic medium access control protocol is called CATER (Code Adapts To Enhance Reliability) and is based on the proposed MAC standard for wireless local area networks (WLAN)-IEEE 802.11 [IEE96]. As currently proposed, IEEE 802.11 uses a fixed pseudo-noise (PN) code for spreading ...

  18. Adenovirus infection in immunocompromised patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Rynans

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Human adenoviruses belong to the Adenoviridae family and they are divided into seven species, including 56 types. Adenoviruses are common opportunistic pathogens that are rarely associated with clinical symptoms in immunocompetent patients. However, they are emerging pathogens causing morbidity and mortality in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplants, HIV infected patients and patients with primary immune deficiencies. Clinical presentation ranges from asymptomatic viraemia to respiratory and gastrointestinal disease, haemorrhagic cystitis and severe disseminated illness. There is currently no formally approved therapy for the treatment of adenovirus infections.This article presents current knowledge about adenoviruses, their pathogenicity and information about available methods to diagnose and treat adenoviral infections.

  19. 宫颈癌机会性筛查的临床价值%Clinical Value of Cervical Cancer Opportunistic Screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴新容

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析研究宫颈癌机会性筛查的意义及临床价值.方法 以我院2007年11月至2010年11月在妇科门诊对前来就诊的患者进行宫颈癌机会性筛查研究.接受筛查对象均进行液基细胞学检查,细胞学异常行HPV结合阴道镜检查.并以患者进行活检组织病理学诊断作为宫颈癌的定性诊断.结果 2402例患者愿意接受筛查,顺应性为98.84%;液基细胞学阳性检出率为11.65%;阴道镜检查感染率为33.21%;病理活检阳性率为21.23%.将此次研究与2003 ~2005年的研究进行比较,存在明显差异(P<0.05).结论 通过对患者宫颈癌的机会性筛查,有效地提高了防治效果及群众对宫颈癌的认知度,对宫颈癌的早期诊治具有十分重要的意义,值得临床推广.%Objective To analyze the significance and clinical value of opportunistic screening in cervical cancer. Methods Patients in gynecologic clinic from Nov. 2007 to Nov. 2010 were given opportunistic screening of cervical cancer. All of them were performed liquid-based cytology examination. Those with abnormal cytology were given HPV combined with colposcopy examination. Pathological diagnosis of biopsy tissues were regarded as qualitative diagnosis of cervical cancer. Results 2402 patients were willing to take screening, the compliance was 98.84% ; liquid-based cytology detection rate was 11.65% ; colposcopy examination infection rate was 33.21%; pathologic biopsy positive rate was 21.23 %. Compared with the results of 2003 -2005,the difference was statistically significant,? <0. 05. Conclusion Opportunistic screening can effectively improve cognition degree of cervical cancer. It has very important significance to the early diagnosis and treatment of the disease,which is worth of spreading in clinic.

  20. Lung cancer in HIV infected patients: facts, questions and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Cadranel, J.; GARFIELD D; Lavolé, A; Wislez, M.; Milleron, B.; Mayaud, C.

    2006-01-01

    AIDS related mortality has fallen sharply in industrialised countries since 1996 following the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. This has been accompanied by an increase in the proportion of deaths attributable to non‐AIDS defining solid tumours, especially lung cancer. The risk of developing lung cancer seems to be higher in HIV infected subjects than in the general population of the same age, partly because the former tend more frequently to be smokers and, especially, i...

  1. HIV/AIDS-related knowledge awareness and risk behaviors among injection drug users in Maanshan, China: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Baifeng; Zhu, Yu; Guo, Rui; Ding, Shushu; Zhang, Zhen; Cai, Huaying; Zhu, Hongbin; Wen, Yufeng

    2016-01-01

    Background Unsafe injection practices significantly increase the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among injection drug users (IDUs). Little is known about how demographic characteristics of IDUs are linked to HIV-related risk behaviors in the central regions of China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted at Mandatory Detoxification Centers (MDCs) and the community in Maanshan, China. Results Of the 916 IDUs, 96.4 % reported a history of heroin use during the past...

  2. HIV prevalence and AIDS-related risk factors among foreign female sex workers in Dehong, Yunnan Province%云南省德宏州外籍暗娼艾滋病感染及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项丽芬; 方可芬; 梅红英; 尹留香; 杨建华; 杨炳丽; 段松; 何纳; 唐仁海; 许娟; 高洁; 杨跃诚; 叶润华; 刘志远; 李蕊; 杨忠桔

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate HIV prevalence and AIDS-related risk factors among foreign female sex workers in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan Province. Methods A door to door survey to all the entertainments in three border counties of Dehong Prefecture was conducted to identify foreign female sex workers. A face-to-face anonymous questionnaire was administrated to collect the information of social demography, AIDS prevention related services and high risk behaviors, etc. A blood sample of 5mL was collected for HIV antibody testing. Results A total of 238 subjects were approached. Among them HIV prevalence was 4. 2%; 34. 5% did not use condoms consistently when having sex with clients. Multi factors non-conditional logistic regression analysis showed that the HIV infection risk among the 23-26 years old group was 10. 8 times as high as among the 22 or less years old group and was 7. 8 times among those having not used condoms in the last sex behavior with client as high as among those using condoms; the risk factors of having unprotected sex included no awareness of the AIDS knowledge (OR = 4. 4,95% CI:1. 9-10. 2), age > 26 (OR = 2. 4,95%CI:1. 0-5. 7) and working locally≥6 months there (OR = 2. 8,95%CI: 1. 6 -5. 1). Conclusion The HIV prevalence among foreign female sex workers in Dehong Prefecture is relatively high, and the consistent condom use in sex behaviors is low. It is urgent to enforce AIDS prevention programs targeting at foreign female sex workers in Dehong Prefecture.%目的 了解云南省德宏州外籍暗娼艾滋病病毒(HIV)感染及相关因素状况.方法 运用普查方法,对德宏州3个边境县(市)全部暗娼活动场所的外籍暗娼进行调查.匿名问卷调查收集社会人口学、艾滋病防治服务及高危行为等信息,并抽取5毫升静脉血进行HIV抗体血清学检测.结果 共有238名外籍暗娼接受调查,HIV感染率为4.2%.34.5%最近1个月与客人发生性行为时未坚持使用安全套.多因素非条

  3. HIV阴性MSM人群艾滋病相关行为特征及其干预效果%A Research on HIV/AIDS Related Behavior Characteristics and Their Intervention Effect among HIV Negative MSM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡高峰; 马瞧勤; 潘晓红; 周欣; 姚丹

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the HIV/AIDS related behavior characteristics and their intervention effect among HIV negative MSM. Methods Sexual behaviors including: homosexual anal intercourse and heterosexual behavior, and the condom use were analyzed using the base line data of the program of the MSM intervention cohoit study in 201 1. Results During the last 3 months, 87, 32% of 339 MSM had homosexual anal intercourse, in which 52.03% had more than 1 male sex partner; 72. 57% had anal intercourse with regular male sex partners, in which 40. 65% insisted on using condoms; 49. 26% had casual homosexual anal intercourse, in which the persistence rate of using condoms was 50. 90% ; 76. 70% received face to face health education, whose condom use rate ( 80. 16% ) and HIV testing rate (69.62% ) were both higher than the rates ( 60. 53% and 28%, respectively) of those without intervention ( P < 0. 05 and P< 0.01, respectively ). Conclusion With a high rate of homosexual anal intercourse, multiple sex partners and low condom use, MSM are at high risk of infecting and diffusing HIV/AIDS and STDs, which requires improving the interventions urgently.%目的 分析HIV抗体阴性MSM人群艾滋病相关行为特征,探讨干预效果.方法 利用浙江省2011年MSM干预队列基线调查资料,分析MSM人群性行为及安全套使用等情况.结果 在最近3个月,339名MSM中有87.32%的人发生同性非商业性肛交,其中52.03%的人有2个或2个以上同性非商业性伴;72.57%的人与同性固定性伴发生肛交,其中40.65%的人坚持使用安全套;49.26%的人发生同性临时性伴肛交,其中50.90%的人坚持使用安全套;76.70%的人接受面对面宣传干预,其最近1次同性临时性伴肛交安全套使用率80.16%高于未接受干预者60.53%(P <0.05),HIV检测率69.62%高于未干预者28.00%(P <0.01).结论 MSM人群同性肛交发生率高,多性伴现象普遍,安全套使用率低,处于艾滋病感染和传播的高风险状态,干预措施亟需进一步完善.

  4. A rare wound infection agent: Achromobacter xylosoxidans (a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mürşide Tunçel Başoğlu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Achromobacter xylosoxidans is an aerobic, non-fermenting and gram-negative bacteria causing opportunistic infections. In this report, a patient who's foot was injured by impact with a hard object and infected by A. xylosoxidans which is rare is discussed. One year after the trauma in the 63 year old male, infection developed in the foot. Twice debridman and aupiric antibiotic treatment started but infection returned. The patient attended the clinic, then based on the culture antibiogram results, a new treatment regime was started and the patient improved.

  5. A general modeling method for opportunistic maintenance modeling of multi-unit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a deterioration state space partition method for opportunistic maintenance modeling of multi-unit systems. The method represents common characteristics of opportunistic maintenance models based on different maintenance strategies. All possible maintenance groups of general multi-unit systems with a known number of non-identical units at each maintenance decision time and their corresponding probabilities are deduced using the presented approach. Further, a general representation of the stationary law of the system deterioration and its numerical solution is developed. Numerical experiments verify the correctness and validity of the state space partition method and the numerical solution of the stationary probability density. The proposed method is applicable to both single-unit and multi-unit systems, and it provides a new generalized modeling method for maintenance optimization of multi-unit systems. - Highlights: • Presented a general modeling method for multi-unit systems. • Derived a common representation of all possible maintenance groups and their probability. • Developed a general representation of stationary law of system deterioration

  6. A Wireless Video Transmission Scheme Based on MAC-independent Opportunistic Routing &Encoding Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available It is a tremendous challenge to transmit real-time video streams over wireless sensor network because of the poor wireless communication conditions and the high requirements of video transmission. The opportunistic routing protocol can take advantage of the broadcast nature of wireless communication and can improve transfer throughput significantly. But the bigger size of transmission unit also increases the end-to-end delay at the same time. In order to overcome this problem and improve the real-time video transmission quality in wireless video sensor network, we propose a source adaptive frame discard algorithm for MAC-independent Opportunistic Routing & Encoding (MORE Protocol in this paper. In our approach, the historical transmission delay is recorded to estimate current network transmission rate. Based on the video deadline, frames predicted to be delayed are discarded adaptively in the source node to get better overall video quality. In some practice application scenarios, there are usually need to deliver multiple video streams over multi-hop wireless network. It can’t work effectively with the originally MORE protocol in such scenarios. Furthermore, we modify the MORE protocol and design an adaptive scheme to support multiple video streams over multi-hop wireless video sensor network in this paper. The simulation results show that our algorithm can reduce frame loss rate and improve video quality significantly.

  7. Mycological assessment of sediments in Ligurian beaches in the Northwestern Mediterranean: pathogens and opportunistic pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Vanessa-Sarah; Fabiano, Mauro

    2007-05-01

    Sediments of five Ligurian beaches in compliance with European Union bathing water regulations were studied based on the characteristics of the fungal assemblage during the tourism season. Among the 179 taxa of filamentous fungi isolated, 120 were opportunistic pathogens, such as Acremonium sp., and the genus Penicillium was also present as the pathogenic species P. citrinum. Furthermore, 5% of the total filamentous fungi belonged to the dermatophyte genus Microsporum, whose species can cause mycoses. Beach sediments showed elevated densities of opportunistic pathogens, of pathogenic filamentous fungi, and of yeasts during the tourism season. Although monitoring of beach sediments for microbiological contamination is not mandatory, and disease transmission from sediments has not yet been demonstrated, our study suggests that beach sediments may act as a reservoir of potential pathogens, including fungi. In addition, the mycoflora displayed high sensitivity to critical environmental situations in the beaches studied. Therefore, the fungal community can be a useful tool for assessing the quality of sandy beaches in terms of sanitary and environmental quality. PMID:16854516

  8. Heavy Metal Distribution in Opportunistic Beach Nourishment: A Case Study in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyros Foteinis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence and distribution of persistent pollutants, such as heavy metals, in coastal sediment used for opportunistic beach nourishment, is a problem that has not received much attention. Here, we assessed the coastal sediments in one restoration project for the occurrence and distribution of heavy metals, by utilizing an Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF system. Heavy metal point sources included (i the effluents of small industries (tanneries, (ii wastewater treatment plant effluents, and (iii paint and oil scraps from substandard ship maintenance activities that take place on ports breakwaters. A few neighboring beaches were found to have similar heavy metal concentrations, with mean values of Cu, Zn, and Pb ranging from 80 to 130, 15 to 25, and 25 to 40 mg/kg, respectively. Existing legislation regarding dredging activities in Greece appears insufficient for sustainable and environmentally friendly nourishment. We conclude that before opportunistic beach restoration projects materialize with material borrowed from ports and harbors the quality of the dredged material needs to be assessed.

  9. Frequency Distribution of Opportunistic Avian Pathogens in Respiratory Distress Cases of Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Baker Siddique*, Sajjad-ur-Rahman, Iftikhar Hussain and Ghulam Muhammad1

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of opportunistic pathogens in the respiratory distress cases of poultry was detected from the poultry flocks scattered in some districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Serum plate agglutination (SPA test for serological screening of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS were performed separately and it revealed 80% flocks were sero-positive among respiratory distress cases. Specimen samples including trachea (n=157, lungs (n=40, spleen (n=93, oral (n=201 and nasal swabs (n=147 were collected from both sero-positive and sero-negative flocks. On the basis of multiplex PCR, the percentage of opportunistic pathogens in sero-positive flocks was found maximum with Newcastle disease virus (28.6%, followed by E. coli (24.4%, Avibacterium paragallinarum (5.7%, Infectious bronchitis virus (4.7% and Avian Influenza (1.6%, while in case of sero-negative flocks highest distribution was found in NDV (12.6%, followed by E. coli (8.4%, Av. Paragallinarum (3.8%, IBV (3.1% and AIV (1.1%. The Frequency of respiratory tract pathogens including NDV and E. coli in combination with MG and MS was recorded significantly high.

  10. Hiding in Fresh Fruits and Vegetables: Opportunistic Pathogens May Cross Geographical Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra S. Al-Kharousi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Different microbial groups of the microbiome of fresh produce can have diverse effects on human health. This study was aimed at identifying some microbial communities of fresh produce by analyzing 105 samples of imported fresh fruits and vegetables originated from different countries in the world including local samples (Oman for aerobic plate count and the counts of Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus, and Staphylococcus aureus. The isolated bacteria were identified by molecular (PCR and biochemical methods (VITEK 2. Enterobacteriaceae occurred in 60% of fruits and 91% of vegetables. Enterococcus was isolated from 20% of fruits and 42% of vegetables. E. coli and S. aureus were isolated from 22% and 7% of vegetables, respectively. Ninety-seven bacteria comprising 21 species were similarly identified by VITEK 2 and PCR to species level. E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus casseliflavus, and Enterobacter cloacae were the most abundant species; many are known as opportunistic pathogens which may raise concern to improve the microbial quality of fresh produce. Phylogenetic trees showed no relationship between clustering of the isolates based on the 16S rRNA gene and the original countries of fresh produce. Intercountry passage of opportunistic pathogens in fresh produce cannot be ruled out, which requires better management.

  11. An Energy-efficient Opportunistic Multicast Routing Protocol in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaojie Wen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents energy-efficiency opportunistic multicast routing protocol (E-OMRP for the multicast energy consumption minimization problem in mobile wireless sensor networks. The protocol divides the network into grids, so each node determines their own coordinates according to the grid. The nodes only need to know the topology of their own grid, instead of the topology of the entire network. In order to better represent the impact of the movement on transmission, the nodes in the same grid determine the priority in light of the transmission delay factor and expected transmission cost. Then the relay nodes use the opportunistic routing to send messages to the next hop based on the order of priority. When the destinations receive a message from relay nodes, they select the optimal path in accordance with the transmission delay and links cost, and transmission acknowledgement to source along the optimal path selected. After the source has received all the acknowledgements from different destinations, it uses the method of path aggregation to aggregate all optimal paths selected. If all nodes in the current grid transmission messages failure, the neighbor grids are in charge of retransmission. The results of simulation show that, compared with traditional multicast routing, E-OMRP is effective in reducing the consumption of links cost, so that it improves the link reliability and reduces the delay.

  12. Opportunistic Energy-Aware Amplify-and-Forward Cooperative Systems with Imperfect CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Osama

    2015-07-29

    Recently, much attention has been paid to the green design of wireless communication systems using energy efficiency (EE) metrics that should capture all energy consumption sources to deliver the required data. In this paper, we design an energyefficient relay assisted communication system based on estimated channel state information (CSI). It employs amplify-andforward relaying and switches between different communication schemes, which are known as direct-transmission, two-hop and cooperative-transmission schemes, using the estimated CSI in order to maximize the EE. Two estimation strategies are assumed, namely disintegrated channel estimation and cascaded channel estimation. To formulate an accurate EE metric for the proposed opportunistic amplify-and-forward system, the channel estimation cost is reflected on the EE metric by including its impact in the signal-to-noise ratio term and in the energy consumption during the channels estimation phase. Based on the formulated EE metric, we propose an adaptive power allocation algorithm to maximize the EE of the proposed opportunistic amplify-andforward system with channel estimation. Furthermore, we study the impact of the estimation parameters on the proposed system via simulation examples.

  13. An Opportunistic Array Beamforming Technique Based on Binary Multiobjective Wind Driven Optimization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenkai Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel binary version of multiobjective wind driven optimization (WDO for emitted beamforming of opportunistic array radar, which is assumed as a multiobjective optimization problem. Firstly, the emitted signal model and objective functions of optimization are presented. Then the algorithm proposes a new definition of the position vector of air parcel, and brings a good discretization interpretation of continuous WDO. For multiobjective optimization, the grey relational grade (GRG is then used to measure the similarity between the best two solutions for these two objectives. The best pressure locations with the maximum GRG will be recorded as the best two candidate solutions to the problem, and a final optimization result will be selected according to the importance of the two objectives. Finally, the proposed improved WDO has been applied for the optimal design of beamforming of the opportunistic antenna array, which needs a trade-off between the 3 dB main beam width and sidelobe level. The simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms conventional particle swarm optimization (PSO in the optimal beamforming by achieving more reduction in the sidelobe level and saving more runtime.

  14. Mathematical Modeling and Analysis Methodology for Opportunistic Routing in Wireless Multihop Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Dongyang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling the forwarding feature and analyzing the performance theoretically for opportunistic routing in wireless multihop network are of great challenge. To address this issue, a generalized geometric distribution (GGD is firstly proposed. Based on the GGD, the forwarding probability between any two forwarding candidates could be calculated and it can be proved that the successful delivery rate after several transmissions of forwarding candidates is irrelevant to the priority rule. Then, a discrete-time queuing model is proposed to analyze mean end-to-end delay (MED of a regular opportunistic routing with the knowledge of the forwarding probability. By deriving the steady-state joint generating function of the queue length distribution, MED for directly connected networks and some special cases of nondirectly connected networks could be ultimately determined. Besides, an approximation approach is proposed to assess MED for the general cases in the nondirectly connected networks. By comparing with a large number of simulation results, the rationality of the analysis is validated. Both the analysis and simulation results show that MED varies with the number of forwarding candidates, especially when it comes to connected networks; MED increases more rapidly than that in nondirectly connected networks with the increase of the number of forwarding candidates.

  15. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part III. Deleterious effects: infections of humans, animals and plants

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Dutkiewicz; Barbara Mackiewicz; Marta Kinga Lemieszek; Marcin Golec; Janusz Milanowski

    2016-01-01

    [i]Pantoea agglomerans[/i], a bacterium associated with plants, is not an obligate infectious agent in humans. However, it could be a cause of opportunistic human infections, mostly by wound infection with plant material, or as a hospital-acquired infection, mostly in immunocompromised individuals. Wound infection with [i]P. agglomerans[/i] usually follow piercing or laceration of skin with a plant thorn, wooden splinter or other plant material and subsequent inoculation of the plant-residing...

  16. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Forms Biofilms in Acute Infection Independent of Cell-to-Cell Signaling▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Schaber, J. Andy; Triffo, W.J.; Suh, Sang J.; Oliver, Jeffrey W.; Hastert, Mary C.; Griswold, John A.; Auer, Manfred; Hamood, Abdul N; Rumbaugh, Kendra P.

    2007-01-01

    Biofilms are bacterial communities residing within a polysaccharide matrix that are associated with persistence and antibiotic resistance in chronic infections. We show that the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms biofilms within 8 h of infection in thermally injured mice, demonstrating that biofilms contribute to bacterial colonization in acute infections as well. Using light, electron, and confocal scanning laser microscopy, P. aeruginosa biofilms were visualized within burn...

  17. Sphingomonas paucimobilis Urinary Tract Infection in a Renal Transplant Recipient: a Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Krishna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections in immunocompromised hosts warrant special attention. Normally existing as hospital contaminants, Sphingomonas paucimobilis can be a rare opportunistic human pathogen. We report one such case by this nonfermenting bacilli causing uncomplicated urinary tract infection in a renal transplant recipient patient with histoplasmosis of colon. Awareness about the posssiblity of the same is important. Infection control measures of the hospital needs to be stepped up with the isolation of such organisms to prevent cross-transmission and outbreaks

  18. Antimicrobial therapies for odontogenic infections in children and adolescents. Literature review and clinical recomendations.

    OpenAIRE

    Inés Caviglia; Adriana Techera; Graciela García

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oral infections are caused by an imbalance in the patient’s indigenous flora which changes from commensal to opportunistic. Odontogenic infections are the most common reason for consultation in children and adolescents. Rational use of antibiotics is the best strategy to avoid microbial resistance. Dental infections should first receive proper local treatment, which can also be complemented with a systemic method. Appropriate drug selection and dosing should be made. Amoxicilin is t...

  19. Virological, Immune and Host genetics Markers in the Control of HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Mothe; Javier Ibarrondo; Anuska Llano; Christian Brander

    2009-01-01

    HIV infection, if left untreated, leads in most cases to the development of wide immune deterioration, opportunistic infections and eventually AIDS and death. The identification of individuals who despite persisting infection show no or few signs of HIV disease progression has spurred hopes that an effective HIV vaccine could be attainable. The design of such a vaccine will greatly depend on the precise definition of disease markers, host genetic and immune characteristics that mediate relati...

  20. Requirements for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Acute Burn and Chronic Surgical Wound Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Keith H.; Jake Everett; Urvish Trivedi; Rumbaugh, Kendra P.; Marvin Whiteley

    2014-01-01

    Opportunistic infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa can be acute or chronic. While acute infections often spread rapidly and can cause tissue damage and sepsis with high mortality rates, chronic infections can persist for weeks, months, or years in the face of intensive clinical intervention. Remarkably, this diverse infectious capability is not accompanied by extensive variation in genomic content, suggesting that the genetic capacity to be an acute or a chronic pathogen is present in ...