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Sample records for aids-related opportunistic infections

  1. Opportunistic infections following renal transplantation

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    Rao K

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic infection is common following renal transplantation. Prompt diagnosis and management can be life saving. Four different types of opportunistic respiratory infections diagnosed at our center during the period of January 1998 to December 2000 are discussed. Of the four cases one had Aspergillus, second had Sporothrix, third had Nocardia and fourth case Actinomyces species. Microbiologist has an important role to play by being aware of such opportunistic infections and helping the clinician to make early aetiological diagnosis.

  2. Opportunistic ocular infections in AIDS

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    Shikha Baisakhiya DOMS; FGO

    2008-01-01

    As the number of HIV infected patients is multiplying exponentially day by day so are the associated ocular complications.The increasing longevity of individuals with HIV disease has resulted in greater numbers of pa-tients with ocular opportunistic infection.By the means of this article we describe various opportunistic ocular infections in AIDS and their clinical manifestations,discussed under four headings;1 )adnexal manifestation;2)anterior segment manifestation;3)posterior segment manifestation;4)neuro ophthalmic manifestation . Herpes zoster ophthalmicus,molluscum contagiosum and Kaposi sarcoma are common adnexal manifestations. Molluscum contagiosum being the commonest.Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV)and herpes simplex virus (HSV) most commonly cause infectious keratitis in HIV-positive patients .As compared to the immunocompetent indi-viduals the frequency of bacterial and fungal keratitis is not more in HIV patients,but it tends to be more se-vere.Posterior segment structures involved in HIV-positive patients include the retina,choroid,and optic nerve head.The herpesvirus family is implicated most commonly in infections of the retina and choroid in HIV positive patients.CMV is the most common cause of retinitis and the commonest intraocular infection in AIDS. Atypical presentations resistance to conventional treatment and higher rate of recurrence make the diagnosis and therapeutic intervention more difficult and challenging.In addition,in one eye,several infections may occur at the same time,rendering the situation more difficult.

  3. Opportunistic infections in a renal transplant recipient

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    Vijaya V. Mysorekar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the present progress in transplantation procedures, there is an improvement in patient and allograft survival. However, the immunosuppression necessary to sustain the allograft predisposes these transplant recipients to infection, which is now a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. We describe a case of a 30-year-old renal transplant recipient with two opportunistic infections, namely, primary cutaneous aspergillosis and intestinal tuberculosis, with terminal enterococcal pleuritis and peritonitis. Control of the degree of immunosuppression, and prompt recognition and treatment of infection are vital for successful organ transplantation.

  4. Opportunistic infections after blood and marrow transplantation.

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    Wingard, J R

    1999-03-01

    Opportunistic infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality following bone marrow transplantation. Technological advances in stem cell procurement, the introduction of hematologic growth factors to speed engraftment, the development of new immunosuppressive regimens to control graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), the development of technology to perform graft engineering with removal of T lymphocytes in toto or subpopulations of T lymphocytes, the use of molecular techniques to optimize donor and recipient matching, advances in blood banking, and development of international donor registries, are among the various factors that have led to tremendous changes in transplant practices. Because of such changes in transplant practices, along with the advent of new antimicrobial agents, and development of infection control measures affecting pathogen exposure, alterations in the interplay between host and potential pathogens have occurred. Shifts in the incidence and types of opportunistic pathogens are taking place. Several historically important infectious syndromes are today well controlled; others have diminished in importance early after transplant but are more problematic at a later time; new emerging pathogens are being recognized due to selection pressures from antimicrobial usage and new hosts, such as recipients of alternate donor allogeneic transplant procedures, with even more profound and prolonged immune suppression. Such shifts and new syndromes pose continuing new challenges to the transplant clinician.

  5. Towards New Antifolates Targeting Eukaryotic Opportunistic Infections

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    Liu, J.; Bolstad, D; Bolstad, E; Wright, D; Anderson, A

    2009-01-01

    Trimethoprim, an antifolate commonly prescribed in combination with sulfamethoxazole, potently inhibits several prokaryotic species of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). However, several eukaryotic pathogenic organisms are resistant to trimethoprim, preventing its effective use as a therapeutic for those infections. We have been building a program to reengineer trimethoprim to more potently and selectively inhibit eukaryotic species of DHFR as a viable strategy for new drug discovery targeting several opportunistic pathogens. We have developed a series of compounds that exhibit potent and selective inhibition of DHFR from the parasitic protozoa Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma as well as the fungus Candida glabrata. A comparison of the structures of DHFR from the fungal species Candida glabrata and Pneumocystis suggests that the compounds may also potently inhibit Pneumocystis DHFR.

  6. HIV-associated opportunistic CNS infections: pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment.

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    Bowen, Lauren N; Smith, Bryan; Reich, Daniel; Quezado, Martha; Nath, Avindra

    2016-10-27

    Nearly 30 years after the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), CNS opportunistic infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive individuals. Unknown HIV-positive disease status, antiretroviral drug resistance, poor drug compliance, and recreational drug abuse are factors that continue to influence the morbidity and mortality of infections. The clinical and radiographic pattern of CNS opportunistic infections is unique in the setting of HIV infection: opportunistic infections in HIV-positive patients often have characteristic clinical and radiological presentations that can differ from the presentation of opportunistic infections in immunocompetent patients and are often sufficient to establish the diagnosis. ART in the setting of these opportunistic infections can lead to a paradoxical worsening caused by an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). In this Review, we discuss several of the most common CNS opportunistic infections: cerebral toxoplasmosis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), tuberculous meningitis, cryptococcal meningitis and cytomegalovirus infection, with an emphasis on clinical pearls, pathological findings, MRI findings and treatment. Moreover, we discuss the risk factors, pathophysiology and management of IRIS. We also summarize the challenges that remain in management of CNS opportunistic infections, which includes the lack of phase II and III clinical trials, absence of antimicrobials for infections such as PML, and controversy regarding the use of corticosteroids for treatment of IRIS.

  7. SPECTRUM OF OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HIV-AIDS PATIENTS

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    S S Madkar; Ashok Jaykumar Vankudre; SL Nilekar

    2012-01-01

    Aim: AIDS is characterized by a number of opportunistic infections which are responsible for high morbidity and mortality. The spectrum and distribution of opportunistic infections (OIs) in AIDS patients is ever-expanding. This spectrum varies from continent to continent. The aim of the present study was to document the spectrum of OIs in HIV-infected patients in Ambajogai. Material and Method: 178 HIV positive symptomatic patients, either hospitalized or coming to ART (Antiretroviral Therapy...

  8. Postmortem findings and opportunistic infections in HIV-positive patients from a public hospital in Peru

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    Eza, Dominique; Cerrillo, Gustavo; Moore, David A.J.; Castro, Cecilia; Ticona, Eduardo; Morales, Domingo; Cabanillas, Jose; Barrantes, Fernando; Alfaro, Alejandro; Benavides, Alejandro; Rafael, Arturo; Valladares, Gilberto; Arevalo, Fernando; Evans, Carlton A.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    There is a paucity of HIV autopsy data from South America and none that document the postmortem findings in patients with HIV/AIDS in Peru. The purpose of this autopsy study was to determine the spectrum of opportunistic infections and the causes of mortality in HIV-positive patients at a public hospital in Lima. Clinico-epidemiological information regarding HIV infection in Peru is also reviewed. Sixteen HIV-related hospital postmortems, performed between 1999 and 2004, were included in this retrospective analysis. The primary cause of death was established in 12 patients: one died of neoplasia and 11 of infectious diseases, including 3 from pulmonary infection, 7 from disseminated infection, and 2 from central nervous system infection (one case had dual pathology). Opportunistic infections were identified in 14 cases, comprising cytomegalovirus, histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, toxoplasmosis, Pneumocystis pneumonia, aspergillosis, tuberculosis, varicella zoster virus, and cryptosporidiosis. Fourteen patients had at least one AIDS-related disease that had been neither clinically suspected nor diagnosed premortem. Moreover, 82% of the diagnoses considered to be of important clinical significance had not been suspected antemortem. The spectrum and frequency of certain opportunistic infections differed from other South American autopsy studies, highlighting the importance of performing HIV/AIDS postmortems in resource-limited countries where locally specific disease patterns may be observed. PMID:16979302

  9. An ethnobotanical survey of plants used to manage HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Katima Mulilo, Caprivi region, Namibia

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    Chinsembu Kazhila C

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Katima Mulilo has the highest burden of HIV/AIDS in Namibia. Due to several constraints of the antiretroviral therapy programme, HIV-infected persons still use ethnomedicines to manage AIDS-related opportunistic infections. Despite the reliance on plants to manage HIV/AIDS in Katima Mulilo, there have been no empirical studies to document the specific plant species used by traditional healers to treat AIDS-related opportunistic infections. In this study, an ethnobotanical survey was conducted to record the various plant families, species, and plant parts used to manage different HIV/AIDS-related opportunistic infections in Katima Mulilo, Caprivi region, Namibia. The results showed that a total of 71 plant species from 28 families, mostly the Combretaceae (14%, Anacardiaceae (8%, Mimosaceae (8%, and Ebanaceae (7%, were used to treat conditions such as herpes zoster, diarrhoea, coughing, malaria, meningitis, and tuberculosis. The most plant parts used were leaves (33%, bark (32%, and roots (28% while the least used plant parts were fruits/seeds (4%. Further research is needed to isolate the plants' active chemical compounds and understand their modes of action.

  10. Opportunistic yeast infections: candidiasis, cryptococcosis, trichosporonosis and geotrichosis.

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    Vázquez-González, Denisse; Perusquía-Ortiz, Ana María; Hundeiker, Max; Bonifaz, Alexandro

    2013-05-01

    Opportunistic yeast infections are diseases caused by fungi which normally are saprophytic and do not cause disease in humans or animals. The prevalence of these diseases has been increasing due to immunosuppressive, corticosteroid, and long-term antibiotic treatment following organ transplantation or after serious metabolic, hematological, or immunological diseases. We review epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects of the four "big" opportunistic yeast infections: candidiasis, cryptococcosis, trichosporonosis, and geotrichosis.

  11. SPECTRUM OF OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HIV-AIDS PATIENTS

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    S S Madkar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: AIDS is characterized by a number of opportunistic infections which are responsible for high morbidity and mortality. The spectrum and distribution of opportunistic infections (OIs in AIDS patients is ever-expanding. This spectrum varies from continent to continent. The aim of the present study was to document the spectrum of OIs in HIV-infected patients in Ambajogai. Material and Method: 178 HIV positive symptomatic patients, either hospitalized or coming to ART (Antiretroviral Therapy centre in S.R.T.R. Medical College, Ambajogai, were included in the study for finding the spectrum of opportunistic infections. Result: The commonest opportunistic infection seen was tuberculosis (59% of patients, followed by oral candidiasis (37.6% of patients and parasitic diarrhea due to Cryptosporidium parvum(18 % of patients. It was observed that out of 178 patients, maximum 53.3% were in the age group of 29-38 years followed by 21% in the age group of 39-48 years. It was found that 77% were males and 23% were females, with male to female ratio is 3.3:1. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that tuberculosis is the commonest opportunistic infection seen in HIV patients. Clinicians should consider HIV in the differential diagnosis and management of all persons with tuberculosis.

  12. Uncommon opportunistic fungal infections of oral cavity: A review

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    A G Deepa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of opportunistic oral mucosal fungal infections are due to Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus species. Mucor and Cryptococcus also have a major role in causing oral infections, whereas Geotrichum, Fusarium, Rhodotorula, Saccharomyces and Penicillium marneffei are uncommon pathogens in the oral cavity. The broad spectrum of clinical presentation includes pseudo-membranes, abscesses, ulcers, pustules and extensive tissue necrosis involving bone. This review discusses various uncommon opportunistic fungal infections affecting the oral cavity including their morphology, clinical features and diagnostic methods.

  13. Opportunistic infections--coming to the limits of immunosuppression?

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    Fishman, Jay A

    2013-10-01

    Possible etiologies of infection in the solid organ recipient are diverse, ranging from common bacterial and viral pathogens to opportunistic pathogens that cause invasive disease only in immunocompromised hosts. The recognition of infectious syndromes in this population is limited by alterations in the clinical manifestations by immunosuppression. The risk of serious infections in the organ transplant patient is determined by the interaction between the patients' recent and distant epidemiological exposures and all factors that contribute to the patient's net state of immune suppression. This risk is altered by antimicrobial prophylaxis and changes in immunosuppressive therapies. In addition to the direct effects of infection, opportunistic infections, and the microbiome may adversely shape the host immune responses with diminished graft and patient survivals. Antimicrobial therapies are more complex than in the normal host with a significant incidence of drug toxicity and a propensity for drug interactions with the immunosuppressive agents used to maintain graft function. Rapid and specific microbiologic diagnosis is essential. Newer microbiologic assays have improved the diagnosis and management of opportunistic infections. These tools coupled with assays that assess immune responses to infection and to graft antigens may allow optimization of management for graft recipients in the future.

  14. Host-Opportunist Interactions in Surgical Infection

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    1986-01-01

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  15. [Cutaneous nocardiosis as an opportunistic infection].

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    Bogaard, H J; Erkelens, G W; Faber, W R; de Vries, P J

    2004-03-13

    A 46-year-old man who had been treated with azathioprine and budesonide for Crohn's disease for the past eight years developed a purulent skin condition on the right ring finger. Despite surgical drainage and treatment with amoxicillin and flucloxacillin, the condition spread itself over the hand and lower arm, partly per continuum and partly in jumps. The patient did not feel ill and there were no systemic symptoms. Ultimately, Nocardia asteroides was cultured from the wound and complete cure was achieved after 8 months' treatment with co-trimoxazole. Infections with Nocardia spp. are rare but may occur more often and run a more fulminant course in patients under treatment with immunosuppressants. Cutaneous nocardiosis generally has a characteristic lymphogenous spreading pattern, but an atypical picture with pustules, pyoderma, cellulitis or abscess formation is also possible. In non-cutaneous nocardiosis there is usually pneumonia or lung abscess, possibly with secondary haematogenous spread to the central nervous system or skin. Culturing Nocardia requires more time than usual but can be promoted by special culture media. Treatment of the infection with co-trimoxazole is the method of choice and is almost always successful in cases of cutaneous nocardiosis.

  16. CLINICAL SPECTRUM OF OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HIV POSITIVE PATIENTS

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    Usmani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection leading to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS causes progressive decline in immunological response in people living with HIV/AIDS, making them susceptible to a variety opportunistic infections (OIs which are responsible for morbidity and mortality. Therefore early diagnosis and management of opportunistic infections reduce the mortality and morbidity in HIV positive patients. CONTEXT : AIMS : To study the demographic variables; spectrum of opportunist ic infections and its correlation with CD4 count in HIV patients. SETTING AND DESIGN : The study was conducted on 200 HIV patients either admitted to Sanjay Gandhi Memorial Hospital or attending ART Center, Sh y am Shah Medical College, Rewa (M.P from Januar y 2013 to October 2014. METHODS AND MATERIAL : A detailed history was recorded with emphasis on personal history, high risk behavior, history of migration, mode of transmission of infection and complete thorough clinical examination was done. Data analysis was done by calculating P value using Chi Square test. RESULTS : Out of 200 HIV patients, most of them (88% belonged to the age group 20 - 49 years, 66% were males and 34% were females. 45% were illiterates, 62% were from low socioeconomic class. Majority of patients were married (79% and 72.2% had seropositive spouse. Unprotected sexual route was the most common (85% mode of transmission; among which heterosexual route was the only mode of transmission. 59.4% of males contracted infection through unprotect ed sex with either commercial sex workers (44.8% or multiple sex partners (14.6%. 61% of patients had history of emigration. Tuberculosis was the most common opportunistic infection (51%, followed by oral candidiasis 30% and chronic diarrhea (9%.Pulmon ary Tuberculosis was the most common form of Tuberculosis (64.7%, followed by tubercular lymphadenopathy (15.7%. CONCLUSION : HIV/AIDS has no vaccine or cure, so prevention is the only

  17. Immunotherapy for opportunistic infections: Current status and future perspectives.

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    Fuji, Shigeo; Löffler, Jürgen; Einsele, Hermann; Kapp, Markus

    2016-11-16

    The outcome after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) has significantly improved during the last decades. However, opportunistic infections such as viral and mold infections are still a major obstacle for cure. Within this field, adoptive T cell therapy against pathogens is a promising treatment approach. Recently, the techniques to develop T cell products including pathogen-specific T cells have been sophisticated and are now available in accordance to good manufacturing practice (GMP). Here, we aim to summarize current knowledge about adoptive T cell therapy against viral and mold infections.

  18. Opportunistic intestinal protozoal infections in immunocompromised children.

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    Noureldin, M S; Shaltout, A A; El Hamshary, E M; Ali, M E

    1999-01-01

    Hundred immunocompromised children and 100 house contact controls were chosen. Patients included: 52 nephrotic syndrome children receiving corticosteroids for more than one month (age 5.28 +/- 2.32 years), 14 protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) patients (8 cases of marasmus aged 6 +/- 2.27 months and 6 cases of marasmic kwashiorkor aged 1.39 +/- 0.88 years) and 34 lymphomas patients (22 cases of Hodgkin's disease and 12 cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; age 4.5 +/- 3.54 years). Examination of concentrated stool was done using iodine stain of fresh mounts and modified Ziehl-Neelsen (cold acid-fast) to fixed smears. T-cell subsets were counted after staining with mouse monoclonal antibodies against CD4 and CD8 labeled with fluorescein. Both nephrotic syndrome and lymphomas groups showed affection of cellular immunity in the form of significant decrease in T-helper and H/S ratio and significant increase in suppressor T-cell subsets. Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium parvum and Blastocystis hominis were the most frequent in patients group and were significantly more prevalent among patients than controls. No significant difference in the prevalence of Entamoeba coli and Chylomastix mesnili between the two groups. C. parvum infection were strictly confined to groups with T-cell subsets abnormalities i.e. nephrotic syndrome and lymphomas groups.

  19. Opportunistic Neurologic Infections in Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

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    Albarillo, Fritzie; O'Keefe, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality despite the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) especially in the resource-limited regions of the world. Diagnosis of these infections may be challenging because findings on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis and brain imaging are nonspecific. While brain biopsy provides a definitive diagnosis, it is an invasive procedure associated with a relatively low mortality rate, thus less invasive modalities have been studied in recent years. Diagnosis, therefore, can be established based on a combination of a compatible clinical syndrome, radiologic and CSF findings, and understanding of the role of HIV in these infections. The most common CNS opportunistic infections are AIDS-defining conditions; thus, treatment of these infections in combination with HAART has greatly improved survival.

  20. Staphylococcus aureus α toxin potentiates opportunistic bacterial lung infections.

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    Cohen, Taylor S; Hilliard, Jamese J; Jones-Nelson, Omari; Keller, Ashley E; O'Day, Terrence; Tkaczyk, Christine; DiGiandomenico, Antonio; Hamilton, Melissa; Pelletier, Mark; Wang, Qun; Diep, Binh An; Le, Vien T M; Cheng, Lily; Suzich, JoAnn; Stover, C Kendall; Sellman, Bret R

    2016-03-01

    Broad-spectrum antibiotic use may adversely affect a patient's beneficial microbiome and fuel cross-species spread of drug resistance. Although alternative pathogen-specific approaches are rationally justified, a major concern for this precision medicine strategy is that co-colonizing or co-infecting opportunistic bacteria may still cause serious disease. In a mixed-pathogen lung infection model, we find that the Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor α toxin potentiates Gram-negative bacterial proliferation, systemic spread, and lethality by preventing acidification of bacteria-containing macrophage phagosomes, thereby reducing effective killing of both S. aureus and Gram-negative bacteria. Prophylaxis or early treatment with a single α toxin neutralizing monoclonal antibody prevented proliferation of co-infecting Gram-negative pathogens and lethality while also promoting S. aureus clearance. These studies suggest that some pathogen-specific, antibody-based approaches may also work to reduce infection risk in patients colonized or co-infected with S. aureus and disparate drug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial opportunists.

  1. Vaccination approaches against opportunistic fungal infections caused by Aspergillus fumigatus.

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    Reichard, Utz; Herrmann, Sahra; Asif, Abdul R

    2014-01-01

    Although innate immunity primarily combats systemic infections of opportunistic fungi such as Aspergillus and Candida spp., acquired and protective immunoreactions were observed long ago in animal trials following sublethal systemic infections caused by viable fungi or after challenging animals with inactivated fungal cells. Based on these observations, fungal antigens should exist which mediate such protective immunoreactions and have in part already been identified. In this context, this review focuses primarily on the various approaches that have been used to identify protection-mediating Aspergillus-antigens and their rationale. Emphasis is placed on screening methods that have exploited genetic or proteomic approaches on the basis of the corresponding fungal genome projects. Thereby, a survey and description is given of the antigens so far known to be capable of inducing immune responses that protect animals against acquiring lethal systemic aspergillosis.

  2. AIDS-Related Extrapulmonary Pneumocystis carinii Infection Presenting as a Solitary Rectal Ulcer

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    Eric M Yoshida

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Extrapulmonary infection with Pneumocystis carinii, although uncommon, is increasingly recognized. Use of aerosolized pentamidine versus a systemic medication is thought to be a contributing factor due to the low concentrations of drug that are incapable of suppressing systemic infection. Infection with P carinii has been reported in every organ system including the gastrointestinal system. A 28-year-old acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patient receiving prophylaxis with aerosolized pentamidine who presented with a solitary rectal ulcer is reported. Initial biopsy was characteristic of extrapulmonary P carinii infection, with numerous organisms present. Occasional cytomegalovirus inclusion bodies were noted which may have been a copathogen but which were not treated. Treatment with intravenous pentamidine resulted in documented eradication of P carinii and complete resolution of the ulcer. Although lower gastrointestinal pneumocystosis has been described without ulceration, this is the first description of rectal ulceration presenting as the initial manifestation of extrapulmonary pneumocystosis.

  3. The association between HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and perception of risk for infection

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    Ndugwa Kabwama, Steven; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review tries to elucidate the association between what people know about HIV/AIDS and how they perceive their risk of infection. The initial search for articles yielded 1,595 abstracts, 16 of which met the inclusion criteria. Five studies found a positive correlation, four reported...... a negative correlation and seven found no association between knowledge and risk perception. It was found that the existing psychometrically sound measure of HIV/AIDS risk perception had not been used in any of the studies. The context in which the risk is assessed is pivotal to whether an association...... between knowledge and the perceived risk is found. Biases in judgement such as optimistic bias, psychological distancing, anchoring bias and overconfidence also explain how knowledge may fail to predict risk perception. It was concluded that the association between HIV/AIDS knowledge and risk perception...

  4. HHV-8 infection in patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma in Brazil

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    Keller R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8 in HIV-positive Brazilian patients with (HIV+/KS+ and without Kaposi's sarcoma (HIV+/KS- using PCR and immunofluorescence assays, to assess its association with KS disease, to evaluate the performance of these tests in detecting HHV-8 infection, and to investigate the association between anti-HHV-8 antibody titers, CD4 counts and staging of KS disease. Blood samples from 66 patients, 39 HIV+/KS+ and 27 HIV+/KS-, were analyzed for HHV-8 viremia in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by PCR and HHV-8 antigenemia for latent and lytic infection by immunofluorescence assay. Positive samples for latent nuclear HHV-8 antigen (LNA antibodies were titrated out from 1/100 to 1/409,600 dilution. Clinical information was collected from medical records and risk behavior was assessed through an interview. HHV-8 DNA sequences were detected by PCR in 74.3% of KS+ patients and in 3.7% of KS- patients. Serological assays were similar in detecting anti-LNA antibodies and anti-lytic antigens in sera from KS+ patients (79.5% and KS- patients (18.5%. HHV-8 was associated with KS whatever the method used, i.e., PCR (odds ratio (OR = 7.4, 95% confidence interval (CI = 2.16-25.61 or anti-LNA and anti-lytic antibodies (OR = 17.0, 95%CI = 4.91-59.14. Among KS+ patients, HHV-8 titration levels correlated positively with CD4 counts (rho 0.48, P = 0.02, but not with KS staging. HHV-8 is involved in the development of KS in different geographic areas worldwide, as it is in Brazil, where HHV-8 is more frequent among HIV+ patients. KS severity was associated with immunodeficiency, but no correlation was found between HHV-8 antibody titers and KS staging.

  5. Gastrointestinal opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus disease

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    Al Anazi Awadh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI opportunistic infections (OIs are commonly encountered at various stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disease. In view of the suppressive nature of the virus and the direct contact with the environment, the GI tract is readily accessible and is a common site for clinical expression of HIV. The subject is presented based on information obtained by electronic searches of peer-reviewed articles in medical journals, Cochrane reviews and PubMed sources. The spectrum of GI OIs ranges from oral lesions of Candidiasis, various lesions of viral infections, hepatobiliary lesions, pancreatitis and anorectal lesions. The manifestations of the disease depend on the level of immunosuppression, as determined by the CD4 counts. The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy has altered the pattern of presentation, resorting mainly to features of antimicrobial-associated colitis and side effects of antiretroviral drugs. The diagnosis of GI OIs in HIV/ acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients is usually straightforward. However, subtle presentations require that the physicians should have a high index of suspicion when given the setting of HIV infection.

  6. Use of traditional medicines in the management of HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Tanzania: a case in the Bukoba rural district

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    Hosea Ken M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnobotanical surveys were carried out to document herbal remedies used in the management of HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Bukoba Rural district, Tanzania. The district is currently an epicenter of HIV/AIDS and although over 90% of the population in the district relies on traditional medicines to manage the disease, this knowledge is impressionistic and not well documented. The HIV/AIDS opportunistic conditions considered during the study were Tuberculosis (TB, Herpes zoster (Shingles, Herpes simplex (Genital herpes, Oral candidiasis and Cryptococcal meningitis. Other symptomatic but undefined conditions considered were skin rashes and chronic diarrhea. Methods An open-ended semi-structured questionnaire was used in collecting field information. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the ethnobotanical data collected. Factor of informant consensus (Fic was used to analyze the ethnobotanical importance of the plants. Results In the present study, 75 plant species belonging to 66 genera and 41 families were found to be used to treat one or more HIV/AIDS related infections in the district. The study revealed that TB and oral candidiasis were the most common manifestations of HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections affecting most of the population in the area. It unveils the first detailed account of ethnomedical documentation of plants focusing the management of HIV/AIDS related infections in the district. Conclusion It is concluded that the ethnopharmacological information reported forms a basis for further research to identify and isolate bioactive constituents that can be developed to drugs for the management of the HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections.

  7. Spectrum Of Opportunistic Infections In Aids Cases In A Tertiary Care Hospital In Nepal

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    Hari Shanker Joshi; Rabindranath Das; Arun Kumar Agnihotri; Subba, Sonu H; Ramnesh Murthy; S B Dabral

    2006-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out, 404 clinically suspected cases attending AIDS clinic at Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal to assess an occurance of opportunistic infections in AIDS cases. Study reveals that Tuberculosis (60%), Cryptospridiosis (13.33%) and candidasis (11.11%) are the predominant opportunistic infection in HIV/AIDS patients in the Pokharo village. Next common pathogen was found an ubiquitous yeast. Candida obtained from skin, oral cavity, oesophagus, sputum and ...

  8. A standardized algorithm for determining the underlying cause of death in HIV infection as AIDS or non-AIDS related

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    Kowalska, Justyna D; Mocroft, Amanda; Ledergerber, Bruno;

    2011-01-01

    are a natural consequence of an increased awareness and knowledge in the field. To monitor and analyze changes in mortality over time, we have explored this issue within the EuroSIDA study and propose a standardized protocol unifying data collected and allowing for classification of all deaths as AIDS or non......-AIDS related, including events with missing cause of death. Methods: Several classifications of the underlying cause of death as AIDS or non-AIDS related within the EuroSIDA study were compared: central classification (CC-reference group) based on an externally standardised method (the CoDe procedures), local...

  9. Prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents: Updated Guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institutes of Health, and HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

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    Masur, Henry; Brooks, John T; Benson, Constance A; Holmes, King K; Pau, Alice K; Kaplan, Jonathan E

    2014-05-01

    In May 2013, a revised and updated version of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Institutes of Health/HIV Medicine Association Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents was released online. These guidelines, since their inception in 1989, have been widely accessed in the United States and abroad. These guidelines have focused on the management of HIV/AIDS-related opportunistic infections that occur in the United States. In other parts of the world, the spectrum of complications may be different and the resources available for diagnosis and management may not be identical to those in the United States. The sections that have been most extensively updated are those on immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, tuberculosis, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human papillomavirus, and immunizations. The guidelines will not be published in hard copy form. This document will be revised as needed throughout each year as new data become available.

  10. Spectrum Of Opportunistic Infections In Aids Cases In A Tertiary Care Hospital In Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Shanker Joshi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study was carried out, 404 clinically suspected cases attending AIDS clinic at Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal to assess an occurance of opportunistic infections in AIDS cases. Study reveals that Tuberculosis (60%, Cryptospridiosis (13.33% and candidasis (11.11% are the predominant opportunistic infection in HIV/AIDS patients in the Pokharo village. Next common pathogen was found an ubiquitous yeast. Candida obtained from skin, oral cavity, oesophagus, sputum and stool. The least common documented documented infection was pneumocystis carini pneumonia (2.22%.

  11. SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS AND OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS: PREVALENCE, CLINICAL FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O N Egorova

    2008-01-01

    Subjects and methods. Sixty-seven patients with a 1-to-7 history of SLE who received first-line therapy were examined. Results. The analysis of the history data and the results of a serological survey identified 3 groups of patients: 1 35 patients with viral infection, of them 9 had mixed viral-and-bacterial infections; 2 14 with bacterial infections and 3 18 patients without viral-and-bacterial complications. The analysis of clinical symptoms established a correlation of high titers of antibodies to cytomegalovirus (CMV and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV with symptoms, such as fever, arthritis, lymphadenopathy, carditis, hepatomegaly and erythema migrans eruption. However, having the similar clinical manifestations, CMV and EBV infections had some organ specificity. In SLE, concomitant comorbid infection, viral infection in particular, contributed to the development of the clinical picture polymorphism with the protracted, remitting inflammatory process and the inadequate efficiency of glucocorticoid and immunosuppressive therapy.

  12. SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS AND OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS: PREVALENCE, CLINICAL FEATURES

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    O N Egorova

    2008-12-01

    Subjects and methods. Sixty-seven patients with a 1-to-7 history of SLE who received first-line therapy were examined. Results. The analysis of the history data and the results of a serological survey identified 3 groups of patients: 1 35 patients with viral infection, of them 9 had mixed viral-and-bacterial infections; 2 14 with bacterial infections and 3 18 patients without viral-and-bacterial complications. The analysis of clinical symptoms established a correlation of high titers of antibodies to cytomegalovirus (CMV and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV with symptoms, such as fever, arthritis, lymphadenopathy, carditis, hepatomegaly and erythema migrans eruption. However, having the similar clinical manifestations, CMV and EBV infections had some organ specificity. In SLE, concomitant comorbid infection, viral infection in particular, contributed to the development of the clinical picture polymorphism with the protracted, remitting inflammatory process and the inadequate efficiency of glucocorticoid and immunosuppressive therapy.

  13. Non-opportunistic intestinal parasitic infections among HIV-infected individuals at Wolaita Sodo Hospital, South Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Amsalu Arota Amado; Fiseha Wadilo Wada; Fithamlak Solomon Bisetegn; Yishak Abreham Leka

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of non-opportunistic intestinal helminthic and protozoal infections among HIV-infected individuals and to determine socio-demographic determinants of intestinal parasitosis. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on HIV-infected individuals attending antiretroviral therapy clinic of Wolaita Sodo Hospital. Stool in wet mount preparation and formalether concentration technique were used to diagnose intestinal parasitic infection. Soc...

  14. Spectrums of opportunistic infections and malignancies in HIV-infected patients in tertiary care hospital, China.

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    Jiang Xiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-related opportunistic infections (OIs and malignancies continued to cause morbidity and mortality in Chinese HIV-infected individuals. The objective for this study is to elucidate the prevalence and spectrums of OIs and malignancies in HIV-infected patients in the Beijing Ditan Hospital. METHODS: The evaluation of the prevalence and spectrums of OIs and malignancies was conducted by using the clinical data of 834 HIV-infected patients admitted in the Beijing Ditan hospital from January 1, 2009, to November 30, 2012. RESULTS: The prevalence and spectrums of OIs and malignancies varied contingent on geographic region, transmission routes, and CD4 levels. We found that tuberculosis was most common OI and prevalence was 32.5%, followed by candidiasis(29.3%, Pneumocystis pneumonia(PCP(22.4%, cytomegalovirus(CMV infection(21.7%, other fungal infections(16.2%, mycobacterium avium complex(MAC(11.3%, cryptococcosis(8.0%, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy(PML(4.4%, Cerebral Toxoplasmosis(3.5% and Penicillium marneffei infection(1.4%; while Lymphoma(2.9%, Kaposi's sarcoma(0.8% and cervix carcinoma(0.3% were emerged as common AIDS-defining malignancies. Pulmonary OI infections were the most prevalent morbidity and mortality in patients in the AIDS stage including pulmonary tuberculosis (26.6% and PCP (22.4%. CMV infection(21.7% was most common viral infection; Fungal OIs were one of most prevalent morbidity in patients in the AIDS stage, including oral candidiasis (29.3%, other fungal infection (16.2%, Cryptococcosis (8.0% and Penicillium marneffei infection (1.4%. We found the low prevalence of AIDS-defining illnesses in central neural system in this study, including progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (4.4%, cerebral toxoplasmosis (3.5%, tuberculosis meningitis (3.2%, cryptococcal meningitis (2.4% and CMV encephalitis (1.1%. In-hospital mortality rate was 4.3 per 100 person-years due to severe OIs, malignancies, and medical

  15. Safe interruption of maintenance therapy against previous infection with four common HIV-associated opportunistic pathogens during potent antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Ole; Reiss, Peter; Uberti-Foppa, Caterina;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The safety of interrupting maintenance therapy for previous opportunistic infections other than Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia among patients with HIV infection who respond to potent antiretroviral therapy has not been well documented. OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety of interrupting m...

  16. Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) in Yaoundé-Cameroon: Association with Opportunistic Infections, Depression, ART Regimen and Side Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonsah, Julius Y; Njamnshi, Alfred K; Kouanfack, Charles; Qiu, Fang; Njamnshi, Dora M; Tagny, Claude T; Nchindap, Emilienne; Kenmogne, Léopoldine; Mbanya, Dora; Heaton, Robert; Kanmogne, Georgette D

    2017-01-01

    Following global efforts to increase antiretroviral therapy (ART) access in Sub-Saharan Africa, ART coverage among HIV-infected Cameroonians increased from 0% in 2003 to 22% in 2014. However, the success of current HIV treatment programs depends not only on access to ART, but also on retention in care and good treatment adherence. This is necessary to achieve viral suppression, prevent virologic failure, and reduce viral transmission and HIV/AIDS-related deaths. Previous studies in Cameroon showed poor adherence, treatment interruption, and loss to follow-up among HIV+ subjects on ART, but the factors that influence ART adherence are not well known. In the current cross-sectional study, patient/self-reported questionnaires and pharmacy medication refill data were used to quantify ART adherence and determine the factors associated with increased risk of non-adherence among HIV-infected Cameroonians. We demonstrated that drug side-effects, low CD4 cell counts and higher viral loads are associated with increased risk of non-adherence, and compared to females, males were more likely to forego ART because of side effects (pART regimen, age, gender, and education showed that subjects with opportunistic infections had 3.1-times higher odds of having been non-adherent (p40 years) were less likely to be non-adherent (pART during antibiotic treatment (r = 0.53, p = 0.04), and was associated with lower CD4 cell counts (p = 0.04) and longer non-adherent periods (p = 0.04). Change in ART regimen was significantly associated with increased likelihood of non-adherence and increased duration of the non-adherence period. Addressing these underlying risk factors could improve ART adherence, retention in care and treatment outcomes for HIV/AIDS patients in Cameroon.

  17. Opportunistic infections and malignancies in 231 Danish AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Gerstoft, J; Tauris, P;

    1990-01-01

    We analysed cumulative disease frequencies in the first 231 adult Danish AIDS patients with life tables. There was a certain hierarchical pattern in the occurrence of complicating diseases. Herpes zoster, Kaposi's sarcoma and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia were early manifestations, whereas...... diseases caused by cytomegalovirus and atypical mycobacteria tended to occur later in the course of AIDS. Compared with all other AIDS patients, homosexual men were more likely to develop Kaposi's sarcoma, cytomegalovirus chorioretinitis and mucocutaneous herpes simplex virus infection. The proportion...

  18. Epidemiology of opportunistic invasive fungal infections in China: review of literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Yong; CHEN Min; Thomas Hartmann; YANG Rong-ya; LIAO Wan-qing

    2013-01-01

    Objective To summarize the recent findings on the epidemiology of medically important,opportunistic invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in China and discuss the relevant social,economical reasons and medical factors.Data sources We performed a comprehensive search of both English and Chinese literatures of opportunistic IFIs from China up to April 2012.Study selection Relevant literatures involving researches and cases/case series were identified,retrieved and reviewed.Results The incidence of opportunistic IFIs in China was steadily increasing.The incidence and mortality of IFIs were different in patients with various underlying conditions/diseases,from 4.12% to 41.18% and 9.8% to 60.0%,respectively.Candida species,Aspergillus species and Cryptococcus neoformans species complex were the most frequent isolated pathogens.Other uncommon opportunistic IFIs were also been reported,including trichosporonosis,mucormycosis,hyalohyphomycosis (hyaline hyphomycetes) and phaeohyphomycosis (dematiaceous hyphomycetes).Reports of Chinese patients differed from those of many other countries as there were a higher number of patients without identifiable underlying diseases/conditions.Conclusions Because of the rapid economic development,changing population structure and a growing number of immunocompromised hosts with risk factors,today opportunistic IFIs in China have a significant impact on public health,associated with high morbidity/mortality and higher care costs.Now information related to the epidemiology of opportunistic IFIs in China is still sparse,so we need more organized groups of clinical scientists performing related researches to help the clinicians to obtain more accurate epidemiological characteristics.

  19. Opportunistic infections and malignancies in 231 Danish AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Gerstoft, J; Tauris, P;

    1990-01-01

    We analysed cumulative disease frequencies in the first 231 adult Danish AIDS patients with life tables. There was a certain hierarchical pattern in the occurrence of complicating diseases. Herpes zoster, Kaposi's sarcoma and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia were early manifestations, whereas...... diseases caused by cytomegalovirus and atypical mycobacteria tended to occur later in the course of AIDS. Compared with all other AIDS patients, homosexual men were more likely to develop Kaposi's sarcoma, cytomegalovirus chorioretinitis and mucocutaneous herpes simplex virus infection. The proportion...... of patients who developed particular diseases changed with calendar time. Most striking was a three to fourfold decrease in diseases caused by cytomegalovirus. In conclusion, the study showed that disease frequencies in patients with AIDS may vary with the patients risk behaviour and duration of AIDS...

  20. Characterization of a new simian immunodeficiency virus strain in a naturally infected Pan troglodytes troglodytes chimpanzee with AIDS related symptoms

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    Aghokeng Avelin F

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on the evolution of natural SIV infection in chimpanzees (SIVcpz and on the impact of SIV on local ape populations are only available for Eastern African chimpanzee subspecies (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, and no data exist for Central chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes, the natural reservoir of the ancestors of HIV-1 in humans. Here, we report a case of naturally-acquired SIVcpz infection in a P.t.troglodytes chimpanzee with clinical and biological data and analysis of viral evolution over the course of infection. Results A male chimpanzee (Cam155, 1.5 years, was seized in southern Cameroon in November 2003 and screened SIV positive during quarantine. Clinical follow-up and biological analyses have been performed for 7 years and showed a significant decline of CD4 counts (1,380 cells/mm3 in 2004 vs 287 in 2009, a severe thrombocytopenia (130,000 cells/mm3 in 2004 vs 5,000 cells/mm3 in 2009, a weight loss of 21.8% from August 2009 to January 2010 (16 to 12.5 kg and frequent periods of infections with diverse pathogens. DNA from PBMC, leftover from clinical follow-up samples collected in 2004 and 2009, was used to amplify overlapping fragments and sequence two full-length SIVcpzPtt-Cam155 genomes. SIVcpzPtt-Cam155 was phylogenetically related to other SIVcpzPtt from Cameroon (SIVcpzPtt-Cam13 and Gabon (SIVcpzPtt-Gab1. Ten molecular clones 5 years apart, spanning the V1V4 gp120 env region (1,100 bp, were obtained. Analyses of the env region showed positive selection (dN-dS >0, intra-host length variation and extensive amino acid diversity between clones, greater in 2009. Over 5 years, N-glycosylation site frequency significantly increased (p Conclusions Here, we describe for the first time the clinical history and viral evolution of a naturally SIV infected P.t.troglodytes chimpanzee. The findings show an increasing viral diversity over time and suggest clinical progression to an AIDS-like disease, showing that

  1. Enteric Opportunistic Parasitic Infections among HIV-Seropositive Patients at Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital

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    Sangeeta D Patel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enteric opportunistic parasitic infections are the major source of diarrheal disease in developing countries mainly in Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected patients. Objective: The study was to detect enteric parasites causing diarrhea and their association with immune status in HIV-seropositive patients. Methods: The present study was conducted in tertiary care teaching Hospital, Baroda between January 2006 to January 2007 involving 100 Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive patients. Stool was examined for enteric parasites by microscopy with special staining methods. Results: A total of 100 HIV sero-positive patients with and without diarrhea were included in the study. Of the 100 patients, the protozoan parasitic infection was found in 28% (28/100. Out of 100 patients, 50 had diarrhea in which parasitic infection was 24 (48% and 4 (4/50 protozoal parasites positive cases did not have diarrhea. A significant difference (p<0.05 was observed in the level of infection of intestinal protozoan between the HIV seropositive with diarrhea and HIV-seropositive without diarrhea. Conclusion Enteric opportunistic parasitic infections were detected in 28% among HIV-seropositive patients. Early detection of enteric parasitic infections will help in the management and to improve the quality of life for HIV-infected individuals. [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(3.000: 190-193

  2. The diagnosis of HIV-associated central nervous system opportunistic infections

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    GONG Qi-ming

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic infections of the central nervous system (CNS are very common and severe complications of advanced immunodeficiency in patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection, which are included in the diagnostic criteria for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS defining conditions according to 1993 Revised Classification System for HIV Infection and Expanded Surveillance Case Definition for AIDS among Adolescents and Adults published by USA Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. The etiologic microorganisms of CNS opportunistic infections include virus, bacteria, fungus, mycobacterium and parasite. The clinical symptoms, signs and laboratory examinations of these diseases are different from that of patients with non-immunodeficiency. Even in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, worsening conditions or new infections may occur. Therefore, prompt diagnosis and treatment of such disorders are critical. The immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS in HIV-1 infected patients in the initiating antiretroviral therapy results from restored immunity to specific infectious or non-infectious antigens. This study reviews the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis of some common CNS disorders in HIV-1 infected patients. Physicians caring for such patients must be aware of the new diagnostic modalities and therapeutic options of these diseases.

  3. Opportunistic fungi in lake water and fungal infections in associated human population in Dal Lake, Kashmir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandh, Suhaib A; Kamili, Azra N; Ganai, Bashir A; Lone, Bashir A

    2016-04-01

    Natural habitats of opportunistic fungal pathogens are outside of the host; therefore, it is critically important to understand their ecology and routes of transmission. In this study, we investigated the presence of human pathogenic opportunistic fungi in lake water and incidence of fungal infections in associated population in Kashmir, India. Six hundred forty water samples were taken on seasonal basis from a wide network of sampling stations of the lake for an extended period of two years for screening their occurrence. The samples were inoculated onto rose bengal agar, malt extract agar, potato dextrose agar and other specified culture media supplemented with Chloramphenicol and Streptomycin followed by incubation at 37 °C. All the samples were positive for fungi, which were later identified by sequencing the rDNA internal transcribed spacer region aided by classical morphological culture techniques and physiological profiling. The whole process led to the isolation of sixteen species of opportunistic fungal pathogens belonging to genus Aspergillus, Candida, Penicillium, Cryptococcus, Fusarium, Rhizopus and Mucor in decreasing order of prevalence. Furthermore, 20% population (n = 384) of Dal inhabitants was examined for possible fungal infections and it was observed that only 8.07% individuals were positive for fungal infections with 4.68% skin infection cases, 2.34% onychomycosis cases and 1.04% candidiasis cases. Scrapings from onychomycosis and candidiasis patients showed the presence of Aversicolor and Calbicans respectively, resembling exactly the strains isolated from the lake water. However, the skin infection was because of a dermatophyte not isolated for the lake water. Higher prevalence of infection (6.77%) was seen in people using lake water followed by a positive prevalence of 1.30% using tap water. The results of present study suggest that the lake inhabitants are at a greater risk of getting life threatening fungal diseases which may lead to

  4. Opportunistic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latinx AIDS ... to be responsive to antiretroviral therapy. In some cases, the disease resolves without any ... Diagnosis of this condition often requires imaging studies (CT or MRI) of the brain and a ...

  5. High levels of divergent HIV-1 quasispecies in patients with neurological opportunistic infections in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulin; Wei, Feili; Liang, Qi; Ding, Wei; Qiao, Luxin; Song, Fengli; Liu, Lifeng; Yang, Sufang; Jin, Ronghua; Gu, Jianhua; Li, Ning; Chen, Dexi

    2013-08-01

    Despite the fact that the survival of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has improved worldwide because of the increasingly powerful and highly active antiretroviral therapy, opportunistic infections (OIs) of the central nervous system (CNS) remain a serious burden. HIV-1 is capable of entering the CNS through infected peripheral monocytes, but its effect on OIs of CNS remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of HIV-1 in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients with CNS OIs. A total of 24 patients with CNS OIs and 16 non-CNS OIs (control) cases were selected. These AIDS patients were infected with HIV-1 by paid blood donors in China. HIV-1 loads in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were detected using RT-PCR, and the C2-V5 region of HIV-1 envelope gene was amplified from viral quasispecies isolated from CSF using nested PCR. The CSF HIV-1 load of CNS OIs was higher than that of non-CNS OIs, but plasma HIV-1 load of CNS OIs was not higher than that of non-CNS OIs. The nucleotide sequence of C2-V5 region of the HIV-1 quasispecies isolated from the CSF of CNS OIs had a high diversity, and the HIV-1 quasispecies isolated from the CSF of CNS OIs revealed R5 tropism as 11/25 charge rule. These results suggest that high levels of divergent HIV-1 quasispecies in the CNS probably contribute to opportunistic infections.

  6. Changes in hospitalizations due to opportunistic infections, chronic conditions and other causes among HIV patients (1989–2011. A study in a HIV unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Redondo Sanchez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reduction in mortality and morbidity in HIV patients due to the introduction of HAART have resulted in changes in patterns of hospital admissions. Objective: To examine trends of HIV patients hospital admissions. Design and method: Serial cross-sectional analysis of HIV-hospitalized patients from 1989 to 2011 in an HIV Care Unit. Each hospitalization was classified as major categories: opportunistic infections, other infections, drug-related admissions, chronic hepatopathy, AIDS and non-AIDS-related tumours and chronic medical conditions (COPD, diabetes and as specific diagnosis: tuberculosis, PCP, CMV, bacterial pneumonia and others. We considered 4 periods of time: pre-HAART, 1989–1996; early HAART, 1997–2001; intermediate HAART, 2002–2006; and present HAART, 2007–2011. Results: We evaluated 2588 admissions. 20.7% of patients were unaware of HIV infection before first admission; this proportion did not change along the time (p=0.27. No previous outpatient follow-up was seen in 34.9% of patients. There were differences in diagnosis, mortality, age and mean inpatient stay time (Table 1 between the analyzed periods of time. Conclusions: (i HAART and older age have changed the pattern of hospital admissions with a decrease of OI-related admissions and an increase of chronic diseases and non-AIDS-related tumours and with a decrease in mortality and length of inpatient stay. (ii Proportion of patients with unknown HIV serostatus before admission has not changed along the time. (iii Pneumonia, respiratory tract infection and tuberculosis were the more common causes of admission.

  7. LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS AT LONG-SUBFEBRILITES AND OBSTRUCTIVE BRONCHITIS IN CHILDREN WITH MIXED INFECTION

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    T. N. Rybalkina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the role of agents of opportunistic infections (OI in the etiology of children’s infectious diseases illustrated by the long-subfebrilites and obstructivebronchitis. When children without expressed immunity disorders are infected with mixed infections OI have more pronounced manifestations, which requires appropriate treatment. At the same time, the similarity of the clinical manifestations does not mean that an etiological diagnosis can be determined without laboratory diagnostic methods. The importance of routine pediatrics monitoring of children with latent forms of OI is emphasized.

  8. Variation in genes of beta-glucan recognition pathway and susceptibility to opportunistic infections in HIV-positive patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosentul, D.C.; Plantinga, T.S.; Papadopoulos, A.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Antoniadou, A.; Venselaar, H.; Kullberg, B.J.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, E.J.; Netea, M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Opportunistic infections are the main cause of morbidity and death among HIV-positive patients. Most of these infections are linked to the immunodeficiency due to low CD4+ counts. However, not all patients with low CD4+ counts are equally susceptible to infections, and we hypothesize that variabilit

  9. Non-opportunistic intestinal parasitic infections among HIV-infected individuals at Wolaita Sodo Hospital, South Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amsalu Arota Amado; Fiseha Wadilo Wada; Fithamlak Solomon Bisetegn; Yishak Abreham Leka

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To determine the prevalence of non-opportunistic intestinal helminthic and protozoal infections amongHIV-infected individuals and to determine socio-demographic determinants of intestinal parasitosis. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted onHIV-infected individuals attending anti-retroviral therapy clinic of Wolaita Sodo Hospital. Stool in wet mount preparation and formal-ether concentration technique were used to diagnose intestinal parasitic infection. Socio-demographic variables were collected by using questionnaire.Chi-square test was used to test the associations between intestinal parasitosis and socio-demographic variables. Results: The overall prevalence of non-opportunistic intestinal parasitic infection was 32.4% out of which 11.0% was protozoal infection and 21.4% was helminthic infection. The most common intestinal parasite detected wasAscaris lumbricoides with 12.7% prevalence followed byGiardia lamblia with 7.5% prevalence. The prevalence ofStrongyloides stercoralis, hookworm species,Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar,Schistosoma mansoni and Taenia species was 2.9%, 1.2%, 3.5%, 1.7% and 2.3% respectively. There was no significant difference in prevalence of intestinal parasite infection with regard to age, sex, residence area, job type and religion of participants but there was a significant association between the educational status and intestinal parasitic infection. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was higher among illiterate participants. Conclusions:Ascaris lumbricoides was the most common intestinal parasite detected inHIV-infected individuals.Giardia lamblia was the most common protozoal parasite observed. Prevalence of intestinal helminthic infection was higher than protozoal infection. Intestinal parasitosis was significantly associated with an educational status of individuals.

  10. 建筑工人艾滋病相关行为及HIV感染状况调查%AIDS- related Behaviors and HIV Infection Status Among Construction Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何波; 农丽萍; 张建明; 黄祖斌; 钟海东

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore AIDS - related behaviors and HIV infection status among construction workers in Pingxiang city for effective interventions on high risk behavior. Methods A cluster sampling method was adopted and 405 workers from 9 construction sites in Pingxiang city were selected from January to March 2011. Sexual behaviors including marriage sex, commercial sex and non - marriage/commercial casually sex were analyzed as well as HIV/AIDS related knowledge awareness, drug using and HIV, Syphilis and HCV test results in laboratory. Result A total of 405 construction workers were selected and investigated, with the HIV infection rate of 0. 49% , syphilis infection rate of 3. 95% , and HCV infection rate of 0. 99%. The awareness rate of AIDS -related knowledge (who could answer more than 6 items) was 72. 28% among the workers. The percentage of having sex with regular partners within the past year was 93.24% , and the rate of using condom each time was only 8. 69%. The rate of having non - marriage/commercial casual sex was 5. 68% in the past year. And 13. 39% of investiged male construction workers had had commercial sex in the past year with the rate of 62. 22% using condom each time. Also the rate was 0. 74% of drug using. Single factor analysis shows that the rate of commercial sex behavior is related to both education level and the AIDS - related knowledge awareness among the male construction workers ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion There was synergistic effect of multiple high risks related to HIV among construction workers in Pingxiang. Those construction workers were becoming the high risk and bridge group of AIDS infection and transmission. Effective interventions on high risk behavior should be carried out for HIV/AIDS prevention and control.%目的 了解凭祥市建筑工人艾滋病(AIDS)相关行为与艾滋病病毒( HIV)感染状况,以便采取有针对性的高危行为干预措施.方法 于2011 - 01/03,采用整群抽样方法抽取凭祥市9

  11. Antimicrobial therapy for the treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS patients: a critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seddon J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Jo Seddon1, Sanjay Bhagani21Department of Infectious Diseases, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK; 2Department of Infection and Immunity, Royal Free Hospital NHS Trust, London, UKAbstract: The widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART has entirely changed the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and dramatically reduced the rates of opportunistic infections (OI. However, OI continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality in both developed countries, where presentation with advanced HIV infection is common, and also in developing countries where ART is less widely available. Evidence to direct OI guidelines is partly limited by the fact that many large-scale studies date from the pre-ART era and more recent studies are sometimes poorly powered due to the falling rates of OI. Treatment of OI is now known to be as much about antimicrobials as about immune reconstitution with ART, and recent studies help guide the timing of initiation of ART in different infections. OI have also become complicated by the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome phenomenon which may occur once successful immune recovery begins. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole has long been one of the most important antibiotics in the treatment and prevention of OI and remains paramount. It has a broad spectrum of activity against Pneumocystis jiroveci, toxoplasmosis, and bacterial infections and has an important role to play in preventing life-threatening OI. New advances in treating OI are coming from a variety of quarters: in cytomegalovirus eye disease, the use of oral rather than intravenous drugs is changing the face of therapy; in cryptococcal meningitis, improved drug formulations and combination therapy is improving clearance rates and reducing drug toxicities; and in gut disease, the possibility of rapid immune restitution with ART is replacing the need for antimicrobials against cryptosporidia and microsporidia.Keywords: HIV

  12. Opportunistic diseases in HIV-infected patients in Gabon following the administration of highly active antiretroviral therapy: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okome-Nkoumou, Madeleine; Guiyedi, Vincent; Ondounda, Magloire; Efire, Nora; Clevenbergh, Philippe; Dibo, Mireille; Dzeing-Ella, Arnaud

    2014-02-01

    Opportunistic diseases cause substantial morbidity and mortality to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) leading to immune reconstitution is the most effective treatment of preventing opportunistic diseases. This retrospective study established an epidemiologic profile of opportunistic diseases 10 years after the introduction of HAART. The HIV antiretroviral therapy-naive patients matching inclusion criteria were included. The primary outcome was the prevalence of opportunistic diseases. From January 1, 2002 to September 30, 2010, 654 opportunistic diseases were identified in 458 patients. Pulmonary tuberculosis, herpes zoster, cerebral toxoplasmosis, oral candidiasis, and severe pneumonia accounted for 22.05%, 15.94%, 14.19%, 14.19%, and 9.39%, respectively. Cryptococcal meningitis and pneumocystosis accounted for 0.44% and 0.21%, respectively. The prevalence of opportunistic diseases in Gabon remains high. New guidelines emphasize the importance of initiating antiretroviral therapy early to reconstitute the immune system, and reduce disease risk, and treat the primary opportunistic infection of pulmonary tuberculosis.

  13. Oral opportunistic infections in HIV-positive individuals: review and role of mucosal immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Janet E; Shetty, Kishore; Fidel, Paul L

    2004-08-01

    Oral opportunistic infections in the HIV-positive individual have been documented since the first reports of the epidemic, with many lesions associated with reduced CD4(+) T lymphocyte cell count. The most common oral lesions seen in HIV disease prior to the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were oropharyngeal candidiasis and oral hairy leukoplakia. However, since the advent of HAART while many oral lesions have decreased significantly the incidence of oral warts has surprisingly increased. Despite the correlation of diminished CD4(+) T lymphocyte count to the occurrence of these lesions, it is rare for the lesions to occur concurrently suggesting that each pathologic lesion type is associated with distinct host immune dysfunctions. To date, the oral opportunistic infection most frequently investigated is oropharyngeal candidiasis, where data suggests that both systemic and local immunity is important for protection against infection. In contrast, recent investigations into the host responses associated with oral hairy leukoplakia and oral warts show little to no evidence of systemic or mucosal immune responsiveness despite the presumed competence of several types of leukocytes other than CD4(+) T cells. Together these data are suggesting that susceptibility to oropharyngeal candidasis in HIV-positive persons is predominantly immune-based, whereas protection or susceptibility to oral hairy leukoplakia and oral warts may be more associated with factors other than mucosal immune function.

  14. Non-opportunistic intestinal parasitic infections among HIV-infected individuals at Wolaita Sodo Hospital, South Ethiopia

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    Amsalu Arota Amado

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of non-opportunistic intestinal helminthic and protozoal infections among HIV-infected individuals and to determine socio-demographic determinants of intestinal parasitosis. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on HIV-infected individuals attending antiretroviral therapy clinic of Wolaita Sodo Hospital. Stool in wet mount preparation and formalether concentration technique were used to diagnose intestinal parasitic infection. Sociodemographic variables were collected by using questionnaire. Chi-square test was used to test the associations between intestinal parasitosis and socio-demographic variables. Results: The overall prevalence of non-opportunistic intestinal parasitic infection was 32.4% out of which 11.0% was protozoal infection and 21.4% was helminthic infection. The most common intestinal parasite detected was Ascaris lumbricoides with 12.7% prevalence followed by Giardia lamblia with 7.5% prevalence. The prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis, hookworm species, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Schistosoma mansoni and Taenia species was 2.9%, 1.2%, 3.5%, 1.7% and 2.3% respectively. There was no significant difference in prevalence of intestinal parasite infection with regard to age, sex, residence area, job type and religion of participants but there was a significant association between the educational status and intestinal parasitic infection. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was higher among illiterate participants. Conclusions: Ascaris lumbricoides was the most common intestinal parasite detected in HIVinfected individuals. Giardia lamblia was the most common protozoal parasite observed. Prevalence of intestinal helminthic infection was higher than protozoal infection. Intestinal parasitosis was significantly associated with an educational status of individuals.

  15. Vegetable microbiomes: is there a connection among opportunistic infections, human health and our 'gut feeling'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Gabriele; Erlacher, Armin; Smalla, Kornelia; Krause, Robert

    2014-11-01

    The highly diverse microbiomes of vegetables are reservoirs for opportunistic and emerging pathogens. In recent years, an increased consumption, larger scale production and more efficient distribution of vegetables together with an increased number of immunocompromised individuals resulted in an enhanced number of documented outbreaks of human infections associated with the consumption of vegetables. Here we discuss the occurrence of potential pathogens in vegetable microbiomes, the impact of farming and processing practices, and plant and human health issues. Based on these results, we discuss the question if vegetables can serve as a source of infection for immunocompromised individuals as well as possible solutions to avoid outbreaks. Moreover, the potentially positive aspects of the vegetables microbiome for the gut microbiota and human health are presented.

  16. Mirtazapine and mefloquine therapy for non-AIDS-related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epperla, Narendranath; Medina-Flores, Rafael; Mazza, Joseph J; Yale, Steven H

    2014-12-01

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is an opportunistic infection of the human nervous system caused by the JC virus. We report what is, to the best of our knowledge, the second reported case using a combination of mefloquine and mirtazapine in a patient with non-AIDS-related PML with a good clinical outcome. Conversely, the recent trial of mefloquine in 21 patients with AIDS and 3 without AIDS failed to show a reduction of JC viral DNA levels in the cerebral spinal fluid. However, the positive clinical response seen in our patient after the initiation of this combination therapy suggests that further studies in the form of randomized controlled trials for the treatment of non-AIDS-related PML are warranted.

  17. Changing mortality profile among HIV-infected patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: shifting from AIDS to non-AIDS related conditions in the HAART era.

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    Beatriz Grinsztejn

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We describe temporal trends in the mortality rates and factors associated with AIDS and non-AIDS related mortality at the Evandro Chagas Clinical Research Institute (IPEC, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ. METHODS: Adult patients enrolling from 1986 through 2009 with a minimum follow up of 60 days were included. Vital status was exhaustively checked using patients' medical charts, through active contact with individuals and family members and by linkage with the Rio de Janeiro Mortality database using a previously validated algorithm. The CoDe protocol was used to establish the cause of death. Extended Cox proportional hazards models were used for multivariate modeling. RESULTS: A total of 3530 individuals met the inclusion criteria, out of which 868 (24.6% deceased; median follow up per patient was 3.9 years (interquartile range 1.7-9.2 years. The dramatic decrease in the overall mortality rates was driven by AIDS-related causes that decreased from 9.19 deaths/100PYs n 1986-1991 to 1.35/100PYs in 2007-2009. Non-AIDS related mortality rates remained stable overtime, at around 1 death/100PYs. Immunodeficiency significantly increased the hazard of both AIDS-related and non-AIDS-related causes of death, while HAART use was strongly associated with a lower hazard of death from either cause. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm the remarkable decrease in AIDS-related mortality as the HIV epidemic evolved and alerts to the conditions not traditionally related to HIV/AIDS which are now becoming more frequent, needing careful monitoring.

  18. Time to HAART Initiation after Diagnosis and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in Patients with AIDS in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda; Caro-Vega, Yanink; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Wolff, Marcelo; Cortes, Claudia P.; Padgett, Denis; Carriquiry, Gabriela; Fink, Valeria; Jayathilake, Karu; Person, Anna K.; McGowan, Catherine; Sierra-Madero, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Background Since 2009, earlier initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) after an opportunistic infection (OI) has been recommended based on lower risks of death and AIDS-related progression found in clinical trials. Delay in HAART initiation after OIs may be an important barrier for successful outcomes in patients with advanced disease. Timing of HAART initiation after an OI in “real life” settings in Latin America has not been evaluated. Methods Patients in the Caribbean, Central and South America network for HIV Epidemiology (CCASAnet) ≥18 years of age at enrolment, from 2001–2012 who had an OI before HAART initiation were included. Patients were divided in an early HAART (EH) group (those initiating within 4 weeks of an OI) and a delayed HAART (DH) group (those initiating more than 4 weeks after an OI). All patients with an AIDS-defining OI were included. In patients with more than one OI the first event reported was considered. Calendar trends in the proportion of patients in the EH group (before and after 2009) were estimated by site and for the whole cohort. Factors associated with EH were estimated using multivariable logistic regression models. Results A total of 1457 patients had an OI before HAART initiation and were included in the analysis: 213 from Argentina, 686 from Brazil, 283 from Chile, 119 from Honduras and 156 from Mexico. Most prevalent OI were Tuberculosis (31%), followed by Pneumocystis pneumonia (24%), Invasive Candidiasis (16%) and Toxoplasmosis (9%). Median time from OI to HAART initiation decreased significantly from 5.7 (interquartile range [IQR] 2.8–12.1) weeks before 2009 to 4.3 (IQR 2.0–7.1) after 2009 (p<0.01). Factors associated with starting HAART within 4 weeks of OI diagnosis were lower CD4 count at enrolment (p-<0.001), having a non-tuberculosis OI (p<0.001), study site (p<0.001), and more recent years of OI diagnosis (p<0.001). Discussion The time from diagnosis of an OI to HAART initiation has

  19. Time to HAART Initiation after Diagnosis and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in Patients with AIDS in Latin America.

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    Brenda Crabtree-Ramírez

    Full Text Available Since 2009, earlier initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART after an opportunistic infection (OI has been recommended based on lower risks of death and AIDS-related progression found in clinical trials. Delay in HAART initiation after OIs may be an important barrier for successful outcomes in patients with advanced disease. Timing of HAART initiation after an OI in "real life" settings in Latin America has not been evaluated.Patients in the Caribbean, Central and South America network for HIV Epidemiology (CCASAnet ≥18 years of age at enrolment, from 2001-2012 who had an OI before HAART initiation were included. Patients were divided in an early HAART (EH group (those initiating within 4 weeks of an OI and a delayed HAART (DH group (those initiating more than 4 weeks after an OI. All patients with an AIDS-defining OI were included. In patients with more than one OI the first event reported was considered. Calendar trends in the proportion of patients in the EH group (before and after 2009 were estimated by site and for the whole cohort. Factors associated with EH were estimated using multivariable logistic regression models.A total of 1457 patients had an OI before HAART initiation and were included in the analysis: 213 from Argentina, 686 from Brazil, 283 from Chile, 119 from Honduras and 156 from Mexico. Most prevalent OI were Tuberculosis (31%, followed by Pneumocystis pneumonia (24%, Invasive Candidiasis (16% and Toxoplasmosis (9%. Median time from OI to HAART initiation decreased significantly from 5.7 (interquartile range [IQR] 2.8-12.1 weeks before 2009 to 4.3 (IQR 2.0-7.1 after 2009 (p<0.01. Factors associated with starting HAART within 4 weeks of OI diagnosis were lower CD4 count at enrolment (p-<0.001, having a non-tuberculosis OI (p<0.001, study site (p<0.001, and more recent years of OI diagnosis (p<0.001.The time from diagnosis of an OI to HAART initiation has decreased in Latin America coinciding with the

  20. [Microbiological results of bronchoalveolar lavage that was performed for opportunistic pulmonary infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülcü, Aylin; Sevinç, Can; Esen, Nuran; Kilinç, Oğuz; Uçan, Eyüp Sabri; Itil, Oya; Cimrin, Arif Hikmet; Kömüs, Nuray; Sener, Gülper; Akkoçlu, Atila; Gülay, Zeynep; Yücesoy, Mine

    2006-01-01

    Between 2001-2002; in 62 cases, 33 (53%) male, 29 (47%) female, mean age 51.4 +/- 18.1 years) bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed for diagnosis of opportunistic pulmonary infection and specimens were evaluated for results of microbiological examinations. There was hematological malignancy in 18 (29%) and solid organ malignancy in 13 (21%) cases. Thirty-one (50%) cases were immunocompromised for reasons other than malignancy. By endoscopic evaluation endobronchial lesion was seen in 2 (3%) cases, indirect tumor signs were seen in 2 (3%) cases and signs of infection were seen in 11 (18%) cases. Forty-even (76%) cases were endoscopically normal. Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) direct examination was positive in 3 (5%) cases. In 4 (6%) cases mycobacterial culture was positive, Mycobacterium tuberculosis-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was also positive in these four cases. Examination of gram-stained smears for bacteria was associated with infection in 14 (23%) cases. Bacteriologic cultures were positive for single potential pathogen in 10 (16%) cases, and for mixed pathogens in 7 (11%) cases for a total number of 17 (27%). Fungal cultures were positive in 3 (5%) cases all of which had hematological malignancy. As a result in 24 (39%) cases microbiological agent of infection is determined: in four mycobacteria, in 17 bacteria other than mycobacteria and in three fungi.

  1. STUDY OF CHANGES IN OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS AFTER ONE YEAR OF ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY IN HIV INFECTED PATIENTS IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE IN NORTH BENGAL

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    Biswadev Basu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are conflicting data regarding incidence of Opportunistic Infections in newly diagnosed HIV positive patients on ART. In this article, we studied incidence of Opportunistic Infections in newly diagnosed HIV positive in a tertiary care centre in North Bengal after one year of ART. One hundred and twenty patients were followed for one year after initiating ART. The most common opportunistic infections were Tuberculosis, Candidial infection, skin infections and diarrhea. At the baseline, 32 cases were present with tuberculosis (Pulmonary: 10, 6 sputum -ve and 4 sputum +ve, extrapulmonary: 22. Total patients with candidial infections were 15 (Oral: 12, Oesophageal: 3. After the 6 months of followup 13 patients presented with diarrhoea, 8 cases presented with oral candidiasis, 6 cases presented with tuberculosis. At 12 months of followup, 6 patients presented with tuberculosis, 4 cases with oral candidiasis and 3 cases with diarrhoea. Opportunistic infections at baseline were 60.4% among the study population, while after 6 and 12 months of ART it decreased to 33.7% and 16.8% respectively.

  2. [Pathology of the internal organs and central nervous system in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (with special reference to opportunistic infections)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, T; Chinaglia, D; Riviera, L; Capricci, E; Gullotta, F; Spigolon, G; Bauer, A L

    1990-01-01

    Extracerebral and cerebral pathology in AIDS (with particular emphasis on the opportunistic infections). The Authors present the extracerebral pathology of 27 cases of AIDS observed at the Department of Pathology of Milan and the cerebral pathology of 80 cases of AIDS collected by three Institutes (Department of Pathology of Milan, Department of Pathology of Rimini and Department of Neuropathology of Münster) with particular emphasis on the pathology of the opportunistic infections. In the adults' group, the most frequent infections are the protozoan ones (T. gondii) followed with equal incidence by the viral and fungal diseases. In the pediatric group the viral diseases are the most frequently seen. Almost all of the adults show multiple infections in the same organ or in different organs. Diffuse lesions with heavy pathologic fields were observed also without tissue reaction. As to cerebral pathology AIDS' patients with opportunistic infections show focal symptoms, whereas the so called "subacute microglial encephalitis" generally appears as a demential syndrome. In cases with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy JC virus was always found and in one case also SV 40 - and BK virus. The diffuse demyelinization in some cases of HIV-Encephalopathy is aspecific. In HIV-positive newborns with cerebral signs, the lesions are characterized by oedema, spongiosis and microcalcifications of the basal ganglia; these are aspecific lesions which can be found in toxic and infectious encephalopathies.

  3. Psammoma bodies and some opportunistic infections detected in cervical smears of women fitted with an IUD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, M E; Kirk, R S; De Graaff Guilloud, J C

    1981-07-01

    The incidence of psammoma bodies in cervical smears and of opportunistic infections by actinomyces or ameba is reported in 15,000 patients using IUDs. During the 1972-1978 period, cervical smears from 440,550 women were examined. Of these, 14,980 wore an IUD. 88% of the patients with an IUD were fitted with Multiload Cu250, 8% had Copper T and 4% Lippes Loop. Smears from 7500 patients using oral contraceptives (OCs) and from 7500 patients using no contraception were used as control groups. The smears from the women wearing an IUD were screened and the following were recorded: psammoma bodies, hematoidin crystals, trichomonads, ameba and actinomyces. There were significant differences between IUD users and the control groups in the occurrence of psammoma bodies, ameba and actinomyces but not in trichomonads or hematoidin crystals. Psammoma bodies were found in 1.4% of the cases and actinomyces in 3.7%. Only 1 patient had a transient amebic infestation. The occurrence of psammoma bodies and actinomyces was proportional to duration of IUD use. Most cases were found after 2 years use. The actinomyces were easily identifiable with the Gram stain. The wise course is to make a Gram-stained cervical smear in all women after 2 years of IUD use in order to detect the presence of genital actinomyces.

  4. Opportunistic infections in relation to antiretroviral status among AIDS patients from south India

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    S Srirangaraj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a need to generate data from India on relative frequencies of specific opportunistic infections (OIs in different regions and their relation to the choice of commonly used generic highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART regimens. Objectives: To document the prevailing prevalence pattern of OIs both before and after HAART, to look for reduction in OIs following HAART, to assess the risk of developing new OIs within 6 months of HAART initiation and to see if there is any difference in the risk of developing a new OI within 6 months of HAART initiation, for those on Efavirenz (EFV-based regimens and Nevirapine (NVP-based regimens. Materials and Methods: In a prospective observational cohort study conducted in South India involving 108 ART-naive AIDS patients, different pathogens were isolated and identified using standard laboratory techniques. Data analysis was done using SPSS software (version 16.0. Risk of developing an OI after HAART initiation was assessed using the likelihood ratio test from Cox regression models. Results: Tuberculosis (53.4%, oral Candidiasis (27.2% and Herpes Zoster (14.7% were the common infections seen. There was a drastic reduction of 96.59% in OI events after 6 months of HAART. The risk of developing an OI within 6 months of HAART initiation was 5.56%. Time to development of an OI in the first 6 months of HAART was shorter for the NVP-based regimens than with EFV-based regimens, but this difference was not statistically significant (HR=0.891, 95% CI: 0.179-4.429; P=0.888. Conclusion: Tuberculosis is the most important OI before initiation of HAART. Both EFV and NVP-based regimens are equally efficacious in controlling OIs.

  5. Can chemoprophylaxis against opportunistic infections be discontinued after an increase in CD4 cells induced by highly active antiretroviral therapy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, O; Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Pedersen, C;

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the 'USPHS/IDSA Guidelines for Prevention of Opportunistic Infections in Persons Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus', the indications for chemoprophylaxis are based on nadir CD4 cell count. Many patients have, however, experienced an increase in CD4 cell count after....../100 PY follow-up (95% confidence interval, 0.0-3.2). No cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus chorioretinitis, or disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection were observed. Follow-up time for these was, however, limited. CONCLUSION: PCP-chemoprophylaxis can be safely discontinued after HAART...

  6.  Mycolic acids – potential biomarkers of opportunistic infections caused by bacteria of the suborder Corynebacterineae

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    Konrad Kowalski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available  Mycolic acids are one of the basic elements of the cell wall structure of bacteria belonging to the suborder Corynebacterineae, constituting from 20�0to 40�0of dry weight. Additionally, they show high structural diversity within each family and species. Nowadays, profiles of mycolic acids are widely described for the genus Mycobacterium, the causative agent of tuberculosis. However, the suborder Corynebacterineae also includes many representatives of opportunistic human pathogens, e.g. Dietzia, Gordonia, Nocardia and Rhodococcus. Currently, an increased infection risk caused by this group of microorganisms especially in immunocompromised patients has been observed. Better knowledge of mycolic acid profiles for Corynebacterineae may allow identification of mycolic acids as diagnostic markers in the detection of opportunistic bacterial infections. Modern techniques of chemical analysis, including mass spectrometry, may enable the development of new chemotaxonomic methods for the detection and differentiation of bacteria within the suborder Corynebacterineae.

  7. SURVEY OF HOUSE RAT INTESTINAL PARASITES FROM SURABAYA DISTRICT, EAST JAVA, INDONESIA THAT CAN CAUSE OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HUMANS.

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    Prasetyo, R H

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of house rat zoonotic intestinal parasites from Surabaya District, East Java, Indonesia that have the potential to cause opportunistic infection in humans. House rat fecal samples were collected from an area of Surabaya District with a dense rat population during May 2015. Intestinal parasites were detected microscopically using direct smear of feces stained with Lugol's iodine and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stains. The fecal samples were also cultured for Strongyloides stercoralis. Ninety-eight house rat fecal samples were examined. The potential opportunistic infection parasite densities found in those samples were Strongyloides stercoralis in 53%, Hymenolepis nana in 42%, Cryptosporidium spp in 33%, and Blastocystis spp in 6%. This is the first report of this kind in Surabaya District. Measures need to be taken to control the house rat population in the study area to reduce the risk of the public health problem. Keywords: zoonotic intestinal parasites, opportunistic infection, house rat, densely populated area, Indonesia

  8. Urine Stasis Predisposes to Urinary Tract Infection by an Opportunistic Uropathogen in the Megabladder (Mgb Mouse.

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    Brian Becknell

    Full Text Available Urinary stasis is a risk factor for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI. Homozygous mutant Megabladder (Mgb-/- mice exhibit incomplete bladder emptying as a consequence of congenital detrusor aplasia. We hypothesize that this predisposes Mgb-/- mice to spontaneous and experimental UTI.Mgb-/-, Mgb+/-, and wild-type female mice underwent serial ultrasound and urine cultures at 4, 6, and 8 weeks to detect spontaneous UTI. Urine bacterial isolates were analyzed by Gram stain and speciated. Bladder stones were analyzed by x-ray diffractometry. Bladders and kidneys were subject to histologic analysis. The pathogenicity of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS isolated from Mgb-/- urine was tested by transurethral administration to culture-negative Mgb-/- or wild-type animals. The contribution of urinary stasis to CONS susceptibility was evaluated by cutaneous vesicostomy in Mgb-/- mice.Mgb-/- mice develop spontaneous bacteriuria (42% and struvite bladder stones (31% by 8 weeks, findings absent in Mgb+/- and wild-type controls. CONS was cultured as a solitary isolate from Mgb-/- bladder stones. Bladders and kidneys from mice with struvite stones exhibit mucosal injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. These pathologic features of cystitis and pyelonephritis are replicated by transurethral inoculation of CONS in culture-negative Mgb-/- females, whereas wild-type animals are less susceptible to CONS colonization and organ injury. Cutaneous vesicostomy prior to CONS inoculation significantly reduces the quantity of CONS recovered from Mgb-/- urine, bladders, and kidneys.CONS is an opportunistic uropathogen in the setting of urinary stasis, leading to enhanced UTI incidence and severity in Mgb-/- mice.

  9. Urine Stasis Predisposes to Urinary Tract Infection by an Opportunistic Uropathogen in the Megabladder (Mgb) Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becknell, Brian; Mohamed, Ahmad Z.; Li, Birong; Wilhide, Michael E.; Ingraham, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Urinary stasis is a risk factor for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI). Homozygous mutant Megabladder (Mgb-/-) mice exhibit incomplete bladder emptying as a consequence of congenital detrusor aplasia. We hypothesize that this predisposes Mgb-/- mice to spontaneous and experimental UTI. Methods Mgb-/-, Mgb+/-, and wild-type female mice underwent serial ultrasound and urine cultures at 4, 6, and 8 weeks to detect spontaneous UTI. Urine bacterial isolates were analyzed by Gram stain and speciated. Bladder stones were analyzed by x-ray diffractometry. Bladders and kidneys were subject to histologic analysis. The pathogenicity of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS) isolated from Mgb-/- urine was tested by transurethral administration to culture-negative Mgb-/- or wild-type animals. The contribution of urinary stasis to CONS susceptibility was evaluated by cutaneous vesicostomy in Mgb-/- mice. Results Mgb-/- mice develop spontaneous bacteriuria (42%) and struvite bladder stones (31%) by 8 weeks, findings absent in Mgb+/- and wild-type controls. CONS was cultured as a solitary isolate from Mgb-/- bladder stones. Bladders and kidneys from mice with struvite stones exhibit mucosal injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. These pathologic features of cystitis and pyelonephritis are replicated by transurethral inoculation of CONS in culture-negative Mgb-/- females, whereas wild-type animals are less susceptible to CONS colonization and organ injury. Cutaneous vesicostomy prior to CONS inoculation significantly reduces the quantity of CONS recovered from Mgb-/- urine, bladders, and kidneys. Conclusions CONS is an opportunistic uropathogen in the setting of urinary stasis, leading to enhanced UTI incidence and severity in Mgb-/- mice. PMID:26401845

  10. Parasite Genotypically Related to a Monoxenous Trypanosomatid of Dog's Flea Causing Opportunistic Infection in an HIV Positive Patient

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    Raquel S Pacheco

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available An HIV positive patient presenting a clinical picture of visceral leishmaniasis co-infection was submitted to a bone marrow aspiration after admission to hospital. Amastigotes forms were seen in the bone marrow aspirate and the parasite grew in culture as promastigotes. Molecular analyses showed that the flagellates isolated did not belong to the genera Leishmania, Trypanosoma or Sauroleishmania. It was not possible to establish infection in laboratory animals. In vitro culture of mouse peritoneal macrophages revealed the invasion of the host cells by the flagellates and their killing 48 hr after infection. Opportunistic infection with an insect trypanosomatid was suspected. Further hybridization analyses against a pannel of different monoxenous and heteroxenous trypanosomatids showed kDNA cross-homology with Leptomonas pulexsimulantis a trypanosomatid found in the dog's flea

  11. Magnitude of opportunistic infections and associated factors in HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy in eastern Ethiopia

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    Mitiku H

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Habtamu Mitiku, Fitsum Weldegebreal, Zelalem Teklemariam Haramaya University, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Harar, Ethiopia Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of opportunistic infections (OIs and associated factors among HIV-infected adults on anti-retroviral therapy (ART in Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia. Patients and methods: A hospital-based retrospective study was conducted in 358 HIV-infected adult patients on ART from April to June 2014. Data were collected through review of clinical records. The data was entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 16.0. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the association of each independent variable with occurrence of OIs. A 95% confidence interval (CI and P-value less than 0.05 were considered as significant association. Results: A total of 358 patients were included in the study, in which majority (68.4% were females. The mean age of patients was 34 (standard deviation [SD] ±9.8 years. The overall of prevalence of OIs among HIV/AIDS patients on ART was 48%. The highest prevalent rates of OIs observed were tuberculosis (TB (21.23%, followed by Herpes zoster (11.2% and oral candidiasis (9.5%. Baseline CD4 cell count <200 cells/mm3 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =1.645, 95% CI =2.187, 3.983, baseline World Health Organization (WHO clinical stage III (AOR =2.801, 95% CI =1.958, 7.165 and IV (AOR =3.856; 95% CI =2.691, 10.390, and not using prophylaxis (AOR =1.912, 95% CI =1.444, 3.824 were found to have strong association with acquisition of OIs. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of OIs observed in this study. Baselines CD4 count of <200 cells/mm3, advanced WHO clinical stages, and not using prophylaxis were found to be predictors of OIs. Interventions were aimed at promoting early HIV testing and enrollment of HIV-infected individuals into ART services needed before CD4

  12. Absolute level of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) DNA in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection is not predictive of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van Baarle (Debbie); K.C. Wolthers (Katja); E. Hovenkamp (Egbert); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); F. Miedema (Frank); M.H.J. van Oers (Marinus); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractTo study whether Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) load can be used to predict the occurrence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma (AIDS-NHL), we determined EBV load longitudinally for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. EBV load in periphe

  13. Absolute level of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection is not predictive of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Baarle, Debbie; Wolthers, Katja C; Hovenkamp, Egbert; Niesters, Hubert G M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Miedema, Frank; Van Oers, Marinus H J

    2002-01-01

    To study whether Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) load can be used to predict the occurrence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma (AIDS-NHL), we determined EBV load longitudinally for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. EBV load in peripheral blood mo

  14. General Information about AIDS-Related Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ...

  15. Treatment Options for AIDS-Related Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ...

  16. Stages of AIDS-Related Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment Childhood NHL Treatment Research AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About AIDS-Related Lymphoma Go to Health Professional Version Key ...

  17. Treatment Option Overview (AIDS Related-Lymphoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Childhood NHL Treatment Research AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About AIDS-Related ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  18. Increase in non-AIDS related conditions as causes of death among HIV-infected individuals in the HAART era in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio G Pacheco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 1996, Brazil became the first developing country to provide free and universal access to HAART. Although a decrease in overall mortality has been documented, there are no published data on the impact of HAART on causes of death among HIV-infected individuals in Brazil. We assessed temporal trends of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD, diabetes mellitus (DM and other conditions generally not associated with HIV-infection among persons with and without HIV infection in Brazil between 1999 and 2004. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Odds ratios were used to compare causes of death in individuals who had HIV/AIDS listed on any field of the death certificate with those who did not. Logistic regression models were fitted with generalized estimating equations to account for spatial correlation; co-variables were added to the models to control for potential confounding. Of 5,856,056 deaths reported in Brazil between 1999 and 2004 67,249 (1.15% had HIV/AIDS listed on the death certificate and non-HIV-related conditions were listed on 16.3% in 1999, increasing to 24.1% by 2004 (p<0.001. The adjusted average yearly increases were 8% and 0.8% for CVD (p<0.001, and 12% and 2.8% for DM (p<0.001, for those who had and did not have HIV/AIDS listed on the death certificate, respectively. Similar results were found for these conditions as underlying causes of death. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In Brazil between 1999 and 2004 conditions usually considered not to be related to HIV-infection appeared to become more likely causes of death over time than reported causes of death among individuals who had HIV/AIDS listed on the death certificate than in those who did not. This observation has important programmatic implications for developing countries that are scaling-up access to antiretroviral therapy.

  19. [Opportunistic diseases in HIV-infected patients at the Jeanne Ebori Foundation in Libreville, Gabon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okome-Nkoumou, M; Boguikouma, J B; Kombila, M

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the frequencies of opportunistic diseases among AIDS patients at the Jeanne Ebori Foundation (JEF) in Libreville, Gabon. A total 6313 file of patients treated in the internal medicine unit between 1994 and 1998 were analyzed. Findings showed that the main diseases related to AIDS classified according to seroprevalence were as follows: purigo (100%), cerebral toxoplasmosis (100%), oral candidiaisis (88%), bacteremia (87.8%), shingles (84.6%), minor salmonelosis (72%), and tuberclosis. The main diagnoses unrelated to AIDS at the JEF according to seroprevalene were typhoid (9.4%), common pneumonia (28%), bacterial meningitis (26.3%, hepatitis B (20.0%), and malaria (14%). In addition to these diseases there were nine cases of Kaposi's sarcoma, four cases of isosporosis, two cases of cryptococcosis, two cases of herpes Varicella, one case of cryptosporidiosis, and one case of isosporosis. The incidence of opportunistic disease was high in our study and must be taken in drug procurement.

  20. On opportunist infections by Trypanosoma lewisi in humans and its differential diagnosis from T. cruzi and T. rangeli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Maria Auxiliadora

    2014-12-01

    Trypanosoma lewisi is a cosmopolitan species originally found in Rattus spp., being nonpathogenic, host-restricted, and transmitted by rat fleas. This species has been recorded as an opportunist blood parasite of human beings mainly in Asia, with a case in Africa. In Brazil, this species was recently recorded in captive monkeys. As T. lewisi can share vertebrate hosts both with Trypanosoma rangeli and Trypanosoma cruzi, some markers for the differential diagnosis of these species were examined and discussed herein. The identification of T. lewisi was based on morphological features of bloodstream stages at the initial phase of infection in mammals, isoenzyme electrophoresis at the MDH locus, and PCR products of kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) minicircles using the primers TC121/TC122.

  1. Panax ginseng has anti-infective activity against opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa by inhibiting quorum sensing, a bacterial communication process critical for establishing infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Z; Kong, K F; Wu, H

    2010-01-01

    Virulent factors produced by pathogens play an important role in the infectious process, which is regulated by a cell-to-cell communication mechanism called quorum sensing (QS). Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic human pathogen, which causes infections in patients with compromised...... of ginseng are mutually exclusive as it is a complex mixture, as shown with the HPLC analysis of the hot water extract. Though ginseng is a promising natural synergetic remedy, it is important to isolate and evaluate the ginseng compounds associated with the anti-QS activity....

  2. HIV/AIDS相关性慢性腹泻患者感染空肠弯曲菌的临床分析%Infections of Campylobacter Jejuni among Patients with HIV/AIDS-related Chronic Diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华文浩; 王慧珠; 赵辉; 李敏; 张燕; 田敬华; 王玉光

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the Campylobacter jejuni infection status of HIV/AIDS patients with chronic diarrhea in Beijing, Henan, and Xinjiang.Methods Micro - aerobic cultivation of stool specimens were carried out in 253 cases of HIV/AIDS patients with chronic diarrhea in Beijing, Henan, and Xinjiang.The colonies were identified according to morphology, Gram staining, and results frombiochemical reactions.Results Two strains of Campylobacter jejuni were identified from the 253 cases of HIV/AIDS - related chronic diarrhea ( infection rate: 0.8% ).Conclusion It is important that monitoring for Campylobacter jejuni be carried out in high risk patients for prevention and control of the infection of the bacteria.%目的 了解北京、河南、新疆三地HIV/AIDS相关性慢性腹泻患者空肠弯曲菌的感染状况.方法 对北京、河南、新疆三地253例HIV/AIDS慢性腹泻患者的粪便标本进行微需氧培养,根据菌落的形态、菌体的革兰染色及生化反应进行鉴定.结果 从253例HIV/AIDS相关性慢性腹泻患者的粪便中共检出2株空肠弯曲菌,感染率为0.8%.结论 加强空肠弯曲菌的监测是预防和控制空肠弯曲菌病的重要手段.

  3. [Advances in humans and animals opportunistic pathogens from environment infecting plants by crossing kingdoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min; Wu, Yixin; He, Pengfei

    2016-02-04

    Some pathogenic microorganisms ubiquitous in the environment could cross kingdoms to infect diverse hosts. Several cross-kingdom human pathogens were summarized in this paper, including Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas aeuriginosa. They are ubiquitous in the nature and could cause plant diseases using the same or different infection strategies with which they infect humans and broaden host range. Among these bacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae causes top rot disease of maize in the nature, revealing some plants in the environment could serve as a reservoir of various pathogens which might infect animals and probably humans when conditions are favorable, and even potentially harm food. Research on these cross-kingdom pathogens may play a very important role in the epidemiology of human, animal and plant diseases and be a hot topic in environment science.

  4. [Opportunistic lung infections in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease; a side effect of inhalation corticosteroids?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeenk, F W; Klinkhamer, P J; Breed, W; Jansz, A R; Jansveld, C A

    1996-01-13

    In four patients, men of 64, 66 and 69 years old and a woman of 65 years, who suffered from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and used inhalation corticosteroids in a relatively high dose (800-1600 micrograms of budesonide per day), a pulmonary infection was diagnosed caused by Mycobacterium malmoense (the first two patients) and Aspergillus (the other two) respectively. Inhalation corticosteroids are of great importance in the treatment of asthmatic patients. Their place in the treatment of patients with COPD is much less clear. The patients did not have an immunological deficiency or anatomical pulmonary or bronchial deformation which could have explained the occurrence of these infections. The high dosages of inhalation corticosteroids may have been involved in the cause of these infections by suppressing the T-cell response locally. In view of this, longterm inhalation corticosteroid treatment should be prescribed in COPD patients only if the efficacy of the medication has been proved in the individual patient involved.

  5. Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) in Yaoundé-Cameroon: Association with Opportunistic Infections, Depression, ART Regimen and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonsah, Julius Y.; Njamnshi, Alfred K.; Kouanfack, Charles; Qiu, Fang; Njamnshi, Dora M.; Tagny, Claude T.; Nchindap, Emilienne; Kenmogne, Léopoldine; Mbanya, Dora; Heaton, Robert; Kanmogne, Georgette D.

    2017-01-01

    Following global efforts to increase antiretroviral therapy (ART) access in Sub-Saharan Africa, ART coverage among HIV-infected Cameroonians increased from 0% in 2003 to 22% in 2014. However, the success of current HIV treatment programs depends not only on access to ART, but also on retention in care and good treatment adherence. This is necessary to achieve viral suppression, prevent virologic failure, and reduce viral transmission and HIV/AIDS-related deaths. Previous studies in Cameroon showed poor adherence, treatment interruption, and loss to follow-up among HIV+ subjects on ART, but the factors that influence ART adherence are not well known. In the current cross-sectional study, patient/self-reported questionnaires and pharmacy medication refill data were used to quantify ART adherence and determine the factors associated with increased risk of non-adherence among HIV-infected Cameroonians. We demonstrated that drug side-effects, low CD4 cell counts and higher viral loads are associated with increased risk of non-adherence, and compared to females, males were more likely to forego ART because of side effects (p40 years) were less likely to be non-adherent (p<0.01) and had shorter non-adherent periods (p<0.0001). The presence of depression symptoms correlated with non-adherence to ART during antibiotic treatment (r = 0.53, p = 0.04), and was associated with lower CD4 cell counts (p = 0.04) and longer non-adherent periods (p = 0.04). Change in ART regimen was significantly associated with increased likelihood of non-adherence and increased duration of the non-adherence period. Addressing these underlying risk factors could improve ART adherence, retention in care and treatment outcomes for HIV/AIDS patients in Cameroon. PMID:28141867

  6. Spectrum of Opportunistic Infections and Risk Factors for In-Hospital Mortality of Admitted AIDS Patients in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bin; Sun, Jianjun; Cai, Rentian; Shen, Yinzhong; Liu, Li; Wang, Jiangrong; Zhang, Renfang; Shen, Jiayin; Lu, Hongzhou

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the frequency and the spectrum of major opportunistic infections (OIs), evaluate the major clinical factors associated with each specific OI, and identify the risk factors for in-hospital death among HIV patients in East China.A retrospective cohort study was made including all the HIV-infected patients who were admitted for the first time to the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center during June 1, 2013 to June 1, 2015. The demographic and clinical data were collected. Comparison of continuous variables was analyzed by one-way ANOVA and rank sum test. Person χ test and Fisher exact test were applied to analyze the categorical variables. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to determine the risk for the occurrence of in-hospital death.In total, 920 patients were enrolled with age of 41.59 ± 13.36 years and 91% male. Median CD4 was 34 (IQR, 13-94) cells/μL. Among these patients, 94.7% acquired OIs while the rest developed malignancies. Pneumocystis pneumonia and bacterial coinfection (42.1%) was found to be the most common OIs, followed by tuberculosis (31.4%), CMV (20.9%), Cryptococcosis (9.0%), and MAC infection (5.2%). Of the above 5 major OIs, CMV-infected patients had the lowest median CD4 cell count 22.50 (IQR, 7.50-82.00) while the patients with tuberculosis infection had the highest count 61.00 (IQR, 27.00-176.00). In-hospital death rate was 4.2 per 100 person-years among these patients. Of note, admitted patients with 2 types of OIs (2.20, 95% CI 1.39-3.48) and those patients who were 40-year old or older (1.75, 95% CI 1.10-2.78) had a higher risk of such death.Pneumocystis pneumonia and tuberculosis were still the leading causes for the admission of HIV-infected patients in East China, and these patients tended to have very low CD4 cell counts. It is believed that expanding the HIV screening test and pushing the infected ones get ART earlier is required for generating a more successful HIV management strategy.

  7. Banana infecting fungus, Fusarium musae, is also an opportunistic human pathogen: are bananas potential carriers and source of fusariosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triest, David; Stubbe, Dirk; De Cremer, Koen; Piérard, Denis; Detandt, Monique; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2015-01-01

    During re-identification of Fusarium strains in the BCCM™/IHEM fungal collection by multilocus sequence-analysis we observed that five strains, previously identified as Fusarium verticillioides, were Fusarium musae, a species described in 2011 from banana fruits. Four strains were isolated from blood samples or biopsies of immune-suppressed patients and one was isolated from the clinical environment, all originating from different hospitals in Belgium or France, 2001-2008. The F. musae identity of our isolates was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis using reference sequences of type material. Absence of the gene cluster necessary for fumonisin biosynthesis, characteristic to F. musae, was also the case for our isolates. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing revealed no important differences in their susceptibility compared to clinical F. verticillioides strains and terbinafine was the most effective drug. Additional clinical F. musae strains were searched by performing BLAST queries in GenBank. Eight strains were found, of which six were keratitis cases from the U.S. multistate contact lens-associated outbreak in 2005 and 2006. The two other strains were also from the U.S., causing either a skin infection or sinusitis. This report is the first to describe F. musae as causative agent of superficial and opportunistic, disseminated infections in humans. Imported bananas might act as carriers of F. musae spores and be a potential source of infection with F. musae in humans. An alternative hypothesis is that the natural distribution of F. musae is geographically a lot broader than originally suspected and F. musae is present on different plant hosts.

  8. Opportunistic infection of Aspergillus and bacteria in captive Cape vultures (Gyps coprotheres)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen Chege; Judith Howlett; Majid Al Qassimi; Arshad Toosy; Joerg Kinne; Vincent Obanda

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe clinical signs, pathology, diagnosis and treatment of Cape vultures in which Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) and mixed species of bacteria were isolated. Methods: Six Cape vultures sourced from South Africa for exhibition at Al Ain Zoo developed illness manifesting as anorexia, dyspnea, polyuria and lethargy. Three vultures died manifesting‘‘pneumonia-like syndrome’’. These three vultures were necropsied and gross lesions recorded, while organ tissues were collected for histopathology. Internal organs were swabbed for bacteriology and mycology. From live vultures, blood was collected for hematology and biochemistry, oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were collected for mycology and bacteriology. Results: A. fumigatus was isolated from the three dead vultures and two live ones that eventually survived. One of the dead vulture and two live vultures were co-infected with A. fumigatus and mixed species of bacteria that included Clostridium perfringens, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Escherichia, Proteus, Enterococcus and Enterbacter. One of the Cape vulture and a Lappet-faced vulture, however, were free of Aspergillus or bacterial infections. At necropsy, intestinal hemorrhages were observed and the lungs were overtly congested with granulomas present on caudal air sac. Histopathological examinations demonstrated granulomatous lesions that were infiltrated by mononuclear cells and giant cells. Conclusions: Aspergillosis is a persistent threat to captive birds and we recommend routine health assessments so that early diagnosis may prompt early treatment. It is likely that prompt prophylaxis by broad spectrum antibiotics and antifungals medication contributed to the survival of some of the vultures.

  9. Opportunistic Music

    OpenAIRE

    Hachet, Martin; Kian, Arash; Berthaut, Florent; Franco, Jean-Sébastien; Desainte-Catherine, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    International audience; While mixed reality has inspired the development of many new musical instruments, few approaches explore the potential of mobile setups. We present a new musical interaction concept, called "opportunistic music". It allows musicians to recreate a hardware musical controller using any objects of their immediate environment. This approach benefits from the physical properties of real objects for controlling music. Our prototype is based on a stereo-vision tracking system...

  10. Diagnosis and Management of AIDS-related Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Johanson

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of illness associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS has been increasing since the initial description in 1981. While virtually all organ systems may be affected, the gastrointestinal tract appears to be a major target. Diarrhea is the most common symptom, affecting up to half of all AIDS patients during the course of their disease. Although diarrhea occurs frequently, its optimal management remains controversial. An extensive evaluation including stool studies and endoscopic biopsies of both the colon and small intestine has been widely recommended to identify all potential pathogenic organisms. An alternative approach is a more limited evaluation consisting of stool and blood cultures followed by symptomatic treatment with antidiarrheal agents if no specific organisms are identified. The clinical presentation of the most common opportunistic pathogens are reviewed, including several recently discovered organisms. Recommendations for treatment are followed by a brief discussion of management strategies used to care for patients with AIDS-related diarrhea.

  11. Oral-resident natural Th17 cells and γδ T cells control opportunistic Candida albicans infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Heather R; Peterson, Alanna C; Brane, Lucas; Huppler, Anna R; Hernández-Santos, Nydiaris; Whibley, Natasha; Garg, Abhishek V; Simpson-Abelson, Michelle R; Gibson, Gregory A; Mamo, Anna J; Osborne, Lisa C; Bishu, Shrinivas; Ghilardi, Nico; Siebenlist, Ulrich; Watkins, Simon C; Artis, David; McGeachy, Mandy J; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2014-09-22

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is an opportunistic fungal infection caused by Candida albicans. OPC is frequent in HIV/AIDS, implicating adaptive immunity. Mice are naive to Candida, yet IL-17 is induced within 24 h of infection, and susceptibility is strongly dependent on IL-17R signaling. We sought to identify the source of IL-17 during the early innate response to candidiasis. We show that innate responses to Candida require an intact TCR, as SCID, IL-7Rα(-/-), and Rag1(-/-) mice were susceptible to OPC, and blockade of TCR signaling by cyclosporine induced susceptibility. Using fate-tracking IL-17 reporter mice, we found that IL-17 is produced within 1-2 d by tongue-resident populations of γδ T cells and CD3(+)CD4(+)CD44(hi)TCRβ(+)CCR6(+) natural Th17 (nTh17) cells, but not by TCR-deficient innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) or NK cells. These cells function redundantly, as TCR-β(-/-) and TCR-δ(-/-) mice were both resistant to OPC. Whereas γδ T cells were previously shown to produce IL-17 during dermal candidiasis and are known to mediate host defense at mucosal surfaces, nTh17 cells are poorly understood. The oral nTh17 population expanded rapidly after OPC, exhibited high TCR-β clonal diversity, and was absent in Rag1(-/-), IL-7Rα(-/-), and germ-free mice. These findings indicate that nTh17 and γδ T cells, but not ILCs, are key mucosal sentinels that control oral pathogens.

  12. Factors associated with development of opportunistic infections in HIV-1 infected adults with high CD4 cell counts: a EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podlekareva, Daria; Mocroft, A; Dragsted, Ulrik Bak;

    2006-01-01

    , incidence rate ratio [IRR] per 50% lower CD4(+) cell count, 5.37 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 3.71-7.77]; for group 2, 4.28 [95% CI, 2.98-6.14]). Injection drug use but not current CD4(+) cell count predicted risk in group 3. Use of antiretroviral treatment was associated with a lower incidence of OIs......BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on factors predicting the development of opportunistic infections (OIs) at higher-than-expected CD4(+) cell counts in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected adults. METHODS: Multivariate Poisson regression models were used to determine factors related...... in all groups, likely by reducing HIV-1 RNA levels (IRR per 1-log(10) copies/mL higher HIV-1 RNA levels for group 1, 1.50 [95% CI, 1.15-1.95]; for group 2, 1.68 [95% CI, 1.40-2.02]; and for group 3, 1.89 [95% CI, 1.40-2.54]). CONCLUSION: Although the absolute incidence is low, the current CD4(+) cell...

  13. Care of Patients With HIV Infection: Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, Philip; Roder, Navid; Colgate, Emily; Cheeseman, Sarah H

    2016-04-01

    With the advent of antiretroviral therapy and improved access to care, the average life expectancy of patients with HIV infection receiving optimal treatment approaches that of patients in the general population. AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies are no longer the primary issues; instead, traditional age- and lifestyle-related conditions are a growing concern. Patients with HIV infection are at higher risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and some non-AIDS-related cancers than patients in the general population. Family physicians need to be knowledgeable about screening for and managing chronic comorbid conditions as this population ages. Health maintenance, including appropriate vaccinations, prophylaxis against opportunistic infections, and routine screening for sexually transmitted infections, remains an important part of care. As HIV infection becomes a chronic condition, emerging strategies in prevention, including preexposure prophylaxis, fall within the scope of practice of the family physician.

  14. Desarrollo de neoplasias e infecciones definitorias de sida después de iniciar la terapia antirretroviral de alta eficacia Development of AIDS-related malignancies and infections after starting HAART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Warley

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la incidencia de neoplasias e infecciones definitorias de Sida (NIDS y los posibles factores asociados a su desarrollo luego de iniciada la terapia antirretroviral de alta eficacia (HAART analizamos las historias clínicas de los pacientes que iniciaron tratamiento entre julio 2003 y octubre 2007. Todos recibieron profilaxis con trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol y azitromicina según la recomendación actual. Evaluamos el desarrollo de NIDS en los 6 meses posteriores al inicio de la terapia y su asociación con variables clínicas y epidemiológicas. Analizamos 235 historias clínicas: 118 mujeres (50.2% y 117 hombres (49.8%. Observamos 11 casos de NIDS: 3 formas pulmonares y 3 ganglionares de tuberculosis, 3 meningitis por Criptococcus neoformans, 1 chagoma cerebral y 1 linfoma no Hodgkin. Presentar recuento de células CD4 menor a 100 o 150 células/ml se asoció con riesgo de desarrollar NIDS. La media de células CD4 fue 73 en los pacientes que desarrollaron NIDS y 143 en los que no la desarrollaron. No hubo asociación con las otras variables analizadas. En pacientes con CD4 menor a 150 células/ml observamos un caso de chagoma cerebral entre 4 con serología reactiva para Chagas, y ninguno de toxoplasmosis cerebral entre 46 con serología reactiva para toxoplasmosis. Concluimos que la tasa de incidencia de NIDS fue del 4.7%, siendo tuberculosis en primer lugar y criptococosis en segundo las enfermedades más frecuentemente observadas. Presentar bajo recuento de células CD4 se asoció de manera significativa al desarrollo de NIDS. Debería reevaluarse el rol de la quimioprofilaxis.In order to evaluate the incidence rate and possible risk factors associated with AIDS-related malignancies and infections (ARMI we performed data analysis of clinical charts of HIV patients in two hospital cohorts, that started high activity antiretroviral therapy (HAART between July 2003 and October 2007. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and

  15. Evaluation of the current management protocols for prophylaxis against Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia and other opportunistic infections in patients living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sheel Bhadra; Wig, Naveet; Nagpal, Sajan Jiv Singh; Mishra, Nitin; Vajpayee, Madhu; Guleria, Randeep; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Sharma, Surendra K

    2011-07-01

    Opportunistic infections (OIs) are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in patients living with HIV/AIDS. Data on the proper administration of prophylactic regimes for the prevention of OIs in such patients are scarce. A total of 205 confirmed HIV-infected patients were enrolled in the study from the inpatient wards and outpatient services. The treatment given to them for the prevention of Pneumocystis carinii (jiroveci) pneumonia was compared with the established guidelines and the proportions of those receiving proper treatment were calculated. Primary prophylaxis was seen to be satisfactory in the case of P. carinii (jiroveci) pneumonia. The prophylaxis was not given properly for tuberculosis and other common OIs. Secondary prophylaxis was up to the mark. Prophylaxis in AIDS patients seems to be a major problem area and a lot of efforts need to be directed toward it since patients suffering from AIDS are bound to have a downhill course despite provision of all available treatment options.

  16. Effect of anti retroviral therapy (ART) on CD4 T lymphocyte count and the spectrum of opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS in Manipur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitra, Yengkokpam; Urgen, Sherpa; Dayananda, Ingudam; Brajachand, Singh Ng

    2009-03-01

    Reports of variable response to antiretroviral therapy as indicated by CD4 count has been of concern as facilities for viral load estimation/drug resistance testing is not available everywhere. Hence the present study. was done to assess the magnitude of problem in high prevalence state of Manipur as evidenced by the CD4 T lymphocyte count. It was also prudent to study various OIs as extensive awareness campaigns about HIV and related morbidity with support system has been undertaken since the last decade. The study revealed that HAART must be used judiciously as 17.3% showed no improvement in CD4 T lymphocyte count. Among opportunistic infections, fungal infections predominatd in HIV/AIDS.

  17. Aids-Related Cancers in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbulaiteye, Sam M.

    2014-07-01

    Thank you Professor Zichichi for inviting me to give a talk about AIDS-related cancers in Africa. Let me begin by congratulating the team that organized the 46th Session of the Erice International Seminar Series, whose theme is THE ROLE OF SCIENCE IN THE THIRD MILLENIUM. I also congratulate the scientists from 38 countries who are attending these seminars. They are perpetuating the principle of SCIENCE WITHOUT SECRETS in the true spirit espoused by Archimedes, Galileo, and Fermi. It is a wonderful honor for me to be here to shed some light on the health impacts of the HIV epidemic in the area of cancer...

  18. Activation and coagulation biomarkers are independent predictors of the development of opportunistic disease in patients with HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodger, Alison J; Fox, Zoe; Lundgren, Jens;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Activation and coagulation biomarkers were measured within the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) trial. Their associations with opportunistic disease (OD) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients were examined. METHODS: Inflammatory (high......-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP], interleukin-6 [IL-6], amyloid-A, and amyloid-P) and coagulation (D-dimer and prothrombin-fragment 1+2) markers were determined. Conditional logistic regression analyses were used to assess associations between these biomarkers and risk of OD. RESULTS: The 91 patients who...

  19. Opportunists and opportunities: the 2010 SHEA Lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, David K

    2010-11-01

    My experience as a hospital epidemiologist at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center has underscored the importance of aggressively managing infection with opportunistic pathogens and of taking advantage of opportunities as they arise (most often as crises). I review selected aspects of my career and use these as examples of the opportunists and opportunities now facing healthcare epidemiology.

  20. HIV and AIDS-related knowledge among women in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals who are aware of the risk of infection and perceive themselves to be at risk of infection are more likely to take action to prevent HIV infection. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Iraqi women. Methods A secondary analysis of the 2000 Multiple Cluster Indicator Survey (MICS for Iraq was carried out to assess the extent of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge among Iraqi women. Results The majority of the 22,997 respondents were age 15–24 years (44.3%, currently married (51.4%, and resided in urban areas (71.7%. About 1 in 4 (26.0% of the study participants had no formal education. Only 49.9% had heard of HIV/AIDS. Overall, 60.5% did not know that HIV can be transmitted through blood transfusion. Meanwhile, 98.5% of the respondents did not know that HIV can be transmitted from mother to child through breast milk. Only 0.7% of the respondents reported that HIV cannot be transmitted through mosquito bites. The proportion of the respondents who had adequate knowledge on HIV/AIDS was 9.8%. Adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS was negatively associated with being married, poor, having low education, and residing in rural areas. Conclusion Findings from this study indicate that adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Iraqi is very limited and associated with marital status, education, wealth, and place of residence. This information may be of use in the design, targeting, monitoring and evaluation of programs aimed at improving HIV and AIDS related knowledge in Iraq.

  1. Determination of potentially toxic heavy metals in traditionally used medicinal plants for HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okatch, Harriet, E-mail: okatchh@mopipi.ub.bw [Department of Chemistry, University of Botswana, Private Bag UB 00704, Gaborone (Botswana); Ngwenya, Barbara [Okavango Research Institute, University of Botswana, Maun (Botswana); Raletamo, Keleabetswe M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Botswana, Private Bag UB 00704, Gaborone (Botswana); Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Botswana, Gaborone (Botswana); Centre for Scientific Research, Indigenous Knowledge and Innovation (CESRIKI), P.O. Box 758, Gaborone (Botswana)

    2012-06-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determine As, Cr, Ni and Pb in traditional plants used to treat HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal levels and provisional tolerable weekly intake levels lower than WHO permissive maximum levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cr > Pb > As > Ni. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Consumption of traditional medicinal plants are not health-comprising with respect to metals. - Abstract: The determination of four potentially toxic heavy metals, arsenic, chromium, lead and nickel in twelve plant species used for the treatment of perceived HIV and AIDS-associated opportunistic infections by traditional healers in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana, a metal mining area, was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicinal plants; Dichrostachys cinerea, Maerua angolensis, Mimusops zeyheri, Albizia anthelmintica, Plumbago zeylanica, Combretum imberbe, Indigofera flavicans, Clerodendrum ternatum, Solanum panduriforme, Capparis tomentosa, Terminalia sericea and Maytenus senegalensis contained heavy metals in varying quantities: arsenic 0.19-0.54 {mu}g g{sup -1}, chromium 0.15-1.27 {mu}g g{sup -1}, lead 0.12-0.23 {mu}g g{sup -1} and nickel 0.09-0.21 {mu}g g{sup -1} of dry weight. Chromium was found to be the most abundant followed by arsenic and lead. Nickel was undetectable in nine plant species. M. senegalensis contained the largest amounts of arsenic, chromium and lead. All metals determined were below the WHO permissive maximum levels. The possible maximum weekly intakes of the heavy metals following treatment regimes were insignificant compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake levels recommended by WHO and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. This suggests that heavy metal exposure to patients originating from consumption of traditional medicinal plant preparations is within non health-compromising limits.

  2. AIDS-related mycoses: the way forward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, G.D.; Meintjes, G.; Kolls, J.K.; Gray, C.; Horsnell, W.; Achan, B.; Alber, G.; Aloisi, M.; Armstrong-James, D.; Beale, M.; Bicanic, T.; Black, J.; Bohjanen, P.; Botes, A.; Boulware, D.R.; Brown, G.; Bunjun, R.; Carr, W.; Casadevall, A.; Chang, C.; Chivero, E.; Corcoran, C.; Cross, A.; Dawood, H.; Day, J.; Bernardis, F. De; Jager, V. de; Repentigny, L. de; Denning, D.; Eschke, M.; Finkelman, M.; Govender, N.; Gow, N.; Graham, L.; Gryschek, R.; Hammond-Aryee, K.; Harrison, T.; Heard, N.; Hill, M.; Hoving, J.C.; Janoff, E.; Jarvis, J.; Kayuni, S.; King, K.; Kolls, J.; Kullberg, B.J.; Lalloo, D.G.; Letang, E.; Levitz, S.; Limper, A.; Longley, N.; Machiridza, T.R.; Mahabeer, Y.; Martinsons, N.; Meiring, S.; Meya, D.; Miller, R.; Molloy, S.; Morris, L.; Mukaremera, L.; Musubire, A.K.; Muzoora, C.; Nair, A.; Kimbowa, J. Nakiwala; Netea, M.; Nielsen, K.; O'Hern, J.; Okurut, S.; Parker, A.; Patterson, T.; Pennap, G.; Perfect, J.; Prinsloo, C.; Rhein, J.; Rolfes, M.A.; Samuel, C.; Schutz, C.; Scriven, J.; Sebolai, O.M.; Sojane, K.; Sriruttan, C.; Stead, D.; Steyn, A.; Thawer, N.K.; Thienemann, F.; Hohenberg, M. Von; Vreulink, J.M.; Wessels, J.; Wood, K.; Yang, Y.L.

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of fungal infections to the morbidity and mortality of HIV-infected individuals is largely unrecognized. A recent meeting highlighted several priorities that need to be urgently addressed, including improved epidemiological surveillance, increased availability of existing diagnostic

  3. Correlation analysis between lympocyte counts and opportunistic infections in 210 cases of HIV / AIDS patients%210例HIV/AIDS患者淋巴细胞计数与机会性感染相关分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许超宇; 张宇锋; 朱宇佳; 陈昌枝; 覃琼芬; 梁世寅; 李仕雄

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the relation between lymphocyte counts and opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS patients in order to provide reference for the treatment, primary and secondary prophylaxis for HIV/ AIDS patients with opportunistic infections. Methods The total infection rate and type of 210 patients with HIV/AIDS were analyzed. According to lymphocyte counts, patients were divided into two groups; lymphocyte counts more than 1 300 /μi and less than 1 300 /μl. Differences of infection rate of opportunistic infections between two groups were compared. Results The total infection rate of opportunistic infections in 210 cases of HIV/AIDS patients was 86.7%.The major opportunistic infections were oral candidiasis (56.2%), bacterial pneumonia (46.7%), tuberculosis (42.4%), sepsis (21.4% ) and infectious diarrhea (20.5%). The infection incidence in the group of patients with lymphocyte counts less than 1 300/μl (93.6%) was significantly higher than that of patients with lymphocyte counts more than 1 300 /μl (55.3%) (P<0.05). With the decline of lymphocyte counts,the incidence of opportunistic infections increased. Conclusions HIV/AIDS patients have a high incidence of opportunistic infections. Lymphocyte counts was an independent risk factor of opportunistic infections in HIV/ AIDS patients. Therefore, lymphocyte counts of HIV/AIDS patients should be monitored regularly to strengthen the primary and secondary prophylaxis of opportunistic infections.%目的 分析HIV/AIDS患者总淋巴细胞计数(TLC)与机会性感染的关系,为HIV/AIDS患者机会性感染的治疗及一级、二级预防提供参考依据.方法 对2009年6月至2011年5月210例HIV/AIDS患者的淋巴细胞及出现的机会性感染进行分析.将患者分为TLC>1 300个/μl组(G1组)和TLC≤1 300个/μl组(G2组),比较两组患者机会性感染发生率的差异.结果 210例HIV/AIDS患者机会性感染的总感染率为86.7%,主要的机会性

  4. Safe interruption of maintenance therapy against previous infection with four common HIV-associated opportunistic pathogens during potent antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Ole; Reiss, Peter; Uberti-Foppa, Caterina;

    2002-01-01

    maintenance therapy for cytomegalovirus (CMV) end-organ disease, disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection, cerebral toxoplasmosis, and extrapulmonary cryptococcosis in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Seven European HIV cohorts. PATIENTS: 358...... identified: 162 for CMV disease, 103 for MAC infection, 75 for toxoplasmosis, and 39 for cryptococcosis. During 781 person-years of follow-up, five patients had relapse. Two relapses (one of CMV disease and one of MAC infection) were diagnosed after maintenance therapy was interrupted when the CD4 lymphocyte....... One relapse (toxoplasmosis) was diagnosed after maintenance therapy interruption at a CD4 lymphocyte count greater than 200 x 10(6) cells/L for 15 months. The overall incidences of recurrent CMV disease, MAC infection, toxoplasmosis, and cryptococcosis were 0.54 per 100 person-years (95% CI, 0.07 to 1...

  5. Avaliação de eventos infecciosos oportunistas em crianças portadoras de leucemias Evaluation of opportunistic infections in children suffering from leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Gabe

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A leucemia é a principal neoplasia maligna de crianças e adolescentes, particularmente as leucemias agudas. A hiperproliferação clonal de precursores hematopoéticos, combinada à terapia antineoplásica, induz a um variável grau de comprometimento imunológico com consequente aumento da suscetibilidade a infecções oportunistas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a frequência das leucemias e os principais eventos infecciosos oportunistas em crianças e adolescentes atendidos na região de Passo Fundo-RS. Através de um estudo de coorte retrospectivo, foram analisados 92 prontuários de pacientes com idade de 8 meses a 17 anos, no período de janeiro de 2000 a dezembro de 2007. Foram encontrados 72 casos de LLA, 18 de LMA e 2 de LMC (78,2%, 19,6% e 2,2% respectivamente. A doença infecciosa mais frequente foi a pneumonia, seguida da septicemia (principal causa de óbito, sendo as bactérias os principais microorganismos isolados, responsáveis por 52,4% das infecções. Doenças parasitárias, virais e fúngicas corresponderam a 20,6%, 19% e 7,9%, respectivamente. Estes resultados corroboram a condição de que doenças oportunistas são as principais complicações do paciente leucêmico, as quais aumentam a morbimortalidade dos mesmos.The main malignant neoplasm that affects children and adolescents is leukemia, in particular acute leukemias. The clonal hyperproliferation of hematopoietic precursors combined with antineoplastic therapy leads to a variable degree of immunological involvement with a consequent increase in susceptibility to opportunistic infections. The objective of this work was to describe the frequency of leukemia and the major opportunistic infections in children and adolescents in the region of Passo Fundo, Brazil. In this retrospective cohort study, of cases from January 2000 to December 2007, 92 patients aged between 8 months to 17 years were reviewed. Seventy-two cases of ALL, 18 of AML and 2 of LMC (78.2%, 19

  6. Host genetic background influences the response to the opportunistic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection altering cell-mediated immunity and bacterial replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura De Simone

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common cause of healthcare-associated infections including pneumonia, bloodstream, urinary tract, and surgical site infections. The clinical outcome of P. aeruginosa infections may be extremely variable among individuals at risk and patients affected by cystic fibrosis. However, risk factors for P. aeruginosa infection remain largely unknown. To identify and track the host factors influencing P. aeruginosa lung infections, inbred immunocompetent mouse strains were screened in a pneumonia model system. A/J, BALB/cJ, BALB/cAnNCrl, BALB/cByJ, C3H/HeOuJ, C57BL/6J, C57BL/6NCrl, DBA/2J, and 129S2/SvPasCRL mice were infected with P. aeruginosa clinical strain and monitored for body weight and mortality up to seven days. The most deviant survival phenotypes were observed for A/J, 129S2/SvPasCRL and DBA/2J showing high susceptibility while BALB/cAnNCrl and C3H/HeOuJ showing more resistance to P. aeruginosa infection. Next, one of the most susceptible and resistant mouse strains were characterized for their deviant clinical and immunological phenotype by scoring bacterial count, cell-mediated immunity, cytokines and chemokines profile and lung pathology in an early time course. Susceptible A/J mice showed significantly higher bacterial burden, higher cytokines and chemokines levels but lower leukocyte recruitment, particularly neutrophils, when compared to C3H/HeOuJ resistant mice. Pathologic scores showed lower inflammatory severity, reduced intraluminal and interstitial inflammation extent, bronchial and parenchymal involvement and diminished alveolar damage in the lungs of A/J when compared to C3H/HeOuJ. Our findings indicate that during an early phase of infection a prompt inflammatory response in the airways set the conditions for a non-permissive environment to P. aeruginosa replication and lock the spread to other organs. Host gene(s may have a role in the reduction of cell-mediated immunity playing a critical role in

  7. Host genetic background influences the response to the opportunistic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection altering cell-mediated immunity and bacterial replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, Maura; Spagnuolo, Lorenza; Lorè, Nicola Ivan; Rossi, Giacomo; Cigana, Cristina; De Fino, Ida; Iraqi, Fuad A; Bragonzi, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common cause of healthcare-associated infections including pneumonia, bloodstream, urinary tract, and surgical site infections. The clinical outcome of P. aeruginosa infections may be extremely variable among individuals at risk and patients affected by cystic fibrosis. However, risk factors for P. aeruginosa infection remain largely unknown. To identify and track the host factors influencing P. aeruginosa lung infections, inbred immunocompetent mouse strains were screened in a pneumonia model system. A/J, BALB/cJ, BALB/cAnNCrl, BALB/cByJ, C3H/HeOuJ, C57BL/6J, C57BL/6NCrl, DBA/2J, and 129S2/SvPasCRL mice were infected with P. aeruginosa clinical strain and monitored for body weight and mortality up to seven days. The most deviant survival phenotypes were observed for A/J, 129S2/SvPasCRL and DBA/2J showing high susceptibility while BALB/cAnNCrl and C3H/HeOuJ showing more resistance to P. aeruginosa infection. Next, one of the most susceptible and resistant mouse strains were characterized for their deviant clinical and immunological phenotype by scoring bacterial count, cell-mediated immunity, cytokines and chemokines profile and lung pathology in an early time course. Susceptible A/J mice showed significantly higher bacterial burden, higher cytokines and chemokines levels but lower leukocyte recruitment, particularly neutrophils, when compared to C3H/HeOuJ resistant mice. Pathologic scores showed lower inflammatory severity, reduced intraluminal and interstitial inflammation extent, bronchial and parenchymal involvement and diminished alveolar damage in the lungs of A/J when compared to C3H/HeOuJ. Our findings indicate that during an early phase of infection a prompt inflammatory response in the airways set the conditions for a non-permissive environment to P. aeruginosa replication and lock the spread to other organs. Host gene(s) may have a role in the reduction of cell-mediated immunity playing a critical role in the control of P

  8. Estudo temporal das doenças associadas à AIDS no Brasil, 1980-1999 Temporal trends in AIDS-associated opportunistic infections in Brazil, 1980-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Drew Crosland Guimarães

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram estimadas as incidências de condições associadas (CA à AIDS/100 casos de AIDS em adultos (> 12 anos, a nível nacional, de 1980 a maio de 1999. A análise incluiu qui-quadrado e regressão linear simples. As CA analisadas foram candidíase (CD, tuberculose (TB, pneumonia por Pneumocystis carinii (PCP, neurotoxoplasmose(NT, Herpes, Sarcoma de Kaposi (SK, meningite criptocócica (MC e infecções por protozoários (IP. As incidências acumuladas/100 casos de AIDS foram: CD = 59, TB = 26, PCP = 23, NT = 15, Herpes = 12, SK = 5, MC = 4 e IP = 4. A tendência anual indicou queda estatisticamente significativa em todas as CA. Entretando, houve aumento na incidência de TB (b = 0,39 e NT (b = 0,20, para as regiões Nordeste e Centro-Oeste, respectivamente. TB apresentou maior incidência entre aqueles com baixa escolaridade (Trends in annual incidence of reported AIDS-associated opportunistic infections (OI/100 adults > 12 years old among AIDS cases were estimated at the national level in Brazil from 1980 through May 1999. The analysis included chi-square and linear regression modeling. The opportunistic infections included: candidiasis (CD, tuberculosis (TB, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP, neurotoxoplasmosis (NT, Kaposi sarcoma (KS, cryptococcal meningitis (CM, and protozoa infections (PI. The overall cumulative incidence rates/100 reported AIDS cases were: CD = 59, TB = 26, PCP = 23, NT = 15, KS = 5, CM = 4, and PI = 4. Annual trends indicated a statistically significant decline in all OIs. However, in the Northeast and Central-West regions there were increases in TB (b = 0.39 and NT (b = 0.20, respectively. TB showed a higher incidence among individuals with less schooling (< 8 years, while PCP and KS had higher incidence rates among those with 8 or more years of schooling, despite similar downward trends. Access to antiretroviral therapy and OI prophylaxis may partially explain these results. However, data reliability

  9. Can chemoprophylaxis against opportunistic infections be discontinued after an increase in CD4 cells induced by highly active antiretroviral therapy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, O; Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Pedersen, C;

    1999-01-01

    /100 PY follow-up (95% confidence interval, 0.0-3.2). No cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus chorioretinitis, or disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection were observed. Follow-up time for these was, however, limited. CONCLUSION: PCP-chemoprophylaxis can be safely discontinued after HAART...

  10. 血清IL-25与HIV合并机会性感染的相关性%Relationships between serum concentration of interleukin-25 and opportunistic infections in patients with HIV infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈婵; 李孟英; 谭可平; 甘琼萍; 陆晖; 沈扬林; 覃国琦

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)感染者血清IL-25水平与机会性感染的关系。方法收集55例HIV感染者的临床资料,并应用ELISA法检测血清IL-25浓度,流式细胞术检测CD4+ T细胞计数,分析两者与HIV感染者发生机会性感染的相关性。结果55例患者中有44例(80.00%)发生机会性致病菌感染,其中26例(47.27%)发生口腔念珠菌感染。发生机会性感染组患者血清IL-25水平较未发生感染组高[(946.45±1652.84)pg/ml vs (107.58±167.33)pg/ml,P <0.01),CD4+ T细胞计数降低[(87.54±110.60)cell/μl vs (298.60±211.91)cell/μl,P <0.05)。发生口腔念珠菌感染组较未发生感染组患者血清IL-25增高[(1247.78±1877.48)pg/ml vs (358.09±944.31)pg/ml,P<0.05),CD4+ T细胞计数降低[(48.56±74.90)cell/μl vs (200.04±182.79)cell/μl,P <0.05)。相关性分析显示,IL-25浓度、CD4+ T细胞计数分别与发生机会性感染、口腔白色念珠菌感染呈正相关、负相关(P <0.01)。结论 IL-25可能参与HIV感染者发生机会性感染后的免疫反应,高IL-25水平可能与HIV感染者易患机会性感染、口腔念珠菌感染有关。%Objective To investigate the relationships of serum concentration of interleukin-25 (IL-25) and opportunistic infections of patients with HIV infection. Methods The serum samples and the clinical information of 55 cases with HIV infection were collected. The serum concentrations of IL-25 and CD4+ T-cell count were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and flow cytometry, respectively. Results There were 44 cases (80.00%) suffering with opportunistic infections among 55 cases and 26 cases (47.27%) were infected with oral candidiasis. Higher serum level of IL-25 [(946.45 ± 1652.84) pg/ml vs (107.58 ± 167.33) pg/ml, P < 0.01] and lower CD4+ T-cell count [(48.56 ± 74.90 cell/μl vs (200.04 ± 182.79) cell/μl, P < 0.01] were

  11. Positron emission tomography in patients suffering from HIV-1 infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathekge, Mike [University Hospital of Pretoria, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pretoria (South Africa); Goethals, Ingeborg; Wiele, Christophe van de [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Maes, Alex [AZ Groening, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium)

    2009-07-15

    This paper reviews currently available PET studies performed either to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection or to assess the value of PET imaging in the clinical decision making of patients infected with HIV-1 presenting with AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies. FDG PET has shown that HIV-1 infection progresses by distinct anatomical steps, with involvement of the upper torso preceding involvement of the lower part of the torso, and that the degree of FDG uptake relates to viral load. The former finding suggests that lymphoid tissues are engaged in a predictable sequence and that diffusible mediators of activation might be important targets for vaccine or therapeutic intervention strategies. In lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients, limited available data support the hypothesis that stavudine-related lipodystrophy is associated with increased glucose uptake by adipose tissue as a result of the metabolic stress of adipose tissue in response to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). Finally, in early AIDS-related dementia complex (ADC), striatal hypermetabolism is observed, whereas progressive ADC is characterized by a decrease in subcortical and cortical metabolism. In the clinical setting, PET has been shown to allow the differentiation of AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies, and to allow monitoring of side effects of HAART. However, in patients suffering from HIV infection and presenting with extracerebral lymphoma or other human malignancies, knowledge of viraemia is essential when interpreting FDG PET imaging. (orig.)

  12. Candida and candidiasis in HIV-infected patients: where commensalism, opportunistic behavior and frank pathogenicity lose their borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassone, Antonio; Cauda, Roberto

    2012-07-31

    In this era of efficacious antiretroviral therapy and consequent immune reconstitution, oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis (OPC and OEC) still remain two clinically relevant presentations in the global HIV setting. Both diseases are predominantly caused by Candida albicans, a polymorphic fungus which is a commensal microbe in the healthy individual but can become an aggressive pathogen in a debilitated host. Actually, C. albicans commensalism is not the result of a benign behavior of one of the many components of human microbiota, but rather the result of host's potent innate and adaptive immune responses that restrict the growth of a potentially dangerous microrganism on the epithelia. An important asset guarding against the fungus is the Th17 functional subset of T helper cells. The selective loss of these cells with the progression of HIV infection causes the decay of fungal containment on the oral epithelium and allows C. albicans to express its pathogenic potential. An important part of this potential is represented by mechanisms to evade host immunity and enhance inflammation and immunoactivation. In C. albicans, these mechanisms are mostly incorporated into and expressed by characteristic morphogenic transitions such as the yeast-to-hyphal growth and the white-to-opaque switch. In addition, HIV infection generates an 'environment' selecting for overexpression of the virulence potential by the fungus, particularly concerning the secreted aspartyl proteinases (Saps). These enzymes can degrade critical host defense components such as complement and epithelial defensive proteins such as histatin-5 and E-cadherin. It appears that part of this enhanced Candida virulence could be induced by the binding of the fungus to HIV and/or induced by HIV proteins such as GP160 and tat. Both OPC and OEC can be controlled by old and new antimycotics, but in the absence of host collaboration, anticandidal therapy may become ineffective in the long run. For these reasons

  13. Keratitis by Fusarium temperatum , a novel opportunist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Hatmi, Abdullah; Bonifaz, Alexandro; de Hoog, G; Vazquez-Maya, Leticia; Garcia-Carmona, Karla; Meis, Jacques F; van Diepeningen, Anne D

    2014-01-01

    Background Fusarium species are among the most common fungi present in the environment and some species have emerged as major opportunistic fungal infection in human. However, in immunocompromised hosts they can be virulent pathogens and can cause death. The pathogenesis of this infection relies on

  14. 河南省经血感染艾滋病病人机会感染疾病谱分布%Clinical research into the spectra of opportunistic infections in AIDS patients infected via blood transmission in Henan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨萱; 孙燕; 何云; 赵清霞; 马永虹; 安永辉; 王双利; 张静; 刘春礼

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨河南省经血感染艾滋病(AIDS)病人机会感染疾病谱的分布状况.方法 对2000年7月-2010年12月,在郑州市第六人民医院治疗的2 027例AIDS病人的临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果 (1)2 027例病人共发生3 613例次机会感染,主要为呼吸系统(76.17%)和消化系统感染(47.95%),最常见的机会感染依次为细菌性肺炎(35.22%)、口腔念珠菌感染(32.17%)、肺结核(20.37%)、肺孢子菌肺炎(PCP) (15.29%).(2)其中的711例病人按CD4细胞计数不同分5组,PCP和各种感染性腹泻在CD4<50个/mm3组所占比例最高(30.82%、23.29%),口腔念珠菌感染和隐球菌脑膜炎在50~99个/mm3组比例最高(33.63%、6.19%),肺结核在100~199个/mm3组比例最高(28.68%),各种痒疹在200~349个/mm3组比例最高(17.24%).按合并机会感染数量不同分5组,各组CD4细胞计数相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 AIDS病人机会感染疾病谱因国家、地区和人种不同,甚至传播途径不同有所差异,各种机会感染的发病比例在不同CD4水平有所不同;随着CD4细胞计数下降,发生机会感染的数量逐渐增加.%Objective To explore the spectra of opportunistic infections in AIDS patients infected via blood transmission in Henan and their correlation with CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts. Methods The clinical data of 2 027 AIDS patients infected via blood transmission from July 2000 to December 2010, treated in the department of infectious disease of our hospital, were retrospectively analyzed. Results (l)The 2 027 AIDS patients experienced 3 613 cases/episodes of HIV-related opportunistic infections ,involving respiratory (76.17%)and gastrointestinal (47. 95%) systems. The most common opportunistic infections were : bacterial pneumonia (35.22%), oral candidiasis (32.17%), pulmonary tuberculosis(20. 37%), and pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (15.29%). (2) In 711 patients, who were divided into 5 groups according to

  15. OPPORTUNISTIC MICROORGANISMS IN RHEUMATIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Gulneva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the data available in the literature on the role of opportunistic microorganisms (OMs in rheumatic diseases (RDs. OMs are anticipated to be involved as triggers initiating the development of chronic inflammation. Along with this, OMs in autoimmune diseases may play a defensive role through the interaction with Toll-like receptors and the activation of T cells that have suppressor activity. The possible involvement of OMs in the pathogenesis of RDs provides support not only the isolation of microorganisms, but also the detection of antibacterial antibodies of different classes. Of great importance are OMs in the etiology of comorbid infections, the risk of which is due to both the presence of autoimmune RDs and the necessity of using the drugs having immunosuppressive activity. The active clinical introduction of biological agents is followed by a rise in the rate and severity of different infections, including those caused by OMs. Having a marked biological and environmental plasticity, OMs are able to persist long when there are changes in the immune defense of patients with RDs. There is evidence for the higher adhesive properties and persistent potential of the microorganisms that colonize the body of patients with RDs. In the latter, OMs that are distinguished by pronounced antibiotic polyresistance are isolated, making the treatment and prevention of opportunistic infections more difficult in rheumatology. The results of the papers analyzed in the review suggest that the study of OMs in RDs is of practical importance.

  16. Strategies to reduce mortality and morbidity due to AIDS-related cryptococcal meningitis in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose E. Vidal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Latin America is the region with the third most AIDS-related cryptococcal meningitis infections globally. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has reduced the number of infections; however, the number of deaths and the case-fatality rate continues to be unacceptable. In this review, we focus on the burden of AIDS-related cryptococcosis in Latin America and discuss potential strategies to reduce early mortality from Cryptococcus. In this review, we highlight the importance of: (1 earlier HIV diagnosis and HAART initiation with retention-in-care to avoid AIDS; (2 pre-HAART cryptococcal antigen (CRAG screening with preemptive fluconazole treatment; (3 better diagnostics (e.g. CRAG testing; and (4 optimal treatment with aggressive management of intracranial pressure and induction therapy with antifungal combination. Implementation of these strategies can reduce cryptococcal-related deaths, improve care, and reduce healthcare costs.

  17. IMMUNOMODULATORS IN OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Toptygina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The immune status and the level of specific antibodies to Cytomegalovirus (121 patients or Mycoplasma pneumoniae (129 patients were tested in 250 patients aged 19–56 years old. This cohort was divided for three groups. Seventy eight patients with low level of CD3+CD4+ lymphocytes and normal rates of other parameters of immune status were jointed in Group 1. The second group was presented by 85 patients with low level of CD3+CD4+ and high level of CD3+CD8+ lymphocytes. Eighty seven patients with lymphopenia were distinguished in Group 3. All patients were treated with antiviral or antibacterial and immunomodulatory drugs. Three schemes of immunomodulatory therapy including imunofanum, polyoxidonium, cycloferonum, glutoxim, immunomax in different combination were used. In three weeks after treatment in 72,4% of patients no clinical symptoms as well as normalization of immune status indices and decrease of specific antibodies titers were observed. Sixty nine patients reported improvement of subjective health status, however they had high level of specific antibodies. Immunological examination of these patients after second course of immunomodulatory therapy confirmed their convalescence. It was shown that the condition of immune status determines effect of the different immunomodulators.

  18. Brief Communication: Economic Comparison of Opportunistic Infection Management With Antiretroviral Treatment in People Living With HIV/AIDS Presenting at an NGO Clinic in Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John KR

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART usage in India is escalating. With the government of India launching the free HAART rollout as part of the "3 by 5" initiative, many people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA have been able to gain access to HAART medications. Currently, the national HAART centers are located in a few district hospitals (in the high- and medium-prevalence states and have very stringent criteria for enrolling PLHA. Patients who do not fit these criteria or patients who are too ill to undergo the prolonged wait at the government hospitals avail themselves of nongovernment organization (NGO services in order to take HAART medications. In addition, the government program has not yet started providing second-line HAART (protease inhibitors. Hence, even with the free HAART rollout, NGOs with the expertise to provide HAART continue to look for funding opportunities and other innovative ways of making HAART available to PLHA. Currently, no study from Indian NGOs has compared the direct and indirect costs of solely managing opportunistic infections (OIs vs HAART. Objective Compare direct medical costs (DMC and nonmedical costs (NMC with 2005 values accrued by the NGO and PLHA, respectively, for either HAART or exclusive OI management. Study design Retrospective case study comparison. Setting Low-cost community care and support center - Freedom Foundation (NGO, Bangalore, south India. Patients Retrospective analysis data on PLHA accessing treatment at Freedom Foundation between January 1, 2003 and January 1, 2005. The HAART arm included case records of PLHA who initiated HAART at the center, had frequent follow-up, and were between 18 and 55 years of age. The OI arm included records of PLHA who were also frequently followed up, who were in the same age range, who had CD4+ cell counts Results At 2005 costs, the median DMC plus NMC in the OI group was 21,335 Indian rupees (Rs (mean Rs 24,277/- per patient per year (pppy

  19. Creating social spaces to tackle AIDS-related stigma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, C.; Skovdal, Morten; Gibbs, A.

    2011-01-01

    An expanding body of literature explores the role of African church groups in facilitating or hindering the support of people living with AIDS and challenging or contributing to HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Treating church groups as social spaces in which HIV/AIDS-related stigma may potentially...... be challenged, we systematically review this literature, identifying five themes that highlight the complex and contradictory role of the church as a potential agent of health-enhancing social change. In many ways the church perpetuates HIV/AIDS-related stigma through (i) moralistic attitudes and (ii) its...... reinforcement of conservative gender ideologies. However some churches have managed move towards action that makes a more positive contribution to HIV/AIDS management through (iii) promoting various forms of social control for HIV prevention, (iv) contributing to the care and support of the AIDS-affected and (v...

  20. 艾滋病合并机会性感染的临床特征和诊疗分析%Analysis on Clinical Features of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Combined with Opportunistic Infections and Its Diagnosis and Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵贺红; 冯萍; 肖贵宝; 徐开菊; 杨志勇

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨艾滋病患者合并机会性感染的临床特征并评价其治疗效果.方法 回顾分析2003年-2009年53例确诊为艾滋病患者的临床资料,对患者合并机会性感染的临床特征,包括发生机会性感染的时间、发生机会性感染时CD+T细胞计数、起病急缓、严重程度等,进行观察和分析,并给予国家推荐的标准治疗方案进行治疗,通过临床症状、病毒载量、CD+T细胞计数、影像学监测进行疗效分析,随访时间为初治至出院后6年.结果 53例艾滋病患者均为重症感染,41例为混合感染,其中2个以上部位感染者为36例(67.9%),2种以上病原体感染者为28例(52.8%),3种以上病原体感染者13例(24.5%).最常见的机会性感染为结核35.8%(19/53);其次为卡氏肺孢子菌肺炎30.2%(16/53);败血症20.8%(11/53),此外,尚有隐球菌感染15.1%(8/53)、弓形虫感染3.8%(2/53)、带状疱疹病毒感染7.5%(4/53)、念珠菌感染17.0%(9/53)、巨细胞病毒感染7.5%(4/53)、合并乙肝11.3%(6/53)、丙肝3.8%(2/53).机会性感染治疗有效率为77.4%(41/53),病死率为22.6%(12/53),其中隐球菌脑膜炎或混合感染者病死率最高.结论艾滋病患者在CD+T细胞计数<350/mm3时各种机会感染明显升高,且随着CD+4T细胞计数的下降呈增高趋势,艾滋病合并机会性感染最常见的是结核,其次卡氏肺孢子菌肺炎;合并结核的治疗效果较好,合并隐球菌脑病的病死率最高.早期启动高效抗逆转录病毒治疗效果好.%Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) combined with opportunistic infections and its treatment. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 53 patients diagnosed to have AIDS in our hospital between 2003 and 2009. The clinical features (such as time of the onset of opportunistic infections, CD4+ T cells value at the onset, severity of the infection, etc

  1. Validation of AIDS-related mortality in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taffa Negussie

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality data are used to conduct disease surveillance, describe health status and inform planning processes for health service provision and resource allocation. In many countries, HIV- and AIDS-related deaths are believed to be under-reported in government statistics. Methods To estimate the extent of under-reporting of HIV- and AIDS-related deaths in Botswana, we conducted a retrospective study of a sample of deaths reported in the government vital registration database from eight hospitals, where more than 40% of deaths in the country in 2005 occurred. We used the consensus of three physicians conducting independent reviews of medical records as the gold standard comparison. We examined the sensitivity, specificity and other validity statistics. Results Of the 5276 deaths registered in the eight hospitals, 29% were HIV- and AIDS-related. The percentage of HIV- and AIDS-related deaths confirmed by physician consensus (positive predictive value was 95.4%; however, the percentage of non-HIV- and non-AIDS-related deaths confirmed (negative predictive value was only 69.1%. The sensitivity and specificity of the vital registration system was 55.7% and 97.3%, respectively. After correcting for misclassification, the percentage of HIV- and AIDS--related deaths was estimated to be in the range of 48.8% to 54.4%, depending on the definition. Conclusion Improvements in hospitals and within government offices are necessary to strengthen the vital registration system. These should include such strategies as training physicians and coders in accurate reporting and recording of death statistics, implementing continuous quality assurance methods, and working with the government to underscore the importance of using mortality statistics in future evidence-based planning.

  2. Radio station acceptance of AIDS-related advertising messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotfeld, H J; Abernethy, A M

    1991-06-01

    Survey responses were received from the managers of 630 radio stations, who reported which type of AIDS-related commercials or public service announcements they are willing to accept for broadcast. The authors examine whether the public interest can outweigh fear of offending audience segments and discuss ways health education planners can increase acceptance of AIDS-related commercials. For planning a public health campaign, both the number and types of stations that will accept various public health messages are important if the messages are to reach high risk demographic groups.

  3. Diversity and antifungal resistance patterns of prevalent opportunistic pathogenic yeasts colonizing the oral cavities of asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals, and their relation to CD4 + counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Yeasts are important opportunistic pathogens, in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Yeast species inhabiting the oral mucosa of HIV-infected persons can act as source of oral lesions, especially as the individual progresses towards immunocompromised state. Present study was conducted to evaluate the diversity of yeasts in oral cavities of asymptomatic HIV-infected persons and their association with CD4 + cell counts. Materials and Methods: 100 HIV seropositive subjects and 100 healthy controls were screened for oral yeast carriage using standard procedures. Results: Of the 100 HIV-seropositive persons screened, 48 were colonized by different yeasts, either alone or in association with another species. Candida albicans was the most common species (56.90% while non C. albicans Candida (NCAC accounted for 39.65%. Among NCAC, Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei were most common. One isolate each of rare opportunistic pathogenic yeasts, Geotrichum candidum and Saccharomyces cereviseae, was recovered. The control group had an oral candidal carriage rate of 23%; C. albicans was the predominant species, followed by Candida glabrata, C. tropicalis and Candida parapsilosis. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed no resistance in C. albicans, to the commonly used antifungal agents, whereas resistance or dose dependent susceptibility to fluconazole was observed in some of the NCAC species. Conclusion: Oral carriage of opportunistic pathogenic yeasts was greater in HIV-seropositive persons heading towards immunocompromised state, as evidenced by their CD4 + cell count. The predominant yeast isolated in this study (C. albicans, was found to be susceptible to commonly used antifungals.

  4. 艾滋病抗病毒治疗后机会感染的变化和分布状况%The change and the spectra of opportunistic infections in AIDS patients after antiretroviral treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨萱; 孙燕; 何云; 赵清霞; 安永辉; 马永虹; 王双利; 张静; 刘春礼

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨艾滋病(AIDS)抗病毒治疗后机会感染疾病谱的变化及分布状况.方法 采用回顾性分析的方法,对2006年9月-2008年12月期间,在郑州市第六人民医院接受门诊及住院治疗的128例HIV/AIDS病人,抗病毒治疗前后机会感染发生情况进行总结分析.结果 (1) 128例HIV/AIDS病人中,高效抗反转录病毒疗法(HAART)治疗3-12月期间共发生100例次机会感染,主要为呼吸系统(46.09%)和消化系统(11.72%)感染,其中前4位机会感染是细菌性肺炎(29.69%)、肺结核(9.38%)、口腔念珠菌感染(7.81%)、带状疱疹(3.91%);与HAART治疗前相比,治疗后机会感染中细菌性肺炎、肺结核占绝大多数(86.46%),存在一定比例的口腔念珠菌感染和带状疱疹,AIDS晚期常见的机会感染如肺孢子菌肺炎、感染性腹泻及消耗综合征、中枢神经系统病变发病明显减少.(2) 128例HIV/AIDS病人HAART治疗前机会感染发病率为80.47%,治疗后3-6月时下降至28.13%,治疗6-12月时为25.89%,3组相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).HAART治疗后同时合并多种机会感染的病例减少.结论 HAART治疗后的机会感染发病率明显下降,机会感染疾病谱较治疗前有所不同,同时合并多种机会感染的几率减少.%Objective To explore the change and the spectra of opportunistic infections in AIDS patients after antiretroviral treatment. Methods One hundred and twenty eight ambulatory and hospitalized HIV/AIDS cases were retrospectively analyzed to summarize the characteristics of opportunistic infeccions occurring pre and post highly active anti-retroviral treatmem(HAART)in the department of infectious disease of our hospital, from September of 2006 to December of 2008. Results (1) The 128 HIV/AIDS patients experienced HIV-related opportunistic infections for 100 case-episodes after HAART for 3-12 months,involving respiratory system(46. 09%) and gastrointestinal system(11. 72%). The top 4

  5. AIDS-related stigma among Black and Hispanic young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, William W; Montanea, Julie E; Gladwin, Hugh

    2009-12-01

    Telephone surveys with national probability samples of English-speaking adults have suggested that popular support for punitive policies toward people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) declined in the 1990s, but AIDS-related stigma persists in the United States. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and impact of AIDS-related stigma in non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic communities. A cross-sectional computer-assisted telephone-interview survey was conducted in summer 2003 with African-American, Afro-Caribbean, Haitian, and Hispanic 18-39 year-old residents of 12 high AIDS-incidence areas in Broward County, Florida. Stigma items were adopted from national surveys, but interviews were conducted in Spanish and Haitian Creole as well as in English. Stigma scores were higher than those reported for national samples, especially among Haitians interviewed in Creole. AIDS-related stigma was associated with never receiving an HIV-antibody test (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62-0.99, P = .046), an elevated perception of HIV risk (AOR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.01-1.73, P = .045) and a failure to participate in HIV-prevention efforts (AOR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.34-0.85, P = .008). Interventions are needed to mitigate the pernicious effects of AIDS-related stigma.

  6. Multihop Wireless Networks Opportunistic Routing

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Kai; Li, Ming

    2011-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to opportunistic routing an emerging technology designed to improve the packet forwarding reliability, network capacity and energy efficiency of multihop wireless networks This book presents a comprehensive background to the technological challenges lying behind opportunistic routing. The authors cover many fundamental research issues for this new concept, including the basic principles, performance limit and performance improvement of opportunistic routing compared to traditional routing, energy efficiency and distributed opportunistic routing protocol desig

  7. Inhibitory effect of some phytochemicals in the growth of yeasts potentially causing opportunistic infections Efeito inibitório de alguns fitoconstituintes sobre o crescimento de leveduras potencialmente causadoras de infecções oportunistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igara O. Lima

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic infections caused by yeasts have been characterized as emerging diseases all over the world and this has caused the search for new products capable of inhibiting the survival of their etiological agents. In this study the sensitivity of some yeast potentially causing infections to alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, citral and eugenol was evaluated. All phytochemicals showed inhibitory action on the assayed yeast strains: Candida. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, C. stellatoidea, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and Cryptococcus neoformans, presenting their MIC values in the range of 1 and 4%. The phytochemicals presented effectiveness to provide high fungicide effect in a short time. These data support the possible use of some phytochemicals as useful tools to control the occurrence of opportunistic infections caused by yeasts.Infecções oportunistas causadas por leveduras têm sido caracterizadas como doenças emergentes em todo o mundo e este fenômeno tem levado ao desenvolvimento de novos produtos capazes de inibir a sobrevivência de seus agentes etiológicos. Este estudo avaliou o perfil de sensibilidade de leveduras potencialmente causadoras de infecções oportunistas frente aos fitoconstituintes alfa-pineno, beta-pineno, citral e eugenol. Todos os fitoconstituintes mostraram ação inibitória sobre as leveduras ensaiadas, as quais foram Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, C. stellatoidea, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis e Cryptococcus neoformans, tendo valores de CIM oscilando entre 1 e 4%. Os fitoconstituintes mostraram eficácia para provocar um alto efeito fungicida em curto tempo de ação. Estes dados subsidiam o possível uso de alguns fitoconstituintes como ferramentas úteis para controlar a ocorrência de infecções oportunistas causadas por leveduras.

  8. HIV 相关性中枢神经系统感染的诊断思路%The diagnosis of HIV-associated central nervous system opportunistic infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚启明

    2013-01-01

    人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)感染患者若出现中枢神经系统机会性感染,即符合美国疾病控制与预防中心1993 年修订的真性获得性免疫缺陷综合征(艾滋病)期的诊断标准,临床上属于危重患者.病原微生物涉及病毒、细菌、分枝杆菌、真菌、寄生虫等,临床症状与体征、实验室检查等亦与非免疫缺陷患者有所不同,尤其是经抗HIV 治疗后,仍可出现病情加重或新的感染发生,对临床医师极具挑战意义.及时明确诊断是临床治疗转归的基础.%Opportunistic infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are very common and severe complications of advanced immunodeficiency in patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, which are included in the diagnostic criteria for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) defining conditions according to 1993 Revised Classification System for HIV Infection and Expanded Surveillance Case Definition for AIDS among Adolescents and Adults published by USA Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The etiologic microorganisms of CNS opportunistic infections include virus, bacteria, fungus, mycobacterium and parasite. The clinical symptoms, signs and laboratory examinations of these diseases are different from that of patients with non- immunodeficiency. Even in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), worsening conditions or new infections may occur. Therefore, prompt diagnosis and treatment of such disorders are critical. The immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in HIV - 1 infected patients in the initiating antiretroviral therapy results from restored immunity to specific infectious or non - infectious antigens. This study reviews the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis of some common CNS disorders in HIV - 1 infected patients. Physicians caring for such patients must be aware of the new diagnostic modalities and therapeutic options of these

  9. Corynebacterium striatum infecting a malignant cutaneous lesion: the emergence of an opportunistic pathogen Corynebacterium striatum infectando lesão cutânea maligna: a emergência de um patógeno oportunista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Vargas Superti

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We described a case of a 27-year old male patient with skin and soft tissue infection of a neoplastic lesion caused by Corynebacterium striatum, an organism which has been rarely described as a human pathogen. Identification was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Successful treatment with penicillin was achieved. The role of the C. striatum as an emerging opportunistic pathogen is discussed.Descrevemos infecção de lesão neoplásica em paciente masculino de 27 anos, envolvendo pele e partes moles, causada por Corynebacterium striatum, um microrganismo raramente descrito como patógeno humano. A identificação foi confirmada por seqüenciamento de DNA. O paciente foi tratado com penicilina, com sucesso. O papel do C. striatum como patógeno oportunista é discutido.

  10. Chlamydia Screening in Ireland: a pilot study of opportunistic screening for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Ireland (2007-2009). Summary Integrated Report

    OpenAIRE

    Balfe, Myles; Brugha, Ruairi; O'Connell, Emer; Vaughan, Deirdre; O'Donovan, Diarmuid; Coleman, Claire; Conroy, Ronán; Cormican, Martin; Fitzgerald, Margaret; Fleming, Catherine; McGee, Hannah; Murphy, Andrew; Ni Fhoghlu, Grainne; O'Neill, Ciaran; Gillespie, Paddy

    2012-01-01

    Genital Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection is the most common curable, bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide [1, 2]. The number of cases notified in Ireland increased from 3,353 in 2005 to 5,781 in 2009 [3]. Notifications have increased since 2004 when legislation requiring laboratory notification came into effect. Chlamydia is usually a ‘silent’ asymptomatic infection, spread without the knowledge of those transmitting and contracting it: most cases remain undetected and...

  11. 中国六省(区)性病门诊男性就诊者艾滋病相关行为特征及HIV感染状况影响因素研究%Study on the HIV infection status, characteristics of AIDS-related behaviors and risk factors among men attending the sexually transmitted disease clinics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许艳; 惠珊; 孟晓军; 明帅; 丁正伟; 李东民; 黑发欣; 王璐

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the status on AIDS awareness,AIDS-related behaviors,risk factors on HIV infection status among 15-90 years or older men at the sexually transmitted disease clinics.Methods Data from the 2009 and 2010 national sentinel surveillance system,regarding men attending sexually transmitted disease clinics was collected from Guangdong,Guangxi,Henan,Sichuan,Yunnan and Jiangxi provinces,where the AIDS epidemic among 15-90 years or older population was serious.Data was uploaded to National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention (NCAIDS) through the comprehensive AIDS control and prevention information system.Data was then analyzed by SPSS 18.0.Results A total of 64 003 pieces of data were collected.Among them,8783 ( 13.7% ) were related to men at ≥ 50 years or older,and to men 15-49 years older were 55 220.The rates on the awareness of AIDS knowledge were from 69.6% vs.80.1%,on frequently having had commercial sexual contacts in the last three months were between 34.1%vs.36.6%,on having had casual sexual contact in the last three months were 18.7% vs.28.4%,on having had homosexual anal intercourse as 0.7% vs.1.4%.The rates of taking HIV antibody testing in the last year (14.3% vs.17.1% ) among this population were all significantly lower than the rate among the 15 to 49 years age group.However,the HlV-positive rate among the older age group (fifty years of age or older) was significantly higher than the rate among 15 to 49 year age group ( 1.1% vs.0.7% ).Regard the fifty years of age or older men.Data from the multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that factors as:having regular partner (OR=0.588,P=0.034),having homosexual anal intercourse (OR=5.226,P=0.006) were associated with positivities of HIV antibody.Conclusion High-risk sexual behaviors,including homosexual anal intercourse were the major risk factors for men at ≥50 years or older age,related to the infection of HIV.%目的 了解中国6

  12. Opportunistic intestinal parasites in hemodialysis patients - a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solimar Almeida de Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this systematic literature review was to identify the occurrence of opportunistic enteric parasites in chronic kidney patient undergoing hemodialysis. The review consisted on searching articles published on MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, and PubMed databases between 1991 and 2013. A total 178 articles were identified, ten of which were considered relevant for the present study. In the referred studies, the researchers demonstrated that immunosuppressed patients undergoing hemodialysis are potentially infected by opportunistic enteric agents. Further studies are needed on this topic, as there is a growing global concern with chronic kidney diseases and the potential for these patients contracting opportunistic diseases, which, inclusively, could contaminate hospital environments with opportunistic enteric protozoa. Descriptors: Renal Dialysis; Blastocystis hominis; Cryptosporidium; Cyclospora; Isospora.

  13. Onychomycosis due to opportunistic molds*

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Herrera, Erick Obed; Arroyo-Camarena,Stefanie; Tejada-García, Diana Luz; Porras-López, Carlos Francisco; Arenas, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Onychomycosis are caused by dermatophytes and Candida, but rarely by non- dermatophyte molds. These opportunistic agents are filamentous fungi found as soil and plant pathogens. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of opportunistic molds in onychomycosis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 4,220 cases with onychomycosis, diagnosed in a 39-month period at the Institute of Dermatology and Skin surgery "Prof. Dr. Fernando A. Cordero C." in Guatemala City, and confirmed w...

  14. Opportunistic amoebae: challenges in prophylaxis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Frederick L; Visvesvara, Govinda S

    2004-02-01

    This review focuses on free-living amoebae, widely distributed in soil and water, causing opportunistic and non-opportunistic infections in humans: Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri, and Sappinia diploidea. Diseases include primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (N. fowleri), granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, cutaneous and nasopharyngeal infections (Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, S. diploidea), and amoebic keratitis (Acanthamoeba spp). Acanthamoeba, Balamuthia, and Naegleria have been repeatedly isolated; S. diploidea has been reported only once, from a brain infection. Antimicrobial therapy for these infections is generally empirical and patient recovery often problematic. N. fowleri is highly sensitive to the antifungal agent amphotericin B, but delay in diagnosis and the fulminant nature of the disease result in few survivors. Encephalitis and other infections caused by Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia have been treated, more or less successfully, with antimicrobial combinations including sterol-targeting azoles (clotrimazole, miconazole, ketoconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole), pentamidine isethionate, 5-fluorocytosine, and sulfadiazine. The use of drug combinations addresses resistance patterns that may exist or develop during treatment, ensuring that at least one of the drugs may be effective against the amoebae. Favorable drug interactions (additive or synergistic) are another potential benefit. In vitro drug testing of clinical isolates points up strain and species differences in sensitivity, so that no single drug can be assumed effective against all amoebae. Another complication is risk of activation of dormant cysts that form in situ in Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia infections, and which can lead to patient relapse following apparently effective treatment. This is particularly true in Acanthamoeba keratitis, a non-opportunistic infection of the cornea, which responds well to treatment with chlorhexidine gluconate and

  15. AIDS defining opportunistic infections in patients with high CD4 counts in the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART era: things ain’t what they used to be

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Gisler

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: According to reports from observational databases, classic AIDS-defining opportunistic infections (ADOIs occur in patients with CD4 counts above 500/µL on and off cART. Adjudication of these events is usually not performed. However, ADOIs are often used as endpoints, for example, in analyses on when to start cART. Materials and Methods: In the database, Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS database, we identified 91 cases of ADOIs that occurred from 1996 onwards in patients with the nearest CD4 count >500/µL. Cases of tuberculosis and recurrent bacterial pneumonia were excluded as they also occur in non-immunocompromised patients. Chart review was performed in 82 cases, and in 50 cases we identified CD4 counts within six months before until one month after ADOI and had chart review material to allow an in-depth review. In these 50 cases, we assessed whether (1 the ADOI fulfilled the SHCS diagnostic criteria (www.shcs.ch, and (2 HIV infection with CD4 >500/µL was the main immune-compromising condition to cause the ADOI. Adjudication of cases was done by two experienced clinicians who had to agree on the interpretation. Results: More than 13,000 participants were followed in SHCS in the period of interest. Twenty-four (48% of the chart-reviewed 50 patients with ADOI and CD4 >500/µL had an HIV RNA 500/µL was the likely explanation for the ADOI in only seven cases (14%. Other reasons (Table 1 were ADOIs occurring during primary HIV infection in 5 (10% cases, unmasking IRIS in 1 (2% case, chronic HIV infection with CD4 counts 500/ µL, chronic HIV infection is the cause of ADOIs in only a minority of cases. Other immuno-compromising conditions are more likely explanations in one-third of the patients, especially in cases of candida oesophagitis. ADOIs in HIV patients with high CD4 counts should be used as endpoints only with much caution in studies based on observational databases.

  16. Opportunistic infections in patients with aids admitted to an university hospital of the Southeast of Brazil Infecções oportunistas em pacientes com aids internados em um hospital universitário do sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandack Nobre

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic diseases in HIV-infected patients have changed since the introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART. This study aims at evaluating the frequency of associated diseases in patients with AIDS admitted to an university hospital of Brazil, before and after HAART. The medical records of 342 HIV-infected patients were reviewed and divided into two groups: group 1 comprised 247 patients before HAART and, group 2, 95 patients after HAART. The male-to-female rate dropped from 5:1 to 2:1for HIV infection. There was an increase in the prevalence of tuberculosis and toxoplasmosis, with a decrease in Kaposi's sarcoma, histoplasmosis and cryptococcosis. A reduction of in-hospital mortality (42.0% vs. 16.9%; p = 0.00002 has also occurred. An agreement between the main clinical diagnoses and autopsy findings was observed in 10 out of 20 cases (50%. Two patients with disseminated schistosomiasis and 2 with paracoccidioidomycosis are reported. Overall, except for cerebral toxoplasmosis, it has been noticed a smaller proportion of opportunistic conditions related to severe immunosuppression in the post HAART group. There was also a significant reduction in the in-hospital mortality, possibly reflecting improvement in the treatment of the HIV infection.O espectro das doenças oportunistas em pacientes com aids vem se modificando desde a introdução da terapia antiretroviral altamente eficaz (HAART. O objetivo deste estudo é o de avaliar o perfil das afecções oportunistas em pacientes com aids internados em um hospital universitário do Brasil, comparando os períodos pré e pós-utilização da terapia HAART. Para tanto, revisaram-se os prontuários médicos de 342 pacientes infectados pelo HIV, dividindo-os em dois grupos: grupo 1, composto de 247 pacientes pré-HAART e grupo 2, composto de 95 pacientes pós-HAART. A relação homem-mulher caiu de 5:1 para 2:1. Houve aumento da prevalência da tuberculose e da toxoplasmose, com

  17. Morganella morganii, a non-negligent opportunistic pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Zhu, Junmin; Hu, Qiwen; Rao, Xiancai

    2016-09-01

    Morganella morganii belongs to the tribe Proteeae of the Enterobacteriaceae family. This species is considered as an unusual opportunistic pathogen that mainly causes post-operative wound and urinary tract infections. However, certain clinical M. morganii isolates present resistance to multiple antibiotics by carrying various resistant genes (such as blaNDM-1, and qnrD1), thereby posing a serious challenge for clinical infection control. Moreover, virulence evolution makes M. morganii an important pathogen. Accumulated data have demonstrated that M. morganii can cause various infections, such as sepsis, abscess, purple urine bag syndrome, chorioamnionitis, and cellulitis. This bacterium often results in a high mortality rate in patients with some infections. M. morganii is considered as a non-negligent opportunistic pathogen because of the increased levels of resistance and virulence. In this review, we summarized the epidemiology of M. morganii, particularly on its resistance profile and resistant genes, as well as the disease spectrum and risk factors for its infection.

  18. Differential Survival for Men and Women with HIV/AIDS-Related Neurologic Diagnoses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha L Carvour

    Full Text Available Neurologic complications of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS frequently lead to disability or death in affected patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether survival patterns differ between men and women with HIV/AIDS-related neurologic disease (neuro-AIDS.Retrospective cohort data from a statewide surveillance database for HIV/AIDS were used to characterize survival following an HIV/AIDS-related neurologic diagnosis for men and women with one or more of the following conditions: cryptococcosis, toxoplasmosis, primary central nervous system lymphoma, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, and HIV-associated dementia. A second, non-independent cohort was formed using university-based cases to confirm and extend the findings from the statewide data. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to compare the survival experiences for men and women in the cohorts. Cox regression was employed to characterize survival while controlling for potential confounders in the study population.Women (n=27 had significantly poorer outcomes than men (n=198 in the statewide cohort (adjusted hazard ratio=2.31, 95% CI: 1.22 to 4.35, and a similar, non-significant trend was observed among university-based cases (n=17 women, 154 men. Secondary analyses suggested that this difference persisted over the course of the AIDS epidemic and was not attributable to differential antiretroviral therapy responses among men and women.The survival disadvantage of women compared to men should be confirmed and the mechanisms underlying this disparity elucidated. If this relationship is confirmed, targeted clinical and public health efforts might be directed towards screening, treatment, and support for women affected by neuro-AIDS.

  19. Clinical presentation and opportunistic infections in HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan; Jespersen, Sanne; Katzenstein, Terese L;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Better understanding of HIV-2 infection is likely to affect the patient care in areas where HIV-2 is prevalent. In this study, we aimed to characterize the clinical presentations among HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, newly...... diagnosed HIV patients attending the HIV outpatient clinic at Hospital Nacional Simão Mendes in Guinea-Bissau were enrolled. Demographical and clinical data were collected and compared between HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients. RESULTS: A total of 169 patients (76% HIV-1, 17% HIV-2 and 6......% HIV 1/2) were included in the study between 21 March 2012 and 14 December 2012. HIV-1 seropositive patients were younger than HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 seropositive patients, but no difference in sex was observed. Patients with HIV-1 and HIV-1/2 had a lower baseline CD4 cell count than HIV-2 seropositive...

  20. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazhila C. Chinsembu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Faced with critical shortages of staff, long queues, and stigma at public health facilities in Livingstone, Zambia, persons who suffer from HIV/AIDS-related diseases use medicinal plants to manage skin infections, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, cough, malaria, and oral infections. In all, 94 medicinal plant species were used to manage HIV/AIDS-related diseases. Most remedies are prepared from plants of various families such as Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. More than two-thirds of the plants (mostly leaves and roots are utilized to treat two or more diseases related to HIV infection. Eighteen plants, namely, Achyranthes aspera L., Lannea discolor (Sond. Engl., Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Capparis tomentosa Lam., Cleome hirta Oliv., Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson, Euclea divinorum Hiern, Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol., Acacia nilotica Delile, Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach. Milne-Redh., Dichrostachys cinerea (L. Wight and Arn., Abrus precatorius L., Hoslundia opposita Vahl., Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd. Schumach., Ficus sycomorus L., Ximenia americana L., and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., were used to treat four or more disease conditions. About 31% of the plants in this study were administered as monotherapies. Multiuse medicinal plants may contain broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. However, since widely used plants easily succumb to the threats of overharvesting, they need special protocols and guidelines for their genetic conservation. There is still need to confirm the antimicrobial efficacies, pharmacological parameters, cytotoxicity, and active chemical ingredients of the discovered plants.

  1. 云南孟连县HIV感染者机会性致病肠道原虫感染现状调查%Survey on the status of infection with opportunistic intestinal protozoa in HIV-infected individuals in Menglian County, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓艳; 孙晓东; 宋竹芬; 杨锐; 聂仁华; 王正友

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current status of infection with opportunistic intestinal protozoa in HlV-infec-ted individuals in Menglian County. Methods An epidemiological survey was carried out by random sampling of 46 confirmed cases of HIV in Menglian County. Fresh fecal samples were collected and HIV-infected individuals were surveyed house to house. Cysts of Giardia lamblia were detected microscopically using Lugol's iodine staining and Cryptosporidi-um oocysts were detected using auramine-phenol staining and confirmed using modified acid-fast staining. Results In 11 cases, patients had a parasitic infection, and the rate of infection was 23. 91%. Two of the patients were infected with hookworms, 5 were infected with Endameba histolytica , 1 was infected with Endolimax nana, 2 were infected with E. Coli, and 1 was infected with G. Lamblia. Cryptosporidia were not detected. Conclusion HIV-infected patients should be routinely tested for opportunistic intestinal protozoa.%目的 了解云南孟连县HIV感染者机会性致病肠道原虫的感染情况. 方法 随机抽样孟连县HIV确诊病例46例,入户问卷调查,收集新鲜粪便标本,用直接涂片卢戈氏碘液染色法检查蓝氏贾第鞭毛虫包囊、用金铵一酚改良抗酸染色法检查隐孢子虫卵囊. 结果 46份粪便标本检出寄生虫感染11份,感染率为23.91%,其中钩虫2份,溶组织内阿米巴5份,微小内蜒阿米巴1份,结肠内阿米巴2份,蓝氏贾第鞭毛虫1份,未检出隐孢子虫. 结论 HIV感染者机会性致病肠道原虫检测应列入常规检测项目.

  2. Opportunistic Resource Usage in CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzer, Peter [RWTH Aachen U.; Hufnagel, Dirk [Fermilab; Dykstra, D. [Fermilab; Gutsche, O. [Fermilab; Tadel, M. [UC, San Diego; Sfiligoi, I. [UC, San Diego; Letts, J. [UC, San Diego; Wuerthwein, F. [UC, San Diego; McCrea, A. [UC, San Diego; Bockelman, B. [Nebraska U.; Fajardo, E. [Andes U., Merida; Linares, L. [Andes U., Merida; Wagner, R. [TI, San Diego; Konstantinov, P. [Sofiya, Inst. Nucl. Res.; Blumenfeld, B. [Johns Hopkins U.; Bradley, D. [Wisconsin U., Madison

    2014-01-01

    CMS is using a tiered setup of dedicated computing resources provided by sites distributed over the world and organized in WLCG. These sites pledge resources to CMS and are preparing them especially for CMS to run the experiment's applications. But there are more resources available opportunistically both on the GRID and in local university and research clusters which can be used for CMS applications. We will present CMS' strategy to use opportunistic resources and prepare them dynamically to run CMS applications. CMS is able to run its applications on resources that can be reached through the GRID, through EC2 compliant cloud interfaces. Even resources that can be used through ssh login nodes can be harnessed. All of these usage modes are integrated transparently into the GlideIn WMS submission infrastructure, which is the basis of CMS' opportunistic resource usage strategy. Technologies like Parrot to mount the software distribution via CVMFS and xrootd for access to data and simulation samples via the WAN are used and will be described. We will summarize the experience with opportunistic resource usage and give an outlook for the restart of LHC data taking in 2015.

  3. HIV/AIDS-related Discrimination in Shanxi Rural Areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI YANG; KONG-LAI ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    In order to explore the features of discrimination against people with HIV/AIDS in rural areas, a community-based intervention was carried out in two pilot communities of X County of Shanxi Province from September 2002 to October 2003. Methods Data were collected using qualitative methods (in-depth interview and focus group discussion) and anonymously structured questionnaires. Results (1) Severe discrimination against people infected with HIV/AIDS was revealed in the target communities. However, the response to HIV/AIDS was different in each community. (2) People were reluctant to disclose their HIV status or get tested for HIV, which endangered their sexual partners to contract HIV through unprotected sexual intercourses. (3) Attitudes towards people infected with HIV/AIDS varied. (4) Public education promoted a better understanding of HIV/AIDS which in turn improved community attitudes and behaviors towards people with HIV/AIDS. Conclusion HIV/AIDS-related discrimination undermines both individuals' and communities' responses to HIV/AIDS and may be a serious obstacle towards effective HIV/AIDS prevention and control.

  4. Measuring HIV/AIDS-Related Stigma across South Africa: A Versatile and Multidimensional Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Edward A.; Miller, Jacqueline A.; Newsome, Valerie; Sofolahan, Yewande A.; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing HIV/AIDS-related stigma is critical in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Although national campaigns and prevention programs have been implemented across South Africa to address this critical concern, assessing the impact of these initiatives is difficult as it requires that measurement of HIV/AIDS-related stigma is uniform and comparable…

  5. Opportunistic Infections—Coming to the Limits of Immunosuppression?

    OpenAIRE

    Fishman, Jay A.

    2013-01-01

    Possible etiologies of infection in the solid organ recipient are diverse, ranging from common bacterial and viral pathogens to opportunistic pathogens that cause invasive disease only in immunocompromised hosts. The recognition of infectious syndromes in this population is limited by alterations in the clinical manifestations by immunosuppression. The risk of serious infections in the organ transplant patient is determined by the interaction between the patients’ recent and distant epidemiol...

  6. Stimulating Creativity Through Opportunistic Software Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obrenovic, Z.; Gasevic, D.; Eliëns, A.

    2008-01-01

    Using opportunistic software development principles in computer engineering education encourages students to be creative and to develop solutions that cross the boundaries of diverse technologies. A framework for opportunistic software development education helps to create a space in which students

  7. Opportunistic Infections—Coming to the Limits of Immunosuppression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Jay A.

    2013-01-01

    Possible etiologies of infection in the solid organ recipient are diverse, ranging from common bacterial and viral pathogens to opportunistic pathogens that cause invasive disease only in immunocompromised hosts. The recognition of infectious syndromes in this population is limited by alterations in the clinical manifestations by immunosuppression. The risk of serious infections in the organ transplant patient is determined by the interaction between the patients’ recent and distant epidemiological exposures and all factors that contribute to the patient’s net state of immune suppression. This risk is altered by antimicrobial prophylaxis and changes in immunosuppressive therapies. In addition to the direct effects of infection, opportunistic infections, and the microbiome may adversely shape the host immune responses with diminished graft and patient survivals. Antimicrobial therapies are more complex than in the normal host with a significant incidence of drug toxicity and a propensity for drug interactions with the immunosuppressive agents used to maintain graft function. Rapid and specific microbiologic diagnosis is essential. Newer microbiologic assays have improved the diagnosis and management of opportunistic infections. These tools coupled with assays that assess immune responses to infection and to graft antigens may allow optimization of management for graft recipients in the future. PMID:24086067

  8. Free-living amoebae as opportunistic and non-opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Frederick L; Visvesvara, Govinda S

    2004-08-01

    Knowledge that free-living amoebae are capable of causing human disease dates back some 50 years, prior to which time they were regarded as harmless soil organisms or, at most, commensals of mammals. First Naegleria fowleri, then Acanthamoeba spp. and Balamuthia mandrillaris, and finally Sappinia diploidea have been recognised as etiologic agents of encephalitis; Acanthamoeba spp. are also responsible for amoebic keratitis. Some of the infections are opportunistic, occurring mainly in immunocompromised hosts (Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia encephalitides), while others are non-opportunistic (Acanthamoeba keratitis, Naegleria meningoencephalitis, and cases of Balamuthia encephalitis occurring in immunocompetent humans). The amoebae have a cosmopolitan distribution in soil and water, providing multiple opportunities for contacts with humans and animals, as evidenced by antibody titers in surveyed human populations. Although, the numbers of infections caused by these amoebae are low in comparison to other protozoal parasitoses (trypanosomiasis, toxoplasmosis, malaria, etc.), the difficulty in diagnosing them, the challenge of finding optimal antimicrobial treatments and the morbidity and relatively high mortality associated with, in particular, the encephalitides have been a cause for concern for clinical and laboratory personnel and parasitologists. This review presents information about the individual amoebae: their morphologies and life-cycles, laboratory cultivation, ecology, epidemiology, nature of the infections and appropriate antimicrobial therapies, the immune response, and molecular diagnostic procedures that have been developed for identification of the amoebae in the environment and in clinical specimens.

  9. Epidemiology and Ecology of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs) that persist and grow in household plumbing, habitats they share with humans. Infections caused by these OPPPs involve individuals with preexis...

  10. Uncommon opportunistic yeast bloodstream infections from Qatar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taj-Aldeen, S.J.; AbdulWahab, A.; Kolecka, A.; Deshmukh, A.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Boekhout, T.

    2014-01-01

    Eleven uncommon yeast species that are associated with high mortality rates irrespective of antifungal therapy were isolated from 17/187 (201 episodes) pediatric and elderly patients with fungemia from Qatar. The samples were taken over a 6-year period (January 2004-December 2010). Isolated species

  11. Onychomycosis due to opportunistic molds*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Herrera, Erick Obed; Arroyo-Camarena, Stefanie; Tejada-García, Diana Luz; Porras-López, Carlos Francisco; Arenas, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Onychomycosis are caused by dermatophytes and Candida, but rarely by non- dermatophyte molds. These opportunistic agents are filamentous fungi found as soil and plant pathogens. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of opportunistic molds in onychomycosis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 4,220 cases with onychomycosis, diagnosed in a 39-month period at the Institute of Dermatology and Skin surgery "Prof. Dr. Fernando A. Cordero C." in Guatemala City, and confirmed with a positive KOH test and culture. RESULTS: 32 cases (0.76%) of onychomycosis caused by opportunistic molds were confirmed. The most affected age group ranged from 41 to 65 years (15 patients, 46.9%) and females were more commonly affected (21 cases, 65.6%) than males. Lateral and distal subungual onychomycosis (OSD-L) was detected in 20 cases (62.5%). The microscopic examination with KOH showed filaments in 19 cases (59.4%), dermatophytoma in 9 cases (28.1%), spores in 2 cases (6.25%), and filaments and spores in 2 cases (6.25%). Etiologic agents: Aspergillus sp., 11 cases (34.4%); Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, 8 cases (25.0%); Cladosporium sp., 3 cases (9.4%); Acremonium sp., 2 cases (6.25%); Paecilomyces sp., 2 cases (6.25%); Tritirachium oryzae, 2 cases (6.25%); Fusarium sp., Phialophora sp., Rhizopus sp. and Alternaria alternate, 1 case (3.1%) each. CONCLUSIONS: We found onychomycosis by opportunistic molds in 0.76% of the cases and DLSO was present in 62.5%. The most frequent isolated etiological agents were: Aspergillus sp. and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. PMID:26131862

  12. Alveolar damage in AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Prentø, P; Junge, Jette

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is the most common and serious of the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Despite this, many basic aspects in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated P carinii pneumonia are unknown. We therefore undertook a light and electron microscopic study of transbronchial...... biopsy specimens to compare pathologic features of P carinii pneumonia and other HIV-related lung diseases. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: Thirty-seven consecutive HIV-infected patients undergoing a diagnostic bronchoscopy. RESULTS: P carinii pneumonia was characterized by an increase in inflammation, edema...... with P carinii pneumonia, whereas none without P carinii pneumonia had this finding (p pneumonia. The changes may form...

  13. Alveolar damage in AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Prentø, P; Junge, Jette

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is the most common and serious of the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Despite this, many basic aspects in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated P carinii pneumonia are unknown. We therefore undertook a light and electron microscopic study of transbronchial...... biopsy specimens to compare pathologic features of P carinii pneumonia and other HIV-related lung diseases. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: Thirty-seven consecutive HIV-infected patients undergoing a diagnostic bronchoscopy. RESULTS: P carinii pneumonia was characterized by an increase in inflammation, edema...

  14. AIDS- Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior Survey among the "Migrant" Population in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-fang ZHOU; Xiao-ming SUN; Jonanne Mantell; Xiao-mei RU; Yong WEN

    2007-01-01

    Objective To realize AIDS related knowledge, attitude and behavior among floating people in China and discuss its influencial factors, and to provide the evidence for how to prevent AIDS in floating population.Methods The data were collected from the "Sex and Reproductive Health Baseline Survey among Floating People in China" conducted in March 2004. The standard questionnaires were used to interview altogether 4 900 floating people from 6 provinces.Results Nearly 95.4 % of them had heard about AIDS, but only 0.5% can judge all the transmitted ways and no-transmitted ways correctly, 45.9% believed that we need to isolate the HIV positive people. Only 65.7% knew that using condom can preventive HIV infection, 43.7% showed their understanding about the man who has long time no sexual life has sex with a sexual worker. About 13.6%floating people chose condom as FP method and among them only 34.6% used condom every time.Conclusion Chinese floating people are lack of AIDS knowledge. Most of them do not practise Safe Sex Activity. We need to give more intervention to the floating population.

  15. Survey of AIDS Related KAB Among Immigrant Female Factory Workers in Dongguan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何群; 刘树芳; 王晔; 凌莉; 杨放

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To understand the HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors (KAB) among immigrant female factory workers(IFFW). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among IFFWs sampled from several joint- venture and private factories in Dongguan city. Results: Out of 175 sampled workers, 165 qualified for inclusion and the median age was 22. The resultsshowed that the IFFWs had low levels of knowledge about HIV/AIDS, and held many misconceptions. Thirty three of 76 (43.4%) unmarried IFFWs had premarital sexual contact, and more than half of these contacts were one-night stands (54.5%). More than one quarter of the women(25.9%) never used condoms, 49.4% sometimes used condoms and 24.7% used condoms every time. Twenty-eight women (31.8%) had an induced abortion because of an unexpected pregnancy. Fourteen (14.9%) had been infected with STDs, and four IFFWs(2.8%)had tried drugs before the interview. Conclusion: In order to empower the IFFWs in the city to protect themselves from HIV, and to contain the rapid spread of HIV in our province, targeted HIV/AIDS health promotion programs should be urgently implemented among IFFWs in Dongguan city. The programs should be designed to improve the knowledge of HIV, to promote condom use, and to reduce risky behaviors.

  16. AIDS-related illness trajectories in Mexico: findings from a qualitative study in two marginalized communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, R; Orozco, E; Eroza, E; Manca, M C; Hernández, J J; Aggleton, P

    1998-10-01

    This paper describes findings from a recent study examining how people affected directly and indirectly by the HIV/AIDS epidemic cope with HIV-related illness in Mexico. One-hundred-and-thirteen in-depth interviews were conducted with key informants in two contrasting communities: Ciudad Netzahualcóyotl (an economically marginalized community) and the gay community in Mexico City (a sexually marginalized community). This paper describes the AIDS-related wellness/illness careers or trajectories followed by individuals in both communities, and identifies critical points for material and emotional intervention. This career comprises four stages: (1) life before infection; (2) life surrounding the discovery of seropositivity; (3) living as an HIV-positive person; and (4) facing death. Comparisons are drawn between the processes of adjustment and coping found in both communities. In Ciudad Netzahualcóyotl, wellness/illness careers are closely linked to prevailing poverty and oppression, as well as the sense of urgency in which local people live their lives. In the case of the gay community, wellness/illness careers are associated with the intolerance and social repression faced by homosexual men. The paper concludes by suggesting possible interventions to improve the lives of people with HIV/AIDS in Mexico today.

  17. Plumbing of hospital premises is a reservoir for opportunistically pathogenic microorganisms: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Margaret M; Armbruster, Catherine R; Arduino, Matthew J

    2013-01-01

    Several bacterial species that are natural inhabitants of potable water distribution system biofilms are opportunistic pathogens important to sensitive patients in healthcare facilities. Waterborne healthcare-associated infections (HAI) may occur during the many uses of potable water in the healthcare environment. Prevention of infection is made more challenging by lack of data on infection rate and gaps in understanding of the ecology, virulence, and infectious dose of these opportunistic pathogens. Some healthcare facilities have been successful in reducing infections by following current water safety guidelines. This review describes several infections, and remediation steps that have been implemented to reduce waterborne HAIs.

  18. AIDS-related tuberculosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio G Pacheco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We studied the incidence of tuberculosis, AIDS, AIDS deaths and AIDS-TB co-infection at the population level in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil where universal and free access to combination antiretroviral therapy has been available since 1997. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This was a retrospective surveillance database match of Rio de Janeiro databases from 1995-2004. Proportions of tuberculosis occurring within 30 days and between 30 days and 1 year after AIDS diagnosis were determined. Generalized additive models fitted with cubic splines with appropriate estimating methods were used to describe rates and proportions over time. Overall, 90,806 tuberculosis cases and 16,891 AIDS cases were reported; 3,125 tuberculosis cases within 1 year of AIDS diagnosis were detected. Tuberculosis notification rates decreased after 1997 from a fitted rate (fR per 100,000 of 166.5 to 138.8 in 2004. AIDS incidence rates increased 26% between 1995 and 1998 (30.7 to 38.7 followed by a 33.3% decrease to 25.8 in 2004. AIDS mortality rates decreased dramatically after antiretroviral therapy was introduced between 1995 (27.5 and 1999 (13.4. The fitted proportion (fP of patients with tuberculosis diagnosed within one year of AIDS decreased from 1995 (24.4% to 1998 (15.2%, remaining stable since. Seventy-five percent of tuberculosis diagnoses after an AIDS diagnosis occurred within 30 days of AIDS diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that while combination ART should be considered an essential component of the response to the HIV and HIV/tuberculosis epidemics, it may not be sufficient alone to prevent progression from latent TB to active disease among HIV-infected populations. When tuberculosis is diagnosed prior to or at the same time as AIDS and ART has not yet been initiated, then ART is ineffective as a tuberculosis prevention strategy for these patients. Earlier HIV/AIDS diagnosis and ART initiation may reduce TB incidence in HIV

  19. AIDS-related Pneumocystis jirovecii genotypes in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gal, Solène; Blanchet, Denis; Damiani, Céline; Guéguen, Paul; Virmaux, Michèle; Abboud, Philippe; Guillot, Geneviève; Kérangart, Stéphane; Merle, Cédric; Calderon, Enrique; Totet, Anne; Carme, Bernard; Nevez, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    The study described Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) multilocus typing in seven AIDS patients living in French Guiana (Cayenne Hospital) and seven immunosuppressed patients living in Brest, metropolitan France (Brest Hospital). Archival P. jirovecii specimens were examined at the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) locus using a PCR-RFLP technique, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 and ITS 2 and the mitochondrial large subunit rRNA (mtLSUrRNA) gene using PCR and sequencing. Analysis of typing results were combined with an analysis of the literature on P. jirovecii mtLSUrRNA types and ITS haplotypes. A wild DHPS type was identified in six Guianese patients and in seven patients from metropolitan France whereas a DHPS mutant was infected in the remaining Guianese patient. Typing of the two other loci pointed out a high diversity of ITS haplotypes and an average diversity of mtLSUrRNA types in French Guiana with a partial commonality of these haplotypes and types described in metropolitan France and around the world. Combining DHPS, ITS and mtLSU types, 12 different multilocus genotypes (MLGs) were identified, 4 MLGs in Guianese patients and 8 MLGs in Brest patients. MLG analysis allows to discriminate patients in 2 groups according to their geographical origin. Indeed, none of the MLGs identified in the Guianese patients were found in the Brest patients and none of the MLGs identified in the Brest patients were found in the Guianese patients. These results show that in French Guiana (i) PCP involving DHPS mutants occur, (ii) there is a diversity of ITS and mtLSUrRNA types and (iii) although partial type commonality in this territory and metropolitan France can be observed, MLG analysis suggests that P. jirovecii organisms from French Guiana may present specific characteristics.

  20. An Integrated Intervention for Increasing Clinical Nurses' Knowledge of HIV/AIDS-Related Occupational Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liping; Lu, Zhiyan; Huang, Jing; Zhou, Yiping; Huang, Jian; Bi, Yongyi; Li, Jun

    2016-11-07

    Background: Approximately 35 new HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV) cases and at least 1000 serious infections are transmitted annually to health care workers. In China, HIV prevalence is increasing and nursing personnel are encountering these individuals more than in the past. Contaminated needle-stick injuries represent a significant occupational burden for nurses. Evidence suggests that nurses in China may not fully understand HIV/AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS) and HIV-related occupational safety. At this time, universal protection precautions are not strictly implemented in Chinese hospitals. Lack of training may place nurses at risk for occupational exposure to blood-borne pathogens. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of integrated interventions on nurses' knowledge improvement about reducing the risk of occupationally acquired HIV infection. Methods: We audited integrated interventions using 300 questionnaires collected from nurses at the Affiliated Hospital of Xiangnan University, a public polyclinic in Hunan Province. The intervention studied was multifaceted and included appropriate and targeted training content for hospital, department and individual levels. After three months of occupational safety integrated interventions, 234 participants who completed the program were assessed. Results: Of the subjects studied, 94.3% (283/300) were injured one or more times by medical sharp instruments or splashed by body fluids in the last year and 95.3% considered their risk of occupational exposure high or very high. After the intervention, awareness of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge improved significantly (χ² = 86.34, p = 0.00), and correct answers increased from 67.9% to 82.34%. Correct answers regarding risk perception were significantly different between pre-test (54.4%) and post-test (66.6%) (χ² = 73.2, p = 0.00). When coming into contact with patient body fluids and blood only 24.0% of subjects used gloves regularly. The pre

  1. 艾滋病病人机会性感染救治保障机制研究%Analysis of the current medical care system to treat and relieve AIDS patients with opportunistic infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳; 王俊杰; 周郁; 许文青; 陈清峰

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析中国艾滋病病人机会性感染救治保障机制的现状及存在问题,为进一步完善该机制提供建议.方法 采取定量和定性调查相结合的方法.结果 中国制定了“四免一关怀”等机会性感染医疗费用减免政策,并结合医疗体制改革要求通过医保、救助等进一步减轻费用负担.各地主要采取了医保和新农合报销补偿政策倾斜、定额医疗补助、医疗救助以及直接减免部分治疗费用等4种方式落实减免政策.目前仍存在缺乏对病种、临床路径的明确界定,医疗费用减免措施尚未覆盖所有贫困患者,医疗保障水平仍较低,救治保障资金缺口较大等问题.结论 建议明确纳入医疗保障范围的常见机会性感染病种等机会性感染治疗服务体系中存在的问题;短期可通过城乡医疗救助,长期可通过将机会性感染纳入重大疾病保障;建立分级负担、多渠道的机会性感染医疗保障经费筹措机制;加强艾滋病治疗定点医疗机构的综合诊疗能力建设;进一步开展相关专题研究等.%Objective To analyze the current medical care system to treat and relieve AIDS patients with opportunistic infections (OIs) and existing bottlenecks,and to provide suggestions to improve this system.Methods Combined qualitative and quantitative surveys were undertaken.Results Policies including "Four Free One Care" were adopted to reduce financial burden of AIDS patients with OIs under medical treatment,and commitments were made to further reduce the burden through essential medical insurance and relief system in combination with national health care system reform.Local governments progressively implemented these policies by increasing ratio of reimbursement from essential medical insurance and new rural medical cooperative scheme,providing lump-sum medical subsidies,medical relief and direct deducting medical fee.The existing bottlenecks included:lack of clear definition of

  2. Routing Issues in Opportunistic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Marco; Crowcroft, Jon; Giordano, Silvia; Hui, Pan; Nguyen, Hoang Anh; Passarella, Andrea

    The opportunistic networking idea stems from the critical review of the research field on Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET). After more than ten years of research in the MANET field, this promising technology still has not massively entered the mass market. One of the main reasons of this is nowadays seen in the lack of a practical approach to the design of infrastructure-less multi-hop ad hoc networks [186, 185]. One of the main approaches of conventional MANET research is to design protocols that mask the features of mobile networks via the routing (and transport) layer, so as to expose to higher layers an Internet-like network abstraction. Wireless networks’ peculiarities, such as mobility of users, disconnection of nodes, network partitions, links’ instability, are seen—as in the legacy Internet—as exceptions. This often results in the design of MANET network stacks that are significantly complex and unstable [107].

  3. Survey of STI/AIDS-related knowledge, attitude and behaviors and infection rates of sex workers in entertainment places in Jingzhou City%荆州市娱乐场所暗娼STI/AIDS知识态度行为及感染状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江明; 吴江华; 黄继贵; 黄桂英; 祝碧艳; 孙春; 刘传军

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解娱乐场所暗娼对性传播感染(sexually transmitted infections,STI)/艾滋病(acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,AIDS)的知识、态度、行为特征及其感染状况,为实施干预措施提供依据.方法 随机抽取24家涉性娱乐场所,对暗娼采取匿名方式进行知识、态度及行为特征问卷调查,并采集血样和宫颈分泌物,检测HIV及衣原体感染情况.结果 211名暗娼中,56.4%的调查对象年龄在20岁以下、82.4%的调查对象文化程度为初中及以下、81.5%的调查对象来自农村、74.9%的调查对象在当前场所工作不超过6个月、86.7%的调查对象是在当前场所开始的性服务,对AIDS预防措施知晓率为71.3%,最近1周47.4%发生过商业性性行为,在商业性性关系中每次均使用安全套的仅34.1%,与固定性伴仅7.9%,有17.5%对使用安全套持反对或无所谓态度;实验室检测未发现抗-HIV阳性,衣原体感染率为9.3%.结论 为遏制艾滋病经性途径传播,应加强农村健康教育与性道德教育工作,初中阶段应开设性病艾滋病防治课程,对娱乐场所暗娼的宣传教育应更具针对性,实施娱乐场所干预措施刻不容缓.

  4. Heterogeneous Epidemic Model for Assessing Data Dissemination in Opportunistic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rozanova, Liudmila; Alekseev, Vadim; Temerev, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we apply a susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemic model to analyse data dissemination in opportunistic networks with heterogeneous setting of transmission parameters, as established in author's previous paper? . We obtained the estimation of the final epidemic size assuming...... that amount of data transferred between network nodes possesses a Pareto distribution, implying scale-free properties. In this context, more heterogeneity in susceptibility means the less severe epidemic progression, and, on the contrary, more heterogeneity in infectivity leads to more severe epidemics...

  5. Morganella morganii, a non-negligent opportunistic pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Morganella morganii belongs to the tribe Proteeae of the Enterobacteriaceae family. This species is considered as an unusual opportunistic pathogen that mainly causes post-operative wound and urinary tract infections. However, certain clinical M. morganii isolates present resistance to multiple antibiotics by carrying various resistant genes (such as blaNDM-1, and qnrD1, thereby posing a serious challenge for clinical infection control. Moreover, virulence evolution makes M. morganii an important pathogen. Accumulated data have demonstrated that M. morganii can cause various infections, such as sepsis, abscess, purple urine bag syndrome, chorioamnionitis, and cellulitis. This bacterium often results in a high mortality rate in patients with some infections. M. morganii is considered as a non-negligent opportunistic pathogen because of the increased levels of resistance and virulence. In this review, we summarized the epidemiology of M. morganii, particularly on its resistance profile and resistant genes, as well as the disease spectrum and risk factors for its infection.

  6. Child Abuse and Aids-Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior among Adolescents in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonim-Nevo, Vered; Mukuka, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To research the correlation between physical and sexual abuse by family members and AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy and behavior among urban and rural adolescents in Zambia. Sample: The sample comprises 3,360 adolescents, aged 10-19, from urban and rural Zambia; 2,160 of them attended school, while 1,200 of them did…

  7. Survey on AIDS related knowledge and attitude among married people of childbearing age in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying; Cheng Yi-min; Huang Na; Guo Xin; Wu Jun-qing; Ru Xiao-mei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To learn about the current circumstances surrounding AIDS related knowledge, attitudes and relevant influential factors, and to provide recommendations for HIV/AIDS prevention and control.Methods: A cross sectional study was designed by the cluster sampling method, and a self-administered, closed, and anonymous questionnaire was administered. There were a total of 4,800 married people of childbearing age, from six counties, during the period November through December, 2003.Results: There were 4,693 valid questionnaires and the validity rate was 97.78%. The general correct rate of AIDS knowledge of the respondents was 63.60%. Factors such as sex, age, place of registered permanent residence and different areas had influence on the level of AIDS knowledge. Respondents knew more about AIDS transmission related knowledge than non-transmission related knowledge. Only 30.6% of respondents had heard about volunteer counseling and testing(VCT)of AIDS, and just 8.5% of them thought that they had the possibility of being infected with HIV/AIDS, 64.5% of participants were afraid of AIDS, 66.5% of them thought that HIV positive people should be quarantined, 74.1% of them held that HIV positive people should be forbidden to go to public places, and they would not like to have dinner (68.8%), shake hands (67.8%), or work (63.4%)with HIV positive people. Respondents of different sex, registered permanent residence, education and living places had different attitudes towards HIV/AIDS.Conclusion: The AIDS knowledge level of respondents is below the goal of 75% up to 2005 brought forward by National AIDS Office of China. It is very important to strengthen the Information, Education, Communication (IEC) on AIDS non-transmission related knowledge among married people of childbearing age, especially those who are younger, lower educated and female. Furthermore, the knowledge about VCT should be publicized. More than half of the respondents have negative attitudes towards

  8. Opportunistic Interference Alignment for Random Access Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Hu; Jeon, Sang-Woon; Jung, Bang Chul

    2015-01-01

    An interference management problem among multiple overlapped random access networks (RANs) is investigated, each of which operates with slotted ALOHA protocol. Assuming that access points and users have multiple antennas, a novel opportunistic interference alignment~(OIA) is proposed to mitigate interference among overlapped RANs. The proposed technique intelligently combines the transmit beamforming technique at the physical layer and the opportunistic packet transmission at the medium acces...

  9. Evaluation and Innovation in Opportunistic Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    The presence of an increasing number of mobile devices has prompted the demand to use them for information dispersion through opportunistic networks, which they form coincidently due to their geographic location. Opportunistic networks pose several new challenges to the current transmission protocols as they are not only capable of store and forward routing, but also lack the offline routing capability, i.e. source and destination must be connected to the network simultaneously. We can find s...

  10. Economic transactions, opportunistic behavior and protective mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    Whenever actors participate in transactions they expose themselves to risks of various kinds. Some of these risks are attributable to events outside the control of the participants and are unavoidable. Others originate in, or are aggrevated by, opportunistic actions undertaken by contract partner...... account for the lack of opportunistic behavior with which networks are often credited. No protective mechanism is, however, effective under all circumstances....

  11. HIV Protease Inhibitors: Effect on the Opportunistic Protozoan Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Yenisey; Monzote, Lianet

    2011-01-01

    The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the natural history of AIDS disease has been allowed to prolong the survival of people with HIV infection, particularly whose with increased HIV viral load. Additionally, the antiretroviral therapy could exert a certain degree of protection against parasitic diseases. A number of studies have been evidenced a decrease in the incidence of opportunistic parasitic infections in the era of HAART. Although these changes have been attributed to the restoration of cell-mediated immunity, induced by either non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors or HIV protease inhibitors, in combination with at least two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors included in HAART, there are evidence that the control of these parasitic infections in HIV-positive persons under HAART, is also induced by the inhibition of the proteases of the parasites. This review focuses on the principal available data related with therapeutic HIV-protease inhibitors and their in vitro and in vivo effects on the opportunistic protozoan parasites.

  12. Survey of HIV/AIDS-related Knowledge, Attitude and Determinants in Urban Residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何群; 杨放; 林鹏; 王晔; 刘勇鹰; 付笑冰; 赵茜茜

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To provide references for HIV/AIDS-re-lated health education strategies through survey on HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitude and determi-nants of HIV/AIDS awareness.Methods: The study subjects were selected by ran-dom interception in a downtown street of Guangzhou city on World AIDS Day-December 1,2002. The uni-form questionnaires were finished by means of self-administration.Results: Two hundred questionnaires were distrib-uted and 147 qualified questionnaires were collected.The results showed, the awareness rate of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge was 63.3%, and awareness rate of transmission routes was 76.2 %, whilst non-transmis-sion route was 60.5 %; the awareness rate of trans-mission was 59.2%; the awareness rate of prevention was 47.0%; the positive attitude to people living with HIV/AIDS was 65.6%. Multiple variable Logistic re-gression analysis showed the determinants of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge were education level, age,marital status and gender, of which people with high level of education, young age and the group of male and married had better awareness of HIV/AIDS.Conclusion: Current HIV/AIDS-related knowledge of urban residents is relativly low, especially for the non-transmission route, hence further HIV/AIDS-re-lated education should be strengthened, especially fo-cusing on non-transmission route to eliminate dis-crimination over people living with HIV/AIDS.Further, education efforts also should be put on fe-male population, unmarried population and poorly edu-cated population.

  13. US Supreme Court allows limits on AIDS-related insurance benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, R

    2000-01-01

    In a ruling issued on 10 January 2000 with respect to Doe v Mutual of Omaha Insurance, the US Supreme Court refused to review a lower-court decision allowing an insurance company to limit health-care benefits for AIDS-related claims to less than one-tenth of what it pays under the same policies for expenses related to other illnesses. The lower court had ruled that anti-discrimination legislation does not apply to insurance policies.

  14. Differences of HIV/AIDS Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Between Commercial Sex Workers and Their Clients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世英; 张顺祥; AbdullahASM

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To compare the HIV/AIDS related knowledge,attitudes and pratices (KAP) among the commercial sex workers (CSWs) with that of their clients in Shenzhen. Methods: A total of 124 female CSWs and 155 men,detained for selling or purchasing sexual services, were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Results: CSWs scored higher than their clients on AIDS/HIV knowledge scores, though the difference was not significant and both groups only scored near 50%. ""Almost always""condom use rates were significantly higher for CSWs. Most of the women but fewer men knew condom use could prevent HIV/AIDS infection. The main reason for not using condoms among the women was the unwillingness of their customers. A higher proportion of the CSWs (9.7%) than men (2.6%) had ever used illegal drugs. The mean age of first sexual intercourse (18.2±2.1) and first commercial sex (20.2±3.9)among the CSWs were lower than that of the men (22.2±0.3and 27.1 ± 0.6, respectively). Conclusion: New health education programs promoting condom use should be developed to raise awareness about HIV/AIDS, particularly among men. CSWs and clients are high-risk groups for HIV/AIDS infection and transmission.

  15. Evaluation of Opportunistic Routing Algorithms on Opportunistic Mobile Sensor Networks with Infrastructure Assistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, Viet-Duc; Scholten, Hans; Havinga, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Recently the increasing number of sensors integrated in smartphones, especially the iPhone and Android phones, has motivated the development of routing algorithms for Opportunistic Mobile Sensor Networks (OppMSNs). Although there are many existing opportunistic routing algorithms, researchers still

  16. Distance-Based Opportunistic Mobile Data Offloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaofeng; Lio, Pietro; Hui, Pan

    2016-01-01

    Cellular network data traffic can be offload onto opportunistic networks. This paper proposes a Distance-based Opportunistic Publish/Subscribe (DOPS) content dissemination model, which is composed of three layers: application layer, decision-making layer and network layer. When a user wants new content, he/she subscribes on a subscribing server. Users having the contents decide whether to deliver the contents to the subscriber based on the distance information. If in the meantime a content owner has traveled further in the immediate past time than the distance between the owner and the subscriber, the content owner will send the content to the subscriber through opportunistic routing. Simulations provide an evaluation of the data traffic offloading efficiency of DOPS. PMID:27314361

  17. Performance analysis of opportunistic nonregenerative relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2013-01-01

    Opportunistic relaying in cooperative communication depends on careful relay selection. However, the traditional centralized method used for opportunistic amplify-and-forward protocols requires precise measurements of channel state information at the destination. In this paper, we adopt the max-min criterion as a relay selection framework for opportunistic amplify-and-forward cooperative communications, which was exhaustively used for the decode-and-forward protocol, and offer an accurate performance analysis based on exact statistics of the local signal-to-noise ratios of the best relay. Furthermore, we evaluate the asymptotical performance and deduce the diversity order of our proposed scheme. Finally, we validate our analysis by showing that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results over Rayleigh fading channels, and we compare the max-min relay selection with their centralized channel state information-based and partial relay selection counterparts.

  18. Opportunistic spectrum utilization in vehicular communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Nan

    2016-01-01

    This brief examines current research on improving Vehicular Networks (VANETs), examining spectrum scarcity due to the dramatic growth of mobile data traffic and the limited bandwidth of dedicated vehicular communication bands and the use of opportunistic spectrum bands to mitigate congestion. It reviews existing literature on the use of opportunistic spectrum bands for VANETs, including licensed and unlicensed spectrum bands and a variety of related technologies, such as cognitive radio, WiFi and device-to-device communications. Focused on analyzing spectrum characteristics, designing efficient spectrum exploitation schemes, and evaluating the date delivery performance when utilizing different opportunistic spectrum bands, the results presented in this brief provide valuable insights on improving the design and deployment of future VANETs.

  19. Aids-related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: a retrospective study in a referral center in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, José E; Penalva de Oliveira, Augusto C; Fink, Maria Cristina D S; Pannuti, Cláudio S; Trujillo, J Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Few data are available about progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) from Brazil. The objectives of this study were to describe the main features of patients with PML and estimate its frequency among AIDS patients with central nervous system (CNS) opportunistic diseases admitted to the Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas, São Paulo, Brazil, from April 2003 to April 2004. A retrospective and descriptive study was performed. Twelve (6%) cases of PML were identified among 219 patients with neurological diseases. The median age of patients with PML was 36 years and nine (75%) were men. Nine (75%) patients were not on antiretroviral therapy at admission. The most common clinical manifestations were: focal weakness (75%), speech disturbances (58%), visual disturbances (42%), cognitive dysfunction (42%), and impaired coordination (42%). The median CD4+ T-cell count was 45 cells/microL. Eight (67%) of 12 patients were laboratory-confirmed with PML and four (33%) were possible cases. Eleven (92%) presented classic PML and only one case had immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS)-related PML. In four (33%) patients, PML was the first AIDS-defining illness. During hospitalization, three patients (25%) died as a result of nosocomial pneumonia and nine (75%) were discharged to home. Cases of PML were only exceeded by cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis, cryptococcal meningoencephalitis, and CNS tuberculosis, the three more frequent neurologic opportunistic infections in Brazil. The results of this study suggest that PML is not an uncommon HIV-related neurologic disorder in a referral center in Brazil.

  20. Incentive mechanisms for Opportunistic Cloud Computing Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, Eric; Olesen, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Opportunistic Cloud Computing Service (OCCS) is a social network approach to the provisioning and management of cloud computing services for enterprises. The OCCS network may suffer from the free riding problem where members are selfish and will only want to use services on the platform without e......, incentive compatibility, allocative efficiency, robustness, and flexible to accommodate changing user behavior on the platform.......Opportunistic Cloud Computing Service (OCCS) is a social network approach to the provisioning and management of cloud computing services for enterprises. The OCCS network may suffer from the free riding problem where members are selfish and will only want to use services on the platform without...

  1. Shared Physiological Traits of Exophiala Species in Cold-Blooded Vertebrates, as Opportunistic Black Yeasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    do Nascimento, Mariana Machado Fidelis; de Hoog, G Sybren; Gomes, Renata Rodrigues; Furuie, Jason Lee; Gelinski, Jane Mary Lafayette; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Boeger, Walter Antonio Pereira; Vicente, Vania Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    Several species of the genus Exophiala are found as opportunistic pathogens on humans, while others cause infections in cold-blooded waterborne vertebrates. Opportunism of these fungi thus is likely to be multifactorial. Ecological traits [thermotolerance and pH tolerance, laccase activity, assimila

  2. AIDS-Related Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in Sub-Saharan Africa: Current Status and Realities of Therapeutic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Mwamba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (AR-NHL is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients the world over, and especially in sub-Saharan Africa. While the overall incidence of AR-NHL since the emergence of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART era has declined, the occurrence of this disease appears to have stabilized. In regions where access to cART is challenging, the impact on disease incidence is less clear. In the resource-rich environment it is clinically recognized that it is no longer appropriate to consider AR-NHL as a single disease entity and rather treatment of AIDS lymphoma needs to be tailored to lymphoma subtype. While intensive therapeutic strategies in the resource-rich world are clearly improving outcome, in AIDS epicenters of the world and especially in sub-Saharan Africa there is a paucity of data on treatment and outcomes. In fact, only one prospective study of dose-modified oral chemotherapy and limited retrospective studies with sufficient details provide a window into the natural history and clinical management of this disease. The scarcities and challenges of treatment in this setting provide a backdrop to review the current status and realities of the therapeutic approach to AR-NHL in sub-Saharan Africa. More pragmatic and risk-adapted therapeutic approaches are needed.

  3. Environmental Variation Generates Environmental Opportunist Pathogen Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, Jani; Kaitala, Veijo; Laakso, Jouni; Ruokolainen, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Many socio-economically important pathogens persist and grow in the outside host environment and opportunistically invade host individuals. The environmental growth and opportunistic nature of these pathogens has received only little attention in epidemiology. Environmental reservoirs are, however, an important source of novel diseases. Thus, attempts to control these diseases require different approaches than in traditional epidemiology focusing on obligatory parasites. Conditions in the outside-host environment are prone to fluctuate over time. This variation is a potentially important driver of epidemiological dynamics and affect the evolution of novel diseases. Using a modelling approach combining the traditional SIRS models to environmental opportunist pathogens and environmental variability, we show that epidemiological dynamics of opportunist diseases are profoundly driven by the quality of environmental variability, such as the long-term predictability and magnitude of fluctuations. When comparing periodic and stochastic environmental factors, for a given variance, stochastic variation is more likely to cause outbreaks than periodic variation. This is due to the extreme values being further away from the mean. Moreover, the effects of variability depend on the underlying biology of the epidemiological system, and which part of the system is being affected. Variation in host susceptibility leads to more severe pathogen outbreaks than variation in pathogen growth rate in the environment. Positive correlation in variation on both targets can cancel the effect of variation altogether. Moreover, the severity of outbreaks is significantly reduced by increase in the duration of immunity. Uncovering these issues helps in understanding and controlling diseases caused by environmental pathogens.

  4. Professionalisation and social attitudes: a protocol for measuring changes in HIV/AIDS-related stigma among healthcare students

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi, Keivan; Reidpath, Daniel D; Allotey, Pascale; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Introduction HIV/AIDS-related stigma affects the access and utilisation of health services. Although HIV/AIDS-related stigma in the health services has been studied, little work has attended to the relationship between professional development and stigmatising attitudes. Hence, in this study, we will extend earlier research by examining the relationship between the stage of professional development and the kinds of stigmatising attitudes held about people living with HIV/AIDS. Methods and...

  5. CD4+细胞计数与HIV相关症状及机会性感染的相关性分析%An analysis of the correlation between CD4+ cell counts and opportunistic infections in patients with HIV/AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘曦; 李春娜; 丁立; 陈慧丽; 黄珊凤

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析CD4+细胞水平与艾滋病病毒(Human immunodeficiency virus,HIV)相关症状及机会性感染的相关性.方法 回顾中山大学附属第五医院122例HIV感染者/艾滋病病人初治病例,按CD4+细胞计数水平分为A、B、C3个组,分析各组HIV相关症状及机会性感染的相关性.结果 A组(CD4+细胞<100个/mm3)与C组(CD4+细胞201~350个/mm3)、B组(CD4+细胞100~200个/mm3)与C组出现发热的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).A组与C组出现腹泻的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).A组与B组发生鹅口疮、口腔毛状白斑的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);A组与C组发生鹅口疮、口腔毛状白斑、皮肤损害、结核病(包括肺结核、肺外结核)、卡氏肺孢子虫肺炎、播散性真菌病的差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 CD4+细胞201~350个/mm3的病人出现HIV相关症状较轻,并发严重机会性感染的概率较小,早期抗病毒治疗有利于提高AIDS病人的生活质量.%Objective To analyze the correlation between CD4+ cell counts and the related symptoms of human im-mume deficiency virus (HIV) as well as the opportunistic infections in patients with HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) (HIV/AIDS). Method Totally, 122 HIV/AIDS patients with initial antiretroviral therapy in the Fifth Hospital Affiliated to Sun Yat-sen University were classified by CD4+ cell counts into Group A (CD4+ cell counts<100/mm3), group B (CD4+ cell counts 100 -200/mm3), and group C (CD4+ cell counts 201 -350/mm3). The correlation between HIV related symptoms and opportunistic infection in the three groups was analyzed. Results The differences in fever between group A and group C, and between group B and C were statistically significant (P<0. 05). The difference in diarrhea between groups A and C was statistically significant(P<0. 05). The differ-ences in oral thrush and hairy leukoplakia between groups A and B, and those in oral thrush and hairy leukoplakia, skin

  6. Loss of competition in the outside host environment generates outbreaks of environmental opportunist pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Anttila

    Full Text Available Environmentally transmitted pathogens face ecological interactions (e.g., competition, predation, parasitism in the outside-host environment and host immune system during infection. Despite the ubiquitousness of environmental opportunist pathogens, traditional epidemiology focuses on obligatory pathogens incapable of environmental growth. Here we ask how competitive interactions in the outside-host environment affect the dynamics of an opportunist pathogen. We present a model coupling the classical SI and Lotka-Volterra competition models. In this model we compare a linear infectivity response and a sigmoidal infectivity response. An important assumption is that pathogen virulence is traded off with competitive ability in the environment. Removing this trade-off easily results in host extinction. The sigmoidal response is associated with catastrophic appearances of disease outbreaks when outside-host species richness, or overall competition pressure, decreases. This indicates that alleviating outside-host competition with antibacterial substances that also target the competitors can have unexpected outcomes by providing benefits for opportunist pathogens. These findings may help in developing alternative ways of controlling environmental opportunist pathogens.

  7. Application of diffusion tensor imaging in AIDS patients with brain opportunistic diseases: A comparative study of tuberculosis and toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-le Chu

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Quantitative DTI is valuable for diagnosis and differential diagnosis of patients with AIDS-associated infections, and also could provide references for clinical physicians for proper medications. The quantitative FA value could help better reveal different changes of microstructural integrity between different opportunistic infections.

  8. Renal transplantation in HIV-infected patients: 2010 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trullas, Joan C; Cofan, Federico; Tuset, Montse; Ricart, María J; Brunet, Mercedes; Cervera, Carlos; Manzardo, Christian; López-Dieguez, María; Oppenheimer, Federico; Moreno, Asuncion; Campistol, Josep M; Miro, Jose M

    2011-04-01

    The prognosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has improved in recent years with the introduction of antiretroviral treatment. While the frequency of AIDS-defining events has decreased as a cause of death, mortality from non-AIDS-related events including end-stage renal diseases has increased. The etiology of chronic kidney disease is multifactorial: immune-mediated glomerulonephritis, HIV-associated nephropathy, thrombotic microangiopathies, and so on. HIV infection is no longer a contraindication to transplantation and is becoming standard therapy in most developed countries. The HIV criteria used to select patients for renal transplantation are similar in Europe and North America. Current criteria state that prior opportunistic infections are not a strict exclusion criterion, but patients must have a CD4+ count above 200 cells/mm(3) and a HIV-1 RNA viral load suppressible with treatment. In recent years, more than 200 renal transplants have been performed in HIV-infected patients worldwide, and mid-term patient and graft survival rates have been similar to that of HIV-negative patients. The main issues in post-transplant period are pharmacokinetic interactions between antiretrovirals and immunosuppressants, a high rate of acute rejection, the management of hepatitis C virus coinfection, and the high cardiovascular risk after transplantation. More studies are needed to determine the most appropriate antiretroviral and immunosuppressive regimens and the long-term outcome of HIV infection and kidney graft.

  9. 艾滋病相关病毒性肺炎的诊治研究进展%Research progress in the diagnosis and treatment of AIDS related viral pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋荣猛; 张伟; 陈志海

    2011-01-01

    肺部机会性感染是导致艾滋病发病和死亡的重要原因,涉及细菌、真菌、病毒等多种病原体.近年来的报道显示,艾滋病病毒性肺炎的比例较高,临床表现复杂,诊断与治疗难度大.文章对巨细胞病毒、单纯疱疹病毒、水痘—带状疱疹病毒、腺病毒等常见的艾滋病相关病毒性肺炎的诊断、治疗研究进展,以及目前存在的问题进行综述.%For acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, opportunistic pneumonia is a vital cause leading to AIDS morbidity and mortality . The spectrum is broad including bacteria, fungus, virus and many other pathogens. The recent reports have indicated that there is a high rate of AIDS related viral pneumonia which is complicated in its clinical manifestation and difficult to be diagnosed and treated. The article was aimed to summarize the progress in diagnosis and treatment and existing problems of common AIDS related viral pneumonias such as cyto-megalovirus, herpes simplex virus, varicella -zoster virus, adenovirus, and others.

  10. Radiological characteristics of AIDS- related lymphoma; Aspectos radiologicos dos linfomas no paciente com SIDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Gloria Maria Martins G. [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radiologia; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia

    1996-11-01

    The epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) increased the incidence of lymphoma, particularly the non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma. The lymphoma in immune deficient patients is usually high-grade, very aggressive and with poor prognostic. We report the radiologic characteristics of AIDS-related lymphoma in 19 patients and correlate with the literature. The disease was predominant in homosexual male patients, with mean age of 38 years. The radiological characteristics are nonspecific to differential diagnosis, but we must suspect of lymphoma. We found ring-enhanced lesions in the radiologic studies of central nervous system. Hylar and mediastinal lymphadenopath, nodules and alveolar infiltration were detected on thoracic examinations. Abdominal examinations showed hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, hepatic focal lesions and thickneded with distorted mucosa in the alimentary tract. Bone involvement presented as focal and disseminated destructive lesions. (author) 41 refs., 10 figs.

  11. HIV/AIDS related deaths from three district hospitals of West Bengal:An observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MK Bhattacharya; MK Saha; PS Chakraborty; A Sinha; A Bhattacharya; KK Dutta

    2014-01-01

    Data onHIV/AIDS incidence or deaths are limited in poor-resource country likeIndia and non-existent in state ofWestBengal.These data are essential for formulating policies forHIV intervention strategies to curbHIV epidemic.In present study, a descriptive analysis of all registered cases from three district hospitals(Maldah,North24Parganas andDarjeeling) during July2006-December2007was conducted.HIV/AIDS related deaths were found to be higher in Darjeeling district compare to other two districts.A comprehensive and well-coordinated survey is needed to explore furtherHIV/AIDS mortality data inIndia for providing necessary information in developingHIV prevention programs.

  12. HIV/AIDS related deaths from three district hospitals of West Bengal: An observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MK Bhattacharya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on HIV/AIDS incidence or deaths are limited in poor-resource country like India and non-existent in state of West Bengal. These data are essential for formulating policies for HIV intervention strategies to curb HIV epidemic. In present study, a descriptive analysis of all registered cases from three district hospitals (Maldah, North 24 Parganas and Darjeeling during July 2006-December 2007 was conducted. HIV/AIDS related deaths were found to be higher in Darjeeling district compare to other two districts. A comprehensive and well-coordinated survey is needed to explore further HIV/AIDS mortality data in India for providing necessary information in developing HIV prevention programs.

  13. Integrated Routing Protocol for Opportunistic Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Anshul

    2012-01-01

    In opportunistic networks the existence of a simultaneous path is not assumed to transmit a message between a sender and a receiver. Information about the context in which the users communicate is a key piece of knowledge to design efficient routing protocols in opportunistic networks. But this kind of information is not always available. When users are very isolated, context information cannot be distributed, and cannot be used for taking efficient routing decisions. In such cases, context oblivious based schemes are only way to enable communication between users. As soon as users become more social, context data spreads in the network, and context based routing becomes an efficient solution. In this paper we design an integrated routing protocol that is able to use context data as soon as it becomes available and falls back to dissemination based routing when context information is not available. Then, we provide a comparison between Epidemic and PROPHET, these are representative of context oblivious and co...

  14. Opportunistic Migration in Spatial Evolutionary Games

    CERN Document Server

    Buesser, Pierre; Antonioni, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    We study evolutionary games in a spatial diluted grid environment in which agents strategically interact locally but can also opportunistically move to other positions within a given migration radius. Using the imitation of the best rule for strategy revision, it is shown that cooperation may evolve and be stable in the Prisoner's Dilemma game space for several migration distances but only for small game interaction radius while the Stag Hunt class of games become fully cooperative. We also show that only a few trials are needed for cooperation to evolve, i.e. searching costs are not an issue. When the stochastic Fermi strategy update protocol is used cooperation cannot evolve in the Prisoner's Dilemma if the selection intensity is high in spite of opportunistic migration. However, when imitation becomes more random, fully or partially cooperative states are reached in all games for all migration distances tested and for short to intermediate interaction radii.

  15. Opportunistic Interference Alignment in MIMO Interference Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Perlaza, Samir Medina; Lasaulce, Samson; Chaufray, Jean Marie

    2008-01-01

    We present two interference alignment techniques such that an opportunistic point-to-point multiple input multiple output (MIMO) link can reuse, without generating any additional interference, the same frequency band of a similar pre-existing primary link. In this scenario, we exploit the fact that under power constraints, although each radio maximizes independently its rate by water-filling on their channel transfer matrix singular values, frequently, not all of them are used. Therefore, by aligning the interference of the opportunistic radio it is possible to transmit at a significant rate while insuring zero-interference on the pre-existing link. We propose a linear pre-coder for a perfect interference alignment and a power allocation scheme which maximizes the individual data rate of the secondary link. Our numerical results show that significant data rates are achieved even for a reduced number of antennas.

  16. Analysis of trends in total deaths and AIDS-related deaths certified at Mosvold Hospital, Ingwavuma, KwaZulu-Natal, from 2003 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C H Vaughan Williams

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To analyse mortality trends from deaths registered at Mosvold Hospital, Ingwavuma, KwaZulu-Natal, and possible impact of programmes to treat and prevent HIV infection. Design. Longitudinal study of death certifications from 2003 to 2008. Setting. Mosvold Hospital mortuary, Ingwavuma. Subjects. Counterfoils of form 83/BI-1663, Notification/Register of Death/Stillbirths (Republic of South Africa, Department of Home Affairs, completed at Mosvold Hospital from January 2003 to December 2008. Outcome measures. Age at death, cause of death, patterns of deaths grouped by age, gender and cause of death. Results. AIDS-related deaths were the cause of 53% of deaths, particularly affecting the 20 - 59-year and under-5 age groups. Since 2005 there has been a decline in deaths in the 20 - 59 age group and an increase in average age at death. Conclusions. The decrease in mortality from 2005 may be associated with antiretroviral roll-out reducing mortality from AIDS-related illnesses.

  17. Environmental Variation Generates Environmental Opportunist Pathogen Outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Anttila

    Full Text Available Many socio-economically important pathogens persist and grow in the outside host environment and opportunistically invade host individuals. The environmental growth and opportunistic nature of these pathogens has received only little attention in epidemiology. Environmental reservoirs are, however, an important source of novel diseases. Thus, attempts to control these diseases require different approaches than in traditional epidemiology focusing on obligatory parasites. Conditions in the outside-host environment are prone to fluctuate over time. This variation is a potentially important driver of epidemiological dynamics and affect the evolution of novel diseases. Using a modelling approach combining the traditional SIRS models to environmental opportunist pathogens and environmental variability, we show that epidemiological dynamics of opportunist diseases are profoundly driven by the quality of environmental variability, such as the long-term predictability and magnitude of fluctuations. When comparing periodic and stochastic environmental factors, for a given variance, stochastic variation is more likely to cause outbreaks than periodic variation. This is due to the extreme values being further away from the mean. Moreover, the effects of variability depend on the underlying biology of the epidemiological system, and which part of the system is being affected. Variation in host susceptibility leads to more severe pathogen outbreaks than variation in pathogen growth rate in the environment. Positive correlation in variation on both targets can cancel the effect of variation altogether. Moreover, the severity of outbreaks is significantly reduced by increase in the duration of immunity. Uncovering these issues helps in understanding and controlling diseases caused by environmental pathogens.

  18. [Genetic virulence markers of opportunistic bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, V M

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of opportunistic bacteria phenotypic and genetic virulence markers indicates that pathogenicity formation is based on a structural modification of bacterial DNA which is linked with migration of interbacterial pathogenicity "islands" genetic determinants. Structural organization features of these mobile genetic elements determine high expression probability, and PCR detection of pathogenicity "islands" determinants that control adhesins, invasins, cytotoxic and cytolitic toxines synthesis may indicate etiopathogenetic significance of clinical isolates.

  19. Opportunistic Cooperation in Cognitive Femtocell Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Urgaonkar, Rahul; Neely, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate opportunistic cooperation between unlicensed secondary users and legacy primary users in a cognitive radio network. Specifically, we consider a model of a cognitive network where a secondary user can cooperatively transmit with the primary user in order to improve the latter's effective transmission rate. In return, the secondary user gets more opportunities for transmitting its own data when the primary user is idle. This kind of interaction between the primary and secondary u...

  20. Mobile opportunistic networks architectures, protocols and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Denko, Mieso K

    2011-01-01

    Widespread availability of pervasive and mobile devices coupled with recent advances in networking technologies make opportunistic networks one of the most promising communication technologies for a growing number of future mobile applications. Covering the basics as well as advanced concepts, this book introduces state-of-the-art research findings, technologies, tools, and innovations. Prominent researchers from academia and industry report on communication architectures, network algorithms and protocols, emerging applications, experimental studies, simulation tools, implementation test beds,

  1. Cultivation of Pathogenic and Opportunistic Free-Living Amebas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Frederick L.

    2002-01-01

    Free-living amebas are widely distributed in soil and water, particularly members of the genera Acanthamoeba and Naegleria. Since the early 1960s, they have been recognized as opportunistic human pathogens, capable of causing infections of the central nervous system (CNS) in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. Naegleria is the causal agent of a fulminant CNS condition, primary amebic meningoencephalitis; Acanthamoeba is responsible for a more chronic and insidious infection of the CNS termed granulomatous amebic encephalitis, as well as amebic keratitis. Balamuthia sp. has been recognized in the past decade as another ameba implicated in CNS infections. Cultivation of these organisms in vitro provides the basis for a better understanding of the biology of these amebas, as well as an important means of isolating and identifying them from clinical samples. Naegleria and Acanthamoeba can be cultured axenically in cell-free media or on tissue culture cells as feeder layers and in cultures with bacteria as a food source. Balamuthia, which has yet to be isolated from the environment, will not grow on bacteria. Instead, it requires tissue culture cells as feeder layers or an enriched cell-free medium. The recent identification of another ameba, Sappinia diploidea, suggests that other free-living forms may also be involved as causal agents of human infections. PMID:12097243

  2. HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination: accounts of HIV-positive Caribbean people in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Moji; Elam, Gillian; Gerver, Sarah; Solarin, Ijeoma; Fenton, Kevin; Easterbrook, Philippa

    2008-09-01

    This paper explores the effects of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination (HASD) on HIV-positive Caribbean people in the Caribbean and the UK. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were held with a purposively selected group of 25 HIV-positive people of Caribbean origin, using primary selection criteria of sex, age, sexuality and country of birth. Interviews with respondents revealed that they are keenly aware of the stigma surrounding HIV/AIDS, which some attribute to a particularly Caribbean combination of fear of contamination, homophobia, and ignorance, reinforced by religious beliefs. In fact, religion serves a double role: underpinning stigma and assisting in coping with HIV. HASD has usually occurred where respondents have lost or do not have control over disclosure. Compared to UK-born respondents, the accounts of Caribbean-born respondents, most of whom were born in Jamaica, include more reports of severe HASD, particularly violence and employment discrimination. All respondents mobilise a variety of strategies in order to avoid HASD, which have implications for their social interactions and emotional well being. While some manage to avoid the "spoiled identity" of the stigmatised, thereby creating their own understandings of HIV infection, these may remain individual-level negotiations. HASD affects HIV-positive Caribbean people at home and in the diaspora in a variety of ways: emotionally, mentally, financially, socially and physically. Interventions specifically addressing stigma and discrimination must be formulated for the UK's Caribbean population. Tackling stigma and discrimination requires more than education; it requires "cultural work" to address deeply entrenched notions of sexuality.

  3. Primary pulmonary AIDS-related lymphoma Linfoma primario de pulmón en un paciente con sida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Corti

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Extranodal involvement is common in lymphomas associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. However, primary pulmonary AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is very rare and only few reports were published in the medical literature. Clinical presentation is nonspecific, with "B" and respiratory symptoms. Also, patients were with advanced immunodeficiency at the time of diagnosis. Generally, chest radiography showed peripheral nodules or cavitary masses. Primary pulmonary lymphoma associated with AIDS is generally a high-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Epstein-Barr virus is strongly associated with the pathogenesis of these tumors. We report a patient with AIDS and primary pulmonary lymphoma which clinical presentation was a total atelectasis of the left lung.El compromiso extranodal es frecuente en los linfomas asociados con la enfermedad debida al virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana y su consecuencia, el síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida. Sin embargo, el linfoma pulmonar primario es muy raro y solo existen pocos casos publicados en la literatura. La presentación clínica de esta complicación es inespecífica, con síntomas "B" y manifestaciones respiratorias. Generalmente, la radiografía de tórax muestra nódulos periféricos o masas que pueden cavitarse y los pacientes presentan inmunodeficiencia severa al momento del diagnóstico. El linfoma pulmonar primario asociado con el sida es un tumor de alto grado, de células B y asociado en su patogenia con el virus de Epstein-Barr. Se relata un caso de linfoma primario de pulmón que se presentó bajo la forma radiológica de una atelectasia global del pulmón izquierdo.

  4. Trends in overall opportunistic illnesses, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, cerebral toxoplasmosis andMycobacterium avium complex incidence rates over the 30 years of the HIV epidemic: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Coelho

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The natural history of HIV infection has changed dramatically after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Currently, opportunistic illnesses still represent a major cause of death and hospitalization in this population. In this study, we review the trends in opportunistic illnesses incidence rates and compare the results observed in high-income settings with that for low/middle-income settings, with special attention given to studies from Brazil. METHODS: We systematically searched Pubmed, Web of Science, Lilacs and Google scholar for publications on HIV associated opportunistic illness. Studies reporting rates based on person-time for all opportunistic illnesses and/or the three opportunistic infections of interest, namely,Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, cerebral toxoplasmosis, and Mycobacterium avium complex were included. RESULTS: Significant reductions in the incidence rates were demonstrated for opportunistic illnesses overall and also for the specific opportunistic infections included in the present study, both in high and low/middle-income settings. Out of the 37 studies included in the present review, almost 70% were from high-income settings. All the studies conducted in low/middle-income settings were single center studies and four were from Brazil. We found no study from Brazil reporting annual incidence rates of opportunistic illnesses. CONCLUSIONS: Opportunistic illnesses remain an important public health problem. To better guide health policies in low/middle-income settings, multicenter cohort studies should be encouraged. Studies from Brazil are urgently needed to assess the current burden of opportunistic illnesses in our population and to support the planning of HIV/AIDS health care services organization.

  5. AIDS related thoracic lymphoma: evaluation by computed tomography; Linfoma toracico na sindrome da imunodeficiencia adquirida: avaliacao por tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siciliano, Antonio Alexandre de Oliveira [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radiodiagnostico; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao em Radiologia

    2000-02-01

    The authors reviewed five cases of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) related lymphoma to describe the thoracic findings on computed tomography. The patients were followed at Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro and Hospital da Lagoa, from November, 1989 to March 1998. Epidemiological, clinical and pathological data from these patients were quiet variable and pulmonary nodules and masses, hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and thoracic wall masses were observed. AIDS related lymphomas involving the chest are pleomorphic and most commonly extranodal. (author)

  6. HIV/AIDS合并感染机会性致病原虫血清流行病学分析%Serum epidemiological analysis of opportunistic infection of pathogenic protozoa in HIV/AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞杏林; 陈守义; 高凯; 麦惠霞; 韩志刚; 徐慧芳; 杨智聪

    2015-01-01

    Objective Monitoring Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium and Giardia′s serum antibody of HIV patients to understand the rate of infection and prevalence. Methods Based on cross-sectional sampling method, 450 confirm HIV-positive blood samples were collected as HIV group samples, and 180 samples were collected from healthy people as control group in the second half of 2013. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect serum IgG antibodies of Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Results In HIV group, the IgG positive rates of Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium and Giardia were 7.1%(32/450), 17.3%(78/450) and 16.2%(73/450), respectively. In normal group, the IgG positive rates of Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium and Giardia were 4.4%(8/180), 11.1%(20/180) and 11.7%(21/180), respectively. In the HIV group, three kinds of protozoa were significantly higher than those of the normal group. Among them, Cryptosporidium positive rate was significantly higher in the HIV group than that of the normal group (χ2=3.789, P<0.05). Toxoplasma antibody positive rate of male was 7.7%and was significantly higher than that of females, 2.1%(χ2=4.49, P<0.05). The Toxoplasma antibody positive rate of ethnic minorities was 30.0%(3/7)and was significantly higher than that of the Han ethnic group (χ2=10.386, P<0.05). Conclusion HIV/AIDS patients were more susceptible to Cryptosporidium infection than normal people;Cryptosporidium and Giardia infection are often accompanied with HIV/AIDS.%目的:检测人类免疫缺陷病毒感染者/艾滋病患者(HIV/AIDS)合并感染弓形虫、隐孢子虫和蓝氏贾第鞭毛虫(贾第虫)的血清抗体,了解原虫感染率和流行状况。方法采用横断面调查方法,随机抽取2013年8-12月HIV抗体阳性者450例和正常人180名,使用酶联免疫法检测弓形虫、隐孢子虫和贾第虫血清IgG抗体。结果 HIV组合并感染率为25.33%(114/450),弓形虫、隐孢子虫和贾

  7. Trust Management System for Opportunistic Cloud Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, Eric

    2013-01-01

    We have over the past three years been working on the feasibility of Opportunistic Cloud Services (OCS) for enterprises. OCS is about enterprises strategically contributing and utilizing spare IT resources as cloud services. One of the major challenges that such a platform faces is data security...... and trust management issues. This paper presents a trust management system for OCS platforms. It models the concept of trust and applies it to OCS platforms. The trust model and the trust management system are verified through the simulation of the computation of the trust values with Infrastructure...

  8. [Aids-related toxoplasma-encephalitis presenting with acute psychotic episode].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilniczky, Sándor; Debreczeni, Róbert; Kovács, Tibor; Várkonyi, Viktória; Barsi, Péter; Szirmai, Imre

    2006-07-20

    The most frequent neurological manifestations of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome-(AIDS) are Cerebral Toxoplasmosis, Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma (PCNSL), Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) and AIDS-encephalitis (AIDS-dementia complex, multinucleated giant cell encephalitis, HIV-encephalopathy). Neurological complications usually occur in the advanced stages of the disease, and they are uncommon in the beginning as presenting illness, but may result in life-threatening condition or in death. Rarely the disease presents as a neuropsychiatric illness in an undiagnosed AIDS patient, delaying a proper diagnosis. We present the case of a 34 years old patient treated for AIDS-related Toxoplasma-encephalitis in our department. His illness started as an acute psychosis followed by rapid mental and somatic decline, leading to death in three months. His HIV-seropositivity was not known at his admission, and the extraneural manifestations were slight. The diagnosis was established by serology, imaging methods and histopathological investigation. After presenting the medical history and results of autopsy studies of the patient we discuss the problems of the differential diagnosis, especially regarding the findings of the imaging methods.

  9. AIDS as social construction: text mining of AIDS-related information in the Italian press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Andrea; Giacchetta, Agnese; Langher, Viviana

    2016-09-01

    Given the relevance of AIDS as a public health problem in the Italian context and of the role of mass media in the social construction of the phenomenon, the aim of the present study is twofold: (1) to explore the main AIDS-related themes in the Italian popular press; (2) to analyse the temporal trends of AIDS representations over the last decades. For the research, we decided to consult Italian newspaper articles produced between 1985 and 1990 and between 2005 and 2010 using the archives of the main two national newspapers (La Repubblica and Corriere della Sera), resulting in an overall sample of 446 newspaper articles. A computer-aided content analysis allowed the detection of five different thematic domains (clusters), respectively focused on: Medical care (7.47%), Family support (37.03%), Science and religion debate (27%), Social exclusion (17.6%) and Healthcare policies (10.9%). These thematic domains are conceived along two main latent dimensions (factors) which explain 72.47% of the data variance which respectively deal with: (1) Attitudes towards people with AIDS (care versus avoidance) and (2) Social mandate on AIDS (powerlessness versus control). The study results also reveal the potential evolution of representations of people with AIDS over time: from stigmatised subjects who represent a risk for the entire society within a climate of social control to people progressively symbolised as frail subjects that need to be taken care of.

  10. Improving Diagnosis and Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Infections : Experimental Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van den Berg (Sanne)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that causes a variety of infections, ranging from mild skin infections like furuncles and impetigo, to severe, lifethreatening infections including endocarditis, osteomyelitis and pneumonia. Invasive infections are freq

  11. Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART on the incidence of opportunistic infections, hospitalizations and mortality among children and adolescents living with HIV/AIDS in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil Impacto da terapia anti-retroviral de alta potência (HAART na incidência de infecções oportunistas, hospitalização e mortalidade associadas em crianças e adolescentes vivendo com HIV/AIDS em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talitah M. S. Candiani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART can be evaluated using indicators, such as rates of opportunistic infections, hospitalizations by cause of infection, and associated death. This study aimed to estimate the impact of HAART on the incidence of these indicators, in children and adolescents with HIV/AIDS. It was a hybrid cohort study; 371 patients were followed from 1989 to 2003. In December 2003, 76% of the patients were still being followed, while 12.1% had died, 9.5% had dropped out, and 2.4% had been transferred. The overall rate of opportunistic infections was 18.32 infections/100 persons-year and 2.63 in the pre- and post-HAART periods, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, the risk of developing an opportunistic infection was 5.4 times greater and 3.3 times greater for hospitalization risk before HAART. Respiratory causes represented 65% of the hospitalizations and they were reduced by 44.6% with therapeutic intervention. The average hospital stay of 15 days was reduced to 9.There was a post-HAART decline in deaths of 38%. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of HAART in significantly reducing opportunistic infections, hospitalizations, and deaths in this Brazilian cohort.O impacto da terapia anti-retroviral de alta potência ativa (HAART pode ser avaliado utilizando-se indicadores, como taxas de incidências de infecções oportunistas, hospitalizações por causas infecciosas e mortalidade associada. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar o impacto da HAART na incidência desses indicadores em crianças e adolescentes com HIV/AIDS. Trata-se de uma coorte híbrida, na qual foram acompanhados 371 pacientes no período de 1989-2003. Em dezembro de 2003, 76% dos pacientes permaneciam em acompanhamento, 12,1% faleceram, 9,5% foram perda de seguimento e 2,4% transferidos. A taxa de incidência global de infecções oportunistas foi de 18,32 infecções/100 pessoas-ano e 2,63 nos períodos pré e p

  12. Reconfigurable cognitive transceiver for opportunistic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maso, Marco; Baştuğ, Ejder; Cardoso, Leonardo S.; Debbah, Mérouane; Özdemir, Özgür

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we provide the implementation and analysis of a cognitive transceiver for opportunistic networks. We focus on a previously introduced dynamic spectrum access (DSA) - cognitive radio (CR) solution for primary-secondary coexistence in opportunistic orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) networks, called cognitive interference alignment (CIA). The implementation is based on software-defined radio (SDR) and uses GNU Radio and the universal software radio peripheral (USRP) as the implementation toolkit. The proposed flexible transceiver architecture allows efficient on-the-fly reconfigurations of the physical layer into OFDM, CIA or a combination of both. Remarkably, its responsiveness is such that the uplink and downlink channel reciprocity from the medium perspective, inherent to time division duplex (TDD) communications, can be effectively verified and exploited. We show that CIA provides approximately 10 dB of interference isolation towards the OFDM receiver with respect to a fully random precoder. This result is obtained under suboptimal conditions, which indicates that further gains are possible with a better optimization of the system. Our findings point towards the usefulness of a practical CIA implementation, as it yields a non-negligible performance for the secondary system, while providing interference shielding to the primary receiver.

  13. Interactions between the tropical sea anemone Aiptasia pallida and Serratia marcescens, an opportunistic pathogen of corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krediet, Cory J; Meyer, Julie L; Gimbrone, Nicholas; Yanong, Roy; Berzins, Ilze; Alagely, Ali; Castro, Herman; Ritchie, Kim B; Paul, Valerie J; Teplitski, Max

    2014-06-01

    Coral reefs are under increasing stress caused by global and local environmental changes, which are thought to increase the susceptibility of corals to opportunistic pathogens. In the absence of an easily culturable model animal, the understanding of the mechanisms of disease progression in corals remains fairly limited. In the present study, we tested the susceptibility of the tropical sea anemone Aiptasia pallida to an opportunistic coral pathogen (Serratia marcescens). A. pallida was susceptible to S. marcescens PDL100 and responded to this opportunistic coral pathogen with darkening of the tissues and retraction of tentacles, followed by complete disintegration of polyp tissues. Histological observations revealed loss of zooxanthellae and structural changes in eosinophilic granular cells in response to pathogen infection. A screen of S. marcescens mutants identified a motility and tetrathionate reductase mutants as defective in virulence in the A. pallida infection model. In co-infections with the wild-type strain, the tetrathionate reductase mutant was less fit within the surface mucopolysaccharide layer of the host coral Acropora palmata.

  14. Independent risk of mechanical ventilation for AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia associated with bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophilia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, D; Emborg, J; Elkjaer, J

    2001-01-01

    The use of mechanical ventilation (MV) for AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) has varied over time. The introduction of adjunctive corticosteroid therapy has changed the pathophysiology of PCP. In the present study, we attempted to identify factors predictive of severe respiratory...

  15. The relationship between Chinese construction workers' HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour: a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, B; Guo, H Q; Liu, J; Zuo, T M; Zhang, Y; Sun, G

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in migrant urban construction workers using structural equation modelling (SEM). A cross-sectional study was conducted among 428 male subjects on three building sites in Shenyang City. The SEM model of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour was built using LISREL version 8.5 and it fitted the data well, as shown by an adjusted goodness of fit index of 0.82 and a root mean square error of approximation of 0.094. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS was closely correlated with attitudes and behaviour. Age was an important factor affecting HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour. These findings suggest that increasing HIV/AIDS-related knowledge could improve the attitude and behaviour of migrant urban construction workers, enabling them to avoid high-risk behaviour that increases the spread of HIV/AIDS. Any intervention used will need to take the important factor of age into consideration.

  16. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN THE OPPORTUNISTIC PATHOGEN STENOTROPHOMONAS MALTOPHILIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Blanca Sánchez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an environmental bacterium found in the soil, associated with plants and animals, and in aquatic environments. It is also an opportunistic pathogen now causing an increasing number of nosocomial infections. The treatment of S. maltophilia is quite difficult given its intrinsic resistance to a number of antibiotics, and because it is able to acquire new resistances via horizontal gene transfer and mutations. Certainly, strains resistant to quinolones, cotrimoxale and/or cephalosporins - antibiotics commonly used to treat S. maltophilia infections - have emerged. The increasing number of available S. maltophilia genomes has allowed the identification and annotation of a large number of antimicrobial and heavy metal resistance genes. Most encode inactivating enzymes and efflux pumps, but information on their role in intrinsic and acquired resistance is limited. Non-typical antibiotic resistance mechanisms that also form part of the intrinsic resistome have been identified via mutant library screening. These include non-typical antibiotic resistance genes, such as bacterial metabolism genes, and non-inheritable resistant phenotypes, such as biofilm formation and persistence. Their relationships with resistance are complex and require further study.

  17. HIV and/or AIDS-related deaths and modifiable risk factors: A descriptive study of medical admissions at Oshakati Intermediate Hospital in Northern Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.K. Mgori

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: High rates of HIV infection have decreased life expectancy in many African countries. Regardless of worldwide efforts to escalate treatment, care and prevention strategies, the number of deaths due to AIDS-related disorders is still high. Local healthcare workers suspect that there are modifiable factors in the care of HIV and/or AIDS patients which can be identified and improved.Aim: To describe the HIV and/or AIDS-related causes of adult mortality and identify modifiable factors amongst patients admitted to Oshakati Intermediate Hospital, northern Namibia.Methods: Data was extracted retrospectively and coded using the modified CoDe protocol for AIDS. Modifiable factors relating to the patient, health system or clinical care were identified using a standardised data collection tool.Results: A total of 177 HIV and/or AIDS patients were identified, 94 (53.1% were male and 120 (68% had a CD4 count of less than 200 cells/mL. The common HIV-related causes of death were tuberculosis (25.9%, renal failure (15.8%, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (11.3%, cryptococcal meningitis (9%, HIV wasting syndrome (7.9% and AIDS-defining malignancy (7.9%. The analysis revealed 281 modifiable factors; patient-related factors were the most common (153 [54.4%], followed by health system factors (97 [34.5%] and healthcare personnel factors (31 [11%].Conclusion: Our findings have highlighted the challenges in overall HIV and/or AIDS inpatient care and surrounding primary care facilities. The identification of specific modifiable factors can be used to reduce mortality by providing training as well as rational monitoring, planning and resource allocation.

  18. Opportunistic Cooperation in Cognitive Femtocell Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Urgaonkar, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    We investigate opportunistic cooperation between unlicensed secondary users and legacy primary users in a cognitive radio network. Specifically, we consider a model of a cognitive network where a secondary user can cooperatively transmit with the primary user in order to improve the latter's effective transmission rate. In return, the secondary user gets more opportunities for transmitting its own data when the primary user is idle. This kind of interaction between the primary and secondary users is different from the traditional dynamic spectrum access model in which the secondary users try to avoid interfering with the primary users while seeking transmission opportunities on vacant primary channels. In our model, the secondary users need to balance the desire to cooperate more (to create more transmission opportunities) with the need for maintaining sufficient energy levels for their own transmissions. Such a model is applicable in the emerging area of cognitive femtocell networks. We formulate the problem...

  19. Optimal Selective Feedback Policies for Opportunistic Beamforming

    CERN Document Server

    Samarasinghe, Tharaka; Evans, Jamie S

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the structure of downlink sum-rate maximizing selective decentralized feedback policies for opportunistic beamforming under finite feedback constraints on the average number of mobile users feeding back. Firstly, it is shown that any sum-rate maximizing selective decentralized feedback policy must be a threshold feedback policy. This result holds for all fading channel models with continuous distribution functions. Secondly, the resulting optimum threshold selection problem is analyzed in detail. This is a non-convex optimization problem over finite dimensional Euclidean spaces. By utilizing the theory of majorization, an underlying Schur-concave structure in the sum-rate function is identified, and the sufficient conditions for the optimality of homogenous threshold feedback policies are obtained. Applications of these results are illustrated for well known fading channel models such as Rayleigh, Nakagami and Rician fading channels, along with various engineering and design insights. Rathe...

  20. Hybridizing Evolutionary Algorithms with Opportunistic Local Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gießen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    There is empirical evidence that memetic algorithms (MAs) can outperform plain evolutionary algorithms (EAs). Recently the first runtime analyses have been presented proving the aforementioned conjecture rigorously by investigating Variable-Depth Search, VDS for short (Sudholt, 2008). Sudholt...... raised the question if there are problems where VDS performs badly. We answer this question in the affirmative in the following way. We analyze MAs with VDS, which is also known as Kernighan-Lin for the TSP, on an artificial problem and show that MAs with a simple first-improvement local search...... outperform VDS. Moreover, we show that the performance gap is exponential. We analyze the features leading to a failure of VDS and derive a new local search operator, coined Opportunistic Local Search, that can easily overcome regions of the search space where local optima are clustered. The power...

  1. Directional Navigation Improves Opportunistic Communication for Emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Kokuti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel direction based shortest path search algorithm to guide evacuees during an emergency. It uses opportunistic communications (oppcomms with low-cost wearable mobile nodes that can exchange packets at close range of a few to some tens of meters without help of an infrastructure. The algorithm seeks the shortest path to exits which are safest with regard to a hazard, and is integrated into an autonomous Emergency Support System (ESS to guide evacuees in a built environment. The algorithm proposed that ESSs are evaluated with the DBES (Distributed Building Evacuation Simulator by simulating a shopping centre where fire is spreading. The results show that the directional path finding algorithm can offer significant improvements for the evacuees.

  2. Enabling opportunistic resources for CMS Computing Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hufnagel, Dick [Fermilab

    2015-11-19

    With the increased pressure on computing brought by the higher energy and luminosity from the LHC in Run 2, CMS Computing Operations expects to require the ability to utilize “opportunistic” resources — resources not owned by, or a priori configured for CMS — to meet peak demands. In addition to our dedicated resources we look to add computing resources from non CMS grids, cloud resources, and national supercomputing centers. CMS uses the HTCondor/glideinWMS job submission infrastructure for all its batch processing, so such resources will need to be transparently integrated into its glideinWMS pool. Bosco and parrot wrappers are used to enable access and bring the CMS environment into these non CMS resources. Here we describe our strategy to supplement our native capabilities with opportunistic resources and our experience so far using them.

  3. Common features of opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkinham, Joseph O

    2015-04-24

    Recently it has been estimated that the annual cost of diseases caused by the waterborne pathogens Legionella pneumonia, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is $500 million. For the period 2001-2012, the estimated cost of hospital admissions for nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease, the majority caused by M. avium, was almost $1 billion. These three waterborne opportunistic pathogens are normal inhabitants of drinking water--not contaminants--that share a number of key characteristics that predispose them to survival, persistence, and growth in drinking water distribution systems and premise plumbing. Herein, I list and describe these shared characteristics that include: disinfectant-resistance, biofilm-formation, growth in amoebae, growth at low organic carbon concentrations (oligotrophic), and growth under conditions of stagnation. This review is intended to increase awareness of OPPPs, identify emerging OPPPs, and challenge the drinking water industry to develop novel approaches toward their control.

  4. Alleviate Cellular Congestion Through Opportunistic Trough Filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichuan Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for cellular data service has been skyrocketing since the debut of data-intensive smart phones and touchpads. However, not all data are created equal. Many popular applications on mobile devices, such as email synchronization and social network updates, are delay tolerant. In addition, cellular load varies significantly in both large and small time scales. To alleviate network congestion and improve network performance, we present a set of opportunistic trough filling schemes that leverage the time-variation of network congestion and delay-tolerance of certain traffic in this paper. We consider average delay, deadline, and clearance time as the performance metrics. Simulation results show promising performance improvement over the standard schemes. The work shed lights on addressing the pressing issue of cellular overload.

  5. Opportunistic hearing screening in elderly inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishan Ramdoo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of occult hearing loss in elderly inpatients, to evaluate feasibility of opportunistic hearing screening and to determine subsequent provision of hearing aids. Materials and methods: Subjects (>65 years were recruited from five elderly care wards. Hearing loss was detected by a ward-based hearing screen comprising patient-reported assessment of hearing disability and a whisper test. Subjects failing the whisper test or reporting hearing difficulties were offered formal audiological assessment. Results: Screening was performed on 51 patients aged between 70 and 95 years. Of the patients, 21 (41% reported hearing loss and 16 (31% failed the whisper test. A total of 37 patients (73% were referred for audiological assessment with 17 (33% found to have aidable hearing loss and 11 were fitted with hearing aids (22%. Discussion: This study highlights the high prevalence of occult hearing loss in elderly inpatients. Easy two-step screening can accurately identify patients with undiagnosed deafness resulting in significant proportions receiving hearing aids. Key sentences Approximately 14% of the elderly population use hearing aids despite a reported prevalence of deafness in up to 55%. The use of hearing aids is associated with an improvement in physical, emotional, mental and social well-being. An easy screening test for hearing loss consists of patient-reported hearing loss and a whisper test. Opportunistic screening of elderly inpatients resulted in referral of 73% of screened patients for formal audiology. Of the screened patients, 22% were provided with hearing aids.

  6. Modern cholera in the Americas: an opportunistic societal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, Rodrigo; Lee, Patrick T

    2013-11-01

    In the Americas, the only two cholera epidemics of the past century have occurred in the past 25 years. Lessons from the 1991 Peruvian cholera epidemic can help to focus and refine the response to the current Haitian epidemic. After three years of acute epidemic response, we have an opportunity to refocus on the chronic conditions that make societies vulnerable to cholera. More importantly, even as international attention wanes in the aftermath of the earthquake and acute epidemic, we are faced with a need for continued and coordinated investment in improving Haiti's structural defenses against cholera, in particular access to improved water and sanitation.

  7. Raptor Codes for Use in Opportunistic Error Correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijnge, T.; Schiphorst, R.; Shao, X.; Slump, C.H.; Goseling, Jasper; Weber, Jos H.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a Raptor code is developed and applied in an opportunistic error correction (OEC) layer for Coded OFDM systems. Opportunistic error correction [3] tries to recover information when it is available with the least effort. This is achieved by using Fountain codes in a COFDM system, which

  8. Independent risk of mechanical ventilation for AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia associated with bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophilia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, D.; Emborg, J.; Elkjaer, J.;

    2001-01-01

    The use of mechanical ventilation (MV) for AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) has varied over time. The introduction of adjunctive corticosteroid therapy has changed the pathophysiology of PCP. In the present study, we attempted to identify factors predictive of severe respiratory...... failure requiring MV amongst patients with PCP treated in the era of adjunctive corticosteroid therapy. Furthermore, we studied factors associated with survival in relation to MV. Of 170 consecutive patients with AIDS-related PCP, 18 (11%) required MV. Thirteen of 18 ventilated patients died (72......-term mortality remained high after the introduction of adjunctive corticosteroid therapy. BAL neutrophilia may be a useful prognostic marker to identify patients at high risk of requiring mechanical ventilation Udgivelsesdato: 2001/8...

  9. Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infections Adenovirus Bronchiolitis Campylobacter Infections Cat Scratch Disease Cellulitis Chickenpox Chlamydia Cold Sores Common Cold Coxsackievirus Infections Croup Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Dengue Fever Diphtheria E. Coli ...

  10. Linking the occurrence of cutaneous opportunistic fungal invaders with elemental concentrations in false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouton, Marnel; Przybylowicz, Wojciech; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, Jolanta; Postma, Ferdinand; Thornton, Meredith; Archer, Edward; Botha, Alfred

    2015-10-01

    Cetaceans, occupying the top levels in marine food chains, are vulnerable to elevated levels of potentially toxic trace elements, such as aluminium (Al), mercury (Hg) and nickel (Ni). Negative effects associated with these toxic metals include infection by opportunistic microbial invaders. To corroborate the link between the presence of cutaneous fungal invaders and trace element levels, skin samples from 40 stranded false killer whales (FKWs) were analysed using culture techniques and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy. Twenty-two skin samples yielded 18 clinically relevant fungal species. While evidence for bioaccumulation of Hg in the skin of the FKWs was observed, a strong link was found to exist between the occurrence of opportunistic fungal invaders and higher Al : Se and Al : Zn ratios. This study provides indications that elevated levels of some toxic metals, such as Al, contribute to immunotoxicity rendering FKWs susceptible to colonization by cutaneous opportunistic fungal invaders.

  11. AIDS-Related Pancreatic Burkitt?S Lymphoma. EUS-FNA Enhanced Diagnosis with Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Marra-López Valenciano; Tania Hernaez Alsina; Maria Begoña Atares; Virginia Moreno Nieto; Leire Urtasun Arlegui; Francisco J Zozaya-Larequi; Ana Belen Fernandez Laso; Daniela Fernández de la Hoz Múgica; Carlos Enciso Coloma; Begoña Sacristan Terroba; Aitor Orive-Calzada

    2015-01-01

    Context Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is a common complication in HIV-patients that most frequently affects the gastrointestinal tract. Primary pancreatic lymphomas and Burkitt Lymphoma involving the pancreas are uncommon. It is important to recognize them because can mimic an adenocarcinoma or pancreatitis, but their management is completely different. Case report We report a case of a forty-seven-year-old man who presented with an AIDS-related Burkitt Lymphoma with acute pancreatitis as initial ma...

  12. Validation of the integration of HIV and AIDS related nursing competencies into the undergraduate nursing curriculum in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regis R. Marie Modeste

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Being in its fourth decade, HIV remains an epidemic that requires combined efforts for the global fight. The strategies planned and implemented in the fight against HIV include reversing and halting the spread of HIV, increasing health care access, and strengthening the health care system. South Africa has made the fight one of its top priorities, and has developed plans to increase the role of nurses in the management of HIV, demonstrating its willingness, commitment and progress in the fight against HIV.Objective: This article presents the validation process conducted to confirm the integration and mapping of the HIV and AIDS related nursing competencies into the four-year Bachelor of Nursing programme at a university in South Africa.Methods: This study adopted a constructivist paradigm, using a qualitative approach, applyingthe design step of the process model of curriculum development, to validate the inte gration of the mapped HIV and AIDS related nursing competencies into the undergraduate nursing curriculum.Results: For each competency, outcomes were developed for each year. Participants confirmed completeness of outcomes and appropriateness of the mapping of the HIV and AIDS related outcomes into the nursing curriculum, as well as the feasibility and practicability of the integration.Conclusion: Required resources for integration of HIV and AIDS related nursing competencies, such as human resources and nurse educators’ continued personal development were identified, as well as barriers to integration, and measures to eliminate them were discussed. The importance of integration of HIV and AIDS nursing competencies into the curriculum was reiterated.

  13. Direct and indirect effects of enablers on HIV testing, initiation and retention in antiretroviral treatment and AIDS related mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background An enabling environment is believed to have significant and critical effects on HIV and AIDS program implementation and desired outcomes. This paper estimates the paths, directionality, and direct and indirect associations between critical enablers with antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage and to AIDS-related mortality. Methods Frameworks that consider the role of enablers in HIV and AIDS programs were systematically reviewed to develop a conceptual model of interaction. Measurements for constructs of the model were pooled from the latest publicly available data. A hypothetical model, including latent/unobserved factors and interaction of enablers, program activities and outcomes, was analyzed cross-sectionally with structural equation modeling. Coefficients of the model were used to estimate the indirect associations of enablers to treatment coverage and the subsequent associated impact on AIDS related mortality. Findings The model’s fit was adequate (RMSEA = 0·084, 90% CI [0·062, 0·104]) and the indirect effects of enablers on outcomes were measured. Enablers having significant associations with increased ART coverage were social/financial protection, governance, anti-discrimination, gender equality, domestic AIDS spending, testing service delivery, and logistics. Interpretation Critical enablers are significantly correlated to outcomes like ART coverage and AIDS related mortality. Even while this model does not allow inference on causality, it provides directionality and magnitude of the significant associations. PMID:28225790

  14. Impact of Strangers on Opportunistic Routing Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-Yan Yuan; Hua-Dong Ma; Peng-Rui Duan

    2013-01-01

    Routing is one of the challenging tasks in Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs),due to the lack of global knowledge and sporadic contacts between nodes.Most existing studies take a greedy scheme in data forwarding process,i.e.,only nodes with higher utility values than current carriers can be selected as relays.They lack an in-depth investigation on the main features of the optimal paths in Epidemic.These features are vital to any forwarding scheme that tends to make a trade-off between packet delivery delay and cost.This is mainly because Epidemic provides an upper bound on cost and a lower bound on delivery delay.Therefore,a deep understanding of these features is useful to make informed forwarding decisions.In this paper,we try to explore these features by observing the roles of different social relationships in the optimal paths through a set of real datasets.These datasets provide evidence that strangers have two sides in data forwarding process,and that the importance of strangers shows a decreasing trend along the forwarding paths.Using this heuristic knowledge,we propose STRON,a distributed and lightweight forwarding scheme.The distributed feature makes it very suitable for opportunistic scenarios and the low communication and computation features make it easy to be integrated with state-of-the-art work.The trace-driven simulations obviously confirm its effectiveness,especially in terms of packet delivery delay and cost.

  15. A graph model for opportunistic network coding

    KAUST Repository

    Sorour, Sameh

    2015-08-12

    © 2015 IEEE. Recent advancements in graph-based analysis and solutions of instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) trigger the interest to extend them to more complicated opportunistic network coding (ONC) scenarios, with limited increase in complexity. In this paper, we design a simple IDNC-like graph model for a specific subclass of ONC, by introducing a more generalized definition of its vertices and the notion of vertex aggregation in order to represent the storage of non-instantly-decodable packets in ONC. Based on this representation, we determine the set of pairwise vertex adjacency conditions that can populate this graph with edges so as to guarantee decodability or aggregation for the vertices of each clique in this graph. We then develop the algorithmic procedures that can be applied on the designed graph model to optimize any performance metric for this ONC subclass. A case study on reducing the completion time shows that the proposed framework improves on the performance of IDNC and gets very close to the optimal performance.

  16. Exploiting volatile opportunistic computing resources with Lobster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Anna; Wolf, Matthias; Mueller, Charles; Tovar, Ben; Donnelly, Patrick; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Brenner, Paul; Lannon, Kevin; Hildreth, Mike; Thain, Douglas

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of high energy physics experiments using the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) can be limited by availability of computing resources. As a joint effort involving computer scientists and CMS physicists at Notre Dame, we have developed an opportunistic workflow management tool, Lobster, to harvest available cycles from university campus computing pools. Lobster consists of a management server, file server, and worker processes which can be submitted to any available computing resource without requiring root access. Lobster makes use of the Work Queue system to perform task management, while the CMS specific software environment is provided via CVMFS and Parrot. Data is handled via Chirp and Hadoop for local data storage and XrootD for access to the CMS wide-area data federation. An extensive set of monitoring and diagnostic tools have been developed to facilitate system optimisation. We have tested Lobster using the 20 000-core cluster at Notre Dame, achieving approximately 8-10k tasks running simultaneously, sustaining approximately 9 Gbit/s of input data and 340 Mbit/s of output data.

  17. Efficient Online Learning for Opportunistic Spectrum Access

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Wenhan; Krishnamachari, Bhaskar

    2011-01-01

    The problem of opportunistic spectrum access in cognitive radio networks has been recently formulated as a non-Bayesian restless multi-armed bandit problem. In this problem, there are N arms (corresponding to channels) and one player (corresponding to a secondary user). The state of each arm evolves as a finite-state Markov chain with unknown parameters. At each time slot, the player can select K < N arms to play and receives state-dependent rewards (corresponding to the throughput obtained given the activity of primary users). The objective is to maximize the expected total rewards (i.e., total throughput) obtained over multiple plays. The performance of an algorithm for such a multi-armed bandit problem is measured in terms of regret, defined as the difference in expected reward compared to a model-aware genie who always plays the best K arms. In this paper, we propose a new continuous exploration and exploitation (CEE) algorithm for this problem. When no information is available about the dynamics of th...

  18. Growth regulation of simian and human AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines by TGF-β1 and IL-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Laura S

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (AIDS-NHL is the second most frequent cancer associated with AIDS, and is a frequent cause of death in HIV-infected individuals. Experimental analysis of AIDS-NHL has been facilitated by the availability of an excellent animal model, i.e., simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (SAIDS in the rhesus macaque consequent to infection with simian immunodeficiency virus. A recent study of SAIDS-NHL demonstrated a lymphoma-derived cell line to be sensitive to the growth inhibitory effects of the ubiquitous cytokine, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta. The authors concluded that TGF-beta acts as a negative growth regulator of the lymphoma-derived cell line and, potentially, as an inhibitory factor in the regulatory network of AIDS-related lymphomagenesis. The present study was conducted to assess whether other SAIDS-NHL and AIDS-NHL cell lines are similarly sensitive to the growth inhibitory effects of TGF-beta, and to test the hypothesis that interleukin-6 (IL-6 may represent a counteracting positive influence in their growth regulation. Methods Growth stimulation or inhibition in response to cytokine treatment was quantified using trypan blue exclusion or colorimetric MTT assay. Intracellular flow cytometry was used to analyze the activation of signaling pathways and to examine the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins and distinguishing hallmarks of AIDS-NHL subclass. Apoptosis was quantified by flow cytometric analysis of cell populations with sub-G1 DNA content and by measuring activated caspase-3. Results Results confirmed the sensitivity of LCL8664, an immunoblastic SAIDS-NHL cell line, to TGF-beta1-mediated growth inhibition, and further demonstrated the partial rescue by simultaneous treatment with IL-6. IL-6 was shown to activate STAT3, even in the presence of TGF-beta1, and thereby to activate proliferative and anti-apoptotic pathways. By comparison, human AIDS-NHL cell lines

  19. Fungal Opportunistic Pneumonias in HIV/AIDS Patients: An Indian Tertiary Care Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Bhanu; Dhakad, Megh Singh; Goyal, Ritu; Bhalla, Preena; Dewan, Richa

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Opportunistic pneumonias are a major cause of mortality and morbidity in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) reactive patients. Despite the significant role that fungi play in causation of this opportunistic mycoses, very few Indian studies have attempted to investigate the burden and aetiological spectrum of HIV/AIDS-associated fungal pneumonias. Aim To document the prevalence of fungal aetiology in HIV/AIDS-related opportunistic pneumonias in an Indian setting; and to elucidate the various fungal opportunists responsible for the same. Materials and Methods The present study was a prospective, cross-sectional analysis conducted at Maulana Azad Medical College and associated Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi from October 2008 to September 2011. Expectorated sputa were collected from 71 HIV reactive patients with a clinical diagnosis of pneumonia and subjected to direct microscopic examination employing Gram stain, 10% KOH wet mount and India ink preparation. In addition, direct immunofluorescence of sputum samples was performed for detection of cysts and trophozoites of Pneumocystis carinii. Also, each sputum sample was inoculated in duplicate onto Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) for culture. A blood sample was drawn from each patient and a battery of serological tests was performed, including Cryptococcal Antigen Latex Agglutination System (CALASTM) for detection of cryptococcal capsular polysaccharide antigen; Platelia™ Aspergillus EIA for detection of Aspergillus galactomannan antigen; SERION ELISA antigen Candida for detection of Candida antigen and Histoplasma DxSelect™ for detecting antibodies to Histoplasma species. Descriptive statistics were employed to depict results as proportions and figures. Further, arithmetic mean and standard deviation were calculated for central tendencies and median for non-normal/skewed distributions. Results A definite fungal aetiology was established in 25 (35.2%) of 71 HIV reactive patients with pneumonic involvement

  20. Opportunistic transmitter selection for selfless overlay cognitive radios

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2013-11-01

    We propose an opportunistic strategy to grant channel access to the primary and secondary transmitters in causal selfless overlay cognitive radios over block-fading channels. The secondary transmitter helps the primary transmitter by relaying the primary messages opportunistically, aided by a buffer to store the primary messages temporarily. The optimal channel-aware transmitter- selection strategy is the solution of the maximization of the average secondary rate under the average primary rate requirement and the buffer stability constraints. Numerical results demonstrate the gains of the proposed opportunistic selection strategy. © 2013 IEEE.

  1. Macaque homologs of EBV and KSHV show uniquely different associations with simian AIDS-related lymphomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gregory Bruce

    Full Text Available Two gammaherpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV (Lymphocryptovirus genus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV (Rhadinovirus genus have been implicated in the etiology of AIDS-associated lymphomas. Homologs of these viruses have been identified in macaques and other non-human primates. In order to assess the association of these viruses with non-human primate disease, archived lymphoma samples were screened for the presence of macaque lymphocryptovirus (LCV homologs of EBV, and macaque rhadinoviruses belonging to the RV1 lineage of KSHV homologs or the more distant RV2 lineage of Old World primate rhadinoviruses. Viral loads were determined by QPCR and infected cells were identified by immunolabeling for different viral proteins. The lymphomas segregated into three groups. The first group (n = 6 was associated with SIV/SHIV infections, contained high levels of LCV (1-25 genomes/cell and expressed the B-cell antigens CD20 or BLA.36. A strong EBNA-2 signal was detected in the nuclei of the neoplastic cells in one of the LCV-high lymphomas, indicative of a type III latency stage. None of the lymphomas in this group stained for the LCV viral capsid antigen (VCA lytic marker. The second group (n = 5 was associated with D-type simian retrovirus-2 (SRV-2 infections, contained high levels of RV2 rhadinovirus (9-790 genomes/cell and expressed the CD3 T-cell marker. The third group (n = 3 was associated with SIV/SHIV infections, contained high levels of RV2 rhadinovirus (2-260 genomes/cell and was negative for both CD20 and CD3. In both the CD3-positive and CD3/CD20-negative lymphomas, the neoplastic cells stained strongly for markers of RV2 lytic replication. None of the lymphomas had detectable levels of retroperitoneal fibromatosis herpesvirus (RFHV, the macaque RV1 homolog of KSHV. Our data suggest etiological roles for both lymphocryptoviruses and RV2 rhadinoviruses in the development of simian AIDS-associated lymphomas and indicate that

  2. Opportunistic quantum network coding based on quantum teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Tao; Du, Gang; Liu, Jian-wei

    2016-04-01

    It seems impossible to endow opportunistic characteristic to quantum network on the basis that quantum channel cannot be overheard without disturbance. In this paper, we propose an opportunistic quantum network coding scheme by taking full advantage of channel characteristic of quantum teleportation. Concretely, it utilizes quantum channel for secure transmission of quantum states and can detect eavesdroppers by means of quantum channel verification. What is more, it utilizes classical channel for both opportunistic listening to neighbor states and opportunistic coding by broadcasting measurement outcome. Analysis results show that our scheme can reduce the times of transmissions over classical channels for relay nodes and can effectively defend against classical passive attack and quantum active attack.

  3. Capacity of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Opportunistic Collaborative Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeone O

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal multihop routing in ad hoc networks requires the exchange of control messages at the MAC and network layer in order to set up the (centralized optimization problem. Distributed opportunistic space-time collaboration (OST is a valid alternative that avoids this drawback by enabling opportunistic cooperation with the source at the physical layer. In this paper, the performance of OST is investigated. It is shown analytically that opportunistic collaboration outperforms (centralized optimal multihop in case spatial reuse (i.e., the simultaneous transmission of more than one data stream is not allowed by the transmission protocol. Conversely, in case spatial reuse is possible, the relative performance between the two protocols has to be studied case by case in terms of the corresponding capacity regions, given the topology and the physical parameters of network at hand. Simulation results confirm that opportunistic collaborative communication is a promising paradigm for wireless ad hoc networks that deserves further investigation.

  4. Achieving fairness by aggregate power allocation in opportunistic cooperation networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Jianfei; Zhong Zhangdui; Ai Bo

    2009-01-01

    Within a wireless opportunistic network, one of the lucky users gets an opportunity to utilize the whole radio resource. However some of the unlucky users keep silent during an unexpected period resulting from severe wireless environment and imperfect scheduling algorithms. An opportunistic cooperation protocol is proposed that can achieve equivalent performance measured in terms of outage probability, in which scheme the opportunistic user helps to relay what need retransmitting indicated by the destination and selects the appropriate power allocation to pursue fairness. The proposed scheme deploys superposition coding and successive interference cancellation at relay and destination, respectively. To improve the spectral efficiency, the modified cooperation architecture involves two opportunistic users which work in turn. The simulation results demonstrate that the protocol obtains better performance compared with the conventional methods.

  5. A neglected epidemic: fungal infections in HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong-James, Darius; Meintjes, Graeme; Brown, Gordon D

    2014-03-01

    Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are a major cause of HIV-related mortality globally. Despite widespread rollout of combined antiretroviral therapy, there are still up to 1 million deaths annually from IFIs, accounting for 50% of all AIDS-related death. A historic failure to focus efforts on the IFIs that kill so many HIV patients has led to fundamental flaws in the management of advanced HIV infection. This review, based on the EMBO AIDS-Related Mycoses Workshop in Cape Town in July 2013, summarizes the current state of the-art in AIDS-related mycoses, and the key action points required to improve outcomes from these devastating infections.

  6. An Analytical Approach to Opportunistic Transmission under Rayleigh Fading Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Yousaf Bin Zikria; Sung Won Kim; Heejung Yu; Seung Yeob Nam

    2015-01-01

    In cognitive radio sensor networks, the routing methods including multiple relays have been extensively studied to achieve higher throughput and lower end-to-end delay. As one of innovative approaches, the opportunistic routing scheme was proposed. In this paper, the effectiveness of the opportunistic transmission in terms of reliability and delay of transmission is verified with an analytical way. For the analysis, we establish the probabilistic model with respect to distance and the number ...

  7. Human Exportin-1 is a Target for Combined Therapy of HIV and AIDS Related Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline Boons

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Infection with HIV ultimately leads to advanced immunodeficiency resulting in an increased incidence of cancer. For example primary effusion lymphoma (PEL is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma with very poor prognosis that typically affects HIV infected individuals in advanced stages of immunodeficiency. Here we report on the dual anti-HIV and anti-PEL effect of targeting a single process common in both diseases. Inhibition of the exportin-1 (XPO1 mediated nuclear transport by clinical stage orally bioavailable small molecule inhibitors (SINE prevented the nuclear export of the late intron-containing HIV RNA species and consequently potently suppressed viral replication. In contrast, in CRISPR-Cas9 genome edited cells expressing mutant C528S XPO1, viral replication was unaffected upon treatment, clearly demonstrating the anti-XPO1 mechanism of action. At the same time, SINE caused the nuclear accumulation of p53 tumor suppressor protein as well as inhibition of NF-κB activity in PEL cells resulting in cell cycle arrest and effective apoptosis induction. In vivo, oral administration arrested PEL tumor growth in engrafted mice. Our findings provide strong rationale for inhibiting XPO1 as an innovative strategy for the combined anti-retroviral and anti-neoplastic treatment of HIV and PEL and offer perspectives for the treatment of other AIDS-associated cancers and potentially other virus-related malignancies.

  8. Human Exportin-1 is a Target for Combined Therapy of HIV and AIDS Related Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boons, Eline; Vanstreels, Els; Jacquemyn, Maarten; Nogueira, Tatiane C; Neggers, Jasper E; Vercruysse, Thomas; van den Oord, Joost; Tamir, Sharon; Shacham, Sharon; Landesman, Yosef; Snoeck, Robert; Pannecouque, Christophe; Andrei, Graciela; Daelemans, Dirk

    2015-09-01

    Infection with HIV ultimately leads to advanced immunodeficiency resulting in an increased incidence of cancer. For example primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma with very poor prognosis that typically affects HIV infected individuals in advanced stages of immunodeficiency. Here we report on the dual anti-HIV and anti-PEL effect of targeting a single process common in both diseases. Inhibition of the exportin-1 (XPO1) mediated nuclear transport by clinical stage orally bioavailable small molecule inhibitors (SINE) prevented the nuclear export of the late intron-containing HIV RNA species and consequently potently suppressed viral replication. In contrast, in CRISPR-Cas9 genome edited cells expressing mutant C528S XPO1, viral replication was unaffected upon treatment, clearly demonstrating the anti-XPO1 mechanism of action. At the same time, SINE caused the nuclear accumulation of p53 tumor suppressor protein as well as inhibition of NF-κB activity in PEL cells resulting in cell cycle arrest and effective apoptosis induction. In vivo, oral administration arrested PEL tumor growth in engrafted mice. Our findings provide strong rationale for inhibiting XPO1 as an innovative strategy for the combined anti-retroviral and anti-neoplastic treatment of HIV and PEL and offer perspectives for the treatment of other AIDS-associated cancers and potentially other virus-related malignancies.

  9. Opportunistic Wireless Relay Networks: Diversity-Multiplexing Tradeoff

    CERN Document Server

    Abouelseoud, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Opportunistic analysis has traditionally relied on independence assumptions that break down in many interesting and useful network topologies. This paper develops techniques that expand opportunistic analysis to a broader class of networks, proposes new opportunistic methods for several network geometries, and analyzes them in the high-SNR regime. For each of the geometries studied in the paper, we analyze the opportunistic DMT of several relay protocols, including amplify-and-forward, decode-and-forward, compress-and-forward, non-orthogonal amplify-forward, and dynamic decode-forward. Among the highlights of the results: in a variety of multi-user single-relay networks, simple selection strategies are developed and shown to be DMT-optimal. It is shown that compress-forward relaying achieves the DMT upper bound in the opportunistic multiple-access relay channel as well as in the opportunistic nxn user network with relay. Other protocols, e.g. dynamic decode-forward, are shown to be near optimal in several cas...

  10. HIV and AIDS related knowledge, sources of information, and reported need for further education among dental students in Sudan- a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åstrøm Anne

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the HIV and AIDS-related knowledge among dental students provides a crucial foundation for efforts aimed at developing an appropriate dental curriculum on HIV and AIDS, and for attracting the attention of dental school educators towards the subject. Purposes Focusing on a census of dental students attending their 3rd, 4th and 5th study year at publicly – and privately funded dental faculties in Khartoum, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and socio-economic correlates of dental students' knowledge, sources of information and reported need for further education related to HIV and AIDS. Methods At the time of the survey (March–May 2007, the total number of dental students registered was 782 of which 642 (response rate 82%, mean age 21.7 year, 72% girls completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in supervised class room settings. Results A total of 49% and 86% had correct sum scores with respect to knowledge of transmission through contamination and through shaking hands and eating, respectively. About half the dental students recognized a need for further education across HIV related issues, varying from 75% (basic HIV/AIDS related issues to 84% (patient management. Only 38% of the students had correct sum scores regarding various occupational groups at risk for contacting HIV and AIDS. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that compared to privately funded dental school students, publicly funded dental school students were less likely to have correct knowledge about modes of HIV transmission (OR = 0.6 and occupational risk groups (OR = 0.6 and to have received information from lectures/health care workers (OR = 0.5. Conclusion Students attending privately funded schools were more knowledgeable about various HIV related issues than students from publicly funded schools. About half of the students investigated had received HIV/AIDS information from various sources and reported need

  11. The challenge of AIDS-related malignancies in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie J Sasco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the lengthening of life expectancy among HIV-positive subjects related to the use of highly active antiretroviral treatments, an increased risk of cancer has been described in industrialized countries. The question is to determine what occurs now and will happen in the future in the low income countries and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where more than two-thirds of all HIV-positive people live in the world. The objective of our paper is to review the link between HIV and cancer in sub-Saharan Africa, putting it in perspective with what is already known in Western countries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Studies for this review were identified from several bibliographical databases including Pubmed, Scopus, Cochrane, Pascal, Web of Science and using keywords "HIV, neoplasia, epidemiology and Africa" and related MesH terms. A clear association was found between HIV infection and AIDS-classifying cancers. In case-referent studies, odds ratios (OR were ranging from 21.9 (95% Confidence Interval (CI 12.5-38.6 to 47.1 (31.9-69.8 for Kaposi sarcoma and from 5.0 (2.7-9.5 to 12.6 (2.2-54.4 for non Hodgkin lymphoma. The association was less strong for invasive cervical cancer with ORs ranging from 1.1 (0.7-1.2 to 1.6 (1.1-2.3, whereas ORs for squamous intraepithelial lesions were higher, from 4.4 (2.3-8.4 to 17.0 (2.2-134.1. For non AIDS-classifying cancers, squamous cell conjunctival carcinoma of the eye was associated with HIV in many case-referent studies with ORs from 2.6 (1.4-4.9 to 13.0 (4.5-39.4. A record-linkage study conducted in Uganda showed an association between Hodgkin lymphoma and HIV infection with a standardized incidence ratio of 5.7 (1.2-17 although OR in case-referent studies ranged from 1.4 (0.7-2.8 to 1.6 (1.0-2.7. Other cancer sites found positively associated with HIV include lung, liver, anus, penis, vulva, kidney, thyroid and uterus and a decreased risk of female breast cancer. These results so far based on a

  12. Framing, agenda setting, and disease phobia of AIDS-related coverage in the South Korean mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo

    2013-01-01

    There has been little research on the concrete role of the press in discourses on AIDS. This study investigated the AIDS discourses created by the major media. In particular, from the perspective of the agenda-setting theory, it examines differences in the framing of AIDS-related news depending on the political orientation and news sources of the press. This study analyzed the thematic frames and news sources implied by AIDS-related coverage. The 2 major media representing conservatism and progressivism were selected as the objects of analysis. As for the search engine for content analysis, the Korean Integrated Newspaper Database System was used, and 151 articles containing "AIDS" or "HIV" over 5 years from January 2005 to December 2010 were analyzed. According to the results of the analysis, there were the 6 following frames: aid/support, accident, human rights, risk, prevention, and biomedicine. Whereas the conservative press in South Korea continued to frame AIDS in the traditional way, the progressive press tended relatively more often to attempt new agenda setting, from the perspective of human rights and inequality. However, both newspaper companies tended mostly to select experts as the sources of AIDS news, thus continuing to exclude infectees and civil and society organizations.

  13. Recruiting Chinese American adolescents to HIV/AIDS-related research: a lesson learned from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Hui; Salman, Ali; Wang, Fan

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this article was to report identified barriers and challenges experienced in the recruiting process of Chinese American adolescents to a cross-sectional HIV/AIDS-related study. Snowball sampling method was used to recruit Chinese American adolescents from Chinese American communities in a U.S. Midwestern state. Barriers and challenges to recruitment were reviewed and analyzed from Chinese cultural perspectives in the hope of aiding researchers and health care providers understand and facilitate future recruitment of Chinese Americans for HIV/AIDS prevention studies. Barriers to recruitment were found related to the taboo topic of sexual issues in Chinese culture, unawareness and denial of HIV/AIDS risks, authoritarian parenting style in Chinese culture, and the required active consents. Facilitating factors of recruiting Chinese American adolescents to future HIV/AIDS prevention research or intervention programs are discussed. Information provided in this article may increase nurses' awareness of various barriers that they might encounter when they conduct research or address HIV/AIDS-related topics of Chinese American adolescents.

  14. Staphylococcus epidermidis infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Cuong; Otto, Michael

    2002-04-01

    The opportunistic human pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis has become the most important cause of nosocomial infections in recent years. Its pathogenicity is mainly due to the ability to form biofilms on indwelling medical devices. In a biofilm, S. epidermidis is protected against attacks from the immune system and against antibiotic treatment, making S. epidermidis infections difficult to eradicate.

  15. [Acanthamoeba spp. as opportunistic pathogens parasites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrillón, Juan C; Orozco, Lina P

    2013-04-01

    Among free-living amoeba in nature, species of the genus Acanthamoeba have been associated with human disease. These amoeba are among the most abundant protozoa in nature due to its cosmopolitan distribution and are able to survive in a wide variety of habitats because its low demand for food and in harsh environments by forming structures known as cysts. However, ecological changes and incursion of its different habitats have made this organism can invade a host and live as parasites within him. That's why this type of protozoa are known as amphizoic organism, because human can be constituted as its host, causing infections in the central nervous system, disseminated infections in skin and lungs, and keratitis. Thus, since an increase in the number of cases of Acanthamoeba infections has occurred worldwide, these protozoa have become increasingly important as agents of human disease. This review summarizes what is known of this kind of free-living amoeba, focusing on the biology, ecology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and human defense mechanism against infection by the amoeba.

  16. CPAP, effective respiratory support in patients with AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevedoros, H P; Lee, R P; Marriot, D

    1991-11-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) associated with severe respiratory failure is an increasingly common problem in major centres and is associated with a high mortality in previous and recent studies. Early in the epidemic, alternatives to invasive intensive care treatment were utilized in our institution and found to be successful. When respiratory failure developed, mask CPAP was used instead of intubation and ventilation. A retrospective review of 175 cases of HIV infected patients with confirmed first presentation PCP was undertaken. Treatment with our protocol resulted in an overall hospital mortality of 9%. Those patients who did not require supplemental oxygen or respiratory support had no in-hospital mortality. The group who required supplemental oxygen had a mortality of 10%. If respiratory failure supervened (severe respiratory distress, PaO2 less than 50 mmHg, SaO2 less than 90% on mask oxygen), CPAP was introduced. The mortality in this group was 22%. Only two patients were admitted to the intensive care unit for respiratory support after failure of CPAP. Both patients were intubated and received intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV). Both patients died.

  17. On the Capacity of Hybrid Wireless Networks with Opportunistic Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Le

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the capacity of hybrid wireless networks with opportunistic routing (OR. We first extend the opportunistic routing algorithm to exploit high-speed data transmissions in infrastructure network through base stations. We then develop linear programming models to calculate the end-to-end throughput bounds from multiple source nodes to single as well as multiple destination nodes. The developed models are applied to study several hybrid wireless network examples. Through case studies, we investigate several factors that have significant impacts on the hybrid wireless network capacity under opportunistic routing, such as node transmission range, density and distribution pattern of base stations (BTs, and number of wireless channels on wireless nodes and base stations. Our numerical results demonstrate that opportunistic routing could achieve much higher throughput on both ad hoc and hybrid networks than traditional unicast routing (UR. Moreover, opportunistic routing can efficiently utilize base stations and achieve significantly higher throughput gains in hybrid wireless networks than in pure ad hoc networks especially with multiple-channel base stations.

  18. Causes of mortality among tuberculosis and HIV co-infected patients in Chiang Rai, Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantipong P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pacharee Kantipong,1 Kuniko Murakami,2 Saiyud Moolphate,3 Myo Nyein Aung,4,5 Norio Yamada21Chiang Rai Prachanukroh Hospital, Thailand; 2Japan Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association, Tokyo, Japan; 3TB/HIV Research Project, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 4Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan; 5Department of Epidemiology, University of Public Health, Yangon, MyanmarBackground: The case fatality rate in patients with tuberculosis (TB associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has been particularly high in Chiang Rai, Northern Thailand. It was almost 50% before the introduction of antiretroviral therapy in the last decade, and was still at 28% in 2008, despite expanding access to antiretroviral therapy. Reviewing the causes of death may lead to further understanding of the timeline and natural history of TB-HIV coinfection, and in so doing help to devise an effective prevention strategy in Chiang Rai. In this study, we aimed to investigate the distribution of confirmed causes of death in patients coinfected with TB and HIV in Chiang Rai, describe the causes of such deaths along the timeline of TB treatment, and identify predictors of each cause of death.Methods: In this retrospective study, we reviewed the causes of death for 331 patients who died of TB-HIV coinfection at Chiang Rai Prachanukroh Hospital from 2005 to 2008. Causes of death were confirmed by reviewing medical records, vital registration, and the TB register in the province, as well as obtaining reconfirmation by two experienced HIV physicians.Results: The confirmed causes of death were TB (39%, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS-related opportunistic infections other than TB (AOI (29%, and other systemic diseases which were neither TB nor AIDS-related opportunistic infections (nonTB-nonAOI (16%. The definitive cause could not be confirmed in the remaining 16% of deaths. After starting the TB

  19. Effective but costly, evolved mechanisms of defense against a virulent opportunistic pathogen in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixin H Ye

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila harbor substantial genetic variation for antibacterial defense, and investment in immunity is thought to involve a costly trade-off with life history traits, including development, life span, and reproduction. To understand the way in which insects invest in fighting bacterial infection, we selected for survival following systemic infection with the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa in wild-caught Drosophila melanogaster over 10 generations. We then examined genome-wide changes in expression in the selected flies relative to unselected controls, both of which had been infected with the pathogen. This powerful combination of techniques allowed us to specifically identify the genetic basis of the evolved immune response. In response to selection, population-level survivorship to infection increased from 15% to 70%. The evolved capacity for defense was costly, however, as evidenced by reduced longevity and larval viability and a rapid loss of the trait once selection pressure was removed. Counter to expectation, we observed more rapid developmental rates in the selected flies. Selection-associated changes in expression of genes with dual involvement in developmental and immune pathways suggest pleiotropy as a possible mechanism for the positive correlation. We also found that both the Toll and the Imd pathways work synergistically to limit infectivity and that cellular immunity plays a more critical role in overcoming P. aeruginosa infection than previously reported. This work reveals novel pathways by which Drosophila can survive infection with a virulent pathogen that may be rare in wild populations, however, due to their cost.

  20. Efficient scheduling request algorithm for opportunistic wireless access

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon

    2011-08-01

    An efficient scheduling request algorithm for opportunistic wireless access based on user grouping is proposed in this paper. Similar to the well-known opportunistic splitting algorithm, the proposed algorithm initially adjusts (or lowers) the threshold during a guard period if no user sends a scheduling request. However, if multiple users make requests simultaneously and therefore a collision occurs, the proposed algorithm no longer updates the threshold but narrows down the user search space by splitting the users into multiple groups iteratively, whereas the opportunistic splitting algorithm keeps adjusting the threshold until a single user is found. Since the threshold is only updated when no user sends a request, it is shown that the proposed algorithm significantly alleviates the burden of the signaling for the threshold distribution to the users by the scheduler. More importantly, the proposed algorithm requires a less number of mini-slots to make a user selection given a certain scheduling outage probability. © 2011 IEEE.

  1. Scale-Free Opportunistic Networks: is it Possible?

    CERN Document Server

    Ferretti, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    The coupling of scale-free networks with mobile unstructured networks is certainly unusual. In mobile networks, connections active at a given instant are constrained by the geographical distribution of mobile nodes, and by the limited signal strength of the wireless technology employed to build the ad-hoc overlay. This is in contrast with the presence of hubs, typical of scale-free nets. However, opportunistic (mobile) networks possess the distinctive feature to be delay tolerant; mobile nodes implement a store, carry and forward strategy that permits to disseminate data based on a multi-hop route, which is built in time, when nodes encounter other ones while moving. In this paper, we consider opportunistic networks as evolving graphs where links represent contacts among nodes arising during a (non-instantaneous) time interval. We discuss a strategy to control the way nodes manage contacts and build "opportunistic overlays". Based on such an approach, interesting overlays can be obtained, shaped following giv...

  2. Opportunistic Collaborative Beamforming with One-Bit Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Pun, Man-On; Poor, H Vincent

    2008-01-01

    An energy-efficient opportunistic collaborative beamformer with one-bit feedback is proposed for ad hoc sensor networks over Rayleigh fading channels. In contrast to conventional collaborative beamforming schemes in which each source node uses channel state information to correct its local carrier offset and channel phase, the proposed beamforming scheme opportunistically selects a subset of source nodes whose received signals combine in a quasi-coherent manner at the intended receiver. No local phase-precompensation is performed by the nodes in the opportunistic collaborative beamformer. As a result, each node requires only one-bit of feedback from the destination in order to determine if it should or shouldn't participate in the collaborative beamformer. Theoretical analysis shows that the received signal power obtained with the proposed beamforming scheme scales linearly with the number of available source nodes. Since the the optimal node selection rule requires an exhaustive search over all possible subs...

  3. Joint opportunistic scheduling and network coding for bidirectional relay channel

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we consider a two-way communication system in which two users communicate with each other through an intermediate relay over block-fading channels. We investigate the optimal opportunistic scheduling scheme in order to maximize the long-term average transmission rate in the system assuming symmetric information flow between the two users. Based on the channel state information, the scheduler decides that either one of the users transmits to the relay, or the relay transmits to a single user or broadcasts to both users a combined version of the two users\\' transmitted information by using linear network coding. We obtain the optimal scheduling scheme by using the Lagrangian dual problem. Furthermore, in order to characterize the gains of network coding and opportunistic scheduling, we compare the achievable rate of the system versus suboptimal schemes in which the gains of network coding and opportunistic scheduling are partially exploited. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. MOSDEN: A Scalable Mobile Collaborative Platform for Opportunistic Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Prakash Jayaraman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobile smartphones along with embedded sensors have become an efficient enabler for various mobile applications including opportunistic sensing. The hi-tech advances in smartphones are opening up a world of possibilities. This paper proposes a mobile collaborative platform called MOSDEN that enables and supports opportunistic sensing at run time. MOSDEN captures and shares sensor data acrossmultiple apps, smartphones and users. MOSDEN supports the emerging trend of separating sensors from application-specific processing, storing and sharing. MOSDEN promotes reuse and re-purposing of sensor data hence reducing the efforts in developing novel opportunistic sensing applications. MOSDEN has been implemented on Android-based smartphones and tablets. Experimental evaluations validate the scalability and energy efficiency of MOSDEN and its suitability towards real world applications. The results of evaluation and lessons learned are presented and discussed in this paper.

  5. Opportunistic and other intestinal parasites among HIV/AIDS patients attending Gambi higher clinic in Bahir Dar city, North West Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abebe Alemu; Yitayal Shiferaw; Gebeyaw Getnet; Aregaw Yalew; Zelalem Addis

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine the magnitude of opportunistic and non-opportunistic intestinal parasitic infections amongHIV/AIDS patients in Bahir Dar.Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted amongHIV/ AIDS patients attending Gambi higher clinic from April1- May30, 2009. Convenient sampling technique was employed to identify the study subjects and hence a total of248subjects were included. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data of patients. Stool samples were examined by direct saline, iodine wet mount, formol-ether sedimentation concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Results: Out of248 enrolled in the study,171(69.0%) (90 males and81 females) were infected with one or more intestinal parasites. The highest rate of intestinal parasites were observed amongHIV/AIDS patients (80.3%, 151/188), and the infection rate of HIV negative individuals was 33.3% (20/60). Cryptosporidum parvum(43.6%),Isospora belli (15.5%) andBlastocystis hominis (10.5%)were opportunistic parasites that were found only inHIV/AIDS patients.Conclusions:Opportunistic parasite infections are common health problem among HIV/ AIDS patients in the study area. Therefore, early detection and treatment of these parasites are important to improve the quality of life ofHIV/AIDS patients.

  6. Analysis on the Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndromes of AIDS-related Diarrhea%艾滋病相关性腹泻中医证候学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永亮; 邓鑫; 梁健; 张亚萍

    2012-01-01

    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) , caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) ,has strong in-fectivity and high mortality. As one of the most common clinical symtoms of AIDS, diarrhea severely influences the quality of pa-tientslives. According to the report, almost 30% -90% of AIDS patients have digestive system symptoms, diarrhea is-especially common. It is a difficult task to research the AiDS-related diarrhea. It will give us some guiding clues to explore the traditional Chinese medicine syndromes of AIDS-related diarrhea.%艾滋病是由人类免疫缺陷病毒(human immunodeficiency virus,HIV)引起的获得性免疫功能缺陷综合征(Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,AIDS),死亡率极高,传染性极强.腹泻是艾滋病发生发展过程中常见的一种并发症,严重影响患者的生活质量.据报道,艾滋病患者约30% ~ 90%伴有消化系统症状,其中以腹泻最为常见,对于艾滋病相关性腹泻的研究是一项非常艰巨的任务.通过对其中医证候学的研究,对艾滋病相关性腹泻的防治具有一定的积极意义.

  7. Pneumocystis carinii: A Review of an Important Opportunistic Pathogen in AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M John Gill

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the first report of human infection with Pneumocystis carinii in 1942, cases of pneumonia due to this opportunistic pathogen have become increasingly common. Animal studies and clinical observations show that a significant depletion or dysfunction of T helper lymphocytes predisposes to clinical disease. Individuals with damaged T helper cells secondary to malignancies (eg, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, drugs (eg, cyclosporine, steroids, or certain infections (eg, human immunodeficiency virus are at particular risk. Serological studies suggest that disease is most often secondary to the reactivation of an asymptomatic infection, usually acquired during childhood. Increasing shortness of breath, a nonproductive cough and hypoxia often preceded by several weeks of lethargy, fever and weight loss are the classical features of P carinii pneumonia in acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Bronchoalveolar lavage is usually the optimal diagnostic test. Immunofluorescent staining on liquified sputum induced by nebulized saline appears to be a promising and noninvasive test. Early empiric therapy with trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (trimethoprim 5 mg-sulphamethoxazole 25 mg/kg/day every 6 h or intravenous pentamidine (4 mg/kg/day for 21 days is usually effective, but infection is not eradicated, and clinical disease is likely to recur. Prophylaxis using aerosolized pentamidine reduces the risk of pulmonary disease but can predispose to extrapulmonary infection. Improved in vitro and in vivo models of human pneumocystis infection would significantly increase understanding of the molecular biology of the organism, the pathogenesis of disease, and the optimal therapeutic regimens.

  8. Avian trichomonosis in spotted owls (Strix occidentalis): Indication of opportunistic spillover from prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Krysta H; Girard, Yvette A; Woods, Leslie; Johnson, Christine K

    2016-12-01

    Avian trichomonosis, caused by the flagellated protozoan parasite Trichomonas gallinae, has variable pathogenicity among bird species ranging from asymptomatic infections to severe disease periodically manifesting in epidemic mortality. Traditionally, columbids are identified as highly susceptible to infection with occasional spillover into raptors that prey on infected birds. We identified avian trichomonosis in two dead California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) and three dead northern spotted owls (S. o. caurina) in California during 2011-2015; infection was confirmed in four owls by PCR. Pathologic lesions associated with trichomonosis in the owls included caseonecrotic lesions of the upper palate accompanied by oropharyngitis, cellulitis, myositis, and/or sinusitis. Spotted owls are known to mainly feed on small mammals; therefore, the source of infection as well as the significance of the disease in spotted owls is unclear. These owl trichomonosis cases coincided temporally and spatially with three trichomonosis epidemics in band-tailed pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis). The same parasite, T. gallinae subtype A2, was isolated from the spotted owls and band-tailed pigeons, suggesting the owls became infected when opportunistically feeding on pigeons during mortality events. Avian trichomonosis is an important factor in the decline of the Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeon population with near-annual mortality events during the last 10 years and could have conservation implications for raptor species at risk, particularly those that are facing multiple threats.

  9. Avian trichomonosis in spotted owls (Strix occidentalis: Indication of opportunistic spillover from prey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krysta H. Rogers

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian trichomonosis, caused by the flagellated protozoan parasite Trichomonas gallinae, has variable pathogenicity among bird species ranging from asymptomatic infections to severe disease periodically manifesting in epidemic mortality. Traditionally, columbids are identified as highly susceptible to infection with occasional spillover into raptors that prey on infected birds. We identified avian trichomonosis in two dead California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis and three dead northern spotted owls (S. o. caurina in California during 2011–2015; infection was confirmed in four owls by PCR. Pathologic lesions associated with trichomonosis in the owls included caseonecrotic lesions of the upper palate accompanied by oropharyngitis, cellulitis, myositis, and/or sinusitis. Spotted owls are known to mainly feed on small mammals; therefore, the source of infection as well as the significance of the disease in spotted owls is unclear. These owl trichomonosis cases coincided temporally and spatially with three trichomonosis epidemics in band-tailed pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis. The same parasite, T. gallinae subtype A2, was isolated from the spotted owls and band-tailed pigeons, suggesting the owls became infected when opportunistically feeding on pigeons during mortality events. Avian trichomonosis is an important factor in the decline of the Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeon population with near-annual mortality events during the last 10 years and could have conservation implications for raptor species at risk, particularly those that are facing multiple threats.

  10. Cryptococcal meningitis associated with tuberculosis in HIV infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Urvinderpal; Aditi; Aneja, Pooja; Kapoor, B K; Singh, S P; Purewal, Sukhpreet Singh

    2013-07-01

    Opportunistic infections are common complications of advanced immuno-deficiency in individuals with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Following involvement of the lung, the central nervous system (CNS) is the second most commonly affected organ. We report two cases of concurrent cryptococcal meningitis and tuberculosis (TB) in HIV infected persons. A high suspicion of multiple opportunistic infections should be kept in mind in HIV seropositive individuals.

  11. Analysis of full-duplex relay networks with opportunistic scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Shao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This Letter addresses a two-hop decode-and-forward relay system with full-duplex relaying and opportunistic scheduling. Exact expressions for outage probability, average capacity and symbol error rate are presented in an independent identically distributed Rayleigh fading environment. Numerical and simulated results show the validity of the analytical results.

  12. Opportunistic Beacon Networks: Information Dissemination via Wireless Network Identifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Türkes, Okan; Scholten, Hans; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents OBN, a universal opportunistic ad hoc networking model particularly intended for smart mobile devices. It enables fast and lightweight data dissemination in wireless community networks through the utilization of universally-available wireless network identifiers. As a ubiquitous

  13. Iterative group splitting algorithm for opportunistic scheduling systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon

    2014-05-01

    An efficient feedback algorithm for opportunistic scheduling systems based on iterative group splitting is proposed in this paper. Similar to the opportunistic splitting algorithm, the proposed algorithm adjusts (or lowers) the feedback threshold during a guard period if no user sends a feedback. However, when a feedback collision occurs at any point of time, the proposed algorithm no longer updates the threshold but narrows down the user search space by dividing the users into multiple groups iteratively, whereas the opportunistic splitting algorithm keeps adjusting the threshold until a single user is found. Since the threshold is only updated when no user sends a feedback, it is shown that the proposed algorithm significantly alleviates the signaling overhead for the threshold distribution to the users by the scheduler. More importantly, the proposed algorithm requires a less number of mini-slots than the opportunistic splitting algorithm to make a user selection with a given level of scheduling outage probability or provides a higher ergodic capacity given a certain number of mini-slots. © 2013 IEEE.

  14. Estimated Burden of Serious Fungal Infections in Jamaica by Literature Review and Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugnani, HC; Denning, DW

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Jamaica is one of the largest countries in the Caribbean with a population of 2 706 500. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Jamaica is high, while that of tuberculosis (TB) is recorded to be low. In this study, we have estimated the burden of serious fungal infections and some other mycoses in Jamaica. Methods: All published papers reporting on rates of fungal infections in Jamaica and the Caribbean were identified through extensive search of the literature. We also extracted data from published papers on epidemiology and from the World Health Organization (WHO) TB Programme and UNAIDS. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA), allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS) rates were derived from asthma and TB rates. Where there were no available data on some mycoses, we used specific populations at risk and frequencies of fungal infection of each to estimate national prevalence. Results: Over 57 600 people in Jamaica probably suffer from serious fungal infections each year, most related to ‘fungal asthma’ (ABPA and SAFS), recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and AIDS-related opportunistic infections. Histoplasmosis is endemic in Jamaica, though only a few clinical cases are known. Pneumocystis pneumonia is frequent while cryptococcosis and aspergillosis are rarely recorded. Tinea capitis was common in children. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis is very common (3154/100 000) and candidaemia occurs. Subcutaneous mycoses such as chromoblastomycosis and mycetoma also seem to be relatively common. Conclusion: Local epidemiological studies are urgently required to validate or modify these estimates of serious fungal infections in Jamaica. PMID:26426178

  15. Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Does My Child Need? How to Safely Give Acetaminophen Is It a Cold or the Flu? Is the Flu Vaccine a Good Idea for Your Family? Too Late for the Flu Vaccine? Common Childhood Infections Can Chronic Ear Infections Cause Long-Term Hearing Loss? Chickenpox Cold Sores Common Cold Diarrhea Fever and ...

  16. Research progress of AIDS-related cancer%艾滋病相关性肿瘤研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚宏霞; 刘杰; 林洪生

    2013-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma,non-hodgkin's lymphoma and invasive cervical was named AIDS-related cancer.This article introduces the appeal tumor research progress of modem medicine,and raises that antivirus、immune reconstitution and antitumor are the key factors in the treatment of AIDS-related cancer.Traditional Chinese medicine may play a role in the following aspect:relieve antiviral drug adverse reaction,have some antiviral effect,adjust the immune function,enhance efficacy and decrease toxicity of radiotherapy.According to the patients' immune function and the treatment phase,etc.It will contribute to improve the patients'lives and prolong the survival period to establish reasonable and comprehensive treatment strategies and to combine holistie therapy with individual therapy.%卡波西肉瘤、非霍奇金淋巴瘤及侵入性宫颈癌被命名为艾滋病相关性肿瘤,该文介绍了上述肿瘤现代医学研究进展,提出抗病毒、免疫重建及抗肿瘤是艾滋病相关性肿瘤治疗的关键因素.中医药在减轻艾滋病抗病毒药物的不良反应、发挥抗病毒作用、调节患者免疫功能、配合化放疗减毒增效以及稳定肿瘤病灶等方面能够发挥作用,根据患者免疫功能、治疗阶段等因素,制定合理的综合治疗策略,整体治疗和个体化治疗相结合,将有助于提高艾滋病相关性肿瘤患者的生存质量,延长生存期.

  17. Who needs the assumption of opportunistic behavior? Transaction cost economics does not!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    2000-01-01

    The assumption of opportunistic behavior, familiar from transaction cost economics, has been and remains highly controversial. But opportunistic behavior, albeit undoubtedly an extremely important form of motivation, is not a necessary condition for the contractual problems studied by transaction...

  18. Noisy mean field game model for malware propagation in opportunistic networks

    KAUST Repository

    Tembine, Hamidou

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present analytical mean field techniques that can be used to better understand the behavior of malware propagation in opportunistic large networks. We develop a modeling methodology based on stochastic mean field optimal control that is able to capture many aspects of the problem, especially the impact of the control and heterogeneity of the system on the spreading characteristics of malware. The stochastic large process characterizing the evolution of the total number of infected nodes is examined with a noisy mean field limit and compared to a deterministic one. The stochastic nature of the wireless environment make stochastic approaches more realistic for such types of networks. By introducing control strategies, we show that the fraction of infected nodes can be maintained below some threshold. In contrast to most of the existing results on mean field propagation models which focus on deterministic equations, we show that the mean field limit is stochastic if the second moment of the number of object transitions per time slot is unbounded with the size of the system. This allows us to compare one path of the fraction of infected nodes with the stochastic trajectory of its mean field limit. In order to take into account the heterogeneity of opportunistic networks, the analysis is extended to multiple types of nodes. Our numerical results show that the heterogeneity can help to stabilize the system. We verify the results through simulation showing how to obtain useful approximations in the case of very large systems. © 2012 ICST Institute for Computer Science, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering.

  19. Insights on the Horizontal Gene Transfer of Carbapenemase Determinants in the Opportunistic Pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Jorge Da Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal gene transfer (HGT is a driving force to the evolution of bacteria. The fast emergence of antimicrobial resistance reflects the ability of genetic adaptation of pathogens. Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged in the last few decades as an important opportunistic nosocomial pathogen, in part due to its high capacity of acquiring resistance to diverse antibiotic families, including to the so-called last line drugs such as carbapenems. The rampant selective pressure and genetic exchange of resistance genes hinder the effective treatment of resistant infections. A. baumannii uses all the resistance mechanisms to survive against carbapenems but production of carbapenemases are the major mechanism, which may act in synergy with others. A. baumannii appears to use all the mechanisms of gene dissemination. Beyond conjugation, the mostly reported recent studies point to natural transformation, transduction and outer membrane vesicles-mediated transfer as mechanisms that may play a role in carbapenemase determinants spread. Understanding the genetic mobilization of carbapenemase genes is paramount in preventing their dissemination. Here we review the carbapenemases found in A. baumannii and present an overview of the current knowledge of contributions of the various HGT mechanisms to the molecular epidemiology of carbapenem resistance in this relevant opportunistic pathogen.

  20. Opportunistic filamentous mycoses: aspergillosis, mucormycosis, phaeohyphomycosis and hyalohyphomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perusquía-Ortiz, Ana María; Vázquez-González, Denisse; Bonifaz, Alexandro

    2012-09-01

    Opportunistic filamentous mycoses are widely distributed all over the world. They are rarely observed in Europe but are common in developing countries. The most common are the aspergilloses (due to Aspergillus spp.) mostly in neutropenia and immunosuppression; the mucormycoses characterized by rapid progression in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis; the phaeohyphomycoses due to pigmented fungi causing either a mild superficial or a very serious deep disease and the hyalohyphomycoses due to hyaline filamentous fungi (Fusarium spp., Pseudallescheria spp., Scopulariopsis spp.). Cutaneous manifestations are usually secondary to dissemination from pulmonary or visceral disease; primary cases are less frequent and due to direct inoculation into the skin. We review epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic data on the four most important opportunistic filamentous mycoses: aspergillosis, mucormycosis, phaeohyphomycosis and hyalohyphomycosis.

  1. Accurate Performance Analysis of Opportunistic Decode-and-Forward Relaying

    CERN Document Server

    Tourki, Kamel; Alouni, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate an opportunistic relaying scheme where the selected relay assists the source-destination (direct) communication. In our study, we consider a regenerative opportunistic relaying scheme in which the direct path can be considered unusable, and takes into account the effect of the possible erroneously detected and transmitted data at the best relay. We first derive statistics based on exact probability density function (PDF) of each hop. Then, the PDFs are used to determine accurate closed form expressions for end-to-end bit-error rate (BER) of binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation. Furthermore, we evaluate the asymptotical performance analysis and the diversity order is deduced. Finally, we validate our analysis by showing that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results over different network architectures.

  2. A Game Theoretic Approach to Distributed Opportunistic Scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Banchs, Albert; Serrano, Pablo; Widmer, Joerg

    2011-01-01

    Distributed Opportunistic Scheduling (DOS) is inherently harder than conventional opportunistic scheduling due to the absence of a central entity that has knowledge of all the channel states. With DOS, stations contend for the channel using random access; after a successful contention, they measure the channel conditions and only transmit in case of a good channel, while giving up the transmission opportunity when the channel conditions are poor. The distributed nature of DOS systems makes them vulnerable to selfish users: by deviating from the protocol and using more transmission opportunities, a selfish user can gain a greater share of the wireless resources at the expense of the well-behaved users. In this paper, we address the selfishness problem in DOS from a game theoretic standpoint. We propose an algorithm that satisfies the following properties: (i) when all stations implement the algorithm, the wireless network is driven to the optimal point of operation, and (ii) one or more selfish stations cannot...

  3. Node-Dependence-Based Dynamic Incentive Algorithm in Opportunistic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiyun Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic networks lack end-to-end paths between source nodes and destination nodes, so the communications are mainly carried out by the “store-carry-forward” strategy. Selfish behaviors of rejecting packet relay requests will severely worsen the network performance. Incentive is an efficient way to reduce selfish behaviors and hence improves the reliability and robustness of the networks. In this paper, we propose the node-dependence-based dynamic gaming incentive (NDI algorithm, which exploits the dynamic repeated gaming to motivate nodes relaying packets for other nodes. The NDI algorithm presents a mechanism of tolerating selfish behaviors of nodes. Reward and punishment methods are also designed based on the node dependence degree. Simulation results show that the NDI algorithm is effective in increasing the delivery ratio and decreasing average latency when there are a lot of selfish nodes in the opportunistic networks.

  4. New results on performance analysis of opportunistic regenerative relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate an opportunistic relaying scheme where the selected relay assists the source-destination (direct) communication. In our study, we consider a regenerative opportunistic relaying scheme in which the direct path may be unusable, and takes into account the effect of the possible erroneously detected and transmitted data at the selected relay. We first derive the signal-to-noise (SNR) statistics for each hop, which are used to determine accurate closed form expressions for end-to-end bit-error rate (BER) of binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation and end-to-end outage probability for a transmission rate R over Rayleigh fading channels. Furthermore, we evaluate the asymptotical performance and deduce the diversity order. Finally, we validate our analysis by showing that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results over linear network architecture. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Opportunistic spectrum access in cognitive radio based on channel switching

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of a cognitive radio transceiver that can monitor multiple channels and opportunistically use any one of them should it be available. In our work, we propose and compare two different opportunistic channel access schemes. The first scheme applies when the secondary user (SU) has access to only one channel. The second scheme applies when the SU has access to multiple channels but can at a given time monitor and access only one channel. Two switching strategies, namely the switch and examine and the switch and stay strategies, are proposed. For these proposed access schemes, we investigate their performance by deriving the analytical expression of the novel metric of the average access duration and the average waiting time and based on these two metrics a time average SU throughput formula is proposed to predict the performance of the secondary cognitive system. © 2012 ICST.

  6. Error-rate performance analysis of opportunistic regenerative relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate an opportunistic relaying scheme where the selected relay assists the source-destination (direct) communication. In our study, we consider a regenerative opportunistic relaying scheme in which the direct path can be considered unusable, and takes into account the effect of the possible erroneously detected and transmitted data at the best relay. We first derive the exact statistics of each hop, in terms of probability density function (PDF). Then, the PDFs are used to determine accurate closed form expressions for end-to-end bit-error rate (BER) of binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation where the detector may use maximum ration combining (MRC) or selection combining (SC). Finally, we validate our analysis by showing that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results over linear network (LN) architecture and considering Rayleigh fading channels. © 2011 IEEE.

  7. Optimality of Myopic Sensing in Multi-Channel Opportunistic Access

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, Sahand H A; Javidi, Tara; Zhao, Qing; Krishnamachari, Bhaskar

    2008-01-01

    We consider opportunistic communications over multiple channels where the state ("good" or "bad") of each channel evolves as independent and identically distributed Markov processes. A user, with limited sensing and access capability, chooses one channel to sense and subsequently access (based on the sensed channel state) in each time slot. A reward is obtained when the user senses and accesses a "good" channel. The objective is to design the optimal channel selection policy that maximizes the expected reward accrued over time. This problem can be generally cast as a Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) or a restless multi-armed bandit process, to which optimal solutions are often intractable. We show in this paper that the myopic policy, with a simple and robust structure, achieves optimality under certain conditions. This result finds applications in opportunistic communications in fading environment, cognitive radio networks for spectrum overlay, and resource-constrained jamming and anti-ja...

  8. Accurate performance analysis of opportunistic decode-and-forward relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate an opportunistic relaying scheme where the selected relay assists the source-destination (direct) communication. In our study, we consider a regenerative opportunistic relaying scheme in which the direct path may be considered unusable, and the destination may use a selection combining technique. We first derive the exact statistics of each hop, in terms of probability density function (PDF). Then, the PDFs are used to determine accurate closed form expressions for end-to-end outage probability for a transmission rate R. Furthermore, we evaluate the asymptotical performance analysis and the diversity order is deduced. Finally, we validate our analysis by showing that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results over different network architectures. © 2011 IEEE.

  9. Benefits and performance of ATLAS approaches to utilizing opportunistic resources

    CERN Document Server

    Filip\\v{c}i\\v{c}, Andrej; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    ATLAS has been extensively exploring possibilities of using computing resources extending beyond conventional grid sites in the WLCG fabric to deliver as many computing cycles as possible and thereby enhance the significance of the Monte-Carlo samples to deliver better physics results. The difficulties of using such opportunistic resources come from architectural differences such as unavailability of grid services, the absence of network connectivity on worker nodes or inability to use standard authorization protocols. Nevertheless, ATLAS has been extremely successful in running production payloads on a variety of sites, thanks largely to the job execution workflow design in which the job assignment, input data provisioning and execution steps are clearly separated and can be offloaded to custom services. To transparently include the opportunistic sites in the ATLAS central production system, several models with supporting services have been developed to mimic the functionality of a full WLCG site. Some are e...

  10. Congestion aware forwarding in delay tolerant and social opportunistic networks

    OpenAIRE

    Radenkovic, Milena; Grundy, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We propose an approach for opportunistic forwarding that supports optimization of multipoint high volume data flow transfer while maintaining high buffer availability and low delays. This paper explores a number of social, buffer and delay heuristics to offload the traffic from congested parts of the network and spread it over less congested parts of the network in order to keep low delays, high success ratios and high availability of nodes. We conduct an extensive set of experiments for asse...

  11. Opportunistic Third-Party Backhaul for Cellular Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Russell; Kim, Changkyu; Rangan, Sundeep

    2013-01-01

    With high capacity air interfaces and large numbers of small cells, backhaul -- the wired connectivity to base stations -- is increasingly becoming the cost driver in cellular wireless networks. One reason for the high cost of backhaul is that capacity is often purchased on leased lines with guaranteed rates provisioned to peak loads. In this paper, we present an alternate \\emph{opportunistic backhaul} model where third parties provide base stations and backhaul connections and lease out exce...

  12. Lymphocyte transformation response to pokeweed mitogen as a predictive marker for development of AIDS and AIDS related symptoms in homosexual men with HIV antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B; Lindhardt, B O; Gerstoft, J

    1987-01-01

    To identify factors that may predict the development of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS related symptoms various immunological measurements were studied in a group of homosexual men attending screening clinics for AIDS in Copenhagen. Fifty seven men whose ratio of T helper...

  13. The development of AIDS or AIDS-related conditions in a cohort of HIV antibody-positive homosexual men during a 3-year follow-up period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Kolby, P; Sindrup, J

    1989-01-01

    One hundred and thirty-three homosexual men seropositive for the antibody against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were enrolled in a prospective study in 1984-85. The 3-year cumulative incidences of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related conditions, by life-table analyses...

  14. The unfinished nature of rights-informed HIV- and AIDS-related education: an analysis of three school-based initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Miedema; C. Maxwell; P. Aggleton

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, there has been growing investment in concepts of rights in the areas of HIV prevention, care and treatment, including HIV- and AIDS-related education delivered in schools. Despite this increasing commitment to the notion of rights, few efforts appear to have been made to unde

  15. The effect of treatment with zidovudine with or without acyclovir on HIV p24 antigenaemia in patients with AIDS or AIDS-related complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Cooper, D A; Brun-Vézinet, F;

    1992-01-01

    with AIDS, AIDS-related complex (ARC) or Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). DESIGN: Double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of less than or equal to 6 months' therapy. SETTING: Samples were obtained from patients attending teaching hospital outpatient clinics in seven European countries and Australia...

  16. The Intraperitoneal Transcriptome of the Opportunistic Pathogen Enterococcus faecalis in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Muller

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive lactic acid intestinal opportunistic bacterium with virulence potential. For a better understanding of the adapation of this bacterium to the host conditions, we performed a transcriptome analysis of bacteria isolated from an infection site (mouse peritonitis by RNA-sequencing. We identified a total of 211 genes with significantly higher transcript levels and 157 repressed genes. Our in vivo gene expression database reflects well the infection process since genes encoding important virulence factors like cytolysin, gelatinase or aggregation substance as well as stress response proteins, are significantly induced. Genes encoding metabolic activities are the second most abundant in vivo induced genes demonstrating that the bacteria are metabolically active and adapt to the special nutrient conditions of the host. α- and β- glucosides seem to be important substrates for E. faecalis inside the host. Compared to laboratory conditions, the flux through the upper part of glycolysis seems to be reduced and more carbon may enter the pentose phosphate pathway. This may reflect the need of the bacteria under infection conditions to produce more reducing power for biosynthesis. Another important substrate is certainly glycerol since both pathways of glycerol catabolism are strongly induced. Strongly in vivo induced genes should be important for the infection process. This assumption has been verified in a virulence test using well characterized mutants affected in glycerol metabolism. This showed indeed that mutants unable to metabolize this sugar alcohol are affected in organ colonisation in a mouse model.

  17. Pathogenic and opportunistic free-living amoebae: Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri, and Sappinia diploidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visvesvara, Govinda S; Moura, Hercules; Schuster, Frederick L

    2007-06-01

    Among the many genera of free-living amoebae that exist in nature, members of only four genera have an association with human disease: Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri and Sappinia diploidea. Acanthamoeba spp. and B. mandrillaris are opportunistic pathogens causing infections of the central nervous system, lungs, sinuses and skin, mostly in immunocompromised humans. Balamuthia is also associated with disease in immunocompetent children, and Acanthamoeba spp. cause a sight-threatening infection, Acanthamoeba keratitis, mostly in contact-lens wearers. Of more than 30 species of Naegleria, only one species, N. fowleri, causes an acute and fulminating meningoencephalitis in immunocompetent children and young adults. In addition to human infections, Acanthamoeba, Balamuthia and Naegleria can cause central nervous system infections in animals. Because only one human case of encephalitis caused by Sappinia diploidea is known, generalizations about the organism as an agent of disease are premature. In this review we summarize what is known of these free-living amoebae, focusing on their biology, ecology, types of disease and diagnostic methods. We also discuss the clinical profiles, mechanisms of pathogenesis, pathophysiology, immunology, antimicrobial sensitivity and molecular characteristics of these amoebae.

  18. Leapfrog: Optimal opportunistic Routing in Probabilistically Contacted Delay Tolerant Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Jun Xiao; Liu-Sheng Huang; Qun-Feng Dong; An Liu; Zhen-Guo Yang

    2009-01-01

    Delay tolerant networks (DTNs)experience frequent and long lasting network disconnection due to various reasons such as mobility.power management.and scheduling.One primary concern in DTNs is to route messages to keep the end-to-end delivery delay as low as possible.In this paper,we study the single-copy message routing problem and propose an optimal opportunistic routing strategy--Leapfrog Routing--for probabilistically contacted DTNs where nodes encounter or contact in some fixed probabilities.We deduce the iterative computation formulate of minimum expected opportunistic delivery delay from each node to the destination and discover that under the optimal opportunistic routing strategy,messages would be delivered from high-delay node to low-delay node in the leapfrog manner.Rigorous theoretical analysis shows that such a routing strategy is exactly the optimal among all possible ones.Moreover,we apply the idea of Reverse Dijkstra algorithm to design an algorithm.When a destination iS given,this algorithm can determine for each node the routing selection function under the Leapfrog Routing strategy.The computation overhead of this algorithm is only O(n~2) where n is the number of nodes in the network.In addition,through extensive simulations based on real DTN traces,we demonstrate that our algorithm can significantly outperform the previous ones.

  19. Location-Aided Reliable Routing for Opportunistic Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Yang; Zhi Ren; Jibi Li

    2012-01-01

    In our study, we investigate the problem of location-based routing in opportunistic networks. Due to the uncertainty of end-to-end paths between sources and destinations, the classical location-based ad hoc routing protocols cannot adapt to the environment of opportunistic networks, which leads to the decrease of the delivery rate of data. To address it, we propose in this paper a novel location-aided routing protocol which is suitable for opportunistic networks. In our protocol, a node can send location information on demand by using prediction mechanism, and when sending a data packet, the node chooses multiple neighbors which are closer to the destination as next hops. If the candidate neighbors do not exist, the node carries the data till it meets a proper neighbor or the destination. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that our proposed protocol outperforms DREAM (Distance Routing Effect Protocol Mobility) and one of its improved versions, BFDREAM (Boundary Forwarding DREAM), in terms of the delivery rate and overhead.

  20. Cooperative Opportunistic Pressure Based Routing for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Nadeem; Muhammad; Sher, Arshad; Abdul, Wadood; Niaz, Iftikhar Azim; Almogren, Ahmad; Alamri, Atif

    2017-03-19

    In this paper, three opportunistic pressure based routing techniques for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) are proposed. The first one is the cooperative opportunistic pressure based routing protocol (Co-Hydrocast), second technique is the improved Hydrocast (improved-Hydrocast), and third one is the cooperative improved Hydrocast (Co-improved Hydrocast). In order to minimize lengthy routing paths between the source and the destination and to avoid void holes at the sparse networks, sensor nodes are deployed at different strategic locations. The deployment of sensor nodes at strategic locations assure the maximum monitoring of the network field. To conserve the energy consumption and minimize the number of hops, greedy algorithm is used to transmit data packets from the source to the destination. Moreover, the opportunistic routing is also exploited to avoid void regions by making backward transmissions to find reliable path towards the destination in the network. The relay cooperation mechanism is used for reliable data packet delivery, when signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the received signal is not within the predefined threshold then the maximal ratio combining (MRC) is used as a diversity technique to improve the SNR of the received signals at the destination. Extensive simulations validate that our schemes perform better in terms of packet delivery ratio and energy consumption than the existing technique; Hydrocast.

  1. Utility of clinical assessment, imaging, and cryptococcal antigen titer to predict AIDS-related complicated forms of cryptococcal meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandel Sean

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of AIDS-related complicated cryptococcal meningitis. The outcome was complicated cryptococcal meningitis: prolonged (≥ 14 days altered mental status, persistent (≥ 14 days focal neurologic findings, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF shunt placement or death. Predictor variable operating characteristics were estimated using receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC analysis. Multivariate analysis identified independent predictors of the outcome. Results From 1990-2009, 82 patients with first episode of cryptococcal meningitis were identified. Of these, 14 (17% met criteria for complicated forms of cryptococcal meningitis (prolonged altered mental status 6, persistent focal neurologic findings 7, CSF surgical shunt placement 8, and death 5. Patients with complicated cryptococcal meningitis had higher frequency of baseline focal neurological findings, head computed tomography (CT abnormalities, mean CSF opening pressure, and cryptococcal antigen (CRAG titers in serum and CSF. ROC area of log2 serum and CSF CRAG titers to predict complicated forms of cryptococcal meningitis were comparable, 0.78 (95%CI: 0.66 to 0.90 vs. 0.78 (95% CI: 0.67 to 0.89, respectively (χ2, p = 0.95. The ROC areas to predict the outcomes were similar for CSF pressure and CSF CRAG titers. In a multiple logistic regression model, the following were significant predictors of the outcome: baseline focal neurologic findings, head CT abnormalities and log2 CSF CRAG titer. Conclusions During initial clinical evaluation, a focal neurologic exam, abnormal head CT and large cryptococcal burden measured by CRAG titer are associated with the outcome of complicated cryptococcal meningitis following 2 weeks from antifungal therapy initiation.

  2. Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Vanzzini Zago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a retrospective, and descriptive study about the support that the laboratory of microbiology aids can provide in the diagnosis of ocular infections in patients whom were attended a tertiary-care hospital in México City in a 10-year-time period. We describe the microbiological diagnosis in palpebral mycose; in keratitis caused by Fusarium, Aspergillus, Candida, and melanized fungi; endophthalmitis; one Histoplasma scleritis and one mucormycosis. Nowadays, ocular fungal infections are more often diagnosed, because there is more clinical suspicion and there are easy laboratory confirmations. Correct diagnosis is important because an early medical treatment gives a better prognosis for visual acuity. In some cases, fungal infections are misdiagnosed and the antifungal treatment is delayed.

  3. Intestinal parasitic infections in Thai HIV-infected patients with different immunity status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwanitkit Viroj

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the major health problems among HIV seropositive patients is superimposed infection due to the defect of immunity. Furthermore, intestinal parasite infection, which is also one of the basic health problems in tropical region, is common in these patients. In this study, a cross sectional study to document the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in Thai HIV-infected patients with different immune status was performed. Methods A study of stool samples from 60 Thai HIV-infected patients with different immune status was performed at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thailand. Each patient was examined for CD4 count and screened for diarrheal symptoms. Results The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among the HIV-infected patients in this study was 50 %. Non- opportunistic intestinal parasite infections such as hookworms, Opisthorchis viverrini and Ascaris lumbricoides were commonly found in HIV-infected people regardless of immune status with or without diarrheal symptoms. Opportunistic intestinal parasites such as Cryptosporidium, Isospora belli, Microsporidia and Strongyloides stercoralis infection were significantly more frequent in the low immunity group with diarrhea. Conclusion Therefore, opportunistic intestinal parasite infection should be suspected in any HIV infected patient with advanced disease presenting with diarrhea. The importance of tropical epidemic non-opportunistic intestinal parasite infections among HIV-infected patients should not be neglected.

  4. 类获得性免疫缺陷(阴性HIV)“患者”的流行病学调查%Epidemiological investigation of cases with complained AIDS-related complex (HIV negative)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雅琼; 林辉; 于磊; 王清青; 王太武; 马翔宇; 凌华; 吴国辉; 张路

    2013-01-01

    目的 对社区类获得性免疫缺陷(AIDS)综合征(阴性HIV)“患者”进行病因探索.方法 采用定性系统分析筛检国内外相关综合征报道病例,探索类AIDS综合征“患者”临床特征可能的聚类属性;通过现况调查掌握“患者”人群的一般特征和临床特征.结果 定性系统分析显示,目前在世界范围,与类AIDS综合征(阴性HIV)“患者”相似的疾病有2种,即CD4+T淋巴细胞缺陷综合征(ICL)和非结核分枝杆菌感染(NTM感染);通过174例网络调查和52例现场观察,发现“患者”人群以男性为主,青、中年为主;在国内分布地区广泛;主诉症状涉及呼吸道、消化道、皮肤、肌肉、骨骼和神经系统;根据症状特点,病程有急性期和稳定期之分;群体症状及体征为:淋巴结部位肿胀感、骨痛、肌肉“跳”(痛)、淋巴结节、皮肤结节(皮疹)、舌苔白厚、关节弹响、皮肤干燥;52例“患者”检测发现CD4+T淋巴细胞< 500/μL 17例(32.69%)、CD4/CD8比值异常16例(30.77%)、干扰素-γ抗体阳性17例(36.69%)和PPD阳性39例(++~+++,75.00%);高危险性行为是可疑的暴露因素之一.结论 类AIDS综合征(阴性HIV)“患者”现象不能完全用心理因素予以解释,其呈现的临床特征有明显的一致性和规律性,亟待开展深入研究进行分析.%Objective To investigate the possible causes of AIDS-related complex (HIV negative) in community population. Methods Qualitative systematic analysis was used to screen the cases with AIDS-related complex (HIV negative) that had been reported. The possible clustering types of the clinical features of AIDS-related complex were explored based on a cross-section study that had been conducted to observe the personality and clinical features of the cases with AIDS-related complex. Results The qualitative systematic analysis suggested that the idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia (ICL) and infection of

  5. HIV/aids related home based care practices among primary health care workers in Ogun state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Amoran

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS is fast becoming a chronic disease with the advent of antiretroviral drugs, therefore making home based care key in the management of chronically ill HIV/AIDS patient. The objective of this study was to determine the perception and practice of health care workers on HIV/AIDS related home based care in the health facilities in Ogun state, Nigeria. Methods This study is an analytical cross-sectional study. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to obtain a representative sample of the primary health care workers in Ogun state. An interviewer administered structured questionnaire was administered by trained health workers to elicit the required information. Result A total of 350 health care workers were interviewed, 70% of the respondents could adequately describe the components of home based care. Only 38.7% were aware of the National guideline on home based care practices and 17.1% believe that home based care will not significantly improve the prognosis of PLWAs. Few 19.1% had ever been trained or ever involved 16.6% in home based care practices. Only 20 [5.7%] are involved on a weekly basis, 16 [4.6%] monthly and 22 [6.3%] quarterly. Reasons given for non implementation of home based care are inadequate number of healthcare workers 45%, lack of political will 24.4%, lack of implementation by facility managers 14% and inadequate funds 16.6%. Factors that were significantly associated with the practice of home based care were perception of its relevance in improving prognosis [OR = 54.21, C.I = 23.22-129.52] and presence of a support group in the facility [OR = 4.80, C.I = 2.40-9.57]. There was however no statistically significant relationship between adequate knowledge of home based care [OR = 0.78, C.I = 0.39-1.54] and previous training on home based care (OR = 1.43, C.I = 0.66-3.06]. Conclusion The practice of home based care for HIV/AIDS among the study population is low

  6. Memory CD4+ T cells are required for optimal NK cell effector functions against the opportunistic fungal pathogen Pneumocystis murina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michelle N; Zheng, Mingquan; Ruan, Sanbao; Kolls, Jay; D'Souza, Alain; Shellito, Judd E

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the role of NK cells or their interplay with other immune cells during opportunistic infections. Using our murine model of Pneumocystis pneumonia, we found that loss of NK cells during immunosuppression results in substantial Pneumocystis lung burden. During early infection of C57B/6 CD4(+) T cell-depleted mice, there were significantly fewer NK cells in the lung tissue compared with CD4(+) T cell-intact animals, and the NK cells present demonstrated decreased upregulation of the activation marker NKp46 and production of the effector cytokine, IFN-γ. Furthermore, coincubation studies revealed a significant increase in fungal killing when NK cells were combined with CD4(+) T cells compared with either cell alone, which was coincident with a significant increase in perforin production by NK cells. Finally, however, we found through adoptive transfer that memory CD4(+) T cells are required for significant NK cell upregulation of the activation marker NK group 2D and production of IFN-γ, granzyme B, and perforin during Pneumocystis infection. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate a role for NK cells in immunity to Pneumocystis pneumonia, as well as to establish a functional relationship between CD4(+) T cells and NK cells in the host response to an opportunistic fungal pathogen.

  7. Skin microbiota is the main reservoir of Roseomonas mucosa, an emerging opportunistic pathogen so far assumed to be environmental.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano-Bertrand, S; Bourdier, A; Aujoulat, F; Michon, A-L; Masnou, A; Parer, S; Marchandin, H; Jumas-Bilak, E

    2016-08-01

    Roseomonas spp. are increasingly involved in human infectious diseases. The environmental source for infection is generally admitted in published cases owing to the origin of most Roseomonas species and to their affiliation to the family Acetobacteraceae in Rhodospirillales, which mainly groups environmental bacteria. For a better delineation of Roseomonas habitat and infectious reservoir, we related phenotype, phylotype (16S rRNA gene), genomotype (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) and origin of 33 strains isolated from humans, hospital environment and natural environment. Genetic and metagenomic databases were also surveyed. The population structure of the genus showed clades associated with humans, whereas others grouped environmental strains only. Roseomonas mucosa is the main human-associated species and the study supported the idea that opportunistic infections due to this species are related to the patient skin microbiota rather than to the environment. In contrast, some strains belonging to other species isolated from patients with cystic fibrosis were related to environmental clades, suggesting an exogenous source for patient colonization. Accurate knowledge about the reservoirs of opportunistic pathogens that have long been considered of environmental origin is still needed and would be helpful to improve infection control and epidemiological survey of emerging human pathogens.

  8. Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Interactions between biofilms and the environment. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 1997;20:291–303. 4. Webb LX, Wagner W, Carroll D, et al. Osteomyelitis and...treatment of osteomyelitis . Biomed Mater. 2008;3: 034114. 6. Gristina AG. Biomaterial-centered infection: microbial adhesion versus tissue integration...vertebral osteomyelitis . Spine. 2007;32: 2996–3006. 15. Beckham JD, Tuttle K, Tyler KL. Reovirus activates transforming growth factor ß and bone

  9. The distribution of Aspergillus spp. opportunistic parasites in hives and their pathogenicity to honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Kirsten; Fazio, Géraldine; Jensen, Annette B; Hughes, William O H

    2014-03-14

    Stonebrood is a disease of honey bee larvae caused by fungi from the genus Aspergillus. As very few studies have focused on the epidemiological aspects of stonebrood and diseased brood may be rapidly discarded by worker bees, it is possible that a high number of cases go undetected. Aspergillus spp. fungi are ubiquitous and associated with disease in many insects, plants, animals and man. They are regarded as opportunistic pathogens that require immunocompromised hosts to establish infection. Microbiological studies have shown high prevalences of Aspergillus spp. in apiaries which occur saprophytically on hive substrates. However, the specific conditions required for pathogenicity to develop remain unknown. In this study, an apiary was screened to determine the prevalence and diversity of Aspergillus spp. fungi. A series of dose-response tests were then conducted using laboratory reared larvae to determine the pathogenicity and virulence of frequently occurring isolates. The susceptibility of adult worker bees to Aspergillus flavus was also tested. Three isolates (A. flavus, Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus phoenicis) of the ten species identified were pathogenic to honey bee larvae. Moreover, adult honey bees were also confirmed to be highly susceptible to A. flavus infection when they ingested conidia. Neither of the two Aspergillus fumigatus strains used in dose-response tests induced mortality in larvae and were the least pathogenic of the isolates tested. These results confirm the ubiquity of Aspergillus spp. in the apiary environment and highlight their potential to infect both larvae and adult bees.

  10. Impact of Interventions Targeting Unhealthy Alcohol Use in Kenya on HIV Transmission and AIDS-Related Deaths

    OpenAIRE

    Braithwaite, R. Scott; Nucifora, Kimberly A; KESSLER, Jason; Toohey, Christopher; Mentor, Sherry M; Uhler, Lauren M.; Roberts, Mark S.; Bryant, Kendall

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV remains a major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in Kenya. The effects of behaviors that accompany unhealthy alcohol consumption are a pervasive risk factor for HIV transmission and progression. Our objective was to estimate the portion of HIV infections attributable to unhealthy alcohol use and to evaluate the impact of hypothetical interventions directed at unhealthy alcohol use on HIV infections and deaths. Methods We estimated outcomes over a time horizon of 20 ...

  11. Prevalence of microsporidiosis due to Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon (Septata) intestinalis among patients with AIDS-related diarrhea: determination by polymerase chain reaction to the microsporidian small-subunit rRNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, C M; Wittner, M; Kotler, D P; Noyer, C; Orenstein, J M; Tanowitz, H B; Weiss, L M

    1996-11-01

    Microsporidia are emerging as opportunistic pathogens in patients with AIDS. Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon (Septata) intestinalis have been implicated in enteric infections in AIDS patients with chronic diarrhea, a wasting syndrome, and malabsorption. We used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and primers that amplify the conserved regions of the small-subunit rRNA (SSU-rRNA) gene of E. bieneusi and E. intestinalis in tissue specimens from HIV-infected patients with and without diarrhea to examine the association between microsporidia and diarrhea in patients with AIDS. Tissue specimens were obtained from 68 patients with AIDS and diarrhea (mean CD4 lymphocyte count, 21/mm3) and 43 AIDS patients without diarrhea (mean CD4 lymphocyte count, 60/mm3). By means of PCR with use of the SSU-rRNA primers specific for E. bieneusi and E. intestinalis, we found that 44% of patients with diarrhea were infected with microsporidia, whereas only 2.3% of the patients without diarrhea were infected with microsporidia (P < .001). There was a clear association between the presence of microsporidia and diarrhea. In addition, the SSU-rRNA primers proved to be sensitive and specific when used in this clinical setting.

  12. Respiratory syncytial virus infection facilitates acute colonization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vrankrijker, Angélica M M; Wolfs, Tom F W; Ciofu, Oana;

    2009-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals and patients ventilated mechanically and is the major pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis, in which it causes chronic infections. Epidemiological, in vitro and animal data suggest a role for respiratory ...

  13. Liver Enzymes Abnormalities among Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Experienced and HAART Naïve HIV-1 Infected Patients at Debre Tabor Hospital, North West Ethiopia: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melashu Balew Shiferaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver disease has emerged as the most common non-AIDS-related cause of death in HIV patients. However, there is limited data regarding this condition including our setting in Ethiopia. Hence, liver enzyme abnormalities among highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART experienced and HAART naïve patients were assessed in this study. A total of 164 HAART experienced and 164 HAART naïve patients were studied. Blood specimen was collected to determine alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, CD4 count, and viral hepatitis. The prevalence of liver enzyme abnormality was 20.1% and 22.0% among HAART experienced and HAART naïve patients, respectively. The HAART experienced patients had higher mean ALT than HAART naïve patients (P=0.002. Viral hepatitis (AOR = 6.02; 95% CI = 1.87–19.39, opportunistic infections (AOR = 2.91; 95% CI = 1.04–8.19, current CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 (AOR = 2.16; 95% CI = 1.06–4.39, and male sex (AOR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.001–3.33 were associated with elevated ALT and/or AST. In conclusion, liver enzyme abnormalities were high in both HAART experienced and HAART naïve HIV-1 infected patients. Hence, monitoring and management of liver enzyme abnormalities in HIV-1 infected patients are important in our setting.

  14. Hospital Water Supply as a Potential Source of Opportunistic Pathogens

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    H. T. El-Zanfaly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Egypt as well as in many other developing countries, there are no specific standards for hospital water. Even water is free from the traditional bacterial indicators, it may represent a source of health hazards especially for elderly, children and patients under dialysis due to the presence of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria. The study was carried out on the bacteriological water quality at the intakes as well as the end of water treatment train of two water treatment plants that supplying three hospitals located in Greater Cairo, Egypt with water that used for different purposes. Samples of the raw water supply for the two water treatment plants (Nile River water showed ranges of 102-105 cfu mL-1, 102-104 MPN 100 mL-1, 102-104 MPN 100 mL-1 and 102-103 MPN 100 mL-1 for Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC bacteria, Total Coliforms (TC, Fecal Coliforms (FC and Fecal Streptococci (FS, respectively. Treated water showed considerable reduction in HPC while the other bacterial indicators reached the undetectable level. The distribution system impact on treated water quality was limited to causing an increase in HPC bacteria. A study was carried out to determine the presence of Pseudomonas aeuginosa, Aeromonas spp. and Staphylococcus aureus in hospitals tap water, water reservoirs, as well as water for preparation of hemodialysis fluids. Although the post-chlorinated water in both water treatment plants was free from bacterial indicators, it still contaminated with the three studied opportunistic pathogenic bacteria. The detected opportunistic pathogens may be attributed to the distribution system condition and/or the presence of storage tanks. Hemodialysis water samples showed the higher percentage of P. aeruginosa isolates which represent a major source of health risk to patient’s attending dialysis process in hospitals and clinics. The presence of opportunistic bacteria in drinking water and dialysate with absence of coliform and low HPC

  15. Survey on Opportunistic Networks in Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks

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    Koushik.C.P

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Delay Tolerant Network is an emerging research field in Mobile sensor network. It use forwarding technique to transmit the message from source to destination, there is no complete path between sources to destination. Due to mobility of nodes there is frequent change in node paten and difficult to find the path, there is chance that message keep on forwarded inside the network. In this paper we made detail survey on Opportunistic Routing Protocol in mobile network, and in that node getting the message form neighbor node and moving away from Sink. We proposed a technique in Gradient based Routing Protocol to solve node moving away from sink with message.

  16. CORMEN: Coding-Aware Opportunistic Routing in Wireless Mess Network

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Jeherul

    2010-01-01

    These Network Coding improves the network operation beyond the traditional routing or store-and-forward, by mixing of data stream within a network. Network coding techniques explicitly minimizes the total no of transmission in wireless network. The Coding-aware routing maximizes the coding opportunity by finding the coding possible path for every packet in the network. Here we propose CORMEN: a new coding-aware routing mechanism based on opportunistic routing. In CORMEN, every node independently can take the decision whether to code packets or not and forwarding of packets is based on the coding opportunity available.

  17. Hybrid-ARQ in Multihop Networks with Opportunistic Relay Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Lo, Caleb K; Vishwanath, Sriram

    2007-01-01

    This paper develops a contention-based opportunistic feedback technique towards relay selection in a dense wireless network. This technique enables the forwarding of additional parity information from the selected relay to the destination. For a given network, the effects of varying key parameters such as the feedback probability are presented and discussed. A primary advantage of the proposed technique is that relay selection can be performed in a distributed way. Simulation results find its performance to closely match that of centralized schemes that utilize GPS information, unlike the proposed method. The proposed relay selection method is also found to achieve throughput gains over a point-to-point transmission strategy.

  18. "A PCR-RFLP Method to Identification of the Important Opportunistic Fungi: Candida Species, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus famigatus and Fusarium solani"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Mirhendi

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Deep-seated fungal infection present with non specific symptoms and involove a large number of different organisms. DNA-based technology offers for eariler detection of fungal pathogens and then earlier initiation of antifungal therapy. In this study universal primers common to almost all fungi were used to amplification of internal transcribe spacer 1 and 2 region. Subsequent restriction enzyme analysis of PCR products, using HpaII allows us to identify the most medically opportunistic important fungi: Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. kruzei, C. guilliermondi, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium solani, according to sizely different bands in polyacrilamid gel electrophoresis. It seems that this panel of PCR-RFLP could be a rapid and useful molecular approach in diagnostic studies of invasive opportunistic fungal infections.

  19. Validity and Reliability of Persian Version of HIV/AIDS Related Stigma Scale for People Living With HIV/AIDS in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Pourmarzi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the perceived HIV/AIDS related stigma a comprehensive and well developed stigma instrument is necessary. This study aimed to assess validity and reliability of the Persian version of HIV/AIDS related stigma scale which was developed by Kang et al for people living with HIV/AIDS in Iran.Materials and methods: Thescale was forward translatedby two bilingual academic members then both translations were discussed by expert team. Back-translation was done by two other bilingual translators then we carried out discussion with both of them. To evaluate understandability the scale was administered to 10 Persons Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA. Final Persian version was administered to 80 PLWHA in Qom, Iran in 2014. Test–retest reliability was assessed in a sample of 20 PLWHA after a week by intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC.Results: Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for overall scale was 0.85. Also Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the five subscales were as follows: social rejection (9 items, α = 0.84, negative self-worth (4 items, α = 0.70, perceived interpersonal insecurity (2 items, α = 0.57, financial insecurity (3 items, α = 0.70, discretionary disclosure (2 items, α = 0.83. Test–retest reliability was also approved with ICC = 0.78. Correlation between items and their hypothesized subscale is greater than 0.5. Correlation between an item and its own subscale was significantly higher than its correlation with other subscales.Conclusion: This study demonstrate that the Persian version of HIV/AIDS related stigma scale is valid and reliable to assess HIV/AIDS related stigma perceived by people living whit HIV/AIDS in Iran.

  20. The role and regulation of catalase in respiratory tract opportunistic bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Mia M; Fan, Xin

    2014-09-01

    Respiratory tract bacterial pathogens are the etiologic agents of a variety of illnesses. The ability of these bacteria to cause disease is imparted through survival within the host and avoidance of pathogen clearance by the immune system. Respiratory tract pathogens are continually bombarded by reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may be produced by competing bacteria, normal metabolic function, or host immunological responses. In order to survive and proliferate, bacteria have adapted defense mechanisms to circumvent the effects of ROS. Bacteria employ the use of anti-oxidant enzymes, catalases and catalase-peroxidases, to relieve the effects of the oxidative stressors to which they are continually exposed. The decomposition of ROS has been shown to provide favorable conditions in which respiratory tract opportunistic bacterial pathogens such as Haemophilus influenzae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Legionella pneumophila, and Neisseria meningitidis are able to withstand exposure to highly reactive molecules and yet survive. Bacteria possessing mutations in the catalase gene have a decreased survival rate, yet may be able to compensate for the lack of catalatic activity if peroxidatic activity is present. An incomplete knowledge of the mechanisms by which catalase and catalase-peroxidases are regulated still persists, however, in some bacterial species, a regulatory factor known as OxyR has been shown to either up-regulate or down-regulate catalase gene expression. Yet, more research is still needed to increase the knowledge base in relation to this enzyme class. As with this review, we focus on major respiratory tract opportunistic bacterial pathogens in order to elucidate the function and regulation of catalases. The importance of the research could lead to the development of novel treatments against respiratory bacterial infections.

  1. A Novel Cooperative Opportunistic Routing Scheme for Underwater Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreyshi, Seyed Mohammad; Shahrabi, Alireza; Boutaleb, Tuleen

    2016-01-01

    Increasing attention has recently been devoted to underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) because of their capabilities in the ocean monitoring and resource discovery. UWSNs are faced with different challenges, the most notable of which is perhaps how to efficiently deliver packets taking into account all of the constraints of the available acoustic communication channel. The opportunistic routing provides a reliable solution with the aid of intermediate nodes' collaboration to relay a packet toward the destination. In this paper, we propose a new routing protocol, called opportunistic void avoidance routing (OVAR), to address the void problem and also the energy-reliability trade-off in the forwarding set selection. OVAR takes advantage of distributed beaconing, constructs the adjacency graph at each hop and selects a forwarding set that holds the best trade-off between reliability and energy efficiency. The unique features of OVAR in selecting the candidate nodes in the vicinity of each other leads to the resolution of the hidden node problem. OVAR is also able to select the forwarding set in any direction from the sender, which increases its flexibility to bypass any kind of void area with the minimum deviation from the optimal path. The results of our extensive simulation study show that OVAR outperforms other protocols in terms of the packet delivery ratio, energy consumption, end-to-end delay, hop count and traversed distance.

  2. Cyclostationary Beacon for Assisting Spectrum Sensing in Opportunistic Spectrum Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kaiser

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio is a promising solution to the problem of spectrum scarcity by means of allowing secondary radio networks access the spectrum opportunistically. One of the most important issues in cognitive radio is how to detect existing over-the-air signals reliably. Not a few literatures have reported that signals could be detected via their inherent or embedded properties. However, this approach may not be reliable and flexible enough for all kinds of signals with different modulation types. In this paper, we propose a type of multitone beacon signal carrying cyclostationary signatures, which is able to enhance the reliability and efficiency of signal detection at low cost of spectrum overhead. This beacon not only can indicate the presence or absence of user signal but also can reveal some other information helpful to opportunistic spectrum access through the information bits carried on its cyclostationary signatures. It could be applied to device/network identification, indication of spectrum allocation and spectrum rendezvous, both for primary and secondary users. Based on our previous work reported in [1], the generation and detection algorithm of the beacon signal are extended with improved spectral efficiency. Performance is discussed with both computer simulation and testbed validation.

  3. Opportunistic spectrum sharing in software defined wireless network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Yang; Yong Li; Depeng Jin; Li Su; Lieguang Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the world has witnessed a rapid growth in mobile and wireless networks (MWNs) which significantly change human life. However, proliferating mobile de-mands lead to several intractable chal enges that MWN has to face. Software-defined network is expected as a promising way for future network and has captured growing attention. Network virtualization is an essential feature in software-defined wireless network (SDWN), and it brings two new entities, physical networks and virtual networks. Accordingly, efficiently assigning spectrum resource to virtual networks is one of the fundamental problems in SDWN. Directly orienting towards the spectrum resource al o-cation problem, firstly, the fluctuation features of virtual network requirements in SDWN are researched, and the opportunistic spectrum sharing method is introduced to SDWN. Then, the prob-lem is proved as NP-hardness. After that, a dynamic programming and graph theory based spectrum sharing algorithm is proposed. Simulations demonstrate that the opportunistic spectrum sharing method conspicuously improves the system performance up to around 20%–30%in SDWN, and the proposed algorithm achieves more efficient performance.

  4. Psychological predictors of opportunistic snacking in the absence of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Stephanie H; White, Melanie J; Finlayson, Graham; King, Neil A

    2015-08-01

    Increased frequency of eating in the absence of homeostatic need, notably through snacking, is an important contributor to overconsumption and may be facilitated by increased availability of palatable food in the obesogenic environment. Opportunistic initiation of snacking is likely to be subject to individual differences, although these are infrequently studied in laboratory-based research paradigms. This study examined psychological factors associated with opportunistic initiation of snacking, and predictors of intake in the absence of homeostatic need. Fifty adults (mean age 34.5years, mean BMI 23.9kg/m(2), 56% female) participated in a snack taste test in which they ate a chocolate snack to satiation, after which they were offered an unanticipated opportunity to initiate a second eating episode. Trait and behavioural measures of self control, sensitivity to reward, dietary restraint and disinhibited eating were taken. Results showed that, contrary to expectations, those who initiated snacking were better at inhibitory control compared with those who did not initiate. However, amongst participants who initiated snacking, intake (kcal) was predicted by higher food reward sensitivity, impulsivity and BMI. These findings suggest that snacking initiation in the absence of hunger is an important contributor to overconsumption. Consideration of the individual differences promoting initiation of eating may aid in reducing elevated eating frequency in at-risk individuals.

  5. Opportunistic Cognitive Relaying: A Win-Win Spectrum Sharing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Haiyan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A cost-effective spectrum sharing architecture is proposed to enable the legacy noncognitive secondary system to coexist with the primary system. Specifically, we suggest to install a few intermediate nodes, namely, the cognitive relays, to conduct the spectrum sensing and coordinate the spectrum access. To achieve the goal of win-win between primary and secondary systems, the cognitive relay may act as a cooperator for both of them, and an Opportunistic Cognitive Relaying (OCR scheme is specially devised. In this scheme, the cognitive relay opportunistically switches among three different working modes, that is, Relay for Primary Link (RPL, Relay for Secondary Link (RSL, or Relay for Neither of the Links (RNL, respectively, based on the channel-dependent observation of both systems. In addition, the transmit power for cognitive relay and secondary transmitter in each mode are optimally determined by maximizing the transmission rate of secondary system while keeping or even reducing the outage probability of primary system. Simulation results validate the efficiency of the proposed spectrum sharing scheme.

  6. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria in natural, industrial and clinical settings predominantly live in biofilms, i.e., sessile structured microbial communities encased in self-produced extracellular matrix material. One of the most important characteristics of microbial biofilms is that the resident bacteria display...... a remarkable increased tolerance toward antimicrobial attack. Biofilms formed by opportunistic pathogenic bacteria are involved in devastating persistent medical device-associated infections, and chronic infections in individuals who are immune-compromised or otherwise impaired in the host defense. Because...... the use of conventional antimicrobial compounds in many cases cannot eradicate biofilms, there is an urgent need to develop alternative measures to combat biofilm infections. The present review is focussed on the important opportunistic pathogen and biofilm model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Initially...

  7. Mycobacterial Infections in AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ross Hill

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains uniquely important among acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS-associated opportunistic infections: it presents the greatest public health hazard worldwide, is the most readily curable, and is largely preventable with existing means. Given the expanding pool of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seropositive persons, particularly in developing nations where Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a leading health problem, one can expect a continued rise in TB cases during the 1990s. Global efforts to eliminate TB are now inextricably entwined with the effectiveness of measures to curtail the HIV epidemic. Mycobacterium avium complex infection, currently an intractable late complication of aids, may increase in clinical importance as success in managing other opportunistic infections and HIV disease itself improves. Understanding of the pathogenesis and management of mycobacterial diseases should increase rapidly given the renewed research spurred on by the advent of HIV.

  8. CARDIOVASCULAR ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS WITH HIV INFECTION: A BOLT IN BLUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the consistent findings among various studies on HIV has been simultaneous multiorgan dysfunction. Cardiovascular disorders are now most common cause of mortality worldwide. With more effective and widespread treatment of HIV in resource-rich settings, morbidity and mortality from non-AIDS-related events have surpassed those from AIDS-related events with cardiovascular diseases emerging as an important cause of death in HIV-infected patients relative to the decreasing incidence of opportunistic disease. Various studies have reported a 1.5-fold increase in the rate of cardiovascular events in HIV-infected individuals compared to control populations. MATERIAL AND METHODS The aim of the study was to the find the prevalence and types of different cardiovascular abnormalities in HIV positive patients and assess their association with CD4 counts. Consecutive 82 patients, HIV positive patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria and giving informed consent were included in the study. All patients were subjected to history taking and a detailed physical examination. Blood counts, renal function tests, lipid profile and CD4 counts were estimated and patients were subjected to 12-lead ECG, chest X-ray and 2D/Colour Doppler Echocardiogram. RESULTS Of the 82 patients studied 47.46% had evidence of cardiovascular involvement, out of which 12% had clinical features of heart failure while electrocardiographic changes were seen in 35% of patients in the form of sinus tachycardia (27%, QTc prolongation (10% and left sided chamber enlargements (6%. Echocardiographic abnormalities were noted in 39 patients (47.56% including fractional shortening associated with systolic dysfunction (26.8%. The mean CD4 count in patients with echocardiographic abnormalities was found to be 58.87±29.80, whereas in patients without echocardiographic abnormalities it was 136.53±38.80 (p<0.0001. CONCLUSION High frequencies of cardiac abnormalities, both symptomatic and

  9. Understanding Culture and Its Influence on HIV/AIDS-Related Communication Among Minority Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Ambar; Dillon, Patrick J; Romero-Daza, Nancy

    2016-11-01

    Scholarly research and government surveillance reports demonstrate that African American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) bear an inequitable burden of new HIV infections. Among the estimated 31,896 HIV infections attributed to male-to-male sexual contact in 2011, approximately 62% occurred in African American (38.2%) and Latino (23.5) MSM. Simultaneously, recent scholarship on minority MSM and HIV/AIDS reports a dearth of qualitative communication research that address this health issue. This manuscript reports a research study that seeks to fill this gap in health communication theory and praxis. Through in-depth interviews with 17 MSM of color, this article draws upon the culture-centered approach to demonstrate how cultural and contextual nuances, (in)access to structural resources, and participants' agentive capacity to act upon available knowledge/resources influences the ways they manage (the threat of) HIV/AIDS.

  10. The Opportunistic House for Tehran: A Design Prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Khorshidifard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is an advocacy research for Tehran, promoting an implication of architectural design as a tool for citizen empowerment and positive environmental change. In the article, I am offering a fresh look at Tehran’s housing problems by speculating an “opportunistic house” typology as a residential style that would serve much more than just shelter. I am making a case for a new house prototype that applies socially-equitable solutions in design. My study finds applications and significance beyond plain housing design and, mainly, onto the design of ad hoc urban public realm spaces. This is in accord with my overarching mission of supporting new way of thinking about, and ultimately offering, welcoming, safe, and energized places for Tehran’s citizens. These will additionally have important implications for inhospitable public spaces worldwide. This research is grounded in my prior, multidisciplinary doctoral studies. The article itself is an initial step in my ongoing research design, of helping to build and revitalize a wide range of urban communities by nurturing their relationship to their built and natural environments. The article is a discussion around the following questions. How can housing design inventions empower citizens? In what manner can design offer progressive living place options whose services go beyond shelter needs? Particularly, in what ways can domestic spaces be designed to also embody other-than-living capacities, for example, for new kinds of public spaces? And eventually, what could a prototype of the opportunistic house look like in the context of a city like Tehran? The article is structured to first present a brief survey of how Tehran house forms and functions have developed historically, with more emphasis on their current state. It will then offer examples of opportunistic uses of domestic spaces in Tehran. This notion is communicated through narrative analysis and photographic vignettes from a few

  11. Care of Patients With HIV Infection: Medical Complications and Comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, Philip; Roder, Navid; Colgate, Emily; Cheeseman, Sarah H

    2016-04-01

    Care of patients with HIV infection starts with diagnosis as soon as possible, preferably at or near the time of acute infection. Opportunistic infections, malignancies, and other conditions develop progressively over time, particularly in untreated patients. The AIDS-defining opportunistic infections most common in the United States include Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, Candida esophagitis, toxoplasmic encephalitis, tuberculosis, disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex, cryptococcal meningitis, and cytomegalovirus retinitis. Specific prophylaxis regimens exist for several opportunistic infections, and effective antiretroviral therapy reduces the risk of most others. Other AIDS-defining conditions include wasting syndrome and HIV encephalopathy. AIDS-defining malignancies include Kaposi sarcoma, systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma, primary central nervous system lymphoma, and invasive cervical cancer. Although not an AIDS-defining condition, anal cancer is common in patients with HIV infection. Other HIV-related conditions include thrombocytopenia, recurrent bacterial respiratory infections, HIV-associated nephropathy, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder.

  12. Opportunistic splitting for scheduling using a score-based approach

    KAUST Repository

    Rashid, Faraan

    2012-06-01

    We consider the problem of scheduling a user in a multi-user wireless environment in a distributed manner. The opportunistic splitting algorithm is applied to find the best group of users without reporting the channel state information to the centralized scheduler. The users find the best among themselves while requiring just a ternary feedback from the common receiver at the end of each mini-slot. The original splitting algorithm is modified to handle users with asymmetric channel conditions. We use a score-based approach with the splitting algorithm to introduce time and throughput fairness while exploiting the multi-user diversity of the network. Analytical and simulation results are given to show that the modified score-based splitting algorithm works well as a fair scheduling scheme with good spectral efficiency and reduced feedback. © 2012 IEEE.

  13. DATA FORWARDING IN OPPORTUNISTIC NETWORK USING MOBILE TRACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Poonguzharselvi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic networks are usually formed spontaneously by mobile devices equipped with short range wireless communication interfaces. The idea is that an end-to-end connection may never be present. Designing and implementing a routing protocol to support both service discovery and delivery in such kinds of networks is a challenging problem on account of frequent disconnections and topology changes. In these networks one of the most important issues relies on the selection of the best intermediate node to forward the messages towards the destination. This paper presents a mobile trace based routing protocol that uses the location information of the nodes in the network. Using the trace information, next hop is selected to forward the packets to destination. Data forwarding is done via the selected nodes. The effectiveness is shown using simulation.

  14. Sinabro: A Smartphone-Integrated Opportunistic Electrocardiogram Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sungjun; Lee, Dongseok; Kim, Jeehoon; Lee, Youngki; Kang, Seungwoo; Seo, Sangwon; Park, Kwangsuk

    2016-03-11

    In our preliminary study, we proposed a smartphone-integrated, unobtrusive electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring system, Sinabro, which monitors a user's ECG opportunistically during daily smartphone use without explicit user intervention. The proposed system also monitors ECG-derived features, such as heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV), to support the pervasive healthcare apps for smartphones based on the user's high-level contexts, such as stress and affective state levels. In this study, we have extended the Sinabro system by: (1) upgrading the sensor device; (2) improving the feature extraction process; and (3) evaluating extensions of the system. We evaluated these extensions with a good set of algorithm parameters that were suggested based on empirical analyses. The results showed that the system could capture ECG reliably and extract highly accurate ECG-derived features with a reasonable rate of data drop during the user's daily smartphone use.

  15. Optimistic Opportunistic Routing Techniques for Wireless Sensor Networks: -A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Anuradha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Secure and optimistic routing is very important and significant task in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN. In multi-hop communication, selection of routing path between the sensor nodes in the sensor field is essential and also important. Based on the coordination, time based, token based and network coding based techniques the data packets are forwarded from the source to the destination through the intermediate nodes in the network called Opportunistic Routing (OR. Compared with traditional routing, the OR uses the broadcast nature of transmission which greatly increases the wireless network throughput, reliability. In order to support higher node density in WSN, the selection of the most optimistic, flexible, dynamic and reliable OR mechanism and OR protocol are important. In this study the various OR mechanisms and OR protocol are identified and design issues like delivery ratio, packet transmission rate, communication pattern, reliability rate, throughput and fault tolerance are discussed and the comparative results are also tabulated.

  16. Sinabro: A Smartphone-Integrated Opportunistic Electrocardiogram Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungjun Kwon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In our preliminary study, we proposed a smartphone-integrated, unobtrusive electrocardiogram (ECG monitoring system, Sinabro, which monitors a user’s ECG opportunistically during daily smartphone use without explicit user intervention. The proposed system also monitors ECG-derived features, such as heart rate (HR and heart rate variability (HRV, to support the pervasive healthcare apps for smartphones based on the user’s high-level contexts, such as stress and affective state levels. In this study, we have extended the Sinabro system by: (1 upgrading the sensor device; (2 improving the feature extraction process; and (3 evaluating extensions of the system. We evaluated these extensions with a good set of algorithm parameters that were suggested based on empirical analyses. The results showed that the system could capture ECG reliably and extract highly accurate ECG-derived features with a reasonable rate of data drop during the user’s daily smartphone use.

  17. Opportunistic microorganisms in individuals with lesions of denture stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida; Toledo, Bruna Costa; Santos, Camila Teles; Pereira Costa, Anna Carolina Borges; Back-Brito, Graziella Nuernberg; Kaminagakura, Estela; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate, quantify, identify, and compare opportunistic microorganisms (Candida and Staphylococcus genera and Enterobacteriaceae/Pseudomonadaceae families) from prosthesis-fitting surfaces, the hard palate, and mouth rinses of individuals wearing removable maxillary prosthesis with (50) and without (50) lesions of denture stomatitis (DS). The strains were collected and identified using phenotypic, biochemical and molecular tests. The counts of microorganisms were significantly higher in the group of individuals with DS (P < 0.05). C. albicans was the most frequently isolated yeast species in both groups, following by C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. Six isolates were identified as C. dubliniensis. S. aureus and S. epidermidis were the most frequent Staphylococcus species in both groups. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the predominant species in both groups. The association between Candida spp. and bacteria isolated in this study with DS suggests that these microorganisms may play important roles in the establishment and persistence of this disease.

  18. Congestion Control Strategy for Opportunistic Network Based on Message Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng-yin Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To solve the congestion problem in opportunistic networks, a congestion control strategy based on message deleting and transferring(DATM is proposed. The congested node calculates the storage value of each message according to the forwarding probability and TTL of message, then deletes the message with the minimum storage value and transfers the message with the minimum forwarding probability to neighboring nodes. The neighboring nodes calculate the receiving value of the message according to the forwarding probability and free buffer capacity of this message. The congested node transfers the message to the neighboring node with the maximum receiving value. The message will be deleted when there is no neighboring node to receive it. The algorithm is more targeted at deleting messages. Besides, it combines the strategy of transferring message. Therefore, it can deal with the congestion more efficiently. The message arrival rate is improved significantly and the end-to-end delay is also reduced to some extent.

  19. Outage analysis of opportunistic decode-and-forward relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate a dual-hop opportunistic decode-and-forward relaying scheme where the source may or not be able to communicate directly with the destination. We first derive statistics based on exact probability density function (PDF) of each hop. Then, the PDFs are used to determine closed-form outage probability expression for a transmission rate R. Furthermore, we evaluate the asymptotic outage performance and the diversity order is deduced. Unlike existing works where the analysis focused on high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime, such results are important to enable the designers to take decisions regarding practical systems that operate at low SNR regime. We show that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results under practical assumption of unbalanced hops. © 2010 IEEE.

  20. Distributed opportunistic spectrum sharing in cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Hawa, Mohammed

    2016-05-19

    In cases where the licensed radio spectrum is underutilized, cognitive radio technology enables cognitive devices to sense and then dynamically access this scarce resource making the most out of it. In this work, we introduce a simple and intuitive, yet powerful and efficient, technique that allows opportunistic channel access in cognitive radio systems in a completely distributed fashion. Our proposed method achieves very high values of spectrum utilization and throughput. It also minimizes interference between cognitive base stations and the primary users licensed to use the spectrum. The algorithm responds quickly and efficiently to variations in the network parameters and also achieves a high degree of fairness between cognitive base stations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. The Opportunistic Transmission of Wireless Worms between Mobile Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Rhodes, C J

    2008-01-01

    The ubiquity of portable wireless-enabled computing and communications devices has stimulated the emergence of malicious codes (wireless worms) that are capable of spreading between spatially proximal devices. The potential exists for worms to be opportunistically transmitted between devices as they move around, so human mobility patterns will have an impact on epidemic spread. The scenario we address in this paper is proximity attacks from fleetingly in-contact wireless devices with short-range communication range, such as Bluetooth-enabled smart phones. An individual-based model of mobile devices is introduced and the effect of population characteristics and device behaviour on the outbreak dynamics is investigated. We show through extensive simulations that in the above scenario the resulting mass-action epidemic models remain applicable provided the contact rate is derived consistently from the underlying mobility model. The model gives useful analytical expressions against which more refined simulations ...

  2. Opportunistic Sensor Data Collection with Bluetooth Low Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Sergio; Vidal, Rafael; Gomez, Carles

    2017-01-23

    Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) has gained very high momentum, as witnessed by its widespread presence in smartphones, wearables and other consumer electronics devices. This fact can be leveraged to carry out opportunistic sensor data collection (OSDC) in scenarios where a sensor node cannot communicate with infrastructure nodes. In such cases, a mobile entity (e.g., a pedestrian or a vehicle) equipped with a BLE-enabled device can collect the data obtained by the sensor node when both are within direct communication range. In this paper, we characterize, both analytically and experimentally, the performance and trade-offs of BLE as a technology for OSDC, for the two main identified approaches, and considering the impact of its most crucial configuration parameters. Results show that a BLE sensor node running on a coin cell battery can achieve a lifetime beyond one year while transferring around 10 Mbit/day, in realistic OSDC scenarios.

  3. Secondary metabolite arsenal of an opportunistic pathogenic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignell, Elaine; Cairns, Timothy C; Throckmorton, Kurt; Nierman, William C; Keller, Nancy P

    2016-12-05

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a versatile fungus able to successfully exploit diverse environments from mammalian lungs to agricultural waste products. Among its many fitness attributes are dozens of genetic loci containing biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) producing bioactive small molecules (often referred to as secondary metabolites or natural products) that provide growth advantages to the fungus dependent on environment. Here we summarize the current knowledge of these BGCs-18 of which can be named to product-their expression profiles in vivo, and which BGCs may enhance virulence of this opportunistic human pathogen. Furthermore, we find extensive evidence for the presence of many of these BGCs, or similar BGCs, in distantly related genera including the emerging pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome in bats, and suggest such BGCs may be predictive of pathogenic potential in other fungi.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'.

  4. Opportunistic Cooperative Reliable Transmission Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Guo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The high reliability requirement of data transmission in wireless sensor networks has been a large challenge due to the random mobility and network topoloy instability, as well as restriction of energy consumption and system life time. In this work, the relationship matirx of distance and speed was created at first. Then the binay tree of mobility and reliabiliy was proposed based on the distance relationship matrix. The optimal relay nodes with high reliabiliy were selected by seeking the binay tree. The high reliable opportunistic cooperative data transmission scheme was presnted finally. The outcome of both mathematical analysis and NS simulation indicate that the proposed mechanism is superior to the traditional data transmission mechnism such as the reliability, system throughput and energy efficiency and so on.

  5. Opportunistic microorganisms in patients undergoing antibiotic therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Maria Rodrigues Querido

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial therapy may cause changes in the resident oral microbiota, with the increase of opportunistic pathogens. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of Candida, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae in the oral cavity of fifty patients undergoing antibiotic therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis and systemically healthy controls. Oral rinsing and subgingival samples were obtained, plated in Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol, mannitol agar and MacConkey agar, and incubated for 48 h at 37ºC. Candida spp. and coagulase-positive staphylococci were identified by phenotypic tests, C. dubliniensis, by multiplex PCR, and coagulase-negative staphylococci, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp., by the API systems. The number of Candida spp. was significantly higher in tuberculosis patients, and C. albicans was the most prevalent specie. No significant differences in the prevalence of other microorganisms were observed. In conclusion, the antimicrobial therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis induced significant increase only in the amounts of Candida spp.

  6. Exact performance analysis of decode-and-forward opportunistic relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate a dual-hop decode-and-forward opportunistic relaying scheme where the source may or may not be able to communicate directly with the destination. In our study, we consider a regenerative relaying scheme in which the decision to cooperate takes into account the effect of the possible erroneously detected and transmitted data at the best relay. We derive an exact closed-form expression for the end-to-end bit-error rate (BER) of binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation based on the exact statistics of each hop. Unlike existing works where the analysis focused on high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime, such results are important to enable the designers to take decisions regarding practical systems that operate at low SNR regime. We show that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results.

  7. POWER CONTROL BASED COOPERATIVE OPPORTUNISTIC ROUTING IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Haifeng; Zhu Qi

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach called PC-CORP (Power Control based Cooperative Opportunistic Routing Protocol) for WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks), providing robustness to the random variations in network connectivity while ensuring better data forwarding efficiency in an energy efficient manner. Based on the realistic radio model, we combine the region-based routing, rendezvous scheme, sleep discipline and cooperative communication together to model data forwarding by cross layer design in WSN. At the same time, a lightweight transmission power control algorithm called PC-AIMD (Power Control Additive Increase Multiplicative Decrease) is introduced to utilize the cooperation of relay nodes to improve the forwarding efficiency performance and increase the robustness of the routing protocol. In the simulation, the performance of PC-COPR is investigated in terms of the adaptation of variations in network connectivity and satisfying the QoS requirements of application.

  8. Optimizing Cooperative Cognitive Radio Networks with Opportunistic Access

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2012-09-16

    Optimal resource allocation for cooperative cognitive radio networks with opportunistic access to the licensed spectrum is studied. Resource allocation is based on minimizing the symbol error rate at the receiver. Both the cases of all-participate relaying and selective relaying are considered. The objective function is derived and the constraints are detailed for both scenarios. It is then shown that the objective functions and the constraints are nonlinear and nonconvex functions of the parameters of interest, that is, source and relay powers, symbol time, and sensing time. Therefore, it is difficult to obtain closed-form solutions for the optimal resource allocation. The optimization problem is then solved using numerical techniques. Numerical results show that the all-participate system provides better performance than its selection counterpart, at the cost of greater resources. © 2012 Ammar Zafar et al.

  9. Opportunistic Sensor Data Collection with Bluetooth Low Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Sergio; Vidal, Rafael; Gomez, Carles

    2017-01-01

    Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) has gained very high momentum, as witnessed by its widespread presence in smartphones, wearables and other consumer electronics devices. This fact can be leveraged to carry out opportunistic sensor data collection (OSDC) in scenarios where a sensor node cannot communicate with infrastructure nodes. In such cases, a mobile entity (e.g., a pedestrian or a vehicle) equipped with a BLE-enabled device can collect the data obtained by the sensor node when both are within direct communication range. In this paper, we characterize, both analytically and experimentally, the performance and trade-offs of BLE as a technology for OSDC, for the two main identified approaches, and considering the impact of its most crucial configuration parameters. Results show that a BLE sensor node running on a coin cell battery can achieve a lifetime beyond one year while transferring around 10 Mbit/day, in realistic OSDC scenarios. PMID:28124987

  10. Scabies mites alter the skin microbiome and promote growth of opportunistic pathogens in a porcine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearl M Swe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The resident skin microbiota plays an important role in restricting pathogenic bacteria, thereby protecting the host. Scabies mites (Sarcoptes scabiei are thought to promote bacterial infections by breaching the skin barrier and excreting molecules that inhibit host innate immune responses. Epidemiological studies in humans confirm increased incidence of impetigo, generally caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, secondary to the epidermal infestation with the parasitic mite. It is therefore possible that mite infestation could alter the healthy skin microbiota making way for the opportunistic pathogens. A longitudinal study to test this hypothesis in humans is near impossible due to ethical reasons. In a porcine model we generated scabies infestations closely resembling the disease manifestation in humans and investigated the scabies associated changes in the skin microbiota over the course of a mite infestation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a 21 week trial, skin scrapings were collected from pigs infected with S. scabies var. suis and scabies-free control animals. A total of 96 skin scrapings were collected before, during infection and after acaricide treatment, and analyzed by bacterial 16S rDNA tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing. We found significant changes in the epidermal microbiota, in particular a dramatic increase in Staphylococcus correlating with the onset of mite infestation in animals challenged with scabies mites. This increase persisted beyond treatment from mite infection and healing of skin. Furthermore, the staphylococci population shifted from the commensal S. hominis on the healthy skin prior to scabies mite challenge to S. chromogenes, which is increasingly recognized as being pathogenic, coinciding with scabies infection in pigs. In contrast, all animals in the scabies-free cohort remained relatively free of Staphylococcus throughout the trial. CONCLUSIONS

  11. Cellular immune responses in HIV-negative immunodeficiency with anti-interferon-γ antibodies and opportunistic intracellular microorganisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiraprapa Wipasa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cell-mediated immunity plays a crucial role in resistance to intracellular infection. We previously reported antibodies against interferon-gamma (IFN-γ in HIV- negative (HIV- patients with acquired immunodeficiency presenting with repeated episodes of disseminated infection caused by uncommon opportunistic intracellular fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens. This follow-up study aimed to investigate cellular immune responses in these unusual patients. METHODS: Twenty HIV- patients presenting with ≥2 episodes of culture- or histopathologic-proven opportunistic infections were enrolled along with age- and sex-matched controls comprised of 20 HIV+ patients plus 20 healthy adults. Monocyte phenotyping and intracellular cytokine production were determined by staining with specific antibodies followed by flow cytometry. Anti-interferon-γ antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and inducible nitric oxide synthase by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: There were no differences among cases, HIV+, and healthy controls in the percentage of monocytes, or CD68 and HLA-DR expression on their surfaces. FcR1 (CD119 expression on monocytes was significantly higher in cases than in HIV+ (p<0.05 and healthy controls (p<0.01, suggesting the presence of activated monocytes in the circulation. Interleukin (IL-2 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α production in CD4 cells were significantly lower in cases than in healthy controls (p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively. CD8 production of TNF-α among cases was significantly lower than that of healthy controls (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Immunodeficiency in HIV- individuals with repeated infections with intracellular pathogens may be associated with one or more of the abnormal immune responses reflected by the reduced production of both IL-2 by CD4 T cells and TNF-α by CD4 T cells and CD8 T cells, as well as presence of anti-IFN-γ antibody, as previously reported.

  12. Individual attitudes and perceived social norms: Reports on HIV/AIDS-related stigma among service providers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Wu, Zunyou; Lin, Chunqing; Wen, Yi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined HIV/AIDS-related stigma among Chinese service providers by comparing their personal attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS with their perception of social norms related to people living with HIV/AIDS. We randomly selected three provincial hospitals, four city/prefecture hospitals, 10 county hospitals, 18 township health clinics, and 54 village clinics from Yunnan, China. Doctors and nurses were randomly sampled proportionally to the doctor-nurse ratio of each hospital or clinic. Lab technicians were over-sampled in order to include an adequate representation in the analysis. A total of 1,101 service providers participated in a voluntary, anonymous survey where demographic characteristics, individual attitude and perceived social norms toward people living with HIV/AIDS, discrimination intent at work, general prejudicial attitude and knowledge on HIV/AIDS were measured. A majority of the sample demonstrated a similarity between their personal views and what they thought most people in society believe. Multiple logistic regressions revealed that participants who were younger or reported personal contact with people living with HIV/AIDS were significantly more likely to report personal attitudes toward the population that were more liberal than their perceived social norms. Holding a more liberal personal attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS than perceived social norms was significantly and negatively related to the level of discrimination intent at work, perceived discrimination at interpersonal level and the level of general prejudicial attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Results underscored the importance of understanding social norms and personal attitudes in studying HIV-related stigma and called for the incorporation of existing human capital into future HIV stigma reduction programs. Cette étude a examiné le VIH/SIDA lié à stigmatisation parmi les agences chinoises fournissant des soins en comparant leurs attitudes

  13. HIV and Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections and Coinfections HIV and Hepatitis B (Last updated 8/31/2016; last reviewed ... should be treated for both diseases. What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a liver disease caused ...

  14. HIV and Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections and Coinfections HIV and Hepatitis C (Last updated 8/31/2016; last reviewed ... the medicines for any side effects. What is hepatitis C? Hepatitis C is a liver disease caused ...

  15. HIV and Tuberculosis (TB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections and Coinfections HIV and Tuberculosis (TB) (Last updated 9/1/2016; last reviewed ... depends on a person’s individual circumstances. What is tuberculosis? Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious disease that can ...

  16. Outage probability of opportunistic decode-and-forward relaying over Nakagami-m fading channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHUAI Gang; ZHANG Bao-zhi; LIU Xing-mei; GAO Li

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the outage probability behavior of a relay network over Nakagami-m fading channels is analyzed. Both reactive and proactive opportunistic decode-and-forward (DAF) strategies are considered. The closed-form solutions to the outage probabilities on both opportunistic DAF strategies are derived. Simulation results conf'Lrrn the presented mathematical analysis.

  17. Effect of media use on HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and condom use in sub-Saharan Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minsoo Jung

    Full Text Available It is known that the level of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and the degree of condom use varies by socioeconomic status (SES. However, there is limited research on the effect of mass media use on HIV/AIDS-related cognitive and behavioral outcomes in low-income countries and how it might influence the association between SES and HIV-related outcomes. We investigated the moderating effect of media use on the relationship between SES and HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and condom use in sub-Saharan Africa in terms of communication inequalities. Cross-sectional data from the Demographic Health Surveys from 13 sub-Saharan countries (2004-10 were pooled. Gender-stratified multivariable poisson regression of 151,209 women and 68,890 men were used to calculate adjusted relative ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the associations between SES, media use, HIV-related outcomes, and condom use. We found significant disparities in mass media use among people from different SES groups as well as among countries. Education and wealth are strongly and positively associated with awareness of HIV/AIDS and knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV/AIDS and are significantly associated with condom use. These associations are attenuated when the use of various types of mass media is added to the models, with newspapers showing the strongest effect. The findings of this study suggest that media use has the potential to blunt the impact of socioeconomic status though not completely eliminate it. Thus, we need to pay attention to reducing communication inequalities among social groups and countries to moderate the effect of wealth and SES on HIV/AIDS.

  18. Consistent high prevalence of Exophiala dermatitidis, a neurotropic opportunist, on railway sleepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanparast, S A; Mohseni, S; De Hoog, G S; Aslani, N; Sadeh, A; Badali, H

    2017-02-09

    Environmental isolation of black yeasts potentially causing human disorders is essential for understanding ecology and routes of infection. Several Exophiala species show prevalence for man-made environments rich in monoaromatic compounds, such as creosote-treated or petroleum-stained railway sleepers. Ambient climatic conditions play a role in species composition in suitable habitats. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to establish the composition of Exophiala species in railway stations as a potential source of human infections in a subtropical region with evaluation of their antifungal susceptibility profiles. We examined 150 railway samples using cotton swabs moistened with sterile physiological saline. Black yeasts and relatives were selected on theirs colony morphology and identified based on ITS rDNA sequencing. Overall, 36 (24%) of samples were positive for black yeast-like fungi, i.e., Exophiala dermatitidis (n=20, 55.6%) was predominant, followed by E. phaeomuriformis (n=9, 25%), E. heteromorpha (n=5, 13.9%), and E. xenobiotica (n=2, 5.6%). Massive contaminations of E. dermatitidis were seen on railway sleepers on creosoted oak wood at the region close to the sea level, while in cold climates were primarily contaminated with clinically insignificant or rare human opportunists (E. crusticola). It seems that, high temperature and humidity are significant effect on species diversity. Moreover, the MIC results for all E. dermatitidis and E. phaeomuriformis strains revealed the widest range and the highest MICs to caspofungin (range 1-16mg/L, Geometric mean 4.912mg/L), and the lowest MIC for posaconazole (0.016-0.031mg/L, G mean 0.061mg/L). However, their clinical effectiveness in the treatment of Exophiala infections remains to be determined.

  19. HIV/AIDS related mortality among adult medical patients in a tertiary health institution in South-South, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gyuse AN; Bassey IE; Udonwa NE; Okokon IB; Philip-Ephraim EE

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the causes of death among human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients as a step to planning strategies to improve mortality from this condition.Methods: This study retrospectively analyzed the mortality pattern of adult HIV/AIDS patients in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital from January 2005 to December 2007. The data were obtained from sexually transmitted infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (STI/AIDS) clinic register, admissions and discharge/death registers as well as the patients' case records and the hospitals monthly mortality reviews. Information obtained included age, sex, diagnosis and cause(s) of death. The causes of death considered were the directcauses of death, since the originating antecedent cause of death is the same in all the patients, in this case, HIV/AIDS. Data was analysed using Epi Info 2002.Results: The total number of mortalities during the study period was 350,100 were HIV positive representing 28.6% of all deaths. While advanced HIV/AIDS disease was the leading cause of death in our study representing 27.0%, tuberculosis was the single leading cause of deaths in HIV/AIDS patients constituting about 24.0% of deaths. This was followed by sepsis and septicaemia (13.0%), meningitis and encephalitis, and anaemia accounting for 11.0%, while respiratory diseases constituted 5.0% of the mortality burden. The highest number of deaths occurred in those aged between 21-50 years (82.0%).Conclusions: The study has shown that HIV/AIDS is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in our hospital. The causes of death reflect the varied spectrum of infection and other forms of organ involvement that affect HIV/AIDS patients. The present dismal situation of adult patients living with HIV/AIDS calls for enhanced strategies to decrease the mortality trend observed in Nigeria and sub-Saharan Africa.

  20. Global molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of Fusarium, a significant emerging group of human opportunists from 1958 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hatmi, Abdullah Ms; Hagen, Ferry; Menken, Steph Bj; Meis, Jacques F; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2016-12-07

    Fusarium is a rapidly emerging, multidrug-resistant genus of fungal opportunists that was first identified in 1958 and is presently recognized in numerous cases of fusariosis each year. The authors examined trends in global Fusarium distribution, clinical presentation and prevalence since 1958 with the assumption that their distributions in each region had remained unaltered. The phylogeny and epidemiology of 127 geographically diverse isolates, representing 26 Fusarium species, were evaluated using partial sequences of the RPB2 and TEF1 genes, and compared with AFLP fingerprinting data. The molecular data of the Fusarium species were compared with archived data, which enabled the interpretation of hundreds of cases published in the literature. Our findings indicate that fusariosis is globally distributed with a focus in (sub)tropical areas. Considerable species diversity has been observed; genotypic features did not reveal any clustering with either the clinical data or environmental origins. This study suggests that infections with Fusarium species might be truly opportunistic. The three most common species are F. falciforme and F. keratoplasticum (members of F. solani species complex), followed by F. oxysporum (F. oxysporum species complex).

  1. Parasitic infections in HIV infected individuals: Diagnostic & therapeutic challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao

    2011-01-01

    After 30 years of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, parasites have been one of the most common opportunistic infections (OIs) and one of the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality associated with HIV-infected patients. Due to severe immunosuppression, enteric parasitic pathogens in general are emerging and are OIs capable of causing diarrhoeal disease associated with HIV. Of these, Cryptosporidium parvum and Isospora belli are the two most common intestinal protozoan p...

  2. The first case of Enterocytozoon bieneusi infection in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarska, Małgorzata; Bajer, Anna; Welc-Faleciak, Renata; Czubkowski, Piotr; Teisseyre, Mikolaj; Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Jankowska, Irena

    2013-01-01

    Microsporidia are intracellular parasites that cause opportunistic infections in humans of various immunological status. Only a few case reports exist on microsporidial infection in solid organ transplant recipients worldwide. The presented study demonstrates the first case in Poland of Enterocytozoon bieneusi infection in a liver transplant patient. Parasites were diagnosed in stool samples using both modified trichrome staining and PCR.

  3. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anus-an opportunistic cancer in HIV-positive male homosexuals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pascal Gervaz; Alexandra Calmy; Ymer Durmishi; Abdelkarim S Allal; Philippe Morel

    2011-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) is a common cancer in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- infected population, and its incidence continues to increase in male homosexuals. Combined chemoradiation with mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil was poorly tolerated by severely immunocompromised patients in the early 1990s. In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), however, recent data indicate that: (1) most HIV patients with anal cancer can tolerate standard chemotherapy regimens; and (2) this approach is associated with survival rates similar to those of HIV-negative patients. However, HIV-positive patients with SCCA are much younger, more likely to develop local tumor recurrence, and ultimately die from anal cancer than immune competent patients. Taken together, these findings suggest that anal cancer is an often fatal neoplasia in middle- aged HIV-positive male homosexuals. In this population, SCCA is an opportunistic disease resulting in patients with suboptimal immune function from persistent papillomaviruses (HPVs). Large-scale cancer-prevention strategies (routine anuscopy and anal papanicolaou testing) should be implemented in this population. In addition, definitive eradication of oncogenic HPVs within the anogenital mucosa of high-risk individuals might require a proactive approach with repeated vaccination.

  4. Proteomic profiling of Cronobacter turicensis 3032, a food-borne opportunistic pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Paula; Hartmann, Isabel; Lehner, Angelika; Stephan, Roger; Gehrig, Peter; Grossmann, Jonas; Barkow-Oesterreicher, Simon; Roschitzki, Bernd; Eberl, Leo; Riedel, Kathrin

    2009-07-01

    Members of the genus Cronobacter are opportunistic pathogens for neonates and are often associated with contaminated milk powder formulas. At present little is known about the virulence mechanisms or the natural reservoir of these organisms. The proteome of Cronobacter turicensis 3032, which has recently caused two deaths, was mapped aiming at a better understanding of physiology and putative pathogenic traits of this clinical isolate. Our analyses of extracellular, surface-associated and whole-cell proteins by two complementary proteomics approaches, 1D-SDS-PAGE combined with LC-ESI-MS/MS and 2D-LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF MS, lead to the identification of 832 proteins corresponding to a remarkable 19% of the theoretically expressed protein complement of C. turicensis. The majority of the identified proteins are involved in central metabolic pathways, translation, protein folding and stability. Several putative virulence factors, whose expressions were confirmed by phenotypic assays, could be identified: a macrophage infectivity potentiator involved in C. turicensis persistence in host cells, a superoxide dismutase protecting the pathogen against reactive oxygen species and an enterobactin-receptor protein for the uptake of siderophore-bound iron. Most interestingly, a chitinase and a metalloprotease that might act against insects and fungi but no casein hydrolysing enzymes were found, suggesting that there is an environmental natural habitat of C. turicensis 3032.

  5. Shared Physiological Traits of Exophiala Species in Cold-Blooded Vertebrates, as Opportunistic Black Yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Mariana Machado Fidelis; de Hoog, G Sybren; Gomes, Renata Rodrigues; Furuie, Jason Lee; Gelinski, Jane Mary Lafayette; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Boeger, Walter Antonio Pereira; Vicente, Vania Aparecida

    2016-06-01

    Several species of the genus Exophiala are found as opportunistic pathogens on humans, while others cause infections in cold-blooded waterborne vertebrates. Opportunism of these fungi thus is likely to be multifactorial. Ecological traits [thermotolerance and pH tolerance, laccase activity, assimilation of mineral oil, and decolorization of Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR)] were studied in a set of 40 strains of mesophilic Exophiala species focused on the salmonis-clade mainly containing waterborne species. Thermophilic species and waterborne species outside the salmonis-clade were included for comparison. Strains were able to tolerate a wide range of pHs, although optimal growth was observed between pH 4.0 and 5.5. All strains tested were laccase positive. Strains were able to grow in the presence of the compounds (mineral oil and RBBR) with some differences in assimilation patterns between strains tested and also were capable of degrading the main chromophore of RBBR. The study revealed that distantly related mesophilic species behave similarly, and no particular trend in evolutionary adaptation was observed.

  6. Genomics of adaptation during experimental evolution of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Wong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation is likely to be an important determinant of the success of many pathogens, for example when colonizing a new host species, when challenged by antibiotic treatment, or in governing the establishment and progress of long-term chronic infection. Yet, the genomic basis of adaptation is poorly understood in general, and for pathogens in particular. We investigated the genetics of adaptation to cystic fibrosis-like culture conditions in the presence and absence of fluoroquinolone antibiotics using the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Whole-genome sequencing of experimentally evolved isolates revealed parallel evolution at a handful of known antibiotic resistance genes. While the level of antibiotic resistance was largely determined by these known resistance genes, the costs of resistance were instead attributable to a number of mutations that were specific to individual experimental isolates. Notably, stereotypical quinolone resistance mutations in DNA gyrase often co-occurred with other mutations that, together, conferred high levels of resistance but no consistent cost of resistance. This result may explain why these mutations are so prevalent in clinical quinolone-resistant isolates. In addition, genes involved in cyclic-di-GMP signalling were repeatedly mutated in populations evolved in viscous culture media, suggesting a shared mechanism of adaptation to this CF-like growth environment. Experimental evolutionary approaches to understanding pathogen adaptation should provide an important complement to studies of the evolution of clinical isolates.

  7. Evaluation of two novel barcodes for species recognition of opportunistic pathogens in Fusarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hatmi, Abdullah M S; Van Den Ende, A H G Gerrits; Stielow, J Benjamin; Van Diepeningen, Anne D; Seifert, Keith A; McCormick, Wayne; Assabgui, Rafik; Gräfenhan, Tom; De Hoog, G Sybren; Levesque, C André

    2016-02-01

    The genus Fusarium includes more than 200 species of which 73 have been isolated from human infections. Fusarium species are opportunistic human pathogens with variable aetiology. Species determination is best made with the combined phylogeny of protein-coding genes such as elongation factor (TEF1), RNA polymerase (RPB2) and the partial β-tubulin (BT2) gene. The internal transcribed spacers 1, 2 and 5.8S rRNA gene (ITS) have also been used, however, ITS cannot discriminate several closely related species and has nonorthologous copies in Fusarium. Currently, morphological approaches and tree-building methods are in use to define species and to discover hitherto undescribed species. Aftter a species is defined, DNA barcoding approaches can be used to identify species by the presence or absence of discrete nucleotide characters. We demonstrate the potential of two recently discovered DNA barcode loci, topoisomerase I (TOP1) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK), in combination with other routinely used markers such as TEF1, in an analysis of 144 Fusarium strains belonging to 52 species. Our barcoding study using TOP1 and PKG provided concordance of molecular data with TEF1. The currently accepted Fusarium species sampled were well supported in phylogenetic trees of both new markers.

  8. Oxidative stress response to menadione and cumene hydroperoxide in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuéllar-Cruz, Mayra; Castaño, Irene; Arroyo-Helguera, Omar; De Las Peñas, Alejandro

    2009-07-01

    Candida glabrata is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that can cause severe invasive infections and can evade phagocytic cell clearance. We are interested in understanding the virulence of this fungal pathogen, in particular its oxidative stress response. Here we investigated C. glabrata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans responses to two different oxidants: menadione and cumene hydroperoxide (CHP). In log-phase, in the presence of menadione, C. glabrata requires Cta1p (catalase), while in a stationary phase (SP), Cta1p is dispensable. In addition, C. glabrata is less resistant to menadione than C. albicans in SP. The S. cerevisiae laboratory reference strain is less resistant to menadione than C. glabrata and C. albicans; however S. cerevisiaeclinical isolates (CIs) are more resistant than the lab reference strain. Furthermore, S. cerevisiae CIs showed an increased catalase activity. Interestingly, in SP C. glabrata and S. cerevisiae are more resistant to CHP than C. albicans and Cta1p plays no apparent role in detoxifying this oxidant.

  9. Oxidative stress response to menadione and cumene hydroperoxide in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida glabrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Cuéllar-Cruz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Candida glabrata is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that can cause severe invasive infections and can evade phagocytic cell clearance. We are interested in understanding the virulence of this fungal pathogen, in particular its oxidative stress response. Here we investigated C. glabrata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans responses to two different oxidants: menadione and cumene hydroperoxide (CHP. In log-phase, in the presence of menadione, C. glabrata requires Cta1p (catalase, while in a stationary phase (SP, Cta1p is dispensable. In addition, C. glabrata is less resistant to menadione than C. albicans in SP. The S. cerevisiae laboratory reference strain is less resistant to menadione than C. glabrata and C. albicans; however S. cerevisiaeclinical isolates (CIs are more resistant than the lab reference strain. Furthermore, S. cerevisiae CIs showed an increased catalase activity. Interestingly, in SP C. glabrata and S. cerevisiae are more resistant to CHP than C. albicans and Cta1p plays no apparent role in detoxifying this oxidant.

  10. Label-free molecular imaging of bacterial communities of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Nameera; Polisetti, Sneha; Morales-Soto, Nydia; Dunham, Sage J. B.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Shrout, Joshua D.; Bohn, Paul W.

    2016-09-01

    Biofilms, such as those formed by the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa are complex, matrix enclosed, and surface-associated communities of cells. Bacteria that are part of a biofilm community are much more resistant to antibiotics and the host immune response than their free-floating counterparts. P. aeruginosa biofilms are associated with persistent and chronic infections in diseases such as cystic fibrosis and HIV-AIDS. P. aeruginosa synthesizes and secretes signaling molecules such as the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) which are implicated in quorum sensing (QS), where bacteria regulate gene expression based on population density. Processes such as biofilms formation and virulence are regulated by QS. This manuscript describes the powerful molecular imaging capabilities of confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in conjunction with multivariate statistical tools such as principal component analysis (PCA) for studying the spatiotemporal distribution of signaling molecules, secondary metabolites and virulence factors in biofilm communities of P. aeruginosa. Our observations reveal that the laboratory strain PAO1C synthesizes and secretes 2-alkyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxides and 2-alkyl-4-hydroxyquinolones in high abundance, while the isogenic acyl homoserine lactone QS-deficient mutant (ΔlasIΔrhlI) strain produces predominantly 2-alkyl-quinolones during biofilm formation. This study underscores the use of CRM, along with traditional biological tools such as genetics, for studying the behavior of microbial communities at the molecular level.

  11. Inappropriately low aldosterone concentrations in adults with AIDS-related diarrhoea in Zambia: a study of response to fluid challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumayi Ruth

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic diarrhoea is one of the most debilitating consequences of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa and it carries a high mortality rate. We report unexpectedly low concentrations of circulating aldosterone in 12 patients (6 men, 6 women in the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, who all had diarrhoea for over one month. Changes in serum electrolytes, blood pressure, Karnofsky score and serum aldosterone concentration were being monitored during a short study of responses to saline infusion (3 litres/24 h over 72 hours. Findings At baseline, 9/12 (75% of the patients were hyponatraemic, 10/11 (91% were hypokalaemic, and 6/12 (50% had undetectable aldosterone concentrations. Blood pressure and Karnofsky score rose and creatinine concentration fell in response to the infusion. Conclusion Circulating aldosterone concentrations were inappropriately low and complicate the profound electrolyte deficiencies resulting from chronic diarrhoea. Management of these deficiencies needs to be more aggressive than is currently practised and consideration should be given to a formal clinical trial of mineralocorticoid replacement in these severely ill patients. If the inappropriately low aldosterone reflects a general adrenal failure, it may explain a considerable proportion of the high mortality seen both before and after initiation of anti-retroviral therapy.

  12. Optimal Sensing for Opportunistic Spectrum Access in Cognitive Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrullah Armi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic Spectrum Access (OSA brings new research challenges in MAC protocol design. It allows unlicensed users to share licensed spectrum in space and time with no or little interference to Primary Users (PUs. When designing an OSA MAC protocol, one of the most difficult but important problem is how the unlicensed users decide when and which channel they should sense and access without conflicting the communications among PUs. To solve this problem, the unlicensed users should have the ability of adaptively and dynamically seeking and exploiting opportunities in both licensed and unlicensed spectrum and along both the time and the frequency dimensions. Secondary Users (SUs as unlicensed users are required to sense radio frequency band, and when PU are detected, they must vacate the channel immediately within certain amount of time. Due to hardware and energy constraints, full spectrum availability cannot be sensed as well as they do not monitor when there is no data to be transmitted. In this paper, we study MAC protocol design and optimal sensing for OSA in Cognitive Radio (CR ad hoc network under Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP algorithm that maximizes achievable throughput for SUs with sufficient protection to PUs. Furthermore, we study tractable greedy algorithm to reduce the complexity of POMDP calculation. The derivation of greedy approach proves that sensing problem can be solved either optimally or approximate the optimal solution. Computer simulation is used to evaluate the performances both of optimal and sub optimal strategy.

  13. Location Based Opportunistic Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jubin Sebastian E

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available : Most existing ad hoc routing protocols are susceptible to node mobility, especially for large-scale networks. This paper proposes a Location Based Opportunistic Routing Protocol (LOR to addresses the problem of delivering data packets for highly dynamic mobile ad hoc networks in a reliable and timely manner.This protocol takes advantage of the stateless property of geographic routing and the broadcast nature of wireless medium. When a data packet is sent out, some of the neighbor nodes that have overheard the transmission will serve as forwarding candidates, and take turn to forward the packet if it is not relayed by the specific best forwarder within a certain period of time. By utilizing such in-the-air backup, communication is maintained without being interrupted. The additional latency incurred by local route recovery is greatly reduced and the duplicate relaying caused by packet reroute is also decreased. Simulation results on NS2 verified the effectiveness of the proposed protocol with improvement in throughput by 28%.

  14. Opportunistic pathogens relative to physicochemical factors in water storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bahry, S N; Elshafie, A E; Victor, R; Mahmoud, I Y; Al-Hinai, J A

    2011-06-01

    Household water in Oman, as well as in other countries in the region, is stored in tanks placed on house roofs that can be subjected to physicochemical factors which can promote microbial growth, including pathogens and opportunistic pathogens which pose health risks. Water samples were collected from 30 houses in a heavily populated suburb of Muscat. The tanks used were either glass reinforced plastic (GRP), polyethylene or galvanised iron (GI). Heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms, faecal coliforms and iron sulphur bacteria varied significantly in the three tanks. Yeast and mould count showed significant variations. Isolation of Aeromonas spp., fluorogenic and pathogenic Pseudomonas, Pasteurella, Salmonella, Serratia and Tatumella, and Yersinia and Legionella in biofilms varied in the three tanks. The fungi isolates in the three tanks were Penicillium, Cladosporium and Aspergillus. Nephelometric turbidity unit, threshold odour number and free chlorine varied significantly in the three tanks. True colour unit values did not show a significant difference; however, GRP tanks had algae, autotrophic and pigmented microorganisms. In addition, GI tanks had sediments and corrosion. The results of this investigation are important to evaluate the status of the present household water tanks in countries with high annual temperatures, which may affect public health.

  15. Effect of threshold quantization in opportunistic splitting algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon

    2011-12-01

    This paper discusses algorithms to find the optimal threshold and also investigates the impact of threshold quantization on the scheduling outage performance of the opportunistic splitting scheduling algorithm. Since this algorithm aims at finding the user with the highest channel quality within the minimal number of mini-slots by adjusting the threshold every mini-slot, optimizing the threshold is of paramount importance. Hence, in this paper we first discuss how to compute the optimal threshold along with two tight approximations for the optimal threshold. Closed-form expressions are provided for those approximations for simple calculations. Then, we consider linear quantization of the threshold to take the limited number of bits for signaling messages in practical systems into consideration. Due to the limited granularity for the quantized threshold value, an irreducible scheduling outage floor is observed. The numerical results show that the two approximations offer lower scheduling outage probability floors compared to the conventional algorithm when the threshold is quantized. © 2006 IEEE.

  16. Toward distributed relay selection for opportunistic amplify-and-forward transmission

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2011-05-01

    Opportunistic relaying in cooperative communication depends on careful relay selection. However the traditional centralized method used for opportunistic Amplify-and-Forward (OAF) protocols requires precise measurements of channel state information (CSI) at the destination (CSI-OAF). In this paper, we propose a distributed relay selection framework for opportunistic AF (D-OAF) cooperative communications and offer an accurate performance analysis based on exact statistics of the local signalto- noise ratios of the best relay. Furthermore, we validate our analysis by showing that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results over different network architectures, and we compare our new results with their CSI-based counterparts. © 2011 IEEE.

  17. Single-dose fluconazole versus standard 2-week therapy for oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients: a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamza, O.J.; Matee, M.I.N.; Bruggemann, R.J.M.; Moshi, M.J.; Simon, E.N.; Mugusi, F.; Mikx, F.H.M.; Lee, H.A.L. van der; Verweij, P.E.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal candidiasis is the most common opportunistic infection affecting patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Because of convenience, cost, and reluctance to complicate antiretroviral treatment regimens, single-dose fluconazole may be a favorable regimen for

  18. Human lysozyme peptidase resistance is perturbed by the anionic glycolipid biosurfactant rhamnolipid produced by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kell K; Vad, Brian Stougaard; Scavenius, Carsten;

    2016-01-01

    Infection by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is accompanied by the secretion of virulence factors such as the secondary metabolite rhamnolipid (RL) as well as an array of bacterial enzymes, including the protease elastase. The human immune system tries to counter this via...... defensive proteins such as human lysozyme (HLZ). HLZ targets the bacterial cell wall but may also have other antimicrobial activities. The enzyme contains four disulfide bonds and shows high thermodynamic stability and resistance to proteolytic attack. Here we show that RL promotes HLZ degradation...... by several unrelated proteases, including the PA elastase and human proteases. This occurs although RL does not by itself denature HLZ. Nevertheless, RL binds in a sufficiently high stoichiometry (8 RL:1 HLZ) to neutralize the highly cationic surface of HLZ. The initial cleavage sites agree well...

  19. Non-Orthogonal Opportunistic Beamforming: Performance Analysis and Implementation

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Minghua

    2012-04-01

    Aiming to achieve the sum-rate capacity in multi-user multi-antenna systems where $N_t$ antennas are implemented at the transmitter, opportunistic beamforming (OBF) generates~$N_t$ orthonormal beams and serves $N_t$ users during each channel use, which results in high scheduling delay over the users, especially in densely populated networks. Non-orthogonal OBF with more than~$N_t$ transmit beams can be exploited to serve more users simultaneously and further decrease scheduling delay. However, the inter-beam interference will inevitably deteriorate the sum-rate. Therefore, there is a tradeoff between sum-rate and scheduling delay for non-orthogonal OBF. In this context, system performance and implementation of non-orthogonal OBF with $N>N_t$ beams are investigated in this paper. Specifically, it is analytically shown that non-orthogonal OBF is an interference-limited system as the number of users $K \\\\to \\\\infty$. When the inter-beam interference reaches its minimum for fixed $N_t$ and~$N$, the sum-rate scales as $N\\\\ln\\\\left(\\\\frac{N}{N-N_t}\\ ight)$ and it degrades monotonically with the number of beams $N$ for fixed $N_t$. On the contrary, the average scheduling delay is shown to scale as $\\\\frac{1}{N}K\\\\ln{K}$ channel uses and it improves monotonically with $N$. Furthermore, two practical non-orthogonal beamforming schemes are explicitly constructed and they are demonstrated to yield the minimum inter-beam interference for fixed $N_t$ and $N$. This study reveals that, if user traffic is light and one user can be successfully served within a single transmission, non-orthogonal OBF can be applied to obtain lower worst-case delay among the users. On the other hand, if user traffic is heavy, non-orthogonal OBF is inferior to orthogonal OBF in terms of sum-rate and packet delay.

  20. AFSC/NMML: Cook Inlet Beluga Opportunistic Sightings, 1975 to 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As a part of National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) management of the endangered Cook Inlet beluga whale population, a database of opportunistic beluga whale...

  1. Occurrence of Opportunistic Pathogens Legionella pneumophila and non-tuberculous mycobacteria in hospital plumbing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occurrence of Opportunistic Pathogens Legionella pneumophila and non-tuberculous mycobacteria in hospital plumbing systems Jill Hoelle, Michael Coughlin, Elizabeth Sotkiewicz, Jingrang Lu, Stacy Pfaller, Mark Rodgers, and Hodon Ryu U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati...

  2. Scaling up ATLAS Event Service to production levels on opportunistic computing platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Benjamin, Douglas; The ATLAS collaboration; Ernst, Michael; Guan, Wen; Hover, John; Lesny, David; Maeno, Tadashi; Nilsson, Paul; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; van Gemmeren, Peter; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Wang, Fuquan; Wenaus, Torre

    2016-01-01

    Continued growth in public cloud and HPC resources is on track to overcome the dedicated resources available for ATLAS on the WLCG. Example of such platforms are Amazon AWS EC2 Spot Instances, Edison Cray XC30 supercomputer, backfill at the Tier-2 and Tier-3 sites, opportunistic resources at the Open Science Grid, and ATLAS High Level Trigger farm between the data taking periods. Because of opportunistic resources specifics such as preemptive job scheduling and data I/O, their efficient usage requires workflow innovations provided by the ATLAS Event Service. Thanks to the finer granularity of the Event Service data processing workflow, the opportunistic resources are used more efficiently. We report on our progress in scaling opportunistic resource usage to double-digit levels in ATLAS production.

  3. Exploiting Opportunistic Resources for ATLAS with ARC CE and the Event Service

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, David; The ATLAS collaboration; Guan, Wen

    2017-01-01

    With ever-greater computing needs and fixed budgets, big scientific experiments are turning to opportunistic resources as a means to add much-needed extra computing power. These resources can be very different in design from the resources that comprise the Grid computing of most experiments, therefore exploiting these resources requires a change in strategy for the experiment. The resources may be highly restrictive in what can be run or in connections to the outside world, or tolerate opportunistic usage only on condition that tasks may be terminated without warning. The ARC CE with its non-intrusive architecture is designed to integrate resources such as High Performance Computing (HPC) systems into a computing Grid. The ATLAS experiment developed the Event Service primarily to address the issue of jobs that can be terminated at any point when opportunistic resources are needed by someone else. This paper describes the integration of these two systems in order to exploit opportunistic resources for ATLAS in...

  4. OPPORTUNISTIC ASPERGILLUS PATHOGENS MEASURED IN HOME AND HOSPITAL TAP WATER BY MOLD SPECIFIC QUANTITATIVE PCR (MSQPCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opportunistic fungal pathogens are a concern because of the increasing number of immunocompromised patients. The goal of this research was to test a simple extraction method and rapid quantitative PCR (QPCR) measurement of the occurrence of potential pathogens, Aspergillus fumiga...

  5. Exploiting Opportunistic Resources for ATLAS with ARC CE and the Event Service

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, David; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    With ever-greater computing needs and fixed budgets, big scientific experiments are turning to opportunistic resources as a means to add much-needed extra computing power. These resources can be very different in design from the resources that comprise the Grid computing of most experiments, therefore exploiting these resources requires a change in strategy for the experiment. The resources may be highly restrictive in what can be run or in connections to the outside world, or tolerate opportunistic usage only on condition that tasks may be terminated without warning. The ARC CE with its non-intrusive architecture is designed to integrate resources such as High Performance Computing (HPC) systems into a computing Grid. The ATLAS experiment developed the Event Service primarily to address the issue of jobs that can be terminated at any point when opportunistic resources are needed by someone else. This paper describes the integration of these two systems in order to exploit opportunistic resources for ATLAS in...

  6. Scaling up ATLAS Event Service to production levels on opportunistic computing platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, D.; Caballero, J.; Ernst, M.; Guan, W.; Hover, J.; Lesny, D.; Maeno, T.; Nilsson, P.; Tsulaia, V.; van Gemmeren, P.; Vaniachine, A.; Wang, F.; Wenaus, T.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    Continued growth in public cloud and HPC resources is on track to exceed the dedicated resources available for ATLAS on the WLCG. Examples of such platforms are Amazon AWS EC2 Spot Instances, Edison Cray XC30 supercomputer, backfill at Tier 2 and Tier 3 sites, opportunistic resources at the Open Science Grid (OSG), and ATLAS High Level Trigger farm between the data taking periods. Because of specific aspects of opportunistic resources such as preemptive job scheduling and data I/O, their efficient usage requires workflow innovations provided by the ATLAS Event Service. Thanks to the finer granularity of the Event Service data processing workflow, the opportunistic resources are used more efficiently. We report on our progress in scaling opportunistic resource usage to double-digit levels in ATLAS production.

  7. Scaling up ATLAS Event Service to production levels on opportunistic computing platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Benjamin, Douglas; The ATLAS collaboration; Ernst, Michael; Guan, Wen; Hover, John; Lesny, David; Maeno, Tadashi; Nilsson, Paul; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; van Gemmeren, Peter; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Wang, Fuquan; Wenaus, Torre

    2016-01-01

    Continued growth in public cloud and HPC resources is on track to exceed the dedicated resources available for ATLAS on the WLCG. Examples of such platforms are Amazon AWS EC2 Spot Instances, Edison Cray XC30 supercomputer, backfill at Tier 2 and Tier 3 sites, opportunistic resources at the Open Science Grid (OSG), and ATLAS High Level Trigger farm between the data taking periods. Because of specific aspects of opportunistic resources such as preemptive job scheduling and data I/O, their efficient usage requires workflow innovations provided by the ATLAS Event Service. Thanks to the finer granularity of the Event Service data processing workflow, the opportunistic resources are used more efficiently. We report on our progress in scaling opportunistic resource usage to double-digit levels in ATLAS production.

  8. Special issue Oceans and Humans Health: the ecology of marine opportunists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, Colleen A; Kim, Catherine J S; Lyles, Jillian M; Harvell, C Drew

    2013-05-01

    Opportunistic marine pathogens, like opportunistic terrestrial pathogens, are ubiquitous in the environment (waters, sediments, and organisms) and only cause disease in immune-compromised or stressed hosts. In this review, we discuss four host-pathogen interactions within the marine environment that are typically considered opportunistic: sea fan coral-fungus, eelgrass-Labyrinthula zosterae, sea fan-Labyrinthulomycetes, and hard clam-Quahog Parasite Unknown with particular focus on disease ecology, parasite pathology, host response, and known associated environmental conditions. Disease is a natural part of all ecosystems; however, in some cases, a shift in the balance between the host, pathogen, and the environment may lead to epizootics in natural or cultured populations. In marine systems, host-microbe interactions are less understood than their terrestrial counterparts. The biological and physical changes to the world's oceans, coupled with other anthropogenic influences, will likely lead to more opportunistic diseases in the marine environment.

  9. An ad-hoc opportunistic dissemination protocol for smartphone-based participatory traffic monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Türkes, Okan; Seraj, Fatjon; Scholten, Hans; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces an ad-hoc opportunistic data dissemination protocol, called VADISS, that facilitates participatory traffic monitoring applications with smartphones. As a ubiquitous alternative to existing vehicular networking methods, VADISS uses the default WiFi interfaces universally adopted

  10. Cook Inlet Beluga Opportunistic Sightings, 1975 to 2015 (NCEI Accession 0142326)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As a part of National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) management of the endangered Cook Inlet beluga whale population, a database of opportunistic beluga whale...

  11. Prevalence of AIDS-related high risk behaviors among men who have sex with men with STI%不同性传播感染MSM艾滋病高危行为对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于增照; 李洋; 史同新; 李秀芳; 张北川; 王燕飞

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨男男性行为者(MSM)中近1年内曾患性传播感染(STI)者与未患STI者的艾滋病(AIDS)高危行为状况.方法 采用滚雪球法进行横断面调查;应用SPSS 13.0软件对9个城市2 134名MSM进行匿名问卷分析,比较患STI者与未患STI者AIDS高危行为差异.结果 患STI者中累计同性肛交性伴数、近6个月同性肛交性伴数中位数分别为20、3个,均高于未患STI者的7、2个;近1年内,患STI者中有28.8% (95/330)曾参加群交,24.7%(81/328)向同性买性,44.1%(146/331)性交时出血,均高于未患STI者的17.0%(289/1 697)、11.4%(189/1 657)、24.4%(417/1 706)(P=0.000);患STI者中有67.3%(181/269)近1次同性肛交时使用安全套,低于未患STI者的76.9%(964/1 253)(x2=11.065,P=0.001);患STI者艾滋病病毒(HIV)感染率为4.03%(14/347),明显高于未患STI者的1.96% (35/1 787) (x2=5.582,P=0.018).结论 MSM中患STI者具有更多的AIDS高危行为,需加强对其进行健康干预.%Objective To investigate the prevalence of AIDS-related high risk behaviors among men who have sex with men(MSM) ever infected by sexually transmitted disease(STI) within previous one year.Methods Snowball sampiing and an anonymous questionnaire survey were adopted for a cross-sectional study to compare the differences in high risk behaviors related to AIDS between MSM with STI and without STI experience in nine cities.SPSS 13.0 statistical software was used in data analysis.Results Among the 2 134 MSM,compared to the MSM without STI experience,the MSM with STI had a significant higher number of total sexual partners of anal sex with same sex and the number of anal sex in the previous six months,with the medians of 20.0 and 3.0,respectively.In the previous year,28.8 % (95/330)of MSM with STI participated in group sex,24.7% (81/328)had commercial homosex,44.1% (146/331)reported bleeding while having sexual intercourse,with significant differences compared to those of MSM

  12. Lower Bound of Energy-Latency Tradeoff of Opportunistic Routing in Multihop Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorce Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic networking aims at exploiting sporadic radio links to improve the connectivity of multihop networks and to foster data transmissions. The broadcast nature of wireless channels is an important feature that can be exploited to improve transmissions by using several potential receivers. Opportunistic relaying is thus the first brick for opportunistic networking. However, the advantage of opportunistic relaying may be degraded due to energy increase related to having multiple active receivers. This paper proposes a thorough analysis of opportunistic relaying efficiency under different realistic radio channel conditions. The study is intended to find the best tradeoff between two objectives: energy and latency minimizations, with a hard reliability constraint. We derive an optimal bound, namely, the Pareto front of the related optimization problem, which offers a good insight into the benefits of opportunistic routings compared with classical multihop routing schemes. Meanwhile, the lower bound provides a framework to optimize the parameters at the physical layer, MAC layer, and routing layer from the viewpoint of cross layer during the design or planning phase of a network.

  13. Induction of Protective Immunity to Cryptococcal Infection in Mice by a Heat-Killed, Chitosan-Deficient Strain of Cryptococcus neoformans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Upadhya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is a major opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes fatal meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised individuals and is responsible for a large proportion of AIDS-related deaths. The fungal cell wall is an essential organelle which undergoes constant modification during various stages of growth and is critical for fungal pathogenesis. One critical component of the fungal cell wall is chitin, which in C. neoformans is predominantly deacetylated to chitosan. We previously reported that three chitin deacetylase (CDA genes have to be deleted to generate a chitosan-deficient C. neoformans strain. This cda1Δ2Δ3Δ strain was avirulent in mice, as it was rapidly cleared from the lungs of infected mice. Here, we report that clearance of the cda1Δ2Δ3Δ strain was associated with sharply spiked concentrations of proinflammatory molecules that are known to be critical mediators of the orchestration of a protective Th1-type adaptive immune response. This was followed by the selective enrichment of the Th1-type T cell population in the cda1Δ2Δ3Δ strain-infected mouse lung. Importantly, this response resulted in the development of robust protective immunity to a subsequent lethal challenge with a virulent wild-type C. neoformans strain. Moreover, protective immunity was also induced in mice vaccinated with heat-killed cda1Δ2Δ3Δ cells and was effective in multiple mouse strains. The results presented here provide a strong framework to develop the cda1Δ2Δ3Δ strain as a potential vaccine candidate for C. neoformans infection.

  14. Stress responses in the opportunistic pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiester, Steven E; Actis, Luis A

    2013-03-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii causes a wide range of severe infections among compromised and injured patients worldwide. The relevance of these infections are, in part, due to the ability of this pathogen to sense and react to environmental and host stress signals, allowing it to persist and disseminate in medical settings and the human host. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles that environmental and cellular stressors play in the ability of A. baumannii to resist nutrient deprivation, oxidative and nitrosative injury, and even the presence of the commonly used antiseptic ethanol, which could serve as a nutrient- and virulence-enhancing signal rather than just being a convenient disinfectant. Emerging experimental evidence supports the role of some of these responses in the pathogenesis of the infections A. baumannii causes in humans and its capacity to resist antibiotics and host response effectors.

  15. Genome-wide identification of small RNAs in the opportunistic pathogen Enterococcus faecalis V583.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouki Shioya

    Full Text Available Small RNA molecules (sRNAs are key mediators of virulence and stress inducible gene expressions in some pathogens. In this work we identify sRNAs in the gram positive opportunistic pathogen Enterococcus faecalis. We characterized 11 sRNAs by tiling microarray analysis, 5' and 3' RACE-PCR, and Northern blot analysis. Six sRNAs were specifically expressed at exponential phase, two sRNAs were observed at stationary phase, and three were detected during both phases. Searches of putative functions revealed that three of them (EFA0080_EFA0081 and EFB0062_EFB0063 on pTF1 and pTF2 plasmids, respectively, and EF0408_EF04092 located on the chromosome are similar to antisense RNA involved in plasmid addiction modules. Moreover, EF1097_EF1098 shares strong homologies with tmRNA (bi-functional RNA acting as both a tRNA and an mRNA and EF2205_EF2206 appears homologous to 4.5S RNA member of the Signal Recognition Particle (SRP ribonucleoprotein complex. In addition, proteomic analysis of the ΔEF3314_EF3315 sRNA mutant suggests that it may be involved in the turnover of some abundant proteins. The expression patterns of these transcripts were evaluated by tiling array hybridizations performed with samples from cells grown under eleven different conditions some of which may be encountered during infection. Finally, distribution of these sRNAs among genome sequences of 54 E. faecalis strains was assessed. This is the first experimental genome-wide identification of sRNAs in E. faecalis and provides impetus to the understanding of gene regulation in this important human pathogen.

  16. Microbial translocation and cardiometabolic risk factors in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trøseid, Marius; Manner, Ingjerd W; Pedersen, Karin K;

    2014-01-01

    The widespread access to antiretroviral treatment during the past decades has transformed HIV infection from a lethal disease to a chronic condition, in which the relative burden of non-AIDS-related chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease, malignancy, renal, liver, and bone disease has i...

  17. Chaetomium-like fungi causing opportunistic infections in humans: a possible role for extremotolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, Sarah A.; Khan, Ziauddin; Wang, Xue-wei; Moussa, Tarek A. A.; Al-Zahrani, Hassan S.; Almaghrabi, Omar A.; Sutton, Deanna A.; Ahmad, S.; Groenewald, Johannes Z.; Alastruey-Izquierdo, A.; Diepeningen, Anne; Menken, S. B. J.; Najafzadeh, M. J.; Crous, Pedro W.; Cornely, Oliver; Hamprecht, Axel; Vehreschild, Maria J. G. T.; Kindo, A. J.; de Hoog, G. Sybren

    2016-01-01

    Members of the family Chaetomiaceae are ubiquitous ascosporulating fungi commonly, which reside in soil enriched with manure or cellulosic materials. Their role as human pathogens is largely ignored. However, the ability of some species to grow at high temperature enables them to play an important r

  18. Yield of diagnostic tests for opportunistic infections in AIDS: a survey of 33 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, P C; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Olesen, B;

    1988-01-01

    /prophylaxis without diagnosis could be considered. In 8 autopsies, microscopy was suggestive of cerebral toxoplasmosis, but only 1 patient had presented important clinical symptoms. We suggest a schedule with regular microbiologic and parasitic examinations and few antibody tests, but with more antigen tests....

  19. Opportunistic infections and AIDS malignancies early after initiating combination antiretroviral therapy in high-income countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodi, Sara; Del Amo, Julia; Moreno, Santiago; Bucher, Heiner C.; Furrer, Hansjakob; Logan, Roger; Sterne, Jonathan; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Jarrín, Inma; Phillips, Andrew; Olson, Ashley; Van Sighem, Ard; Reiss, Peter; Sabin, Caroline; Jose, Sophie; Justice, Amy; Goulet, Joseph; Miró, José M.; Ferrer, Elena; Meyer, Laurence; Seng, Rémonie; Vourli, Georgia; Antoniadou, Anastasia; Dabis, Francois; Vandenhede, Mari-Anne; Costagliola, Dominique; Abgrall, Sophie; Hernán, Miguel A.; Hernan, Miguel; Bansi, L.; Hill, T.; Sabin, C.; Dunn, D.; Porter, K.; Glabay, A.; Orkin, C.; Thomas, R.; Jones, K.; Fisher, M.; Perry, N.; Pullin, A.; Churchill, D.; Gazzard, B.; Nelson, M.; Asboe, D.; Bulbeck, S.; Mandalia, S.; Clarke, J.; Delpech, V.; Anderson, J.; Munshi, S.; Post, F.; Easterbrook, P.; Khan, Y.; Patel, P.; Karim, F.; Duffell, S.; Gilson, R.; Man, S.-L.; Williams, I.; Gompels, M.; Dooley, D.; Schwenk, A.; Ainsworth, J.; Johnson, M.; Youle, M.; Lampe, F.; Smith, C.; Grabowska, H.; Chaloner, C.; Ismajani Puradiredja, D.; Bansi, L.; Hill, T.; Phillips, A.; Sabin, C.; Walsh, J.; Weber, J.; Kemble, C.; Mackie, N.; Winston, A.; Leen, C.; Wilson, A.; Bezemer, D.O.; Gras, L.A.J.; Kesselring, A.M.; Van Sighem, A.I.; Zaheri, S.; Van Twillert, G.; Kortmann, W.; Branger, J.; Prins, J.M.; Kuijpers, T.W.; Scherpbier, H.J.; Van Der Meer, J.T.M.; Wit, F.W.M.N.; Godfried, M.H.; Reiss, P.; Van Der Poll, T.; Nellen, F.J.B.; Lange, J.M.A.; Geerlings, S.E.; Van Vugt, M.; Pajkrt, D.; Bos, J.C.; van der Valk, M.; Grijsen, M.L.; Wiersinga, W.J.; Brinkman, K.; Blok, W.L.; Frissen, P.H.J.; Schouten, W.E.M.; Van Den Berk, G.E.L.; Veenstra, J.; Lettinga, K.D.; Mulder, J.W.; Vrouenraets, S.M.E.; Lauw, F.N.; Van Eeden, A.; Verhagen, D.W.M.; Van Agtmael, M.A.; Perenboom, R.M.; Claessen, F.A.P.; Bomers, M.; Peters, E.J.G.; Richter, C.; Van Der Berg, J.P.; Gisolf, E.H.; Schippers, E.F.; Van Nieuwkoop, C.; Van Elzakker, E.P.; Leyten, E.M.S.; Gelinck, L.B.S.; Pronk, M.J.H.; Bravenboer, B.; Kootstra, G.J.; Delsing, C.E.; Sprenger, H.G.; Doedens, R.; Scholvinck, E.H.; Van Assen, S.; Bierman, W.F.W.; Soetekouw, R.; Ten Kate, R.W.; Van Vonderen, M.G.A.; Van Houte, D.P.F.; Kroon, F.P.; Van Dissel, J.T.; Arend, S.M.; De Boer, M.G.J.; Jolink, H.; Ter Vollaard, H.J.M.; Bauer, M.P.; Weijer, S.; El Moussaoui, R.; Lowe, S.; Schreij, G.; Oude Lashof, A.; Posthouwer, D.; Koopmans, P.P.; Keuter, M.; Van Der Ven, A.J.A.M.; Ter Hofstede, H.J.M.; Dofferhoff, A.S.M.; Warris, A.; Van Crevel, R.; van der Ende, Marchina E.; De Vries-Sluijs, T.E.M.S.; Schurink, C.A.M.; Nouwen, J.L.; Nispen Tot Pannerden, M.H.; Verbon, A.; Rijnders, B.J.A.; Van Gorp, E.C.M.; Hassing, R.J.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Hartwig, N.G.; Driessen, G.J.A.; Den Hollander, J.G.; Pogany, K.; Juttmann, J.R.; Van Kasteren, M.E.E.; Hoepelman, A.I.M.; Mudrikova, T.; Schneider, M.M.E.; Jaspers, C.A.J.J.; Ellerbroek, P.M.; Oosterheert, J.J.; Arends, J.E.; Wassenberg, M.W.M.; Barth, R.E.; Geelen, S.P.M.; Wolfs, T.F.W.; Bont, L.J.; Van Den Berge, M.; Stegeman, A.; Groeneveld, P.H.P.; Alleman, M.A.; Bouwhuis, J.W.; Barin, F.; Burty, C.; Duvivier, C.; Enel, P.; Fredouille-Heripret, L.; Gasnault, J.; Khuong, M.A.; Mahamat, A.; Pilorgé, F.; Tattevin, P.; Salomon, Valérie; Jacquemet, N.; Abgrall, S.; Costagliola, D.; Grabar, S.; Guiguet, M.; Lanoy, E.; Lièvre, L.; Mary-Krause, M.; Selinger-Leneman, H.; Lacombe, J.M.; Potard, V.; Bricaire, F.; Herson, S.; Katlama, C.; Simon, A.; Desplanque, N.; Girard, P.M.; Meynard, J.L.; Meyohas, M.C.; Picard, O.; Cadranel, J.; Mayaud, C.; Pialoux, G.; Clauvel, J.P.; Decazes, J.M.; Gerard, L.; Molina, J.M.; Diemer, M.; Sellier, P.; Bentata, M.; Honoré, P.; Jeantils, V.; Tassi, S.; Mechali, D.; Taverne, B.; Bouvet, E.; Crickx, B.; Ecobichon, J.L.; Matheron, S.; Picard-Dahan, C.; Yeni, P.; Berthé, H.; Dupont, C.; Chandemerle, C.; Mortier, E.; De Truchis, P.; Tisne-Dessus, D.; Weiss, L.; Salmon, D.; Auperin, I.; Gilquin, J.; Roudière, L.; Viard, J.P.; Boué, F.; Fior, R.; Delfraissy, J.F.; Goujard, C.; Jung, C.; Lesprit, Ph.; Vittecoq, D.; Fraisse, P.; Lang, J.M.; Rey, D.; Beck-Wirth, G.; Stahl, J.P.; Lecercq, P.; Gourdon, F.; Laurichesse, H.; Fresard, A.; Lucht, F.; Bazin, C.; Verdon, R.; Chavanet, P.; Arvieux, C.; Michelet, C.; Choutet, P.; Goudeau, A.; Maître, M.F.; Hoen, B.; Eglinger, P.; Faller, J.P.; Borsa-Lebas, F.; Caron, F.; Reynes, J.; Daures, J.P.; May, T.; Rabaud, C.; Berger, J.L.; Rémy, G.; Arlet-Suau, E.; Cuzin, L.; Massip, P.; Thiercelin Legrand, M.F.; Pontonnier, G.; Viget, N.; Yasdanpanah, Y.; Dellamonica, P.; Pradier, C.; Pugliese, P.; Aleksandrowicz, K.; Quinsat, D.; Ravaux, I.; Tissot-Dupont, H.; Delmont, J.P.; Moreau, J.; Gastaut, J.A.; Poizot-Martin, I.; Retornaz, F.; Soubeyrand, J.; Galinier, A.; Ruiz, J.M.; Allegre, T.; Blanc, P.A.; Bonnet-Montchardon, D.; Lepeu, G.; Granet-Brunello, P.; Esterni, J.P.; Pelissier, L.; Cohen-Valensi, R.; Nezri, M.; Chadapaud, S.; Laffeuillade, A.; Billaud, E.; Raffi, F.; Boibieux, A.; Peyramond, D.; Livrozet, J.M.; Touraine, J.L.; Cotte, L.; Trepo, C.; Strobel, M.; Bissuel, F.; Pradinaud, R.; Sobesky, M.; Cabié, A.; Gaud, C.; Contant, M.; Aubert, V.; Barth, J.; Battegay, M.; Bernasconi, E.; Böni, J.; Bucher, H.C.; Burton-Jeangros, C.; Calmy, A.; Cavassini, M.; Egger, M.; Elzi, L.; Fehr, J.; Fellay, J.; Furrer, H.; Haerry, D.; Fux, C.A.; Gorgievski, M.; Günthard, H.; Hasse, B.; Hirsch, H.H.; Hösli, I.; Kahlert, C.; Kaiser, L.; Keiser, O.; Klimkait, T.; Kovari, H.; Ledergerber, B.; Martinetti, G.; Martinez De Tejada, B.; Metzner, K.; Müller, N.; Nadal, D.; Pantaleo, G.; Rauch, A.; Regenass, S.; Rickenbach, M.; Rudin, C.; Schmid, P.; Schultze, D.; Schöni-Affolter, F.; Schüpbach, J.; Speck, R.; Taffé, P.; Tarr, P.; Telenti, A.; Trkola, A.; Vernazza, P.; Weber, R.; Yerly, S.; Casabona, J.; Gallois, A.; Esteve, A.; Podzamczer, D.; Murillas, J.; Gatell, J.M.; Manzardo, C.; Tural, C.; Clotet, B.; Ferrer, E.; Riera, M.; Segura, F.; Navarro, G.; Force, L.; Vilaró, J.; Masabeu, A.; García, I.; Guadarrama, M.; Cifuentes, C.; Dalmau, D.; Jaen, À.; Agustí, C.; Montoliu, A.; Pérez, I.; Gargoulas, Freyra; Blanco, J.L.; Garcia-Alcaide, F.; Martínez, E.; Mallolas, J.; López-Dieguez, M.; García-Goez, J.F.; Sirera, G.; Romeu, J.; Jou, A.; Negredo, E.; Miranda, C.; Capitan, M.C.; Saumoy, M.; Imaz, A.; Tiraboschi, J.M.; Murillo, O.; Bolao, F.; Peña, C.; Cabellos, C.; Masó, M.; Vila, A.; Sala, M.; Cervantes, M.; Jose Amengual, Ma.; Navarro, M.; Penelo, E.; Barrufet, P.; Bejarano, G.; Molina, J.; Guadarrama, M.; Alvaro, M.; Mercadal, J.; Fernandez, Juanse; Ospina, Jesus E.; Muñoz, M.A.; Caro-Murillo, A.M.; Sobrino, P.; Jarrín, I.; Gomez Sirvent, J.L.; Rodríguez, P.; Aleman, M.R.; Alonso, M.M.; Lopez, A.M.; Hernandez, M.I.; Soriano, V.; Labarga, P.; Barreiro, P.; Medrano, J.; Rivas, P.; Herrero, D.; Blanco, F.; Vispo, M.E.; Martín, L.; Ramírez, G.; De Diego, M.; Rubio, R.; Pulido, F.; Moreno, V.; Cepeda, C.; Hervás, Rl.; Iribarren, J.A.; Arrizabalaga, J.; Aramburu, M.J.; Camino, X.; Rodrí-guez-Arrondo, F.; Von Wichmann, M.A.; Pascual, L.; Goenaga, M.A.; Gutierrez, F.; Masia, M.; Ramos, J.M.; Padilla, S.; Sanchez-Hellín, V.; Bernal, E.; Escolano, C.; Montolio, F.; Peral, Y.; Berenguer, J.; Lopez, J.C.; Miralles, P.; Cosín, J.; Sanchez, M.; Gutierrez, I.; Ramírez, M.; Padilla, B.; Vidal, F.; Sanjuan, M.; Peraire, J.; Veloso, S.; Vilades, C.; Lopez-Dupla, M.; Olona, M.; Vargas, M.; Aldeguer, J.L.; Blanes, M.; Lacruz, J.; Salavert, M.; Montero, M.; Cuéllar, S.; De Los Santos, I.; Sanz, J.; Oteo, J.A.; Blanco, J.R.; Ibarra, V.; Metola, L.; Sanz, M.; Pérez-Martínez, L.; Sola, J.; Uriz, J.; Castiello, J.; Reparaz, J.; Arriaza, M.J.; Irigoyen, C.; Moreno, S.; Antela, A.; Casado, J.L.; Dronda, F.; Moreno, A.; Pérez, M.J.; López, D.; Gutiérrez, C.; Hernández, B.; Pumares, M.; Martí, P.; García, L.; Page, C.; García, F.; Hernández, J.; Peña, A.; Muñoz, L.; Parra, J.; Viciana, P.; Leal, M.; López-Cortés, L.F.; Trastoy, M.; Mata, R.; Justice, A.C.; Fiellin, D.A.; Rimland, D.; Jones-Taylor, C.; Oursler, K.A.; Titanji, R.; Brown, S.; Garrison, S.; Rodriguez-Barradas, M.; Masozera, N.; Goetz, M.; Leaf, D.; Simberkoff, M.; Blumenthal, D.; Leung, J.; Butt, A.; Hoffman, E.; Gibert, C.; Peck, R.; Mattocks, K.; Braithwaite, S.; Brandt, C.; Bryant, K.; Cook, R.; Conigliaro, J.; Crothers, K.; Chang, J.; Crystal, S.; Day, N.; Erdos, J.; Freiberg, M.; Kozal, M.; Gandhi, N.; Gaziano, M.; Gerschenson, M.; Good, B.; Gordon, A.; Goulet, J.L.; Hernán, M.A.; Kraemer, K.; Lim, J.; Maisto, S.; Miller, P.; Mole, L.; O'Connor, P.; Papas, R.; Robins, J.M.; Rinaldo, C.; Roberts, M.; Samet, J.; Tierney, B.; Whittle, J.; Babiker, A.; Brettle, R.; Darbyshire, J.; Gilson, R.; Goldberg, D.; Hawkins, D.; Jaffe, H.; Johnson, A.; McLean, K.; Pillay, D.; Cursley, Adam; Ewings, Fiona; Fairbrother, Keith; Louisa Gnatiuc, S.L.; Murphy, Brendan; Douglas, G.; Kennedy, N.; Pritchard, J.; Andrady, U.; Rajda, N.; Maw, R.; McKernan, S.; Drake, S.; Gilleran, G.; White, D.; Ross, J.; Toomer, S.; Hewart, R.; Wilding, H.; Woodward, R.; Dean, G.; Heald, L.; Horner, P.; Glover, S.; Bansaal, D.; Eduards, S.; Carne, C.; Browing, M.; Das, R.; Stanley, B.; Estreich, S.; Magdy, A.; O'Mahony, C.; Fraser, P.; Hayman, B.; Jebakumar, S.P.R.; Joshi, U.; Ralph, S.; Wade, A.; Mette, R.; Lalik, J.; Summerfield, H.; El-Dalil, A.; France, J.A.; White, C.; Robertson, R.; Gordon, S.; McMillan, S.; Morris, S.; Lean, C.; Vithayathil, K.; McLean, L.; Winter, A.; Gale, D.; Jacobs, S.; Tayal, S.; Short, L.; Roberts, M.; Green, S.; Williams, G.; Sivakumar, K.; Bhattacharyya, N.D.; Monteiro, E.; Minton, J.; Dhar, J.; Nye, F.; De Souza, C.B.; Isaksen, A.; McDonald, L.; McLean, K.; Franca, A.; Hawkins, D.; William, L.; Jendrulek, I.; Peters, B.; Shaunak, S.; El-Gadi, S.; Easterbrook, P.J.; Mazhude, C.; Gilson, R.; Johnstone, R.; Fakoya, A.; McHale, J.; Waters, A.; Kegg, S.; Mitchell, S.; Byrne, P.; Johnson, M.; Rice, P.; Fidler, S.; Mullaney, S.A.; McCormack, S.; David, D.; Melville, R.; Phillip, K.; Balachandran, T.; Mabey-Puttock, S.; Sukthankar, A.; Murphy, C.; Wilkins, E.; Ahmad, S.; Tayal, S.; Haynes, J.; Evans, E.; Ong, E.; Das, R.; Grey, R.; Meaden, J.; Bignell, C.; Loay, D.; Peacock, K.; Girgis, M.R.; Morgan, B.; Palfreeman, A.; Wilcox, J.; Tobin, J.; Tucker, L.; Saeed, A.M.; Chen, F.; Deheragada, A.; Williams, O.; Lacey, H.; Herman, S.; Kinghorn, D.; Devendra, V.S.; Wither, J.; Dawson, S.; Rowen, D.; Harvey, J.; Wilkins, E.; Bridgwood, A.; Singh, G.; Chauhan, M.; Kellock, D.; Young, S.; Dannino, S.; Kathir, Y.; Rooney, G.; Currie, J.; Fitzgerald, M.; Devendra, S.; Keane, F.; Booth, G.; Green, T.; Arumainayyagam, J.; Chandramani, S.; Rajamanoharan, S.; Robinson, T.; Curless, E.; Gokhale, R.; Tariq, A.; Roberts, M.; Williams, O.; Luzzi, G.; FitzGerald, M.; Fairley, I.; Wallis, F.; Smit, E.; Ward, F.; Molina, J.M.; Loze, B.; Morlat, P.; Bonarek, M.; Bonnet, F.; Nouts, C.; Louis, I.; Raffi, F.; Reliquet, V.; Sauser, F.; Biron, C.; Mounoury, O.; Hue, H.; Brosseau, D.; Delfraissy, J.F.; Goujard, C.; Ghosn, J.; Rannou, M.T.; Bergmann, J.F.; Badsi, E.; Rami, A.; Diemer, M.; Parrinello, M.; Girard, P.M.; Samanon-Bollens, D.; Campa, P.; Tourneur, M.; Desplanques, N.; Livrozet, J.M.; Jeanblanc, F.; Chiarello, P.; Makhloufi, D.; Blanc, A.P.; Allègre, T.; Reynes, J.; Baillat, V.; Lemoing, V.; Merle De Boever, C.; Tramoni, C.; Cabié, A.; Sobesky, G.; Abel, S.; Beaujolais, V.; Pialoux, G.; Slama, L.; Chakvetadze, C.; Berrebi, V.; Yeni, P.; Bouvet, E.; Fournier, I.; Gerbe, J.; Trepo, C.; Koffi, K.; Augustin-Normand, C.; Miailhes, P.; Thoirain, V.; Brochier, C.; Thomas, R.; Souala, F.; Ratajczak, M.; Beytoux, J.; Jacomet, C.; Gourdon, F.; Rouveix, E.; Morelon, S.; Dupont, C.; Olivier, C.; Lortholary, O.; Dupont, B.; Viard, J.P.; Maignan, A.; Ragnaud, J.M.; Raymond, I.; Leport, C.; Jadand, C.; Jestin, C.; Longuet, P.; Boucherit, S.; Sereni, D.; Lascoux, C.; Prevoteau, F.; Sobel, A.; Levy, Y.; Lelièvre, J.D.; Lascaux, A.S.; Dominguez, S.; Dumont, C.; Aumâitre, H.; Delmas, B.; Saada, M.; Medus, M.; Guillevin, L.; Salmon, D.; Tahi, T.; Yazdanpanah, Y.; Pavel, S.; Marien, M.C.; Drenou, B.; Beck-Wirth, G.; Beck, C.; Benomar, M.; Katlama, C.; Tubiana, R.; Ait Mohand, H.; Chermak, A.; Ben Abdallah, S.; Bentata, M.; Touam, F.; Hoen, B.; Drobacheff, C.; Folzer, A.; Massip, P.; Obadia, M.; Prudhomme, L.; Bonnet, E.; Balzarin, F.; Pichard, E.; Chennebault, J.M.; Fialaire, P.; Loison, J.; Galanaud, P.; Boué, F.; Bornarel, D.; Verdon, R.; Bazin, C.; Six, M.; Ferret, P.; Weiss, L.; Batisse, D.; Gonzales-Canali, G.; Tisne-Dessus, D.; Devidas, A.; Chevojon, P.; Turpault, I.; Lafeuillade, A.; Cheret, A.; Philip, G.; Morel, P.; Timsit, J.; Herson, S.; Amirat, N.; Simon, A.; Brancion, C.; Cabane, J.; Picard, O.; Tredup, J.; Stein, A.; Ravault, I.; Chavanet, C.; Buisson, M.; Treuvetot, S.; Choutet, P.; Nau, P.; Bastides, F.; May, T.; Boyer, L.; Wassoumbou, S.; Oksenhendeler, E.; Gérard, L.; Bernard, L.; De Truchis, P.; Berthé, H.; Domart, Y.; Merrien, D.; Greder Belan, A.; Gayraud, M.; Bodard, L.; Meudec, A.; Beuscart, C.; Daniel, C.; Pape, E.; Vinceneux, P.; Simonpoli, A.M.; Zeng, A.; Fournier, L.; Fuzibet, J.G.; Sohn, C.; Rosenthal, E.; Quaranta, M.; Dellamonica, P.; Chaillou, S.; Sabah, M.; Audhuy, B.; Schieber, A.; Moreau, P.; Niault, M.; Vaillant, O.; Huchon, G.; Compagnucci, A.; De Lacroix Szmania, I.; Richier, L.; Lamaury, I.; Saint-Dizier, F.; Garipuy, D.; Gastaut, J.A.; Drogoul, M.P.; Poizot Martin, I.; Fabre, G.; Lambert De Cursay, G.; Abraham, B.; Perino, C.; Lagarde, P.; David, F.; Roche-Sicot, J.; Saraux, J.L.; Leprêtre, A.; Fampin, B.; Uludag, A.; Morin, A.S.; Bletry, O.; Zucman, D.; Regnier, A.; Girard, J.J.; Quinsat, D.T.; Heripret, L.; Grihon, F.; Houlbert, D.; Ruel, M.; Chemlal, K.; Caron, F.; Debab, Y.; Tremollieres, F.; Perronne, V.; Lepeu, G.; Slama, B.; Perré, P.; Miodovski, C.; Guermonprez, G.; Dulioust, A.; Boudon, P.; Malbec, D.; Patey, O.; Semaille, C.; Deville, J.; Remy, G.; Béguinot, I.; Galanaud, P.; Boue, F.; Chambrin, V.; Pignon, C.; Estocq, G.A.; Levy, A.; Delfraissy, J.F.; Goujard, C.; Duracinsky, M.; Le Bras, P.; Ngussan, M.S.; Peretti, D.; Medintzeff, N.; Lambert, T.; Segeral, O.; Lezeau, P.; Laurian, Y.; Weiss, L.; Buisson, M.; Piketty, C.; Karmochkine, M.; Batisse, D.; Eliaszewitch, M.; Jayle, D.; Tisne-Dessus, D.; Kazatchkine, M.; Leport, C.; Colasante, U.; Jadand, C.; Jestin, C.; Duval, X.; Nouaouia, W.; Boucherit, S.; Vilde, J.L.; Girard, P.M.; Bollens, D.; Binet, D.; Diallo, B.; Meyohas, M.C.; Fonquernie, L.; Lagneau, J.L.; Salmon, D.; Guillevin, L.; Tahi, T.; Launay, O.; Pietrie, M.P.; Sicard, D.; Stieltjes, N.; Michot, J.; Sobel, A.; Levy, Y.; Bourdillon, F.; Lascaux, A.S.; Lelievre, J.D.; Dumont, C.; Dupont, B.; Obenga, G.; Viard, J.P.; Maignan, A.; Vittecoq, D.; Escaut, L.; Bolliot, C.; Bricaire, F.; Katlama, C.; Schneider, L.; Herson, S.; Simon, A.; Iguertsira, M.; Stein, A.; Tomei, C.; Ravaux, I.; Dhiver, C.; Tissot Dupont, H.; Vallon, A.; Gallais, J.; Gallais, H.; Gastaut, J.A.; Drogoul, M.P.; Fabre, G.; Dellamonica, P.; Durant, J.; Mondain, V.; Perbost, I.; Cassuto, J.P.; Karsenti, J.M.; Venti, H.; Fuzibet, J.G.; Rosenthal, E.; Ceppi, C.; Quaranta, M.; Krivitsky, J.A.; Bentata, M.; Bouchaud, O.; Honore, P.; Sereni, D.; Lascoux, C.; Delgado, J.; Rouzioux, C.; Burgard, M.; Boufassa, L.; Peynet, J.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Del Amo, J.; Alvarez, D.; Monge, S.; Muga, R.; Sanvisens, A.; Clotet, B.; Tor, J.; Bolao, F.; Rivas, I.; Vallecillo, G.; Del Romero, J.; Raposo, P.; Rodríguez, C.; Vera, M.; Hurtado, I.; Belda, J.; Fernandez, E.; Alastrue, I.; Santos, C.; Tasa, T.; Juan, A.; Trullen, J.; Garcia De Olalla, P.; Cayla, J.; Masdeu, E.; Knobel, H.; Mirò, J.M.; Sambeat, M.A.; Guerrero, R.; Rivera, E.; Guerrero, R.; Marco, A.; Quintana, M.; Gonzalez, C.; Castilla, J.; Guevara, M.; De Mendoza, C.; Zahonero, N.; Ortíz, M.; Paraskevis, D.; Touloumi, G.; Pantazis, N.; Bakoyannis, G.; Gioukari, V.; Antoniadou, A.; Papadopoulos, A.; Petrikkos, G.; Daikos, G.; Psichogiou, M.; Gargalianos-Kakolyris, P.; Xylomenos, G.; Katsarou, O.; Kouramba, A.; Ioannidou, P.; Kordossis, T.; Kontos, A.; Lazanas, M.; Chini, M.; Tsogas, N.; Panos, G.; Paparizos, V.; Leuow, K.; Kourkounti, S.; Sambatakou, H.; Mariolis, I.; Skoutelis, A.; Papastamopoulos, V.; Baraboutis, I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is little information on the incidence of AIDS-defining events which have been reported in the literature to be associated with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) after combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation. These events include tuberculosis, mycobacteri

  20. Virulence Attributes and Antifungal Susceptibility Profile of Opportunistic Fungi Isolated from Ophthalmic Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sav, Hafize; Ozdemir, Havva Gül; Altınbas, Rabiye; Kiraz, Nuri; Ilkit, Macit; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba

    2016-10-01

    Investigations of both virulence factors and antifungal susceptibility profiles are crucial for understanding the pathogenesis and prognosis of ophthalmic mycoses. In this study, we investigated the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of amphotericin B (AMB), voriconazole (VRC), and natamycin (NAT) against a set of 50 fungal isolates obtained from patients with ocular mycoses using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method. In addition, putative virulence factor, such as secretory phospholipases and proteinases, and biofilm formation activity were analyzed. The geometric means (GMs) of the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the antifungals across all isolates were the following (in increasing order): VRC (0.70 μg/mL), AMB (0.81 μg/mL), and NAT (1.05 μg/mL). The highest activity against 14 Aspergillus strains was exhibited by VRC (GM MIC: 0.10 μg/mL), followed by AMB and NAT (GM MICs: 0.21 and 0.27 μg/mL), respectively. However, for 12 Fusarium spp., the GM MIC of VRC (2.66) was higher than those of NAT and AMB (GM MICs 1.3 and 0.8 μg/mL, respectively). Proteinase and phospholipase activity were observed in 30 % and 42 % of the isolates, respectively, whereas only 8 % of the isolates were able to produce biofilms. Phospholipase activity was observed in all Fusarium isolates, but not in any of the Aspergillus isolates. In contrast, biofilm-forming capability was detected in 25 % of the Fusarium isolates, but none of the Aspergillus isolates. The differences in the MICs of AMB, VRC, and NAT, biofilm-forming ability and proteinase and phospholipase activities among the isolates were not significant (p > 0.05). Overall, our study suggests no significant correlation between the antifungal susceptibility profiles and virulence attributes of ocular fungal isolates.

  1. Survey of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and practices among clients in rural areas of Gu7angxi%广西农村地区低档场所嫖客艾滋病相关知信行调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔岩; 周月姣; 杨莉

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解广西农村低档场所嫖客的艾滋病相关知识知晓率情况和高危行为的特征及影响因素.方法 通过观察法、个人深入访谈、问卷调查等方法对103名嫖客的一般情况、艾滋病知识的知晓率、安全套使用等情况进行了调查.结果 调查发现,低档场所的嫖客对艾滋病相关知识的知晓率较低,平均答对题数仅为3.24题(共8题);嫖客人群以50岁以上的中老年人为主,占70.87%;嫖客文化程度较低,初中以下文化程度者超过90%;最近一个月商业性行为中坚持使用安全套的比例为3.88%;HIV感染率为1.94%,梅毒感染率为9.71%.结论 农村地区低档场所的嫖客艾滋病相关知识的知晓率较低,HIV感染率较高,安全套使用率较低,自愿进行HIV检测的比例和性病诊疗获得率都较低.可根据其自身特点开展具有针对性的宣传教育和外展服务,扩大自愿咨询检测和规范化性病诊疗的覆盖面和可及性.%Objective To survey the HIV/AIDS-related knowledge awareness,high risk behavior among clients in low cost sites of rural areas in Guangxi.Methods The HIV/AIDS-related knowledge awareness,high risk behavior among clients in low cost sites of rural areas in Guangxi were surveyed both by personal in-depth interviews and questionnaire.Results The awareness of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge of clients whose average number of correct answers was only 3.24 questions (8questions in total).The clients were mainly in the age group of over 50 years old,accounted for 70.87% and 90% of them were below junior middle school education level.The frequency of condom use during commercial sex behaviors with the CSW in the last month was 3.88%,HIV infection rate was 1.94%,and the syphilis infection rate was 9.71%.Conclusion The awareness rate of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge of clients in low-cost sites was low.The HIV infection rate among them was high; the rate of condom use was low

  2. AIDS related knowledge and risk behaviors investigation among the female commercial sex works in a county of Guangxi%广西某县CSW艾滋病相关知识及危险行为调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄广兰; 翟庆秀

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解暗娼(CSW)基本情况、艾滋病相关行为及梅毒、艾滋病病毒(HIV)感染情况,为今后艾滋病防控工作提供科学依据.方法 采取横断面调查分层抽样的方法,对广西某县城区的高、中、低宾馆及桑拿房、按摩足浴保健中心等娱乐场所中301名CSW进行面对面访谈,填写匿名调查问卷.结果 调查发现CSW年龄较小、文化程度低、性生活频率高、艾滋病知识知晓率低,多数人出现过性病症状,患病后只有62.50%选择到正规医院治疗,艾滋病病毒感染率为0.66%,梅毒感染率为4.36%.结论 该县CSW人群中存在艾滋病传播的潜在危险因素,应采取进一步的预防干预措施.%Objective To understand the basic information of female commercial sex works and AIDS related behaviors and syphilis and HIV infection status, in order to provide scientific basis for future AIDS prevention and control. Method During July to September in 2011, taking a cross - sectional survey design, adopting stratified sampling method to select 301 female commercial sex works which worked in guesthouses, sauna, massage foot health centers and other places, carrying out face to face interview and fill in anonymous questionnaire. Results The survey found that the FSWs were younger, low education level, without job skills, high frequency sexual life, low awareness of AIDS. Most of the people had venereal symptoms, only 62. 50% them went to the normal hospitals. The HIV infection rate was 0. 66% , syphilis was 4. 36%. Conclusions There were HIV potential risk factors among the females commercial sex works, we should take further preventive interventions

  3. Factors influencing cerebrospinal fluid and plasma HIV-1 RNA detection rate in patients with and without opportunistic neurological disease during the HAART era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleixo Agdemir W

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the central nervous system, HIV replication can occur relatively independent of systemic infection, and intrathecal replication of HIV-1 has been observed in patients with HIV-related and opportunistic neurological diseases. The clinical usefulness of HIV-1 RNA detection in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of patients with opportunistic neurological diseases, or the effect of opportunistic diseases on CSF HIV levels in patients under HAART has not been well defined. We quantified CSF and plasma viral load in HIV-infected patients with and without different active opportunistic neurological diseases, determined the characteristics that led to a higher detection rate of HIV RNA in CSF, and compared these two compartments. Methods A prospective study was conducted on 90 HIV-infected patients submitted to lumbar puncture as part of a work-up for suspected neurological disease. Seventy-one patients had active neurological diseases while the remaining 19 did not. Results HIV-1 RNA was quantified in 90 CSF and 70 plasma samples. The HIV-1 RNA detection rate in CSF was higher in patients with neurological diseases, in those with a CD4 count lower than 200 cells/mm3, and in those not receiving antiretroviral therapy, as well as in patients with detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA. Median viral load was lower in CSF than in plasma in the total population, in patients without neurological diseases, and in patients with toxoplasmic encephalitis, while no significant difference between the two compartments was observed for patients with cryptococcal meningitis and HIV-associated dementia. CSF viral load was lower in patients with cryptococcal meningitis and neurotoxoplasmosis under HAART than in those not receiving HAART. Conclusion Detection of HIV-1 RNA in CSF was more frequent in patients with neurological disease, a CD4 count lower than 200 cells/mm3 and detectable plasma HIV-1. Median HIV-1 RNA levels were generally lower in CSF than in

  4. Nutritional and metabolic correlates of cardiovascular and bone disease in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Kathleen; Grinspoon, Steven

    2011-12-01

    The treatment of HIV infection has dramatically reduced the incidence of AIDS-related illnesses. At the same time, non-AIDS-related illnesses such as cardiovascular and bone disease are becoming more prevalent in this population. The mechanisms of these illnesses are complex and are related in part to the HIV virus, antiretroviral medications prescribed for HIV infection, traditional risk factors exacerbated by HIV, and lifestyle and nutritional factors. Further prospective research is needed to clarify the mechanisms by which HIV, antiretroviral medications, and nutritional abnormalities contribute to bone and cardiovascular disease in the HIV population. Increasingly, it is being recognized that optimizing the treatment of HIV infection to improve immune function and reduce viral load may also benefit the development of non-AIDS-related illnesses such as cardiovascular and bone disease.

  5. Analysing the Behaviour and Performance of Opportunistic Routing Protocols in Highly Mobile Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun G Menon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in wireless networks have enabled us to deploy and use mobile ad hoc networks for communication between the rescue officers in disaster recovery and reconstruction operations. This highly dynamic network does not require any infrastructure or centralized control. As the topology of the network remain dynamic, severe performance limitations incur with traditional routing strategies. Recently a new routing paradigm known as opportunistic routing protocols have been proposed to overcome these limitations and to provide efficient delivery of data in these highly dynamic ad hoc networks. Using the broadcasting nature of the wireless medium, this latest routing technique tries to address two major issues of varying link quality and unpredictable node mobility in ad hoc networks. Unlike conventional IP forwarding, where an intermediate node looks up a forwarding table for a suitable next hop, opportunistic routing brings in opportunistic data forwarding that allows multiple candidate nodes in the forwarding area to act on the broadcasted data packet. This increases the reliability of data delivery in the network with reduced delay. One of the most important issues that have not been studied so far is the varying performance of opportunistic routing protocols in wireless networks with highly mobile nodes. This research paper analyses and compares the various advantages, disadvantages and the performance of the latest opportunistic routing protocols in wireless ad hoc networks with highly mobile nodes.

  6. The dynamics of the production of AIDS-related stigma among pregnant women living with HIV/AIDS in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Simone; Villela, Wilza; Fraga, Livia; Soares, Priscilla; Pinho, Adriana

    2016-12-15

    The study analyses the relationship between AIDS-related stigma and the processes of discrimination prior to diagnosis among pregnant women living with HIV/AIDS. The fieldwork involved interviews about the life trajectories of 29 pregnant women living with HIV/AIDS, recruited at two AIDS services in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The analysis revealed that before HIV diagnosis, social and gender inequalities experienced by these women reduced their access to material and symbolic goods that could have enhanced educational and career prospects and their ability and autonomy to exercise sexual and reproductive rights. Being diagnosed with HIV triggered fear of moral judgment and of breakdown in social and family support networks. Given these fears, pregnant women living with HIV/AIDS opt for concealment of the diagnosis. It is necessary for health services, NGOs and government agencies to work together to face the factors that fuel stigma, such as socioeconomic and gender inequalities, taboos and prejudices related to sexuality, and also develop actions to enable women to redefine the meaning of the disease.

  7. The dynamics of the production of AIDS-related stigma among pregnant women living with HIV/AIDS in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Monteiro

    Full Text Available The study analyses the relationship between AIDS-related stigma and the processes of discrimination prior to diagnosis among pregnant women living with HIV/AIDS. The fieldwork involved interviews about the life trajectories of 29 pregnant women living with HIV/AIDS, recruited at two AIDS services in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The analysis revealed that before HIV diagnosis, social and gender inequalities experienced by these women reduced their access to material and symbolic goods that could have enhanced educational and career prospects and their ability and autonomy to exercise sexual and reproductive rights. Being diagnosed with HIV triggered fear of moral judgment and of breakdown in social and family support networks. Given these fears, pregnant women living with HIV/AIDS opt for concealment of the diagnosis. It is necessary for health services, NGOs and government agencies to work together to face the factors that fuel stigma, such as socioeconomic and gender inequalities, taboos and prejudices related to sexuality, and also develop actions to enable women to redefine the meaning of the disease.

  8. 艾滋病相关性腹泻中医综合疗法探析%Explore in the Comprehensive Therapy of TCM to AIDS Related Diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚萍; 邓鑫; 李永亮

    2011-01-01

    腹泻是艾滋病患者一种非常普遍的临床症状,严重影响患者的生活质量.艾滋病患者腹泻的病机主要在脾,以脾虚失运为主.在防治上,运用健脾益气的中药和艾灸综合疗法对于改善艾滋病患者腹泻症状,提高患者生活质量,维持机体免疫功能,减缓疾病的发展等都有积极的意义.%Diarrhea which is a common clinical symptom of patients with AIDS influences the quality of patients ' life significandy. The pathogenesis of AIDS related diarrhea lies mainly in the spleen with losing transport because of splenic asthenia as the most common syndrome type. To prevent or treat it with comprehensive therapy of strengthening spleen and replenishing Qi and moxibustion can help to alleviate the symptoms, improve the quality of life, maintain the immune function of the body and slow down the steps of the development of the disease.

  9. Study on Internet use and AIDS related knowledge and behaviors among MSM%MSM艾滋病相关知识行为及互联网的使用情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴丽萍; 姜宜海; 龚诚华; 黄丽娟

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解男男性行为人群(MSM)使用互联网的情况、MSM人口学和性行为特征、艾滋病知识知晓情况,以及HIV、梅毒感染情况,为MSM艾滋病干预提供依据.方法 对2011年参加艾滋病自愿咨询检测的MSM进行整群抽样调查,用自行设计的调查问卷,对MSM人口学特征、互联网的使用情况以及艾滋病知识知晓情况进行分析.结果 调查735名MSM,77.28%通过互联网认识第一个男性伴,80.95%的人以互联网做为寻找男性性伴最常去的场所,每周上网浏览同性交友信息1~3小时以上占73.06%,近6个月53.47%有2个以上性伴,46.87%每次性交都用安全套;HIV感染率6.39%,梅毒感染率3.40%,艾滋病知晓率为94.56%,文化程度越高,艾滋病知晓率越高,艾滋病感染率越低.结论 多性伴和无保护肛交等高危行为使MSM艾滋病感染情况严重,大多数MSM喜欢使用互联网结交同性朋友,为提高艾滋病知识知晓率,减少高危行为,应充分利用互联网等信息资源控制艾滋病.%Objective To understand the status of Internet use, AIDS related sexual behavior and knowledge, prevalence of HIV and syphilis infection, and provide evidence for AIDS intervention among MSM. Methods In 2011, a cluster sampling survey was carried out among MSM when they took AIDS voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) by using self-designed questionnaire. The MSM demographic characteristics, Internet use and the knowledge about HIV/AIDS were analyzed. Results 735 MSM were enrolled, 77.28% of them acquainted their first male partner through the Internet, 80. 95% of them used the Internet as a search site for male sexual partner. 73. 06% of them spent 1-3 hours or more per week for Internet gay friend sites. 53.47% of them had two or more sexual partners in nearly six months, 46. 87% of them used condom during sexual intercourse. HIV infection rate was 6. 39% , and syphilis infection rate was 3. 40% , AIDS knowledge rate

  10. Optimising social information by game theory and ant colony method to enhance routing protocol in opportunistic networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chander Prabha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data loss and disconnection of nodes are frequent in the opportunistic networks. The social information plays an important role in reducing the data loss because it depends on the connectivity of nodes. The appropriate selection of next hop based on social information is critical for improving the performance of routing in opportunistic networks. The frequent disconnection problem is overcome by optimising the social information with Ant Colony Optimization method which depends on the topology of opportunistic network. The proposed protocol is examined thoroughly via analysis and simulation in order to assess their performance in comparison with other social based routing protocols in opportunistic network under various parameters settings.

  11. Exophiala jeanselmei infection in solid organ transplant recipients: report of two cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lief, M H; Caplivski, D; Bottone, E J; Lerner, S; Vidal, C; Huprikar, S

    2011-02-01

    Dematiaceous fungi are an opportunistic pathogen seen in solid organ transplant recipients. We report 2 cases of Exophiala infection and review the medical literature to summarize the spectrum of disease this pathogen can cause in this patient population.

  12. Improved Power-Delay Trade-off in Wireless Networks Using Opportunistic Routing

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, Won-Yong; Lee, Yong H

    2009-01-01

    We study the benefits of opportunistic routing in wireless networks by examining how the power and delay scale as the number of source-destination (S-D) pairs in the network increases. The scaling behavior of conventional multi-hop transmission that does not employ opportunistic routing is also examined for comparison. Our results indicate that opportunistic routing can exhibit a better power--delay trade-off than that of conventional routing by providing up to a logarithmic boost in the scaling law. Such a gain is possible since the receivers can tolerate more interference due to the increased received signal power provided by the multi-user diversity (MUD) gain, which means having more simultaneous transmissions is possible. Computer simulations for both routing schemes are also performed, which show trends consistent with our analytical predictions.

  13. Joint Network Coding and Opportunistic Scheduling for the Bidirectional Relay Channel

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2013-05-27

    In this paper, we consider a two-way communication system in which two users communicate with each other through an intermediate relay over block-fading channels. We investigate the optimal opportunistic scheduling scheme in order to maximize the long-term average transmission rate in the system assuming symmetric information flow between the two users. Based on the channel state information, the scheduler decides that either one of the users transmits to the relay, or the relay transmits to a single user or broadcasts to both users a combined version of the two users’ transmitted information by using linear network coding. We obtain the optimal scheduling scheme by using the Lagrangian dual problem. Furthermore, in order to characterize the gains of network coding and opportunistic scheduling, we compare the achievable rate of the system versus suboptimal schemes in which the gains of network coding and opportunistic scheduling are partially exploited.

  14. Conserved natural IgM antibodies mediate innate and adaptive immunity against the opportunistic fungus Pneumocystis murina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapaka, Rekha R; Ricks, David M; Alcorn, John F; Chen, Kong; Khader, Shabaana A; Zheng, Mingquan; Plevy, Scott; Bengtén, Eva; Kolls, Jay K

    2010-12-20

    Host defense against opportunistic fungi requires coordination between innate and adaptive immunity for resolution of infection. Antibodies generated in mice vaccinated with the fungus Pneumocystis prevent growth of Pneumocystis organisms within the lungs, but the mechanisms whereby antibodies enhance antifungal host defense are poorly defined. Nearly all species of fungi contain the conserved carbohydrates β-glucan and chitin within their cell walls, which may be targets of innate and adaptive immunity. In this study, we show that natural IgM antibodies targeting these fungal cell wall carbohydrates are conserved across many species, including fish and mammals. Natural antibodies bind fungal organisms and enhance host defense against Pneumocystis in early stages of infection. IgM antibodies influence recognition of fungal antigen by dendritic cells, increasing their migration to draining pulmonary lymph nodes. IgM antibodies are required for adaptive T helper type 2 (Th2) and Th17 cell differentiation and guide B cell isotype class-switch recombination during host defense against Pneumocystis. These experiments suggest a novel role for the IgM isotype in shaping the earliest steps in recognition and clearance of this fungus. We outline a mechanism whereby serum IgM, containing ancient specificities against conserved fungal antigens, bridges innate and adaptive immunity against fungal organisms.

  15. Public policy and regulatory implications for the implementation of Opportunistic Cloud Computing Services for Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, Eric; Olesen, Henning; Henten, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Opportunistic Cloud Computing Services (OCCS) is a social network approach to the provisioning and management of cloud computing services for enterprises. This paper discusses how public policy and regulations will impact on OCCS implementation. We rely on documented publicly available government...... and corporate policies on the adoption of cloud computing services and deduce the impact of these policies on their adoption of opportunistic cloud computing services. We conclude that there are regulatory challenges on data protection that raises issues for cloud computing adoption in general; and the lack...

  16. Performance analysis of adaptive modulation for cognitive radios with opportunistic access

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yunfei

    2011-06-01

    The performance of adaptive modulation for cognitive radio with opportunistic access is analyzed by considering the effects of spectrum sensing and primary user traffic for Nakagami-m fading channels. Both the adaptive continuous rate scheme and the adaptive discrete rate scheme are considered. Numerical results show that spectrum sensing and primary user traffic cause considerable degradation to the bit error rate performance of adaptive modulation in a cognitive radio system with opportunistic access to the licensed channel. They also show that primary user traffic does not affect the link spectral efficiency performance of adaptive modulation, while the spectrum sensing degrades the link spectral efficiency performance. © 2011 IEEE.

  17. Context sensitive trust based geographic opportunistic routing in mobile ad hoc networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A RAJESH; N MOHAN KUMAR

    2016-11-01

    Position based opportunistic routing (POR) is a stateless, robust, and reliable geographic routing protocol in Mobile AdHoc NETwork (MANET). The opportunistic routing embraces broadcast property of wireless channels and utilizes it for opportunistic forwarding. Both the malicious node behavior and the backupnodes’ behavior are equally treated as malicious in the existing misbehavior detection mechanisms. Hence, incorporating a general trust model in POR is not combative with routing attacks. It is necessary to determine whether the misbehavior is likely a result of malicious activity or due to the backup scenario of opportunistic forwarding. On the other hand, if context-sensitive trust information is available on every node, it ensures a fair decision making and also supports secured routing in an opportunistic approach. This work investigates the utilization of context attributes along with generic trust model to allow POR for secure and reliable data forwarding. This paper introduces context-sensitive trust for choosing the data forwarding node in POR (CPOR) to assist opportunistic routing in selecting the trusted optimal data forwarding node and to cope with both security and reliability of communications. The proposed work exercises both coarse- and fine-grained trust evaluation to strengthen the trustworthiness. The coarse-grained trust measure includes positive progress per hop and behavioral attribute of the nodes in terms of routing service. The fine-grained trust evaluation differs the opportunistic routing environment from the adverse scenarios and aids the source node such that it builds a highly trusted positive progress set using contextual attributes. The fine-grained trust evaluation deduces the ideal contextual information such as the link quality, battery energy, and the backup service to determine the accurate trust value of nodes. As a result, it involves optimal routes and enables CPOR to maintain the routingperformance equal to the POR even

  18. Switch Based Opportunistic Spectrum Access for General Primary User Traffic Model

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

    2012-06-18

    This letter studies cognitive radio transceiver that can opportunistically use the available channels of primary user (PU). Specifically, we investigate and compare two different opportunistic channel access schemes. The first scheme applies when the secondary user (SU) has access to only one channel. The second scheme, based on channel switching mechanism, applies when the SU has access to multiple channels but can at a given time monitor and access only one channel. For these access schemes, we derive the exact analytical results for the novel performance metrics of average access time and average waiting time under general PU traffic models.

  19. Opportunistic relaying in multipath and slow fading channel: Relay selection and optimal relay selection period

    KAUST Repository

    Sungjoon Park,

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we present opportunistic relay communication strategies of decode and forward relaying. The channel that we are considering includes pathloss, shadowing, and fast fading effects. We find a simple outage probability formula for opportunistic relaying in the channel, and validate the results by comparing it with the exact outage probability. Also, we suggest a new relay selection algorithm that incorporates shadowing. We consider a protocol of broadcasting the channel gain of the previously selected relay. This saves resources in slow fading channel by reducing collisions in relay selection. We further investigate the optimal relay selection period to maximize the throughput while avoiding selection overhead. © 2011 IEEE.

  20. Rhodococcus Infection in Solid Organ and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza-Heredia, Ella J.; Nellore, Anoma; Kotton, Camille N.; Kaul, Daniel R.; Morris, Michele I.; Kelesidis, Theodoros; Shah, Harshal; Park, Seo Young; Nguyen, M. Hong; Razonable, Raymund R.

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a case–control study of 18 US transplant recipients with Rhodococcus infection and 36 matched controls. The predominant types of infection were pneumonia and bacteremia. Diabetes mellitus and recent opportunistic infection were independently associated with disease. Outcomes were generally favorable except for 1 relapse and 1 death. PMID:28221102

  1. Disseminated Mycobacterium haemophilum infection in a renal transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brix, Silke R; Iking-Konert, Christof; Stahl, Rolf A K; Wenzel, Ulrich

    2016-10-31

    Opportunistic infections are a major concern in renal and transplant medicine. We present the case of a renal transplant recipient with a generalised Mycobacterium haemophilum infection after an increase in immunosuppressive therapy and treatment with a tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitor. Infection involved skin and soft tissue, joints and bones, as well as the renal transplant with an interstitial nephritis. Rapid diagnosis using PCR and DNA sequencing allowed early appropriate treatment. Triple antibiotic therapy and reduction in immunosuppression resulted in a slow but sustained recovery. Immunosuppression causes severe opportunistic infections. TNF-α inhibitors are very effective and well tolerated but have an increased susceptibility to infections with mycobacteria. Mycobacterial infections represent a significant clinical risk to transplant recipients because of their aggressive clinical course and the need for complex toxic antibiotic treatments. In these patients, M. haemophilum is a cause of skin infections.

  2. 娱乐场所女性服务人员艾滋歧视及其对艾滋病防治服务依从性的影响%AIDS-Related Discrimination and its Effects on Prevention Service Adherence among Female Entertainment Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石国政; 殷方兰; 吴杰; 郭丽华; RobertS.Remis; 钟平

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] To investigate AIDS-related discrimination among female entertainment workers (FEWs) and its effect on prevention service adherence. [ Methods ] A total of 126 FEWs were randomly selected from Juyuan New Area as the study subjects, interviewed with an unified questionnaire for socio-demographic, behavioral, cognition and AIDS-related discrimination status, and tested for HIV, HSV-2, syphilis, gonorrhea and Chlamydia trachomatis with blood and urine samples. [ Results ] Among the 126 FEWs investigated, 31.75% came from large KTVs, 62.70% from small hair salons, 2.38% from small foot care stores, and 3.17% from small bathrooms. None was HIV-positive and 22.22% was infected with sexually transmitted diseases (STD). The mean score of AIDS-related discrimination was 4.19 ± 1.61. AIDS-related discrimination had a statistical relationship with the level of AIDS knowledge (x2=5.184, P=0.023). Only 23.81% had HIV tests ever, and "don't know where to go to get a test" and "chance of having AIDS is low" were the main reasons for not to get a test. Those having STD-related symptoms in the past one month accounted for 61.90%, and 70.51% saw a doctor. Those who went for routine STD check-ups in the past one year taken 50.00%, and the mean of STD checkups were 1.79 ± 0.99. In their last sexual encounter, 96.83% used condoms when having sex with clients, but 45.74% did so when with regular sexual partners. The proportion of having a miscarriage ever was 11.11%, and 65.87% for an abortion ever. The times of miscarriage and abortion varied from 1 to 7, with the median of 1. Those using contraceptives accounted for 97.62%, among which 66.67% chose condoms. X2 test showed AIDS-related discrimination had a statistical relationship with HIV test (x2=5.936,P=0.015) and sexually transmitted infection rate (x2=4.829, P=0.028). [ Conclusion ] AIDS-related discrimination is common among FEWs. HIV prevention service adherence is far from being satisfactory, and AIDS-related

  3. IgM, IgG and IgA rheumatoid factors and circulating immune complexes in patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex with serological abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procaccia, S; Lazzarin, A; Colucci, A; Gasparini, A; Forcellini, P; Lanzanova, D; Foppa, C U; Novati, R; Zanussi, C

    1987-01-01

    To investigate some humoral aspects which may reflect the involvement of B lymphocytes in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), we used an enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) to determine the levels of IgM, IgG and IgA rheumatoid factors (RF) in 16 patients suffering from full-blown AIDS and 32 patients with AIDS-related complex (ARC), in the clinical form of lymphoadenopathy syndrome (LAS), compared with 40 healthy, young heterosexual subjects. Both AIDS and ARC patients showed a greater incidence of high IgM RF levels, with mean values significantly higher than controls, but with no differences between the two pathological groups. IgG RF behaviour was similar in the two patient populations and the healthy subjects. IgA RF were significantly raised in AIDS and ARC. Further information on RF was obtained by determination of the immunoglobulin levels of the respective isotypes in the same patients. Mean IgG levels were above normal in AIDS and ARC patients, but the latter group showed a higher incidence of increased values and higher mean levels. The IgA isotype was significantly increased mainly in AIDS patients. The behaviour of IgM was virtually the same in the three groups studied. A difference between AIDS and ARC patients was established by the detection of circulating immune-complexes (IC) by the C1q-binding and CIC-conglutinin assays. IC were significantly high, by both methods, only in the ARC group, but normal or very low in AIDS. These overall findings suggest once again the impairment of B cell function in AIDS, with prevalent hyperactivation in ARC and exhaustion in full-blown AIDS, and apparent preservation, in the latter group, of the antibody responses which are more closely related to the activity of subsets of T helper cells. PMID:3608224

  4. Recent Taxonomic Developments with Candida and Other Opportunistic Yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Mary E; Lockhart, Shawn R

    2012-09-01

    Increases in susceptible patient populations and advances in identification methods have resulted in the continued recognition of novel yeasts as agents of human infection. Most of these agents are members of the well-recognized genera Candida, Cryptococcus, Trichosporon, and Rhodotorula. Some of these agents are "cryptic species," members of species complexes, and may not be detectable using classical carbohydrate assimilation-based methods of yeast identification. Such species require DNA- or MALDI-based methods for correct identification, although sporadic isolates may not routinely require delineation to the individual species level. The coming end of the fungal taxonomy rules requiring separate names for sexual and asexual forms of the same fungus will hopefully allow greater clarity, as names for medically important yeast can now be based on the needs of the medical mycology community and the common goal of better communication between laboratory and clinician.

  5. Hosting infection: experimental models to assay Candida virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccallum, Donna M

    2012-01-01

    Although normally commensals in humans, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei are capable of causing opportunistic infections in individuals with altered physiological and/or immunological responses. These fungal species are linked with a variety of infections, including oral, vaginal, gastrointestinal, and systemic infections, with C. albicans the major cause of infection. To assess the ability of different Candida species and strains to cause infection and disease requires the use of experimental infection models. This paper discusses the mucosal and systemic models of infection available to assay Candida virulence and gives examples of some of the knowledge that has been gained to date from these models.

  6. Amyloid and tau cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosengren Lars

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the emerging intersections of HIV infection and Alzheimer's disease, we examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers related of amyloid and tau metabolism in HIV-infected patients. Methods In this cross-sectional study we measured soluble amyloid precursor proteins alpha and beta (sAPPα and sAPPβ, amyloid beta fragment 1-42 (Aβ1-42, and total and hyperphosphorylated tau (t-tau and p-tau in CSF of 86 HIV-infected (HIV+ subjects, including 21 with AIDS dementia complex (ADC, 25 with central nervous system (CNS opportunistic infections and 40 without neurological symptoms and signs. We also measured these CSF biomarkers in 64 uninfected (HIV- subjects, including 21 with Alzheimer's disease, and both younger and older controls without neurological disease. Results CSF sAPPα and sAPPβ concentrations were highly correlated and reduced in patients with ADC and opportunistic infections compared to the other groups. The opportunistic infection group but not the ADC patients had lower CSF Aβ1-42 in comparison to the other HIV+ subjects. CSF t-tau levels were high in some ADC patients, but did not differ significantly from the HIV+ neuroasymptomatic group, while CSF p-tau was not increased in any of the HIV+ groups. Together, CSF amyloid and tau markers segregated the ADC patients from both HIV+ and HIV- neuroasymptomatics and from Alzheimer's disease patients, but not from those with opportunistic infections. Conclusions Parallel reductions of CSF sAPPα and sAPPβ in ADC and CNS opportunistic infections suggest an effect of CNS immune activation or inflammation on neuronal amyloid synthesis or processing. Elevation of CSF t-tau in some ADC and CNS infection patients without concomitant increase in p-tau indicates neural injury without preferential accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau as found in Alzheimer's disease. These biomarker changes define pathogenetic pathways to brain injury in ADC that differ from those

  7. Red knots scavenging on large, dying cockles : Opportunistic feeding by a sensory specialized mollusc-crushing shorebird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poot, Martin J M; Roelen, Bernard A J; Piersma, Theunis

    2014-01-01

    Despite their specializations, shorebirds can be opportunistic foragers during the non-breeding season. We describe how a highly specialized probe-feeding shorebird, the Red Knot Calidris canutus, suddenly ignored its shallow buried hard-shelled mollusc prey and opportunistically shifted to an unusu

  8. Parasitic infections in HIV infected individuals: Diagnostic & therapeutic challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao

    2011-01-01

    After 30 years of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, parasites have been one of the most common opportunistic infections (OIs) and one of the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality associated with HIV-infected patients. Due to severe immunosuppression, enteric parasitic pathogens in general are emerging and are OIs capable of causing diarrhoeal disease associated with HIV. Of these, Cryptosporidium parvum and Isospora belli are the two most common intestinal protozoan parasites and pose a public health problem in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. These are the only two enteric protozoan parasites that remain in the case definition of AIDS till today. Leismaniasis, strongyloidiasis and toxoplasmosis are the three main opportunistic causes of systemic involvements reported in HIV-infected patients. Of these, toxoplasmosis is the most important parasitic infection associated with the central nervous system. Due to its complexity in nature, toxoplasmosis is the only parasitic disease capable of not only causing focal but also disseminated forms and it has been included in AIDS-defining illnesses (ADI) ever since. With the introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), cryptosporidiosis, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, and toxoplasmosis are among parasitic diseases reported in association with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). This review addresses various aspects of parasitic infections in term of clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic challenges associated with HIV-infection. PMID:22310820

  9. Channel access delay and buffer distribution of two-user opportunistic scheduling schemes in wireless networks

    KAUST Repository

    Hossain, Md Jahangir

    2010-07-01

    In our earlier works, we proposed rate adaptive hierarchical modulation-assisted two-best user opportunistic scheduling (TBS) and hybrid two-user scheduling (HTS) schemes. The proposed schemes are innovative in the sense that they include a second user in the transmission opportunistically using hierarchical modulations. As such the frequency of information access of the users increases without any degradation of the system spectral efficiency (SSE) compared to the classical opportunistic scheduling scheme. In this paper, we analyze channel access delay of an incoming packet at the base station (BS) buffer when our proposed TBS and HTS schemes are employed at the BS. Specifically, using a queuing analytic model we derive channel access delay as well as buffer distribution of the packets that wait at BS buffer for down-link (DL) transmission. We compare performance of the TBS and HTS schemes with that of the classical single user opportunistic schemes namely, absolute carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR)-based single user scheduling (ASS) and normalized CNR-based single user scheduling (NSS). For an independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) fading environment, our proposed scheme can improve packet\\'s access delay performance compared to the ASS. Selected numerical results in an independent but non-identically distributed (i.n.d.) fading environment show that our proposed HTS achieves overall good channel access delay performance. © 2010 IEEE.

  10. Danish General Practitioners' Use of Prostate-Specific Antigen in Opportunistic Screening for Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Kasper; Søndergaard, Jens; Larsen, Pia Veldt;

    2013-01-01

    Background. The use of prostate-specific antigen test has markedly increased in Danish general practice in the last decade. Despite the national guidelines advice against PSA screening, opportunistic screening is supposed to be the primary reason for this increased number of PSA tests performed. ...

  11. BLESSED with opportunistic beacons: a lightweight data dissemination model for smart mobile ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Türkes, Okan; Scholten, Hans; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces BLESSED, a universal opportunistic ad hoc networking model intended for smart mobile devices. It enables fast and lightweight data dissemination in wireless community networks through the complementary utilization of the IEEE 802.11 and Bluetooth Low Energy standards. As a ubiq

  12. Research of opportunistic behavior in the market of non-standard products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Sergeyevna Grigoryeva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the characteristic features of opportunistic behavior in the markets of complex products not subject to standardization by the example of rendering services during constructionandassembling operations. Methods analysis synthesis collection and description of empirical data. Results a significant amount of theoretical material has been analyzed budgets of constructionandassembling operations have been analyzed normative documents have been studied. A poll of quantity surveyors supervisors of constructionandassembling operations consumers of services and works have been carried out. The differences were revealed in the kinds of opportunistic behavior in the nonstandard products markets compared to the standard products markets the results of those surveys were presented in the earlier works by the author. Scientific novelty it has been shown that in case of individual elaboration of each project due to the uniqueness of the result of economic activity as a single complex the opportunistic behavior has such prerequisites as high costs for measurements and control of the quantity and quality of the rendered services and used materials lack of professional competencies of the consumers in the sphere of activity of the producer. Practical value the key provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in the scientific and educational activity when viewing the issues of opportunistic revelations between economic subjects. nbsp

  13. Opportunistic error correction for mimo-ofdm: from theory to practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, Xiaoying; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2013-01-01

    Opportunistic error correction based on fountain codes is especially designed for the MIMOOFDM system. The key point of this new method is the tradeoff between the code rate of error correcting codes and the number of sub-carriers in the channel vector to be discarded. By transmitting one fountain-e

  14. Opportunistic Interference Mitigation Achieves Optimal Degrees-of-Freedom in Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Bang Chul; Shin, Won-Yong

    2010-01-01

    We introduce an opportunistic interference mitigation (OIM) for cellular networks, where a user scheduling strategy is utilized in uplink $K$-cell environments with time-invariant channel coefficients and base stations (BSs) having $M$ receive antennas. In the OIM scheme, each BS opportunistically selects a set of users who generate the minimum interference to the other BSs. We consider two OIM protocols according to the number $S$ of simultaneously transmitting users per cell: an opportunistic interference nulling (OIN) and an opportunistic interference alignment (OIA). Then, their performance is analyzed in terms of degrees-of-freedom (DoFs). It is shown that $KM$ DoFs are achievable under the OIN protocol with $M$ selected users per cell, while the OIA scheme with $S$ selected users (smaller than $M$) achieves $KS$ DoFs. Assuming that $N$ denotes the total number of users in a cell, we also analyze the scaling condition between system parameters $K$, $M$, $N$, $S$, and the received signal-to-noise ratio su...

  15. From Spectrum Pooling to Space Pooling: Opportunistic Interference Alignment in MIMO Cognitive Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Perlaza, S M; Lasaulce, S; Debbah, M

    2009-01-01

    We describe a non-cooperative interference alignment (IA) technique which allows an opportunistic multiple input multiple output (MIMO) link (secondary) to harmlessly coexist with another MIMO link (primary) in the same frequency band. We assume perfect channel knowledge in the primary receiver and transmitter such that capacity is achieved by transmiting along the spatial directions (SD) associated with the singular values of its channel matrix using a water-filling power allocation (PA) scheme. Often, power limitations lead the primary transmitter to leave some of its SD unused. We show that the opportunistic link can transmit its own data if it is possible to align the interference produced on the primary link with such unused SDs. We provide both a processing scheme to perform IA and a PA scheme which maximizes the transmission rate of the opportunistic link. We determine the asymptotes of the achievable transmission rates of the opportunistic link in the regime of large numbers of antennas to show that d...

  16. Performance of systematic and non-systematic ('opportunistic') screening mammography: a comparative study from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bihrmann, Kristine; Jensen, Allan; Olsen, Anne Helene;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Evaluation and comparison of the performance of organized and opportunistic screening mammography. METHODS: Women attending screening mammography in Denmark in 2000. The study included 37,072 women attending organized screening. Among these, 320 women were diagnosed with breast cancer...

  17. Non-Orthogonal Random Access in MIMO Cognitive Radio Networks: Beamforming, Power Allocation, and Opportunistic Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huifa; Shin, Won-Yong

    2017-01-01

    We study secondary random access in multi-input multi-output cognitive radio networks, where a slotted ALOHA-type protocol and successive interference cancellation are used. We first introduce three types of transmit beamforming performed by secondary users, where multiple antennas are used to suppress the interference at the primary base station and/or to increase the received signal power at the secondary base station. Then, we show a simple decentralized power allocation along with the equivalent single-antenna conversion. To exploit the multiuser diversity gain, an opportunistic transmission protocol is proposed, where the secondary users generating less interference are opportunistically selected, resulting in a further reduction of the interference temperature. The proposed methods are validated via computer simulations. Numerical results show that increasing the number of transmit antennas can greatly reduce the interference temperature, while increasing the number of receive antennas leads to a reduction of the total transmit power. Optimal parameter values of the opportunistic transmission protocol are examined according to three types of beamforming and different antenna configurations, in terms of maximizing the cognitive transmission capacity. All the beamforming, decentralized power allocation, and opportunistic transmission protocol are performed by the secondary users in a decentralized manner, thus resulting in an easy implementation in practice.

  18. Opportunistic mobile air pollution monitoring: A case study with city wardens in Antwerp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bossche, Joris; Theunis, Jan; Elen, Bart; Peters, Jan; Botteldooren, Dick; De Baets, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore the potential of opportunistic mobile monitoring to map the exposure to air pollution in the urban environment at a high spatial resolution. Opportunistic mobile monitoring makes use of existing mobile infrastructure or people's common daily routines to move measurement devices around. Opportunistic mobile monitoring can also play a crucial role in participatory monitoring campaigns as a typical way to gather data. A case study to measure black carbon was set up in Antwerp, Belgium, with the collaboration of city employees (city wardens). The Antwerp city wardens are outdoors for a large part of the day on surveillance tours by bicycle or on foot, and gathered a total of 393 h of measurements. The data collection is unstructured both in space and time, leading to sampling bias. A temporal adjustment can only partly counteract this bias. Although a high spatial coverage was obtained, there is still a rather large uncertainty on the average concentration levels at a spatial resolution of 50 m due to a limited number of measurements and sampling bias. Despite of this uncertainty, large spatial patterns within the city are clearly captured. This study illustrates the potential of campaigns with unstructured opportunistic mobile monitoring, including participatory monitoring campaigns. The results demonstrate that such an approach can indeed be used to identify broad spatial trends over a wider area, enabling applications including hotspot identification, personal exposure studies, regression mapping, etc. But, they also emphasize the need for repeated measurements and careful processing and interpretation of the data.

  19. Cocoon: A lightweight opportunistic networking middleware for community-oriented smart mobile applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Türkes, Okan; Scholten, Hans; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Modern society is surrounded by an ample spectrum of smart mobile devices. This ubiquity forms a high potential for community-oriented opportunistic ad hoc networking applications. Nevertheless, today’s smart mobile devices such as smartphones, tablets, and wristbands are still onerous to automatica

  20. Opportunistic feeding behaviour of rough-toothed dolphins Steno bredanensis off Mauritania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Addink, M.J.; Smeenk, C.

    2001-01-01

    A small group of rough-toothed dolphins Steno bredanensis was observed at the outer edge of the Banc d’Arguin, Mauritania. The animals were feeding opportunistically around a trawling research vessel. Hunting behaviour and mother-calf interactions are described

  1. [Disseminated infection due to Penicillium marneffei related to HIV infection: first observation in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiso, Gabriela; Chediak, Viviana; Maiolo, Elena; Mujica, María T; San Juan, Jorge; Arechavala, Alicia; Negroni, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    The first case observed in Argentina of AIDS-related human penicillosis is herein presented. The patient was a six- teen year-old young man coming from a rural area of southern China. He was admitted at the F. J. Muñiz Hospital of Buenos Aires city with severe pneumonia and adult respiratory distress. Penicillium marneffei was isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fuid and was microscopically observed in a skin cytodiagnosis. P. marneffei identification was confirmed by rRNA amplification and its phenotypic characteristics. The patient suffered an advanced HIV infection and also presented several AIDS-related diseases due to CMV, nosocomial bacterial infections and Pneumocystis jirovecii which led to a fatal outcome.

  2. 商业人身保险涉及的艾滋病相关问题探讨%Analysis of issues of HIV/AIDS related commercial life insurance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳; 陈清峰

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the issues of HIV/AIDS related commercial life insurance and explore the ways to tackle them in perspectives of conflicting views.Methods Literature concerning these issues were reviewed.Resuits Three conflicting views were present in regards to HIV/AIDS related commercial life insurance: 1)Whether differential treatments concerning HIV/AIDS related commercial life insurance constituted discrimination and stigma; 2)Whether provision of HIV/AIDS related insurance would impact on risk management and control of insurance companies; 3) Whether HIV/AIDS related life insurance is part of social responsibilities undertaken by insurance companies.Conclusion Three issues have led to the conflicting views in regards to HIV/AIDS related commercial life insurance: 1)Perceptions on features of commercial insurance could influence understanding of HIV/AIDS discrimination and stigma in commercial life insurance; 2)Insurance companies are faced with pricing and "non-moral"judgment of HIV/AIDS related risk; 3) There is different understanding of relation between HIV/AIDS related life insurance and social responsibilities of insurance companies.Hence, it is suggested that HIV/AIDS related risk,and scientific definition of differential treatments and HIV/AIDS discrimination in commercial life insurance be objectively assessed, regulations on exclusion clauses of commercial life insurance concerning HIV/AIDS be enhanced,and participation by insurance companies in the fight against HIV/AIDS be promoted.%目的 从艾滋病相关商业人身保险服务现状及针对这些现状的不同观点人手,理清艾滋病相关商业人身保险服务所面临的问题,探讨解决商业人身保险涉及的艾滋病相关问题.方法 采取文献研究方法.结果 对艾滋病相关商业人身保险服务主要有三个对立观点:商业人身保险服务中,艾滋病相关的区别对待是否构成歧视;将艾滋病纳入商业人身保险责任范围,是否对

  3. Public health implications of Acanthamoeba and multiple potential opportunistic pathogens in roof-harvested rainwater tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, K A; Ahmed, W; Palmer, A; Sidhu, J P S; Hodgers, L; Toze, S; Haas, C N

    2016-10-01

    A study of six potential opportunistic pathogens (Acanthamoeba spp., Legionella spp., Legionella longbeachae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare) and an accidental human pathogen (Legionella pneumophila) in 134 roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW) tank samples was conducted using quantitative PCR (qPCR). All five opportunistic pathogens and accidental pathogen L. pneumophila were detected in rainwater tanks except Legionella longbeachae. Concentrations ranged up to 3.1×10(6) gene copies per L rainwater for Legionella spp., 9.6×10(5) gene copies per L for P. aeruginosa, 6.8×10(5) gene copies per L for M. intracellulare, 6.6×10(5) gene copies per L for Acanthamoeba spp., 1.1×10(5) gene copies per L for M. avium, and 9.8×10(3) gene copies per L for L. pneumophila. Among the organisms tested, Legionella spp. (99% tanks) were the most prevalent followed by M. intracellulare (78%). A survey of tank-owners provided data on rainwater end-uses. Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. were enumerated using culture-based methods, and assessed for correlations with opportunistic pathogens and L. pneumophila tested in this study. Opportunistic pathogens did not correlate well with FIB except E. coli vs. Legionella spp. (tau=0.151, P=0.009) and E. coli vs. M. intracellulare (tau=0.14, P=0.015). However, M. avium weakly correlated with both L. pneumophila (Kendall's tau=0.017, P=0.006) and M. intracellulare (tau=0.088, P=0.027), and Legionella spp. also weakly correlated with M. intracellulare (tau=0.128, P=0.028). The presence of these potential opportunistic pathogens in tank water may present health risks from both the potable and non-potable uses documented from the current survey data.

  4. Re-validation of the Van Rie HIV/AIDS-related stigma scale for use with people living with HIV in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Aaron M; Audet, Carolyn M; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Owens, Jared; McGowan, Catherine C; Wallston, Kenneth A

    2015-01-01

    There is little consensus about which of the many validated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) stigma scales should be regularly used, with few being re-validated in different contexts or evaluated for how they compare to other, existing HIV stigma scales. The purpose of this exploratory study was to re-validate the Van Rie HIV/AIDS-Related Stigma Scale, originally validated in Thailand and using a third-person wording structure, for use with people living with HIV in the United States. Adult HIV clinic patients completed a survey including the Berger and Van Rie scales, and measures of social support and depression. Eighty-five of 211 (40%) eligible participants provided data for both stigma scales. Exploratory factor analyses identified three factors to the Van Rie scale: Loss of Social Relationships (new subscale), Managing HIV Concealment (new subscale), and Perceived Community Stigma (original subscale). These subscales were moderately inter-related (r = 0.51 to 0.58) with acceptable to excellent reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.69 to 0.90). The Van Rie subscales were also moderately inter-correlated with the Berger subscales (r = 0.44 to 0.76), had similar construct validity, and tended to have higher mean stigma scores when compared with Berger subscales that were conceptually most similar. The revised Van Rie HIV-related Stigma Scale demonstrates good validity and internal consistency, offering a valid measure of HIV stigma with a three-factor structure. The third-person wording may be particularly suitable for measuring stigmatizing attitudes during an individual's transition from at-risk and undergoing HIV testing to newly diagnosed, a time when experiences of discrimination and processing issues of disclosure have not yet occurred. The stigma mechanisms for individuals making this transition have not been well explored. These scenarios, combined with the observed non-response to the Berger Enacted Stigma subscale items (a surprise finding), highlight

  5. Re-validation of the Van Rie HIV/AIDS-related stigma scale for use with people living with HIV in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron M Kipp

    Full Text Available There is little consensus about which of the many validated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV stigma scales should be regularly used, with few being re-validated in different contexts or evaluated for how they compare to other, existing HIV stigma scales. The purpose of this exploratory study was to re-validate the Van Rie HIV/AIDS-Related Stigma Scale, originally validated in Thailand and using a third-person wording structure, for use with people living with HIV in the United States. Adult HIV clinic patients completed a survey including the Berger and Van Rie scales, and measures of social support and depression. Eighty-five of 211 (40% eligible participants provided data for both stigma scales. Exploratory factor analyses identified three factors to the Van Rie scale: Loss of Social Relationships (new subscale, Managing HIV Concealment (new subscale, and Perceived Community Stigma (original subscale. These subscales were moderately inter-related (r = 0.51 to 0.58 with acceptable to excellent reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.69 to 0.90. The Van Rie subscales were also moderately inter-correlated with the Berger subscales (r = 0.44 to 0.76, had similar construct validity, and tended to have higher mean stigma scores when compared with Berger subscales that were conceptually most similar. The revised Van Rie HIV-related Stigma Scale demonstrates good validity and internal consistency, offering a valid measure of HIV stigma with a three-factor structure. The third-person wording may be particularly suitable for measuring stigmatizing attitudes during an individual's transition from at-risk and undergoing HIV testing to newly diagnosed, a time when experiences of discrimination and processing issues of disclosure have not yet occurred. The stigma mechanisms for individuals making this transition have not been well explored. These scenarios, combined with the observed non-response to the Berger Enacted Stigma subscale items (a surprise finding

  6. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis in the HIV infection and compartmentalization of HIV in the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio Monteiro Almeida

    2015-01-01

    The nervous system plays an important role in HIV infection. The purpose of this review is to discuss the indications for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis in HIV infection in clinical practice. CSF analysis in HIV infection is indicated for the diagnosis of opportunistic infections and co-infections, diagnosis of meningitis caused by HIV, quantification of HIV viral load, and analysis of CNS HIV compartmentalization. Although several CSF biomarkers have been investigated, none are clinicall...

  7. Analysis of needs for AIDS related health services among MSM in Shanghai%上海地区MSM人群艾滋病相关的需求分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙乔; 许磊; 张枭; 蔡晓峰; 毛军; 康来仪; Steele S; Myers T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To learn the demographic characteristics and needs for AIDS-related health services among MSM in Shanghai, analyze the factors that influence their participation in HIV tests, and provide suggestions for the improvement of the interventions to the high-risk behaviors related with AIDS among MSM. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out to collect information about demographic characteristics, living conditions, social networks and sexual behaviors, history of HIV tests and HIV infections among selected MSM in Shanghai. A total of 314 eligible MSM with different ages and income levels were face-to-face surveyed with questionnaires in 2010. Results Among the MSM investigated, 68. 5/%(215/314) were from other provinces. Only-male sex partners, mainly-male sex partners, male and female sex partners each half and mainly-female sex partners accounted for 64. 0 %'(201/ 314), 21. 7%(68/314),7. 0%(22/314) and 7. 3% (23/314) .respectively. 73. 9%(232/314)of the subjects had history of HIV tests and 63. 4% (199/314) were tested in the past 2 years. The main reason for not taking HIV tests was that the subjects did not believe in the possibility of getting infected. Their suggestions included being given more health education, more care, more understanding and less discrimination, and providing more free and quality condoms. Conclusion The MSM in Shanghai have greater needs for AIDS related health interventions. Strengthened publicity and education for eliminating discrimination against AIDS, provision of more care and understanding for the MSM population and promotion of free and quality condoms to meet their health and psychological needs will play an important role in pursuing effective prevention and control of AIDS transmission.%目的 了解上海地区男男性行为人群(Men who have sex with men,MSM)的社会学特征及艾滋病相关的健康需求,分析该人群主动参与艾滋病病毒(Human immunodeficiency virus,HIV)抗体检测的情况,

  8. The Effect of the Acetone Extract of Arctotis arctotoides (Asteraceae on the Growth and Ultrastructure of Some Opportunistic Fungi Associated with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfred M. Otang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of the acetone extract of Arctotis arctotoides (L.f. O. Hoffm. (Asteraceae on the growth and ultrastructure of some opportunistic fungi associated with HIV/AIDS was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM. Remarkable morphological alterations in the fungal mycelia which were attributed to the loss of cell wall strength ranged from loss of turgidity and uniformity, collapse of entire hyphae to evident destruction of the hyphae. The elements responsible for giving the fungi their characteristic virulence were detected and quantified by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis techniques. X-ray microanalysis showed the specific spectra of sodium, potassium and sulfur as the principal intersection of the four pathogenic fungi studied. Since these ions have the potential of fostering fungal invasion by altering the permeability of hosts’ membranes, their presence was considered inherent to the pathogenicity of the opportunistic fungi. Hence, these findings indicate the potential of the crude extract of A. arctotoides in preventing fungal invasion and subsequent infection of host’s membranes.

  9. HIV-Associated Neuroretinal Disorder in Patients With Well-Suppressed HIV-Infection : A Comparative Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirkaya, Nazli; Wit, Ferdinand W N M; van Den Berg, Thomas J T P; Kooij, Katherine W; Prins, Maria; Schlingemann, Reinier O; Abramoff, Michael D; Reiss, Peter; Verbraak, Frank D

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Loss of neuroretinal structure and function, ascribed to a 'HIV-associated Neuroretinal Disorder' (HIV-NRD), in the absence of ocular opportunistic infections, has been reported in HIV-infected individuals treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Whether HIV-infected individu

  10. 中医治疗艾滋病相关性腹泻研究进展%Research Progress of AIDS-related Diarrhea Treated by Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小平; 牛清涛

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the research progress of AIDS-related diarrhea treated by traditional:Chinese medicine. Methods; Related literatures in recent years were summarized and concluded, related research situation of pathogenesis, occurrence mechanism, clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment of AIDS-related diarrhea from traditional Chinese medicine were summarized. Results: Pathogenesis of AIDS-related diarrhea was insufficiency of ,the spleen with overabundance of dampness and deficiency of kidney essence, and had closed relationship with lung, spleen and kidney. Therapeutic methods included set and empirical prescription, drug-using with syndrome differentiation,moxa-moxibusition treatment,psychotherapy,dietary therapy,and so on-Conclusion;Traditional Chinese medicine has affirmed curative effects in treating AIDS-related diarrhea.%目的:探讨艾滋病相关性腹泻中医治疗的研究进展.方法:总结、归纳近年来的相关文献,就中医对艾滋病相关性腹泻的病因,发生机理,临床表现,诊断和治疗的有关研究情况作一综述.结果:艾滋病腹泻病机为脾虚湿盛,肾精亏虚,并与肺、脾、肾三脏密切相关.治疗方法包括成方验方、辨证用药、艾灸治疗、心理疗法、食疗等.结论:中医治疗艾滋病相关性腹泻疗效显著.

  11. Burden of Serious Infections in Adults with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tektonidou, Maria G.; Wang, Zhong; Dasgupta, Abhijit; Ward, Michael M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare rates of hospitalizations for serious infections, trends in rates from 1996 to 2011, and in-hospital mortality between patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and those without SLE in a national sample. Methods We analyzed hospitalizations for pneumonia, bacteremia/sepsis, urinary tract infections, skin infections, and opportunistic infections among adults in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. We compared rates of hospitalizations yearly among patients with SLE and the general population. We also computed odds ratios for in-hospital mortality. Results In 1996, the estimated number of hospitalizations for pneumonia in patients with SLE was 4382, followed by sepsis (2305), skin infections (1422), urinary tract infections (643), and opportunistic infections (370). Rates were much higher in SLE than those without SLE, with age-adjusted relative risks ranging from 5.7 (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.5, 6.0) for pneumonia to 9.8 (95% CI 9.1, 10.7) for urinary tract infection in 1996. Risks increased over time, so that by 2011, all relative risks exceeded 12.0. Overall risk of in-hospital mortality was higher in SLE only for opportunistic infections (adjusted odds ratio 1.52; 95% CI 1.12, 2.07). However, in pneumonia and sepsis, mortality risks were higher in SLE among those that required mechanical ventilation. Conclusion Hospitalization rates for serious infections in SLE increased substantially between 1996 and 2011, reaching over 12 times higher than in patients without SLE in 2011. Reasons for this acceleration are unclear. In-hospital mortality was higher among patients with SLE and opportunistic infections, and those with pneumonia or sepsis who required mechanical ventilation. PMID:25732901

  12. AsrR is an oxidative stress sensing regulator modulating Enterococcus faecium opportunistic traits, antimicrobial resistance, and pathogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Lebreton

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress serves as an important host/environmental signal that triggers a wide range of responses in microorganisms. Here, we identified an oxidative stress sensor and response regulator in the important multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen Enterococcus faecium belonging to the MarR family and called AsrR (antibiotic and stress response regulator. The AsrR regulator used cysteine oxidation to sense the hydrogen peroxide which results in its dissociation to promoter DNA. Transcriptome analysis showed that the AsrR regulon was composed of 181 genes, including representing functionally diverse groups involved in pathogenesis, antibiotic and antimicrobial peptide resistance, oxidative stress, and adaptive responses. Consistent with the upregulated expression of the pbp5 gene, encoding a low-affinity penicillin-binding protein, the asrR null mutant was found to be more resistant to β-lactam antibiotics. Deletion of asrR markedly decreased the bactericidal activity of ampicillin and vancomycin, which are both commonly used to treat infections due to enterococci, and also led to over-expression of two major adhesins, acm and ecbA, which resulted in enhanced in vitro adhesion to human intestinal cells. Additional pathogenic traits were also reinforced in the asrR null mutant including greater capacity than the parental strain to form biofilm in vitro and greater persistance in Galleria mellonella colonization and mouse systemic infection models. Despite overexpression of oxidative stress-response genes, deletion of asrR was associated with a decreased oxidative stress resistance in vitro, which correlated with a reduced resistance to phagocytic killing by murine macrophages. Interestingly, both strains showed similar amounts of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Finally, we observed a mutator phenotype and enhanced DNA transfer frequencies in the asrR deleted strain. These data indicate that AsrR plays a major role in antimicrobial

  13. Gender characteristics and HIV/AIDS related knowledge awareness and behaviors of transgender women%跨性别女性的特征及艾滋病相关知识行为调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈吴康; 张晓菲; 吕翠霞; 董蕾; 杜以慧; 傅继华

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand the gender characteristics,HIV/AIDS related knowledge awareness and behaviors of transgender women.Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted among the transgender women recruited through snowball sampling in Jinan in 2014,and descriptive epidemiologic analysis was conducted on the survey results.Results A total of 55 transgender women were surveyed,all of them were male physically and female psychologically.Serious gender conflict occurred in 27 subjects (49.1%),and very serious gender conflict occurred in 8 subjects (14.5%).Thirty subjects dressed up as a man in social life,accounting for 54.5%;25 subjects dressed up as a women in social life,accounting for 45.5%.The average awareness rate of HIV/AIDS related knowledge was 57.9%(22/38).The awareness of knowledge about AIDS associated behaviors,such as multi sex partner and anal sex,was poor.For the lovers or sexual partners,58.2% of the subjects (32/55) would choose males and 50.9% of the subjects (28/55) had chosen males,and for the sex partner at latest sex,63.6%(35/55) of the subjects had chosen males.Up to 56.3% of the subjects had sex with casual sexual partners (net friends and partners of one-night stand) at latest sex behavior.Among the subjects surveyed,18(32.7%) never used condoms;29(52.7%) used condoms occasionally;4(7.3%) used condoms frequently and 4(7.3%) used condoms at each sex.Conclusions AIDS associated high risk behaviors were common among the transgender women,such as unprotected anal sex,multiple sexual partners,frequent sex and poor condom use.It is necessary to conduct the study of the HIV infection prevention in transgender women.%目的 了解跨性别女性(male-to-female,MTF)的性别特征、对艾滋病知识的知晓情况及其艾滋病相关行为状况.方法 2014年在济南市采用滚雪球法招募MTF进行间卷调查,采用描述性流行病学的方法分析该人群的艾滋病知识知晓情况及

  14. Characterization and Identification of Two Opportunistic Human Bacterial Pathogens in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Yuan-chan; XIE Guan-lin; ZHANG Li-xin; AN Gilmyong; FANG Yuan; LUO Jin-yan; HAO Xiao-juan; ZHAO Si-feng

    2006-01-01

    Burkholderia cepacia (Bc) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) are both biocontrol agents in agriculture and opportunistic human pathogens in hospitals. Effective management and utilization practice is needed to understand their characteristics and distribution in rice. During the last decade, the two opportunistic human pathogens were detected in 631 samples of rice seed and 117 samples of rice plant in plain, highland and mountainous rice growing areas of China. Bc and Pa were primarily differentiated by common bacteriological characteristics and pathogenic tests and then identified into species by Biolog and FAME tests. However,the genotypes of Bc still could not be distinguished. It has been noted that the Bc and Pa mainly existed in rice root with the highest distribution frequency in plain areas ( 6.1% and 16.1%) and lowest in the mountainous areas (1.0% and 7.8%).

  15. Cooperative Cloud Service Aware Mobile Internet Coverage Connectivity Guarantee Protocol Based on Sensor Opportunistic Coverage Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the Internet coverage ratio and provide connectivity guarantee, based on sensor opportunistic coverage mechanism and cooperative cloud service, we proposed the coverage connectivity guarantee protocol for mobile Internet. In this scheme, based on the opportunistic covering rules, the network coverage algorithm of high reliability and real-time security was achieved by using the opportunity of sensor nodes and the Internet mobile node. Then, the cloud service business support platform is created based on the Internet application service management capabilities and wireless sensor network communication service capabilities, which is the architecture of the cloud support layer. The cooperative cloud service aware model was proposed. Finally, we proposed the mobile Internet coverage connectivity guarantee protocol. The results of experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has excellent performance, in terms of the security of the Internet and the stability, as well as coverage connectivity ability.

  16. Opportunistic Scheduling and Beamforming for MIMO-OFDMA Downlink Systems with Reduced Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Pun, Man-On; Poor, H Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Opportunistic scheduling and beamforming schemes with reduced feedback are proposed for MIMO-OFDMA downlink systems. Unlike the conventional beamforming schemes in which beamforming is implemented solely by the base station (BS) in a per-subcarrier fashion, the proposed schemes take advantages of a novel channel decomposition technique to perform beamforming jointly by the BS and the mobile terminal (MT). The resulting beamforming schemes allow the BS to employ only {\\em one} beamforming matrix (BFM) to form beams for {\\em all} subcarriers while each MT completes the beamforming task for each subcarrier locally. Consequently, for a MIMO-OFDMA system with $Q$ subcarriers, the proposed opportunistic scheduling and beamforming schemes require only one BFM index and $Q$ supportable throughputs to be returned from each MT to the BS, in contrast to $Q$ BFM indices and $Q$ supportable throughputs required by the conventional schemes. The advantage of the proposed schemes becomes more evident when a further feedback ...

  17. A Restless Bandit Formulation of Multi-channel Opportunistic Access: Indexablity and Index Policy

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Keqin

    2008-01-01

    We focus on an opportunistic communication system consisting of multiple independent channels with time-varying states. With limited sensing, a user can only sense and access a subset of channels and accrue rewards determined by the states of the sensed channels. We formulate the problem of optimal sequential channel selection as a restless multi-armed bandit process, for which a powerful index policy--Whittle's index policy--can be implemented based on the indexability of the system. Exploiting the underlying structure of the multi-channel opportunistic access problem, we establish the indexability and obtain Whittle's index in closed-form for both discounted reward and average reward criteria. These results lead to the direct implementation of Whittle's index policy with remarkably low complexity. Furthermore, we develop a simple approach to evaluate the optimal performance under a relaxed constraint on sensing actions, which provides an upper bound of the optimal performance of the original restless multi-...

  18. A non-digging zoobenthivorous fish attracts two opportunistic predatory fish associates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Sazima

    Full Text Available Following behaviour among reef fishes involves mostly a digging nuclear species while foraging, which attracts opportunistic followers preying on the exposed organisms. The flying gurnard Dactylopterus volitans preys on benthic animals, mostly crustaceans and small fishes, scratching and probing the bottom with the inner rays of its pectoral fins. We recorded the flying gurnard being followed by two opportunistic predators, the yellow jack Caranx bartholomaei and the coney Cephalopholis fulva at Fernando de Noronha, off northeast Brazil. Albeit not actually digging the substrate, the flying gurnard acts as a nuclear species by exploring algae tufts and by its wandering near the boulders and ledges, disturbing and flushing out hidden animals which thus become available to predation.

  19. An opportunistic routing mechanism combined with long-term and short-term metrics for WMN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weifeng; Wang, Haotian; Piao, Xianglan; Qiu, Tie

    2014-01-01

    WMN (wireless mesh network) is a useful wireless multihop network with tremendous research value. The routing strategy decides the performance of network and the quality of transmission. A good routing algorithm will use the whole bandwidth of network and assure the quality of service of traffic. Since the routing metric ETX (expected transmission count) does not assure good quality of wireless links, to improve the routing performance, an opportunistic routing mechanism combined with long-term and short-term metrics for WMN based on OLSR (optimized link state routing) and ETX is proposed in this paper. This mechanism always chooses the highest throughput links to improve the performance of routing over WMN and then reduces the energy consumption of mesh routers. The simulations and analyses show that the opportunistic routing mechanism is better than the mechanism with the metric of ETX.

  20. Optimality of Multichannel Myopic Sensing in the Presence of Sensing Error for Opportunistic Spectrum Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimization problem for the performance of opportunistic spectrum access is considered in this study. A user, with the limited sensing capacity, has opportunistic access to a communication system with multiple channels. The user can only choose several channels to sense and decides whether to access these channels based on the sensing information in each time slot. Meanwhile, the presence of sensing error is considered. A reward is obtained when the user accesses a channel. The objective is to maximize the expected (discounted or average reward accrued over an infinite horizon. This problem can be formulated as a partially observable Markov decision process. This study shows the optimality of the simple and robust myopic policy which focuses on maximizing the immediate reward. The results show that the myopic policy is optimal in the case of practical interest.

  1. Cloud Platform Based on Mobile Internet Service Opportunistic Drive and Application Aware Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Because the static cloud platform cannot satisfy the diversity of mobile Internet service and inefficient data mining problems, we presented a reliable and efficient data mining cloud platform construction scheme based on the mobile Internet service opportunistic driving and application perception. In this scheme, first of all data selection mechanism was established based on mobile Internet service opportunistic drive. Secondly, through the cloud platform different cloud and channel aware, nonlinear mapping from the service to a data set of proposed perceptual model is applied. Finally, on the basis of the driving characteristics and extraction of perceptual features, the cloud platform would be constructed through the service opportunities of mobile Internet applications, which could provide robust and efficient data mining services. The experimental results show that the proposed mechanism, compared to the cloud platform based on distributed data mining, has obvious advantages in system running time, memory usage, and data clustering required time, as well as average clustering quality.

  2. Seasonal neuroplasticity of the song control system in tropical, flexibly, and opportunistically breeding birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Thomas W; Moore, Ignacio T

    2009-09-01

    The avian song control system is one of the primary models used to study neuroplasticity and neurogenesis in the adult vertebrate brain. A great deal of progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms controlling seasonal neuroplasticity of the song control system. However, relatively little work has been done to identify how prevalent this phenomenon is and if a diversity of environmental cues can regulate it. Photoperiod is the primary environmental cue used by mid- to high-latitude seasonally breeding birds to time growth of the song control system but many birds display flexible or opportunistic breeding patterns that are less reliant on photoperiodic cues. In addition, approximately 75% of birds are tropical and in only one such species has neuroplasticity of the song control system been studied. Our goal is to outline some of what is known and expand on the ways that studying tropical, flexibly, and opportunistically breeding birds can advance our understanding of plasticity in the song bird brain.

  3. Buffer Management and Hybrid Probability Choice Routing for Packet Delivery in Opportunistic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daru Pan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the features of long connection delays, frequent network partitions, and topology unsteadiness, the design of opportunistic networks faces the challenge of how to effectively deliver data based only on occasional encountering of nodes, where the conventional routing schemes do not work properly. This paper proposes a hybrid probability choice routing protocol with buffer management for opportunistic networks. A delivery probability function is set up based on continuous encounter duration time, which is used for selecting a better node to relay packets. By combining the buffer management utility and the delivery probability, a total utility is used to decide whether the packet should be kept in the buffer or be directly transmitted to the encountering node. Simulation results show that the proposed routing outperforms the existing one in terms of the delivery rate and the average delay.

  4. Intracellular pathogens within alveolar macrophages in a patient with HIV infection: diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Shinha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In HIV-infected individuals, macrophages, the key defense effector cells, manifest defective activity in their interactions with a wide variety of opportunistic pathogens, including fungi and protozoa. Understanding the morphological characteristics of intracellular opportunistic pathogens in addition to their pathogenesis is of critical importance to provide optimal therapy, thereby decreasing morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients. We herein present a case of disseminated histoplasmosis confused with disseminated visceral leishmaniasis in an HIV-infected individual from Guyana who developed intracellular organisms within alveolar macrophages

  5. Detection of thoracic infections by nuclear medicine techniques in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, E.L.; Sanger, J.J. (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1989-11-01

    The challenge of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for nuclear medicine has been the early detection of related intrathoracic opportunistic infections, inflammatory conditions, and neoplasms. Gallium-67 citrate scanning has proved a sensitive test not only for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia but for many of the other opportunistic infections and malignancies, including mycobacterial infections and lymphoma. Patterns and intensity of gallium uptake may suggest more specific diagnoses. Indium-111-labeled white blood cells may also be a valuable diagnostic tool in the AIDS patient.41 references.

  6. Low-Feedback Opportunistic Scheduling Schemes for Wireless Networks with Heterogenous Users

    KAUST Repository

    Rashid, Faraan

    2012-07-01

    Efficient implementation of resource sharing strategies in a multi-user wireless environment can improve the performance of a network significantly. In this thesis we study various scheduling strategies for wireless networks and handle the problem of opportunistically scheduling transmissions using channel aware schemes. First we propose a scheme that can handle users with asymmetric channel conditions and is opportunistic in the sense that it exploits the multi-user diversity of the network. The scheme requires the users to have a priori knowledge of their channel distributions. The associated overhead is limited meaning it offers reduced feedback load, that does not scale with the increasing number of users. The main technique used to shrink the feedback load is the contention based distributed implementation of a splitting algorithm that does not require explicit feedback to the scheduler from every user. The users find the best among themselves, in a distributed manner, while requiring just a ternary broadcast feedback from the scheduler at the end of each mini-slot. In addition, it can also handle fairness constraints in time and throughput to various degrees. Next we propose another opportunistic scheduler that offers most of the benefits of the previously proposed scheme but is more practical because it can also handle heterogenous users whose channel distributions are unknown. This new scheme actually reduces the complexity and is also more robust for changing traffic patterns. Finally we extend both these schemes to the scenario where there are fixed thresholds, this enables us to handle opportunistic scheduling in practical systems that can only transmit over finite number of discrete rates with the additional benefit that full feedback session, even from the selected user, is never required.

  7. Exploration of an Opportunistic Overlaid Paradigm for Complex Networks via Stochastic Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Cui, “A Selection Region Based Routing Protocol for Ran- dom Mobile ad hoc Networks,” Proceedings: IEEE GLOBECOM Workshop on Heterogeneous, Multi...opportunistically to limit the interference to the primary tier. Based on the assumption that the secondary tier is allowed to route the packets for the...the framework of distributed Kalman filtering. It is shown that, in a weakly connected communica- tion network, there exist (randomized) gossip based

  8. Dermatophytes, related keratinophilic and opportunistic fungi in indoor dust of houses and hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Singh I; Mishra A; Kushwaha RKS

    2009-01-01

    Dermatophytes, related keratinophilic and opportunistic fungi were isolated from indoor dust samples of 46 hospitals and 47 houses in Kanpur. A total of 19 fungi represented by 11 genera were isolated by the hair-baiting technique from 230 and 235 samples from hospitals and houses respectively. The isolated fungi are Acremonium implicatum (Indian Type Culture Collection) ITCC 5266 , A. strictum (Germplasm Centre for Keratinophilic Fungi) GPCK 1137 , Aphanoascus fulvescens GPCK 1081 , ...

  9. Heavy Metal Distribution in Opportunistic Beach Nourishment: A Case Study in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Spyros Foteinis; Kallithrakas-Kontos, Nikolaos G.; Costas Synolakis

    2013-01-01

    The existence and distribution of persistent pollutants, such as heavy metals, in coastal sediment used for opportunistic beach nourishment, is a problem that has not received much attention. Here, we assessed the coastal sediments in one restoration project for the occurrence and distribution of heavy metals, by utilizing an Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) system. Heavy metal point sources included (i) the effluents of small industries (tanneries), (ii) wastewater treatment plan...

  10. Species Diversity and Polymorphism in the Exophiala spinifera Clade Containing Opportunistic Black Yeast-Like Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    A monophyletic group of black yeast-like fungi containing opportunistic pathogens around Exophiala spinifera is analyzed using sequences of the small-subunit (SSU) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domains of ribosomal DNA. The group contains yeast-like and annellidic species (anamorph genus Exophiala) in addition to sympodial taxa (anamorph genera Ramichloridium and Rhinocladiella). The new species Exophiala oligosperma, Ramichloridium basitonum, and Rhinocladiella similis are introduced...

  11. Analytical evaluation of adaptive-modulation-based opportunistic cognitive radio in nakagami-m fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yunfei

    2012-09-01

    The performance of adaptive modulation for cognitive radio with opportunistic access is analyzed by considering the effects of spectrum sensing, primary user (PU) traffic, and time delay for Nakagami- m fading channels. Both the adaptive continuous rate scheme and the adaptive discrete rate scheme are considered. Numerical examples are presented to quantify the effects of spectrum sensing, PU traffic, and time delay for different system parameters. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  12. Indoor Positioning Using Opportunistic Multi-Frequency RSS With Foot-Mounted INS

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Reliable and accurate positioning systems are expected to significantly improve the safety for first responders and enhance their operational efficiency. To be effective, a first responder positioning systemmust provide room level accuracy during extended time periods of indoor operation. This thesis presents a system which combines a zero-velocity-update (ZUPT) aided inertial navigation system (INS), using a foot-mounted inertial measurement unit (IMU), with the use of opportunistic multi-fr...

  13. Look-Ahead Techniques for Micro-Opportunistic Job Shop Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    throughout all these years; My advisor, Mark Fox , for his guidance, enthusiasm and unfailing support; The other members of my thesis committee, Tom Mitchell...about the same time, the ISIS factory scheduling system developed by Mark Fox and his team first demonstrated the potential of AI modeling and...Katia Sycara, Steve Roth, and Mark Fox . LOOK-AHEAD TECHNIQUES FOR MICRO-OPPORTUNISTIC JOB SHOP SCHEDULING 155 Appendix A Counting the Number of

  14. Heuristic Approach to Select Opportunistic Routing Forwarders (HASORF) to Enhance Throughput for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Yousaf Bin Zikria; Summera Nosheen; Jin-Ghoo Choi; Sung Won Kim

    2015-01-01

    Biological schemes provide useful resources for designing adaptive routing protocols for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The key idea behind using bioinspired routing is to find the optimal path to the destination. Similarly, the idea of opportunistic routing (OR) is to find the least number of hops to deliver the data to the destination. Numerous routing schemes have been proposed in WSNs while targeting various performance goals, such as throughput, delay, and link quality. Rec...

  15. An Improved Spray and Wait with Probability Choice Routing for Opportunistic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daru Pan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic networks are sparse multi-hop ad hoc networks in which nodes exploit any pair-wise contact opportunities to share and forward messages. The main challenge for this environment is that conventional routing schemes do not work properly.  Among the existing Opportunistic Networks routing algorithms, the epidemic routing and probabilistic  routing could provide higher delivery  probability and shorter delays, but is with a large overhead, while the spay and wait routing could reduce the overhead, but is with low delivery probability and high delay.  This paper proposes the Spray and Wait with Probability Choice (SWPC routing, where continuous encounter time is used to describe the encounter opportunity; a delivery probability function is set up to direct the different number of copies to the destination during the spray phase; and a forwarding scheme is implemented in the wait phase. Simulation results show that proposed SWPC shows prominent superiority in the delivery rate, the average delay and the communication overhead, and adapted for the frequently disconnected opportunistic network.

  16. Location Prediction-Based Data Dissemination Using Swarm Intelligence in Opportunistic Cognitive Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Swarm intelligence is widely used in the application of communication networks. In this paper we adopt a biologically inspired strategy to investigate the data dissemination problem in the opportunistic cognitive networks (OCNs. We model the system as a centralized and distributed hybrid system including a location prediction server and a pervasive environment deploying the large-scale human-centric devices. To exploit such environment, data gathering and dissemination are fundamentally based on the contact opportunities. To tackle the lack of contemporaneous end-to-end connectivity in opportunistic networks, we apply ant colony optimization as a cognitive heuristic technology to formulate a self-adaptive dissemination-based routing scheme in opportunistic cognitive networks. This routing strategy has attempted to find the most appropriate nodes conveying messages to the destination node based on the location prediction information and intimacy between nodes, which uses the online unsupervised learning on geographical locations and the biologically inspired algorithm on the relationship of nodes to estimate the delivery probability. Extensive simulation is carried out on the real-world traces to evaluate the accuracy of the location prediction and the proposed scheme in terms of transmission cost, delivery ratio, average hops, and delivery latency, which achieves better routing performances compared to the typical routing schemes in OCNs.

  17. Opportunistic maintenance and adaptation of warranty maintenance tasks for Power Plant equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. McGibney

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes a link between opportunistic maintenance literature and warranty analysis of a power plant. A new plant warranty maintenance tasks are observed over a two year period. The main aim is to see how opportunistic maintenance could be incorporated when the warranty period has elapsed. The paper examine the warranty period maintenance task list and propose adequate methods for assessing opportunistic maintenance as a preventive maintenance task in order to ensure reliability and availability of the plant equipment. Statistical approach is used to give an insight to the plant equipment status and a modeling approach is proposed to also assess maintenance information defined by experts in the context of actual operating regimes. This study focuses on the power plant‟s critical equipment. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA is conducted on the power plant Booster Fans. This gives an insight about equipment failure mode patterns and maintenance requirements. A simulation example is presented based in the failure modes results obtained and a graphical display of optimum preventive maintenance schedule cost curves is also presented.

  18. Asymmetric competition prevents the outbreak of an opportunistic species after coral reef degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rivero, Manuel; Bozec, Yves-Marie; Chollett, Iliana; Ferrari, Renata; Schönberg, Christine H L; Mumby, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    Disturbance releases space and allows the growth of opportunistic species, excluded by the old stands, with a potential to alter community dynamics. In coral reefs, abundances of fast-growing, and disturbance-tolerant sponges are expected to increase and dominate as space becomes available following acute coral mortality events. Yet, an increase in abundance of these opportunistic species has been reported in only a few studies, suggesting certain mechanisms may be acting to regulate sponge populations. To gain insights into mechanisms of population control, we simulated the dynamics of the common reef-excavating sponge Cliona tenuis in the Caribbean using an individual-based model. An orthogonal hypothesis testing approach was used, where four candidate mechanisms-algal competition, stock-recruitment limitation, whole and partial mortality-were incorporated sequentially into the model and the results were tested against independent field observations taken over a decade in Belize, Central America. We found that releasing space after coral mortality can promote C. tenuis outbreaks, but such outbreaks can be curtailed by macroalgal competition. The asymmetrical competitive superiority of macroalgae, given by their capacity to pre-empt space and outcompete with the sponge in a size-dependant fashion, supports their capacity to steal the opportunity from other opportunists. While multiple system stages can be expected in coral reefs following intense perturbation macroalgae may prevent the growth of other space-occupiers, such as bioeroding sponges, under low grazing pressure.

  19. On the Optimality of Opportunistic Interference Alignment in 3-Transmitter MIMO Interference Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jung Hoon; Love, David J

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose opportunistic interference alignment (OIA) for three-transmitter multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) interference channels (ICs). In the proposed OIA scheme, each transmitter has its own user group that consists of $K$ users, and each transmitter opportunistically selects the user whose received interference signals are most aligned. Thus, three-transmitter MIMO IC is opportunistically constructed by three transmitters and their selected users. Contrary to conventional IA, perfect channel information for all of the interference links is not required at the transmitter. Each user just needs to feed back one scalar value in the proposed OIA scheme. When the number of receive antennas is $N_R$ (with $N_R=2M$) and the number of transmit antennas is $N_T$ (with $N_T\\ge M$), we prove that each transmitter can achieve $M$ degrees of freedom (DoF) as the number of users in each group goes to infinity ($K\\to\\infty$), in comparison with the $\\frac{2M}{3}$ DoF known to be achievable in the th...

  20. Opportunistic Hybrid Transport Protocol (OHTP) for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Zikria, Yousaf; Nosheen, Summera; Ishmanov, Farruh; Kim, Sung Won

    2015-12-15

    The inefficient assignment of spectrum for different communications purposes, plus technology enhancements and ever-increasing usage of wireless technology is causing spectrum scarcity. To address this issue, one of the proposed solutions in the literature is to access the spectrum dynamically or opportunistically. Therefore, the concept of cognitive radio appeared, which opens up a new research paradigm. There is extensive research on the physical, medium access control and network layers. The impact of the transport layer on the performance of cognitive radio ad hoc sensor networks is still unknown/unexplored. The Internet's de facto transport protocol is not well suited to wireless networks because of its congestion control mechanism. We propose an opportunistic hybrid transport protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc sensor networks. We developed a new congestion control mechanism to differentiate true congestion from interruption loss. After such detection and differentiation, we propose methods to handle them opportunistically. There are several benefits to window- and rate-based protocols. To exploit the benefits of both in order to enhance overall system performance, we propose a hybrid transport protocol. We empirically calculate the optimal threshold value to switch between window- and rate-based mechanisms. We then compare our proposed transport protocol to Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)-friendly rate control, TCP-friendly rate control for cognitive radio, and TCP-friendly window-based control. We ran an extensive set of simulations in Network Simulator 2. The results indicate that the proposed transport protocol performs better than all the others.

  1. Opportunistic Aspergillus pathogens measured in home and hospital tap water by quantitative PCR (QPCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesper, S J; Haugland, R A; Rogers, M E; Neely, A N

    2007-09-01

    Opportunistic fungal pathogens are a concern because of the increasing number of immunocompromised patients. The goal of this research was to test a simple extraction method and rapid quantitative PCR (QPCR) measurement of the occurrence of potential pathogens, Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. terreus and A. niger, in home tap water and a hospital water supply. Water samples were taken from the kitchen tap in the homes of 60 patients who were diagnosed with legionellosis. Water samples were also taken from three locations in a hospital that generated all of its hot water by flash heating. Opportunistic infectious agents Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. terreus and A. niger were measured using QPCR. Aspergillus terreus DNA was found in 16.7% and A. fumigatus DNA in 1.7% of the samples taken from the kitchen tap. None of the Aspergillus species were found in any of the hospital water samples.The development of a simple DNA extraction method along with QPCR analysis is suitable for rapid screening of tap water for opportunistic fungal pathogens. This simple method can be used to obtain pathogen occurrence results in about 3 h, instead of waiting days to weeks for culture data. Obtaining pathogen occurrence data in a timely manner could promote the elimination of the pathogens from the water supply of immunocompromised patients.

  2. Ralstonia mannitolilytica infection in renal transplant recipient: First report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhopadhyay C

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Ralstonia mannitolilytica is being increasingly identified as an opportunist pathogen in immunocompromised patients. We report the first case of post renal transplant infection by R. mannitolilytica, in a 14-year-old recipient. The graft and the patient were saved with prompt microbiological identification, sensitivity testing and subsequent administration of appropriate antibiotic.

  3. The Prevalence of Motor Delay among HIV Infected Children Living in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Gillian; Jelsma, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Children living with HIV often display delayed motor performance owing to HIV infection of the central nervous system, the effects of opportunistic infections and, indirectly, owing to their social environments. Although these problems have been well documented, the impact of the virus on the development of South African children is less well…

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections in cystic fibrosis: insights into pathogenic processes and treatment strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassett, Daniel J; Korfhagen, Thomas R; Irvin, Randall T;

    2010-01-01

    CF airway mucus can be infected by opportunistic microorganisms, notably Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Once organisms are established as biofilms, even the most potent antibiotics have little effect on their viability, especially during late-stage chronic infections. Better understanding of the mechani...... of the mechanisms used by P. aeruginosa to circumvent host defenses and therapeutic intervention strategies is critical for advancing novel treatment strategies....

  5. Loss of Social Behaviours in Populations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infecting Lungs of Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiricny, Natalie; Molin, Søren; Foster, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is an opportunistic, bacterial pathogen causing persistent and frequently fatal infections of the lung in patients with cystic fibrosis. Isolates from chronic infections differ from laboratory and environmental strains in a range of traits and this is widely interpreted as...

  6. HIV阴性MSM人群艾滋病相关行为特征及其干预效果%A Research on HIV/AIDS Related Behavior Characteristics and Their Intervention Effect among HIV Negative MSM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡高峰; 马瞧勤; 潘晓红; 周欣; 姚丹

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the HIV/AIDS related behavior characteristics and their intervention effect among HIV negative MSM. Methods Sexual behaviors including: homosexual anal intercourse and heterosexual behavior, and the condom use were analyzed using the base line data of the program of the MSM intervention cohoit study in 201 1. Results During the last 3 months, 87, 32% of 339 MSM had homosexual anal intercourse, in which 52.03% had more than 1 male sex partner; 72. 57% had anal intercourse with regular male sex partners, in which 40. 65% insisted on using condoms; 49. 26% had casual homosexual anal intercourse, in which the persistence rate of using condoms was 50. 90% ; 76. 70% received face to face health education, whose condom use rate ( 80. 16% ) and HIV testing rate (69.62% ) were both higher than the rates ( 60. 53% and 28%, respectively) of those without intervention ( P < 0. 05 and P< 0.01, respectively ). Conclusion With a high rate of homosexual anal intercourse, multiple sex partners and low condom use, MSM are at high risk of infecting and diffusing HIV/AIDS and STDs, which requires improving the interventions urgently.%目的 分析HIV抗体阴性MSM人群艾滋病相关行为特征,探讨干预效果.方法 利用浙江省2011年MSM干预队列基线调查资料,分析MSM人群性行为及安全套使用等情况.结果 在最近3个月,339名MSM中有87.32%的人发生同性非商业性肛交,其中52.03%的人有2个或2个以上同性非商业性伴;72.57%的人与同性固定性伴发生肛交,其中40.65%的人坚持使用安全套;49.26%的人发生同性临时性伴肛交,其中50.90%的人坚持使用安全套;76.70%的人接受面对面宣传干预,其最近1次同性临时性伴肛交安全套使用率80.16%高于未接受干预者60.53%(P <0.05),HIV检测率69.62%高于未干预者28.00%(P <0.01).结论 MSM人群同性肛交发生率高,多性伴现象普遍,安全套使用率低,处于艾滋病感染和传播的高风险状态,干预措施亟需进一步完善.

  7. Tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzak, E E

    1997-03-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis infects one third of the world's population, and tuberculosis remains one of the most common infectious diseases of humans. From a global perspective, tuberculosis may be one of the most common HIV-related opportunistic infections. HIV immunosuppression has had a dramatic influence on the epidemiology, natural history and clinical presentation of tuberculosis. Treatment is highly effective for drug susceptible tuberculosis and has been shown to have a significant impact on resistant, especially multidrug-resistant, tuberculosis if started promptly. Directly observed therapy and rigorous adherence to infection control principles have helped control the tuberculosis epidemic in the United States.

  8. Opportunistic pathogens and elements of the resistome that are common in bottled mineral water support the need for continuous surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Fernanda Falcone-Dias; Daniela Centrón; Fernando Pavan; Adriana Candido da Silva Moura; Felipe Gomes Naveca; Victor Costa de Souza; Adalberto Farache Filho; Clarice Queico Fujimura Leite

    2015-01-01

    Several differences concerning bacterial species, opportunistic pathogens, elements of the resistome as well as variations concerning the CFU/mL counts were identified in some of the five most marketed bottled mineral water from Araraquara city, São Paulo, Brazil. Two out of five brands tested were confirmed as potential source of opportunistic pathogens, including Mycobacterium gordonae, Ralstonia picketti and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). A total of one hundred and six isolates were r...

  9. [Stroke in HIV-infected patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino, Ireneia; Sousa, António; Correia, José

    2007-01-01

    The spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) is changing. New drug treatments have reduced morbidity and mortality of this disease, therefore it is necessary to start treating the HIV infection as a chronical disease. The association of the stroke with the HIV infection was inicially thought to be a result of other opportunistic infeccions and tumors. However, the vascular disease associated with HIV infection has been a subject of research and debate. New evidence shows that the vascular diseases could be a threat for the pacients doing highly active antirretroviral therapy (HAART). In this paper, we review the association between the HIV infection and stroke. Furthermore, we have done an analysis of the risk for the stroke on pacients with HIV infection considering the changes of the infection spectrum by the introduction of HAART.

  10. Expenditures for the care of HIV-infected patients in rural areas in China's antiretroviral therapy programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Song

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Chinese government has provided health services to those infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV under the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS care policy since 2003. Detailed research on the actual expenditures and costs for providing care to patients with AIDS is needed for future financial planning of AIDS health care services and possible reform of HIV/AIDS-related policy. The purpose of the current study was to determine the actual expenditures and factors influencing costs for untreated AIDS patients in a rural area of China after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART under the national Free Care Program (China CARES. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted in Yunnan and Shanxi Provinces, where HAART and all medical care are provided free to HIV-positive patients. Health expenditures and costs in the first treatment year were collected from medical records and prescriptions at local hospitals between January and June 2007. Multivariate linear regression was used to determine the factors associated with the actual expenditures in the first antiretroviral (ARV treatment year. Results Five ARV regimens are commonly used in China CARES: zidovudine (AZT + lamivudine (3TC + nevirapine (NVP, stavudine (D4T + 3TC + efavirenz (EFV, D4T + 3TC + NVP, didanosine (DDI + 3TC + NVP and combivir + EFV. The mean annual expenditure per person for ARV medications was US$2,242 (US$1 = 7 Chinese Yuan (CNY among 276 participants. The total costs for treating all adverse drug events (ADEs and opportunistic infections (OIs were US$29,703 and US$23,031, respectively. The expenses for treatment of peripheral neuritis and cytomegalovirus (CMV infections were the highest among those patients with ADEs and OIs, respectively. On the basis of multivariate linear regression, CD4 cell counts (100-199 cells/μL versus P = 0.02; and ≥200 cells/μL versus P P P = 0.04 and OIs (P = 0.02 were significantly

  11. Use of a population-based survey to determine incidence of AIDS-defining opportunistic illnesses among HIV-positive persons receiving medical care in the United States

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    Sullivan Patrick S

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosis of an opportunistic illness (OI in a person with HIV infection is a sentinel event, indicating opportunities for improving diagnosis of HIV infection and secondary prevention efforts. In the past, rates of OIs in the United States have been calculated in observational cohorts, which may have limited representativeness. Methods We used data from a 1998 population-based survey of persons in care for HIV infection to demonstrate the utility of population-based survey data for the calculation of OI rates, with inference to populations in care for HIV infection in three geographic areas: King County Washington, selected health districts in Louisiana, and the state of Michigan. Results The overall OI rate was 13.8 per 100 persons with HIV infection in care during 1998 (95% CI, 10.2–17.3. In 1998, an estimated 11.3% of all persons with HIV in care in these areas had at least one OI diagnosis (CI, 8.8–13.9. The most commonly diagnosed OIs were Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP (annual incidence 2.4 per 100 persons, CI 1.0–3.8 and cytomegalovirus retinitis (annual incidence 2.4 per 100 persons, CI 1.0–3.7. OI diagnosis rates were higher in Michigan than in the other two geographic areas, and were different among patients who were white, black and of other races, but were not different by sex or history of injection drug use. Conclusion Data from population-based surveys – and, in the coming years, clinical outcomes surveillance systems in the United States – can be used to calculate OI rates with improved generalizability, and such rates should be used in the future as a meaningful indicator of clinical outcomes in persons with HIV infection in care.

  12. [Clinical features of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections].

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    Sarlangue, J; Brissaud, O; Labrèze, C

    2006-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous environmental organism usually considered as opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised subjects. However it can produce disease in healthy children, mainly on moist body sites. Familial, community and nosocomial outbreaks of cutaneous infections have been reported. Ecthyma gangrenosum is possible without bacteremia. P. aeruginosa is also the most common cause of otitis externa in swimmers and osteomyelitis after puncture wound of the foot.

  13. Nocardia brasiliensis Infection Complicating Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia

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    Fernandes, Alison M.; Sluzevich, Jason C.

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary nocardiosis is a severe and uncommon opportunistic infection caused by Nocardia species. We present a patient with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia who was receiving long-term immunosuppressive therapy, whose treatment course was complicated by cutaneous and pulmonary nocardiosis. Tissue cultures confirmed Nocardia brasiliensis. Nocardiosis should be a diagnostic consideration for patients treated with long-term immunosuppression who have worsening pulmonary symptoms and relapsing pustular skin lesions. PMID:28348912

  14. SIV Infection Facilitates Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection of Rhesus Macaques

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    Guo, Ming; Xian, Qiao-Yang; Rao, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Yong; Huang, Zhi-Xiang; Wang, Xin; Bao, Rong; Zhou, Li; Liu, Jin-Biao; Tang, Zhi-Jiao; Guo, De-yin; Qin, Chuan; Li, Jie-Liang; Ho, Wen-Zhe

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a common opportunistic infection and the leading cause of death for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Thus, it is necessary to understand the pathogenetic interactions between M.tb and HIV infection. In this study, we examined M.tb and/or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of Chinese rhesus macaques. While there was little evidence that M.tb enhanced SIV infection of macaques, SIV could facilitate M.tb infection as demonstrated by X-rays, pathological and microbiological findings. Chest X-rays showed that co-infected animals had disseminated lesions in both left and right lungs, while M.tb mono-infected animals displayed the lesions only in right lungs. Necropsy of co-infected animals revealed a disseminated M.tb infection not only in the lungs but also in the extrapulmonary organs including spleen, pancreas, liver, kidney, and heart. The bacterial counts in the lungs, the bronchial lymph nodes, and the extrapulmonary organs of co-infected animals were significantly higher than those of M.tb mono-infected animals. The mechanistic studies demonstrated that two of three co-infected animals had lower levels of M.tb specific IFN-γ and IL-22 in PBMCs than M.tb mono-infected animals. These findings suggest that Chinese rhesus macaque is a suitable and alternative non-human primate model for SIV/M.tb coinfection studies. The impairment of the specific anti-TB immunity is likely to be a contributor of SIV-mediated enhancement M.tb infection. PMID:28133458

  15. Opportunistic virus DNA levels after pediatric stem cell transplantation: serostatus matching, anti-thymocyte globulin, and total body irradiation are additive risk factors.

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    Kullberg-Lindh, C; Mellgren, K; Friman, V; Fasth, A; Ascher, H; Nilsson, S; Lindh, M

    2011-04-01

    Viral opportunistic infections remain a threat to survival after stem cell transplantation (SCT). We retrospectively investigated infections caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus type 6 (HHV6), or adenovirus (AdV) during the first 6-12 months after pediatric SCT. Serum samples from 47 consecutive patients were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. DNAemia at any time point occurred for CMV in 47%, for EBV in 45%, for HHV6 in 28%, and for AdV in 28%. Three patients (6.3%) died of CMV-, EBV-, or AdV-related complications 4, 9, and 24 weeks after SCT, respectively, representing 21% of total mortality. These 3 cases were clearly distinguishable by DNAemia increasing to high levels. Serum positivity for CMV immunoglobulin G in either recipient or donor at the time of SCT, total body irradiation, and anti-thymocyte globulin conditioning were independent risk factors for high CMV or EBV DNA levels. We conclude that DNAemia levels help to distinguish significant viral infections, and that surveillance and prophylactic measures should be focused on patients with risk factors in whom viral complications rapidly can become fatal.

  16. 福建省部分地区暗娼人群艾滋病相关知识行为调查%Survey on AIDS-related Knowledge and Behavior among Commercial Sex Workers in Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴韶彬; 陈舸; 潘蕴蛟; 林永添; 郑武雄; 林丽; 杨莹

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate AIDS-related knowledge and behaviors among commercial sex workers in Fujian province, and provide the basis for behavioral intervention. Methods An anonymous questionnaire was conducted among commercial sex workers in entertainment places in 15 counties of Fujian province. Results The awareness rate of AIDS-related knowledge is 86. 59%, the condom use rate in their latest commercial sex behavior is 62. 01%, 18. 16% sex workers had STD related symptoms. The main route of receiving AIDS related preventing services was health education. Conclusions Commercial sex workers don't have comprehensive understanding for AIDS-related knowledge; the condom use rate among them is low. Therefore, it's necessary to carry out more suitable intervention methods for commercial sex workers and improve awareness and condom use rate. Meanwhile, the stability and constancy of intervention work should be maintained, in order to expand the coverage of the intervention and detection rate among commercial sex workers.%目的 了解福建省暗娼人群艾滋病防治知识和相关行为状况,为行为干预提供依据.方法 对福建省15个县区的部分娱乐场所暗娼人群进行匿名问卷调查.结果 艾滋病基本知识知晓率为86.59%,最后一次发生商业性行为安全套使用率为62.01%,18.16%曾出现性病相关症状.接受预防艾滋病相关服务以宣传教育为主.结论 暗娼人群对艾滋病相关知识了解不全面,安全套使用率不高.应有针对性地制定适合暗娼人群的干预方法,提高其各知识点的知晓率和安全套使用率;同时应保持干预措施的稳定性和恒定性,进一步扩大暗娼人群的干预覆盖面和检测率.

  17. Human immunodeficiency virus infection, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, H W; Telzak, E E; Sepkowitz, K A; Wormser, G P

    1998-12-01

    The acceptance of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among patients and health care providers has had a dramatic impact on the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of many opportunistic infections associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Previously intractable opportunistic infections and syndromes are now far less common. In addition, effective antibiotic prophylactic therapies have had a profound impact on the risk of patients developing particular infections and on the incidence of these infections overall. Most notable among these are Pneumocystis carinii, disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex, tuberculosis, and toxoplasmosis. Nevertheless, infections continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality among patients who are infected with HIV. The role of HAART in many clinical situations is unquestioned. Compelling data from clinical trials support the use of these therapies during pregnancy to prevent perinatal transmission of HIV. HAART is also recommended for health care workers who have had a "significant" exposure to the blood of an HIV-infected patient. Both of these situations are discussed in detail in this article. In addition, although more controversial, increasing evidence supports the use of HAART during the acute HIV seroconversion syndrome. An "immune reconstitution syndrome" has been newly described for patients in the early phases of treatment with HAART who develop tuberculosis, M avium complex, and cytomegalovirus disease. Accumulating data support the use of hydroxyurea, an agent with a long history in the field of myeloproliferative disorders, for the treatment of HIV. Newer agents, particularly abacavir and adefovir dipivoxil, are available through expanded access protocols, and their roles are being defined and clarified.

  18. Staff views of an opportunistic chlamydia testing pilot in a primary health organisation

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    McKernon S

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The Auckland chlamydia pilot was one of three pilots funded by the Ministry of Health to trial implementation of the 2008 Chlamydia Management Guidelines prior to national roll-out. AIM: To assess what elements in the testing programme pilot worked best for staff and to determine how an opportunistic testing programme could be better configured to meet staff needs and preferences. METHODS: A staff survey listed key chlamydia testing tasks in chronological order, and service interventions supporting these tasks. Staff were asked to rate each task on its difficulty prior to the pilot, and then on the difference the pilot had made to each task. They were also asked to rate service interventions on their usefulness during the pilot implementation. RESULTS: The survey had a response rate of 94%. The testing tasks posing the greatest difficulties to staff were those involving patient interactions (41% and management of follow-up (52%. About 70% of staff felt tasks were improved by the pilot. Staff considered the three most useful service interventions to be a chlamydia-specific template created for the practice management system, provision of printed patient resources, and regular team discussions with other staff. DISCUSSION: A significant proportion of staff reported difficulties with routine tasks required for opportunistic testing for chlamydia, highlighting the need to involve staff during programme design. Practice nurse-led approaches to future opportunistic testing programmes should be considered as nurses had a more positive response to the pilot and nurse-led approaches have been shown to be successful overseas.

  19. A Hierarchical Distance Sampling Approach to Estimating Mortality Rates from Opportunistic Carcass Surveillance Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, Steve E; Gimenez, Olivier; Choquet, Rémi; Getz, Wayne M

    2013-04-01

    Distance sampling is widely used to estimate the abundance or density of wildlife populations. Methods to estimate wildlife mortality rates have developed largely independently from distance sampling, despite the conceptual similarities between estimation of cumulative mortality and the population density of living animals. Conventional distance sampling analyses rely on the assumption that animals are distributed uniformly with respect to transects and thus require randomized placement of transects during survey design. Because mortality events are rare, however, it is often not possible to obtain precise estimates in this way without infeasible levels of effort. A great deal of wildlife data, including mortality data, is available via road-based surveys. Interpreting these data in a distance sampling framework requires accounting for the non-uniformity sampling. Additionally, analyses of opportunistic mortality data must account for the decline in carcass detectability through time. We develop several extensions to distance sampling theory to address these problems.We build mortality estimators in a hierarchical framework that integrates animal movement data, surveillance effort data, and motion-sensor camera trap data, respectively, to relax the uniformity assumption, account for spatiotemporal variation in surveillance effort, and explicitly model carcass detection and disappearance as competing ongoing processes.Analysis of simulated data showed that our estimators were unbiased and that their confidence intervals had good coverage.We also illustrate our approach on opportunistic carcass surveillance data acquired in 2010 during an anthrax outbreak in the plains zebra of Etosha National Park, Namibia.The methods developed here will allow researchers and managers to infer mortality rates from opportunistic surveillance data.

  20. Opportunistic Hybrid Transport Protocol (OHTP for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Sensor Networks

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    Yousaf Bin Zikria

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The inefficient assignment of spectrum for different communications purposes, plus technology enhancements and ever-increasing usage of wireless technology is causing spectrum scarcity. To address this issue, one of the proposed solutions in the literature is to access the spectrum dynamically or opportunistically. Therefore, the concept of cognitive radio appeared, which opens up a new research paradigm. There is extensive research on the physical, medium access control and network layers. The impact of the transport layer on the performance of cognitive radio ad hoc sensor networks is still unknown/unexplored. The Internet’s de facto transport protocol is not well suited to wireless networks because of its congestion control mechanism. We propose an opportunistic hybrid transport protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc sensor networks. We developed a new congestion control mechanism to differentiate true congestion from interruption loss. After such detection and differentiation, we propose methods to handle them opportunistically. There are several benefits to window- and rate-based protocols. To exploit the benefits of both in order to enhance overall system performance, we propose a hybrid transport protocol. We empirically calculate the optimal threshold value to switch between window- and rate-based mechanisms. We then compare our proposed transport protocol to Transmission Control Protocol (TCP-friendly rate control, TCP-friendly rate control for cognitive radio, and TCP-friendly window-based control. We ran an extensive set of simulations in Network Simulator 2. The results indicate that the proposed transport protocol performs better than all the others.