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Sample records for aids-associated nephropathy

  1. Grave's disease associated with immunoglobulin A nephropathy: A rare association.

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    Khan, I; Bhat, R A; Khan, I; Hameed, I

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin A (Ig A) nephropathy is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis. The association of Ig A nephropathy with Grave's disease has not been reported so far. We report a case of 20-year-old female with Grave's disease who presented with edema, facial puffiness, and decreased urine output. She was found to be hypertensive with renal failure and nephrotic range proteinuria. Renal biopsy revealed features of Ig A nephropathy. The patient was treated with oral corticosteroids (1 mg/kg/day). To our knowledge, this is the first case showing association of Grave's disease with Ig A nephropathy.

  2. Urinary NGAL marks cystic disease in HIV-associated nephropathy.

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    Paragas, Neal; Nickolas, Thomas L; Wyatt, Christina; Forster, Catherine S; Sise, Meghan; Morgello, Susan; Jagla, Bernd; Buchen, Charles; Stella, Peter; Sanna-Cherchi, Simone; Carnevali, Maria Luisa; Mattei, Silvia; Bovino, Achiropita; Argentiero, Lucia; Magnano, Andrea; Devarajan, Prasad; Schmidt-Ott, Kai M; Allegri, Landino; Klotman, Paul; D'Agati, Vivette; Gharavi, Ali G; Barasch, Jonathan

    2009-08-01

    Nephrosis and a rapid decline in kidney function characterize HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). Histologically, HIVAN is a collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis with prominent tubular damage. We explored the expression of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), a marker of tubular injury, to determine whether this protein has the potential to aid in the noninvasive diagnosis of HIVAN. We found that expression of urinary NGAL was much higher in patients with biopsy-proven HIVAN than in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients with other forms of chronic kidney disease. In the HIV-transgenic mouse model of HIVAN, NGAL mRNA was abundant in dilated, microcystic segments of the nephron. In contrast, urinary NGAL did not correlate with proteinuria in human or in mouse models. These data show that marked upregulation of NGAL accompanies HIVAN and support further study of uNGAL levels in large cohorts to aid in the noninvasive diagnosis of HIVAN and screen for HIVAN-related tubular damage.

  3. Grave′s disease associated with immunoglobulin A nephropathy: A rare association

    OpenAIRE

    I Khan; R A Bhat; I Khan; I Hameed

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin A (Ig A) nephropathy is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis. The association of Ig A nephropathy with Grave's disease has not been reported so far. We report a case of 20-year-old female with Grave's disease who presented with edema, facial puffiness, and decreased urine output. She was found to be hypertensive with renal failure and nephrotic range proteinuria. Renal biopsy revealed features of Ig A nephropathy. The patient was treated with oral corticosteroids ...

  4. Association of dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs in human blood with nephropathy among US teens and young adults.

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    Everett, Charles J; Thompson, Olivia M

    2016-06-01

    We assessed the association of three chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, a chlorinated dibenzofuran, and four dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human blood with nephropathy (microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria) among teens and young adults (12-30 years old) having normal glycohemoglobin (A1c Dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs in human blood: causes or consequences of diabetic nephropathy? Environ Res 2014;132:126-31), the cut-offs for these chemicals being considered elevated, were defined as the 75th percentile. Using these same cut-offs again, the proportion of those with one or more of the eight dioxin-like compounds elevated was 9.9%. The four chemicals associated with nephropathy were 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, PCB 126, PCB 169, and PCB 156. The proportion with one or more of these four dioxin-like chemicals elevated was 3.9% (unweighted n=46) and the odds ratio (OR) for nephropathy was 7.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-28.1]. The association was strong among females (OR 17.4, 95% CI 3.4-88.6), but among males there were no cases of nephropathy when one or more of the four dioxin-like chemicals were elevated, and therefore no association. In a separate analysis, elevated toxic equivalency, defined using the eight dioxin-like chemicals (TEQ8), was associated with nephropathy. TEQ8 ≥50.12 fg/g included 2.6% of the sample (unweighted n=28) and had an OR of 5.8 (95% 1.3-25.9) for nephropathy. As found in the analysis of one or more of four dioxin-like chemicals elevated, TEQ8 ≥50.12 fg/g was associated with nephropathy among females (OR 11.9, 95% CI 1.6-87.2), but not males. Trends for least-squares means also differed by gender, but there were no significant differences in mean TEQ8 between normal subjects and those having nephropathy in either males or females. We also evaluated pre-diabetes (A1c 5.7-6.4%) without nephropathy and found no associations when one or more of four dioxin-like compounds were elevated, or when TEQ8 was

  5. Nephropathy in type 1 diabetes is associated with increased circulating activated platelets and platelet hyperreactivity

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    Tarnow, Inge; Michelson, Alan D.; Barnard, Marc R.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have increased platelet activation compared to non-diabetic controls. Platelet hyperreactivity has been associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in Type 2 DM, and with diabetic nephropathy. We investigated the relationship between platelet activation...... and nephropathy in Type 1 DM. Patients with Type 1 DM and diabetic nephropathy (n = 35), age- and sex-matched Type 1 DM patients with persistent normoalbuminuria (n = 51), and healthy age- and sex-matched controls (n = 30) were studied. Platelet surface P-selectin, platelet surface activated GPIIb/IIIa, monocyte...... controls (P = 0.0075). There were no differences between groups in activated GPIIb/IIIa or in response to TRAP at any end-point. More patients with nephropathy received aspirin (71.4%) compared to normoalbuminuric patients (27.4%) (P Type 1 diabetic nephropathy, as compared with normoalbuminuria...

  6. Association of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM1 with Diabetes and Diabetic Nephropathy

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    Harvest F Gu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes and diabetic nephropathy are complex diseases affected by genetic and environmental factors. Identification of the susceptibility genes and investigation of their roles may provide useful information for better understanding of the pathogenesis and for developing novel therapeutic approaches. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1 is a cell surface glycoprotein expressed on endothelial cells and leukocytes in the immune system. The ICAM1 gene is located on chromosome 19p13 within the linkage region of diabetes. In the recent years, accumulating reports have implicated that genetic polymorphisms in the ICAM1 gene are associated with diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. Serum ICAM1 levels in diabetes patients and the icam1 gene expression in kidney tissues of diabetic animals are increased compared to the controls. Therefore, ICAM1 may play a role in the development of diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. In this review, we present genomic structure, variation and regulation of the ICAM1 gene, summarized genetic and biological studies of this gene in diabetes and diabetic nephropathy and discussed about the potential application using ICAM1 as a biomarker and target for prediction and treatment of diabetes and diabetic nephropathy.

  7. Immunoglobulin A nephropathy in association with generalized inflammatory peeling skin syndrome.

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    Srinivasaraghavan, Rangan; Krishnamurthy, Sriram; Chandar, Rumesh; Mahadevan, Subramanian; Chandrashekar, Laxmisha; Rajesh, Nachiappa Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    We describe an 8-year-old girl born to second-degree consanguineous parents with complaints of recurrent episodes of hematuria for 6 months. She had generalized peeling of the skin since birth and recurrent purulent cutaneous infections. The clinical presentation and histopathology of the skin biopsy specimen were consistent with the inflammatory variant of peeling skin syndrome (PSS). She also had a single ventricle with pulmonary stenosis, for which a bidirectional Glenn shunt had been placed. The renal biopsy specimen showed immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy. She responded well to enalapril and steroids, with a decrease in proteinuria. IgA nephropathy has not been previously reported in PSS. Complications such as IgA nephropathy in children with PSS would help to further delineate the diverse clinical presentations and the clinical course of this rare dermatosis. We discuss the mechanisms that could explain this hitherto unreported association. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Association Between CNDP1 Genotype and Diabetic Nephropathy Is Sex Specific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooyaart, Antien L.; Zutinic, Ana; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Grootendorst, Diana C.; Kleefstra, Nanne; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.; Bohringer, Stefan; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Dekker, Friedo W.; Bruijn, Jan Anthonie; Navis, Gerjan; Janssen, Bart; Baelde, Hans J.; De Heer, Emile

    OBJECTIVE-The 5-5 homozygous CNDP1 (carnosinase) genotype is associated with a reduced risk of diabetic nephropathy. We investigated whether this association is sex specific and independent of susceptibility for type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-Three separate groups of 114, 90, and 66

  9. ESSENTIAL ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH HYPERTENSIVE NEPHROPATHY

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    Boban Milojković

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Arterial hypertension is a major risk factor that predisposes to cardiovascular disorders and is responsible for most of the morbidity and mortality in patients. Hypertension is closely associated with the kidney, because kidney disease can be both the cause and consequence of increased blood pressure. Elevation of blood pressure is a strong independent risk factor for hypertensive nephropathy and development of ESRD. The pathogenesis of ischemic hypertensive nephropathy (IHN is multifactoral, and in addition to blood pressure other factors contribute to the development of this renal pathology and its progression to end-stage renal disease. These include obesity, smoking, male gender and other still unknown risk factors. The aim of this paper was to analyse the association between essential arterial hypertension and renal hypertensive disease and prevalence of other atherosclerotic risk factors in patients with developed hypertensive renal disease. In this prospective cross sectional study 283 patients of both genders with diagnosed essential hypertension and hypertensive renal disease were analysed. The anamnestic data related to age, duration of hypertension, history of smoking, presence of hypertensive retinopathy, hypertrophy of the left chamber and data about previous renal diseases were collected through conversation and medical documentation. The clinical examination comprise determination of blood pressure, body mass index (BMI, lipid parameters (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, serum urea and creatinine, urine, albumin and protein concentration. The total number of 283 patients (185 males and 98 females with HN was analyzed. The analysis revealed significantly higher proportion of males aged over 60 years with IHN. The mean age of examined hypertensive patients with IHN is 62.6±8.8 years with duration of hypertension 19.8±5.9 years. All examined patients had hypertensive retinopathy and

  10. BK Virus-Associated Nephropathy without Viremia in an Adolescent Kidney Transplant Recipient

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    Kraisoon Lomjansook, M.D.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BK virus can reactivate in kidney transplant recipients leading to BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKVAN and allograft dysfunction. Pathogenesis begins with viral replication, follows by viruria, viremia and nephropathy. Screening tools recommended for viral detection are urine and blood BK viral load. Viremia has higher positive predictive value than viruria, thus several guidelines recommend using viremia to determine whether renal biopsy, a gold standard for diagnosis of BKVAN is needed. We present a 16-year-old boy who developed BKVAN five months after deceased donor kidney transplantation. He had increased serum creatinine with negative blood BK viral load. BK nephropathy was diagnosed in kidney graft biopsy. The urine showed BK viruria. Immunosuppressant was reduced and ciprofloxacin given. Viruria disappeared and repeated graft biopsy was normal 4 months later. BK viremia was negative through 1 year follow up. We conclude that BKVAN may occur even without viremia and BK viruria may be considered for screening tool.

  11. Comparative analysis of diabetic nephropathy and non-diabetic nephropathy disease.

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    Chen, Qiuxiang; Zhu, Aimin; Wang, Junsheng; Huan, Xuelai

    2017-12-01

    Clinical symptoms of diabetic nephropathy patients and non-diabetic nephropathy are compared and analyzed, hemodialysis effect and quality of life of two kinds of nephrotic patients are analyzed. Respectively extract 1300 cases of diabetic nephropathy and non-diabetic nephropathy patients admitted to different hospitals during December 2011-December 2014. Based on whether the patient suffers from diabetes, they were divided into diabetic group and control group. Hemodialysis of two groups of patients were followed up to observe effectiveness of blood treatment, and complications were observed after one year of follow-up. Hematodialysis effectiveness of diabetic nephropathy patients is significantly lower than that of non-diabetic nephropathy group. After 1 year's follow-up, it can be found that survival rate of diabetic nephropathy patients is much lower than that of control group. In statistical comparison of data involved in the two groups of patients, P diabetic nephropathy patients is relatively poor compared to that of non-diabetic patients. In clinics, management and prevention of diabetic patients should be strengthened to avoid complication of nephropathy which brings serious injury to patients.

  12. Kidney injury molecule-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin as prognostic markers in idiopathic membranous nephropathy.

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    Maas, Rutger Jh; van den Brand, Jan Ajg; Waanders, Femke; Meijer, Esther; Goor van, Harry; Peters, Hilde P; Hofstra, Julia M; Wetzels, Jack Fm

    2016-01-01

    Urinary excretion of alpha-1-microglobulin and beta-2-microglobulin reflects tubular damage and predicts outcome in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy with reasonable accuracy. Urinary kidney injury molecule-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin are novel biomarkers of tubular damage. We investigated if these markers could improve prediction of outcome in idiopathic membranous nephropathy. We measured kidney injury molecule-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in urine samples from patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy, who had nephrotic proteinuria and normal renal function. Excretion of alpha-1-microglobulin and beta-2-microglobulin had been measured previously. Progression was defined as a serum creatinine rise >30%, a rise in serum creatinine to an absolute value of ≥135 µmol/L, or a clinical decision to start immunosuppressive therapy. Remission was defined as proteinuria 50% reduction from baseline. Sixty-nine patients were included. Median follow-up was 35 months (interquartile range 18-63 months). Progression occurred in 30 patients (44%), and spontaneous remission in 36 (52%). Kidney injury molecule-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin excretion rates were significantly correlated with each other, and with alpha-1-microglobulin and beta-2-microglobulin. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for progression were 0.75 (0.62-0.87) for kidney injury molecule-1 and 0.74 (0.62-0.87) for neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin. In multivariate analysis with either alpha-1-microglobulin and beta-2-microglobulin, kidney injury molecule-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin did not independently predict outcome. Kidney injury molecule-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin excretion rates correlated with excretion rates of other tubular damage markers and predicted outcome in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy. They did not add prognostic value

  13. Proliferative retinopathy predicts nephropathy

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    Karlberg, Charlotte; Falk, Christine; Green, Anders

    2012-01-01

    We wanted to examine proliferative retinopathy as a marker of incident nephropathy in a 25-year follow-up study of a population-based cohort of Danish type 1 diabetic patients and to examine cross-sectional associations between nephropathy and retinopathy in long-term surviving patients of the same...... cohort. All type 1 diabetic patients from Fyn County, Denmark, were identified as of 1 July 1973. One hundred and eighty four patients were examined in 1981-1982 (baseline) and in 2007-2008 (follow-up). The level of retinopathy was graded by ophthalmoscopy at baseline and nine-field digital colour fundus...... and proliferative retinopathy, respectively. In conclusion, proliferative retinopathy is an independent marker of long-term nephropathy in type 1 diabetes. Upcoming studies should examine whether these microvascular complications are also causally linked in type 1 diabetes....

  14. G/T substitution in intron 1 of the UNC13B gene is associated with increased risk of nephropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes

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    Tregouet, D.A.; Groop, P.H.; McGinn, S.

    2008-01-01

    for association with diabetic nephropathy (persistent albuminuria >/=300 mg/24 h) in a large type 1 diabetes case/control (1,176/1,323) study from three European populations. RESULTS: Only one SNP, rs2281999, located in the UNC13B gene, was significantly associated with nephropathy after correction for multiple...... was 1.68 (95% CI 1.29-2.19) (P = 1.0 x 10(-4)). This association was replicated in an independent population of 412 case subjects and 614 control subjects (combined OR of 1.63 [95% CI 1.30-2.05], P = 2.3 x 10(-5)). CONCLUSIONS: We identified a polymorphism in the UNC13B gene associated with nephropathy......OBJECTIVE: Genetic and environmental factors modulate the susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy, as initiating and/or progression factors. The objective of the European Rational Approach for the Genetics of Diabetic Complications (EURAGEDIC) study is to identify nephropathy susceptibility genes...

  15. Polyomavirus specific cellular immunity: from BK-virus-specific cellular immunity to BK-virus-associated nephropathy ?

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    manon edekeyser

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In renal transplantation, BK-virus-associated nephropathy has emerged as a major complication, with a prevalence of 5–10% and graft loss in >50% of cases. BK-virus is a member of the Polyomavirus family and rarely induces apparent clinical disease in the general population. However, replication of polyomaviruses, associated with significant organ disease, is observed in patients with acquired immunosuppression, which suggests a critical role for virus-specific cellular immunity to control virus replication and prevent chronic disease. Monitoring of specific immunity combined with viral load could be used to individually assess the risk of viral reactivation and virus control. We review the current knowledge on BK-virus specific cellular immunity and, more specifically, in immunocompromised patients. In the future, immune-based therapies could allow us to treat and prevent BK-virus-associated nephropathy.

  16. Smoking in diabetic nephropathy: sparks in the fuel tank?

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    Chakkarwar, Vishal Arvind

    2012-12-15

    Diabetic nephropathy is associated with high morbidity and mortality and the prevalence of this disease is continuously increasing worldwide. Long-term diabetes increases the likelihood of developing secondary complications like nephropathy, the most common cause of end stage renal disease. Usually, other factors like hypertension, alcoholism and smoking also partly contribute to the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Among this, cigarette smoking in diabetes has been repeatedly confirmed as an independent risk factor for the onset and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Various studies suggest that smoking is a major fuel in the development of high oxidative stress and subsequently hyperlipidemia, accumulation of advanced glycation end products, activation of the renin angiotensin system and Rho-kinase, which are observed to play a pathogenic role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Furthermore, cigarette smoking in diabetic patients with vascular complications produces a variety of pathological changes in the kidney, such as thickening of the glomerular basement membrane and mesangial expansion with progression in glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis, which ultimately results in end stage renal failure. Strong associations are consistently found between chronic cigarette smoking and diabetic microvascular complications. A diverse group of studies unveil potential mechanisms that may explain the role of cigarette smoking in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Tremendous efforts are being made to control smoking mediated progression of diabetic nephropathy, but no promising therapy is yet available. The present review critically discusses the possible detrimental role of chronic cigarette smoking in the progression of diabetic nephropathy and various possible pharmacological interventions to attenuate the exacerbation of diabetic nephropathy.

  17. Lipid Abnormalities in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Overt Nephropathy

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    Viswanathan, Vijay

    2017-01-01

    Background Diabetic nephropathy is a major complication of diabetes and an established risk factor for cardiovascular events. Lipid abnormalities occur in patients with diabetic nephropathy, which further increase their risk for cardiovascular events. We compared the degree of dyslipidemia among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects with and without nephropathy and analyzed the factors associated with nephropathy among them. Methods In this retrospective study, T2DM patients with overt nephropathy were enrolled in the study group (n=89) and without nephropathy were enrolled in the control group (n=92). Both groups were matched for age and duration of diabetes. Data on total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), urea and creatinine were collected from the case sheets. TG/HDL-C ratio, a surrogate marker for small, dense, LDL particles (sdLDL) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were calculated using equations. Multivariate analysis was done to determine the factors associated with eGFR. Results Dyslipidemia was present among 56.52% of control subjects and 75.28% of nephropathy subjects (P=0.012). The percentage of subjects with atherogenic dyslipidemia (high TG+low HDL-C+sdLDL) was 14.13 among controls and 14.61 among nephropathy subjects. Though serum creatinine was not significantly different, mean eGFR value was significantly lower among nephropathy patients (P=0.002). Upon multivariate analysis, it was found that TC (P=0.007) and HDL-C (P=0.06) were associated with eGFR among our study subjects. Conclusion Our results show that dyslipidemia was highly prevalent among subjects with nephropathy. Regular screening for dyslipidemia may be beneficial in controlling the risk for adverse events among diabetic nephropathy patients. PMID:28447439

  18. Incipient and overt diabetic nephropathy in African Americans with NIDDM.

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    Dasmahapatra, A; Bale, A; Raghuwanshi, M P; Reddi, A; Byrne, W; Suarez, S; Nash, F; Varagiannis, E; Skurnick, J H

    1994-04-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the prevalence of incipient and overt nephropathy in African-American subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) attending a hospital clinic. Contributory factors, such as blood pressure (BP), duration and age at onset of diabetes, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and body mass index (BMI) also were evaluated. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS--We recruited 116 African-American subjects with NIDDM for this cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study. BP, BMI, 24-h urine albumin excretion, creatinine clearance, serum creatinine, lipids, and GHb levels were measured. Albumin excretion rate (AER) was calculated, and subjects were divided into three groups: no nephropathy (AER 200 micrograms/min). Frequency of hypertension and nephropathy was analyzed by chi 2 testing, group means were compared using analysis of variance, and linear correlations were performed between AER and other variables. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the association of these variables while controlling for the effects of other variables. RESULTS--Increased AER was present in 50% of our subjects; 31% had incipient and 19% had overt nephropathy. Hypertension was present in 72.4%; nephropathy, particularly overt nephropathy, was significantly more prevalent in the hypertensive group. Mean BP and diastolic blood pressure (dBP) were higher in the groups with incipient and overt nephropathy, and systolic blood pressure (sBP) was increased in overt nephropathy. Men with either form of nephropathy had higher sBP, dBP, and mean BP, whereas only women with overt nephropathy had increased sBP and mean BP. Subjects with incipient or overt nephropathy had a longer duration of diabetes, and those with overt nephropathy had a younger age at onset of diabetes. By multiple regression analysis, AER correlated with younger age at diabetes onset, but not with diabetes duration. No correlation with age, lipid levels, or GHb was noted. BMI correlated with AER

  19. Dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs in human blood: causes or consequences of diabetic nephropathy?

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    Everett, Charles J; Thompson, Olivia M

    2014-07-01

    Nephropathy, or kidney disease, is a major, potential complication of diabetes. We assessed the association of 6 chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, 9 chlorinated dibenzofurans and 8 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood with diabetic nephropathy in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (unweighted N=2588, population estimate=117,658,357). Diabetes was defined as diagnosed or undiagnosed (glycohemoglobin ≥ 6.5%) and nephropathy defined as urinary albumin to creatinine ratio >30 mg/g, representing microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria. For the 8 chemicals analyzed separately, values above the 75th percentile were considered elevated, whereas for the other 15 compounds values above the maximum limit of detection were considered elevated. Seven of 8 dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, analyzed separately, were found to be associated with diabetic nephropathy. The chemicals associated with diabetic nephropathy were: 1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9-Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran; PCB 126; PCB 169; PCB 118; and PCB 156. Three of the 8 dioxins and dioxin-like compounds; 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9-Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran and PCB 118; expressed as log-transformed continuous variables; were associated with diabetes without nephropathy. When 4 or more of the 23 chemicals were elevated the odds ratios were 7.00 (95% CI=1.80-27.20) for diabetic nephropathy and 2.13 (95% CI=0.95-4.78) for diabetes without nephropathy. Log-transformed toxic equivalency (TEQ) was associated with both diabetic nephropathy, and diabetes without nephropathy, the odds ratios were 2.35 (95% CI=1.57-3.52) for diabetic nephropathy, and 1.44 (95% CI=1.11-1.87) for diabetes without nephropathy. As the kidneys function to remove waste products from the blood, diabetic nephropathy could be either the cause or the consequence (or both) of exposure to dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs. Copyright © 2014

  20. Kidney injury molecule-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin as prognostic markers in idiopathic membranous nephropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, Rutger J. H.; van den Brand, Jan A. J. G.; Waanders, Femke; Meijer, Esther; van Goor, Harry; Peters, Hilde P.; Hofstra, Julia M.; Wetzels, Jack F. M.

    Background: Urinary excretion of alpha-1-microglobulin and beta-2-microglobulin reflects tubular damage and predicts outcome in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy with reasonable accuracy. Urinary kidney injury molecule-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin are novel

  1. Comparative analysis of diabetic nephropathy and non-diabetic nephropathy disease

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    Qiuxiang Chen

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Treatment effect of diabetic nephropathy patients is relatively poor compared to that of non-diabetic patients. In clinics, management and prevention of diabetic patients should be strengthened to avoid complication of nephropathy which brings serious injury to patients.

  2. Autophagy: A Novel Therapeutic Target for Diabetic Nephropathy.

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    Kume, Shinji; Koya, Daisuke

    2015-12-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end stage renal disease and its occurance is increasing worldwide. The most effective treatment strategy for the condition is intensive treatment to strictly control glycemia and blood pressure using renin-angiotensin system inhibitors. However, a fraction of patients still go on to reach end stage renal disease even under such intensive care. New therapeutic targets for diabetic nephropathy are, therefore, urgently needed. Autophagy is a major catabolic pathway by which mammalian cells degrade macromolecules and organelles to maintain intracellular homeostasis. The accumulation of damaged proteins and organelles is associated with the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Autophagy in the kidney is activated under some stress conditions, such as oxidative stress and hypoxia in proximal tubular cells, and occurs even under normal conditions in podocytes. These and other accumulating findings have led to a hypothesis that autophagy is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Here, we review recent findings underpinning this hypothesis and discuss the advantages of targeting autophagy for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy.

  3. Autophagy: A Novel Therapeutic Target for Diabetic Nephropathy

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    Shinji Kume

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end stage renal disease and its occurance is increasing worldwide. The most effective treatment strategy for the condition is intensive treatment to strictly control glycemia and blood pressure using renin-angiotensin system inhibitors. However, a fraction of patients still go on to reach end stage renal disease even under such intensive care. New therapeutic targets for diabetic nephropathy are, therefore, urgently needed. Autophagy is a major catabolic pathway by which mammalian cells degrade macromolecules and organelles to maintain intracellular homeostasis. The accumulation of damaged proteins and organelles is associated with the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Autophagy in the kidney is activated under some stress conditions, such as oxidative stress and hypoxia in proximal tubular cells, and occurs even under normal conditions in podocytes. These and other accumulating findings have led to a hypothesis that autophagy is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Here, we review recent findings underpinning this hypothesis and discuss the advantages of targeting autophagy for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy.

  4. Single nucleotide polymorphisms at erythropoietin, superoxide dismutase 1, splicing factor, arginine/serin-rich 15 and plasmacytoma variant translocation genes association with diabetic nephropathy

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    Maisaa Alwohhaib

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of genes have been identified in diabetic nephropathy. Association between diabetes-associated nephropathy and polymorphisms in the erythropoietin (EPO gene, variants in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1 gene and plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1 gene have been identified. The EPO, SOD1:SFRS15 and PVT1 genes were genotyped using the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP technique in 38 diabetic nephropathy patients (Group 1 compared with 64 diabetic type 2 subjects without nephropathy (Group 2 at the Mubarak Alkabeer Hospital, Kuwait. The frequency of the risk allele T of the EPO (rs1617640 gene was high in both groups (0.96 in Group 1 and 0.92 in Group 2. Similarly, SNPs of the PVT1 (rs2720709 gene showed a higher frequency of the risk allele G in both groups (0.70 in the Group 1 and 0.68 in Group 2. Although the frequency of the risk allele A was higher than the frequency of the non-risk allele C of the SOD1:SFRS15 gene in both groups, the lowest probability value was observed in those gene SNPs (P = 0.05. We observed that the A allele of the SOD1:SFRS15 gene (rs17880135 was more frequently present in Group 1 (0.75 compared with Group 2 (0.62. Susceptibility to diabetes-associated nephropathy is partially mediated by genetic predisposition, and screening tests may open the gate for new therapeutic approaches.

  5. Acute oxalate nephropathy after ingestion of star fruit.

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    Chen, C L; Fang, H C; Chou, K J; Wang, J S; Chung, H M

    2001-02-01

    Acute oxalate nephropathy associated with ingestion of star fruit (carambola) has not been reported before. We report the first two cases. These patients developed nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and backache within hours of ingesting large quantities of sour carambola juice; then acute renal failure followed. Both patients needed hemodialysis for oliguric acute renal failure, and pathologic examinations showed typical changes of acute oxalate nephropathy. The renal function recovered 4 weeks later without specific treatment. Sour carambola juice is a popular beverage in Taiwan. The popularity of star fruit juice is not compatible with the rare discovery of star fruit-associated acute oxalate nephropathy. Commercial carambola juice usually is prepared by pickling and dilution processes that reduce oxalate content markedly, whereas pure fresh juice or mild diluted postpickled juice for traditional remedies, as used in our cases, contain high quantities of oxalate. An empty stomach and dehydrated state may pose an additional risk for development of renal injury. To avoid acute oxalate nephropathy, pure sour carambola juice or mild diluted postpickled juice should not be consumed in large amounts, especially on an empty stomach or in a dehydrated state.

  6. Predictors of Atrasentan-Associated Fluid Retention and Change in Albuminuria in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohan, Donald E; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; Coll, Blai

    2015-01-01

    . CONCLUSIONS: In the Reducing Residual Albuminuria in Subjects With Diabetes and Nephropathy With Atrasentan/JAPAN trials, atrasentan-associated fluid retention was more likely in patients with diabetes and nephropathy who had lower eGFR or received a higher dose of atrasentan. Finding that albuminuria......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Endothelin A receptor antagonists (ERAs) decrease residual albuminuria in patients with diabetic kidney disease; however, their clinical utility may be limited by fluid retention. Consequently, the primary objective of this study was to identify predictors for ERA......-induced fluid retention among patients with type 2 diabetes and CKD. A secondary objective was to determine if the degree of fluid retention necessarily correlated with the magnitude of albuminuria reduction in those patients receiving ERAs. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: A post hoc analysis...

  7. The Role of Autophagy in the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Nephropathy

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    Kosuke Yamahara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. The multipronged drug approach targeting blood pressure and serum levels of glucose, insulin, and lipids fails to fully prevent the onset and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, a new therapeutic target to combat diabetic nephropathy is required. Autophagy is a catabolic process that degrades damaged proteins and organelles in mammalian cells and plays a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. The accumulation of proteins and organelles damaged by hyperglycemia and other diabetes-related metabolic changes is highly associated with the development of diabetic nephropathy. Recent studies have suggested that autophagy activity is altered in both podocytes and proximal tubular cells under diabetic conditions. Autophagy activity is regulated by both nutrient state and intracellular stresses. Under diabetic conditions, an altered nutritional state due to nutrient excess may interfere with the autophagic response stimulated by intracellular stresses, leading to exacerbation of organelle dysfunction and diabetic nephropathy. In this review, we discuss new findings showing the relationships between autophagy and diabetic nephropathy and suggest the therapeutic potential of autophagy in diabetic nephropathy.

  8. Angiotensinogen gene polymorphisms in IDDM patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, L; Cambien, Francois; Rossing, P

    1996-01-01

    Genotypic abnormalities of the renin-ANG system have been suggested as a risk factor for the development of diabetic nephropathy. Cleavage of angiotensinogen is the rate-limiting step in the activation of the renin-ANG system. The TT genotype of a polymorphism encoding threonine instead of methio......Genotypic abnormalities of the renin-ANG system have been suggested as a risk factor for the development of diabetic nephropathy. Cleavage of angiotensinogen is the rate-limiting step in the activation of the renin-ANG system. The TT genotype of a polymorphism encoding threonine instead...... of methionine (M235T) has been associated not only with increased plasma angiotensinogen concentration but also with essential hypertension. In addition, a polymorphism in the angiotensinogen gene substituting methionine for threonine (T174M) has been associated with hypertension in nondiabetic populations. We...... studied the relationship between these polymorphisms in the angiotensinogen gene in IDDM patients with diabetic nephropathy (121 men, 74 women, age 40.9 +/- 10 years, diabetes duration 27 +/- 8 years). There was no difference in M235T genotype distribution between IDDM patients with diabetic nephropathy...

  9. Association of aldose reductase gene Z+2 polymorphism with reduced susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy in Caucasian Type 1 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajer, Mathilde; Tarnow, L; Fleckner, Jan

    2004-01-01

    AIMS: The Z-2 allele of the (AC)n polymorphism in the aldose reductase gene (ALR2) confers increased risk of microvascular diabetic complications, whereas the Z+2 allele has been proposed to be a marker of protection. However data are conflicting. Therefore, we investigated whether this polymorph......AIMS: The Z-2 allele of the (AC)n polymorphism in the aldose reductase gene (ALR2) confers increased risk of microvascular diabetic complications, whereas the Z+2 allele has been proposed to be a marker of protection. However data are conflicting. Therefore, we investigated whether...... this polymorphism is associated with diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy in Type 1 diabetes mellitus in a large case-control study and a family-based analysis. METHODS: A total of 431 Type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy and 468 patients with longstanding Type 1 diabetes and persistent...... of the ALR2 promoter polymorphism is associated with a reduced susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy in Danish Type 1 diabetic patients, suggesting a minor role for the polyol pathway in the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease. No association of the ALR2 polymorphism with diabetic retinopathy was found....

  10. Contrast-induced nephropathy after computed tomography

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    Luciano da Silva Selistre

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Contrast induced nephropathy is the third most prevalent preventable cause of acute kidney injury in hospitalized patients. It defined as an absolute increase in serum creatinine ≥ 0.5 mg/dL and relative ≥ 25% increase. Objective: We studied the risk factors to intravenous injection contrast nephropathy after computed tomography. Methods: We studied 400 patients prospectively. Results: The incidence of contrast induced nephropathy, with an absolute or a relative increase were 4.0% and 13.9%, respectively. Diabetes and cardiac failure were independent risk factors for CIN a relative increase de serum creatinine (O.R.: 3.5 [95% CI: 1.92-6.36], p < 0.01, 2.61 [95% CI: 1.14-6.03%], p < 0.05, respectively. Conclusions: We showed association between uses of intravenous injection contrast after computed tomography with acute injury renal, notably with diabetes and heart failure.

  11. The Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND): design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowler, William C; Coresh, Josef; Elston, Robert C; Freedman, Barry I; Iyengar, Sudha K; Kimmel, Paul L; Olson, Jane M; Plaetke, Rosemarie; Sedor, John R; Seldin, Michael F

    2005-01-01

    The Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND) is a multicenter study designed to identify genetic determinants of diabetic nephropathy. It is conducted in eight U.S. clinical centers and a coordinating center, and with four ethnic groups (European Americans, African Americans, Mexican Americans, and American Indians). Two strategies are used to localize susceptibility genes: a family-based linkage study and a case-control study using mapping by admixture linkage disequilibrium (MALD). In the family-based study, probands with diabetic nephropathy are recruited with their parents and selected siblings. Linkage analyses will be conducted to identify chromosomal regions containing genes that influence the development of diabetic nephropathy or related quantitative traits such as serum creatinine concentration, urinary albumin excretion, and plasma glucose concentrations. Regions showing evidence of linkage will be examined further with both genetic linkage and association studies to identify genes that influence diabetic nephropathy or related traits. Two types of MALD studies are being done. One is a case-control study of unrelated individuals of Mexican American heritage in which both cases and controls have diabetes, but only the case has nephropathy. The other is a case-control study of African American patients with nephropathy (cases) and their spouses (controls) unaffected by diabetes and nephropathy; offspring are genotyped when available to provide haplotype data. Identification of genes that influence susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy will lead to a better understanding of how nephropathy develops. This should eventually lead to improved treatment and prevention.

  12. Genetics of diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Tarnow, L; Rossing, P

    1996-01-01

    factor for cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients. However, a meta-analysis does not support the suggestion that this factor plays any role for the initiation of diabetic nephropathy. Similar negative results have been obtained in relation to polymorphisms of the genes encoding for angiotensinogen......Diabetic nephropathy is a clinical syndrome characterized by persistent albuminuria, a relentless decline in GFR, raised arterial blood pressure, and increased relative mortality for cardiovascular diseases. Diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end-stage renal failure. The pathogenesis...... of diabetic nephropathy is multifactorial, with contributions from metabolic abnormalities, hemodynamic alterations, and various growth factors and genetic factors. Epidemiologic and family studies have demonstrated that only a subset of the patients develop this complication that family clustering...

  13. Subclinical hypothyroidism and diabetic nephropathy in Iranian patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansournia, N; Riyahi, S; Tofangchiha, S; Mansournia, M A; Riahi, M; Heidari, Z; Hazrati, E

    2017-03-01

    Association of subclinical hypothyroidism with type 2 diabetes and its complications has been previously documented. These reports were, however, inconclusive and mainly gathered from Chinese and East Asian populations. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism and its relationship with diabetic nephropathy in Iranian individuals with type 2 diabetes, drawn from a white Middle Eastern population with an increasing prevalence of diabetes. In this cross-sectional study, 255 Iranian participants with type 2 diabetes and without history of thyroid disorders were included. Patients with TSH > 4.2 mIU/L and normal T4 were classified as having subclinical hypothyroidism. Diabetic nephropathy was diagnosed based on abnormal 24-h urinary albumin or protein measurements (24-h urinary albumin ≥30 mg/day or 24-h urinary protein ≥150 mg/day). Multivariate logistic regression was employed to obtain the OR for the relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and diabetic nephropathy. We found that subclinical hypothyroidism and diabetic nephropathy were as prevalent as 18.1 and 41.2 %, respectively, among the participants. We also found that subclinical hypothyroidism was independently associated with higher rates of diabetic nephropathy, after multivariable adjustment (OR [95 % CI] 3.23 [1.42-7.37], p = 0.005). We found that the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in Iranian diabetic population was among the highest rates reported to date. Our data supported the independent association of subclinical hypothyroidism with diabetic nephropathy, calling for further investigations to evaluate their longitudinal associations.

  14. Chronic nephropathies of cocaine and heroin abuse: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Jared A; Kimmel, Paul L

    2006-07-01

    Renal disease in cocaine and heroin users is associated with the nephrotic syndrome, acute glomerulonephritis, amyloidosis, interstitial nephritis, and rhabdomyolysis. The pathophysiologic basis of cocaine-related renal injury involves renal hemodynamic changes, glomerular matrix synthesis and degradation, and oxidative stress and induction of renal atherogenesis. Heroin is the most commonly abused opiate in the United States. Previous studies identified a spectrum of renal diseases in heroin users. The predominant renal lesion in black heroin users is focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and in white heroin users is membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Although the prevalence of heroin use in the United States has increased, the incidence of "heroin nephropathy" has declined. Because reports of heroin nephropathy predated the surveillance of hepatitis C virus and HIV, the varied findings might be related to the spectrum of viral illnesses that are encountered in injection drug users. Socioeconomic conditions, cultural and behavioral practices, or differences in genetic susceptibilities may be more associated with the development of nephropathy in heroin users than the drug's pharmacologic properties. Administration of cocaine in animal models results in nonspecific glomerular, interstitial, and tubular cell lesions, but there is no animal model of heroin-associated renal disease. The heterogeneity of responses that are associated with heroin is not consistent with a single or simple notion of nephropathogenesis. There are no well-designed, prospective, epidemiologic studies to assess the incidence and the prevalence of renal disease in populations of opiate users and to establish the validity of a syndrome such as heroin nephropathy. It is concluded although there is a paucity of evidence to support a heroin-associated nephropathy, the evidence from in vitro cellular and animal studies to support the existence of cocaine-induced renal changes is more convincing.

  15. Diabetic nephropathy : pathology, genetics and carnosine metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooyaart, Antien Leonora

    2011-01-01

    My thesis concerns different aspects of diabetic nephropathy. A pathologic classification of diabetic nephropathy is developed, a meta-analyis of genes in diabetic nephropathy is developed and the other chapters are about the CNDP1 gene in relation to kidney disease, mainly diabetic nephropathy.

  16. Endemic Nephropathy Around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Fiona J; Gifford, Robert M; Eddleston, Michael; Dhaun, Neeraj

    2017-03-01

    There have been several global epidemics of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKD u ). Some, such as Itai-Itai disease in Japan and Balkan endemic nephropathy, have been explained, whereas the etiology of others remains unclear. In countries such as Sri Lanka, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and India, CKD u is a major public health problem and causes significant morbidity and mortality. Despite their geographical separation, however, there are striking similarities between these endemic nephropathies. Young male agricultural workers who perform strenuous labor in extreme conditions are the worst affected. Patients remain asymptomatic until end-stage renal failure. Biomarkers of tubular injury are raised, and kidney biopsy shows chronic interstitial nephritis with associated tubular atrophy. In many of these places access to dialysis and transplantation is limited, leaving few treatment options. In this review we briefly describe the major historic endemic nephropathies. We then summarize the epidemiology, clinical features, histology and clinical course of CKD u in Mesoamerica, Sri Lanka, India, Egypt, and Tunisia. We draw comparisons between the proposed etiologies and supporting research. Recognition of the similarities may reinforce the international drive to establish causality and to effect prevention.

  17. Endemic Nephropathy Around the World

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    Fiona J. Gifford

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been several global epidemics of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu. Some, such as Itai-Itai disease in Japan and Balkan endemic nephropathy, have been explained, whereas the etiology of others remains unclear. In countries such as Sri Lanka, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and India, CKDu is a major public health problem and causes significant morbidity and mortality. Despite their geographical separation, however, there are striking similarities between these endemic nephropathies. Young male agricultural workers who perform strenuous labor in extreme conditions are the worst affected. Patients remain asymptomatic until end-stage renal failure. Biomarkers of tubular injury are raised, and kidney biopsy shows chronic interstitial nephritis with associated tubular atrophy. In many of these places access to dialysis and transplantation is limited, leaving few treatment options. In this review we briefly describe the major historic endemic nephropathies. We then summarize the epidemiology, clinical features, histology and clinical course of CKDu in Mesoamerica, Sri Lanka, India, Egypt, and Tunisia. We draw comparisons between the proposed etiologies and supporting research. Recognition of the similarities may reinforce the international drive to establish causality and to effect prevention.

  18. Association of glycated albumin to HbA1c ratio with diabetic retinopathy but not diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umayahara, Yutaka; Fujita, Yohei; Watanabe, Hirotaka; Kasai, Noriko; Fujiki, Noritaka; Hatazaki, Masahiro; Koga, Masafumi

    2017-04-01

    The ratio of glycated albumin to HbA1c (GA/HbA1c ratio) is a known indicator that reflects fluctuations in plasma glucose. In this study, the association of the GA/HbA1c ratio to diabetic nephropathy and diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes was investigated. Among patients with type 2 diabetes, 613 patients (364 males and 249 females, aged 63.2±12.5, body mass index (BMI) 25.4±4.8kg/m 2 ) were enrolled. Patients with overt proteinuria, reduced renal function, or anemia were excluded. In a comparison between patients with and without diabetic nephropathy, significance was observed in insulin therapy, HbA1c, and GA. In addition, in a comparison between patients with and without diabetic retinopathy, the GA/HbA1c ratio along with insulin therapy, HbA1c, and GA showed significant differences. When the GA/HbA1c ratios were divided into three groups and compared, the rates of diabetic nephropathy did not show any significance, while the rate of diabetic retinopathy increased significantly as the GA/HbA1c ratio increased. In multivariable analyses, while insulin therapy and BMI were the significant independent variables for diabetic nephropathy, insulin therapy and the GA/HbA1c ratios were the significant independent variable for diabetic retinopathy. The GA/HbA1c ratio was associated with diabetic retinopathy, but not with diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. These results suggest that the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy is associated with plasma glucose fluctuations. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. GENETICS ASPECTS OF DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY

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    Oana-Elena Sauca

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy is a clinical syndrome characterized by persistent albuminuria, a relentless decline in GFR, raised arterial blood pressure, and increased relative mortality for cardiovascular diseases. The pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy is multifactorial, with contributions from metabolic abnormalities, hemodynamic alteration, and various growth and genetic factors. The identification of the main genes would allow the detection of those individuals at high risk for diabetic nephropathy and better understanding of its pathophysiologyas well.The present review discusses the main information available in literature regarding some genetic variants (involved in the renin-angiotensin system, glucose and lipid metabolism and some cytoskeleton proteins that reaffirms the importance of genetic factors in diabetic nephropathy.

  20. Association of renin-angiotensin system genes polymorphism with progression of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

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    Ilić Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Diabetic nephropathy (DN as a major microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus (DM include a progressive increase in urinary albumin excretion in association with an increase in blood pressure and to end stage renal failure. Hypertension connected with renin-angiotensin system (RAS hyperactivity and corresponding genotypes, angiotensinogen (AGT, angiotensine-converting enzyme (ACE and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R, predispose the increasing risk of DN. The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of AGT, ACE and AT1R gene polymorphisms in patients with type 1 DM according to the level of DN and patients clinical characteristics. Methods. The study included 79 type 1 diabetic patients. Inclusion criteria were: age between 20-40, duration of diabetes > 5 years, and no other severe diseases. Clinical characteristics were gained from interviewing the patients. Polymorphism was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism using restriction enzymes Psy I (Tth 111 I and Hae III. Results. The patients with proteinuria compared with normo- and microalbuminuric patients, highly differed in age, diabetes duration, blood pressure level, hypertension, rethynopathy and urinary albumin excretion values (p < 0.001. No statistically significant difference between the groups was found for the ACE and AT1R gene polymorphisms distribution. The presence of TT genotype of the M235T polymorphism was significantly higher in the group with proteinuria (p < 0.05. The patients with hypertension raised nephropathy 5.2 times higher (OR = 5.20, p < 0.05 while carriers of TT allel developed nephropathy 28.38 times higher (OR = 28.389, p < 0.01 than those with MM genotype. Conclusion. Increased association of hypertension and TT angiotensinogen gene polymorphism in patients with diabetes mellitus with proteinuria could be a significant marker of diabetic nephropathy.

  1. Silica Nephropathy

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    N Ghahramani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to heavy metals, organic solvents and silica is associated with a variety of renal manifestations. Improved understanding of occupational renal disease provides insight into environmental renal disease, improving knowledge of disease pathogenesis. Silica (SiO2 is an abundant mineral found in sand, rock, and soil. Workers exposed to silica include sandblasters, miners, quarry workers, masons, ceramic workers and glass manufacturers. New cases of silicosis per year have been estimated in the US to be 3600–7300. Exposure to silica has been associated with tubulointerstitial disease, immune-mediated multisystem disease, chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. A rare syndrome of painful, nodular skin lesions has been described in dialysis patients with excessive levels of silicon. Balkan endemic nephropathy is postulated to be due to chronic intoxication with drinking water polluted by silicates released during soil erosion. The mechanism of silica nephrotoxicity is thought to be through direct nephrotoxicity, as well as silica-induced autoimmune diseases such as scleroderma and systemic lupus erythematosus. The renal histopathology varies from focal to crescentic and necrotizing glomerulonephritis with aneurysm formation suggestive of polyarteritis nodosa. The treatment for silica nephrotoxicity is non-specific and depends on the mechanism and stage of the disease. It is quite clear that further research is needed, particularly to elucidate the pathogenesis of silica nephropathy. Considering the importance of diagnosing exposure-related renal disease at early stages, it is imperative to obtain a thorough occupational history in all patients with renal disease, with particular emphasis on exposure to silica, heavy metals, and solvents.

  2. The CNDP1 (CTG)(5) Polymorphism Is Associated with Biopsy-Proven Diabetic Nephropathy, Time on Hemodialysis, and Diabetes Duration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, Thomas; Zhang, Shiqi; Braun, Jana D.; Xia, Zuo Li; Rodriquez, Angelica; Qiu, Jiedong; Peters, Verena; Schmitt, Claus P.; van den Born, Jacob; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Lammert, Alexander; Koeppel, Hannes; Schnuelle, Peter; Kraemer, Bernhard K.; Yard, Benito A.; Hauske, Sibylle J.

    2017-01-01

    Considering that the homozygous CNDP1 (CTG)(5) genotype affords protection against diabetic nephropathy (DN) in female patients with type 2 diabetes, this study assessed if this association remains gender-specific when applying clinical inclusion criteria (CIC-DN) or biopsy proof (BP-DN).

  3. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Is not Related to the Incidence of Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetes

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    Chun-Shan Bi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and the incidence of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes, the incidence of diabetic nephropathy was assessed in 413 type 2 diabetic patients, by testing the 24 h urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER. The NAFLD was diagnosed based on patient’s medical history and liver ultrasound. The difference in diabetic nephropathy incidence between patients with and without NAFLD was tested by χ2. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the factors associated with diabetic nephropathy among type 2 diabetic patients. Total 363 out of 413 type 2 diabetic patients were enrolled in this study. The incidences of NAFLD and diabetic nephropathy in participants were approximately 56% (202/363 and 38% (137/363 respectively, and there was no significant difference in the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy between patients with and without NAFLD (37.1% vs. 38.5%, p = 0.787. The duration of diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 1.065, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.014–1.120, p = 0.012, waist circumference (OR 1.077, 95% CI 1.040–1.116, p = 0.000, and fasting blood glucose (FBG; OR 1.136, 95% CI 1.023–1.1262, p = 0.017 were significantly associated with diabetic nephropathy, whereas sex, high blood pressure, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, and ankle brachial pressure index (ABI were not significantly associated with the disorder. The present results suggest that NAFLD is not related to the incidence of diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes, but the duration of diabetes, waist circumference, and FBG are important factors for diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes.

  4. Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin and Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 1 Diabetic Patients in a Four-Year Follow-Up Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Elkjaer; Hansen, Henrik Post; Jensen, Berit Ruud

    2010-01-01

    Background: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), a marker of renal tubular damage, predicts progression in non-diabetic chronic kidney. We evaluated urinary (u)-NGAL as a predictor of progression in diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients. Methods: As a substudy of a 4......-year randomized, intervention study evaluating low-protein diet in T1D patients with diabetic nephropathy, 78 patients were studied with yearly measurements of u-NGAL (ELISA, BioPorto). Outcome: Decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ((51)Cr-EDTA), and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or death...

  5. The influence of a single nucleotide polymorphism within CNDP1 on susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy in Japanese women with type 2 diabetes.

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    Mahiro Kurashige

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several linkage analyses have mapped a susceptibility locus for diabetic nephropathy to chromosome 18q22-23, and polymorphisms within the carnosine dipeptidase 1 gene (CNDP1, located on 18q22.3, have been shown to be associated with diabetic nephropathy in European subjects with type 2 diabetes. However, the association of this locus with diabetic nephropathy has not been evaluated in the Japanese population. In this study, we examined the association of polymorphisms within the CNDP1/CNDP 2 locus with diabetic nephropathy in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We genotyped a leucine repeat polymorphism (D18S880 that is within CNDP1 along with 29 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the CNDP1/CNDP2 locus for 2,740 Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes (1,205 nephropathy cases with overt nephropathy or with end-stage renal disease [ESRD], and 1,535 controls with normoalbuminuria. The association of each polymorphism with diabetic nephropathy was analysed by performing logistic regression analysis. We did not observe any association between D18S880 and diabetic nephropathy in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes. None of the 29 SNPs within the CNDP1/CNDP2 locus were associated with diabetic nephropathy, but a subsequent sex-stratified analysis revealed that 1 SNP in CNDP1 was nominally associated with diabetic nephropathy in women (rs12604675-A; p = 0.005, odds ratio [OR] = 1.76, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-2.61. Rs12604675 was associated with overt proteinuria (p = 0.002, OR = 2.18, 95% CI, 1.32-3.60, but not with ESRD in Japanese women with type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Rs12604675-A in CNDP1 may confer susceptibility to overt proteinuria in Japanese women with type 2 diabetes.

  6. The V16A polymorphism in SOD2 is associated with increased risk of diabetic nephropathy and cardiovascular disease in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllsten, A; Jorsal, Anders; Lajer, Maria Stenkil

    2009-01-01

    on the development of cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Type 1 diabetes patients attending the Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark, between 1993 and 2001 were enrolled in this study. A total of 441 cases with diabetic nephropathy (albumin excretion > or =300 mg/24 h) and 314 controls with persistent....... The hazard ratio was 1.6 (95% CI 1.0-2.5). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The MnSOD V16A polymorphism is involved in the development of nephropathy caused by type 1 diabetes and seems to predict cardiovascular disease during follow-up....... affects the localisation of MnSOD and therefore its ability to scavenge superoxide radicals. In a Danish cohort of type 1 diabetes patients, we sought to confirm previous findings of association between the V allele and the risk of diabetic nephropathy and to investigate the influence of this polymorphism...

  7. Sodium bicarbonate-based hydration prevents contrast-induced nephropathy: a meta-analysis

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    Tamhane Umesh

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contrast-induced nephropathy is the leading cause of in-hospital acute renal failure. This side effect of contrast agents leads to increased morbidity, mortality, and health costs. Ensuring adequate hydration prior to contrast exposure is highly effective at preventing this complication, although the optimal hydration strategy to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy still remains an unresolved issue. Former meta-analyses and several recent studies have shown conflicting results regarding the protective effect of sodium bicarbonate. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of normal saline versus sodium bicarbonate for prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy. Methods The study searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane databases, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts database, ISI Web of Science (until 15 December 2008, and conference proceedings for randomized controlled trials that compared normal saline with sodium bicarbonate-based hydration regimen regarding contrast-induced nephropathy. Random-effects models were used to calculate summary odds ratios. Results A total of 17 trials including 2,633 subjects were pooled. Pre-procedural hydration with sodium bicarbonate was associated with a significant decrease in the rate of contrast-induced nephropathy (odds ratios 0.52; 95% confidence interval 0.34–0.80, P = 0.003. Number needed to treat to prevent one case of contrast-induced nephropathy was 16 (95% confidence interval 10–34. No significant differences in the rates of post-procedure hemodialysis (P = 0.20 or death (P = 0.53 was observed. Conclusion Sodium bicarbonate-based hydration was found to be superior to normal saline in prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in this updated meta-analysis.

  8. HIV- and AIDS-associated cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Ellen R

    2013-04-01

    One of the most significant world epidemics in history, HIV/AIDS, has been a research priority since its discovery in 1981. This review article provides an update on HIV/AIDS, with a specific focus on the diagnosis and care of patients with HIV- and AIDS-associated cancers.

  9. Lack of serologic evidence to link IgA nephropathy with celiac disease or immune reactivity to gluten.

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    Sina Moeller

    Full Text Available IgA nephropathy is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis worldwide. Mucosal infections and food antigens, including wheat gluten, have been proposed as potential contributing environmental factors. Increased immune reactivity to gluten and/or association with celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder triggered by ingestion of gluten, have been reported in IgA nephropathy. However, studies are inconsistent about this association. We aimed to evaluate the proposed link between IgA nephropathy and celiac disease or immune reactivity to gluten by conducting a comprehensive analysis of associated serologic markers in cohorts of well-characterized patients and controls. Study participants included patients with biopsy-proven IgA nephropathy (n = 99, unaffected controls of similar age, gender, and race (n = 96, and patients with biopsy-proven celiac disease (n = 30. All serum specimens were tested for IgG and IgA antibodies to native gliadin and deamidated gliadin, as well as IgA antibody to transglutaminase 2 (TG2. Anti-TG2 antibody-positive nephropathy patients and unaffected controls were subsequently tested for IgA anti-endomysial antibody and genotyped for celiac disease-associated HLA-DQ2 and -DQ8 alleles. In comparison to unaffected controls, there was not a statistically significant increase in IgA or IgG antibody reactivity to gliadin in individuals with IgA nephropathy. In addition, the levels of celiac disease-specific serologic markers, i.e., antibodies to deamidated gliadin and TG2, did not differ between IgA nephropathy patients and unaffected controls. Results of the additional anti-endomysial antibody testing and HLA genotyping were corroborative. The data from this case-control study do not reveal any evidence to suggest a significant role for celiac disease or immune reactivity to gluten in IgA nephropathy.

  10. Lack of serologic evidence to link IgA nephropathy with celiac disease or immune reactivity to gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Sina; Canetta, Pietro A; Taylor, Annette K; Arguelles-Grande, Carolina; Snyder, Holly; Green, Peter H; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Alaedini, Armin

    2014-01-01

    IgA nephropathy is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis worldwide. Mucosal infections and food antigens, including wheat gluten, have been proposed as potential contributing environmental factors. Increased immune reactivity to gluten and/or association with celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder triggered by ingestion of gluten, have been reported in IgA nephropathy. However, studies are inconsistent about this association. We aimed to evaluate the proposed link between IgA nephropathy and celiac disease or immune reactivity to gluten by conducting a comprehensive analysis of associated serologic markers in cohorts of well-characterized patients and controls. Study participants included patients with biopsy-proven IgA nephropathy (n = 99), unaffected controls of similar age, gender, and race (n = 96), and patients with biopsy-proven celiac disease (n = 30). All serum specimens were tested for IgG and IgA antibodies to native gliadin and deamidated gliadin, as well as IgA antibody to transglutaminase 2 (TG2). Anti-TG2 antibody-positive nephropathy patients and unaffected controls were subsequently tested for IgA anti-endomysial antibody and genotyped for celiac disease-associated HLA-DQ2 and -DQ8 alleles. In comparison to unaffected controls, there was not a statistically significant increase in IgA or IgG antibody reactivity to gliadin in individuals with IgA nephropathy. In addition, the levels of celiac disease-specific serologic markers, i.e., antibodies to deamidated gliadin and TG2, did not differ between IgA nephropathy patients and unaffected controls. Results of the additional anti-endomysial antibody testing and HLA genotyping were corroborative. The data from this case-control study do not reveal any evidence to suggest a significant role for celiac disease or immune reactivity to gluten in IgA nephropathy.

  11. Clustering of risk factors in parents of patients with type 1 diabetes and nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Lena M; Forsblom, Carol; Fagerudd, Johan; Pettersson-Fernholm, Kim; Kilpikari, Riika; Groop, Per-Henrik

    2007-05-01

    To assess the impact of parental risk factors for diabetic nephropathy. This cross-sectional study included 2,355 type 1 diabetic patients from the FinnDiane (Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy) study. Diabetic nephropathy was defined as macroalbuminuria (urinary albumin excretion rate >200 microg/min or >300 mg/24 h) or end-stage renal disease. Information was available from 4,676 parents. Parental scores were calculated based on the number of various traits in the parents. Patients with diabetic nephropathy, compared with those without diabetic nephropathy, had a higher prevalence of maternal (41 vs. 35%, P = 0.046) and parental (62 vs. 55%, P = 0.044) hypertension, maternal stroke (7.6 vs. 5.1%, P = 0.044), and maternal (1.4 vs. 0.7%, P = 0.058) and parental (4.3 vs. 2.9%, P = 0.030) type 1 diabetes. If both, compared with none, of the parents had hypertension, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for diabetic nephropathy in offspring was 1.56 (95% CI 1.13-2.15). The adjusted OR for diabetic nephropathy was 2.13 (1.36-3.33) for the parental hypertension-diabetes score (3-4 vs. 0 points) and 2.13 (1.37-3.33) for the parental hypertension-cardiovascular disease (CVD)-diabetes score (4-6 vs. 0 points). Fathers of patients with diabetic nephropathy, compared with those without diabetic nephropathy, had reduced overall survival (log-rank P = 0.04) and reduced cardiovascular survival (log-rank P = 0.03). A cluster of parental hypertension, CVD, and diabetes is associated with diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes, as is paternal mortality.

  12. Mice deficient in PAPP-A show resistance to the development of diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Jessica R; Resch, Zachary T; McLean, Gary R; Mikkelsen, Jakob H; Oxvig, Claus; Marler, Ronald J; Conover, Cheryl A

    2013-10-01

    We investigated pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) in diabetic nephropathy. Normal human kidney showed specific staining for PAPP-A in glomeruli, and this staining was markedly increased in diabetic kidney. To assess the possible contribution of PAPP-A in the development of diabetic nephropathy, we induced diabetes with streptozotocin in 14-month-old WT and Papp-A knockout (KO) mice. Renal histopathology was evaluated after 4 months of stable hyperglycemia. Kidneys from diabetic WT mice showed multiple abnormalities including thickening of Bowman's capsule (100% of mice), increased glomerular size (80% of mice), tubule dilation (80% of mice), and mononuclear cell infiltration (90% of mice). Kidneys of age-matched non-diabetic WT mice had similar evidence of tubule dilation and mononuclear cell infiltration to those of diabetic WT mice, indicating that these changes were predominantly age-related. However, thickened Bowman's capsule and increased glomerular size appeared specific for the experimental diabetes. Kidneys from diabetic Papp-A KO mice had significantly reduced or no evidence of changes in Bowman's capsule thickening and glomerular size. There was also a shift to larger mesangial area and increased macrophage staining in diabetic WT mice compared with Papp-A KO mice. In summary, elevated PAPP-A expression in glomeruli is associated with diabetic nephropathy in humans and absence of PAPP-A is associated with resistance to the development of indicators of diabetic nephropathy in mice. These data suggest PAPP-A as a potential therapeutic target for diabetic nephropathy.

  13. Sonographic findings in Gouty Nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Young; Jeon, Woo Ki; Kim, Ho Kyun; Kim, Yong Soo; Han, Chang Yul; Kim, Young Tong; Han, Sung Tag; Lee, Yoon Woo

    1994-01-01

    Ultrasound(US) findings of hyperechoic renal medulla in gouty nephropathy were compared with clinical features such as serum uric acid level to evaluate its usefulness in determination of the treatment and prognosis. A retrospective review of US of 36 cases of qouty arthritis was classified into four groups according to the medullary echogenicity (O :normal, grade I: renal medulla as isoechoic as renal cortex, grade II; heterogeneous increased echogenicity of renal medulla than that of renal cortex, grade III: the echogenicity of all renal medulla higher than that of renal cortex with renal contour deformity) which were compared with the serum urate level and associated conditions. Nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis were analyzed through the KUB and the RGB. The degree of hyperechoic renal medulla was related to the level of serum uric acid, and in group IV, six cases of obstructive uropathy (nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis) showed deformed renal contour. Associated conditions such as hypertension, alcoholism, diabetes mellitus and drug abuse were distributed in relation to the degree of hyperechoic renal medullas. US findings of hyperechoic renal mebulla was related with uric acid level in gouty nephropathy and thus could be valuable for treatment decision and prediction of prognosis

  14. Sonographic findings in Gouty Nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young; Jeon, Woo Ki; Kim, Ho Kyun; Kim, Yong Soo; Han, Chang Yul; Kim, Young Tong; Han, Sung Tag; Lee, Yoon Woo [Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-09-15

    Ultrasound(US) findings of hyperechoic renal medulla in gouty nephropathy were compared with clinical features such as serum uric acid level to evaluate its usefulness in determination of the treatment and prognosis. A retrospective review of US of 36 cases of qouty arthritis was classified into four groups according to the medullary echogenicity (O :normal, grade I: renal medulla as isoechoic as renal cortex, grade II; heterogeneous increased echogenicity of renal medulla than that of renal cortex, grade III: the echogenicity of all renal medulla higher than that of renal cortex with renal contour deformity) which were compared with the serum urate level and associated conditions. Nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis were analyzed through the KUB and the RGB. The degree of hyperechoic renal medulla was related to the level of serum uric acid, and in group IV, six cases of obstructive uropathy (nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis) showed deformed renal contour. Associated conditions such as hypertension, alcoholism, diabetes mellitus and drug abuse were distributed in relation to the degree of hyperechoic renal medullas. US findings of hyperechoic renal mebulla was related with uric acid level in gouty nephropathy and thus could be valuable for treatment decision and prediction of prognosis.

  15. Focal glomerulosclerosis in proviral and c-fms transgenic mice links Vpr expression to HIV-associated nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickie, Peter; Roberts, Amanda; Uwiera, Richard; Witmer, Jennifer; Sharma, Kirti; Kopp, Jeffrey B.

    2004-01-01

    Clinical and morphologic features of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), such as proteinuria, sclerosing glomerulopathy, tubular degeneration, and interstitial disease, have been modeled in mice bearing an HIV proviral transgene rendered noninfectious through a deletion in gag/pol. Exploring the genetic basis of HIVAN, HIV transgenic mice bearing mutations in either or both of the accessory genes nef and vpr were created. Proteinuria and focal glomerulosclerosis (FGS) only developed in mice with an intact vpr gene. Transgenic mice bearing a simplified proviral DNA (encoding only Tat and Vpr) developed renal disease characterized by FGS in which Vpr protein was localized to glomerular and tubular epithelia by immunohistochemistry. The dual transgenic progeny of HIV[Tat/Vpr] mice bred to HIV[ΔVpr] proviral transgenic mice displayed a more severe nephropathy with no apparent increase in Vpr expression, implying that multiple viral genes contribute to HIVAN. However, the unique contribution of macrophage-specific Vpr expression in the development of glomerular disease was underscored by the induction of FGS in multiple murine lines bearing a c-fms/vpr transgene

  16. Clinicopathological analysis of biopsy-proven diabetic nephropathy based on the Japanese classification of diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuichi, Kengo; Shimizu, Miho; Yuzawa, Yukio; Hara, Akinori; Toyama, Tadashi; Kitamura, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Yoshiki; Sato, Hiroshi; Uesugi, Noriko; Ubara, Yoshifumi; Hohino, Junichi; Hisano, Satoshi; Ueda, Yoshihiko; Nishi, Shinichi; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Nishino, Tomoya; Kohagura, Kentaro; Ogawa, Daisuke; Mise, Koki; Shibagaki, Yugo; Makino, Hirofumi; Matsuo, Seiichi; Wada, Takashi

    2018-06-01

    The Japanese classification of diabetic nephropathy reflects the risks of mortality, cardiovascular events and kidney prognosis and is clinically useful. Furthermore, pathological findings of diabetic nephropathy are useful for predicting prognoses. In this study, we evaluated the characteristics of pathological findings in relation to the Japanese classification of diabetic nephropathy and their ability to predict prognosis. The clinical data of 600 biopsy-confirmed diabetic nephropathy patients were collected retrospectively from 13 centers across Japan. Composite kidney events, kidney death, cardiovascular events, all-cause mortality, and decreasing rate of estimated GFR (eGFR) were evaluated based on the Japanese classification of diabetic nephropathy. The median observation period was 70.4 (IQR 20.9-101.0) months. Each stage had specific characteristic pathological findings. Diffuse lesions, interstitial fibrosis and/or tubular atrophy (IFTA), interstitial cell infiltration, arteriolar hyalinosis, and intimal thickening were detected in more than half the cases, even in Stage 1. An analysis of the impacts on outcomes in all data showed that hazard ratios of diffuse lesions, widening of the subendothelial space, exudative lesions, mesangiolysis, IFTA, and interstitial cell infiltration were 2.7, 2.8, 2.7, 2.6, 3.5, and 3.7, respectively. Median declining speed of eGFR in all cases was 5.61 mL/min/1.73 m 2 /year, and the median rate of declining kidney function within 2 years after kidney biopsy was 24.0%. This study indicated that pathological findings could categorize the high-risk group as well as the Japanese classification of diabetic nephropathy. Further study using biopsy specimens is required to clarify the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease.

  17. Study on Association of Pentraxin 3 and Diabetic Nephropathy in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehai Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a serious microvascular complication of diabetes. Compared with other therapies for diabetic patients, islet transplantation can effectively prevent and reverse diabetes-induced microvascular disease, such as diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy. PTX3 is the only long pentraxin that can be detected in renal tissue. In this study, we investigated the expression of PTX3 when early DN was reversed after islet transplantation. Methods. Diabetes was induced in rats by injecting streptozotocin (STZ. Twelve weeks later, the diabetic rats were divided into 2 groups: the islet transplantation group (IT and the diabetic nephropathy group (DN. Renal injury, renal function, and the expression of PTX3 in the plasma and the kidneys were assessed with urinalysis, immunohistochemical staining, and Western blot, respectively. Results. The expression of PTX3 in the kidney was significantly decreased in the DN group but increased in the IT group because of the reversal of DN. Conclusions. Our data showed that the level of PTX3 in renal tissue is closely related to renal injury in DN. This may be used to quantify the extent of renal injury in DN, provide a potential early indicator of renal tubular injury in early DN patients, and assess DN clinical progression.

  18. All That Glitters Yellow Is Not Gold: Presentation and Pathophysiology of Bile Cast Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitlick, Mitchell; Rastogi, Prerna

    2017-10-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) often manifests in patients with liver disease because of a prerenal cause and presents as acute tubular necrosis or hepatorenal syndrome. Distinguishing between these entities is important for prognosis and treatment. Some patients may develop AKI related to their underlying liver disease: for example, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis or IgA nephropathy. Bile cast nephropathy is an often ignored differential diagnosis of AKI in the setting of obstructive jaundice. It is characterized by the presence of bile casts in renal tubules, which can possibly cause tubular injury through obstructive and direct toxic effects. Thus, AKI in patients with liver disease may have a structural component in addition to a functional one. In this study, we describe 2 patients with severe hyperbilirubinemia who developed AKI and underwent a kidney biopsy that revealed bile casts in tubular lumens, consistent with bile cast nephropathy. One patient was treated aggressively for alcoholic hepatitis and required hemodialysis for AKI. The second patient was treated conservatively for drug-induced liver injury and did not require dialysis. Both patients saw a reduction in their bilirubin and creatinine toward baseline. Bile cast nephropathy is an important pathological entity that may account for the renal dysfunction in some patients with liver disease. It requires kidney biopsy for diagnosis and may often be overlooked given the scarcity of kidney biopsy in this particular clinical setting. The etiology is multifactorial, and it is often difficult to predict without the aid of a renal biopsy.

  19. Early diagnostic predictors: useful in treatment and progression of diabetes associated nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawab, S.N.; Shahid, S.M.; Azhar, A.; Ahmed, N.

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the major complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) characterized by frequent microalbuminuria, elevated arterial blood pressure, persistent decline in glomerular filtration rate and high risk of morbidity and mortality. It encompasses long-term duration of diabetes, which has an effect on the minute blood vessels of kidney. The biochemical parameters play a key role in the prediction of nephropathy in T2DM patients. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the role of biochemical markers in the prediction of DN in T2DM patients. The aim of this study was addressed in case-control setting, 230 T2DM, 200 DN patients and 110 non diabetic healthy individuals were included in order to assess the biochemical parameters and risk of DN. Patients were recruited according to WHO's criteria from various hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. After getting informed consent from patients and control subjects, clinical data was recorded. Five hundred and forty (n=540) samples were studied for their serum blood glucose, blood pressure, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAlc), serum creatinine, serum urea, lipid profile and urinary albumin levels. The analysis showed that incidence and the progression of the DN increased with hyperglycemia, longer duration of diabetes, dyslipidemia, elevated level of serum urea, creatinine and urinary albumin levels in patients with T2DM. Therefore, these biochemical predictors can anticipate the occurrence of nephropathy in later stages of diabetes. (author)

  20. Early diagnostic predictors: useful in treatment and progression of diabetes associated nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawab, S. N.; Shahid, S. M.; Azhar, A. [University of Karachi, Karachi (Pakistan). Dept. of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering; Ahmed, N. [University of Karachi, Karachi (Pakistan). Dept. of Biochemistry

    2013-06-15

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the major complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) characterized by frequent microalbuminuria, elevated arterial blood pressure, persistent decline in glomerular filtration rate and high risk of morbidity and mortality. It encompasses long-term duration of diabetes, which has an effect on the minute blood vessels of kidney. The biochemical parameters play a key role in the prediction of nephropathy in T2DM patients. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the role of biochemical markers in the prediction of DN in T2DM patients. The aim of this study was addressed in case-control setting, 230 T2DM, 200 DN patients and 110 non diabetic healthy individuals were included in order to assess the biochemical parameters and risk of DN. Patients were recruited according to WHO's criteria from various hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. After getting informed consent from patients and control subjects, clinical data was recorded. Five hundred and forty (n=540) samples were studied for their serum blood glucose, blood pressure, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAlc), serum creatinine, serum urea, lipid profile and urinary albumin levels. The analysis showed that incidence and the progression of the DN increased with hyperglycemia, longer duration of diabetes, dyslipidemia, elevated level of serum urea, creatinine and urinary albumin levels in patients with T2DM. Therefore, these biochemical predictors can anticipate the occurrence of nephropathy in later stages of diabetes. (author)

  1. Urinary uromodulin excretion predicts progression of chronic kidney disease resulting from IgA nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Uromodulin, or Tamm-Horsfall protein, is the most abundant urinary protein in healthy individuals. Recent studies have suggested that uromodulin may play a role in chronic kidney diseases. We examined an IgA nephropathy cohort to determine whether uromodulin plays a role in the progression of IgA nephropathy. METHODS: A total of 344 IgA nephropathy patients were involved in this study. Morphological changes were evaluated with the Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA measured the urinary uromodulin level on the renal biopsy day. Follow up was done regularly on 185 patients. Time-average blood pressure, time-average proteinuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and eGFR decline rate were caculated. Association between the urinary uromodulin level and the eGFR decline rate was analyzed with SPSS 13.0. RESULTS: We found that lower baseline urinary uromodulin levels (P = 0.03 and higher time-average proteinuria (P = 0.04 were risk factors for rapid eGFR decline in a follow-up subgroup of the IgA nephropathy cohort. Urinary uromodulin level was correlated with tubulointerstitial lesions (P = 0.016. Patients that had more tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis on the surface had lower urinary uromodulin levels (P = 0.02. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary uromodulin level is associated with interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy and contributes to eGFR decline in IgA nephropathy.

  2. Genome-Wide Association and Trans-ethnic Meta-Analysis for Advanced Diabetic Kidney Disease: Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha K Iyengar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic kidney disease (DKD is the most common etiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD in the industrialized world and accounts for much of the excess mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. Approximately 45% of U.S. patients with incident end-stage kidney disease (ESKD have DKD. Independent of glycemic control, DKD aggregates in families and has higher incidence rates in African, Mexican, and American Indian ancestral groups relative to European populations. The Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS contrasting 6,197 unrelated individuals with advanced DKD with healthy and diabetic individuals lacking nephropathy of European American, African American, Mexican American, or American Indian ancestry. A large-scale replication and trans-ethnic meta-analysis included 7,539 additional European American, African American and American Indian DKD cases and non-nephropathy controls. Within ethnic group meta-analysis of discovery GWAS and replication set results identified genome-wide significant evidence for association between DKD and rs12523822 on chromosome 6q25.2 in American Indians (P = 5.74x10-9. The strongest signal of association in the trans-ethnic meta-analysis was with a SNP in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs12523822 (rs955333; P = 1.31x10-8, with directionally consistent results across ethnic groups. These 6q25.2 SNPs are located between the SCAF8 and CNKSR3 genes, a region with DKD relevant changes in gene expression and an eQTL with IPCEF1, a gene co-translated with CNKSR3. Several other SNPs demonstrated suggestive evidence of association with DKD, within and across populations. These data identify a novel DKD susceptibility locus with consistent directions of effect across diverse ancestral groups and provide insight into the genetic architecture of DKD.

  3. Genome-Wide Association and Trans-ethnic Meta-Analysis for Advanced Diabetic Kidney Disease: Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Sudha K; Sedor, John R; Freedman, Barry I; Kao, W H Linda; Kretzler, Matthias; Keller, Benjamin J; Abboud, Hanna E; Adler, Sharon G; Best, Lyle G; Bowden, Donald W; Burlock, Allison; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Cole, Shelley A; Comeau, Mary E; Curtis, Jeffrey M; Divers, Jasmin; Drechsler, Christiane; Duggirala, Ravi; Elston, Robert C; Guo, Xiuqing; Huang, Huateng; Hoffmann, Michael Marcus; Howard, Barbara V; Ipp, Eli; Kimmel, Paul L; Klag, Michael J; Knowler, William C; Kohn, Orly F; Leak, Tennille S; Leehey, David J; Li, Man; Malhotra, Alka; März, Winfried; Nair, Viji; Nelson, Robert G; Nicholas, Susanne B; O'Brien, Stephen J; Pahl, Madeleine V; Parekh, Rulan S; Pezzolesi, Marcus G; Rasooly, Rebekah S; Rotimi, Charles N; Rotter, Jerome I; Schelling, Jeffrey R; Seldin, Michael F; Shah, Vallabh O; Smiles, Adam M; Smith, Michael W; Taylor, Kent D; Thameem, Farook; Thornley-Brown, Denyse P; Truitt, Barbara J; Wanner, Christoph; Weil, E Jennifer; Winkler, Cheryl A; Zager, Philip G; Igo, Robert P; Hanson, Robert L; Langefeld, Carl D

    2015-08-01

    Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the most common etiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the industrialized world and accounts for much of the excess mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. Approximately 45% of U.S. patients with incident end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) have DKD. Independent of glycemic control, DKD aggregates in families and has higher incidence rates in African, Mexican, and American Indian ancestral groups relative to European populations. The Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND) performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) contrasting 6,197 unrelated individuals with advanced DKD with healthy and diabetic individuals lacking nephropathy of European American, African American, Mexican American, or American Indian ancestry. A large-scale replication and trans-ethnic meta-analysis included 7,539 additional European American, African American and American Indian DKD cases and non-nephropathy controls. Within ethnic group meta-analysis of discovery GWAS and replication set results identified genome-wide significant evidence for association between DKD and rs12523822 on chromosome 6q25.2 in American Indians (P = 5.74x10-9). The strongest signal of association in the trans-ethnic meta-analysis was with a SNP in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs12523822 (rs955333; P = 1.31x10-8), with directionally consistent results across ethnic groups. These 6q25.2 SNPs are located between the SCAF8 and CNKSR3 genes, a region with DKD relevant changes in gene expression and an eQTL with IPCEF1, a gene co-translated with CNKSR3. Several other SNPs demonstrated suggestive evidence of association with DKD, within and across populations. These data identify a novel DKD susceptibility locus with consistent directions of effect across diverse ancestral groups and provide insight into the genetic architecture of DKD.

  4. Update on Diabetic Nephropathy: Core Curriculum 2018.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umanath, Kausik; Lewis, Julia B

    2018-06-01

    Diabetic kidney disease and diabetic nephropathy are the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease in the United States and most developed countries. Diabetes accounts for 30% to 50% of the incident cases of end-stage kidney disease in the United States. Although this represents a significant public health concern, it is important to note that only 30% to 40% of patients with diabetes develop diabetic nephropathy. Specific treatment of patients with diabetic nephropathy can be divided into 4 major arenas: cardiovascular risk reduction, glycemic control, blood pressure control, and inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Recommendations for therapy include targeting a hemoglobin A 1c concentration diabetic nephropathy is therapy with a RAS-blocking medication. This Core Curriculum outlines and discusses in detail the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of diabetic nephropathy. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Preventing diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H P; Lund, S S; Rossing, P

    2001-01-01

    In type 1 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria not receiving antihypertensive treatment, an increase in urinary albumin excretion rate (AER) of 6% to 14%/year and a risk for the development of diabetic nephropathy of 3% to 30%/year have previously been reported. The aim of the present study...... was to audit the effect of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition on the progression of microalbuminuria and development of diabetic nephropathy. We consecutively identified 227 type 1 diabetic patients with persistent microalbuminuria (urinary AER between 30 and 300mg/24h, ELISA). According...... been reported in intervention trials....

  6. Reversal of diabetic nephropathy by a ketogenic diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal M Poplawski

    Full Text Available Intensive insulin therapy and protein restriction delay the development of nephropathy in a variety of conditions, but few interventions are known to reverse nephropathy. Having recently observed that the ketone 3-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (3-OHB reduces molecular responses to glucose, we hypothesized that a ketogenic diet, which produces prolonged elevation of 3-OHB, may reverse pathological processes caused by diabetes. To address this hypothesis, we assessed if prolonged maintenance on a ketogenic diet would reverse nephropathy produced by diabetes. In mouse models for both Type 1 (Akita and Type 2 (db/db diabetes, diabetic nephropathy (as indicated by albuminuria was allowed to develop, then half the mice were switched to a ketogenic diet. After 8 weeks on the diet, mice were sacrificed to assess gene expression and histology. Diabetic nephropathy, as indicated by albumin/creatinine ratios as well as expression of stress-induced genes, was completely reversed by 2 months maintenance on a ketogenic diet. However, histological evidence of nephropathy was only partly reversed. These studies demonstrate that diabetic nephropathy can be reversed by a relatively simple dietary intervention. Whether reduced glucose metabolism mediates the protective effects of the ketogenic diet remains to be determined.

  7. Reversal of Diabetic Nephropathy by a Ketogenic Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poplawski, Michal M.; Mastaitis, Jason W.; Isoda, Fumiko; Grosjean, Fabrizio; Zheng, Feng; Mobbs, Charles V.

    2011-01-01

    Intensive insulin therapy and protein restriction delay the development of nephropathy in a variety of conditions, but few interventions are known to reverse nephropathy. Having recently observed that the ketone 3-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (3-OHB) reduces molecular responses to glucose, we hypothesized that a ketogenic diet, which produces prolonged elevation of 3-OHB, may reverse pathological processes caused by diabetes. To address this hypothesis, we assessed if prolonged maintenance on a ketogenic diet would reverse nephropathy produced by diabetes. In mouse models for both Type 1 (Akita) and Type 2 (db/db) diabetes, diabetic nephropathy (as indicated by albuminuria) was allowed to develop, then half the mice were switched to a ketogenic diet. After 8 weeks on the diet, mice were sacrificed to assess gene expression and histology. Diabetic nephropathy, as indicated by albumin/creatinine ratios as well as expression of stress-induced genes, was completely reversed by 2 months maintenance on a ketogenic diet. However, histological evidence of nephropathy was only partly reversed. These studies demonstrate that diabetic nephropathy can be reversed by a relatively simple dietary intervention. Whether reduced glucose metabolism mediates the protective effects of the ketogenic diet remains to be determined. PMID:21533091

  8. Reduction of proteinuria in adriamycin-induced nephropathy is associated with reduction of renal kidney injury molecule (Kim-1) over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, Andrea B.; van Timmeren, Mirjan M.; Schuurs, Theo A.; Vaidya, Vishal S.; Bonventre, Joseph V.; van Goor, Harry; Navis, Gerjan

    Kramer AB, van Timmeren MM, Schuurs TA, Vaidya VS, Bonventre JV, van Goor H, Navis G. Reduction of proteinuria in adriamycin-induced nephropathy is associated with reduction of renal kidney injury molecule (Kim-1) over time. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 296: F1136-F1145, 2009. First published February

  9. Contrast-induced nephropathy: risks, pathogenetic, prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paskalev, D.; Balev, B.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The aim of the presentation is to review the contrast induced nephropathy ? nature, mechanisms of development, risk factors. Summary of the most important ways of prevention, diagnostics and treatment. The definition of CIN according the European Association of Urogenital Radiology is: 'A condition, in which renal function is impaired (elevation of serum creatinine with more than 25% or 44 μmol/l above the initial level) due to intravasal application of contrast media (CM) within 3 days following the application and when no other etiology factors are present'. We summarize the main risk factors of developing CIN - renal failure, diabetic nephropathy, dehydration, congestive heart failure, high blood pressure, age above 70 yrs, nephrotoxic medicines. The most effective ways of preventing CIN are the good hydratation of the patients and the usage of low-osmolar or iso-osmolar CM. Therapeutic treatment is with no proven preventive effect and currently is not routinely recommended. An early hem dialysis does not decrease the risk level of CIN development in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). In such patients complete elimination of CM is achieved only after several hem dialyses. Hem filtration reliably decreases the risk of CIN in CRF patients, but is expensive and not widely available. We present a case from our hospital of a patient with diabetic nephropathy, who developed CIN following a coronary angiography

  10. Membranous nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin-lightening creams Systemic lupus erythematosus , rheumatoid arthritis, Graves disease, and other autoimmune disorders The disorder occurs at ... diagnosis. The following tests can help determine the cause of membranous nephropathy: Antinuclear antibodies test Anti-double- ...

  11. Sarcopenia in diabetic nephropathy: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çeliker, Meral; Selçuk, Mustafa Yavuz; Olt, Serdar

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between sarcopenia and diabetic nephropathy. 56 diabetic patients without complications, 50 diabetic patients with nephropathy, 53 healthy controls included in this present study. Demographic characteristics such as sex, age, anthropometric measurements such as weight, body mass index [BMI], hip circumference, waist circumference and upper arm circumference were measured. Sarcopenia diagnosis was based on European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People [EWGSOP] criteria which consist of hand grip strength, 6-meter walking test and muscle mass. The frequency of sarcopenia increased gradually from 15.1% in healthy control group to 21.4% in the diabetes group, and 34% in diabetic nephropathy group (X2 for trend, p = 0.029). The frequency of sarcopenia was similar in diabetes and diabetic nephropathy group. However, the frequency of sarcopenia was higher in diabetic nephropathy than healthy controls (OR = 2.89, CI [1.11-7.51] in logistic regression). In the present study, the prevalence of sarcopenia was higher in patients with diabetic nephropathy compared to healthy controls.

  12. Prevention of incipient diabetic nephropathy by high-dose thiamine and benfotiamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei-Jadidi, Roya; Karachalias, Nikolaos; Ahmed, Naila; Battah, Sinan; Thornalley, Paul J

    2003-08-01

    Accumulation of triosephosphates arising from high cytosolic glucose concentrations in hyperglycemia is the trigger for biochemical dysfunction leading to the development of diabetic nephropathy-a common complication of diabetes associated with a high risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Here we report that stimulation of the reductive pentosephosphate pathway by high-dose therapy with thiamine and the thiamine monophosphate derivative benfotiamine countered the accumulation of triosephosphates in experimental diabetes and inhibited the development of incipient nephropathy. High-dose thiamine and benfotiamine therapy increased transketolase expression in renal glomeruli, increased the conversion of triosephosphates to ribose-5-phosphate, and strongly inhibited the development of microalbuminuria. This was associated with decreased activation of protein kinase C and decreased protein glycation and oxidative stress-three major pathways of biochemical dysfunction in hyperglycemia. Benfotiamine also inhibited diabetes-induced hyperfiltration. This was achieved without change in elevated plasma glucose concentration and glycated hemoglobin in the diabetic state. High-dose thiamine and benfotiamine therapy is a potential novel strategy for the prevention of clinical diabetic nephropathy.

  13. Alpha-mangostin attenuates diabetic nephropathy in association with suppression of acid sphingomyelianse and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Duan, Wang; Nizigiyimana, Paul; Gao, Lin; Liao, Zhouning; Xu, Boya; Liu, Lerong; Lei, Minxiang

    2018-02-05

    Diabetic nephropathy is a common complication of diabetes, but there are currently few treatment options. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the effect of alpha-mangostin on diabetic nephropathy and possible related mechanisms. Goto-Kakizaki rats were used as a diabetic model and received alpha-mangostin or desipramine treatment with normal saline as a control. Ten age-matched Sprague Dawley rats were used as normal controls and treated with normal saline. At week 12, blood glucose, albuminuria, apoptosis and renal pathologic changes were assessed. Protein levels for acid sphingomyelinase, glucose-regulated protein 78, phosphorylated PKR-like ER-resident kinase, activated transcription factor 4, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein, homologous protein), and cleaved-caspase12 were measured. The level of acid sphingomyelinase was significantly increased, and ER stress was activated in diabetic rat kidneys when compared to the control animals. When acid sphingomyelinase was inhibited by alpha-mangostin, the expression of ER stress-related proteins was down-regulated in association with decreased levels of diabetic kidney injury. Alpha-mangostin, an acid sphingomyelinase inhibitor plays a protective role in diabetic neuropathy by relieving ER stress induced-renal cell apoptosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Insertion/deletion polymorphism in the angiotensin-I-converting enzyme gene is associated with coronary heart disease in IDDM patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, L; Cambien, Francois; Rossing, P

    1995-01-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetic (IDDM) patients with diabetic nephropathy have a highly increased morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease. An insertion (I) /deletion (D) polymorphism in the angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been shown to be associated with coronary heart disea...

  15. Common variants of inflammatory cytokine genes are associated with risk of nephropathy in type 2 diabetes among Asian Indians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh; Khullar, Madhu; Ahuja, Monica

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory cytokine genes have been proposed as good candidate genes for conferring susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy. In the present study, we examined the combined effect of multiple alleles of pro inflammatory cytokine genes for determining the risk of nephropathy in type 2 diabetic...

  16. Membranous nephropathy associated with familial chronic ulcerative colitis in a 12-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridder, Regina M; Kreth, Hans W; Kiss, Eva; Gröne, Hermann J; Gordjani, Nader

    2005-09-01

    Glomerulonephritis is a rare complication in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. We report a case of membranous nephropathy (MN) in a 12.6-year-old girl with chronic ulcerative colitis. The girl was referred to the hospital with bloody diarrhea and arthralgia. Routine urinalysis showed 1 g/m(2) protein excretion in 24 h. Serum ANCA titers were positive. The diagnoses were confirmed by coloscopy and kidney biopsy. The patient's mother had also suffered from ulcerative colitis in adolescence. Proteinuria normalized under treatment with prednisone (60 mg/m(2)/day) and azathioprine, which was initiated to treat the colitis. Chronic ulcerative colitis can be associated with glomerulonephritis.

  17. Analysis of a urinary biomarker panel for obstructive nephropathy and clinical outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Xie

    Full Text Available To follow up renal function changes in patients with obstructive nephropathy and to evaluate the predictive value of biomarker panel in renal prognosis.A total of 108 patients with obstructive nephropathy were enrolled in the study; 90 patients completed the follow-up. At multiple time points before and after obstruction resolution, urinary samples were prospectively collected in patients with obstructive nephropathy; the levels of urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (uKIM-1, liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (uL-FABP, and neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (uNGAL were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. After 1 year of follow-up, the predictive values of biomarker panel for determining the prognosis of obstructive nephropathy were evaluated.uKIM-1 (r = 0.823, uL-FABP (r = 0.670, and uNGAL (r = 0.720 levels were positively correlated with the serum creatinine level (all P96.69 pg/mg creatinine (Cr, a preoperative uL-FABP>154.62 ng/mg Cr, and a 72-h postoperative uL-FABP>99.86 ng/mg Cr were all positively correlated with poor prognosis (all P<0.01.Biomarker panel may be used as a marker for early screening of patients with obstructive nephropathy and for determining poor prognosis.

  18. Association of Serum Adropin Concentrations with Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchao Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Adropin is a newly identified regulatory protein encoded by the Enho gene and is critically involved in energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. This study aims to determine the correlation of serum adropin concentrations with diabetic nephropathy (DN. Methods. This study consisted of 245 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and 81 healthy subjects. Then T2DM patients were divided into normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria, and macroalbuminuria subgroups based on urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR. Results. T2DM patients showed significantly lower serum adropin concentrations than those in the controls. T2DM patients with macroalbuminuria had significantly decreased serum adropin concentrations compared with the other three groups. In addition, T2DM patients with microalbuminuria showed lower serum adropin concentrations than those in patients with normoalbuminuria. Logistic regression analysis showed that serum adropin was correlated with decreased risk of developing T2DM and DN. Pearson correlation analysis indicated that serum adropin was negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and ACR and positively correlated with glomerular filtration rate. Furthermore, multiple linear regression analysis showed that BMI and ACR were negatively correlated with serum adropin levels. Conclusion. Serum adropin concentrations are negatively associated with renal function. Adropin may be implicated in the pathogenesis of DN development.

  19. Factors Associated with HIV/AIDS in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badreldin Abdelrhman Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess participants’ knowledge about HIV/AIDS and to identify the factors associated with HIV/AIDS in Sudan. Methods. Observational cross-sectional study carried out at Omdurman National Voluntary Counseling and Testing Centre, Sudan covered 870 participants. Sociodemographic data as well as information related to sexual behavior were collected. Results. Most of the respondents were knowledgeable about the true transmission modes for AIDS virus. Very few respondents knew someone infected with AIDS (4.5%, died of AIDS (8.1%, accepted to live with someone infected with AIDS (4.7% or to work with someone infected with AIDS (2.1%. Regarding sexual behavior, 96.5% had reported their first sexual experience between 20 and 30 years, with 85.7% reporting one or two partners, and only 1.8% reported using condom. Multivariate logistic regression showed that circumcision, religion, marital status, age at first sex, number of sexual partners, education level, and misconception of knowledge are the main risk factors associated with HIV/AIDS. Conclusion. Our results showed that a number of diversity risk factors were associated with HIV/AIDS. It is unlikely that a holistic approach will be found to immediately change sexual-risk-relating behavior. Interventions including sustained educational programs, promotion of condom, and encouragement of voluntary testing and active involvement of the country’s political and religious leaders will be needed to alleviate this problem.

  20. Factors associated with diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy screening in Korea: the Third and Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES III and IV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Tyler Hyung Taek; Byun, Il Hwan; Kim, Han Sang; Lee, Sang Yeul; Yoon, Jin Sook

    2013-06-01

    This cross-sectional study was done to identify and determine the socio-demographic and health-related factors associated with diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy screening in Korea. Participants included 2,660 adults, aged 40 or older, with diabetes. Of the 2,660 adults, 998 (37%) and 1,226 (46.1%) had received a diabetic retinopathy and a nephropathy screening within one year, respectively. Regarding retinopathy, subjects older than 65, living in urban areas, with high educational levels, and with self-reported "unhealthy" status were likely to receive annual screening. Subjects living in urban areas, with higher educational levels, with self-reported "fair" or "unhealthy" status, and with 1 to 2 co-morbidities were likely to receive annual nephropathy screening. The Korea Composite Stock Price Index (KOSPI) continued to rise until 2007 when it started to decline over the subsequent years, following the same curve as the diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy screening rates during that time. Together with the financial matter, lack of patient education proved to be a hindrance to diabetes-related screening. The relatively low screening rates in Korea compared to the Western countries are likely to be due to the difference in the health system, economic situations and national demographics.

  1. Risk factors associated with the development of overt nephropathy in type 2 diabetes patients: A 12 years observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Vijay; Tilak, Priyanka; Kumpatla, Satyavani

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease in developing countries. Early detection and risk reduction measures can prevent DN. The aim of the study was to determine the risk factors for the development of proteinuria over a period of 12 years of follow up in normoalbuminuric type 2 diabetes patients attending a specialized centre. Methods: Of the 2630 type 2 diabetes subjects newly registered in 1996, 152 (M:F;92:60) normoalbuminuric subjects had baseline and subsequent measurements of anthropometric, haemodynamic and biochemical details spanning 12 years. The subjects were divided into 2 groups based on the renal status during follow up visits. Group 1 (non-progressors) had persistent normoalbuminuria and group 2 (progressors) had persistent proteinuria. Presence of other diabetic complications during follow up and details on antidiabetic and antihypertensive agents were noted. Results: During median follow up of 11 years in subjects with normal renal function at baseline, 44.1 per cent developed proteinuria at follow up. Glucose levels, HbA1c, systolic blood pressure (SBP), triglycerides, and urea levels were significantly higher at baseline among progressors than non-progressors. Progressors had a longer duration of diabetes and significant fall in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) levels at follow up. In Cox's regression analysis, baseline age, duration of diabetes, baseline HbA1c and mean values of HbA1c, triglycerides, SBP and presence of retinopathy showed significant association with the development of macroalbuminuria. Interpretation & conclusions: Type 2 diabetes patients with uncontrolled diabetes and increase in blood pressure are at high risk of developing nephropathy. Age, long duration of diabetes, elevated BP, poor glycaemic control and presence of retinopathy were significantly associated with the progression of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:22885263

  2. Early pre-eclampsia unmasks underlying IgA nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Singh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mona Singh, Akhenaton Pappoe, Burl R DonDivision of Nephrology, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA, USAAbstract: Pre-eclampsia is the most ominous complication of pregnancy, and primary glomerular diseases can mimic pre-eclampsia in presentation. A patient presented at 21 weeks gestation with signs and symptoms of both pre-eclampsia and primary glomerular nephropathy. A critical clinical decision whether to continue or terminate the pregnancy was dependent on results of a renal biopsy. The biopsy noted the presence of both pre-eclampsia and immunoglobulin A (IgA nephropathy. Thus, the onset of pre-eclampsia unmasked the presence of unrecognized IgA nephropathy, and the IgA nephropathy was a risk factor for this patient developing pre-eclampsia. The results of a renal biopsy are key in distinguishing pre-eclampsia from other kidney diseases and instituting appropriate clinical management.Keywords: proteinuria, IgA nephropathy, renal biopsy, pre-eclampsia

  3. Association of Postbreakfast Triglyceride and Visit-to-Visit Annual Variation of Fasting Plasma Glucose with Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Kitaoka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR was measured at baseline and after a median follow-up of 6.0 years in 161 patients with type 2 diabetes. Intrapersonal means and SD of HbA1c, systolic BP, fasting, and postmeal plasma glucose (FPG and PMPG, resp. and serum triglycerides (FTG and PMTG, resp. were calculated in each patient during the first 12 months after enrollment. Associations of these variables with nephropathy progression (15 patients with progression of albuminuric stages and 5 with ACR doubling within the microalbuminuric range were determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis providing odds ratio with 95% confidential interval. Patients with nephropathy progression, compared with those without nephropathy progression, had higher HbA1c (p<0.01. They also had higher means and SD of FPG (both p<0.05, FTG (both p<0.05, and PMTG (p=0.001. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that SD-FPG (1.036, 1.001–1.073, p=0.04 and PMTG (1.013, 1.008–1.040, p=0.001 were significant predictors of progression of nephropathy even after adjustment for mean FPG and SD-FTG, age, sex, BMI, waist circumference, diabetes duration and therapy, means and SDs of HbA1c, PPG, FTG and systolic BP, baseline ACR, smoking status, and uses of antihypertensive and lipid-lowering medications. Consistency of glycemic control and management of postmeal TG may be important to prevent nephropathy progression in type 2 diabetic patients.

  4. Preproghrelin Leu72Met polymorphism predicts a lower rate of developing renal dysfunction in type 2 diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Yeol; Kim, Sun-Young; Jo, Dae-Sun; Hwang, Pyoung Han; Kang, Kyung Pyo; Lee, Sik; Kim, Won; Park, Sung Kwang

    2006-07-01

    Ghrelin is a novel peptide hormone, which exerts somatotropic, orexigenic and adipogenic effects. Recent studies have shown that the preproghrelin Leu72Met polymorphism is associated with serum creatinine (Scr) concentration in type 2 diabetes; 72Met carriers exhibited lower Scr levels as compared with the 72Met non-carriers. We hypothesized that the preproghrelin Leu72Met polymorphism is associated with a lower rate of developing renal dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy. The preproghrelin Leu72Met polymorphism was investigated using PCR techniques in 138 patients with diabetic nephropathy divided into two groups, one with normal renal function and the other with renal dysfunction. Determination of the frequency of the preproghrelin Leu72Met polymorphism was the main outcome measure. The frequency of the Leu72Met polymorphism in diabetic nephropathy was significantly lower in patients with renal dysfunction (15.9%, P polymorphism was also associated with serum total cholesterol levels in diabetic nephropathy patients with renal dysfunction; the 72Met carriers had lower total cholesterol levels than the 72Met non-carriers (P < 0.05). These data suggest that 72Met carrier status may be used as a marker predicting a lower chance of developing renal dysfunction in diabetic nephropathy.

  5. Clinical application of urodilatin in Type 2 diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yihua; Cao Xingjian; Chen Yuxiang; Zhang Kexia; Jin Yan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical application of urodilatin (URO) in tubular injury of DM2. Methods: 41 healthy controls, 33 type 2 diabetics without nephropathy, 37 patients with early stage of diabetic nephropathy and 26 patients with clinical diabetic nephropathy were enrolled in the study and categorized into four groups. Urodilatin was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The changes of urodilatin levels among four groups were analyzed, and correlation analyses were performed between urodilatin and urinary micro-albumin/urine creatinine(mA/UCr). The efficiency index of URO were evaluated by receiver operation characteristic (ROC). Results: Compared with those in the controls,diabetics without nephropathy, early stage of diabetic nephropathy and clinical diabetic nephropathy, the urodilatin level decreased significantly in the course of diabetic nephropathy (P<0.001). The value of URO was significantly correlated with mA/UCr (r=-0.626, P<0.01). In early phase of DM2, The area under curve was 0.759. When the cut-off vaule of URO was ≤51.5 pg/ml, The sensitivity and specificity were 67.14% and 70.29%, respectively. Furthermore, Urodilatin had similar diagnosis efficiency with mA/UCr. Conclusion: The decrease of urodilatin level had clinical value in pristine tubular injury of DM2 and can serve as an evaluation parameter. (authors)

  6. Carnosine as a protective factor in diabetic nephropathy - Association with a leucine repeat of the carnosinase gene CNDP1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, B; Hohenadel, D.; Brinkkoetter, P.; Peters, V.; Rind, N.; Fischer, C.; Rychlik, I.; Cerna, M.; Romzova, M.; de Heer, E.; Baelde, H.; Bakker, Stephan; Zirie, M.; Rondeau, E.; Mathieson, P.; Saleem, M.A.; Meyer, J.; Koppel, H.; Sauerhoefer, S.; Bartram, C.R.; Nawroth, P.; Hammes, H.P.; Yard, B.A.; Zschocke, J.; van der Woude, F.J.

    The risk of diabetic nephropathy is partially genetically determined. Diabetic nephropathy is linked to a gene locus on chromosome 18q22.3-q23. We aimed to identify the causative gene on chromosome 18 and to study the mechanism by which the product of this gene could be involved in the development

  7. Chronic myeloid leukemia in a child with IgA nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Amish; Vijayakumar, Mahalingam; Prahlad, Nageswaran; Ekambaram, Sudha

    2012-08-01

    We report an 11 year old boy with IgA nephropathy developing chronic myeloid leukemia on follow-up. This association suggests that a B cell defect might be involved in the pathogenesis of these two conditions.

  8. Fcγ receptor deficiency attenuates diabetic nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    López-Parra, Virginia; Mallavia, Beñat; López-Franco, Óscar; Ortiz-Muñoz, Guadalupe; Oguiza, Ainhoa; Recio, Carlota; Blanco, Julia A Parra; Nimmerjahn, F.; Egido de los Rios, J.; Gómez-Guerrero, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Among patients with diabetes, increased production of immunoglobulins against proteins modified by diabetes is associated with proteinuria and cardiovascular risk, suggesting that immune mechanisms may contribute to the development of diabetes complications, such as nephropathy. We investigated the contribution of IgG Fcg receptors to diabetic renal injury in hyperglycemic, hypercholesterolemic mice. Weused streptozotocin to induce diabetes in apolipoprotein E–deficientmice and in...

  9. Acute postirradiation nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trojanowski, Z.

    1982-01-01

    The pathogenesis, morphological and clinical signs of acute postirradiation nephropathy are described with particular attention paid to the relationship between the clinical signs of renal involvement and the dose of radiation. (author)

  10. BK Virus-Associated Nephropathy: Current Situation in a Resource-Limited Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yooprasert, P; Rotjanapan, P

    Data on BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKVAN) and treatment strategy in a resource-limited country are scarce. This study aimed to evaluate epidemiology of BKVAN and its situation in Thailand. A retrospective analysis was conducted among adult kidney transplant recipients at Ramathibodi Hospital from October 2011 to September 2016. Patients' demographic data, information on kidney transplantation, immunosuppressive therapy, cytomegalovirus and BK virus infections, and allograft outcomes were retrieved and analyzed. This study included 623 kidney transplant recipients. Only 327 patients (52.49%) received BK virus infection screening, and 176 of 327 patients had allograft dysfunction as a trigger for screening. BKVAN was identified in 39 of 327 patients (11.93%). Deceased donor transplantation and cytomegalovirus infection were associated with a higher risk of BKVAN (odds ratio = 2.2, P = .024, 95% confidence intervals [1.1, 4.43], and odds ratio = 2.6, P = .006, 95% confidence intervals [1.29, 5.26], respectively). BKVAN patients were at significantly higher risk for allograft rejection (P < .001) and allograft failure (P = .036). At the end of the study, 4 graft losses were documented (12.12%). BKVAN was associated with high rate of allograft rejection and failure. However, surveillance of its complications has been underperformed at our facility. Implementing a formal practice guideline may improve allograft outcome in resource-limited countries. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Diabetic Nephropathy in Omani Type 2 Diabetics in Al-Dakhiliyah Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhakeem Hamood Alrawahi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence and risk factors of diabetic nephropathy among Omani type 2 diabetics in Al-Dakhiliyah region of the Sultanate of Oman.Methods: A cross-sectional and a case control study designs were used to assess the prevalence and risk factors respectively. For the prevalence study a sample of 699 diabetic subjects were selected randomly from two polyclinics in Al-Dakhiliyah region; Sumail and Nizwa polyclinics. For the case control study, a sample consisting of 215 cases and 358 controls were randomly selected from those who were included in the cross-sectional study. A well designed questionnaire has been used to collect data regarding the disease and risk factors. Data was analyzed using SPSS19 statistical program.Results: Total prevalence of diabetic nephropathy was calculated as 42.5% (95% C.I: 38.83% - 46.15%. The difference in the prevalence in the two polyclinic catchment area was not significant. The prevalence was significantly higher among males (51.6% compared to females (36.5%. Crude analysis of the risk factors showed significant association between diabetic nephropathy and the following factors; male gender, decreased literacy, long duration of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, retinopathy, neuropathy, family history of diabetic nephropathy, poor glycemic control (high HbA1c, and hypertriglyceridemia. Multivariate analysis showed the following factors to be independent risk factors; male gender, decreased literacy, long duration of diabetes, family history of diabetic nephropathy and poor glycaemic control (high HbA1c.Conclusion: The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy in this study was 42.5% and the significant risk factors associated with it included male gender, decreased literacy, long duration of diabetes, family history of diabetic nephropathy and poor glycemic control (high HbA1c.

  12. ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Zohreh

    2012-10-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene encodes ACE, a key component of renin angiotensin system (RAS), plays an important role in blood pressure homeostasis by generating the vasoconstrictor peptide angiotensin II. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, Pubmed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO) and Web of Science have been searched. The presence of ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism affects the plasma level of ACE. ACE DD genotype is associated with the highest systemic and renal ACE levels compared with the lowest ACE activity in carriers of II genotype. In this review focus has been performed on the study of ACE I/D polymorphism in various populations and its influence on the risk of onset and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Also, association between ACE I/D polymorphism and response to ACE inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor antagonists will be reviewed. Further, synergistic effect of this polymorphism and variants of some genes on the risk of development of diabetic nephropathy will be discussed.

  13. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A in a large cohort of Type 1 diabetic patients with and without diabetic nephropathy-a prospective follow--up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A S; Tarnow, L; Christiansen, M

    2007-01-01

    AIM: Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) has been implicated in the aetiology of acute coronary syndromes and carotid and peripheral artherosclerosis. Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by increased cardiovascular risk. We investigated the prognostic value of PAPP-A in a large cohor...

  14. Lymphoproliferative disorders in non-AIDS associated Kaposi's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The association of the non-AIDS-related, classic fonn of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) with secondary malignancies, especially Iymphoproliferative disorders, has frequently been noted. However, in endemic: African-type KS, such an association has been reported only rarely. A review of 62 non-AIDS-related cases of KS treated ...

  15. XbaI GLUT1 Gene Polymorphism and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes with Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Stefanidis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered expression of the facilitated glucose transporter GLUT1 affects pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. There is indication that variation of GLUT1 gene (SLC2A1 contributes to development of microangiopathy in diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM patients. A genetic association study involving Caucasians was carried out to investigate the role of XbαI polymorphism in the GLUT1 gene in diabetic nephropathy (DN. Study population (n = 240 consisted of 148 unrelated patients with DM (92 cases with diabetic nephropathy (DN, and of 92 matched healthy control subjects. Diabetic nephropathy was defined as persistent albuminuria (> 300 mg/24 h and/or renal failure, in the absence of non-diabetes induced renal disease. The analysis showed that the risk of developing DM and DN in XbaI(− carriers, when healthy individuals were considered as controls, was two-fold: odds ratio (OR 2.08 [95% confidence interval (1.14–3.79]. However, there was no evidence of association between XbaI(− and DN when patients with DM and without DN were considered as controls: OR = 1.12 (0.55–2.26. Thus, the GLUT1 XbaI(− allele is associated with DM, and possibly with a more severe form of the disease that can lead to development of DN.

  16. Advanced diabetic nephropathy with “Clean” eyes: An extreme phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debmalya Sanyal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is generally accepted that renal and eye changes in diabetes are concordant. There are however a fair number of patients with diabetes who have end-stage renal disease (ESRD without any of the typical eye changes. The present study highlights the discordance between retinopathy and nephropathy and describes a series of patients of long-standing diabetes undergoing renal transplant who had little or no evidence of retinopathy. Methods: All patients with ESRD undergoing renal transplants underwent comprehensive fundus evaluation including dilated indirect ophthalmoscopy, slit lamp biomicroscopy, and fundus photography. The patients' age, gender, physical parameters (body mass index and blood pressure, duration of diabetes, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, albumin creatinine ratio, and presence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN were determined. Renal histopathology was reviewed, if available. Results: Five patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN underwent renal transplant and had no evidence of diabetic retinopathy (DR or up to two microaneurysms per fundus. All the patients were between 50 and 65 (mean ± standard deviation – 58.6 ± 4.67 years of age. The mean duration of diabetes was 16 ± 2.91 years. All had poor glycemic control with a mean HbA1c of 9.2 ± 0.837%. All had hypertension, macroalbuminuria, and DPN. Conclusion: There is a well-recognized association between retinopathy and nephropathy, in which nephropathy without retinopathy is rare but retinopathy without nephropathy is common. We have identified a subset of patients with kidney disease of sufficient severity to warrant renal transplant but who are protected from retinopathy. It is possible that there is an extreme phenotype of DN patients with unaffected eyes who carry genes protecting against DR.

  17. APOL1 Nephropathy: A Population Genetics and Evolutionary Medicine Detective Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruzel-Davila, Etty; Wasser, Walter G; Skorecki, Karl

    2017-11-01

    Common DNA sequence variants rarely have a high-risk association with a common disease. When such associations do occur, evolutionary forces must be sought, such as in the association of apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) gene risk variants with nondiabetic kidney diseases in populations of African ancestry. The variants originated in West Africa and provided pathogenic resistance in the heterozygous state that led to high allele frequencies owing to an adaptive evolutionary selective sweep. However, the homozygous state is disadvantageous and is associated with a markedly increased risk of a spectrum of kidney diseases encompassing hypertension-attributed kidney disease, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, human immunodeficiency virus nephropathy, sickle cell nephropathy, and progressive lupus nephritis. This scientific success story emerged with the help of the tools developed over the past 2 decades in human genome sequencing and population genomic databases. In this introductory article to a timely issue dedicated to illuminating progress in this area, we describe this unique population genetics and evolutionary medicine detective story. We emphasize the paradox of the inheritance mode, the missing heritability, and unresolved associations, including cardiovascular risk and diabetic nephropathy. We also highlight how genetic epidemiology elucidates mechanisms and how the principles of evolution can be used to unravel conserved pathways affected by APOL1 that may lead to novel therapies. The APOL1 gene provides a compelling example of a common variant association with common forms of nondiabetic kidney disease occurring in a continental population isolate with subsequent global admixture. Scientific collaboration using multiple experimental model systems and approaches should further clarify pathomechanisms further, leading to novel therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Autonomous motivation is associated with hearing aid adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Jason; Hickson, Louise; Lind, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    To use the self-determination theory of motivation to investigate whether different forms of motivation were associated with adults' decisions whether or not to adopt hearing aids. A quantitative approach was used in this cohort study. Participants completed the treatment self-regulation questionnaire (TSRQ), which measured autonomous and controlled motivation for hearing aid adoption. Sociodemographic data and audiometric information were also obtained. Participants were 253 adults who had sought information about their hearing but had not consulted with a hearing professional. Participants were categorized as hearing aid adopters if they had been fitted with hearing aids 4-6 months after completing the TSRQ, and as non-adopters if they had not. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between autonomous and controlled motivation, sociodemographic and audiometric variables, and hearing aid adoption (n = 160). Three factors were significantly associated with increased hearing aid adoption when the influence of other variables was accounted for: autonomous motivation, perceived hearing difficulty, and poorer hearing. Controlled motivation was not found to influence hearing aid adoption. These empirical findings that link autonomous motivation to decisions of hearing help-seekers have implications for the ways practitioners may evaluate motivation and could inform discussions with clients about hearing aid adoption.

  19. Polymorphisms in the B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) gene are associated with NT-proBNP levels but not with diabetic nephropathy or mortality in type 1 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajer, Maria Stenkil; Tarnow, Lise; Jorsal, Anders

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Circulating N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels are elevated in patients with diabetic nephropathy and independently predict excess cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore, we investigated the association between two polymorphisms -381T/C and 1551G....../A of the BNP gene, plasma NT-proBNP levels and mortality prognosis in 380 type 1 diabetic patients with and without diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: In a prospective observational follow-up study, 197 type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy {121 men, age [mean (SD)] 41 +/- 9.5 years, duration...... of diabetes 28 +/- 8.0 years, glomerular filtration rate 67 +/- 28 ml/min/1.73 m2}, and a matched control group of 183 patients with longstanding type 1 diabetes and persistent normoalbuminuria (111 men, age 43 +/- 10.0 years, duration of diabetes 27 +/- 8.3 years) were followed for 12.6 (0.0-12.9) years...

  20. Relationship between serum IV-C, β2-m levels and diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lu; Zhang Mukun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the serum type IV collagen (IV-C), β 2 -micro globulin (β 2 -m) levels and diabetic nephropathy. Methods: Serum IV-C, β 2 -m levels were measured with RIA in 30 controls and 86 patients with type 2 diabetics mellitus (35 with diabetic nephropathy and 51 without nephropathy). Results: the serum levels of IV-C and β 2 -m in diabetic patients with nephropathy were significantly higher than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Serum IV-C and β 2 -m levels increased gradually as the diabetic nephropathy got more severe. They could be a sensitive marker for early diagnosis of development of diabetic nephropathy. (authors)

  1. Targeted-release budesonide versus placebo in patients with IgA nephropathy (NEFIGAN)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellström, Bengt C.; Barratt, Jonathan; Cook, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Background IgA nephropathy is thought to be associated with mucosal immune system dysfunction, which manifests as renal IgA deposition that leads to impairment and end-stage renal disease in 20–40% of patients within 10–20 years. In this trial (NEFIGAN) we aimed to assess safety and efficacy...... at 62 nephrology clinics across ten European countries. We recruited patients aged at least 18 years with biopsy-confirmed primary IgA nephropathy and persistent proteinuria despite optimised renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade. We randomly allocated patients with a computer algorithm, with a fixed...

  2. ACE Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism and Diabetic Nephropathy: Clinical Implications of Genetic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Kyu Ha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 20–40% of diabetic patients develop nephropathy which is the leading cause of ESRD in developed countries. The ACE I/D polymorphism is thought to be a marker for functional polymorphism which regulates circulating and tissue ACE activity. While the initial study found a protective effect of the II genotype on the development of nephropathy in IDDM patients, subsequent studies have addressed the role of ACE I/D polymorphism in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. RAAS blockers are the first line drugs for the treatment hypertension associated with diabetes and have been widely used in everyday clinical practice for the purpose of reducing proteinuria in patients with various renal diseases. However, the antiproteinuric effect of RAAS blockers is variable and the percentage of reducing proteinuria is in the range of 20–80%. The antiproteinuric effect of RAAS blockers may be related to a number of factors: the type or the dose of RAAS blockers, the duration of therapy, the level of sodium intake, and the type of patient’s ACE I/D genotype. Besides the nongenetic factors, drug responses, can be influenced by ACE gene polymorphism. In this review, we discuss the relationship between ACE I/D polymorphism and diabetic nephropathy and therapeutic response of RAAS blockers.

  3. Contrast induced nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacul, Fulvio; van der Molen, Aart J; Reimer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The Contrast Media Safety Committee (CMSC) of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) has updated its 1999 guidelines on contrast medium-induced nephropathy (CIN). AREAS COVERED: Topics reviewed include the definition of CIN, the choice of contrast medium, the prophylactic me...

  4. Aristolochic acid nephropathy: Harbinger of a global iatrogenic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grollman, Arthur P

    2013-01-01

    This review constitutes an overview of our investigations of aristolochic acid nephropathy, a chronic kidney disease associated with carcinomas of the upper urinary tract. Our studies began by confirming the hypothesis that chronic dietary poisoning by aristolochic acid was responsible for endemic (Balkan) nephropathy. A unique TP53 mutational signature in urothelial tumors and the presence of aristolactam-DNA adducts in the renal cortex, defined in the course of this research, proved to be robust biomarkers of exposure to this potent nephrotoxin and human carcinogen. Armed with this information, we used molecular epidemiologic approaches and novel mechanistic information to establish the causative role of aristolochic acid in upper urinary tract carcinoma in Taiwan, where one-third of the population had been prescribed herbal remedies containing Aristolochia, and the recorded incidence of upper urinary tract cancers is the highest in the world. As traditional Chinese medicine is practiced similarly in Taiwan and China, it is likely that upper urinary tract carcinomas and their attendant aristolochic acid nephropathy are prevalent in China and other Asian countries where Aristolochia herbs have been used for centuries in the treatment and prevention of disease, creating a potential public health problem of considerable magnitude. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Associations between clinical characteristics and angiotensin-converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism in Moroccan population with Type-2 diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mansouri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is one of the severe complications of Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and a major cause of end-stage renal disease in these patients. Results from published studies on the relationship between angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE insertion/ deletion (I/D gene polymorphism and patients with DN are still conflicting. We compared the clinical characteristics and the genotype frequencies of ACE polymorphism in 130 T2DM Moroccan patients with DN and 85 T2DM Moroccan patients without DN (controls using specific primers in a polymerase chain reaction. The degenerative complications of diabetes were significantly higher in the group with nephropathy. The distribution of the I/D genotypes was in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. The D allele was the most frequent allele in the Moroccan population in both groups studied (P = 0.68, however, there was no significant difference between the genotypes in T2DM patients with or without DN (P = 0.78. The ACE gene I/D polymorphism was not associated with an increased risk of DN in the Moroccan population.

  6. THE ROLE OF DURATION OF DIABETES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEPHROPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishwar Sidappa Hasabi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Diabetes has now become the most common single cause of end-stage renal disease. Diabetic Kidney Disease (DKD is a lifethreatening and irreversible microvascular complication characterised by presence of persistent proteinuria, hypertension and progressive decline in renal function. Early detection and risk reduction measures can prevent diabetic nephropathy. Screening for microalbuminuria will allow early identification of patients with nephropathy provide an opportunity for early treatment, which has been shown to preserve renal function and thus prevent morbidity and mortality from diabetic nephropathy. The aim of the study is to study the relation between duration of diabetes and nephropathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS 120 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus admitted to medical wards, KIMS, Hubli, over a period of one year satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled for the study. 40 normal healthy adults were included in the control group. It’s a cross-sectional study and patients were enrolled by random sampling method. All the selected patients were subjected to detailed history and complete physical examination and data collected was noted in a predesigned pro forma. RESULTS Study participants were subdivided based on duration of diabetes into 10 years. Their mean age of onset of diabetes was 54.5 (± 10 years. Microalbuminuria was present in 45% (n=54 of diabetics, retinopathy 35.8% (n=43 and both increased with increase in duration of diabetes (p value 0.003 and 0.001, respectively (Table 3 and 4. Prevalence of hypertension was 51.7% in present study group and was significantly associated with duration of diabetes. CONCLUSION This study highlighted the prevalence of microalbuminuria and retinopathy in type 2 diabetes subjects. Microalbuminuria increases with increase in duration of diabetes. Screening for microalbuminuria will allow early detection of patients with nephropathy.

  7. Decrease in toe pinch force in male type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Hiroaki; Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Kitayama, Naomi; Murao, Satoshi; Tanaka, Satoshi

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the toe pinch force (TPF) of type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy by disease stage, and to clarify the factors affecting the TPF. Seventy-four men with diabetic nephropathy (age: 62.7 ± 8.9 years, duration of diabetes: 14.2 ± 8.6 years) were enrolled. According to the staging of diabetic nephropathy, TPF and knee extension force (KEF) were compared among three groups: normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria, and overt nephropathy. In addition, we investigated factors influencing TPF and KEF by performing multiple regression analysis. Normoalbuminuria group, microalbuminuria group, and overt nephropathy group included 26, 25, and 23 patients, respectively. The TPF of the overt nephropathy group (3.15 ± 0.75 kg) was significantly lower than that of the normoalbuminuria (4.2 ± 0.7 kg, p diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) and diabetic nephropathy were determinant factors of the TPF; and age, body mass index, and diabetic nephropathy were determinant factors of the KEF. We found in male patients with diabetic nephropathy, the TPF and KEF decreased with progression of diabetic nephropathy. Furthermore, our findings suggest diabetic nephropathy and DPN are critically involved in the reduction of TPF and KEF.

  8. Renal involvement in the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)-APS nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tektonidou, Maria G

    2009-06-01

    Although the kidney represents a major target organ in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), renal involvement in APS was poorly recognized until recently. The most well-recognized renal manifestations of APS are the renal artery thrombosis/stenosis, renal infarction, hypertension, renal vein thrombosis, end-stage renal disease, increased allograft vascular thrombosis, some types of glomerular disease, and a small-vessel vaso-occlusive nephropathy, recently defined as APS nephropathy. APS nephropathy was first described in primary APS patients, characterized by acute thrombotic lesions in glomeruli and/or arterioles (thrombotic microangiopathy) and chronic vascular lesions such as fibrous intimal hyperplasia of arterioles and interlobular arteries, organized thrombi with or without recanalization, and fibrous arterial and arteriolar occlusions or focal cortical atrophy. APS nephropathy was also detected in further studies including patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-related APS and SLE/non-APS patients with positive antiphospholipid antibodies, independently of lupus nephritis. The same histologic lesions, especially thrombotic mictroangiopathy, were also observed in patients with catastrophic APS. The most frequent clinical and laboratory characteristics of APS nephropathy in all the above groups of patients are hypertension (often severe), proteinuria (ranging from mild to nephrotic range), hematuria, and acute or chronic renal insufficiency.

  9. Case Report - Analgesic nephropathy as a cause of end‑stage renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analgesic nephropathy is a subtle but significant cause of chronic renal failure. There is paucity of data on analgesic nephropathy in Nigeria. This case presentation is to highlight the need to have high index of suspicion in patients at risk of developing analgesic nephropathy. In March 2009 a 55‑year‑old businessman was ...

  10. Role of Nutrient-Sensing Signals in the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Kume

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. The multipronged drug approach still fails to fully prevent the onset and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, a new therapeutic target to improve the prognosis of diabetic nephropathy is urgently required. Nutrient-sensing signals and their related intracellular machinery have evolved to combat prolonged periods of starvation in mammals; and these systems are conserved in the kidney. Recent studies have suggested that the activity of three nutrient-sensing signals, mTORC1, AMPK, and Sirt1, is altered in the diabetic kidney. Furthermore, autophagy activity, which is regulated by the above-mentioned nutrient-sensing signals, is also altered in both podocytes and proximal tubular cells under diabetic conditions. Under diabetic conditions, an altered nutritional state owing to nutrient excess may disturb cellular homeostasis regulated by nutrient-responsible systems, leading to exacerbation of organelle dysfunction and diabetic nephropathy. In this review, we discuss new findings showing relationships between nutrient-sensing signals, autophagy, and diabetic nephropathy and suggest the therapeutic potential of nutrient-sensing signals in diabetic nephropathy.

  11. EARLY APPLICATION OF HIGH CUT-OFF HAEMODYALISIS FOR DE-NOVO MYELOMA NEPHROPATHY IS ASSOCIATED WITH LONG-TERM DIALYSIS-INDEPENDENCY AND RENAL RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhossain A. Khalafallah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Multiple myeloma (MM is a haematological malignancy associated with kidney injury resulting from cast nephropathy, which can be caused by monoclonal free light chains (FLC. It has been demonstrated that reduction of FLC can lead to a higher proportion of patients recovering renal function with a better outcome, especially if extended high cut-off haemodialysis (HCO-HD combined with chemotherapy is used. Patients and Methods In this study, four cases of MM nephropathy were treated with HCO-HD and chemotherapy at a single institution during the period from August 2009 to August 2011. All of the patients presented with acute renal failure and high serum FLC. All patients underwent a bone marrow biopsy to confirm the diagnosis of MM, according to the WHO criteria. Three patients had de-novo MM and one patient had relapsed light chain myeloma disease. All patients underwent HCO-HD concomitantly with specific myeloma therapy once the diagnosis or relapse of MM was established. Results After a median follow up of 26 months, (range, 13-36 our data showed that all patients had a significant decrease in serum FLC through HCO-HD, proving the effectiveness of HCO-HD in managing MM. De-novo MM patients restored their renal function and achieved low-level FLC early on the treatment and become dialysis-independent. One patient with relapsed myeloma remained dialysis dependant. Conclusion Our study suggests that if myeloma nephropathy associated with light-chain disease, HCO-HD should be initiated as early as possible. At the same time a specific MM treatment should be initiated to gain control of the disease and salvage the kidneys in order to achieve dialysis-independency. Further trials to confirm our results are warranted. Key Words: Multiple myeloma, renal failure, High cut-off haemodialysis, chemotherapy, outcome.

  12. Correlation of secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine with diabetic nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Lei; Song, Hai-Yan; Liu, Kai; An, Meng-Meng

    2015-01-01

    To detect the serum concentrations of secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) in patients with diabetic nephropathy and SPARC mRNA and protein expressions in renal tissue of db/db mice (C57BL/KsJ, diabetic nephropathy mice), thus preliminary exploration on the role of secreted protein acidic riches in cysteine in the development of diabetic nephropathy were carried out. Serum SPARC levels in normal subjects, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (without diabetic nephropathy), c...

  13. Increased sympathetic activity during sleep and nocturnal hypertension in Type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, F S; Hansen, H P; Jacobsen, P

    1999-01-01

    AIMS: To elucidate the putative factors involved in the blunted nocturnal blood pressure reduction in hypertensive Type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: Extracellular fluid volume and fluid shift from interstitial to plasma volume (haematocrit), sympathetic nervous activity...... (plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline) and the internal 'body clock' (serum melatonin) were investigated in 31 hypertensive Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients with diabetic nephropathy (24 males, age 60 (45-73) years). All variables, except extracellular volume, were measured repeatedly...... constant in both groups. Extracellular fluid volume and plasma melatonin levels were comparable in the two groups. CONCLUSION: Sustained adrenergic activity during sleep is associated with blunted nocturnal blood pressure reduction in hypertensive Type 2DM patients with diabetic nephropathy, probably...

  14. Resequencing of genes for transforming growth factor β1 (TGFB1 type 1 and 2 receptors (TGFBR1, TGFBR2, and association analysis of variants with diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patterson Chris C

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end stage renal failure in the western world. There is substantial epidemiological evidence supporting a genetic predisposition to diabetic nephropathy, however the exact molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Transforming growth factor (TGFβ1 is a crucial mediator in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Methods We investigated the role of five known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the TGFB1 gene for their association with diabetic nephropathy in an Irish, type 1 diabetic case (n = 272 control (n = 367 collection. The activity of TGFβ1 is facilitated by the action of type 1 and type 2 receptors, with both receptor genes (TGFBR1 and TGFBR2 shown to be upregulated in diabetic kidney disease. We therefore screened TGFBR1 and TGFBR2 genes for genomic variants using WAVE™ (dHPLC technology and confirmed variants by direct capillary sequencing. Allele frequencies were determined in forty-eight healthy individuals. Data for all SNPs was assessed for Hardy Weinberg equilibrium, with genotypes and allele frequencies compared using the χ2 test for contingency tables. Patterns of linkage disequilibrium were established and common haplotypes estimated. Results Fifteen variants were identified in these genes, seven of which are novel, and putatively functional SNPs were subsequently genotyped using TaqMan™, Invader™ or Pyrosequencing® technology. No significant differences (p > 0.1 were found in genotype or allele distributions between cases and controls for any of the SNPs assessed. Conclusion Our results suggest common variants in TGFB1, TGFBR1 and TGFBR2 genes do not strongly influence genetic susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy in an Irish Caucasian population.

  15. IgA nephropathy in systemic lupus erythematosus patients: case report and literature review

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    Leonardo Sales da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Systemic erythematosus lupus (SLE is a multisystemic autoimmune disease which has nephritis as one of the most striking manifestations. Although it can coexist with other autoimmune diseases, and determine the predisposition to various infectious complications, SLE is rarely described in association with non‐lupus nephropathies etiologies. We report the rare association of SLE and primary IgA nephropathy (IgAN, the most frequent primary glomerulopathy in the world population. The patient was diagnosed with SLE due to the occurrence of malar rash, alopecia, pleural effusion, proteinuria, ANA 1: 1,280, nuclear fine speckled pattern, and anticardiolipin IgM and 280 U/mL. Renal biopsy revealed mesangial hypercellularity with isolated IgA deposits, consistent with primary IgAN. It was treated with antimalarial drug, prednisone and inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme, showing good progress. Since they are relatively common diseases, the coexistence of SLE and IgAN may in fact be an uncommon finding for unknown reasons or an underdiagnosed condition. This report focus on the importance of the distinction between the activity of renal disease in SLE and non‐SLE nephropathy, especially IgAN, a definition that has important implications on renal prognosis and therapeutic regimens to be adopted in the short and long term.

  16. [HIV/AIDS masks in a therapist's practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshchina, A A; Ponomareva, E Yu; Rebrov, A P

    2015-01-01

    To investigate clinical manifestations and diagnostic difficulties in patients with HIV/AIDS in the practice of therapeutic units of a multidisciplinary hospital. The investigation included 65 HIV/AIDS patients admitted to the therapy units of a Saratov Regional clinical hospital in 2007 to 2011. The clinical features of HIV/AIDS, immunological status, and viral load were studied. The structure of the clinical manifestation of HIV/AIDS showed a preponderance of lung injury in 45 (69%) patients. There were hematological disorders in 38 (58%) patients and nephropathy in 33 (51 %); 11 (17%) patients were diagnosed with infective endocarditis. Rheumatic symptoms and syndromes mimicking HIV/AIDS were found in 10 (15.4%) patients. The degree of immune disorders was most severe in patients with pulmonary dissemination and rheumatic masks and mutually related to the rate of cutaneous manifestations. The specific features of lung injury, infective endocarditis, pulmonary hypertension, rheumatic symptoms, and kidney injury were discussed in HIV/AIDS patients having different causes for admission to specialized therapy units. In connection with the clinical polymorphism of HIV/AIDS, physicians of all specialties should be alert for the possible clinical manifestations of this disease to timely examine patients.

  17. Risk of all-cause mortality associated with nonfatal AIDS and serious non-AIDS events among adults infected with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Angus, Brian; Kowalska, Justyna D

    2010-01-01

    Among patients with HIV, the risk of death associated with different AIDS events has been quantified, but the risk of death associated with non-AIDS events has not been examined. We compared the risk of all-cause mortality following AIDS versus serious non-AIDS (SNA) events in the Strategies for ...

  18. Concomitant macro and microvascular complications in diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwakeel Jamal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of concomitant microvascular and macrovascular complica-tions of diabetic nephropathy we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all 1,952 type 2 dia-betic patients followed-up at Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from January 1989 to December 2004. There were 626 (32.1% patients (294 (47% were males who developed diabetic nephropathy. Their mean age was 66.9 ± 11.4 years, mean duration of diabetes was 15.4 ± 7.5 years, mean age at the onset of nephropathy was 61.5 ± 12.4 years, and mean duration of nephropathy was 3.9 ± 3.8 years. Concomitant diabetic complications included cataract (38.2%, acute coronary syndrome (36.1%, peripheral neuropathy (24.9%, myocardial infarction (24.1%, background retinopathy (22.4%, stroke (17.6%, proliferative retinopathy (11.7%, foot infection (7.3%, limb amputation (3.7% and blindness (3%. Hypertension was documented in 577 (92.2% patients, dyslipidemia in 266 (42.5% and mortality from all causes in 86 (13.7%. There were 148 (23.6% patients with one complication, 81 (12.9% with two, 83 (13.3% with three, and 61 (9.7% with four or more. Dete-rioration of glomerular filtration rate was observed in 464 (74% patients and doubling of serum creatinine in 250 (39.9%, while 95 (15.2% developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD at the end of study and 79 (12.6% required dialysis. Complications were significantly more prevalent among males with greater number reaching ESRD level than females (P< 0.05. Relative risks of developing com-plications were significant after the onset of nephropathy; ACS (1.41, MI (1.49, stroke (1.48, diabetic foot (1.6, amputation (1.58 and death (1.93. We conclude that complications of diabetes are aggre-ssive and progressive including high prevalence of diabetic nephropathy. Careful monitoring and proper institution of management protocols should be implemented to identify diabetic patients at high risk for complications and mitigate progression

  19. Concomitant macro and microvascular complications in diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwakeel, Jamal S; AlSuwaida, Abdulkareem; Isnani, Arthur C; AlHarbi, Ali; Alam Awatif

    2009-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of concomitant microvascular and macro vascular complications of diabetic nephropathy we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all 1,952 type 2 dia-betic patients followed-up at Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from January 1989 to December 2004. There were 626 (32.1%) patients (294 (47%) were males) who developed diabetic nephropathy. Their mean age was 66.9 + -11.4 years, mean duration of diabetes was 15.4 + -7.5 years, mean age at the onset of nephropathy was 61.5 + - 12.4 years, and mean duration of nephropathy was 3.9 + - 3.8 years. Concomitant diabetic complications included cataract (38.2%), acute coronary syndrome (36.1%), peripheral neuropathy (24.9%), myocardial infarction (24.1%), background retinopathy (22.4%), stroke (17.6%), proliferative retinopathy (11.7%), foot infection (7.3%), limb amputation (3.7%) and blindness (3%). Hypertension was documented in 577 (92.2%) patients, dyslipidemia in 266 (42.5%) and mortality from all causes in 86 (13.7%). There were 148 (23.6%) patients with one complication, 81 (12.9%) with two, 83 (13.3%) with three, and 61 (9.7%) with four or more. Deterioration of glomerular filtration rate was observed in 464 (74%) patients and doubling of serum creatinine in 250 (39.9%), while 95 (15.2%) developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD) at the end of study and 79 (12.6%) required dialysis. Complications were significantly more prevalent among males with greater number reaching ESRD level than females (P< 0.05). Relative risks of developing complications were significant after the onset of nephropathy; ACS (1.41), MI (1.49), stroke (1.48), diabetic foot (1.6), amputation (1.58) and death (1.93). We conclude that complications of diabetes are aggressive and progressive including high prevalence of diabetic nephropathy. Careful monitoring and proper institution of management protocols should be implemented to identify diabetic patients at high risk for complications and mitigate

  20. Concomitant macro and microvascular complications in diabetic nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alwakeel, Jamal S; AlSuwaida, Abdulkareem [Div. of Nephrology, Dept. of Medicine, King Khalid Univ., Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Isnani, Arthur C [Dept. of Family and Community Medicine, King Khalid Univ. Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); AlHarbi, Ali [Coll. of Medicine and Research Center, King Khalid Univ. Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Awatif, Alam [Div. of Nephrology, Dept. of Medicine, Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of concomitant microvascular and macro vascular complications of diabetic nephropathy we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all 1,952 type 2 dia-betic patients followed-up at Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from January 1989 to December 2004. There were 626 (32.1%) patients (294 (47%) were males) who developed diabetic nephropathy. Their mean age was 66.9 + -11.4 years, mean duration of diabetes was 15.4 + -7.5 years, mean age at the onset of nephropathy was 61.5 + - 12.4 years, and mean duration of nephropathy was 3.9 + - 3.8 years. Concomitant diabetic complications included cataract (38.2%), acute coronary syndrome (36.1%), peripheral neuropathy (24.9%), myocardial infarction (24.1%), background retinopathy (22.4%), stroke (17.6%), proliferative retinopathy (11.7%), foot infection (7.3%), limb amputation (3.7%) and blindness (3%). Hypertension was documented in 577 (92.2%) patients, dyslipidemia in 266 (42.5%) and mortality from all causes in 86 (13.7%). There were 148 (23.6%) patients with one complication, 81 (12.9%) with two, 83 (13.3%) with three, and 61 (9.7%) with four or more. Deterioration of glomerular filtration rate was observed in 464 (74%) patients and doubling of serum creatinine in 250 (39.9%), while 95 (15.2%) developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD) at the end of study and 79 (12.6%) required dialysis. Complications were significantly more prevalent among males with greater number reaching ESRD level than females (P< 0.05). Relative risks of developing complications were significant after the onset of nephropathy; ACS (1.41), MI (1.49), stroke (1.48), diabetic foot (1.6), amputation (1.58) and death (1.93). We conclude that complications of diabetes are aggressive and progressive including high prevalence of diabetic nephropathy. Careful monitoring and proper institution of management protocols should be implemented to identify diabetic patients at high risk for complications and mitigate

  1. Association of high post-transplant soluble CD30 serum levels with chronic allograft nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenzi, Patricia C; Campos, Érika F; Tedesco-Silva, Hélio; Felipe, Claudia R; Franco, Marcello F; Soares, Maria Fernanda; Medina-Pestana, José Osmar; Gerbase-Delima, Maria

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of post-transplant soluble CD30 (sCD30) levels, isolated or in combination with of anti-HLA class II antibodies and of serum creatinine levels, with kidney graft loss due to chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), and type of lesions in graft biopsies for cause. The study comprised 511 first kidney graft recipients, transplanted at a single center, with a graft functioning for at least 2.8 years. A single blood sample was collected from each patient. sCD30 levels were determined by ELISA, and HLA antibodies by Luminex assay. The minimum follow-up after testing was 9.3 years. High sCD30 levels, set at sCD30 ≥ 34.15 ng/mL, the presence of HLA class II antibodies, and serum creatinine ≥ 1.9 mg/dL were independently associated with CAN-graft loss (P values sCD30 levels and creatinine were independently associated with interstitial lesions. Post-transplant sCD30 serum levels, especially in conjunction with information regarding HLA class II antibodies and serum creatinine levels, provide valuable information regarding graft outcome and could be useful for the management of kidney transplant recipients. © 2013.

  2. Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease superimposed on membranous nephropathy: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivera Noel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease is a rare autoimmune disorder characterized by pulmonary hemorrhage, crescentic glomerulonephritis and the presence of circulating anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies. The simultaneous occurrence of both anti-glomerular basement membrane disease and membranous nephropathy is rare. Case presentation A 59-year-old Hispanic man presented with acute onset of nausea and vomiting and was found to have renal insufficiency. Work-up included a kidney biopsy, which revealed anti-glomerular basement membrane disease with underlying membranous nephropathy. He was treated with emergent hemodialysis, intravenous corticosteroids, plasmapheresis, and cyclophosphamide without improvement in his renal function. Conclusion Simultaneous anti-glomerular basement membrane disease and membranous nephropathy is very rare. There have been 16 previous case reports in the English language literature that have been associated with a high mortality and morbidity, and a very high rate of renal failure resulting in hemodialysis. Co-existence of membranous nephropathy and anti-glomerular basement membrane disease may be immune-mediated, although the exact mechanism is not clear.

  3. Bile duct-duodenal fistula caused by AIDS/HIV-associated tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patino Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Allthough infrequent, digestive fistulae in HIV/AIDS patients have been reported throughout the digestive tract from the esophagus to the anus, with predominance of esophageal fistulae. AIDS/HIV-associated opportunistic infections may invade the digestive system and lead to fistula formation. Tuberculosis is the most common infection associated with these esophageal fistulae. We report here one case of bile duct-duodenal fistula in a female AIDS patient with associated abdominal Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection compromising lymphnodes of the hepatic pedicle where the fistula was found. According to the reviewed literature, this is the third case of bile duct-duodenal fistula associated with abdominal tuberculosis in AIDS patient, and the first where both the fistula and the tuberculosis infection were diagnosed at laparotomy for acute abdomen. Whether the AIDS patient with abdominal pain needs or not a laparotomy to treat an infectious disease is often a difficult matter for the surgeon to decide, as most of the times appropriate medical treatment will bring more benefit.

  4. Exposure to DDT and diabetic nephropathy among Mexican Americans in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Charles J; Thompson, Olivia M; Dismuke, Clara E

    2017-03-01

    Concentrations of the pesticide DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and its metabolite DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene), in the blood of Mexican Americans, were evaluated to determine their relationships with diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. The data were derived from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004 (unweighted N = 1,411, population estimate = 13,760,609). The sample included teens, 12-19 years old, which accounted for 19.8% of the data. The time of the study overlapped the banning of DDT in Mexico in the year 2000, and those participants born in Mexico were exposed to DDT before they immigrated to the US. We sought to better understand the relationship of DDT with diabetes in a race/ethnicity group prone to develop diabetes and exposed to DDT. In this study, nephropathy was defined as urinary albumin to creatinine ratio >30 mg/g, representing microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria, and total diabetes was defined as diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes (glycohemoglobin, A1c ≥ 6.5%). The proportion with the isomer p,p'-DDT >0.086 ng/g (above the maximum limit of detection) was 13.3% for Mexican Americans born in the US, and 36.9% for those born in Mexico. Levels of p,p'-DDT >0.086 ng/g were associated with total diabetes with nephropathy (odds ratio = 4.42, 95% CI 2.23-8.76), and with total diabetes without nephropathy (odds ratio = 2.02, 95% CI 1.19-3.44). The third quartile of p,p'-DDE (2.99-7.67 ng/g) and the fourth quartile of p,p'-DDE (≥7.68 ng/g) were associated with diabetic nephropathy and had odds ratios of 5.32 (95% CI 1.05-26.87) and 14.95 (95% CI 2.96-75.48) compared to less than the median, respectively, whereas p,p'-DDE was not associated with total diabetes without nephropathy. The findings of this study differ from those of a prior investigation of the general adult US population in that there were more associations found with the Mexican Americans sample. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. IgA nephropathy enigma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Městecký, Jiří; Novák, J.; Moldoveanu, Z.; Raška, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 172, NOV 2016 SI (2016), s. 72-77 ISSN 1521-6616 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV15-33686A Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : IgA nephropathy * IgA subclasses * Autoimmunity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.990, year: 2016

  6. A case of membranous nephropathy as a manifestation of graft-versus-host disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hyun Han

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nephrotic syndrome (NS rarely occurs after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT as a late manifestation of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD. Herein, we report a case of HSCT-associated membranous nephropathy in a female patient with aplastic anemia. The patient received an allogeneic HSCT from her human leukocyte antigen-identical brother following myeloablative conditioning chemotherapy. NS occurred 21 months after HSCT without any concurrent features of chronic GVHD. The patient was treated with prednisolone and cyclosporine after renal biopsy confirmed membranous nephropathy, and achieved complete remission. Our report contradicts previous assumptions that concomitant chronic GVHD is responsible for the development of NS, suggesting that NS can develop as a new, independent manifestation of GVHD.

  7. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene haplotypes and diabetic nephropathy among Asian Indians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh; Ahuja, Monica; Rai, Taranjit Singh

    2008-01-01

    of the constitutive endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (eNOS) polymorphisms with type 2 diabetic nephropathy. We genotyped three polymorphisms of eNOS (Two SNPs: -786T > C, 894G > T and one 27-bp repeat polymorphism in Intron 4 (27VNTR)) in type 2 diabetic nephropathy patients (cases: n = 195) and type 2 diabetic...... without nephropathy (controls: n = 255), using validated PCR-RFLP assays. We measured serum NO levels in these subjects and examined its correlation with diabetic nephropathy and eNOS genotypes. The frequency of CC (-786T > C), TT (894G > T) and aa genotypes (27VNTR) were significantly higher in diabetic...

  8. Effect of pregnancy on diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irfan, S.; Arain, M.; Shahid, A.; Shaukat, A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether pregnancy worsens renal function in women with diabetic nephropathy and the effect of pregnancy on diabetic retinopathy. Subject and Methods: Thirty-five patients (aged 20-36 years) identified with diabetic nephropathy and moderate to severe renal dysfunction (creatinine Cr) - > 1.4 mg/dl) at pregnancy onset by retrospective chart review. Alterations in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were estimated. An equal number of non-pregnant premenopausal type I diabetic women with similar degrees of renal dysfunction served as controls for non-pregnant rate of decline of renal function and potential contributing factors. Student's t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance were analyzed. Results: Mean serum Cr rose from 1.8 mg/dl pre pregnancy to 2.5 mg/dl in the third trimester. Renal function was stable in 27%, showed transient worsening in pregnancy in 27%, and demonstrated a permanent decline in 45%. Proteinuria increased in pregnancy in 79%. Exacerbation of hypertension or pre-eclampsia occurred in 73% and 71% of these showed acceleration of disease during the pregnancy. All the patients had diabetic retinopathy, though proliferative retinopathy was diagnosed and treated in only 54.5.% pre pregnancy. The retinopathy progressed, requiring laser therapy, in 45.4%. Macular edema was noted in 6 of the patients. Other diabetic complications included peripheral and autonomic neuropathy in 8 patients. Conclusion: Pregnancy induced progression is seen in the decline of renal functions. Patients with diabetic nephropathy were found to have a > 40% chance of accelerated progression of their disease as a result of pregnancy. Forty-five percent of the patients had permanent decline in GFR in association with pregnancy. (author)

  9. Low-Dose IL-17 Therapy Prevents and Reverses Diabetic Nephropathy, Metabolic Syndrome, and Associated Organ Fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed, Riyaz; Jayakumar, Calpurnia; Chen, Feng; Fulton, David; Stepp, David; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Ramesh, Ganesan

    Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure, accounting for >45% of new cases of dialysis. Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by inflammation, fibrosis, and oxidant stress, pathologic features that are shared by many other chronic inflammatory diseases. The cytokine IL-17A was initially

  10. Evolution of IgA nephropathy into anaphylactoid purpura in six cases--further evidence that IgA nephropathy and Henoch-Schonlein purpura nephritis share common pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Koichi; Ogura, Masao; Sato, Mai; Ito, Shuichi; Ishikura, Kenji

    2016-05-01

    As the morphological and immunohistochemical manifestations of immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy and Henoch-Schonlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) are very similar, they are considered to share a common pathogenesis. Although HSPN usually develops after the appearance of anaphylactoid purpura, we have encountered patients whose renal symptoms preceded purpura. We reviewed the clinical courses of patients who were first diagnosed with IgA nephropathy, but developed purpura later, at the National Center for Child Health and Development in Tokyo, Japan. Of the 53 patients who were diagnosed with primary IgA nephropathy at our institute during the study period (March 2002 to July 2015), six (11 %) developed anaphylactoid purpura after the diagnosis of primary IgA nephropathy and therefore met the inclusion criteria. Duration between the onset of nephritis and subsequent appearance of purpura ranged from 5 months to 14 years. One patient reached end-stage renal failure due to IgA nephropathy and developed purpura after renal transplantation. All renal biopsies performed before the appearance of purpura showed mesangial proliferation with predominant IgA deposits. Urinary findings deteriorated in three patients after the appearance of purpura, including one patient who developed rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. Renal biopsy findings worsened in two patients. At the last observation, two patients showed mild renal insufficiency. Our clinical experience and previous reports support the argument that IgA nephropathy and HSPN are different manifestations of a single disease. Hence, it is acceptable to consider that they are variants of a single disease.

  11. Expression of Toll-Like Receptor 2 in Glomerular Endothelial Cells and Promotion of Diabetic Nephropathy by Porphyromonas gingivalis Lipopolysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Yuji; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki; Tsuruga, Eichi

    2014-01-01

    The toll-like receptor (TLR) has been suggested as a candidate cause for diabetic nephropathy. Recently, we have reported the TLR4 expression in diabetic mouse glomerular endothelium. The study here investigates the effects of the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) which is a ligand for TLR2 and TLR4 in diabetic nephropathy. In laser-scanning microscopy of glomeruli of streptozotocin- and a high fat diet feed-induced type I and type II diabetic mice, TLR2 localized on the glomerular endothelium and proximal tubule epithelium. The TLR2 mRNA was detected in diabetic mouse glomeruli by in situ hybridization and in real-time PCR of the renal cortex, the TLR2 mRNA amounts were larger in diabetic mice than in non-diabetic mice. All diabetic mice subjected to repeated LPS administrations died within the survival period of all of the diabetic mice not administered LPS and of all of the non-diabetic LPS-administered mice. The LPS administration promoted the production of urinary protein, the accumulation of type I collagen in the glomeruli, and the increases in IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β in the renal cortex of the glomeruli of the diabetic mice. It is thought that blood TLR ligands like Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS induce the glomerular endothelium to produce cytokines which aid glomerulosclerosis. Periodontitis may promote diabetic nephropathy. PMID:24835775

  12. Albumin Antioxidant Response to Stress in Diabetic Nephropathy Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Navarro, Rafael; Corona-Candelas, Itzia; Barajas-González, Saúl; Díaz-Flores, Margarita; Durán-Reyes, Genoveva

    2014-01-01

    Background A new component of the protein antioxidant capacity, designated Response Surplus (RS), was recently described. A major feature of this component is the close relationship between protein antioxidant capacity and molecular structure. Oxidative stress is associated with renal dysfunction in patients with renal failure, and plasma albumin is the target of massive oxidation in nephrotic syndrome and diabetic nephropathy. The aim of the present study was to explore the albumin redox state and the RS component of human albumin isolated from diabetic patients with progressive renal damage. Methods/Principal Findings Serum aliquots were collected and albumin isolated from 125 diabetic patients divided into 5 groups according to their estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR). In addition to clinical and biochemical variables, the albumin redox state, including antioxidant capacity, thiol group content, and RS component, were evaluated. The albumin antioxidant capacity and thiol group content were reciprocally related to the RS component in association with GFR reduction. The GFR decline and RS component were significantly negatively correlated (R = –0.83, palbumin to stress in relation to the progression of diabetic renal disease was evaluated. The findings confirm that the albumin molecular structure is closely related to its redox state, and is a key factor in the progression of diabetes nephropathy. PMID:25187963

  13. Mycotoxic nephropathy in Bulgarian pigs and chickens: complex aetiology and similarity to Balkan endemic nephropathy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stoev, SD

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available picture of this nephropathy. A heavy contamination with Gibberella fujikuroi var. moniliformis (Fusarium verticillioides) and Penicillium aurantiogriseum complex (mainly Penicillium polonicum) was observed in almost all examined feed samples coming from...

  14. Plasma bradykinin and early diabetic nephropathy lesions in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M Wheelock

    Full Text Available To examine the association of bradykinin and related peptides with the development of diabetic nephropathy lesions in 243 participants with type 1 diabetes (T1D from the Renin-Angiotensin System Study who, at baseline, were normoalbuminuric, normotensive and had normal or increased glomerular filtration rate (GFR.Plasma concentrations of bradykinin and related peptides were measured at baseline by quantitative mass spectrometry. All participants were randomly assigned at baseline to receive placebo, enalapril or losartan during the 5 years between kidney biopsies. Kidney morphometric data were available from kidney biopsies at baseline and after 5 years. Relationships of peptides with changes in morphometric variables were assessed using multiple linear regression after adjustment for age, sex, diabetes duration, HbA1c, mean arterial pressure, treatment assignment and, for longitudinal analyses, baseline structure.Baseline median albumin excretion rate of study participants was 5.0 μg/min, and mean GFR was 128 mL/min/1.73 m2. After multivariable adjustment, higher plasma concentration of bradykinin (1-8 was associated with greater glomerular volume (partial r = 0.191, P = 0.019 and total filtration surface area (partial r = 0.211, P = 0.010, and higher bradykinin (1-7 and hyp3-bradykinin (1-7 were associated with lower cortical interstitial fractional volume (partial r = -0.189, P = 0.011; partial r = -0.164, P = 0.027 respectively. In longitudinal analyses, higher bradykinin was associated with preservation of surface density of the peripheral glomerular basement membrane (partial r = 0.162, P = 0.013, and for participants randomized to losartan, higher hyp3-bradykinin (1-8 was associated with more limited increase in cortical interstitial fractional volume (partial r = -0.291, P = 0.033.Higher plasma bradykinin and related peptide concentrations measured before clinical onset of diabetic nephropathy in persons with T1D were associated with

  15. Elevated vascular endothelial growth factor in type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovind, P; Tarnow, L; Oestergaard, P B

    2000-01-01

    patients with and without proliferative retinopathy were detected. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that VEGF is elevated early in the course of diabetic nephropathy in men with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Baseline albuminuria, arterial blood pressure and male gender was predictors of diabetic nephropathy......BACKGROUND: Growth factors have been suggested to play a role in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent cytokine family that induces angiogenesis and markedly increases endothelial permeability. The aim of the present study...... was to investigate plasma levels of VEGF in a large cohort of type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy and in long-standing type 1 diabetic patients with persistent normoalbuminuria, and to evaluate VEGF as a predictor of nephropathy progression. METHODS: We measured VEGF with an enzyme...

  16. Effective antihypertensive treatment postpones renal insufficiency in diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Smidt, U M; Hommel, E

    1993-01-01

    The effect of long-term, aggressive, antihypertensive treatment on kidney function in diabetic nephropathy was studied prospectively in 11 insulin-dependent diabetic patients (mean age, 30 years). Renal function was assessed every 4 months by measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (single...... infarction (GFR, 46 mL/min/1.73 m2). Effective antihypertensive treatment postpones renal insufficiency in diabetic nephropathy....

  17. The serum uric acid concentration is not causally linked to diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahola, Aila J; Sandholm, Niina; Forsblom, Carol; Harjutsalo, Valma; Dahlström, Emma; Groop, Per-Henrik

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies have shown a relationship between uric acid concentration and progression of renal disease. Here we studied causality between the serum uric acid concentration and progression of diabetic nephropathy in 3895 individuals with type 1 diabetes in the FinnDiane Study. The renal status was assessed with the urinary albumin excretion rate and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at baseline and at the end of the follow-up. Based on previous genomewide association studies on serum uric acid concentration, 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with good imputation quality were selected for the SNP score. This score was used to assess the causality between serum uric acid and renal complications using a Mendelian randomization approach. At baseline, the serum uric acid concentration was higher with worsening renal status. In multivariable Cox regression analyses, baseline serum uric acid concentration was not independently associated with progression of diabetic nephropathy over a mean follow-up of 7 years. However, over the same period, baseline serum uric acid was independently associated with the decline in eGFR. In the cross-sectional logistic regression analyses, the SNP score was associated with the serum uric acid concentration. Nevertheless, the Mendelian randomization showed no causality between uric acid and diabetic nephropathy, eGFR categories, or eGFR as a continuous variable. Thus, our results suggest that the serum uric acid concentration is not causally related to diabetic nephropathy but is a downstream marker of kidney damage. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Contrast nephropathy in high-risk patients undergoing coronary angiography and intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, M.A.; Rabbani, M.A.; Jafary, F.H.; Bhatti, M.A.; Islam, M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the incidence of contrast nephropathy in high-risk patients undergoing coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and to define the characteristics of this cohort. Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi from January to December 2002. Patients and Methods: One hundred and fifteen patients with serum creatinine greater than 1.4mg/dl who underwent coronary angiography or PCI were included. All patients received non-ionic contrast dye. Acute contrast nephropathy was defined as rise in serum creatinine of >0.5mg/dl within 48 hours following the index procedure. Means and standard deviations were calculated for continuous variables and frequencies for categorical variables. Results: Mean age of patients was 62.3 year + 8.83. Mean pre-contrast creatinine was 1.9+0.9mg/dl. Eleven (9.65%) patients developed contrast nephropathy. 4.4% of patients with serum creatinine 4.0(p-value 0.001). 11.9% diabetic patients developed nephropathy compared to 6.3% of non-diabetics (p-value 0.355). 11.4% of hypertensive and 3.7% of non-hypertensive patients developed contrast-nephropathy (p-value 0.454). 12.9% of low dose group ( 100ml) developed nephropathy (p-value 0.188). Mean serum creatinine in low dose group was higher (3.0mg/dl vs. 1.7 mg/dl). Conclusion: The incidence of contrast nephropathy in this study was similar to that reported in literature. Risk of CIN was found to be significantly proportional to the severity of baseline renal disease. Trends towards higher risk of CIN were seen in patients with diabetes and hypertension. Higher incidence of CIN in patients receiving low-dose contrast was confounded by higher baseline serum creatinine in that group. (author)

  19. Fractalkine in type 2 Egyptian diabetics with and without nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebtissam Zakaria

    2013-01-01

    Results and Conclusion Our study showed that the serum fractalkine concentration was significantly elevated in type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy (1153.14±261.1 compared with type 2 diabetic patients without nephropathy (705.78±150.59 and the control group (251.5±64 (both P=0.000. There was a significant correlation between serum fractalkine level and 24-h UAE, HBA1C, and serum creatinine. Thus, this positive correlation between serum fractalkine level and UAE could be an early predictor of microvascular complications in diabetic patients. We can conclude that serum fractalkine plays a pathogenic role in the development of diabetic nephropathy.

  20. Cobrotoxin from Naja naja atra Venom Ameliorates Adriamycin Nephropathy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Zhi Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD becomes a global health problem with high morbidity and mortality. Adriamycin- (ADR- induced rodent chronic nephropathy is a classic experimental model of human minimal lesion nephrotic syndrome. The present study investigated the effect of cobrotoxin (CTX on ADR-induced nephropathy. Rats were given 6 mg/kg ADR once through the tail vein to replicate ADR nephropathy model. CTX was administered to rats daily by placing a fast dissolving CTX membrane strip under the tongue starting from 5 days prior to ADR administration until the end of experiment. The results showed that CTX ameliorated the symptoms of ADR nephropathy syndrome with reduced body weight loss, proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, dyslipidemia, serum electrolyte imbalance, oxidative stress, renal function abnormities, and kidney pathological lesions. Anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 expression was elevated after CTX administration in ADR nephropathy model. CTX inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB-α and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation. Meanwhile, CTX upregulated the protein level of podocyte-specific nephrin and downregulated the level of fibrosis-related TGF-β. These findings suggest that CTX may be a potential drug for chronic kidney diseases.

  1. Influence of Enalapril on the progression of chronic renal failure in diabetic nephropathy and nephropathies of and other aethiology: A two-year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trbojević Jasna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic renal failure (CRF is almost always associated with high arterial blood pressure. Adequate control of hypertension slows down the progression of the disease, Inhibitors of angiotenzin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors have proved to be very efficacious in decreasing high blood pressure. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of ACE inhibitor enalapril on the progression of CRF in patients with diabetic nephropathy and nephropathies of other origin. During 1998 and 1999 thirty patients (20 males and 10 females, aged 525+1.3 have been followed-up at the Department of Nephrology, Clinical Centre of Serbia. On regular monthly controls serum creatinine, urea, calcium and protein levels, creatinine clearance, and blood pressure, were measured. All patients were suggested a low protein diet. Progression of the disease was expressed by the slope of the regression line showing reciprocal serum creatinine values. Proteinaemia was significantly higher in diabetic patients after 12 months (p<0.35 but in the next 12 months the difference between groups disappeared. The same patients had significantly lower serum urea (p<0.05 after 24 months and creatinine values (p<0.05 dur ing the whole study. Other variables changed in the same manner and with similar progression in both groups. The direction of slope lines suggested recovery of kidney function in both examined groups. However, a smaller slope in patients with diabetic nephropathy together with other results showed that enalapril had better influence on slowing down the progression of CRF in this group of patients.

  2. Lithium clearance in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1989-01-01

    1. Lithium clearance measurements were made in 72 patients with chronic nephropathy of different aetiology and moderate to severely reduced renal function. 2. Lithium clearance was strictly correlated with glomerular filtration rate, and there was no suggestion of distal tubular reabsorption...... of lithium or influence of osmotic diuresis. 3. Fractional reabsorption of lithium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 25 ml/min. 4. Calculated fractional distal reabsorption of sodium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 50 ml/min. 5. Lithium...... that lithium clearance may be a measure of the delivery of sodium and water from the renal proximal tubule. With this assumption it was found that adjustment of the sodium excretion in chronic nephropathy initially takes place in the distal parts of the nephron (loop of Henle, distal tubule and collecting duct...

  3. Prognostic value of p53, c-ErbB2 and tunel data in upper urothelial carcinoma associated with Balkan nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savin Marina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A characteristic tumor suppressor protein 53 (p53 mutational profile of genotoxic action of aristolochic acid was identified in the upper urothelial carcinoma (UUTT associated with Balkan nephropathy (BEN. In the present study, we examined the prognostic value of tissue-based molecular markers in overall-survival (OS risk after surgical treatment of UUTT, adjusted for gender, age and urological characteristics in 32 patients with BEN. Immunohistochemical examination of p53, the proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (c-ErbB2; also known as HER-2/neu proto-oncogene and the in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay for apoptosis detection were used to examine serial tumor sections. The median OS-time was 60 months for UUTT operation; the mortality rate (18.7% was related to (new disease (reoccurrence or invasion in 12-216 months. High-grade (p=0.029, TUNEL>0.36%+ cells (p=0.010, and c-ErbB2+ cells (p=0.014 can define the risk of tumor invasion. Patients with Balkan nephropathy that develop UUTT at a stage greater than pT1 (with apoptosis TUNEL+ cells >0.36% and p53+ cells greater than 10% were at high risk of poor-OS after the tumor surgery (h(x=6.35; p=0.045. The obtained data present evidence for p53, cErbB2 and apoptosis deregulation, as a result of environmental toxin action. This is the first report of molecular biomarker linkage with OS for BEN-associated UUTT.

  4. Improved prognosis in type 1 diabetic patients with nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Anne Sofie; Tarnow, Lise; Rossing, Peter

    2005-01-01

    and aspirin were not prescribed routinely until April 2002. The primary end point was cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Secondary end points were all-cause mortality and ESRD. RESULTS: During follow-up, 79 patients (40%) with nephropathy reached the primary end point versus 19 (10%) of normoalbuminuric...... patients, log rank test P blood pressure (1.13; 1.03 to 1.24). In the nephropathy group, 60 patients (30...

  5. Genome-wide Association Study Implicates PARD3B-based AIDS Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, George W.; Lautenberger, James A.; Chinn, Leslie; McIntosh, Carl; Johnson, Randall C.; Sezgin, Efe; Kessing, Bailey; Malasky, Michael; Hendrickson, Sher L.; Pontius, Joan; Tang, Minzhong; An, Ping; Winkler, Cheryl A.; Limou, Sophie; Le Clerc, Sigrid; Delaneau, Olivier; Zagury, Jean-François; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; van Manen, Daniëlle; Bream, Jay H.; Gomperts, Edward D.; Buchbinder, Susan; Goedert, James J.; Kirk, Gregory D.; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Host genetic variation influences human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and progression to AIDS. Here we used clinically well-characterized subjects from 5 pretreatment HIV/AIDS cohorts for a genome-wide association study to identify gene associations with rate of AIDS progression. Methods.  European American HIV seroconverters (n = 755) were interrogated for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (n = 700,022) associated with progression to AIDS 1987 (Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, co-dominant model). Results.  Association with slower progression was observed for SNPs in the gene PARD3B. One of these, rs11884476, reached genome-wide significance (relative hazard = 0.3; P =3. 370 × 10−9) after statistical correction for 700,022 SNPs and contributes 4.52% of the overall variance in AIDS progression in this study. Nine of the top-ranked SNPs define a PARD3B haplotype that also displays significant association with progression to AIDS (hazard ratio, 0.3; P = 3.220 × 10−8). One of these SNPs, rs10185378, is a predicted exonic splicing enhancer; significant alteration in the expression profile of PARD3B splicing transcripts was observed in B cell lines with alternate rs10185378 genotypes. This SNP was typed in European cohorts of rapid progressors and was found to be protective for AIDS 1993 definition (odds ratio, 0.43, P = .025). Conclusions. These observations suggest a potential unsuspected pathway of host genetic influence on the dynamics of AIDS progression. PMID:21502085

  6. Diabetic nephropathy and its risk factors in a society with a type 2 diabetes epidemic: a Saudi National Diabetes Registry-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al-Rubeaan

    Full Text Available The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and its risk factors have not been studied in a society known to have diabetes epidemic like Saudi Arabia. Using a large data base registry will provide a better understanding and accurate assessment of this chronic complication and its related risk factors.A total of 54,670 patients with type 2 diabetes aged ≥ 25 years were selected from the Saudi National Diabetes Registry (SNDR and analyzed for the presence of diabetic nephropathy. The American Diabetes Association (ADA criterion was used to identify cases with microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria and end stage renal disease (ESRD for prevalence estimation and risk factor assessment.The overall prevalence of diabetic nephropathy was 10.8%, divided into 1.2% microalbuminuria, 8.1%macroalbuninuria and 1.5% ESRD. Age and diabetes duration as important risk factors have a strong impact on the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy, ranging from 3.7% in patients aged 25-44 years and a duration of >5 years, to 21.8% in patients ≥ 65 years with a diabetes duration of ≥ 15 years. Diabetes duration, retinopathy, neuropathy, hypertension, age >45 years, hyperlipidemia, male gender, smoking, and chronologically, poor glycemic control has a significantly high risk for diabetic nephropathy.The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy is underestimated as a result of a shortage of screening programs. Risk factors related to diabetic nephropathy in this society are similar to other societies. There is thus an urgent need for screening and prevention programs for diabetic nephropathy among the Saudi population.

  7. Diabetic Nephropathy and Its Risk Factors in a Society with a Type 2 Diabetes Epidemic: A Saudi National Diabetes Registry-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rubeaan, Khalid; Youssef, Amira M.; Subhani, Shazia N.; Ahmad, Najlaa A.; Al-Sharqawi, Ahmad H.; Al-Mutlaq, Hind M.; David, Satish K.; AlNaqeb, Dhekra

    2014-01-01

    Aims The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and its risk factors have not been studied in a society known to have diabetes epidemic like Saudi Arabia. Using a large data base registry will provide a better understanding and accurate assessment of this chronic complication and its related risk factors. Methodology A total of 54,670 patients with type 2 diabetes aged ≥25 years were selected from the Saudi National Diabetes Registry (SNDR) and analyzed for the presence of diabetic nephropathy. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) criterion was used to identify cases with microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria and end stage renal disease (ESRD) for prevalence estimation and risk factor assessment. Results The overall prevalence of diabetic nephropathy was 10.8%, divided into 1.2% microalbuminuria, 8.1%macroalbuninuria and 1.5% ESRD. Age and diabetes duration as important risk factors have a strong impact on the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy, ranging from 3.7% in patients aged 25–44 years and a duration of >5 years, to 21.8% in patients ≥65 years with a diabetes duration of ≥15 years. Diabetes duration, retinopathy, neuropathy, hypertension, age >45 years, hyperlipidemia, male gender, smoking, and chronologically, poor glycemic control has a significantly high risk for diabetic nephropathy. Conclusion The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy is underestimated as a result of a shortage of screening programs. Risk factors related to diabetic nephropathy in this society are similar to other societies. There is thus an urgent need for screening and prevention programs for diabetic nephropathy among the Saudi population. PMID:24586457

  8. Socio-Demographic Variables Associated With Aids Epidemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... expectancy; literacy; female and male literacy; population increase; infant mortality; ... Significant association between AIDS-rate and life expectancy was only found for African males, while association with fertility, infant mortality, population density, and ...

  9. Predisposition to essential hypertension and development of diabetic nephropathy in IDDM patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerudd, J A; Tarnow, L; Jacobsen, P

    1998-01-01

    Conflicting results have been reported on the relationship between familial predisposition to hypertension and development of diabetic nephropathy in IDDM. In our case-control study, we assessed the prevalence of hypertension among parents of 73 IDDM patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN......+; persistent albuminuria > 200 microg/min or > 300 mg/24 h) and 73 IDDM patients without diabetic nephropathy (DN-; urinary albumin excretion hypertension, defined as antihypertensive therapy or a 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (SpaceLabs 90207) > or = 135/85 mm...... for hypertension than were patients with DN+ and without parental treatment for hypertension (100 vs. 61%; P = 0.034; difference 39% [21-57%]). In conclusion, familial predisposition to essential hypertension increases the risk of diabetic nephropathy and may also contribute to the development of systemic...

  10. Protease activated receptor 2 in diabetic nephropathy: a double edged sword

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waasdorp, Maaike; Duitman, Janwillem; Florquin, Sandrine; Spek, Arnold C.

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a major microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus, and the leading cause of end stage renal disease worldwide. The pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy is complex, making the development of novel treatments that stop or reverse the progression of microalbuminuria into

  11. Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species and Kidney Hypoxia in the Development of Diabetic Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Tomas A; Friederich-Persson, Malou

    2017-01-01

    The underlying mechanisms in the development of diabetic nephropathy are currently unclear and likely consist of a series of dynamic events from the early to late stages of the disease. Diabetic nephropathy is currently without curative treatments and it is acknowledged that even the earliest clinical manifestation of nephropathy is preceded by an established morphological renal injury that is in turn preceded by functional and metabolic alterations. An early manifestation of the diabetic kidney is the development of kidney hypoxia that has been acknowledged as a common pathway to nephropathy. There have been reports of altered mitochondrial function in the diabetic kidney such as altered mitophagy, mitochondrial dynamics, uncoupling, and cellular signaling through hypoxia inducible factors and AMP-kinase. These factors are also likely to be intertwined in a complex manner. In this review, we discuss how these pathways are connected to mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and how they may relate to the development of kidney hypoxia in diabetic nephropathy. From available literature, it is evident that early correction and/or prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction may be pivotal in the prevention and treatment of diabetic nephropathy.

  12. Adaptive changes in renal mitochondrial redox status in diabetic nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putt, David A.; Zhong, Qing; Lash, Lawrence H., E-mail: l.h.lash@wayne.edu

    2012-01-15

    Nephropathy is a serious and common complication of diabetes. In the streptozotocin (STZ)-treated rat model of diabetes, nephropathy does not typically develop until 30 to 45 days post-injection, although hyperglycemia occurs within 24 h. We tested the hypothesis that chronic hyperglycemia results in a modest degree of oxidative stress that is accompanied by compensatory changes in certain antioxidants and mitochondrial redox status. We propose that as kidneys progress to a state of diabetic nephropathy, further adaptations occur in mitochondrial redox status. Basic parameters of renal function in vivo and several parameters of mitochondrial function and glutathione (GSH) and redox status in isolated renal cortical mitochondria from STZ-treated and age-matched control rats were examined at 30 days and 90 days post-injection. While there was no effect of diabetes on blood urea nitrogen, measurement of other, more sensitive parameters, such as urinary albumin and protein, and histopathology showed significant and progressive worsening in diabetic rats. Thus, renal function is compromised even prior to the onset of frank nephropathy. Changes in mitochondrial respiration and enzyme activities indicated existence of a hypermetabolic state. Higher mitochondrial GSH content and rates of GSH transport into mitochondria in kidneys from diabetic rats were only partially due to changes in expression of mitochondrial GSH carriers and were mostly due to higher substrate supply. Although there are few clear indicators of oxidative stress, there are several redox changes that occur early and change further as nephropathy progresses, highlighting the complexity of the disease. Highlights: ►Adaptive changes in renal mitochondrial and redox status in diabetic rats. ►Modest renal dysfunction even prior to onset of nephropathy. ►Elevated concentrations of mitochondrial GSH in diabetic kidneys. ►Change in GSH due partly to increased protein expression of transporter.

  13. Adaptive changes in renal mitochondrial redox status in diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putt, David A.; Zhong, Qing; Lash, Lawrence H.

    2012-01-01

    Nephropathy is a serious and common complication of diabetes. In the streptozotocin (STZ)-treated rat model of diabetes, nephropathy does not typically develop until 30 to 45 days post-injection, although hyperglycemia occurs within 24 h. We tested the hypothesis that chronic hyperglycemia results in a modest degree of oxidative stress that is accompanied by compensatory changes in certain antioxidants and mitochondrial redox status. We propose that as kidneys progress to a state of diabetic nephropathy, further adaptations occur in mitochondrial redox status. Basic parameters of renal function in vivo and several parameters of mitochondrial function and glutathione (GSH) and redox status in isolated renal cortical mitochondria from STZ-treated and age-matched control rats were examined at 30 days and 90 days post-injection. While there was no effect of diabetes on blood urea nitrogen, measurement of other, more sensitive parameters, such as urinary albumin and protein, and histopathology showed significant and progressive worsening in diabetic rats. Thus, renal function is compromised even prior to the onset of frank nephropathy. Changes in mitochondrial respiration and enzyme activities indicated existence of a hypermetabolic state. Higher mitochondrial GSH content and rates of GSH transport into mitochondria in kidneys from diabetic rats were only partially due to changes in expression of mitochondrial GSH carriers and were mostly due to higher substrate supply. Although there are few clear indicators of oxidative stress, there are several redox changes that occur early and change further as nephropathy progresses, highlighting the complexity of the disease. Highlights: ►Adaptive changes in renal mitochondrial and redox status in diabetic rats. ►Modest renal dysfunction even prior to onset of nephropathy. ►Elevated concentrations of mitochondrial GSH in diabetic kidneys. ►Change in GSH due partly to increased protein expression of transporter.

  14. Japan Diabetic Nephropathy Cohort Study: study design, methods, and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuichi, Kengo; Shimizu, Miho; Toyama, Tadashi; Koya, Daisuke; Koshino, Yoshitaka; Abe, Hideharu; Mori, Kiyoshi; Satoh, Hiroaki; Imanishi, Masahito; Iwano, Masayuki; Yamauchi, Hiroyuki; Kusano, Eiji; Fujimoto, Shouichi; Suzuki, Yoshiki; Okuda, Seiya; Kitagawa, Kiyoki; Iwata, Yasunori; Kaneko, Shuichi; Nishi, Shinichi; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Ueda, Yoshihiko; Haneda, Masakazu; Makino, Hirofumi; Wada, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    Diabetic nephropathy, leading to end-stage renal disease, has a considerable impact on public health and the social economy. However, there are few national registries of diabetic nephropathy in Japan. The aims of this prospective cohort study are to obtain clinical data and urine samples for revising the clinical staging of diabetic nephropathy, and developing new diagnostic markers for early diabetic nephropathy. The Japanese Society of Nephrology established a nationwide, web-based, and prospective registry system. On the system, there are two basic registries; the Japan Renal Biopsy Registry (JRBR), and the Japan Kidney Disease Registry (JKDR). In addition to the two basic registries, we established a new prospective registry to the system; the Japan Diabetic Nephropathy Cohort Study (JDNCS), which collected physical and laboratory data. We analyzed the data of 321 participants (106 female, 215 male; average age 65 years) in the JDNCS. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 130.1 and 72.3 mmHg, respectively. Median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 33.3 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Proteinuria was 1.8 g/gCr, and serum levels of albumin were 3.6 g/dl. The majority of the JDNCS patients presented with preserved eGFR and low albuminuria or low eGFR and advanced proteinuria. In the JRBR and JKDR registries, 484 and 125 participants, respectively, were enrolled as having diabetes mellitus. In comparison with the JRBR and JKDR registries, the JDNCS was characterized by diabetic patients presenting with low proteinuria with moderately preserved eGFR. There are few national registries of diabetic nephropathy to evaluate prognosis in Japan. Future analysis of the JDNCS will provide clinical insights into the epidemiology and renal and cardiovascular outcomes of type 2 diabetic patients in Japan.

  15. Diabetic nephropathy: Time to withhold development and progression - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama A.A. Sharaf El Din

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent discoveries in the fields of pathogenesis and management of diabetic nephropathy have revolutionized the knowledge about this disease. Little was added to the management of diabetic nephropathy after the introduction of renin angiotensin system blockers. The ineffective role of the renin- angiotensin system blockers in primary prevention of diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes mellitus necessitated the search for other early therapeutic interventions that target alternative pathogenic mechanisms. Among the different classes of oral hypoglycemic agents, recent studies highlighted the distinguished mechanisms of sodium glucose transporter 2 blockers and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors that settle their renoprotective actions beyond the hypoglycemic effects. The introduction of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents to this field had also added wealth of knowledge. However, many of these agents are still waiting well-designed clinical studies in order to prove their beneficial therapeutic role. The aim of this review of literature is to highlight the recent advances in understanding the pathogenesis, diagnosis, the established and the potential renoprotective therapeutic agents that would prevent the development or the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  16. Clinical significance of determination of plasma endothelin (ET) and homocysteine (Hcy) levels in patients with diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Aimin; Jin Ying; Zhou Xiu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the plasma levels of endothelin (ET) and homocysteine (Hcy) in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Methods: Plasma ET (with RIA) and Hcy( with electrochemiluminescence) contents were determined in 32 DM2 patients without nephropathy, 35 DM2 patients with nephropathy and 30 controls. Results: Endothelin and homocysteine levels were significantly higher in patients with diabetic nephropathy than those in patients without nephropathy and controls (P<0.05- 0.01). Conclusion: Endothelin and homocysteine were involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy, and determination of which were of diagnostic and prognostic value in clinical practice. (authors)

  17. Gene Expression Analysis in Tubule Interstitial Compartments Reveals Candidate Agents for IgA Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinling Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Our aim was to explore the molecular mechanism underlying development of IgA nephropathy and discover candidate agents for IgA nephropathy. Methods: The differentially expressed genes (DEGs between patients with IgA nephropathy and normal controls were identified by the data of GSE35488 downloaded from GEO (Gene Expression Omnibus database. The co-expressed gene pairs among DEGs were screened to construct the gene-gene interaction network. Gene Ontology (GO enrichment analysis was performed to analyze the functions of DEGs. The biologically active small molecules capable of targeting IgA nephropathy were identified using the Connectivity Map (cMap database. Results: A total of 55 genes involved in response to organic substance, transcription factor activity and response to steroid hormone stimulus were identified to be differentially expressed in IgA nephropathy patients compared to healthy individuals. A network with 45 co-expressed gene pairs was constructed. DEGs in the network were significantly enriched in response to organic substance. Additionally, a group of small molecules were identified, such as doxorubicin and thapsigargin. Conclusion: Our work provided a systematic insight in understanding the mechanism of IgA nephropathy. Small molecules such as thapsigargin might be potential candidate agents for the treatment of IgA nephropathy.

  18. C1q nephropathy and isolated CD59 deficiency manifesting as necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis: A rare association of two diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchika Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available C1q nephropathy is a recently described clinico-pathologic entity with a variable clinical presentation and pathology. Crescentic glomerulonephritis (GN has been reported in only two patients in the available literature. CD59 deficiency, along with lack of CD55, is responsible for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH. Few cases of isolated CD59 deficiency have been described with PNH-like features. A middle-aged adult male presented with rapidly progressive renal failure. Serological investigations were negative. A renal biopsy revealed necrotizing crescentic GN with rupture of Bowman′s capsule. Immunofluorescence on the frozen sections showed dominant mesangial deposits of C1q along with IgM. Hematological work-up of the patient revealed isolated CD59 deficiency. Hence, a final diagnosis of C1q nephropathy and CD59 deficiency manifesting as crescentic GN and hemolytic anemia was made. The co-existence of two rare disorders, C1q nephropathy and CD59 deficiency, in a patient with necrotizing crescentic GN is described for the first time to the best of our knowledge. The pathogenetic link of these two entities with the clinical manifestation requires further study.

  19. Association Between IFN-γ Gene Polymorphisms and IgA Nephropathy in a Chinese Han Population

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    Jie Gao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: IFN-γ was reported to be involved in the development and progression of Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN, however, few studies have investigated the association between IFN-γ polymorphisms and IgAN. Therefore, we performed a case-control study to assess the association between IFN-γ polymorphisms and the risk of IgAN. Methods: Sequenom MassARRAY was used to genotype two SNPs (rs1861494 and rs2430561 in 351 patients with IgAN and 310 healthy controls. Associations were evaluated as odd ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results: No association was found between IFN-γ rs1861494 and IgAN risk or clinical parameters. For rs2430561, the AA genotype was more common in patients with IgAN, compared with controls (AT vs. AA: OR = 0.57, P = 0.035. IFN-γ-rs2430561 T allele may be a protective factor for IgAN susceptibility (T vs. A: OR = 0.59, P = 0.04. Subgroup analysis based on clinical features revealed no significant association between rs2430561 polymorphism and clinical data such as gender, 24-h urine protein, blood pressure, Oxford classifcation and estimated glomerular fltration rate. IgAN patients had a higher IFN-γ serum level than healthy controls and patients with rs1861494 AA genotype had a higher IFN-γ serum level compared with those with AG/GG genotypes. Conclusions: IFN-γ polymorphisms may be involved in the development and progression of IgAN.

  20. A proton nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomics study of metabolic profiling in immunoglobulin a nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui, Weiguo; Che, Wenti; Guimai, Zuo; Chen, Jiejing; Li, Liping; Li, Wuxian; Dai, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Immunoglobulin A nephropathy is the most common cause of chronic renal failure among primary glomerulonephritis patients. The ability to diagnose immunoglobulin A nephropathy remains poor. However, renal biopsy is an inconvenient, invasive, and painful examination, and no reliable biomarkers have been developed for use in routine patient evaluations. The aims of the present study were to identify immunoglobulin A nephropathy patients, to identify useful biomarkers of immunoglobulin A nephropathy and to establish a human immunoglobulin A nephropathy metabolic profile. Methods: Serum samples were collected from immunoglobulin A nephropathy patients who were not using immunosuppressants. A pilot study was undertaken to determine disease-specific metabolite biomarker profiles in three groups: healthy controls (N = 23), low-risk patients in whom immunoglobulin A nephropathy was confirmed as grades I-II by renal biopsy (N = 23), and high-risk patients with nephropathies of grades IV-V (N = 12). Serum samples were analyzed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and by applying multivariate pattern recognition analysis for disease classification. Results: Compared with the healthy controls, both the low-risk and high-risk patients had higher levels of phenylalanine, myo-inositol, lactate, L6 lipids ( CH-CH 2 -CH = O), L5 lipids (-CH 2 -C = O), and L3 lipids (-CH 2 -CH 2 -C = O) as well as lower levels of β-glucose, α-glucose, valine, tyrosine, phosphocholine, lysine, isoleucine, glycerolphosphocholine, glycine, glutamine, glutamate, alanine, acetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, and 1-methylhistidine. Conclusions: These metabolites investigated in this study may serve as potential biomarkers of immunoglobulin A nephropathy. Point scoring of pattern recognition analysis was able to distinguish immunoglobulin A nephropathy patients from healthy controls. However, there were no obvious differences between the low-risk and high-risk groups in our research

  1. A proton nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomics study of metabolic profiling in immunoglobulin a nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, Weiguo; Che, Wenti; Guimai, Zuo; Chen, Jiejing [181st Hospital Guangxi, Central Laboratory, Laboratory of Metabolic Diseases Research, Guangxi Province (China); Li, Liping [Guangxi Normal University, The Life Science College, Guangxi Province (China); Li, Wuxian [Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medical Diagnostics of Education Ministry, Chongqiong Medical University, Chongqing (China); Dai, Yong [Clinical Medical Research Center, the Second Clinical Medical College of Jinan University (Shenzhen People' s Hospital), Shenzhen, Guangdong Province (China)

    2012-07-01

    Objectives: Immunoglobulin A nephropathy is the most common cause of chronic renal failure among primary glomerulonephritis patients. The ability to diagnose immunoglobulin A nephropathy remains poor. However, renal biopsy is an inconvenient, invasive, and painful examination, and no reliable biomarkers have been developed for use in routine patient evaluations. The aims of the present study were to identify immunoglobulin A nephropathy patients, to identify useful biomarkers of immunoglobulin A nephropathy and to establish a human immunoglobulin A nephropathy metabolic profile. Methods: Serum samples were collected from immunoglobulin A nephropathy patients who were not using immunosuppressants. A pilot study was undertaken to determine disease-specific metabolite biomarker profiles in three groups: healthy controls (N = 23), low-risk patients in whom immunoglobulin A nephropathy was confirmed as grades I-II by renal biopsy (N = 23), and high-risk patients with nephropathies of grades IV-V (N = 12). Serum samples were analyzed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and by applying multivariate pattern recognition analysis for disease classification. Results: Compared with the healthy controls, both the low-risk and high-risk patients had higher levels of phenylalanine, myo-inositol, lactate, L6 lipids ( CH-CH{sub 2}-CH = O), L5 lipids (-CH{sub 2}-C = O), and L3 lipids (-CH{sub 2}-CH{sub 2}-C = O) as well as lower levels of {beta}-glucose, {alpha}-glucose, valine, tyrosine, phosphocholine, lysine, isoleucine, glycerolphosphocholine, glycine, glutamine, glutamate, alanine, acetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, and 1-methylhistidine. Conclusions: These metabolites investigated in this study may serve as potential biomarkers of immunoglobulin A nephropathy. Point scoring of pattern recognition analysis was able to distinguish immunoglobulin A nephropathy patients from healthy controls. However, there were no obvious differences between the low-risk and high

  2. Determinants of Intravascular Resistance in Indian Diabetic Nephropathy Patients: A Hospital-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhav Thukral

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives. Metabolic dysregulation has failed to explain clinical variability of patients with diabetic nephropathy and hence a renewed interest emerged in haemodynamic factors as determinant of progression and development of diabetic nephropathy. We therefore studied for various factors which can correlate with raised renal vascular resistance in diabetic nephropathy. Material and Methods. Renal vascular resistance was measured in patients with established and incipient diabetic nephropathy and compared with controls using noninvasive color Doppler examinations of intrarenal vasculature. Results. Renal vascular resistance correlated with age, duration of disease, GFR, serum creatinine, and stage of retinopathy. Renal vascular resistance was significantly reduced in patients on treatment with RAAS inhibitors and insulin, than those on OHA and antihypertensives other than RAAS inhibitors. Conclusion. The study implies that renal vascular resistance may help identify diabetics at high risk of developing nephropathy, and these set of patients could be candidates for RAAS inhibition and early insulin therapy even in patients without albuminuria.

  3. Acute kidney injury associated with ingestion of star fruit: Acute oxalate nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, A K; Goel, R; Sharma, M; Mahanta, P J

    2016-01-01

    Starfruit ( Averrhoa carambola ) and its juice are popular in the Indian subcontinent as an indigenous medicine. Oxalate concentration in this fruit and it's freshly prepared juice is very high. We present a report of patients presenting with acute kidney injury due to oxalate nephropathy admitted in a single center. All patients had history of ingesting star fruit. Patients became symptomatic after 10-12 h of eating and main symptoms were pain abdomen and decrease in urine output. Three patients needed hemodialysis. All improved with complete renal recovery. Taking star fruit in large amount on an empty stomach and in a dehydrated state is a risk factor for nephrotoxicity.

  4. Cystatin-C and TGF-β levels in patients with diabetic nephropathy

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    Mumtaz Takir

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: Although urinary albumin excretion is recommended for the detection of type two diabetic nephropathy, there is a group of patients with decreased eGFR but without increased urinary albumin excretion, in which serum cystatin C level was indicated to be used as an early biomarker of diabetic nephropathy.

  5. Risk of All-cause Mortality Associated with Non-fatal AIDS and Serious Non-AIDS Events among Adults Infected with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    NEUHAUS, Jacqueline; ANGUS, Brian; KOWALSKA, Justyna D.; LA ROSA, Alberto; SAMPSON, Jim; WENTWORTH, Deborah; MOCROFT, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Among patients with HIV, the risk of death associated with different AIDS events has been quantified, but the risk of death associated with non-AIDS events has not been examined. We compared the risk of all-cause mortality following AIDS versus serious non-AIDS (SNA) events in SMART and ESPRIT. Design Data from 9,583 HIV-infected participants, 5,472 with CD4+ >350 cells/mm3 enrolled in SMART and 4,111 with CD4+ ≥300 cells/mm3 enrolled in ESPRIT were analyzed. Methods Cumulative mortality 6 months after AIDS and SNA (cardiovascular, renal, hepatic disease and malignancies) was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) associated with AIDS and SNA on the risk of death overall and by treatment group within study. Results AIDS and SNA occurred in 286 and 435 participants with 47 (16%) and 115 (26%) subsequent deaths, respectively. Six-month cumulative mortality was 4.7% (95%CI:2.8–8.0) after experiencing an AIDS event and 13.4% (95%CI:10.5–17.0) after experiencing an SNA event. The adjusted HR for all-cause mortality for those who experienced AIDS versus those who did not was 4.9 (95%CI:3.6–6.8). The corresponding HR for SNA was 11.4 (95%CI:9.0–14.5) (pESPRIT. Conclusions Among HIV-infected persons with higher CD4+ counts, SNA events occur more frequently and are associated with a greater risk of death than AIDS events. Future research should be aimed at comparing strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with SNA events for HIV-infected persons. PMID:20177360

  6. Genetic variations in key inflammatory cytokines exacerbates the risk of diabetic nephropathy by influencing the gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Iqra; Masoodi, Shariq R; Malik, Perveez A; Mir, Shahnaz A; Ghazanfar, Khalid; Ganai, Bashir A

    2018-06-30

    Diabetic nephropathy is the single strongest predictor of mortality in patients with diabetes. The development of overt nephropathy involves important inter-individual variations, even after adjusting for potential confounding influences of modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Genome-wide transcriptome studies have reported the activation of inflammatory signaling pathways and there is mounting indication of the role of genetic factors. We screened nine genetic variations in three cytokine genes (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-β) in 1326 unrelated subjects comprising of healthy controls (n = 464), type 2 diabetics with nephropathy (DN, n = 448) and type 2 diabetes without nephropathy (T2D, n = 414) by sequence-specific amplification. Functional implication of SNPs was elucidated by correlation studies and relative gene expression using Realtime-Quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Individual SNP analysis showed highest association of IL-1β rs16944-TT genotype (OR = 3.51, 95%CI = 2.36-5.21, P = 0.001) and TNF-α rs1800629-AA genotype (OR = 2.75, 95% CI = 1.64-4.59, P = 0.001) with T2D and DN respectively. The haplotype frequency showed significant risk of seven combinations among T2D and four combinations among DN subjects. The highest risk of T2D and DN was associated with GGTGAGTTT (OR = 4.25, 95%CI = 3.3-14.20, P = 0.0016) and GACGACCTT (OR = 21.3, 95%CI = 15.1-28.33, P = 0.026) haplotypes respectively. Relative expression by RT-qPCR showed increased cytokine expression in cases as compared to controls. TNF-α expression was increased by more than four-folds (n-fold = 4.43 ± 1.11) in DN. TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β transcript levels were significantly modulated by promoter region SNPs. The present study implicates a strong association between cytokine TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β gene promoter polymorphisms and modulation of transcript levels with susceptibility to nephropathy in diabetes subjects. Copyright

  7. Metabolic nephropathies in children: Causes, clinical and laboratory manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Yuryeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the regions polluted with industrial or agricultural toxicants, dysmetabolic nephropathy is detected in every 2 or 3 children and this rate increases with age. Exogenous intoxication is not the only cause of dysmetabolic nephropathy; of no less importance are endogenous toxicants, such as oxidative stress products, excess of usual metabolites or emergence of unusual products of abnormal metabolism. The toxicants are ascertained to be able to change the conformation of protein molecules to give rise to additional ligand loci ensuring the aggressive uptake of trace elements that fix changes in protein molecules, making them antigenically alien to the body. Low molecular weight proteins with their changed structure, which penetrate through the basement membrane, are unrecognized by the reabsorption systems of proximal tubules and excreted with urine, determining the appearance of the most steady and age-increasing sign of dysmetabolic nephropathy – microproteinuria or trace elementuria.

  8. IgM nephropathy; can we still ignore it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanikar, Aruna

    2013-04-01

    IgM nephropathy (IgMN) is a relatively less recognized clinico-immunopathological entity in the domain of glomerulonephritis , often thought to be a bridge between minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, Pubmed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO) and Web of Science has been searched. IgM nephropathy can present as nephritic syndrome or less commonly with subnephrotic proteinuria or rarely hematuria. About 30% patients respond to steroids whereas others are steroid dependent / resistant. They should be given a trial of Rituximab or stem cell therapy. IgM nephropathy (IgMN) is an important and rather neglected pathology responsible for renal morbidity in children and adults in developing countries as compared to developed nations with incidence of 2-18.5% of native biopsies. Abnormal T-cell function with hyperfunctioning suppressor T-cells are believed to be responsible for this disease entity. Approximately one third of the patients are steroid responders where as the remaining two thirds are steroid resistant or dependent. Therapeutic trials including cell therapies targeting suppressor T-cells are required.

  9. Maximum home blood pressure is a useful indicator of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: KAMOGAWA-HBP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyabu, Chikako; Ushigome, Emi; Matsumoto, Shinobu; Tanaka, Toru; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto; Ohnishi, Masayoshi; Tsunoda, Sei; Ushigome, Hidetaka; Yokota, Isao; Tanaka, Muhei; Asano, Mai; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Fukui, Michiaki

    2017-11-01

    Maximum home systolic blood pressure has been shown to predict target organ damage. We aimed to clarify the association between maximum home systolic blood pressure and urine albumin to creatinine ratio, an indicator of early-phase diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. In 1040 patients, we assessed the relationship of mean or maximum home systolic blood pressure and urine albumin to creatinine ratio, and compared the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of mean or maximum home systolic blood pressure for diabetic nephropathy (urine albumin to creatinine ratio ⩾30 mg/g Cr). Multivariate linear regression analyses indicated that mean morning systolic blood pressure ( β = 0.010, p blood pressure ( β = 0.008, p blood pressure was 0.667 (0.634-0.700; p blood pressure, as well as mean home systolic blood pressure, was significantly associated with diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  10. Molecular understanding of curcumin in diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soetikno, Vivian; Suzuki, Kenji; Veeraveedu, Punniyakoti T; Arumugam, Somasundaram; Lakshmanan, Arun P; Sone, Hirohito; Watanabe, Kenichi

    2013-08-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by a plethora of signaling abnormalities. Recent trials have suggested that intensive glucose-lowering treatment leads to hypoglycemic events, which can be dangerous. Curcumin is the active ingredient of turmeric, which has been widely used in many countries for centuries to treat numerous diseases. The preventive and therapeutic properties of curcumin are associated with its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we highlight the renoprotective role of curcumin in diabetes mellitus (DM) with an emphasis on the molecular basis of this effect. We also briefly discuss the numerous approaches that have been undertaken to improve the pharmacokinetics of curcumin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy by use of bicarbonate solution: preliminary results and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ricardo Gonçalves da; Silva, Nelson Gonçalves da; Lucchesi, Fabiano; Burdmann, Emmanuel A

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy has increased simultaneously with the increase in contrast medium use in diagnostic and interventional procedures. The incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy in the general population is low, but increases exponentially in patients with risk factors, such as diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Several strategies have been used in order to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy. The most efficient strategies are saline hydration (0.9% or 0.45%), use of low-or iso-osmolality contrast medium, and sodium bicarbonate infusion. The aim of this study was to review the pertinent literature and to assess the efficacy of hydration with 1.3% sodium bicarbonate compared with hydration with 0.9% saline solution in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy in high-risk patients. A systematic search of the literature was conducted in PubMed by using the following keywords: bicarbonate, nephropathy, contrast medium, and acute kidney failure. In addition, 27 patients with diabetes and/or chronic kidney disease, diagnosed with some kind of cancer were randomized for study. None of the patients developed contrast-induced nephropathy characterized as a 0.5 mg/ dL-increase and/or a relative 25%-increase in baseline creatinine. The literature review strongly suggested that sodium bicarbonate is effective in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy. Regarding the randomized study, saline solution and bicarbonate solution had similar efficacy in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy. However, the small number of patients does not allow definite conclusions.

  12. A case of palpable purpura and nephropathy: Occam's Razor or Hickam's Dictum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandhadi, Ranadeep; Kodumuri, Vamsi; Arora, Rohit; Puneet Singh, Param; Adigopula, Shashi; Chua, Serafin

    2013-01-01

    Vasculitis causing palpable purpura, nephropathy, and hematologic abnormalities is a well-known entity. However, sometimes, vasculitis may not be the primary cause but is part of a systemic disease. Literature suggests that infections like HIV can induce nephropathy and antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody-positive vasculitis, which is different from the well-known entity of "antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis." We present a 46-year-old female patient with a history of intravenous drug abuse who reported with a rash, swelling, and palpable purpura of the lower extremities. Peripheral smear showed no evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation or thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; metabolic profile showed acute kidney injury. She was found to be HIV- and hepatitis C-positive. Immunologic workup was positive for both MPO and PR3 antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies and negative for cryoglobulins; complement levels were low. Skin biopsy showed leukocytoclastic vasculitis but kidney biopsy was negative for any immunologic involvement; it showed only glomerulosclerosis. Thus, it was thought that nephropathy and vasculitis, in this case, are two distinct pathologic processes, both induced by infection (HIV and/or hepatitis C). The patient responded to low-dose steroid therapy. She was later started on the definitive therapy, the highly active antiretroviral therapy regimen. This case illustrates the fact that low-dose steroids can still be a good alternative in acute situations in patients at risk from immunosuppression.

  13. Free Triiodothyronine Levels Are Associated with Diabetic Nephropathy in Euthyroid Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingcheng Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the association of thyroid function and diabetic nephropathy (DN in euthyroid patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. A total of 421 patients were included in this cross-sectional study. The following parameters were assessed: anthropometric measurements, fast plasma glucose, serum creatinine, lipid profile, HbA1c, free triiodothyronine (FT3, free thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone levels, and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR. Patients with UACR of ≥30 mg/g were defined as those suffering from DN. Results. Of the 421 patients, 203 (48.2% suffered from DN, and no difference was found between males and females. The patients with DN yielded significantly lower FT3 levels than those without DN (P<0.01. The prevalence of DN showed a significantly decreasing trend across the three tertiles based on FT3 levels (59.6%, 46.4%, and 38.6%, P<0.01. After adjustment for gender and age, FT3 levels were found to correlate positively with estimated glomerular filtration rate (P=0.03 and negatively with UACR (P<0.01. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that FT3 level was independently associated with UACR (β=-0.18, t=-3.70, and P<0.01. Conclusion. Serum FT3 levels are inversely associated with DN in euthyroid patients with type 2 diabetes, independent of traditional risk factors.

  14. Prevalence and Determinants of Diabetic Nephropathy in Korea: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hee Ahn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDiabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end stage renal disease and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. It manifests as albuminuria or impaired glomerular filtration rate (GFR, and the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy varies with ethnicity. The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and its determinants in Korean adults have not previously been studied at the national level. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to ascertain the prevalence and determinants of albuminuria and chronic kidney disease (CKD in Korean patients with diabetes.MethodsThe Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V, conducted in 2011, was used to define albuminuria (n=4,652, and the dataset of KNHANES IV-V (2008-2011 was used to define CKD (n=21,521. Selected samples were weighted to represent the entire civilian population in Korea. Albuminuria was defined as a spot urine albumin/creatinine ratio >30 mg/g. CKD was defined as a GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2.ResultsAmong subjects with diabetes, 26.7% had albuminuria, and 8.6% had CKD. Diabetes was associated with an approximate 2.5-fold increased risk of albuminuria, with virtually no difference between new-onset and previously diagnosed diabetes. Only systolic blood pressure was significantly associated with albuminuria, and old age, high serum triglyceride levels, and previous cardiovascular disease (CVD were related with CKD in subjects with diabetes.ConclusionKorean subjects with diabetes had a higher prevalence of albuminuria and CKD than those without diabetes. Blood pressure was associated with albuminuria, and age, triglyceride level, and previous CVD were independent determinants of CKD in subjects with diabetes.

  15. Familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy : report on a new mutation and a pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lhotta, Karl; Gehringer, A; Jennings, P; Kronenberg, F.; Brezinka, C; Andersone, I; Strazdins, V

    BACKGROUND: Familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy (FJHN) is a rare autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the uromodulin gene (UMOD) and leading to gout, tubulointerstitial nephropathy and end-stage renal disease. CASE REPORTS AND RESULTS: A Latvian family suffering from FJHN is

  16. A story of microalbuminuria and diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, Bijan; Stanton, Robert C

    2013-10-01

    It is estimated that more than 346 million people worldwide have diabetes mellitus . By the year 2030, it is predicted that diabetes will become the seventh leading cause of death in the world. Development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with diabetes adds significantly to the morbidity and mortality and significantly increases health care costs, even before the development of end stage renal disease (ESRD). Evidence  acquisitions: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, Pubmed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO) and Web of Science have been searched. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is increasing rapidly worldwide. It is the leading cause of new cases of ESRD in the USA.  Interestingly, although DN is the most common cause of ESRD in diabetic patients, diabetes mellitus is also an independent and strong risk factor for ESRD ascribed to causes other than DN (e.g. hypertensive nephropathy). It is important to be aware of the pitfalls of using the urine albumin level in predicting development and progression of diabetic nephropathy in order to treat and advise the patients accurately.  Research into finding new markers is rapidly evolving but current progress makes it likely we will be using the urine albumin level for some years into the future.

  17. Prognosis and treatment of diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Peter; Persson, Frederik; Frimodt-Møller, Marie

    2018-01-01

    cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The natural course of classical diabetic nephropathy is initially microalbuminuria or moderately increased urine albumin excretion (30-300mg/g creatinine). Untreated microalbuminuria may then rise gradually, reaching severely increased albuminuric (macroalbuminuria) over 5...

  18. Diabetic Nephropathy : Evaluation with Doppler Ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Jung Suk; Kim, Seung Hyup; Kang, Heung Sik; Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Man Chung

    1996-01-01

    To compare Doppler ultrasonography with laboratory tests in evaluation of diabetic nephropathy. Fifty-five patients (mean age = 60, M : F = 26 : 29) with diabetes mellitus underwent renal Doppler ultrasonography. Resistive indices were compared with degree of proteinuria, serum creatinine level, and creatinine clearance rate. Eighteen patients who showed no proteinuria or microscopic proteinuria had a mean resistive index (RI) of 0.72 (SD, 0.05), 16 patients with macroscopic proteinuria without nephrotic syndrome had a mean RI of 0.82 (SD, 0.13), and 21 patients with nephrotic syndrome had a mean RI of 0.90 (SD, 0.12). Renal RI correlated highly with serum creatinine level (r = 0.62) and creatinine clearance rate (r = -0.43). Renal Doppler ultrasonography provides a useful indication of renal function in diabetic nephropathy but cannot offer an advantage over conventional laboratory test

  19. Improved prognosis of diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrésdóttir, Gudbjörg; Jensen, Majken L; Carstensen, Bendix

    2015-01-01

    previously 4.0 to 3.3 ml/min per 1.73 m2/year. During a median follow-up of 9.1 years, 29% of participants doubled their plasma creatinine or developed end-stage renal disease. Mortality risk was similar to our prior study (hazard ratio 1.05 (0.76-1.43). However, after age adjustment, as both diabetes......-term renin-angiotensin system inhibition), lipids, and glycemia, along with less smoking and other lifestyle and treatment advancements, is inadequately analyzed. To clarify this, we studied 497 patients with type 1 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy at the Steno Diabetes Center and compared them...... and nephropathy onset occurred later in life, mortality was reduced by 30%. Risk factors for decline in glomerular filtration rate, death, and other renal end points were generally in agreement with prior studies. Thus, with current treatment of nephropathy in type 1 diabetes, the prognosis and loss of renal...

  20. The role of the American Hospital Association in combating AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, C

    1988-01-01

    The American Hospital Association (AHA) has taken a leadership role in assisting health care providers in dealing effectively with the challenges of AIDS. Early work focused on preventing infection in the health care setting with the use of the Centers for Disease Control's recommended precautions concerning blood and body fluids. Supporting this effort were a number of live teleconferences, videotapes, and publications that addressed the use of precautions with AIDS patients, community issues associated with the disease, and the development of employee policies. In July 1987, a Special Committee on AIDS/HIV Infection Policy was formed by the AHA Board of Trustees and charged with developing recommendations on the issues that needed to be addressed if hospitals were to continue to meet the challenge of AIDS effectively. The committee's first set of recommendations, approved in November 1987, reaffirmed the use of universal precautions, provided guidance on the appropriate uses and application of HIV testing, and stated that the delivery of care should not be conditioned on the willingness of a patient to undergo testing. The second set of recommendations, which were approved in January 1988, focused on the need to distribute the responsibility for AIDS care among a wide variety of health care providers, to seek creative financing approaches that involve both the private and public sectors, and called on hospitals to provide leadership in ensuring that a continuum of services is available to AIDS patients. Continuing efforts to assist hospitals in the care delivery issues associated with AIDS are described.

  1. Oxidative Stress/Angiotensinogen/Renin-Angiotensin System Axis in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumi Kamiyama

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although recent studies have proven that renin-angiotensin system (RAS blockades retard the progression of diabetic nephropathy, the detailed mechanisms of their reno-protective effects on the development of diabetic nephropathy remain uncertain. In rodent models, it has been reported that reactive oxygen species (ROS are important for intrarenal angiotensinogen (AGT augmentation in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. However, no direct evidence is available to demonstrate that AGT expression is enhanced in the kidneys of patients with diabetes. To examine whether the expression levels of ROS- and RAS-related factors in kidneys are increased with the progression of diabetic nephropathy, biopsied samples from 8 controls and 27 patients with type 2 diabetes were used. After the biopsy, these patients were diagnosed with minor glomerular abnormality or diabetes mellitus by clinical and pathological findings. The intensities of AGT, angiotensin II (Ang II, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 were examined by fluorescence in situ hybridization and/or immunohistochemistry. Expression levels were greater in patients with diabetes than in control subjects. Moreover, the augmented intrarenal AGT mRNA expression paralleled renal dysfunction in patients with diabetes. These data suggest the importance of the activated oxidative stress/AGT/RAS axis in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy.

  2. Urinary semaphorin 3A correlates with diabetic proteinuria and mediates diabetic nephropathy and associated inflammation in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed, Riyaz; Ranganathan, Punithavathi; Jayakumar, Calpurnia; Nauta, Ferdau L.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Weintraub, Neal L.; Brands, Michael; Ramesh, Ganesan

    2014-01-01

    Semaphorin 3A (sema3A) was recently identified as an early diagnostic biomarker of acute kidney injury. However, its role as a biomarker and/or mediator of chronic kidney disease (CKD) related to diabetic nephropathy is unknown. We examined the expression of sema3A in diabetic animal models and in

  3. Visit-to-Visit Variability in Blood Pressure and Kidney and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McMullan, Ciaran J; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; Parving, Hans-Henrik

    2014-01-01

    -to-visit variability was calculated from the SD of the systolic blood pressure from 4 visits occurring 3-12 months postrandomization. OUTCOMES: The kidney disease outcome was defined as time to confirmed doubling of serum creatinine level, end-stage renal disease, or death; the cardiovascular outcome was defined......BACKGROUND: Increased systolic blood pressure variability between outpatient visits is associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular end points. However, few studies have examined the association of visit-to-visit variability in systolic blood pressure with clinically relevant kidney...... disease outcomes. We analyzed the association of systolic blood pressure visit-to-visit variability with renal and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among individuals with diabetes and nephropathy. STUDY DESIGN: Observational analysis of IDNT (Irbesartan Diabetic Nephropathy Trial) and the RENAAL...

  4. The Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy: rationale, clinicopathological correlations, and classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cattran, Daniel C.; Coppo, Rosanna; Cook, H. Terence; Feehally, John; Roberts, Ian S. D.; Troyanov, Stéphan; Alpers, Charles E.; Amore, Alessandro; Barratt, Jonathan; Berthoux, Francois; Bonsib, Stephen; Bruijn, Jan A.; D'Agati, Vivette; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Emancipator, Steven; Emma, Francesco; Ferrario, Franco; Fervenza, Fernando C.; Florquin, Sandrine; Fogo, Agnes; Geddes, Colin C.; Groene, Hermann-Josef; Haas, Mark; Herzenberg, Andrew M.; Hill, Prue A.; Hogg, Ronald J.; Hsu, Stephen I.; Jennette, J. Charles; Joh, Kensuke; Julian, Bruce A.; Kawamura, Tetsuya; Lai, Fernand M.; Leung, Chi Bon; Li, Lei-Shi; Li, Philip K. T.; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Mackinnon, Bruce; Mezzano, Sergio; Schena, F. Paolo; Tomino, Yasuhiko; Walker, Patrick D.; Wang, Haiyan; Weening, Jan J.; Yoshikawa, Nori; Zhang, Hong

    2009-01-01

    IgA nephropathy is the most common glomerular disease worldwide, yet there is no international consensus for its pathological or clinical classification. Here a new classification for IgA nephropathy is presented by an international consensus working group. The goal of this new system was to

  5. Contrast induced nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacul, Fulvio; van der Molen, Aart J; Reimer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The Contrast Media Safety Committee (CMSC) of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) has updated its 1999 guidelines on contrast medium-induced nephropathy (CIN). AREAS COVERED: Topics reviewed include the definition of CIN, the choice of contrast medium, the prophylactic me....../min/1.73 m (2) is CIN risk threshold for intravenous contrast medium. • Hydration with either saline or sodium bicarbonate reduces CIN incidence. • Patients with eGFR = 60 ml/min/1.73 m (2) receiving contrast medium can continue metformin normally....

  6. Alteration in serum osteocalcin levels in patients with diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, E.S.; Abdel-Messeih, Ph.L.; Mansour, H.H.

    2013-01-01

    The fact that bone mass density (BMD) is not useful for assessing fracture risk in diabetic patients (DM) seems problematic, because those populations are increasing in every country. Osteocalcin (OC) is synthesized by osteoblasts and is considered to be a marker of bone formation. The present study was carried out to evaluate the usefulness of OC as noninvasive biomarker of bone formation in diabetes mellitus type 2 (uncomplicated) and diabetic nephropathy. Immunoradiometric assay(IRMA) was used for the quantitative measurement of human intact OC both N-terminal and C-terminal fragments in the serum of the control and the studied groups. OC levels in the uncomplicated diabetic group were significantly lower while in the diabetic nephropathy group was significantly higher compared to control values . There was a weak negative correlation between OC and both fasting blood glucose and glycated Hb% in the diabetic group. In diabetic nephropathy patients, a weak positive correlation was observed between OC and protein creatinine ratio. The results concluded that changes in bone remodelling marker OC are present in both DM type 2 and diabetic nephropathy explaining osteopenia and osteoporosis observed in both cases.Therefore, an effective glycaemic control should be the hallmark of prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus induced osteoporosis

  7. De Novo collapsing glomerulopathy in renal allograft in association with BK virus nephropathy in a child and stabilization of renal function by elimination of viremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D N Gera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Well-recognized association between HIV 1 infection and collapsing glomerulopathy (CG raises the possibility that intrarenal infection by other viruses may also contribute to the development of this lesion in native or post-transplant kidneys. There is evidence in literature about association of these lesions with cytomegalovirus, Epstein–Barr virus, hepatitis C virus, and parvovirus B19 infections. Here, we present a case report of post-transplant BK virus nephropathy in a male child who was found to have CG in subsequent biopsy 2 months later. His renal function and proteinuria were stabilized on elimination of viremia.

  8. Reducing the Risks for Contrast-Induced Nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacul, Fulvio

    2005-01-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is one of the most serious adverse events associated with the use of contrast media (CM). Patients who develop this complication can have increased morbidity, higher rates of mortality, lengthy hospital stays, and poor long-term outcomes. Although CIN cannot be eliminated, the chances of developing this condition can be reduced by using appropriate prevention strategies. An important first step to reduce the chance of CIN is to identify risk factors associated with this condition. Patients with a previously elevated serum creatinine level, especially when secondary to diabetic nephropathy, are at great risk for developing CIN. Other patient-related risk factors include concurrent use of nephrotoxic medications, dehydration, congestive heart failure, age greater than 70 years, and probably the presence of diabetes mellitus even if serum creatinine is normal. Adequate hydration is widely accepted as an important prophylactic measure for preventing CIN, but the optimal hydration regimen is still debatable. The risk of CIN increases with greater doses of CM, as well as with the type of CM used. A high-osmolar CM poses a greater risk of CIN than does a low-osmolar CM and, as recent but limited data suggest, the use of an iso-osmolar CM is less nephrotoxic than a low-osmolar CM in patients with renal impairment following intra-arterial procedures, although this finding needs to be verified in future clinical studies. Pharmacologic agents such as calcium channel blockers, dopamine, atrial natriuretic peptide, fenoldopam, prostaglandin E1, and endothelin receptor antagonist have not been proven effective against CIN development. Controversies still exist on the possible effectiveness of theophylline and N-acetylcysteine. Simple strategies for the prevention of CIN in at-risk patients are reviewed and unproven interventions are discussed

  9. Choroidal thickness alterations in diabetic nephropathy patients with early or no diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocasarac, Can; Yigit, Yavuz; Sengul, Erkan; Sakalar, Yildirim Beyazit

    2018-04-01

    To assess changes in choroidal thickness (CT) in diabetes patients with and without diabetic nephropathy using enhanced depth imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). Thirty-five type 2 diabetes patients with a diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy (DNP) in nephrology department and 35 type 2 diabetes patients without nephropathy (non-DNP) were included in our prospective study consecutively. The control group comprised 34 healthy individuals. CT measurements were recorded under the fovea and at 1500 µm from the foveal center in the nasal and temporal sides. The study parameters also included age, refractive error, axial length, intraocular pressure, HbA1c, glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria amount. The subfoveal, temporal and nasal choroidal thickness was noted to be thinner in patients with DNP compared with non-DNP and normal subjects (p diabetic patients when diabetic nephropathy accompanies diabetes mellitus.

  10. Acute kidney injury aggravated by treatment initiation with apixaban: Another twist of anticoagulant-related nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Brodsky

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Anticoagulant-related nephropathy (ARN was initially described in patients on warfarin (as warfarin-related nephropathy and recently in those using dabigatran. Herein, we report clinical history and kidney biopsy findings in a patient on apixaban (Eliquis. Initiation of treatment with apixaban resulted in aggravation of preexisting mild acute kidney injury (AKI. A few days after apixaban therapy, the patient became oligoanuric, and kidney biopsy showed severe acute tubular necrosis with numerous occlusive red blood cell casts. Only one out of 68 glomeruli with open capillary loops had small segmental cellular crescent. Therefore, there was major discrepancy between the degree of glomerular injury and the glomerular hematuria. Considering that the onset of this AKI was associated with apixaban treatment initiation, we propose that this patient had ARN associated with factor Xa inhibitor (apixaban, which has not previously been described. Monitoring of kidney function is recommended after initiation of anticoagulant therapy.

  11. Serum uric acid and progression of diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilemann-Lyberg, S; Lindhardt, M; Persson, Frederik

    2018-01-01

    .088). In a linear model including baseline covariates (UAER, GFR, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol) UA was associated with decline in GFR (r2 = 0.45, p type 1 diabetic patients with overt nephropathy.......AIMS: Uric acid (UA) is a risk factor for CKD. We evaluated UA in relation to change in GFR in patients with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Post hoc analysis of a trial of losartan in diabetic nephropathy, mean follow-up 3 years (IQR 1.5-3.5). UA was measured at baseline. Primary end-point was change...... in measured GFR. UA was tested in a linear regression model adjusted for known progression factors (gender, HbA1c, systolic blood pressure, cholesterol, baseline GFR and baseline urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER)). RESULTS: Baseline UA was 0.339 mmol/l (SD ±0.107), GFR 87 ml/min/1.73 m2(±23), geometric...

  12. Recent Advances in the Pathogenesis and Management of Cast Nephropathy (Myeloma Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Stringer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma is an incurable plasma cell malignancy that is often accompanied by renal failure; there are a number of potential causes of this, of which cast nephropathy is the most important. Renal failure is highly significant in myeloma, as patient survival can be stratified by the severity of the renal impairment. Consequently, there is an ongoing focus on the pathological basis of cast nephropathy and the optimal treatment regimens in this setting, including effective chemotherapy regimens to reduce light chain production and emerging extracorporeal techniques to remove circulating light chains. This paper bridges recent advances in the pathogenesis and management of cast nephropathy in multiple myeloma.

  13. What's in a Name? AIDS Dementia Complex, HIV-associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: HIV; AIDS; HIV-associated dementia (HAD); HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) .... increased survival a mixed picture is becoming more common. ... alternating sequence and memory recall of the four objects.

  14. The role of oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sheila Marques; Cordeiro, Priscilla Mendes; Watanabe, Mirian; Fonseca, Cassiane Dezoti da; Vattimo, Maria de Fatima Fernandes

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of oxidative stress in an experimental model of streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy in rats. Wistar, adult, male rats were used in the study. Animals were divided in the following groups: Citrate (control, citrate buffer 0.01M, pH 4.2 was administrated intravenously - i.v - in the caudal vein), Uninephrectomy+Citrate (left uninephrectomy-20 days before the study), DM (streptozotocin, 65 mg/kg, i.v, on the 20th day of the study), Uninephrectomy+DM. Physiological parameters (water and food intake, body weight, blood glucose, kidney weight, and relative kidney weight); renal function (creatinine clearance), urine albumin (immunodiffusion method); oxidative metabolites (urinary peroxides, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and thiols in renal tissue), and kidney histology were evaluated. Polyphagia, polydipsia, hyperglycemia, and reduced body weight were observed in diabetic rats. Renal function was reduced in diabetic groups (creatinine clearance, p < 0.05). Uninephrectomy potentiated urine albumin and increased kidney weight and relative kidney weight in diabetic animals (p < 0.05). Urinary peroxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were increased, and the reduction in thiol levels demonstrated endogenous substrate consumption in diabetic groups (p < 0.05). The histological analysis revealed moderate lesions of diabetic nephropathy. This study confirms lipid peroxidation and intense consumption of the antioxidant defense system in diabetic rats. The association of hyperglycemia and uninephrectomy resulted in additional renal injury, demonstrating that the model is adequate for the study of diabetic nephropathy.

  15. ACE variants interact with the RAS pathway to confer risk and protection against type 2 diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh; Ahuja, Monica; Rai, Taranjit Singh

    2009-01-01

    Genetic predisposition has been proposed to be a major determinant in the development of renal complications of diabetes. Among candidate genes examined for susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been found to be associated with pathogenesis......, in the present study, we evaluated the association of ACE haplotypes and the interactions of ACE, angiotensinogen (AGT), and angiotensin II receptor type I (AGTR1) gene polymorphisms with DNP in Asian Indians. We genotyped seven variants of the RAS pathway genes (ACE, AGT, and AGTR1) in type 2 diabetic cohorts...... and progression of diabetic nephropathy. However, the role of other renin-angiotensin system (RAS) polymorphisms and their possible interactions with different ACE I/D genotypes are less clearly defined. Recent studies also show that ACE haplotypes may be better predictors to disease susceptibility. Thus...

  16. Effect of nephrotoxic drugs on the development of radiation nephropathy after bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, C.A.; Fish, B.L.; Moulder, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Chronic renal failure is a significant cause of late morbidity in bone marrow transplant patients whose conditioning regimen includes total body irradiation (TBI). Radiation is a major cause of this syndrome (bone marrow transplant nephropathy), but it may not be the only cause. These studies use a rat syngeneic bone marrow transplant model to determine whether nephrotoxic agents used in conjunction with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) could be enhancing or accelerating the development of radiation nephropathy. Rats received 11-17 Gy TBI in six fractions over 3 days followed by syngeneic bone marrow transplant. In conjunction with the bone marrow transplants, animals received either no drugs, cyclosporine, amphotericin, gentamicin, or busulfan. Drugs were given in schedules analogous to their use in clinical bone marrow transplantation. Drug doses were chosen so that the drug regimen alone caused detectable acute nephrotoxicity. Animals were followed for 6 months with periodic renal function tests. Gentamicin had no apparent interactions with TBI. Amphotericin increased the incidence of engraftment failure, but did not enhance radiation nephropathy. Cyclosporin with TBI caused late morbidity that appeared to be due to neurological problems, but did not enhance radiation nephropathy. Busulfan resulted in a significant enhancement of radiation nephropathy. Of the nephrotoxins used in conjunction with bone marrow transplantation only radiation and busulfan were found to be risk factors for bone marrow transplant nephropathy. 34 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Pyelonephritis, renal scarring, and reflux nephropathy: a pediatric urologist's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Edwin A.

    2008-01-01

    Imaging of children with a clinical diagnosis of pyelonephritis is performed to characterize the extent of the infection, to identify associated renal injury and to uncover risk factors for future infections and renal damage. Although there is general agreement regarding the need for parenchymal imaging and the need to exclude processes that are either functionally or anatomically obstructive, there is controversy regarding the need for routine cystography, especially when parenchymal involvement has not been documented. A protocol that limits the use of cystography for evaluation of urinary tract infections must assume that the diagnosis of reflux is at least of variable clinical significance. It is now clear that vesicoureteral reflux and reflux nephropathy represent a diverse population that includes both congenital and acquired processes. MR imaging will improve our understanding of vesicoureteral reflux, pyelonephritis and renal scarring and might help us to identify and manage those patients most at risk for recurrent infections and renal injury. To recognize the potential contributions of this newer imaging technique it is helpful to look at our understanding of the pathophysiology of pyelonephritis, reflux and reflux nephropathy. (orig.)

  18. C1q Nephropathy: The Unique Underrecognized Pathological Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Devasahayam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available C1q nephropathy is a rare glomerular disease with characteristic mesangial C1q deposition noted on immunofluorescence microscopy. It is histologically defined and poorly understood. Light microscopic features are heterogeneous and comprise minimal change disease (MCD, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS, and proliferative glomerulonephritis. Clinical presentation is also diverse, and ranges from asymptomatic hematuria or proteinuria to frank nephritic or nephrotic syndrome in both children and adults. Hypertension and renal insufficiency at the time of diagnosis are common findings. Optimal treatment is not clear and is usually guided by the underlying light microscopic lesion. Corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment, with immunosuppressive agents reserved for steroid resistant cases. The presence of nephrotic syndrome and FSGS appear to predict adverse outcomes as opposed to favorable outcomes in those with MCD. Further research is needed to establish C1q nephropathy as a universally recognized distinct clinical entity. In this paper, we discuss the current understanding of pathogenesis, histopathology, clinical features, therapeutic options, and outcomes of C1q nephropathy.

  19. Prognostic markers of short-term mortality in AIDS-associated Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Helweg-Larsen, J; Bang, D

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since 1990, corticosteroids have been recommended as adjunctive therapy for patients with AIDS-associated Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) and respiratory failure. We hypothesized that the natural course of AIDS-associated PCP has changed in the era of adjunctive corticosteroid...

  20. Association of CTG repeat polymorphism in carnosine dipeptidase 1 (CNDP1 gene with diabetic nephropathy in north Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok K Yadav

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Compared to healthy individuals and those with diabetes but no kidney disease, patients with diabetic nephropathy exhibited lower frequencies of 5L-5L genotype and 5L allele of CNDP1 gene, suggesting that this allele might confer protection against development of kidney disease in this population.

  1. Abdominal ultrasound in AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escribano, J.; Gonzalez, J.; Alvarez, M.; Rivero, S.; Raya, J.L.; Ruza, M.

    1998-01-01

    To analyze the ultrasonography findings in abdomen in the AIDS patients in our hospital, as well as the indications for this exploration, assessing the role of abdominal ultrasound (AU). The ultrasonographic and clinical findings in 527 patients who underwent a total of 715 explorations between 1992 and 1996 were studied. Hepatomegaly and/or splenomegaly, usually homogeneous, were observed in nearly half of the studies (45%); one third of the patients with marked splenomegaly presented visceral leishmaniasis. Focal lesions in liver and/or spleen, corresponding to angiomas, abscesses, lymphomatous lesions and metastasis, were detected in 5.7% of the explorations. Thirty-five percent of the AU revealed the presence of lymphadenopathy; nodes measuring over 2.5 cm were usually related to potential treatable infection or neoplasm. Thickening of the gallbladder wall did not usually indicate the presence of acute cholecystitis unless Murphy''s sign was also detected. Bile duct dilation and wall thickening was related to opportunistic cholangitis, and the increase in the echogenicity of the renal parenchyma was linked to AIDS-related nephropathy. Despite the fact that many of findings with AU are nonspecific, we consider that this approach should be the principal diagnostic technique in AIDS patients with suspected abdominal pathology or fever of unknown origin. (Author) 43 refs,

  2. Evans Syndrome Complicated by Intratubular Hemoglobin Cast Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván González

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Evans syndrome (ES is a rare autoimmune disorder whose exact pathophysiology is unknown. It is characterized by the simultaneous or subsequent development of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA and immune thrombocytopenia (ITP. Intravascular hemolysis, with hemoglobinemia, is known to produce acute kidney injury; however, the development of intratubular hemoglobin casts (hemoglobin cast nephropathy in the setting of acute hemolysis is uncommon. Likewise, the association of ES and acute renal failure is equally uncommon. We present a case of a 7-year-old girl with ES who developed acute kidney injury in the setting of intravascular hemolysis and had widespread intratubular hemoglobin casts.

  3. Nefropatia por IgA nas espondiloartrites IgA nephropathy in spondyloarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Castelo Azevedo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Pacientes com espondiloartrites poderiam ser mais acometidos pela nefropatia por IgA do que a população geral, havendo, possivelmente, um mecanismo etiopatogênico comum. O seguinte artigo relaciona quatro casos que exemplificam essa possível associaçãoSpondyloarthritis patients can be more frequently affected by IgA nephropathy than the general population, and a common etiopathogenic mechanism can be involved. We report four cases that may exemplify that association

  4. Polyoma Virus Nephropathy, First reported case in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, N.A.; Hamid, M.H.; Bokhari, E.; El-Tayeb, A.

    2006-01-01

    Polyoma virus nephropathy (BK virus) is being recognized as an important cause of graft failure. It is usually confused with acute rejection. No cases have been reported from the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We report a case of a Saudi gentleman, who was transplanted outside the country, with persistently elevated creatinine and urethral stenosis. He was treated for acute rejection on more than one occasion with no significant improvement in his renal function. Polyoma virus nephropathy was diagnosed by detecting the virus DNA by the polychain reaction techniques (PCR). The patient's renal function stabilized after the calcineurin inhibitors were discontinued. (author)

  5. SGLT2 Protein Expression Is Increased in Human Diabetic Nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxin X.; Levi, Jonathan; Luo, Yuhuan; Myakala, Komuraiah; Herman-Edelstein, Michal; Qiu, Liru; Wang, Dong; Peng, Yingqiong; Grenz, Almut; Lucia, Scott; Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; D'Agati, Vivette D.; Koepsell, Hermann; Kopp, Jeffrey B.; Rosenberg, Avi Z.; Levi, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    There is very limited human renal sodium gradient-dependent glucose transporter protein (SGLT2) mRNA and protein expression data reported in the literature. The first aim of this study was to determine SGLT2 mRNA and protein levels in human and animal models of diabetic nephropathy. We have found that the expression of SGLT2 mRNA and protein is increased in renal biopsies from human subjects with diabetic nephropathy. This is in contrast to db-db mice that had no changes in renal SGLT2 protein expression. Furthermore, the effect of SGLT2 inhibition on renal lipid content and inflammation is not known. The second aim of this study was to determine the potential mechanisms of beneficial effects of SGLT2 inhibition in the progression of diabetic renal disease. We treated db/db mice with a selective SGLT2 inhibitor JNJ 39933673. We found that SGLT2 inhibition caused marked decreases in systolic blood pressure, kidney weight/body weight ratio, urinary albumin, and urinary thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances. SGLT2 inhibition prevented renal lipid accumulation via inhibition of carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein-β, pyruvate kinase L, SCD-1, and DGAT1, key transcriptional factors and enzymes that mediate fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis. SGLT2 inhibition also prevented inflammation via inhibition of CD68 macrophage accumulation and expression of p65, TLR4, MCP-1, and osteopontin. These effects were associated with reduced mesangial expansion, accumulation of the extracellular matrix proteins fibronectin and type IV collagen, and loss of podocyte markers WT1 and synaptopodin, as determined by immunofluorescence microscopy. In summary, our study showed that SGLT2 inhibition modulates renal lipid metabolism and inflammation and prevents the development of nephropathy in db/db mice. PMID:28196866

  6. Selecting SNPs informative for African, American Indian and European Ancestry: application to the Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert C; Elston, Robert C; Kumar, Pankaj; Knowler, William C; Abboud, Hanna E; Adler, Sharon; Bowden, Donald W; Divers, Jasmin; Freedman, Barry I; Igo, Robert P; Ipp, Eli; Iyengar, Sudha K; Kimmel, Paul L; Klag, Michael J; Kohn, Orly; Langefeld, Carl D; Leehey, David J; Nelson, Robert G; Nicholas, Susanne B; Pahl, Madeleine V; Parekh, Rulan S; Rotter, Jerome I; Schelling, Jeffrey R; Sedor, John R; Shah, Vallabh O; Smith, Michael W; Taylor, Kent D; Thameem, Farook; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Winkler, Cheryl A; Guo, Xiuqing; Zager, Phillip; Hanson, Robert L

    2016-05-04

    The presence of population structure in a sample may confound the search for important genetic loci associated with disease. Our four samples in the Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND), European Americans, Mexican Americans, African Americans, and American Indians are part of a genome- wide association study in which population structure might be particularly important. We therefore decided to study in detail one component of this, individual genetic ancestry (IGA). From SNPs present on the Affymetrix 6.0 Human SNP array, we identified 3 sets of ancestry informative markers (AIMs), each maximized for the information in one the three contrasts among ancestral populations: Europeans (HAPMAP, CEU), Africans (HAPMAP, YRI and LWK), and Native Americans (full heritage Pima Indians). We estimate IGA and present an algorithm for their standard errors, compare IGA to principal components, emphasize the importance of balancing information in the ancestry informative markers (AIMs), and test the association of IGA with diabetic nephropathy in the combined sample. A fixed parental allele maximum likelihood algorithm was applied to the FIND to estimate IGA in four samples: 869 American Indians; 1385 African Americans; 1451 Mexican Americans; and 826 European Americans. When the information in the AIMs is unbalanced, the estimates are incorrect with large error. Individual genetic admixture is highly correlated with principle components for capturing population structure. It takes ~700 SNPs to reduce the average standard error of individual admixture below 0.01. When the samples are combined, the resulting population structure creates associations between IGA and diabetic nephropathy. The identified set of AIMs, which include American Indian parental allele frequencies, may be particularly useful for estimating genetic admixture in populations from the Americas. Failure to balance information in maximum likelihood, poly-ancestry models creates biased

  7. Pseudoaneurysms of large arteries associated with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eli Piccinato

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several vascular complications are known to occur in association with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS and recent publications have called attention to the development of pseudoaneurysms of large arteries in patients with AIDS. CASE REPORT: We report on 2 patients with AIDS aged 23 and 31 years with pseudoaneurysms of the abdominal aorta and common iliac arteries. After clinical and radiological evaluation by arteriography and computed tomography, the patients were submitted to aneurysmectomy, with the placement of a patch of dacron in the first case and the interposition of a right aorto-iliac and left femoral prosthesis in the second. The second patient developed new aneurysms of the right subclavian and left popliteal arteries 2 months after surgery. Proximal ligation of the right subclavian artery was performed to treat the first aneurysm and resection and interposition of a reversed saphenous vein was carried out to treat the pseudoaneurysm of the popliteal artery. Histopathological examination of the popliteal artery revealed necrotizing arteritis.

  8. Kidney Disease in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-seropositive Patients: Absence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-associated Nephropathy was a Characteristic Feature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, J; Ganiger, V; Prakash, S; Sivasankar, M; Sunder, S; Singh, U

    2017-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can cause a broad spectrum of renal diseases. However, there is paucity of Indian data on the patterns of renal lesions in HIV-seropositive patients. The aim of the present study was to delineate the spectrum of renal lesions in HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients. In this prospective study, all HIV-positive patients of both genders aged >18 years were screened for renal disease. Patients with proteinuria of more than 1 g/24 h were subjected to renal biopsy. A total of 293 HIV-positive patients were screened; of these, 136 (46.4%) patients found to have renal involvement. Dipstick-positive proteinuria of 1+ or more was observed in 112 (38.2%) patients, and 16 (14.2%) patients had proteinuria of more than 1 g/24 h. Renal biopsy in 14 cases revealed glomerulonephritis (GN) in 12 (85.7%) (isolated GN in 4 [28.5%] and GN mixed with chronic TIN in 8 [57.1%]) patients. These include mesangioproliferative GN in 5 (35.7%), membranoproliferative GN in 2 (14.2%), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in 2 (14.2%), diffuse proliferative GN in 2 (14.2%), and diabetic nephropathy in 1 (7.1%) patients. Chronic interstitial nephritis was noted in 10 (71.42%) (superimposed on GN in 8 [57.1%], isolated in 2 [14.2%]) patients. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis was seen in 3 (24.1%) cases. GN and chronic interstitial nephritis were noted in 85.7% and 71.42% of patients, respectively, mostly superimposed on each other. Mesangioproliferative GN was the most common glomerular lesion, but classical HIV-associated nephropathy was not observed.

  9. Association between diabetic nephrology and other diabetic microvascularand macrovascular complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandy, A.; John, M.; Pawar, B.; Isaac, R.

    2008-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is found to be significantly associated withdiabetic retinopathy and coronary artery disease. Few studies have also shownan association between diabetic nephropathy and neuropathy and peripheralvascular disease. A cross sectional study was done among consecutive type 2diabetics presenting to Christian Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana fromJune 2004 to may 2005. Patients were subjected to the clinical and laboratoryinvestigations 174 patients were studied over a period of one year. Diabeticnephropathy was found to be associated with proliferative diabeticretinopathy, neuropathy and cardiovascular disease by univariate analysis. Inmultivariate analysis, diabetic nephropathy was again sufficiently associatedwith proliferative diabetic retinopathy and coronary artery disease. Weconclude that close association between diabetic nephropathy and other microand macrovascular complications exists in our Indian patients also. (author)

  10. CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS VAR. GRUBII-ASSOCIATED RENAL AMYLOIDOSIS CAUSING PROTEIN-LOSING NEPHROPATHY IN A RED KANGAROO (MACROPUS RUFUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Mary Irene; Gjeltema, Jenessa; Sheley, Matthew; Wack, Ray F

    2017-09-01

    A 10-year-old male castrated red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) presented with mandibular swelling. Examination findings included pitting edema with no dental disease evident on examination or radiographs. The results of blood work were moderate azotemia, hypoalbuminemia, and severely elevated urine protein:creatinine ratio (9.9). Radiographs showed an interstitial pattern of the caudal right lung, and an abdominal ultrasound demonstrated scant effusion. Symptomatic and empirical therapy with antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor did not resolve clinical signs. Due to poor prognosis and declining quality of life, euthanasia was elected. Necropsy revealed chronic granulomatous pneumonia of the caudal right lung lobe with intralesional Cryptococcus, identified as C. neoformans var. grubii by DNA sequencing. Severe bilateral glomerular and tubulointerstitial amyloidosis induced protein-losing nephropathy, leading to tri-cavitary effusion, subcutaneous edema, and cachexia. The authors speculate that renal amyloidosis was associated with chronic cryptococcal pneumonia in this red kangaroo.

  11. A comparison of spirapril and isradipine in patients with diabetic nephropathy and hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, K; Jensen, T; Christensen, P

    1993-01-01

    The effects of spirapril and isradipine on blood pressure, urinary albumin excretion and sodium-volume homeostasis in hypertensive insulin-dependent diabetic patients with nephropathy were assessed. Fifteen Type 1 diabetic patients aged 28-53 years with a diabetes duration of 19-37 years were...... studied. All had hypertension and diabetic nephropathy with a urinary albumin excretion of more than 300 mg/24 h. After a single blind placebo treatment period of 4 weeks the patients were randomly assigned to treatment with the calcium antagonist isradipine SRO 5 mg once daily or the ACE inhibitor...... vs 2636 +/- 194 meq/1.73 m2 (p diabetic nephropathy. Only the ACE inhibitor had demonstrable...

  12. Reduction in albuminuria predicts a beneficial effect on diminishing the progression of human diabetic nephropathy during antihypertensive treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, P; Hommel, E; Smidt, U M

    1994-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the main cause of increased mortality and morbidity in IDDM patients. The effect of antihypertensive treatment on the progression of the nephropathy is highly variable. The aim of this study was to evaluate putative predictors of the progression in diabetic nephropathy dur...

  13. Does the urinary protein pattern in AA-Amyloid nephropathy differ from that in other nephropathies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teppo, A.M.; Maury, C.P.J.

    1986-01-01

    The urinary excretion of six plasma proteins was determined in reactive (secondary) amyloidosis, in rheumatoid arthritis, in systemic lupus erythematosus, in diabetic patients, in patients with chronic glomerulonephritis and in healthy controls. The type of proteinuria in patients with amyloidosis was compared with that of other patient groups and of nephropathies due to glomerulonephritis or diabetes. In amyloidosis the excretion of lambda light chains was slightly higher and that of kappa chains slightly lower than in other proteinurias, consequently the ratio lambda/kappa chains in patients with reactive amyloidosis was higher (p ≤ 0.01) than in other patient groups or in healthy controls. In patients with moderate/heavy proteinuria the excretion of IgG compared with that of albumin was in reactive amyloidosis as well as in diabetic nephropathy lower than in glomerulonephritis (p ≤ 0.05) and suggest the higher selectivity of protein excretion in these patients than in glomerulonephritis. The finding that the ratio of excreted lambda/kappa chains in reactive amyloidosis exceeds that of normal plasma indicates in these patients either increased plasma concentration and/or decreased reabsorption of lambda light chains

  14. Gallic acid attenuates type I diabetic nephropathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garud, Mayuresh Sudamrao; Kulkarni, Yogesh Anant

    2018-02-25

    Literature suggests that TGF-β1 has a central role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy and its down regulation can improve the disease condition. Oxidative stress, generation of advanced glycation end products and activation of renin angiotensin system are the connecting links between hyperglycemia and TGF-β1 over expression. Gallic acid is a phytochemical having wide range of biological activities. Gallic acid is reported to have antioxidant and advanced glycation inhibitory activity. It has also shown inhibitory effects on angiotensin converting enzyme. Gallic acid qualifies as a drug candidate to be tested in the diabetic nephropathy, one of the important complication of diabetes. Streptozotocin (55 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) induced diabetic nephropathy was used as an experimental model. Gallic acid was evaluated for its possible effect at the dose of 20 and 40 mg/kg body weight. Gallic acid treatment significantly lowered plasma levels of the creatinine and blood urea nitrogen and elevated the levels of the protein and albumin. Gallic acid also improved creatinine clearance. Determination of oxidative stress parameters showed that the oxidative stress in kidney tissues was reduced significantly in gallic acid treated animals. Results of the plasma, urine and oxidative stress parameters were also reflected in the histopathological evaluation showing improvement in kidney pathophysiology. ELISA assay for circulating TGF-β1 evaluation and immunohistochemical study for determination of kidney expression of TGF-β1 revealed that gallic acid significantly lowered both the circulating and tissue levels of TGF-β1. Results support the hypothesis that gallic acid can be effectively used in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ichthyosiform mycosis fungoides with alopecia and atypical membranous nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe here a rare case of variant of mycosis fungoides (MF: ichthyosiform MF with alopecia and atypical membranous nephropathy. The diagnosis was made based on the following findings: generalized ichthyosis-like eruption, alopecia, enlarged superficial lymph nodes, proteinuria, and hematuria, the histological features of the skin biopsy from both ichthyotic and alopecic lesions with immunohistochemical staining, and the renal biopsy examination with immunofluorescence. The histological examination of ichthyotic and alopecic lesions displayed a predominant infiltration of atypical lymphocytes in the upper dermis with the characteristics of epidermotropism and folliculotropism. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that most infiltrated atypical lymphocytes were CD3, CD4, and CD45RO positive, whereas negative for CD5, CD7, CD20, CD30, and CD56. A renal biopsy examination revealed atypical membranous nephropathy with deposition of immunoglobulin G (IgG, IgM, IgA, C1q, and C3. In this case atypical membranous nephropathy was involved, which is very uncommon and has never been presented in the literature to date. Although ichthyosiform MF usually features a relatively favorable course, diffuse alopecia and the renal involvement in this case might indicate aggressive disease and poor prognosis.

  16. Endothelial dysfunction and inflammation predict development of diabetic nephropathy in the Irbesartan in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Microalbuminuria (IRMA 2) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Frederik; Rossing, Peter; Hovind, Peter

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate risk factors for progression from persistent microalbuminuria to diabetic nephropathy in the Irbesartan in Patients with Type 2 diabetes and Microalbuminuria (IRMA 2) study, including biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction, chronic low-grade inflammation, growth factors...... and advanced glycation end products (AGE peptides). METHODS: IRMA 2 was a 2-year multicentre, randomized, double-blind trial comparing irbesartan (150 and 300 mg once daily) versus placebo. The primary end-point was time to onset of diabetic nephropathy. Samples from a subgroup from the placebo and the 300 mg...... and vWf predicted the end-point. In addition, endothelial Z-score was associated with progression of albuminuria (p = 0.038). CONCLUSION: Endothelial dysfunction and possibly inflammation are novel predictors of progression to diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria...

  17. Transforming growth factor-β in diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Y. Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion Serum TGF-β level increases in patients of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes and in those with diabetic nephropathy. TGF-β is considered one of the major mediators of diabetic renal fibrogenesis that Results in end-stage renal disease.

  18. Contrast medium-induced nephropathy: Aspects on incidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contrast media-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a well-known complication of radiological examinations employing iodine contrast media (I-CM). The rapid development and frequent use of coronary interventions and multi-channel detector computed tomography with concomitant administration of relatively large doses of ...

  19. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 amplification limited to the circulation does not protect mice from development of diabetic nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, Jan; Ye, Minghao; Khattab, Ahmed M.; Fogo, Agnes; Martin, Aline; David, Nicolae Valentin; Kanwar, Yashpal; Osborn, Mark; Batlle, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Blockers of the renin-angiotensin system are effective in the treatment of experimental and clinical diabetic nephropathy. An approach different from blocking the formation or action of angiotensin II(1-8) that could also be effective involves fostering its degradation. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a monocarboxypeptidase than cleaves angiotensin II (1-8) to form angiotensin (1-7). Therefore, we examined the renal effects of murine recombinant ACE2 in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy as well as that of amplification of circulating ACE2 using minicircle DNA delivery prior to induction of experimental diabetes. This delivery resulted in a long-term sustained and profound increase in serum ACE2 activity and enhanced ability to metabolize an acute angiotensin II (1-8) load. In mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes pretreated with minicircle ACE2, ACE2 protein in plasma increased markedly and this was associated with a more than 100-fold increase in serum ACE2 activity. However, minicircle ACE2 did not result in changes in urinary ACE2 activity as compared to untreated diabetic mice. In both diabetic groups, glomerular filtration rate increased significantly and to the same extent as compared to non-diabetic controls. Albuminuria, glomerular mesangial expansion, glomerular cellularity and glomerular size, were all increased to a similar extent in minicircle ACE2-treated and untreated diabetic mice, as compared to non-diabetic controls. Recombinant mouse ACE2 given for 4 weeks by intraperitoneal daily injections in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy also failed to improve albuminuria or kidney pathology. Thus, a profound augmentation of ACE2 confined to the circulation failed to ameliorate the glomerular lesions and hyperfiltration characteristic of early diabetic nephropathy. These findings emphasize the importance of targeting the kidney rather than the circulatory renin angiotensin system to combat diabetic

  20. Sirtuins and renal diseases: relationship with aging and diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, Munehiro; Kume, Shinji; Takeda-Watanabe, Ai; Kanasaki, Keizo; Koya, Daisuke

    2013-02-01

    Sirtuins are members of the Sir2 (silent information regulator 2) family, a group of class III deacetylases. Mammals have seven different sirtuins, SIRT1-SIRT7. Among them, SIRT1, SIRT3 and SIRT6 are induced by calorie restriction conditions and are considered anti-aging molecules. SIRT1 has been the most extensively studied. SIRT1 deacetylates target proteins using the coenzyme NAD+ and is therefore linked to cellular energy metabolism and the redox state through multiple signalling and survival pathways. SIRT1 deficiency under various stress conditions, such as metabolic or oxidative stress or hypoxia, is implicated in the pathophysiologies of age-related diseases including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders and renal diseases. In the kidneys, SIRT1 may inhibit renal cell apoptosis, inflammation and fibrosis, and may regulate lipid metabolism, autophagy, blood pressure and sodium balance. Therefore the activation of SIRT1 in the kidney may be a new therapeutic target to increase resistance to many causal factors in the development of renal diseases, including diabetic nephropathy. In addition, SIRT3 and SIRT6 are implicated in age-related disorders or longevity. In the present review, we discuss the protective functions of sirtuins and the association of sirtuins with the pathophysiology of renal diseases, including diabetic nephropathy.

  1. Genetic variants of ACE (Insertion/Deletion) and AGT (M268T) genes in patients with diabetes and nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Rozeena; Shahid, Syed M; Mansoor, Qaisar; Ismail, Muhammad; Azhar, Abid

    2014-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been a growing epidemic worldwide and poses a major socio-economic challenge. The leading cause of DM death is nephropathy due to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This study aims to identify the possible association of I/D variants of the ACE gene and M268T (rs699) of the AGT gene of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Study subjects include 115 patients with DM, 110 with diabetic nephropathy (DN) and 110 controls. Fasting blood samples were collected for biochemical analyses and PCR amplification of specific regions of the ACE and AGT genes using primers. The distribution of ACE (I/D) II 28.8%, ID 35.6% and DD 35.6% while in DN II 24.5%, ID 41% and DD 34.5%. The AGT (M268T) genotypes were distributed in DM as TT 30.4%, MT 66.9% and MM 2.6% while in DN subjects TT 56.4%, MT 42.7% and MM 0.9%. Significant differences were observed in the DD genotype and D allele of the ACE gene and the TT genotype and T allele of AGT genes between diabetic patients with and without nephropathy. The study may conclude that the D allele polymorphism in the ACE gene and the T allele polymorphism in AGT gene may be considered as genetic risk factors for the development of nephropathy in diabetes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of chronic medical nephropathies with impaired renal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla-Palma, L.; Pozzi-Mucelli, R.S.; Cova, M.; Meduri, S.; Panzetta, G.; Galli, G.

    2000-01-01

    We examined the value of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in chronic renal disease with renal insufficiency. In 33 consecutive patients (21 vascular nephropathy, 12 glomerular nephropathy) MRI was performed using a 1.5-T unit and a body coil, with SE T1-weighted (TR/TE = 600/19 ms) and dynamic TFFE T1-weighted sequences (TR/TE = 12/5 ms, flip angle = 25 ) after manual bolus injection (via a cubital vein) of 0.1 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA-BMA. Morphological evaluation was performed in unblinded fashion by three radiologists, evaluating renal size, cortical thickness, and corticomedullary differentiation. Functional analysis was performed by one reviewer. Time-signal intensity curves, peak intensity value (P), time to peak intensity (T), and the P/T ratio were obtained at the cortex, medulla, and pyelocaliceal system of each kidney. The relationship of these parameters to serum creatinine and with creatinine clearance was investigated. A good correlation between morphological features of the kidneys and serum creatinine values was found. Morphological findings could not distinguish between vascular and glomerular nephropathies. A statistically significant correlation (P <0.01) between cortical P, cortical P/T, medullary P, and serum creatinine and creatinine clearance was found. A significant correlation (P <0.01) was also found between cortical T, medullary P/T, T of the excretory system, and creatinine clearance. The cortical T value was significantly higher (P <0.01) in vascular nephropathy than in glomerular nephropathy. Thus in patients with chronic renal failure dynamic MRI shows both morphological and functional changes. Morphological changes are correlated with the degree of renal insufficiency and not with the type of nephropathy; the functional changes seem to differ in vascular from glomerular nephropathies. (orig.)

  3. CD44 expression in IgA nephropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florquin, Sandrine; Nunziata, Raffaele; Claessen, Nike; van den Berg, Frank M.; Pals, Steven T.; Weening, Jan J.

    2002-01-01

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy is a frequent, chronic renal disease characterized by a broad spectrum of clinical presentations and pathologic findings. CD44, a family of type I transmembrane glycoproteins: involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, may orchestrate partially the cascade

  4. Diabetic nephropathy. Is end-stage renal disease inevitable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogusky, R T

    1983-10-01

    The appearance of proteinuria in an insulin-dependent diabetic patient is an ominous sign. Proteinuria heralds the presence of diabetic nephropathy and early death, or chronic renal failure requiring dialysis or transplantation, in 50% of patients. The pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy is unknown. Adequate insulin administration is the most important preventive measure. Hypertension, if present, should be aggressively treated to delay progression of renal disease. Good nutrition, prompt treatment of urinary tract infections, and caution in the use of radiocontrast agents are other important preventive measures. Hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and transplantation are options for patients with end-stage renal disease. No matter which is selected, the patient may still have multiple amputations, blindness, congestive heart failure, infections, and uncontrolled glycemia. Advancements are being made, however, that promise a better future for insulin-dependent diabetics.

  5. Association of a bitter taste receptor mutation with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wooding Stephen P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN is late-onset kidney disease thought to arise from chronic exposure to aristolochic acid, a phytotoxin that contaminates wheat supplies in rural areas of Eastern Europe. It has recently been demonstrated that humans are capable of perceiving aristolochic acid at concentrations below 40 nM as the result of high-affinity interactions with the TAS2R43 bitter taste receptor. Further, TAS2R43 harbors high-frequency loss-of-function mutations resulting in 50-fold variability in perception. This suggests that genetic variation in TAS2R43 might affect susceptibility to BEN, with individuals carrying functional forms of the receptor being protected by an ability to detect tainted foods. Methods To determine whether genetic variation in TAS2R43 predicts BEN susceptibility, we examined genotype-phenotype associations in a case–control study. A cohort of 88 affected and 99 control subjects from western Bulgaria were genotyped with respect to two key missense variants and a polymorphic whole-gene deletion of TAS2R43 (W35S, H212R, and wt/Δ, which are known to affect taste sensitivity to aristolochic acid. Tests for association between haplotypes and BEN status were then performed. Results Three major TAS2R43 haplotypes observed in previous studies (TAS2R43-W35/H212, -S35/R212 and –Δ were present at high frequencies (0.17, 0.36, and 0.47 respectively in our sample, and a significant association between genotype and BEN status was present (P = 0.020; odds ratio 1.18. However, contrary to expectation, BEN was positively associated with TAS2R43-W35/H212, a highly responsive allele previously shown to confer elevated bitter sensitivity to aristolochic acid, which should drive aversion but might also affect absorption, altering toxin activation. Conclusions Our findings are at strong odds with the prediction that carriers of functional alleles of TAS2R43 are protected from BEN by an ability to detect and

  6. Diabetic nephropathy and arterial hypertension. The effect of antihypertensive treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Andersen, A R; Smidt, U M

    1983-01-01

    method for albumin determination. Our prospective studies in young insulin-dependent diabetics with diabetic nephropathy show that the rate of decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) varies considerably, with a mean of 0.75 ml/min/mo and a range from 0.1 to 1.50 ml/min/mo, and that an increase......Our longitudinal study of urinary albumin excretion rate in long-term insulin-dependent diabetics without proteinuria (negative albustix) suggests that early detection of patients at high and low risk of developing persistent proteinuria, i.e., diabetic nephropathy, is possible by using a sensitive...

  7. Acute ciprofloxacin-induced crystal nephropathy with granulomatous interstitial nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Goli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Crystal-induced acute kidney injury (AKI is caused by the intratubular precipitation of crystals, which results in obstruction and kidney injury. Ciprofloxacin, a commonly used antibiotic, causes AKI secondary to immune-mediated interstitial injury. Rare mechanisms of ciprofloxacin-induced renal injury include crystalluria, rhabdomyolysis, and granulomatous interstitial nephritis. Clinical and experimental studies have suggested that crystalluria and crystal nephropathy due to ciprofloxacin occur in alkaline urine. Preexisting kidney function impairment, high dose of the medication, and advanced age predispose to this complication. We report a case of ciprofloxacin-induced crystal nephropathy and granulomatous interstitial nephritis in a young patient with no other predisposing factors. The patient responded to conservative treatment without the need for glucocorticoids.

  8. Factors associated with the development of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in 5,025 European patients with AIDS. AIDS in Europe Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Barton, S E; Lazzarin, A

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the factors associated with the development of a first episode of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in 5,025 patients with AIDS, including 1,976 patients with primary PCP at the time of AIDS diagnosis and 635 with primary PCP occurring subsequently. Compared with untreated...... patients, patients treated with zidovudine were at similar risk of developing PCP during the first year of therapy but were at greater risk after longer intervals of treatment. The following factors were associated with an increased risk of PCP (either at the time of AIDS diagnosis or thereafter): lack...... of primary PCP prophylaxis, male homosexuality/bisexuality, diagnosis of AIDS in northern Europe, and CD4 cell count below 200 x 10(6)/L at the time of AIDS diagnosis. Patients with severe weight loss had a 60% higher risk of developing PCP during follow-up than those without such weight loss. Thus...

  9. Potential mechanisms behind contrast medium-induced nephropathy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How contrast medium-induced nephropathy (CIN) comes about is poorly understood, although CIN is a common cause of acute renal failure. Hitherto, the various studies performed have led to different interpretations and partially contradictory conclusions. This article aimed to review the mechanisms underlying CIN and to ...

  10. Investigating the association between HIV/AIDS and recent fertility patterns in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magadi, Monica Akinyi; Agwanda, Alfred O

    2010-07-01

    Findings from previous studies linking the HIV/AIDS epidemic and fertility of populations have remained inconclusive. In sub-Saharan Africa, demographic patterns point to the epidemic resulting in fertility reduction. However, evidence from the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) has revealed interesting patterns, with regions most adversely affected with HIV/AIDS showing the clearest reversal trend in fertility decline. While there is suggestive evidence that fertility behaviour in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa has changed in relation to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, more rigorous empirical analysis is necessary to better understand this relationship. In this paper, we examine individual and contextual community HIV/AIDS factors associated with fertility patterns in Kenya, paying particular attention to possible mechanisms of the association. Multilevel models are applied to the 2003 KDHS, introducing various proximate fertility determinants in successive stages, to explore possible mechanisms through which HIV/AIDS may be associated with fertility. The results corroborate findings from earlier studies of the fertility inhibiting effect of HIV among infected women. HIV-infected women have 40 percent lower odds of having had a recent birth than their uninfected counterparts of similar background characteristics. Further analysis suggests an association between HIV/AIDS and fertility that exists through proximate fertility determinants relating to sexual exposure, breastfeeding duration, and foetal loss. While HIV/AIDS may have contributed to reduced fertility, mainly through reduced sexual exposure, there is evidence that it has contributed to increased fertility, through reduced breastfeeding and increased desire for more children resulting from increased infant/child mortality (i.e. a replacement phenomenon). In communities at advanced stages of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, it is possible that infant/child mortality has reached appreciably high levels where the

  11. Diabetic Nephropathy in Women With Preexisting Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringholm, Lene; Damm, Julie Agner; Vestgaard, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    In women with preexisting diabetes and nephropathy or microalbuminuria, it is important to deliver careful preconception counselling to assess the risk for the mother and the foetus, for optimizing glycaemic status and to adjust medical treatment. If serum creatinine is normal in early pregnancy,....... Supplementation with folic acid in early pregnancy and low-dose aspirin from 10 to 12 weeks reduces the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. During breastfeeding, several ACE inhibitors are considered safe.......In women with preexisting diabetes and nephropathy or microalbuminuria, it is important to deliver careful preconception counselling to assess the risk for the mother and the foetus, for optimizing glycaemic status and to adjust medical treatment. If serum creatinine is normal in early pregnancy......, kidney function is often preserved during pregnancy, but complications such as severe preeclampsia and preterm delivery are still common. Perinatal mortality is now comparable with that in women with diabetes and normal kidney function. Besides strict glycaemic control before and during pregnancy, early...

  12. Changes of plasma levels of homocysteine (Hcy) and urinary albumin contents in patients with type 2 diabetes complicated with nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Lili

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of plasma levels of homocysteine (Hcy) and urinary albumin contents in patients with type 2 diabetes complicated with nephropathy. Methods: Plasma Hcy (with fluorescence immunoassay) fasting glucose, BUN, Cr (with biochemistry) levels and urinary albumin contents (with RIA) were determined in 36 DM2 patients without nephropathy, 30 DM2 patients with nephropathy and 30 controls. Results: The fasting blood glucose levels in the 2 groups of diabetic patients were not much different. Again, the BUN and Cr levels in the 3 groups of patients were about the same. The plasma Hcy levels in the group of patients with diabetic nephropathy were significantly higher than those in both controls and DM2 patients without nephropathy (all P<0.01). Conclusion: Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for nephropathy in DM2 patients. (authors)

  13. A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial of Rituximab versus Cyclosporine in the Treatment of Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy (MENTOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fervenza, Fernando C; Canetta, Pietro A; Barbour, Sean J; Lafayette, Richard A; Rovin, Brad H; Aslam, Nabeel; Hladunewich, Michelle A; Irazabal, Maria V; Sethi, Sanjeev; Gipson, Debbie S; Reich, Heather N; Brenchley, Paul; Kretzler, Matthias; Radhakrishnan, Jai; Hebert, Lee A; Gipson, Patrick E; Thomas, Leslie F; McCarthy, Ellen T; Appel, Gerald B; Jefferson, J Ashley; Eirin, Alfonso; Lieske, John C; Hogan, Marie C; Greene, Eddie L; Dillon, John J; Leung, Nelson; Sedor, John R; Rizk, Dana V; Blumenthal, Samuel S; Lasic, Lada B; Juncos, Luis A; Green, Dollie F; Simon, James; Sussman, Amy N; Philibert, David; Cattran, Daniel C

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic membranous nephropathy remains the leading cause of nephrotic syndrome in Caucasian adults. Immunosuppressive therapy with cyclosporine (CSA) is often successful in reducing proteinuria, but its use is associated with a high relapse rate. Rituximab, a monoclonal antibody that specifically targets CD20 on the surface of B-cells, is effective in achieving a complete remission of proteinuria in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy. However, whether rituximab is as effective as CSA in inducing and maintaining complete or partial remission of proteinuria in these patients is unknown. The membranous nephropathy trial of rituximab (MENTOR) hypothesizes that B-cell targeting with rituximab is non-inferior to CSA in inducing long-term remission of proteinuria. Patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy, proteinuria ≥5 g/24 h, and a minimum of 3 months of Angiotensin-II blockade will be randomized into a 12-month treatment period with i.v. rituximab, 1,000 mg (2 infusions, 14 days apart; repeated at 6 months if a substantial reduction in proteinuria (equal to or >25%) is seen at 6 months) or oral CSA 3.5-5 mg/kg/day for 6 months (continued for another 6 months if a substantial reduction in proteinuria (equal to or >25%) is seen at 6 months). The efficacy of treatment will be assessed by the remission status (based on changes in proteinuria) at 24 months from randomization. Patient safety will be assessed via collection of adverse event data and evaluation of pre- and posttreatment laboratory data. At the 6-month post-randomization visit, patients who have been randomized to either CSA or rituximab but who do not have a reduction in proteinuria ≥25% (confirmed on repeat measurements within 2 weeks) will be considered treatment failures and exit the study. This study will test for the first time whether treatment with rituximab is non-inferior to CSA in inducing long-term remission (complete or partial) of proteinuria in patients with idiopathic

  14. Urinary and Blood MicroRNA-126 and -770 are Potential Noninvasive Biomarker Candidates for Diabetic Nephropathy: a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungjin; Moon, SeongRyeol; Lee, Kiyoung; Park, Ie Byung; Lee, Dae Ho; Nam, Seungyoon

    2018-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN), a major diabetic microvascular complication, has a long and growing list of biomarkers, including microRNA biomarkers, which have not been consistent across preclinical and clinical studies. This meta-analysis aims to identify significant blood- and urine-incident microRNAs as diagnostic/prognostic biomarker candidates for DN. PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library were searched from their earliest records through 12th Dec 2016. Relevant publications for the meta-analysis included (1) human participants; (2) microRNAs in blood and urine; (3) DN studies; and (4) English language. Four reviewers, including two physicians, independently and blindly extracted published data regarding microRNA profiles in blood and/or urine from subjects with diabetic nephropathy. A random-effect model was used to pool the data. Statistical associations between diabetic nephropathy and urinary or blood microRNA expression levels were assessed. Fourteen out of 327 studies (n=2,747 patients) were selected. Blood or urinary microRNA expression data of diabetic nephropathy were pooled for this analysis. The hsa-miR-126 family was significantly (OR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.44-0.74; p-value diabetic kidney disease, while its urinary level was upregulated (OR: 2931.12; 95% CI: 9.96-862623.21; p-value = 0.0059). The hsa-miR-770 family microRNA were significantly (OR: 10.24; 95% CI: 2.37-44.25; p-value = 0.0018) upregulated in both blood and urine from patients with diabetic nephropathy. Our meta-analysis suggests that hsa-miR-126 and hsa-miR-770 family microRNA may have important diagnostic and pathogenetic implications for DN, which warrants further systematic clinical studies. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Preventive Nephrology - Proposed Options in Childhood Nephropathy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three children with renal disorders managed at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital are reported as case studies to underscore the need for preventive nephrology . The first case illustrates the inevitability of rapidly progressive renal failure when remedial management desired in the early stages of the nephropathy is ...

  16. Iodinated contrast agent-induced nephropathy; Mit jodhaltigen Kontrastmitteln induzierte Nephropathie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erley, C. [St. Joseph-Krankenhaus Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a well-known complication of therapeutic and diagnostic procedures requiring contrast administration and accounts for 10% of acute renal failure in hospitalized patients. Although the incidence of this complication is relatively low, its consequences can be catastrophic. The development of CIN is associated with increased length of hospital stay, an increased requirement for acute dialysis, and an increased risk of death. Preexisting renal dysfunction, age, diabetes, congestive heart failure, and volume of administered contrast are all associated with a risk of developing CIN. Despite a large number of clinical trials that have evaluated prophylaxis strategies for CIN, no uniform strategies have been developed so far. The use of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) or theophylline in specific subgroups of patients has been shown to reduce dialysis requirement and mortality in patients undergoing angiographic procedures. Hemofiltration has also shown positive results. In this review we will discuss the epidemiology and the risk factors for CIN and the evidence for commonly employed prophylaxis strategies, and we will provide general recommendations with respect to CIN prevention and management. A practicable strategy to prevent CIN includes: correct identification of individuals at greatest risk, thorough evaluation of whether other diagnostic maneuvers could be employed instead (i.e., sonography), application of low-osmolar contrast media at the minimum acceptable dose, stopping potential nephrotoxic drugs (NSAID), hydration with sodium chloride 0.9% 1 ml/kg per h i.v. 12 h before and after CM application, administration of acetylcysteine 600 mg twice the day before and after (in cases of emergency investigation and high-risk patients 1200 mg i.v.), and theophylline (250-350 mg) the day before and the day after CM application (in cases of emergency investigation 5 mg/kg i.v.). (orig.) [German] Die Kontrastmittelnephropathie (contrast

  17. Impaired autoregulation of glomerular filtration rate in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Kastrup, Helge; Smidt, U M

    1984-01-01

    The effect of acute lowering of arterial blood pressure upon kidney function in nephropathy was studied in 13 patients with long-term Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes. Ten normal subjects (six normotensive and four hypertensive) and five short-term Type 1 diabetic patients without nephropathy...

  18. Evaluation of reflux nephropathy, pyelonephritis and renal dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grattan-Smith, J.D. [Emory University School of Medicine, Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Department of Radiology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Department of Radiology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Little, Stephen B. [Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Department of Radiology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Jones, Richard A. [Emory University School of Medicine, Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Department of Radiology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2008-01-15

    MR urography has the potential to significantly improve our understanding of the relationship between reflux nephropathy, pyelonephritis, vesicoureteric reflux and renal dysplasia. MR urography utilizes multiple parameters to assess both renal anatomy and function and provides a more complete characterization of acquired and congenital disease. Pyelonephritis and renal scarring can be distinguished by assessing the parenchymal contours and signal intensity. Characteristic imaging features of renal dysplasia include small size, subcortical cysts, disorganized architecture, decreased and patchy contrast enhancement as well as a dysmorphic pelvicalyceal system. Because of its ability to subdivide and categorize this heterogeneous group of disorders, it seems inevitable that MR urography will replace DMSA renal scintigraphy as the gold standard for assessment of pyelonephritis and renal scarring. MR urography will contribute to our understanding of renal dysplasia and its relationship to reflux nephropathy. (orig.)

  19. Evaluation of reflux nephropathy, pyelonephritis and renal dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grattan-Smith, J.D.; Little, Stephen B.; Jones, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    MR urography has the potential to significantly improve our understanding of the relationship between reflux nephropathy, pyelonephritis, vesicoureteric reflux and renal dysplasia. MR urography utilizes multiple parameters to assess both renal anatomy and function and provides a more complete characterization of acquired and congenital disease. Pyelonephritis and renal scarring can be distinguished by assessing the parenchymal contours and signal intensity. Characteristic imaging features of renal dysplasia include small size, subcortical cysts, disorganized architecture, decreased and patchy contrast enhancement as well as a dysmorphic pelvicalyceal system. Because of its ability to subdivide and categorize this heterogeneous group of disorders, it seems inevitable that MR urography will replace DMSA renal scintigraphy as the gold standard for assessment of pyelonephritis and renal scarring. MR urography will contribute to our understanding of renal dysplasia and its relationship to reflux nephropathy. (orig.)

  20. Fish Oil in Diabetic Nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Peter; Hansen, Birgitte V.; Nielsen, Flemming S.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent studies in nondiabetic kidney diseases suggest that dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (fish oil) may have beneficial effects on albuminuria, kidney function, arterial blood pressure, and dyslipidemia. Therefore, we evaluated the long-term effect of fish...... in the fish oil compared with the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: Our study does not suggest that fish oil has beneficial effects on albuminuria, kidney function, blood pressure, and dyslipidemia in normotensive IDDM patients suffering from diabetic nephropathy....

  1. Pyelonephritis, renal scarring, and reflux nephropathy: a pediatric urologist's perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Edwin A. [Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Urology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Imaging of children with a clinical diagnosis of pyelonephritis is performed to characterize the extent of the infection, to identify associated renal injury and to uncover risk factors for future infections and renal damage. Although there is general agreement regarding the need for parenchymal imaging and the need to exclude processes that are either functionally or anatomically obstructive, there is controversy regarding the need for routine cystography, especially when parenchymal involvement has not been documented. A protocol that limits the use of cystography for evaluation of urinary tract infections must assume that the diagnosis of reflux is at least of variable clinical significance. It is now clear that vesicoureteral reflux and reflux nephropathy represent a diverse population that includes both congenital and acquired processes. MR imaging will improve our understanding of vesicoureteral reflux, pyelonephritis and renal scarring and might help us to identify and manage those patients most at risk for recurrent infections and renal injury. To recognize the potential contributions of this newer imaging technique it is helpful to look at our understanding of the pathophysiology of pyelonephritis, reflux and reflux nephropathy. (orig.)

  2. Leptospira seropositivity as a risk factor for Mesoamerican Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riefkohl, Alejandro; Ramírez-Rubio, Oriana; Laws, Rebecca L; McClean, Michael D; Weiner, Daniel E; Kaufman, James S; Galloway, Renee L; Shadomy, Sean V; Guerra, Marta; Amador, Juan José; Sánchez, José Marcel; López-Pilarte, Damaris; Parikh, Chirag R; Leibler, Jessica H; Brooks, Daniel R

    2017-01-01

    Leptospirosis is postulated as a possible cause of Mesoamerican Nephropathy (MeN) in Central American workers. Investigate job-specific Leptospira seroprevalence and its association with kidney disease biomarkers. In 282 sugarcane workers, 47 sugarcane applicants and 160 workers in other industries, we measured anti-leptospiral antibodies, serum creatinine, and urinary injury biomarkers, including neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), interleukin-18 (IL-18), and N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase (NAG). Leptospira seroprevalence differed among job categories and was highest among sugarcane cutters (59%). Seropositive sugarcane workers had higher NGAL concentrations (relative mean: 1.28; 95% CI: 0.94-1.75) compared to those who were seronegative, with similar findings among field and non-field workers. Leptospira seroprevalence varied by job category. There was some indication that seropositivity was associated with elevated biomarker levels, but results were inconsistent. Additional studies may help establish whether Leptospira infection plays any role in MeN among Central American workers.

  3. HIV/AIDS misconceptions may be associated with condom use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV/AIDS misconceptions may be associated with condom use among black South Africans: an exploratory analysis. Laura M Bogart, Donald Skinner, Lance S Weinhardt, Laura Glasman, Cheryl Sitzler, Yoesrie Toefy, Seth C Kalichman ...

  4. Nitric Oxide Synthesis Is Reduced in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes and Nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Tessari, Paolo; Cecchet, Diego; Cosma, Alessandra; Vettore, Monica; Coracina, Anna; Millioni, Renato; Iori, Elisabetta; Puricelli, Lucia; Avogaro, Angelo; Vedovato, Monica

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Nitric oxide (NO) is a key metabolic and vascular regulator. Its production is stimulated by insulin. A reduced urinary excretion of NO products (NOx) is frequently found in type 2 diabetes, particularly in association with nephropathy. However, whether the decreased NOx excretion in type 2 diabetes is caused by a defective NOx production from arginine in response to hyperinsulinemia has never been studied. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We measured NOx fractional (FSR) and absolute (A...

  5. Anti-alpha-galactosyl antibodies and immune complexes in children with Henoch-Schönlein purpura or IgA nephropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davin, J. C.; Malaise, M.; Foidart, J.; Mahieu, P.

    1987-01-01

    Episodes of hematuria in IgA nephropathy or Henoch-Schönlein purpura are frequently associated with microbial infections. Some of those infectious agents bear alpha-galactosyl residues on their cell surface. These observations prompted us to determine, by passive hemagglutination, the titers of

  6. Relationship between serum bilirubin concentrations and diabetic nephropathy in Shanghai Han's patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Haibing; Guo, Kaifeng; Yu, Haoyong; Zhou, Jian; Li, Ming; Li, Qing; Li, Lianxi; Yin, Jun; Liu, Fang; Bao, Yuqian; Han, Junfeng; Jia, Weiping

    2017-03-31

    Recent studies highlight a negative association between total bilirubin concentrations and albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our study evaluated the relationship between bilirubin concentrations and the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in Chinese patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). A total of 258 patients with T1DM were recruited and bilirubin concentrations were compared between patients with or without diabetic nephropathy. Multiple stepwise regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between bilirubin concentrations and 24 h urinary microalbumin. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess independent risk factors for diabetic nephropathy. Participants were divided into four groups according to the quartile of total bilirubin concentrations (Q1, 0.20-0.60; Q2, 0.60-0.80; Q3, 0.80-1.00; Q4, 1.00-1.90 mg/dL) and the chi-square test was used to compare the prevalence of DN in patients with T1DM. The median bilirubin level was 0.56 (interquartile: 0.43-0.68 mg/dL) in the DN group, significantly lower than in the non-DN group (0.70 [interquartile: 0.58-0.89 mg/dL], P 1). Spearman's correlational analysis showed bilirubin concentrations were inversely correlated with 24 h urinary microalbumin (r = -0.13, P 1.90% to 2.00%. High bilirubin concentrations are independently and negatively associated with albuminuria and the prevalence of DN in patients with T1DM.

  7. Contrast media-induced nephropathy: how has Italy contributed in the past 30 years? A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sessa M

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Maurizio Sessa,1,* Claudia Rossi,2,* Annamaria Mascolo,1 Cristina Scavone,1 Gabriella di Mauro,1 Roberto Grassi,2 Liberata Sportiello,1 Salvatore Cappabianca,2 Concetta Rafaniello1 1Section of Pharmacology “L Donatelli”, Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Campania “L Vanvitelli”, Naples, Italy; 2Section of Radiology and Radiotherapy, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine “Magrassi-Lanzara”, University of Campania “L Vanvitelli”, Naples, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Background and objective: The use of contrast media in Italy has exponentially increased in the past 3 decades. However, it is unknown whether there has been an increase in clinical research evaluating the risks associated with contrast media usage, especially regarding contrast-induced nephropathy. To fill this gap in knowledge, we performed a systematic review.Study eligibility criteria: Meta-analyses, observational studies, and clinical trials assessing contrast media-induced nephropathy as the safety outcome, in which at least one author was affiliated with an Italian university/health care structure, were eligble.Data sources: Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Cochrane Methodology Register, and Web of Science were screened.Participants: Men and women exposed to contrast media.Results: In total, 60 original articles were retrieved with an incremental trend between 1990 and 2017. Cohort studies were the most common study design represented. In total, 45 of 60 (75.0% studies were monocenter studies and 41 of 60 (68.3% received no funding. In all, 91.7% of studies disclosed no conflicts of interest and 81.7% had no external collaboration. Most of the studies provided a level of evidence of III-2 (32/60; 53.3% and II (23/60; 38.3%. In total, 50 of 60 studies (83.3% were published in a scientific journal ranked in the first quartile of their subject area.Conclusion: There was an increased number of studies evaluating

  8. Proteases and protease inhibitors of urinary extracellular vesicles in diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Luca; Tataruch, Dorota; Gu, Dongfeng; Liu, Xinyu; Forsblom, Carol; Groop, Per-Henrik; Holthofer, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the major complications of diabetes mellitus (DM), leads to chronic kidney disease (CKD), and, ultimately, is the main cause for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Beyond urinary albumin, no reliable biomarkers are available for accurate early diagnostics. Urinary extracellular vesicles (UEVs) have recently emerged as an interesting source of diagnostic and prognostic disease biomarkers. Here we used a protease and respective protease inhibitor array to profile urines of type 1 diabetes patients at different stages of kidney involvement. Urine samples were divided into groups based on the level of albuminuria and UEVs isolated by hydrostatic dialysis and screened for relative changes of 34 different proteases and 32 protease inhibitors, respectively. Interestingly, myeloblastin and its natural inhibitor elafin showed an increase in the normo- and microalbuminuric groups. Similarly, a characteristic pattern was observed in the array of protease inhibitors, with a marked increase of cystatin B, natural inhibitor of cathepsins L, H, and B as well as of neutrophil gelatinase-associated Lipocalin (NGAL) in the normoalbuminuric group. This study shows for the first time the distinctive alterations in comprehensive protease profiles of UEVs in diabetic nephropathy and uncovers intriguing mechanistic, prognostic, and diagnostic features of kidney damage in diabetes.

  9. Proteases and Protease Inhibitors of Urinary Extracellular Vesicles in Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Musante

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is one of the major complications of diabetes mellitus (DM, leads to chronic kidney disease (CKD, and, ultimately, is the main cause for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD. Beyond urinary albumin, no reliable biomarkers are available for accurate early diagnostics. Urinary extracellular vesicles (UEVs have recently emerged as an interesting source of diagnostic and prognostic disease biomarkers. Here we used a protease and respective protease inhibitor array to profile urines of type 1 diabetes patients at different stages of kidney involvement. Urine samples were divided into groups based on the level of albuminuria and UEVs isolated by hydrostatic dialysis and screened for relative changes of 34 different proteases and 32 protease inhibitors, respectively. Interestingly, myeloblastin and its natural inhibitor elafin showed an increase in the normo- and microalbuminuric groups. Similarly, a characteristic pattern was observed in the array of protease inhibitors, with a marked increase of cystatin B, natural inhibitor of cathepsins L, H, and B as well as of neutrophil gelatinase-associated Lipocalin (NGAL in the normoalbuminuric group. This study shows for the first time the distinctive alterations in comprehensive protease profiles of UEVs in diabetic nephropathy and uncovers intriguing mechanistic, prognostic, and diagnostic features of kidney damage in diabetes.

  10. Radon inhalation suppresses nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced type-1 diabetic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, Yuichi; Kataoka, Takahiro; Yamato, Keiko; Etani, Reo; Taguchi, Takehito; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the suppressive effects of radon inhalation against nephropathy in C57BL/6J mice with type-1 diabetes induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg weight, given five times). Four weeks after diabetes induction, the diabetic mice were continuously treated with inhaled radon-222 of 2000 Bq/m3 or air only (sham) for four weeks. The results showed that radon inhalation did not affect type-1 diabetic symptoms such as body weight loss, hyperglycemia, and hypoinsulinemia. However, diabetic mice treated with radon showed lower urinary albumin excretion and fibrotic change in renal glomeruli compared with diabetic mice not treated with radon. Furthermore, renal superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione content were significantly higher in diabetic mice treated with radon than in diabetic mice not treated with radon. These findings suggested that radon inhalation enhanced renal antioxidants activities, resulting in the suppression of diabetic nephropathy. This study may contribute to the development of a novel approach in the treatment of nephropathy for diabetic patients. (author)

  11. Hypertension-attributed nephropathy: what's in a name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Barry I; Cohen, Arthur H

    2016-01-01

    Unrelated disease processes commonly occur in non-diabetic individuals with mild-to-moderate hypertension and low level or absent proteinuria who present with chronic kidney disease: primary glomerulosclerosis in those with recent African ancestry, and arteriolar nephrosclerosis with resultant glomerular ischaemia potentially related to hypertension and vascular disease risk factors in other cases. Unfortunately, nephrologists often indiscriminately apply a diagnosis of 'hypertensive nephrosclerosis' to patients in either scenario, which implies that the hypertension is causative of their renal disease. Although nephropathies that are associated with variants in the apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) often cause secondarily elevated blood pressure, they belong to the spectrum of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and are not initiated by systemic hypertension. Because genetic testing for APOL1 variants and other glomerulosclerosis-associated gene variants is available and can provide a precise definition of disease pathogenesis, we believe that the term 'hypertensive nephrosclerosis' should now be abandoned and replaced with either gene-based (for example, APOL1-associated) glomerulosclerosis or arteriolar nephrosclerosis. Precision medicine will be key to improving diagnostic accuracy in this field. Discrimination of these disparate disorders has the potential to eradicate primary forms of glomerulosclerosis that are associated with APOL1 renal-risk variants.

  12. Comprehensive approach to diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bancha Satirapoj

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with diabetes. This complication reflects a complex pathophysiology, whereby various genetic and environmental factors determine susceptibility and progression to end-stage renal disease. DN should be considered in patients with type 1 diabetes for at least 10 years who have microalbuminuria and diabetic retinopathy, as well as in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes with macroalbuminuria in whom other causes for proteinuria are absent. DN may also present as a falling estimated glomerular filtration rate with albuminuria as a minor presenting feature, especially in patients taking renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi. The pathological characteristic features of disease are three major lesions: diffuse mesangial expansion, diffuse thickened glomerular basement membrane, and hyalinosis of arterioles. Functionally, however, the pathophysiology is reflected in dysfunction of the mesangium, the glomerular capillary wall, the tubulointerstitium, and the vasculature. For all diabetic patients, a comprehensive approach to management including glycemic and hypertensive control with RAASi combined with lipid control, dietary salt restriction, lowering of protein intake, increased physical activity, weight reduction, and smoking cessation can reduce the rate of progression of nephropathy and minimize the risk for cardiovascular events. This review focuses on the latest published data dealing with the mechanisms, diagnosis, and current treatment of DN.

  13. Contribution of glomerular morphometry to the diagnosis of pediatric nephropathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Barreto Marini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Only a few studies describe histopathological changes in renal biopsies performed in pediatric patients. This study was conducted to identify an association between morphometric data in renal biopsies and renal function of these patients. Fifty-nine individuals with ages between 2 and 18 years old were selected, who were divided into six groups consisting of frequent nephropathies in children and adolescents and one control group. Proteinuria, urea, and creatinine values of the patients were recorded. Interactive image analysis software Leica QWin[®]was used for morpho- metric analysis of Bowman′s capsule, glomerular capillary tuft, and Bowman′s space area. The mean glomerular tuft area was higher in the membranous glomerulopathy group than in the podo- cytopathy group (57,101 ± 25,094 vs. 27,420 c ± 6279 µm2; P <0.05. The median of Bowman′s space area was higher in the control group than in the podocytopathy group and in the thin basement membrane/Alport syndrome group [12,210 (7676-26,945 vs. 5801 (3031-7852 µm2; P <0.01 and 12210 (7676-26,945 vs. 4183 (3797-7992 µm2; P <0.01, respectively]. There was a positive and significant correlation between Bowman′s capsule area and the levels of proteinuria, creatinine, and urea of the patients, as well as between the glomerular tuft area and the levels of proteinuria, creatinine, and urea in the patients, regardless of their nephropathy. Glomerular morphometry may contribute to the diagnosis of some glomerulopathies and the association between glomerular morphometric parameters, and laboratory data may promote a better understanding of the prognosis of these patients.

  14. Endothelin receptor a blockade is an ineffective treatment for adriamycin nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick J Tan

    Full Text Available Endothelin is a vasoconstricting peptide that plays a key role in vascular homeostasis, exerting its biologic effects via two receptors, the endothelin receptor A (ETA and endothelin receptor B (ETB. Activation of ETA and ETB has opposing actions, in which hyperactive ETA is generally vasoconstrictive and pathologic. Selective ETA blockade has been shown to be beneficial in renal injuries such as diabetic nephropathy and can improve proteinuria. Atrasentan is a selective pharmacologic ETA blocker that preferentially inhibits ETA activation. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of ETA blockade by atrasentan in ameliorating proteinuria and kidney injury in murine adriamycin nephropathy, a model of human focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. We found that ETA expression was unaltered during the course of adriamycin nephropathy. Whether initiated prior to injury in a prevention protocol (5 mg/kg/day, i.p. or after injury onset in a therapeutic protocol (7 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg three times a week, i.p., atrasentan did not significantly affect the initiation and progression of adriamycin-induced albuminuria (as measured by urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratios. Indices of glomerular damage were also not improved in atrasentan-treated groups, in either the prevention or therapeutic protocols. Atrasentan also failed to improve kidney function as determined by serum creatinine, histologic damage, and mRNA expression of numerous fibrosis-related genes such as collagen-I and TGF-β1. Therefore, we conclude that selective blockade of ETA by atrasentan has no effect on preventing or ameliorating proteinuria and kidney injury in adriamycin nephropathy.

  15. Total saponin of Dioscoreae hypoglaucae rhizoma ameliorates streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo C

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Changrun Guo,1 Gang Ding,2 Wenzhe Huang,2 Zhenzhong Wang,2 Zhaoqing Meng,1,2 Wei Xiao2 1State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 2Jiangsu Kanion Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd, Lianyungang City, People’s Republic of China Background: Diabetic nephropathy has become the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Therefore, there is an urgent need for more effective and safer drugs for use in this condition.Purpose: The aims of this study were to investigate the ameliorative effects of total saponin of Dioscoreae hypoglaucae rhizoma (TSD on diabetic nephropathy and to explore the potential underlying mechanism(s.Methods: Rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were orally treated with TSD at 40, 80, and 160 mg/kg/d for 12 weeks. At the end of the treatment, blood, urine, and kidneys were collected for biochemical and histological examination.Results: The results demonstrated that TSD significantly decreased the fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, urinary protein, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen levels in diabetic rats. The results of histological examinations showed that TSD ameliorated glomerular and tubular pathological changes in diabetic rats. Furthermore, TSD significantly prevented oxidative stress and reduced the renal levels of advanced glycation end products, transforming growth factor-β1, connective tissue growth factor, and tumor necrosis factor-α.Conclusion: This study demonstrated the renoprotective effects of TSD in experimental diabetic nephropathy via a number of different mechanisms. Keywords: total saponin of Dioscoreae hypoglaucae rhizoma, diabetic nephropathy, oxidative stress, AGEs, TGF-β1

  16. Clinical and pathological analysis of IgA nephropathy with chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuyuan; Hu, Qinfeng; Shen, Ping; Tang, Li; Yuan, Gang; Zhou, Yongmei; Chai, Huaqi

    2016-10-01

    To investigative clinical and pathological characteristics of IgA nephropathy with chronic renal failure. Clinical and pathological findings from 65 cases of IgA nephropathy with chronic renal failure were reviewed. Pathological characteristics of all the cases were analyzed according to WHO definition and Oxford Classification. Evaluating the severity of pathological lesions by the Katafuchi R semiquantitative scoring system, and analyzing their relationship with clinical indexes of renal function. Of all 65 cases the male and female ratio was 1.4, and the mean age was 37 ± 13 years old. Levels of systolic pressure, mean arterial pressure (MAP), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Scr), uric acid (UA), album (Alb), serum IgG and 24 h urinary protein were related with eGRF level (p  0.05). IgA nephropathy with chronic renal failure usually occurred in young adults, and it had severe clinical condition and pathological changes, while there was no significant relationship between them.

  17. Podocyte Pathology and Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eMerscher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids are components of the lipid rafts in plasma membranes, which are important for proper function of podocytes, a key element of the glomerular filtration barrier. Research revealed an essential role of sphingolipids and sphingolipid metabolites in glomerular disorders of genetic and non-genetic origin. The discovery that glucocerebrosides accumulate in Gaucher disease in glomerular cells and are associated with clinical proteinuria initiated intensive research into the function of other sphingolipids in glomerular disorders. The accumulation of sphingolipids in other genetic diseases including Tay-Sachs, Sandhoff, Fabry, hereditary inclusion body myopathy 2, Niemann-Pick and nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type and its implications with respect to glomerular pathology will be discussed. Similarily, sphingolipid accumulation occurs in glomerular diseases of non-genetic origin including diabetic kidney disease (DKD, HIV-associated nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS and lupus nephritis. Sphingomyelin metabolites, such as ceramide, sphingosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate have also gained tremendous interest. We recently described that sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase acid-like 3b (SMPDL3b is expressed in podocytes where it modulates acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase activity and acts as a master modulator of danger signaling. Decreased SMPDL3b expression in post-reperfusion kidney biopsies from transplant recipients with idiopathic FSGS correlates with the recurrence of proteinuria in patients and in experimental models of xenotransplantation. Increased SMPDL3b expression is associated with DKD. The consequences of differential SMPDL3b expression in podocytes in these diseases with respect to their pathogenesis will be discussed. Finally, the role of sphingolipids in the formation of lipid rafts in podocytes and their contribution to the maintenance of a functional slit diaphragm in the glomerulus will be discussed.

  18. National HIV/AIDS mortality, prevalence, and incidence rates are associated with the Human Development Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Li-Xia; Chen, Yi; Yu, Chao-Hui; Li, You-Ming; Ye, Juan

    2014-10-01

    HIV/AIDS is a worldwide threat to human health with mortality, prevalence, and incidence rates varying widely. We evaluated the association between the global HIV/AIDS epidemic and national socioeconomic development. We obtained global age-standardized HIV/AIDS mortality, prevalence, and incidence rates from World Health Statistics Report of the World Health Organization. The human development indexes (HDIs) of 141 countries were obtained from a Human Development Report. Countries were divided into 4 groups according to the HDI distribution. We explored the association between HIV/AIDS epidemic and HDI information using Spearman correlation analysis, regression analysis, and the Kruskal-Wallis test. HIV/AIDS mortality, prevalence, and incidence rates were inversely correlated with national HDI (r = -0.675, -0.519, and -0.398, respectively; P birth, mean years of schooling, expected years of schooling, and gross national income per capita). Low HDI countries had higher HIV/AIDS mortality, prevalence, and incidence rates than that of medium, high, and very high HDI countries. Quantile regression results indicated that HDI had a greater negative effect on the HIV/AIDS epidemic in countries with more severe HIV/AIDS epidemic. Less-developed countries are likely to have more severe HIV/AIDS epidemic. There is a need to pay more attention to HIV/AIDS control in less-developed countries, where lower socioeconomic status might have accelerated the HIV/AIDS epidemic more rapidly. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic Variation in the Matrix Metalloproteinase Genes and Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Kure, Masahiko; Pezzolesi, Marcus G.; Poznik, G. David; Katavetin, Pisut; Skupien, Jan; Dunn, Jonathon S.; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Warram, James H.; Krolewski, Andrzej S.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic data support the notion that polymorphisms in members of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family of genes play an important role in extracellular matrix remodeling and contribute to the pathogenesis of vascular disease. To identify novel genetic markers for diabetic nephropathy (DN), we examined the relationship between MMP gene polymorphisms and DN in the Genetics of Kidneys in Diabetes (GoKinD) population. Genotypic data from the Genetic Association Information Network (GAIN) type...

  20. Association of TLR7 variants with AIDS-like disease and AIDS vaccine efficacy in rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman A Siddiqui

    Full Text Available In HIV infection, TLR7-triggered IFN-α production exerts a direct antiviral effect through the inhibition of viral replication, but may also be involved in immune pathogenesis leading to AIDS. TLR7 could also be an important mediator of vaccine efficacy. In this study, we analyzed polymorphisms in the X-linked TLR7 gene in the rhesus macaque model of AIDS. Upon resequencing of the TLR7 gene in 36 rhesus macaques of Indian origin, 12 polymorphic sites were detected. Next, we identified three tightly linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP as being associated with survival time. Genotyping of 119 untreated, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV-infected male rhesus macaques, including an 'MHC adjusted' subset, revealed that the three TLR7 SNPs are also significantly associated with set-point viral load. Surprisingly, this effect was not observed in 72 immunized SIV-infected male monkeys. We hypothesize (i that SNP c.13G>A in the leader peptide is causative for the observed genotype-phenotype association and that (ii the underlying mechanism is related to RNA secondary structure formation. Therefore, we investigated a fourth SNP (c.-17C>T, located 17 bp upstream of the ATG translation initiation codon, that is also potentially capable of influencing RNA structure. In c.13A carriers, neither set-point viral load nor survival time were related to the c.-17C>T genotype. In c.13G carriers, by contrast, the c.-17C allele was significantly associated with prolonged survival. Again, no such association was detected among immunized SIV-infected macaques. Our results highlight the dual role of TLR7 in immunodeficiency virus infection and vaccination and imply that it may be important to control human AIDS vaccine trials, not only for MHC genotype, but also for TLR7 genotype.

  1. Chemical substances as risk factors of nephropathy in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Marchewka

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Although diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease, does not fall into the group of diseases induced by toxic substances or environmental pollution, there is much evidence that some chemicals have considerable importance in its development. Exposure to substances with potential renal toxicity is especially dangerous for diabetics because it accelerates and intensifies diabetic nephropathy. This paper discusses the relationship between the xenobiotics and the development of diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy with particular emphasis on those substances that causes the greatest damage to the kidneys. These are cadmium, iron, lead, arsenic, polychlorinated organic compounds, nitrogen compounds, and contrast agents. In addition, the mechanisms of diabetes mellitus induction or kidney damage by these xenobiotics are described.

  2. The association between HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and perception of risk for infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndugwa Kabwama, Steven; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review tries to elucidate the association between what people know about HIV/AIDS and how they perceive their risk of infection. The initial search for articles yielded 1,595 abstracts, 16 of which met the inclusion criteria. Five studies found a positive correlation, four reported...... a negative correlation and seven found no association between knowledge and risk perception. It was found that the existing psychometrically sound measure of HIV/AIDS risk perception had not been used in any of the studies. The context in which the risk is assessed is pivotal to whether an association...... between knowledge and the perceived risk is found. Biases in judgement such as optimistic bias, psychological distancing, anchoring bias and overconfidence also explain how knowledge may fail to predict risk perception. It was concluded that the association between HIV/AIDS knowledge and risk perception...

  3. Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Nephropathy with Early Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Guillermina Miranda-Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM and the secondary kidney damage produces diabetic nephropathy (DN. Early nephropathy is defined as the presence of microalbuminuria (30–300 mg/day, including normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR or a mildly decreased GFR (60–89 mL/min/1.73 m2, with or without overt nephropathy. The earliest change caused by DN is hyperfiltration with proteinuria. The acceptable excretion rate of albumin in urine is 300 mg/day. Chronic kidney disease (CKD is characterized by abnormalities in renal function that persist for >3 months with health implications. Alterations in the redox state in DN are caused by the persistent state of hyperglycemia and the increase in advanced glycation end products (AGEs with ability to affect the renin-angiotensin system and the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β, producing chronic inflammation and glomerular and tubular hypertrophy and favoring the appearance of oxidative stress. In DN imbalance between prooxidant/antioxidant processes exists with an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS. The overproduction of ROS diminishes expression of the antioxidant enzymes (manganese superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase. The early detection of CKD secondary to DN and the timely identification of patients would permit decreasing its impact on health.

  4. Vorapaxar treatment reduces mesangial expansion in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waasdorp, Maaike; Duitman, JanWillem; Florquin, Sandrine; Spek, C Arnold

    2018-04-24

    Twenty years after the onset of diabetes, up to 40% of patients develop diabetic nephropathy. Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) has recently been shown to aggravate the development of experimental diabetic nephropathy. PAR-1 deficient mice develop less albuminuria and glomerular lesions and PAR-1 stimulation induces proliferation and fibronectin production in mesangial cells in vitro . Vorapaxar is a clinically available PAR-1 inhibitor which is currently used for secondary prevention of ischemic events. The aim of this study was to investigate in a preclinical setting whether vorapaxar treatment may be a novel strategy to reduce diabetes-induced kidney damage. While control treated diabetic mice developed significant albuminuria, mesangial expansion and glomerular fibronectin deposition, diabetic mice on vorapaxar treatment did not show any signs of kidney damage despite having similar levels of hyperglycemia. These data show that PAR-1 inhibition by vorapaxar prevents the development of diabetic nephropathy in this preclinical animal model for type I diabetes and pinpoint PAR-1 as a novel therapeutic target to pursue in the setting of diabetic nephropathy. 22 C57Bl/6 mice were made diabetic using multiple low-dose streptozotocin injections (50 mg/kg) and 22 littermates served as non-diabetic controls. Four weeks after the induction of diabetes, 11 mice of each group were assigned to control or vorapaxar treatment. Mice were sacrificed after 20 weeks of treatment and kidney damage was evaluated.

  5. Uric acid as a mediator of diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalal, Diana I; Maahs, David M; Hovind, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Despite advances in the management of patients with diabetes, diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains the most common cause of end-stage renal disease in the United States and worldwide. Inflammation and endothelial dysfunction appear to play a central role in the onset and the progression of DN. Recen...

  6. Increased left ventricular mass in normotensive type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sato, A; Tarnow, L; Parving, H H

    1998-01-01

    in normotensive type 1 diabetic patients with and without nephropathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: M-mode and Doppler echocardiography was performed in 17 type 1 diabetic patients with nephropathy (albuminuria [median (range)], 345 (135-2,846) mg/24 h) and compared with 34 normotensive, normoalbuminuric (10 [3......-30] mg/24 h) type 1 diabetic patients matched for arterial blood pressure (mean +/- SD) ([134/77] +/- [13/7] vs. [129/78] +/- [12/7] mmHg), age (40 +/- 11 vs. 42 +/- 10 years), duration of diabetes (28 +/- 7 vs. 28 +/- 6 years), and BMI (24.2 +/- 4.2 vs. 24.6 +/- 2.4 kg/m2). RESULTS: Left ventricular......OBJECTIVE: Diabetic nephropathy increases the risk of premature cardiovascular disease and sudden death, particularly in type 1 diabetic patients. One possible mechanism for this risk may be left ventricular hypertrophy. In our study, we aimed to evaluate left ventricular structure and function...

  7. Effects of nisoldipine and lisinopril on left ventricular mass and function in diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, L; Sato, A; Ali, S

    1999-01-01

    hypertensive type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy enrolled in a 1-year, randomized, double-blind, parallel study of antihypertensive treatment with nisoldipine CC (20-40 mg/day) or lisinopril (10-20 mg/day). Ambulatory 24-h blood pressure was measured with the Takeda TM 2420 device (A & D, Tokyo......, respectively, and did not change during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Antihypertensive treatment with nisoldipine or lisinopril to bring diastolic blood pressure level within the normal target range does not hinder a rise in LVMI in type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy.......OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of the calcium channel blocker, nisoldipine, and the ACE inhibitor, lisinopril, on left ventricular mass (LVM) and systolic function in type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: M-mode echocardiography was performed in 50...

  8. Left ventricular hypertrophy in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients with and without diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, F S; Ali, S; Rossing, P

    1997-01-01

    patients with normoalbuminuria (42 males, 61 +/- 7 years, group 2), and 22 non-diabetic control subjects (15 males, 58 +/- 8 years, group 3) were investigated. Previous antihypertensive treatment was withdrawn 2 weeks before the study. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and systolic function were......(-2), respectively (p prevalence of LVH was 42% (95% CI, 23-63) and 14% (95% CI, 2-43) (p = 0.07) in these two groups, respectively. In conclusion, normotensive and hypertensive NIDDM patients with and without diabetic nephropathy frequently suffer from LVH and relatively reduced......The aim of our cross-sectional case-control study was to evaluate putative mechanisms of the increased cardiac morbidity and mortality in NIDDM patients with or without diabetic nephropathy. Fifty-one NIDDM patients with diabetic nephropathy (38 males, age 61 +/- 8 years, group 1), 53 NIDDM...

  9. Valsartan combined with clopidogrel and/or leflunomide for the treatment of progressive immunoglobulin A nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Genyang; Liu, Dongwei; Margetts, Peter; Liu, Limin; Zhao, Zhanzheng; Liu, Zhangsuo; Tang, Lin; Fang, Yudong; Li, Haijian; Guo, Yuanyuan; Chen, Fengmei; Liu, Fengxun

    2015-02-01

    The current standard treatment for IgA nephropathy relies on steroid and/or immunosuppressive therapy and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB). This study examines the benefits and safety of combining valsartan with clopidogrel and leflunomide as a treatment for progressive IgA nephropathy. Patients with primary IgA nephropathy, confirmed by renal biopsy, were recruited for this study. Patients were separated into four groups (n = 42 each) after 2 months of run-in period of valsartan treatment. All patients were treated with valsartan alone (Group 1) or valsartan and either clopidogrel (Group 2) or leflunomide (Group 3) or both clopidogrel and leflunomide (Group 4). Each group was followed up for their next 24 months for 24 h urinary protein excretion, serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to assess the effect of the treatment. Adverse effects were recorded concurrently to evaluate the safety of the treatment. Of all 168 patients, 107 were males and 61 were females, with an average age of 33.8 ± 8.79 years. Baseline characteristics were comparable among the four groups (P > 0.05) prior to the experimental treatment. There was a significant (P Valsartan combined with Clopidogrel and Leflunomide can reduce the urinary proteins loss and renal function deterioration for IgA nephropathy patients and cause minimal adverse reactions. Our study suggests a new clinical treatment option for IgA nephropathy. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  10. Successful use of combined high cut-off haemodialysis and bortezomib for acute kidney injury associated with myeloma cast nephropathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ward, F

    2012-05-01

    We present the case of a 58-year old female with de novo dialysis-dependent acute kidney injury (AKI) secondary to myeloma cast nephropathy. The patient underwent extended high cut-off haemodialysis (HCO-HD), in conjunction with bortezomib-based chemotherapy, and soon became dialysis independent with normal renal function. To our knowledge, this is the first time this treatment strategy has been employed successfully in an Irish centre.

  11. Prevention of diabetic nephropathy by compound 21, selective agonist of angiotensin type 2 receptors, in Zucker diabetic fatty rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castoldi, Giovanna; di Gioia, Cira Rt; Bombardi, Camila

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of compound 21 (C21), selective AT2 receptor agonist, in diabetic nephropathy and the potential additive effect of C21, when associated to losartan treatment, on the development of albuminuria and renal fibrosis in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. The ...

  12. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 levels are increased in patients with IgA nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Koki; Uto, Hirofumi; Takami, Yoichiro; Mera, Kumiko; Nishida, Chika; Yoshimine, Yozo; Fukumoto, Mayumi; Oku, Manei; Sogabe, Atsushi; Nosaki, Tsuyoshi; Moriuchi, Akihiro; Oketani, Makoto; Ido, Akio; Tsubouchi, Hirohito

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → IGFBP-1 mRNA over express in kidneys obtained from mice model of IgA nephropathy. → Serum IGFBP-1 levels are high in patients with IgA nephropathy. → Serum IGFBP-1 levels correlate with renal function and the severity of renal injury. -- Abstract: The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy (IgAN) are not well understood. In this study, we examined gene expression profiles in kidneys obtained from mice with high serum IgA levels (HIGA mice), which exhibit features of human IgAN. Female inbred HIGA, established from the ddY line, were used in these experiments. Serum IgA levels, renal IgA deposition, mesangial proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis were increased in 32-week-old HIGA mice in comparison to ddY animals. By microarray analysis, five genes were observed to be increased by more than 2.5-fold in 32-week-old HIGA in comparison to 16-week-old HIGA; these same five genes were decreased more than 2.5-fold in 32-week-old ddY in comparison to 16-week-old ddY mice. Of these five genes, insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein (IGFBP)-1 exhibited differential expression between these mouse lines, as confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. In addition, serum IGFBP-1 levels were significantly higher in patients with IgAN than in healthy controls. In patients with IgAN, these levels correlated with measures of renal function, such as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), but not with sex, age, serum IgA, C3 levels, or IGF-1 levels. Pathologically, serum IGFBP-1 levels were significantly associated with the severity of renal injury, as assessed by mesangial cell proliferation and interstitial fibrosis. These results suggest that increased IGFBP-1 levels are associated with the severity of renal pathology in patients with IgAN.

  13. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 levels are increased in patients with IgA nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, Koki [Department of Digestive and Life-Style Related Disease, Health Research Course, Human and Environmental Sciences, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan); Uto, Hirofumi, E-mail: hirouto@m2.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Digestive and Life-Style Related Disease, Health Research Course, Human and Environmental Sciences, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan); Takami, Yoichiro; Mera, Kumiko; Nishida, Chika; Yoshimine, Yozo; Fukumoto, Mayumi; Oku, Manei; Sogabe, Atsushi; Nosaki, Tsuyoshi; Moriuchi, Akihiro; Oketani, Makoto; Ido, Akio; Tsubouchi, Hirohito [Department of Digestive and Life-Style Related Disease, Health Research Course, Human and Environmental Sciences, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan)

    2010-08-20

    Research highlights: {yields} IGFBP-1 mRNA over express in kidneys obtained from mice model of IgA nephropathy. {yields} Serum IGFBP-1 levels are high in patients with IgA nephropathy. {yields} Serum IGFBP-1 levels correlate with renal function and the severity of renal injury. -- Abstract: The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy (IgAN) are not well understood. In this study, we examined gene expression profiles in kidneys obtained from mice with high serum IgA levels (HIGA mice), which exhibit features of human IgAN. Female inbred HIGA, established from the ddY line, were used in these experiments. Serum IgA levels, renal IgA deposition, mesangial proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis were increased in 32-week-old HIGA mice in comparison to ddY animals. By microarray analysis, five genes were observed to be increased by more than 2.5-fold in 32-week-old HIGA in comparison to 16-week-old HIGA; these same five genes were decreased more than 2.5-fold in 32-week-old ddY in comparison to 16-week-old ddY mice. Of these five genes, insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein (IGFBP)-1 exhibited differential expression between these mouse lines, as confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. In addition, serum IGFBP-1 levels were significantly higher in patients with IgAN than in healthy controls. In patients with IgAN, these levels correlated with measures of renal function, such as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), but not with sex, age, serum IgA, C3 levels, or IGF-1 levels. Pathologically, serum IGFBP-1 levels were significantly associated with the severity of renal injury, as assessed by mesangial cell proliferation and interstitial fibrosis. These results suggest that increased IGFBP-1 levels are associated with the severity of renal pathology in patients with IgAN.

  14. The role of hypertension in the development of nephropathy in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Nørgaard, K; Jensen, T

    1990-01-01

    Which comes first when developing clinical diabetic nephropathy, the blood pressure rise or the increasing urinary albumin excretion? This issue is discussed based on recent literature of studies in humans with Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. We conclude that hypertension has...... a central role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy and has deleterious effects on the life expectancy of patients who already have signs of diabetic renal disease in terms of elevated urinary albumin excretion. However, blood pressure is preceded by small increments of urinary albumin excretion rates......, an indicator of universally increased vascular leakiness, and thus does not seem to be the cause of diabetic nephropathy....

  15. Rituximab for the treatment of refractory simultaneous anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) and membranous nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandak, Ghassan; Jones, Bruce A; Li, Jian; Yee, Jerry; Umanath, Kausik

    2014-02-01

    Antibody-mediated anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease occurs rarely in the presence of another B-cell disorder, membranous nephropathy. The coexistence of these two autoimmune disorders would be anticipated to require differing, specific therapies targeted to each disease process. We describe a case of concomitant membranous nephropathy and anti-GBM disease in which conventional therapy, including steroids, plasmapheresis and cyclophosphamide, failed to attenuate the anti-GBM disease, yet responded to an alternative treatment of rituximab. This B-cell directed, monoclonal, chimeric antibody treatment substantially reduced anti-GBM antibody titers and led to discontinuation of plasmapheresis, while maintaining the remission of membranous nephropathy and anti-GBM disease.

  16. Maturity-onset diabetes of the young with end-stage nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saudek, Frantisek; Pruhová, Stepánka; Boucek, Peter

    2004-01-01

    -onset diabetes of the young (MODY). SPK was performed in a 47-year old man who has MODY3 because of a Arg272His mutation in the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alphagene. He developed overt diabetes mellitus at 19 years and end-stage diabetic nephropathy 26 years thereafter. Before SPK, the patient had measurable....... CONCLUSION: Identification of MODY3 among all C-peptide-positive patients with advanced diabetic nephropathy might help to select a specific group profiting from SPK.......BACKGROUND AND CASE: Simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation (SPK) is applied almost exclusively in C-peptide-negative type 1 diabetic patients, although some data on SPK in type 2 diabetes have been published as well. Nothing is known about SPK in the autosomal diabetes form, maturity...

  17. Plasma exchange in Immunoglobulin A nephropathy with thrombotic microangiopathy and acute cortical necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Doddi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 25-year-old female presented with decreased urine output, deranged renal function, thrombocytopenia, and hemolytic anemia. Kidney biopsy was consistent with thrombotic microangiopathy with acute cortical necrosis and Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN. Hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and urine output improved after five sessions of plasma exchange. Renal function showed a delayed recovery and serum creatinine normalized by 3 months. This is first case of successful use of plasma exchange in hemolytic uremic syndrome with cortical necrosis associated with IgAN.

  18. Genetic polymorphisms in HLA-DP and STAT4 are associated with IgA nephropathy in a Southwest Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Zhang, Junlong; Liu, Xinle; Huang, Zhuochun; Su, Zhenzhen; Liao, Yun; Wang, Lanlan

    2018-01-23

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common chronic glomerular disease worldwide. Genetic factors are thought to be crucial in the pathogenesis of IgAN. However, few data are available on the relationship between human leucocyte antigen (HLA) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) polymorphisms and IgAN susceptibility in the Chinese population. Therefore, we examined HLA-DP/DQ and STAT4 polymorphisms (rs3077, rs9277535, rs7453920 and rs7574865) in a total of 630 subjects including 140 IgAN and 490 healthy controls in Chinese. There were significant associations between IgAN patients and healthy controls in the allele frequency of rs3077, rs9277535 and rs7574865. In addition, the genotypes of rs3077, rs9277535 and rs7574865 were also significantly associated with IgAN under recessive models. Moreover, the haplotypes block AAG, AGG, GAG and GGA in the HLA gene significantly correlated with the risk of IgAN. This is the first study demonstrating the significant associations of SNP rs3077, rs9277535 and rs7574865 and the haplotypes in the HLA gene with the risk of IgAN in a Southwest Chinese population. This research provides a new insight into the significant relationship between HLA-DP and STAT4 polymorphisms and the susceptibility to IgAN.

  19. Baseline characteristics in PRIORITY study: Proteomics and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism for prevention of diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tofte, Nete

    diabetic nephRopathy In TYpe 2 diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria) trial, the aim is to confirm that CKD273 can predict microalbuminuria prospectively, and to test whether mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism (MRA) delays progression to microalbuminuria. Here we report the association between CKD273...... and traditional risk factors for diabetic nephropathy at baseline. Materials and methods PRIORITY is an investigator-initiated, prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled multicentre clinical trial and observational study in normoalbuminuric type 2 diabetic patients. Patients are stratified...... is development of microalbuminuria. Results In total 2277 type 2 diabetic patients have been screened over a time period of 2.5 years and 1811 are included from 15 sites. Table 1 shows the baseline characteristics. 224 (12.4%) have the high-risk CKD273 pattern. The high- and low-risk populations differ...

  20. Longitudinal Assessment of the Effect of Atrasentan on Thoracic Bioimpedance in Diabetic Nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, David J; Coll, Blai; Heerspink, Hiddo J L

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fluid retention is a common adverse event in patients who receive endothelin (ET) receptor antagonist therapy, including the highly selective ETA receptor antagonist, atrasentan. OBJECTIVE: We performed longitudinal assessments of thoracic bioimpedance in patients with type 2 diabetes...... mellitus and nephropathy to determine whether a decrease in bioimpedance accurately reflected fluid retention during treatment with atrasentan. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 48 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and nephropathy who were receiving...

  1. Personalized prophylactic anticoagulation decision analysis in patients with membranous nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taewoo; Biddle, Andrea K.; Lionaki, Sofia; Derebail, Vimal K.; Barbour, Sean J.; Tannous, Sameer; Hladunewich, Michelle A.; Hu, Yichun; Poulton, Caroline J.; Mahoney, Shannon L.; Jennette, J. Charles; Hogan, Susan L.; Falk, Ronald J.; Cattran, Daniel C.; Reich, Heather N.; Nachman, Patrick H.

    2014-01-01

    Primary membranous nephropathy is associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolic events, which are inversely correlated with serum albumin levels. To evaluate the potential benefit of prophylactic anticoagulation (venous thromboembolic events prevented) relative to the risk (major bleeds), we constructed a Markov decision model. The venous thromboembolic event risk according to serum albumin was obtained from an inception cohort of 898 patients with primary membranous nephropathy. Risk estimates of hemorrhage were obtained from a systematic literature review. Benefit-to-risk ratios were predicted according to bleeding risk and serum albumin. This ratio increased with worsening hypoalbuminemia from 4.5:1 for an albumin under 3 g/dl to 13.1:1 for an albumin under 2 g/dl in patients at low bleeding risk. Patients at intermediate bleeding risk with an albumin under 2 g/dl have a moderately favorable benefit-to-risk ratio (under 5:1). Patients at high bleeding risk are unlikely to benefit from prophylactic anticoagulation regardless of albuminemia. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis, to account for uncertainty in risk estimates, confirmed these trends. From these data, we constructed a tool to estimate the likelihood of benefit based on an individual’s bleeding risk profile, serum albumin level, and acceptable benefit-to-risk ratio (http://www.gntools.com). This tool provides an approach to the decision of prophylactic anticoagulation personalized to the individual’s needs and adaptable to dynamic changes in health status and risk profile. PMID:24336031

  2. Prognosis and treatment of diabetic nephropathy: Recent advances and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, Peter; Persson, Frederik; Frimodt-Møller, Marie

    2018-04-01

    Approximately 20 to 40% of patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes develop diabetic kidney disease. It is a clinical syndrome characterized by persistent albuminuria (>300mg/24h, or 300mg/g creatinine), a relentless decline in glomerular filtration rate, raised arterial blood pressure and enhanced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The natural course of classical diabetic nephropathy is initially microalbuminuria or moderately increased urine albumin excretion (30-300mg/g creatinine). Untreated microalbuminuria may then rise gradually, reaching severely increased albuminuric (macroalbuminuria) over 5 to 15 years. Glomerular filtration rate then begins to decline and end-stage renal failure is reached without treatment in 5 to 7 years. Regular, systematic screening for diabetic kidney disease is needed to identify patients at risk for, or with presymptomatic stages of diabetic kidney disease. Multifactorial intervention targeting glucose, lipids and blood pressure including blockade of renin angiotensin system and lifestyle, has improved renal and cardiovascular prognosis and reduced mortality with 50%. Recent data suggest beneficial pleiotropic effects on renal endpoint with new glucose lowering agents. It is also being investigated if blocking aldosterone could be an option as a potential new treatment. Thus, although diabetic nephropathy remains a major burden, prognosis has improved and new options for further improvements are currently tested in phase 3 clinical renal outcome studies. Copyright © 2018 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. The Oxford IgA nephropathy clinicopathological classification is valid for children as well as adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppo, Rosanna; Troyanov, Stéphan; Camilla, Roberta; Hogg, Ronald J.; Cattran, Daniel C.; Cook, H. Terence; Feehally, John; Roberts, Ian S. D.; Amore, Alessandro; Alpers, Charles E.; Barratt, Jonathan; Berthoux, Francois; Bonsib, Stephen; Bruijn, Jan A.; D'Agati, Vivette; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Emancipator, Steven N.; Emma, Francesco; Ferrario, Franco; Fervenza, Fernando C.; Florquin, Sandrine; Fogo, Agnes B.; Geddes, Colin C.; Groene, Hermann J.; Haas, Mark; Herzenberg, Andrew M.; Hill, Prue A.; Hsu, Stephen I.; Jennette, J. Charles; Joh, Kensuke; Julian, Bruce A.; Kawamura, Tetsuya; Lai, Fernand M.; Li, Lei S.; Li, Philip K.; Liu, Zhi H.; Mezzano, Sergio; Schena, F. Paolo; Tomino, Yasuhiko; Walker, Patrick D.; Wang, Haiyan; Weening, Jan J.; Yoshikawa, Norishige; Zhang, Hong

    2010-01-01

    To study the predictive value of biopsy lesions in IgA nephropathy in a range of patient ages we retrospectively analyzed the cohort that was used to derive a new classification system for IgA nephropathy. A total of 206 adults and 59 children with proteinuria over 0.5 g/24h/1.73 m(2) and an eGFR of

  4. Relationship between serum adiponectin concentration and diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Wei; Yang Yuzhi; Li Xianhou; Feng Kun; Wang Dan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between serum adiponectin concentration and diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: The serum adiponectin concentrations were measured with RIA in 163 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 50 controls. Results: In the diabetic patients, serum adiponectin concentrations were significantly higher in patients with macro albuminuria (n = 54) than those inpatients with microalbuminuria (n = 57) (P 0.05). Adiponectin concentrations were higher in women than in men, but there was no significant difference (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Serum adiponectin concentrations are increased in type 2 diabetic patients with advanced nephropathy. The kidney seems to be involved in the metabolism and excretion of adiponectin. Adiponectin may play important roles in the onset and development of diabetic nephropathy. (authors)

  5. First aid knowledge, attitude, practice, and associated factors among kindergarten teachers of Lideta sub-city Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganfure, Gemechu; Ameya, Gemechu; Tamirat, Ababe; Lencha, Bikila; Bikila, Dereje

    2018-01-01

    Injuries are very common and can occur at any point of time in a day. Unintended injuries in kindergarten children are the most common and need immediate life saving care which is known as first aid. This study aimed to investigate knowledge, attitude, practice, and associated factors of first aid among kindergarten teachers of Lideta sub-city Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among kindergarten teachers. Data was collected using pretested, structured and self-administered questionnaire S1 File. The collected data was entered in to Epi Data version 3.1 software and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify association between kindergarten teachers' knowledge and attitudes towards first aid and different variables. Odds ratios with 95% CI and pfirst aid. Eighty percent of teachers encountered with children in need of first aid. Kindergarten teachers older than 35 years [AOR = 4.2, 95%CI: (1.02, 16.9)], five years' experience [AOR = 3.1, 95%CI: (1.2, 7.6)], having previous first aid training [AOR = 3.1, 95%CI: (1.2, 7.7)], source of first aid information and teachers serving in private kindergarten are associated with having knowledge of first aid. Long time experience, type of kindergarten, previous training, and exposure to children in need of first aid were positive association with attitude towards first aid. Low first aid knowledge and high positive attitude among kindergarten teachers. Having long time experience, being older age, previous first aid training, and serving in private kindergarten were positively associated with first aid knowledge and positive attitude. Creating awareness and including first aid courses in the kindergarten teachers' curriculum need to be considered.

  6. Urinary Markers of Tubular Injury in Early Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temesgen Fiseha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a common and serious complication of diabetes associated with adverse outcomes of renal failure, cardiovascular disease, and premature mortality. Early and accurate identification of DN is therefore of critical importance to improve patient outcomes. Albuminuria, a marker of glomerular involvement in early renal damage, cannot always detect early DN. Thus, more sensitive and specific markers in addition to albuminuria are needed to predict the early onset and progression of DN. Tubular injury, as shown by the detection of tubular injury markers in the urine, is a critical component of the early course of DN. These urinary tubular markers may increase in diabetic patients, even before diagnosis of microalbuminuria representing early markers of normoalbuminuric DN. In this review we summarized some new and important urinary markers of tubular injury, such as neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1, liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP, N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG, alpha-1 microglobulin (A1M, beta 2-microglobulin (B2-M, and retinol binding protein (RBP associated with early DN.

  7. Demographic and social factors associated with homophobia and fear of AIDS in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Susan E; Orlosky, Paula M; Sinkkanen, Kimberly A; Stevens, Heather R

    2010-01-01

    Examinations of demographic and social factors associated with homophobia and fear of AIDS are limited by the frequent use of homogeneous, college student samples and limited examination of interrelationships among variables. The present study examined community attitudes toward homosexuality and fear of HIV/AIDS as a function of age, education, race/ethnicity, religious affiliation, political party affiliation, and personal contact with homosexual individuals and persons living with HIV/AIDS. A community sample of 463 adults completed standardized measures of homophobia and fear of AIDS as well as demographic and social background items. When examined separately, each demographic and social factor assessed, with the exception of race/ethnicity, was associated with homophobia and all but race/ethnicity and political party affiliation were associated with fear of AIDS. However, when entered into multiple regression analyses, 24% of the variance in homophobia was predicted by a single variable, including only personal contact with homosexual individuals, while 18% of the variance in fear of AIDS was accounted for by five variables, including personal contact with homosexual individuals, religious affiliation, political affiliation, education, and personal contact with someone living with HIV/AIDS. Findings suggest that it is important to consider intercorrelations among social and demographic factors, particularly when considering homophobia.

  8. Glycosylated hemoglobin as a forecast factor of progressing of diabetic nephropathy in patients with diabetes type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertseva N.O.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to propose a mathematical model for prediction of development of diabetic nephropathy in patients with diabetes mellitus by determining the level of glycosylated hemoglobin - as a factor in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. A survey of 136 patients with type 1 diabetes was performed in the endocrinology department of the OSH «Clinic of the Medical Academy», Dnipro in 2016-2017. Clinical laboratory examination included: determination of the level of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, level of blood creatinine, level of albuminuria. The GFR was calculated by the formula CKD-EPI. The obtained results of the study, using methods of correlation and regression analysis, show a clear correlation between the GFR score in patients with diabetes mellitus and the level of glycosylated hemoglobin. Statistical methods of analysis have shown that the level of glycosylated hemoglobin can be considered as an early predictor of development of diabetic nephropathy. The mathematical equation of prognosis for the onset of diabetic nephropathy can be used to determine the prognosis for the development of diabetic nephropathy in diabetes mellitus patients in clinical practice for the timely inclusion of patients with a high prognostic risk in a group requiring more stringent glycemic control.

  9. HIV/AIDS Related Knowledge and Perceived Risk Associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using data from the 2004 National Survey of Adolescents in Uganda, logistic regression models were fitted to examine the odds that HIV/AIDS related knowledge and perceived risk of HIV infection are associated with condom use among adolescents. After including demographic measures, findings indicated that correct ...

  10. Biotransformation effect of Bombyx Mori L. may play an important role in treating diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, La; Li, Yin; Guo, Xin-Feng; Liu, Xu-Sheng

    2016-11-01

    Compared with herbal drugs, medicine processed from animals (animal medicine) was thought to have more bioactive substances and higher activities. Biotransformation effect often plays an important role in their effect. However, researches about effect of animal medicine on diabetic nephropathy and applying animal medicine as natural bio-transformer were seldom reported. The purpose of this paper was to reveal the use of Bombyx Mori L. on diabetic nephropathy from ancient to modern times. The classical literature indicated that Saosi Decoction (), which contains Bombyx Mori L. or silkworm cocoon, was applied to treat disorders congruent with modern disease diabetic nephropathy from the Ming to Qing Dynasty in ancient China. Modern studies showed that Bombyx Mori L. contains four main active constituents. Among these, 1-deoxynojirimycin (1-DNJ) and quercetin showed promising potential to be new agents in diabetic nephropathy treatment. The concentrations of 1-DNJ and the activities of quercetin in Bombyx Mori L. are higher than in mulberry leaves, because of the biotransformation in the Bombyx Mori L. body. However, these specifific components need further human and mechanistic studies to determine their therapeutic potential for this challenging condition.

  11. Trends of diabetic nephropathy prevalence in Isfahan, Iran, during 1992-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohid Jafari-Koshki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder and its subsequent complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, ulcers, disability, and amputation increase the burden of the disease. Patient knowledge-improving programs are employed to prevent disease progression and to improve the quality of life of the patients. In this way, we need to characterize the groups of patients in urgent need for more and rich-in-content programs. In the present study, we used piecewise regression to evaluate the trends of diabetic nephropathy prevalence in patients registered in the Sedigheh-Tahereh Research Center and to identify patients who were in need of more attention. Materials and Methods: Piecewise regression, used in this study, is a statistical method to identify change points, if any, in the trends of mortality rates, prevalence of a disease, or any other trends. Available information for 1,935 patients were retrieved from the database. Joinpoint program 3.5.3 and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 20 was used to fit piecewise regression and obtain descriptive statistics, respectively. Results: We assessed the trend of diabetic nephropathy in different groups of diabetic patients with respect to sex, blood pressure status, education, family history of diabetes, and age. The results showed an increasing trend in females, patients without family history of diabetes, and eover th recent years. The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy in patients with academic education was high. Conclusion: The groups with high prevalence or increasing trends need more preventive intervention and detailed assessment of the present trends. Exploring high-risk groups is beneficial for better policy-making in the future. However, discovering the reasons for the increased trend of the disease is really helpful in controlling diabetes complications.

  12. Carnosine Attenuates the Development of both Type 2 Diabetes and Diabetic Nephropathy in BTBR ob/ob Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, Thomas; Schilperoort, Maaike; Zhang, Shiqi; Braun, Jana D.; Qiu, Jiedong; Rodriguez, Angelica; Pastene, Diego O.; Kraemer, Bernhard K.; Koeppel, Hannes; Baelde, Hans; de Heer, Emile; Altomare, Alessandra Anna; Regazzoni, Luca; Denisi, Alessandra; Aldini, Giancarlo; van den Born, Jacob; Yard, Benito A.; Hauske, Sibylle J.

    2017-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that polymorphisms in the carnosinase-1 gene (CNDP1) determine the risk of nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients. Carnosine, the substrate of the enzyme encoded by this gene, is considered renoprotective and could possibly be used to treat diabetic nephropathy (DN). In

  13. Attenuation of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by Punica granatum Linn. leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal Nitin Mestry

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With an objective to develop Complementary and Alternative Medicine for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy, the present study investigated the protective effects of methanolic extract of Punica granatum leaves (MPGL in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy has become a leading cause of end stage renal failure worldwide. P. granatum, due to its anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities may retard the progression of diabetic nephropathy. In this study, diabetes was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 45 mg/kg, i.p. in rats. STZ-diabetic rats were treated with oral doses of MPGL (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg for 8 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, body and kidney weight and blood glucose levels were determined. Serum and urine parameters were investigated. Antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxide levels were determined in the kidney along with histopathological examination of the same. MPGL significantly increased body weight, lowered blood glucose levels and ameliorated kidney hypertrophy index in the STZ-diabetic rats. The extract also decreased the levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total cholesterol, triglycerides, advanced glycation end products and albumin in serum and urine, respectively. MPGL significantly increased the antioxidant parameters in the kidney. Histological evaluation revealed that MPGL treated STZ-diabetic rats demonstrated reduced vacuolar degeneration of tubules; periodic acid Schiff base (PAS positivity staining intensity in glomeruli and basement membrane thickening. Present findings provide experimental evidence that MPGL has potential antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and anti-glycation activities which might be helpful in slowing the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  14. Attenuation of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by Punica granatum Linn. leaves extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestry, Snehal Nitin; Dhodi, Jayesh Bachu; Kumbhar, Sangita Balbhim; Juvekar, Archana Ramesh

    2017-07-01

    With an objective to develop Complementary and Alternative Medicine for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy, the present study investigated the protective effects of methanolic extract of Punica granatum leaves (MPGL) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy has become a leading cause of end stage renal failure worldwide. P. granatum , due to its anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities may retard the progression of diabetic nephropathy. In this study, diabetes was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 45 mg/kg, i.p.) in rats. STZ-diabetic rats were treated with oral doses of MPGL (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) for 8 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, body and kidney weight and blood glucose levels were determined. Serum and urine parameters were investigated. Antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxide levels were determined in the kidney along with histopathological examination of the same. MPGL significantly increased body weight, lowered blood glucose levels and ameliorated kidney hypertrophy index in the STZ-diabetic rats. The extract also decreased the levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total cholesterol, triglycerides, advanced glycation end products and albumin in serum and urine, respectively. MPGL significantly increased the antioxidant parameters in the kidney. Histological evaluation revealed that MPGL treated STZ-diabetic rats demonstrated reduced vacuolar degeneration of tubules; periodic acid Schiff base (PAS) positivity staining intensity in glomeruli and basement membrane thickening. Present findings provide experimental evidence that MPGL has potential antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and anti-glycation activities which might be helpful in slowing the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  15. Deletion of pro-angiogenic factor vasohibin-2 ameliorates glomerular alterations in a mouse diabetic nephropathy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Kana; Ujike, Haruyo; Hinamoto, Norikazu; Miyake, Hiromasa; Tanimura, Satoshi; Sugiyama, Hitoshi; Sato, Yasufumi; Maeshima, Yohei; Wada, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Angiogenesis has been implicated in glomerular alterations in the early stage of diabetic nephropathy. We previously reported the renoprotective effects of vasohibin-1 (VASH1), which is a novel angiogenesis inhibitor derived from endothelial cells, on diabetic nephropathy progression. Vasohibin-2 (VASH2) was originally identified as a VASH1 homolog and possesses pro-angiogenic activity in contrast to VASH1. In addition, VASH2 was recently shown to promote epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via enhanced transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling in cancer cells. Herein, we investigated the pathogenic roles of VASH2 in diabetic nephropathy using VAHS2-deficient mice. The type 1 diabetes model was induced by intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin in VASH2 homozygous knockout (VASH2LacZ/LacZ) or wild-type mice. These mice were euthanized 16 weeks after inducing hyperglycemia. Increased urine albumin excretion and creatinine clearance observed in diabetic wild-type mice were significantly prevented in diabetic VASH2-deficient mice. Accordingly, diabetes-induced increase in glomerular volume and reduction in glomerular slit-diaphragm density were significantly improved in VASH2 knockout mice. Increased glomerular endothelial area was also suppressed in VASH2-deficient mice, in association with inhibition of enhanced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 (VEGFR2), but not VEGF level. Furthermore, glomerular accumulation of mesangial matrix, including type IV collagen, and increased expression of TGF-β were improved in diabetic VASH2 knockout mice compared with diabetic wild-type mice. Based on the immunofluorescence findings, endogenous VASH2 localization in glomeruli was consistent with mesangial cells. Human mesangial cells (HMCs) were cultured under high glucose condition in in vitro experiments. Transfection of VASH2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) into the HMCs resulted in the suppression of type IV collagen production induced by high glucose

  16. [Clinical and histological findings in Fabry nephropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieruzzi, Federico; Salerno, Fabio; Di Giacomo, Antonella; Torti, Giacomo; Ferrario, Franco; Pagni, Fabio; Stella, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Fabry disease is a complex pathology, requiring a multidisciplinar approach both in the diagnostic workout and in the management of therapy. Clinical criteria able to predict its morbidity have not yet been found. The wide variability of clinical signs and symptoms requires an individual approach based on the single patient, in order to achieve an optimal management. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has been introduced in the clinical setting for over ten years, but its ability to change the course of the disease has not yet been clearly proved. Recently the hypothesis that ERT may be ineffective in patients with severe organ involvement has emerged. The clinical course of Fabry disease is usually slower in eterozygous women than emizygous men, but can be frequently associated to severe organ failure and premature death in both cases. In this review we discuss the histological aspects of Fabry nephropathy in relation to diagnosis, prognosis, therapy and its effectiveness.

  17. Acute and long-term effect of antihypertensive treatment on exercise-induced albuminuria in incipient diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer; Mogensen, C E

    1986-01-01

    . In the acute study, using placebo/metoprolol 10 mg i.v. in patients with normal UAE, the maximal SBP at 600 kpm/min was reduced by 17 mmHg +/- 10 (SD) (2p less than 1.0%) and the maximal SBP at 600 kpm/min in the patients with incipient nephropathy was reduced by 15 mmHg +/- 11 (SD) (2p less than 1.......0%). However, no difference was observed in UAE, in patients with normal UAE or those with incipient nephropathy. Five of the patients with incipient nephropathy were followed with repeated exercise tests before and during 2.6 years of antihypertensive treatment, using metoprolol 200 mg/24 h and subsequently...

  18. Contrast induced nephropathy in patients undergoing intravenous (IV) contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) and the relationship with risk factors: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moos, Shira I.; van Vemde, David N. H.; Stoker, Jaap; Bipat, Shandra

    2013-01-01

    To summarize the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) and associations between CIN incidence and risk factors in patients undergoing intravenous contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) with low- or iso-osmolar iodinated contrast medium. This review is performed in accordance with the

  19. Losartan and diabetic nephropathy: commentaries on the RENAAL study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenenbaum Alexander

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The RENAAL (Reduction of Endpoints in NIDDM with the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan study is a multinational, double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial which was recently published. It was aimed to evaluate the effect of the angiotensin receptor blocker losartan in patients with diabetic nephropathy. The primary efficacy measure was the time to the first event of the composite end point of a doubling of serum creatinine, end-stage renal disease, or death. The conclusion was that losartan led to significant improvement in renal outcomes, that was beyond that attributable to blood pressure control in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. The perusal of the report raises concern, regarding to both the patient population as well as the outcome measures. At randomization, the placebo group included more patients with angina, myocardial infarction and lipid disorders than the losartan group. Information on glucose metabolism was disregarded, and data on antihyperglycemic therapy – which may have undesirable influences on cardiac performance – were not included in a multivariate analysis. In addition, only data on first hospitalization were reported, whilst information on total specific-cause hospitalizations was disregarded, thus potentially masking further unfavorable events. Furthermore, creatinine seems not to be a reliable surrogate end point. Based on its mechanism of action, losartan may possess favorable renoprotective properties. However, due to the methodological flaws and the incomplete data in the RENAAL study, the question of the effectiveness and safety of this drug in diabetic nephropathy remains yet unanswered.

  20. The morbidity and mortality associated with kidney disease in an HIV-infected cohort in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Angel M; Dworkin, Mark; Quesada, Luis; Ríos-Olivares, Eddy; Hunter-Mellado, Robert F

    2010-01-01

    Nephropathy in HIV-infected patients has been associated with progression to AIDS and death. The virus, several comorbid conditions and certain medications may contribute to the development and progression of kidney disease. This study analyzed data collected from HIV-infected persons enrolled in a HIV registry in Puerto Rico during January 1998 through September 2006. Demographic factors, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings at enrollment, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) prescriptions were compared between patients with and without kidney disease. Death status and cause of death by December 2006 were also evaluated and compared. The study included 1,283 subjects, 69.0% male, 39.7% injecting drug users, 19.5% hepatitis C infected, 6.5% with diabetes mellitus (DM-2), 11.6% had hypertension (HTN) and 9.0% had kidney disease. Patients with kidney disease had significantly higher (P Puerto Rican HIV-infected patients with nephropathy. Kidney disease preventive strategies that include aggressive control of HIV-infection and chronic medical conditions, such as hypertension and diabetes, are recommend as an approach to reduce this health disparity.

  1. The Morbidity and Mortality Associated With Kidney Disease In An HIV Infected Cohort In Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Angel M.; Dworkin, Mark; Quesada, Luis; Rios-Olivares, Eddy; Hunter-Mellado, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Nephropathy in HIV-infected patients has been associated with progression to AIDS and death. The virus, several co-morbid conditions and certain medications may contribute to the development and progression of kidney disease. Methods This study analyzed data collected from HIV-infected persons enrolled in a HIV registry in Puerto Rico during January 1998 through September 2006. Demographic factors, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings at enrollment, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) prescriptions were compared between patients with and without kidney disease. Death status and cause of death by December 2006 were also evaluated and compared. Results The study included 1,283 subjects, 69.0% male, 39.7% injecting drug users, 19.5% hepatitis C infected, 6.5% with diabetes mellitus (DM-II), 11.6% had hypertension (HTN) and 9.0% had kidney disease. Patients with kidney disease had significantly higher (pPuerto Ricans HIV-infected patients with nephropathy. Kidney disease preventive strategies that include aggressive control of HIV-infection and chronic medical conditions such as hypertension and diabetes are recommend as an approach to reduce this health disparity. PMID:20521408

  2. Treatment of IgA nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, J; Feehally, J

    2006-06-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is an important cause of progressive kidney disease with 25-30% of patients developing end-stage renal disease within 20 years of diagnosis. There is still no treatment to modify mesangial IgA deposition and available treatments are those extrapolated from the management of other patterns of chronic glomerulonephritis. There remains no consensus on the use of immunosuppressive agents for treatment of progressive IgAN and this is compounded by the relative lack in IgAN of randomized controlled trials relevant to current clinical practice. Patients with recurrent macroscopic hematuria or isolated microscopic hematuria and proteinuria renal biopsy should be managed as for minimal change nephropathy. There is no evidence to support the use of corticosteroids for nephrotic IgAN outside this group of patients. Patients presenting with acute renal failure require evaluation to distinguish acute tubular necrosis, which requires supportive therapy only, from crescentic IgAN, for which treatment with cyclophosphamide and corticosteroids in a regimen similar to that for renal small vessel vasculitis is indicated in the absence of significant chronic histologic injury. Patients at greatest risk of progressive renal impairment are those with hypertension, proteinuria >1 g/24 h, and reduced glomerular filtration rate at diagnosis. All such patients should be treated to a blood pressure of 125/75 mm Hg with dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin system with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and angiotensin receptor blockade. At present, there is insufficient evidence for the additional use of immunosuppressive agents, antiplatelet agents, or anticoagulants.

  3. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis associated with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bittencourt Achiléa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is rarely reported in South America. In spite of the fact that there are many reports about the association of visceral leishmaniasis and AIDS, PKDL is very uncommon in HIV-positive patients, and so far only four cases have been documented in the literature. We present another case with unusual clinicopathological aspects. The patient, a 28-year-old male, from Salvador, Bahia (an endemic area presented with clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis three years after the diagnosis of AIDS. During treatment for visceral leishmaniasis he developed disseminated miliary papules. Microscopically, the skin biopsy showed a "saw-tooth" pattern with a lichenoid mononuclear infiltrate simulating lichen planus. The histopathological diagnosis was achieved through the finding of amastigotes. The authors discuss the clinicopathological aspects of this case based on a review of the specific literature.

  4. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis associated with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bittencourt Achiléa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is rarely reported in South America. In spite of the fact that there are many reports about the association of visceral leishmaniasis and AIDS, PKDL is very uncommon in HIV-positive patients, and so far only four cases have been documented in the literature. We present another case with unusual clinicopathological aspects. The patient, a 28-year-old male, from Salvador, Bahia (an endemic area presented with clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis three years after the diagnosis of AIDS. During treatment for visceral leishmaniasis he developed disseminated miliary papules. Microscopically, the skin biopsy showed a "saw-tooth" pattern with a lichenoid mononuclear infiltrate simulating lichen planus. The histopathological diagnosis was achieved through the finding of amastigotes. The authors discuss the clinicopathological aspects of this case based on a review of the specific literature.

  5. Correlation of hs-CRP with environmental risk factors of nephropathy in type 2 diabetes

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    Jay Prakash Sah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the association of hs-CRP levels with environmental risk factors of diabetic nephropathy like smoking, drinking alcohol, diet, age of diabetic patient, duration of diabetes, medication of diabetes, and blood pressure medication. A hospital-based quantitative study was conducted at the Department of Clinical Biochemistry of Manipal Teaching Hospital (MTH Pokhara, Nepal, with 89 patients suffering from type 2 diabetes. Blood samples (n=89 from the patients were collected and the serums were separated. On the other hand, data on environmental risk factors of nephropathy were collected by using standard questionnaire. In this study, serum hs-CRP level was not found to be correlated with smoking (p=0.111, alcohol consumption (p=0.722, diet (p=0.496, duration of diabetes (p=0.519, age of diabetic patient (p=0.369, medication of diabetes (p=0.734, and blood pressure medication (p=0.625. Hence, our study concludes that serum hs-CRP value in type 2 diabetic patients is insignificantly correlated with the risk factors especially smoking, drinking alcohol, diet, duration of diabetes, age of diabetic patient, medication of diabetes, and medication of blood pressure.

  6. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles and instituti......Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...... and institutions of the aid system; and (c) discusses whether aid has been effective. While much of the original optimism about the impact of foreign aid needed modification, there is solid evidence that aid has indeed helped further growth and poverty reduction...

  7. Increased Granulocyte Heparanase Activity in Neutrophils from Patients with Lupus Nephritis and Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczak, Maciej; Kuźniar, Jakub; Kopeć, Wacław; Żabińska, Marcelina; Marchewka, Zofia; Kościelska-Kasprzak, Katarzyna; Klinger, Marian

    2017-02-01

    Heparanase is a β-glucuronidase that cleaves sugar chains of heparan sulfate proteoglycans. It is believed that heparanase may be involved in the pathogenesis of proteinuria. The aim of this study was to assess the significance of heparanase in the pathogenesis of particular glomerulonephritis types. The evaluation of heparanase activity in serum, urine, and granulocytes and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in granulocytes of patients with lupus nephritis (n = 17), membranous nephropathy (n = 11), IgA nephropathy (n = 12), focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (n = 18), mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis (n = 12) and in 19 healthy volunteers were performed. The heparanase activity in granulocytes of patients with lupus nephritis and membranous nephropathy was higher than heparanase activity in granulocytes in the control group (p = 0.02 in both cases). This is the first observation of this phenomenon. There was no difference between SOD activity in granulocytes of patients with all assessed types of glomerulonephritis and the control group. A positive correlation between heparanase activity in urine and double-strain DNA antibodies (r = 0.51; p = 0.04), and reverse correlations between heparanase in urine and hemolytic activity of the complement (r = -0.57; p = 0.03) in the lupus nephritis group, and between heparanase activity in granulocytes and serum total protein level (r = -0.69; p = 0.02) in membranous nephropathy were observed. Increase in heparanase activity without changes in superoxide dismutase activity in the granulocytes from patients with lupus nephritis and membranous nephropathy was observed. It may be used as one of the markers of these disease activities.

  8. Attenuation of Diabetic Nephropathy by Carvacrol through Anti-oxidative Effects in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Hamid Reza Jamshidi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Diabetes, a common metabolic disorder, is prevalent in many countries. Nephropathy is a main debate’s side effect. Role of oxidative stress is well known in induction of diabetic nephropathy while carvacrol is a potent anti-oxidant that might attenuate oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of carvacrol in decreasing nephropathy-induced oxidative damage in diabetic rats. Methods: Thirty five Wistar rats (200-250 g were divided to 7 groups. The rats received alloxan (i.p., 200 mg/kg for induction of diabetes. After one week, fasting blood sugar (FBS was assessed and the rats with FBS>250 mg/dL were considered as diabetic. Three weeks after alloxan injection, the blood urea (BUN and creatinine (Cr were determined for confirmation of inducing nephropathy. Then, the animals were treated with carvacrol for one week. Finally, they were anesthetized and blood was collected from animal’s heart for calculation of BUN and Cr. Furthermore, the kidneys were for oxidative stress markers such as glutathione capacity, protein carbonyl, lipid peroxidation and catalase activity. Results: Our results showed that glutathione level and catalase activity significantly increased after treatment with carvacrol. Same results were found in rats that received vitamin E. Also, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content, BUN and Cr levels significantly decreased after treatment with carvacrol in comparison with diabetic rats. Conclusion: Our results showed that carvacrol improved nephropathy-induced oxidative damage similar to vitamin E. Therefore, it may be suggested that carvacrol can be suggested as a useful supplement in decreasing diabetic complaints along with anti-diabetic drugs.

  9. Text Mining of the Classical Medical Literature for Medicines That Show Potential in Diabetic Nephropathy

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    Lei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To apply modern text-mining methods to identify candidate herbs and formulae for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. Methods. The method we developed includes three steps: (1 identification of candidate ancient terms; (2 systemic search and assessment of medical records written in classical Chinese; (3 preliminary evaluation of the effect and safety of candidates. Results. Ancient terms Xia Xiao, Shen Xiao, and Xiao Shen were determined as the most likely to correspond with diabetic nephropathy and used in text mining. A total of 80 Chinese formulae for treating conditions congruent with diabetic nephropathy recorded in medical books from Tang Dynasty to Qing Dynasty were collected. Sao si tang (also called Reeling Silk Decoction was chosen to show the process of preliminary evaluation of the candidates. It had promising potential for development as new agent for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. However, further investigations about the safety to patients with renal insufficiency are still needed. Conclusions. The methods developed in this study offer a targeted approach to identifying traditional herbs and/or formulae as candidates for further investigation in the search for new drugs for modern disease. However, more effort is still required to improve our techniques, especially with regard to compound formulae.

  10. Ameliorative effect of combination of benfotiamine and fenofibrate in diabetes-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and nephropathy in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakumar, Pitchai; Chakkarwar, Vishal Arvind; Singh, Manjeet

    2009-01-01

    The study has been designed to investigate the effect of benfotiamine and fenofibrate in diabetes-induced experimental vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) and nephropathy. The single administration of streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg, i.p.) produced diabetes, which was noted to develop VED and nephropathy in 8 weeks. The diabetes produced VED by attenuating acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation, impairing the integrity of vascular endothelium, decreasing serum nitrite/nitrate concentration and increasing serum TBARS and aortic superoxide anion generation. Further, diabetes altered the lipid profile by increasing the serum cholesterol, triglycerides and decreasing the high density lipoprotein. The nephropathy was noted to be developed in the diabetic rat that was assessed in terms of increase in serum creatinine, blood urea, proteinuria, and glomerular damage. The benfotiamine (70 mg/kg, p.o.) and fenofibrate (32 mg/kg, p.o.) or lisinopril (1 mg/kg, p.o., a standard agent) treatments were started in diabetic rats after 1 week of STZ administration and continued for 7 weeks. The treatment with benfotiamine and fenofibrate either alone or in combination attenuated diabetes-induced VED and nephropathy. In addition, the combination of benfotiamine and fenofibrate was noted to be more effective in attenuating the diabetes-induced VED and nephropathy when compared to treatment with either drug alone or lisinopril. Treatment with fenofibrate normalizes the altered lipid profile in diabetic rats, whereas benfotiamine treatment has no effect on lipid alteration in diabetic rats. It may be concluded that diabetes-induced oxidative stress, lipids alteration, and consequent development of VED may be responsible for the induction of nephropathy in diabetic rats. Concurrent administration of benfotiamine and fenofibrate may provide synergistic benefits in preventing the development of diabetes-induced nephropathy by reducing the oxidative stress and lipid

  11. Contrast-medium-induced nephropathy: is there a new consensus? A review of published guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, Henrik S.; Morcos, Sameh K.

    2006-01-01

    The interest in contrast-medium-induced nephropathy has increased considerably during the last few years. Various guidelines regarding identifying patients at risk and measures to reduce the incidence of this complication have been proposed. The aim of this review was to analyse whether there is some consistency amongst these guidelines. A Medline search for the keyword ''contrast medium induced nephropathy'' during the period from the beginning of 2003 through the end of September 2005 was carried out. Only papers in English were reviewed. Thirteen guidelines were identified. Inconsistency was observed regarding advise on the prophylactic use of drugs and the isoosmolar dimer to reduce the incidence of contrast-medium-induced nephropathy. Consistency was found in relation to the importance of hydration, cessation of intake of nephrotoxic drugs and administration of the lowest possible dose of contrast medium. No new consensus has been observed in comparison to the European Society for Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) guidelines, which were published in 1999. (orig.)

  12. Remission of secondary membranous nephropathy in a patient with Kimura disease after surgical resection

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    Sunhwa Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kimura disease (KD is an eosinophilic, granulomatous, benign, chronic inflammatory disease with an unknown etiology. A 33-year-old woman visited our hospital because of a palpable, left subclavian mass, a left scapulo-anterior pseudoaneurysm, and nephrotic syndrome. Her subclavian lymph node biopsy examination result was consistent with KD, and results of a renal biopsy indicated secondary membranous nephropathy. After renal histological examination confirmed nephropathy, treatment with prednisolone and cyclosporine was initiated, which was maintained for over 1 year. However, this therapy only provided a transient improvement in proteinuria. One year after commencing the treatment, both proteinuria and azotemia aggravated as the left axillary mass doubled in size. Finally, the mass was surgically excised, following which the azotemia rapidly normalized and proteinuria resolved within 1 month. This case shows that tumor resection in a patient with KD with secondary nephropathy may resolve secondary renal manifestations. Furthermore, reversible renal dysfunction may be caused by unknown secreted molecules.

  13. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum visfatin and adiponectin levels in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Ning

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum visfatin and adiponectin levels in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy (DN). Methods: Serum visfatin (with ELISA) and serum adiponectin (with RIA) levels were determined in 41 cases of DM2 without nephropathy, 32 cases of DN and 35 controls. Results: Serum visfatin levels in the diabetic patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01), while the serum adiponectin levels were significantly lower than those in controls (P<0.01). Serum visfatin levels were significantly negatively correlated with those of serum adiponectin (r=-0.4108, P<0.05). The levels of serum adiponectin in patients with DN is higher than those in patients with DM2 but without nephropathy. Conclusion: The development of type 2 diabetic nephropathy might be related to the levels of visfatin and adipone. (authors)

  14. Improved pregnancy outcome in type 1 diabetic women with microalbuminuria or diabetic nephropathy: effect of intensified antihypertensive therapy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Ringholm; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2009-01-01

    To describe pregnancy outcome in type 1 diabetic women with normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria, or diabetic nephropathy after implementation of an intensified antihypertensive therapeutic strategy.......To describe pregnancy outcome in type 1 diabetic women with normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria, or diabetic nephropathy after implementation of an intensified antihypertensive therapeutic strategy....

  15. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 amplification limited to the circulation does not protect mice from development of diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, Jan; Ye, Minghao; Khattab, Ahmed M; Fogo, Agnes; Martin, Aline; David, Nicolae Valentin; Kanwar, Yashpal; Osborn, Mark; Batlle, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Blockers of the renin-angiotensin system are effective in the treatment of experimental and clinical diabetic nephropathy. An approach different from blocking the formation or action of angiotensin II (1-8) that could also be effective involves fostering its degradation. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a monocarboxypeptidase that cleaves angiotensin II (1-8) to form angiotensin (1-7). Therefore, we examined the renal effects of murine recombinant ACE2 in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy as well as that of amplification of circulating ACE2 using minicircle DNA delivery prior to induction of experimental diabetes. This delivery resulted in a long-term sustained and profound increase in serum ACE2 activity and enhanced ability to metabolize an acute angiotensin II (1-8) load. In mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes pretreated with minicircle ACE2, ACE2 protein in plasma increased markedly and this was associated with a more than 100-fold increase in serum ACE2 activity. However, minicircle ACE2 did not result in changes in urinary ACE2 activity as compared to untreated diabetic mice. In both diabetic groups, glomerular filtration rate increased significantly and to the same extent as compared to non-diabetic controls. Albuminuria, glomerular mesangial expansion, glomerular cellularity, and glomerular size were all increased to a similar extent in minicircle ACE2-treated and untreated diabetic mice, as compared to non-diabetic controls. Recombinant mouse ACE2 given for 4 weeks by intraperitoneal daily injections in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy also failed to improve albuminuria or kidney pathology. Thus, a profound augmentation of ACE2 confined to the circulation failed to ameliorate the glomerular lesions and hyperfiltration characteristic of early diabetic nephropathy. These findings emphasize the importance of targeting the kidney rather than the circulatory renin angiotensin system to combat diabetic

  16. Clinical significance of determination of serum collagen type IV (IV-C) and transforming growth factor beta1(TGF-β1) levels in patients with diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Hongfang; Peng Liang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of determination of serum collagen type IV (IV-C) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β 1 ) levels in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Methods: Serum IV-C levels ( with RIA) and TGF-β 1 levels (with ELISA) were determined in 30 controls and 105 patients with type II diabetis mellitus (45 with diabetic nephropathy and 60 without nephropathy). Results: The serum levels of IV-C and TGF-β 1 in diabetic patients with nephropathy were significantly higher than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Serum IV-C and TGF-β 1 , levels increased gradually as the diabetic nephropathy got more severe, they could be used as sensitive markers for early diagnosis of development of diabetic nephropathy. (authors)

  17. [Preclinical diagnostics and correction of the disturbed renal blood flow in the children presenting with diabetic nephropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aver'ianov, A P; Tkacheva, E N; Bolotova, N V; Filina, N Iu; Ivanova, Iu V; Nikolaeva, N V; Tikhonova, L A

    2011-01-01

    The present study included 86 children aged between 7 and 17 years with type 1 diabetes mellitus from 1 to 15 years in duration. In all the patients, renal blood flow was investigated with the use of ultrasonic dopplerography. The results of the study suggest disturbances of intrarenal hemodynamics that manifested themselves as enhanced resistance of renal arteries from periphery to the centre in the patients at the hyperfiltration stage of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in conjunction with the reduced velocity of blood flow in inter-lobular and segmental arteries. In contrast, the patients at the microalbuminuric stage of diabetic nephropathy exhibited increased resistance and reduced velocity of blood flow in the main renal veins. In 35 patients presenting with diabetic nephropathy, hemodynamic correction was achieved by the application of the traveling pulsed magnetic field (TP-MF) to the renal region using an AMO-ATOS-E apparatus (Russia). This treatment resulted in normalization of the characteristics of renal blood flow. It is concluded that TPMF has good prospects for the use as a component of the combined treatment of diabetic nephropathy.

  18. Genetic polymorphisms in HLA-DP and STAT4 are associated with IgA nephropathy in a Southwest Chinese population

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Bin; Zhang, Junlong; Liu, Xinle; Huang, Zhuochun; Su, Zhenzhen; Liao, Yun; Wang, Lanlan

    2018-01-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common chronic glomerular disease worldwide. Genetic factors are thought to be crucial in the pathogenesis of IgAN. However, few data are available on the relationship between human leucocyte antigen (HLA) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) polymorphisms and IgAN susceptibility in the Chinese population. Therefore, we examined HLA-DP/DQ and STAT4 polymorphisms (rs3077, rs9277535, rs7453920 and rs7574865) in a total of 630 subjects...

  19. Effects of vitamin E and its derivativeson diabetic nephropathy in Ratsand identification of diacylglycerol kinase subtype involved in the improvement of diabetic nephropathy

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    Tomoko Kakehi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is a significant social issue. Controlling diabetic complications such as nephropathy is very important for QOL of diabetic patients. One of the mechanisms which causes diabetic complications is the abnormal activation of protein kinase C (PKC by increased diacylglycerol (DG from hyperglycemia. Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK can attenuate PKC activity by converting DG to phosphatidic acid. Thus far, d-a-tocopherol (VtE treatment has been shown to prevent early changes of diabetic renal dysfunctions by activating DGK. However, it is still unknown whether VtE derivatives improve diabetic nephropathy similarly to VtE, and which DGK subtype is activated by VtE and/or the derivatives. Objective: The purpose of the study was to investigate effects of VtE and its derivatives on diabetic nephropathy in rats, in addition to identifying the DGK subtype involved in the improvement of nephropathy in vivo. Methods: To induce diabetes in rats, six weeks old male Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitonealy administrated 65 mg/kg streptozocin (STZ in 20 mM citrate buffer. For two or eight weeks, 40 mg/kg VtE, 44 mg/kg acetate VtE (aVtE or 49.3 mg/kg succinate VtE (sVtE was intraperitonealy administrated every other day after STZ administration. The blood glucose level, body weight, and kidney weight, in addition to urinary volume, albumin, and BUN were measured every week after STZ administration. Additionally, in order to identify the DGK subtype activated by VtE and aVtE, the DGK subtype expressed in the rat glomerulus was checked by RT-PCR and western blotting, and the activity in the glomerulus from the rats before and after the VtE and aVtE treatments were measured in the presence or absence of EGTA. Results: Averages of kidney weight and BUN of rats treated with VtE, aVtE and sVtE for 8 weeks were reduced, compared to the control. However, the intraperitoneal administration of sVtE was toxic. Additionally, the amount of urine volume and

  20. PC-1 amino acid variant (K121Q) has no impact on progression of diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter; Grarup, Niels; Tarnow, Lise

    2002-01-01

    Recently, an amino acid variant (K121Q) in the glycoprotein PC-1 (Q allele) has been associated with faster progression of diabetic nephropathy, as estimated by calculated creatinine clearance. We tested the impact of the PC-1 (K121Q) variant on loss of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measured...

  1. Increased Circulating and Urinary Levels of Soluble TAM Receptors in Diabetic Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochodnicky, Peter; Lattenist, Lionel; Ahdi, Mohamed; Kers, Jesper; Uil, Melissa; Claessen, Nike; Leemans, Jaklien C; Florquin, Sandrine; Meijers, Joost C M; Gerdes, Victor E A; Roelofs, Joris J T H

    2017-09-01

    TAM receptors (Tyro3, Axl, and Mer) have been implicated in innate immunity. Circulating TAM receptor soluble forms (sTyro3, sAxl, sMer) are related to autoimmune disorders. We investigated TAM and their ligand protein S in patients with diabetes. Urinary and plasma levels of protein S, sTyro3, sAxl, and sMer were determined in 126 patients with diabetes assigned to a normoalbuminuric or macroalbuminuric (urinary albumin excretion 300 mg/24 hours, respectively) study group and 18 healthy volunteers. TAM and protein S immunostaining was performed on kidney biopsy specimens from patients with diabetic nephropathy (n = 9) and controls (n = 6). TAM expression and shedding by tubular epithelial cells were investigated by PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in an in vitro diabetes model. Patients with macroalbuminuria diabetes had higher circulating levels of sMer and more urinary sTyro3 and sMer than normoalbuminuric diabetics. Increased clearance of sTyro3 and sMer was associated with loss of tubular Tyro3 and Mer expression in diabetic nephropathy tissue and glomerular depositions of protein S. During in vitro diabetes, human kidney cells had down-regulation of Tyro3 and Mer mRNA and increased shedding of sTyro3 and sMer. Renal injury in diabetes is associated with elevated systemic and urine levels of sMer and sTyro3. This is the first study reporting excretion of sTAM receptors in urine, identifying the kidney as a source of sTAM. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Smoking is a risk factor for the progression of idiopathic membranous nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have shown cigarette smoking to be a risk factor for chronic kidney disease. However, it is unknown whether smoking similarly increases the risk for progression of membranous nephropathy. METHODS: This study used the Nagoya Nephrotic Syndrome Cohort Study (N-NSCS, including 171 patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN from 10 nephrology centers in Japan. The dose-response relationships between cigarette smoking and the outcomes were assessed by using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for clinically relevant factors. The primary outcome was a 30% decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. The secondary outcome was first complete remission (CR of proteinuria. RESULTS: During the observation period (median, 37 months; interquartile range, 16-71 months, 37 (21.6% patients developed a 30% decline in eGFR and 2 (1.2% progressed to ESRD. CR occurred in 103 (60.2% patients. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models revealed current smoking (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 7.81 [95% confidence interval (CI, 3.17-19.7], female sex (adjusted HR, 3.58 [95% CI, 1.87-8.00], older age (adjusted HR, 1.71 [95% CI, 1.13-2.62] per 10 years, the number of cigarettes smoked daily (adjusted HR, 1.61 [95% CI, 1.23-2.09] per 10 cigarettes daily, and cumulative smoking of ≥40 pack-years (adjusted HR, 5.56 [95% CI, 2.17-14.6] to be associated with a 30% decline in eGFR. However, smoking was not associated with CR. CONCLUSION: Smoking is a significant and dose-dependent risk factor for IMN progression. All patients with IMN who smoke should be encouraged to quit.

  3. Rural AIDS Diagnoses in Florida: Changing Demographics and Factors Associated With Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepka, Mary Jo; Niyonsenga, Theophile; Maddox, Lorene M.; Lieb, Spencer

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To compare demographic characteristics and predictors of survival of rural residents diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) with those of urban residents. Methods Florida surveillance data for people diagnosed with AIDS during 1993–2007 were merged with 2000 Census data using ZIP code tabulation areas (ZCTA). Rural status was classified based on the ZCTA’s rural-urban commuting area classification. Survival rates were compared between rural and urban areas using survival curves and Cox proportional hazards models controlling for demographic, clinical, and area-level socioeconomic and health care access factors. Findings Of the 73,590 people diagnosed with AIDS, 1,991 (2.7%) resided in rural areas. People in the most recent rural cohorts were more likely than those in earlier cohorts to be female, non-Hispanic black, older, and have a reported transmission mode of heterosexual sex. There were no statistically significant differences in the 3-, 5-, or 10-year survival rates between rural and urban residents. Older age at the time of diagnosis, diagnosis during the 1993–1995 period, other/unknown transmission mode, and lower CD4 count/percent categories were associated with lower survival in both rural and urban areas. In urban areas only, being non-Hispanic black or Hispanic, being US born, more poverty, less community social support, and lower physician density were also associated with lower survival. Conclusions In rural Florida, the demographic characteristics of people diagnosed with AIDS have been changing, which may necessitate modifications in the delivery of AIDS-related services. Rural residents diagnosed with AIDS did not have a significant survival disadvantage relative to urban residents. PMID:23802929

  4. Long-term renoprotective effect of nisoldipine and lisinopril in type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, L; Rossing, P; Jensen, C

    2000-01-01

    ). Two patients in the lisinopril group and three patients in the nisoldipine group entered therapy for end-stage renal failure. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term treatment with lisinopril or nisoldipine has similar beneficial effects on progression of diabetic nephropathy in hypertensive type 1 diabetic patients.......OBJECTIVE: To compare the long-term effect on kidney function of a long-acting calcium antagonist (nisoldipine) versus a long-acting ACE inhibitor (lisinopril) in hypertensive type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a 4-year prospective......, randomized, double-dummy controlled study comparing nisoldipine (20-40 mg once a day) with lisinopril (10-20 mg once a day). The study was double-blinded for the first year and single-blinded thereafter. The study included 51 hypertensive type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy. Three patients...

  5. Combination therapy with rituximab, low-dose cyclophosphamide, and prednisone for idiopathic membranous nephropathy: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortazar, Frank B; Leaf, David E; Owens, Charles T; Laliberte, Karen; Pendergraft, William F; Niles, John L

    2017-02-01

    Membranous nephropathy is a common cause of the nephrotic syndrome. Treatment with standard regimens fails to induce complete remission in most patients. We evaluated the efficacy of combination therapy with rituximab, low-dose, oral cyclophosphamide, and an accelerated prednisone taper (RCP) for the treatment of idiopathic membranous nephropathy. We analyzed 15 consecutive patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy treated with RCP at Massachusetts General Hospital. Seven patients (47%) received RCP as initial therapy, and the other eight patients (53%) received RCP for relapsing or refractory disease. All patients had at least 1 year of follow-up. The co-primary outcomes were attainment of partial and complete remission. Partial remission was defined as a urinary protein to creatinine ratio (UPCR) RCP resulted in high rates of complete remission. Larger studies evaluating this regimen are warranted.

  6. Fatores associados à subnotificação de pacientes com Aids, no Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 1996 Variables associated with underreporting of AIDS patients, Brazil, 1996

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    Vanja MB Ferreira

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Existe uma expressiva subnotificação de casos de Aids no Município do Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Nesse sentido, foi realizado estudo com o objetivo de analisar os fatores associados a esse evento. MÉTODOS: Com base em dados do Sistema de Informações Hospitalares do Sistema Único de Saúde, referentes ao ano de 1996 e ao Município do Rio de Janeiro, e do Sistema de Informações sobre Agravos de Notificação, atualizado até setembro de 1997, selecionou-se uma amostra aleatória de prontuários, pela qual os pacientes foram classificados em notificados, não notificados e sem evidência para notificação. Foi utilizado um modelo multinomial para a análise das chances de ocorrência de subnotificação versus notificação e não-notificação sem evidência de diagnóstico de Aids versus notificação. RESULTADOS: Não foram encontradas associações estatisticamente significativas entre as variáveis "idade", "estado civil", "escolaridade", "ocupação" e "gravidade da doença" e subnotificação de casos de Aids. A variável "sexo feminino" apresentou forte associação com as internações por procedimento Aids sem evidências para `fechar caso' dessa doença. Foi encontrada associação bastante expressiva entre ter sido internado no mesmo hospital mais de uma vez e estar notificado. A presença de um setor de vigilância epidemiológica no hospital esteve inversamente associada à subnotificação de casos de Aids. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados mostraram que a associação significativa entre variáveis organizacionais e estruturais e subnotificação de casos de AIDS apontam para a necessidade de normatização de processos e fluxos, a fim de melhorar a qualidade do sistema de informações em saúde.OBJECTIVE: The underreporting of AIDS cases in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is significant. The study intends to analyze the factors associated to this event. METHODS: Using data provided by the Hospital Information

  7. AWARENESS AND SOCIAL STIGMA ASSOCIATED WITH HIV/AIDS AND TUBERCULOSIS AMONG STUDENTS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyanna Susan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and Tuberculosis (TB are two major public health problems that are often seen as co-infections, but are spread via different routes having different treatment strategies and outcomes with one being curable and the other not. However, both these diseases have stigma in common. OBJECTIVES (i To assess the knowledge and social stigma regarding HIV/AIDS. (ii To assess the knowledge and social stigma regarding TB. (iii To study the association between knowledge & social stigma in HIV/AIDS and TB. (ivTo compare the social stigma associated with HIV/AIDS and TB. METHODOLOGY A cross-sectional study was carried out in an urban Arts & Science college situated in Kochi among students aged between 17-24 years. Those students who were not willing to participate and who have/had TB or HIV/AIDS were excluded from the study. A total of 171 students were included in the study by random sampling and a pretested self-administered questionnaire was used.INTRODUCTION Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and Tuberculosis (TB are two major public health problems that are often seen as co-infections, but are spread via different routes having different treatment strategies and outcomes with one being curable and the other not. However, both these diseases have stigma in common. OBJECTIVES (i To assess the knowledge and social stigma regarding HIV/AIDS. (ii To assess the knowledge and social stigma regarding TB. (iii To study the association between knowledge & social stigma in HIV/AIDS and TB. (ivTo compare the social stigma associated with HIV/AIDS and TB. METHODOLOGY A cross-sectional study was carried out in an urban Arts & Science college situated in Kochi among students aged between 17-24 years. Those students who were not willing to participate and who have/had TB or HIV/AIDS were excluded from the study. A total of 171 students were included in the study by random sampling and a pretested self

  8. Acquisition of Genetic Aberrations by Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID) during Inflammation-Associated Carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takai, Atsushi; Marusawa, Hiroyuki; Chiba, Tsutomu

    2011-01-01

    Genetic abnormalities such as nucleotide alterations and chromosomal disorders that accumulate in various tumor-related genes have an important role in cancer development. The precise mechanism of the acquisition of genetic aberrations, however, remains unclear. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), a nucleotide editing enzyme, is essential for the diversification of antibody production. AID is expressed only in activated B lymphocytes under physiologic conditions and induces somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination in immunoglobulin genes. Inflammation leads to aberrant AID expression in various gastrointestinal organs and increased AID expression contributes to cancer development by inducing genetic alterations in epithelial cells. Studies of how AID induces genetic disorders are expected to elucidate the mechanism of inflammation-associated carcinogenesis

  9. Is low birth weight a risk factor for the development of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eshoj, O; Vaag, A; Borch-Johnsen, K

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate if low birth weight as a consequence of intrauterine malnutrition is a risk factor for the later development of diabetic nephropathy. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: In a case-control set-up a group of type 1 diabetic subjects with diabetic nephropathy (n = 51) and a matched control...... group with normal kidney function (n = 51) were compared. Diabetic nephropathy and normal kidney function were defined as urinary albumin excretion rate above 200 microg min-1 and below 20 microg min-1, respectively. The birth weights were all obtained from the midwives' original records. SETTING......: The patients were identified from a population-based study of chronic diabetic complications in the Funen County, Denmark. MAIN OUTCOMES: Birth weights according to the presence of diabetic nephropathy. RESULTS: The median (10-90 percentile) birth weights were 3,600 g (2,960-4,274) in the group with diabetic...

  10. Membranous nephropathy in the older adult: epidemiology, diagnosis and management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deegens, J.K.J.; Wetzels, J.F.M.

    2007-01-01

    Membranous nephropathy is the most important cause of the nephrotic syndrome in elderly patients (aged >65 years). The clinical presentation is similar in older and younger patients, although elderly patients more often present with renal failure. Notably, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is usually

  11. Epigenetic modifications and diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marpadga A. Reddy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a major complication associated with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and a leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Conventional therapeutic strategies are not fully efficacious in the treatment of DN, suggesting an incomplete understanding of the gene regulation mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis. Furthermore, evidence from clinical trials has demonstrated a “metabolic memory” of prior exposure to hyperglycemia that continues to persist despite subsequent glycemic control. This remains a major challenge in the treatment of DN and other vascular complications. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, nucleosomal histone modifications, and noncoding RNAs control gene expression through regulation of chromatin structure and function and post-transcriptional mechanisms without altering the underlying DNA sequence. Emerging evidence indicates that multiple factors involved in the etiology of diabetes can alter epigenetic mechanisms and regulate the susceptibility to diabetes complications. Recent studies have demonstrated the involvement of histone lysine methylation in the regulation of key fibrotic and inflammatory genes related to diabetes complications including DN. Interestingly, histone lysine methylation persisted in vascular cells even after withdrawal from the diabetic milieu, demonstrating a potential role of epigenetic modifications in metabolic memory. Rapid advances in high-throughput technologies in the fields of genomics and epigenomics can lead to the identification of genome-wide alterations in key epigenetic modifications in vascular and renal cells in diabetes. Altogether, these findings can lead to the identification of potential predictive biomarkers and development of novel epigenetic therapies for diabetes and its associated complications.

  12. Molecular identification of protozoa causing AIDS-associated cholangiopathy in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nétor Velásquez, Jorge; Marta, Edgardo; Alicia di Risio, Cecilia; Etchart, Cristina; Gancedo, Elisa; Victor Chertcoff, Agustín; Bruno Malandrini, Jorge; Germán Astudillo, Osvaldo; Carnevale, Silvana

    2012-12-01

    Several species of microsporidia and coccidia are protozoa parasites responsible for cholan-giopathy disease in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The goals of this work were to identift opportunistic protozoa by molecular methods and describe the clinical manifestations at the gastrointestinal tract and the biliary system in patients with AIDS-associated cholangiopathy from Buenos Aires, Argentina. This study included 11 adult HIV-infected individuals with diagnosis ofAIDS- associated cholangiopathy. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsy specimen collection and a stool analysis for parasites were performed on each patient. The ultrasound analysis revealed bile ducts compromise. An endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and a magnetic resonance cholangiography were carried out. The identification to the species level was performed on biopsy specimens by molecular methods. Microorganisms were identified in 10 cases. The diagnosis in patients with sclerosing cholangitis was cryptosporidiosis in 3 cases, cystoisosporosis in 1 and microsporidiosis in 1. In patients with sclerosing cholangitis and papillary stenosis the diagnosis was microsporidiosis in 2 cases, cryptosporidiosis in 2 and cryptosporidiosis associated with microsporidiosis in 1. In 3 cases with cryptosporidiosis the species was Cryptosporidium hominis, 1 of them was associated with Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and the other 2 were coinfected with Cryptosporidium parvum. In the 4 cases with microsporidiosis the species was Enterocytozoon bieneusi. These results suggest that molecular methods may be useful tools to identify emerging protozoa in patients with AIDS-associated cholangiopathy.

  13. DNA methylation in Cosmc promoter region and aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 associated with pediatric IgA nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Sun

    Full Text Available IgA nephropathy (IgAN is one of the most common glomerular diseases leading to end-stage renal failure. Elevation of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 is a key feature of it. The expression of the specific molecular chaperone of core1ß1, 3galactosyl transferase (Cosmc is known to be reduced in IgAN. We aimed to investigate whether the methylation of CpG islands of Cosmc gene promoter region could act as a possible mechanism responsible for down-regulation of Cosmc and related higher secretion of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1in lymphocytes from children with IgA nephropathy. Three groups were included: IgAN children (n = 26, other renal diseases (n = 11 and healthy children (n = 13. B-lymphocytes were isolated and cultured, treated or not with IL-4 or 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AZA. The levels of DNA methylation of Cosmc promotor region were not significantly different between the lymphocytes of the three children populations (P = 0.113, but there were significant differences between IgAN lymphocytes and lymphocytes of the other two children populations after IL-4 (P<0.0001 or AZA (P<0.0001. Cosmc mRNA expression was low in IgAN lymphocytes compared to the other two groups (P<0.0001. The level of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 was markedly higher in IgAN group compared to the other groups (P<0.0001. After treatment with IL-4, the levels of Cosmc DNA methylation and aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 in IgAN lymphocytes were remarkably higher than the other two groups (P<0.0001 with more markedly decreased Cosmc mRNA content (P<0.0001. After treatment with AZA, the levels in IgAN lymphocytes were decreased, but was still remarkably higher than the other two groups (P<0.0001, while Cosmc mRNA content in IgAN lymphocytes were more markedly increased than the other two groups (P<0.0001. The alteration of DNA methylation by IL-4 or AZA specifically correlates in IgAN lymphocytes with alterations in Cosmc mRNA expression and with the level of aberrantly glycosylated

  14. Chronic constipation causing obstructive nephropathy in a delayed toddler.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barrett, Michael Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Chronic constipation causing obstructive nephropathy is very rare in children. However, it can cause urinary tract obstruction with acute impairment of renal function with a need for emergent disimpaction. The authors discuss a 2 years 4 months old child who presented to our emergency department with acute renal failure due to faecal impaction.

  15. Oral supplementation of turmeric attenuates proteinuria, transforming growth factor-β and interleukin-8 levels in patients with overt type 2 diabetic nephropathy: a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajehdehi, Parviz; Pakfetrat, Maryam; Javidnia, Katayoun; Azad, Fariborz; Malekmakan, Leila; Nasab, Mahshid Hashemi; Dehghanzadeh, Gholamreza

    2011-11-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) due to type 2 diabetic nephropathy is a very common condition which is increasing in prevalence, and is associated with high global levels of mortality and morbidity. Both proteinuria and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) may contribute to the development of ESRD in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Experimental studies indicate that turmeric improves diabetic nephropathy by suppressing TGF-β. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of turmeric on serum and urinary TGF-β, interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as well as proteinuria, in patients with overt type 2 diabetic nephropathy. A randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study was carried out in the Diabetes Clinic of the Outpatient Department of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences on 40 patients with overt type 2 diabetic nephropathy, randomized into a trial group (n = 20) and a control group (n = 20). Each patient in the trial group received one capsule with each meal containing 500 mg turmeric, of which 22.1 mg was the active ingredient curcumin (three capsules daily) for 2 months. The control group received three capsules identical in colour and size containing starch for the same 2 months. Serum levels of TGF-β and IL-8 and urinary protein excretion and IL-8 decreased significantly comparing the pre- and post-turmeric supplementation values. No adverse effects related to turmeric supplementation were observed during the trial. Short-term turmeric supplementation can attenuate proteinuria, TGF-β and IL-8 in patients with overt type 2 diabetic nephropathy and can be administered as a safe adjuvant therapy for these patients.

  16. Heat Stress Nephropathy From Exercise-Induced Uric Acid Crystalluria: A Perspective on Mesoamerican Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos; García-Trabanino, Ramón; Barregard, Lars; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Wesseling, Catharina; Harra, Tamara; Aragón, Aurora; Grases, Felix; Jarquin, Emmanuel R; González, Marvin A; Weiss, Ilana; Glaser, Jason; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura G; Johnson, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Mesoamerican nephropathy (MeN), an epidemic in Central America, is a chronic kidney disease of unknown cause. In this article, we argue that MeN may be a uric acid disorder. Individuals at risk for developing the disease are primarily male workers exposed to heat stress and physical exertion that predisposes to recurrent water and volume depletion, often accompanied by urinary concentration and acidification. Uric acid is generated during heat stress, in part consequent to nucleotide release from muscles. We hypothesize that working in the sugarcane fields may result in cyclic uricosuria in which uric acid concentrations exceed solubility, leading to the formation of dihydrate urate crystals and local injury. Consistent with this hypothesis, we present pilot data documenting the common presence of urate crystals in the urine of sugarcane workers from El Salvador. High end-of-workday urinary uric acid concentrations were common in a pilot study, particularly if urine pH was corrected to 7. Hyperuricemia may induce glomerular hypertension, whereas the increased urinary uric acid may directly injure renal tubules. Thus, MeN may result from exercise and heat stress associated with dehydration-induced hyperuricemia and uricosuria. Increased hydration with water and salt, urinary alkalinization, reduction in sugary beverage intake, and inhibitors of uric acid synthesis should be tested for disease prevention. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) nephropathy in catastrophic, primary, and systemic lupus erythematosus-related APS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tektonidou, Maria G; Sotsiou, Flora; Moutsopoulos, Haralampos M

    2008-10-01

    Renal involvement in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) has been poorly recognized. A renal small-vessel vasculopathy, defined as APS nephropathy, has recently been observed in small series of patients with primary APS (PAPS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-APS. We examined the renal histologic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of different groups of patients with APS including catastrophic APS (CAPS). Our study included all CAPS (n=6), PAPS (n=8), and SLE-APS (n=23) patients with biopsy-proven renal involvement who were referred to our departments. The kidney biopsy specimens were retrospectively examined by the same renal pathologist. APS nephropathy was diagnosed as previously described. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were recorded. All patients with CAPS had acute and chronic renal vascular lesions compatible with diagnosis of APS nephropathy. Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), the acute lesion, was observed in all CAPS patients. Fibrous intimal hyperplasia of interlobular arteries (FIH) and focal cortical atrophy (FCA) were the most common chronic vascular lesions, occurring in 4 of 6 (66.7%) and 3 of 6 (50%) patients with CAPS, respectively. TMA was detected in 3 of 8 (37.5%) patients with PAPS and in 8 of 23 (35%) patients with SLE-APS, while FIH and FCA were found with similar frequencies in all 3 groups. Hypertension, proteinuria, hematuria, and renal insufficiency were the most common renal manifestations of all APS groups. Acute and chronic APS nephropathy lesions were detected in all 3 APS groups. Acute lesions were more prominent in CAPS, while chronic lesions were found with similar frequencies in all groups. Hypertension, proteinuria, hematuria, and renal insufficiency were the most common renal manifestations of all APS groups.

  18. Latino Associate Degree Completion: Effects of Financial Aid over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jacob P. K.; Zerquera, Desiree; Inge, Brittany; Berry, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Lack of financial resources to pay for postsecondary education--perceived and actual--has been cited as a barrier to student access and persistence, particularly for Latino students. This study investigates the following question: "To what extent does financial aid affect the educational attainment of Latinos enrolled in Associate's degree…

  19. Univariate and multiple linear regression analyses for 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 14 genes predisposing to chronic glomerular diseases and IgA nephropathy in Han Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Sui, Weiguo; Xue, Wen; Wu, Junyong; Chen, Jiejing; Dai, Yong

    2014-09-01

    Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is a complex trait regulated by the interaction among multiple physiologic regulatory systems and probably involving numerous genes, which leads to inconsistent findings in genetic studies. One possibility of failure to replicate some single-locus results is that the underlying genetics of IgAN nephropathy is based on multiple genes with minor effects. To learn the association between 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 14 genes predisposing to chronic glomerular diseases and IgAN in Han males, the 23 SNPs genotypes of 21 Han males were detected and analyzed with a BaiO gene chip, and their associations were analyzed with univariate analysis and multiple linear regression analysis. Analysis showed that CTLA4 rs231726 and CR2 rs1048971 revealed a significant association with IgAN. These findings support the multi-gene nature of the etiology of IgAN and propose a potential gene-gene interactive model for future studies.

  20. Role of bone marrow-derived stem cells, renal progenitor cells and stem cell factor in chronic renal allograft nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Hayam Abdel Meguid El Aggan; Mona Abdel Kader Salem; Nahla Mohamed Gamal Farahat; Ahmad Fathy El-Koraie; Ghaly Abd Al-Rahim Mohammed Kotb

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) is a poorly understood clinico-pathological entity associated with chronic allograft loss due to immunologic and non-immunologic causes. It remains the leading cause of late allograft loss. Bone marrow derived stem cells are undifferentiated cells typically characterized by their capacity for self renewal, ability to give rise to multiple differentiated cellular population, including hematopoietic (HSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Char...

  1. Is renal medullary carcinoma the seventh nephropathy in sickle cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Previous studies had enlisted renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) as the seventh nephropathy in sickle cell disease (SCD). Clinical experience has contradicted this claim and this study is targeted at refuting or supporting this assumption. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of RMC and describe other renal ...

  2. Changes of platelet GMP-140 in diabetic nephropathy and its multi-factor regression analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zizheng; Du Tongxin; Wang Shukui

    2001-01-01

    The relation of platelet GMP-140 and its related factors with diabetic nephropathy was studied. 144 patients of diabetic mellitus without nephropathy (group without DN, mean suffering duration of 25.5 +- 18.6 months); 80 with diabetic nephropathy (group DN, mean suffering duration of 58.7 +- 31.6 months) and 50 normal controls were chosen in the research. Platelet GMP-140, plasma α 1 -MG, β 2 -MG, and 24 hour urine albumin (ALB), IgG, α 1 -MG, β 2 -MG were detected by RIA, while HBA 1 C via chromatographic separation and FBG, PBG, Ch, TG, HDL, FG via biochemical methods. All the data had been processed with software on computer with t-test and linear regression, and multi-factor analysis were done also. The levels of platelet GMP-140, FG, DBP, TG, HBA 1 C and PBG in group DN were significantly higher than those of group without DN and normal control (P 0.05), while they were higher than those of normal controls. Multi-factor analysis of platelet GMP-140 with TG, DBP and HBA 1 C were performed in 80 patients with DN (P 1 C are the independent factors enhancing the activation of platelets. The disturbance of lipid metabolism in type II diabetic mellitus may also enhance the activation of platelets. Elevation of blood pressure may accelerate the initiation and deterioration of DN in which change of platelet GMP-140 is an independent factor. Elevation of HBA 1 C and blood glucose are related closely to the diabetic nephropathy

  3. An ACACB variant implicated in diabetic nephropathy associates with body mass index and gene expression in obese subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Ma

    Full Text Available Acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase B gene (ACACB single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs2268388 is reproducibly associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM-associated nephropathy (DN. ACACB knock-out mice are also protected from obesity. This study assessed relationships between rs2268388, body mass index (BMI and gene expression in multiple populations, with and without T2DM. Among subjects without T2DM, rs2268388 DN risk allele (T associated with higher BMI in Pima Indian children (n = 2021; p-additive = 0.029 and African Americans (AAs (n = 177; p-additive = 0.05, with a trend in European Americans (EAs (n = 512; p-additive = 0.09, but not Germans (n = 858; p-additive = 0.765. Association with BMI was seen in a meta-analysis including all non-T2DM subjects (n = 3568; p-additive = 0.02. Among subjects with T2DM, rs2268388 was not associated with BMI in Japanese (n = 2912 or EAs (n = 1149; however, the T allele associated with higher BMI in the subset with BMI≥30 kg/m(2 (n = 568 EAs; p-additive = 0.049, n = 196 Japanese; p-additive = 0.049. Association with BMI was strengthened in a T2DM meta-analysis that included an additional 756 AAs (p-additive = 0.080 and 48 Hong Kong Chinese (p-additive = 0.81 with BMI≥30 kg/m(2 (n = 1575; p-additive = 0.0033. The effect of rs2268388 on gene expression revealed that the T risk allele associated with higher ACACB messenger levels in adipose tissue (41 EAs and 20 AAs with BMI>30 kg/m(2; p-additive = 0.018 and ACACB protein levels in the liver tissue (mixed model p-additive = 0.03, in 25 EA bariatric surgery patients with BMI>30 kg/m(2 for 75 exams. The T allele also associated with higher hepatic triglyceride levels. These data support a role for ACACB in obesity and potential roles for altered lipid metabolism in susceptibility to DN.

  4. The Long-Run Macroeconomic Effects of Aid and Disaggregated Aid in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebregziabher, Fiseha Haile

    2014-01-01

    positively, whereas it is negatively associated with government consumption. Our results concerning the impacts of disaggregated aid stand in stark contrast to earlier work. Bilateral aid increases investment and GDP and is negatively associated with government consumption, whereas multilateral aid is only...... positively associated with imports. Grants contribute to GDP, investment and imports, whereas loans affect none of the variables. Finally, there is evidence to suggest that multilateral aid and loans have been disbursed in a procyclical fashion...

  5. Effect of antihypertensive treatment on progression of incipient diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer; Mogensen, C E

    1985-01-01

    of urinary albumin excretion before and during 2.6 years +/- 1.0 (SD) of treatment. The blood pressure was depressed by the treatment (systolic blood pressure from 135 mm Hg +/- 8.6 to 124 mm Hg +/- 6.2, NS; mean blood pressure from 107 mm Hg +/- 7.6 to 97 mm Hg +/- 3.4, 2p less than 0.05; diastolic blood......The aim of the study was to clarify whether antihypertensive treatment with a selective beta blocker would have an effect on the progression rate of kidney disease in patients with incipient diabetic nephropathy. Six male patients with juvenile-onset diabetes with incipient nephropathy (urinary...... albumin excretion above 15 micrograms/min and total protein excretion below 0.5 g/24 hr) were treated with metoprolol (200 mg daily). At the start of the antihypertensive treatment the mean age was 32 years +/- 4.2 (SD). The patients were followed a mean 5.4 years +/- 3.1 (SD) with repeated measurements...

  6. Associations of Fetuin-A levels with vascular disease in type 2 diabetes patients with early diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roos Marcel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambigous results exist on fetuin-A as marker for vascular disease in type 2 diabetes. This study aims to define the role of fetuin-A as marker for micro- and macrovascular disease in a high risk population of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and early diabetic nephropathy. Methods Fetuin-A serum levels were assessed by ELISA in a cross-sectional setting in 153 patients with type 2 diabetes. Associations of fetuin-A with metabolic, inflammatory and vascular markers were studied. Atherosclerotic burden was assessed by ankle-brachial-index (ABI as well as detection of common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT. Results Levels of fetuin-A were lower in male than in female patients (0.49 ± 0.15 vs. 0.56 ± 0.20 g/L, p = 0.02. In addition, there was an inverse correlation with age (r = -0.20, P = 0.01. Bivariate correlations adjusted for age and gender revealed no significant correlations with metabolic parameters, except for a weak inverse correlation with serum adiponectin (r = -0.19, p = 0.02. Regarding parameters of micro- and macrovascular disease, fetuin-A was significantly associated with ABI (r = 0.18, p = 0.04, while there was no association with IMT (r = -0.07, p = n.s. Patients with an ABI 1.3 (0.43 ± 0.10 vs. 0.52 ± 0.17 vs. 0.54 ± 0.18 g/L p = 0.05. Neither GFR nor albuminuria were associated with fetuin-A serum levels. Patients with prevalent neuropathy did not have altered fetuin-A levels compared to diabetic controls. In step-wise logistic regression analysis including age, gender, HbA1c, total cholesterol, glomerular filtration rate and fetuin-A, only total cholesterol (β = 0.01, p = 0.02 and fetuin-A (β = -5.99, p = 0.03 proved to be independent predictors of an ABI Conclusions The results of this cross-sectional study suggest that lower fetuin-A levels are associated with macrovascular late complications in high-risk type 2 diabetes patients while there are no associations of fetuin-A with

  7. Significance of urinary full-length megalin in patients with IgA nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuto Seki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Megalin is highly expressed at the apical membranes of proximal tubular epithelial cells. A urinary full-length megalin (C-megalin assay is linked to the severity of diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes. This study examined the relationship between levels of urinary C-megalin and histological findings in adult patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Urine samples voided in the morning on the day of renal biopsy were obtained from 73 patients with IgAN (29 men and 44 women; mean age, 33 years and 5 patients with membranous nephropathy (MN. Renal pathologic variables were analyzed using the Oxford classification of IgAN, the Shigematsu classification and the Clinical Guidelines of IgAN in Japan. The levels of urinary C-megalin were measured by sandwich ELISA. RESULTS: Histological analysis based on the Oxford classification revealed that the levels of urinary C-megalin were correlated with mesangial hypercellularity in IgAN patients (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.04-3.27, P<0.05. There was a significant correlation between the levels of urinary C-megalin and the severity of chronic extracapillary abnormalities according to the Shigematsu classification in IgAN patients (β = 0.33, P = 0.008. The levels of urinary C-megalin were significantly higher in all risk levels of IgAN patients requiring dialysis using the Clinical Guidelines of IgAN in Japan than in the control group. The levels of urinary C-megalin were significantly higher in the high risk and very high risk grades than in the low risk grade (P<0.05. The levels of urinary C-megalin were significantly higher in MN patients compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The levels of urinary C-megalin are associated with histological abnormalities in adult IgAN patients. There is a possibility that urinary C-megalin is an independent predictor of disease progression of IgAN. In addition, our results suggest that

  8. Clinicopathological Features to Predict Progression of IgA Nephropathy with Mild Proteinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ding; Liu, Jian; Duan, Shuwei; Chen, Pu; Tang, Li; Zhang, Li; Feng, Zhe; Cai, Guangyan; Wu, Jie; Chen, Xiangmei

    2018-03-06

    In the past, little attention has been paid to patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) who had minimal proteinuria upon the onset. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinicopathological features and the prognostic factors in patients with IgA nephropathy. Data of patients that had their first renal biopsy in our hospital and were diagnosed with primary IgAN with proteinuria 1995 to December 2014 were retrospectively examined. Clinical records of the clinicopathological features, renal function, and proteinuria were collected and investigated. The factors affecting the renal function and proteinuria were analyzed by Cox regression. The predictive efficiencies of clinical and pathological models were evaluated by Harrell concordance index (C-index). A total of 506 patients with IgA nephropathy were included in this study. (1) Baseline proteinuria greater than 0.5 g/d was positively associated with Oxford M, S, and T lesions. eGFR less than 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 were positively associated with Oxford T. (2) In the follow-up with a median of 50 months, 82 patients (16.2%) achieved complete clinical remission (CCR), whereas 54 patients (10.6%) showed an increase in creatinine by more than 50% (not progressing to end-stage renal disease). The cumulative proportion of creatinine increased >50%, and the values obtained by life-table analysis in 10, 15, and 20 years were 15%, 21%, and 22%, respectively. Significant differences were found in baseline age, proteinuria, and Oxford T between the group of creatinine increase >50% and the CCR group. (4) Multivariate COX regression showed that baseline age and proteinuria > 0.5 g/d were independent risk factors of adverse outcome. C-index suggested that the clinical model was more effective than the pathological models in predicting endpoint events. (5) Effect of the mean value during the follow-up on adverse endpoint events: Multivariate COX regression found that the mean proteinuria during follow-up was an independent influencing

  9. Clinicopathological Features to Predict Progression of IgA Nephropathy with Mild Proteinuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In the past, little attention has been paid to patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN who had minimal proteinuria upon the onset. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinicopathological features and the prognostic factors in patients with IgA nephropathy. Methods: Data of patients that had their first renal biopsy in our hospital and were diagnosed with primary IgAN with proteinuria <1 g/d from January 1995 to December 2014 were retrospectively examined. Clinical records of the clinicopathological features, renal function, and proteinuria were collected and investigated. The factors affecting the renal function and proteinuria were analyzed by Cox regression. The predictive efficiencies of clinical and pathological models were evaluated by Harrell concordance index (C-index. Results: A total of 506 patients with IgA nephropathy were included in this study. (1 Baseline proteinuria greater than 0.5 g/d was positively associated with Oxford M, S, and T lesions. eGFR less than 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 were positively associated with Oxford T. (2 In the follow-up with a median of 50 months, 82 patients (16.2% achieved complete clinical remission (CCR, whereas 54 patients (10.6% showed an increase in creatinine by more than 50% (not progressing to end-stage renal disease. The cumulative proportion of creatinine increased >50%, and the values obtained by life-table analysis in 10, 15, and 20 years were 15%, 21%, and 22%, respectively. Significant differences were found in baseline age, proteinuria, and Oxford T between the group of creatinine increase >50% and the CCR group. (4 Multivariate COX regression showed that baseline age and proteinuria > 0.5 g/d were independent risk factors of adverse outcome. C-index suggested that the clinical model was more effective than the pathological models in predicting endpoint events. (5 Effect of the mean value during the follow-up on adverse endpoint events: Multivariate COX regression found that the

  10. Analysis of the intronic single nucleotide polymorphism rs#466452 of the nephrin gene in patients with diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO GONZÁLEZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the analysis of an intronic polymorphism of the nephrin gene and its relationship to the development of diabetic nephropathy in a study of diabetes type 1 and type 2 patients. The frequency of the single nucleotide polymorphism rs#466452 in the nephrin gene was determined in 231 patients and control subjects. The C/T status of the polymorphism was assessed using restriction enzyme digestions and the nephrin transcript from a kidney biopsy was examined. Association between the polymorphism and clinical parameters was evaluated using multivaríate correspondence analysis. A bioinformatics analysis of the single nucleotide polymorphism rs#466452 suggested the appearance of a splicing enhancer sequence in intron 24 of the nephrin gene and a modification of proteins that bind to this sequence. However, no change in the splicing of a nephrin transcript from a renal biopsy was found. No association was found between the polymorphism and diabetes or degree of renal damage in diabetes type 1 or 2 patients. The single nucleotide polymorphism rs#466452 of the nephrin gene seems to be neutral in relation to diabetes and the development of diabetic nephropathy, and does not affect the splicing of a nephrin transcript, in spite of a splicing enhancer site.

  11. Serum uric acid as a new player in the development of diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovind, Peter; Rossing, Peter; Johnson, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy is complex and still not fully elucidated. Uric acid has been associated with renal disease, even though hyperuricemia may be a marker of or by itself be responsible for microvascular disease in diabetes. In animal models, elevated level of uric acid can...... lead to arteriolopathy of preglomerular vessels, impaired autoregulation, glomerular hypertension, as well as endothelial dysfunction. Kidney damage in hyperuricemic rats is not dependent on blood pressure, and instead involves the renin-angiotensin system. In patients with diabetes, serum uric acid...... early in the course of diabetes is significantly, and independent of confounders, associated with later development of persistent macroalbuminuria. Therefore, uric acid may be a novel and important player in the pathogenesis of microvascular complications in diabetes. A dose-response relationship...

  12. Assessment for markers of nephropathy in newly diagnosed type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess for markers of nephropathy in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics, using blood pressure levels, endogenous creatinine clearance and urinary protein excretion as markers of renal disease. Study design: Ninety newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics were studied within 6 weeks of diagnosis. They were in ...

  13. Attenuation of Diabetic Nephropathy in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF Rats with a Combination of Chinese Herbs (Tangshen Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haojun Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most significant microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetics. The concise mechanism of diabetic nephropathy is unknown and there is no successful treatment. The objective of study was to investigate effects of Chinese herbs (Tangshen Formula on diabetic nephropathy in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF rats. OLETF rats and LETO rats were divided into four groups: LETO control, OLETF diabetics, OLETF diabetics treated with Tangshen Formula, and OLETF diabetics treated with Monopril. Body weight, blood glucose, and 24 h urinary proteins were measured once every four weeks. Blood samples and kidney tissues were obtained for analyses of total cholesterol, triglyceride, whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, and pathohistological examination at 36 and 56 weeksrespectively. Untreated OLETF rats displayed diabetic nephropathy over the study period. Treatment of OLETF rats with Tangshen Formula attenuated the increases in blood glucose, body weight, 24 h urinary protein content, serum total cholesterol, whole blood viscosity and plasma viscosity at certain time. Treatment with Tangshen Formula also reduced glomerulosclerotic index and interstitial fibrotic index seen in OLETF rats. In conclusion, Tangshen Formula could attenuate the development of diabetic nephropathy in OLETF rat diabetic model.

  14. Lisinopril Protects Against the Adriamycin Nephropathy and Reverses the Renalase Reduction: Potential Role of Renalase in Adriamycin Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengxun Han

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To investigate the potential role of renalase in adriamycin nephropathy and the effect of lisinopril on the regulation of renalase. Methods: Adriamycin nephropathy was induced in male Wistar rats (n=12 by a single injection of adriamycin at 2 mg/kg body weight. Rats were then randomly assigned to a model group or a treatment group, to which were administered distilled water or the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril, respectively, for 12 weeks. Six normal rats served as controls. At the end of study, physiological parameters and systolic blood pressure were measured. Glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial injury were assessed by histopathology Renalase protein expression in kidney was quantified by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. The serum concentration and urinary excretion of renalase were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: In model group rats, proteinuria and systolic blood pressure were elevated. Increased serum renalase concentration was observed; however, renalase protein expression in the kidney was significantly decreased. Compared with the model group, decreased proteinuria, lower systolic blood pressure, and fewer morphologic lesions were detected in the treatment group. Although levels of serum renalase were similar, accumulation of renalase in urine and kidney tissue increased notably in the treatment group compared with the model group. Conclusions: This study suggests that renalase may be involved in the process of adriamycin-induced renal injuries. Lisinopril may attenuate adriamycin-induced kidney injury by controlling blood pressure, which may be partially attributed to the renalase expression and secretion.

  15. In Acute IgA Nephropathy, Proteinuria and Creatinine Are in the Spot, but Podocyturia Operates in Silence: Any Place for Amiloride?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Trimarchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available IgA nephropathy is the most frequent cause of primary glomerulonephritis, portends erratic patterns of clinical presentation, and lacks specific treatment. In general, it slowly progresses to end-stage renal disease. The clinical course and the response to therapy are usually assessed with proteinuria and serum creatinine. Validated biomarkers have not been identified yet. In this report, we present a case of acute renal injury with proteinuria and microscopic hematuria in a young male. A kidney biopsy disclosed IgA nephropathy. Podocyturia was significantly elevated compared to normal subjects. Proteinuria, renal function, and podocyturia improved promptly after steroids and these variables remained normal after one year of follow-up, when steroids had already been discontinued and patient continued on valsartan and amiloride. Our report demonstrates that podocyturia is critically elevated during an acute episode of IgA nephropathy, and its occurrence may explain the grim long-term prognosis of this entity. Whether podocyturia could be employed in IgA nephropathy as a trustable biomarker for treatment assessment or even for early diagnosis of IgA nephropathy relapses should be further investigated.

  16. Association between polymorphisms in Interleukin-17 receptor A gene and childhood IgA nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Ah Baek

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Interleukin-17 (IL-17 is produced by activated CD4+T cells and exhibits pleiotropic biological activity on various cell types. IL-17 was reported to be involved in the immunoregulatory response in IgA nephropathy (IgAN. Our aim was to investigate the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA gene and childhood IgAN. Methods : We analyzed the SNPs in the IL-17RA in 156 children with biopsy-proven IgAN and 245 healthy controls. We divided the IgAN patients into 2 groups and compared them with respect to proteinuria (?#180; and &gt;4 mg/m2/h, ?#180;0 and &gt;40 mg/m2/h, respectively and the presence of pathological levels of biomarkers of diseases such as interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy, or global sclerosis. Results : No difference was observed between the SNP genotypes rs2895332, rs1468488, and rs4819553 between IgAN patients and control subjects. In addition, no significant difference was observed between allele frequency of SNPs rs2895 332, rs1468488, and rs4819553 between patients in the early and advanced stage of the disease. However, significant difference was observed between the genotype of SNP rs2895332 between patients with proteinuria (&gt;4 mg/m2/h and those without proteinuria (codominant model OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.19&#8211;0.66, P&lt;0.001; dominant model OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.17&#8211;0.69 P=0.002; recessive model OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.01&#8211;1.06 P=0.025. Conclusion : Our results indicate that the SNP in IL-17RA (rs2895332 may be related to the development of proteinuria in IgAN patients.

  17. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in individuals with AIDS Tecido linfoide associado à mucosa em indivíduos com AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janainna Grazielle Pacheco Olegario

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Vestibular folds (VF protect upper airways, but contain fewer immune cells in AIDS patients, which affects the structure of lymphoid follicles (LF. OBJECTIVE: To characterize fibrosis and immunoglobulin production in vestibular fold lymphoid tissues of AIDS patients with or with no infection and malnutrition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of 71 adult vestibular fold autopsy specimens. The morphological analysis was done using the picrosirius staining method. Immunohistochemical methods consisted of anti-IgA, anti IgG, and anti IgM antibodies. RESULTS: Fibrosis was less intense in AIDS patients compared to subjects without AIDS; the same applied to patients with infection or malnutrition. IgA and IgG titers were higher in AIDS patients; IgM titers were higher in cases with infection. CONCLUSION: This study helps understand variations in lymphoid follicle components of AIDS patients; it also shows the influence of architectural changes and the effect of associated respiratory infection and malnutrition on lymphoid follicle function.Pregas vestibulares (PV são responsáveis pela proteção das vias aéreas superiores e, nos indivíduos com AIDS, apresenta diminuição das células imunes, o que influencia na estrutura dos folículos linfoides (FL. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar a fibrose e a produção de imunoglobulinas nos FL das PV nos indivíduos com AIDS, com e sem infecções e subnutrição associadas. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo transversal em 71 PV de adultos autopsiados. Para a análise morfológica foi usada a coloração picro-sirius. A imuno-histoquímica foi realizada com os anticorpos: anti-IgA, anti-IgG, anti-IgM. RESULTADOS: Nos pacientes com AIDS, a quantidade de fibrose foi menor quando comparados com aqueles que não possuíam AIDS, o mesmo sendo encontrado nos pacientes com infecções ou subnutrição. As quantidades de IgA e IgG foram maiores nos indivíduos com AIDS, e os valores de Ig

  18. Associations of socioeconomic factors with inadequate dietary intake in food aid users in France (The ABENA study 2004-2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méjean, C; Deschamps, V; Bellin-Lestienne, C; Oleko, A; Darmon, N; Hercberg, S; Serge, H; Castetbon, K; Katia, C

    2010-04-01

    Few studies in Europe have examined the relationship of sociodemographic and economic factors with diet in deprived populations. We analysed the association between socioeconomic characteristics and consumption of different food groups in food aid users. A cross-sectional study was conducted among food aid users in four urban French zones (n=1664). Associations of sociodemographic and economic factors and food aid use with frequency of consumption of the main food groups were tested using multivariate logistic regression models accounting for sampling weights. Both migrant status and consumption of fewer than three daily meals were associated with risk of low frequency of starchy food consumption (status was also associated with low frequency of consumption of fruits and vegetables (food insufficiency were more likely to be low consumers of fruits and vegetables, meat, seafood and eggs (food budget, temporary housing in a shelter and no source of household income were all associated with risk of low frequency of seafood consumption (food aid use, type of food aid distribution and perception of poor health status were associated with low consumption of meat, seafood and eggs. Economic level and other social characteristics were associated with an unhealthy diet within this deprived French population.

  19. Serum Levels of Vaspin and Its Correlation with Nitric Oxide in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihanfar, Aynaz; Rahmati-Yamchi, Mohammad; Mota, Ali; Abediazar, Sima; Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Younes; Zarghami, Nosratollah

    2018-01-01

    Diabetic Nephropathy (DN), a serious and prevalent complication of diabetes, has been rapidly raising worldwide. Vaspin, as an adipokine with anti-diabetic effects, is predominantly released from visceral adipose tissue. Moreover, vaspin has the stimulatory effect on nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability through the activation of NO synthase. The aim of the present study was to investigate the serum levels of vaspin and their correlation with NO metabolite in diabetic patients with normal renal function and renal insufficiency. Volunteers patients with non-nephropathy Type 2 Diabetic Mellitus (T2DM) as control (n=40, age= 56.95±6.11 years) and patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) (n=40, age=57.85±5.63 years) as case group were enrolled in this study, and serum samples were collected for the measurement of vaspin levels by ELISA technique. Also, serum levels of NO metabolites were calorimetrically assessed. We found that vaspin levels significantly decreased in diabetic patients with nephropathic condition as compared with diabetic patients with normal renal function (p diabetic patients with nephropathy in comparison with non-nephropathic diabetics (pdiabetic patients and increased levels of NO may be a defensive mechanism in the DN. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Taurine Alleviates the Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model

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    Jang Hyun Koh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. In this study, the protective effects of taurine on diabetic nephropathy along with its underlying mechanism were investigated. Experimental animals were divided into three groups: LETO rats as normal group (n=10, OLETF rats as diabetic control group (n=10, and OLETF rats treated with taurine group (n=10. We treated taurine (200 mg/kg/day for 20 weeks and treated high glucose (HG, 30 mM with or without taurine (30 mM in mouse cultured podocyte. After taurine treatment, blood glucose level was decreased and insulin secretion was increased. Taurine significantly reduced albuminuria and ACR. Also it decreased glomerular volume, GBM thickness and increased open slit pore density through decreased VEGF and increased nephrin mRNA expressions in renal cortex. The antioxidant effects of taurine were confirmed by the reduction of urine MDA in taurine treated diabetic group. Also reactive oxygen species (ROS levels were decreased in HG condition with taurine treated podocytes compared to without taurine. These results indicate that taurine lowers glucose level via increased insulin secretion and ameliorates the progression of diabetic nephropathy through antifibrotic and antioxidant effects in type 2 diabetes rat model.

  1. Complex etiology and pathology of mycotoxic nephropathy in South African pigs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stoev, SD

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous nephropathy in pigs seen in South Africa was found to have multi-mycotoxic etiology involving several mycotoxins such as ochratoxin A (OTA), penicillic acid (PA) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) in addition to a not yet identified mycotoxin...

  2. Number and Frequency of Albuminuria Measurements in Clinical Trials in Diabetic Nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kröpelin, Tobias F; de Zeeuw, Dick; Andress, Dennis L

    2015-01-01

    . CONCLUSIONS: Increasing the number of urine collections per study visit and the number of visits over time does not change the average drug effect estimate but markedly increases the precision, thereby enhancing statistical power. Thus, clinical trial designs in diabetic nephropathy using albuminuria...... data from three randomized intervention trials (Aliskiren Combined with Losartan in Type 2 Diabetes and Nephropathy, Selective Vitamin D Receptor Activation for Albuminuria Lowering, and Residual Albuminuria Lowering with Endothelin Antagonist Atrasentan) including patients with type 2 diabetes...... of urine collections per visit were increased. Using all albuminuria measurements at all study visits led to a 4- to 6-fold reduction in sample size to detect a 30% albuminuria-lowering treatment effect with 80% power compared with using baseline and end-of-treatment albuminuria measurements alone...

  3. Evaluation of adriamycin nephropathy by an in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oteki, Takaaki; Nagase, Sohji; Yokoyama, Hidekatsu; Ohya, Hiroaki; Akatsuka, Takao; Tada, Mika; Ueda, Atsushi; Hirayama, Aki; koyama, Akio

    2005-01-01

    A rat model for human minimal change nephropathy was obtained by the intravenous injection of adriamycin (ADR) at 5 mg/kg. By using an in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer operating at 700 MHz, the temporal changes in signal intensities of a nitroxide radical, 4-hydroxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPOL), in the kidneys of rats with ADR nephropathy were investigated. The decay rate of the EPR signal intensity obtained in the kidney is indicative of the renal reducing ability. It was found that the reducing ability in the kidney declined on the 7th day after ADR administration and recovered after the 14th day. Impairment of the reducing ability occurred before the appearance of continuous urinary protein. The in vitro EPR study showed that this impairment of in vivo renal reducing ability is related to impairment of the reducing ability in the mitochondria

  4. Lycium chinense leaves extract ameliorates diabetic nephropathy by suppressing hyperglycemia mediated renal oxidative stress and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Opeyemi Joshua; Chen, Hongxia; Zhou, Yifeng

    2018-06-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most serious and most frequently encountered diabetic complication, accounting for the highest cause of end-stage renal disease. This present study was aimed at exploring the protective/attenuative effect of Lycium chinense leaf extract (MELC) on streptozotocin induced diabetic nephropathy in experimental Sprague Dawley rats. The oral administration of diabetic rats with MELC markedly ameliorated renal dysfunction as observed in the significant reduction in the serum levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), albumin and TGF-β1 as compared to the untreated diabetic control rats. In addition, the elevated levels of renal oxidative stress markers and pro-inflammatory parameters (GSH, SOD, CAT, MDA, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) were significantly reduced in MELC treated diabetic rats. The results obtained in this study suggests that L. chinense leaf might have the potential as possible pharmacological agent against diabetic nephropathy by suppressing renal oxidative stress and inflammation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Nephroprotective effect of Bauhinia variegata (Linn.) whole stem extract against cisplatin-induced nephropathy in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Saumya R.; Mishra, Satyaranjan; Sahoo, Sabuj; Panda, Prasana K.

    2011-01-01

    The nephroprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata (Linn.) whole stem against cisplatin-induced nephropathy was investigated by an in vivo method in rats. Acute nephrotoxicity was induced by i.p. injection of cisplatin (7 mg/kg of body weight (b.w.)). Administration of ethanol extract at dose levels of 400 and 200 mg/kg (b.w.) to cisplatin-intoxicated rats for 14 days attenuated the biochemical and histological signs of nephrotoxicity of cisplatin in a dose-dependent fashion. Ethanol extract at 400 mg/kg decreased the serum level of creatinine (0.65 ± 0.09; P<0.001) and urea (32.86 ± 5.88; P<0.001) associated with a significant increase in body weight (7.16 ± 1.10; P<0.001) and urine volume output (11.95 ± 0.79; P<0.05) as compared to the toxic control group. The ethanol extract of B. variegata at 400 mg/kg (b.w.) exhibited significant and comparable nephroprotective potential to that of the standard polyherbal drug cystone. The statistically (one-way-ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison) processed results suggested the protective action of B. variegate whole stem against cisplatin-induced nephropathy. PMID:21572659

  6. A systematic review and meta-analysis of genetic association studies for the role of inflammation and the immune system in diabetic nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziastoudi, Maria; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M.; Stravodimos, Konstantinos; Zintzaras, Elias

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Despite the certain contribution of metabolic and haemodynamic factors in diabetic nephropathy (DN), many lines of evidence highlight the role of immunologic and inflammatory mechanisms. To elucidate the contribution of the immune system in the development of DN, we explored the contribution of gene variants (polymorphisms) in relevant pathophysiologic pathways. Methods: We selected six major pathways related to immune response from the Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes database and thereafter we traced all available genetic association studies (GASs) involving gene variants in these pathways from PubMed and HuGE Navigator. Finally, we used meta-analytic methods for synthesizing the results of the GASs. Results: One hundred three GASs were retrieved that included 443 variants from 75 genes. Of those variants, 138 were meta-analysed and 61 produced significant results; seven variants were investigated in single GASs and showed significant association. Variants in CCL2, CCR5, IL6, IL8, EPO, IL1A, IL1B, IL100, IL1RN, GHRL, MMP9, TGFB1, VEGFA, MMP3, MMP12, IL12RB1, PRKCE, TNF and TNFRSF19 genes were associated with an increased risk of DN. Conclusions: There is evidence that variants related with immunologic response affect the course of DN. However, the present results should be interpreted with caution since the current number of available GASs is limited. PMID:28616206

  7. Expression and Function of the Chemokine, CXCL13, and Its Receptor, CXCR5, in Aids-Associated Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Widney

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The homeostatic chemokine, CXCL13 (BLC, BCA-1, helps direct the recirculation of mature, resting B cells, which express its receptor, CXCR5. CXCL13/CXCR5 are expressed, and may play a role, in some non-AIDS-associated B cell tumors. Objective. To determine if CXCL13/CXCR5 are associated with AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (AIDS-NHL. Methods. Serum CXCL13 levels were measured by ELISA in 46 subjects who developed AIDS-NHL in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study and in controls. The expression or function of CXCL13 and CXCR5 was examined on primary AIDS-NHL specimens or AIDS-NHL cell lines. Results. Serum CXCL13 levels were significantly elevated in the AIDS-NHL group compared to controls. All primary AIDS-NHL specimens showed CXCR5 expression and most also showed CXCL13 expression. AIDS-NHL cell lines expressed CXCR5 and showed chemotaxis towards CXCL13. Conclusions. CXCL13/CXCR5 are expressed in AIDS-NHL and could potentially be involved in its biology. CXCL13 may have potential as a biomarker for AIDS-NHL.

  8. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the gene encoding GLUT1 and diabetic nephropathy in Brazilian patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, T; Patente, T A; Monteiro, M B; Cavaleiro, A M; Queiroz, M S; Nery, M; de Azevedo, M J; Canani, L H; Parisi, M C; Moura-Neto, A; Passarelli, M; Giannella-Neto, D; Machado, U F; Corrêa-Giannella, M L

    2015-04-15

    Mesangial cells subject to high extracellular glucose concentrations, as occur in hyperglycaemic states, are unable to down regulate glucose influx, resulting in intracellular activation of deleterious biochemical pathways. A high expression of GLUT1 participates in the development of diabetic glomerulopathy. Variants in the gene encoding GLUT1 (SLC2A1) have been associated to this diabetic complication. The aim of this study was to test whether polymorphisms in SLC2A1 confer susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy (DN) in Brazilian type 1 diabetes patients. Four polymorphisms (rs3820589, rs1385129, rs841847 and rs841848) were genotyped in a Brazilian cohort comprised of 452 patients. A prospective analysis was performed in 155 patients. Mean duration of follow-up was 5.6 ± 2.4 years and the incidence of renal events was 18.0%. The rs3820589 presented an inverse association with the prevalence of incipient DN (OR: 0.36, 95% CI: 0.16 - 0.80, p=0.01) and with progression to renal events (HR: 0.20; 95% CI: 0.03 - 0.70; p=0.009). AGGT and AGAC haplotypes were associated with the prevalence of incipient DN and the AGAC haplotype was also associated with the prevalence of established/advanced DN. In conclusion, rs3820589 in the SLC2A1 gene modulates the risk to DN in Brazilian patients with inadequate type 1 diabetes control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Oral Methylprednisolone on Clinical Outcomes in Patients With IgA Nephropathy: The TESTING Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jicheng; Zhang, Hong; Wong, Muh Geot; Jardine, Meg J; Hladunewich, Michelle; Jha, Vivek; Monaghan, Helen; Zhao, Minghui; Barbour, Sean; Reich, Heather; Cattran, Daniel; Glassock, Richard; Levin, Adeera; Wheeler, David; Woodward, Mark; Billot, Laurent; Chan, Tak Mao; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Johnson, David W; Cass, Alan; Feehally, John; Floege, Jürgen; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Wu, Yangfeng; Agarwal, Rajiv; Wang, Hai-Yan; Perkovic, Vlado

    2017-08-01

    .5%-17.9%]; P = .02). Among patients with IgA nephropathy and proteinuria of 1 g/d or greater, oral methylprednisolone was associated with an increased risk of serious adverse events, primarily infections. Although the results were consistent with potential renal benefit, definitive conclusions about treatment benefit cannot be made, owing to early termination of the trial. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01560052.

  10. Circadian rhythm of arterial blood pressure and albuminuria in diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H P; Rossing, P; Tarnow, L

    1996-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the diurnal relationship between arterial blood pressure and albuminuria, and some potential mechanisms responsible for impaired nocturnal blood pressure reduction (non-dippers, groups I and II) in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood p...

  11. Plasma lipoproteins and renal function during simvastatin treatment in diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hommel, E; Andersen, P; Gall, M A

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of simvastatin on plasma lipoproteins and renal function in hypercholesterolaemic Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy. Twenty-six hypercholesterolaemic (total cholesterol greater than or equal to 5.5 mmol/l) Type 1...

  12. Quantitative GC-MS assay of citric acid from humans and db/db mice blood serum to assist the diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haoxue; Yu, Xiaoyi; Sun, Runbin; Yang, Na; He, Jun; Tao, Mingxue; Gu, Huilin; Yan, Caixia; Aa, Jiye; Wang, Guangji

    2018-03-01

    The early diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) is rather challenging. Our previous study suggested that citric acid is a potential marker for the early diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy in db/db mice. For the first time, in this study, a surrogate analyte of 13 C 6 -citric acid was employed to generate calibration curves for the quantitative measurement of the endogenous citric acid in the sera of db/db mice and diabetic nephropathy patients by GC/MS after the analytes were extracted, methoximated and trimethylsilylated. The constant response factor of 13 C 6 -citric acid versus citric acid over the linear range indicated the identical ionization efficiency of these two compounds. The full validation assessments suggested that the method is sensitive, specific, reliable, reproducible and has acceptable parameters. Statistical analysis revealed cut-off citric acid concentrations of 29.24 μg/mL with a 95% confidence interval between 32.75 and 39.16 μg/mL in the diabetic nephropathy patients and 16.74 and 22.57 μg/mL in the normal controls. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves indicated accuracies of over 90% for the diagnoses of early diabetic nephropathy in both humans and db/db mice, which suggests that the serum citric acid level is potentially a biomarker that could assist in the diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The diagnosis value of endothelin, calcitonin gene-related peptide and the ratio in diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lusheng; Zhao Xin; Chi Liuying; Yang Xixiu; Mao Hongyu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnosis value of Endothelin (ET), Calcitonin gene-related peptide(CGRP) and theratio in diabetic nephropathy(DN). Methods: To choose 54 healthy as the control group and 124 patients with diabetes or DN as test group. According to urinary albumin excretion rate (uAER), the test group was divided into three groups, which were diabetes group of normalalbuminmia (group A), early DN (group B) and clinical DN and renal failure group( group C ). Plasma concentration of ET and CGRP were measured with radioimmunossay for those in the Control group and patients with diabetes or DN. Results: The level of ET was significantly higher in diabetic nephropathy than that in the control group (P<0.01), and there was positive correlation between ET and uAER(r=0.591, P<0.01). The plasma level of CGRP was significantly lower in diabetic nephropathy than that in the control group (P<0.01), and there was negative correlation between CGRP and uAER(r-0.389, P<0.05). The level of ET, CGRP and ET/CGRP ratio have evidently changed with the uAER rised. Conclusion: (1)The level of ET, CGRP and type 2 diabetic nephropathy are closely related, and which probably plays a role in the development of DN. (2)ET/CGRP ratio, as a new way for diagnosis, can even more reflecte the seriousness of DN. (3)This experiment provide us a new way for the prevention and treatment of DN with extrinsic CGRP. (authors)

  14. Randomized control trial for the assessment of the anti-albuminuric effects of topiroxostat in hyperuricemic patients with diabetic nephropathy (the ETUDE study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Sawako; Ando, Masahiko; Mizukoshi, Toshihiro; Nagata, Takanobu; Katsuno, Takayuki; Kosugi, Tomoki; Tsuboi, Naotake; Maruyama, Shoichi

    2016-05-01

    Proteinuria is an established risk factor for diabetic nephropathy. Recent studies indicate that some xanthine oxidase inhibitors have a renoprotective effect. The aim of this study was to assess whether topiroxostat reduces albuminuria in hyperuricemic patients with diabetic nephropathy and overt proteinuria. The ETUDE study is an ongoing 24-week, multicenter, open-label, randomized (1:1), parallel group study involving hyperuricemic patients with diabetic nephropathy (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≥ 20 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) and overt proteinuria (0.3 ≤ urine protein to creatinine ratio (UPCR) ETUDE trial is the first randomized controlled study of topiroxostat in hyperuricemic patients with diabetic nephropathy and overt proteinuria. We will clarify the pleiotropic function of topiroxostat including an anti-albumiuric effect as well as its effects on safely decreasing serum uric acid levels.

  15. Tumors associated with HIV / AIDS monitoring 45 patients between 1/1998 and 6/2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krygier, G.; Lombardo, K.; Sosa, A.; Ocampo; Suárez P, R.; Muse, I.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: This paper is intended to show 45 patients with cancer associated the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) / AIDS, diagnosed, treated and followed over a period of 6.5 years in our country. The medical records were retrospectively analyzed of cancer patients diagnosed HIV positive on 5 institutions public and private in our midst, in the period between 1/98 and 6/04 (Institute of Health, National Institute of Oncology, Hospital of Clinics, Service Comprehensive Medical, Spanish Mutual Aid Association). They took into account different variables (origin, medical record number, sex, age, sexual habits, addiction to injecting drugs, HIV diagnosis positive diagnosis of AIDS, infectious prophylaxis, antiretroviral therapy, lymphocyte start and in the evolution population viral load start and evolutionary, tumor type, stage, treatment received, date of last control and status the close of the work). We compared data collected by us AIDS Ministry report of Public Health. 24 cases were Kaposi sarcomas (one nodal exclusive), 11 were non-Hodgkin lymphomas (two of SNC and other gastric), 1 Hodgkin's Disease 1 rectal cancer, tongue cancer 1 1 laryngeal cancer, thyroid cancer 1 1 Melanoma 1 parotid cancer, cancer 1 Lung and breast cancer 1. No cervical tumors or recorded anal canal in the study population. Treatments received varied for each disease depending on the stage of the disease and viral load / Towns lymphocyte start. This is the first study with longer follow-up in our country HIV patients / AIDS-associated cancer, he reflected the difficulty in collecting data, various types of cancer in the study population and demand the need to create an accurate and accessible system of monitoring these patients

  16. Patients’ Perception on the Nutritional Therapy for Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichiro Shide

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low protein diet (LPD plays an important role in preventing the progression of diabetic nephropathy. However, it is a great burden to the patients. In this paper, we have studied the quality of life (QOL in such patients. The study subjects were 59 patients (male 38, female 21 with type 2 diabetes. The patients were classified into tertiles based on their protein intake (g/kg BW. Scores from the diet-related QOL questionnaire were summarized by principal component analysis into four components; mental health, less burden, satisfaction and merit, and less social restriction. Higher protein intake was associated with less burden and less social restriction. In multiple regression analysis, the significant predictors for the “less burden” component were higher protein intake/BW and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. In summary, registered dietitians and clinicians must keep in mind that LPD is a serious burden to the patients and efforts must be made to minimize their burden in order to avoid discontinuation.

  17. The effects of atrasentan on urinary metabolites in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena, Michelle J; de Zeeuw, Dick; Andress, Dennis

    2018-01-01

    We assessed the effect of atrasentan therapy on a pre-specified panel of 13 urinary metabolites known to reflect mitochondrial function in patients with diabetic kidney disease. This post-hoc analysis was performed using urine samples collected during the RADAR study which was a randomized, double......-blind, placebo-controlled trial that tested the effects of atrasentan on albuminuria reduction in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. At baseline, four of the 13 metabolites, quantified by gas-chromatography mass spectrometry, were below detectable levels, and six were reduced in patients with e...... diabetes, nephropathy, and eGFR

  18. Radiological diagnosis in AIDS - associated diseases: survey and differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rademaker, J.; Frahm, C.

    1997-01-01

    Acute manifestations of illnesses in patients with HIV-infection or AIDS will benefit from rapid diagnosis. Radiologic examinations provide substantial information to narrow the differential diagnosis. This article reviews clinically important HIV-associated diseases for the radiologist. The braod spectrum of possible manifestations is illustrated by the accompanying case reports that typify the complexity of diagnoses in this growing problem worldwide. (orig.) [de

  19. The Effect of Hyperuricemia on the Rate of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Patients with Coronary Angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Vakili

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is little information about the relationship between hyperuricemia and contrast induced nephropathy. The present study aimed to evaluate the relationship between hyperuricemia and contrast induced nephropathy among patients, who had undergone coronary angiography.Methods: In the current study, 200 consecutive patients with coronary artery disease, who underwent coronary angiography in Modarres hospital, were enrolled. According to the available data, the upper limit normal level of uric acid was defined as 7 mg/dl in males and 6.5 mg/dl in females. By increasing level of serum creatinine to 0.5 mg/dl (or 25% enhancement from basic level of creatinine during 48 hours of introduction of contrast agent, diagnosis of Contrast Induced Nephropathy (CIN was established. The relationship between hyperuricemia and CIN was then assessed.Results: There is a significant difference between normouricemic patients and hyperuricemic patients, in aspect of weight (P = 0.011 and uric acid (P = 0.001; however, other quantitative and qualitative variables including age, volume of contract agent, creatinine level after angiography, hemoglobin level, gender, arterial access type, number of involved vessels, were insignificant between the two groups (P > 0.05. Moreover, as an essential finding, CIN was shown in 9% of normouricemic patients and 10% of hyperuricemic  patients with no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.6.Conclusions: Our study suggests that hyperuricemia may not significantly increase the rate of the contrast-induced nephropathy in patients, who had undergone angiography

  20. Alterations of urinary metabolite profile in model diabetic nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stec, Donald F. [Vanderbilt Institute of Chemical Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Wang, Suwan; Stothers, Cody [Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Avance, Josh [Berea College, 1916 CPO, Berea, KY 40404 (United States); Denson, Deon [Choctaw Central High School, Philadelphia, MS 39350 (United States); Harris, Raymond [Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Voziyan, Paul, E-mail: paul.voziyan@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2015-01-09

    Highlights: • {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy was employed to study urinary metabolite profile in diabetic mouse models. • Mouse urinary metabolome showed major changes that are also found in human diabetic nephropathy. • These models can be new tools to study urinary biomarkers that are relevant to human disease. - Abstract: Countering the diabetes pandemic and consequent complications, such as nephropathy, will require better understanding of disease mechanisms and development of new diagnostic methods. Animal models can be versatile tools in studies of diabetic renal disease when model pathology is relevant to human diabetic nephropathy (DN). Diabetic models using endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) knock-out mice develop major renal lesions characteristic of human disease. However, it is unknown whether they can also reproduce changes in urinary metabolites found in human DN. We employed Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic mouse models of DN, i.e. STZ-eNOS{sup −/−} C57BLKS and eNOS{sup −/−} C57BLKS db/db, with the goal of determining changes in urinary metabolite profile using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Six urinary metabolites with significantly lower levels in diabetic compared to control mice have been identified. Specifically, major changes were found in metabolites from tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and aromatic amino acid catabolism including 3-indoxyl sulfate, cis-aconitate, 2-oxoisocaproate, N-phenyl-acetylglycine, 4-hydroxyphenyl acetate, and hippurate. Levels of 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid and hippuric acid showed the strongest reverse correlation to albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), which is an indicator of renal damage. Importantly, similar changes in urinary hydroxyphenyl acetate and hippurate were previously reported in human renal disease. We demonstrated that STZ-eNOS{sup −/−} C57BLKS and eNOS{sup −/−} C57BLKS db/db mouse models can recapitulate changes in urinary metabolome found in human DN and therefore can be

  1. Alterations of urinary metabolite profile in model diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stec, Donald F.; Wang, Suwan; Stothers, Cody; Avance, Josh; Denson, Deon; Harris, Raymond; Voziyan, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 1 H NMR spectroscopy was employed to study urinary metabolite profile in diabetic mouse models. • Mouse urinary metabolome showed major changes that are also found in human diabetic nephropathy. • These models can be new tools to study urinary biomarkers that are relevant to human disease. - Abstract: Countering the diabetes pandemic and consequent complications, such as nephropathy, will require better understanding of disease mechanisms and development of new diagnostic methods. Animal models can be versatile tools in studies of diabetic renal disease when model pathology is relevant to human diabetic nephropathy (DN). Diabetic models using endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) knock-out mice develop major renal lesions characteristic of human disease. However, it is unknown whether they can also reproduce changes in urinary metabolites found in human DN. We employed Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic mouse models of DN, i.e. STZ-eNOS −/− C57BLKS and eNOS −/− C57BLKS db/db, with the goal of determining changes in urinary metabolite profile using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Six urinary metabolites with significantly lower levels in diabetic compared to control mice have been identified. Specifically, major changes were found in metabolites from tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and aromatic amino acid catabolism including 3-indoxyl sulfate, cis-aconitate, 2-oxoisocaproate, N-phenyl-acetylglycine, 4-hydroxyphenyl acetate, and hippurate. Levels of 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid and hippuric acid showed the strongest reverse correlation to albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), which is an indicator of renal damage. Importantly, similar changes in urinary hydroxyphenyl acetate and hippurate were previously reported in human renal disease. We demonstrated that STZ-eNOS −/− C57BLKS and eNOS −/− C57BLKS db/db mouse models can recapitulate changes in urinary metabolome found in human DN and therefore can be useful new tools in

  2. Relationship between changes of plasma endothelin (ET) level, ATPase activity of erythrocyte membrane and development of nephropathy in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Lin; Lu Beiyi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible role played by alteration of plasma ET levels and activities of Na + - K + -APT ase and Ca 2+ -Mg 2+ -ATPase of erythrocyte membrane in patients with nephropathy pregnancy induced hypertension. Methods: The concentrations of plasma ET was detected with RIA and erythrocyte membrane ATPase activities were determined with Reilni method in 32 pregnant women with PIH complicated with nephropathy and 70 women with PIH but no nephropathy and 35 normal pregnant women as controls. Results: The plasma ET levels in patients with PHI (both with and without nephropathy) were significantly higher than those in normal preganat women (P + -K + -ATPase and Ca 2+ -Mg 2+ -ATPase levels were significantly de- creased (P + -K + -ATPase and Ca 2+ -Mg 2+ -ATPase activity of erythrocyte membrane. (authors)

  3. The role of theophylline in prevention of radiocontrast media-induced nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malhis Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrast media induced nephropathy (CIN results in significant morbidity and mortality. We therefore investigated whether theophylline (adenosine antagonist reduces the inci-dence of contrast media induced nephropathy. Two hundred and eighty patients were randomly assigned to prophylactic administration of hydration with sodium bicarbonate plus theophylline (either orally or intravenously (n=128 or hydration with sodium bicarbonate only (n=152. Blood Urea, creatinine, and glomerular filtration rate (MDRD were measured before and after administration of contrast media. Both groups were similar in clinical characteristics and amount of contrast used. Theophylline prophylaxis significantly reduced the incidence of CIN (1.6% vs 7.9%; P= 0.015. Compared to low-risk patients, Theophylline prophylaxis significantly reduced the incidence of CIN in moderate and high-risk patients (0% vs 8.8%; P= 0.022 and 9.1% vs 42.1%; P= 0.014 respectively. In conclusion, prophylactic administration of theophylline re-duces the incidence of CIN in moderate and high-risk patients for CIN.

  4. Hypertension in diabetes as related to nephropathy. Early blood pressure changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Borch-Johnsen, K; Mathiesen, E R

    1985-01-01

    We measured the blood pressure under standardized conditions in three groups of patients with type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes: group 1, patients with Albustix-negative urine and normal urinary albumin excretion rate below 20 micrograms/min; group 2, patients with Albustix-negative urine and e...... that arterial hypertension is an early feature in the developing of diabetic nephropathy, with blood pressure rising before the presence of clinical proteinuria.......We measured the blood pressure under standardized conditions in three groups of patients with type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes: group 1, patients with Albustix-negative urine and normal urinary albumin excretion rate below 20 micrograms/min; group 2, patients with Albustix-negative urine...... and elevated urinary albumin excretion rate 20 to 200 micrograms/min; and group 3, patients with Albustix-positive urine at the time of diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy, that is, proteinuria greater than 0.5 g/24 hr on four consecutive visits with an interval of more than 1 month. We also studied blood...

  5. [Preliminary analysis of the relationship between peripheral arterial disease and other atherosclerosis markers and diabetic nephropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioja, José; Moreno, Tamara; Coca, Inmaculada; Jiménez-Villodres, Manuel; Rodríguez-Morata, Alejandro; Valdivielso, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    To determine lipid serum levels, lipoproteins and other markers related to nephropathy and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in a type 2 diabetes population stratified according to their level of renal dysfunction. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 72 type 2 diabetic patients followed-up in outpatient clinics. Patients were divided into 4 groups according to their estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, mL/min) and albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR, mg/g) (eGFR > 60 and ACR 60 and ACR > 30 [n = 12], eGFR30-60 [n = 23] and eGFR < 30 [n = 14]). Clinical and anthropometric characteristic of all patients were recorded. Fasting lipids and apolipoproteins, as well as renal and hematology parameters were measured. Finally, a multivariate Wald stepwise logistic regression statistic analysis was performed to determine variables independently associated with the presence of renal dysfunction. The univariate statistical analysis showed that the higher renal dysfunction, the higher the prevalence of hypertension, smoking habit and triglycerides levels, and the lower hemoglobin levels (P < .05). The multivariate statistical analysis showed that only triglycerides levels (OR: 1.019, 95% CI: 1.004-1.034) and hemoglobin levels (OR: 0.516 95% CI: 0.292-0.914) were independently associated to the presence of renal dysfunction (eGFR < 60 mL/min.). The further inclusion of the presence of PAD in the statistical model did not modify those associations. The results confirm the relationship between triglycerides levels and diabetic nephropathy, independently of the presence of PAD. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. The urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio is a reliable indicator for evaluating complications of chronic kidney disease and progression in IgA nephropathy in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Huan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the correlation between the albumin-to-creatinine ratio in the urine and 24-hour urine proteinuria and whether the ratio can predict chronic kidney disease progression even more reliably than 24-hour proteinuria can, particularly in primary IgA nephropathy. METHODS: A total of 182 patients with primary IgA nephropathy were evaluated. Their mean urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio and 24-hour proteinuria were determined during hospitalization. Blood samples were also analyzed. Follow-up data were recorded for 44 patients. A cross-sectional study was then conducted to test the correlation between these parameters and their associations with chronic kidney disease complications. Subsequently, a canonical correlation analysis was employed to assess the correlation between baseline proteinuria and parameters of the Oxford classification. Finally, a prospective observational study was performed to evaluate the association between proteinuria and clinical outcomes. Our study is registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, and the registration number is ChiCTR-OCH-14005137. RESULTS: A strong correlation (r=0.81, p<0.001 was found between the ratio and 24-hour proteinuria except in chronic kidney disease stage 5. First-morning urine albumin-to-creatinine ratios of ≥125.15, 154.44 and 760.31 mg/g reliably predicted equivalent 24-hour proteinuria ‘thresholds’ of ≥0.15, 0.3 and 1.0 g/24 h, respectively. In continuous analyses, the albumin-to-creatinine ratio was significantly associated with anemia, acidosis, hypoalbuminemia, hyperphosphatemia, hyperkalemia, hypercholesterolemia and higher serum cystatin C. However, higher 24-hour proteinuria was only associated with hypoalbuminemia and hypercholesterolemia. Higher tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis scores were also associated with a greater albumin-to-creatinine ratio, as observed in the canonical correlation analysis. Finally, the albumin

  7. Complement factor H-related proteins in IgA nephropathy-sometimes a gentle nudge does the trick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Joshua M; Laskowski, Jennifer

    2017-10-01

    Complement activation probably contributes to glomerular inflammation and damage in IgA nephropathy. In this issue, 2 groups report that levels of factor H-related protein 1 are elevated in patients with IgA nephropathy and correlate with disease progression. These studies provide new evidence that the complement cascade is important to the pathogenesis of this disease. These results also suggest that factor H-related protein 1 levels may be useful for identifying those patients at high risk of disease progression. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The association between HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and perception of risk for infection: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndugwa Kabwama, Steven; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-11-01

    This systematic review tries to elucidate the association between what people know about HIV/AIDS and how they perceive their risk of infection. The initial search for articles yielded 1,595 abstracts, 16 of which met the inclusion criteria. Five studies found a positive correlation, four reported a negative correlation and seven found no association between knowledge and risk perception. It was found that the existing psychometrically sound measure of HIV/AIDS risk perception had not been used in any of the studies. The context in which the risk is assessed is pivotal to whether an association between knowledge and the perceived risk is found. Biases in judgement such as optimistic bias, psychological distancing, anchoring bias and overconfidence also explain how knowledge may fail to predict risk perception. It was concluded that the association between HIV/AIDS knowledge and risk perception might follow a continuum from positive to no association and finally to negative. The hypothesis, however, still needs to be studied further. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.

  9. Iodinated contrast agent-induced nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erley, C.

    2007-01-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a well-known complication of therapeutic and diagnostic procedures requiring contrast administration and accounts for 10% of acute renal failure in hospitalized patients. Although the incidence of this complication is relatively low, its consequences can be catastrophic. The development of CIN is associated with increased length of hospital stay, an increased requirement for acute dialysis, and an increased risk of death. Preexisting renal dysfunction, age, diabetes, congestive heart failure, and volume of administered contrast are all associated with a risk of developing CIN. Despite a large number of clinical trials that have evaluated prophylaxis strategies for CIN, no uniform strategies have been developed so far. The use of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) or theophylline in specific subgroups of patients has been shown to reduce dialysis requirement and mortality in patients undergoing angiographic procedures. Hemofiltration has also shown positive results. In this review we will discuss the epidemiology and the risk factors for CIN and the evidence for commonly employed prophylaxis strategies, and we will provide general recommendations with respect to CIN prevention and management. A practicable strategy to prevent CIN includes: correct identification of individuals at greatest risk, thorough evaluation of whether other diagnostic maneuvers could be employed instead (i.e., sonography), application of low-osmolar contrast media at the minimum acceptable dose, stopping potential nephrotoxic drugs (NSAID), hydration with sodium chloride 0.9% 1 ml/kg per h i.v. 12 h before and after CM application, administration of acetylcysteine 600 mg twice the day before and after (in cases of emergency investigation and high-risk patients 1200 mg i.v.), and theophylline (250-350 mg) the day before and the day after CM application (in cases of emergency investigation 5 mg/kg i.v.). (orig.) [de

  10. Small Molecule Inhibiting Nuclear Factor-kB Ameliorates Oxidative Stress and Suppresses Renal Inflammation in Early Stage of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Nephropathy in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgohain, Manash P; Lahkar, Mangala; Ahmed, Sahabuddin; Chowdhury, Liakat; Kumar, Saurabh; Pant, Rajat; Choubey, Abhinav

    2017-05-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is one of the major microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus which ultimately gives rise to cardiovascular diseases. Prolonged hyperglycaemia and chronic renal inflammation are the two key players in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Nuclear factor kB (NF-kB)-mediated inflammatory cascade is a strong contributor to the renovascular inflammation in diabetic nephropathy. Here, we studied the effects of piceatannol, a potent NF-kB inhibitor, on various oxidative stress markers and NF-kB dependent diabetic renoinflammatory cascades in rat induced by alloxan (ALX). Experimental diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by a single intraperitoneal dose, 150 mg/kg body-weight (b.w.) of ALX. Diabetic rats were treated with Piceatannol (PCTNL) at a dose of 30 and 50 mg/kg b.w. After 14 days of oral treatment, PCTNL significantly restored blood sugar level, glomerular filtration rate, serum markers and plasma lipids. PCTNL administration also reversed the declined activity of cellular antioxidant machineries namely superoxide dismutase and glutathione and the elevated levels of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide. Moreover, piceatannol-treated groups showed marked inhibition of renal pro-inflammatory cytokines and NF-kB p65/p50 binding to DNA. Renal histopathological investigations also supported its ameliorative effects against diabetic kidney damage. Importantly, effects were more prominent at a dose of 50 mg/kg, and in terms of body-weight gain, PCTNL failed to effect significantly. However, overall findings clearly demonstrated that PCTNL provides remarkable renoprotection in diabetes by abrogating oxidative stress and NF-kB activation - and might be helpful in early stage of diabetic nephropathy. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  11. Contrast induced nephropathy after transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Kranin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aortic stenosis ranks the third in the structure of all cardiovascular diseases, conceding only to arterial hypertension and coronary heart disease. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI is a promising area of interventional endovascular surgery that enables to provide surgical care to a significant group of the patients with severe aortal stenosis.Aim: To assess the efficacy of prevention of the contrast induced nephropathy (CIN in patients who underwent TAVI under general anesthesia.Materials and methods: We evaluated incidence of CIN in 19 patients who underwent surgery for aortic valve stenosis under general anesthesia with hemodilution and intravenous magnesium sulfate 1 g before administration of the contrast.Results: Laboratory signs of nephropathy within the first 72 hours after the intervention were found in 8/19 (42.1% of patients. In 4 (50% of patients with CIN, its risk had been very high, in 3 (38%, high, and in 1 (12%, moderate. The results obtained are compatible with the contrast-induced acute kidney injury risk estimated from the Mehran-Barrett-Parfrey scale.Conclusion: The used technique of hemodilution and magnesium-based prevention can be considered a safe method of CIN prophylaxis in TAVI patients.

  12. Amadori albumin in diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Km. Neelofar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonenzymatic glycation of macromolecules in diabetes mellitus (DM is accelerated due to persistent hyperglycemia. Reducing sugar such as glucose reacts non enzymatically with free €- amino groups of proteins through series of reactions forming Schiff bases. These bases are converted into Amadori product and further into AGEs. Non enzymatic glycation has the potential to alter the biological, structural and functional properties of macromolecules both in vitro and in vivo. Studies have suggested that amadori as well as AGEs are involved in the micro-macro vascular complications in DM, but most studies have focused on the role of AGEs in vascular complications of diabetes. Recently putative AGE-induced patho-physiology has shifted attention from the possible role of amadori-modified proteins, the predominant form of the glycated proteins in the development of the diabetic complications. Human serum albumin (HSA, the most abundant protein in circulation contains 59 lysine and 23 arginine residues that could, in theory be involved in glycation. Albumin has dual nature, first as a marker of intermediate glycation and second as a causative agent of the damage of tissues. Among the blood proteins, hemoglobin and albumin are the most common proteins that are glycated. HSA with a shorter half life than RBC, appears to be an alternative marker of glycemic control as it can indicate blood glucose status over a short period (2-3 weeks and being unaffected by RBCs life span and variant haemoglobin, anemia etc which however, affect HbA1c. On the other hand, Amadori albumin may accumulate in the body tissues of the diabetic patients and participate in secondary complications. Amadori-albumin has potential role in diabetic glomerulosclerosis due to long term hyperglycaemia and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. This review is an approach to compile both the nature of glycated albumin as a damaging agent of tissues and as an

  13. Membrane targeting and secretion of mutant uromodulin in familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jennings, Paul; Aydin, Sonia; Kotanko, Peter; Lechner, Judith; Lhotta, Karl; Williams, Sian; Thakker, Rajesh V; Pfaller, Walter

    Familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy (FJHN) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder that is characterized by hyperuricemia, gout, and tubulointerstitial nephritis. FJHN is caused by mutations in the UMOD gene, which encodes for uromodulin, the most abundant urinary protein. Herein is

  14. Epidemiology of contrast material-induced nephropathy in the era of hydration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balemans, C.E.A.; Reichert, L.J.M.; Schelven, B.I. van; Brand, A. van den; Wetzels, J.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the incidence of contrast material-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) who received intravenous contrast media and underwent treatment in accordance with current guidelines and to determine

  15. Low birth weight. A risk factor for development of diabetic nephropathy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, P; Tarnow, L; Nielsen, F S

    1995-01-01

    for expression of renal disease after exposure to potentially injurious renal stimuli. The aim of this study was to determine if low birth weight is a risk factor for development of diabetic nephropathy. In a case-control study, we investigated 184 (110 men) insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patients...

  16. Rice bran protein hydrolysates attenuate diabetic nephropathy in diabetic animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonloh, Kampeebhorn; Lee, Eun Soo; Kim, Hong Min; Kwon, Mi Hye; Kim, You Mi; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Thawornchinsombut, Supawan; Lee, Eun Young; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Chung, Choon Hee

    2018-03-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is an important microvascular complication of uncontrolled diabetes. The features of DN include albuminuria, extracellular matrix alterations, and progressive renal insufficiency. Rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBPs) have been reported to have antihyperglycemic, lipid-lowering, and anti-inflammatory effects in diabetic rats. Our study was to investigate the renoprotective effects of RBP in diabetic animals and mesangial cultured cells. Eight-week-old male db/m and db/db mice were orally treated with tap water or RBP (100 or 500 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks. At the end of the experiment, diabetic nephropathy in kidney tissues was investigated for histological, ultrastructural, and clinical chemistry changes, and biomarkers of angiogenesis, fibrosis, inflammation, and antioxidant in kidney were analyzed by Western blotting. Protection against proangiogenic proteins and induction of cytoprotection by RBP in cultured mesangial cells was evaluated. RBP treatment improved insulin sensitivity, decreased elevated fasting serum glucose levels, and improved serum lipid levels and urinary albumin/creatinine ratios in diabetic mice. RBP ameliorated the decreases in podocyte slit pore numbers, thickening of glomerular basement membranes, and mesangial matrix expansion and suppressed elevation of MCP-1, ICAM-1, HIF-1α, VEGF, TGF-β, p-Smad2/3, and type IV collagen expression. Moreover, RBP restored suppressed antioxidant Nrf2 and HO-1 expression. In cultured mesangial cells, RBP inhibited high glucose-induced angiogenic protein expression and induced the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1. RBP attenuates the progression of diabetic nephropathy and restored renal function by suppressing the expression of proangiogenic and profibrotic proteins, inhibiting proinflammatory mediators, and restoring the antioxidant and cytoprotective system.

  17. Is HIV-2- induced AIDS different from HIV-1-associated AIDS? Data from a West African clinic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Steele, Euridice; Awasana, Akum Aveika; Corrah, Tumani; Sabally, Saihou; van der Sande, Marianne; Jaye, Assan; Togun, Toyin; Sarge-Njie, Ramu; McConkey, Samuel J.; Whittle, Hilton; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.

    2007-01-01

    Although AIDS is less frequent following HIV-2 than HIV-1 infection, it is unclear whether the clinical picture and clinical course of AIDS are similar in the two infections. To compare the pattern of AIDS-defining events, CD4 cell count at the time of AIDS diagnosis, survival from time of AIDS, and

  18. HIV-1 Tat and AIDS-associated cancer: targeting the cellular anti-cancer barrier?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel René

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is accompanied by a significant increase in the incidence of neoplasms. Several causative agents have been proposed for this phenomenon. These include immunodeficiency and oncogenic DNA viruses and the HIV-1 protein Tat. Cancer in general is closely linked to genomic instability and DNA repair mechanisms. The latter maintains genomic stability and serves as a cellular anti-cancer barrier. Defects in DNA repair pathway are associated with carcinogenesis. This review focuses on newly discovered connections of the HIV-1 protein Tat, as well as cellular co-factors of Tat, to double-strand break DNA repair. We propose that the Tat-induced DNA repair deficiencies may play a significant role in the development of AIDS-associated cancer.

  19. Contrast media induced nephropathy: a literature review of the available evidence and recommendations for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deek, Hiba; Newton, Phillip; Sheerin, Noella; Noureddine, Samar; Davidson, Patricia M

    2014-11-01

    Contrast media induced nephropathy (CIN) is a sudden compromise of renal function 24-48 h after administering contrast medium during a CT scan or angiography. CIN accounts for 10% of hospital acquired renal failure and is ranked the third cause of acquiring this condition. Identifying patients at risk through proper screening can reduce the occurrence of this condition. This review paper aims to critique current evidence, provide a better understanding of CIN, inform nursing practice and make recommendations for bedside nurses and future research. An integrative review of the literature was made using the key terms: "contrast media", "nephritis", "nephropathy", "contrast media induced nephropathy scores", "acute kidney failure", "acute renal failure" and "acute kidney injury". MeSH key terms used in some databases were: "prevention and control", "acute kidney failure" and "treatment". Databases searched included Medline, CINAHL and Academic Search Complete, and references of relevant articles were also assessed. The search included all articles between the years 2000 and 2013. Sixty-seven articles were obtained as a result of the search, including RCTs, systematic reviews, and retrospective studies. Contrast media induced nephropathy is an iatrogenic complication occurring secondary to diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. At times it is unavoidable but a systematic method of risk assessment should be adopted to identify high risk patients for tailored and targeted approaches to management interventions. As the use of contrast media is increasing for diagnostic purposes, it is important that nurses be aware of the risk factors for CIN, identify and monitor high risk patients to prevent deterioration in renal function when possible. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of different blood purification methods on adipokines and flammatory factor in patients with diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Zhong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of in different type hemopurification techniques on adipokine and flammatory factor in diabetic nephropathy with maintenance hemodialysis (MHD. Methods: A total of 81 diabetic nephropathy patients were randomly divided into on hemodialysis group (HD, n=27, hemodialysis with hemoperfusion group (HD+HP, n=27, online hemodiafiltration group (OL-HDF, n=27. Levels of adiponectin, resistin, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α were tested and compared before and after treatment. Results: Indicators of HD group have no statistical significance before and after treatment. HD+HP and OL-HDF group adiponectin level increased significantly, resistin, IL-6 and TNF-α level decreased significantly before and after treatment; OL-HDF group resistin, IL-6 and TNF-α level decreased more significantly than HD+HP group after treatment. Conclusion: HD+HP and OL-HDF treatments have reliable curative effect on diabetic nephropathy patients, which can regulate adiponectin, resistin, IL-6 and TNF-α level. Effect of OL-HDF treatment eliminates resistin, IL-6 and TNF-α more markedly than HD+HP treatment.

  1. Breast cancer anxiety's associations with responses to a chemoprevention decision aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, Amanda J; Scherer, Laura; Ubel, Peter A; Smith, Dylan M; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; McClure, Jennifer B; Greene, Sarah; Stark, Azadeh; Fagerlin, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined how specific emotions may affect decision-making processes. Anxiety may be especially relevant in health decisions such as those related to cancer in which thoughts of illness or death may be abundant. We examined associations between women's anxiety about developing breast cancer and variables related to their decision to take a medication that could reduce their chances of the disease. Six-hundred and thirty-two American women, who had an increased risk of breast cancer, reviewed a web-based decision aid about tamoxifen. We examined associations between their baseline, self-reported anxiety about developing the disease and post decision aid measures including knowledge about tamoxifen, attitude toward the medication, and behavioral intentions to look for more information and take the medication. Results showed that anxiety was not associated with knowledge about tamoxifen, but it was associated with attitude toward the medication such that women who were more anxious about developing breast cancer were more likely to think the benefits were worth the risks. Greater anxiety was also associated with greater behavioral intentions to look for additional information and take the medication in the next few months. Secondary analyses showed that behavioral intentions were related to knowledge of tamoxifen and attitude toward the medication only for women who were reporting low levels of anxiety. Overall, the findings suggest that anxiety about breast cancer may motivate interest in tamoxifen and not necessarily through affecting knowledge or attitudes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Carvedilol Protects against Cyclosporine Nephropathy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kotolová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our experimental work was to study whether carvedilol is able to protect renal tissue from cyclosporine toxic effect in animal model of cyclosporine nephropathy. The study was performed on twenty Wistar rats divided in two experimental groups: control (treated with placebo and carvedilol (treated with p.o. dose 10mg/kg/day in 1 ml solution. Cyclosporine in oral dose of 15 mg/kg/day was administered to all animals during 15 days of experiment. Urine was collected daily for the assessment of diuresis, proteinuria, and determination of urea and creatinine levels. Serum collected at the end of the experiment (day 15 was used for the determination of urea and transferrin levels. The level of renal tissue damage was evaluated by the Jones method for basal membranes, glomeruli and tubuli impregnation, and by the Kossa method for calcium impregnation. For the determination of paranuclear inclusions presence we used chromanilinblue (CAB method. Statistically significant differences between total protein levels in urine on day 7 of the experiment and urea levels in serum at the end of the experiment in the control group and the carvedilol-treated group indicate a protective effect of carvedilol on renal tissue, which is supported also by the results of a histological examination of renal tissue. Significant increase in the serum transferrin level was registered in the carvedilol-treated group and no significant changes were noted in ceruloplasmin serum levels. In conclusion, our pilot study showed that carvedilol has the ability to protect renal tissue from cyclosporine induced nephropathy in rats.

  3. Role of metabolic control on diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macedo Célia Sperandéo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this investigation was studying the influence of glucose metabolic control on diabetic nephropathy. The authors observed the effect of acarbose, insulin, and both drugs on the metabolic control and development of mesangial enlargement of kidney glomeruli in alloxan-diabetic rats. METHODS: Five groups of Wistar rats were used: normal rats (N, non-treated alloxan-diabetic rats (D, alloxan-diabetic rats treated with acarbose (AD, alloxan-diabetic rats treated with insulin (ID, and alloxan-diabetic rats treated with insulin plus acarbose (IAD. The following parameters were evaluated: body weight; water and food intake; diuresis; blood and urine glucose levels; and the kidney lesions: mesangial enlargement and tubule cell vacuolization. Renal lesions were analysed using a semi-quantitative score 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after diabetes induction. RESULTS: Diabetic rats showed a marked increase of glycemia, urinary glucose levels, diuresis, water and food intake, and weight loss, while the treated diabetic rats showed significant decreased levels of these parameters. The most satisfactory metabolic control was that of diabetic rats treated with acarbose + insulin. There was a significant mesangial enlargement in diabetic rats compared to normal rats from the third up to the 12th month after diabetes induction, with a significant difference between the animals treated with acarbose + insulin and non-treated diabetic rats. A difference between the animals treated with acarbose or insulin alone and non-treated diabetics rats was not seen. CONCLUSIONS: The authors discuss the results stressing the role of diabetic metabolic control in the prevention of diabetic nephropathy.

  4. Diabetic nephropathy and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavafi, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress has crucial role in pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Despite satisfactory results from antioxidant therapy in rodent, antioxidant therapy showed conflicting results in combat with DN in diabetic patients. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar,Pubmed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO) and Web of Science have been searched. Treatment of DN in human are insufficient with rennin angiotensin system (RAS) blockers, so additional agent ought to combine with this management. Meanwhile based on DN pathogenesis and evidences in experimental and human researches, the antioxidants are the best candidate. New multi-property antioxidants may be improved human DN that show high power antioxidant capacity, long half-life time, high permeability to mitochondrion, improve body antioxidants enzymes activity and anti-inflammatory effects. Based on this review and our studies on diabetic rats, rosmarinic acid a multi-property antioxidant may be useful in DN patients, but of course, needs to be proven in clinical trials studies.

  5. Oral contraceptives, angiotensin-dependent renal vasoconstriction, and risk of diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Sofia B; Hovind, Peter; Parving, Hans-Henrik

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Diabetes, the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in the U.S., is believed to involve activation of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) as a risk factor for nephropathy. RAS activation occurs in healthy women using oral contraceptives (OCs), but the effects of OC use on the diabeti...

  6. Remote Ischemic Preconditioning To Reduce Contrast-Induced Nephropathy: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menting, T.P.; Sterenborg, T.B.; Waal, Y.R. de; Donders, R.; Wever, K.E.; Lemson, M.S.; Vliet, J.A. van der; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Schultze Kool, L.J.; Warle, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing use of pre- and post-hydration protocols and low osmolar instead of high osmolar iodine containing contrast media, the incidence of contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) is still significant. There is evidence that contrast media cause ischemia reperfusion injury of

  7. Apolipoprotein(a) in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with and without diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gall, M A; Rossing, P; Hommel, E

    1992-01-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy have a highly increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases. To determine whether altered levels of apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)), the glycoprotein of the potentially atherogenic lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)), contribute...... to the increased risk of ischaemic heart disease, apo(a) was determined in 50 insulin-dependent diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy (group 1), in 50 insulin-dependent diabetic patients with microalbuminuria (group 2), in 50 insulin-dependent diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria (group 3), and in 50...... healthy subjects (group 4). The groups were matched with regard to sex, age and body mass index. The diabetic groups were also matched with regard to diabetes duration. The level of apo(a) was approximately the same in the four groups, being: 122 (x/ divided by 4.2) U l-1, 63 (x/ divided by 4.4) U l-1...

  8. A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials of Yiqi Yangyin Huoxue Method in Treating Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Ying Ou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the evidence of Yiqi Yangyin Huoxue Method for diabetic nephropathy. Methods. 11 electronic databases, through September 2015, were searched to identify randomized controlled trials of Yiqi Yangyin Huoxue Method for diabetic nephropathy. The quality of the included trials was assessed using the Jadad scale. Results. 26 randomized controlled trials were included in our review. Of all the included trials, most of them were considered as high quality. The aggregated results suggested that Yiqi Yangyin Huoxue Method is beneficial to diabetic nephropathy in bringing down the microalbuminuria (SMD = −0.98, 95% CI −1.22 to −0.74, serum creatinine (SMD = −0.56, 95% CI −0.93 to −0.20, beta-2 microglobulin (MD = 0.06, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.12, fasting plasma glucose (MD = −0.35, 95% CI −0.62 to −0.08, and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose (MD = 1.13, 95% CI 0.07 to 2.20, but not in decreasing blood urea nitrogen (SMD = −0.72, 95% CI −1.47 to 0.02 or 2-hour postprandial blood glucose (SMD = −0.48, 95% CI −1.01 to 0.04. Conclusions. Yiqi Yangyin Huoxue Method should be a valid complementary and alternative therapy in the management of diabetic nephropathy, especially in improving UAER, serum creatinine, fasting blood glucose, and beta-2 microglobulin. However, more studies with long follow-up are warrant to confirm the current findings.

  9. Effect of low-protein diet on kidney function in diabetic nephropathy: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezu, Uru; Kamiyama, Hiroshi; Kondo, Yoshinobu; Sakuma, Mio; Morimoto, Takeshi; Ueda, Shinichiro

    2013-05-28

    To evaluate the effect of low-protein diet on kidney function in patients with diabetic nephropathy. A systematic review and a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) Register and University Hospital Medical Information Network-Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) from inception to 10 December 2012. Internet searches were also carried out with general search engines (Google and Google Scholar). Randomised controlled trials that compared low-protein diet versus control diet and assessed the effects on kidney function, proteinuria, glycaemic control or nutritional status. The primary outcome was a change in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The secondary outcomes were changes in proteinuria, post-treatment value of glycated haemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) and post-treatment value of serum albumin. The results were summarised as the mean difference for continuous outcomes and pooled by the random effects model. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses were conducted regarding patient characteristics, intervention period, methodological quality and assessment of diet compliance. The assessment of diet compliance was performed based on the actual protein intake ratio (APIR) of the low-protein diet group to the control group. We identified 13 randomised controlled trials enrolling 779 patients. A low-protein diet was associated with a significant improvement in GFR (5.82 ml/min/1.73 m(2), 95% CI 2.30 to 9.33, I(2)=92%; n=624). This effect was consistent across the subgroups of type of diabetes, stages of nephropathy and intervention period. However, GFR was improved only when diet compliance was fair (8.92, 95% CI 2.75 to 15.09, I(2)=92% for APIR <0.9 and 0.03, 95% CI -1.49 to 1.56, I(2)=90% for APIR ≥0.9). Proteinuria and serum albumin were not differed between the groups. HbA1c was slightly but significantly decreased in the low-protein diet

  10. Value of adding the renal pathological score to the kidney failure risk equation in advanced diabetic nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Yamanouchi

    Full Text Available There have been a limited number of biopsy-based studies on diabetic nephropathy, and therefore the clinical importance of renal biopsy in patients with diabetes in late-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD is still debated. We aimed to clarify the renal prognostic value of pathological information to clinical information in patients with diabetes and advanced CKD.We retrospectively assessed 493 type 2 diabetics with biopsy-proven diabetic nephropathy in four centers in Japan. 296 patients with stage 3-5 CKD at the time of biopsy were identified and assigned two risk prediction scores for end-stage renal disease (ESRD: the Kidney Failure Risk Equation (KFRE, a score composed of clinical parameters and the Diabetic Nephropathy Score (D-score, a score integrated pathological parameters of the Diabetic Nephropathy Classification by the Renal Pathology Society (RPS DN Classification. They were randomized 2:1 to development and validation cohort. Hazard Ratios (HR of incident ESRD were reported with 95% confidence interval (CI of the KFRE, D-score and KFRE+D-score in Cox regression model. Improvement of risk prediction with the addition of D-score to the KFRE was assessed using c-statistics, continuous net reclassification improvement (NRI, and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI.During median follow-up of 1.9 years, 194 patients developed ESRD. The cox regression analysis showed that the KFRE,D-score and KFRE+D-score were significant predictors of ESRD both in the development cohort and in the validation cohort. The c-statistics of the D-score was 0.67. The c-statistics of the KFRE was good, but its predictive value was weaker than that in the miscellaneous CKD cohort originally reported (c-statistics, 0.78 vs. 0.90 and was not significantly improved by adding the D-score (0.78 vs. 0.79, p = 0.83. Only continuous NRI was positive after adding the D-score to the KFRE (0.4%; CI: 0.0-0.8%.We found that the predict values of the KFRE and the D

  11. Value of adding the renal pathological score to the kidney failure risk equation in advanced diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Masayuki; Hoshino, Junichi; Ubara, Yoshifumi; Takaichi, Kenmei; Kinowaki, Keiichi; Fujii, Takeshi; Ohashi, Kenichi; Mise, Koki; Toyama, Tadashi; Hara, Akinori; Kitagawa, Kiyoki; Shimizu, Miho; Furuichi, Kengo; Wada, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    There have been a limited number of biopsy-based studies on diabetic nephropathy, and therefore the clinical importance of renal biopsy in patients with diabetes in late-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) is still debated. We aimed to clarify the renal prognostic value of pathological information to clinical information in patients with diabetes and advanced CKD. We retrospectively assessed 493 type 2 diabetics with biopsy-proven diabetic nephropathy in four centers in Japan. 296 patients with stage 3-5 CKD at the time of biopsy were identified and assigned two risk prediction scores for end-stage renal disease (ESRD): the Kidney Failure Risk Equation (KFRE, a score composed of clinical parameters) and the Diabetic Nephropathy Score (D-score, a score integrated pathological parameters of the Diabetic Nephropathy Classification by the Renal Pathology Society (RPS DN Classification)). They were randomized 2:1 to development and validation cohort. Hazard Ratios (HR) of incident ESRD were reported with 95% confidence interval (CI) of the KFRE, D-score and KFRE+D-score in Cox regression model. Improvement of risk prediction with the addition of D-score to the KFRE was assessed using c-statistics, continuous net reclassification improvement (NRI), and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI). During median follow-up of 1.9 years, 194 patients developed ESRD. The cox regression analysis showed that the KFRE,D-score and KFRE+D-score were significant predictors of ESRD both in the development cohort and in the validation cohort. The c-statistics of the D-score was 0.67. The c-statistics of the KFRE was good, but its predictive value was weaker than that in the miscellaneous CKD cohort originally reported (c-statistics, 0.78 vs. 0.90) and was not significantly improved by adding the D-score (0.78 vs. 0.79, p = 0.83). Only continuous NRI was positive after adding the D-score to the KFRE (0.4%; CI: 0.0-0.8%). We found that the predict values of the KFRE and the D-score were

  12. Increased levels of circulating (TNF-α) is associated with (-308G/A) promoter polymorphism of TNF-α gene in Diabetic Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umapathy, Dhamodharan; Krishnamoorthy, Ezhilarasi; Mariappanadar, Vairamani; Viswanathan, Vijay; Ramkumar, Kunka Mohanram

    2018-02-01

    The crucial role of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) on renal function in patients with Diabetic Nephropathy (DN) has been well documented. The present study was designed to investigate the association of TNF-α [-308G/A, (rs1800629)] single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on the susceptibility to DN subjects and to correlate it with the plasma levels of TNF-α along with circulatory TNF-α receptor super family cytokines (sTNFR-1 and sTNFR-2). A total of 756 subjects, were recruited and divided into groups [Group-I, Control (n=218), Group-II, Normoalbuminuria (n=196), Group-IIIa, Microalbuminuria (n=178), Group-IIIb, Macroalbuminuria (n=164)] and were genotyped by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Circulatory levels of TNF-α and sTNFR-1 & sTNFR-2 were measured using multiplex bead based assay. The 'A' allele of TNF-α (-308 G/A) SNP was associated with a significant risk for macroalbuminuria subjects (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 0.8-3.7; P<0.001). A marked stepwise increase was observed in the levels of circulatory biomarkers such as TNF-α, sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 from normo to macroalbuminuria subjects. In DN subjects, the TNF-α level was higher in individuals who had mutant AA, than the wild GG genotype of TNF-α gene. Our results conclude that rs1800629 polymorphism in TNF-α gene is associated with renal complications in T2DM subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of glomerular filtration rate in diabetic nephropathy using the plasma clearance of 51Cr-EDTA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H P; Rossing, P; Mathiesen, E R

    1998-01-01

    Plasma clearance of 51Cr-EDTA is widely used to assess the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in diabetic nephropathy. Originally, the ratio between the intravenously injected amount of tracer and the total area under the plasma concentration curve was used for the calculation of total 51Cr...... and rate of decline in GFR based upon these three methods. Bland & Altman plots were used to illustrate the range of agreement. We investigated 76 insulin-dependent diabetic (IDDM) patients with microalbuminuria or diabetic nephropathy. GFR was measured after a single intravenous injection of 3.7 MBq 51Cr...

  14. Sodium bicarbonate versus isotonic saline solution to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy : a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Chica, Carlos Andres; Bello Marquez, Diana; Serna-Higuita, Lina Maria; Nieto-Ríos, John Fredy; Casas-Arroyave, Fabian David; Donado-Gómez, Jorge Hernando

    2015-09-30

    Contrast-induced nephropathy is one of the main causes of acute kidney injury and increased hospital-acquired morbidity and mortality. The use of sodium bicarbonate for nephroprotection has emerged as a preventative strategy; however, its efficacy is controversial compared to other strategies, such as hydration using 0.9% saline solution. To compare the effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate vs. hydration using 0.9% saline solution to prevent contrast-induced acute kidney injury. A systematic review of studies registered in the COCHRANE, PUBMED, MEDLINE, LILACS, SCIELO and EMBASE databases was conducted. Randomized controlled studies that evaluated the use of 0.9% saline solution vs. sodium bicarbonate to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy were included. A total of 22 studies (5,686 patients) were included. Sodium bicarbonate did not decrease the risk of contrast-induced nephropathy (RD= 0.00; 95% CI= -0.02 to 0.03; p= 0.83; I(2)= 0%). No significant differences were found in the demand for renal replacement therapy (RD= 0.00; 95% CI= -0.01 to 0-01; I(2)= 0%; p= 0.99) or in mortality (RD= -0.00; 95% CI= -0.001 to 0.001; I(2)= 0%; p= 0.51). Sodium bicarbonate administration is not superior to the use of 0.9% saline solution for preventing contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with risk factors, nor is it better at reducing mortality or the need for renal replacement therapy.

  15. Aid Effectiveness on Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) is econo¬metric studies of the macroeconomic effects of development aid. It contains about 100 papers of which 68 are reduced form estimates of theeffect of aid on growth in the recipient country. The raw data show that growth is unconnected to aid......, but the AEL has put so much structure on the data that all results possible have emerged. The present meta study considers both the best-set of the 68 papers and the all-set of 543 regressions published. Both sets have a positive average aid-growth elasticity, but it is small and insignificant: The AEL has...... betweenstudies is real. In particular, the aid-growth association is stronger for Asian countries, and the aid-growth association is shown to have been weaker in the 1970s....

  16. Cathepsin L is crucial for the development of early experimental diabetic nephropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garsen, M.; Rops, A.; Dijkman, H.B.; Willemsen, B.K.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van; Russel, F.G.M.; Rabelink, T.J.; Berden, J.H.; Reinheckel, T.; Vlag, J. van der

    2016-01-01

    Proteinuria is one of the first clinical signs of diabetic nephropathy and an independent predictor for the progression to renal failure. Cathepsin L, a lysosomal cysteine protease, can be involved in the development of proteinuria by degradation of proteins that are important for normal podocyte

  17. Microbial translocation is associated with increased monocyte activation and dementia in AIDS patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Ancuta

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Elevated plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS, an indicator of microbial translocation from the gut, is a likely cause of systemic immune activation in chronic HIV infection. LPS induces monocyte activation and trafficking into brain, which are key mechanisms in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated dementia (HAD. To determine whether high LPS levels are associated with increased monocyte activation and HAD, we obtained peripheral blood samples from AIDS patients and examined plasma LPS by Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL assay, peripheral blood monocytes by FACS, and soluble markers of monocyte activation by ELISA. Purified monocytes were isolated by FACS sorting, and HIV DNA and RNA levels were quantified by real time PCR. Circulating monocytes expressed high levels of the activation markers CD69 and HLA-DR, and harbored low levels of HIV compared to CD4(+ T-cells. High plasma LPS levels were associated with increased plasma sCD14 and LPS-binding protein (LBP levels, and low endotoxin core antibody levels. LPS levels were higher in HAD patients compared to control groups, and were associated with HAD independently of plasma viral load and CD4 counts. LPS levels were higher in AIDS patients using intravenous heroin and/or ethanol, or with Hepatitis C virus (HCV co-infection, compared to control groups. These results suggest a role for elevated LPS levels in driving monocyte activation in AIDS, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of HAD, and provide evidence that cofactors linked to substance abuse and HCV co-infection influence these processes.

  18. Complex Etiology, Prophylaxis and Hygiene Control in Mycotoxic Nephropathies in Farm Animals and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoycho D. Stoev

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Various etiological factors contributing to the development of mycotoxic nephropathy in farm animals and humans are reviewed. The possible synergistic effect between ochratoxin A (OTA and other mycotoxins, as penicillic acid (PA and fumonisin B1 (FB1, contributing to this nephropathy is also considered and discussed. The most convenient ways of prophylaxis and various preventive measures against OTA contamination of feeds or foods are reviewed. A reference is made concerning the most successful methods of veterinary hygiene control in the slaughterhouses in order to prevent the entering of OTA in commercial channels with a view to human health. The economic efficacy of these prophylactic procedures is also considered. An evaluation of human exposure to OTA is made.

  19. The endothelin antagonist atrasentan lowers residual albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Zeeuw, Dick; Coll, Blai; Andress, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Despite optimal treatment, including renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors, patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy have high cardiorenal morbidity and mortality related to residual albuminuria. We evaluated whether or not atrasentan, a selective endothelin A receptor antagonist, further...... reduces albuminuria when administered concomitantly with maximum tolerated labeled doses of RAS inhibitors. We enrolled 211 patients with type 2 diabetes, urine albumin/creatinine ratios of 300-3500 mg/g, and eGFRs of 30-75 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) in two identically designed, parallel, multinational, double...... parameters returned to pretreatment levels. In conclusion, atrasentan reduced albuminuria and improved BP and lipid spectrum with manageable fluid overload-related adverse events in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy receiving RAS inhibitors....

  20. The Protective Effects of Oral Low-dose Quercetin on Diabetic Nephropathy in Hypercholesterolemic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabele Beserra Santos Gomes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Diabetic nephropathy (DN is one of the major causes of end-stage renal disease, and the incidence of DN is increasing worldwide. Considering our previous report indicating that chronic treatment with oral low-dose quercetin (10 mg/Kg demonstrated renoprotective, anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effects in the C57BL/6J model of diabetic nephropathy, we investigated whether this flavonoid could also have beneficial effects in concurrent DN and spontaneous atherosclerosis using the apolipoprotein E-deficient mouse (apoE-/-. Methods: DN was induced by streptozotocin (100 mg/kg/day, for 3 days in adult apoE-/-mice. Six weeks later, the mice were divided into the following groups: diabetic apoE-/- mice treated with quercetin (DQ, 10 mg/kg/day, 4 weeks, diabetic ApoE-/- mice treated with vehicle (DV and non-treated non-diabetic (ND mice.Results: Quercetin treatment caused a reduction in polyuria (~30%, glycemia (~25%, abolished the hypertriglyceridemia and had significant effects on renal function, including decreased proteinuria (~15% and creatininemia (~30%, which were accompanied by beneficial effects on the renal structural changes, including normalization of the index of glomerulosclerosis and kidney weight.Conclusions: Our data revealed that quercetin treatment significantly reduced DN in hypercholesterolemic mice by inducing biochemical and morphological modifications. Thus, this translational study highlights the importance of quercetin as a potential nutraceutical for the management of DN, including in diabetes associated with dyslipidemia.

  1. Membranous nephropathy: A review on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ling Lai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In adults, membranous nephropathy (MN is a major cause of nephrotic syndrome. However, the etiology of approximately 75% of MN cases is idiopathic. Secondary causes of MN are autoimmune diseases, infection, drugs, and malignancy. The pathogenesis of MN involves formation of immune complex in subepithelial sites, but the definite mechanism is still unknown. There are three hypotheses about the formation of immune complex, including preformed immune complex, in situ immune-complex formation, and autoantibody against podocyte membrane antigen. The formation of immune complex initiates complement activation, which subsequently leads to glomerular damage. Recently, the antiphospholipase A2 receptor antibody was found to be associated with idiopathic MN. This finding may be useful in the diagnosis and prognosis of MN. The current treatment includes best supportive care, which consists of the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers, lipid-lowering agents, and optimal control of blood pressure. Immunosuppressive agents should be used for patients who suffer from refractory proteinuria or complications associated with nephrotic syndrome. Existing evidence supports the use of a combination of steroid and alkylating agents. This article reviews the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and the treatment of MN.

  2. Mesoamerican nephropathy: a neglected tropical disease with an infectious etiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kristy O; Fischer, Rebecca S B; Chavarria, Denis; Duttmann, Christiane; Garcia, Melissa N; Gorchakov, Rodion; Hotez, Peter J; Jiron, William; Leibler, Jessica H; Lopez, Job E; Mandayam, Sreedhar; Marin, Alejandro; Sheleby, Jessica

    2015-10-01

    An outbreak of unexplained and severe kidney disease, "Mesoamerican Nephropathy," in mostly young, male sugar cane workers emerged in Central America in the late 1990's. As a result, an estimated 20,000 individuals have died, to date. Unfortunately, and with great consequence to human life, the etiology of the outbreak has yet to be identified. The sugarcane fields in Chichigalpa, Chinandega, Nicaragua, have been involved in the outbreak, and during our initial investigation, we interviewed case patients who experienced fever, nausea and vomiting, arthralgia, myalgia, headache, neck and back pain, weakness, and paresthesia at the onset of acute kidney disease. We also observed a heavy infestation of rodents, particularly of Sigmodon species, in the sugarcane fields. We hypothesize that infectious pathogens are being shed through the urine and feces of these rodents, and workers are exposed to these pathogens during the process of cultivating and harvesting sugarcane. In this paper, we will discuss the epidemic in the Chichigalpa area, potential pathogens responsible for Mesoamerican Nephropathy, and steps needed in order to diagnose, treat, and prevent future cases from occurring. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. HIV/AIDS Communication Inequalities and Associated Cognitive and Affective Outcomes: A Call for a Socioecological Approach to AIDS Communication in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekalu, Mesfin Awoke; Eggermont, Steven; Viswanath, K Vish

    2017-06-01

    Three-and-a-half decades on, no cure or vaccine is yet on the horizon for HIV, making effective behavior change communication (BCC) the key preventive strategy. Despite considerable success, HIV/AIDS BCC efforts have long been criticized for their primary focus on the individual-level field of influence, drawing on the more reductionist view of causation at the individual level. In view of this, we conducted a series of studies that employed a household survey, field experiment, and textual content analysis, and explored the macro-social-level effects of HIV/AIDS-related media and messages on HIV/AIDS cognitive and affective outcomes in Ethiopia. Against a backdrop of epidemiological and socioecological differences, urban versus rural residence has emerged as an important community-level factor that impacts HIV/AIDS-related media and message consumption processes and associated outcomes. The central thread crossing through the six studies included in this paper demonstrates that urban and rural people in high HIV prevalence contexts differ in their concern about and information needs on HIV/AIDS, HIV/AIDS-related media use, and HIV/AIDS-related cognitive and affective outcomes, as well as in their reaction to differently designed/framed HIV prevention messages. This paper proposes that HIV prevention media and message effects in high epidemic situations should be considered from a larger community-level perspective and calls for a socioecological approach to AIDS communication in the hard-hit sub-Saharan Africa. With a number of concrete recommendations to current and future HIV/AIDS BCC efforts in the region, the study joins an emerging body of health communication literature and theorizing that suggests the need to consider media and message effects from a macro-social perspective.

  4. Long-term follow-up of reflux nephropathy in adults with vesicoureteral reflux - radiological and pathoanatomical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, J.; Thysell, H.; Tencer, J.; Forsberg, L.; Hellstroem, M.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To study the long-term development of urographic renal morphology in adults with vesicoureteral reflux, to investigate the relationship between renal damage and reflux grade, and to analyse the association between the long-term urographic outcome and the occurrence of acute pyelonephritis and reflux during follow-up. The purpose was also to try to distinguish between acquired and developmental renal damage, based on analyses of renal histological specimens and urographic features, and to analyse associated congenital urogenital abnormalities and family history of reflux, reflux nephropathy, urological malformation or death from end-stage renal disease. Material and Methods: Renal damage was identified in 100 (83 women) of 115 adults, selected because of documented reflux. Eighty-seven patients had two urographies done (median interval 14.3 years). The extent and progression of renal damage were assessed and features of developmental renal damage were determined. Histological renal specimens were available in 23 patients with renal damage. Results and Conclusions: The extent of renal damage correlated positively with the severity of reflux. No renal damage developed during the follow-up in 45 previously undamaged kidneys and progression of renal damage was rare (4 of 120 previously damaged kidneys), despite persisting reflux in half of the cases and episodes of acute pyelonephritis during follow-up. Thus, repeated renal imaging is rarely justified in adults with reflux nephropathy. Histological examination showed 'chronic pyelonephritis' in all 23 cases and co-existing renal dysplasia in 1 case. The detailed urographic analysis did not reveal support for developmental renal damage. High frequencies of associated congenital urogenital abnormalities and of a positive family history were found. Thus, congenital and/or hereditary factors cannot be discarded as background factors for the development of renal damage

  5. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Rituximab in IgA Nephropathy with Proteinuria and Renal Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafayette, Richard A; Canetta, Pietro A; Rovin, Brad H; Appel, Gerald B; Novak, Jan; Nath, Karl A; Sethi, Sanjeev; Tumlin, James A; Mehta, Kshama; Hogan, Marie; Erickson, Stephen; Julian, Bruce A; Leung, Nelson; Enders, Felicity T; Brown, Rhubell; Knoppova, Barbora; Hall, Stacy; Fervenza, Fernando C

    2017-04-01

    IgA nephropathy frequently leads to progressive CKD. Although interest surrounds use of immunosuppressive agents added to standard therapy, several recent studies have questioned efficacy of these agents. Depleting antibody-producing B cells potentially offers a new therapy. In this open label, multicenter study conducted over 1-year follow-up, we randomized 34 adult patients with biopsy-proven IgA nephropathy and proteinuria >1 g/d, maintained on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers with well controlled BP and eGFR<90 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 , to receive standard therapy or rituximab with standard therapy. Primary outcome measures included change in proteinuria and change in eGFR. Median baseline serum creatinine level (range) was 1.4 (0.8-2.4) mg/dl, and proteinuria was 2.1 (0.6-5.3) g/d. Treatment with rituximab depleted B cells and was well tolerated. eGFR did not change in either group. Rituximab did not alter the level of proteinuria compared with that at baseline or in the control group; three patients in each group had ≥50% reduction in level of proteinuria. Serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 or antibodies against galactose-deficient IgA1 did not change. In this trial, rituximab therapy did not significantly improve renal function or proteinuria assessed over 1 year. Although rituximab effectively depleted B cells, it failed to reduce serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 and antigalactose-deficient IgA1 antibodies. Lack of efficacy of rituximab, at least at this stage and severity of IgA nephropathy, may reflect a failure of rituximab to reduce levels of specific antibodies assigned salient pathogenetic roles in IgA nephropathy. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  6. Significance of unilateral radiation nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T.H.; Freeman, C.R.; Webster, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Thirteen patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with residual disease in the abdomen were treated by irradiation to the whole abdomen and left upper quadrant. The entire or half of the left kidney received between 2550 rad in 6 weeks and 4900 rad in 5 weeks. Seven of 12 patients evaluated showed functional and/or morphological changes in the left kidney on renal function studies and renal scan at various intervals. None of these patients clinically demonstrated overt acute radiation nephropathy. Three patients developed elevated blood pressure; the plasma renin level was markedly elevated in one of these patients. With the possible exception of one patient, no patient was discovered to have any functional morphological changes in the right kidney. The lymphoma in the abdomen was under control in 12 out of 13 patients treated at this writing

  7. mortality after clinical management of aids-associated cryptococcal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-01

    May 1, 2014 ... among HIV/AIDS patients and is becoming a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Africa. The short-term .... of potassium chloride, therapeutic lumbar puncture. (LP), fundoscopy ..... Kenya AIDS Indicator. Survey 2012: ...

  8. Exploring spatial patterns in the associations between local AIDS incidence and socioeconomic and demographic variables in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, André T J; Nobre, Flavio F; Waller, Lance A

    2016-05-01

    Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), universally provided in Brazil since 1996, resulted in a reduction in overall morbidity and mortality due to AIDS or AIDS-related complications, but in some municipalities of Rio de Janeiro, AIDS incidence remains high. Public health surveillance remains an invaluable tool for understanding current AIDS epidemiologic patterns and local socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with increased incidence. Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression (GWPR) explores spatial varying impacts of these factors across the study area focusing attention on local variations in ecological associations. The set of sociodemographic variables under consideration revealed significant associations with local AIDS incidence and these associations varied geographically across the study area. We find the effects of predictors on AIDS incidence are not constant across the state, contrary to assumptions in the global models. We observe and quantify different local factors driving AIDS incidence in different parts of the state. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Lack of effect of fish oil supplementation on coagulation and transcapillary escape rate of albumin in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrup, B.; Rossing, P.; Jensen, T.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: We studied the effect of a diet supplementation with fish oil in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with nephropathy in order to evaluate whether abnormal transcapillary escape rate of albumin and procoagulant activity in these patients could be modified. Methods: A double-blind, rand......Objective: We studied the effect of a diet supplementation with fish oil in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with nephropathy in order to evaluate whether abnormal transcapillary escape rate of albumin and procoagulant activity in these patients could be modified. Methods: A double......-blind, randomized, controlled study was carried out at a tertiary referral centre. The subjects were 29 insulin-dependent diabetic patients with nephropathy. One year of fish oil supplementation (4.6 g n-3 fatty acids/day) was compared with placebo (olive oil). The main outcome measures were N-3 fatty acid...... rate of albumin and activity could not be modified during diet supplementation with fish oil in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with nephropathy....

  10. Weight loss for reduction of proteinuria in diabetic nephropathy: Comparison with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of weight in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM individuals is emerging as a significant strategy in the reduction of proteinuria in diabetic nephropathy along with control of hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. The objective was to evaluate the reduction in 24-h proteinuria in T2DM patients with nephropathy by weight loss, with conventional therapy (angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE] inhibitors as the control arm. A prospective, randomized controlled trial was conducted between June 2010 and May 2011. T2DM patients with confirmed nephropathy by 24-h urinary protein estimation with a body mass index (BMI of >25 kg/m 2 were studied. Patients who had nondiabetic nephropathy, uncontrolled hypertension (>125/75 mmHg irrespective of antihypertensive drugs, excess weight due to edema or obesity due to other specific diseases, alcoholics, smokers, and patients who were on hemodialysis were excluded from the study. The patients were divided into three groups, namely, group A, patients on ACE inhibitor therapy; group B, patients on lifestyle modifications for weight loss; and group C, patients on an antiobesity drug (orlistat and lifestyle modifications. At the end of 6 months, all the three groups were compared. Data were analyzed using software SPSS version 15.0. This study encompassed a total of 88 patients; 12 patients were dropped during the study period and 76 (group A: 22, group B: 23, and group C: 31 patients remained. The mean age of the patients was 58.36 ± 10.87 years (range: 30-70 years. At baseline, age, gender, mean BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, and 24-h proteinuria did not vary significantly among the three groups. At 6 months, the mean BMI significantly decreased in group C ( P < 0.001 compared to that in the other two groups. Among the parameters BMI and WHR, the proportional form of BMI correlated well with the degree of reduction in proteinuria (r = 0.397, P = 0.01. Reduction in weight using lifestyle

  11. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...

  12. Effect angiotensin II receptor blockers on glomerular filtration rate in patients with incipient diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragovic, T.; Ajdinovic, B.; Endocrinology Clinic

    2004-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated in patients with incipient diabetic nephropathy with an aim to evaluate the effect of angiotensin receptor blockator valsartan on GFR stabilisation to physiological levels. Investigation was done as a prospective, randomised, placebo controlled study, on 20 patients with diabetes mellitus, type I (age 25 years, disease lasting 14 years). In all patients was detected incipient diabetic nephropathy with daily urinary albumin excretion in range from 30 mg to 300 mg. Patients were randomised in two groups: 10 patients were treated with 80 mg /day valsartan, during 6 months, second group (10 patients) were on placebo at the same period. GFR, as a clearance of 51Cr-EDTA, was calculated at the start and at the end of the study. In the first patients group during investigation period, GFR was decreased from 150, 1 ml/min/1.73m 2 to physiological level of 127 ml/min/1,73m 2 (p 2 at the start, 139,9 ml/min/l.73m 2 at the end of the study).On the basis of these results it was concluded that 80 mg/day in 6 month valsartan therapy decreased GFR to physiological levels in patients with incipient diabetic nephropathy. (authors)

  13. Tiaolipiwei Acupuncture Reduces Albuminuria by Alleviating Podocyte Lesions in a Rat Model of Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilong Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Diabetic nephropathy is a common and serious complication of diabetes and a major cause of end-stage renal disease. Tiaolipiwei acupuncture is a safe treatment approach that may be effective for lowering albuminuria in diabetic nephropathy. Yet, the exact mechanisms of this therapeutic effect are unclear. Methods. A rodent model of type 2 diabetic nephropathy (T2DN was induced by a high-fat diet combined with low-dose streptozotocin. T2DN rats were treated with Tiaolipiwei acupuncture (ACU for 4, 8, or 12 weeks. At the end of treatment, urinary and blood samples were collected for analysis. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe morphological changes, and protein expression levels of nephrin, CD2AP, podocalyxin, and desmin were quantified in renal tissue. Results. Compared to the T2DN groups, the T2DN + ACU groups showed significant improvements in 24-hour urinary protein, serum urea, cholesterol, and triglycerides at all time points. ACU treatment also improved the density of slit diaphragms. Simultaneously, ACU promoted the renal expression of nephrin, CD2AP, and podocalyxin and decreased the expression of desmin. Conclusion. Our study suggests that Tiaolipiwei acupuncture ameliorates podocyte lesions to reduce albuminuria and prevent the progression of T2DN in a rat model.

  14. Associations of socioeconomic factors with inadequate dietary intake in food aid users in France (the ABENA study 2004–2005)

    OpenAIRE

    Méjean, Caroline; Deschamps, V.; Bellin-Lestienne, C.; Oleko, A.; Darmon, Nicole; Serge, H.; Katia, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Few studies in Europe have examined the relationship of sociodemographic and economic factors with diet in deprived populations. We analysed the association between socioeconomic characteristics and consumption of different food groups in food aid users. Subjects/Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among food aid users in four urban French zones (n=1664). Associations of sociodemographic and economic factors and food aid use with frequency of consumption of t...

  15. High incidence of nephropathy in neurosurgical patients after intra-arterial administration of low-osmolar and iso-osmolar contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Zbigniew; Karolkiewicz, Maciej; Gruszka, Marzena; Strózecki, Pawel; Lasek, Wladyslaw; Odrowaz-Sypniewska, Grazyna; Manitius, Jacek; Beuth, Wojciech

    2011-05-01

    Percutaneous endovascular examinations and interventions require significant amounts of iodinated contrast media (CM) and have been reported to be complicated by an increased incidence of post-contrast nephropathy. To evaluate renal function, the incidence of post-contrast nephropathy, and risk factors after interventional procedures in neurosurgical patients after intra-arterial administration of a low-osmolar contrast medium (LOCM) versus an iso-osmolar contrast medium (IOCM). This single-center, prospective, randomized, double-blinded study included 92 patients in its final analysis (mean age 49.6 ± 12.6 years, 29.3% men, mean eGFR 97.8 ± 26.3 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). LOCM was used in 48 patients (52.2%) and IOCM in 44 patients (47.8%). The patients were given an average of 151.2 ± 52.1 mL of contrast medium intra-arterially. Serum creatinine (SCr), urinary N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase (NAG) excretion, and creatinine clearance (CCr) were measured at baseline, and on days 1 and 3 after the procedure. Baseline risk factors, renal functional parameters, and average CM doses were not statistically different between the two groups. SCr, NAG, and CCr values did not differ significantly between the LOCM and IOCM groups on days 1 and 3 after CM administration. Nephropathy developed in 21 cases (22.8%): 13 (27.1%) after LOCM use and 8 (18.2%) after IOCM; (P = NS). The only significant risk factors of CIN were the diabetes (P = 0.0466) and atherosclerosis (P = 0.0498). We found a high incidence of nephropathy in neurosurgical patients after intra-arterial CM administration. The renal function values and incidence of nephropathy following LOCM administration were not statistically different from those following IOCM administration.

  16. Membranous nephropathy with Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangling; Wang, YanQiang

    2017-07-01

    Membranous nephropathy (MN) accompanying Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) has rarely been described previously. We recently presented a 45-year-old Chinese male presenting with recurrent lower extremity pitting edema, or eyelid edema, proteinuria and hyperlipidemia. especially intractable hiccup and vomiting, painful tonic spasm (PTS) as the revealing symptom of a demyelinating disorder of central nervous system. The kindey biopsy specimen showed MN stage 2. Serological testing revealed antibodies AQP4, MRI head and spine revealed medulla oblongata and C1-C2 cervical vertebra lesions. Treatment with methylprednisolone, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine resulted in consistent clinical improvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Diabetic Nephropathy and Microalbuminuria in Pregnant Women With Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Julie Agner; Asbjörnsdóttir, Björg; Callesen, Nicoline Foged

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and microalbuminuria in pregnant women with type 2 diabetes in comparison with type 1 diabetes and to describe pregnancy outcomes in these women following the same antihypertensive protocol....

  18. Pharmacokinetics and Safety of DW1029M, a Botanical Drug for the Treatment of Diabetic Nephropathy, Following Single Doses in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yunjeong; Jeon, Ji-Young; Kim, Eun-Young; Lim, Cheol-Hee; Jang, Hwan Bong; Kim, Min-Gul

    2017-09-01

    DW1029M is a botanical extract of Morus albalinne root bark and Puerariae radix that is used for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. This study evaluated the safety and pharmacokinetics of DW1029M following its administration in healthy Korean subjects. We conducted a randomized, open-label, single-dose, crossover phase 1 clinical study. During each period, subjects received 300, 600, or 1200 mg oral doses of DW1029M. Plasma concentrations of puerarin, daidzin, and daidzein were analyzed using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Six healthy male subjects completed the study. The maximum concentration of the drug in the plasma (C max ) and area under the plasma drug concentration-time curve to the last measurable concentration (AUC last ) for puerarin, daidzin, and daidzein were assessed after oral administration of DW1029M. No serious adverse events or clinically or statistically significant adverse events associated with any of the drug levels were observed. The results of the measurement of vital signs, electrocardiogram, laboratory tests, and physical examinations indicated that no clinically significant changes occurred during this study. The DW1029M tablet was safe and well tolerated over a single dose range of 300-1200 mg. This pharmacokinetic study of a botanical drug may aid in the development of DW1029M. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  19. Identification of Genes Whose Expression Profile Is Associated with Non-Progression towards AIDS Using eQTLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Clerc, Sigrid; van Manen, Daniëlle; Coulonges, Cédric; Ulveling, Damien; Laville, Vincent; Labib, Taoufik; Taing, Lieng; Delaneau, Olivier; Montes, Matthieu; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Zagury, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Background Many genome-wide association studies have been performed on progression towards the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and they mainly identified associations within the HLA loci. In this study, we demonstrate that the integration of biological information, namely gene expression data, can enhance the sensitivity of genetic studies to unravel new genetic associations relevant to AIDS. Methods We collated the biological information compiled from three databases of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) involved in cells of the immune system. We derived a list of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are functional in that they correlate with differential expression of genes in at least two of the databases. We tested the association of those SNPs with AIDS progression in two cohorts, GRIV and ACS. Tests on permuted phenotypes of the GRIV and ACS cohorts or on randomised sets of equivalent SNPs allowed us to assess the statistical robustness of this method and to estimate the true positive rate. Results Eight genes were identified with high confidence (p = 0.001, rate of true positives 75%). Some of those genes had previously been linked with HIV infection. Notably, ENTPD4 belongs to the same family as CD39, whose expression has already been associated with AIDS progression; while DNAJB12 is part of the HSP90 pathway, which is involved in the control of HIV latency. Our study also drew our attention to lesser-known functions such as mitochondrial ribosomal proteins and a zinc finger protein, ZFP57, which could be central to the effectiveness of HIV infection. Interestingly, for six out of those eight genes, down-regulation is associated with non-progression, which makes them appealing targets to develop drugs against HIV. PMID:26367535

  20. Identification of Genes Whose Expression Profile Is Associated with Non-Progression towards AIDS Using eQTLs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Spadoni

    Full Text Available Many genome-wide association studies have been performed on progression towards the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS and they mainly identified associations within the HLA loci. In this study, we demonstrate that the integration of biological information, namely gene expression data, can enhance the sensitivity of genetic studies to unravel new genetic associations relevant to AIDS.We collated the biological information compiled from three databases of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs involved in cells of the immune system. We derived a list of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are functional in that they correlate with differential expression of genes in at least two of the databases. We tested the association of those SNPs with AIDS progression in two cohorts, GRIV and ACS. Tests on permuted phenotypes of the GRIV and ACS cohorts or on randomised sets of equivalent SNPs allowed us to assess the statistical robustness of this method and to estimate the true positive rate.Eight genes were identified with high confidence (p = 0.001, rate of true positives 75%. Some of those genes had previously been linked with HIV infection. Notably, ENTPD4 belongs to the same family as CD39, whose expression has already been associated with AIDS progression; while DNAJB12 is part of the HSP90 pathway, which is involved in the control of HIV latency. Our study also drew our attention to lesser-known functions such as mitochondrial ribosomal proteins and a zinc finger protein, ZFP57, which could be central to the effectiveness of HIV infection. Interestingly, for six out of those eight genes, down-regulation is associated with non-progression, which makes them appealing targets to develop drugs against HIV.

  1. Quantitative iTRAQ-Based Proteomic Identification of Candidate Biomarkers for Diabetic Nephropathy in Plasma of Type 1 Diabetic Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Anne Julie; Thingholm, Tine Engberg; Larsen, Martin R

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: As part of a clinical proteomics programme focused on diabetes and its complications, it was our goal to investigate the proteome of plasma in order to find improved candidate biomarkers to predict diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: Proteins derived from plasma from a cross-sectional co...... nephropathy; however, they need to be confirmed in a longitudinal cohort. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12014-010-9053-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users....

  2. Puncture Wounds: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin problems. In: American Medical Association Handbook of First Aid and Emergency Care. New York, N.Y.: Random House; 2009. Jan. 12, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-puncture-wounds/basics/ART-20056665 . Mayo ...

  3. Implication of urinary complement factor H in the progression of immunoglobulin A nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maojing Liu

    Full Text Available After activation, the complement system is involved in the pathogenesis of Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN. Complement factor H (CFH is a crucial inhibitory factor of the alternative pathway of the complement system. The study investigated the effects of urinary CFH levels on IgAN progression.A total of 351 patients with IgAN participated in this study. They were followed up for an average of 51.8 ± 26.6 months. Renal outcome was defined as a composite endpoint, that included instances of end-stage renal disease (ESRD, ≥ 50% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR or doubling of plasma creatinine levels. Urinary CFH levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and calculated as the ratio of urinary CFH over creatinine (uCFH/uCr.In the whole cohort, uCFH/uCr values were associated with disease progression either as continuous [log(uCFH/uCr] or categorical traits (dichotomous and quartile variables after adjusting for eGFR, proteinuria, mean arterial blood pressure, histological grading and immunosuppressive therapy in the Cox proportional hazard model. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that higher uCFH/uCr values at baseline predicted worse renal outcome during follow-up (log-rank, P < 0.001. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC analysis showed that log(uCFH/uCr had predictive value for renal outcome (area under curve [AUC] = 0.745, and the AUC increased to 0.805 after being incorporated into baseline eGFR and proteinuria. In subgroup analysis with eGFR ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, log(uCFH/uCr had better predictive value (AUC = 0.724, P = 0.002 for renal outcome compared to eGFR (AUC = 0.582, P = 0.259 and proteinuria (AUC = 0.615, P = 0.114.Urinary CFH levels are associated with renal function decline and increased urinary CFH levels are a risk factor for progression of IgA nephropathy.

  4. A polymorphism in the gene encoding carnosinase (CNDP1) as a predictor of mortality and progression from nephropathy to end-stage renal disease in type 1 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkhalaf, A.; Bakker, S. J. L.; Bilo, H. J. G.; Gans, R. O. B.; Navis, G. J.; Postmus, D.; Forsblom, C.; Groop, P. H.; Vionnet, N.; Hadjadj, S.; Marre, M.; Parving, H. H.; Rossing, P.; Tarnow, L.

    2010-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Homozygosity for a five leucine repeat (5L-5L) in the carnosinase gene (CNDP1) has been found to be cross-sectionally associated with a low frequency of diabetic nephropathy (DN), mainly in type 2 diabetes. We prospectively investigated in patients with type I diabetes whether: (1)

  5. The phenotypes of podocytes and parietal epithelial cells may overlap in diabetic nephropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andeen, Nicole K; Nguyen, Tri Q; Steegh, Floor; Hudkins, Kelly L; Najafian, Behzad; Alpers, Charles E

    2015-01-01

    Reversal of diabetic nephropathy (DN) has been achieved in humans and mice, but only rarely and under special circumstances. As progression of DN is related to podocyte loss, reversal of DN requires restoration of podocytes. Here, we identified and quantified potential glomerular progenitor cells

  6. Plasma proteome analysis of patients with type 1 diabetes with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Anne Julie; Hansen, Henning Gram; Lajer, Maria

    2010-01-01

    patients was investigated with the goal of finding improved candidate biomarkers to predict diabetic nephropathy. In order to reach lower concentration proteins in plasma a pre-fractionation step, either hexapeptide bead-based libraries or anion exchange chromatography, was performed prior to surface...... enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis....

  7. Effect of atorvastatin on preventing contrast-induced nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dongya; Zhu Jing; Chen Jianchang; Xu Weiting; Luo Xiaoyu; Zhao Liangping

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of atorvastatin on contrast-induced renal function and urinary protein change in patients undergoing diagnostic and therapeutic coronary intervention. Methods: Two hundred and forty-six patients who underwent coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were randomized to receive atorvastatin (40 mg, qn, n=123) or no atorvastatin (n=123) treatment 3 days before coronary angiography. All patients received hydrated therapy. Serum creatinine (Scr), urinary αl-microglobulin (α l -MG), and urinary albumin (mALB) were checked for evidence of tubular or glomerular damage at start, and 36 to 48 hours after the administration of a radiocontrast agent. High-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels, urinary α l -MG/ urinary creatinine(Ucr) and mALB/ Ucr were also assessed at the same time. Creatinine clearance(Ccr) was calculated according to Cockcroft-Gault formulas basing on serum creatinine. Results: (1) In the control group and atorvastatin-treated group, comparison with the value before coronary angiography or PCI, urinary α l -MG/ Ucr, mALB/ Ucr, Scr and hsCRP significantly increased from 36 to 48 hours after angiography or PCI (P l -MG/ Ucr significantly increased at the 2nd day after angiography or PCI in the control group (P<0.05), incidence of contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) significantly increased too (8.13% vs 0.81%, P<0.05). Conclusions: Contrast media induces light renal function damage. Pretreatment with atorvastatin 40 mg/qn for 3 days could significantly reduce procedural inflammatory reaction and prevent contrast-induced nephropathy. (authors)

  8. Genetic Deletion of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Attenuates Inflammation and Fibrosis in Experimental Obstructive Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Wei Chiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH is abundantly expressed in kidney and plays a potent role in regulating inflammatory response in inflammatory diseases. However, the role of sEH in progression of chronic kidney diseases such as obstructive nephropathy is still elusive. In current study, wild-type (WT and sEH deficient (sEH−/− mice were subjected to the unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO surgery and the kidney injury was evaluated by histological examination, western blotting, and ELISA. The protein level of sEH in kidney was increased in UUO-treated mice group compared to nonobstructed group. Additionally, UUO-induced hydronephrosis, renal tubular injury, inflammation, and fibrosis were ameliorated in sEH−/− mice with the exception of glomerulosclerosis. Moreover, sEH−/− mice with UUO showed lower levels of inflammation-related and fibrosis-related protein such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, collagen 1A1, and α-actin. The levels of superoxide anion radical and hydrogen peroxide as well as NADPH oxidase activity were also decreased in UUO kidneys of sEH−/− mice compared to that observed in WT mice. Collectively, our findings suggest that sEH plays an important role in the pathogenesis of experimental obstructive nephropathy and may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of obstructive nephropathy-related diseases.

  9. Aids and Infectious Diseases (aid) Pmp 2013 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonaguro, Franco M.

    2014-07-01

    The AIDS and Infectious Diseases (AID) PMP of the WFS contributed this year with a session on August 22nd to the Plenary Sessions of the International Seminars on Planetary Emergencies and Associated Meetings--46th Session: The Role of Science in the Third Millennium (Erice, 19-24 August 2013). Furthermore a workshop on August 24th was organized...

  10. The Missing Link - Likely Pathogenetic Role of GM3 and Other Gangliosides in the Development of Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Vukovic

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite scientific advances, diabetic nephropathy remains both a therapeutical challenge, and one of the major diabetic complications. Chemical structure of gangliosides, the most complex of glycosphingolipids, is characterised by one or more sialic acids and carbohydrate groups linked to a ceramide structure. Their potential pathogenetic role in a number of disorders linked to diabetes mellitus has recently been conjectured, due to evidence of their negative modulation of the insulin-mediated signaling and general effects on key cell functions like proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, cellular signaling and adhesion. Elevated levels of advanced glycation products (AGE usually found in diabetic conditions seem to be responsible for increased concentration of a-series gangliosides in tissues, most notably GM3. GM3 was shown to compromise the renal pericyte and mesangial cell regeneration via the inactivation of VEGF receptor and the receptor-associated Akt signaling pathway. Likewise, the lipid raft theory opened a new research area for GM3 influence, since in the glycosynapse model glycosphingolipids have a key cell-to-cell communication unit with modulating capabilities on signaling receptors. The goal of this review is to provide insight into currently available theories on proposed mechanisms that mark the GM3 as a pathophysiological mediator in the development of diabetic nephropathy.

  11. Comparison of glomerular filtration rates by dynamic renal scintigraphy and dual-plasma sample clearance method in diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Peng; Huang Jianmin; Pan Liping; Liu Xiaomei; Wei Lingge; Gao Jianqing

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of renal scintigraphy for the estimation of glomerular filtration rates (dGFR) in patients with diabetic nephropathy as compared to the conventional dual-plasma sample clearance method (pscGFR). Methods: Forty-six patients with diabetic nephropathy underwent both dynamic renal scintigraphy and dual-plasma sample measurement after 99 Tc m -DTPA injection. Paired student t-test and correlation analysis were performed to compare dGFR and pscGFR (normalized to body surface area, 1.73 m -2 ). Results: The mean dGFR was higher than mean pscGFR ((51.08±26.78)ml·min -1 vs (44.06±29.43)ml·min -1 , t=4.209, P=0.000). The dGFR correlated with pscGFR (r=0.923, P=0.000) linearly (regression equation: pscGFR=1.015 x dGFR -7.773, F=254.656, P=0.000). Conclusions: dGFR correlated well with pscGFR. Although it could not absolutely replace the latter in patients with diabetic nephropathy, dGFR could reasonably evaluate the filtration function for these patients. (authors)

  12. Contrast medium-induced nephropathy: the pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, P B; Tepel, Martin

    2006-01-01

    A widespread, rather general, definition of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is an impairment in renal function occurring within 3 days following the intravascular administration of contrast media (CM) and the absence of an alternative aetiology. In spite of the vast clinical importance of CIN...... haemodynamics, regional hypoxia, auto-, and paracrine factors (adenosine, endothelin, reactive oxygen species) to direct cytotoxic effects. Although these potential mediators of CIN will be discussed separately, several factors may act in concert to perturb kidney function after exposure to contrast media. From...... the current knowledge of the mechanisms causing CIN, it is not possible to recommend a certain class of contrast media, except to avoid large doses of CM of the first generation. From a pathophysiological perspective, volume expansion is effective in avoiding CIN, since water permeability of the collecting...

  13. Aid and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2006-01-01

    evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... been effective in furthering economic growth and development is discussed in some detail. I add perspective and identify some critical unresolved issues. I finally turn to the current development debate and discuss some key concerns, I believe should be kept in mind in formulating any agenda for aid...

  14. Long-term prevention of diabetic nephropathy: an audit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoedt, K.J.; Hansen, H.P.; Tarnow, L.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In type 1 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria not receiving antihypertensive treatment, an increase in urinary AER (UAER) of 6-14%/year and a risk of developing diabetic nephropathy (DN) of 3-30%/year have been reported. We audited the long-term effect of blocking the renin......-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) with an ACE inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) in microalbuminuric type 1 diabetic patients on progression of microalbuminuria and development of DN. METHODS: All patients with type 1 diabetes and persistent microalbuminuria (30-300 mg/24 h) were identified (n=227...

  15. Simvastatin Attenuates Contrast-Induced Nephropathy through Modulation of Oxidative Stress, Proinflammatory Myeloperoxidase, and Nitric Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketab E. Al-Otaibi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrast media- (CM- induced nephropathy is a serious complication of radiodiagnostic procedures. Available data suggests that the development of prophylaxis strategies is limited by poor understanding of pathophysiology of CM-induced nephropathy. Present study was designed to determine the role of oxidative stress, myeloperoxidase, and nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of iohexol model of nephropathy and its modification with simvastatin (SSTN. Adult Sprague Dawley rats were divided into seven groups. After 24 h of water deprivation, all the rats except in control and SSTN-only groups were injected (10 ml/kg with 25% glycerol. After 30 min, SSTN (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg was administered orally, daily for 4 days. Twenty-four hours after the glycerol injection, iohexol was infused (8 ml/kg through femoral vein over a period of 2 min. All the animals were sacrificed on day 5 and blood and kidneys were collected for biochemical and histological studies. The results showed that SSTN dose dependently attenuated CM-induced rise of creatinine, urea, and structural abnormalities suggesting its nephroprotective effect. A significant increase in oxidative stress (increased lipid hydroperoxides and reduced glutathione levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO and decreased nitric oxide in CM group were reversed by SSTN. These findings support the use of SSTN to combat CM-induced nephrotoxicity.

  16. Reliability of peripheral arterial tonometry in patients with heart failure, diabetic nephropathy and arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisrock, Fabian; Fritschka, Max; Beckmann, Sebastian; Litmeier, Simon; Wagner, Josephine; Tahirovic, Elvis; Radenovic, Sara; Zelenak, Christine; Hashemi, Djawid; Busjahn, Andreas; Krahn, Thomas; Pieske, Burkert; Dinh, Wilfried; Düngen, Hans-Dirk

    2017-08-01

    Endothelial dysfunction plays a major role in cardiovascular diseases and pulse amplitude tonometry (PAT) offers a non-invasive way to assess endothelial dysfunction. However, data about the reliability of PAT in cardiovascular patient populations are scarce. Thus, we evaluated the test-retest reliability of PAT using the natural logarithmic transformed reactive hyperaemia index (LnRHI). Our cohort consisted of 91 patients (mean age: 65±9.7 years, 32% female), who were divided into four groups: those with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) ( n=25), heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) ( n=22), diabetic nephropathy ( n=21), and arterial hypertension ( n=23). All subjects underwent two separate PAT measurements at a median interval of 7 days (range 4-14 days). LnRHI derived by PAT showed good reliability in subjects with diabetic nephropathy (intra-class correlation (ICC) = 0.863) and satisfactory reliability in patients with both HFpEF (ICC = 0.557) and HFrEF (ICC = 0.576). However, in subjects with arterial hypertension, reliability was poor (ICC = 0.125). We demonstrated that PAT is a reliable technique to assess endothelial dysfunction in adults with diabetic nephropathy, HFpEF or HFrEF. However, in subjects with arterial hypertension, we did not find sufficient reliability, which can possibly be attributed to variations in heart rate and the respective time of the assessments. Clinical Trial Registration Identifier: NCT02299960.

  17. A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY TO FIND THE DIFFERENCE IN SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE BETWEEN ARMS AS A RISK MARKER FOR DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

    OpenAIRE

    Uday Subhash Bande; Anish Anthony Tekkinadath

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Diabetic nephropathy is the commonest cause of end-stage renal disease in the developed world. Recent studies have demonstrated that a difference in systolic blood pressure between arms is associated with cardiovascular disease and microalbuminuria. It is considered a predictor for cardiovascular disease and a surrogate marker for early kidney damage among patients with both type 2 diabetes and hypertension. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES The aim was to investigate an associ...

  18. Anti-phospholipase A receptor antibodies correlate with clinical status in idiopathic membranous nephropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstra, J.M.; Beck Jr., L.H.; Beck, D.M.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Salant, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Circulating autoantibodies against the M-type phospholipase A(2) receptor (anti-PLA(2)R) were recently identified in the majority of patients in the United States with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (iMN). The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of

  19. A polymorphism in the gene encoding carnosinase (CNDP1) as a predictor of mortality and progression from nephropathy to end-stage renal disease in type 1 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkhalaf, A; Bakker, S J L; Bilo, H J G

    2010-01-01

    Homozygosity for a five leucine repeat (5L-5L) in the carnosinase gene (CNDP1) has been found to be cross-sectionally associated with a low frequency of diabetic nephropathy (DN), mainly in type 2 diabetes. We prospectively investigated in patients with type 1 diabetes whether: (1) 5L-5L...

  20. Early-Onset Diabetic E1-DN Mice Develop Albuminuria and Glomerular Injury Typical of Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervi E. Hyvönen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transgenic E1-DN mice express a kinase-negative epidermal growth factor receptor in their pancreatic islets and are diabetic from two weeks of age due to impaired postnatal growth of β-cell mass. Here, we characterize the development of hyperglycaemia-induced renal injury in the E1-DN mice. Homozygous mice showed increased albumin excretion rate (AER at the age of 10 weeks; the albuminuria increased over time and correlated with blood glucose. Morphometric analysis of PAS-stained histological sections and electron microscopy images revealed mesangial expansion in homozygous E1-DN mice, and glomerular sclerosis was observed in the most hyperglycaemic mice. The albuminuric homozygous mice developed also other structural changes in the glomeruli, including thickening of the glomerular basement membrane and widening of podocyte foot processes that are typical for diabetic nephropathy. Increased apoptosis of podocytes was identified as one mechanism contributing to glomerular injury. In addition, nephrin expression was reduced in the podocytes of albuminuric homozygous E1-DN mice. Tubular changes included altered epithelial cell morphology and increased proliferation. In conclusion, hyperglycaemic E1-DN mice develop albuminuria and glomerular and tubular injury typical of human diabetic nephropathy and can serve as a new model to study the mechanisms leading to the development of diabetic nephropathy.

  1. Nitrogen species in drinking water indicate potential exposure pathway for Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niagolova, Nedialka; McElmurry, Shawn P.; Voice, Thomas C.; Long, David T.; Petropoulos, Evangelos A.; Havezov, Ivan; Chou, Karen; Ganev, Varban

    2005-01-01

    This study explored two hypotheses relating elevated concentrations of nitrogen species in drinking water and the disease Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN). Drinking water samples were collected from a variety of water supplies in both endemic and non-endemic villages in the Vratza and Montana districts of Bulgaria. The majority of well water samples exceeded US drinking water standards for nitrate + nitrite. No statistically significant difference was observed for any of the nitrogen species between villages classified as endemic and non-endemic. Other constituents (sodium, potassium and chloride) known to be indicators of anthropogenic pollution were also found at elevated concentrations and all followed the order wells > springs > taps. This ordering coincides with the proximity of human influences to the water sources. Our results clearly establish an exposure pathway between anthropogenic activity and drinking water supplies, suggesting that the causative agent for BEN could result from surface contamination. - Water in villages affected and unaffected by Balkan Endemic Nephropathy had no significant differences in nitrogen compounds

  2. Epidemiology and trend of neurological diseases associated to HIV/AIDS. Experience of Mexican patients 1995-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Crescencio, M A; Velásquez-Pérez, L; Ramírez-Crescencio, María Antonieta; Velásquez-Pérez, Leora

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the main neurological conditions associated with HIV/AIDS in Mexican patients treated at the National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery (NINN) in Mexico city, the main referral center for patients with disorders of the central and peripheral nervous system. An observational, transversal and descriptive analysis was performed. We reviewed the databases from the Department of Epidemiology and the medical records of patients with AIDS seen during the period from January 1st, 1995 to December 31, 2009. 320 patients were detected, the main conditions related to HIV/AIDS were brain toxoplasmosis (42%), cerebral criptoccocosis (28%), tuberculous meningitis (8.7%), linfoma no Hodking (3.75%), acute HIV infection (3.4%) and AIDS dementia complex (3%). No specific trend on morbility and mortality were detected during the period of study. In Mexico the most common neurological complications of HIV/AIDS are opportunistic infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mayombian ethnic, vegetables low intake, insulin treatment, diabetic nephropathy and severe diabetic retinopathy are determinants of blindness in diabetic Africans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moise, Mvitu Muaka; Benjamin, Longo-Mbenza; Enoch, Cibanda Yokobo; Igor, Longo Phemba

    2013-01-01

    AIM To determine the frequency and causes of blindness in diabetic Africans. METHODS The study was a cross-sectional survey carried out among known black diabetics consecutively admitted at the Teaching Hospital, University of Kinshasa, between 2005 and 2007. Examination methods included interviewer-administered structured questionnaire, eye examinations (visual acuity, tonometry, funduscopy), and fasting plasma glycaemia test. RESULTS Of the 227 patients examined, 15.9% had blindness. Univariate analyses showed significant association between female, severity of diabetic retinopathy, Mayombian ethnic group, use of insulin treatment, low intake of vegetables, diabetic nephropathy, open angle glaucoma and blindness in all diabetics. After logistic regression, only diabetic nephropathy, use of insulin treatment, macular oedema, Mayombian ethnic group and vegetables low intake were the independent risk factors of blindness in all diabetics. However, after logistic regression in the sub-group with diabetic retinopathy, only open angle glaucoma and proliferative diabetic retinopathy were the independent determinants of blindness. CONCLUSION The majority of the causes of blindness in these diabetic Africans are avoidable. It is recommended that appropriate diabetes care, nutrition education, periodic eye examination and laser photocoagulation facilities should be provided for treating diabetics in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24195057

  4. Estimates of global HIV/AIDS mortality, prevalence and incidence rates, and their association with the Human Development Index

    OpenAIRE

    Kamyar Mansori; Erfan Ayubi; Fatemeh Khosravi Shadmani; Shiva Mansouri Hanis; Somayeh Khazaei; Mohadeseh Sani; Yousef Moradi; Salman Khazaei; Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi

    2017-01-01

    Background: HIV/AIDS is one of greatest global public health concerns today due to the high incidence, prevalence and mortality rates. The aim of this research was investigate and estimate the global HIV/AIDS mortality, prevalence and incidence rates, and explore their associations with the Human Development Index. Methods: The global age-standardized rates of mortality, prevalence and incidence of HIV/AIDS were obtained from the UNAIDS for different countries in 2015. The human developm...

  5. Tubular markers do not predict the decline in glomerular filtration rate in type 1 diabetic patients with overt nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine E; Andersen, Steen; Zdunek, Dietmar

    2011-01-01

    of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), liver-fatty acid-binding protein (LFABP), and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) in a 3-year intervention study of 63 type 1 diabetic patients with kidney disease. The baseline mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 87 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and urinary......Recent studies have shown that both glomerular and tubulointerstitial damage are important factors in the pathophysiology and progression of diabetic nephropathy. To examine whether markers of tubular damage are useful in monitoring the progression of disease, we measured urinary levels...

  6. Shock: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... et al., eds. American Medical Association Handbook of First Aid and Emergency Care. New York: Random House; 2009. Accessed July 21, 2017. Piazza GM, et al. First Aid Manual. 3rd ed. London, England; New York, N. ...

  7. Chaperonin-Containing t-Complex Protein-1 Subunit β as a Possible Biomarker for the Phase of Glomerular Hyperfiltration of Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Ze Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In cell model, we discovered the association between chaperonin-containing t-complex polypeptide 1 subunit β (TCP-1β and early diabetic nephropathy (DN. In this study, we further explored the relationships between TCP-1β and type 2 diabetic mellitus (DM. To mimic the clinical hyperfiltration state, a type 2 DM mice model was established by feeding a high-fat diet in combination with treatment of streptozotocin and nicotinamide. Blood and urine were collected to determine creatinine clearance (Ccr, and kidney tissues were harvested for evaluation of TCP-1β expression by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Meanwhile, clinical subjects of healthy controls and type 2 DM were recruited to strengthen the evidence with urine TCP-1β. Results showed that Ccr and the expression of TCP-1β in kidney were significantly higher one week after hyperglycemia development, suggesting that the hyperfiltration state was successfully established in the mice model. TCP-1β was expressed predominantly on renal tubules. By using the estimated glomerular filtration rate to index progression in clinical investigation, urine TCP-1β level was associated with the hyperfiltration phase in type 2 DM patients. Conclusively, we confirmed that TCP-1β is a possible biomarker for early nephropathy of type 2 DM, but further mechanistic study to elucidate its cause and pathway is needed.

  8. Prevention of contrast induced nephropathy with sodium bicarbonate (the PROMEC study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fredy Nieto-Ríos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Contrast-induced nephropathy is a common complication of radiographic procedures. Different measures have been used to avoid this damage, but the evidence is controversial. New investigations are required to clarify it. We investigated the efficacy and safety of sodium bicarbonate solution compared with sodium chloride solution to prevent contrast induced nephropathy in patients with or at risk of renal dysfunction. Methods: A prospective, single-center, randomized clinical trial conducted from May 1, 2007 to February 8, 2008. Inpatients in a tertiary center, scheduled to undergo a procedure with the nonionic radiographic contrast agent iohexol. There were 220 patients with serum creatinine levels of at least 1.2 mg/dL (106.1 µmol/L and/or type 2 diabetics, who were randomized to receive an infusion of sodium chloride (n = 113 or sodium bicarbonate (n = 107 before and after contrast dye administration. The intervention were "A" group received 1 ml/kg/hour of normal saline solution, starting 12 hours before and continuing 12 hours after iohexol contrast. "B" group received 3 ml/kg of sodium bicarbonate solution (150 mEq/L one hour prior to procedure and then drip rate was decreased to 1 ml/kg/hour until 6 hours post procedure. Our main outcome measure was change in serum creatinine. Results: The mean creatinine value after the procedure was 1.26 mg/dL in the saline group and 1.22 mg/dL in the bicarbonate group (mean difference: 0.036; CI 95%: -0.16 to 0.23, p = 0.865. The diagnosis of contrast-induced nephropathy, defined by increase in serum creatinine on 25% or more within 2 days after administration of radiographic contrast, was done in twelve patients (12% in the bicarbonate group and eighth patients (7.1% in the saline group (RR: 1.68, CI 95%: 0.72 to 3.94. Conclusion: Our investigation showed that there were no differences between normal saline solution (extended infusion vs. bicarbonate solution for nephroprotection.

  9. Renal Failure Associated with APECED and Terminal 4q Deletion: Evidence of Autoimmune Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Owain

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE. Terminal 4q deletion is also a rare cytogenetic abnormality that causes a variable syndrome of dysmorphic features, mental retardation, growth retardation, and heart and limb defects. We report a 12-year-old Saudi boy with mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and adrenocortical failure consistent with APECED. In addition, he has dysmorphic facial features, growth retardation, and severe global developmental delay. Patient had late development of chronic renal failure. The blastogenesis revealed depressed lymphocytes' response to Candida albicans at 38% when compared to control. Chromosome analysis of the patient revealed 46,XY,del(4(q33. FISH using a 4p/4q subtelomere DNA probe assay confirmed the deletion of qter subtelomere on chromosome 4. Parental chromosomes were normal. The deleted array was further defined using array CGH. AIRE full gene sequencing revealed a homozygous mutation namely 845_846insC. Renal biopsy revealed chronic interstitial nephritis with advanced fibrosis. In addition, there was mesangial deposition of C3, C1q, and IgM. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first paper showing evidence of autoimmune nephropathy by renal immunofluorescence in a patient with APECED and terminal 4q deletion.

  10. Combined zidovudine and interferon-alpha treatment in patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, R.; Danner, S. A.; Bakker, P. J.; Lange, J. M.; Eeftinck Schattenkerk, J. K.; Veenhof, C. H.

    1991-01-01

    The effectiveness of addition of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) to zidovudine in patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma was assessed in a non-randomized, phase II clinical trial. Twenty-one patients were treated with oral zidovudine (600 mg daily) and IFN-alpha was increased to 18 MU daily for

  11. Glycosylation patterns of kidney proteins differ in rat diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravidà, Alessandra; Musante, Luca; Kreivi, Marjut; Miinalainen, Ilkka; Byrne, Barry; Saraswat, Mayank; Henry, Michael; Meleady, Paula; Clynes, Martin; Holthofer, Harry

    2015-05-01

    Diabetic nephropathy often progresses to end-stage kidney disease and, ultimately, to renal replacement therapy. Hyperglycemia per se is expected to have a direct impact on the biosynthesis of N- and O-linked glycoproteins. This study aims to establish the link between protein glycosylation and progression of experimental diabetic kidney disease using orthogonal methods. Kidneys of streptozotocin-diabetic and control rats were harvested at three different time points post streptozotocin injection. A panel of 12 plant lectins was used in the screening of lectin blots. The lectins UEAI, PHA-E, GSI, PNA, and RCA identified remarkable disease-associated differences in glycoprotein expression. Lectin affinity chromatography followed by mass spectrometric analyses led to the identification of several glycoproteins involved in salt-handling, angiogenesis, and extracellular matrix degradation. Our data confirm a substantial link between glycosylation signature and diabetes progression. Furthermore, as suggested by our findings on dipeptidyl peptidase-IV, altered protein glycosylation may reflect changes in biochemical properties such as enzymatic activity. Thus, our study demonstrates the unexplored potential of protein glycosylation analysis in the discovery of molecules linked to diabetic kidney disease.

  12. AID protein expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma is associated with poor prognosis and complex genetic alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, Mona; Frigerio, Simona; Wild, Peter J; Noetzli, Franziska; Korol, Dimitri; Zimmermann, Dieter R; Gengler, Carole; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; Moch, Holger; Tinguely, Marianne

    2010-02-01

    The biological behavior of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and small lymphocytic lymphoma is unpredictable. Nonetheless, non-mutated IgV(H) gene rearrangement, ATM (11q22-23) and p53 (17p13) deletion are recognized as unfavorable prognosticators in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The mRNA expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), an enzyme indispensable for somatic hypermutation processes, was claimed to be predictive of non-mutated chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells in blood. Here, we evaluated AID protein expression compared with known molecular and immunohistochemical prognostic indicators in 71 chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma patients using a tissue microarray approach. We found AID heterogeneously expressed in tumor cells as shown by colocalization analysis for CD5 and CD23. Ki-67 positive paraimmunoblasts of the proliferation centers displayed the highest expression. This observation is reflected by a significant association of AID positivity with a high proliferation rate (P=0.012). ATM deletion was detected in 10% (6/63) of patients and p53 deletion in 19% (13/67) of patients. Moreover, both ATM (P=0.002) and p53 deletion (P=0.004) were significantly associated with AID. IgV(H) gene mutation was seen in 45% (27/60) of patients. Twenty-five percent (17/69) of patients with AID-positive chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma displayed a shorter survival than AID-negative chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma patients (61 vs 130 months, P=0.001). Although there was a trend, we could not show an association with the IgV(H) gene mutation status. Taken together, our study shows that AID expression is an indicator of an unfavorable prognosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma patients, although it is not a surrogate marker for the IgV(H) status. Furthermore, the microenvironment of proliferation centers seems to influence AID regulation and might be an initiating factor

  13. The role of the complement system in diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Allan

    2017-01-01

    -threatening disease. An increasing body of evidence points toward a role of the complement system in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. For example, circulating levels of mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a pattern recognition molecule of the innate immune system, have emerged as a robust biomarker...... for the development and progression of this disease, and evidence suggests that MBL, H-ficolin, complement component C3 and the membrane attack complex might contribute to renal injury in the hyperglycaemic mileu. New approaches to modulate the complement system might lead to the development of new agents to prevent...

  14. [Toxic nephropathy secondary to occupational exposure to metallic mercury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitzuk, Ana; Greco, Vanina; Caputo, Daniel; Alvarez, Estela

    2014-01-01

    Toxic nephrophaties secondary to occupational exposure to metals have been widely studied, including membranous nephropathy by mercury, which is rare. Occupational poisoning by mercury is frequent, neurological symptoms are the main form of clinical presentation. Secondary renal involvement in chronic exposure to metallic mercury can cause glomerular disease by deposit of immune-complexes. Membranous glomerulopathy and minimal change disease are the most frequently reported forms. Here we describe the case of a patient with occupational exposure to metallic mercury, where nephrotic syndrome due to membranous glomerulonephritis responded favorably to both chelation and immunosuppressive therapy.

  15. Discovery of new risk loci for IgA nephropathy implicates genes involved in immunity against intestinal pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Li, Yifu; Scolari, Francesco; Sanna-Cherchi, Simone; Choi, Murim; Verbitsky, Miguel; Fasel, David; Lata, Sneh; Prakash, Sindhuri; Shapiro, Samantha; Fischman, Clara; Snyder, Holly J.; Appel, Gerald; Izzi, Claudia; Viola, Battista Fabio; Dallera, Nadia; Vecchio, Lucia Del; Barlassina, Cristina; Salvi, Erika; Bertinetto, Francesca Eleonora; Amoroso, Antonio; Savoldi, Silvana; Rocchietti, Marcella; Amore, Alessandro; Peruzzi, Licia; Coppo, Rosanna; Salvadori, Maurizio; Ravani, Pietro; Magistroni, Riccardo; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco; Caridi, Gianluca; Bodria, Monica; Lugani, Francesca; Allegri, Landino; Delsante, Marco; Maiorana, Mariarosa; Magnano, Andrea; Frasca, Giovanni; Boer, Emanuela; Boscutti, Giuliano; Ponticelli, Claudio; Mignani, Renzo; Marcantoni, Carmelita; Di Landro, Domenico; Santoro, Domenico; Pani, Antonello; Polci, Rosaria; Feriozzi, Sandro; Chicca, Silvana; Galliani, Marco; Gigante, Maddalena; Gesualdo, Loreto; Zamboli, Pasquale; Maixnerová, Dita; Tesar, Vladimir; Eitner, Frank; Rauen, Thomas; Floege, Jürgen; Kovacs, Tibor; Nagy, Judit; Mucha, Krzysztof; Pączek, Leszek; Zaniew, Marcin; Mizerska-Wasiak, Małgorzata; Roszkowska-Blaim, Maria; Pawlaczyk, Krzysztof; Gale, Daniel; Barratt, Jonathan; Thibaudin, Lise; Berthoux, Francois; Canaud, Guillaume; Boland, Anne; Metzger, Marie; Panzer, Ulf; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Goto, Shin; Narita, Ichiei; Caliskan, Yasar; Xie, Jingyuan; Hou, Ping; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Hong; Wyatt, Robert J.; Novak, Jan; Julian, Bruce A.; Feehally, John; Stengel, Benedicte; Cusi, Daniele; Lifton, Richard P.; Gharavi, Ali G.

    2014-01-01

    We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of IgA nephropathy (IgAN), the most common form of glomerulonephritis, with discovery and follow-up in 20,612 individuals of European and East Asian ancestry. We identified six novel genome-wide significant associations, four in ITGAM-ITGAX, VAV3 and CARD9 and two new independent signals at HLA-DQB1 and DEFA. We replicated the nine previously reported signals, including known SNPs in the HLA-DQB1 and DEFA loci. The cumulative burden of risk alleles is strongly associated with age at disease onset. Most loci are either directly associated with risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or maintenance of the intestinal epithelial barrier and response to mucosal pathogens. The geo-spatial distribution of risk alleles is highly suggestive of multi-locus adaptation and the genetic risk correlates strongly with variation in local pathogens, particularly helminth diversity, suggesting a possible role for host-intestinal pathogen interactions in shaping the genetic landscape of IgAN. PMID:25305756

  16. Abnormal albuminuria and blood pressure rise in incipient diabetic nephropathy induced by exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer

    1984-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of light to moderate dynamic work (450 kpm/min followed by 600 kpm/min during 20 min each) on the blood pressure and renal protein handling in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with incipient nephropathy (D3) (elevated baseline albumin excretion...

  17. Prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy in Type I diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sato, A; Tarnow, L; Parving, H H

    1999-01-01

    , serum creatinine 109 (53-558) micromol/l], and 140 Type I diabetic patients with persistent normoalbuminuria [79 men, 47+/-10 years, urinary albumin excretion rate 8 (0-30) mg/24 h, and serum creatinine 81 (55-121) micromol/l]. Patients with and without nephropathy were comparable with respect to sex...

  18. nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-ming YUAN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the diagnostic significance of PLA2R and IgG4 in elderly patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN. Methods The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed of patients with IMN (49 males and 49 females, aged 66.6±5.4 years or Non-IMN (57 males and 41 females, aged 67.1±6.5 years who were admitted in the authors served Department of Nephrology from Apr. 2014 to Feb. 2016 and accepted renal biopsy. SPSS13.0 was employed to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and calculate the area under ROC curve (AUC of serum anti-PLA2R antibody, glomerular PLA2R and IgG1-4 subclasses on diagnosing IMN. Results On diagnosing IMN, the sensitivity and specificity of serum anti-PLA2R antibody were 77.6% and 89.8% [AUC=0.869(0.816-0.923], of glomerular PLA2R were 66.3% and 94.9% [AUC=0.805(0.741- 0.87], and of glomerular IgG1-IgG4 were 80.6% and 78.6%, 60.2% and 83.7%, 41.8% and 84.7%, and 93.9% and 89.8%, respectively [AUC=0.767(0.696-0.838, 0.709(0.635-0.783, 0.628(0.549-0.706 and 0.94(0.901-0.978, respectively]. As to the combined use of glomerular PLA2R and IgG4 on diagnosing IMN, the sensitivity was 93.9% when either one of glomerular PLA2R and IgG4 was positive, or the specificity was 96.9% when both glomerular PLA2R and IgG4 were positive. Conclusion PLA2R and IgG4 can effectively serve the diagnosis of IMN, and the combined use of PLA2R and IgG4 may be better than single indicator alone. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.09.11

  19. Nephrotic Syndrome and Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy Associated with Autosomal-Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, Ramón; Martínez-Ara, Jorge; Peces, Carlos; Picazo, Mariluz; Cuesta-López, Emilio; Vega, Cristina; Azorín, Sebastián; Selgas, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a 38-year-old male with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and concomitant nephrotic syndrome secondary to membranous nephropathy (MN). A 3-month course of prednisone 60 mg daily and losartan 100 mg daily resulted in resistance. Treatment with chlorambucil 0.2 mg/kg daily, low-dose prednisone, plus an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) for 6 weeks resulted in partial remission of his nephrotic syndrome for a duration of 10 months. After relapse of the nephrotic syndrome, a 13-month course of mycophenolate mofetil (MFM) 2 g daily and low-dose prednisone produced complete remission for 44 months. After a new relapse, a second 24-month course of MFM and low-dose prednisone produced partial to complete remission of proteinuria with preservation of renal function. Thirty-six months after MFM withdrawal, complete remission of nephrotic-range proteinuria was maintained and renal function was preserved. This case supports the idea that renal biopsy is needed for ADPKD patients with nephrotic-range proteinuria in order to exclude coexisting glomerular disease and for appropriate treatment/prevention of renal function deterioration. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of nephrotic syndrome due to MN in a patient with ADPKD treated with MFM, with remission of proteinuria and preservation of renal function after more than 10 years. Findings in this patient also suggest that MFM might reduce cystic cell proliferation and fibrosis, preventing progressive renal scarring with preservation of renal function. PMID:21552769

  20. Nephrotic Syndrome and Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy Associated with Autosomal-Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Peces

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 38-year-old male with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD and concomitant nephrotic syndrome secondary to membranous nephropathy (MN. A 3-month course of prednisone 60 mg daily and losartan 100 mg daily resulted in resistance. Treatment with chlorambucil 0.2 mg/kg daily, low-dose prednisone, plus an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI and an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB for 6 weeks resulted in partial remission of his nephrotic syndrome for a duration of 10 months. After relapse of the nephrotic syndrome, a 13-month course of mycophenolate mofetil (MFM 2 g daily and low-dose prednisone produced complete remission for 44 months. After a new relapse, a second 24-month course of MFM and low-dose prednisone produced partial to complete remission of proteinuria with preservation of renal function. Thirty-six months after MFM withdrawal, complete remission of nephrotic-range proteinuria was maintained and renal function was preserved. This case supports the idea that renal biopsy is needed for ADPKD patients with nephrotic-range proteinuria in order to exclude coexisting glomerular disease and for appropriate treatment/prevention of renal function deterioration. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of nephrotic syndrome due to MN in a patient with ADPKD treated with MFM, with remission of proteinuria and preservation of renal function after more than 10 years. Findings in this patient also suggest that MFM might reduce cystic cell proliferation and fibrosis, preventing progressive renal scarring with preservation of renal function.

  1. AS101 prevents diabetic nephropathy progression and mesangial cell dysfunction: regulation of the AKT downstream pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itay Israel Shemesh

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is characterized by proliferation of mesangial cells, mesangial expansion, hypertrophy and extracellular matrix accumulation. Previous data have cross-linked PKB (AKT to TGFβ induced matrix modulation. The non-toxic compound AS101 has been previously shown to favorably affect renal pathology in various animal models and inhibits AKT activity in leukemic cells. Here, we studied the pharmacological properties of AS101 against the progression of rat DN and high glucose-induced mesangial dysfunction. In-vivo administration of AS101 to Streptozotocin injected rats didn't decreased blood glucose levels but ameliorated kidney hypotrophy, proteinuria and albuminuria and downregulated cortical kidney phosphorylation of AKT, GSK3β and SMAD3. AS101 treatment of primary rat glomerular mesangial cells treated with high glucose significantly reduced their elevated proliferative ability, as assessed by XTT assay and cell cycle analysis. This reduction was associated with decreased levels of p-AKT, increased levels of PTEN and decreased p-GSK3β and p-FoxO3a expression. Pharmacological inhibition of PI3K, mTORC1 and SMAD3 decreased HG-induced collagen accumulation, while inhibition of GSK3β did not affect its elevated levels. AS101 also prevented HG-induced cell growth correlated to mTOR and (rpS6 de-phosphorylation. Thus, pharmacological inhibition of the AKT downstream pathway by AS101 has clinical potential in alleviating the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  2. Computed tomographical evaluation of diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubara, Yoshifumi; Hara, Shigeko; Arizono, Kenji; Katori, Hideyuki; Yamada, Akira; Mimura, Nobuhide; Hagura, Ryoko.

    1996-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy can be regarded mainly as a type of microangiopathy, but is a disease that may also include aspects of macroangiopathy. This is especially true of renal disease in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), which is characterized not only by diabetic glomerulosclerosis, but also by atherosclerosis. We performed morphological studies on the kidney, using computed tomography (CT), focusing on such points as: abdominal aortic calcifications at the level of kidney, calcifications in the renal artery, and wedge-shaped defects on the renal surface. We noted that these findings became more prominent in NIDDM patients during end-stage renal failure than during normal renal function, and were significantly more common in those two NIDDM groups than in age-matched nondiabetic patients without hypertension, hyperlipidemia or gout. NIDDM patients exhibited these features more frequently than IDDM patients. (author)

  3. Contrast-induced nephropathy following intravenous urography with Iopromid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krysteva, R.; Andreev, E.; Kirojcheva, M.; Kundurdzhiev, A.; Kiperova, B.

    1997-01-01

    In retrospective studies the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy is less than 1 per cent, while in prospective ones it may reach up to 10 per cent. Thirty-nine patients (9 men and 30 women at mean age 46.6 ± 16.5 years, range 15 - 75) undergo prospective study by iv urography with Iopramid (Ultravist 370) administered at mean dose 0.9 ± 0.1 ml/kg b.w. The patients are distributed in 3 groups: group I - with normal renal function free of diabetes mellitus (33 cases), group II - with normal renal function and diabetes mellitus, group III - with renal failure free of diabetes mellitus (plasma creatinine concentration (Pcr) > 140 μmol/l). Pcr is evaluated prior to (baseline) and 48 hours after urography. Dehydration is precluded and none of the patients is given nephrotoxic drugs. In group I Pcr shows a more than 25 per cent increase in 4 patients, but remains below 140 μmol/l. In 2 patients of the same group Pcr levels exceed the reference values: from 51 to 205, and from 105 to 196 μmol/l in two women aged 70 and 74 years, respectively. Renal function impairment is reversible, with Pcr returning to normal within a week. In groups II and III no changes in Pcr level are noted. A slight elevation of serum creatinine pointing to contrast-induced nephrotoxicity is documented in 4 patients with previously normal renal function. A reversible renal failure is observed in two instances. The obtained results demonstrate an incidence rate of contrast-induced nephropathy amounting to 15.4 per cent, or in 6/39 patients (author)

  4. Development and progression of nephropathy in type 2 diabetes: the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS 64).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Amanda I; Stevens, Richard J; Manley, Sue E; Bilous, Rudy W; Cull, Carole A; Holman, Rury R

    2003-01-01

    The progression of nephropathy from diagnosis of type 2 diabetes has not been well described from a single population. This study sought to describe the development and progression through the stages of microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria, persistently elevated plasma creatinine or renal replacement therapy (RRT), and death. Using observed and modeled data from 5097 subjects in the UK Prospective Diabetes Study, we measured the annual probability of transition from stage to stage (incidence), prevalence, cumulative incidence, ten-year survival, median duration per stage, and risk of death from all-causes or cardiovascular disease. From diagnosis of diabetes, progression to microalbuminuria occurred at 2.0% per year, from microalbuminuria to macroalbuminuria at 2.8% per year, and from macroalbuminuria to elevated plasma creatinine (>or=175 micromol/L) or renal replacement therapy at 2.3% per year. Ten years following diagnosis of diabetes, the prevalence of microalbuminuria was 24.9%, of macroalbuminuria was 5.3%, and of elevated plasma creatinine or RRT was 0.8%. Patients with elevated plasma creatinine or RRT had an annual death rate of 19.2% (95% confidence interval, CI, 14.0 to 24.4%). There was a trend for increasing risk of cardiovascular death with increasing nephropathy (P < 0.0001), with an annual rate of 0.7% for subjects in the stage of no nephropathy, 2.0% for those with microalbuminuria, 3.5% for those with macroalbuminuria, and 12.1% with elevated plasma creatinine or RRT. Individuals with macroalbuminuria were more likely to die in any year than to develop renal failure. The proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes who develop microalbuminuria is substantial with one quarter affected by 10 years from diagnosis. Relatively fewer patients develop macroalbuminuria, but in those who do, the death rate exceeds the rate of progression to worse nephropathy.

  5. Previously Unidentified Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in HIV/AIDS Cases Associate with Clinical Parameters and Disease Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Anokhin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic background of an individual plays an important role in the progression of HIV infection to AIDS. Identifying previously unknown or uncharacterized single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that associate with disease progression may reveal important therapeutic targets and provide a greater understanding of disease pathogenesis. In the present study, we employed ultra-high multiplex PCR on an Ion Torrent next-generation sequencing platform to sequence 23 innate immune genes from 94 individuals with HIV/AIDS. This data was used to identify potential associations of SNPs with clinical parameters and disease progression. SNPs that associated with an increased viral load were identified in the genes for the interleukin 15 receptor (IL15RA, toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7, tripartite motif-containing protein 5 (TRIM5, and two killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR2DL1 and KIR2DL3. Additionally, SNPs that associated with progression from HIV infection to AIDS were identified in two 2′-5′-oligoadenylate synthetase genes (OAS2 and OAS3. In contrast, other SNPs identified in OAS2 and OAS3 genes, as well as in the TRIM5 and KIR2DS4 genes, were associated with a slower progression of disease. Taken together, our data demonstrates the utility of ultra-high multiplex PCR in identifying polymorphisms of potential clinical significance and further,identifies SNPs that may play a role in HIV pathogenesis.

  6. School-based HIV/AIDS education is associated with reduced risky sexual behaviors and better grades with gender and race/ethnicity differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhen-qiang; Fisher, Monica A; Kuller, Lewis H

    2014-04-01

    Although studies indicate school-based HIV/AIDS education programs effectively reduce risky behaviors, only 33 states and the District of Columbia in US mandate HIV/AIDS education. Ideally, school-based HIV/AIDS education should begin before puberty, or at the latest before first sexual intercourse. In 2011, 20% US states had fewer schools teaching HIV/AIDS prevention than during 2008; this is worrisome, especially for more vulnerable minorities. A nationally representative sample of 16 410 US high-school students participating in 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey was analyzed. Multiple regression models assessed the association between HIV/AIDS education and risky sexual behaviors, and academic grades. HIV/AIDS education was associated with delayed age at first sexual intercourse, reduced number of sex partners, reduced likelihood to have forced sexual intercourse and better academic grades, for sexually active male students, but not for female students. Both male and female students who had HIV/AIDS education were less likely to inject drugs, drink alcohol or use drugs before last sexual intercourse, and more likely to use condoms. Minority ethnic female students were more likely to have HIV testing. The positive effect of HIV/AIDS education and different gender and race/ethnicity effects support scaling up HIV/AIDS education and further research on the effectiveness of gender-race/ethnicity-specific HIV/AIDS curriculum.

  7. Protective Effect of Edaravone Against Cyclosporine-Induced Chronic Nephropathy Through Antioxidant and Nitric Oxide Modulating Pathways in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Sattarinezhad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cyclosporine A (CsA is an immunosuppressant with therapeutic indications in various immunological diseases; however, its use is associated with chronic nephropathy. Oxidative stress has a crucial role in CsA-induced nephrotoxicity. The present study evaluates the protective effect of edaravone on CsA-induced chronic nephropathy and investigates its antioxidant and nitric oxide modulating property. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=66 were distributed into nine groups, including a control (group 1 (n=7. Eight groups received CsA (15 mg/kg for 28 days while being treated. The groups were categorized as: •\tGroup 2: Vehicle (n=10 •\tGroups 3, 4, and 5: Edaravone (1, 5, and 10 mg/kg (n=7 each •\tGroup 6: Diphenyliodonium chloride, a specific endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS inhibitor (n=7 •\tGroup 7: Aminoguanidine, a specific inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS inhibitor (n=7 •\tGroup 8: Edaravone (10 mg/kg plus diphenyliodonium chloride (n=7 •\tGroup 9: Edaravone (10 mg/kg plus aminoguanidine (n=7 Blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione reductase enzyme activities were measured using standard kits. Renal histopathological evaluations and measurements of eNOS and iNOS gene expressions by RT-PCR were also performed. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test (SPSS software version 18.0. Results: Edaravone (10 mg/kg significantly attenuated CsA-induced oxidative stress, renal dysfunction, and kidney tissue injury. Aminoguanidine improved the renoprotective effect of edaravone. Edaravone reduced the elevated mRNA level of iNOS, but could not alter the level of eNOS mRNA significantly. Conclusion: Edaravone protects against CsA-induced chronic nephropathy using antioxidant property and probably through inhibiting iNOS gene expression.

  8. Collapsing glomerulopathy following anabolic steroid use in a 16-year-old boy with IgA nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Matthai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Collapsing glomerulopathy (CG is a proliferative podocytopathy, increasingly recognized in a variety of disease conditions. We report a case of CG in a 16-year-old boy with IgA nephropathy (IgAN who presented with acute kidney injury, marked proteinuria and hypertension following a short period of anabolic steroid use. Although CG has been associated with long-term anabolic steroid use among body builders, there is no data on the effect of anabolic steroid use in persons with underlying renal disease like IgAN. We postulate that development of CG in our patient could be temporally linked to intake of body-building steroids along with a predisposing background renal disease of IgAN.

  9. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of first aid and factors associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Globally, there are small proportions of drivers with first aid skills and even those trained do not practice it well. In Africa, the proportions of drivers with first aid skills were found to be much smaller. Evidences show that widespread first-aid training is important for successful pre-hospital care when accident ...

  10. The Search for Molecular Prognostic Markers of Diabetic Nephropathy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Ibragimov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to search for molecular prognostic markers of diabetic nephropathy (DN in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The study included 205 patients with T2DM and DN (stages 1 to 4. All patients were stratified by the MDRD equation. The control group included 30 healthy individuals. All T2DM patients were divided into 4 groups depending on the DN stages. Group 1 included 42 patients with DN-Stage 1 (prenephropathy, Group 2 included 48 patients with DN-Stage 2 (incipient nephropathy; Group 3 included 65 patients with DN-Stage 3 (overt nephropathy, and Group 4 included 50 patients with DN-Stage 4 (kidney failure. Molecular phenotyping of urine was processed with methods of proteomics: the prefractionation, the separation of proteins with standard sets (MB-HIC C8 Kit, MB-IMAC Cu, MB-Wax Kit, «Bruker», USA, matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS/MS, Ultraflex II, «Bruker», USA. The data of the molecular interactions and functional features of proteins were received with STRING 10.0 database. Potentially new molecular markers of DN development were identified. The research into signaling pathways and the molecules that are involved in ECM formation may help in developing strategies to prevent DN.

  11. Risk factors for contrast-induced nephropathy and their association with mortality in patients with blunt splenic injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ting-Min; Tsai, Tzu-Hsien; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-11-01

    Although angioembolization increases the success rate of non-operative management in patients with blunt splenic injuries (BSI), the issue of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) due to serial administration of contrast medium remains unclear. We aimed to examine the risk factors of CIN and their clinical effect on mortality in patients with BSI. We retrospectively studied the complete data on 377 trauma patients with BSI who survived more than 48 h between July 2003 and June 2015. CIN was defined as the relative (≥25%) or absolute (≥0.5 mg/dL) increase in serum creatinine within 48 h after contrast administration. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify the independent predictors of CIN and mortality. CIN was independently associated with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m 2 (odds ratio [OR]: 3.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20-8.76), injury severity score (ISS) ≥ 25 (OR: 6.08, 95% CI: 2.76-13.53), and 24-h hemoglobin (Hb) < 10 g/dL (OR: 3.16, 95% CI: 1.46-6.81). CIN (OR: 19.04, 95% CI: 6.15-58.94) and diabetes (OR: 3.43, 95% CI: 1.04-11.26) were also identified as independent predictors for mortality. In this study, we found that BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2 , ISS ≥ 25, and 24-h Hb < 10 g/dL were independent risk factors for the occurrence of CIN in patients with BSI. However, angioembolization was not identified to be an independent risk factor for CIN. In addition, CIN and diabetes mellitus were identified as independent risk factors for mortality in patients with BSI. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Retinal vascular geometry and its association to microvascular complications in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M L; Broe, Rebecca; Frydkjaer-Olsen, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine associations between retinal vascular geometry (tortuosity, branching coefficient [BC] and length-diameter ratio [LDR]) and diabetic proliferative retinopathy (PDR), nephropathy, and peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). METHODS: A cohort...... of patients with T1DM participated in a clinical examination in 2011. Blood and urine analyses were done and retinal images taken. PDR was defined as Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study level 61 or above, nephropathy as albumin-creatinin ratio ≥300 mg/g, and neuropathy as vibration perception threshold.......8% were male. Prevalence of PDR, nephropathy, and neuropathy were 26.5%, 6.8%, and 10.1% , respectively. Patients with increased arteriolar BC had a higher risk of nephropathy (OR: 3.10, 95% CI: [1.01-9.54]). Patients with increased venular BC had a higher risk of neuropathy (OR: 2.11, 95% CI: [1...

  13. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... been effective in furthering economic growth and development is discussed in some detail. I add perspective and identify some critical unresolved issues. I finally turn to the current development debate and discuss some key concerns, which I believe should be kept in mind in formulating any agenda...

  14. Low incidence of nephropathy in surgical ICU patients receiving intravenous contrast : a retrospective analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, Jan Willem; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Bongaerts, Alfons H. H.; Nijsten, Maarten W. N.

    Objective: Various studies have documented a markedly high incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). Most of these studies were conducted in patients not in the ICU. In ICU patients intravenous contrast may be withheld for fear of CIN. We investigated the incidence of CIN in ICU patients.

  15. Enhanced expression of two discrete isoforms of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in experimental and human diabetic nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Soo Kim

    Full Text Available We recently reported on the enhanced expression of two isoforms of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 in human renal transplantation delayed graft function. These consist of the conventional secreted, full length MMP-2 isoform (FL-MMP-2 and a novel intracellular N-Terminal Truncated isoform (NTT-MMP-2 generated by oxidative stress-mediated activation of an alternate promoter in the MMP-2 first intron. Here we evaluated the effect of hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus on the in vitro and in vivo expression of the two MMP-2 isoforms.We quantified the abundance of the FL-MMP-2 and NTT-MMP-2 transcripts by qPCR in HK2 cells cultured in high glucose or 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE and tested the effects of the NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC. The streptozotocin (STZ murine model of Type I diabetes mellitus and renal biopsies of human diabetic nephropathy were used in this study.Both isoforms of MMP-2 in HK2 cells were upregulated by culture in high glucose or with HHE. PDTC treatment did not suppress high glucose-mediated FL-MMP-2 expression but potently inhibited NTT-MMP-2 expression. With STZ-treated mice, renal cortical expression of both isoforms was increased (FL-MMP-2, 1.8-fold; NTT-MMP-2, greater than 7-fold. Isoform-specific immunohistochemical staining revealed low, but detectable levels of the FL-MMP-2 isoform in controls, while NTT-MMP-2 was not detected. While there was a modest increase in tubular epithelial cell staining for FL-MMP-2 in STZ-treated mice, NTT-MMP-2 was intensely expressed in a basolateral pattern. FL-MMP-2 and NTT-MMP-2 isoform expression as quantified by qPCR were both significantly elevated in renal biopsies of human diabetic nephropathy (12-fold and 3-fold, respectively.The expression of both isoforms of MMP-2 was enhanced in an experimental model of diabetic nephropathy and in human diabetic nephropathy. Selective MMP-2 isoform inhibition could offer a novel approach for the treatment of diabetic renal

  16. Behçet's syndrome / AIDS / cerebral toxoplasmosis: an unusual association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiliam Habib Chahade

    Full Text Available Few cases of AIDS associated to manifestations suggesting Behçet's syndrome have been reported. This case is of a young married woman who presented, during a period of 7 years, clinical manifestations consistent with the late diagnosis of Behçet's syndrome, when she developed recurrent lymphomonocytic meningoencephalitis. At this time, she was found to be infected by HIV-1. Immunosupressive doses of glucocorticoid produced an unsatisfactory response and she evolved to death due to CNS toxoplasmosis. The latter diagnosis was presumed on the basis of magnetic resonance imaging findings and proved by necropsy after her third hospital stay. One of the factors hindering the appropriate diagnosis was the low level of CD4 and the CD4/CD8 ratio, sometimes observed in active Behçet's syndrome and higher than those observed in patients with this severe opportunistic infection. No information about the exact period of time she had been infected with HIV-1 is available. So, we do not know whether both diseases were overlor, if the patient, infected by HIV-1, developed an unusual clinical feature consistent with Behçet's Behçet's syndrome, and subsequently evolved to AIDS.

  17. factors associated with AIDS preventive and risky behaviours among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-05-01

    May 1, 2000 ... ... describe the level of. AIDS knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavioural intent ... Main outcome measures: The questionnaire included items on socio-economic and family background ... South Africa is facing an escalation of reported AIDS cases. ... the inventory knowledge, attitude and practice on different.

  18. Accumulation of worn-out GBM material substantially contributes to mesangial matrix expansion in diabetic nephropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kriz, Wilhelm; Loewen, Jana; Federico, Giuseppina; van den Born, Jacob; Groene, Elisabeth; Groene, Hermann Josef

    2017-01-01

    Thickening of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and expansion of the mesangial matrix are hallmarks of diabetic nephropathy (DN), generally considered to emerge from different sites of overproduction: GBM components from podocytes and mesangial matrix from mesangial cells. Reevaluation of 918

  19. Inhibition of STAT3 Signaling Reduces IgA1 Autoantigen Production in IgA Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshi Yamada

    2017-11-01

    Discussion: Our results revealed that IL-6−induced aberrant activation of STAT3-mediated overproduction of galactose-deficient IgA1. STAT3 signaling pathway may thus represent a new target for disease-specific therapy of IgA nephropathy.