Sample records for aids yeast detection

  1. Combination of real-value smell and metaphor expression aids yeast detection.

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    Kouki Fujioka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smell provides important information about the quality of food and drink. Most well-known for their expertise in wine tasting, sommeliers sniff out the aroma of wine and describe them using beautiful metaphors. In contrast, electronic noses, devices that mimic our olfactory recognition system, also detect smells using their sensors but describe them using electronic signals. These devices have been used to judge the freshness of food or detect the presence of pathogenic microorganisms. However, unlike information from gas chromatography, it is difficult to compare odour information collected by these devices because they are made for smelling specific smells and their data are relative intensities. METHODOLOGY: Here, we demonstrate the use of an absolute-value description method using known smell metaphors, and early detection of yeast using the method. CONCLUSIONS: This technique may help distinguishing microbial-contamination of food products earlier, or improvement of the food-product qualities.

  2. Oral candidiasis and oral yeast carriage among institutionalised South African paediatric HIV/AIDS patients. (United States)

    Blignaut, Elaine


    South Africa currently has an estimated 500,000 AIDS orphans, many of whom are HIV-positive. Oral candidiasis commonly occurs in both adult and paediatric HIV/AIDS patients. Published information on HIV-positive children in Africa mainly concerns hospitalised patients. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral candidiasis and oral yeast carriage among paediatric HIV/AIDS patients residing in orphanages in Gauteng, South Africa, and to compare the prevalence of isolated yeast species with species obtained from adult HIV/AIDS patients. Eighty-seven paediatric HIV/AIDS patients residing in five homes were examined and a swab taken from the dorsal surface of the tongue, cultured on CHROMagar and yeast isolates identified with the ATB 32C commercial system. The species prevalence of 57 identified isolates was compared with that of 330 isolates from adult HIV/AIDS patients. Twelve (13.8%) children presented with clinically detectable candidiasis. Yeasts were isolated from 0% to 53% of children in the individual homes, with Candida albicans (40.4%) and C. dubliniensis (26.3%) constituting the most frequently isolated species. Gentian violet prophylaxis was administered in one particular home and a higher carriage rate (66.6%) of non-C. albicans and non-C. dubliniensis was observed among these children. The prevalence of C. albicans was lower while the prevalence of C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis was significantly higher (p candidiasis in institutionalized paediatric HIV/AIDS patients.

  3. Yeasts isolated from clinical samples of AIDS patients

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    Neves Rejane Pereira


    Full Text Available In order to investigate yeasts in oropharyngeal secretion, urine, sputum and inguinal scales from AIDS patients, clinical samples were collected from one hundred patients interned in the Infectious and Parasitic Diseases Sector of the Hospital das Clínicas of the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco and in Hospital Universitário Osvaldo Cruz of the Universidade de Pernambuco. Yeasts were isolated from seventy-two out of one hundred and eight clinical samples. The isolated yeasts were: Candida albicans (sixty-two isolates, Candida tropicalis (four isolates, Candida glabrata (two isolates, Candida parapsilosis (two isolates, Candida krusei (one isolate and Trichosporon pullulans (one isolate.

  4. Home-use cancer detecting band aid (United States)

    Zalevsky, Zeev; Rudnitsky, Arkady; Sheinman, Victor; Tzoy, Andrey; Toktosunov, Aitmamat; Adashov, Arkady


    In this paper we present a novel concept in which special band aid is developed for early detection of cancer. The band aid contains an array of micro needles with small detection array connected to each needle which inspects the color of the surface of the skin versus time after being pinched with the needles. We were able to show in pre-clinical trials that the color varies differently if the skin is close to tumor tissue.

  5. Detection and identification of wild yeasts in lager breweries. (United States)

    van der Aa Kühle, A; Jespersen, L


    Wild yeasts were detected in 41 out of 101 brewery yeast samples investigated using six different selective principles. Malt extract, yeast extract, glucose, peptone (MYGP) agar supplemented with 195 ppm CuSO4 was found to be the most effective selective principle, detecting wild yeasts in 80% of the contaminated samples. Both Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces wild yeasts were detected on this medium. Lysine medium, crystal violet medium and incubation of non-selective media at 37 degrees C detected wild yeasts in 46-56% of the contaminated samples. On using actidione medium, only 20% of the wild yeasts were detected. The combined use of MYGP supplemented with 195 ppm CuSO4 and one of the other selective principles did not improve the recovery of the wild yeasts. The wild yeasts found consisted of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (57%), Pichia spp. (28%) and Candida spp. (15%). Using the API ID 32 C kit, 35 different assimilation profiles were obtained for the 124 wild yeast isolates investigated. All isolates were capable of glucose assimilation, whereas only 79% of the isolates assimilated saccharose, 75% maltose, 70% galactose, 65% raffinose and 65% lactate. Lactose, inositol, rhamnose and glucuronate were not assimilated by any of the isolates. The differences in assimilation pattern did not reflect any differences in recovery by the selective principles investigated. The majority of the wild yeast isolates investigated were capable of growth in wort and beer, indicating their possible role as spoilage organisms. The Sacch. cerevisiae isolates were found to be the most hazardous, with some isolates being capable of extensive growth in bottled beer within seventeen days at ambient temperature.

  6. Immuno-assay techniques for detecting yeasts in foods. (United States)

    Middelhoven, W J; Notermans, S


    A brief literature review on immuno-assay of yeast cell wall antigens is given. Special attention is paid to extracellular, thermostable yeast antigens (EPS), which are released to the growth medium by many yeast species. The EPS of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and of Stephanoascus ciferrii (syn. Candida ciferrii) could be specifically and sensitively detected by a sandwich ELISA, using an IgG raised in rabbits immunized with the EPS of these yeasts. The EPS ELISA of three basidiomycetous yeasts tested was not specific, that of Geotrichum candidum was genus-specific but was not sensitive. The EPS of Zygosaccharomyces bailii could be detected in a highly specific competitive ELISA but not in a sandwich ELISA or in a latex agglutination test.

  7. Social Network Aided Plagiarism Detection (United States)

    Zrnec, Aljaž; Lavbic, Dejan


    The prevalence of different kinds of electronic devices and the volume of content on the Web have increased the amount of plagiarism, which is considered an unethical act. If we want to be efficient in the detection and prevention of these acts, we have to improve today's methods of discovering plagiarism. The paper presents a research study where…

  8. Conducting Wine Symphonics with the Aid of Yeast Genomics

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    Isak S. Pretorius


    Full Text Available A perfectly balanced wine can be said to create a symphony in the mouth. To achieve the sublime, both in wine and music, requires imagination and skilled orchestration of artistic craftmanship. For wine, inventiveness starts in the vineyard. Similar to a composer of music, the grapegrower produces grapes through a multitude of specifications to achieve a quality result. Different Vitis vinifera grape varieties allow the creation of wine of different genres. Akin to a conductor of music, the winemaker decides what genre to create and considers resources required to realise the grape’s potential. A primary consideration is the yeast: whether to inoculate the grape juice or leave it ‘wild’; whether to inoculate with a specific strain of Saccharomyces or a combination of Saccharomyces strains; or whether to proceed with a non-Saccharomyces species? Whilst the various Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts perform their role during fermentation, the performance is not over until the ‘fat lady’ (S. cerevisiae has sung (i.e., the grape sugar has been fermented to specified dryness and alcoholic fermentation is complete. Is the wine harmonious or discordant? Will the consumer demand an encore and make a repeat purchase? Understanding consumer needs lets winemakers orchestrate different symphonies (i.e., wine styles using single- or multi-species ferments. Some consumers will choose the sounds of a philharmonic orchestra comprising a great range of diverse instrumentalists (as is the case with wine created from spontaneous fermentation; some will prefer to listen to a smaller ensemble (analogous to wine produced by a selected group of non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces yeast; and others will favour the well-known and reliable superstar soprano (i.e., S. cerevisiae. But what if a digital music synthesizer—such as a synthetic yeast—becomes available that can produce any music genre with the purest of sounds by the touch of a few buttons

  9. Conductometric biosensor for ethanol detection based on whole yeast cells. (United States)

    Korpan, Y I; Dzyadevich, S V; Zharova, V P; El'skaya, A V


    The quantification of ethanol in alcoholic beverages was performed by yeast cell-based conductometric biosensor. A membrane with yeast cells immobilized in 2% Ca-alginate gel was attached on gold planar electrodes. Changes in conductivity due to the specific consumption of ethanol by yeast cells were registered by the computer-controlled sensor system. The response time of the constructed microbial sensor was less than 5 min, linearity (in a logarithmic scale) was observed in the range of 5-100 mM alcohol concentration. It was established that pH value in their region from 5 to 8 did not influence the levels of initial signal. The increase of a buffer capacity in the sample results in the decrease of the biosensor output. The minimal detectable level of ethanol was 1 mM and the relative standard deviation appeared to be 10-12% for 15 repeated assays. When the system was operated and stored at 20-25 degrees C, the biosensor response was stable for only 3 days. However, when the microbial sensor was stored at 4 degrees C, the system was stable up to 12 days. Good correlation between the results obtained by a conductometric cell-biosensor and gas chromatograph was observed.

  10. iAID: an improved auxin-inducible degron system for the construction of a 'tight' conditional mutant in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (United States)

    Tanaka, Seiji; Miyazawa-Onami, Mayumi; Iida, Tetsushi; Araki, Hiroyuki


    Isolation of a 'tight' conditional mutant of a gene of interest is an effective way of studying the functions of essential genes. Strategies that use ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation to eliminate the product of a gene of interest, such as heat-inducible degron (td) and auxin-inducible degron (AID), are powerful methods for constructing conditional mutants. However, these methods do not work with some genes. Here, we describe an improved AID system (iAID) for isolating tight conditional mutants in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this method, transcriptional repression by the 'Tet-OFF' promoter is combined with proteolytic elimination of the target protein by the AID system. To provide examples, we describe the construction of tight mutants of the replication factors Dpb11 and Mcm10, dpb11-iAID, and mcm10-iAID. Because Dpb11 and Mcm10 are required for the initiation of DNA replication, their tight mutants are unable to enter S phase. This is the case for dpb11-iAID and mcm10-iAID cells after the addition of tetracycline and auxin. Both the 'Tet-OFF' promoter and the AID system have been shown to work in model eukaryotes other than budding yeast. Therefore, the iAID system is not only useful in budding yeast, but also can be applied to other model systems to isolate tight conditional mutants.

  11. Computer-aided forensics: metal object detection. (United States)

    Kelliher, Timothy; Leue, Bill; Lorensen, Bill; Lauric, Alexandra


    Recently, forensic investigators1 have started using diagnostic radiology devices (MRI, CT) to acquire image data from cadavers. This new technology, called the virtual autopsy, has the potential to provide a low cost, non-invasive alternative or supplement to conventional autopsies. New image processing techniques are being developed to highlight forensically relevant information in the images. One such technique is the detection and characterization of metal objects embedded in the cadaver. Analysis of this information across a population with similar causes of death can lead to developing improved safety and protection devices with a corresponding reduction in deaths.

  12. Evaluation of computer-aided detection and diagnosis systems. (United States)

    Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman; Armato, Samuel G; Bert, Alberto; Correale, Loredana; Delsanto, Silvia; Freedman, Matthew T; Fryd, David; Gur, David; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Huo, Zhimin; Jiang, Yulei; Morra, Lia; Paquerault, Sophie; Raykar, Vikas; Samuelson, Frank; Summers, Ronald M; Tourassi, Georgia; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Zheng, Bin; Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping


    Computer-aided detection and diagnosis (CAD) systems are increasingly being used as an aid by clinicians for detection and interpretation of diseases. Computer-aided detection systems mark regions of an image that may reveal specific abnormalities and are used to alert clinicians to these regions during image interpretation. Computer-aided diagnosis systems provide an assessment of a disease using image-based information alone or in combination with other relevant diagnostic data and are used by clinicians as a decision support in developing their diagnoses. While CAD systems are commercially available, standardized approaches for evaluating and reporting their performance have not yet been fully formalized in the literature or in a standardization effort. This deficiency has led to difficulty in the comparison of CAD devices and in understanding how the reported performance might translate into clinical practice. To address these important issues, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) formed the Computer Aided Detection in Diagnostic Imaging Subcommittee (CADSC), in part, to develop recommendations on approaches for assessing CAD system performance. The purpose of this paper is to convey the opinions of the AAPM CADSC members and to stimulate the development of consensus approaches and "best practices" for evaluating CAD systems. Both the assessment of a standalone CAD system and the evaluation of the impact of CAD on end-users are discussed. It is hoped that awareness of these important evaluation elements and the CADSC recommendations will lead to further development of structured guidelines for CAD performance assessment. Proper assessment of CAD system performance is expected to increase the understanding of a CAD system's effectiveness and limitations, which is expected to stimulate further research and development efforts on CAD technologies, reduce problems due to improper use, and eventually improve the utility and efficacy of CAD in

  13. Detection and Ranging System of Flight Aid Lights

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    YU Zhi-jing; WANG Qiang


    Dynamic detection based on optics sensors and ranging radars is a new method to detect the luminous intensity of flight aid lights. The optics sensors can get the illumination information of each light, the ranging radar gets the distance information, and then data amalgamation technology is used to compute the luminous intensity of each light. A method to modify the errors of this dynamic detection system is presented. It avoids the accumulation error and measurement carrier's excursion error by using peak value detection based on optics sensors to estimate the accurate position of each light, then to modify the lights' lengthways distance information and transverse position information. The performance of the detection and ranging system is validated by some experiments and shown in pictures.

  14. Diagnostic aids for detection of oral precancerous conditions

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    Diana V Messadi


    Oral cancer has a tendency to be detected at late stage which is detrimental to the patients because of its high mortality and morbidity rates. Early detection of oral cancer is therefore important to reduce the burden of this devastating disease. In this review article, the most common oral precancerous lesions are discussed and the importance of early diagnosis is emphasized. In addition, the most common non-invasive oral cancer devices that can aid the general practitioners in early diagnosis are also discussed.

  15. Detection and quantitative determination by PIXE of the mutagen Sn 2+ in yeast cells (United States)

    Viau, C. M.; Yoneama, M.-L.; Dias, J. F.; Pungartnik, C.; Brendel, M.; Henriques, J. A. P.


    The main goal of this work was to determine the concentration of Sn2+ ions in cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and to correlate their quantity with the genotoxicity of intracellularly accumulated metal ions. The intracellular metal content of yeast cells was determined by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission) after cell exposure to SnCl2. To that end, a thick target protocol was developed for PIXE analysis. The samples were irradiated with a 2 MeV proton beam, while the induced X-rays were detected with a high-purity germanium detector. The results of the toxicity of SnCl2 and the PIXE analysis performed with two different yeast strains (haploid and diploid) suggest that the exposure of haploid and diploid yeast to Sn2+ induces DNA lesions and that the absorption depends on the genetic background of each strain.

  16. AID induces double-strand breaks at immunoglobulin switch regions and c-MYC causing chromosomal translocations in yeast THO mutants. (United States)

    Ruiz, José F; Gómez-González, Belén; Aguilera, Andrés


    Transcription of the switch (S) regions of immunoglobulin genes in B cells generates stable R-loops that are targeted by Activation Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID), triggering class switch recombination (CSR), as well as translocations with c-MYC responsible for Burkitt's lymphomas. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, stable R-loops are formed co-transcriptionally in mutants of THO, a conserved nuclear complex involved in mRNP biogenesis. Such R-loops trigger genome instability and facilitate deamination by human AID. To understand the mechanisms that generate genome instability mediated by mRNP biogenesis impairment and by AID, we devised a yeast chromosomal system based on different segments of mammalian S regions and c-MYC for the analysis of chromosomal rearrangements in both wild-type and THO mutants. We demonstrate that AID acts in yeast at heterologous S and c-MYC transcribed sequences leading to double-strand breaks (DSBs) which in turn cause chromosomal translocations via Non-Homologous End Joining (NHEJ). AID-induced translocations were strongly enhanced in yeast THO null mutants, consistent with the idea that AID-mediated DSBs depend on R-loop formation. Our study not only provides new clues to understand the role of mRNP biogenesis in preventing genome rearrangements and the mechanism of AID-mediated genome instability, but also shows that, once uracil residues are produced by AID-mediated deamination, these are processed into DSBs and chromosomal rearrangements by the general and conserved DNA repair functions present from yeast to human cells.

  17. AID induces double-strand breaks at immunoglobulin switch regions and c-MYC causing chromosomal translocations in yeast THO mutants.

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    José F Ruiz


    Full Text Available Transcription of the switch (S regions of immunoglobulin genes in B cells generates stable R-loops that are targeted by Activation Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID, triggering class switch recombination (CSR, as well as translocations with c-MYC responsible for Burkitt's lymphomas. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, stable R-loops are formed co-transcriptionally in mutants of THO, a conserved nuclear complex involved in mRNP biogenesis. Such R-loops trigger genome instability and facilitate deamination by human AID. To understand the mechanisms that generate genome instability mediated by mRNP biogenesis impairment and by AID, we devised a yeast chromosomal system based on different segments of mammalian S regions and c-MYC for the analysis of chromosomal rearrangements in both wild-type and THO mutants. We demonstrate that AID acts in yeast at heterologous S and c-MYC transcribed sequences leading to double-strand breaks (DSBs which in turn cause chromosomal translocations via Non-Homologous End Joining (NHEJ. AID-induced translocations were strongly enhanced in yeast THO null mutants, consistent with the idea that AID-mediated DSBs depend on R-loop formation. Our study not only provides new clues to understand the role of mRNP biogenesis in preventing genome rearrangements and the mechanism of AID-mediated genome instability, but also shows that, once uracil residues are produced by AID-mediated deamination, these are processed into DSBs and chromosomal rearrangements by the general and conserved DNA repair functions present from yeast to human cells.

  18. A Computer-Aided Detection System for Digital Chest Radiographs

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    Juan Manuel Carrillo-de-Gea


    Full Text Available Computer-aided detection systems aim at the automatic detection of diseases using different medical imaging modalities. In this paper, a novel approach to detecting normality/pathology in digital chest radiographs is proposed. The problem tackled is complicated since it is not focused on particular diseases but anything that differs from what is considered as normality. First, the areas of interest of the chest are found using template matching on the images. Then, a texture descriptor called local binary patterns (LBP is computed for those areas. After that, LBP histograms are applied in a classifier algorithm, which produces the final normality/pathology decision. Our experimental results show the feasibility of the proposal, with success rates above 87% in the best cases. Moreover, our technique is able to locate the possible areas of pathology in nonnormal radiographs. Strengths and limitations of the proposed approach are described in the Conclusions.

  19. Applicability of a yeast bioassay in the detection of steroid esters in hair

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    Becue, I.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Poucke, C.; Groot, M.J.; Nielen, M.W.F.; Peteghem, van C.


    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the applicability of a yeast androgen and estrogen bioassay in the detection of steroid esters in hair samples of animals treated with a hormone ester cocktail. The outcome of the activity screenings was critically compared with the results previously


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    Tao Xu


    Full Text Available Despite the technological advances in medical diagnosis, accurate detection of infectious tuberculosis (TB still poses challenges due to complex image features and thus infectious TB continues to be a public health problem of global proportions. Currently, the detection of TB is mainly conducted visually by radiologists examining chest radiographs (CXRs. To reduce the backlog of CXR examination and provide more precise quantitative assessment, computer-aided detection (CAD systems for potential lung lesions have been increasingly adopted and commercialized for clinical practice. CADs work as supporting tools to alert radiologists on suspected features that could have easily been neglected. In this paper, an effective CAD system aimed for acinar shadow regions detection in CXRs is proposed. This system exploits textural and photometric features analysis techniques which include local binary pattern (LBP, grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM and histogram of oriented gradients (HOG to analyze target regions in CXRs. Classification of acinar shadows using Adaboost is then deployed to verify the performance of a combination of these techniques. Comparative study in different image databases shows that the proposed CAD system delivers consistent high accuracy in detecting acinar shadows.

  1. Fuzzy Aided Application Layer Semantic Intrusion Detection System - FASIDS

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    Sangeetha, S; 10.5121/ijnsa.2010.2204


    The objective of this is to develop a Fuzzy aided Application layer Semantic Intrusion Detection System (FASIDS) which works in the application layer of the network stack. FASIDS consist of semantic IDS and Fuzzy based IDS. Rule based IDS looks for the specific pattern which is defined as malicious. A non-intrusive regular pattern can be malicious if it occurs several times with a short time interval. For detecting such malicious activities, FASIDS is proposed in this paper. At application layer, HTTP traffic's header and payload are analyzed for possible intrusion. In the proposed misuse detection module, the semantic intrusion detection system works on the basis of rules that define various application layer misuses that are found in the network. An attack identified by the IDS is based on a corresponding rule in the rule-base. An event that doesn't make a 'hit' on the rule-base is given to a Fuzzy Intrusion Detection System (FIDS) for further analysis.

  2. Computer Aided Detection of SARS Based on Radiographs Data Mining. (United States)

    Xuanyang, Xie; Yuchang, Gong; Shouhong, Wan; Xi, Li


    This paper introduces our work on how to use image mining techniques to detect SARS, the severe acute respiratory syndrome, automatically as the prototype of computer aided detection/diagnosis (CAD) system. Data used in this paper are digitalized PA(posterior anterior) X-ray images stored in the real-life picture archiving and communication system (PACS) of the 2nd Affiliation Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College. Association rule mining was applied first but results showed there was no significant difference between the locations of the lesions or infiltrate. Classification based on image textures was performed. A sample set contains both the pneumonia and SARS X-ray images was built in the first place. After modeling each sample by a feature vector, the sample set was partitioned to match the detection purpose: classification. Three methods were used: C4.5, neural network (NN) and CART. Final result shows that 70.94% SARS cases can be detected by CART. Data preparation, segmentation, feature extraction and data mining steps, with corresponding techniques are included in this paper. ROC charts and confusion matrix by all three methods are given and analyzed.

  3. AIDS (United States)

    ... page: // HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...

  4. Deterministic Aided STAP for Target Detection in Heterogeneous Situations

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    J.-F. Degurse


    Full Text Available Classical space-time adaptive processing (STAP detectors are strongly limited when facing highly heterogeneous environments. Indeed, in this case, representative target free data are no longer available. Single dataset algorithms, such as the MLED algorithm, have proved their efficiency in overcoming this problem by only working on primary data. These methods are based on the APES algorithm which removes the useful signal from the covariance matrix. However, a small part of the clutter signal is also removed from the covariance matrix in this operation. Consequently, a degradation of clutter rejection performance is observed. We propose two algorithms that use deterministic aided STAP to overcome this issue of the single dataset APES method. The results on realistic simulated data and real data show that these methods outperform traditional single dataset methods in detection and in clutter rejection.

  5. A new highly specific and robust yeast androgen bioassay for the detection of agonists and antagonists. (United States)

    Bovee, Toine F H; Helsdingen, Richard J R; Hamers, Astrid R M; van Duursen, Majorie B M; Nielen, Michel W F; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P


    Public concern about the presence of natural and anthropogenic compounds which affect human health by modulating normal endocrine functions is continuously growing. Fast and simple high-throughput screening methods for the detection of hormone activities are thus indispensable. During the last two decades, a panel of different in vitro assays has been developed, mainly for compounds with an estrogenic mode of action. Here we describe the development of an androgen transcription activation assay that is easy to use in routine screening. Recombinant yeast cells were constructed that express the human androgen receptor and yeast enhanced green fluorescent protein (yEGFP), the latter in response to androgens. Compared with other reporters, the yEGFP reporter protein is very convenient because it is directly measurable in intact living cells, i.e., cell wall disruption and the addition of a substrate are not needed. When yeast was exposed to 17beta-testosterone, the concentration where half-maximal activation is reached (EC(50)) was 50 nM. The relative androgenic potencies, defined as the ratio between the EC(50) of 17beta-testosterone and the EC(50) of the compound, of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone, methyltrienolone, and 17beta-boldenone are 2.3, 1.4, and 0.15 respectively. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that this new yeast androgen bioassay is fast, sensitive, and very specific and also suited to detect compounds that have an antiandrogenic mode of action.

  6. Expression of human AID in yeast induces mutations in context similar to the context of somatic hypermutation at G-C pairs in immunoglobulin genes

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    Kunkel Thomas A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibody genes are diversified by somatic hypermutation (SHM, gene conversion and class-switch recombination. All three processes are initiated by the activation-induced deaminase (AID. According to a DNA deamination model of SHM, AID converts cytosine to uracil in DNA sequences. The initial deamination of cytosine leads to mutation and recombination in pathways involving replication, DNA mismatch repair and possibly base excision repair. The DNA sequence context of mutation hotspots at G-C pairs during SHM is DGYW/WRCH (G-C is a hotspot position, R = A/G, Y = T/C, W = A/T, D = A/G/T. Results To investigate the mechanisms of AID-induced mutagenesis in a model system, we studied the genetic consequences of AID expression in yeast. We constructed a yeast vector with an artificially synthesized human AID gene insert using codons common to highly expressed yeast genes. We found that expression of the artificial hAIDSc gene was moderately mutagenic in a wild-type strain and highly mutagenic in an ung1 uracil-DNA glycosylase-deficient strain. A majority of mutations were at G-C pairs. In the ung1 strain, C-G to T-A transitions were found almost exclusively, while a mixture of transitions with 12% transversions was characteristic in the wild-type strain. In the ung1 strain mutations that could have originated from deamination of the transcribed stand were found more frequently. In the wild-type strain, the strand bias was reversed. DGYW/WRCH motifs were preferential sites of mutations. Conclusion The results are consistent with the hypothesis that AID-mediated deamination of DNA is a major cause of mutations at G-C base pairs in immunoglobulin genes during SHM. The sequence contexts of mutations in yeast induced by AID and those of somatic mutations at G-C pairs in immunoglobulin genes are significantly similar. This indicates that the intrinsic substrate specificity of AID itself is a primary determinant of mutational hotspots at G

  7. Target Impact Detection Algorithm Using Computer-aided Design (CAD) Model Geometry (United States)


    UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 558 Technical Report ARMET-TR-13024 TARGET IMPACT DETECTION ALGORITHM USING COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN ( CAD ...DETECTION ALGORITHM USING COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN ( CAD ) MODEL GEOMETRY 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...This report documents a method and algorithm to export geometry from a three-dimensional, computer-aided design ( CAD ) model in a format that can be

  8. The promise of computer aided detection in digital mammography

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    Roehrig, Jimmy E-mail:; Castellino, Ronald A. E-mail:


    Computer-aided detection (CAD) is a new technology now being implemented in many clinics to reduce the false negative rate in mammography screening. A large clinical study has been completed which shows that a substantial false negative (miss) rate exists in screening mammography, a significant fraction of the missed cancers are not subtle, and CAD has high sensitivity to these missed cancers. Full field digital mammography is now coming on the scene, but has not yet been proven in clinical practice. The authors believe that full acceptance of the new digital technology depends not merely on demonstrations of 'substantial equivalence' to film-screen technology, but rather on more complete exploitation of the unique advantages of digital technology, and that CAD can play a key role. These advantages derive from CAD's ability to quickly (in near real-time) perform analytical computations on digital information that is not readily available to the radiologist until after the cost of film-processing has occurred.

  9. Computer-aided detection (CAD) of breast masses in mammography: combined detection and ensemble classification (United States)

    Choi, Jae Young; Kim, Dae Hoe; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.; Ro, Yong Man


    We propose a novel computer-aided detection (CAD) framework of breast masses in mammography. To increase detection sensitivity for various types of mammographic masses, we propose the combined use of different detection algorithms. In particular, we develop a region-of-interest combination mechanism that integrates detection information gained from unsupervised and supervised detection algorithms. Also, to significantly reduce the number of false-positive (FP) detections, the new ensemble classification algorithm is developed. Extensive experiments have been conducted on a benchmark mammogram database. Results show that our combined detection approach can considerably improve the detection sensitivity with a small loss of FP rate, compared to representative detection algorithms previously developed for mammographic CAD systems. The proposed ensemble classification solution also has a dramatic impact on the reduction of FP detections; as much as 70% (from 15 to 4.5 per image) at only cost of 4.6% sensitivity loss (from 90.0% to 85.4%). Moreover, our proposed CAD method performs as well or better (70.7% and 80.0% per 1.5 and 3.5 FPs per image respectively) than the results of mammography CAD algorithms previously reported in the literature.

  10. Using yeast two-hybrid system to detect interactions of ATP synthase subunits from Spinacia oleracea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Subunit interactions among the chloroplast ATP synthase subunits were studied using the yeast two-hybrid system. Various pairwise combinations of genes encoding a , b , g , d and e subunits of Spinach ATP synthase fused to the binding domain or activation domain of GAL4 DNA were introduced into yeast and then expression of a reporter gene encoding b -galactosidase was detected. Of all the combinations, that of g and e subunit genes showed the highest level of reporter gene expression, while those of a and b , a and e , b and e and b and d induced stable and significant reporter gene expression. The combination of d and e as well as that of d and g induced weak and unstable reporter gene expression. However, combinations of a and g , b and g and a and d did not induce reporter gene expression. These results suggested that specific and strong interactions between g and e , a and b , a and e , b and e and b and d subunits, and weak and transient interactions between d and e and d and g subunits occurred in the yeast cell in the two-hybrid system. These results give a new look into the structural change of ATP synthase during catalysis.

  11. Using yeast two-hybrid system to detect interactions of ATP synthase subunits from Spinacia oleracea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石晓冰; 魏家绵; 沈允钢


    Subunit interactions among the chloroplast ATP synthase subunits were studied using the yeast two-hybrid system. Various pairwise combinations of genes encoding a, p, y, 8 and e subunits of Spinach ATP synthase fused to the binding domain or activation domain of GAL4 DNA were introduced into yeast and then expression of a reporter gene encoding p-galactosidase was detected. Of all the combinations, that of y and e subunit genes showed the highest level of reporter gene expression, while those of a and p, a and e, p and e and p and 8 induced stable and significant reporter gene expression. The combination of 8 and e as well as that of 8 and y induced weak and unstable reporter gene expression. However, combinations of a and y, p and y and a and 8 did not induce reporter gene expression. These results suggested that specific and strong interactions between y and e, a and p, a and e, p and e and p and 8 subunits, and weak and transient interactions between 8 and e and 8 and y subunits occurred in the yeast

  12. Effect of source-separated urine storage on estrogenic activity detected using bioluminescent yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (United States)

    Jaatinen, Sanna; Kivistö, Anniina; Palmroth, Marja R T; Karp, Matti


    The objective was to demonstrate that a microbial whole cell biosensor, bioluminescent yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (BMAEREluc/ERα) can be applied to detect overall estrogenic activity from fresh and stored human urine. The use of source-separated urine in agriculture removes a human originated estrogen source from wastewater influents, subsequently enabling nutrient recycling. Estrogenic activity in urine should be diminished prior to urine usage in agriculture in order to prevent its migration to soil. A storage period of 6 months is required for hygienic reasons; therefore, estrogenic activity monitoring is of interest. The method measured cumulative female hormone-like activity. Calibration curves were prepared for estrone, 17β-estradiol, 17α- ethinylestradiol and estriol. Estrogen concentrations of 0.29-29,640 μg L(-1) were detectable while limit of detection corresponded to 0.28-35 μg L(-1) of estrogens. The yeast sensor responded well to fresh and stored urine and gave high signals corresponding to 0.38-3,804 μg L(-1) of estrogens in different urine samples. Estrogenic activity decreased during storage, but was still higher than in fresh urine implying insufficient storage length. The biosensor was suitable for monitoring hormonal activity in urine and can be used in screening anthropogenic estrogen-like compounds interacting with the receptor.

  13. Detecting estrogenic activity in water samples withestrogen-sensitive yeast cells using spectrophotometry and fluorescencemicroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wozei, E.; Holman, H-Y.N.; Hermanowicz, S.W.; Borglin S.


    Environmental estrogens are environmental contaminants that can mimic the biological activities of the female hormone estrogen in the endocrine system, i.e. they act as endocrine disrupters. Several substances are reported to have estrogen-like activity or estrogenic activity. These include steroid hormones, synthetic estrogens (xenoestrogens), environmental pollutants and phytoestrogens (plant estrogens). Using the chromogenic substrate ortho-nitrophenyl-{beta}-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) we show that an estrogen-sensitive yeast strain RMY/ER-ERE, with human estrogen receptor (hER{alpha}) gene and the lacZ gene which encodes the enzyme {beta}-galactosidase, is able to detect estrogenic activity in water samples over a wide range of spiked concentrations of the hormonal estrogen 17{beta}-estradiol (E2). Ortho-nitrophenol (ONP), the yellow product of this assay can be detected using spectrophotometry but requires cell lysis to release the enzyme and allow product formation. We improved this aspect in a fluorogenic assay by using fluorescein di-{beta}-D-galactopyranoside (FDG) as a substrate. The product was visualized using fluorescence microscopy without the need to kill, fix or lyse the cells. We show that in live yeast cells, the uptake of E2 and the subsequent production of {beta}-galactosidase enzyme occur quite rapidly, with maximum enzyme-catalyzed fluorescent product formation evident after about 30 minutes of exposure to E2. The fluorogenic assay was applied to a selection of estrogenic compounds and the Synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectra of the cells obtained to better understand the yeast whole cell response to the compounds. The fluorogenic assay is most sensitive to E2, but the SR-FTIR spectra suggest that the cells respond to all the estrogenic compounds tested even when no fluorescent response was detected. These findings are promising and may shorten the duration of environmental water screening and monitoring regimes using

  14. Biomarkers for detecting nitrogen deficiency during alcoholic fermentation in different commercial wine yeast strains. (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Alicia; Chiva, Rosana; Beltran, Gemma; Mas, Albert; Guillamon, José Manuel


    Nitrogen deficiencies in grape musts are one of the main causes of stuck or sluggish wine fermentations. Several putative biomarkers were tested in order to analyze their appropriateness to detect nitrogen stress in the yeast. To this aim, four commercial wine strains (PDM, ARM, RVA and TTA) were grown in a synthetic grape must with different nitrogen concentrations. Trehalose accumulation, arginase activity and the expression of eleven genes were tested in these wine strains, known to have different nitrogen requirements. The overall response of the four strains was similar, with differences in response intensity (PDM and RVA with higher intensity) and response time (which was also related with nitrogen consumption time). Trehalose response was mostly related to entry into the stationary phase, whereas arginase activity was responsive to nitrogen depletion, although its measurement is too complicated to be used for routine monitoring during winemaking. The expression of the genes DAL4, DAL5, DUR3 and GAP1 was clearly related to nitrogen depletion and thus, GAP1 and DAL4 were selected as markers of nitrogen deficiency. In order to adapt expression analysis to winemaking conditions, the original strains were transformed into reporter strains based on the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) under control of the promoters for GAP1 and DAL4. The transformants had a similar fermentative capacity to the parental strains and were able to detect alterations in yeast physiological status due to nitrogen limitations.

  15. Development of a Computer-aided Diagnosis System for Early Detection of Masses Using Retrospectively Detected Cancers on Prior Mammograms (United States)


    O’shaughnessy, K. F., Sick les, E. A. , Tabar, L., Vy borny, C. J. and Castellino , R. A., "Potential contribution of com puter-aided d etection to t...F. O’Shaughnessy, E. A. Sickles, L. Tabar, C. J. Vyborny, and R. A. Castellino , “Potential contribution of computer-aided detection to the...Med. Phys. 31, 2313–2330 2004. 52K. F. O’Shaughnessy, R. A. Castellino , S. L. Muller, and K. Benali, “Computer-aided detection CAD on 90 biopsy

  16. Routine use of CHROMagar Candida medium for presumptive identification of Candida yeast species and detection of mixed fungal populations. (United States)

    Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Declerck, Philippe; Cimon, Bernard; Planchenault, Claire; de Gentile, Ludovic; Chabasse, Dominique


    OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of the new differential culture medium CHROMagar Candida for routine investigation of clinical specimens. METHODS: During a whole year, 6150 clinical samples were plated on CHROMagar Candida medium. After incubation, the green colonies were considered to be Candida albicans. The colonies of other colors were identified using Bichrolatex-krusei, or by their assimilation pattern on ID 32C test strips and their morphology on rice cream-agar-Tween. RESULTS: Among the 6150 clinical samples, 1643 were positive for fungi. Aspergillus fumigatus and Geotrichum sp. were the predominant filamentous fungi isolated. Candida albicans was the most common species isolated (1274 of the positive samples; 77.5%), and Candida glabrata was the second most common yeast isolated (174 positive samples; 10.6%). Other yeast species were detected at lower frequencies, mainly Candida tropicalis (3.8%), Candida krusei (2.7%), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (2.7%) and Candida kefyr (2.3%), and 16 samples revealed a lipophilic species, Malassezia furfur. Mixed fungal populations accounted for 14.7% of the positive samples. Two or more yeast species were detected in 206 of the 242 specimens containing mixed fungal populations, and five yeast species were detected in one sample. Additionally, we did not observe significant differences in the isolation of yeasts or filamentous fungi from the 366 samples simultaneously plated on CHROMagar Candida and Sabouraud dextrose agar. Close agreement between the two culture media was observed for 89.9% of these samples. CONCLUSIONS: CHROMagar Candida medium was shown to be extremely helpful in a routine clinical mycology service, facilitating the detection of mixed cultures of yeasts and allowing direct identification of C. albicans, as well as rapid presumptive identification of the other yeasts: C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei and S. cerevisiae. This chromogenic medium thus appears to be suitable as a primary culture medium

  17. Automatic computer-aided detection of prostate cancer based on multiparametric magnetic resonance image analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, P.C.; Barentsz, J.O.; Karssemeijer, N.; Huisman, H.J.


    In this paper, a fully automatic computer-aided detection (CAD) method is proposed for the detection of prostate cancer. The CAD method consists of multiple sequential steps in order to detect locations that are suspicious for prostate cancer. In the initial stage, a voxel classification is performe

  18. Computer-Aided Detection of Polyps in CT Colonography Using Logistic Regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ravesteijn, V.F.; Van Wijk, C.; Vos, F.M.; Truyen, R.; Peters, J.F.; Stoker, J.; Van Vliet, L.J.


    We present a computer-aided detection (CAD) system for computed tomography colonography that orders the polyps according to clinical relevance. TheCADsystem consists of two steps: candidate detection and supervised classification. The characteristics of the detection step lead to specific choices fo

  19. True detection versus "accidental" detection of small lung cancer by a computer-aided detection (CAD) program on chest radiographs. (United States)

    Li, Feng; Engelmann, Roger; Doi, Kunio; Macmahon, Heber


    To evaluate the number of actual detections versus "accidental" detections by a computer-aided detection (CAD) system for small nodular lung cancers (circle criterion were considered as nodules detected by chance. The number of false-positive (FP) marks was also analyzed. For the 34 radiologist-missed cancers, the nodule-in-circle criterion caused eight more cancers (24%) to be detected by chance, as compared to the nodule-in-center criterion, when using the version 1.0 results. For the 36 radiologist-mentioned nodules, the nodule-in-circle criterion caused seven more lesions (19%) to be detected by chance, as compared to the nodule-in-center criterion, when using the version 1.0 results, and three more lesions (8%) to be detected by chance when using the version 3.0 results. Version 1.0 yielded a mean of six FP marks per image, while version 3.0 yielded only three FP marks per image. The specific criteria used to define true- and false-positive CAD detections can substantially influence the apparent accuracy of a CAD system.

  20. The Influence of a Crosshair Visual Aid on Observer Detection of Simulated Fetal Heart Rate Signals. (United States)

    Kennedy, Rebecca A; Scerbo, Mark W; Anderson-Montoya, Brittany L; Belfore, Lee A; Abuhamad, Alfred Z; Davis, Stephen S


    Objective To determine whether a visual aid overlaid on fetal heart rate (FHR) tracings increases detection of critical signals relative to images with no visual aid. Study Design In an experimental study, 21 undergraduate students viewed 240 images of simulated FHR tracings twice, once with the visual aids and once without aids. Performance was examined for images containing three different types of FHR signals (early deceleration, late deceleration, and acceleration) and four different FHR signal-to-noise ratios corresponding to FHR variability types (absent, minimal, moderate, and marked) identified by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (2008). Performance was analyzed using repeated-measures analyses of variance. Results The presence of the visual aid significantly improved correct detections of signals overall and decreased false alarms for the marked variability condition. Conclusion The results of the study provide evidence that the presence of a visual aid was useful in helping novices identify FHR signals in simulated maternal-fetal heart rate images. Further, the visual aid was most useful for conditions in which the signal is most difficult to detect (when FHR variability is highest).

  1. New methods for using computer-aided detection information for the detection of lung nodules on chest radiographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalekamp, S.; Ginneken, B. van; Heggelman, B.; Imhof-Tas, M.W.; Somers, I.; Brink, M.; Spee, M.; Schaefer-Prokop, C.M.; Karssemeijer, N.


    Objective: To investigate two new methods of using computer-aided detection (CAD) system information for the detection of lung nodules on chest radiographs. We evaluated an interactive CAD application and an independent combination of radiologists and CAD scores. Methods: 300 posteroanterior and lat

  2. Computer-Aided Detection System on Tangled Roller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫贺庆; 牛新文; 王成焘


    The mechanical-touched detector was used commonly in textile production limes. It has some defect with high false alarm rate, response delay and high maintenance cost. In order to overcome such defects, a new kind device was developed and used to detect roller tangled in the production lines. It is based on image processing. The core algorithm was composed of Canny edge detection, removing interference, detection of perpendicularity line and detection of broken tow. After the four steps, the broken tow could be recognized quickly and correctly. The algorithm is robust and high efficiency. So, the detection device has characteristic of stable, quickly-response and low maintains cost. It can keep superiority with long lifespan even in more formidable conditions. It guarantees a safe and stable production condition.

  3. Audio Sensing Aid based Wireless Microphone Emulation Attacks Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shan-shan


    Full Text Available The wireless microphone network is an important PU network for CRN, but there is no effective technology to solve the problem of microphone evaluation attacks. Therefore, this paper propose ASA algorithm, which utilizes three devices to detect MUs, and they are loudspeaker audio sensor (LAS, environment audio sensor (EAS, and radio frequency fingerprint detector (RFFD. LASs are installed near loudspeakers, which have two main effects: One is to sense loudspeakers’ output, and the other is to broadcast warning information to all SUs through the common control channel when detecting valid output. EASs are pocket voice captures provided to SU, and utilized to sense loudspeaker sound at SU’s location. Utilizing EASs and energy detections in SU can detect primary user emulation attack (PUEA fast. But to acquire the information of attacked channels, we need explore RFFDs to analyze the features of PU transmitters. The results show that the proposed algorithm can detect PUEA well.    

  4. Increasing computer-aided detection specificity by projection features for CT colonography


    Zhu, Hongbin; Liang, Zhengrong; Pickhardt, Perry J.; Barish, Matthew A.; You, Jiangsheng; Fan, Yi; Lu, Hongbing; Posniak, Erica J.; Richards, Robert J.; Cohen, Harris L.


    Purpose: A large number of false positives (FPs) generated by computer-aided detection (CAD) schemes is likely to distract radiologists’ attention and decrease their interpretation efficiency. This study aims to develop projection-based features which characterize true and false positives to increase the specificity while maintaining high sensitivity in detecting colonic polyps.

  5. Computer Aided Detection of Breast Masses in Digital Tomosynthesis (United States)


    other peer-reviewed papers in Medical Physics (reportable outcomes #4 and 5) in conjunction with Duke collaborators in 2007. Task 3. Evaluate...Lo, “Automated Breast Mass Detection in 3D Reconstructed Tomosynthesis Volumes: A Featureless Approach,” Accepted in Medical Physics in June 2008...Evaluation of Information- Theoretic Similarity Measures for Content Based Retrieval and Detection of Masses in Mammograms,” Medical Physics , January 2007

  6. Computer aided detection of oral lesions on CT images (United States)

    Galib, S.; Islam, F.; Abir, M.; Lee, H. K.


    Oral lesions are important findings on computed tomography (CT) images. In this study, a fully automatic method to detect oral lesions in mandibular region from dental CT images is proposed. Two methods were developed to recognize two types of lesions namely (1) Close border (CB) lesions and (2) Open border (OB) lesions, which cover most of the lesion types that can be found on CT images. For the detection of CB lesions, fifteen features were extracted from each initial lesion candidates and multi layer perceptron (MLP) neural network was used to classify suspicious regions. Moreover, OB lesions were detected using a rule based image processing method, where no feature extraction or classification algorithm were used. The results were validated using a CT dataset of 52 patients, where 22 patients had abnormalities and 30 patients were normal. Using non-training dataset, CB detection algorithm yielded 71% sensitivity with 0.31 false positives per patient. Furthermore, OB detection algorithm achieved 100% sensitivity with 0.13 false positives per patient. Results suggest that, the proposed framework, which consists of two methods, has the potential to be used in clinical context, and assist radiologists for better diagnosis.

  7. Defect Detection in Composite Coatings by Computational Simulation Aided Thermography (United States)

    Almeida, R. M.; Souza, M. P. V.; Rebello, J. M. A.


    Thermography is based on the measurement of superficial temperature distribution of an object inspected subjected to tension, normally thermal heat. This measurement is performed with a thermographic camera that detects the infrared radiation emitted by every object. In this work thermograph was simulated by COMSOL software for optimize experimental parameters in composite material coatings inspection.

  8. Computer Aided Detection of Polyps in CT Colonography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ravesteijn, V.F.


    CT colonography (CTC) is a minimally invasive method for detection of colorectal polyps and colon cancer. Limitations of CTC related to the efficiency as well as the sensitivity of radiologists. Additionally, the patient's preparation was considered burdensome and the X-ray radiation that is inheren

  9. An Effective Big Data Supervised Imbalanced Classification Approach for Ortholog Detection in Related Yeast Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Galpert


    Full Text Available Orthology detection requires more effective scaling algorithms. In this paper, a set of gene pair features based on similarity measures (alignment scores, sequence length, gene membership to conserved regions, and physicochemical profiles are combined in a supervised pairwise ortholog detection approach to improve effectiveness considering low ortholog ratios in relation to the possible pairwise comparison between two genomes. In this scenario, big data supervised classifiers managing imbalance between ortholog and nonortholog pair classes allow for an effective scaling solution built from two genomes and extended to other genome pairs. The supervised approach was compared with RBH, RSD, and OMA algorithms by using the following yeast genome pairs: Saccharomyces cerevisiae-Kluyveromyces lactis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae-Candida glabrata, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae-Schizosaccharomyces pombe as benchmark datasets. Because of the large amount of imbalanced data, the building and testing of the supervised model were only possible by using big data supervised classifiers managing imbalance. Evaluation metrics taking low ortholog ratios into account were applied. From the effectiveness perspective, MapReduce Random Oversampling combined with Spark SVM outperformed RBH, RSD, and OMA, probably because of the consideration of gene pair features beyond alignment similarities combined with the advances in big data supervised classification.

  10. A novel yeast-based tool to detect mutagenic and recombinogenic effects simultaneously. (United States)

    Schafer, B; Neffgen, A; Klinner, U


    In this work, we describe a new yeast-based assay to allow efficient detection of a comprehensive spectrum of genotoxicity events. The constructed diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain allows the simultaneous monitoring of forward mutations, mitotic recombination events and chromosome loss or non-disjunction by direct selection in an easy and highly reproducible approach. The strain contains a DNA module consisting of a single functional copy of the URA3 gene and the kanMX4 gene inserted at the ADE2 locus on the right arm of chromosome XV. The changes of the genotype within the marker region were primarily selected on 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA) agar plates. Further simple phenotypic tests of the 5-FOA-resistant ura3 clones make it possible to analyze the genetic configuration in detail (e.g. point mutations in URA3, gene conversion, crossing-over and chromosome loss). We demonstrate the successful application of our test system by studying the effects of well-known genotoxic agents (UV radiation, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, aniline and benomyl). We found that the various agents induced mutations and recombination events with different relative frequencies. The integration of the module has generated a hot spot region of mutation and recombination at the borders of the artificially integrated URA3 kanMX4 cassette, which makes the system more sensitive towards DNA-damaging agents. Unlike other test systems, our S. cerevisiae strain is capable to detect a mutagenic effect caused by aniline.

  11. Effects of Response Bias and Judgment Framing on Operator Use of an Automated Aid in a Target Detection Task (United States)

    Rice, Stephen; McCarley, Jason S.


    Automated diagnostic aids prone to false alarms often produce poorer human performance in signal detection tasks than equally reliable miss-prone aids. However, it is not yet clear whether this is attributable to differences in the perceptual salience of the automated aids' misses and false alarms or is the result of inherent differences in…

  12. Detection of HIV and AIDS by Advance Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol Joglekar


    Full Text Available There are many serious diseases which causes harm on human body like cancer, HIV, H1N1 and so on. These Viruses entered in human body and start replicating automatically which disturbs the general activity of a human being. These viruses may give lots of symptoms which doctors need to identify and accordingly a treatment can be provided. Therefore early detection of such diseases is needed so that a person can live a normal life. Using data mining algorithms we can able to discover the type of disease and cure it

  13. Comparative evaluation of support vector machine classification for computer aided detection of breast masses in mammography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesniak, J.M.; Hupse, R.; Blanc, R.; Karssemeijer, N.; Sz\\'ekely, G.


    False positive (FP) marks represent an obstacle for effective use of computer-aided detection (CADe) of breast masses in mammography. Typically, the problem can be approached either by developing more discriminative features or by employing different classifier designs. In this paper, the usage of s

  14. Computer-Aided Detection in Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorrius, M. D.; Van Ooijen, P.M.A.


    The aim of this study is to give an overview on the accuracy of the discrimination between benign and malignant breast lesions on MRI with and without the use of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system. One investigator selected relevant articles based on title and abstract. Ten articles were select

  15. Automatic pterygium detection on cornea images to enhance computer-aided cortical cataract grading system. (United States)

    Gao, Xinting; Wong, Damon Wing Kee; Aryaputera, Aloysius Wishnu; Sun, Ying; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cheung, Carol; Wong, Tien Yin


    In this paper, we present a new method to detect pterygiums using cornea images. Due to the similarity of appearances and spatial locations between pterygiums and cortical cataracts, pterygiums are often falsely detected as cortical cataracts on retroillumination images by a computer-aided grading system. The proposed method can be used to filter out the pterygium which improves the accuracy of cortical cataract grading system. This work has three major contributions. First, we propose a new pupil segmentation method for visible wavelength images. Second, an automatic detection method of pterygiums is proposed. Third, we develop an enhanced compute-aided cortical cataract grading system that excludes pterygiums. The proposed method is tested using clinical data and the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can improve the existing automatic cortical cataract grading system.

  16. A simple method to detect complement receptors using baker's yeast: Y C rosettes. (United States)

    Rivero, I; Abaca, H E; Vallés, R; Vannucci, J D; Diumenjo, M S; Moravenik, M B


    A technique is described to identify complement-receptor-bearing cells, using serum-treated baker's yeast as a ligand. The method consists of incubation of heat-killed baker's yeasts with fresh AB normal serum, freezing, thawing, and washing of the particles, followed by mixing with the cells. Serum is required to coat the yeasts for the rosette formation. Experiments designed to establish the serum factors responsible for the attachment of the particles to cells show that heat inactivation, chelating agents, or anti-C3 treatment prevent rosette formation. This is taken as evidence that yeasts (Y) are coated with complement (C) to compose the reagent for the YC rosette technique. The application of this technique to twenty-five normal individuals demonstrated that a mean of 11.6 per 100 lymphocytes (+/- 4.3) form rosettes; absolute number: 275 (+/- 160) rosette-forming lymphocytes per mm3. Either AB or autologous fresh serum can be used to coat the yeasts. A combined technique for YC plus E rosettes can be performed allowing the identification and enumeration of four populations of lymphocytes: (a) those having receptors for sheep erythrocytes, (b) complement-receptor-bearing lymphocytes, (c) those having both receptors (D lymphocytes), and (d) non-rosette-forming non-phagocytic cells.

  17. A Robust and Fast System for CTC Computer-Aided Detection of Colorectal Lesions



    We present a complete, end-to-end computer-aided detection (CAD) system for identifying lesions in the colon, imaged with computed tomography (CT). This system includes facilities for colon segmentation, candidate generation, feature analysis, and classification. The algorithms have been designed to offer robust performance to variation in image data and patient preparation. By utilizing efficient 2D and 3D processing, software optimizations, multi-threading, feature selection, and an optimiz...

  18. Characterization of winemaking yeast by cell number-size distribution analysis through flow field-flow fractionation with multi-wavelength turbidimetric detection. (United States)

    Zattoni, Andrea; Melucci, Dora; Reschiglian, Pierluigi; Sanz, Ramsés; Puignou, Lluís; Galceran, Maria Teresa


    Yeasts are widely used in several areas of food industry, e.g. baking, beer brewing, and wine production. Interest in new analytical methods for quality control and characterization of yeast cells is thus increasing. The biophysical properties of yeast cells, among which cell size, are related to yeast cell capabilities to produce primary and secondary metabolites during the fermentation process. Biophysical properties of winemaking yeast strains can be screened by field-flow fractionation (FFF). In this work we present the use of flow FFF (FlFFF) with turbidimetric multi-wavelength detection for the number-size distribution analysis of different commercial winemaking yeast varieties. The use of a diode-array detector allows to apply to dispersed samples like yeast cells the recently developed method for number-size (or mass-size) analysis in flow-assisted separation techniques. Results for six commercial winemaking yeast strains are compared with data obtained by a standard method for cell sizing (Coulter counter). The method here proposed gives, at short analysis time, accurate information on the number of cells of a given size, and information on the total number of cells.

  19. Computer-aided tumor detection stemmed from the fuzzification of the Dempster-Shafer theory (United States)

    Udobata, Obioma; Revol-Muller, Chantal; Lartizien, Carole


    In decision making processes where we have to deal with epistemic uncertainties, the Dempster-Shafer theory (DST) of evidence and fuzzy logic have gained prominence as the methods of choice over traditional probabilistic methods. The DST is unfortunately known to give wrong results in situations of high conflict. While some methods have been proposed in the literature for improving the DST, such as the weighted DST which assumes that we have some information about the relative reliabilities of the classifiers, we opted to incorporate fuzzy concepts in the DST framework. This work was motivated by the desire to improve detection performance of a Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) system under development for the detection of tumors in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) images by fusing the outputs of multiple classifiers such as the SVM and LDA classifiers. A first implement based on a simple binary fusion scheme gave a result of 69% true detections with an average of 2.5 false positive detections per 3D image (FPI). These results prompted the use of the DST which resulted in 92% detection sensitivity and 25 FPI. As a way of further reducing the false detections, we chose to tackle the limitations inherent to the DST by principally applying fuzzy techniques in defining the hypotheses and experimenting with new combination rules. The best result of this modified DST approach has been a 92% true tumor detection with 12 FPI; indicating a reduction by a factor of 2 of the false detections while maintaining high sensitivity.

  20. Computer-aided Detection of Prostate Cancer with MRI: Technology and Applications. (United States)

    Liu, Lizhi; Tian, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Fei, Baowei


    One in six men will develop prostate cancer in his lifetime. Early detection and accurate diagnosis of the disease can improve cancer survival and reduce treatment costs. Recently, imaging of prostate cancer has greatly advanced since the introduction of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI). Mp-MRI consists of T2-weighted sequences combined with functional sequences including dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, diffusion-weighted MRI, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging. Because of the big data and variations in imaging sequences, detection can be affected by multiple factors such as observer variability and visibility and complexity of the lesions. To improve quantitative assessment of the disease, various computer-aided detection systems have been designed to help radiologists in their clinical practice. This review paper presents an overview of literatures on computer-aided detection of prostate cancer with mp-MRI, which include the technology and its applications. The aim of the survey is threefold: an introduction for those new to the field, an overview for those working in the field, and a reference for those searching for literature on a specific application.

  1. An improved yeast two-hybrid approach for detection of interacting proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Bingbing; Shi Yan; Huo Keke


    Yeast two-hybrid approach is popularly used nowadays as an important technical method in the field of studying protein-protein interactions.Although yeast two-hybrid system is obviously advantageous in searching interacting proteins and setting up the network of proteins interaction.not all of proteins can use routine yeast two-hybrid method to search interacting proteins.Many important proteins,such as some nucleoprotein transcriptional factor,carry out the regular method and construct the bait-BD vector to screen the library containing AD vector.However,it usually results in failures because it contains the activate domain and can self-activate the reporter gene.In this study,we changed the research strategy,fused the bait gene(FOXA3)with the AD vector to screen the library containing BD vector,so that we constructed a two-hybrid library containing BD vector and Can bypass the interference of self-activation.And we used this two-hybrid library to screen FOXA3.a hepatocyte nuclear factor,and found out an interacting protein:complement component C3.

  2. Computer-aided detection of small bowel strictures in CT enterography (United States)

    Sainani, Nisha I.; Näppi, Janne J.; Sahani, Dushyant V.; Yoshida, Hiroyuki


    The workflow of CT enterography in an emergency setting could be improved significantly by computer-aided detection (CAD) of small bowel strictures to enable even non-expert radiologists to detect sites of obstruction rapidly. We developed a CAD scheme to detect strictures automatically from abdominal multi-detector CT enterography image data by use of multi-scale template matching and a blob detector method. A pilot study was performed on 15 patients with 22 surgically confirmed strictures to study the effect of the CAD scheme on observer performance. The 77% sensitivity of an inexperienced radiologist assisted by CAD was comparable with the 81% sensitivity of an unaided expert radiologist (p=0.07). The use of CAD reduced the reading time to identify strictures significantly (pmuscles, or vessels, and they were easy to dismiss. The results indicate that CAD could provide radiologists with a rapid and accurate interpretation of strictures to improve workflow in an emergency setting.

  3. Catheter detection and classification on chest radiographs: an automated prototype computer-aided detection (CAD) system for radiologists (United States)

    Ramakrishna, Bharath; Brown, Matthew; Goldin, Jonathan; Cagnon, Chris; Enzmann, Dieter


    Chest radiographs are the quickest and safest method to check placement of man-made medical devices placed in the body like catheters, stents and pacemakers etc out of which catheters are the most commonly used devices. The two most often used catheters especially in the ICU are the Endotracheal (ET) tube used to maintain patient's airway and the Nasogastric (NG) tube used to feed and administer drugs. Tertiary ICU's typically generate over 250 chest radiographs per day to confirm tube placement. Incorrect tube placements can cause serious complications and can even be fatal. The task of identifying these tubes on chest radiographs is difficult for radiologists and ICU personnel given the high volume of cases. This motivates the need for an automatic detection system to aid radiologists in processing these critical cases in a timely fashion while maintaining patient safety. To-date there has been very little research in this area. This paper develops a new fully automatic prototype computer-aided detection (CAD) system for detection and classification of catheters on chest radiographs using a combination of template matching, morphological processing and region growing. The preliminary evaluation was carried out on 25 cases. The prototype CAD system was able to detect ET and NG tubes with sensitivities of 73.7% and 76.5% respectively and with specificities of 91.3% and 84.0% respectively. The results from the prototype system show that it is feasible to automatically detect both catheters on chest radiographs, with the potential to significantly speed the delivery of imaging services while maintaining high accuracy.

  4. Drug resistance of yeasts isolated from oropharyngeal candidiasis in aids patients Resistência à drogas de leveduras isoladas de candidíase orofaríngea em pacientes com Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Rosário Rodrigues Silva


    Full Text Available Candida spp was isolated from 59 (68.60% out of eighty six samples of oral mucosa of AIDS patients. The identification, based or the production of a germ tube and chlamydospores, and on the assimilation and fermentation of carbohydrates, revealed 52 strains (88.13% of C. albicans, 4 (6.77% of C. tropicalis and 3 (5.08% of C. krusei. The susceptibility of these strains to amphotericin B, flucytosine, itraconazole, fluconazole and ketoconazole was determined using the agar dilution method. Comparing the minimum inhibitory concentration values found in the susceptibility test with the serum levels achieved by these drugs, only 8.47% and 5.08% of the yeasts strains proved to be resistant to amphotericin B and flucitosyne, respectively. A high frequency of strains resistant to azole derivatives (25.42%, to itraconazole, 45.76%, to ketoconazole and 66.10% to fluconazole was observed.Entre oitenta e seis amostras da mucosa oral de pacientes com AIDS, 59 (68,60% foram positivas para leveduras do gênero Candida. A identificação, feita pela produção de tubo germinativo e clamidósporos e através de assimilação e fermentação de hidratos de carbono, revelou 52 cepas (88,13% de C.albicans, 4 (6,77% de C. tropicalis e 3 (5,08% de C.krusei. Avaliação destas leveduras para susceptibilidade in vitro frente a anfotericina B, flucitosina, itraconazol, fluconazol e cetoconazol, foi realizada pelo método de diluição em ágar. Comparando-se os valores de concentração inibitória mínima encontrados com os níveis séricos alcançados por estes antifúngicos verificou-se que apenas 8,47% e 5,08% das 59 leveduras foram resistentes a anfotericina B e flucitosina, respectivamente. Foi registrada uma percentagem de cepas resistentes aos derivados azólicos, sendo 25,42% ao itraconazol, 45,76% ao cetoconazol e 66,10% ao fluconazol.

  5. 8-aminoquinoline functionalized silica nanoparticles: a fluorescent nanosensor for detection of divalent zinc in aqueous and in yeast cell suspension. (United States)

    Rastogi, Shiva K; Pal, Parul; Aston, D Eric; Bitterwolf, Thomas E; Branen, A Larry


    Zinc is one of the most important transition metal of physiological importance, existing primarily as a divalent cation. A number of sensors have been developed for Zn(II) detection. Here, we present a novel fluorescent nanosensor for Zn(II) detection using a derivative of 8-aminoquinoline (N-(quinolin-8-yl)-2-(3 (triethoxysilyl)propylamino)acetamide (QTEPA) grafted on silica nanoparticles (SiNPs). These functionalized SiNPs were used to demonstrate specific detection of Zn(II) in tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.22), in yeast cell (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) suspension, and in tap water. The silane QTEPA, SiNPs and final product were characterized using solution and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric techniques, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The nanosensor shows almost 2.8-fold fluorescence emission enhancement and about 55 nm red-shift upon excitation with 330 ± 5 nm wavelength in presence of 1 μM Zn(II) ions in tris-HCl (pH 7.22). The presence of other metal ions has no observable effect on the sensitivity and selectivity of nanosensor. This sensor selectively detects Zn(II) ions with submicromolar detection to a limit of 0.1 μM. The sensor shows good applicability in the determination of Zn(II) in tris-HCl buffer and yeast cell environment. Further, it shows enhancement in fluorescence intensity in tap water samples.

  6. Detection of Hepatitis C core antibody by dual-affinity yeast chimera and smartphone-based electrochemical sensing. (United States)

    Aronoff-Spencer, Eliah; Venkatesh, A G; Sun, Alex; Brickner, Howard; Looney, David; Hall, Drew A


    Yeast cell lines were genetically engineered to display Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core antigen linked to gold binding peptide (GBP) as a dual-affinity biobrick chimera. These multifunctional yeast cells adhere to the gold sensor surface while simultaneously acting as a "renewable" capture reagent for anti-HCV core antibody. This streamlined functionalization and detection strategy removes the need for traditional purification and immobilization techniques. With this biobrick construct, both optical and electrochemical immunoassays were developed. The optical immunoassays demonstrated detection of anti-HCV core antibody down to 12.3pM concentrations while the electrochemical assay demonstrated higher binding constants and dynamic range. The electrochemical format and a custom, low-cost smartphone-based potentiostat ($20 USD) yielded comparable results to assays performed on a state-of-the-art electrochemical workstation. We propose this combination of synthetic biology and scalable, point-of-care sensing has potential to provide low-cost, cutting edge diagnostic capability for many pathogens in a variety of settings.

  7. High-performance computer aided detection system for polyp detection in CT colonography with fluid and fecal tagging (United States)

    Liu, Jiamin; Wang, Shijun; Kabadi, Suraj; Summers, Ronald M.


    CT colonography (CTC) is a feasible and minimally invasive method for the detection of colorectal polyps and cancer screening. Computer-aided detection (CAD) of polyps has improved consistency and sensitivity of virtual colonoscopy interpretation and reduced interpretation burden. A CAD system typically consists of four stages: (1) image preprocessing including colon segmentation; (2) initial detection generation; (3) feature selection; and (4) detection classification. In our experience, three existing problems limit the performance of our current CAD system. First, highdensity orally administered contrast agents in fecal-tagging CTC have scatter effects on neighboring tissues. The scattering manifests itself as an artificial elevation in the observed CT attenuation values of the neighboring tissues. This pseudo-enhancement phenomenon presents a problem for the application of computer-aided polyp detection, especially when polyps are submerged in the contrast agents. Second, general kernel approach for surface curvature computation in the second stage of our CAD system could yield erroneous results for thin structures such as small (6-9 mm) polyps and for touching structures such as polyps that lie on haustral folds. Those erroneous curvatures will reduce the sensitivity of polyp detection. The third problem is that more than 150 features are selected from each polyp candidate in the third stage of our CAD system. These high dimensional features make it difficult to learn a good decision boundary for detection classification and reduce the accuracy of predictions. Therefore, an improved CAD system for polyp detection in CTC data is proposed by introducing three new techniques. First, a scale-based scatter correction algorithm is applied to reduce pseudo-enhancement effects in the image pre-processing stage. Second, a cubic spline interpolation method is utilized to accurately estimate curvatures for initial detection generation. Third, a new dimensionality

  8. Computer aided diagnosis for breast masses detection on a telemammography system. (United States)

    Méndez, Arturo J; Souto, Miguel; Tahoces, Pablo G; Vidal, Juan J


    A Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) scheme for breast masses detection has been developed and integrated as a part of a telemammography system. This work derives from the close cooperation between the Laboratory for Radiologic Image Research of the University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain) and the company Intelsis Sistemas Inteligentes (Santiago de Compostela, Spain). This cooperation has been supported by funds from different projects, mainly from the European Union, the Spanish Health Administration, and the Galician Public Health's Service. As a result, a first prototype is ready to begin a demonstration project.

  9. Capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection for studying amino acid uptake by yeast during beer fermentation. (United States)

    Turkia, Heidi; Sirén, Heli; Penttilä, Merja; Pitkänen, Juha-Pekka


    The amino acid composition of cultivation broth is known to affect the biomass accumulation, productivity, and vitality of yeast during cultivation. A separation method based on capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection was developed for the determination of amino acid consumption by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during beer fermentation. Intraday relative standard deviations were less than 2.1% for migration times and between 2.9% and 9.9% for peak areas. Interday relative standard deviations were less than 2.5% for migration times and between 4.4% and 18.9% for peak areas. The quantification limit was even as low as 62.5 pM which equals to below attomole level detection. The method was applied to study the rate of amino acid utilization during beer fermentation.

  10. Detection of longitudinal ulcer using roughness value for computer aided diagnosis of Crohn's disease (United States)

    Oda, Masahiro; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Furukawa, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Osamu; Ando, Takafumi; Goto, Hidemi; Mori, Kensaku


    The purpose of this paper is to present a new method to detect ulcers, which is one of the symptoms of Crohn's disease, from CT images. Crohn's disease is an inflammatory disease of the digestive tract. Crohn's disease commonly affects the small intestine. An optical or a capsule endoscope is used for small intestine examinations. However, these endoscopes cannot pass through intestinal stenosis parts in some cases. A CT image based diagnosis allows a physician to observe whole intestine even if intestinal stenosis exists. However, because of the complicated shape of the small and large intestines, understanding of shapes of the intestines and lesion positions are difficult in the CT image based diagnosis. Computer-aided diagnosis system for Crohn's disease having automated lesion detection is required for efficient diagnosis. We propose an automated method to detect ulcers from CT images. Longitudinal ulcers make rough surface of the small and large intestinal wall. The rough surface consists of combination of convex and concave parts on the intestinal wall. We detect convex and concave parts on the intestinal wall by a blob and an inverse-blob structure enhancement filters. A lot of convex and concave parts concentrate on roughed parts. We introduce a roughness value to differentiate convex and concave parts concentrated on the roughed parts from the other on the intestinal wall. The roughness value effectively reduces false positives of ulcer detection. Experimental results showed that the proposed method can detect convex and concave parts on the ulcers.

  11. Computer-aided detection of microcalcifications in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT): a multichannel signal detection approach on projection views (United States)

    Wei, Jun; Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Helvie, Mark A.; Zhou, Chuan; Lu, Yao


    DBT is one of the promising imaging modalities that may improve the sensitivity and specificity for breast cancer detection. We are developing a computer-aided detection (CADe) system for clustered microcalcifications (MC) in DBT. A data set of two-view DBTs from 42 breasts was collected with a GE prototype system. We investigated a 2D approach to MC detection using projection view (PV) images rather than reconstructed 3D DBT volume. Our 2D approach consisted of two major stages: 1) detecting individual MC candidates on each PV, and 2) correlating the MC candidates from the different PVs and detecting clusters in the breast volume. With the MC candidates detected by prescreening on PVs, a trained multi-channel (MCH) filter bank was used to extract signal response from each MC candidate. A ray-tracing process was performed to fuse the MCH responses and localize the MC candidates in 3D using the geometrical information of the DBT system. Potential MC clusters were then identified by dynamic clustering of the MCs in 3D. A two-fold cross-validation method was used to train and test the CADe system. The detection performance of clustered MCs was assessed by free receiver operating characteristic (FROC) analysis. It was found that the CADe system achieved a case-based sensitivity of 90% at an average false positive rate of 2.1 clusters per DBT volume. Our study demonstrated that the CADe system using 2D MCH filter bank is promising for detection of clustered MCs in DBT.

  12. Aid in the detection of myocardial perfusion abnormality utilizing SPECT atlas and images registration: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padua, Rodrigo Donizete Santana de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Div. de Cardiologia]. E-mail:; Oliveira, Lucas Ferrari de [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica e Matematica. Dept. de Tecnologia da Informacao; Marques, Paulo Mazzoncini de Azevedo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Centro de Ciencias das Imagens e Fisica Medica; Groote, Jean-Jacques Georges Soares de [Instituto de Ensino Superior COC, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Lab. of Artifical Intelligence and Applications; Castro, Adelson Antonio de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP, (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Ana, Lauro Wichert [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Centro de Ciencias das Imagens e Fisica Medica; Simoes, Marcus Vinicius [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP, (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Divisao de Cardiologia


    To develop an atlas of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and evaluating its applicability in computer-aided detection of myocardial perfusion defects in patients with ischemic heart disease. The atlas was created with rest-stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphic images of 20 patients of both genders with low probability of coronary artery disease and considered as normal by two experienced observers. Techniques of image registration and mathematical operations on images were utilized for obtaining template images depicting mean myocardial uptake and standard deviation for each gender and physiological condition. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy images of one male and one female patient were aligned with the corresponding atlas template image, and voxels with myocardial uptake rates two standard deviations below the mean voxel value of the respective region in the atlas template image were highlighted on the tomographic sections and confirmed as perfusion defects by both observe. The present study demonstrated the creation of an atlas of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with promising results of this tool as an aid in the detection of myocardial perfusion defects. However, further prospective validation with a more representative sample is recommended. (author)

  13. A Robust and Fast System for CTC Computer-Aided Detection of Colorectal Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Beddoe


    Full Text Available We present a complete, end-to-end computer-aided detection (CAD system for identifying lesions in the colon, imaged with computed tomography (CT. This system includes facilities for colon segmentation, candidate generation, feature analysis, and classification. The algorithms have been designed to offer robust performance to variation in image data and patient preparation. By utilizing efficient 2D and 3D processing, software optimizations, multi-threading, feature selection, and an optimized cascade classifier, the CAD system quickly determines a set of detection marks. The colon CAD system has been validated on the largest set of data to date, and demonstrates excellent performance, in terms of its high sensitivity, low false positive rate, and computational efficiency.

  14. Computer-aided detection of lung cancer: combining pulmonary nodule detection systems with a tumor risk prediction model (United States)

    Setio, Arnaud A. A.; Jacobs, Colin; Ciompi, Francesco; van Riel, Sarah J.; Winkler Wille, Mathilde M.; Dirksen, Asger; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; van Ginneken, Bram


    Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) has been shown to be a promising tool for automatic detection of pulmonary nodules from computed tomography (CT) images. However, the vast majority of detected nodules are benign and do not require any treatment. For effective implementation of lung cancer screening programs, accurate identification of malignant nodules is the key. We investigate strategies to improve the performance of a CAD system in detecting nodules with a high probability of being cancers. Two strategies were proposed: (1) combining CAD detections with a recently published lung cancer risk prediction model and (2) the combination of multiple CAD systems. First, CAD systems were used to detect the nodules. Each CAD system produces markers with a certain degree of suspicion. Next, the malignancy probability was automatically computed for each marker, given nodule characteristics measured by the CAD system. Last, CAD degree of suspicion and malignancy probability were combined using the product rule. We evaluated the method using 62 nodules which were proven to be malignant cancers, from 180 scans of the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial. The malignant nodules were considered as positive samples, while all other findings were considered negative. Using a product rule, the best proposed system achieved an improvement in sensitivity, compared to the best individual CAD system, from 41.9% to 72.6% at 2 false positives (FPs)/scan and from 56.5% to 88.7% at 8 FPs/scan. Our experiment shows that combining a nodule malignancy probability with multiple CAD systems can increase the performance of computerized detection of lung cancer.

  15. Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Computer-Aided Detection: CNN Architectures, Dataset Characteristics and Transfer Learning. (United States)

    Shin, Hoo-Chang; Roth, Holger R; Gao, Mingchen; Lu, Le; Xu, Ziyue; Nogues, Isabella; Yao, Jianhua; Mollura, Daniel; Summers, Ronald M


    Remarkable progress has been made in image recognition, primarily due to the availability of large-scale annotated datasets and deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs). CNNs enable learning data-driven, highly representative, hierarchical image features from sufficient training data. However, obtaining datasets as comprehensively annotated as ImageNet in the medical imaging domain remains a challenge. There are currently three major techniques that successfully employ CNNs to medical image classification: training the CNN from scratch, using off-the-shelf pre-trained CNN features, and conducting unsupervised CNN pre-training with supervised fine-tuning. Another effective method is transfer learning, i.e., fine-tuning CNN models pre-trained from natural image dataset to medical image tasks. In this paper, we exploit three important, but previously understudied factors of employing deep convolutional neural networks to computer-aided detection problems. We first explore and evaluate different CNN architectures. The studied models contain 5 thousand to 160 million parameters, and vary in numbers of layers. We then evaluate the influence of dataset scale and spatial image context on performance. Finally, we examine when and why transfer learning from pre-trained ImageNet (via fine-tuning) can be useful. We study two specific computer-aided detection (CADe) problems, namely thoraco-abdominal lymph node (LN) detection and interstitial lung disease (ILD) classification. We achieve the state-of-the-art performance on the mediastinal LN detection, and report the first five-fold cross-validation classification results on predicting axial CT slices with ILD categories. Our extensive empirical evaluation, CNN model analysis and valuable insights can be extended to the design of high performance CAD systems for other medical imaging tasks.

  16. Computer-aided detection of early interstitial lung diseases using low-dose CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Cheol; Kim, Soo Hyung [School of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Tan, Jun; Wang Xingwei; Lederman, Dror; Leader, Joseph K; Zheng Bin, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)


    This study aims to develop a new computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to detect early interstitial lung disease (ILD) using low-dose computed tomography (CT) examinations. The CAD scheme classifies each pixel depicted on the segmented lung areas into positive or negative groups for ILD using a mesh-grid-based region growth method and a multi-feature-based artificial neural network (ANN). A genetic algorithm was applied to select optimal image features and the ANN structure. In testing each CT examination, only pixels selected by the mesh-grid region growth method were analyzed and classified by the ANN to improve computational efficiency. All unselected pixels were classified as negative for ILD. After classifying all pixels into the positive and negative groups, CAD computed a detection score based on the ratio of the number of positive pixels to all pixels in the segmented lung areas, which indicates the likelihood of the test case being positive for ILD. When applying to an independent testing dataset of 15 positive and 15 negative cases, the CAD scheme yielded the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.884 {+-} 0.064) and 80.0% sensitivity at 85.7% specificity. The results demonstrated the feasibility of applying the CAD scheme to automatically detect early ILD using low-dose CT examinations.

  17. Computer-aided detection of early interstitial lung diseases using low-dose CT images (United States)

    Park, Sang Cheol; Tan, Jun; Wang, Xingwei; Lederman, Dror; Leader, Joseph K.; Kim, Soo Hyung; Zheng, Bin


    This study aims to develop a new computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to detect early interstitial lung disease (ILD) using low-dose computed tomography (CT) examinations. The CAD scheme classifies each pixel depicted on the segmented lung areas into positive or negative groups for ILD using a mesh-grid-based region growth method and a multi-feature-based artificial neural network (ANN). A genetic algorithm was applied to select optimal image features and the ANN structure. In testing each CT examination, only pixels selected by the mesh-grid region growth method were analyzed and classified by the ANN to improve computational efficiency. All unselected pixels were classified as negative for ILD. After classifying all pixels into the positive and negative groups, CAD computed a detection score based on the ratio of the number of positive pixels to all pixels in the segmented lung areas, which indicates the likelihood of the test case being positive for ILD. When applying to an independent testing dataset of 15 positive and 15 negative cases, the CAD scheme yielded the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.884 ± 0.064) and 80.0% sensitivity at 85.7% specificity. The results demonstrated the feasibility of applying the CAD scheme to automatically detect early ILD using low-dose CT examinations.

  18. An improved automatic computer aided tube detection and labeling system on chest radiographs (United States)

    Ramakrishna, Bharath; Brown, Matthew; Goldin, Jonathan; Cagnon, Christopher; Enzmann, Dieter


    Tubes like Endotracheal (ET) tube used to maintain patient's airway and the Nasogastric (NG) tube used to feed the patient and drain contents of the stomach are very commonly used in Intensive Care Units (ICU). The placement of these tubes is critical for their proper functioning and improper tube placement can even be fatal. Bedside chest radiographs are considered the quickest and safest method to check the placement of these tubes. Tertiary ICU's typically generate over 250 chest radiographs per day to confirm tube placement. This paper develops a new fully automatic prototype computer-aided detection (CAD) system for tube detection on bedside chest radiographs. The core of the CAD system is the randomized algorithm which selects tubes based on their average repeatability from seed points. The CAD algorithm is designed as a 5 stage process: Preprocessing (removing borders, histogram equalization, anisotropic filtering), Anatomy Segmentation (to identify neck, esophagus, abdomen ROI's), Seed Generation, Region Growing and Tube Selection. The preliminary evaluation was carried out on 64 cases. The prototype CAD system was able to detect ET tubes with a True Positive Rate of 0.93 and False Positive Rate of 0.02/image and NG tubes with a True Positive Rate of 0.84 and False Positive Rate of 0.02/image respectively. The results from the prototype system show that it is feasible to automatically detect both tubes on chest radiographs, with the potential to significantly speed the delivery of imaging services while maintaining high accuracy.

  19. Specific primers for the detection of the black-yeast fungus associated with lethargic crab disease (LCD). (United States)

    Pie, Marcio R; Boeger, Walter A; Patella, Luciana; Vicente, Vânia A; Ribeiro, Raphael O; Ostrensky, Antonio


    Lethargic crab disease (LCD) is an emerging infirmity that has been causing extensive mortalities in populations of the mangrove land crab Ucides cordatus (Ocypodidae) along the Atlantic coast of Brazil. Previous studies have indicated that LCD is associated with a dematiaceous fungus, Exophiala cancerae de Hoog et al. In the present study, we sequenced the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the rDNA region of this black yeast species and developed species-specific PCR primers. Sensitivity tests indicated that the developed protocol is capable of detecting very small amounts of target DNA. Also, the application of the protocol to a variety of other dematiaceous fungi did not generate any false positives. The specific primers provided in the present study represent an important tool for rapidly surveying a large number of crab individuals, as well as environmental samples. Such knowledge will be instrumental in understanding the epidemiological dynamics of LCD.

  20. Detection of DNA-recombinant human epoetin-alfa as a pharmacological ergogenic aid. (United States)

    Wilber, Randall L


    The use of DNA-recombinant human epoetin-alfa (rhEPO) as a pharmacological ergogenic aid for the enhancement of aerobic performance is estimated to be practised by at least 3 to 7% of elite endurance sport athletes. rhEPO is synthesised from Chinese hamster ovary cells, and is nearly identical biochemically and immunologically to endogenous epoetin-alfa (EPO). In a clinical setting, rhEPO is used to stimulate erythrocyte production in patients with end-stage renal disease and anaemia. A limited number of human studies have suggested that rhEPO provides a significant erythropoietic and ergogenic benefit in trained individuals as evidenced by increments in haemoglobin, haematocrit, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and exercise endurance time. The purpose of this review is to summarise the various technologies and methodologies currently available for the detection of illicit use of rhEPO in athletes. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) banned the use of rhEPO as an ergogenic aid in 1990. Since then a number of methods have been proposed as potential techniques for detecting the illegal use of rhEPO. Most of these techniques use indirect markers to detect rhEPO in blood samples. These indirect markers include macrocytic hypochromatic erythrocytes and serum soluble transferrin receptor (sTfr) concentration. Another indirect technique uses a combination of 5 markers of enhanced erythropoiesis (haematocrit, reticulocyte haematocrit, percentage of macrocytic red blood cells, serum EPO, sTfr) to detect rhEPO. The electrophoretic mobility technique provides a direct measurement of urine and serum levels of rhEPO, and is based on the principle that the rhEPO molecule is less negatively charged versus the endogenous EPO molecule. Isoelectric patterning/focusing has emerged recently as a potential method for the direct analysis of rhEPO in urine. Among these various methodologies, the indirect technique that utilises multiple markers of enhanced erythropoiesis appears to

  1. Computer-aided Detection Fidelity of Pulmonary Nodules in Chest Radiograph (United States)

    Dellios, Nikolaos; Teichgraeber, Ulf; Chelaru, Robert; Malich, Ansgar; Papageorgiou, Ismini E


    Aim: The most ubiquitous chest diagnostic method is the chest radiograph. A common radiographic finding, quite often incidental, is the nodular pulmonary lesion. The detection of small lesions out of complex parenchymal structure is a daily clinical challenge. In this study, we investigate the efficacy of the computer-aided detection (CAD) software package SoftView™ 2.4A for bone suppression and OnGuard™ 5.2 (Riverain Technologies, Miamisburg, OH, USA) for automated detection of pulmonary nodules in chest radiographs. Subjects and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated a dataset of 100 posteroanterior chest radiographs with pulmonary nodular lesions ranging from 5 to 85 mm. All nodules were confirmed with a consecutive computed tomography scan and histologically classified as 75% malignant. The number of detected lesions by observation in unprocessed images was compared to the number and dignity of CAD-detected lesions in bone-suppressed images (BSIs). Results: SoftView™ BSI does not affect the objective lesion-to-background contrast. OnGuard™ has a stand-alone sensitivity of 62% and specificity of 58% for nodular lesion detection in chest radiographs. The false positive rate is 0.88/image and the false negative (FN) rate is 0.35/image. From the true positive lesions, 20% were proven benign and 80% were malignant. FN lesions were 47% benign and 53% malignant. Conclusion: We conclude that CAD does not qualify for a stand-alone standard of diagnosis. The use of CAD accompanied with a critical radiological assessment of the software suggested pattern appears more realistic. Accordingly, it is essential to focus on studies assessing the quality-time-cost profile of real-time (as opposed to retrospective) CAD implementation in clinical diagnostics.

  2. Computer-aided detection system applied to full-field digital mammograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega Bolivar, Alfonso; Sanchez Gomez, Sonia; Merino, Paula; Alonso-Bartolome, Pilar; Ortega Garcia, Estrella (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Marques of Valdecilla Hospital, Santander (Spain)), e-mail:; Munoz Cacho, Pedro (Dept. of Statistics, Univ. Marques of Valdecilla Hospital, Santander (Spain)); Hoffmeister, Jeffrey W. (iCAD, Inc., Nashua, NH (United States))


    Background: Although mammography remains the mainstay for breast cancer screening, it is an imperfect examination with a sensitivity of 75-92% for breast cancer. Computer-aided detection (CAD) has been developed to improve mammographic detection of breast cancer. Purpose: To retrospectively estimate CAD sensitivity and false-positive rate with full-field digital mammograms (FFDMs). Material and Methods: CAD was used to evaluate 151 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (n=48) and invasive breast cancer (n=103) detected with FFDM. Retrospectively, CAD sensitivity was estimated based on breast density, mammographic presentation, histopathology type, and lesion size. CAD false-positive rate was estimated with screening FFDMs from 200 women. Results: CAD detected 93% (141/151) of cancer cases: 97% (28/29) in fatty breasts, 94% (81/86) in breasts containing scattered fibroglandular densities, 90% (28/31) in heterogeneously dense breasts, and 80% (4/5) in extremely dense breasts. CAD detected 98% (54/55) of cancers manifesting as calcifications, 89% (74/83) as masses, and 100% (13/13) as mixed masses and calcifications. CAD detected 92% (73/79) of invasive ductal carcinomas, 89% (8/9) of invasive lobular carcinomas, 93% (14/15) of other invasive carcinomas, and 96% (46/48) of DCIS. CAD sensitivity for cancers 1-10 mm was 87% (47/54); 11-20 mm, 99% (70/71); 21-30 mm, 86% (12/14); and larger than 30 mm, 100% (12/12). The CAD false-positive rate was 2.5 marks per case. Conclusion: CAD with FFDM showed a high sensitivity in identifying cancers manifesting as calcifications or masses. CAD sensitivity was maintained in small lesions (1-20 mm) and invasive lobular carcinomas, which have lower mammographic sensitivity

  3. A RIKILT yeast estrogen bioassay (REA) for estrogen residue detection in urine of calves experimentally treated with 17ß-estradiol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Divari, S.; Maria, De R.; Cannizzo, F.T.; Spada, F.; Mulasso, C.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Capra, P.; Leporati, M.; Biolatti, B.


    17ß-Estradiol is one of the most powerful sex steroids illegally used in bovine production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the application and the specificity of the RIKILT yeast estrogen bioassay (REA) for the detection of molecules with estrogenic activities in the urine of calves exp

  4. Optical tomographic detection of rheumatoid arthritis with computer-aided classification schemes (United States)

    Klose, Christian D.; Klose, Alexander D.; Netz, Uwe; Beuthan, Jürgen; Hielscher, Andreas H.


    A recent research study has shown that combining multiple parameters, drawn from optical tomographic images, leads to better classification results to identifying human finger joints that are affected or not affected by rheumatic arthritis RA. Building up on the research findings of the previous study, this article presents an advanced computer-aided classification approach for interpreting optical image data to detect RA in finger joints. Additional data are used including, for example, maximum and minimum values of the absorption coefficient as well as their ratios and image variances. Classification performances obtained by the proposed method were evaluated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, Youden index and area under the curve AUC. Results were compared to different benchmarks ("gold standard"): magnet resonance, ultrasound and clinical evaluation. Maximum accuracies (AUC=0.88) were reached when combining minimum/maximum-ratios and image variances and using ultrasound as gold standard.

  5. A Computer Aided Detection system for mammographic images implemented on a GRID infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Bottigli, U; Delogu, P; Fantacci, M E; Fauci, F; Forni, G; Golosio, B; Indovina, P L; Lauria, A; Magro, R; Masala, G L; Oliva, P R; Palmiero, R; Raso, G; Retico, A; Stefanini, A; Stumbo, S; Tangaro, S; Torres, E L


    The use of an automatic system for the analysis of mammographic images has proven to be very useful to radiologists in the investigation of breast cancer, especially in the framework of mammographic-screening programs. A breast neoplasia is often marked by the presence of microcalcification clusters and massive lesions in the mammogram: hence the need for tools able to recognize such lesions at an early stage. In the framework of the GPCALMA (GRID Platform for Computer Assisted Library for MAmmography) project, the co-working of italian physicists and radiologists built a large distributed database of digitized mammographic images (about 5500 images corresponding to 1650 patients) and developed a CAD (Computer Aided Detection) system, able to make an automatic search of massive lesions and microcalcification clusters. The CAD is implemented in the GPCALMA integrated station, which can be used also for digitization, as archive and to perform statistical analyses. Some GPCALMA integrated stations have already b...

  6. Test Sensitivity in the Computer-Aided Detection of Breast Cancer from Clinical Mammographic Screening: a Meta-analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Levman, Jacob


    Objectives: To assess evaluative methodologies for comparative measurements of test sensitivity in clinical mammographic screening trials of computer-aided detection (CAD) technologies. Materials and Methods: This meta-analysis was performed by analytically reviewing the relevant literature on the clinical application of computer-aided detection (CAD) technologies as part of a breast cancer screening program based on x-ray mammography. Each clinical study's method for measuring the CAD system's improvement in test sensitivity is examined in this meta-analysis. The impact of the chosen sensitivity measurement on the study's conclusions are analyzed. Results: This meta-analysis demonstrates that some studies have inappropriately compared sensitivity measurements between control groups and CAD enabled groups. The inappropriate comparison of control groups and CAD enabled groups can lead to an underestimation of the benefits of the clinical application of computer-aided detection technologies. Conclusions: The po...

  7. Computer aided boar semen motility analysis for cereulide detection in different food matrices. (United States)

    Rajkovic, Andreja; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Debevere, Johan


    Computer Aided Semen Analysis (CASA) study of the boar semen motility has been demonstrated to be an appropriate assay for detection of cereulide (Bacillus cereus emetic toxin). Application of the boar semen bio-assay to detect cereulide directly in foods requires investigation of potential interference of food components, preservatives and other microbial and chemical food contaminants with the bio-assay. Current study provides evidence that none of included Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins A, B, C and D nor B. cereus Hemolysin BL (HBL) and non-hemolytic enterotoxin (NHE) and three mycotoxins (Sterigmatocystin, Fumonisin B1 and Patulin) exhibited a toxic impact on semen progressive motility. Aflatoxin M1, M3 and zearalenone impaired semen motility only at concentrations (0.004 mg ml(-1), 0.1 mg ml(-1) and 10 mg ml(-1), respectively) much higher than those found in foods and those permitted by legislation, in comparison to cereulide which induces motility cease at concentrations lower than 20 ng ml(-1). Ten commonly used preservatives, namely potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, (DL) malic acid, citric acid, (L+) tartaric acid, acetic acid, (DL) lactic acid, (L+) ascorbic acid, sodium chloride and sucrose induced no cease in spermatozoa motility even at preservative concentrations higher than permitted by legislation. Dioxins, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and acrylamide had no acute effect on spermatozoa motility at concentrations of 500 and 10,000 mg ml(-1), respectively. Robustness of computer aided boar semen motility analysis, tested with 14 different foods inoculated with cereulide producing B. cereus, showed distinct cereulide production in seven samples (although B. cereus growth to counts higher than 8 log CFU g(-1) was noted in 11 samples), in amounts close to those reported in foodborne outbreaks. Test evaluation in 33 samples suspected to hold cereulide showed actual cereulide presence in ten samples and no interference of food matrix

  8. Analog Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) information can be more effective than binary marks. (United States)

    Cunningham, Corbin A; Drew, Trafton; Wolfe, Jeremy M


    In socially important visual search tasks, such as baggage screening and diagnostic radiology, experts miss more targets than is desirable. Computer-aided detection (CAD) programs have been developed specifically to improve performance in these professional search tasks. For example, in breast cancer screening, many CAD systems are capable of detecting approximately 90% of breast cancer, with approximately 0.5 false-positive detections per image. Nevertheless, benefits of CAD in clinical settings tend to be small (Birdwell, 2009) or even absent (Meziane et al., 2011; Philpotts, 2009). The marks made by a CAD system can be "binary," giving the same signal to any location where the signal is above some threshold. Alternatively, a CAD system presents an analog signal that reflects strength of the signal at a location. In the experiments reported, we compare analog and binary CAD presentations using nonexpert observers and artificial stimuli defined by two noisy signals: a visible color signal and an "invisible" signal that informed our simulated CAD system. We found that analog CAD generally yielded better overall performance than binary CAD. The analog benefit is similar at high and low target prevalence. Our data suggest that the form of the CAD signal can directly influence performance. Analog CAD may allow the computer to be more helpful to the searcher.

  9. Computer-aided diagnosis and lipidomics analysis to detect and treat breast cancer (United States)

    Meyer-Bäse, Anke; Retter, Felix; Steinbrücker, Frank; Görke, Robert; Burgeth, Bernhard; Schlossbauer, Thomas


    Multi-modality diagnosis techniques are more and more replacing traditional medical imaging for breast cancer detection. Newly emerging advances in both intelligent cancer detection systems and lipidomics technologies offer an excellent opportunity to detect tumors and to understand regulation at the molecular level in many diseases such as cancer. In this paper, we present a detailed computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems combining motion artefact reduction and automated feature extraction and classification, and a novel data mining approach for visualization of gene therapy leading to apoptosis in U87 MG glioblastoma cells, a secondary tumor of breast cancer. The achieved results show that the CAD system represents a robust and integrative tool for reliable small contrast enhancing lesions. Graph-clustering methods are introduced as powerful correlation networks which enable a simultaneous exploration and visualization of co-regulation in glioblastoma data. These new paradigms are providing unique "fingerprints" by revealing how the intricate interactions at the lipidome level can be employed to induce apoptosis (cell death) and are thus opening a new window to biomedical frontiers.

  10. Multiple-instance learning for computer-aided detection of tuberculosis (United States)

    Melendez, J.; Sánchez, C. I.; Philipsen, R. H. H. M.; Maduskar, P.; van Ginneken, B.


    Detection of tuberculosis (TB) on chest radiographs (CXRs) is a hard problem. Therefore, to help radiologists or even take their place when they are not available, computer-aided detection (CAD) systems are being developed. In order to reach a performance comparable to that of human experts, the pattern recognition algorithms of these systems are typically trained on large CXR databases that have been manually annotated to indicate the abnormal lung regions. However, manually outlining those regions constitutes a time-consuming process that, besides, is prone to inconsistencies and errors introduced by interobserver variability and the absence of an external reference standard. In this paper, we investigate an alternative pattern classi cation method, namely multiple-instance learning (MIL), that does not require such detailed information for a CAD system to be trained. We have applied this alternative approach to a CAD system aimed at detecting textural lesions associated with TB. Only the case (or image) condition (normal or abnormal) was provided in the training stage. We compared the resulting performance with those achieved by several variations of a conventional system trained with detailed annotations. A database of 917 CXRs was constructed for experimentation. It was divided into two roughly equal parts that were used as training and test sets. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was utilized as a performance measure. Our experiments show that, by applying the investigated MIL approach, comparable results as with the aforementioned conventional systems are obtained in most cases, without requiring condition information at the lesion level.

  11. Role of computer aided detection (CAD) integration: case study with meniscal and articular cartilage CAD applications (United States)

    Safdar, Nabile; Ramakrishna, Bharath; Saiprasad, Ganesh; Siddiqui, Khan; Siegel, Eliot


    Knee-related injuries involving the meniscal or articular cartilage are common and require accurate diagnosis and surgical intervention when appropriate. With proper techniques and experience, confidence in detection of meniscal tears and articular cartilage abnormalities can be quite high. However, for radiologists without musculoskeletal training, diagnosis of such abnormalities can be challenging. In this paper, the potential of improving diagnosis through integration of computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithms for automatic detection of meniscal tears and articular cartilage injuries of the knees is studied. An integrated approach in which the results of algorithms evaluating either meniscal tears or articular cartilage injuries provide feedback to each other is believed to improve the diagnostic accuracy of the individual CAD algorithms due to the known association between abnormalities in these distinct anatomic structures. The correlation between meniscal tears and articular cartilage injuries is exploited to improve the final diagnostic results of the individual algorithms. Preliminary results from the integrated application are encouraging and more comprehensive tests are being planned.

  12. Trajectory-based ball detection and tracking with aid of homography in broadcast tennis video (United States)

    Yu, Xinguo; Jiang, Nianjuan; Ang, Ee Luang


    Ball-detection-and-tracking in broadcast tennis video (BTV) is a crucial but challenging task in tennis video semantics analysis. Informally, the challenges are due to camera motion and the other causes such as the presence of many ball-like objects and the small size of the tennis ball. The trajectory-based approach proposed by us in our previous papers mainly counteracted the challenges imposed by causes other than camera motion and achieves a good performance. This paper proposes an improved trajectory-based ball detection and tracking algorithm in BTV with the aid of homography, which counteracts the challenges caused by camera motion and bring us multiple new merits. Firstly, it acquires an accurate homography, which transforms each frame into the "standard" frame. Secondly, it achieved higher accuracy of ball identification. Thirdly, it obtains the ball projection position in the real world, instead of ball location in the image. Lastly, it also identifies landing frames and positions of the ball. The experimental results show that the improved algorithm can obtain not only higher accuracy in ball identification and in ball position alike, but also ball landing frames and positions. With the intent of using homography to improve the video-based event detection for smart home we also do some experiments on acquiring the homography for home surveillance video.

  13. Three-Dimensional Computer-Aided Detection of Microcalcification Clusters in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-wook Jeong


    Full Text Available We propose computer-aided detection (CADe algorithm for microcalcification (MC clusters in reconstructed digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT images. The algorithm consists of prescreening, MC detection, clustering, and false-positive (FP reduction steps. The DBT images containing the MC-like objects were enhanced by a multiscale Hessian-based three-dimensional (3D objectness response function and a connected-component segmentation method was applied to extract the cluster seed objects as potential clustering centers of MCs. Secondly, a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR enhanced image was also generated to detect the individual MC candidates and prescreen the MC-like objects. Each cluster seed candidate was prescreened by counting neighboring individual MC candidates nearby the cluster seed object according to several microcalcification clustering criteria. As a second step, we introduced bounding boxes for the accepted seed candidate, clustered all the overlapping cubes, and examined. After the FP reduction step, the average number of FPs per case was estimated to be 2.47 per DBT volume with a sensitivity of 83.3%.

  14. An in vivo detection system for transient and low-abundant protein interactions and their kinetics in budding yeast. (United States)

    Brezovich, Andrea; Schuschnig, Martina; Ammerer, Gustav; Kraft, Claudine


    Methylation tracking (M-Track) is a protein-proximity assay in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, allowing the detection of transient protein-protein interactions in living cells. The bait protein is fused to a histone lysine methyl transferase and the prey protein to a methylation acceptor peptide derived from histone 3. Upon interaction, the histone 3 fragment is stably methylated on lysine 9 and can be detected by methylation-specific antibodies. Since methylation marking is irreversible in budding yeast and only takes place in living cells, the occurrence of artifacts during cell lysate preparation is greatly reduced, leading to a more accurate representation of native interactions. So far, this method has been limited to highly abundant or overexpressed proteins. However, many proteins of interest are low-abundant, and overexpression of proteins may interfere with their function, leading to an artificial situation. Here we report the generation of a toolbox including a novel cleavage-enrichment system for the analysis of very low-abundant proteins at their native expression levels. In addition, we developed a system for the parallel analysis of two prey proteins in a single cell, as well as an inducible methylation system. The inducible system allows precise control over the time during which the interaction is detected and can be used to determine interaction kinetics. Furthermore, we generated a set of constructs facilitating the cloning-free genomic tagging of proteins at their endogenous locus by homologous recombination, and their expression from centromeric plasmids.

  15. Standalone computer-aided detection compared to radiologists' performance for the detection of mammographic masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupse, Rianne; Samulski, Maurice; Imhof-Tas, Mechli W.; Karssemeijer, Nico [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lobbes, Marc; Boetes, Carla [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Heeten, Ard den [National Expert and Training Centre for Breast Cancer Screening, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Academic Medical Centre Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Beijerinck, David [Screening Program Early Detection of Breast Cancer in the Centre/Mid-West Part of the Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands); Pijnappel, Ruud [National Expert and Training Centre for Breast Cancer Screening, Nijmegen (Netherlands); University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands)


    We developed a computer-aided detection (CAD) system aimed at decision support for detection of malignant masses and architectural distortions in mammograms. The effect of this system on radiologists' performance depends strongly on its standalone performance. The purpose of this study was to compare the standalone performance of this CAD system to that of radiologists. In a retrospective study, nine certified screening radiologists and three residents read 200 digital screening mammograms without the use of CAD. Performances of the individual readers and of CAD were computed as the true-positive fraction (TPF) at a false-positive fraction of 0.05 and 0.2. Differences were analysed using an independent one-sample t-test. At a false-positive fraction of 0.05, the performance of CAD (TPF = 0.487) was similar to that of the certified screening radiologists (TPF = 0.518, P = 0.17). At a false-positive fraction of 0.2, CAD performance (TPF = 0.620) was significantly lower than the radiologist performance (TPF = 0.736, P <0.001). Compared to the residents, CAD performance was similar for all false-positive fractions. The sensitivity of CAD at a high specificity was comparable to that of human readers. These results show potential for CAD to be used as an independent reader in breast cancer screening. (orig.)

  16. Improving Computer-Aided Detection Using Convolutional Neural Networks and Random View Aggregation. (United States)

    Roth, Holger R; Lu, Le; Liu, Jiamin; Yao, Jianhua; Seff, Ari; Cherry, Kevin; Kim, Lauren; Summers, Ronald M


    Automated computer-aided detection (CADe) has been an important tool in clinical practice and research. State-of-the-art methods often show high sensitivities at the cost of high false-positives (FP) per patient rates. We design a two-tiered coarse-to-fine cascade framework that first operates a candidate generation system at sensitivities  ∼ 100% of but at high FP levels. By leveraging existing CADe systems, coordinates of regions or volumes of interest (ROI or VOI) are generated and function as input for a second tier, which is our focus in this study. In this second stage, we generate 2D (two-dimensional) or 2.5D views via sampling through scale transformations, random translations and rotations. These random views are used to train deep convolutional neural network (ConvNet) classifiers. In testing, the ConvNets assign class (e.g., lesion, pathology) probabilities for a new set of random views that are then averaged to compute a final per-candidate classification probability. This second tier behaves as a highly selective process to reject difficult false positives while preserving high sensitivities. The methods are evaluated on three data sets: 59 patients for sclerotic metastasis detection, 176 patients for lymph node detection, and 1,186 patients for colonic polyp detection. Experimental results show the ability of ConvNets to generalize well to different medical imaging CADe applications and scale elegantly to various data sets. Our proposed methods improve performance markedly in all cases. Sensitivities improved from 57% to 70%, 43% to 77%, and 58% to 75% at 3 FPs per patient for sclerotic metastases, lymph nodes and colonic polyps, respectively.

  17. Computer-aided detection of mammographic masses based on content-based image retrieval (United States)

    Jin, Renchao; Meng, Bo; Song, Enmin; Xu, Xiangyang; Jiang, Luan


    A method for computer-aided detection (CAD) of mammographic masses is proposed and a prototype CAD system is presented. The method is based on content-based image retrieval (CBIR). A mammogram database containing 2000 mammographic regions is built in our prototype CBIR-CAD system. Every region of interested (ROI) in the database has known pathology. Specifically, there are 583 ROIs depicting biopsy-proven masses, and the rest 1417 ROIs are normal. Whenever a suspicious ROI is detected in a mammogram by a radiologist, it can be submitted as a query to this CBIRCAD system. As the query results, a series of similar ROI images together with their known pathology knowledge will be retrieved from the database and displayed in the screen in descending order of their similarities to the query ROI to help the radiologist to make the diagnosis decision. Furthermore, our CBIR-CAD system will output a decision index (DI) to quantitatively indicate the probability that the query ROI contains a mass. The DI is calculated by the query matches. In the querying process, 24 features are extracted from each ROI to form a 24-dimensional vector. Euclidean distance in the 24-dimensional feature vector space is applied to measure the similarities between ROIs. The prototype CBIR-CAD system is evaluated based on the leave-one-out sampling scheme. The experiment results showed that the system can achieve a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area index A Z =0.84 for detection of mammographic masses, which is better than the best results achieved by the other known mass CAD systems.

  18. Multicenter Study of Epidemiological Cutoff Values and Detection of Resistance in Candida spp. to Anidulafungin, Caspofungin, and Micafungin Using the Sensititre YeastOne Colorimetric Method (United States)

    Alvarez-Fernandez, M.; Cantón, E.; Carver, P. L.; Chen, S. C.-A.; Eschenauer, G.; Getsinger, D. L.; Gonzalez, G. M.; Grancini, A.; Hanson, K. E.; Kidd, S. E.; Klinker, K.; Kubin, C. J.; Kus, J. V.; Lockhart, S. R.; Meletiadis, J.; Morris, A. J.; Pelaez, T.; Rodriguez-Iglesias, M.; Sánchez-Reus, F.; Shoham, S.; Wengenack, N. L.; Borrell Solé, N.; Echeverria, J.; Esperalba, J.; Gómez-G. de la Pedrosa, E.; García García, I.; Linares, M. J.; Marco, F.; Merino, P.; Pemán, J.; Pérez del Molino, L.; Roselló Mayans, E.; Rubio Calvo, C.; Ruiz Pérez de Pipaon, M.; Yagüe, G.; Garcia-Effron, G.; Perlin, D. S.; Sanguinetti, M.; Shields, R.; Turnidge, J.


    Neither breakpoints (BPs) nor epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) have been established for Candida spp. with anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin when using the Sensititre YeastOne (SYO) broth dilution colorimetric method. In addition, reference caspofungin MICs have so far proven to be unreliable. Candida species wild-type (WT) MIC distributions (for microorganisms in a species/drug combination with no detectable phenotypic resistance) were established for 6,007 Candida albicans, 186 C. dubliniensis, 3,188 C. glabrata complex, 119 C. guilliermondii, 493 C. krusei, 205 C. lusitaniae, 3,136 C. parapsilosis complex, and 1,016 C. tropicalis isolates. SYO MIC data gathered from 38 laboratories in Australia, Canada, Europe, Mexico, New Zealand, South Africa, and the United States were pooled to statistically define SYO ECVs. ECVs for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin encompassing ≥97.5% of the statistically modeled population were, respectively, 0.12, 0.25, and 0.06 μg/ml for C. albicans, 0.12, 0.25, and 0.03 μg/ml for C. glabrata complex, 4, 2, and 4 μg/ml for C. parapsilosis complex, 0.5, 0.25, and 0.06 μg/ml for C. tropicalis, 0.25, 1, and 0.25 μg/ml for C. krusei, 0.25, 1, and 0.12 μg/ml for C. lusitaniae, 4, 2, and 2 μg/ml for C. guilliermondii, and 0.25, 0.25, and 0.12 μg/ml for C. dubliniensis. Species-specific SYO ECVs for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin correctly classified 72 (88.9%), 74 (91.4%), 76 (93.8%), respectively, of 81 Candida isolates with identified fks mutations. SYO ECVs may aid in detecting non-WT isolates with reduced susceptibility to anidulafungin, micafungin, and especially caspofungin, since testing the susceptibilities of Candida spp. to caspofungin by reference methodologies is not recommended. PMID:26282428

  19. Multicenter study of epidemiological cutoff values and detection of resistance in Candida spp. to anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin using the Sensititre YeastOne colorimetric method. (United States)

    Espinel-Ingroff, A; Alvarez-Fernandez, M; Cantón, E; Carver, P L; Chen, S C-A; Eschenauer, G; Getsinger, D L; Gonzalez, G M; Govender, N P; Grancini, A; Hanson, K E; Kidd, S E; Klinker, K; Kubin, C J; Kus, J V; Lockhart, S R; Meletiadis, J; Morris, A J; Pelaez, T; Quindós, G; Rodriguez-Iglesias, M; Sánchez-Reus, F; Shoham, S; Wengenack, N L; Borrell Solé, N; Echeverria, J; Esperalba, J; Gómez-G de la Pedrosa, E; García García, I; Linares, M J; Marco, F; Merino, P; Pemán, J; Pérez Del Molino, L; Roselló Mayans, E; Rubio Calvo, C; Ruiz Pérez de Pipaon, M; Yagüe, G; Garcia-Effron, G; Guinea, J; Perlin, D S; Sanguinetti, M; Shields, R; Turnidge, J


    Neither breakpoints (BPs) nor epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) have been established for Candida spp. with anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin when using the Sensititre YeastOne (SYO) broth dilution colorimetric method. In addition, reference caspofungin MICs have so far proven to be unreliable. Candida species wild-type (WT) MIC distributions (for microorganisms in a species/drug combination with no detectable phenotypic resistance) were established for 6,007 Candida albicans, 186 C. dubliniensis, 3,188 C. glabrata complex, 119 C. guilliermondii, 493 C. krusei, 205 C. lusitaniae, 3,136 C. parapsilosis complex, and 1,016 C. tropicalis isolates. SYO MIC data gathered from 38 laboratories in Australia, Canada, Europe, Mexico, New Zealand, South Africa, and the United States were pooled to statistically define SYO ECVs. ECVs for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin encompassing ≥97.5% of the statistically modeled population were, respectively, 0.12, 0.25, and 0.06 μg/ml for C. albicans, 0.12, 0.25, and 0.03 μg/ml for C. glabrata complex, 4, 2, and 4 μg/ml for C. parapsilosis complex, 0.5, 0.25, and 0.06 μg/ml for C. tropicalis, 0.25, 1, and 0.25 μg/ml for C. krusei, 0.25, 1, and 0.12 μg/ml for C. lusitaniae, 4, 2, and 2 μg/ml for C. guilliermondii, and 0.25, 0.25, and 0.12 μg/ml for C. dubliniensis. Species-specific SYO ECVs for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin correctly classified 72 (88.9%), 74 (91.4%), 76 (93.8%), respectively, of 81 Candida isolates with identified fks mutations. SYO ECVs may aid in detecting non-WT isolates with reduced susceptibility to anidulafungin, micafungin, and especially caspofungin, since testing the susceptibilities of Candida spp. to caspofungin by reference methodologies is not recommended.

  20. A new highly specific and robust yeast androgen bioassay for the detection of agonist and antagonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovee, T.F.H.; Helsdingen, J.R.; Hamers, A.R.M.; Duursen, van M.; Nielen, M.W.F.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.


    Public concern about the presence of natural and anthropogenic compounds which affect human health by modulating normal endocrine functions is continuously growing. Fast and simple high-throughput screening methods for the detection of hormone activities are thus indispensable. During the last two d

  1. A new highly specific and robust yeast androgen bioassay for the detection of agonists and antagonists


    Bovee, T. F. H.; Helsdingen, J.R.; Hamers, A.R.M.; Duursen, van, M.; Nielen, M. W. F.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.


    Public concern about the presence of natural and anthropogenic compounds which affect human health by modulating normal endocrine functions is continuously growing. Fast and simple high-throughput screening methods for the detection of hormone activities are thus indispensable. During the last two decades, a panel of different in vitro assays has been developed, mainly for compounds with an estrogenic mode of action. Here we describe the development of an androgen transcription activation ass...

  2. New biosensor for detection of copper ions in water based on immobilized genetically modified yeast cells. (United States)

    Vopálenská, Irena; Váchová, Libuše; Palková, Zdena


    Contamination of water by heavy metals represents a potential risk for both aquatic and terrestrial organisms, including humans. Heavy metals in water resources can come from various industrial activities, and drinking water can be ex-post contaminated by heavy metals such as Cu(2+) from house fittings (e.g., water reservoirs) and pipes. Here, we present a new copper biosensor capable of detecting copper ions at concentrations of 1-100 μM. This biosensor is based on cells of a specifically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain immobilized in alginate beads. Depending on the concentration of copper, the biosensor beads change color from white, when copper is present in concentrations below the detection limit, to pink or red based on the increase in copper concentration. The biosensor was successfully tested in the determination of copper concentrations in real samples of water contaminated with copper ions. In contrast to analytical methods or other biosensors based on fluorescent proteins, the newly designed biosensor does not require specific equipment and allows the quick detection of copper in many parallel samples.

  3. Computer-aided detection in breast MRI: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorrius, Monique D.; Weide, Marijke C.J. der; Ooijen, Peter M.A. van; Pijnappel, Ruud M.; Oudkerk, Matthijs [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Radiology, Center for Medical Imaging, Hanzeplein 1, PO box 30.001, Groningen (Netherlands)


    To evaluate the additional value of computer-aided detection (CAD) in breast MRI by assessing radiologists' accuracy in discriminating benign from malignant breast lesions. A literature search was performed with inclusion of relevant studies using a commercially available CAD system with automatic colour mapping. Two independent researchers assessed the quality of the studies. The accuracy of the radiologists' performance with and without CAD was presented as pooled sensitivity and specificity. Of 587 articles, 10 met the inclusion criteria, all of good methodological quality. Experienced radiologists reached comparable pooled sensitivity and specificity before and after using CAD (sensitivity: without CAD: 89%; 95% CI: 78-94%, with CAD: 89%; 95%CI: 81-94%) (specificity: without CAD: 86%; 95% CI: 79-91%, with CAD: 82%; 95% CI: 76-87%). For residents the pooled sensitivity increased from 72% (95% CI: 62-81%) without CAD to 89% (95% CI: 80-94%) with CAD, however, not significantly. Concerning specificity, the results were similar (without CAD: 79%; 95% CI: 69-86%, with CAD: 78%; 95% CI: 69-84%). CAD in breast MRI has little influence on the sensitivity and specificity of experienced radiologists and therefore their interpretation remains essential. However, residents or inexperienced radiologists seem to benefit from CAD concerning breast MRI evaluation. (orig.)

  4. Computer Aided Detection System for Prediction of the Malaise during Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Tangaro


    Full Text Available Monitoring of dialysis sessions is crucial as different stress factors can yield suffering or critical situations. Specialized personnel is usually required for the administration of this medical treatment; nevertheless, subjects whose clinical status can be considered stable require different monitoring strategies when compared with subjects with critical clinical conditions. In this case domiciliary treatment or monitoring can substantially improve the quality of life of patients undergoing dialysis. In this work, we present a Computer Aided Detection (CAD system for the telemonitoring of patients’ clinical parameters. The CAD was mainly designed to predict the insurgence of critical events; it consisted of two Random Forest (RF classifiers: the first one (RF1 predicting the onset of any malaise one hour after the treatment start and the second one (RF2 again two hours later. The developed system shows an accurate classification performance in terms of both sensitivity and specificity. The specificity in the identification of nonsymptomatic sessions and the sensitivity in the identification of symptomatic sessions for RF2 are equal to 86.60% and 71.40%, respectively, thus suggesting the CAD as an effective tool to support expert nephrologists in telemonitoring the patients.

  5. Learning-based image preprocessing for robust computer-aided detection (United States)

    Raghupathi, Laks; Devarakota, Pandu R.; Wolf, Matthias


    Recent studies have shown that low dose computed tomography (LDCT) can be an effective screening tool to reduce lung cancer mortality. Computer-aided detection (CAD) would be a beneficial second reader for radiologists in such cases. Studies demonstrate that while iterative reconstructions (IR) improve LDCT diagnostic quality, it however degrades CAD performance significantly (increased false positives) when applied directly. For improving CAD performance, solutions such as retraining with newer data or applying a standard preprocessing technique may not be suffice due to high prevalence of CT scanners and non-uniform acquisition protocols. Here, we present a learning-based framework that can adaptively transform a wide variety of input data to boost an existing CAD performance. This not only enhances their robustness but also their applicability in clinical workflows. Our solution consists of applying a suitable pre-processing filter automatically on the given image based on its characteristics. This requires the preparation of ground truth (GT) of choosing an appropriate filter resulting in improved CAD performance. Accordingly, we propose an efficient consolidation process with a novel metric. Using key anatomical landmarks, we then derive consistent feature descriptors for the classification scheme that then uses a priority mechanism to automatically choose an optimal preprocessing filter. We demonstrate CAD prototype∗ performance improvement using hospital-scale datasets acquired from North America, Europe and Asia. Though we demonstrated our results for a lung nodule CAD, this scheme is straightforward to extend to other post-processing tools dedicated to other organs and modalities.

  6. The interplay of attention economics and computer-aided detection marks in screening mammography (United States)

    Schwartz, Tayler M.; Sridharan, Radhika; Wei, Wei; Lukyanchenko, Olga; Geiser, William; Whitman, Gary J.; Haygood, Tamara Miner


    Introduction: According to attention economists, overabundant information leads to decreased attention for individual pieces of information. Computer-aided detection (CAD) alerts radiologists to findings potentially associated with breast cancer but is notorious for creating an abundance of false-positive marks. We suspected that increased CAD marks do not lengthen mammogram interpretation time, as radiologists will selectively disregard these marks when present in larger numbers. We explore the relevance of attention economics in mammography by examining how the number of CAD marks affects interpretation time. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of bilateral digital screening mammograms obtained between January 1, 2011 and February 28, 2014, using only weekend interpretations to decrease distractions and the likelihood of trainee participation. We stratified data according to reader and used ANOVA to assess the relationship between number of CAD marks and interpretation time. Results: Ten radiologists, with median experience after residency of 12.5 years (range 6 to 24,) interpreted 1849 mammograms. When accounting for number of images, Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System category, and breast density, increasing numbers of CAD marks was correlated with longer interpretation time only for the three radiologists with the fewest years of experience (median 7 years.) Conclusion: For the 7 most experienced readers, increasing CAD marks did not lengthen interpretation time. We surmise that as CAD marks increase, the attention given to individual marks decreases. Experienced radiologists may rapidly dismiss larger numbers of CAD marks as false-positive, having learned that devoting extra attention to such marks does not improve clinical detection.

  7. Comparison of computer-aided detection of clustered microcalcifications in digital mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis (United States)

    Samala, Ravi K.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Lu, Yao; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Wei, Jun; Helvie, Mark


    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has the potential to replace digital mammography (DM) for breast cancer screening. An effective computer-aided detection (CAD) system for microcalcification clusters (MCs) on DBT will facilitate the transition. In this study, we collected a data set with corresponding DBT and DM for the same breasts. DBT was acquired with IRB approval and informed consent using a GE GEN2 DBT prototype system. The DM acquired with a GE Essential system for the patient's clinical care was collected retrospectively from patient files. DM-based CAD (CADDM) and DBT-based CAD (CADDBT) were previously developed by our group. The major differences between the CAD systems include: (a) CADDBT uses two parallel processes whereas CADDM uses a single process for enhancing MCs and removing the structured background, (b) CADDBT has additional processing steps to reduce the false positives (FPs), including ranking of candidates of cluster seeds and cluster members and the use of adaptive CNR and size thresholds at clustering and FP reduction, (c) CADDM uses convolution neural network (CNN) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to differentiate true microcalcifications from FPs based on their morphological and CNN features. The performance difference is assessed by FROC analysis using test set (100 views with MCs and 74 views without MCs) independent of their respective training sets. At sensitivities of 70% and 80%, CADDBT achieved FP rates of 0.78 and 1.57 per view compared to 0.66 and 2.10 per image for the CADDM. JAFROC showed no significant difference between MC detection on DM and DBT by the two CAD systems.

  8. Computer-aided detection of early cancer in the esophagus using HD endoscopy images (United States)

    van der Sommen, Fons; Zinger, Svitlana; Schoon, Erik J.; de With, Peter H. N.


    Esophageal cancer is the fastest rising type of cancer in the Western world. The recent development of High-Definition (HD) endoscopy has enabled the specialist physician to identify cancer at an early stage. Nevertheless, it still requires considerable effort and training to be able to recognize these irregularities associated with early cancer. As a first step towards a Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) system that supports the physician in finding these early stages of cancer, we propose an algorithm that is able to identify irregularities in the esophagus automatically, based on HD endoscopic images. The concept employs tile-based processing, so our system is not only able to identify that an endoscopic image contains early cancer, but it can also locate it. The identification is based on the following steps: (1) preprocessing, (2) feature extraction with dimensionality reduction, (3) classification. We evaluate the detection performance in RGB, HSI and YCbCr color space using the Color Histogram (CH) and Gabor features and we compare with other well-known features to describe texture. For classification, we employ a Support Vector Machine (SVM) and evaluate its performance using different parameters and kernel functions. In experiments, our system achieves a classification accuracy of 95.9% on 50×50 pixel tiles of tumorous and normal tissue and reaches an Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.990. In 22 clinical examples our algorithm was able to identify all (pre-)cancerous regions and annotate those regions reasonably well. The experimental and clinical validation are considered promising for a CAD system that supports the physician in finding early stage cancer.

  9. Detection of Bacterial and Yeast Species with the Bactec 9120 Automated System with Routine Use of Aerobic, Anaerobic, and Fungal Media▿ (United States)

    Chiarini, Alfredo; Palmeri, Angelo; Amato, Teresa; Immordino, Rita; Distefano, Salvatore; Giammanco, Anna


    During the period 2006 and 2007, all blood cultures required by four units at high infective risk and most of those required by other units of the University Hospital of Palermo, Palermo, Italy were performed using a Bactec 9120 automated blood culture system with a complete set of Plus Aerobic/F, Plus Anaerobic/F, and Mycosis IC/F bottles. The aim of the study was to enable the authors to gain firsthand experience of the culture potentialities of the three different media, to obtain information regarding the overall and specific recovery of bacteria and yeasts from blood cultures in the hospital, and to reach a decision as to whether and when to utilize anaerobic and fungal bottles. Although very few bloodstream infections (1.8%) were associated with obligate anaerobes, the traditional routine use of anaerobic bottles was confirmed because of their usefulness, not only in the detection of anaerobes, but also in that of gram-positive cocci and fermentative gram-negative bacilli. In this study, Mycosis IC/F bottles detected 77.4% of all the yeast isolates, 87.0% of yeasts belonging to the species Candida albicans, and 45.7% of nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli resistant to chloramphenicol and tobramycin. In order to improve the diagnosis of fungemia in high-risk patients, the additional routine use of fungal bottles was suggested when, as occurred in the intensive-care unit and in the hematology unit of the University Hospital of Palermo, high percentages of bloodstream infections are associated with yeasts, and/or antibiotic-resistant bacteria and/or multiple bacterial isolates capable of inhibiting yeast growth in aerobic bottles. PMID:18923011

  10. A computer-aided diagnosis system to detect pathologies in temporal subtraction images of chest radiographs (United States)

    Looper, Jared; Harrison, Melanie; Armato, Samuel G.


    Radiologists often compare sequential radiographs to identify areas of pathologic change; however, this process is prone to error, as human anatomy can obscure the regions of change, causing the radiologists to overlook pathology. Temporal subtraction (TS) images can provide enhanced visualization of regions of change in sequential radiographs and allow radiologists to better detect areas of change in radiographs. Not all areas of change shown in TS images, however, are actual pathology. The purpose of this study was to create a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) system that identifies which regions of change are caused by pathology and which are caused by misregistration of the radiographs used to create the TS image. The dataset used in this study contained 120 images with 74 pathologic regions on 54 images outlined by an experienced radiologist. High and low ("light" and "dark") gray-level candidate regions were extracted from the images using gray-level thresholding. Then, sampling techniques were used to address the class imbalance problem between "true" and "false" candidate regions. Next, the datasets of light candidate regions, dark candidate regions, and the combined set of light and dark candidate regions were used as training and testing data for classifiers by using five-fold cross validation. Of the classifiers tested (support vector machines, discriminant analyses, logistic regression, and k-nearest neighbors), the support vector machine on the combined candidates using synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) performed best with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value of 0.85, a sensitivity of 85%, and a specificity of 84%.

  11. Polymer-immobilized ready-to-use recombinant yeast assays for the detection of endocrine disruptive compounds. (United States)

    Bittner, Michal; Jarque, Sergio; Hilscherová, Klára


    Recombinant yeast assays (RYAs) constitute a suitable tool for the environmental monitoring of compounds with endocrine disrupting activities, notably estrogenicity and androgenicity. Conventional procedures require yeast reconstitution from frozen stock, which usually takes several days and demands additional equipment. With the aim of applying such assays to field studies and making them more accessible to less well-equipped laboratories, we have optimized RYA by the immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in three different polymer matrices - gelatin, Bacto agar, and Yeast Extract Peptone Dextrose agar - to obtain a ready-to-use version for the fast assessment of estrogenic and androgenic potencies of compounds and environmental samples. Among the three matrices, gelatin showed the best results for both testosterone (androgen receptor yeast strain; AR-RYA) and 17β-estradiol (estrogen receptor yeast strain; ER-RYA). AR-RYA was characterized by a lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC), EC50 and induction factor (IF) of 1nM, 2.2nM and 51, respectively. The values characterizing ER-RYA were 0.4nM, 1.8nM, and 63, respectively. Gelatin immobilization retained yeast viability and sensitivity for more than 90d of storage at 4°C. The use of the immobilized yeast reduced the assay duration to only 3h without necessity of sterile conditions. Because immobilized RYA can be performed either in multiwell microplates or glass tubes, it allows multiple samples to be tested at once, and easy adaptation to existing portable devices for direct in-field applications.

  12. Isolation, purification, and radiolabeling of a novel 120-kD surface protein on Blastomyces dermatitidis yeasts to detect antibody in infected patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, B.S.; Jones, J.M.


    No well-defined Blastomyces-specific antigens are currently available. We used sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting to identify immunologically active molecules in the cell wall of B. dermatitidis. A major immunoreactive 120-kD protein (WI-1) was present in all five strains studied and comprised 5% of the protein in the cell wall extract obtained after freezing and thawing yeast cells. WI-1 was recognized by serum from all 10 patients with blastomycosis but by none of those from 5 patients with histoplasmosis. It was purified by electroelution, radiolabeled with 125I, and incorporated into a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for serodiagnosis of blastomycosis. Antibody to WI-1 was detected in 58 (85%) of 68 patients with blastomycosis (geometric mean titer, 1:2,981), in two (3%) of 73 patients with histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, sporotrichosis, or candidiasis (titers, 1:86 and 1:91) and in none of 44 healthy persons. WI-1 was shown to be a surface molecule abundant on B. dermatitidis yeasts that were indirectly stained with serum from a rabbit immunized with WI-1. Approximately 0.93 pg of WI-1 or 4.7 x 10(6) WI-1 molecules were found on the surface of an individual yeast using an antigen-inhibition RIA; none was found on Histoplasma capsulatum or Candida albicans yeasts. We conclude that WI-1 is a novel, immunologically active surface molecule on the invasive form of B. dermatitidis and that WI-1 can be used to reliably detect antibody and study the immunopathogenesis of blastomycosis.

  13. the Diagnostic Value of Brain Magnetic Resonance imaging in Detecting CNS Diseases Among Advanced AiDS Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of brain magnetic resonance imaging in detecting central nervous system diseases among AIDS patients of different levels of T cells. Methods Total of 164 AIDS patients who did not receive antiviral treatment were divided into 2 groups according to their baseline CD4+T cell counts. Group A had CD4+T cell below or equal to 50 cells/μl (n=81) and group B had CD4+T cells over 50 cells/μl (n=83). All patients underwent brain MRI scan. Imaging analysis and the prevalence of the central nervous system disorders were compared between two groups. Results Among them 48 cases were found of abnormal brain MRI, group A was higher than group B (35.8%vs. 22.9%) although without statistical significance (P = 0.065). Altogether 48 cases were diagnosed as AIDS related central nervous system disorders based on clinical symptoms, signs and laboratory findings. The prevalence of CNS disorders was higher in group A than in group B (41.9%vs. 16.8%) with statistical significance (P<0.01). Conclusions The patients with CD4+T cell count less than or equal to 50 cells/μl had high prevalence of CNS diseases. Brain MRI plays an important role in the diagnosis and differentiation of CNS diseases in advanced AIDS patients. This study suggests patients with low CD4+T cell count (≤ 50/μl) should routinely undergo MRI examination.

  14. Computer-Aided Detection and diagnosis for prostate cancer based on mono and multi-parametric MRI: a review. (United States)

    Lemaître, Guillaume; Martí, Robert; Freixenet, Jordi; Vilanova, Joan C; Walker, Paul M; Meriaudeau, Fabrice


    Prostate cancer is the second most diagnosed cancer of men all over the world. In the last few decades, new imaging techniques based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have been developed to improve diagnosis. In practise, diagnosis can be affected by multiple factors such as observer variability and visibility and complexity of the lesions. In this regard, computer-aided detection and computer-aided diagnosis systems have been designed to help radiologists in their clinical practice. Research on computer-aided systems specifically focused for prostate cancer is a young technology and has been part of a dynamic field of research for the last 10 years. This survey aims to provide a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art in this lapse of time, focusing on the different stages composing the work-flow of a computer-aided system. We also provide a comparison between studies and a discussion about the potential avenues for future research. In addition, this paper presents a new public online dataset which is made available to the research community with the aim of providing a common evaluation framework to overcome some of the current limitations identified in this survey.

  15. Code-Aided Estimation and Detection on Time-Varying Correlated Mimo Channels: A Factor Graph Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoens Frederik


    Full Text Available This paper concerns channel tracking in a multiantenna context for correlated flat-fading channels obeying a Gauss-Markov model. It is known that data-aided tracking of fast-fading channels requires a lot of pilot symbols in order to achieve sufficient accuracy, and hence decreases the spectral efficiency. To overcome this problem, we design a code-aided estimation scheme which exploits information from both the pilot symbols and the unknown coded data symbols. The algorithm is derived based on a factor graph representation of the system and application of the sum-product algorithm. The sum-product algorithm reveals how soft information from the decoder should be exploited for the purpose of estimation and how the information bits can be detected. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  16. Expression of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Envelope Glycoprotein E2 in Yeast Pichia pastoris and its Application to an ELISA for Detection of BVDV Neutralizing Antibodies in Cattle. (United States)

    Behera, Sthita Pragnya; Mishra, Niranjan; Nema, Ram Kumar; Pandey, Pooja Dubey; Kalaiyarasu, Semmannan; Rajukumar, Katherukamem; Prakash, Anil


    The aim of this article is to express envelope glycoprotein E2 of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in yeast Pichia pastoris and its utility as a diagnostic antigen in ELISA. The BVDV E2 gene was cloned into the pPICZαA vector followed by integration into the Pichia pastoris strain X-33 genome for methanol-induced expression. SDS-PAGE and Western blot results showed that the recombinant BVDV E2 protein (72 kDa) was expressed and secreted into the medium at a concentration of 40 mg/L of culture under optimized conditions. An indirect ELISA was then developed by using the yeast-expressed E2 protein. Preliminary testing of 300 field cattle serum samples showed that the E2 ELISA showed a sensitivity of 91.07% and a specificity of 92.02% compared to the reference virus neutralization test. The concordance between the E2 ELISA and VNT was 91.67%. This study demonstrates feasibility of BVDV E2 protein expression in yeast Pichia pastoris for the first time and its efficacy as an antigen in ELISA for detecting BVDV neutralizing antibodies in cattle.

  17. Forces in yeast flocculation. (United States)

    El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N; Dufrêne, Yves F


    In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion ("flocculation") is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding.

  18. Nano-yeast-scFv probes on screen-printed gold electrodes for detection of Entamoeba histolytica antigens in a biological matrix. (United States)

    Grewal, Yadveer S; Shiddiky, Muhammad J A; Spadafora, Lauren J; Cangelosi, Gerard A; Trau, Matt


    The time and costs associated with monoclonal antibody production limit the potential for portable diagnostic devices to penetrate the market. Replacing the antibody with a low-cost alternate affinity reagent would reduce the costs of diagnostic development and use, and lead to new portable diagnostic devices towards many diseases. Herein, we present low-cost affinity reagents, nano-yeast-scFv, on commercially available, inexpensive, and portable screen-printed electrodes for the label-free electrochemical detection of Entamoeba histolytica cyst antigens. The biosensor was able to detect antigen at concentrations down to 10 pg mL(-1) in buffer with an inter-assay reproducibility of (% RSD, n=3) 4.1%. The applicability of two differently engineered nano-yeast-scFv to each specifically detect their cognant E. histolytica cyst antigens was demonstrated in a biological matrix derived from human stool. Because of the simple, inexpensive, and sensitive nature of this methodology, it may offer a low-cost alternative to immunosensors based on antibody-target recognition.

  19. Computer aided detection of transient inflation events at Alaskan volcanoes using GPS measurements from 2005-2015 (United States)

    Li, Justin D.; Rude, Cody M.; Blair, David M.; Gowanlock, Michael G.; Herring, Thomas A.; Pankratius, Victor


    Analysis of transient deformation events in time series data observed via networks of continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) ground stations provide insight into the magmatic and tectonic processes that drive volcanic activity. Typical analyses of spatial positions originating from each station require careful tuning of algorithmic parameters and selection of time and spatial regions of interest to observe possible transient events. This iterative, manual process is tedious when attempting to make new discoveries and does not easily scale with the number of stations. Addressing this challenge, we introduce a novel approach based on a computer-aided discovery system that facilitates the discovery of such potential transient events. The advantages of this approach are demonstrated by actual detections of transient deformation events at volcanoes selected from the Alaska Volcano Observatory database using data recorded by GPS stations from the Plate Boundary Observatory network. Our technique successfully reproduces the analysis of a transient signal detected in the first half of 2008 at Akutan volcano and is also directly applicable to 3 additional volcanoes in Alaska, with the new detection of 2 previously unnoticed inflation events: in early 2011 at Westdahl and in early 2013 at Shishaldin. This study also discusses the benefits of our computer-aided discovery approach for volcanology in general. Advantages include the rapid analysis on multi-scale resolutions of transient deformation events at a large number of sites of interest and the capability to enhance reusability and reproducibility in volcano studies.

  20. Emerging Intestinal Microsporidia Infection in HIV(+/AIDS Patients in Iran: Microscopic and Molecular Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Mirjalali


    Full Text Available Species of Microsporidia have been known as opportunistic obligate intracellular parasites particularly in immunocompromised patients. Enterocytozoon bieneusi is one of most prevalent intestinal microsporida parasites in HIV(+/AIDS patients. In this study, intestinal microsporidia infection was determined in HIV(+/AIDS patients using microscopic and molecular methods.Stool samples were collected from HIV(+/AIDS patients during 12 months. All of the stool specimens washed with PBS (pH: 7.5. Slim slides were prepared from each sample and were examined using light microscope with 1000X magnification. DNA extraction carried out in microscopic positive samples. DNA amplification and genus/species identification also performed by Nested-PCR and sequencing techniques.From 81 stool samples, 25 were infected with microsporidia species and E. bieneusi were identified in all of positive samples. No Encephalitozoon spp. was identified in 81 collected samples using specific primers.E. bieneusi is the most prevalent intestinal microsporidia in immunocompromised patients of Iran. On the other hand, Nested-PCR using specific primers for ssu rRNA gene is an appropriate molecular method for identification of E. bieneusi.

  1. Detection of weak estrogenic flavonoids using a recombinant yeast strain and a modified MCF7 cell proliferation assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, Vibeke; Larsen, John Christian


    A newly developed recombinant yeast strain, in which the human estrogen receptor has been stably integrated into the genome of the yeast, was used to gain information on the estrogenic activity of a large series of dietary flavonoids. Among 23 flavonoids investigated, 8 were found to markedly...... values ranging from 84 to 102 mu M, whereas the remaining flavonoids were devoid of activity. The most potent flavonoid estrogens tested were naringenin, apigenin, kaempferol, phloretin, and the four isoflavonoids equol, genistein, daidzein, and biochanin A. With the exception of biochanin A, the main...... feature required to confer estrogenicity was the presence of a single hydroxyl group in the 4'-position of the B-ring of the flavan nucleus, corresponding to the 4-position on phloretin. The estrogenic potency of the flavonoids was found to be 4 000-4 000 000 times lower than that observed for 17 beta...

  2. Ischemic Stroke Detection System with a Computer-Aided Diagnostic Ability Using an Unsupervised Feature Perception Enhancement Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeu-Sheng Tyan


    Full Text Available We propose an ischemic stroke detection system with a computer-aided diagnostic ability using a four-step unsupervised feature perception enhancement method. In the first step, known as preprocessing, we use a cubic curve contrast enhancement method to enhance image contrast. In the second step, we use a series of methods to extract the brain tissue image area identified during preprocessing. To detect abnormal regions in the brain images, we propose using an unsupervised region growing algorithm to segment the brain tissue area. The brain is centered on a horizontal line and the white matter of the brain’s inner ring is split into eight regions. In the third step, we use a coinciding regional location method to find the hybrid area of locations where a stroke may have occurred in each cerebral hemisphere. Finally, we make corrections and mark the stroke area with red color. In the experiment, we tested the system on 90 computed tomography (CT images from 26 patients, and, with the assistance of two radiologists, we proved that our proposed system has computer-aided diagnostic capabilities. Our results show an increased stroke diagnosis sensitivity of 83% in comparison to 31% when radiologists use conventional diagnostic images.

  3. Ischemic stroke detection system with a computer-aided diagnostic ability using an unsupervised feature perception enhancement method. (United States)

    Tyan, Yeu-Sheng; Wu, Ming-Chi; Chin, Chiun-Li; Kuo, Yu-Liang; Lee, Ming-Sian; Chang, Hao-Yan


    We propose an ischemic stroke detection system with a computer-aided diagnostic ability using a four-step unsupervised feature perception enhancement method. In the first step, known as preprocessing, we use a cubic curve contrast enhancement method to enhance image contrast. In the second step, we use a series of methods to extract the brain tissue image area identified during preprocessing. To detect abnormal regions in the brain images, we propose using an unsupervised region growing algorithm to segment the brain tissue area. The brain is centered on a horizontal line and the white matter of the brain's inner ring is split into eight regions. In the third step, we use a coinciding regional location method to find the hybrid area of locations where a stroke may have occurred in each cerebral hemisphere. Finally, we make corrections and mark the stroke area with red color. In the experiment, we tested the system on 90 computed tomography (CT) images from 26 patients, and, with the assistance of two radiologists, we proved that our proposed system has computer-aided diagnostic capabilities. Our results show an increased stroke diagnosis sensitivity of 83% in comparison to 31% when radiologists use conventional diagnostic images.

  4. Large-scale validation of a computer-aided polyp detection algorithm for CT colonography using cluster computing (United States)

    Bitter, Ingmar; Brown, John E.; Brickman, Daniel; Summers, Ronald M.


    The presented method significantly reduces the time necessary to validate a computed tomographic colonography (CTC) computer aided detection (CAD) algorithm of colonic polyps applied to a large patient database. As the algorithm is being developed on Windows PCs and our target, a Beowulf cluster, is running on Linux PCs, we made the application dual platform compatible using a single source code tree. To maintain, share, and deploy source code, we used CVS (concurrent versions system) software. We built the libraries from their sources for each operating system. Next, we made the CTC CAD algorithm dual-platform compatible and validate that both Windows and Linux produced the same results. Eliminating system dependencies was mostly achieved using the Qt programming library, which encapsulates most of the system dependent functionality in order to present the same interface on either platform. Finally, we wrote scripts to execute the CTC CAD algorithm in parallel. Running hundreds of simultaneous copies of the CTC CAD algorithm on a Beowulf cluster computing network enables execution in less than four hours on our entire collection of over 2400 CT scans, as compared to a month a single PC. As a consequence, our complete patient database can be processed daily, boosting research productivity. Large scale validation of a computer aided polyp detection algorithm for CT colonography using cluster computing significantly improves the round trip time of algorithm improvement and revalidation.

  5. Computer-aided detection of pulmonary nodules using dynamic self-adaptive template matching and a FLDA classifier. (United States)

    Gong, Jing; Liu, Ji-Yu; Wang, Li-Jia; Zheng, Bin; Nie, Sheng-Dong


    Improving the performance of computer-aided detection (CAD) system for pulmonary nodules is still an important issue for its future clinical applications. This study aims to develop a new CAD scheme for pulmonary nodule detection based on dynamic self-adaptive template matching and Fisher linear discriminant analysis (FLDA) classifier. We first segment and repair lung volume by using OTSU algorithm and three-dimensional (3D) region growing. Next, the suspicious regions of interest (ROIs) are extracted and filtered by applying 3D dot filtering and thresholding method. Then, pulmonary nodule candidates are roughly detected with 3D dynamic self-adaptive template matching. Finally, we optimally select 11 image features and apply FLDA classifier to reduce false positive detections. The performance of the new method is validated by comparing with other methods through experiments using two groups of public datasets from Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) and ANODE09. By a 10-fold cross-validation experiment, the new CAD scheme finally has achieved a sensitivity of 90.24% and a false-positive (FP) of 4.54 FP/scan on average for the former dataset, and a sensitivity of 84.1% with 5.59 FP/scan for the latter. By comparing with other previously reported CAD schemes tested on the same datasets, the study proves that this new scheme can yield higher and more robust results in detecting pulmonary nodules.

  6. Detection of selenocompounds in a tryptic digest of yeast selenoprotein by MALDI time-of-flight MS prior to their structural analysis by electrospray ionization triple quadrupole MS. (United States)

    Encinar, Jorge Ruiz; Ruzik, Rafal; Buchmann, William; Tortajada, Jeanine; Lobinski, Ryszard; Szpunar, Joanna


    MALDI-TOFMS was proposed as a key technique to a novel generic approach for the speciation analysis of selenium in yeast supplements. Owing to a lower detection limit and superior matrix tolerance to electrospray MS it allowed a successful detection of selenocompounds in samples for which electrospray MS had failed. The analytical approach developed was applied to the identification of a previously unreported selenopentapeptide (m/z 596) in the tryptic digest of a water-soluble selenoprotein fraction isolated by size-exclusion chromatography. The information on the mass of the protonated molecular ion obtained from MALDI allowed the optimization of the conditions for collision induced dissociation MS using a triple quadrupole spectrometer that enabled the determination of the amino acid sequence SeMet-Asn-Ala-Gly-Arg of the selenopeptide.

  7. In vitro estrogen receptor binding of PCBs: measured activity and detection of hydroxylated metabolites in a recombinant yeast assay. (United States)

    Layton, Alice C; Sanseverino, John; Gregory, Betsy W; Easter, James P; Sayler, Gary S; Schultz, T Wayne


    The estrogenic activities of 17beta-estradiol, biphenyl, chlorinated biphenyls, and Aroclor mixtures 1221, 1242, and 1248 were measured with a modified recombinant yeast estrogen assay (i.e., a Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based lac-Z (beta-galactosidase) reporter assay). Modifications of the assay included the use of glass vials instead of plastic microtiter plates and the addition of the medium and yeast before the test substrate. 14C-labeled compounds were used to follow improvements in the assay procedures. 14C-17beta-estradiol recovery from plastic microtiter plates and glass vials using the standard or the modified procedure was approximately 89%. However, 14C-4-CB (4-chlorobiphenyl) recovery was considerably less, ranging from 3% in plastic microtiter plates using the standard procedure to 26% in vials using the modified procedure. These results suggest that the toxicity of strongly hydrophobic chemicals may be underestimated. Using the modified yeast estrogen assay, full agonist activity was observed for 4-CB, 2,4,6-CB, and 2,5-CB while each of the Aroclor mixtures were only partial agonists. The equivalent EC50 values in ppm were in environmentally relevant concentrations for biphenyl (19 ppm), 4-CB (4.5 ppm), 2,5-CB (21 ppm), 2,4,6-CB (0.8 ppm), Aroclor 1221 (2.9 ppm), Aroclor 1242 (0.65 ppm), and Aroclor 1248 (2.3 ppm). Estrogen receptor binding for the individual PCB congeners was 25- to 650-fold less than the reported estrogen binding for the corresponding hydroxylated PCB metabolite. Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis of yeast extracts indicated that S. cerevisiae hydroxylated the individual PCB congeners in the ppb range. With the exception of biphenyl, the concentration of hydroxylated metabolites obtained from incubation of S. cerevisiae with PCB congeners was consistent with the concentration necessary to elicit a positive estrogen receptor-binding response. This work provides evidence that S. cerevisiae are capable of metabolic

  8. Interaction of CSFV E2 protein with swine host factors as detected by yeast two-hybrid system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas P Gladue

    Full Text Available E2 is one of the envelope glycoproteins of pestiviruses, including classical swine fever virus (CSFV and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV. E2 is involved in several critical functions, including virus entry into target cells, induction of a protective immune response and virulence in swine. However, there is no information regarding any host binding partners for the E2 proteins. Here, we utilized the yeast two-hybrid system and identified fifty-seven host proteins as positive binding partners which bound E2 from both CSFV and BVDV with the exception of two proteins that were found to be positive for binding only to CSFV E2. Alanine scanning of CSFV E2 demonstrated that the binding sites for these cellular proteins on E2 are likely non-linear binding sites. The possible roles of the identified host proteins are discussed as the results presented here will be important for future studies to elucidate mechanisms of host protein-virus interactions during pestivirus infection. However, due to the limitations of the yeast two hybrid system, the proteins identified is not exhaustive and each interaction identified needs to be confirmed by independent experimental approaches in the context of virus-infected cells before any definitive conclusion can be drawn on relevance for the virus life cycle.

  9. Mobile Phone Based Falling Detection Sensor and Computer-Aided Algorithm for Elderly People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jong-Ha


    Full Text Available Falls are dangerous for the elderly population; therefore many fall detection systems have been developed. However, previous methods are bulky for elderly people or only use a single sensor to isolate falls from daily living activities, which makes a fall difficult to distinguish. In this paper, we present a cost-effective and easy-to-use portable fall-detection sensor and algorithm. Specifically, to detect human falls, we used a three-axis accelerator and a three-axis gyroscope in a mobile phone. We used the Fourier descriptor-based frequency analysis method to classify both normal and falling status. From the experimental results, the proposed method detects falling status with 96.14% accuracy.

  10. Immunodiagnosis as an aid for early detection of Fasciola gigantica by glutathione S-transferase (GST)


    Mandal, S.; Mukhopadhayay, S. K.; Ganguly, S.; Jana, S.


    In the present study, effort to isolate purified GST from Fasciola gigantica homogenate and its early detection for confirmation of infection has been successful. In this study, immunoprotection studies with GST and antibody titer post-infection has revealed GST to be an immunogenic protein with high sensitivity to detect anti-Fasciola antibody as early as two weeks post-infection in large ruminants.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Diabetic Retinopathy is a severe and widely spread eye disease which can lead to blindness. One of the main symptoms for vision loss is Exudates and it could be prevented by applying an early screening process. In the Existing systems, a Fuzzy C-Means Clustering technique is used for detecting the exudates for analyzation. The main objective of this paper is, to improve the efficiency of the Exudates detection in diabetic retinopathy images. To do this, a three Stage – [TS] approach is introduced for detecting and extracting the exudates automatically from the retinal images for screening the Diabetic retinopathy. TS functions on the image in three levels such as Pre-processing the image, enhancing the image and detecting the Exudates accurately. After successful detection, the detected exudates are classified using GLCM method for finding the accuracy. The TS approach is experimented using MATLAB software and the performance evaluation can be proved by comparing the results with the existing approach’s result and with the hand-drawn ground truths images from the expert ophthalmologist.

  12. Characterization of binding and bioaccessibility of Cr in Cr-enriched yeast by sequential extraction followed by two-dimensional liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaewkhomdee, Nattikarn [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-inorganique et Environnement, Angot (France); Mahidol University, Department of Chemistry and Center for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Bangkok (Thailand); Mounicou, Sandra; Szpunar, Joanna [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-inorganique et Environnement, Angot (France); Lobinski, Ryszard [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-inorganique et Environnement, Angot (France); Warsaw University of Technology, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Warsaw (Poland); Shiowatana, Juwadee [Mahidol University, Department of Chemistry and Center for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Bangkok (Thailand)


    Sequential extraction (water, Driselase, protease XIV) and extraction with simulated gastric and intestinal fluids were proposed to characterize the binding and the bioaccessibility of chromium in two commercial food supplements obtained by incorporation of this element into yeast. Chromium in Cr-enriched yeast was found to be hardly extractable with water, Driselase, or simulated gastric fluid (recoveries of approximately 10-20%), but proteolysis or gastrointestinal fluid digestion released more than half of the chromium present. Fractionation with size-exclusion chromatography with Cr-specific detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) allowed the distinction of two fractions: one below approximately 1 kDa and one 1-5 kDa; they contained the entirety of the released Cr with proportions varying as a function of the extracting solution and the origin of sample. When collected and investigated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-ICP MS, the low molecular mass fraction was found to release Cr(III), whereas the heavier one showed most of Cr bound in fairly stable hydrophobic complexes. However, an attempt of their identification by electrospray ionization MS/MS and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization MS was not successful. (orig.)

  13. Optimum Detection Times for Bacteria and Yeast Species with the BACTEC 9120 Aerobic Blood Culture System: Evaluation for a 5-Year Period in a Turkish University Hospital (United States)

    Durmaz, Gül; Us, Tercan; Aydinli, Aydin; Kiremitci, Abdurrahman; Kiraz, Nuri; Akgün, Yurdanur


    We tracked and documented the time of positivity of blood cultures by using the BACTEC 9120 (Becton Dickinson Diagnostic Instrument Systems) blood culture system over a 5-year study period. A 7-day protocol of the incubation period was selected, and a total of 11,156 blood cultures were evaluated. The clinically significant microorganisms (32.95%) were isolated in 3,676 specimens. Gram-positive and -negative bacterial isolation rates were found to be 41.07 and 44.88%, respectively. Yeasts were found in 14.03% of all pathogens. Both the false-positivity and -negativity rates were very low (0.1 and 0.3%, respectively). The mean detection times for all of the pathogens were determined to be 19.45 h. Yeasts, nonfermentative gram-negative bacteria, and Brucella melitensis strains were isolated within 5 days. By taking these data into account, we decided to establish a 5-day-incubation protocol in our laboratory instead of the 7 days that are commonly used. PMID:12574291

  14. Optimum detection times for bacteria and yeast species with the BACTEC 9120 aerobic blood culture system: evaluation for a 5-year period in a Turkish university hospital. (United States)

    Durmaz, Gül; Us, Tercan; Aydinli, Aydin; Kiremitci, Abdurrahman; Kiraz, Nuri; Akgün, Yurdanur


    We tracked and documented the time of positivity of blood cultures by using the BACTEC 9120 (Becton Dickinson Diagnostic Instrument Systems) blood culture system over a 5-year study period. A 7-day protocol of the incubation period was selected, and a total of 11156 blood cultures were evaluated. The clinically significant microorganisms (32.95%) were isolated in 3676 specimens. Gram-positive and -negative bacterial isolation rates were found to be 41.07 and 44.88%, respectively. Yeasts were found in 14.03% of all pathogens. Both the false-positivity and -negativity rates were very low (0.1 and 0.3%, respectively). The mean detection times for all of the pathogens were determined to be 19.45 h. Yeasts, nonfermentative gram-negative bacteria, and Brucella melitensis strains were isolated within 5 days. By taking these data into account, we decided to establish a 5-day-incubation protocol in our laboratory instead of the 7 days that are commonly used.

  15. An Improved Location aided Cluster Based Routing Protocol with Intrusion Detection System in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mangai


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Routing and security are the main challenges for ad hoc networks due to dynamic topology as well as resource constraints. A designed protocol must provide scalable routing with better security. Lack of any central coordination and shared wireless medium makes them more vulnerable to attacks than wired networks. And also resource constraints such as limited energy and size also play an important role in the protocols designed for security. Approach: In this study, Improved Location aided Cluster based Routing Protocol (ILCRP for GPS enabled MANETs was analysed in MANETs with malicious nodes and an Intrusion Detection System was used to increase the packet delivery ratio. ILCRP makes use of location aided routing in the presence of cluster based routing Protocol. Results: Use of location information with security against attacks results in high packet delivery ratio for the cluster based routing protocol. Simulations are performed using NS2 by varying the number of nodes. Conclusion: The results illustrate ILCRP provides higher delivery ratio with IDS.

  16. Multiple instance learning for computer aided detection and diagnosis of gastric cancer with dual-energy CT imaging. (United States)

    Li, Chao; Shi, Cen; Zhang, Huan; Chen, Yazhu; Zhang, Su


    Multiple instance learning algorithms have been increasingly utilized in computer aided detection and diagnosis field. In this study, we propose a novel multiple instance learning method for the identification of tumor invasion depth of gastric cancer with dual-energy CT imaging. In the proposed scheme, two level features, bag-level features and instance-level features are extracted for subsequent processing and classification work. For instance-level features, there is some ambiguity in assigning labels to selected patches. An improved Citation-KNN method is presented to solve this problem. Compared with benchmarking state-of-the-art multiple instance learning algorithms using the same clinical dataset, the proposed algorithm can achieve improved results. The experimental evaluation is performed using leave-one-out cross validation with the total accuracy of 0.7692. The proposed multiple instance learning algorithm serves as an alternative method for computer aided diagnosis and identification of tumor invasion depth of gastric cancer with dual-energy CT imaging techniques.

  17. Development of a computer-aided detection system for lung cancer diagnosis (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideo; Inaoka, Noriko; Takabatake, Hirotsugu; Mori, Masaki; Sasaoka, Soichi; Natori, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Akira


    This paper describes a modified system for automatic detection of lung nodules by means of chest x ray image processing techniques. The objective of the system is to help radiologists to improve their accuracy in cancer detection. It is known from retrospective studies of chest x- ray images that radiologists fail to detect about 30 percent of lung cancer cases. A computerized method for detecting lung nodules would be very useful for decreasing the proportion of such oversights. Our proposed system consists of five sub-systems, for image input, lung region determination, nodule detection, rule-based false-positive elimination, and statistical false-positive elimination. In an experiment with the modified system, using 30 lung cancer cases and 78 normal control cases, we obtained figures of 73.3 percent and 89.7 percent for the sensitivity and specificity of the system, respectively. The system has been developed to run on the IBM* PS/55* and IBM RISC System/6000* (RS/6000), and we give the processing time for each platform.

  18. Newcastle disease virus passage in MDBK cells as an aid in detection of a virulent subpopulation. (United States)

    King, D J


    Newcastle disease virus strains (NDV) La Sota, Texas GB (GB), and mixtures of the two strains were serially passaged in embryonated chicken eggs or the MDBK cell line, a more restrictive culture system than eggs for NDV. The two culture systems were compared by evaluating culture harvests for pathogenicity in inoculated chickens; the harvests were identified by hemagglutination-inhibition tests against monoclonal antibodies that can differentiate La Sota and GB cultures. Both viruses, inoculated alone or as mixtures, were propagated by passage in chicken eggs. La Sota strain failed to propagate by continuous passage in MDBK cells, and only GB was identified in culture harvests propagated in MDBK cells that had been inoculated with GB or mixtures of GB and La Sota. The results indicate that the MDBK cell line is a more selective substrate than chicken eggs and suggest that passage in MDBK cells may aid in selecting for more virulent subpopulations of NDV in a mixed culture. Other reference NDV strains, pigeon NDV isolates, and recent lentogenic NDV isolates from chickens were also passaged in MDBK cells; all strains except those that are classified as lentogens like La Sota could be serially propagated in MDBK cells.

  19. Computer-aided detection of prostate cancer in T2-weighted MRI within the peripheral zone (United States)

    Rampun, Andrik; Zheng, Ling; Malcolm, Paul; Tiddeman, Bernie; Zwiggelaar, Reyer


    In this paper we propose a prostate cancer computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system and suggest a set of discriminant texture descriptors extracted from T2-weighted MRI data which can be used as a good basis for a multimodality system. For this purpose, 215 texture descriptors were extracted and eleven different classifiers were employed to achieve the best possible results. The proposed method was tested based on 418 T2-weighted MR images taken from 45 patients and evaluated using 9-fold cross validation with five patients in each fold. The results demonstrated comparable results to existing CAD systems using multimodality MRI. We achieved an area under the receiver operating curve (A z ) values equal to 90.0%+/- 7.6% , 89.5%+/- 8.9% , 87.9%+/- 9.3% and 87.4%+/- 9.2% for Bayesian networks, ADTree, random forest and multilayer perceptron classifiers, respectively, while a meta-voting classifier using average probability as a combination rule achieved 92.7%+/- 7.4% .

  20. Detection of weak estrogenic flavonoids using a recombinant yeast strain and a modified MCF7 cell proliferation assay. (United States)

    Breinholt, V; Larsen, J C


    A newly developed recombinant yeast strain, in which the human estrogen receptor has been stably integrated into the genome of the yeast, was used to gain information on the estrogenic activity of a large series of dietary flavonoids. Among 23 flavonoids investigated, 8 were found to markedly stimulate the transcriptional activity of the human estrogen receptor in the yeast assay increasing transcriptional activity 5-13-fold above background level, corresponding to EC50 values between 0.1 and 25 microM. Five compounds increased the transcriptional activity 2-5-fold over the control, with EC50 values ranging from 84 to 102 microM, whereas the remaining flavonoids were devoid of activity. The most potent flavonoid estrogens tested were naringenin, apigenin, kaempferol, phloretin, and the four isoflavonoids equol, genistein, daidzein, and biochanin A. With the exception of biochanin A, the main feature required to confer estrogenicity was the presence of a single hydroxyl group in the 4'-position of the B-ring of the flavan nucleus, corresponding to the 4-position on phloretin. The estrogenic potency of the flavonoids was found to be 4 000-4 000 000 times lower than that observed for 17beta-estradiol, when compared on the basis of EC50 values. The estrogenic activity of the dietary flavonoids was further investigated in estrogen-dependent human MCF7 breast cancer cells. In this system several of the flavonoids were likewise capable of mimicking natural estrogens and thereby induce cell proliferation. Similar structural requirements for estrogenic activity were found for the two assays. The present results provide evidence that several of the flavo-estrogens possess estrogenic properties comparable in activity to the well-established isoflavonoid estrogens. The use of Alamar Blue, a vital dye which is metabolically reduced by cellular enzymes to a fluorescent product, was found to greatly simplify the MCF7 cell-based estrogen screen, making this mammalian assay

  1. AICPA standard aids in detecting risk factors for fraud. American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. (United States)

    Reinstein, A; Dery, R J


    The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants' Statement on Auditing Standards (SAS) No. 82, Consideration of Fraud in a Financial Statement Audit, requires independent auditors to obtain reasonable assurance that financial statements are free of material mis-statements caused by error or fraud. SAS No. 82 provides guidance for independent auditors to use to help detect and document risk factors related to potential fraud. But while SAS No. 82 suggests how auditors should assess the potential for fraud, it does not expand their detection responsibility. Accordingly, financial managers should discuss thoroughly with auditors the scope and focus of an audit as a means to further their compliance efforts.

  2. Computer-aided detection of lung cancer on chest radiographs: effect of machine CAD true positive/false negative detections on radiologists' confidence level (United States)

    Freedman, Matthew T.; Osicka, Teresa; Lo, Shih-Chung Benedict; Lure, Fleming; Xu, Xin-Wei; Lin, Jesse; Zhao, Hui; Zhang, Ron


    This paper evaluates the effect of Computer-Aided Detection prompts on the confidence and detection of cancer on chest radiographs. Expected findings included an increase in confidence rating and a decrease in variance in confidence when radiologists interacted with a computer prompt that confirmed their initial decision or induced them to switch from an incorrect to a correct decision. Their confidence rating decreased and the variance of confidence rating increased when the computer failed to confirm a correct or incorrect decision. A population of cases was identified that changed among reading modalities. This unstable group of cases differed between the Independent and Sequential without CAD modalities in cancer detection by radiologists and cancer detection by machine. CAD prompts induced the radiologists to make two types of changes in cases: changes on the sequential modality with CAD that restored an initial diagnosis made in the Independent read and new changes that were not present in the Independent or Sequential reads without CAD. This has implications for double reading of cases. The effects of intra-observer variability and inter-observer variability are suggested as potential causes for differences in statistical significance of the Independent and Sequential Design approaches to ROC studies.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Stroemberg-Mika cell motion analyser (SM-CMA) which uses tail detection in order to discriminate between immotile spermatozoa and other particles. Analysis of the spermatozoa by the SM-CMA can easily be checked on a video monitor. The semen samples were from

  4. Mobile Robot Aided Silhouette Imaging and Robust Body Pose Recognition for Elderly-fall Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Liu


    Full Text Available This article introduces a mobile infrared silhouette imaging and sparse representation-based pose recognition for building an elderly-fall detection system. The proposed imaging paradigm exploits the novel use of the pyroelectric infrared (PIR sensor in pursuit of body silhouette imaging. A mobile robot carrying a vertical column of multi-PIR detectors is organized for the silhouette acquisition. Then we express the fall detection problem in silhouette image-based pose recognition. For the pose recognition, we use a robust sparse representation-based method for fall detection. The normal and fall poses are sparsely represented in the basis space spanned by the combinations of a pose training template and an error template. The l1 norm minimizations with linear programming (LP and orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP are used for finding the sparsest solution, and the entity with the largest amplitude encodes the class of the testing sample. The application of the proposed sensing paradigm to fall detection is addressed in the context of three scenarios, including: ideal non-obstruction, simulated random pixel obstruction and simulated random block obstruction. Experimental studies are conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method for nursing and homeland healthcare.

  5. Caries detection methods : Can they aid decision making for invasive sealant treatment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, AC; Verdonschot, EH; Huysmans, MCDNJM


    The decision to place sealants is a difficult one, and it has been suggested that in a low risk population it may be efficient to wait until caries is detected in the fissure. An invasive sealant technique with fissure preparation may then be indicated. The diagnostic method used in the indication o

  6. Improvement of the Hard Exudates Detection Method Used For Computer- Aided Diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feroui Amel


    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a severe and widely spread eye disease. Early diagnosis and timely treatment of these clinical signs such as hard exudates could efficiently prevent blindness. The presence of exudates within the macular region is a main hallmark of diabetic macular edema and allows its detection with high sensitivity. In this paper, we combine the k-means clustering algorithm and mathematical morphology to detect hard exudates (HEs in retinal images of several diabetic patients. This method is tested on a set of 50 ophthalmologic images with variable brightness, color, and forms of HEs. The algorithm obtained a sensitivity of 95.92%, predictive value of 92.28% and accuracy of 99.70% using a lesion-based criterion.

  7. Benefits of texture analysis of dual energy CT for Computer-Aided pulmonary embolism detection. (United States)

    Foncubierta-Rodríguez, Antonio; Jiménez del Toro, Óscar Alfonso; Platon, Alexandra; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Müller, Henning; Depeursinge, Adrien


    Pulmonary embolism is an avoidable cause of death if treated immediately but delays in diagnosis and treatment lead to an increased risk. Computer-assisted image analysis of both unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) have proven useful for diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Dual energy CT provides additional information over the standard single energy scan by generating four-dimensional (4D) data, in our case with 11 energy levels in 3D. In this paper a 4D texture analysis method capable of detecting pulmonary embolism in dual energy CT is presented. The method uses wavelet-based visual words together with an automatic geodesic-based region of interest detection algorithm to characterize the texture properties of each lung lobe. Results show an increase in performance with respect to the single energy CT analysis, as well as an accuracy gain compared to preliminary work on a small dataset.

  8. Optimization of Breast Tomosynthesis Imaging Systems for Computer-Aided Detection (United States)


    digital mammography have been used for over 30 years in the early detection of cancer . The combination of screening and adjuvant therapies have led to...a decrease in the mortality rate from breast cancer [1]. Because mammography projects a three-dimensional object onto a two-dimensional surface...Update from 2009 [25]. A.3. Angle-dependent detector response: Two different detectors were modeled: gadolinium oxysulfide (Gd2O2S) and cesium iodide

  9. Computer-Aided Interval Change Analysis of Microcalcifications on Mammograms for Breast Cancer Detection (United States)


    34Classification of malignant and benign microcalcifications by texture analysis," Medical Physics 22, 938, 1995. 6. Y. Jiang, R. M. Nishikawa, D...34 Medical Physics 25, 2007-2019, 1998. 9. Y. Jiang, R. M. Nishikawa, and J. Papaioannou, "Dependence of computer classification of clustered...microcalcifications on the correct detection of microcalcifications " Medical Physics 28, 1949-1957, 2001. 10. M. F. Salfity, R. M. Nishikawa, Y. Jiang

  10. Computer-aided teniae coli detection using height maps from computed tomographic colonography images (United States)

    Wei, Zhuoshi; Yao, Jianhua; Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.


    Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is a minimally invasive technique for colonic polyps and cancer screening. Teniae coli are three bands of longitudinal smooth muscle on the colon surface. They are parallel, equally distributed on the colon wall, and form a triple helix structure from the appendix to the sigmoid colon. Because of their characteristics, teniae coli are important anatomical meaningful landmarks on human colon. This paper proposes a novel method for teniae coli detection on CT colonography. We first unfold the three-dimensional (3D) colon using a reversible projection technique and compute the two-dimensional (2D) height map of the unfolded colon. The height map records the elevation of colon surface relative to the unfolding plane, where haustral folds corresponding to high elevation points and teniae to low elevation points. The teniae coli are detected on the height map and then projected back to the 3D colon. Since teniae are located where the haustral folds meet, we break down the problem by first detecting haustral folds. We apply 2D Gabor filter banks to extract fold features. The maximum response of the filter banks is then selected as the feature image. The fold centers are then identified based on piecewise thresholding on the feature image. Connecting the fold centers yields a path of the folds. Teniae coli are finally extracted as lines running between the fold paths. Experiments were carried out on 7 cases. The proposed method yielded a promising result with an average normalized RMSE of 5.66% and standard deviation of 4.79% of the circumference of the colon.

  11. Computer aided detection of tumor and edema in brain FLAIR magnetic resonance image using ANN (United States)

    Pradhan, Nandita; Sinha, A. K.


    This paper presents an efficient region based segmentation technique for detecting pathological tissues (Tumor & Edema) of brain using fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance (MR) images. This work segments FLAIR brain images for normal and pathological tissues based on statistical features and wavelet transform coefficients using k-means algorithm. The image is divided into small blocks of 4×4 pixels. The k-means algorithm is used to cluster the image based on the feature vectors of blocks forming different classes representing different regions in the whole image. With the knowledge of the feature vectors of different segmented regions, supervised technique is used to train Artificial Neural Network using fuzzy back propagation algorithm (FBPA). Segmentation for detecting healthy tissues and tumors has been reported by several researchers by using conventional MRI sequences like T1, T2 and PD weighted sequences. This work successfully presents segmentation of healthy and pathological tissues (both Tumors and Edema) using FLAIR images. At the end pseudo coloring of segmented and classified regions are done for better human visualization.

  12. The wine and beer yeast Dekkera bruxellensis. (United States)

    Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Dashko, Sofia; Ishchuk, Olena P; Piškur, Jure


    Recently, the non-conventional yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has been gaining more and more attention in the food industry and academic research. This yeast species is a distant relative of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is especially known for two important characteristics: on the one hand, it is considered to be one of the main spoilage organisms in the wine and bioethanol industry; on the other hand, it is 'indispensable' as a contributor to the flavour profile of Belgium lambic and gueuze beers. Additionally, it adds to the characteristic aromatic properties of some red wines. Recently this yeast has also become a model for the study of yeast evolution. In this review we focus on the recently developed molecular and genetic tools, such as complete genome sequencing and transformation, to study and manipulate this yeast. We also focus on the areas that are particularly well explored in this yeast, such as the synthesis of off-flavours, yeast detection methods, carbon metabolism and evolutionary history.

  13. The Role of Computer-aided Detection and Diagnosis System in the Differential Diagnosis of Thyroid Lesions in Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tien-Chun Chang


    Full Text Available To avoid abuse of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC and to save the time of a learning curve, a computer-aided detection and diagnosis (CAD system to detect suspicious lesions for FNAC from thyroid ultrasonography has been developed by the Department of Industrial Engineering, cooperative with the Department of Surgery at the National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. The purposes of this article are to introduce how to utilize the CAD system in thyroid ultrasonography, and to outline the real role of the CAD system. After marking the apparently transverse (extending across axis and longitudinal axis of the nodule appearing by ultrasonography, four parameters are calculated and displayed by the computer system automatically, which include microcalcifications, hypoechoic lesion, heterogeneity, and indistinct margin. The results are displayed by the pointers in the semilunar figures. The necessity of FNAC is dependent on the size and numbers of positive findings (pointers displayed in the right side. This CAD system is objective and easy to use. It may supply an easy method to determine the necessity for FNAC, but what we must keep in mind is that this method can reduce the necessity of FNAC, not replace FNAC for the diagnosis of thyroid cancer.

  14. Computer-aided stenosis detection at coronary CT angiography: effect on performance of readers with different experience levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thilo, Christian [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Herzzentrum Augsburg-Schwaben, Department of Cardiology, Klinikum Augsburg, Augsburg (Germany); Gebregziabher, Mulugeta [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Biostatistics, Bioinformatics and Epidemiology, Charleston, SC (United States); Meinel, Felix G.; Arnoldi, Elisabeth M. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Goldenberg, Roman [Rcadia Medical Imaging, Haifa (Israel); Nance, John W.; Soma, Lashonda D.; Ebersberger, Ullrich; Blanke, Philip; Coursey, Richard L. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Rosenblum, Michael A.; Zwerner, Peter L. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States)


    To evaluate the effect of a computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithm for coronary CT angiography (cCTA) on the performance of readers with different experience levels. We studied 50 patients (18 women, 58 ± 11 years) who had undergone cCTA and quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). Eight observers with varying experience levels evaluated all studies for ≥50 % coronary artery stenosis. After 3 months, the same observers re-evaluated all studies, this time guided by a CAD system. Their performance with and without the CAD system (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value) was assessed using the Likelihood Ratio Χ{sup 2} test both at the per-patient and per-vessel levels. The sensitivity of the CAD system alone for stenosis detection was 71 % per-vessel and 100 % per-patient. There were 54 false positive (FP) findings within 199 analyzed vessels, most of them associated with non-obstructive (<50 %) lesions. With CAD, one (out of three, 33 %) inexperienced reader's per-patient sensitivity and negative predictive value significantly improved from 79 % to 100 % (P = 0.046) and from 90 % to 100 % (P = 0.034), respectively. Other readers' performance indices showed no statistically significant change. Our results suggest that CAD can improve some inexperienced readers' sensitivity for diagnosing coronary artery stenosis at cCTA. (orig.)

  15. Deep-learning convolution neural network for computer-aided detection of microcalcifications in digital breast tomosynthesis (United States)

    Samala, Ravi K.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Cha, Kenny; Helvie, Mark A.


    A deep learning convolution neural network (DLCNN) was designed to differentiate microcalcification candidates detected during the prescreening stage as true calcifications or false positives in a computer-aided detection (CAD) system for clustered microcalcifications. The microcalcification candidates were extracted from the planar projection image generated from the digital breast tomosynthesis volume reconstructed by a multiscale bilateral filtering regularized simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique. For training and testing of the DLCNN, true microcalcifications are manually labeled for the data sets and false positives were obtained from the candidate objects identified by the CAD system at prescreening after exclusion of the true microcalcifications. The DLCNN architecture was selected by varying the number of filters, filter kernel sizes and gradient computation parameter in the convolution layers, resulting in a parameter space of 216 combinations. The exhaustive grid search method was used to select an optimal architecture within the parameter space studied, guided by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) as a figure-of-merit. The effects of varying different categories of the parameter space were analyzed. The selected DLCNN was compared with our previously designed CNN architecture for the test set. The AUCs of the CNN and DLCNN was 0.89 and 0.93, respectively. The improvement was statistically significant (p < 0.05).

  16. SVD-Aided Power Allocation and Iterative Detection Scheme for Turbo-BLAST System with Imperfect Channel State Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Chen


    Full Text Available A new technique that combines adaptive power allocation and iterative detection based on singular value decomposition (SVD is introduced for the modified Turbo-BLAST system with imperfect channel state information (I-CSI. At the transmitter, in order to maximize the capacity performance, the MIMO channel is decomposed into several parallel eigen subchannels by SVD, and then proper power based on the water-filling principle is allocated to every subchannel subject to the total transmit power constraint. At the receiver, the modified MMSE detector taking the CSI imperfection into account is used to remove the coantenna interference, and then the turbo idea is employed for iterative detection to lower the system BER. As a result, the BER performance is effectively enhanced. Numerical results show that the introduced SVD-aided adaptive power allocation method is valid to improve not only the capacity but also the BER performance in the presence of channel state information imperfection, while the iterative detector can further lower the BER results.

  17. Analysis of computer-aided detection techniques and signal characteristics for clustered microcalcifications on digital mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis (United States)

    Samala, Ravi K.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Helvie, Mark A.


    With IRB approval, digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) images of human subjects were collected using a GE GEN2 DBT prototype system. Corresponding digital mammograms (DMs) of the same subjects were collected retrospectively from patient files. The data set contained a total of 237 views of DBT and equal number of DM views from 120 human subjects, each included 163 views with microcalcification clusters (MCs) and 74 views without MCs. The data set was separated into training and independent test sets. The pre-processing, object prescreening and segmentation, false positive reduction and clustering strategies for MC detection by three computer-aided detection (CADe) systems designed for DM, DBT, and a planar projection image generated from DBT were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves based on features extracted from microcalcifications and free-response ROC (FROC) curves based on scores from MCs were used to quantify the performance of the systems. Jackknife FROC (JAFROC) and non-parametric analysis methods were used to determine the statistical difference between the FROC curves. The difference between the CADDM and CADDBT systems when the false positive rate was estimated from cases without MCs did not reach statistical significance. The study indicates that the large search space in DBT may not be a limiting factor for CADe to achieve similar performance as that observed in DM.

  18. Detection of compatibility between baclofen and excipients with aid of infrared spectroscopy and chemometry (United States)

    Rojek, Barbara; Wesolowski, Marek; Suchacz, Bogdan


    In the paper infrared (IR) spectroscopy and multivariate exploration techniques: principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were applied as supportive methods for the detection of physicochemical incompatibilities between baclofen and excipients. In the course of research, the most useful rotational strategy in PCA proved to be varimax normalized, while in CA Ward's hierarchical agglomeration with Euclidean distance measure enabled to yield the most interpretable results. Chemometrical calculations confirmed the suitability of PCA and CA as the auxiliary methods for interpretation of infrared spectra in order to recognize whether compatibilities or incompatibilities between active substance and excipients occur. On the basis of IR spectra and the results of PCA and CA it was possible to demonstrate that the presence of lactose, β-cyclodextrin and meglumine in binary mixtures produce interactions with baclofen. The results were verified using differential scanning calorimetry, differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetry/differential thermogravimetry and X-ray powder diffraction analyses.

  19. Presence of estrogenic activity from emission of fossil fuel combustion as detected by a recombinant yeast bioassay (United States)

    Wang, Jingxian; Wu, Wenzhong; Henkelmann, Bernhard; You, Li; Kettrup, Antonius; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    Estrogenic activities of emission samples generated by fossil fuel combustion were investigated with human estrogen receptor (ER) recombinant yeast bioassay. The results showed that there were weak but clear estrogenic activities in combustion emissions of fossil fuels including coal, petroleum, and diesel. The estrogenic relative potency (RP) of fossil fuel combustion was the highest in petroleum-fired car, followed by coal-fired stove, diesel-fired agrimotor, coal-fired electric power station. On the other hand, the estrogenic relative inductive efficiency (RIE) was the highest in coal-fired stove and coal-fired electric power station, followed by petroleum-fired car and diesel-fired agrimotor. The estrogenic activities in the sub-fractions from chromatographic separation of emitted materials were also determined. The results indicated that different chemical fractions in these complex systems have different estrogenic potencies. The GC/MS analysis of the emission showed that there were many aromatic carbonyls, big molecular alcohol, PAHs and derivatives, and substituted phenolic compounds and derivatives which have been reported as environmental estrogens. The existence of estrogenic substances in fossil fuel combustion demands further investigation of their potential adverse effects on human and on the ecosystem. The magnitude of pollution due to global usage of fossil fuels makes it imperative to understand the issue of fossil fuel-derived endocrine activities and the associated health risks, particularly the aggregated risks stemmed from exposure to toxicants of multiple sources.

  20. Presence of estrogenic activity from emission of fossil fuel combustion as detected by a recombinant yeast bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.X.; Wu, W.Z.; Henkelmann, B.; You, L.; Kettrup, A.; Schramm, K.W. [GSF, Neuherberg (Germany). National Research Center for Environmental & Health


    Estrogenic activities of emission samples generated by fossil fuel combustion were investigated with human estrogen receptor recombinant yeast bioassay. The results showed that there were weak but clear estrogenic activities in combustion emissions of fossil fuels including coal, petroleum, and diesel. The estrogenic relative potency of fossil fuel combustion was the highest in petroleum-fired car, followed by coal-fired stove, diesel-fired agrimotor, coal-fired electric power station. On the other hand, the estrogenic relative inductive efficiency was the highest in coal-fired stove and coal-fired electric power station, followed by petroleum-fired car and diesel-fired agrimotor. The estrogenic activities in the sub-fractions from chromatographic separation of emitted materials measured. The results indicated that different chemical fractions in these complex systems have different estrogenic potencies. The GC/MS analysis of the emission showed that there were many aromatic carbonyls, big molecular alcohol, PAHs and derivatives, and substituted phenolic compounds and derivatives which have been reported as environmental estrogens. The existence of estrogenic substances in fossil fuel combustion demands further investigation of their potential adverse effects on human and on the ecosystem.

  1. Single reading with computer-aided detection performed by selected radiologists in a breast cancer screening program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargalló, Xavier, E-mail: [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/ Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Santamaría, Gorane; Amo, Montse del; Arguis, Pedro [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/ Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Ríos, José [Biostatistics and Data Management Core Facility, IDIBAPS, (Hospital Clinic) C/ Mallorca, 183. Floor -1. Office #60. 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Grau, Jaume [Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology Unit, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/ Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Burrel, Marta; Cores, Enrique; Velasco, Martín [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/ Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain)


    Highlights: • 1-The cancer detection rate of the screening program improved using a single reading protocol by experienced radiologists assisted by CAD. • 2-The cancer detection rate improved at the cost of increasing recall rate. • 3-CAD, used by breast radiologists, did not help to detect more cancers. - Abstract: Objectives: To assess the impact of shifting from a standard double reading plus arbitration protocol to a single reading by experienced radiologists assisted by computer-aided detection (CAD) in a breast cancer screening program. Methods: This was a prospective study approved by the ethics committee. Data from 21,321 consecutive screening mammograms in incident rounds (2010–2012) were read following a single reading plus CAD protocol and compared with data from 47,462 consecutive screening mammograms in incident rounds (2004–2010) that were interpreted following a double reading plus arbitration protocol. For the single reading, radiologists were selected on the basis of the appraisement of their previous performance. Results: Period 2010–2012 vs. period 2004–2010: Cancer detection rate (CDR): 6.1‰ (95% confidence interval: 5.1–7.2) vs. 5.25‰; Recall rate (RR): 7.02% (95% confidence interval: 6.7–7.4) vs. 7.24% (selected readers before arbitration) and vs. 3.94 (all readers after arbitration); Predictive positive value of recall: 8.69% vs. 13.32%. Average size of invasive cancers: 14.6 ± 9.5 mm vs. 14.3 ± 9.5 mm. Stage: 0 (22.3/26.1%); I (59.2/50.8%); II (19.2/17.1%); III (3.1/3.3%); IV (0/1.9%). Specialized breast radiologists performed better than general radiologists. Conclusions: The cancer detection rate of the screening program improved using a single reading protocol by experienced radiologists assisted by CAD, at the cost of a moderate increase of the recall rate mainly related to the lack of arbitration.

  2. Yeast Lab


    Lewis, Matt; Powell, Jim


    Yeast are grown in a small, capped ask, generating carbon dioxide which is trapped in an inverted jar full of colored water. The volume of carbon dioxide produced can either be measured directly or using time-lapse imagery on an iPad or similar. Students are then challenged to model the resulting data. From this exercise students gain greater understand- ing of ODE compartment models, parameter estimation, population dynamics and limiting factors.

  3. Computer-aided detection of bladder mass within non-contrast-enhanced region of CT Urography (CTU) (United States)

    Cha, Kenny H.; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Caoili, Elaine M.; Cohan, Richard H.; Weizer, Alon; Zhou, Chuan


    We are developing a computer-aided detection system for bladder cancer in CT urography (CTU). We have previously developed methods for detection of bladder masses within the contrast-enhanced region of the bladder. In this study, we investigated methods for detection of bladder masses within the non-contrast enhanced region. The bladder was first segmented using a newly developed deep-learning convolutional neural network in combination with level sets. The non-contrast-enhanced region was separated from the contrast-enhanced region with a maximum-intensityprojection- based method. The non-contrast region was smoothed and a gray level threshold was employed to segment the bladder wall and potential masses. The bladder wall was transformed into a straightened thickness profile, which was analyzed to identify lesion candidates as a prescreening step. The lesion candidates were segmented using our autoinitialized cascaded level set (AI-CALS) segmentation method, and 27 morphological features were extracted for each candidate. Stepwise feature selection with simplex optimization and leave-one-case-out resampling were used for training and validation of a false positive (FP) classifier. In each leave-one-case-out cycle, features were selected from the training cases and a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier was designed to merge the selected features into a single score for classification of the left-out test case. A data set of 33 cases with 42 biopsy-proven lesions in the noncontrast enhanced region was collected. During prescreening, the system obtained 83.3% sensitivity at an average of 2.4 FPs/case. After feature extraction and FP reduction by LDA, the system achieved 81.0% sensitivity at 2.0 FPs/case, and 73.8% sensitivity at 1.5 FPs/case.

  4. Detection of Dientamoeba fragilis in patients with HIV/AIDS by using a simplified iron hematoxylin technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Alves Garcia


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Studies strongly indicate Dientamoeba fragilis as one of the causes of diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV patients. METHODS: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of D. fragilis associated with the causes of diarrhea in 82 HIV/ AIDS patients hospitalized at the Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas from September 2006 to November 2008. RESULTS: In total, 105 samples were collected from 82 patients. Unprotected sex was the most frequent cause of HIV infection (46.3%, followed by the use of injectable or non-injectable drugs (14.6%. Patients presented with viral loads of 49-750,000 copies/ mL (average: 73,849 ± 124,850 copies/mL and CD4 counts ranging of 2-1,306 cells/mm³ (average: 159 ± 250 cells/mm³. On an average, the odds of obtaining a positive result by using the other techniques (Hoffman, Pons and Janer or Lutz; Ritchie were 2.7 times higher than the chance of obtaining a positive result by using the simplified iron hematoxylin method. Significant differences were found between the methods (p = 0.003. CONCLUSIONS: The other techniques can detect a significantly greater amount of parasites than the simplified iron hematoxylin method, especially with respect to Isospora belli, Cryptosporidium sp., Schistosoma mansoni, and Strongyloides stercoralis, which were not detected using hematoxylin. Endolimax nana and D. fragilis were detected more frequently on using hematoxylin, and the only parasite not found by the other methods was D. fragilis.

  5. Computer-aided polyp detection on CT colonography: Comparison of three systems in a high-risk human population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Sun [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehangno, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Se Hyung, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehangno, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hyo [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehangno, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Lee, June-Goo [Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Gyun [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Jae Young; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehangno, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)


    Purpose: To compare the detection performances of two commercial and one academic computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems for polyp detection on CT colonography (CTC) in a high-risk human population and to assess their detection characteristics. Materials and methods: This retrospective study had institutional review board approval, but informed consent was waived. Sixty-eight patients who were suspected of having colonic polyps and scheduled for colonoscopic polyp removal were included. After CTC was performed using a 64-row MDCT, two commercial (PEV, CAR) and one academic (Hessian matrix-based) CAD systems were applied to each CTC dataset. Colonoscopy using the segmental unblinded technique was performed as a standard of reference. Per-polyp and per-patient sensitivities were calculated and compared for each CAD system. The mean number of false-positives (FPs) and false-negatives (FNs) was computed and the causes of all FPs and FNs were analyzed. Results: A total of 151 polyps in 61 patients were detected (77 polyps <6 mm, 48 6-9.9 mm, 26 {>=} 10 mm). Per-polyp sensitivity for PEV, CAR, and Hessian matrix-based CAD were: 71.6%, 78.4%, and 83.8% for polyps {>=}6 mm, and 88.5%, 96.2%, and 96.2% for polyps {>=}10 mm. Per-patient sensitivity for polyps {>=}6 mm was 80.4%, 89.1%, and 93.5%, and 87%, 95.7%, and 95.7% for polyps {>=}10 mm, respectively. Per-polyp and per-patient sensitivities were not significantly different among the three CAD systems regardless of size threshold. Mean number of FPs was 6.9 for PEV, 7.3 for CAR, and 14 for Hessian matrix-based CAD. The most common cause of FPs were feces, followed by extracolonic findings, prominent folds and ileocecal valve, and rectal tube. The distribution of the causes of FPs was significantly different among the three systems. Conclusion: Sensitivity of the three CAD systems for polyp detection was comparable regardless of the polyp size threshold; however, the number of FPs was higher in the Hessian matrix

  6. Magnetic viscosity of tropical soils: classification and prediction as an aid for landmine detection (United States)

    Igel, J.; Preetz, H.; Altfelder, S.


    assessing the impact of the subsurface on EMI sensors for landmine detection. In general, intermediate, felsic and sedimentary rocks have no influence on the detectors and only a weak influence in the most extreme cases. Soils derived from these rocks typically have no influence; however, they can have a very severe influence in a few cases. In contrast, ultramafic and mafic rocks typically have a moderate influence and a very severe influence in extreme cases, with the associated soils resulting in a severe influence in general. The deduced prognosis system can be used by demining organizations to help them predict metal detector performance in tropical regions on the basis of geologic and/or soil maps, which do not supply information on electromagnetic properties. In this way, such a system may eventually help with the planning of demining campaigns and selection of appropriate sensors.

  7. The effect of computer-aided detection markers on visual search and reader performance during concurrent reading of CT colonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helbren, Emma; Taylor, Stuart A. [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Fanshawe, Thomas R.; Mallett, Susan [University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, Oxford (United Kingdom); Phillips, Peter [University of Cumbria, Health and Medical Sciences Group, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Boone, Darren [Colchester Hospital University NHS Foundation Trust and Anglia University, Colchester (United Kingdom); Gale, Alastair [Loughborough University, Applied Vision Research Centre, Loughborough (United Kingdom); Altman, Douglas G. [University of Oxford, Centre for Statistics in Medicine, Oxford (United Kingdom); Manning, David [Lancaster University, Lancaster Medical School, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Halligan, Steve [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); University College Hospital, Gastrointestinal Radiology, University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, Podium Level 2, London, NW1 2BU (United Kingdom)


    We aimed to identify the effect of computer-aided detection (CAD) on visual search and performance in CT Colonography (CTC) of inexperienced and experienced readers. Fifteen endoluminal CTC examinations were recorded, each with one polyp, and two videos were generated, one with and one without a CAD mark. Forty-two readers (17 experienced, 25 inexperienced) interpreted the videos during infrared visual search recording. CAD markers and polyps were treated as regions of interest in data processing. This multi-reader, multi-case study was analysed using multilevel modelling. CAD drew readers' attention to polyps faster, accelerating identification times: median 'time to first pursuit' was 0.48 s (IQR 0.27 to 0.87 s) with CAD, versus 0.58 s (IQR 0.35 to 1.06 s) without. For inexperienced readers, CAD also held visual attention for longer. All visual search metrics used to assess visual gaze behaviour demonstrated statistically significant differences when ''with'' and ''without'' CAD were compared. A significant increase in the number of correct polyp identifications across all readers was seen with CAD (74 % without CAD, 87 % with CAD; p < 0.001). CAD significantly alters visual search and polyp identification in readers viewing three-dimensional endoluminal CTC. For polyp and CAD marker pursuit times, CAD generally exerted a larger effect on inexperienced readers. (orig.)

  8. An automated tuberculosis screening strategy combining X-ray-based computer-aided detection and clinical information (United States)

    Melendez, Jaime; Sánchez, Clara I.; Philipsen, Rick H. H. M.; Maduskar, Pragnya; Dawson, Rodney; Theron, Grant; Dheda, Keertan; van Ginneken, Bram


    Lack of human resources and radiological interpretation expertise impair tuberculosis (TB) screening programmes in TB-endemic countries. Computer-aided detection (CAD) constitutes a viable alternative for chest radiograph (CXR) reading. However, no automated techniques that exploit the additional clinical information typically available during screening exist. To address this issue and optimally exploit this information, a machine learning-based combination framework is introduced. We have evaluated this framework on a database containing 392 patient records from suspected TB subjects prospectively recruited in Cape Town, South Africa. Each record comprised a CAD score, automatically computed from a CXR, and 12 clinical features. Comparisons with strategies relying on either CAD scores or clinical information alone were performed. Our results indicate that the combination framework outperforms the individual strategies in terms of the area under the receiving operating characteristic curve (0.84 versus 0.78 and 0.72), specificity at 95% sensitivity (49% versus 24% and 31%) and negative predictive value (98% versus 95% and 96%). Thus, it is believed that combining CAD and clinical information to estimate the risk of active disease is a promising tool for TB screening.

  9. Performance enhancement of MC-CDMA system through novel sensitive bit algorithm aided turbo multi user detection. (United States)

    Kumaravel, Rasadurai; Narayanaswamy, Kumaratharan


    Multi carrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) system is a promising multi carrier modulation (MCM) technique for high data rate wireless communication over frequency selective fading channels. MC-CDMA system is a combination of code division multiple access (CDMA) and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). The OFDM parts reduce multipath fading and inter symbol interference (ISI) and the CDMA part increases spectrum utilization. Advantages of this technique are its robustness in case of multipath propagation and improve security with the minimize ISI. Nevertheless, due to the loss of orthogonality at the receiver in a mobile environment, the multiple access interference (MAI) appears. The MAI is one of the factors that degrade the bit error rate (BER) performance of MC-CDMA system. The multiuser detection (MUD) and turbo coding are the two dominant techniques for enhancing the performance of the MC-CDMA systems in terms of BER as a solution of overcome to MAI effects. In this paper a low complexity iterative soft sensitive bits algorithm (SBA) aided logarithmic-Maximum a-Posteriori algorithm (Log MAP) based turbo MUD is proposed. Simulation results show that the proposed method provides better BER performance with low complexity decoding, by mitigating the detrimental effects of MAI.

  10. A new 2D segmentation method based on dynamic programming applied to computer aided detection in mammography. (United States)

    Timp, Sheila; Karssemeijer, Nico


    Mass segmentation plays a crucial role in computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems for classification of suspicious regions as normal, benign, or malignant. In this article we present a robust and automated segmentation technique--based on dynamic programming--to segment mass lesions from surrounding tissue. In addition, we propose an efficient algorithm to guarantee resulting contours to be closed. The segmentation method based on dynamic programming was quantitatively compared with two other automated segmentation methods (region growing and the discrete contour model) on a dataset of 1210 masses. For each mass an overlap criterion was calculated to determine the similarity with manual segmentation. The mean overlap percentage for dynamic programming was 0.69, for the other two methods 0.60 and 0.59, respectively. The difference in overlap percentage was statistically significant. To study the influence of the segmentation method on the performance of a CAD system two additional experiments were carried out. The first experiment studied the detection performance of the CAD system for the different segmentation methods. Free-response receiver operating characteristics analysis showed that the detection performance was nearly identical for the three segmentation methods. In the second experiment the ability of the classifier to discriminate between malignant and benign lesions was studied. For region based evaluation the area Az under the receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.74 for dynamic programming, 0.72 for the discrete contour model, and 0.67 for region growing. The difference in Az values obtained by the dynamic programming method and region growing was statistically significant. The differences between other methods were not significant.

  11. Computer-aided detection of clustered microcalcifications in multiscale bilateral filtering regularized reconstructed digital breast tomosynthesis volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samala, Ravi K., E-mail:; Chan, Heang-Ping; Lu, Yao; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Wei, Jun; Helvie, Mark A. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-5842 (United States); Sahiner, Berkman [Center for Devices and Radiological Health, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Maryland 20993 (United States)


    Purpose: Develop a computer-aided detection (CADe) system for clustered microcalcifications in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) volume enhanced with multiscale bilateral filtering (MSBF) regularization. Methods: With Institutional Review Board approval and written informed consent, two-view DBT of 154 breasts, of which 116 had biopsy-proven microcalcification (MC) clusters and 38 were free of MCs, was imaged with a General Electric GEN2 prototype DBT system. The DBT volumes were reconstructed with MSBF-regularized simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) that was designed to enhance MCs and reduce background noise while preserving the quality of other tissue structures. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of MCs was further improved with enhancement-modulated calcification response (EMCR) preprocessing, which combined multiscale Hessian response to enhance MCs by shape and bandpass filtering to remove the low-frequency structured background. MC candidates were then located in the EMCR volume using iterative thresholding and segmented by adaptive region growing. Two sets of potential MC objects, cluster centroid objects and MC seed objects, were generated and the CNR of each object was calculated. The number of candidates in each set was controlled based on the breast volume. Dynamic clustering around the centroid objects grouped the MC candidates to form clusters. Adaptive criteria were designed to reduce false positive (FP) clusters based on the size, CNR values and the number of MCs in the cluster, cluster shape, and cluster based maximum intensity projection. Free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) and jackknife alternative FROC (JAFROC) analyses were used to assess the performance and compare with that of a previous study. Results: Unpaired two-tailedt-test showed a significant increase (p < 0.0001) in the ratio of CNRs for MCs with and without MSBF regularization compared to similar ratios for FPs. For view-based detection, a

  12. Lost in traffic? The K+ channel of lily pollen, LilKT1, is detected at the endomembranes inside yeast cells, tobacco leaves and lily pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minou Jasmin Safiarian


    Full Text Available Fertilization in plants relies on fast growth of pollen tubes through the style tissue towards the ovules. This polarized growth depends on influx of ions and water to increase the tube’s volume. K+ inward rectifying channels were detected in many pollen species, with one identified in Arabidopsis. Here, an Arabidopsis AKT1-like channel (LilKT1 was identified from Lilium longiflorum pollen. Complementation of K+ uptake deficient yeast mutants was only successful when the entire LilKT1 C-terminus was replaced by the AKT1 C-terminus. No signals were observed in the plasma membrane (PM of pollen tubes after expression of fluorescence-tagged LilKT1 nor were any LilKT1-derived peptides detectable in the pollen PM by mass spectrometry analysis. In contrast, fluorescent LilKT1 partly co-localized with the lily PM H+ ATPase LilHA2 in the PM of tobacco leaf cells, but exhibited a punctual fluorescence pattern and also sub-plasma membrane localization. Thus, incorporation of LilKT1 into the pollen PM seems tighter controlled than in other cells with still unknown trafficking signals in LilKT1’s C-terminus, resulting in channel densities below detection limits. This highly controlled incorporation might have physiological reasons: an uncontrolled number of K+ inward channels in the pollen PM will give an increased water influx due to the raising cytosolic K+ concentration, and finally, causing the tube to burst.

  13. Is computer aided detection (CAD cost effective in screening mammography? A model based on the CADET II study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallis Matthew G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single reading with computer aided detection (CAD is an alternative to double reading for detecting cancer in screening mammograms. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the use of a single reader with CAD is more cost-effective than double reading. Methods Based on data from the CADET II study, the cost-effectiveness of single reading with CAD versus double reading was measured in terms of cost per cancer detected. Cost (Pound (£, year 2007/08 of single reading with CAD versus double reading was estimated assuming a health and social service perspective and a 7 year time horizon. As the equipment cost varies according to the unit size a separate analysis was conducted for high, average and low volume screening units. One-way sensitivity analyses were performed by varying the reading time, equipment and assessment cost, recall rate and reader qualification. Results CAD is cost increasing for all sizes of screening unit. The introduction of CAD is cost-increasing compared to double reading because the cost of CAD equipment, staff training and the higher assessment cost associated with CAD are greater than the saving in reading costs. The introduction of single reading with CAD, in place of double reading, would produce an additional cost of £227 and £253 per 1,000 women screened in high and average volume units respectively. In low volume screening units, the high cost of purchasing the equipment will results in an additional cost of £590 per 1,000 women screened. One-way sensitivity analysis showed that the factors having the greatest effect on the cost-effectiveness of CAD with single reading compared with double reading were the reading time and the reader's professional qualification (radiologist versus advanced practitioner. Conclusions Without improvements in CAD effectiveness (e.g. a decrease in the recall rate CAD is unlikely to be a cost effective alternative to double reading for mammography screening

  14. A multiattribute utility evaluation of different methods for the detection of enteric protozoa causing diarrhea in AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundar Shyam


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enteric protozoa and sporozoa have emerged as important opportunistic parasites and can cause fatal infections in AIDS patients. The line of treatment being different for them necessitates an accurate and prompt identification of these to avoid empirical treatment. In this study which is the first of its kind from India we did a comprehensive evaluation of different techniques, comparing them on the basis of the attributes like yield, cost, time taken, expertise and infrastructure. For the first time combination of Calcoflour White and DAPI, a nuclear stain, were used to identify Microsporidia spp. Thus, a diagnostic protocol was devised for rapid, sensitive and cost effective identification of the opportunistic enteric protozoa. Results The organisms isolated from the stool samples of the cases (450 HIV patients were predominantly Cryptosporidium spp., Microsporidia spp. and Cyclospora spp. Interestingly, the control group (200 relatives of the patients who were HIV negative showed a high incidence (21% of Cryptosporidium spp. We found a significant increase in the sensitivity of microscopy in detecting Cryptosporidium spp. and Cyclospora spp. after formol ether concentration. Kinyoun's staining was better compared to Modified safranin staining for Cryptosporidium spp. identification. Although ELISA had a sensitivity of 93.25% and specificity of 97% for Cryptosporidium spp. detection, we ranked Kinyoun's staining better than ELISA because it is not affordable to most of our patients. For detecting Cyclospora cayetanensis, autoflourescence was the easiest and most cost effective method followed by Safranin technique. Combination of Calcoflour White stain and DAPI gave good results for the identification of Microsporidia spp. We assessed the above techniques and graded the attributes in the following descending order: cost effectiveness, sensitivity, ease of use and interpretation, time taken for the procedure and batch

  15. Developing a new case based computer-aided detection scheme and an adaptive cueing method to improve performance in detecting mammographic lesions (United States)

    Tan, Maxine; Aghaei, Faranak; Wang, Yunzhi; Zheng, Bin


    The purpose of this study is to evaluate a new method to improve performance of computer-aided detection (CAD) schemes of screening mammograms with two approaches. In the first approach, we developed a new case based CAD scheme using a set of optimally selected global mammographic density, texture, spiculation, and structural similarity features computed from all four full-field digital mammography images of the craniocaudal (CC) and mediolateral oblique (MLO) views by using a modified fast and accurate sequential floating forward selection feature selection algorithm. Selected features were then applied to a ‘scoring fusion’ artificial neural network classification scheme to produce a final case based risk score. In the second approach, we combined the case based risk score with the conventional lesion based scores of a conventional lesion based CAD scheme using a new adaptive cueing method that is integrated with the case based risk scores. We evaluated our methods using a ten-fold cross-validation scheme on 924 cases (476 cancer and 448 recalled or negative), whereby each case had all four images from the CC and MLO views. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was AUC  =  0.793  ±  0.015 and the odds ratio monotonically increased from 1 to 37.21 as CAD-generated case based detection scores increased. Using the new adaptive cueing method, the region based and case based sensitivities of the conventional CAD scheme at a false positive rate of 0.71 per image increased by 2.4% and 0.8%, respectively. The study demonstrated that supplementary information can be derived by computing global mammographic density image features to improve CAD-cueing performance on the suspicious mammographic lesions.

  16. Construction of high sensitive detection system for endocrine disruptors with yeast n-alkane-assimilating Yarrowia lipolytica. (United States)

    Cho, Eun-Min; Lee, Haeng-Seog; Eom, Chi-Yong; Ohta, Akinori


    To construct a highly sensitive detection system for endocrine disruptors, we have compared the activity of promoters with the ALK1, ICL1, RPS7 and TEF1 for heterologous gene in Yarrowia lipolytica. The promoters were introduced into the upstream of lacZ or hERalpha reporter gene, respectively, and the activity was evaluated by beta-galactosidase assay by lacZ or western blot analysis by hERalpha. The expression analysis revealed that the ALK1 and ICL1 promoter were induced by n-decane and by EtOH, respectively. The constitutive promoter of RPS7 and TEF1 showed mostly high level of expression in the presence of glucose and glycerol, respectively. Particularly, the TEF1 promoter showed the highest beta-galactosidase activity and a significant signal by western blotting with the anti-estrogen receptor compared with the other promoters. Moreover, the detection system was constructed with promoters were linked to the upstream of expression vector for hERalpha gene transformed into the Y. lipolytica with a chromosome-integrated lacZ reporter gene under the control of estrogen response elements (EREs). It was indicated that a combination of pTEF1p-hERalpha and CXAU1-2XERE was the most effective system for the E2-dependent induction of the beta-galactosidase activity. This system showed the highest beta-galactosidase activity at 10-6 M E2 and the activity could be detected at even the concentration of 10-10 M E2. As the result, we constructed a strongly sensitive detection system with Y. lipolitica to evaluate recognized/suspected ED chemicals, such as natural/synthetic hormones, pesticides, and commercial chemicals. The results demonstrate the utility, sensitivity and reproducibility of the system for characterizing environmental estrogens.

  17. Detection of the HIV-1 nucleic acid in spermatozoa of HIV/AIDS patients%HIV/AIDS患者精子中病毒核酸的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王典; 李练兵; 侯志伟; 谢庆东; 康祥锦; 黄天华


    Objective To detect the presence of HIV - 1 nucleic acid in spermatozoa of HIV/AIDS patients.Methods Spermatozoon samples of 33 HIV/AIDS patients were prepared. Fluorescence in situ hybridization ( FISH ) ,in which biotinylated HIV gag and HIV pol were used as probes, was performed to detect HIV nucleic acid in spermatozoa. Results HIV nucleic acid was detected in spermatozoa of 9 patients( 27. 3% ). Conclusion These results further confirm the presence of HIV nucleic acid in sperm of HIV/AIDS patients and indicates that FISH is a sensitive and reliable method to detect the nucleic acid in sperm.%目的 检测HIV/AIDS患者精子中HIV核酸.方法 制备33例HIV/AIDS患者精子样本,采用荧光原位杂交(FISH),以生物素标记的HIV gag及 HIV pol作为双探针对这些患者精子进行HIV核酸检测.结果 在9例(27.3%)患者中检测到阳性荧光信号.结论 HIV/AIDS患者精子存有HIV核酸;FISH是一种检测HIV/AIDS患者精子病毒核酸灵敏而可靠的方法.

  18. Differing estrogen activities in the organic phase of air particulate matter collected during sunny and foggy weather in a Chinese city detected by a recombinant yeast bioassay (United States)

    Wang, Jingxian; Xie, Ping; Xu, Ying; Kettrup, Antonius; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    Total air suspended particles (PM 100) collected from an urban location near a traffic line in Wuhan, China, were examined for estrogen using a recombinant yeast bioassay. Wuhan, located at the central part of China, is the fourth biggest city in China with 7 million populations. Today, Wuhan has developed into the biggest city and the largest traveling center of central China, becoming one of the important bases of industry, education and research. Wuhan is right at the confluent point of Yangzi River, the third longest river in the world, and its largest distributary Hanjiang, with mountains and more than 100 lakes in downtown area. Therefore, by its unique landscape, Wuhan has formed clear four seasons with relatively long winter and summer and short spring and autumn. Foggy weather usually happen in early spring. The yeast line used in this assay stably expresses human estrogen receptor-alpha. Weak but clear estrogenic activities were detected in the organic phase of crude extracts of air particle materials (APM) in both sunny and foggy weather by 0.19-0.79 μg E2/g PM 100 which were statistically significantly elevated relative to the blank control responding from 20% to 50% of the maximum E2 response, and the estrogenic activity was much higher in foggy weather than in sunny weather. The estrogenic activities in the sub-fractions from chromatographic separation of APM sampled in foggy days were also determined. The results indicated that the responses of the fractions were obviously higher than the crude extracts. Since there is no other large pollution source nearby, the estrogenic material was most likely from vehicle emissions, house heating sources and oil fumes of house cooking. The GC/MS analysis of the PM 100 collected under foggy weather showed that there were many phenol derivatives, oxy-PAHs and resin acids which have been reported as environmental estrogens. These results of the analysis of estrogenic potency in sunny and foggy weather in a

  19. Comparison of standard reading and computer aided detection (CAD) on a national proficiency test of screening mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciatto, Stefano E-mail:; Del Turco, Marco Rosselli; Risso, Gabriella; Catarzi, Sandra; Bonardi, Rita; Viterbo, Valeria; Gnutti, Pierangela; Guglielmoni, Barbara; Pinelli, Lelio; Pandiscia, Anna; Navarra, Francesco; Lauria, Adele; Palmiero, Rosa; Indovina, Pietro Luigi


    Objective: To evaluate the role of computer aided detection (CAD) in improving the interpretation of screening mammograms Material and methods: Ten radiologists underwent a proficiency test of screening mammography first by conventional reading and then with the help of CAD. Radiologists were blinded to test results for the whole study duration. Results of conventional and CAD reading were compared in terms of sensitivity and recall rate. Double reading was simulated combining conventional readings of four expert radiologists and compared with CAD reading. Results: Considering all ten readings, cancer was identified in 146 or 153 of 170 cases (85.8 vs. 90.0%; {chi}{sup 2}=0.99, df=1, P=0.31) and recalls were 106 or 152 of 1330 cases (7.9 vs. 11.4%; {chi}{sup 2}=8.69, df=1, P=0.003) at conventional or CAD reading, respectively. CAD reading was essentially the same (sensitivity 97.0 vs. 96.0%; {chi}{sup 2}=7.1, df=1, P=0.93; recall rate 10.7 vs. 10.6%; {chi}{sup 2}=1.5, df=1, P=0.96) as compared with simulated conventional double reading. Conclusion: CAD reading seems to improve the sensitivity of conventional reading while reducing specificity, both effects being of limited size. CAD reading had almost the same performance of simulated conventional double reading, suggesting a possible use of CAD which needs to be confirmed by further studies inclusive of cost-effective analysis.

  20. Radiographic imaging of aids

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, M B


    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has impacted the civilized world like no other disease. This research aimed to discuss some of the main aids-related complications and their detection by radiology tests, specifically central nervous system and musculoskeletal system disorders. The objectives are: to show specific characteristics of various diseases of HIV patient, to analyze the effect of pathology in patients by radiology, to enhance the knowledge of technologists in aids imaging and to improve communication skills between patient and radiology technologists.

  1. Detection and Analysis of Electro-acoustic Performance of Hearing Aids%助听器电声性能的检测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    对助听器检测通常采用的国家标准为GB/T 14199-2010电声学助听器通用规范和GB/T 25102.100-2010电声学助听器第0部分:电声特性的测量,检测中需要关注的量值有频率范围、频率点、声压级、最大声压级、声压级均值、声压增益均值、谐波失真值、电流值,本文对此进行了分析总结,理顺了检测中相关量值的关系。%National standards for the detection of hearing aids commonly used to GB / T 14199-2010 General speciifcation electric acoustic hearing aids and GB / T 25102.100-2010 electric acoustic hearing aids - Part 0: Measurement, Detection need to focus on the magnitude of the electro-acoustic characteristics have frequency range, frequency, SPL, maximum SPL, SPL mean, mean sound pressure gain, harmonic distortion value, the current value of this were analyzed and summarized in this article, to rationalize the magnitude of the correlation detection relationships.

  2. Comparison of pp65 antigenemia, quantitative PCR and DNA hybrid capture for detection of cytomegalovirus in transplant recipients and AIDS patients. (United States)

    Mhiri, Leila; Kaabi, Belhassen; Houimel, Mehdi; Arrouji, Zakia; Slim, Amine


    The cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigenemia assay has been used frequently for rapid diagnosis of CMV infection, and antigenemia threshold values are recommended for triggering preemptive therapy. Hybrid capture of CMV's DNA and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) are increasingly being adopted for early detection of CMV. The performance of the antigenemia assay, qPCR in plasma and hybrid capture in leukocytes were compared in 110 immunocompromised patients (38 bone-marrow transplants, 50 renal transplants and 22 AIDS patients). The most sensitive test was hybrid capture for transplants, while antigenemia and the qPCR showed similar performance for patients with AIDS. QPCR and hybrid capture thresholds requiring antiviral therapy were calculated using a receiver-operating-characteristic curve for antigenemia values corresponding to 2 positive cells for bone-marrow transplants and to 10 positive cells for renal transplants and AIDS patients. These threshold values varied with the group of patients considered, with corresponding sensitivities higher than 86% and specificities higher than 76% for hybrid capture, and sensitivities higher than 61% and specificities higher than 75% for qPCR in plasma. Hybrid capture in leukocytes can substitute for antigenemia in the case of transplants, and qPCR in plasma can substitute for it in the case of AIDS patients.

  3. Empirical evaluation of bias field correction algorithms for computer-aided detection of prostate cancer on T2w MRI (United States)

    Viswanath, Satish; Palumbo, Daniel; Chappelow, Jonathan; Patel, Pratik; Bloch, B. Nicholas; Rofsky, Neil; Lenkinski, Robert; Genega, Elizabeth; Madabhushi, Anant


    In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), intensity inhomogeneity refers to an acquisition artifact which introduces a non-linear variation in the signal intensities within the image. Intensity inhomogeneity is known to significantly affect computerized analysis of MRI data (such as automated segmentation or classification procedures), hence requiring the application of bias field correction (BFC) algorithms to account for this artifact. Quantitative evaluation of BFC schemes is typically performed using generalized intensity-based measures (percent coefficient of variation, %CV ) or information-theoretic measures (entropy). While some investigators have previously empirically compared BFC schemes in the context of different domains (using changes in %CV and entropy to quantify improvements), no consensus has emerged as to the best BFC scheme for any given application. The motivation for this work is that the choice of a BFC scheme for a given application should be dictated by application-specific measures rather than ad hoc measures such as entropy and %CV. In this paper, we have attempted to address the problem of determining an optimal BFC algorithm in the context of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme for prostate cancer (CaP) detection from T2-weighted (T2w) MRI. One goal of this work is to identify a BFC algorithm that will maximize the CaP classification accuracy (measured in terms of the area under the ROC curve or AUC). A secondary aim of our work is to determine whether measures such as %CV and entropy are correlated with a classifier-based objective measure (AUC). Determining the presence or absence of these correlations is important to understand whether domain independent BFC performance measures such as %CV , entropy should be used to identify the optimal BFC scheme for any given application. In order to answer these questions, we quantitatively compared 3 different popular BFC algorithms on a cohort of 10 clinical 3 Tesla prostate T2w MRI datasets

  4. Comet assay on tetraploid yeast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Jette; Syberg, Kristian; Jensen, Klara


    Tetraploid yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were used in the comet assay with the intention of developing a new, fast and easy assay for detecting environmental genotoxic agents without using higher organisms. Two DNA-damaging chemicals, H2O2 and acrylamide, together with wastewater from...... three municipal treatment plants were tested for their effect on the yeast-cell DNA. The main problem with using yeast in the comet assay is the necessity to degrade the cell wall. This was achieved by using Zymolase 100 T twice during the procedure, since Zymolase 20 T did not open the cell wall....... Analytical problems that arose due to the small amount of DNA in the yeast nuclei in haploid and diploid cells, which contain 13 Mbp and 26 Mbp DNA per cell, respectively, were solved by using tetraploid yeast cells (52 Mbp) instead. DNA damage was shown after exposure to H2O2 and acrylamide. The lowest dose...

  5. Filter-based feature selection and support vector machine for false positive reduction in computer-aided mass detection in mammograms (United States)

    Nguyen, V. D.; Nguyen, D. T.; Nguyen, T. D.; Phan, V. A.; Truong, Q. D.


    In this paper, a method for reducing false positive in computer-aided mass detection in screening mammograms is proposed. A set of 32 features, including First Order Statistics (FOS) features, Gray-Level Occurrence Matrix (GLCM) features, Block Difference Inverse Probability (BDIP) features, and Block Variation of Local Correlation coefficients (BVLC) are extracted from detected Regions-Of-Interest (ROIs). An optimal subset of 8 features is selected from the full feature set by mean of a filter-based Sequential Backward Selection (SBS). Then, Support Vector Machine (SVM) is utilized to classify the ROIs into massive regions or normal regions. The method's performance is evaluated using the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC or AZ). On a dataset consisting about 2700 ROIs detected from mini-MIAS database of mammograms, the proposed method achieves AZ=0.938.

  6. Novel brewing yeast hybrids: creation and application. (United States)

    Krogerus, Kristoffer; Magalhães, Frederico; Vidgren, Virve; Gibson, Brian


    The natural interspecies Saccharomyces cerevisiae × Saccharomyces eubayanus hybrid yeast is responsible for global lager beer production and is one of the most important industrial microorganisms. Its success in the lager brewing environment is due to a combination of traits not commonly found in pure yeast species, principally low-temperature tolerance, and maltotriose utilization. Parental transgression is typical of hybrid organisms and has been exploited previously for, e.g., the production of wine yeast with beneficial properties. The parental strain S. eubayanus has only been discovered recently and newly created lager yeast strains have not yet been applied industrially. A number of reports attest to the feasibility of this approach and artificially created hybrids are likely to have a significant impact on the future of lager brewing. De novo S. cerevisiae × S. eubayanus hybrids outperform their parent strains in a number of respects, including, but not restricted to, fermentation rate, sugar utilization, stress tolerance, and aroma formation. Hybrid genome function and stability, as well as different techniques for generating hybrids and their relative merits are discussed. Hybridization not only offers the possibility of generating novel non-GM brewing yeast strains with unique properties, but is expected to aid in unraveling the complex evolutionary history of industrial lager yeast.

  7. Frequent detection of ‘azole’ resistant Candida species among late presenting AIDS patients in northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulu Andargachew


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chronic use of antifungal agents in the treatment of fungal infection in general and oropharyngeal candidiasis mainly in AIDS patient’s leads to the selection of strain resistant to these therapies and a shift in the spectrum of Candida species. This study determines the species diversity and in vitro susceptibility of Candida isolates from late presenting AIDS patients in northwest Ethiopia. Methods Two hundred and twenty one HIV/AIDS patients were assessed with a standardized evaluation form at enrolment. Oral rinses were cultured on CHROMagar plates at 37°C for 48 hours and Candida species identification were made following standard microbiological techniques. In vitro drug susceptibility tests were made using broth microdilution method. Results The colonization rate of Candida species was found to be 82.3% (177/215. C. albicans was the predominant species isolated from 139 (81% patients but there was a diversity of other species. C. glabrata was the most frequent non-albicans species isolated in 22.5% (40/177 of the patients followed by C. tropicalis 14.1% (27/177, C. krusei 5.6% (10 and other unidentifiable Candida species 4% (7/177. Recurrent episodes of oropharyngeal candidiasis and previous exposure to antifungal drugs were found to be predisposing factors for colonization by non-albicans species. Irrespective of the Candida species identified 12.2% (11/90, 7.7% (7/90 and 4.7% (4 of the isolates were resistant to fluconazole, ketoconazole and itraconazole, respectively. In contrast, resistance to micafungin, amphotericin B and 5-Fluorocytosine was infrequent. Conclusion HIV/AIDS patients are orally colonized by single or multiple albicans and non- albicans Candida species that are frequently resistant to azoles and occasionally to amphotericin B, 5-Fluorocytosine and micafungin. These highlight the need for national surveillance for examining Candida epidemiology and resistance to antifungal drugs.

  8. The wine and beer yeast Dekkera bruxellensis (United States)

    Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Dashko, Sofia; Ishchuk, Olena P; Piškur, Jure


    Recently, the non-conventional yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has been gaining more and more attention in the food industry and academic research. This yeast species is a distant relative of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is especially known for two important characteristics: on the one hand, it is considered to be one of the main spoilage organisms in the wine and bioethanol industry; on the other hand, it is 'indispensable' as a contributor to the flavour profile of Belgium lambic and gueuze beers. Additionally, it adds to the characteristic aromatic properties of some red wines. Recently this yeast has also become a model for the study of yeast evolution. In this review we focus on the recently developed molecular and genetic tools, such as complete genome sequencing and transformation, to study and manipulate this yeast. We also focus on the areas that are particularly well explored in this yeast, such as the synthesis of off-flavours, yeast detection methods, carbon metabolism and evolutionary history. © 2014 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24932634

  9. Using digital subtraction in computer simulated images as a tool to aid the visual detection of masked lesions in dense breasts (United States)

    Schiabel, Homero; Guimarães, Luciana T.; Sousa, Maria A. Z.


    This work proposes a simulation model involving subtraction of digital mammography images obtained at different X-ray beam levels of energy to aid the detection of breast malignant lesions. Absorption coefficients behavior of 3 main structures of clinical interest - adipose tissue, fiber glandular tissue and the typical carcinoma - as a function of the beam energy from a Mo X-ray tube was the basis to develop a computer simulation of the possible acquired images. The simulation has considered a typical compressed breast with 4.5cm in thickness, and variations of the carcinoma and glandular tissues thicknesses - 0.4 up to 2.0cm and 4.1 to 2.5cm, respectively - were evaluated as a function of the photons mean energy - 14 up to 25 keV, in the typical mammography energy range. Results have shown that: (a) if the carcinoma thickness is over 0.4cm, its detection may be feasible even masked by fiber tissue with exposures in the range of 19 to 25 keV; (b) for masked carcinoma with thickness in the range of 0.4-2.0cm, the proposed procedure can enhance it in the image resulting from the digital subtraction between images obtained at 14 and at 22 keV. Therefore such results indicate that this simulation procedure can be a useful tool in aiding the identification of possible missed malignant lesions which could not be detected in the typical exam, mainly considering dense breasts.

  10. Validation of a new yeast-based reporter assay consisting of human estrogen receptors alpha/beta and coactivator SRC-1: application for detection of estrogenic activity in environmental samples. (United States)

    Chu, Wai-Ling; Shiizaki, Kazuhiro; Kawanishi, Masanobu; Kondo, Mami; Yagi, Takashi


    Endocrine disruptors are exogenous substances that act like hormones in the endocrine system and disrupt the physiologic function of endogenous hormones. In the present study, we established reporter yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) expressing human estrogen receptors, ERalpha or ERbeta. These strains contain a reporter plasmid carrying an estrogen responsive element (ERE) upstream of the beta-galactosidase gene, and a plasmid expressing a steroid receptor coactivator, SRC-1e. Using these reporter strains, we demonstrated dose-dependent estrogenic activities of different categories of ligands, a natural hormone, 17beta-estradiol (E2); a synthetic drug, diethylstilbestrol (DES); phytoestrogens, genistein, daizein and emodin; and an environmental endocrine disrupter, bisphenol A. EC(50) values of E2 for ERalpha and ERbeta are 5.31 x 10(-10) and 5.85 x 10(-10) M, respectively. We also demonstrated that these yeasts were applicable for measuring estrogenic activities of environmental water samples. Most downstream sites of a river showed similar activity in both ERalpha and ERbeta assays. These yeast strains are useful and convenient for detecting and comparing the estrogenic ligand activities of environmental samples in response to ERalpha and ERbeta.

  11. Mediated Electrochemical Measurements of Intracellular Catabolic Activities of Yeast Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Sheng ZHAO; Zhen Yu YANG; Yao LU; Zheng Yu YANG


    Coupling with the dual mediator system menadione/ferricyanide, microelectrode voltammetric measurements were undertaken to detect the ferrocyanide accumulations arising from the mediated reduction of ferricyanide by yeast cells. The results indicate that the dual mediator system menadione/ferricyanide could be used as a probe to detect cellular catabolic activities in yeast cells and the electrochemical response has a positive relationship with the specific growth rate of yeast cells.

  12. 女性性服务者STD/AIDS检测及安全套使用调查%STD/AIDS Detection and Comdom Use of Female Sex Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵周平; 张正勇


    Objective To provide evidence for the intervention and control of sexually transmitted diseases/AIDS (STD/AIDS) by understanding the STD/AIDS infection and condom use status among female sex workers (FSW) in Kaixian county. Methods From May to June in 2011, totally 318 sex workers in the entertainments of the county were conducted STD/AIDS testing and survey on condom use situation. Results Among 318 sex workers investigated, the detection rate of STD was 22. 96% , the detection rate of HIV positive was 0. 31% , and the genital tract Chlamydia trachomatis infection took the first place in the detected diseases, accounting for 46. 58% ; STD infection was mainly in the people performed sex service for more than three years, accounting for 70. 59% ; the 318 sex workers were mainly unmarried and young, with low educational level. Conclusion Sex workers is high rist population of STD infection, and the condom use rate is low. Education on prevention of STD and AIDS knowledge should be carried out in the public entertainments, with the promotion of condom use, to control STD/AIDS transmission.%目的 了解开县女性性服务者性传播疾病/艾滋病(STD/AIDS)感染及安全套使用情况,为干预和控制性病、艾滋病的蔓延提供依据.方法 于2011-05/06,对本县城区娱乐场所318名性服务人员进行STD/AIDS检测及安全套使用情况进行调查.结果 318名性服务者中,STD检出率为22.96%,检出HIV阳性率为0.31%,检出病种以生殖道沙眼衣原体感染居首位,占阳性病例数的46.58%;STD感染率以从事性服务工作3年以上为主,占70.59%;318名性服务者以未婚低龄为主,文化程度较低.结论 性服务人群是STD患病率极高的人群且安全套使用率低,在公共娱乐场所开展性病艾滋病基本预防知识的宣传教育,推广安全套的使用,对控制STD/AIDS的传播蔓延有十分重要的意义.

  13. Hearing Aids (United States)

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  14. AIDS (image) (United States)

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  15. Computer-Aided Detection of Rapid, Overt, Airborne, Reconnaissance Data with the Capability of Removing Oceanic Noises (United States)


    ABBREVIATIONS ABS assault breaching system ADCP acoustic Doppler current profiler ALMDS airborne laser mine detection system AMCM air mine...detects and classifies all types of seam mines in the water column.(PEO LMW 2009) • Airborne Laser Mine Detection System (ALMDS): allows MILCO’s to be... dolphins and sea lions excel in mine detection and neutralization, swimmer defense, and recovery of mines, torpedoes, and 27 other objects

  16. Does a computer-aided detection algorithm in a second read paradigm enhance the performance of experienced computed tomography colonography readers in a population of increased risk?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, Ayso H. de; Liedenbaum, Marjolein H.; Florie, Jasper; Nio, Chung Y.; Bipat, Shandra; Stoker, Jaap [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jensch, Sebastiaan [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Truyen, Roel [Philips Medical Systems, Department of Healthcare Informatics, Best (Netherlands); Dekker, Evelien; Fockens, Paul [University of Amsterdam, Department of Gastroenterology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Baak, Lubbertus C. [Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Department of Gastroenterology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    We prospectively determined whether computer-aided detection (CAD) could improve the performance characteristics of computed tomography colonography (CTC) in a population of increased risk for colorectal cancer. Therefore, we included 170 consecutive patients that underwent both CTC and colonoscopy. All findings {>=}6 mm were evaluated at colonoscopy by segmental unblinding. We determined per-patient sensitivity and specificity for polyps {>=}6 mm and {>=}10 mm without and with computer-aided detection (CAD). The McNemar test was used for comparison the results without and with CAD. Unblinded colonoscopy detected 50 patients with lesions {>=}6 mm and 25 patients with lesions {>=}10 mm. Sensitivity of CTC without CAD for these size categories was 80% (40/50, 95% CI: 69-81%) and 64% (16/25, 95% CI: 45-83%), respectively. CTC with CAD detected one additional patient with a lesion {>=}6 mm and two with a lesion {>=}10 mm, resulting in a sensitivity of 82% (41/50, 95% CI: 71-93%) (p = 0.50) and 72% (18/25, 95% CI: 54-90%) (p = 1.0), respectively. Specificity without CAD for polyps {>=}6 mm and {>=}10 mm was 84% (101/120, 95% CI: 78-91%) and 94% (136/145, 95% CI: 90-98%), respectively. With CAD, the specificity remained (nearly) unchanged: 83% (99/120, 95% CI: 76-89%) and 94% (136/145, 95% CI: 90-98%), respectively. Thus, although CTC with CAD detected a few more patients than CTC without CAD, it had no statistically significant positive influence on CTC performance. (orig.)

  17. Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    Controversy over the aggregate impact of foreign aid has focused on reduced form estimates of the aid-growth link. The causal chain, through which aid affects developmental outcomes including growth, has received much less attention. We address this gap by: (i) specifying a structural model of th...

  18. Yeast That Smell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Y Xu


    Full Text Available The fundamental mechanism of olfactory receptor activation has been conserved from yeast to humans. Engineered yeast cells can smell some of the same odorants as humans can, which makes yeast an ideal model system for studying human olfaction. Furthermore, if engineered yeast cells are incorporated into sensory arrays, they can be used as biosensors or artificial noses.Keywords: Yeast, olfactory receptor, G protein-coupled receptor, biosensor, smellReceived: 31 July 2008 / Received in revised form: 6 August 2008, Accepted: 13 August 2008, Published online: 17 August 2008

  19. An Ultrasonic and Air Pressure Sensing System for Detection of Behavior before Getting out of Bed Aided by Fuzzy Theory (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hayato; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Kazuhiko; Kobashi, Syoji; Hata, Yutaka

    This paper proposes a sensing system for a behavior detection system using an ultrasonic oscillosensor and an air pressure sensor. The ultrasonic oscillosensor sensor has a cylindrical tank filled with water. It detects the vibration of the target object from the signal reflected from the water surface. This sensor can detect a biological vibration by setting to the bottom bed frame. The air pressure sensor consists of a polypropylene sheet and an air pressure sensor, and detects the pressure information by setting under the bed's mattress. An increase (decrease) in the load placed on the bed is detected by the increase (decrease) in the pressure of the air held in the tube attached to the sheet. We propose a behavior detection system using both sensors, complementally. The system recognizes three states (nobody in bed, keeping quiet in bed, moving in bed) using both sensors, and we detect the behavior before getting out of bed by recognized these states. Fuzzy logic plays a primary role in the system. As the fundamental experiment, we applied the system to five healthy volunteers, the system successfully recognized three states, and detected the behavior before getting out of bed. As the clinical experiment, we applied the system to four elderly patients with dementia, the system exactly detected the behavior before getting out of the bed with enough time for medical care support.

  20. Rapid detection of dihydropteroate polymorphism in AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia by restriction fragment length polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, J; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Lundgren, B


    are associated with failure of sulpha prophylaxis and increased mortality in HIV-1 positive patients with PCP, suggesting that DHPS mutations may cause sulpha resistance. To facilitate detection of DHPS mutations we developed a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay, detecting mutations at codon...

  1. System identification aided design of observer-based fault detection systems; Prozessidentifikations-basierter Entwurf beobachtergestuetzter Fehlerdetektionssysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, S.X. [Fachgebiet Automatisierungstechnik und komplexe Systeme, Univ. Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg (Germany); Zhang Ping; Heyden, D. [Fakultaet Ingenieurwissenschaften an der Univ. Duisburg-Essen (Germany); Huang Biao [Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Univ. of Alberta (Canada); Ding, E.L. [Fachbereich Technische Physik, Fachhochschule Gelsenkirchen, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)


    This paper deals with problems of observer-based fault detection. An approach is presented, which enables the design of observer-based residual generators based on the process measurement or test data. The basic idea behind this approach is integrating the identification of the so-called fault detection model into the design of observer-based residual generators. (orig.)

  2. Development of a novel bacteriophage based biomagnetic separation method as an aid for sensitive detection of viable Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Wang, Ziyuan; Wang, Danhui; Chen, Juhong; Sela, David A; Nugen, Sam R


    The application of bacteriophage combined with the use of magnetic separation techniques has emerged as a valuable tool for the sensitive identification and detection of bacteria. In this study, bacteriophage T7 labelled magnetic beads were developed for the detection of viable bacterial cells. Fusion of the biotin acceptor peptide (BAP) with the phage capsid protein gene and the insertion of the biotin ligase (BirA) gene enabled the display of the BAP ligand and the expression protein BirA during the replication cycle of phage infection. The replicated Escherichia coli specific bacteriophage was biotinylated in vivo and coated on magnetic beads via streptavidin-biotin interaction. Immobilization efficiency of the recombinant phage was investigated on magnetic beads and the phage-bead complex was evaluated by detecting E. coli from inoculated broth. When compared to the wild type phage, the recombinant phage T7birA-bap had a high immobilization density on streptavidin-coated magnetic beads and could capture 86.2% of E. coli cells from broth within 20 min. As this phage-based biomagnetic detection approach provided a low detection limit of 10(2) CFU mL(-1) without pre-enrichment, we believe this assay could be further developed to detect other bacteria of interest by applying host-specific phages. This would be of particular use in detecting bacteria which are difficult to grow or replicate slowly in culture.

  3. 流式细胞技术快速检测果汁中的霉菌、酵母菌%Study on a flow cytometry method in rapid detection of mold and yeast in fruit juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘道亮; 胡连霞; 赵占民; 张峻峰; 孙晓霞


    A flow cytometry method which can rapidly detect mold and yeast in fruit juice with pulp was studied.The sample was pretreated to remove matrix particles affecting the reliability of FCM detection using membrane filtration and centrifugation techniques.Therefore the FCM detection limit of mold and yeast in fruit juice samples reached 101cfu/mL magnitude,and the detection time was greatly shortened from 5 days to 100min.The standard curves showed that FCM detection results were linear correlation with those of standard plate count method.Thus FCM was a kind of more rapid and accurate new method.%研究应用流式细胞技术(flow cytometry,FCM)快速检测果汁饮料中霉菌、酵母菌的方法。通过正交实验和方差分析,对样品前处理技术条件进行优化,去除了影响FCM检测的基质颗粒,使FCM检测限达到101cfu/mL数量级,检测时间从5d缩短到100min。从绘制的标准曲线可以看出,FCM与平板法线性相关,符合性好。FCM将以更加灵敏、准确、快速、操作简便的优点成为一种可替代平板法来检测果汁中霉菌、酵母菌的自动化仪器检测新技术。

  4. Detection of Emergence Cyclospora cayetanensis in A HIV+ /AIDS Patient with Diarrhea from Tehran: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh KHANALIHA


    Full Text Available Coccidian protozoa of Cyclospora cayetanensis are obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasites that infect the mucosal epithelium of the small intestine of immunocompetent and immunocompromised persons. A 25- years old woman from around, Tehran with complaint of faintness and fatigue with HIV positive/AIDS confirmed eight months ago was admitted in Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran in 2014. The patient suffered from intestinal and lung symp-toms like watery diarrhea, flu-like symptoms. The stool was examined by direct preparation and concentration tech-nique, stained with modified acid-fast staining method, and observed with light and then Immunofluorescence micro-scope. The stool cultivation was made in dichromate potassium medium and diagnosis of Cyclospora infection was fi-nally made according to observation of Cyclospora oocysts almost 10 μm in acid-fast staining method and autofluores-cence of Cyclospora under Immunofluorescence microscope. The patient was initially treated with azithromycin, tazocin and fluconazol because of lung lesions and diarrhea and relative remission was observed. Cyclospora sp. causes an intes-tinal infection particularly in immunocompromised patients.

  5. Rapid detection of dihydropteroate polymorphism in AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia by restriction fragment length polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, J; Eugen-Olsen, J; Lundgren, B


    Sulpha agents, which act by inhibiting the enzyme dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS), are used widely for the treatment and prophylaxis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). Recently, we have shown that mutations in the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene of Pneumocystis carinii f.sp hominis...... are associated with failure of sulpha prophylaxis and increased mortality in HIV-1 positive patients with PCP, suggesting that DHPS mutations may cause sulpha resistance. To facilitate detection of DHPS mutations we developed a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay, detecting mutations at codon...

  6. Computer Aided Detection of Breast Density and Mass, and Visualization of Other Breast Anatomical Regions on Mammograms Using Graph Cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiza Saidin


    Full Text Available Breast cancer mostly arises from the glandular (dense region of the breast. Consequently, breast density has been found to be a strong indicator for breast cancer risk. Therefore, there is a need to develop a system which can segment or classify dense breast areas. In a dense breast, the sensitivity of mammography for the early detection of breast cancer is reduced. It is difficult to detect a mass in a breast that is dense. Therefore, a computerized method to separate the existence of a mass from the glandular tissues becomes an important task. Moreover, if the segmentation results provide more precise demarcation enabling the visualization of the breast anatomical regions, it could also assist in the detection of architectural distortion or asymmetry. This study attempts to segment the dense areas of the breast and the existence of a mass and to visualize other breast regions (skin-air interface, uncompressed fat, compressed fat, and glandular in a system. The graph cuts (GC segmentation technique is proposed. Multiselection of seed labels has been chosen to provide the hard constraint for segmentation of the different parts. The results are promising. A strong correlation ( was observed between the segmented dense breast areas detected and radiological ground truth.

  7. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    A critical account of the rise of celebrity-driven “compassionate consumption” Cofounded by the rock star Bono in 2006, Product RED exemplifies a new trend in celebrity-driven international aid and development, one explicitly linked to commerce, not philanthropy. Brand Aid offers a deeply informed...

  8. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn


    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...

  9. The adaptive computer-aided diagnosis system based on tumor sizes for the classification of breast tumors detected at screening ultrasound. (United States)

    Moon, Woo Kyung; Chen, I-Ling; Chang, Jung Min; Shin, Sung Ui; Lo, Chung-Ming; Chang, Ruey-Feng


    Screening ultrasound (US) is increasingly used as a supplement to mammography in women with dense breasts, and more than 80% of cancers detected by US alone are 1cm or smaller. An adaptive computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on tumor size was proposed to classify breast tumors detected at screening US images using quantitative morphological and textural features. In the present study, a database containing 156 tumors (78 benign and 78 malignant) was separated into two subsets of different tumor sizes (<1cm and ⩾1cm) to explore the improvement in the performance of the CAD system. After adaptation, the accuracies, sensitivities, specificities and Az values of the CAD for the entire database increased from 73.1% (114/156), 73.1% (57/78), 73.1% (57/78), and 0.790 to 81.4% (127/156), 83.3% (65/78), 79.5% (62/78), and 0.852, respectively. In the data subset of tumors larger than 1cm, the performance improved from 66.2% (51/77), 68.3% (28/41), 63.9% (23/36), and 0.703 to 81.8% (63/77), 85.4% (35/41), 77.8% (28/36), and 0.855, respectively. The proposed CAD system can be helpful to classify breast tumors detected at screening US.

  10. CT colonography: effect of computer-aided detection of colonic polyps as a second and concurrent reader for general radiologists with moderate experience in CT colonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mang, Thomas; Ringel, Helmut; Weber, Michael [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Bogoni, Luca; Anand, Vikram X.; Hermosillo, Gerardo; Raykar, Vikas; Salganicoff, Marcos; Wolf, Matthias [H IM SY US, Siemens Medical Solutions, Malvern, PA (United States); Chandra, Dass [Temple University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Curtin, Andrew J. [Tristate Imaging Consultants, Abington, PA (United States); Lev-Toaff, Anna S. [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Noah, Ralph [Diagnostic Imaging Associates, Wilmington, DE (United States); Shaw, Robert [The Chester County Hospital, West Chester, PA (United States); Summerton, Susan [Albert Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Tappouni, Rafel F.R. [Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Obuchowski, Nancy A. [Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)


    To assess the effectiveness of computer-aided detection (CAD) as a second reader or concurrent reader in helping radiologists who are moderately experienced in computed tomographic colonography (CTC) to detect colorectal polyps. Seventy CTC datasets (34 patients: 66 polyps ≥6 mm; 36 patients: no abnormalities) were retrospectively reviewed by seven radiologists with moderate CTC experience. After primary unassisted evaluation, a CAD second read and, after a time interval of ≥4 weeks, a CAD concurrent read were performed. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC), along with per-segment, per-polyp and per-patient sensitivities, and also reading times, were calculated for each reader with and without CAD. Of seven readers, 86 % and 71 % achieved a higher accuracy (segment-level AUC) when using CAD as second and concurrent reader respectively. Average segment-level AUCs with second and concurrent CAD (0.853 and 0.864) were significantly greater (p < 0.0001) than average AUC in the unaided evaluation (0.781). Per-segment, per-polyp, and per-patient sensitivities for polyps ≥6 mm were significantly higher in both CAD reading paradigms compared with unaided evaluation. Second-read CAD reduced readers' average segment and patient specificity by 0.007 and 0.036 (p = 0.005 and 0.011), respectively. CAD significantly improves the sensitivities of radiologists moderately experienced in CTC for polyp detection, both as second reader and concurrent reader. (orig.)

  11. Detection of vitamin B12 levels with the aid of some hematological and biochemical parameters that are more sensitive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süheyl Asma


    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 deficiency is a health problem, which is usually seen in elderly patients and results in hematological and neurological disorders. In this study, we aimed to investigate the serum levels of vitamin B12 could represent the real tissue levels with con-sidering some hematological and biochemical parameters. 128 patients whose vitamin B12 levels have been detected to be low and their ages are ranged from 16 to 90, have been investigated. Fifty three of them were females. Complete blood counts, antiparietal antibody(APA, homocysteine levels, peripheral blood smear evaluations and findings of gastroduodenoscopy were assessed. Mean volume of erythrocytes has been found as 107 fl in patient group (group 1, in which vitamin B12 level has been detected lower than 60 pg/mL. Thehigher homocysteine values in 85% cases, neutrophil hyper-segmentation in 82%, atrophic gastritis in 53 % and APA positivity in 47 % of cases have been detected. The average of agehas been detected as 65 in this group. High level of homocysteine has been present in 44 % of cases and MCV has been 91 fl in group 2, in which the vitamin B12 levels are between 61–100 pg/ mL. In group ( group 3, in which vitamin levels are between 101 – 140 pg /mL,elevated homocysteine levels in 27 % cases and MCV as 89 fl have been detected. In group 4, in which vitamin levels are between 141–178 pg/mL, homocysteine elevation in 16 % of cases and MCV as

  12. ForWarn Forest Disturbance Change Detection System Provides a Weekly Snapshot of US Forest Conditions to Aid Forest Managers (United States)

    Hargrove, W. W.; Spruce, J.; Kumar, J.; Hoffman, F. M.


    The Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center and Western Wildland Environmental Assessment Center of the USDA Forest Service have collaborated with NASA Stennis Space Center to develop ForWarn, a forest monitoring tool that uses MODIS satellite imagery to produce weekly snapshots of vegetation conditions across the lower 48 United States. Forest and natural resource managers can use ForWarn to rapidly detect, identify, and respond to unexpected changes in the nation's forests caused by insects, diseases, wildfires, severe weather, or other natural or human-caused events. ForWarn detects most types of forest disturbances, including insects, disease, wildfires, frost and ice damage, tornadoes, hurricanes, blowdowns, harvest, urbanization, and landslides. It also detects drought, flood, and temperature effects, and shows early and delayed seasonal vegetation development. Operating continuously since January 2010, results show ForWarn to be a robust and highly capable tool for detecting changes in forest conditions. To help forest and natural resource managers rapidly detect, identify, and respond to unexpected changes in the nation's forests, ForWarn produces sets of national maps showing potential forest disturbances at 231m resolution every 8 days, and posts the results to the web for examination. ForWarn compares current greenness with the "normal," historically seen greenness that would be expected for healthy vegetation for a specific location and time of the year, and then identifies areas appearing less green than expected to provide a strategic national overview of potential forest disturbances that can be used to direct ground and aircraft efforts. In addition to forests, ForWarn also tracks potential disturbances in rangeland vegetation and agriculural crops. ForWarn is the first national-scale system of its kind based on remote sensing developed specifically for forest disturbances. The ForWarn system had an official unveiling and rollout in

  13. Study on computer aided detection of calcification%计算机辅助检查对钙化性病变的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄贵; 邰亦成; 黄夏倩


    目的:探讨计算机辅助检查(computer-aided detection,CAD)对钙化性病变的检测能力. 方法:收集2012年至2013经手术证实的有明确病理的钙化性病例164例,分析不同类型钙化性病变与CAD检测之间关系. 结果:CAD对钙化性病变检出率为97.56%,对恶性钙化特异性为99.24 %,单纯钙化、非单纯钙化性病变(肿块伴钙化和钙化伴其他影像征象)的恶性病变率不同( P 0.05). 结论:CAD对钙化性病灶有较高的检测能力,对恶性钙化特异性高,能减轻临床工作的负担和视觉上的疲劳. 钙化伴有肿块或其他影像学征象是一类特殊病变类型不同于单纯钙化性病变.%Objective:To evaluate the computer -aided detection ( CAD ) capability of calcification .Methods:164 cases confirmed pathologically with calcification by surgery from 2012 to 2013 were collected to compare the CAD differences between three types of calcification .Results:The calcification detection rate by CAD was 97.56 %and the rate of malignant calcification specificity was 99.24 %.The rate of malignant lesions is different between simple calcification and non -simple calcification (containing calcification with mass and calcification with other imaging signs ) ( P 0.05).Conclusions:CAD has perfect performance on calcification detection , especially on malignant calcification specificity , and can release the clinical workload and avoid visual fatigue .Calcification with mass or with other ima-ging signs, which is an uncommon type , cannot be regarded as a whole with simple calcification .

  14. The yeast Golgi apparatus. (United States)

    Suda, Yasuyuki; Nakano, Akihiko


    The Golgi apparatus is an organelle that has been extensively studied in the model eukaryote, yeast. Its morphology varies among yeast species; the Golgi exists as a system of dispersed cisternae in the case of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas the Golgi cisternae in Pichia pastoris and Schizosaccharomyces pombe are organized into stacks. In spite of the different organization, the mechanism of trafficking through the Golgi apparatus is believed to be similar, involving cisternal maturation, in which the resident Golgi proteins are transported backwards while secretory cargo proteins can stay in the cisternae. Questions remain regarding the organization of the yeast Golgi, the regulatory mechanisms that underlie cisternal maturation of the Golgi and transport machinery of cargo proteins through this organelle. Studies using different yeast species have provided hints to these mechanisms.

  15. Detection of cyst using image segmentation and building knowledge-based intelligent decision support system as an aid to telemedicine (United States)

    Janet, J.; Natesan, T. R.; Santhosh, Ramamurthy; Ibramsha, Mohideen


    An intelligent decision support tool to the Radiologist in telemedicine is described. Medical prescriptions are given based on the images of cyst that has been transmitted over computer networks to the remote medical center. The digital image, acquired by sonography, is converted into an intensity image. This image is then subjected to image preprocessing which involves correction methods to eliminate specific artifacts. The image is resized into a 256 x 256 matrix by using bilinear interpolation method. The background area is detected using distinct block operation. The area of the cyst is calculated by removing the background area from the original image. Boundary enhancement and morphological operations are done to remove unrelated pixels. This gives us the cyst volume. This segmented image of the cyst is sent to the remote medical center for analysis by Knowledge based artificial Intelligent Decision Support System (KIDSS). The type of cyst is detected and reported to the control mechanism of KIDSS. Then the inference engine compares this with the knowledge base and gives appropriate medical prescriptions or treatment recommendations by applying reasoning mechanisms at the remote medical center.

  16. Detection and identification of volatile substances by headspace capillary gas chromatography to aid the diagnosis of acute poisoning. (United States)

    Streete, P J; Ruprah, M; Ramsey, J D; Flanagan, R J


    Headspace gas chromatography with split flame-ionization-electron-capture detection is a simple method of screening for a wide range of volatile substances in biological fluids. A 60 m x 0.53 mm i.d. thick-film (5 microns) fused-silica capillary coated with SPB-1 (Supelchem) with split flame-ionization-electron-capture detection provides a valuable alternative to packed columns in this work. Most commonly abused compounds, including many with very low boiling-points such as bromochlorodifluoromethane (BCF), butane, dimethyl ether, FC 11, FC 12, isobutane and propane, can be retained and differentiated at an initial column temperature of 40 degrees C followed by programming to 200 degrees C. The total analysis time is 26 min. Retention and detector response data were generated for 244 compounds. Good peak shapes are obtained for polar analytes such as ethanol and injections of up to 0.30 cm3 of headspace can be performed with no discernable loss of efficiency. The sensitivity is thus at least as good as that attainable with packed columns. Of the commonly encountered compounds, only isobutane-methanol and paraldehyde-toluene are at all difficult to differentiate. Quantitative measurements can be performed either isothermally or by using the temperature programme.

  17. Cyclic voltammetric acetylcholinesterase biosensor for the detection of captan in apple samples with the aid of chemometrics. (United States)

    Nesakumar, Noel; Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru


    The presence of captan residues in apples shows high toxicity, which often causes eye and skin irritation, dermatitis, conjunctivitis, and vomiting in humans. In this context, an electrochemical biosensor based on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) immobilized on a ZnO nanorod interface has been proposed. In this work, Hill, dose-response, and first-, second-, and third-order polynomial regression models were successfully applied and the prediction ability of these models was tested with the use of current density obtained from the cyclic voltammograms of appropriate captan solutions. The Pt/ZnO/AChE bioelectrode showed a high sensitivity of 0.538 μA cm(-2) μM(-1) in the linear range from 0.05 to 25.0 μM with a limit of detection of 107 nM. The recovery results were observed between 98.4 and 102.4 % from the apple sample. This work provides a new promising tool for the detection of captan in apple samples.

  18. Laser Based Stand-Off Detection of Biological Agents (detection a distance des agents biologiques a l’aide du laser) (United States)


    that a cloud is biological in nature [2]. However, other materials that may be present in the environment, such as pollens , plant debris, fuel oils [3... Reserved ISBN 978-92-837-0086-9 Single copies of this publication or of a part of it may be made for individual use only. The approval of the RTA...24 Figure 27 A BG Release was Superimposed on a Significantly Stronger Pollen Release to Test the Anomaly Detection Algorithm 25 vi RTO-TR

  19. Hearing Aid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A man realized that he needed to purchase ahearing aid, but he was unwilling to spend muchmoney. "How much do they run?"he asked theclerk. "That depends," said. the salesman. "Theyrun from 2 to 2000."

  20. Hearing Aids (United States)

    ... slightly different from the ITC and is nearly hidden in the ear canal. Both canal hearing aids ... Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  1. About Non-Line-Of-Sight Satellite Detection and Exclusion in a 3D Map-Aided Localization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Peyret


    Full Text Available Reliable GPS positioning in city environment is a key issue: actually, signals are prone to multipath, with poor satellite geometry in many streets. Using a 3D urban model to forecast satellite visibility in urban contexts in order to improve GPS localization is the main topic of the present article. A virtual image processing that detects and eliminates possible faulty measurements is the core of this method. This image is generated using the position estimated a priori by the navigation process itself, under road constraints. This position is then updated by measurements to line-of-sight satellites only. This closed-loop real-time processing has shown very first promising full-scale test results.

  2. Partial least squares regression can aid in detecting differential abundance of multiple features in sets of metagenomic samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej eLibiger


    Full Text Available It is now feasible to examine the composition and diversity of microbial communities (i.e., `microbiomes‘ that populate different human organs and orifices using DNA sequencing and related technologies. To explore the potential links between changes in microbial communities and various diseases in the human body, it is essential to test associations involving different species within and across microbiomes, environmental settings and disease states. Although a number of statistical techniques exist for carrying out relevant analyses, it is unclear which of these techniques exhibit the greatest statistical power to detect associations given the complexity of most microbiome datasets. We compared the statistical power of principal component regression, partial least squares regression, regularized regression, distance-based regression, Hill's diversity measures, and a modified test implemented in the popular and widely used microbiome analysis methodology 'Metastats‘ across a wide range of simulated scenarios involving changes in feature abundance between two sets of metagenomic samples. For this purpose, simulation studies were used to change the abundance of microbial species in a real dataset from a published study examining human hands. Each technique was applied to the same data, and its ability to detect the simulated change in abundance was assessed. We hypothesized that a small subset of methods would outperform the rest in terms of the statistical power. Indeed, we found that the Metastats technique modified to accommodate multivariate analysis and partial least squares regression yielded high power under the models and data sets we studied. The statistical power of diversity measure-based tests, distance-based regression and regularized regression was significantly lower. Our results provide insight into powerful analysis strategies that utilize information on species counts from large microbiome data sets exhibiting skewed frequency

  3. Yeast genome sequencing:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piskur, Jure; Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold


    For decades, unicellular yeasts have been general models to help understand the eukaryotic cell and also our own biology. Recently, over a dozen yeast genomes have been sequenced, providing the basis to resolve several complex biological questions. Analysis of the novel sequence data has shown...... of closely related species helps in gene annotation and to answer how many genes there really are within the genomes. Analysis of non-coding regions among closely related species has provided an example of how to determine novel gene regulatory sequences, which were previously difficult to analyse because...... they are short and degenerate and occupy different positions. Comparative genomics helps to understand the origin of yeasts and points out crucial molecular events in yeast evolutionary history, such as whole-genome duplication and horizontal gene transfer(s). In addition, the accumulating sequence data provide...

  4. Vaginal Yeast Infections (United States)

    ... infection caused by a type of fungus called candida albicans . Yeast infections usually happen in warm, moist parts of the body, like the mouth, or vagina. We all have candida in our bodies, but usually it's kept in ...

  5. Types of Hearing Aids (United States)

    ... Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed to ...

  6. Modeling brewers' yeast flocculation (United States)

    van Hamersveld EH; van der Lans RG; Caulet; Luyben


    Flocculation of yeast cells occurs during the fermentation of beer. Partway through the fermentation the cells become flocculent and start to form flocs. If the environmental conditions, such as medium composition and fluid velocities in the tank, are optimal, the flocs will grow in size large enough to settle. After settling of the main part of the yeast the green beer is left, containing only a small amount of yeast necessary for rest conversions during the next process step, the lagering. The physical process of flocculation is a dynamic equilibrium of floc formation and floc breakup resulting in a bimodal size distribution containing single cells and flocs. The floc size distribution and the single cell amount were measured under the different conditions that occur during full scale fermentation. Influences on flocculation such as floc strength, specific power input, and total number of yeast cells in suspension were studied. A flocculation model was developed, and the measured data used for validation. Yeast floc formation can be described with the collision theory assuming a constant collision efficiency. The breakup of flocs appears to occur mainly via two mechanisms, the splitting of flocs and the erosion of yeast cells from the floc surface. The splitting rate determines the average floc size and the erosion rate determines the number of single cells. Regarding the size of the flocs with respect to the scale of turbulence, only the viscous subrange needs to be considered. With the model, the floc size distribution and the number of single cells can be predicted at a certain point during the fermentation. For this, the bond strength between the cells, the fractal dimension of the yeast, the specific power input in the tank and the number of yeast cells that are in suspension in the tank have to be known. Copyright 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. Nitrile Metabolizing Yeasts (United States)

    Bhalla, Tek Chand; Sharma, Monica; Sharma, Nitya Nand

    Nitriles and amides are widely distributed in the biotic and abiotic components of our ecosystem. Nitrile form an important group of organic compounds which find their applications in the synthesis of a large number of compounds used as/in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, plastics, dyes, etc>. Nitriles are mainly hydro-lyzed to corresponding amide/acid in organic chemistry. Industrial and agricultural activities have also lead to release of nitriles and amides into the environment and some of them pose threat to human health. Biocatalysis and biotransformations are increasingly replacing chemical routes of synthesis in organic chemistry as a part of ‘green chemistry’. Nitrile metabolizing organisms or enzymes thus has assumed greater significance in all these years to convert nitriles to amides/ acids. The nitrile metabolizing enzymes are widely present in bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Yeasts metabolize nitriles through nitrilase and/or nitrile hydratase and amidase enzymes. Only few yeasts have been reported to possess aldoxime dehydratase. More than sixty nitrile metabolizing yeast strains have been hither to isolated from cyanide treatment bioreactor, fermented foods and soil. Most of the yeasts contain nitrile hydratase-amidase system for metabolizing nitriles. Transformations of nitriles to amides/acids have been carried out with free and immobilized yeast cells. The nitrilases of Torulopsis candida>and Exophiala oligosperma>R1 are enantioselec-tive and regiospecific respectively. Geotrichum>sp. JR1 grows in the presence of 2M acetonitrile and may have potential for application in bioremediation of nitrile contaminated soil/water. The nitrilase of E. oligosperma>R1 being active at low pH (3-6) has shown promise for the hydroxy acids. Immobilized yeast cells hydrolyze some additional nitriles in comparison to free cells. It is expected that more focus in future will be on purification, characterization, cloning, expression and immobilization of nitrile metabolizing

  8. Optimization of Network Topology in Computer-Aided Detection Schemes Using Phased Searching with NEAT in a Time-Scaled Framework. (United States)

    Tan, Maxine; Pu, Jiantao; Zheng, Bin


    In the field of computer-aided mammographic mass detection, many different features and classifiers have been tested. Frequently, the relevant features and optimal topology for the artificial neural network (ANN)-based approaches at the classification stage are unknown, and thus determined by trial-and-error experiments. In this study, we analyzed a classifier that evolves ANNs using genetic algorithms (GAs), which combines feature selection with the learning task. The classifier named "Phased Searching with NEAT in a Time-Scaled Framework" was analyzed using a dataset with 800 malignant and 800 normal tissue regions in a 10-fold cross-validation framework. The classification performance measured by the area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.856 ± 0.029. The result was also compared with four other well-established classifiers that include fixed-topology ANNs, support vector machines (SVMs), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and bagged decision trees. The results show that Phased Searching outperformed the LDA and bagged decision tree classifiers, and was only significantly outperformed by SVM. Furthermore, the Phased Searching method required fewer features and discarded superfluous structure or topology, thus incurring a lower feature computational and training and validation time requirement. Analyses performed on the network complexities evolved by Phased Searching indicate that it can evolve optimal network topologies based on its complexification and simplification parameter selection process. From the results, the study also concluded that the three classifiers - SVM, fixed-topology ANN, and Phased Searching with NeuroEvolution of Augmenting Topologies (NEAT) in a Time-Scaled Framework - are performing comparably well in our mammographic mass detection scheme.

  9. Bacterial and yeast counts in Brazilian commodities and spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freire Francisco das Chagas Oliveira


    Full Text Available A total of thirteen genera of bacteria and two genera of yeasts were detected in surface sterilized and unsterilized Brazilian commodities and spices such as cashew kernels, Brazil nut kernels, black and white pepper. The genus Bacillus with eight species was by far the most common. The yeasts isolated were Pichia sp., P. guillermondii and Rhodotorula sp. Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in cashew and Brazil nut kernels.

  10. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano


    activists, scholars and venture capitalists, discusses the pros and cons of changing the world by ‘voting with your dollars’. Lisa Ann Richey and Stefano Ponte (Professor at Roskilde University and Senior Researcher at DIIS respectively), authors of Brand Aid: Shopping Well to Save the World, highlight how...

  11. Computer-aided detection (CAD) as a second reader using perspective filet view at CT colonography: effect on performance of inexperienced readers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisichella, V.A. [Department of Radiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden)], E-mail:; Jaederling, F. [Department of Radiology, St. Goeran' s Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Horvath, S. [Department of Radiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Stotzer, P.-O.; Kilander, A. [Department of Gastroenterology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Bath, M. [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Hellstroem, M. [Department of Radiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden)


    Aim: To evaluate whether computer-aided detection (CAD) as a second reader using perspective filet view [three-dimensional (3D) filet] improves the performance of inexperienced readers at computed tomography colonography (CTC) compared with unassisted 3D filet and unassisted two-dimensional (2D) CTC. Material and methods: Fifty symptomatic patients underwent CTC and same-day colonoscopy with segmental unblinding. Two inexperienced readers read the CTC studies on 3D filet and 2D several weeks apart. Four months later, readers re-read the cases only evaluating CAD marks using 3D filet. Suspicious CAD marks not previously described on 3D filet were recorded. Jackknife free-response receiver operating characteristic (JAFROC-1) analysis was used to compare the observers' performances in detecting lesions with 3D filet, 2D and 3D filet with CAD. Results: One hundred and three lesions {>=}3 mm were detected at colonoscopy with segmental unblinding. CAD alone had a sensitivity of 73% (75/103) at a mean false-positive rate per patient of 12.8 in supine and 11.4 in prone. For inexperienced readers sensitivities with 3D filet with CAD were 58% (60/103) and 48% (50/103) with an improvement of 14-16 percentage points (p < 0.05) compared with 2D and of 10-11 percentage points (p < 0.05) compared with 3D filet. For inexperienced readers, the false-positive rate was 25-41% and 71-200% higher with 3D filet with CAD compared with 3D filet and 2D, respectively. JAFROC-1 analysis showed no significant differences in per-lesion overall performance among reading modes (p = 0.8). Conclusion: CAD applied as a second reader using 3D filet increased both sensitivity and the number of false positives by inexperienced readers compared with 3D filet and 2D, thus not improving overall performance, i.e., the ability to distinguish between lesions and non-lesions.

  12. Mapping yeast transcriptional networks. (United States)

    Hughes, Timothy R; de Boer, Carl G


    The term "transcriptional network" refers to the mechanism(s) that underlies coordinated expression of genes, typically involving transcription factors (TFs) binding to the promoters of multiple genes, and individual genes controlled by multiple TFs. A multitude of studies in the last two decades have aimed to map and characterize transcriptional networks in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We review the methodologies and accomplishments of these studies, as well as challenges we now face. For most yeast TFs, data have been collected on their sequence preferences, in vivo promoter occupancy, and gene expression profiles in deletion mutants. These systematic studies have led to the identification of new regulators of numerous cellular functions and shed light on the overall organization of yeast gene regulation. However, many yeast TFs appear to be inactive under standard laboratory growth conditions, and many of the available data were collected using techniques that have since been improved. Perhaps as a consequence, comprehensive and accurate mapping among TF sequence preferences, promoter binding, and gene expression remains an open challenge. We propose that the time is ripe for renewed systematic efforts toward a complete mapping of yeast transcriptional regulatory mechanisms.

  13. [Fructose transporter in yeasts]. (United States)

    Lazar, Zbigniew; Dobrowolski, Adam; Robak, Małgorzata


    Study of hexoses transporter started with discovery of galactose permease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Glucose, fructose and mannose assimilation is assumed by numerous proteins encoded by different genes. To date over 20 hexoses transporters, belonging to Sugar Porter family and to Major Facilitator Superfamily, were known. Genome sequence analysis of Candida glabrata, Kluyveromyces lactis, Yarrowia lipolytica, S. cerevisaie and Debaryomyces hansenii reveled potential presence of 17-48 sugar porter proteins. Glucose transporters in S. cerevisiae have been already characterized. In this paper, hexoses transporters, responsible for assimilation of fructose by cells, are presented and compared. Fructose specific transporter are described for yeasts: Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Zygosaccharomyces bailli, K. lactis, Saccharomyces pastorianus, S. cerevisiae winemaking strain and for fungus Botritys cinerea and human (Glut5p). Among six yeasts transporters, five are fructose specific, acting by facilitated diffusion or proton symport. Yeasts monosaccharides transporter studies allow understanding of sugars uptake and metabolism important aspects, even in higher eukaryotes cells.

  14. Tactile Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtaramossadat Homayuni


    Full Text Available Tactile aids, which translate sound waves into vibrations that can be felt by the skin, have been used for decades by people with severe/profound hearing loss to enhance speech/language development and improve speechreading.The development of tactile aids dates from the efforts of Goults and his co-workers in the 1920s; Although The power supply was too voluminous and it was difficult to carry specially by children, it was too huge and heavy to be carried outside the laboratories and its application was restricted to the experimental usage. Nowadays great advances have been performed in producing this instrument and its numerous models is available in markets around the world.

  15. Negotiating Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Fraser, Alastair


    This article presents a new analytical approach to the study of aid negotiations. Building on existing approaches but trying to overcome their limitations, it argues that factors outside of individual negotiations (or the `game' in game-theoretic approaches) significantly affect the preferences...... of actors, the negotiating strategies they fashion, and the success of those strategies. This approach was employed to examine and compare the experiences of eight countries: Botswana, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania and Zambia. The article presents findings from these country studies...... which investigated the strategies these states have adopted in talks with aid donors, the sources of leverage they have been able to bring to bear in negotiations, and the differing degrees of control that they have been able to exercise over the policies agreed in negotiations and those implemented...

  16. Pulmonary mycosis in AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busi Rizzi, Elisa; Schinina, Vincenzo; Bellussi, Angelo; De Santis, Andrea; Mazzuoli, Giovanna; Giosue, Sandro; Bibbolino, Corrado


    We retrospectively reviewed our series of 35 pulmonary mycosis in patients with AIDS, observed from 1987 to 1999, to correlate the imaging and pathologic findings. We further evaluated the frequency of fungal pneumonia before and after the use of a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Early recognition of pulmonary mycosis is imperative in these patients and improved survival can be achieved with early CT detection and prompt institution of high-dose antifungal therapy.

  17. L-arabinose fermenting yeast (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Singh, Arjun; Knoshaug, Eric; Franden, Mary Ann; Jarvis, Eric; Suominen, Pirkko


    An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains. ##STR00001##

  18. Speciation of selenoamino acids, selenonium ions and inorganic selenium by ion exchange HPLC with mass spectrometric detection and its application to yeast and algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Hansen, M.; Fan, T.


    Cation and anion exchange HPLC were used to separate a mixture of 12 selenium species comprising selenoamino acids, selenonium ions and inorganic selenium. The cationic species were separated from each other and from the co-injected anions using a cation exchange column with gradient elution...... by aqueous pyridinium formate at pH similar to 3 as the mobile phase. The anionic species were separated using an anion exchange column with isocratic elution by an aqueous salicylate-TRIS mobile phase at pH 8.5. The separated selenium species were detected as Se-80 by ICP-dynamic reaction cell (DRC...... acid extract of Chlorella algae contained dimethylselenonium propionate (DMSeP), which was verified by HPLC-ES-MS. Se-allylselenocysteine and selenoethionine was detected at the low ng g(-1) concentration level based on co-chromatography with the standard substances spiked to the algal extract....

  19. Detection of Multiple Budding Yeast Cells and a Partial Sequence of 43-kDa Glycoprotein Coding Gene of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from a Case of Lacaziosis in a Female Pacific White-Sided Dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens). (United States)

    Minakawa, Tomoko; Ueda, Keiichi; Tanaka, Miyuu; Tanaka, Natsuki; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Izawa, Takeshi; Konno, Toshihiro; Yamate, Jyoji; Itano, Eiko Nakagawa; Sano, Ayako; Wada, Shinpei


    Lacaziosis, formerly called as lobomycosis, is a zoonotic mycosis, caused by Lacazia loboi, found in humans and dolphins, and is endemic in the countries on the Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean of Japanese coast. Susceptible Cetacean species include the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), the Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphin (T. aduncus), and the estuarine dolphin (Sotalia guianensis); however, no cases have been recorded in other Cetacean species. We diagnosed a case of Lacaziosis in a Pacific white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens) nursing in an aquarium in Japan. The dolphin was a female estimated to be more than 14 years old at the end of June 2015 and was captured in a coast of Japan Sea in 2001. Multiple, lobose, and solid granulomatous lesions with or without ulcers appeared on her jaw, back, flipper and fluke skin, in July 2014. The granulomatous skin lesions from the present case were similar to those of our previous cases. Multiple budding and chains of round yeast cells were detected in the biopsied samples. The partial sequence of 43-kDa glycoprotein coding gene confirmed by a nested PCR and sequencing, which revealed a different genotype from both Amazonian and Japanese lacaziosis in bottlenose dolphins, and was 99 % identical to those derived from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis; a sister fungal species to L. loboi. This is the first case of lacaziosis in Pacific white-sided dolphin.

  20. Analysis of VCT clients and HIV/AIDS cases detected at VCT sites in Tianjin from 2010 to 2011%2010-2011年天津市VCT点求询者及HIV检出情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周宁; 柳忠泉; 柏建芸; 郭燕; 宁铁林


    目的 通过分析天津市2010年和2011年经自愿咨询检测(VCT)点检出的艾滋病病毒(HIV)感染者的流行病学情况,为政府决策提供帮助.方法 收集天津市2010年和2011年各VCT点求询者的个案信息,以及通过VCT点上报的所有HIV感染者/艾滋病(AIDS)病人的个案信息,进行流行病学分析.结果 2010年和2011年,天津市各VCT点接受咨询检测人群的HIV检出率分别为0.46%(34/7 472)和0.55%(62/11 367).求询者男性多于女性,且男性求询者的HIV检出率高于女性;年龄分布以20~39岁年龄组人数居多.有男男性行为史、注射吸毒史、配偶/固定性伴阳性史、母亲阳性史的人群均为HIV检出率高的人群,其中有男男性行为史的求询者中HIV检出率最高为3.34%(59/1 767).2010年经VCT点发现的HIV/AIDS病人的CD4 T淋巴细胞数的中位数为420.50个/μL,2011年为448.00个/μL.结论 VCT点是天津市发现HIV/AIDS病人的重要窗口,应在男男性行为人群、注射吸毒者、HIV/AIDS病人配偶及固定性伴中加强VCT的宣传干预,以提高上述人群高危行为后的HIV咨询检测意识.%Objective To analyze epidemiological features of human immunodeficiency virus/ acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) cases among HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) clients detected at Tianjin VCT sites from 2010 to 2011, so as to provide supporting evidence for government's decision-making. Method Information on individual clients was collected from different VCT sites and epidemiological analysis was conducted among HIV/AIDS cases reported by VCT sites in Tianjin in 2010 and 2011. Results The detection rates of HIV/ AIDS among VCT clients in Tianjin in respective years of 2010 and 2011 were 0. 46% (34/7 472) and 0. 55% (62/ 11 367). Males were more than females; the detection rate of HIV/AIDS in male clients was higher than in female ones; the main age distribution was 20 - 39 years. High detection rate of HIV/AIDS

  1. Teaching AIDS. (United States)

    Short, R V


    This article reviews a peer group Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) educational program at a university in Australia. Studies in the US have shown that most adolescents, although sexually active, do not believe they are likely to become infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and therefore do not attempt to modify their sexual behavior. A 1st step in educating students is to introduce them to condoms and impress upon them the fact that condoms should be used at the beginning of all sexual relationships, whether homosexual or heterosexual. In this program 3rd year medical students were targeted, as they are effective communicators and disseminators of information to the rest of the student body. After class members blow up condoms, giving them a chance to handle various brands and observe the varying degrees of strength, statistical evidence about the contraceptive failure rate of condoms (0.6-14.7 per 100 women-years) is discussed. Spermicides, such as nonoxynol-9 used in conjunction with condoms, are also discussed, as are condoms for women, packaging and marketing of condoms, including those made from latex and from the caecum of sheep, the latter condoms being of questionable effectiveness in preventing transmission of the virus. The care of terminal AIDS cases and current global and national statistics on AIDS are presented. The program also includes cash prizes for the best student essays on condom use, the distribution of condoms, condom key rings and T-shirts, and a student-run safe sex stand during orientation week. All of these activities are intended to involve students and attract the interest of the undergraduate community. Questionnaires administered to students at the end of the course revealed that the lectures were received favorably. Questionnaires administered to new medical and English students attending orientation week revealed that 72% of students thought the stand was a good idea and 81% and 83%, respectively found it

  2. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano


    activists, scholars and venture capitalists, discusses the pros and cons of changing the world by ‘voting with your dollars’. Lisa Ann Richey and Stefano Ponte (Professor at Roskilde University and Senior Researcher at DIIS respectively), authors of Brand Aid: Shopping Well to Save the World, highlight how......Can Citizen Consumers Make a Difference? DIIS researcher contributes to a Boston Review - New Democracy Forum In the current issue of Boston Review (November/December 2011), contributors to a ‘New Democracy Forum’ debate whether Citizen Consumers can make a difference in stimulating responsible...

  3. 艾滋病的口腔颌面部表现及 HIV 感染检测方法∗%Oral and maxillofacial appearance of AIDS patients and the detection methods of HIV infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞博; 腾飞鹏; 周小燕


    Objective To observe and analyze the oral and maxillofacial appearance of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome(AIDS)and to explore the effective detection methods of hunman immunodeficiency virus(HIV)infection,aimed at early diagnosis of HIV infection and AIDS,providing reference for treatment and prevention.Methods 21 6 cases of suspected HIV infec-tion and AIDS therapy-naive patients in the department of infection disease in this hospital,from January 2012 to March 2014,were selected.Oral and maxillofacial appearances,detection methods and its results were retrospectively analysed.Results The main clinical manifestations of patients with HIV infection and AIDS were oral candidiasis,oral hairy leukoplakia,herpes simplex virus infection,Kaposi′s sarcoma,periodontal disease,ulcer disease and other abnormal attribute.All of the 21 6 samples were positive in the preliminary screening,214 cases were confirmed by western blotting(WB),and the sensitivity,specificity and false positive rate were 99.07%,100.00% and 0.926%,repectively.Conclusion Focusing on clinical symptoms and signs in oral and maxillofacial re-gion of patients with HIV infection and AIDS could provide significant references for clinical diagnosis,and combing detection meth-ods of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA)and WB could make a definite diagnosis,which might be benefit to make effec-tive prevention and treatment measures and in order to control the infection and improve the prognosis.%目的:观察分析获得性免疫缺陷综合征(AIDS)患者口腔颌面部的临床症状,探析人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)感染检测的有效方法,以早期诊断 HIV 感染和 AIDS,为治疗和预防提供参考依据。方法选取该院感染性疾病科2012年1月至2014年3月收治的216例疑诊 HIV 感染者或 AIDS 初治患者,回顾性分析其口腔颌面部的临床表现及 HIV 感染的检测方法和结果。结果HIV 感染和 AIDS 患者口腔颌面部主要的临床表

  4. Proteolytic activities in yeast. (United States)

    Saheki, T; Holzer, H


    Studies on the mechanism and time course of the activation of proteinases A (EC, B (EC and C (EC 3.4.12.--) in crude yeast extracts at pH 5.1 and 25 degrees C showed that the increase in proteinase B activity is paralleled with the disappearance of proteinase B inhibitor. Addition of purified proteinase A to fresh crude extracts accelerates the inactivation of the proteinase B inhibitor and the appearance of maximal activities of proteinases B and C. The decrease of proteinase B inhibitor activity and the increase of proteinase B activity are markedly retarded by the addition of pepstatin. Because 10-minus 7 M pepstatin completely inhibits proteinase A without affecting proteinase B activity, this is another indication for the role of proteinase A during the activation of proteinase B. Whereas extracts of yeast grown on minimal medium reached maximal activation of proteinases B and C after 20 h of incubation at pH 5.1 and 25 degrees C, extracts of yeast grown on complete medium had to be incubated for about 100 h. In the latter case, the addition of proteinas A results in maximal activation of proteinases B and C and disappearance of proteinase B inhibitor activity only after 10--20 h of incubation. With the optimal conditions, the maximal activities of proteinases A, B and C, as well as of the proteinase B inhibitor, were determined in crude extracts of yeast that had been grown batchwise for different lengths of time either on minimal or on complete medium. Upon incubation, all three proteinases were activated by several times their initial activity. This reflects the existence of proteolytically degradable inhibitors of the three proteinases and together with the above mentioned observations it demonstrates that the "activation" of yeast proteinases A, B and C upon incubation results from the proteolytic digestion of inhibitors rather than from activation of inactive zymogens by limited proteolysis.

  5. L-arabinose fermenting yeast (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Singh, Arjun; Suominen, Pirkko; Knoshaug, Eric; Franden, Mary Ann; Jarvis, Eric


    An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. A yeast strain engineered to metabolize arabinose through a novel pathway is also disclosed. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains.

  6. Multicenter Brazilian Study of Oral Candida Species Isolated from Aids Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla de Laet Sant'Ana


    Full Text Available Oropharyngeal candidiasis continues to be considered the most common opportunistic disease in Aids patients. This study was designed to investigate species distribution, serotype and antifungal susceptibility profile among Candida spp. isolated from the oral cavity of Aids patients recruited from six Brazilian university centers. Oral swabs from 130 Aids patients were plated onto CHROMagar Candida medium and 142 isolates were recovered. Yeast isolates were identified by classical methods and serotyped using the Candida Check® system-Iatron. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed according to the NCCLS microbroth assay. C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species (91%, and 70% of the isolates belonged to serotype A. We detected 12 episodes of co-infection (9%, including co-infection with both serotypes of C. albicans. Non-albicans species were isolated from 12 episodes, 50% of them exhibited DDS or resistance to azoles. Otherwise, only 8 out 130 isolates of C. albicans exhibited DDS or resistance to azoles. Brazilian Aids patients are infected mainly by C. albicans serotype A, most of them susceptible to all antifungal drugs.

  7. Yeast identification in the clinical microbiology laboratory: phenotypical methods. (United States)

    Freydiere, A M; Guinet, R; Boiron, P


    Emerging yeast pathogens are favoured by increasing numbers of immunocompromised patients and by certain current medical practices. These yeasts differ in their antifungal drug susceptibilities, and rapid species identification is imperative. A large variety of methods have been developed with the aim of facilitating rapid, accurate yeast identification. Significant recent commercial introductions have included species-specific direct enzymatic colour tests, differential chromogenic isolation plates, direct immunological tests, and enhanced manual and automated biochemical and enzymatic panels. Chromogenic isolation media demonstrate better detection rates of yeasts in mixed cultures than traditional media, and allow the direct identification of Candida albicans by means of colony colour. Comparative evaluation of rapid methods for C. albicans identification, including the germ tube test, shows that chromogenic media may be economically advantageous. Accurate tests for single species include the Bichrolatex Albicans and Krusei Color tests, both immunologically based, as well as the Remel Rapid Trehalose Assimilation Broth for C. glabrata. Among broad-spectrum tests, the RapID Yeast Plus system gives same-day identification of clinical yeasts, but performance depends on inoculum density and geographic isolate source. The API 20 C AUX system is considered a reference method, but newer systems such as Auxacolor and Fungichrom are as accurate and are more convenient. Among automated systems, the ID 32 C strip, the Vitek Yeast Biochemical Card and the Vitek 2 ID-YST system correctly identify >93% of common yeasts, but the ID-YST is the most accurate with uncommon yeasts, including C. dubliniensis. Spectroscopic methods such as Fourier transformed-infrared spectroscopy offer potential advantages for the future. Overall, the advantages of rapid yeast identification methods include relative simplicity and low cost. For all rapid methods, meticulous, standardized

  8. Does computer-aided detection have a role in the arbitration of discordant double-reading opinions in a breast-screening programme?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, J.J. [Nottingham Breast Institute, Nottingham City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom)], E-mail:; Cornford, E.J. [Nottingham Breast Institute, Nottingham City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom)


    Aims: To investigate whether a computer-aided detection (CAD) system could act as an arbitrator of discordant double-reading opinions, replacing the need for an independent third film reader. Methods: The mammograms of the 240 women that underwent arbitration by an independent third reader were identified from the 16,629 women attending our screening centre between July 2003 and April 2004. Mammograms of the arbitration cases were digitized and analysed by a CAD system. To assess the ability of CAD to act as the arbitrator, the site of the CAD prompts was retrospectively compared to the site of any abnormality noted by the original film readers. If a CAD prompt was placed on a region marked by one of the film readers then the decision of CAD as the arbitrator was that the women should be recalled for further assessment. If no mark was placed then the region was considered low risk and the decision was not to recall. The decision of CAD as the arbitrator was retrospectively compared with the original recall decision of the independent third reader. Results: There were 21 cancer cases in the group of women undergoing arbitration, diagnosed both at the original screening episode and subsequently. The independent third reader recalled 15/18 (83%) of the cancers that corresponded with the arbitrated lesion. CAD as the arbitrator would have recalled 16/18 (89%) of the cancers that corresponded to the arbitrated lesion. CAD acting as the arbitrator would have resulted in a significant increase in normal women being recalled to assessment in the arbitration group (P < 0.001). The extra 50 recalls would have potentially increased the overall recall rate to assessment from 3.1 to 3.4%; a relative increase of 10%. Conclusions: The main effect of CAD acting as an arbitrator of discordant double-reading opinions is to increase the recall rate, significantly above what is found when arbitration is performed by an independent third reader. Using CAD as an arbitrator may be an

  9. Genetic sensitivity to bitter taste of 6-n Propylthiouracil: A useful diagnostic aid to detect early childhood caries in pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra Pidamale


    Full Text Available Purpose: Genetic factor to bitter taste perception appears to be largely mediated by the TAS2R38 gene. The insensitivity to bitter compounds like 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP is mediated by this gene. PROP, a pharmacological drug used in treatment of Graves′ disease, proved to be useful tool in determining the genetic sensitivity levels to bitter and sweet taste. The purpose of this study is to show much simpler PROP sensitivity technique for the clinical examiner and its application as a diagnostic aid in Early Childhood Caries (ECC detection among preschool children. Materials and Methods: A total of 119 children belonging to the age group of 36 to 71 months of both sexes, were recruited from A. J. Institute of Dental Sciences, Mangalore (Karnataka. PROP sensitivity test was carried out to determine the inherent genetic ability to taste a bitter or sweet substance. This study used simpler scaling method to find out genetic sensitivity to bitter taste; one who tasted bitter as taster and one who was not able to differentiate/tasted like paper as non-taster. A questionnaire was provided to evaluate their dietary habits and caries experience was recorded. Collected data were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: In the total of 119 children the mean dmfs was definitely higher in non-taster children compared to tasters. The tasters had a mean dmfs value of 9.5120 (S.D. 7.0543 and non-tasters had a value of 7.7250 (S.D. 8.33147, which was statistically significant. The results suggested that there was increase in caries experience among the group of non-tasters as compared to tasters. Tasters tended to be sweet dislikers and non-tasters tended to be sweet likers. On the whole, tasters had a bad dentition as compared to non tasters. Conclusion: The PROP sensitivity test (filter paper test proved to be a useful diagnostic tool in determining the genetic sensitivity levels of bitter taste. The knowledge of a child′s taste

  10. Impact of protease activity of yeasts on wine fermentation and formation of volatile and non-volatile metabolites


    Chomsri, Ni-orn


    Fifty yeast strains previously isolated from grapes and wines were investigated for extracellular protease activity. Saccharomyces yeasts showed no detectable protease activity, while most of the non-Saccharomyces yeasts exhibited proteolytic activity. Nine of the fifty yeast strains were cultivated in grape juice and were analysed for the production of extracellular proteases. The proteolytic activity of Metschnikowia pulcherrima (M 004) was as high as that of Rhodotolura sp. (R3). Very low ...

  11. Screening for AIDS. (United States)


    Tests to detect serum antibody to human T-lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III), based on an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that uses whole disrupted HTLV-III virus antigens, are now commercially available in the US. Recent surveys of groups at high risk for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have found that 22-65% of homosexual men, 87% of active intravenous drug users, 56-72% of hemophiliacs, and 35% of women who were sexual partners of men with AIDS have had postitive ELISA tests compared with fewer than 1% of those with no known risk factors. A positive ELISA test could be due to subclinical infection, immunity, or cross-reactivity with other viral antigens. Laboratory error can also produce false positive results. Thus, it is recommended that the ELISA test be repeated at least once on all seropositive specimens before the result is reported to the patient. The western blot test appears to be more specific and less sensitive than the ELISA. Studies of asymptomatic seropositive homosexual men followed for 2-5 years have found that over 50% remain asymptomatic, 5-19% develop full blown AIDS, and 25% develop signs suggestive of the AIDS-related complex. Asymptomatic patients with positive ELISA tests should be made aware of early signs and symptoms of AIDS. Other data suggest that seropositive patients have the HTLV-III virus in their blood, semen, and/or saliva and can transmit the infection. Precautions to prevent transmission, such as the use of condoms, should be taken by such patients. Physicians should be sensitive to the fear and anxiety that a positive ELISA test will create.

  12. Comparison of the Vitek 2 Antifungal Susceptibility System with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) Broth Microdilution Reference Methods and with the Sensititre YeastOne and Etest Techniques for In Vitro Detection of Antifungal Resistance in Yeast Isolates ▿ ‖ (United States)

    Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Gomez-Lopez, Alicia; Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana; Bernal-Martinez, Leticia; Cuesta, Isabel; Buitrago, Maria J.; Rodriguez-Tudela, Juan L.


    The commercial technique Vitek 2 system for antifungal susceptibility testing of yeast species was evaluated. A collection of 154 clinical yeast isolates, including amphotericin B- and azole-resistant organisms, was tested. Results were compared with those obtained by the reference procedures of both the CLSI and the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). Two other commercial techniques approved for clinical use, the Etest and the Sensititre YeastOne, were included in the comparative exercise as well. The average essential agreement (EA) between the Vitek 2 system and the reference procedures was >95%, comparable with the average EAs observed between the reference procedures and the Sensititre YeastOne and Etest. The EA values were >97% for Candida spp. and stood at 92% for Cryptococcus neoformans. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between the commercial techniques and the reference procedures were statistically significant (P < 0.01). Percentages of very major errors were 2.6% between Vitek 2 and the EUCAST technique and 1.6% between Vitek 2 and the CLSI technique. The Vitek 2 MIC results were available after 14 to 18 h of incubation for all Candida spp. (average time to reading, 15.5 h). The Vitek 2 system was shown to be a reliable technique to determine antifungal susceptibility testing of yeast species and a more rapid and easier alternative for clinical laboratories than the procedures developed by either the CLSI or EUCAST. PMID:20220169

  13. Biomimetic Yeast Cell Typing—Application of QCMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz L. Dickert


    Full Text Available Artificial antibodies represent a key factor in the generation of sensing systems for the selective detection of bioanalytes of variable sizes. With biomimetic surfaces, the important model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae and several of its growth stages may be detected. Quartz crystal microbalances (QCM with 10 MHz fundamental frequency and coated with polymers imprinted with synchronized yeast cells are presented, which are able to detect duplex cells with high selectivity. Furthermore, a multichannel quartz crystal microbalance (MQCM was designed and optimized for the measurement in liquids. This one-chip system based on four-electrode geometry allows the simultaneous detection of four analytes and, thus, provides a monitoring system for biotechnology and process control. For further standardization of the method, synthetic stamps containing plastic yeast cells in different growth stages were produced and utilized for imprinting. Mass-sensitive measurements with such MIPs resulted in the same sensor characteristics as obtained for those imprinted with native yeast cells.

  14. Validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that detects Histoplasma capsulatum antigenuria in Colombian patients with AIDS for diagnosis and follow-up during therapy. (United States)

    Caceres, Diego H; Scheel, Christina M; Tobón, Angela M; Ahlquist Cleveland, Angela; Restrepo, Angela; Brandt, Mary E; Chiller, Tom; Gómez, Beatriz L


    We validated an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in Colombian persons with AIDS and proven histoplasmosis and evaluated the correlation between antigenuria and clinical improvement during follow-up. The sensitivity of the Histoplasma capsulatum ELISA was 86%, and the overall specificity was 94%. The antigen test successfully monitored the response to therapy.

  15. Mapping Yeast Transcriptional Networks


    Hughes, Timothy R; de Boer, Carl G.


    The term “transcriptional network” refers to the mechanism(s) that underlies coordinated expression of genes, typically involving transcription factors (TFs) binding to the promoters of multiple genes, and individual genes controlled by multiple TFs. A multitude of studies in the last two decades have aimed to map and characterize transcriptional networks in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We review the methodologies and accomplishments of these studies, as well as challenges we now face....

  16. Detection of amphotericin B resistance in Candida haemulonii and closely related species by use of the Etest, Vitek-2 yeast susceptibility system, and CLSI and EUCAST broth microdilution methods. (United States)

    Shin, Jong Hee; Kim, Mi-Na; Jang, Sook Jin; Ju, Min Young; Kim, Soo Hyun; Shin, Myung Geun; Suh, Soon Pal; Ryang, Dong Wook


    The emerging fungal pathogens Candida haemulonii and Candida pseudohaemulonii often show high-level resistance to amphotericin B (AMB). We compared the utilities of five antifungal susceptibility testing methods, i.e., the Etest using Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with glucose and methylene blue (Etest-MH), the Etest using RPMI agar supplemented with glucose (Etest-RPG), the Vitek-2 yeast susceptibility system, and the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) broth microdilution methods, for the detection of AMB-resistant isolates of C. haemulonii and closely related species. Thirty-eight clinical isolates (8 C. haemulonii, 10 C. pseudohaemulonii, and 20 Candida auris isolates) were analyzed. Of the 18 C. haemulonii and C. pseudohaemulonii isolates, 18, 15, 18, 10, and 9 exhibited AMB MICs of >1 μg/ml by the Etest-MH, Etest-RPG, Vitek-2, CLSI, and EUCAST methods, respectively. All 20 C. auris isolates showed AMB MICs of ≤1 μg/ml by all five methods. Of the methods, the Etest-MH generated the broadest distribution of AMB MICs for all 38 isolates and showed the best discrimination between the C. haemulonii and C. pseudohaemulonii isolates (4 to 32 μg/ml) and those of C. auris (0.125 to 0.5 μg/ml). Taking the Etest-MH as the reference method, the essential agreements (within two dilutions) for the Etest-RPG, Vitek-2, CLSI, and EUCAST methods were 84, 92, 55, and 55%, respectively; the categorical agreements were 92, 92, 79, and 76%, respectively. This study provides the first data on the efficacy of the Etest-MH and its excellent agreement with Vitek-2 for discriminating AMB-resistant from AMB-susceptible isolates of these Candida species.

  17. Direct concentration and viability measurement of yeast in corn mash using a novel imaging cytometry method. (United States)

    Chan, Leo L; Lyettefi, Emily J; Pirani, Alnoor; Smith, Tim; Qiu, Jean; Lin, Bo


    Worldwide awareness of fossil-fuel depletion and global warming has been increasing over the last 30 years. Numerous countries, including the USA and Brazil, have introduced large-scale industrial fermentation facilities for bioethanol, biobutanol, or biodiesel production. Most of these biofuel facilities perform fermentation using standard baker's yeasts that ferment sugar present in corn mash, sugar cane, or other glucose media. In research and development in the biofuel industry, selection of yeast strains (for higher ethanol tolerance) and fermentation conditions (yeast concentration, temperature, pH, nutrients, etc.) can be studied to optimize fermentation performance. Yeast viability measurement is needed to identify higher ethanol-tolerant yeast strains, which may prolong the fermentation cycle and increase biofuel output. In addition, yeast concentration may be optimized to improve fermentation performance. Therefore, it is important to develop a simple method for concentration and viability measurement of fermenting yeast. In this work, we demonstrate an imaging cytometry method for concentration and viability measurements of yeast in corn mash directly from operating fermenters. It employs an automated cell counter, a dilution buffer, and staining solution from Nexcelom Bioscience to perform enumeration. The proposed method enables specific fluorescence detection of viable and nonviable yeasts, which can generate precise results for concentration and viability of yeast in corn mash. This method can provide an essential tool for research and development in the biofuel industry and may be incorporated into manufacturing to monitor yeast concentration and viability efficiently during the fermentation process.

  18. (United States)

    ... concerns. Search Services Share This Help National HIV/AIDS Strategy Check out NHAS's latest progress in the ... from Read more tweets HIV/AIDS Basics • Federal Resources • Using New ...

  19. Aids for Handicapped Readers. (United States)

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Div. for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

    The reference circular provides information on approximately 50 reading and writing aids intended for physically or visually handicapped individuals. Described are low vision aids, aids for holding a book or turning pages, aids for reading in bed, handwriting aids, typewriters and accessories, braille writing equipment, sound reproducers, and aids…

  20. Macroeconomic Issues in Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjertholm, Peter; Laursen, Jytte; White, Howard

    foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,......foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,...

  1. 极细链格孢菌蛋白激发子PeaT1在酵母双杂交系统中转录激活活性的检测%Detection for Transcriptional Activity of Alternaria Tenuissim Protein Elicitor in Yeast Two-hybrid System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘延锋; 邱德文; 曾洪梅; 杨秀芬


    The peaT1 gene fragment was amplified from pGEM-6p-1-peaT1 by PCR,and recovered target gene was cloned into pLexA vector.After digestion and sequencing,the bait vector pLexA-peaT1 was transformed into yeast strain EGY48[p8op-lacZ]by PEG/LiAC,and the transcriptional activity of bait vector was detected.The results showed that recombinant bait plasmid pLexA-PEMG1 was constructed,for the two bands of recombinant bait plasmid in agarase gel electrophoresis were expected after digesting by restriction endonuclease EcoR I and Xho I.Therefore,the recombinant bait plasmid could be used in yeast two-hybrid system to screen a cDNA library.

  2. Crawling Aid (United States)


    The Institute for the Achievement of Human Potential developed a device known as the Vehicle for Initial Crawling (VIC); the acronym is a tribute to the crawler's inventor, Hubert "Vic" Vykukal; is an effective crawling aid. The VIC is used by brain injured children who are unable to crawl due to the problems of weight-bearing and friction, caused by gravity. It is a rounded plywood frame large enough to support the child's torso, leaving arms and legs free to move. On its underside are three aluminum discs through which air is pumped to create an air-bearing surface that has less friction than a film of oil. Upper side contains the connection to the air supply and a pair of straps which restrain the child and cause the device to move with him. VIC is used with the intent to recreate the normal neurological connection between brain and muscles. Over repetitive use of the device the child develops his arm and leg muscles as well as coordination. Children are given alternating therapy, with and without the VIC until eventually the device is no longer needed.

  3. Usefulness of the detection of Toxoplasma gondii antigens in AIDS patients Utilidad de la detección de antígenos de Toxoplasma gondii en pacientes con SIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Fachado


    Full Text Available Toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE is a mayor cause of central nervous system infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. Toxoplasma antibodies were detected in 56 of 79 patients with AIDS (71%, in the present study. Fourteen out of 57 seropositive patients developed TF (25% and had Toxoplasma gondii antigen detected in their urine. For this, most of them received an effective therapy, with the subsequent disappearance of the symptoms and discontinuity of excretion of the T. gondii antigens. Our results suggest that the monitoring of T. gondii antigen in the urine of AIDS patients may be useful to decide on the proper time for therapy, as well as to avoid the beginning of neurologic signs in these patients.La Encefalitis Toxoplásmica (ET es la más importante complicación infecciosa del Sistema Nervioso Central en pacientes de SIDA. Anticuerpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii fueron detectados en 57 de 79 pacientes de SIDA (71%. De estos seropositivos, desarrollaron la enfermedad (ET 14 (25%, en los que coincidentemente se detectó la presencia de antígeno del parásito en orina y por tanto fueron objeto de una terapia efectiva, con la subsecuente desaparición de los sintomas y de los antígenos excretados. Por los resultados del presente trabajo, consideramos lo útil de monitorear en estos pacientes la presencia de antígenos de T. gondii con el objetivo de aplicar oportunamente métodos quimoprofilácticos que eviten el surgimiento de manifestaciones neurológicas en estos pacientes.

  4. HIV and AIDS (United States)

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Kids > HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...

  5. Heart attack first aid (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  6. Breathing difficulties - first aid (United States)

    Difficulty breathing - first aid; Dyspnea - first aid; Shortness of breath - first aid ... Breathing difficulty is almost always a medical emergency. An exception is feeling slightly winded from normal activity, ...

  7. Genomics and the making of yeast biodiversity (United States)

    Yeasts are unicellular fungi that do not form fruiting bodies. Although the yeast lifestyle has evolved multiple times, most known species belong to the subphylum Saccharomycotina (syn. Hemiascomycota, hereafter yeasts). This diverse group includes the premier eukaryotic model system, Saccharomyces ...

  8. Ethanol tolerance in yeasts. (United States)

    Casey, G P; Ingledew, W M


    It is now certain that the inherent ethanol tolerance of the Saccharomyces strain used is not the prime factor regulating the level of ethanol that can be produced in a high sugar brewing, wine, sake, or distillery fermentation. In fact, in terms of the maximum concentration that these yeasts can produce under batch (16 to 17% [v/v]) or fed-batch conditions, there is clearly no difference in ethanol tolerance. This is not to say, however, that under defined conditions there is no difference in ethanol tolerance among different Saccharomyces yeasts. This property, although a genetic determinant, is clearly influenced by many factors (carbohydrate level, wort nutrition, temperature, osmotic pressure/water activity, and substrate concentration), and each yeast strain reacts to each factor differently. This will indeed lead to differences in measured tolerance. Thus, it is extremely important that each of these be taken into consideration when determining "tolerance" for a particular set of fermentation conditions. The manner in which each alcohol-related industry has evolved is now known to have played a major role in determining traditional thinking on ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces yeasts. It is interesting to speculate on how different our thinking on ethanol tolerance would be today if sake fermentations had not evolved with successive mashing and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of rice carbohydrate, if distillers' worts were clarified prior to fermentation but brewers' wort were not, and if grape skins with their associated unsaturated lipids had not been an integral part of red wine musts. The time is now ripe for ethanol-related industries to take advantage of these findings to improve the economies of production. In the authors' opinion, breweries could produce higher alcohol beers if oxygenation (leading to unsaturated lipids) and "usable" nitrogen source levels were increased in high gravity worts. White wine fermentations could also, if

  9. Carbon source utilization and inhibitor tolerance of 45 oleaginous yeast species. (United States)

    Sitepu, Irnayuli; Selby, Tylan; Lin, Ting; Zhu, Shirley; Boundy-Mills, Kyria


    Conversion of lignocellulosic hydrolysates to lipids using oleaginous (high lipid) yeasts requires alignment of the hydrolysate composition with the characteristics of the yeast strain, including ability to utilize certain nutrients, ability to grow independently of costly nutrients such as vitamins, and ability to tolerate inhibitors. Some combination of these characteristics may be present in wild strains. In this study, 48 oleaginous yeast strains belonging to 45 species were tested for ability to utilize carbon sources associated with lignocellulosic hydrolysates, tolerate inhibitors, and grow in medium without supplemented vitamins. Some well-studied oleaginous yeast species, as well as some that have not been frequently utilized in research or industrial production, emerged as promising candidates for industrial use due to ability to utilize many carbon sources, including Cryptococcus aureus, Cryptococcus laurentii, Hannaella aff. zeae, Tremella encephala, and Trichosporon coremiiforme. Other species excelled in inhibitor tolerance, including Candida aff. tropicalis, Cyberlindnera jadinii, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Schwanniomyces occidentalis and Wickerhamomyces ciferrii. No yeast tested could utilize all carbon sources and tolerate all inhibitors tested. These results indicate that yeast strains should be selected based on characteristics compatible with the composition of the targeted hydrolysate. Other factors to consider include the production of valuable co-products such as carotenoids, availability of genetic tools, biosafety level, and flocculation of the yeast strain. The data generated in this study will aid in aligning yeasts with compatible hydrolysates for conversion of carbohydrates to lipids to be used for biofuels and other oleochemicals.

  10. Spectrum Of Opportunistic Infections In Aids Cases In A Tertiary Care Hospital In Nepal


    Hari Shanker Joshi; Rabindranath Das; Arun Kumar Agnihotri; Subba, Sonu H; Ramnesh Murthy; S B Dabral


    A retrospective study was carried out, 404 clinically suspected cases attending AIDS clinic at Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal to assess an occurance of opportunistic infections in AIDS cases. Study reveals that Tuberculosis (60%), Cryptospridiosis (13.33%) and candidasis (11.11%) are the predominant opportunistic infection in HIV/AIDS patients in the Pokharo village. Next common pathogen was found an ubiquitous yeast. Candida obtained from skin, oral cavity, oesophagus, sputum and ...

  11. Inheritance of the yeast mitochondrial genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piskur, Jure


    Mitochondrion, extrachromosomal genetics, intergenic sequences, genome size, mitochondrial DNA, petite mutation, yeast......Mitochondrion, extrachromosomal genetics, intergenic sequences, genome size, mitochondrial DNA, petite mutation, yeast...

  12. Yeast two-hybrid screen. (United States)

    Makuch, Lauren


    Yeast two-hybrid is a method for screening large numbers of gene products (encoded by cDNA libraries) for their ability to interact with a protein of interest. This system can also be used for characterizing and manipulating candidate protein: protein interactions. Interactions between proteins are monitored by the growth of yeast plated on selective media.

  13. Concentration measurement of yeast suspensions using high frequency ultrasound backscattering. (United States)

    Elvira, Luis; Vera, Pedro; Cañadas, Francisco Jesús; Shukla, Shiva Kant; Montero, Francisco


    This work proposes the use of an ultrasound based technique to measure the concentration of yeasts in liquid suspension. This measurement was achieved by the detection and quantification of ultrasonic echoes backscattered by the cells. More specifically, the technique was applied to the detection and quantification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A theoretical approach was proposed to get the average density and sound speed of the yeasts, which were found to be 1116 kg/m(3) and 1679 m/s, respectively. These parameters were needed to model the waves backscattered by each single cell. A pulse-echo arrangement working around 50 MHz, being able to detect echoes from single yeasts was used to characterize experimentally yeast solutions from 10(2) to 10(7)cells/ml. The Non-negative Matrix Factorization denoising technique was applied for data analysis. This technique required a previous learning of the spectral patterns of the echoes reflected from yeasts in solution and the base noise from the liquid medium. Comparison between pulse correlation (without denoising) and theoretical and experimental pattern learning was made to select the best signal processing. A linear relation between ultrasound output and concentration was obtained with correlation coefficient R(2)=0.996 for the experimental learning. Concentrations from 10(4) to 10(7)cells/ml were detected above the base noise. These results show the viability of using the ultrasound backscattering technique to detect yeasts and measure their concentration in liquid cultures, improving the sensitivity obtained using spectrophotometric methods by one order of magnitude.

  14. Development of a novel PCR assay for the identification of the black yeast, Exophiala (Wangiella) dermatitidis from adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). (United States)

    Nagano, Yuriko; Elborn, J Stuart; Millar, B Cherie; Goldsmith, Colin E; Rendall, Jackie; Moore, John E


    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients may suffer increased morbidity and mortality through colonisation, allergy and invasive infection from fungi. The black yeast, Exophiala dermatitidis (synonym Wangiella dermatitidis) has been found with increasing frequency in sputum specimens of CF patients, with reported isolation rates ranging from 1.1 to 15.7%. At present, no diagnostic PCR exists to aid with the clinical laboratory detection and identification of this organism. A novel species-specific PCR-based assay was developed for the detection of E. dermatitidis, based on employment of rDNA operons and interspacer (ITS) regions between these rDNA operons. Two novel primers, (designated ExdF & ExdR) were designed in silico with the aid of computer-aided alignment software and with the alignment of multiple species of Exophiala, as well as with other commonly described yeasts and filamentous fungi within CF sputum, including Candida, Aspergillus and Scedosporium. An amplicon of approximately 455 bp was generated, spanning the partial ITS1 region - the complete 5.8S rDNA region - partial ITS2 region, employing ExdF (forward primer [16-mer], 5'-CCG CCT ATT CAG GTC C-3' and ExdR (reverse primer [16-mer], 5'-TCT CTC CCA CTC CCG C-3', was employed and optimised on extracted genomic DNA from a well characterised culture of E. dermatitidis, as well as with high quality genomic DNA template from a further 16 unrelated fungi, including Candida albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, Scedosporium apiospermum, Penicillium sp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus versicolor, Pichia guilliermondii, Rhodotorula sp., Trichosporon sp., Aureobasidium pullulans, Fusarium sp., Mucor hiemalis, Bionectria ochroleuca, Gibberella pulicaris. Results demonstrated that only DNA from E. dermatitidis gave an amplification product of the expected size, whilst none of the other fungi were amplifiable. Subsequent employment of this primer pair detected this yeast from mycological cultures

  15. Home Health Aides (United States)

    ... specifications Help to keep clients engaged in their social networks and communities Home health aides, unlike personal care aides , typically work ... self-care and everyday tasks. They also provide social supports and assistance that enable clients to participate in their ... more information about home health aides, including voluntary credentials for aides, visit ...

  16. How do yeast sense mitochondrial dysfunction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Knorre


    Full Text Available Apart from energy transformation, mitochondria play important signaling roles. In yeast, mitochondrial signaling relies on several molecular cascades. However, it is not clear how a cell detects a particular mitochondrial malfunction. The problem is that there are many possible manifestations of mitochondrial dysfunction. For example, exposure to the specific antibiotics can either decrease (inhibitors of respiratory chain or increase (inhibitors of ATP-synthase mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Moreover, even in the absence of the dysfunctions, a cell needs feedback from mitochondria to coordinate mitochondrial biogenesis and/or removal by mitophagy during the division cycle. To cope with the complexity, only a limited set of compounds is monitored by yeast cells to estimate mitochondrial functionality. The known examples of such compounds are ATP, reactive oxygen species, intermediates of amino acids synthesis, short peptides, Fe-S clusters and heme, and also the precursor proteins which fail to be imported by mitochondria. On one hand, the levels of these molecules depend not only on mitochondria. On the other hand, these substances are recognized by the cytosolic sensors which transmit the signals to the nucleus leading to general, as opposed to mitochondria-specific, transcriptional response. Therefore, we argue that both ways of mitochondria-to-nucleus communication in yeast are mostly (if not completely unspecific, are mediated by the cytosolic signaling machinery and strongly depend on cellular metabolic state.

  17. Results of detection of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in peripheral blood of HIV/AIDS patients%HIV/AIDS患者外周血EBV-DNA检测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴驰; 赖文杰; 陈建波; 刘厚明; 肖颜玉; 叶飞娣; 单万水


    目的 了解深圳地区人免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)阳性患者和艾滋病(AIDS)患者外周血中EB病毒DNA的检出情况.方法 收集257例HIV/AIDS患者外周血标本,采用实时荧光定量PCR技术检测EB病毒DNA水平.比较不同年龄、性别、门诊及住院HIV/AIDS患者的EBV-DNA阳性率并进行统计学分析.结果 HIV/AIDS患者EBV-DNA总检出率为32.30%(83/257),住院AIDS患者检出率为43.96%( 40/91)明显高于门诊HIV/AIDS患者检出率(25.90%,43/166). 结论 HIV/AIDS患者外周血中EBV-DNA检出率较高,EBV-DNA阳性检出率随着HIV/AIDS患者病情的加重而增加.%Objective To investigate the incidence of Epstein-Barr virus in HIV/AIDS patients from Shenzhen region. Methods The peripheral blood samples of 257 HIV/AIDS cases in Shenzhen Municipal Third People's Hospital from October 2010 to April 2011 were collected and the level of peripheral blood EBV DNA was determined by using fluorescent quantitative PCR, and the infection rate of EBV in HIV-infected patients was analyzed. Results A total of 83 patients (32.30% )carried Epstein-Barr virus. The detection rate of of Epslein rirus in AIDS inpalients was 43.96%,significantly higher than the outpatients (25.90%). Conclusion The infection rate of Epstein virus in peripheral blood of HIV/AIDS cases is high and the positive rate of Epstein virus infection is getting higner alongside with the increase of severity of the disease.

  18. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...... evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... for aid in the future...

  19. Types of Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Foreign aid is given for many purposes and different intentions, yet most studies treat aid flows as a unitary concept. This paper uses factor analysis to separate aid flows into different types. The main types can be interpreted as aid for economic purposes, social purposes, and reconstruction......; a residual category captures remaining purposes. Estimating the growth effects of separable types of aid suggests that most aid has no effects while reconstruction aid has direct positive effects. Although this type only applies in special circumstances, it has become more prevalent in more recent years....

  20. Bioprotective Role of Yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Muccilli


    Full Text Available The yeasts constitute a large group of microorganisms characterized by the ability to grow and survive in different and stressful conditions and then to colonize a wide range of environmental and human ecosystems. The competitive traits against other microorganisms have attracted increasing attention from scientists, who proposed their successful application as bioprotective agents in the agricultural, food and medical sectors. These antagonistic activities rely on the competition for nutrients, production and tolerance of high concentrations of ethanol, as well as the synthesis of a large class of antimicrobial compounds, known as killer toxins, which showed clearly a large spectrum of activity against food spoilage microorganisms, but also against plant, animal and human pathogens. This review describes the antimicrobial mechanisms involved in the antagonistic activity, their applications in the processed and unprocessed food sectors, as well as the future perspectives in the development of new bio-drugs, which may overcome the limitations connected to conventional antimicrobial and drug resistance.


    Simpson, Kenneth L.; Nakayama, T. O. M.; Chichester, C. O.


    Simpson, Kenneth L. (University of California, Davis), T. O. M. Nakayama, and C. O. Chichester. Biosynthesis of yeast carotenoids. J. Bacteriol. 88:1688–1694. 1964.—The biosynthesis of carotenoids was followed in Rhodotorula glutinis and in a new strain, 62-506. The treatment of the growing cultures by methylheptenone, or ionone, vapors permitted observations of the intermediates in the biosynthetic pathway. On the basis of concentration changes and accumulation in blocked pathways, the sequence of carotenoid formation is postulated as phytoene, phytofluene, ζ-carotene, neurosporene, β-zeacarotene, γ-carotene, torulin, a C40 aldehyde, and torularhodin. Torulin and torularhodin were established as the main carotenoids of 62-506. PMID:14240958

  2. Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc (United States)

    Nicola, Raffaele De; Walker, Graeme

    Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase. The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard to the uptake and subsequent utilisation of this metal. Zinc uptake by yeast is metabolism-dependent, with most of the available zinc translocated very quickly into the vacuole. At cell division, zinc is distributed from mother to daughter cells and this effectively lowers the individual cellular zinc concentration, which may become zinc depleted at the onset of the fermentation. Zinc influences yeast fermentative performance and examples will be provided relating to brewing and wine fermentations. Industrial yeasts are subjected to several stresses that may impair fermentation performance. Such stresses may also impact on yeast cell zinc homeostasis. This chapter will discuss the practical implications for the correct management of zinc bioavailability for yeast-based biotechnologies aimed at improving yeast growth, viability, fermentation performance and resistance to environmental stresses

  3. Yeasts: from genetics to biotechnology. (United States)

    Russo, S; Berkovitz Siman-Tov, R; Poli, G


    Yeasts have been known and used in food and alcoholic fermentations ever since the Neolithic Age. In more recent times, on the basis of their peculiar features and history, yeasts have become very important experimental models in both microbiological and genetic research, as well as the main characters in many fermentative production processes. In the last 40 years, advances in molecular biology and genetic engineering have made possible not only the genetic selection of organisms, but also the genetic modification of some of them, especially the simplest of them, such as bacteria and yeasts. These discoveries have led to the availability of new yeast strains fit to fulfill requests of industrial production and fermentation. Moreover, genetically modified and transformed yeasts have been constructed that are able to produce large amounts of biologically active proteins and enzymes. Thus, recombinant yeasts make it easier to produce drugs, biologically active products, diagnostics, and vaccines, by inexpensive and relatively simple techniques. Yeasts are going to become more and more important in the "biotechnological revolution" by virtue of both their features and their very long and safe use in human nutrition and industry.

  4. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis) may be safely used in food provided the total folic...

  5. Leaks in gas pipelines. Leak detection with the aid of GIS and GPS; Leckstellen in Gasrohrnetzen. Aufspueren mit Unterstuetzung durch GIS und GPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Detlef; Berteld, Michael [Industrielle Werke Basel (Switzerland)


    The GPS technology has made gas leak detection more efficient. By linking it with the documentation of the Geographic Information System (GIS), gas grid monitoring, long-term planning and also maintenance can be optimized considerably. After successful testing, Industrielle Werke Basel (IWB) introduced the system for their whole gas grid. Apart from cost savings, there was also a significant quality improvement in gas leak detection. (orig.)

  6. Applications of yeast flocculation in biotechnological processes


    Domingues, Lucília; Vicente, A.A.; Lima, Nelson; Teixeira, J. A.


    A review on the main aspects associated with yeast flocculation and its application in biotechnological processes is presented. This subject is addressed following three main aspects – the basics of yeast flocculation, the development of “new” flocculating yeast strains and bioreactor development. In what concerns the basics of yeast flocculation, the state of the art on the most relevant aspects of mechanism, physiology and genetics of yeast flocculation is reported. The const...

  7. Marine Yeasts and Their Applications in Mariculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHI Zhenming; LIU Zhiqiang; GAO Lingmei; GONG Fang; MA Chunling; WANG Xianghong; LI Haifeng


    The terrestrial yeasts have been receiving great attention in science and industry for over one hundred years because they can produce many kinds of bioactive substances. However, little is known about the bioactive substances of marine yeasts. In recent years, it has been found that marine yeasts have wide applications in mariculture and other fields.Therefore, marine yeasts, the bioactive substances from them and the applications of marine yeasts themselves and the bioactive substances they produced are reviewed in this paper.

  8. Aid and growth regressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Tarp, Finn


    This paper examines the relationship between foreign aid and growth in real GDP per capita as it emerges from simple augmentations of popular cross country growth specifications. It is shown that aid in all likelihood increases the growth rate, and this result is not conditional on ‘good’ policy....... There are, however, decreasing returns to aid, and the estimated effectiveness of aid is highly sensitive to the choice of estimator and the set of control variables. When investment and human capital are controlled for, no positive effect of aid is found. Yet, aid continues to impact on growth via...

  9. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has......Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...

  10. Aid and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn


    evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has......Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...

  11. Assimilation of nitrate by yeasts. (United States)

    Siverio, José M


    Nitrate assimilation has received much attention in filamentous fungi and plants but not so much in yeasts. Recently the availability of classical genetic and molecular biology tools for the yeast Hansenula polymorpha has allowed the advance of the study of this metabolic pathway in yeasts. The genes YNT1, YNR1 and YNI1, encoding respectively nitrate transport, nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase, have been cloned, as well as two other genes encoding transcriptional regulatory factors. All these genes lie closely together in a cluster. Transcriptional regulation is the main regulatory mechanism that controls the levels of the enzymes involved in nitrate metabolism although other mechanisms may also be operative. The process involved in the sensing and signalling of the presence of nitrate in the medium is not well understood. In this article the current state of the studies of nitrate assimilation in yeasts as well as possible venues for future research are reviewed.

  12. Biotechnical Microbiology, yeast and bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Ingrid Stampe


    This section contains the following single lecture notes: Eukaryotic Cell Biology. Kingdom Fungi. Cell Division. Meiosis and Recombination. Genetics of Yeast. Organisation of the Chromosome. Organization and genetics of the mitochondrial Geneme. Regulatio of Gene Expression. Intracellular Compart...

  13. Sexual differentiation in fission yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egel, R; Nielsen, O; Weilguny, D


    The regulation of sexual reproduction in yeast constitutes the highest level of differentiation observed in these unicellular organisms. The various ramifications of this system involve DNA rearrangement, transcriptional control, post-translational modification (such as protein phosphorylation) a...

  14. Engineering antibodies by yeast display. (United States)

    Boder, Eric T; Raeeszadeh-Sarmazdeh, Maryam; Price, J Vincent


    Since its first application to antibody engineering 15 years ago, yeast display technology has been developed into a highly potent tool for both affinity maturing lead molecules and isolating novel antibodies and antibody-like species. Robust approaches to the creation of diversity, construction of yeast libraries, and library screening or selection have been elaborated, improving the quality of engineered molecules and certainty of success in an antibody engineering campaign and positioning yeast display as one of the premier antibody engineering technologies currently in use. Here, we summarize the history of antibody engineering by yeast surface display, approaches used in its application, and a number of examples highlighting the utility of this method for antibody engineering.

  15. Sociobiology of the budding yeast

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dominika M Wloch-Salamon


    Social theory has provided a useful framework for research with microorganisms. Here I describe the advantages and possible risks of using a well-known model organism, the unicellular yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for sociobiological research. I discuss the problems connected with clear classification of yeast behaviour based on the fitness-based Hamilton paradigm. Relevant traits include different types of communities, production of flocculins, invertase and toxins, and the presence of apoptosis.

  16. Biotechnological Applications of Dimorphic Yeasts (United States)

    Doiphode, N.; Joshi, C.; Ghormade, V.; Deshpande, M. V.

    The dimorphic yeasts have the equilibrium between spherical growth (budding) and polarized (hyphal or pseudohyphal tip elongation) which can be triggered by change in the environmental conditions. The reversible growth phenomenon has made dimorphic yeasts as an useful model to understand fungal evolution and fungal differentiation, in general. In nature dimorphism is clearly evident in plant and animal fungal pathogens, which survive and most importantly proliferate in the respective hosts. However, number of organisms with no known pathogenic behaviour also show such a transition, which can be exploited for the technological applications due to their different biochemical make up under different morphologies. For instance, chitin and chitosan production using dimorphic Saccharomyces, Mucor, Rhizopus and Benjaminiella, oil degradation and biotransformation with yeast-form of Yarrowia species, bioremediation of organic pollutants, exopolysac-charide production by yeast-phase of Aureobasidium pullulans, to name a few. Myrothecium verrucaria can be used for seed dressing in its yeast form and it produces a mycolytic enzyme complex in its hyphal-form for the biocontrol of fungal pathogens, while Beauveria bassiana and other entomopathogens kill the insect pest by producing yeast- like cells in the insect body. The form-specific expression of protease, chitinase, lipase, ornithine decarboxylase, glutamate dehydrogenases, etc. make Benjaminiella poitrasii, Basidiobolus sp., and Mucor rouxii strains important in bioremediation, nanobiotechnology, fungal evolution and other areas.

  17. Nile Red Staining of Neutral Lipids in Yeast. (United States)

    Rostron, Kerry Ann; Lawrence, Clare Louise


    Determination of cellular neutral lipid levels in yeast is important for both the biotechnology industry and biomedical research. However, many of the currently available methods are labor intensive and time consuming. Here we describe a rapid and repeatable method for the detection of neutral lipids, which can be utilized in both oleaginous and non-oleaginous yeast species. The method utilizes the fluorescent dye, Nile red, which enables neutral lipid levels to either be visualized via microscopy or quantified using a 96-well plate assay.

  18. Analysis of Arabidopsis glutathione-transferases in yeast. (United States)

    Krajewski, Matthias P; Kanawati, Basem; Fekete, Agnes; Kowalski, Natalie; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Grill, Erwin


    The genome of Arabidopsis thaliana encodes 54 functional glutathione transferases (GSTs), classified in seven clades. Although plant GSTs have been implicated in the detoxification of xenobiotics, such as herbicides, extensive redundancy within this large gene family impedes a functional analysis in planta. In this study, a GST-deficient yeast strain was established as a system for analyzing plant GSTs that allows screening for GST substrates and identifying substrate preferences within the plant GST family. To this end, five yeast genes encoding GSTs and GST-related proteins were simultaneously disrupted. The resulting yeast quintuple mutant showed a strongly reduced conjugation of the GST substrates 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and 4-chloro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-Cl). Consistently, the quintuple mutant was hypersensitive to CDNB, and this phenotype was complemented by the inducible expression of Arabidopsis GSTs. The conjugating activity of the plant GSTs was assessed by in vitro enzymatic assays and via analysis of exposed yeast cells. The formation of glutathione adducts with dinitrobenzene was unequivocally verified by stable isotope labeling and subsequent accurate ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry (ICR-FTMS). Analysis of Arabidopsis GSTs encompassing six clades and 42 members demonstrated functional expression in yeast by using CDNB and NBD-Cl as model substrates. Subsequently, the established yeast system was explored for its potential to screen the Arabidopsis GST family for conjugation of the fungicide anilazine. Thirty Arabidopsis GSTs were identified that conferred increased levels of glutathionylated anilazine. Efficient anilazine conjugation was observed in the presence of the phi, tau, and theta clade GSTs including AtGSTF2, AtGSTF4, AtGSTF6, AtGSTF8, AtGSTF10, and AtGSTT2, none of which had previously been known to contribute to fungicide detoxification. ICR-FTMS analysis of yeast extracts allowed the simultaneous detection and

  19. Ochratoxin A in brewer's yeast used as food supplement. (United States)

    Gottschalk, Christoph; Biermaier, Barbara; Gross, Madeleine; Schwaiger, Karin; Gareis, Manfred


    Brewer's yeasts are rich in vitamins of the B-group and contain other nutritive factors; therefore, they are recommended as valuable food supplements for people with special dietary requirements like pregnant women, children, and adolescents, or for people with high physical activity. Additionally, certain strains of brewer's yeast are known to be capable of adsorbing xenobiotics such as mycotoxins. Because of that, these yeasts are regarded as having positive effects in food, beverage, and feed technology. Their potential to bind mycotoxins such as ochratoxin A (OTA), however, can subsequently lead to a contamination of such brewer's yeasts used as food supplements. In the present study, we analyzed 46 samples of brewer's yeasts for the occurrence of OTA by HPLC with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD) and for confirmatory measurements by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Nearly 90% of the samples were contaminated with OTA, the levels ranging from the limit of detection (LOD, 0.01 μg/kg) to 4.2 μg/kg. The mean and median levels of contamination were 0.49 and 0.27 μg/kg, respectively. Based on these results, the additional weekly OTA exposure by regularly consuming such supplements was assessed. Depending on different subpopulations (adults, children) and levels of contamination used for calculation, the additional OTA intake via brewer's yeast products ranged from 9.3% (mean case) to 114% (worst case) of the published mean weekly OTA intake in Germany (adults 279.3 ng, children 195.3 ng). At present, maximum levels for OTA in nutritional supplements like brewer's yeast do not exist. Based on our results, however, it is recommended that producers of these dietary supplements should include mycotoxin analyses in ongoing and future self-monitoring programs and in product quality checks.

  20. HIV/AIDS Coinfection (United States)

    ... Laotian Mongolian Spanish Turkish Vietnamese Hindi Subscribe HIV/AIDS Coinfection Approximately 10% of the HIV-infected population ... Control and Prevention website to learn about HIV/AIDS and Viral Hepatitis guidelines and resources. Home About ...

  1. HIV/AIDS Basics (United States)

    ... Partner Spotlight Awareness Days Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or ... AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets ...

  2. Neurological Complications of AIDS (United States)

    ... in recent years has improved significantly because of new drugs and treatments. AIDS clinicians often fail to recognize ... in recent years has improved significantly because of new drugs and treatments. AIDS clinicians often fail to recognize ...

  3. Computer-Aided Decision Support for Melanoma Detection Applied on Melanocytic and Nonmelanocytic Skin Lesions: A Comparison of Two Systems Based on Automatic Analysis of Dermoscopic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajsa Møllersen


    Full Text Available Commercially available clinical decision support systems (CDSSs for skin cancer have been designed for the detection of melanoma only. Correct use of the systems requires expert knowledge, hampering their utility for nonexperts. Furthermore, there are no systems to detect other common skin cancer types, that is, nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC. As early diagnosis of skin cancer is essential, there is a need for a CDSS that is applicable to all types of skin lesions and is suitable for nonexperts. Nevus Doctor (ND is a CDSS being developed by the authors. We here investigate ND’s ability to detect both melanoma and NMSC and the opportunities for improvement. An independent test set of dermoscopic images of 870 skin lesions, including 44 melanomas and 101 NMSCs, were analysed by ND. Its sensitivity to melanoma and NMSC was compared to that of Mole Expert (ME, a commercially available CDSS, using the same set of lesions. ND and ME had similar sensitivity to melanoma. For ND at 95% melanoma sensitivity, the NMSC sensitivity was 100%, and the specificity was 12%. The melanomas misclassified by ND at 95% sensitivity were correctly classified by ME, and vice versa. ND is able to detect NMSC without sacrificing melanoma sensitivity.

  4. A signal-on electrochemical aptasensor for ultrasensitive detection of endotoxin using three-way DNA junction-aided enzymatic recycling and graphene nanohybrid for amplification (United States)

    Bai, Lijuan; Chai, Yaqin; Pu, Xiaoyun; Yuan, Ruo


    Endotoxin, also known as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is able to induce a strong immune response on its internalization into mammalian cells. To date, aptamer-based biosensors for LPS detection have been rarely reported. This work describes a new signal-on electrochemical aptasensor for the ultrasensitive detection of LPS by combining the three-way DNA hybridization process and nanotechnology-based amplification. With the help of DNA1 (associated with the concentration of target LPS), the capture probe hybridizes with DNA1 and the assistant probe to open its hairpin structure and form a ternary ``Y'' junction structure. The DNA1 can be released from the structure in the presence of nicking endonuclease to initiate the next hybridization process. Then a great deal of cleaved capture probe produced in the cyclic process can bind with DNA2-nanocomposite, which contains the electroactive toluidine blue (Tb) with the amplification materials graphene (Gra) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Thus, an enhanced electrochemical signal can be easily read out. With the cascade signal amplification, this newly designed protocol provides an ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of LPS down to the femtogram level (8.7 fg mL-1) with a linear range of 6 orders of magnitude (from 10 fg mL-1 to 50 ng mL-1). Moreover, the high sensitivity and specificity make this method versatile for the detection of other biomolecules by changing the corresponding sequences of the capture probe and the assistant probe.

  5. Red Yeast Rice (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu; Karl, Mitchell; Santini, Antonello


    Red yeast rice (RYR), produced by the fermentation of the Monascus purpureus mold, has been used for a long time in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. It consists of multiple bioactive substances, including monacolins, which potentially can be used as a nutraceutical. Monacolin K, which is chemically identical to lovastatin, has been recognized as responsible for the cholesterol-reducing effect of this compound. While the European Food Safety Authority maintains that the use of monacolin K from RYR preparations of at least 10 mg can produce a normal blood cholesterol level, the United States Food and Drug Administration considers monacolin K, due to its similarity with lovastatin, an unapproved drug, and therefore marketing of products that label the monacolin content is prohibited. This mini-review summarizes the benefit of RYR in hyperlipidemia, maintains RYR use as a food, and addresses the importance of regulation regarding RYR and the need for clinical data and clear label information for consumers with reference to a toxin-free, non-augmented, standardized amount of monacolins. PMID:28257063

  6. Red Yeast Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu Nguyen


    Full Text Available Red yeast rice (RYR, produced by the fermentation of the Monascus purpureus mold, has been used for a long time in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. It consists of multiple bioactive substances, including monacolins, which potentially can be used as a nutraceutical. Monacolin K, which is chemically identical to lovastatin, has been recognized as responsible for the cholesterolreducing effect of this compound. While the European Food Safety Authority maintains that the use of monacolin K from RYR preparations of at least 10 mg can produce a normal blood cholesterol level, the United States Food and Drug Administration considers monacolin K, due to its similarity with lovastatin, an unapproved drug, and therefore marketing of products that label the monacolin content is prohibited. This mini-review summarizes the benefit of RYR in hyperlipidemia, maintains RYR use as a food, and addresses the importance of regulation regarding RYR and the need for clinical data and clear label information for consumers with reference to a toxin-free, nonaugmented, standardized amount of monacolins.

  7. Aid and growth regressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Tarp, Finn


    . There are, however, decreasing returns to aid, and the estimated effectiveness of aid is highly sensitive to the choice of estimator and the set of control variables. When investment and human capital are controlled for, no positive effect of aid is found. Yet, aid continues to impact on growth via...... investment. We conclude by stressing the need for more theoretical work before this kind of cross-country regressions are used for policy purposes....

  8. Recent Taxonomic Developments with Candida and Other Opportunistic Yeasts. (United States)

    Brandt, Mary E; Lockhart, Shawn R


    Increases in susceptible patient populations and advances in identification methods have resulted in the continued recognition of novel yeasts as agents of human infection. Most of these agents are members of the well-recognized genera Candida, Cryptococcus, Trichosporon, and Rhodotorula. Some of these agents are "cryptic species," members of species complexes, and may not be detectable using classical carbohydrate assimilation-based methods of yeast identification. Such species require DNA- or MALDI-based methods for correct identification, although sporadic isolates may not routinely require delineation to the individual species level. The coming end of the fungal taxonomy rules requiring separate names for sexual and asexual forms of the same fungus will hopefully allow greater clarity, as names for medically important yeast can now be based on the needs of the medical mycology community and the common goal of better communication between laboratory and clinician.

  9. Antifungal chitinase against human pathogenic yeasts from Coprinellus congregatus. (United States)

    Yoo, Yeeun; Choi, Hyoung T


    The inky cap, Coprinellus congregatus, produces mushrooms which become autolyzed rapidly to generate black liquid droplets, in which no cell wall is detected by microscopy. A chitinase (Chi2) which is synthesized during the autolytic phase of C. congregatus inhibits the growths of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans up to 10% at the concentration of 10 μg/ml, about 50% at concentration of 20 μg/ml, and up to 95% at the concentration of 70 μg/ml. Upon treatment these yeast cells are observed to be severely deformed, with the formation of large holes in the cell wall. The two yeast species show no growth inhibition at the concentration of 5 μg/ml, which means the minimum inhibitory concentrations for both yeast species are 10 μg/ml under these experimental conditions.

  10. Designing State Aid Formulas (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine


    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  11. Determinants of State Aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiren, K.; Brouwer, E.


    From economic theory we derive a set of hypotheses on the determination of state aid. Econometric analysis on EU state aid panel data is carried out to test whether the determinants we expect on the basis of theory, correspond to the occurrence of state aid in practice in the EU. We find that politi

  12. Fever: First Aid (United States)

    First aid Fever: First aid Fever: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A fever is a rise in body temperature. It's usually a sign of infection. The ... 2 C) or higher Should I treat a fever? When you or your child is sick, the ...

  13. Stroke: First Aid (United States)

    First aid Stroke: First aid Stroke: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A stroke occurs when there's bleeding into your brain or when normal blood flow to ... next several hours. Seek immediate medical assistance. A stroke is a true emergency. The sooner treatment is ...

  14. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel

    inputs. We take as our point of departure a growth accounting analysis and review both intended and unintended effects of aid. Mozambique has benefited from sustained aid inflows in conflict, post-conflict and reconstruction periods. In each of these phases aid has made an unambiguous, positive...

  15. Exonuclease I-aided homogeneous electrochemical strategy for organophosphorus pesticide detection based on enzyme inhibition integrated with a DNA conformational switch. (United States)

    Wang, Xiuzhong; Dong, Shanshan; Hou, Ting; Liu, Lei; Liu, Xiaojuan; Li, Feng


    A novel enzyme inhibition-based homogeneous electrochemical biosensing strategy was designed for an organophosphorus pesticide assay based on exploiting the resistance of a mercury ion-mediated helper probe (HP) toward nuclease-catalyzed digestion and the remarkable diffusivity difference between HPs and the mononucleotides toward a negatively charged indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. In particular, the mercury ion-mediated T-Hg(2+)-T base pairs facilitate the HP labeled with methylene blue (MB) to fold into a hairpin structure, preventing its digestion by exonuclease I, and thus resulting in a low electrochemical response because of the large electrostatic repulsion between the negatively charged ITO electrode and the HPs. The competitive binding by a thiol group (-SH), produced in the hydrolysis reaction of acetylthiocholine (ACh) chloride with acetylcholinesterase (AChE), removes mercury ions from the base pairs, causing a nuclease-catalyzed digestion, and the subsequent electrochemical response increase due to the weak electrostatic repulsion between the product-mononucleotides and the ITO electrode. Mercury ion-mediated HPs were first designed for pesticide detection and diazinon was chosen as the model target. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the approach exhibited high sensitivity for diazinon detection with a detection limit of 0.25 μg L(-1). The satisfactory results in the determination of diazinon in real samples demonstrate that the method possesses great potential for detecting organophosphorus pesticides. This new approach is expected to promote the exploitation of mercury-mediated base pair-based homogenous electrochemical biosensors in biochemical studies and in the food safety field.

  16. Computer-Aided Decision Support for Melanoma Detection Applied on Melanocytic and Nonmelanocytic Skin Lesions: A Comparison of Two Systems Based on Automatic Analysis of Dermoscopic Images

    CERN Document Server

    Møllersen, Kajsa; Zortea, Maciel; Schopf, Thomas R; Hindberg, Kristian; Godtliebsen, Fred


    Commercially available clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) for skin cancer have been designed for the detection of melanoma only. Correct use of the systems requires expert knowledge, hampering their utility for nonexperts. Furthermore, there are no systems to detect other common skin cancer types, that is, nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). As early diagnosis of skin cancer is essential, there is a need for a CDSS that is applicable to all types of skin lesions and is suitable for nonexperts. Nevus Doctor (ND) is a CDSS being developed by the authors. We here investigate ND's ability to detect both melanoma and NMSC and the opportunities for improvement. An independent test set of dermoscopic images of 870 skin lesions, including 44 melanomas and 101 NMSCs, were analysed by ND. Its sensitivity to melanoma and NMSC was compared to that of Mole Expert (ME), a commercially available CDSS, using the same set of lesions. ND and ME had similar sensitivity to melanoma. For ND at 95 percent melanoma sensitivity, ...

  17. Assessment of the Incremental Benefit of Computer-Aided Detection (CAD for Interpretation of CT Colonography by Experienced and Inexperienced Readers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Boone

    Full Text Available To quantify the incremental benefit of computer-assisted-detection (CAD for polyps, for inexperienced readers versus experienced readers of CT colonography.10 inexperienced and 16 experienced radiologists interpreted 102 colonography studies unassisted and with CAD utilised in a concurrent paradigm. They indicated any polyps detected on a study sheet. Readers' interpretations were compared against a ground-truth reference standard: 46 studies were normal and 56 had at least one polyp (132 polyps in total. The primary study outcome was the difference in CAD net benefit (a combination of change in sensitivity and change in specificity with CAD, weighted towards sensitivity for detection of patients with polyps.Inexperienced readers' per-patient sensitivity rose from 39.1% to 53.2% with CAD and specificity fell from 94.1% to 88.0%, both statistically significant. Experienced readers' sensitivity rose from 57.5% to 62.1% and specificity fell from 91.0% to 88.3%, both non-significant. Net benefit with CAD assistance was significant for inexperienced readers but not for experienced readers: 11.2% (95%CI 3.1% to 18.9% versus 3.2% (95%CI -1.9% to 8.3% respectively.Concurrent CAD resulted in a significant net benefit when used by inexperienced readers to identify patients with polyps by CT colonography. The net benefit was nearly four times the magnitude of that observed for experienced readers. Experienced readers did not benefit significantly from concurrent CAD.

  18. Conditional Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) studies the effect of development aid using econometrics on macro data. It contains about 100 papers of which a third analyzes conditional models where aid effectiveness depends upon z, so that aid only works for a certain range of the variable. The key term...... in this family of AEL models is thus an interaction term of z times aid. The leading candidates for z are a good policy index and aid itself. In this paper, meta-analysis techniques are used (i) to determine whether the AEL has established the said interaction terms, and (ii) to identify some of the determinants...... of the differences in results between studies. Taking all available studies in consideration, we find no support for conditionality with respect to policy, while conditionality regarding aid itself is dubious. However, the results differ depending on the authors’ institutional affiliation....

  19. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel

    This paper considers the relationship between external aid and development in Mozambique from 1980 to 2004. The main objective is to identify the specific mechanisms through which aid has influenced the developmental trajectory of the country and whether one can plausibly link outcomes to aid...... inputs. We take as our point of departure a growth accounting analysis and review both intended and unintended effects of aid. Mozambique has benefited from sustained aid inflows in conflict, post-conflict and reconstruction periods. In each of these phases aid has made an unambiguous, positive...... contribution both enabling and supporting rapid growth since 1992. At the same time, the proliferation of donors and aid-supported interventions has burdened local administration and there is a distinct need to develop government accountability to its own citizens rather than donor agencies. In ensuring...

  20. China vs. AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    CHINA's first HIV positive diagnosis was in 1985, the victim an ArgentineAmerican. At that time most Chinese,medical workers included, thought of AIDS as a phenomenon occurring outside of China. Twenty years later, the number of HIV/AIDS patients has risen alarmingly. In 2003, the Chinese Ministry of Health launched an AIDS Epidemiological Investigation across China with the support of the WHO and UN AIDS Program. Its results show that there are currently 840,000 HIV carriers, including 80,000 people with full-blown AIDS, in 31 Chinese provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. This means China has the second highest number of HIV/AIDS cases in Asia and 14th highest in the world. Statistics from the Chinese Venereal Disease and AIDS Prevention Association indicate that the majority of Chinese HIV carriers are young to middle aged, more than half of them between the ages of 20 and 29.

  1. Aid Effectiveness on Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) is econo¬metric studies of the macroeconomic effects of development aid. It contains about 100 papers of which 68 are reduced form estimates of theeffect of aid on growth in the recipient country. The raw data show that growth is unconnected to aid......, but the AEL has put so much structure on the data that all results possible have emerged. The present meta study considers both the best-set of the 68 papers and the all-set of 543 regressions published. Both sets have a positive average aid-growth elasticity, but it is small and insignificant: The AEL has...... betweenstudies is real. In particular, the aid-growth association is stronger for Asian countries, and the aid-growth association is shown to have been weaker in the 1970s....

  2. Experimental demonstration of half cycle 64-QAM Nyquist-SCM direct-detection optical communication system with data-aided estimation and overlap frequency-domain equalization (United States)

    Li, Danyu; He, Jing; Tang, Jin; Chen, Ming; Chen, Lin


    A half cycle 64-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) Nyquist subcarrier modulation (SCM) polarization division multiplexing (PDM) intensity modulation direct detection optical communication system is experimentally demonstrated. At the receiver, training sequences-based channel estimation and an overlap frequency domain equalization method are proposed to enhance the system performance. The experimental results show that the half cycle 64-QAM Nyquist-SCM PDM signal can be transmitted over 43-km standard single-mode fibers with a bit error rate below the forward error coding threshold of 2.4×10-2.

  3. Yeast Genetics and Biotechnological Applications (United States)

    Mishra, Saroj; Baranwal, Richa

    Yeast can be recognized as one of the very important groups of microorganisms on account of its extensive use in the fermentation industry and as a basic eukaryotic model cellular system. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been extensively used to elucidate the genetics and regulation of several key functions in the cell such as cell mating, electron transport chain, protein trafficking, cell cycle events and others. Even before the genome sequence of the yeast was out, the structural organization and function of several of its genes was known. With the availability of the origin of replication from the 2 μm plasmid and the development of transformation system, it became the host of choice for expression of a number of important proteins. A large number of episomal and integrative shuttle vectors are available for expression of mammalian proteins. The latest developments in genomics and micro-array technology have allowed investigations of individual gene function by site-specific deletion method. The application of metabolic profiling has also assisted in understanding the cellular network operating in this yeast. This chapter is aimed at reviewing the use of this system as an experimental tool for conducting classical genetics. Various vector systems available, foreign genes expressed and the limitations as a host will be discussed. Finally, the use of various yeast enzymes in biotechnology sector will be reviewed.

  4. Time-efficient CT colonography interpretation using an advanced image-gallery-based, computer-aided ''first-reader'' workflow for the detection of colorectal adenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mang, Thomas; Ringl, Helmut; Weber, Michael; Mueller-Mang, Christina [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Hermosillo, Gerardo; Wolf, Matthias; Bogoni, Luca; Salganicoff, Marcos; Raykar, Vikas [Siemens Healthcare, Siemens Medical Solutions, H IM SY CAD R and D, Malvern, PA (United States); Graser, Anno [University of Munich - Grosshadern Campus, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)


    To assess the performance of an advanced ''first-reader'' workflow for computer-aided detection (CAD) of colorectal adenomas {>=} 6 mm at computed tomographic colonography (CTC) in a low-prevalence cohort. A total of 616 colonoscopy-validated CTC patient-datasets were retrospectively reviewed by a radiologist using a ''first-reader'' CAD workflow. CAD detections were presented as galleries of six automatically generated two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) images together with interactive 3D target views and 2D multiplanar views of the complete dataset. Each patient-dataset was interpreted by initially using CAD image-galleries followed by a fast 2D review to address unprompted colonic areas. Per-patient, per-polyp, and per-adenoma sensitivities were calculated for lesions {>=} 6 mm. Statistical testing employed Fisher's exact and McNemar tests. In 91/616 patients, 131 polyps (92 adenomas, 39 non-adenomas) {>=} 6 mm and two cancers were identified by reference standard. Using the CAD gallery-based first-reader workflow, the radiologist detected all adenomas {>=} 10 mm (34/34) and cancers. Per-patient and polyp sensitivities for lesions {>=} 6 mm were 84.3 % (75/89), and 83.2 % (109/131), respectively, with 89.1 % (57/64) and 85.9 % (79/92) for adenomas. Overall specificity was 95.6 % (504/527). Mean interpretation time was 3.1 min per patient. A CAD algorithm, applied in an image-gallery-based first-reader workflow, can substantially decrease reading times while enabling accurate detection of colorectal adenomas in a low-prevalence population. (orig.)

  5. A comparative hybridization analysis of yeast DNA with Paramecium parafusin- and different phosphoglucomutase-specific probes. (United States)

    Wyroba, E; Satir, B H


    Molecular probes designed for the parafusin (PFUS), the Paramecium exocytic-sensitive phosphoglycoprotein, gave distinct hybridization patterns in Saccharomyces cerevisiae genomic DNA when compared with different phosphoglucomutase specific probes. These include two probes identical to segments of yeast phosphoglucomutase (PGM) genes 1 and 2. Neither of the PGM probes revealed the 7.4 and 5.9 kb fragments in Bgl II-cut yeast DNA digest detected with the 1.6 kb cloned PFUS cDNA and oligonucleotide constructed to the PFUS region (insertion 3--I-3) not found in other species. PCR amplification with PFUS-specific primers generated yeast DNA-species of the predicted molecular size which hybridized to the I-3 probe. A search of the yeast genome database produced an unassigned nucleotide sequence that showed 55% identity to parafusin gene and 37% identity to PGM2 (the major isoform of yeast phosphoglucomutase) within the amplified region.

  6. Trimodal color-fluorescence-polarization endoscopy aided by a tumor selective molecular probe accurately detects flat lesions in colitis-associated cancer (United States)

    Charanya, Tauseef; York, Timothy; Bloch, Sharon; Sudlow, Gail; Liang, Kexian; Garcia, Missael; Akers, Walter J.; Rubin, Deborah; Gruev, Viktor; Achilefu, Samuel


    Colitis-associated cancer (CAC) arises from premalignant flat lesions of the colon, which are difficult to detect with current endoscopic screening approaches. We have developed a complementary fluorescence and polarization reporting strategy that combines the unique biochemical and physical properties of dysplasia and cancer for real-time detection of these lesions. Using azoxymethane-dextran sodium sulfate (AOM-DSS) treated mice, which recapitulates human CAC and dysplasia, we show that an octapeptide labeled with a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye selectively identified all precancerous and cancerous lesions. A new thermoresponsive sol-gel formulation allowed topical application of the molecular probe during endoscopy. This method yielded high contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) between adenomatous tumors (20.6±1.65) and flat lesions (12.1±1.03) and surrounding uninvolved colon tissue versus CNR of inflamed tissues (1.62±0.41). Incorporation of nanowire-filtered polarization imaging into NIR fluorescence endoscopy shows a high depolarization contrast in both adenomatous tumors and flat lesions in CAC, reflecting compromised structural integrity of these tissues. Together, the real-time polarization imaging provides real-time validation of suspicious colon tissue highlighted by molecular fluorescence endoscopy.

  7. Toward low-cost affinity reagents: lyophilized yeast-scFv probes specific for pathogen antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean A Gray

    Full Text Available The generation of affinity reagents, usually monoclonal antibodies, remains a critical bottleneck in biomedical research and diagnostic test development. Recombinant antibody-like proteins such as scFv have yet to replace traditional monoclonal antibodies in antigen detection applications, in large part because of poor performance of scFv in solution. To address this limitation, we have developed assays that use whole yeast cells expressing scFv on their surfaces (yeast-scFv in place of soluble purified scFv or traditional monoclonal antibodies. In this study, a nonimmune library of human scFv displayed on the surfaces of yeast cells was screened for clones that bind to recombinant cyst proteins of Entamoeba histolytica, an enteric pathogen of humans. Selected yeast-scFv clones were stabilized by lyophilization and used in detection assay formats in which the yeast-scFv served as solid support-bound monoclonal antibodies. Specific binding of antigen to the yeast-scFv was detected by staining with rabbit polyclonal antibodies. In flow cytometry-based assays, lyophilized yeast-scFv reagents retained full binding activity and specificity for their cognate antigens after 4 weeks of storage at room temperature in the absence of desiccants or stabilizers. Because flow cytometry is not available to all potential assay users, an immunofluorescence assay was also developed that detects antigen with similar sensitivity and specificity. Antigen-specific whole-cell yeast-scFv reagents can be selected from nonimmune libraries in 2-3 weeks, produced in vast quantities, and packaged in lyophilized form for extended shelf life. Lyophilized yeast-scFv show promise as low cost, renewable alternatives to monoclonal antibodies for diagnosis and research.

  8. Vegemite Beer: yeast extract spreads as nutrient supplements to promote fermentation. (United States)

    Kerr, Edward D; Schulz, Benjamin L


    Vegemite is an iconic Australian food spread made from spent brewers' yeast extract, which has been reported to be used as an ingredient in illegal home brewing. In this study, we tested the utility of Vegemite and the similar spread Marmite in promoting fermentation. We could not culture microorganisms from either Vegemite or Marmite, consistent with these food-grade spreads being essentially sterile. To test if the addition of Vegemite or Marmite could assist in fermentation when additional viable yeast was also present, solutions containing glucose and a range of concentrations of either Vegemite or Marmite were inoculated with brewers' yeast. No fermentation occurred in any condition without addition of extra brewer's yeast. Fermentation did not occur when yeast was inoculated into solutions containing only glucose, but progressed efficiently with when Vegemite or Marmite was also added. Gas Chromatography confirmed that ethanol was present at ∼3% v/v post-fermentation in all samples which contained glucose, Vegemite or Marmite, and brewers' yeast. Trace amounts of methanol were also detected. Mass spectrometry proteomics identified abundant intracellular yeast proteins and barley proteins in Vegemite and Marmite, and abundant secreted yeast proteins from actively growing yeast in those samples to which extra brewers' yeast had been added. We estimate that the real-world cost of home brewed "Vegemite Beer" would be very low. Our results show that Vegemite or other yeast extract spreads could provide cheap and readily available sources of nutrient supplementation to increase the efficiency of fermentation in home brewing or other settings.

  9. Identification and characterization of yeasts isolated from sedimentary rocks of Union Glacier at the Antarctica. (United States)

    Barahona, Salvador; Yuivar, Yassef; Socias, Gabriel; Alcaíno, Jennifer; Cifuentes, Víctor; Baeza, Marcelo


    The study of the yeasts that inhabit cold environments, such as Antarctica, is an active field of investigation oriented toward understanding their ecological roles in these ecosystems. In a great part, the interest in cold-adapted yeasts is due to several industrial and biotechnological applications that have been described for them. The aim of this work was to isolate and identify yeasts from sedimentary rock samples collected at the Union Glacier, Antarctica. Furthermore, the yeasts were physiologically characterized, including the production of metabolites of biotechnological interest. The yeasts isolated that were identified at the molecular level belonged to genera Collophora (1 isolate), Cryptococcus (2 isolates), Sporidiobolus (4 isolates), Sporobolomyces (1 isolate) and Torrubiella (2 isolates). The majority of yeasts were basidiomycetous and psychrotolerant. By cross-test assays for anti-yeast activity, it was determined that Collophora sp., Sporidiobolus salmonicolor, and Sporobolomyces roseus secreted a protein factor that kills Sporidiobolus metaroseus. The colored yeasts Sp. salmonicolor, Sp. metaroseus and Collophora sp. produced several carotenoid pigments that were identified as 2,3 dihydroxy-γ-carotene, -carotene, 4-ketotorulene, torulene β-cryptoxanthin and spirilloxanthin. Concerning analysis of mycosporines, these metabolites were only found in the yeasts Torrubiella sp. and Cryptococcus sp. T11-10-1. Furthermore, the yeasts were evaluated for the production of extracellular hydrolytic activities. Of the twelve activities analyzed, alkaline phosphatase, invertase, gelatinase, cellulase, amylase, and protease enzyme activities were detected. The yeasts Cryptococcus sp. T11-10-1 and Sporidiobolus metaroseus showed the highest number of different enzyme activities.

  10. Emulsifying activity of hydrocarbonoclastic marine yeasts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gupta, R.

    Marine yeast growth on four petroleum hydrocarbons induced the production of extracellular emulsifying agents (biosurfactants). Out of the 17 marine yeast isolates tested, 7 isolates, i.e., Candida parapsilosis, C. cantarelli, C. membranae...

  11. Shuffling Yeast Gene Expression Data

    CERN Document Server

    Bilke, S


    A new method to sort gene expression patterns into functional groups is presented. The method is based on a sorting algorithm using a non-local similarity score, which takes all other patterns in the dataset into account. The method is therefore very robust with respect to noise. Using the expression data for yeast, we extract information about functional groups. Without prior knowledge of parameters the cell cycle regulated genes in yeast can be identified. Furthermore a second, independent cell clock is identified. The capability of the algorithm to extract information about signal flow in the regulatory network underlying the expression patterns is demonstrated.

  12. Advances in yeast genome engineering. (United States)

    David, Florian; Siewers, Verena


    Genome engineering based on homologous recombination has been applied to yeast for many years. However, the growing importance of yeast as a cell factory in metabolic engineering and chassis in synthetic biology demands methods for fast and efficient introduction of multiple targeted changes such as gene knockouts and introduction of multistep metabolic pathways. In this review, we summarize recent improvements of existing genome engineering methods, the development of novel techniques, for example for advanced genome redesign and evolution, and the importance of endonucleases as genome engineering tools.

  13. Molecular Genetic Tools and Techniques in Fission Yeast. (United States)

    Murray, Johanne M; Watson, Adam T; Carr, Antony M


    The molecular genetic tools used in fission yeast have generally been adapted from methods and approaches developed for use in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Initially, the molecular genetics of Schizosaccharomyces pombe was developed to aid gene identification, but it is now applied extensively to the analysis of gene function and the manipulation of noncoding sequences that affect chromosome dynamics. Much current research using fission yeast thus relies on the basic processes of introducing DNA into the organism and the extraction of DNA for subsequent analysis. Targeted integration into specific genomic loci is often used to create site-specific mutants or changes to noncoding regulatory elements for subsequent phenotypic analysis. It is also regularly used to introduce additional sequences that generate tagged proteins or to create strains in which the levels of wild-type protein can be manipulated through transcriptional regulation and/or protein degradation. Here, we draw together a collection of core molecular genetic techniques that underpin much of modern research using S. pombe We summarize the most useful methods that are routinely used and provide guidance, learned from experience, for the successful application of these methods.

  14. Trichosporon pullulans (Lidner Diddens & Lodder isolated from the oral cavity of AIDS patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Pereira Neves


    Full Text Available Trichosporon has been reported as a remarkable emerging pathogen and usually occurs in imunodrepressed patients. An oropharyngeal secretion sample was collected from a patient with AIDS, at the Sector of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Osvaldo Cruz University Hospital, Pernambuco State, Brazil. No yeast cells or arthroconidia were observed in the direct exam, but a culture was positive for Trichosporon pullulans, which is being reported in an AIDS patient for the first time.

  15. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro and meso-levels, recent literature has turned decidedly pessimistic with respect to the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth. Policy implications, such as the complete cessation of aid to Africa......, are being drawn on the basis of fragile evidence. This paper first assesses the aid-growth literature with a focus on recent contributions. The aid-growth literature is then framed, for the first time, in terms of the Rubin Causal Model, applied at the macroeconomic level. Our results show that aid has...... a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run with point estimates at levels suggested by growth theory. We conclude that aid remains an important tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor nations....

  16. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn


    The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro and meso-levels, recent literature has turned decidedly pessimistic with respect to the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth. Policy implications, such as the complete cessation of aid to Africa......, are being drawn on the basis of fragile evidence. This paper first assesses the aid-growth literature with a focus on recent contributions. The aid-growth literature is then framed, for the first time, in terms of the Rubin Causal Model, applied at the macroeconomic level. Our results show that aid has...... a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run with point estimates at levels suggested by growth theory. We conclude that aid remains an important tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor nations....

  17. 21 CFR 73.355 - Phaffia yeast. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phaffia yeast. 73.355 Section 73.355 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.355 Phaffia yeast. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive phaffia yeast consists of the killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain of...

  18. Genotyping 1000 yeast strains by next-generation sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkening Stefan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The throughput of next-generation sequencing machines has increased dramatically over the last few years; yet the cost and time for library preparation have not changed proportionally, thus representing the main bottleneck for sequencing large numbers of samples. Here we present an economical, high-throughput library preparation method for the Illumina platform, comprising a 96-well based method for DNA isolation for yeast cells, a low-cost DNA shearing alternative, and adapter ligation using heat inactivation of enzymes instead of bead cleanups. Results Up to 384 whole-genome libraries can be prepared from yeast cells in one week using this method, for less than 15 euros per sample. We demonstrate the robustness of this protocol by sequencing over 1000 yeast genomes at ~30x coverage. The sequence information from 768 yeast segregants derived from two divergent S. cerevisiae strains was used to generate a meiotic recombination map at unprecedented resolution. Comparisons to other datasets indicate a high conservation of recombination at a chromosome-wide scale, but differences at the local scale. Additionally, we detected a high degree of aneuploidy (3.6% by examining the sequencing coverage in these segregants. Differences in allele frequency allowed us to attribute instances of aneuploidy to gains of chromosomes during meiosis or mitosis, both of which showed a strong tendency to missegregate specific chromosomes. Conclusions Here we present a high throughput workflow to sequence genomes of large number of yeast strains at a low price. We have used this workflow to obtain recombination and aneuploidy data from hundreds of segregants, which can serve as a foundation for future studies of linkage, recombination, and chromosomal aberrations in yeast and higher eukaryotes.

  19. Candida dubliniensis identification in Brazilian yeast stock collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla de Laet Sant'Ana Mariano


    Full Text Available We investigated the presence of Candida dubliniensis among isolates previously identified as Candida albicans and maintained in a yeast stock collection from 1994 to 2000. All isolates were serotyped and further evaluated for antifungal susceptibility profile. After doing a screening test for C. dubliniensis isolates based on the capability of colonies to grow at 42°C, its final identification was obtained by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis using three different primers. A total of 46 out of 548 screened isolates did not exhibit growth at 42°C and were further genotyped by RAPD. Eleven isolates were identified as C. dubliniensis with RAPD analysis. Regarding serotypes, 81.5% of C. albicans and all C. dubliniensis isolates belonged to serotype A. Of note, 9 out of 11 C. dubliniensis isolates were obtained from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (Aids and all of them were susceptible to azoles and amphotericin B. We found 17 (3% C. albicans isolates that were dose-dependent susceptibility or resistant to azoles. In conclusion, we found a low rate of C. dubliniensis isolates among stock cultures of yeasts previously identified as C. albicans. Most of these isolates were recovered from oral samples of Aids patients and exhibited high susceptibility to amphotericin B and azoles. C. albicans serotype A susceptible to all antifungal drugs is the major phenotype found in our stock culture.

  20. AIDS in South Africa. (United States)

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H


    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  1. JPRS Report, Epidemiology, Aids (United States)


    at home. For this they can thank the National Federation of Gays and Lesbians (LBL). -To develop an adequate core of specialists in AIDS prevention... Homosexuality [Vusie Ginindza; Mbabane THE TIMES OF SWAZILAND, 15 May 91] ...................................... 4 JPRS-TEP-91-012 5 June 1991 2 AIDS TANZANIA...sensitivity and not to sensa- tionalize the issue. Health Workers ’Alarmed’ at rise in AIDS, Homosexuality SWAZILAND MB1505085891 Mbabane THE TIMES

  2. Comparative Evaluation of the BD Phoenix Yeast ID Panel and Remel RapID Yeast Plus System for Yeast Identification


    Michelle L. Grant; Shobha Parajuli; Raquel Deleon-Gonsalves; Raghava Potula; Truant, Allan L.


    Becton Dickinson Phoenix Yeast ID Panel was compared to the Remel RapID Yeast Plus System using 150 recent clinical yeast isolates and the API 20C AUX system to resolve discrepant results. The concordance rate between the Yeast ID Panel and the RapID Yeast Plus System (without arbitration) was 93.3% with 97.3% (146/150) and 95.3% (143/150) of the isolates correctly identified by the Becton Dickinson Phoenix and the Remel RapID, respectively, with arbitration.

  3. 红酵母产类胡萝卜素影响因素及检测方法研究进展%Research advance in influencing factors of carotenoid producted by red yeasts and detection methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董娟; 郑晓吉; 孙静涛; 史学伟


      该文介绍类胡萝卜素主要组成和功能,对红酵母产类胡萝卜素发酵方法、发酵促进因子和破壁技术几个影响因素分别进行阐述,对类胡萝卜素分离与鉴定方法研究现状进行探讨,并展望未来发展方向。%The composition and function of carotenoids were introduced in text. The influencing factors,such as the fermentation methods of red yeasts,fermentation accelerator,broken technology were separately described and reseach of carotenoids isolation and identification were discussed and the prospect was summarised.

  4. Music and hearing aids. (United States)

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J


    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems.

  5. Black yeasts in cold habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selbmann, L.; de Hoog, G.S.; Zucconi, L.; Isola, D.; Onofri, S.; Buzzini, B.; Margesin, E.


    Black yeasts have already been known since the end of the nineteenth century, but for a number of reasons, only few workers were familiar with them. That was since recently, until the wealth of biodiversity, stunning ecologies and potential applications have become apparent. Some remote and extreme

  6. Nucleotide excision repair in yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, Patrick van


    Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) is a conserved DNA repair pathway capable of removing a broad spectrum of DNA damage. In human cells a defect in NER leads to the disorder Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an excellent model organism to study the mechanism of NER. The

  7. Yeast as factory and factotum. (United States)

    Dixon, B


    After centuries of vigorous activity in making fine wines, beers and breads, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is now acquiring a rich new portfolio of skills, bestowed by genetic manipulation. As shown in a recent shop-window of research supported by the European Commission, yeasts will soon be benefiting industries as diverse as fish farming, pharmaceuticals and laundering.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向柱方; 赵树进; 杜红丽; 林影


    以Hexa-His和Flag为标签,利用酵母表面展示技术将HIV-1囊膜蛋白gp41展示于酿酒酵母(Saccharomycws cerevisiase)细胞MT8-1表面.流式细胞测定结果表明His标签成功展示于重组酵母细胞MT8-1/pICAS-His和MT8-1/pICAS-His-gp41表面;活性的gp41成功展于重组酵母MT8-1/pICAS-His-gp41表面,荧光显微镜观测结果表明了这一点;Flag标签可以在TM8-1/pICAS-Flag表面检测到,但Flag和gp41均不能在MT8-1/pICAS-Flag-gp41表面检测到活性.利用展示在酵母表面的gp41蛋白建立酵母细胞CbELISA体系,可成功用于检测单克隆抗体,其浓度达到了10 ng/mL,此体系可用于检测血清中的抗体.%The envelope glycoprotein gp41 of HIV-1 has been successfully displayed on the cell surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiase MT8-1 by cell-surface engineering using Hexa-His and Flag tags for detection, respectively. Flow cytograms showed that His tag was displayed on the surface of MT8-1/pICAS-His and MT8-1/pICAS-His-gp41, the active gp41 could be detected on the cell surface of MT8-1/pICAS-His-gp41 and was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy;Flag tag was detected on the surface of MT8-1/pICAS-Flag, but Flag tag and gp41 were not detected on the surface of MT8-1/pICAS-Flag-gp41 separately. Further, a yeast CbELISA was developed by using the yeast cells displaying gp41 on the cell surface. It was able to detect the monoclonal antibody at the concentration of 10 ng/mL , and also capable of detecting the antibody in the sera.

  9. Application of oxygen-independent biosensor for testing yeast fermentation capacity. (United States)

    Kurtinaitiene, Bogumila; Razumiene, Julija; Gureviciene, Vidute; Melvydas, Vytautas; Marcinkeviciene, Liucija; Bachmatova, Irina; Meskys, Rolandas; Laurinavicius, Valdas


    The pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent soluble glucose dehydrogenase based carbon paste electrodes were investigated and applied for glucose monitoring in the oxygen deficient media. Reagentless biosensors possessing a wide linear range (up to 5 mM glucose with a detection limit of 0.12 mM) were designed. The oxygen-insensitive response of the biosensor creates the opportunity to use it as a flow-through device for continuous monitoring of glucose in media during the wine yeast fermentation process. The analysis of glucose assimilation rate by yeast strains using the developed biosensor correlated well (R2=0.9938) with convenient yeast testing methods.

  10. Are there salvage routes within the general secretory pathway in yeast? (United States)

    Gozalbo, D; Martínez, J P; Sentandreu, R


    It is generally accepted that both extracellular protein secretion and plasma membrane expansion in yeast occur basically as in higher eukaryotic cells. In addition to the constitutive (default) secretory pathway, some specialized mammalian cells possess a regulated route which at present has not been detected in yeast. However, there is a body of experimental results suggesting that under certain circumstances export of integral plasma membrane and exocellular proteins may take place through alternative (salvage) pathways. The existence of these latter routes would enable the yeast cell to adapt more efficiently to distinct or adverse conditions requiring the secretion of discrete amounts of specific sets of proteins.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudji K Sjarifuddin


    Full Text Available Candida is a saprophyte in the human respiratory tract, gastro intestinal tract and also in the debris under the nail. Inpatients with compromised immunity such as HIV-AIDS, Candida is able to cause infection, in this case oral candidosisor esophagitis. In this study fungi were isolated from the stools of HIV/AIDS patients. Samples consisting of 95diarrheic stools from HIV/AIDS patients were investigated for the yeast especially Candida spp. The stools were inoculated onto Sabouraud dextrose agar then the fungi were identified using morphological methods and Chromagarmedium. Yeast colonies were found in 71 (74,74% out of 95 samples from which Candida was 42 44,21%, Geotrichum 24 (25,26%, and mixed of Candida and Geotrichum 3 (3,16%, Rhodotorula and Trichosporon 1(1,05% each. Species of Candida were identified as C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. guilliermondii, C. glabrata, C. lusitaniae and C. kefyr. Although Candida could be isolated from the diarrheic stools of HIV/AIDS patients but its role on the cause of diarrhea is still questionable.

  12. Distribution of yeast species associated with oral lesions in HIV-infected patients in Southwest Uganda.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Agwu, Ezera


    Oropharyngeal candidiasis remains a significant clinical problem in HIV-infected and AIDS patients in regions of Africa where anti-retroviral therapy isn\\'t readily available. In this study we identified the yeast populations associated with oral lesions in HIV-infected patients in Southwest Uganda who were receiving treatment with nystatin and topical clotrimazole. Samples were taken from 605 patients and 316 (52%) of these yielded yeast growth following incubation on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Samples were subsequently re-plated on CHROMagar Candida medium to facilitate identification of the yeast species present. The majority (56%) of culture-positive samples yielded a mix of two or more species. Candida albicans was present in 87% (274\\/316) of patient samples and accounted for 87% (120\\/138) of single species samples. Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis and Candida norvegensis were also found in cultures that yielded a single species. No Candida dubliniensis isolates were identified in this population.

  13. Yeast diversity in the extreme acidic environments of the Iberian Pyrite Belt. (United States)

    Gadanho, Mário; Libkind, Diego; Sampaio, José Paulo


    In the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB), acid rock drainage gives rise to aquatic habitats with low pH and high concentrations of heavy metals, a situation that causes important environmental problems. We investigated the occurrence and diversity of yeasts in two localities of the IPB: São Domingos (Portugal) and Rio Tinto (Spain). Yeast isolation was performed on conventional culture media (MYP), acidified (pH 3) media (MYP3), and on media prepared with water from the study sites (MYPw). The main goal of the study was to determine the structure of the yeast community; a combination of molecular methods was used for accurate species identifications. Our results showed that the largest fraction of the yeast community was recovered on MYPw rather than on MYP and MYP3. Twenty-seven yeast species were detected, 48% of which might represent undescribed taxa. Among these, an undescribed species of the genus Cryptococcus required low pH for growth, a property that has not been observed before in yeasts. The communities of S. Domingos and R. Tinto showed a considerable resemblance, and eight yeast species were simultaneously found in both localities. Taking into consideration the physicochemical parameters studied, we propose a hierarchic organization of the yeast community in terms of high-, intermediate-, or low-stress conditions of the environment. According to this ranking, the acidophile yeast Cryptococcus sp. 5 is considered the most tolerant species, followed by Cryptococcus sp. 3 and Lecytophora sp. Species occurring in situations of intermediate environmental stress were Candida fluviatilis, Rhodosporidium toruloides, Williopsis californica, and three unidentified yeasts belonging to Rhodotorula and Cryptococcus.

  14. Yeasts in malting, with special emphasis on Wickerhamomyces anomalus (synonym Pichia anomala). (United States)

    Laitila, Arja; Sarlin, Tuija; Raulio, Mari; Wilhelmson, Annika; Kotaviita, Erja; Huttunen, Timo; Juvonen, Riikka


    Malted barley is a major raw material of beer, as well as distilled spirits and several food products. The production of malt (malting) exploits the biochemical reactions of a natural process, grain germination. In addition to germinating grain, the malting process includes another metabolically active component: a diverse microbial community that includes various types of bacteria and fungi. Therefore, malting can be considered as a complex ecosystem involving two metabolically active groups. Yeasts and yeast-like fungi are an important part of this ecosystem, but previously the significance of yeasts in malting has been largely underestimated. Characterization and identification of yeasts in industrial processes revealed 25 ascomycetous yeasts belonging to 10 genera, and 18 basidiomycetous yeasts belonging to 7 genera. In addition, two ascomycetous yeast-like fungi belonging to the genera Aureobasidium and Exophiala were commonly detected. Yeasts and yeast-like fungi produced extracellular hydrolytic enzymes with a potentially positive contribution to the malt enzyme spectrum. Several ascomycetous yeast strains showed strong antagonistic activity against field and storage moulds, Wickerhamomyces anomalus (synonym Pichia anomala) being the most effective species. Malting studies revealed that W. anomalus VTT C-04565 effectively restricted Fusarium growth and hydrophobin production during malting and prevented beer gushing. In order to broaden the antimicrobial spectrum and to improve malt brewhouse performance, W. anomalus could be combined with other starter cultures such as Lactobacillus plantarum. Well-characterized microbial mixtures consisting of barley and malt-derived microbes open up several possibilities to improve malt properties and to ensure the safety of the malting process.

  15. Computer-aided method for identification of major flavone/flavonol glycosides by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS). (United States)

    Wang, Zhengfang; Lin, Longze; Harnly, James M; Harrington, Peter de B; Chen, Pei


    A new computational tool is proposed here for tentatively identifying major (UV quantifiable) flavone/flavonol glycoside peaks of high performance liquid chromatogram (HPLC)-diode array detection (DAD)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) profiles based on a MATLAB-based script implementing an in-house algorithm. The HPLC-DAD-MS/MS profiles of red onion, Chinese lettuce, carrot leaf, and celery seed extracts were analyzed by the proposed computer-aided screening method for identifying possible flavone/flavonol glycoside peaks from the HPLC-UV and MS total ion current (TIC) chromatograms. The number of identified flavone/flavonol glycoside peaks of the HPLC-UV chromatograms is four, four, six, and nine for red onion, Chinese lettuce, carrot leaf, and celery seed, respectively. These results have been validated by human(s) experts. For the batch processing of nine HPLC-DAD-MS/MS profiles of celery seed extract, the entire script execution time was within 15 s while manual calculation of only one HPLC-DAD-MS/MS profile by a flavonoid expert could take hours. Therefore, this MATLAB-based screening method is able to facilitate the HPLC-DAD-MS/MS analysis of flavone/flavonol glycosides in plants to a large extent.

  16. Magnetic Implants Aid Hearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The next generation of hearing aids may use tiny magnets that fit inside the ear. Researchersat a California company and an engineer at the University of Virginia are both developing systems that rely on magnets to convey sounds. Conventional hearing aids have three components:a microphone, an amplifier, and a speaker. The microphone picks up sounds and sends them to the am-

  17. Genetic Immunity to AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In an article on genetic immunity to AIDS published in Science magazine, American and Chinese scientists claim to have discovered why certain HIV carriers do not develop full-blown AIDS. They say that the key to this conundrum lies in a particular protein in the endocrine system that inhibits development of HIV.

  18. Aid and sectoral growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Thiele, Rainer


    This article examines empirically the proposition that aid to poor countries is detrimental for external competitiveness, giving rise to Dutch disease type effects. At the aggregate level, aid is found to have a positive effect on growth. A sectoral decomposition shows that the effect is (i...

  19. International Aid to Education (United States)

    Benavot, Aaron


    Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

  20. AIDS Epidemiological models (United States)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar


    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  1. Aid and Income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lof, Matthijs; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn


    to nonrandom omission of a large proportion of observations. Furthermore, we show that NDHKM’s use of co-integrated regressions is not a suitable empirical strategy for estimating the causal effect of aid on income. Evidence from a Panel VAR model estimated on the dataset of NDHKM, suggests a positive...... and statistically significant long-run effect of aid on income....

  2. First Aid: Burns (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns A A A Scald burns from hot water and other liquids are the most common burns in early childhood. Because burns range from mild ...

  3. The Aid Effectiveness Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL consists of empirical macro studies of the effects of development aid. At the end of 2004 it had reached 97 studies of three families, which we have summarized in one study each using meta-analysis. Studies of the effect on investments show that they rise by 1/3 of the aid – the rest is c...

  4. First Aid: Diaper Rash (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Diaper Rash KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Diaper Rash A A A Diaper rash is a common skin condition in babies. ... rash is due to irritation caused by the diaper, but it can have other causes not related ...

  5. First Aid: Burns (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Scald burns from hot water and other liquids are the most common burns in early childhood. Because burns range from mild to life threatening, ...

  6. Aid, Development, and Education (United States)

    Klees, Steven J.


    The world faces pervasive poverty and inequality. Hundreds of billions of dollars in international aid have been given or loaned to developing countries though bilateral and multilateral mechanisms, at least, ostensibly, in order to do something about these problems. Has such aid helped? Debates around this question have been ongoing for decades,…

  7. HIV and AIDS (United States)

    ... one HIV test by the time they are teens. If you are having sex, have had sex in the past, or shared ... reviewed: October 2015 previous 1 • 2 • ... STDs How Do People Get AIDS? Can You Get HIV From Having Sex With Someone Who Has AIDS? Can Someone Get ...

  8. First Aid: Falls (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A en español Folleto de instructiones: Caídas (Falls) With all the running, climbing, and exploring kids ...

  9. AIDS as Metaphor. (United States)

    McMillen, Liz


    Scholarly interest in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has spread throughout the humanities, attracting the attention of historians of medicine, political scientists, sociologists, public health scholars, and anthropologists. Most theorists hope their research will aid in policymaking or change understanding of the epidemic. (MSE)

  10. 知识辅助的机载 MIMO 雷达 STAP非均匀样本检测方法%Knowledge-aided non-homogeneouS SampleS detection method for airborne MIMO radar STAP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珽; 赵拥军


    When the covariance matrix is estimated with training samples contaminated by target-like sig-nals,the performance of target detection in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)radar space-time adaptive processing (STAP)decreases.Aiming at this deficiency,a knowledge-aided (KA)generalized inner product (GIP)method for non-homogeneous samples detection is proposed.Firstly the clutter subspace knowledge esti-mated by prolate spheroidal wave functions is utilized to construct the clutter covariance matrix offline.Then the GIP non-homogeneity detector (GIP NHD)is integrated to realize the effective selection of training samples, which eliminates the effect of the target-like signals in training samples on target detection.The simulation re-sults show that compared with the conventional GIP method,the KA-GIP method can screen out contaminated training samples more effectively and the target detection performance of MIMO radar STAP can be improved significantly.Thus the proposed KA-GIP method is more valuable for practical engineering application.%针对样本协方差矩阵受干扰目标污染时机载多输入多输出(multiple-input multiple-output,MIMO)雷达空时自适应处理(space-time adaptive processing,STAP)目标检测性能下降的不足,提出一种知识辅助(knowledge-aided,KA)的广义内积非均匀样本检测方法。首先利用扁长椭球波函数估计的杂波子空间知识,离线构造杂波协方差矩阵,然后与广义内积非均匀检测器(generalized inner product non-homogeneity detector,GIP NHD)结合,实现对训练样本的有效选择,使目标检测不受训练样本中干扰目标的影响。仿真结果表明,相对于常规 GIP 方法,KA-GIP 方法能够对存在干扰目标的样本进行更加有效地剔除,并且机载 MIMO 雷达 STAP 的目标检测性能得到显著提升,因此更有利于实际工程应用。

  11. Prevalence of yeasts in English full blood mares. (United States)

    Różański, Paweł; Slaska, Brygida; Różańska, Dorota


    The aim of the study was a quantitative and qualitative analysis of microflora, presentation of current data about prevalence of the microflora on the skin and mucous membranes, and determination of its possible effect on reproduction of English full blood horses bred in Poland. The material for analyses was sampled from the skin and mucous membranes (385 samples) of 55 English full blood mares. Taking into account reproduction traits, the mares were classified into three groups. Six yeast-like species, including five species from the genus Candida (C. albicans, C. guiliermondii, C. lusitaniae, C. sp., and C. tropicalis) and Trichomonascus ciferrii, were detected on the skin and mucous membranes in the English full blood mares. Growth of yeasts was observed in more than half of the samples taken from mares that had foaled and approximately 46 % of non-conceiving and barren mares. The high prevalence of various yeast strains in the mouth, nostrils, and collateral groove may suggest widespread occurrence of the microflora in the breeding environment. The results obtained indicate that the yeasts isolated in this study may be components of the normal microflora of the skin and mucous membranes in horses. The analysis results do not indicate unambiguously that the isolated microflora affects reproduction in mares, although this cannot be excluded.

  12. 高分辨侧扫及合成孔径声纳图像与回波中类似水雷目标计算机检测与分类%Computer aided detection and classification of mine-like objects in high-resolution side scan and synthetic aperture sonar images and waveforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    计算机辅助目标识别与分类技术有可能可靠地在海底发现水雷及其它感兴趣的目标,高效省时,一致性强,不受操作员个体因素影响.自90年代以来,是多个研究部门的热点课题.近年来,合成孔径侧扫声纳技术日趋成熟,能提供更高分辨率的声图,更是促进了自动识别与分类的发展.本文综合评述了高分辨侧扫及合成孔径声纳图像与回波中类似水雷目标(Mine like object,MLO),计算机检测与分类(Computer aided detection/computer aided classification,CAD/CAC),研究的发展,现状及趋向.%Computer aided target detection and classification technique may reliably recognize sea mines and other objects interested.This technique is highly efficient,output consistent and free of influence of operator's personal factor.Since early 1990s,it's been the hot subject of several research institutes.In recent years,the synthetic aperture sonar is ready to provide acoustic images of higher resolution,and inspires the development in automated detection and classification further.the development,current status and trend in computer aided detection/computer aided classification in high resolution side scan and synthetic aperture sonar images and echo waveforms for mine like objects (MLOs) are reviewed and commented in this paper.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Management of any problem starts with an accurate diagnosis and this is not different in the field of endodontics. The diagnosis of dental pulp status should be seen as a synthesis of history , clinical examination , special tests and radiological examination , and not as the outcome of any one specific test. With the advent of technologies in our day to day life we need the help of technologies in dentistry also. An effort has been made to provide readers with contemporary , evidence based prospective on endodontic diagnosis. Vitality testing is an important aid in the diagnosis of pulp disease and apical periodontitis. The ideal pulp test method should provide a simple , objective , standardized , reproducible , nonpainful , noninjurious , accurate and inexpensive way of assessing the condition of the pulp tissue. This article describes the various t echnologies that are available to aid the dental practitioner in detecting a tooth with a relevant endodontic disease. It also explains the need and limitation of the technologies as an aid in our management of endodontically affected tooth.

  14. Surplus yeast tank failing catastrophically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess


    GOOD REASON FOR CAUTION I A large surplus yeast tank shot into the air leaving the floor plate and the contents behind. Although not designed for overpressure, the tank was kept at “very slight overpressure” to suppress nuisance foaming. The brewery was unaware of the hazards of compressed air. T....... The accident described in this article serves to illustrate that care should be taken if a tank originally designed for atmospheric pressure is modified to operate at slight overpressure.......GOOD REASON FOR CAUTION I A large surplus yeast tank shot into the air leaving the floor plate and the contents behind. Although not designed for overpressure, the tank was kept at “very slight overpressure” to suppress nuisance foaming. The brewery was unaware of the hazards of compressed air...

  15. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol (United States)

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

  16. HIV, AIDS, and the Future (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... turn Javascript on. Photo: The NAMES Project Foundation HIV and AIDS are a global catastrophe. While advances ...

  17. Mycotoxins - prevention and decontamination by yeasts. (United States)

    Pfliegler, Walter P; Pusztahelyi, Tünde; Pócsi, István


    The application of yeasts has great potential in reducing the economic damage caused by toxigenic fungi in the agriculture. Some yeasts may act as biocontrol agents inhibiting the growth of filamentous fungi. These species may also gain importance in the preservation of agricultural products and in the reduction of their mycotoxin contamination, yet the extent of mycotoxin production in the presence of biocontrol agents is relatively less understood. The application of yeasts in various technological processes may have a direct inhibitory effect on the toxin production of certain molds, which is independent of their growth suppressing effect. Furthermore, several yeast species are capable of accumulating mycotoxins from agricultural products, thereby effectively decontaminating them. Probiotic yeasts or products containing yeast cell wall are also applied to counteract mycotoxicosis in livestock. Several yeast strains are also able to degrade toxins to less-toxic or even non-toxic substances. This intensively researched field would greatly benefit from a deeper knowledge on the genetic and molecular basis of toxin degradation. Moreover, yeasts and their biotechnologically important enzymes may exhibit sensitivity to certain mycotoxins, thereby mounting a considerable problem for the biotechnological industry. It is noted that yeasts are generally regarded as safe; however, there are reports of toxin degrading species that may cause human fungal infections. The aspects of yeast-mycotoxin relations with a brief consideration of strain improvement strategies and genetic modification for improved detoxifying properties and/or mycotoxin resistance are reviewed here.

  18. Spectrum Of Opportunistic Infections In Aids Cases In A Tertiary Care Hospital In Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Shanker Joshi


    Full Text Available A retrospective study was carried out, 404 clinically suspected cases attending AIDS clinic at Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal to assess an occurance of opportunistic infections in AIDS cases. Study reveals that Tuberculosis (60%, Cryptospridiosis (13.33% and candidasis (11.11% are the predominant opportunistic infection in HIV/AIDS patients in the Pokharo village. Next common pathogen was found an ubiquitous yeast. Candida obtained from skin, oral cavity, oesophagus, sputum and stool. The least common documented documented infection was pneumocystis carini pneumonia (2.22%.

  19. Yeast Associated with the Ambrosia Beetle, Platypus koryoensis, the Pest of Oak Trees in Korea. (United States)

    Yun, Yeo Hong; Suh, Dong Yeon; Yoo, Hun Dal; Oh, Man Hwan; Kim, Seong Hwan


    Oak tree death caused by symbiosis of an ambrosia beetle, Platypus koryoensis, and an ophiostomatoid filamentous fungus, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, has been a nationwide problem in Korea since 2004. In this study, we surveyed the yeast species associated with P. koryoensis to better understand the diversity of fungal associates of the beetle pest. In 2009, a total of 195 yeast isolates were sampled from larvae and adult beetles (female and male) of P. koryoensis in Cheonan, Goyang, and Paju; 8 species were identified by based on their morphological, biochemical and molecular analyses. Meyerozyma guilliermondii and Candida kashinagacola were found to be the two dominant species. Among the 8 species, Candida homilentoma was a newly recorded yeast species in Korea, and thus, its mycological characteristics were described. The P. koryoensis symbiont R. quercusmongolicae did not show extracelluar CM-cellulase, xylanase and avicelase activity that are responsible for degradation of wood structure; however, C. kashinagacola and M. guilliermondii did show the three extracellular enzymatic activities. Extracelluar CM-cellulase activity was also found in Ambrosiozyma sp., C. homilentoma, C. kashinagacola, and Candida sp. Extracelluar pectinase activity was detected in Ambrosiozyma sp., C. homilentoma, Candida sp., and M. guilliermondii. All the 8 yeast species displayed compatible relationships with R. quercus-mongolicae when they were co-cultivated on yeast extract-malt extract plates. Overall, our results demonstrated that P. koryoensis carries the yeast species as a symbiotic fungal associate. This is first report of yeast diversity associated with P. koryoensis.

  20. Facile synthesis of hydroxyapatite/yeast biomass composites and their adsorption behaviors for lead (II). (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Feihu; Wang, Peilu; Lin, Li; Zhao, Yu; Zou, Ping; Zhao, Maojun; Chen, Hui; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Yunsong


    For the first time, the hydroxyapatite (HAp)/yeast biomass composites were successfully synthesized through a facile alkaline ultrasound cavitation method, and used as a novel sorbent for removal of Pb(2+) from aqueous solution. The obtained HAp/yeast biomass composites were characterized by various techniques, including SEM, EDX, XRD, TGA, FTIR, XPS and fluorescence detection, respectively. It was found that the yeast cells were wrapped by the well-dispersed HAp, and more functional groups (such as carboxyl, hydroxyl and amino) on yeast surface were exposed. Also, varying factors that may affect the adsorption efficiency of HAp/yeast biomass composites, such as solution pH, reaction temperature and time, have been carefully investigated respectively. Remarkably, more than 99% of Pb(2+) can be removed by the HAp/yeast biomass composites. Evidence from FTIR and XPS analysis revealed that the higher removal efficiency should be ascribed to the synergetic effect of synthesized HAp and more functional groups exposed on yeast surface.

  1. Political dimensions of AIDS. (United States)

    Blewett, N


    World political aspects and the example of Australia as a national political response to AIDS are presented. Global policy on AIDS is influenced by the fact that the AIDS epidemic is the 1st to be largely predictable, that long lag times occur between intervention and measurable events, and by the prompt, professional leadership of WHO, lead by Dr. J. Mann. WHO began a Global Programme on AIDS in 1987, modelled on the responses of Canada and Australia. A world summit of Ministers of Health was convened in January 1988. These moves generated a response qualified by openness, cooperation, hope and common sense. The AIDS epidemic calls for unprecedented involvement of politicians: they must coordinate medical knowledge with community action, deal with public fear, exert strong, rational leadership and avoid quick, appealing counterproductive responses. 3 clear directions must be taken to deal with the epidemic: 1) strong research and education campaigns; 2) close contact with political colleagues, interest groups and the community; 3) a national strategy which enjoins diverse interest groups, with courage, rationality and compassion. In Australia, the AIDS response began with the unwitting infection of 3 infants by blood transfusion. A public information campaign emphasizing a penetrating TV ad campaign was instituted in 1987. Policy discussions were held in all parliamentary bodies. The AIDS epidemic demands rapid, creative responses, a break from traditions in health bureaucracy, continual scrutiny of funding procedures and administrative arrangements. In practical terms in Australia, this meant establishing a special AIDS branch within the Health Advancement Division of the Community Health Department. AIDS issues must remain depoliticized to defuse adversary politics and keep leaders in a united front.

  2. Role of computer-aided detection of mammography in imaging diagnosis of breast cancer%计算机辅助检测在乳腺癌影像诊断中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨涟; 王鸿雁; 顾金林


    目的 探讨计算机辅助检测(CAD)对乳腺癌的诊断价值.方法 回顾性分析156例乳腺病变患者资料.其中,47例手术患者,34例病理证实为乳腺癌.未手术的病例以X线诊断为标准.分析CAD对乳腺肿块或钙化病变的检出率.结果 应用CAD检出单纯肿块104例,单纯钙化42例,10例肿块未检出.CAD对乳腺肿块的检出率为93.6%(146/156),对钙化的检出率100.0%.CAD对乳腺癌的诊断敏感性为91.2%(31/34),准确率为89.4%(42/47).结论 CAD对乳腺肿块及钙化均有较高的检出率,对乳腺癌具有重要的诊断价值.%Objective To investigate the value of computer-aided detection (CAD) system of digital mammography in the diagnosis of breast cancer. Methods Data of 156 patients with breast lesions underwent mammography were analyzed retrospectively, of whom 47 patients were operated with pathology diagnosis of breast cancer in 32 cases. The diagnosis of breast tumor or calcified lesions in the cases without surgery was made by a X-ray physicines using CAD software. Results CAD diagnosed single tumor in 104 cases,single calcified lesions in 42 cases. The diagnosis of breast tumor was missed in 10 cases. The detection rate of mammary mass was 93. 6% (146/156) and that of calcification was 100. 0%. The sensitivity and accuracy rate of CAD in diagnoding breast cancer were 91. 2%(31/34) and 89. 4% (42/47) reapectively. Conclusion With a high detection rate for breast mass and calcification,CAD plays an important role in the diagnosis of breast cancer.

  3. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh


    Recent litterature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This article assesses what meta-analysis has to contribute to the litterature on the effectiveness...... of foreign aid in terms of growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....

  4. Aid Supplies Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel


    What determines how much foreign aid donors provide? Existing answers to this question point to a complex range of influences. However, the tasks of distinguishing between long- and short-run factors, as well as differences between donors, have not been adequately addressed. Taking advantage...... of data spanning nearly 50 years, this paper uses panel cointegration techniques to consider these issues. The analysis provides clear evidence for heterogeneity both between donors and over time, bandwagon effects, and a growing influence of security considerations in aid provision. Domestic...... macroeconomic shocks have a moderate but delayed effect on aid disbursements....

  5. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn

    Some recent literature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses what meta-analysis has to say about the effectiveness of foreign aid in terms...... of the growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....

  6. Yeast: A new oil producer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beopoulos Athanasios


    Full Text Available The increasing demand of plant oils or animal fat for biodiesel and specific lipid derivatives for the oleochemical field (such as lubricants, adhesives or plastics have created price imbalance in both the alimentary and energy field. Moreover, the lack of non-edible oil feedstock has given rise to concerns on land-use practices and on oil production strategies. Recently, much attention has been paid to the exploitation of microbial oils. Most of them present lipid profiles similar in type and composition to plants and could therefore have many advantages as are no competitive with food, have short process cycles and their cultivation is independent of climate factors. Among microorganisms, yeasts seem to be very promising as they can be easily genetically enhanced, are suitable for large-scale fermentation and are devoid of endotoxins. This review will focus on the recent understanding of yeasts lipid metabolism, the succeeding genetic engineering of the lipid pathways and the recent developments on fermentation techniques that pointed out yeasts as promising alternative producers for oil or plastic.

  7. Pulmonary complications of AIDS: radiologic features. [AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, B.A.; Pomeranz, S.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Rosen, M.J.; Train, J.S.; Norton, K.I.; Mendelson, D.S.


    Fifty-two patients with pulmonary complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied over a 3-year period. The vast majority of the patients were homosexual; however, a significant number were intravenous drug abusers. Thirteen different organisms were noted, of which Pneumocystis carinii was by far the most common. Five patients had neoplasia. Most patients had initial abnormal chest films; however, eight patients subsequently shown to have Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia had normal chest films. A significant overlap in chest radiographic findings was noted among patients with different or multiple organisms. Lung biopsy should be an early consideration for all patients with a clinical history consistent with the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Of the 52 patients, 41 had died by the time this report was completed.

  8. Establishment of intestinal microbiota with focus on yeasts of unweaned and weaned piglets kept under different farm conditions. (United States)

    Urubschurov, Vladimir; Janczyk, Pawel; Souffrant, Wolfgang-Bernhard; Freyer, Gertraude; Zeyner, Annette


    This study aimed to characterize the intestinal yeasts in weaning piglets and to establish their possible relationships with main bacterial groups. German Landrace piglets were weaned (WP, n=32) at 28 days of age or kept with the dams until day 39 without creep feed (UP, n=32). The experiment was performed at an experimental and a commercial farm (CF). Faeces were collected from the piglets, sows and pen floors on days 28, 33 and 39 for isolation of DNA and cultivation for enumeration of yeasts, enterobacteria, enterococci and lactobacilli. Fragments of the D1 domain of 26S rRNA gene were amplified and separated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). No yeasts could be cultured from water and feed samples. No or only low numbers of yeasts were detected among all UP. In WP at CF, yeasts correlated with lactobacilli (r=0.456; P=0.009) and enterobacteria (r=-0.407; P=0.021). Kazachstania slooffiae dominated among the cultured yeasts. It was the only yeast species detected by PCR-DGGE. Yeasts, especially K. slooffiae, established in the porcine gastrointestinal tract after consumption of grain-based feed and may interrelate with the intestinal microbiota. The study provides data indicating importance of K. slooffiae for the development of balanced porcine gut microbiota.

  9. HIV/AIDS (United States)

    ... equity (covering the populations in need of services). Financing for sustainability (covering the costs of services). Innovation for acceleration (looking towards the future). WHO is a cosponsor of the Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS (UNAIDS). Within UNAIDS, WHO leads ...

  10. First Aid: Croup (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... with each breath has a pale or bluish color around the mouth drools or has difficulty swallowing ...

  11. Buying a Hearing Aid (United States)

    ... Contact Us Calendar ENTCareers Marketplace ENT Careers Marketplace Log in b Log in Toggle navigation b Join Now Donate Now ... using your hearing aids in quiet surroundings, gradually building up to noisier environments. Then eventually work up ...

  12. HIV/AIDS (United States)

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying the white blood cells ... It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most ...

  13. AidData (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — AidData is a research and innovation lab making information on development finance more accessible and actionable. Tracking more than $6 trillion dollars from 90+...

  14. Convulsions - first aid - slideshow (United States)

    ... this page: // Convulsions - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To use ... slide 2 out of 2 Overview When a seizure occurs, the main goal is to protect the ...

  15. Tracer studies of nitrogen assimilation in yeast. (United States)



    By using N(15) as a tracer the assimilation of ammonia by the yeast, Torulopsis utilis, has been studied. It has been shown that: 1. There was no measurable incorporation of N in the protein or polynucleotide purine of carbon-starved yeast. 2. When ammonia is added to nitrogen-starved yeast there is a long lag period before division begins during which the yeast rapidly synthesizes protein, this process being accompanied by a turnover of polynucleotide purine. There was no significant dilution of the N(15)H(4) (+) of the medium by ordinary NH(4) (+). 3. When yeast containing N(15) is allowed to divide and grow in ordinary ammonia, the total amount of N(15) in the yeast remains constant. The dicarboxylic amino acids are most diluted, while arginine and nucleic acid guanine are not diluted at all.

  16. [Metabolomics analysis of taxadiene producing yeasts]. (United States)

    Yan, Huifang; Ding, Mingzhu; Yuan, Yingjin


    In order to study the inherent difference among terpenes producing yeasts from the point of metabolomics, we selected taxadiene producing yeasts as the model system. The changes of cellular metabolites during fermentation log phase of artificial functional yeasts were determined using metabolomics methods. The results represented that compared to W303-1A as a blank control, the metabolites in glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) cycle and several amino acids were influenced. And due to the changes of metabolites, the growth of cells was inhibited to a certain extent. Among the metabolites identified, citric acid content in taxadiene producing yeasts changed the most, the decreasing amplitude reached 90% or more. Therefore, citric acid can be a marker metabolite for the future study of artificial functional yeasts. The metabolomics analysis of taxadiene producing yeasts can provide more information in further studies on optimization of terpenes production in heterologous chassis.

  17. Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages (United States)

    Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

    People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

  18. Beer brewing using a fusant between a sake yeast and a brewer's yeast. (United States)

    Mukai, N; Nishimori, C; Fujishige, I W; Mizuno, A; Takahashi, T; Sato, K


    Beer brewing using a fusant between a sake yeast (a lysine auxotrophic mutant of sake yeast K-14) and a brewer's yeast (a respiratory-deficient mutant of the top fermentation yeast NCYC1333) was performed to take advantage of the beneficial characteristics of sake yeasts, i.e., the high productivity of esters, high tolerance to ethanol, and high osmotolerance. The fusant (F-32) obtained was different from the parental yeasts regarding, for example, the assimilation of carbon sources and tolerance to ethanol. A brewing trial with the fusant was carried out using a 100-l pilot-scale plant. The fusant fermented wort more rapidly than the parental brewer's yeast. However, the sedimentation capacity of the fusant was relatively low. The beer brewed using the fusant contained more ethanol and esters compared to that brewed using the parental brewer's yeast. The fusant also obtained osmotolerance in the fermentation of maltose and fermented high-gravity wort well.

  19. Hypophyseal pathology in AIDS


    Mosca, L; Costanzi, G; Antonacci, C.; Boldorini, R; Carboni, N.; Cristina, S; Liberani, C.; Parravicini, C.; Pirolo, A.; Vago, L


    One hundred and eleven pituitary glands of patients (93 males, 18 females; mean age 32 years, 5 months) who died of fully developed AIDS or ARC were examined under light microscopy with the aid of immunohistochemistry. On post mortem (p.m.) examination a wide series of multiorgan alterations was noticed. Microscopically vanous lesions in both adeno- and neurohypophysis were seen. These ranged from vessel damage to secondaries to systemic infections, neoplas...

  20. Plasma-aided manufacturing (United States)

    Shohet, J. L.


    Plasma-aided manufacturing is used for producing new materials with unusual and superior properties, for developing new chemical compounds and processes, for machining, and for altering and refining materials and surfaces. Plasma-aided manufacturing has direct applications to semiconductor fabrication, materials synthesis, welding, lighting, polymers, anti-corrosion coatings, machine tools, metallurgy, electrical and electronics devices, hazardous waste removal, high performance ceramics, and many other items in both the high-technology and the more traditional industries in the United States.

  1. Blavigator: a navigation aid for blind persons


    José,João; Moreno, M.; Pinilla-Dutoit, J.; Rodrigues, J. M. F.; du Buf, J. M. H.


    Blavigator (blind navigator) is a vision aid for blind and visuaIIy impaired persons. It supports local navigation by detecting waIkable paths in the immediate vicinity of the user. It guides the user for centering on the path.

  2. 艾滋病患者外周血病毒载量检出的影响因素分析%Analysis of Influencing Factors of Detection of Peripheral Blood Viral Load in AIDS Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘会娟; 张肖肖; 蒋自强


    目的 从临床角度探讨艾滋病患者外周血病毒载量检出的影响因素,为临床治疗提供依据.方法 收集2010年以来我们中心开展的课题资料的人口学信息、实验室血常规、免疫学指标(CD+4T细胞计数、CD+8T细胞计数)及病毒载量检测值,影响因素分析采用Logistic回归.结果 纳入分析146例资料,其中89例外周血病毒载量<40 copys/ml(未检出组),57例外周血病毒载量≥40 copys/ml(检出组).Logistic回归分析最终纳入3个影响病毒载量是否检测出的主要因素,分别为较低年龄分段(<30岁,OR=15.875,P=0.001;30~39岁,OR=6.317,P=0.002;40~49岁,OR=2.387,P=0.129)、确认年限(OR=2.251,P=0.038)和CD+4T细胞计数分段(OR=0.382,P=0.014).结论 艾滋病患者外周血病毒载量是否检出的影响因素有确认时间、年龄分段和CD+4T细胞计数.%Objective To explore the factors influencing detection of peripheral blood viral load to provide a basis for its clinical treatment. Methods Demographic information, laboratory routine blood, immunological indexes ( CD/ T cell count, CD8+ T cell count ) and viral load assessment were collected from the subject data of AIDS Treatment and Research Center. Logistic regression analysis was carried out on influencing factors on level of viral load. Results A total of 146 cases were chosen for analysis, including 89 with a peripheral blood viral load <40 copys/ml ( un -detection group ) and 57 with load ≥40 copys/ml ( detection group ). Logistic regression analysis finally enrolled 3 main factors influencing viral load detection, including lower age segmentation ( <30yearsold, OR = 15.875, P=0.001; 30 ~ 39 years old, OR=6.317, P=0.002; 39-49 years old, OR=2.387, P=0.129), time confirmation ( OR = 2. 251, P = 0. 038 ) and CD4+ T cell count ( OR = 0. 382, P=0.014). Conclusion The factors influencing detection of peripheral blood viral load are time conformation, age segments and CD/ T cell count.

  3. Assembly of eukaryotic algal chromosomes in yeast


    Karas, Bogumil J.; Molparia, Bhuvan; Jablanovic, Jelena; Hermann, Wolfgang J; Lin, Ying-Chi; Dupont, Christopher L.; Tagwerker, Christian; Yonemoto, Isaac T.; Noskov, Vladimir N.; Chuang, Ray-Yuan; Allen, Andrew E; Glass, John I.; Hutchison, Clyde A; Smith, Hamilton O; Venter, J Craig


    Background Synthetic genomic approaches offer unique opportunities to use powerful yeast and Escherichia coli genetic systems to assemble and modify chromosome-sized molecules before returning the modified DNA to the target host. For example, the entire 1 Mb Mycoplasma mycoides chromosome can be stably maintained and manipulated in yeast before being transplanted back into recipient cells. We have previously demonstrated that cloning in yeast of large (> ~ 150 kb), high G + C (55%) prokaryoti...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Khan


    Full Text Available HIV infection and AIDS is increasingly becoming a major public health problem in our country. Currently, the reported cases represent only the 'tip of the iceberg' of the problem. In view of the fact that no cure or vaccine for the disease has yet been found, spreading knowledge and removing misconceptions is about the only way that AIDS can be effectively tackled.This handbook, developed by Prof. Shankar Chowdhury and associates, seeks to address all levels of medical and non-medical AIDS workers, as well as the layman. It deals with topics ranging from biology of the virus, symptoms and transmission of disease, to prevention, counselling for infected persons and action plan for AIDS education.The biology of the virus and the immune system is described in simple terms, as well as methods of testing for HIV, and what these test results mean. The progression of disease in adults and children, development of symptoms, diagnostic criteria for AIDS, treatment and outcome of disease is dealt with. How AIDS spreads between people, and the health risk for health workers and families is examined. The various ways in which transmission of HIV can be prevented is looked at in detail, including public health measures, national and internatonal action, and ethical and human rights issues involved.

  5. Induction of Autophagy by Second-Fermentation Yeasts during Elaboration of Sparkling Wines (United States)

    Cebollero, Eduardo; Gonzalez, Ramon


    Autophagy is a transport system mediated by vesicles, ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells, by which bulk cytoplasm is targeted to a lysosome or vacuole for degradation. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, autophagy is triggered by nutritional stress conditions (e.g., carbon- or nitrogen-depleted medium). In this study we showed that there is induction of autophagy in second-fermentation yeasts during sparkling wine making. Two methods were employed to detect autophagy: a biochemical approach based on depletion of the protein acetaldehyde dehydrogenase Ald6p and a morphological strategy consisting of visualization of autophagic bodies and autophagosomes, which are intermediate vesicles in the autophagic process, by transmission electron microscopy. This study provides the first demonstration of autophagy in second-fermentation yeasts under enological conditions. The correlation between autophagy and yeast autolysis during sparkling wine production is discussed, and genetic engineering of autophagy-related genes in order to accelerate the aging steps in wine making is proposed. PMID:16751523

  6. Carbon assimilation and extracellular antigens of some yeast-like fungi. (United States)

    Middelhoven, W J; De Hoog, G S; Notermans, S


    Many yeast-like fungi assimilated n-hexadecane, butylamine and putrescine as sole carbon sources. Methanol was not assimilated. This points to a physiological similarity to endomycetous, hydrocarbon-utilizing yeasts. Stephanoascus ciferrii assimilated uric acid, adenine and allantoin as sole source of carbon and nitrogen. All strains of Geotrichum candidum and many other yeast-like fungi assimilated acetoin and butan-2,3-diol. Assimilation tests for adenine, uric acid, allantoin, acetoin and butan-2,3-diol were found to be suitable for taxonomic purposes. Extracellular antigens immunologically related to those produced by Geotrichum candidum were detected in the cell-free culture liquids of several yeast-like fungi. The extracellular antigen excreted by Stephanoascus ciferrii was species-specific.

  7. Selection of yeast starter culture strains for the production of marula fruit wines and distillates. (United States)

    Fundira, M; Blom, M; Pretorius, I S; van Rensburg, P


    Juice of the Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra (marula) fruit was fermented by indigenous microflora and different commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains at different temperatures, namely, 15 and 30 degrees C. Volatile acids, esters, and higher alcohols were quantified in the wine and distillates, and the results were interpreted using a multivariate analysis of variance and an average linkage cluster analysis. Significant differences between 15 and 30 degrees C and also among yeasts with respect to volatile compounds were observed. Yeast strains VIN7 and FC consistently produced wines and final distillates significantly different from the other strains. A panel of tasters and marula and brandy producers was asked to select wines and distillates that had an acceptable and typical marula "nose". They were also asked to detect the differences among wines and distillates fermented with the same yeast strain at different temperatures.

  8. Multilateral Aid | L’aide multilatérale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Bilateral and Multilateral Aid, DAC Members, 1960–2010 (in million USD constant, 2009Aide bilatérale et multilatérale des pays membres du CAD, 1960-2010 (en millions USD constants de 2009­Bilateral and Multilateral Aid by Recipient Region, DAC Members, 2008 (in percentage of total aid by RegionAide bilatérale et multilatérale des pays membres du CAD par region de destination, 2008 (en pourcentage de l’aide totale par régionSources: OECD (2010 2010 DAC Report on Multilateral Aid (Paris: O...

  9. Replication of Avocado Sunblotch Viroid in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae▿ (United States)

    Delan-Forino, Clémentine; Maurel, Marie-Christine; Torchet, Claire


    Viroids are the smallest known pathogenic agents. They are noncoding, single-stranded, closed-circular, “naked” RNAs, which replicate through RNA-RNA transcription. Viroids of the Avsunviroidae family possess a hammerhead ribozyme in their sequence, allowing self-cleavage during their replication. To date, viroids have only been detected in plant cells. Here, we investigate the replication of Avocado sunblotch viroid (ASBVd) of the Avsunviroidae family in a nonconventional host, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrate that ASBVd RNA strands of both polarities are able to self-cleave and to replicate in a unicellular eukaryote cell. We show that the viroid monomeric RNA is destabilized by the nuclear 3′ and the cytoplasmic 5′ RNA degradation pathways. For the first time, our results provide evidence that viroids can replicate in other organisms than plants and that yeast contains all of the essential cellular elements for the replication of ASBVd. PMID:21270165

  10. eSRKs酵母双杂交诱饵载体的构建及其自激活作用的检测%Re-construction of eSRKs Bait Vector and Detection of Its Self-Activating Effect in a Yeast Two-Hybrid System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红; 朱利泉; 彭一波; 罗兵; 杨昆; 张贺翠; 吴志刚; 黄丹; 高启国


    Self-incompatibility of Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. is determined by the female S-locus receptor kinase (SRK) and the male S-Iocus cysteine-rich protein/S-locus protein 11 (SCR /SP11). In this study a yeast two-hybrid system was adopted to investigate the interaction between SCR/SP11 and the extracellular hypervariable region of SRK(eSRK,) , a bait expression vector of eSRK. was construct and its self-activating effect was detected. A fragment of eSRK, was amplified from B. oleracea L. ‘B3’ by RTPCR, cloned into the bait expression vector pGBKT7 and transformed into Y2HGold yeast cells after being verified by sequencing. Toxicity and self-activation of the bait protein were detected by culture in SD/-Trp. This research proved that eSRKs was successfully amplified and cloned into pGBKT7. The vectors pGBKT7-eSRKs were transformed into Y2HGold as well and these cells exhibited neither toxicity nor selfactivation. The bait expression vector of eSRKs was constructed successfully, which laid the foundation for detecting SCR interaction with the bait protein eSRKs using the yeast two-hybrid system.%为研究甘蓝自交不亲和决定因子S位点富舍半胱氨酸蛋白/S位点蛋白11(SCR/SP11)与S位点受体激酶(SRK)胞外域高变区(eSRKs)的相互作用,构建了eSRKs基因的酵母双杂交诱饵载体,检测其自激活作用,并验证是否适用于后续的相互作用研究.以甘蓝B3为材料,通过RT-PCR技术获得eSRKs目的基因片段,将其克隆到pGBKT7栽体中,构建酵母双杂交诱饵载体pGBKT7-eSRKs;测序正确后,将重组质粒转入Y2HGold,检测其表达产物时酵母细胞有无毒性以及对报告基因有无自激活作用,结果获得了正确的eSRKs基因片段,并成功克隆到pGBKT7诱饵载体中,且转化在有诱饵栽体pGBKT7-eSRKs的Y2HGold在SD/-Trp营养缺陷平板上生长良好,表明表达产物对酵母细胞无毒性;显色反应结果表明对报告基因也无自激活作用,为下一步利用酵

  11. Molecular analysis of red wine yeast diversity in the Ribera del Duero D.O. (Spain) area. (United States)

    Muñoz-Bernal, Eugenia; Rodríguez, María Esther; Benítez, Patricia; Fernández-Acero, Francisco Javier; Rebordinos, Laureana; Cantoral, Jesús Manuel


    Molecular characterization of wine yeast population during spontaneous fermentation in biodynamic wines from Ribera del Duero D.O. located at northern plateau of Spain has been carried out during two consecutive years. A total of 829 yeast strains were isolated from the samples and characterized by electrophoretic karyotype. The results show the presence of three population of yeast differentiated by their electrophoretic karyotypes, (1) non-Saccharomyces yeast dominant in the initial phase of the fermentations (NS); (2) Saccharomyces bayanus var uvarum detected mainly mid-way through the fermentation process at 20-25 °C; and (3) Saccharomyces cerevisiae which remained dominant until the end of the fermentation. This is the first study showing the population dynamic of S. bayanus var. uvarum in red wines produced in Ribera del Duero that could represent an important source of autochthonous wine yeasts with novel oenological properties.

  12. AIDS as social construction: text mining of AIDS-related information in the Italian press. (United States)

    Caputo, Andrea; Giacchetta, Agnese; Langher, Viviana


    Given the relevance of AIDS as a public health problem in the Italian context and of the role of mass media in the social construction of the phenomenon, the aim of the present study is twofold: (1) to explore the main AIDS-related themes in the Italian popular press; (2) to analyse the temporal trends of AIDS representations over the last decades. For the research, we decided to consult Italian newspaper articles produced between 1985 and 1990 and between 2005 and 2010 using the archives of the main two national newspapers (La Repubblica and Corriere della Sera), resulting in an overall sample of 446 newspaper articles. A computer-aided content analysis allowed the detection of five different thematic domains (clusters), respectively focused on: Medical care (7.47%), Family support (37.03%), Science and religion debate (27%), Social exclusion (17.6%) and Healthcare policies (10.9%). These thematic domains are conceived along two main latent dimensions (factors) which explain 72.47% of the data variance which respectively deal with: (1) Attitudes towards people with AIDS (care versus avoidance) and (2) Social mandate on AIDS (powerlessness versus control). The study results also reveal the potential evolution of representations of people with AIDS over time: from stigmatised subjects who represent a risk for the entire society within a climate of social control to people progressively symbolised as frail subjects that need to be taken care of.

  13. Women and AIDS: introduction. (United States)

    Krieger, N; Margo, G


    Around the world, more and more women--principally poor women of color--are being diagnosed with and are dying of AIDS, the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Yet, effective and appropriate prevention programs for women are sorely missing from the global program to control AIDS. To help us understand why this gap exists, and what we must do to close it, the three articles in this issue focus on women and AIDS. Examining the situation in such countries as Zimbabwe and South Africa, as well as in other economically underdeveloped and developed regions, the authors argue that women with the least control over their bodies and their lives are at greatest risk of acquiring AIDS. For example, the high rate of infection among women in Africa cannot be understood apart from the legacy of colonialism (including land expropriation and the forced introduction of a migrant labor system) and the insidious combination of traditional and European patriarchal values. Only by recognizing the socioeconomic and cultural determinants of both disease and sexual behavior, and only by incorporating these insights into our AIDS prevention programs, will we be able to curb the spread of this lethal disease.

  14. AIDS in Africa. (United States)

    Mokhobo, D


    Numerous cultural practices and attitudes in Africa represent formidable obstacles to the prevention of the further spread of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Polygamy and concubinage are still widely practiced throughout Africa. In fact, sexual promiscuity on the part of males is traditionally viewed as positive--a reflection of male supremacy and male sexual prowess. The disintegration of the rural African family, brought about by urbanization, the migrant labor system, and poverty, has resulted in widespread premarital promiscuity. Contraceptive practices are perceived by many as a white conspiracy aimed at limiting the growth of the black population and thereby diminishing its political power. Condom use is particularly in disfavor. Thus, AIDS prevention campaigns urging Africans to restrict the number of sexual partners and to use condoms are unlikely to be successful. Another problem is that most Africans cannot believe that AIDS is sexually linked in that the disease does not affect the sex organs as is the case with other sexually transmitted diseases. The degree to which African governments are able to allocate resources to AIDS education will determine whether the epidemic can be controlled. Even with a massive outpouring of resources, it may be difficult to arouse public alarm about AIDS since Africans are so acclimated to living with calamities of every kind.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao visits AIDS orphans in Shangcai County,central China’s Henan Province,on November 30,a day before the 20th World AIDS Day. The region of Shangcai has the highest concentration of people living with HIV/AIDS in China. The Chinese Government has released a package of policies that offer people living with HIV/AIDS free medicine,health checks and consultations,as well as free schooling to AIDS orphans.

  16. Biofuels. Altered sterol composition renders yeast thermotolerant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspeta, Luis; Chen, Yun; Ghiaci, Payam;


    Ethanol production for use as a biofuel is mainly achieved through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation by yeast. Operating at ≥40°C would be beneficial in terms of increasing efficiency of the process and reducing costs, but yeast does not grow efficiently at those temperatures. We use...

  17. Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation. (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham


    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics.

  18. Yeast cell factories on the horizon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens


    For thousands of years, yeast has been used for making beer, bread, and wine. In modern times, it has become a commercial workhorse for producing fuels, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals such as insulin, human serum albumin, and vaccines against hepatitis virus and human papillomavirus. Yeast has al...

  19. Growth requirements of san francisco sour dough yeasts and bakers' yeast. (United States)

    Henry, N


    The growth requirements of several yeasts isolated from San Francisco sour dough mother sponges were compared with those of bakers' yeast. The sour dough yeasts studied were one strain of Saccharomyces uvarum, one strain of S. inusitatus, and four strains of S. exiguus. S. inusitatus was the only yeast found to have an amino acid requirement, namely, methionine. All of the yeasts had an absolute requirement for pantothenic acid and a partial requirement for biotin. Inositol was stimulatory to all except bakers' yeast. All strains of S. exiguus required niacin and thiamine. Interestingly, S. inusitatus, the only yeast that required methionine, also needed folic acid. For optimal growth of S. exiguus in a molasses medium, supplementation with thiamine was required.

  20. AIDS in Colombia. (United States)

    Boshell, J; Gacharná, M G; García, M; Jaramillo, L S; Márquez, G; Fergusson, M M; González, S; Prada, E Y; de Rangel, R; de Cabas, R


    Between January 1984 and December 1987 a total of 178 AIDS cases were reported to the Colombian Ministry of Health. The location of these cases suggests that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is widely distributed in Colombia. Most of those afflicted (97%) have been adult males. HIV seroprevalence studies of selected population groups revealed the highest antibody prevalence (5.65% in females, 22.5% in males) among individuals involved in high-risk behaviors who participated in a free AIDS testing program. High prevalences (from 0.6% to 3.9% in females, and 14.6% to 15.9% in males) were also found in patients (primarily female prostitutes and male homosexuals) attending clinics for sexually transmitted diseases in several urban areas. The number of AIDS cases in Colombia has doubled or tripled annually since reporting began in 1984, a pattern similar to that observed worldwide.

  1. [AIDS mortality in France]. (United States)

    Hatton, F; Maguin, P; Nicaud, V; Renaud, G


    A study about mortality by AIDS had been undertaken since July 1st 1983, in the Service of Information on Medical causes of Death (INSERM SC8), which is in charge of developing mortality statistics in France. From July 1st 1983 to September 30th 1985, 243 deaths due to AIDS were recorded. Only the cases where this diagnosis was clearly mentioned were selected; more than 90% were notified by hospitals and mainly by highly specialized services. The number of deaths, which was low and varied rather irregularly at the beginning, then increased by successive stages. The first year, during which a tenth of deaths was recorded every three months, was followed by a great increase, doubling, then tripling the initial numbers. Lastly, a second and sudden rise occurred during the third trimester of 1985, the trimestrial number of deaths due to AIDS reaching 80.

  2. Genetic constitution of industrial yeast. (United States)

    Benítez, T; Martínez, P; Codón, A C


    Saccharomyces cerevisiae industrial yeast strains are highly heterogeneous. These industrial strains, including bakers', wine, brewing and distillers', have been compared with respect to their DNA content, number and size of chromosomes, homologies between their genes and those of laboratory strains, and restriction fragment lengths of their mitDNA. A high variability, and the presence of multigenic families, were observed in some industrial yeast groups. The occurrence or the lack of chromosomal polymorphism, as well as the presence of multiple copies of some genes, could be related to a selective process occurring under specific industrial conditions. This polymorphism is generated by reorganization events, that take place mainly during meiosis and are mediated by repetitive Y' and Ty elements. These elements give rise to ectopic and asymmetric recombination and to gene conversion. The polymorphism displayed by the mitDNA could also result from specific industrial conditions. However, in enological strains the selective process is masked by the mutagenic effect that ethanol exerts on this DNA.

  3. Ceramide Accumulation in Yeast Yarrowia lipolitica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周全; 陈国强


    Ceramides are a class of lipid molecules widely distributed in eukaryotic cells in small amount. To investigate the possibility of ceramide production by yeast, a yeast strain Yarrowia lipolitica was grown under different conditions including changing carbon/nitrogen ratio, and serine concentration, dissolved oxygen and presence of ethanol. It was found that increased dissolved oxygen supply increased the ceramide content in the yeast 2.5 fold of its normal control level. Ethanol treatment could also enhance ceramide accumulation by 3.3 fold compared with the control although the cell growth was negatively affected. Cellular redox potential was shown to affect ceramide accumulation by the yeast. This was possibly related to the cellular reactive oxygen species presented in the yeast.

  4. Computer aided control engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymkat, Maciej; Ravn, Ole


    Current developments in the field of Computer Aided Control Engineering (CACE) have a visible impact on the design methodologies and the structure of the software tools supporting them. Today control engineers has at their disposal libraries, packages or programming environments that may be speci......Current developments in the field of Computer Aided Control Engineering (CACE) have a visible impact on the design methodologies and the structure of the software tools supporting them. Today control engineers has at their disposal libraries, packages or programming environments that may...

  5. Seasonal and altitudinal changes of culturable bacterial and yeast diversity in Alpine forest soils. (United States)

    França, Luís; Sannino, Ciro; Turchetti, Benedetta; Buzzini, Pietro; Margesin, Rosa


    The effect of altitude and season on abundance and diversity of the culturable heterotrophic bacterial and yeast community was examined at four forest sites in the Italian Alps along an altitude gradient (545-2000 m). Independently of altitude, bacteria isolated at 0 °C (psychrophiles) were less numerous than those recovered at 20 °C. In autumn, psychrophilic bacterial population increased with altitude. The 1194 bacterial strains were primarily affiliated with the classes Alpha-, Beta-, Gammaproteobacteria, Spingobacteriia and Flavobacteriia. Fifty-seven of 112 operational taxonomic units represented potential novel species. Strains isolated at 20 °C had a higher diversity and showed similarities in taxa composition and abundance, regardless of altitude or season, while strains isolated at 0 °C showed differences in community composition at lower and higher altitudes. In contrast to bacteria, yeast diversity was season-dependent: site- and altitude-specific effects on yeast diversity were only detected in spring. Isolation temperature affected the relative proportions of yeast genera. Isolations recovered 719 strains, belonging to the classes Dothideomycetes, Saccharomycetes, Tremellomycetes and Mycrobotryomycetes. The presence of few dominant bacterial OTUs and yeast species indicated a resilient microbial population that is not affected by season or altitude. Soil nutrient contents influenced significantly abundance and diversity of culturable bacteria, but not of culturable yeasts.

  6. Wood ingestion by passalid beetles in the presence of xylose-fermenting gut yeasts. (United States)

    Suh, Sung-Oui; Marshall, Christopher J; McHugh, Joseph V; Blackwell, Meredith


    During a survey of insect gut micro-organisms, we consistently isolated Pichia stipitis-like yeasts (Fungi: Ascomycota, Saccharomycetes) from the wood-ingesting beetles, Odontotaenius disjunctus and Verres sternbergianus (Coleoptera: Passalidae). The yeasts were isolated from passalid beetles over a wide area, including the eastern and midwestern USA and Panama. Phylogenetic analyses of the nuclear encoded small and large subunit rRNA gene (rDNA) sequences distinguished a well-supported clade consisting of the passalid yeasts and Pichia stipitis, P. segobiensis, Candida shehatae and C. ergatensis. Members of this clade have the ability to ferment and assimilate xylose or to hydrolyse xylan, major components of the polysaccharide, hemicellulose. Sexual reproduction was present in the passalid isolates but was rare among the gut yeasts of other beetles to which they were compared. Minor genetic and phenotypic variation among some of the passalid yeasts was detected using markers from the internal transcribed spacer region of the rDNA repeat unit, morphology, and in vitro metabolic tests. The consistent association of xylose-fermenting yeasts of almost identical genotypes with passalid beetles across a broad geographical distribution, suggests a significant symbiotic association.

  7. Investigating of yeast species in wine fermentation using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism method. (United States)

    Sun, Yue; Liu, Yanlin


    The objective of this study was to examine the potential of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) in monitoring yeast communities during wine fermentation and to reveal new information on yeast community of Chinese enology. Firstly, terminal restriction fragment (TRF) lengths database was constructed using 32 pure yeast species. Ten of these species were firstly documented. The species except for Candida vini, Issatchenkia orientalis/Candida krusei, Saccharomyces bayanus, Saccharomyces pastorianus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces kudriarzevii and Zygosaccharomyces bisporus could be distinguished by the T-RFLP targeting 5.8S-ITS rDNA. Moreover, the yeast communities in spontaneous fermentation of Chardonnay and Riesling were identified by T-RFLP and traditional methods, including colony morphology on Wallerstein Nutrient (WLN) medium and 5.8S-ITS-RFLP analysis. The result showed that T-RFLP profiles of the yeast community correlated well with that of the results identified by the traditional methods. The TRFs with the highest intensity and present in all the samples corresponded to Saccharomyces sp. Other species detected by both approaches were Hanseniaspora uvarum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia minuta var. minuta, Saccharomycodes ludwigii/Torulaspora delbrueckii and Candida zemplinina. This study revealed that T-RFLP technique is a rapid and useful tool for monitoring the composition of yeast species during wine fermentation.

  8. Yeast diversity associated with invasive Dendroctonus valens killing Pinus tabuliformis in China using culturing and molecular methods. (United States)

    Lou, Qiao-Zhe; Lu, Min; Sun, Jiang-Hua


    Bark beetle-associated yeasts are much less studied than filamentous fungi, yet they are also considered to play important roles in beetle nutrition, detoxification, and chemical communication. The red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens, an invasive bark beetle introduced from North America, became one of the most destructive pests in China, having killed more than 10 million Pinus tabuliformis as well as other pine species. No investigation of yeasts associated with this bark beetle in its invaded ranges has been conducted so far. The aim of this study was to assess the diversity of yeast communities in different microhabitats and during different developmental stages of Den. valens in China using culturing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approaches and to compare the yeast flora between China and the USA. The yeast identity was confirmed by sequencing the D1/D2 domain of LSU ribosomal DNA (rDNA). In total, 21 species (13 ascomycetes and eight basidiomycetes) were detected by culturing method, and 12 species (11 ascomycetes and one basidiomycetes) were detected by molecular methods from China. The most frequent five species in China were Candida piceae (Ogataea clade), Cyberlindnera americana, Candida oregonensis (Metschnikowia clade), Candida nitratophila (Ogataea clade) and an undescribed Saccharomycopsis sp., detected by both methods. Seven species were exclusively detected by DGGE. Ca. oregonensis (Metschnikowia clade) was the most frequently detected species by DGGE method. Eight species (all were ascomycetes) from the USA were isolated; seven of those were also found in China. We found significant differences in yeast total abundance as well as community composition between different developmental stages and significant differences between the surface and the gut. The frass yeast community was more similar to that of Den. valens surface or larvae than to the community of the gut or adults. Possible functions of the yeast associates are

  9. Issues in identifying germ tube positive yeasts by conventional methods. (United States)

    Yazdanpanah, Atta; Khaithir, Tzar Mohd Nizam


    Candida speciation is vital for epidemiology and management of candidiasis. Nonmolecular conventional methods often fail to identify closely related germ tube positive yeasts from clinical specimens. The present study was conducted to identify these yeasts and to highlight issues in conventional versus molecular methods of identification. A total of 98 germ tube positive yeasts from high vaginal swabs were studied over a 12-month period. Isolates were examined with various methods including growth at 42 °C and 45 °C on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA), color development on CHROMagar Candida medium, chlamydospore production on corn meal agar at 25 °C, carbohydrate assimilation using ID 32C system, and polymerase chain reaction using a single pair of primers targeting the hyphal wall protein 1 (Hwp1) gene. Of all the isolates studied, 97 were molecularly confirmed as C. albicans and one isolate was identified as C. dubliniensis. No C. africana was detected in this study. The molecular method used in our study was an accurate and useful tool for discriminating C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, and C. africana. The conventional methods, however, were less accurate and riddled with many issues that will be discussed in further details.

  10. Yeast diversity of Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations. (United States)

    Daniel, Heide-Marie; Vrancken, Gino; Takrama, Jemmy F; Camu, Nicholas; De Vos, Paul; De Vuyst, Luc


    The fermentation of the Theobroma cacao beans, involving yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, and acetic acid bacteria, has a major influence on the quality of the resulting cocoa. An assessment of the microbial community of cocoa bean heap fermentations in Ghana resulted in 91 yeast isolates. These were grouped by PCR-fingerprinting with the primer M13. Representative isolates were identified using the D1/D2 region of the large subunit rRNA gene, internal transcribed spacer sequences and partial actin gene sequences leading to the detection of 15 species. Properties of importance for cocoa bean fermentation, namely sucrose, glucose, and citrate assimilation capacity, pH-, ethanol-, and heat-tolerance, were examined for selected isolates. Pichia kudriavzevii (Issatchenkia orientalis), Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Hanseniaspora opuntiae formed the major components of the yeast community. Hanseniaspora opuntiae was identified conclusively for the first time from cocoa fermentations. Among the less frequently encountered species, Candida carpophila, Candida orthopsilosis, Kodamaea ohmeri, Meyerozyma (Pichia) caribbica, Pichia manshurica, Saccharomycodes ludwigii, and Yamadazyma (Pichia) mexicana were not yet documented from this substrate. Hanseniaspora opuntiae was preferably growing during the earlier phase of fermentation, reflecting its tolerance to low pH and its citrate-negative phenotype, while no specific temporal distribution was recognized for P. kudriavzevii and S. cerevisiae.

  11. A Predictive Model for Yeast Cell Polarization in Pheromone Gradients. (United States)

    Muller, Nicolas; Piel, Matthieu; Calvez, Vincent; Voituriez, Raphaël; Gonçalves-Sá, Joana; Guo, Chin-Lin; Jiang, Xingyu; Murray, Andrew; Meunier, Nicolas


    Budding yeast cells exist in two mating types, a and α, which use peptide pheromones to communicate with each other during mating. Mating depends on the ability of cells to polarize up pheromone gradients, but cells also respond to spatially uniform fields of pheromone by polarizing along a single axis. We used quantitative measurements of the response of a cells to α-factor to produce a predictive model of yeast polarization towards a pheromone gradient. We found that cells make a sharp transition between budding cycles and mating induced polarization and that they detect pheromone gradients accurately only over a narrow range of pheromone concentrations corresponding to this transition. We fit all the parameters of the mathematical model by using quantitative data on spontaneous polarization in uniform pheromone concentration. Once these parameters have been computed, and without any further fit, our model quantitatively predicts the yeast cell response to pheromone gradient providing an important step toward understanding how cells communicate with each other.

  12. Yeast communities associated with artisanal mezcal fermentations from Agave salmiana. (United States)

    Verdugo Valdez, A; Segura Garcia, L; Kirchmayr, M; Ramírez Rodríguez, P; González Esquinca, A; Coria, R; Gschaedler Mathis, A


    The aims of this work were to characterize the fermentation process of mezcal from San Luis Potosi, México and identify the yeasts present in the fermentation using molecular culture-dependent methods (RFLP of the 5.8S-ITS and sequencing of the D1/D2 domain) and also by using a culture-independent method (DGGE). The alcoholic fermentations of two separate musts obtained from Agave salmiana were analyzed. Sugar, ethanol and major volatile compounds concentrations were higher in the first fermentation, which shows the importance of having a quality standard for raw materials, particularly in the concentration of fructans, in order to produce fermented Agave salmiana must with similar characteristics. One hundred ninety-two (192) different yeast colonies were identified, from those present on WL agar plates, by RFLP analysis of the ITS1-5.8S- ITS2 from the rRNA gene, with restriction endonucleases, HhaI, HaeIII and HinfI. The identified yeasts were: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Pichia kluyveri, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Clavispora lusitaniae, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Candida ethanolica and Saccharomyces exiguus. These identifications were confirmed by sequencing the D1-D2 region of the 26S rRNA gene. With the PCR-DGGE method, bands corresponding to S. cerevisiae, K. marxianus and T. delbrueckii were clearly detected, confirming the results obtained with classic techniques.

  13. Studying Aid: Some Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)


    textabstractINVESTIGATING IDEAS, IDEOLOGIES AND PRACTICES This paper presents some methods for trying to make sense of international aid and of its study.1 Some of the methods may be deemed ethnographic; the others are important partners to them, but rather different. In the course of discussing q

  14. Hearing Aids Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Globally, hearing loss is the second most frequent disability. About 80% of the persons affected by hearing loss do not use hearing aids. The goal of this edited volume is to present a theoretically founded, interdisciplinary approach geared at understanding and improving social interaction impac...

  15. Parent Hearing Aid Experiences (United States)

    Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard


    This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

  16. Hearing Aid Personalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Nielsen, Jakob; Jensen, Bjørn Sand


    Modern digital hearing aids require and offer a great level of personalization. Today, this personalization is not performed based directly on what the user actually perceives, but on a hearing-care professional’s interpretation of what the user explains about what is perceived. In this paper, an...

  17. Computer Aided Lecturing. (United States)

    Van Meter, Donald E.


    Surveyed students taking a natural resource conservation course to determine the effects of computer software that provides tools for creating and managing visual presentations to students. Results indicated that 94% of the respondents believed computer-aided lectures helped them and recommended their continued use; note taking was more effective,…

  18. AIDS and associated malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charles WOOD; William HARRINGTON Jr


    AIDS associated malignancies (ARL) is a major complication associated with AIDS patients upon immunosuppression.Chronically immunocompromised patients have a markedly increased risk of developing lymphoproliferative disease. In the era of potent antiretrovirals therapy (ARV), the malignant complications due to HIV- 1 infection have decreased in developed nations where ARV is administered, but still poses a major problem in developing countries where HIV- 1incidence is high and ARV is still not yet widely available. Even in ARV treated individuals there is a concern that the prolonged survival of many HIV- 1 carriers is likely to eventually result in an increased number of malignancies diagnosed.Malignancies that were found to have high incidence in HIV-infected individuals are Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), Hodgkin's disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The incidence of NHL has increased nearly 200 fold in HIV-positive patients, and accounts for a greater percentage of AIDS defining illness in the US and Europe since the advent of HAART therapy. These AIDS related lymphomas are distinct from their counterparts seen in HIV- 1 seronegative patients.For example nearly half of all cases of ARL are associated with the presence of a gamma herpesvirus, Epstein Barr virus (EBV) or human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8)/Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV). The pathogenesis of ARLs is complex. B-cell proliferation driven by chronic antigenemia resulting in the induction of polyclonal and ultimately monoclonal lymphoproliferation may occur in the setting of severe immunosuppression.

  19. [Post-transfusional AIDS]. (United States)

    Azzini, M; Maccabruni, A; Marcellini, M; Michelone, G; Dei Cas, A


    Two cases of post-transfusional AIDS in two premature babies who received blood of the same seropositive donor, are reported. The risk of the susceptibility to HIV infection of these patients, in relation to the immaturity of immune system and to the transfusional treatment often necessary in premature newborns, is stressed.

  20. The CASPAR finding aids


    Meghini, Carlo; Avancini, Henry; Versienti, Loredana


    One of the CASPAR key components is the FIND Components, which is implementing the Finding Aids of OAIS. According to OAIS, FIND manages Description Information that is associated to Information Packages in order to support the discovery of those Packages. FIND allows defining, creating, persisting, querying, browsing, and accessing both Description Information and the association between Information Packages and Description Information

  1. Coil Welding Aid (United States)

    Wiesenbach, W. T.; Clark, M. C.


    Positioner holds coil inside cylinder during tack welding. Welding aid spaces turns of coil inside cylinder and applies contact pressure while coil is tack-welded to cylinder. Device facilitates fabrication of heat exchangers and other structures by eliminating hand-positioning and clamping of individual coil turns.

  2. Enteric parasites and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Cimerman


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report on the importance of intestinal parasites in patients with AIDS, showing relevant data in the medical literature, with special emphasis on epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of enteroparasitosis, especially cryptosporidiasis, isosporiasis, microsporidiasis and strongyloidiasis. DESIGN: Narrative review.

  3. High‑throughput sequencing of amplicons for monitoring yeast biodiversity in must and during alcoholic fermentation. (United States)

    David, Vanessa; Terrat, Sébastien; Herzine, Khaled; Claisse, Olivier; Rousseaux, Sandrine; Tourdot-Maréchal, Raphaëlle; Masneuf-Pomarede, Isabelle; Ranjard, Lionel; Alexandre, Hervé


    We compared pyrosequencing technology with the PCR-ITS-RFLP analysis of yeast isolates and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). These methods gave divergent findings for the yeast population. DGGE was unsuitable for the quantification of biodiversity and its use for species detection was limited by the initial abundance of each species. The isolates identified by PCR-ITSRFLP were not fully representative of the true population. For population dynamics, high-throughput sequencing technology yielded results differing in some respects from those obtained with other approaches. This study demonstrates that 454 pyrosequencing of amplicons is more relevant than other methods for studying the yeast community on grapes and during alcoholic fermentation. Indeed, this high-throughput sequencing method detected larger numbers of species on grapes and identified species present during alcoholic fermentation that were undetectable with the other techniques.

  4. Acetaminophen toxicity and resistance in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (United States)

    Srikanth, Chittur V; Chakraborti, Asit K; Bachhawat, Anand K


    Acetaminophen (paracetamol), one of the most widely used analgesics, is toxic under conditions of overdose or in certain disease conditions, but the mechanism of acetaminophen toxicity is still not entirely understood. To obtain fresh insights into acetaminophen toxicity, this phenomenon was investigated in yeast. Acetaminophen was found to be toxic to yeast cells, with erg mutants displaying hypersensitivity. Yeast cells grown in the presence of acetaminophen were found to accumulate intracellular acetaminophen, but no metabolic products of acetaminophen could be detected in these extracts. The toxicity response did not lead to an oxidative stress response, although it did involve Yap1p. The cytochrome P450 enzymes of yeast, Erg5p and Erg11p, did not appear to participate in this process, unlike the mammalian systems. Furthermore, we could not establish a central role for glutathione depletion or the cellular glutathione redox status in acetaminophen toxicity, suggesting differences from mammalian systems in the pathways causing toxicity. Investigations of the resistance mechanisms revealed that deletion of the glutathione-conjugate pumps Ycf1p (a target of Yap1p) and Bpt1p, surprisingly, led to acetaminophen resistance, while overexpression of the multidrug resistance pumps Snq2p and Flr1p (also targets of Yap1p) led to acetaminophen resistance. The Yap1p-dependent resistance to acetaminophen required a functional Pdr1p or Pdr3p protein, but not a functional Yrr1p. In contrast, resistance mediated by Pdr1p/Pdr3p did not require a functional Yap1p, and revealed a distinct hierarchy in the resistance to acetaminophen.

  5. Aids to School Bus Design (United States)


    Navistar International Transportation Corporation, Chicago, IL, used three separate NASA-developed technologies in the design and testing of their 3000 Series Bus Chassis which was developed expressly for school bus applications. For structural analysis, they used the MSC/NASTRAN program which mathematically analyzes a design and predicts how it will hold up under stress. They also used the SPATE 9000 system for non-contact measurement of stress, load transfer mechanisms, detection of hidden flaws, and monitoring structural changes during fatigue testing. SPATE 9000 was based on infrared stress measurement technology developed by Langley Research Center. They also employed the Wyle Ride Quality Meter, which was developed by Langley to aid in passenger aircraft design by providing an accurate measurement of ride vibration and sound level. These numbers translate into a subjective discomfort level index. These technologies contribute to the company's 45-48 percent share of the school bus chassis market.

  6. A unified model for yeast transcript definition. (United States)

    de Boer, Carl G; van Bakel, Harm; Tsui, Kyle; Li, Joyce; Morris, Quaid D; Nislow, Corey; Greenblatt, Jack F; Hughes, Timothy R


    Identifying genes in the genomic context is central to a cell's ability to interpret the genome. Yet, in general, the signals used to define eukaryotic genes are poorly described. Here, we derived simple classifiers that identify where transcription will initiate and terminate using nucleic acid sequence features detectable by the yeast cell, which we integrate into a Unified Model (UM) that models transcription as a whole. The cis-elements that denote where transcription initiates function primarily through nucleosome depletion, and, using a synthetic promoter system, we show that most of these elements are sufficient to initiate transcription in vivo. Hrp1 binding sites are the major characteristic of terminators; these binding sites are often clustered in terminator regions and can terminate transcription bidirectionally. The UM predicts global transcript structure by modeling transcription of the genome using a hidden Markov model whose emissions are the outputs of the initiation and termination classifiers. We validated the novel predictions of the UM with available RNA-seq data and tested it further by directly comparing the transcript structure predicted by the model to the transcription generated by the cell for synthetic DNA segments of random design. We show that the UM identifies transcription start sites more accurately than the initiation classifier alone, indicating that the relative arrangement of promoter and terminator elements influences their function. Our model presents a concrete description of how the cell defines transcript units, explains the existence of nongenic transcripts, and provides insight into genome evolution.

  7. Modeling competition between yeast strains (United States)

    de Gee, Maarten; van Mourik, Hilda; de Visser, Arjan; Molenaar, Jaap


    We investigate toxin interference competition between S. cerevisiae colonies grown on a solid medium. In vivo experiments show that the outcome of this competition depends strongly on nutrient availability and cell densities. Here we present a new model for S. cerevisiae colonies, calculating the local height and composition of the colonies. The model simulates yeast colonies that show a good fit to experimental data. Simulations of colonies that start out with a homogeneous mixture of toxin producing and toxin sensitive cells can display remarkable pattern formation, depending on the initial ratio of the strains. Simulations in which the toxin producing and toxin sensitive species start at nearby positions clearly show that toxin production is advantageous.

  8. Accelerating Yeast Prion Biology using Droplet Microfluidics (United States)

    Ung, Lloyd; Rotem, Assaf; Jarosz, Daniel; Datta, Manoshi; Lindquist, Susan; Weitz, David


    Prions are infectious proteins in a misfolded form, that can induce normal proteins to take the misfolded state. Yeast prions are relevant, as a model of human prion diseases, and interesting from an evolutionary standpoint. Prions may also be a form of epigenetic inheritance, which allow yeast to adapt to stressful conditions at rates exceeding those of random mutations and propagate that adaptation to their offspring. Encapsulation of yeast in droplet microfluidic devices enables high-throughput measurements with single cell resolution, which would not be feasible using bulk methods. Millions of populations of yeast can be screened to obtain reliable measurements of prion induction and loss rates. The population dynamics of clonal yeast, when a fraction of the cells are prion expressing, can be elucidated. Furthermore, the mechanism by which certain strains of bacteria induce yeast to express prions in the wild can be deduced. Integrating the disparate fields of prion biology and droplet microfluidics reveals a more complete picture of how prions may be more than just diseases and play a functional role in yeast.

  9. Henan Surveys Blood Donors to Aid AIDS Prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Central China's Henan Province, one of the worst AIDS-hit provinces in the country, launched a sweeping survey in September of past blood donors to ascertain tile number of HIV-infected individuals to aid AIDS prevention and control work.

  10. Perceptions of Aid and Actual Aid in Intergenerational Caregiving. (United States)

    Walker, Alexis J.; And Others


    Compared pairs (n=174) of elderly mothers' and their caregiving daughters' perceptions of aid given to the mothers with actual caregiving activities. Results indicated nearly half of the mothers and daughters were accurate in their perceptions of aid given to the mothers; when mothers' perception of aid was inaccurate, mothers overestimated rather…

  11. Effectiveness of a teleaudiology approach to hearing aid fitting. (United States)

    Blamey, Peter J; Blamey, Jeremy K; Saunders, Elaine


    This research was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of an online speech perception test (SPT) for the measurement of hearing and hearing aid fitting in comparison with conventional methods. Phase 1 was performed with 88 people to evaluate the SPT for the detection of significant hearing loss. The SPT had high sensitivity (94%) and high selectivity (98%). In Phase 2, phonetic stimulus-response matrices derived from the SPT results for 408 people were used to calculate "Infograms™." At every frequency, there was a highly significant correlation (p hearing thresholds derived from the Infogram and conventional audiograms. In Phase 3, initial hearing aid fittings were derived from conventional audiograms and Infograms for two groups of hearing impaired people. Unaided and aided SPTs were used to measure the perceptual benefit of the aids for the two groups. The mean increases between unaided and aided SPT scores were 19.6%, and 22.2% (n = 517, 484; t = 2.2; p hearing aids fitted using conventional audiograms and Infograms respectively. The research provided evidence that the SPT is a highly effective tool for the detection and measurement of hearing loss and hearing aid fitting. Use of the SPT reduces the costs and increases the effectiveness of hearing aid fitting, thereby enabling a sustainable teleaudiology business model.

  12. Expression of a Ripening-Related Avocado (Persea americana) Cytochrome P450 in Yeast. (United States)

    Bozak, K R; O'keefe, D P; Christoffersen, R E


    One of the mRNAs that accumulates during the ripening of avocado (Persea americana Mill. cv Hass) has been previously identified as a cytochrome P450 (P450) monooxygenase and the corresponding gene designated CYP71A1. In this report we demonstrate that during ripening the accumulation of antigenically detected CYP71A1 gene product (CYP71A1) correlates with increases in total P450 and two P450-dependent enzyme activities: para-chloro-N-methylaniline demethylase, and trans-cinnamic acid hydroxylase (tCAH). To determine whether both of these activities are derived from CYP71A1, we have expressed this protein in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) using a galactose-inducible yeast promoter. Following induction, the microsomal fraction of transformed yeast cells undergoes a large increase in P450 level, attributable almost exclusively to the plant CYP71A1 protein. These membranes exhibit NADPH-dependent para-chloro-N-methylaniline demethylase activity at a rate comparable to that in avocado microsomes but have no detectable tCAH. These results demonstrate both that the CYP71A1 protein is not a tCAH and that a plant P450 is fully functional upon heterologous expression in yeast. These findings also indicate that the heterologous P450 protein can interact with the yeast NADPH:P450 reductase to produce a functional complex.

  13. 21 CFR 172.325 - Bakers yeast protein. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Bakers yeast protein. 172.325 Section 172.325 Food... Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.325 Bakers yeast protein. Bakers yeast protein may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Bakers yeast protein is...

  14. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout... prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract... a selected strain of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It may be concentrated or dried. (b)...

  16. Pseudoporphyria associated with consumption of brewers' yeast. (United States)

    Lim, C K; Rideout, J M; Peters, T J


    A case of pseudoporphyria associated with excessive consumption of brewers ' yeast was studied. Detailed analysis of the yeast tablets by high performance liquid chromatography showed the presence of dicarboxylic deuteroporphyrin , mesoporphyrin, and protoporphyrin; coproporphyrin I and III isomers; and uroporphyrin I and III isomers. The faecal porphyrin concentration of the patient taking yeast tablets was significantly increased, resembling the excretion pattern in variegate porphyria. Any patient showing an unusual porphyrin excretion pattern on high performance liquid chromatography should be investigated for a possible dietary cause.

  17. Corning and Kroger turn whey to yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    It is reported that Corning and Kroger intend to build a 35,000 sq. ft. plant in Winchester, Ky., that will turn whey into bakers' yeast. The plant will convert whey from Kroger's dairies into bakers' yeast, supplying about 60% of the yeast needed for nine Kroger bakeries. It will also produce syrups and whey protein concentrate for use in other food processing activities. In addition to making useful products, the project will convert the whey to glucose and galactose. The protein component of the whey will be concentrated and used in various foods and feeds.

  18. What Is HIV/AIDS? (United States)

    ... AIDS? Subscribe Translate Text Size Print What Is HIV/AIDS? Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. If left ... need medical treatment to prevent death. Where DId HIV Come From? Scientists identified a type of chimpanzee ...

  19. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... high-risk category, emphasizes Dr. Cargill. Photo: iStock HIV and Pregnancy Are there ways to help HIV- ...

  20. Does Corruption Cause Aid Fatigue?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauhr, Monika; Charron, Nicholas; Nasiritousi, Naghmeh


    Does perceived corruption in recipient countries reduce support for foreign aid in donor countries? This under-explored yet salient question is examined using the 2009 Eurobarometer survey for the 27 EU countries. We suggest that perceived corruption can cause aid fatigue but that this relationship...... is highly contextualized. The results show that perceptions about corruption in developing countries reduce overall support for aid among respondents in donor countries. However, this effect is mitigated by country and contextual-level effects and different understandings of what we call the “aid-corruption...... paradox,” namely that the need for foreign aid is often the greatest in corrupt environments. Three different dynamics of the aid-corruption paradox influence support for aid: moral, pragmatic, and strategic understandings. In EU-15 countries, the effect of perceived corruption in recipient states on aid...

  1. Sysmex UF-1000i performance for screening yeasts in urine. (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Fernández, José; Riazzo, Cristina; Sanbonmatsu, Sara; de Dios Luna, Juan; Sorlózano, Antonio; Miranda, Consuelo; Navarro, José María


    We tested the capacity of the Sysmex UF-1000i system to detect yeasts in urine by screening a total of 22 132 urine samples received for culture in our microbiology laboratory during 1 year. We also analyzed different dilutions of previously filtered urine inoculated with a strain of Candida albicans. With clinical samples, a single cut-off point of 50 yeast-like cells (YLCs)/μL detected candiduria ≥10 000 colony forming units (CFU)/mL and >100 000 CFU/mL with a sensitivity of 87.3%/95.4%, a specificity of 97%, a negative predictive value of 95.9%, and a positive predictive value of 9.3%/5.7%. With the simulated samples, a linear relationship was observed between the dilution factor and the number of cells detected by UF-1000i. This instrument appears to be able to reliably rule out candiduria of a magnitude of at least 10 000 CFU/mL and facilitate urine sample screening, thereby providing fast results. The Sysmex UF1000i system can be adapted for candiduria screening by the use of an appropriate YLCs/μL cut-off point that takes account of the prevalence of candiduria in the population.

  2. Characterization of cellobiose fermentations to ethanol by yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freer, S.N.; Detroy, R.W.


    Twenty-two different yeasts were screened for their ability to ferment both glucose and cellobiose. The fermentation characteristics of Candida lusitaniae (NRRL Y-5394) and C. wickerhamii (NRRL Y-2563) were selected for further study because their initial rate of ethanol production from cellobiose was faster than the other test cultures. C. lusitaniae produced 44 g/L ethanol from 90 g/L cellobiose after 5-7 days. When higher carbohydrate concentrations were employed, fermentation ceased when the ethanol concentration reached 45-60 g/L. C. lusitaniae exhibited barely detectable levels of BETA-glucosidase, even though the culture actively fermented cellobiose. C. wickerhamii produced ethanol from cellobiose at a rate equivalent to C. lusitaniae; however, once the ethanol concentration reached 20 g/L, fermentation ceased. Using p-nitrophenyl-BETA-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG) as substrate, BETA-glucosidase (3-5 U/mL) was detected when C. wickerhamii was grown anaerobically on glucose or cellobiose. About 35% of the BETA-glucosidase activity was excreted into the medium. The cell-associated activity was highest against pNPG and salicin. Approximately 100-fold less activity was detected with cellobiose as substrate. When employing these organisms in a simultaneous saccharification-fermentation of avicel, using Trichoderma reesei cellulase as the saccharifying agent, 10-30% more ethanol was produced by the two yeasts capable of fermenting cellobiose than by the control, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  3. Presence and changes in populations of yeasts on raw and processed poultry products stored at refrigeration temperature. (United States)

    Ismail, S A; Deak, T; El-Rahman, H A; Yassien, M A; Beuchat, L R


    A study was undertaken to determine populations and profiles of yeast species on fresh and processed poultry products upon purchase from retail supermarkets and after storage at 5 degrees C until shelf life expiration, and to assess the potential role of these yeasts in product spoilage. Fifty samples representing 15 commercial raw, marinated, smoked, or roasted chicken and turkey products were analyzed. Yeast populations were determined by plating on dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol (DRBC) agar and tryptone glucose yeast extract (TGY) agar. Proteolytic activity was determined using caseinate and gelatin agars and lipolytic activity was determined on plate count agar supplemented with tributyrin. Populations of aerobic microorganisms were also determined. Initial populations of yeasts (log10 cfu/g) ranged from less than 1 (detection limit) to 2.89, and increased by the expiration date to 0.37-5.06, indicating the presence of psychrotrophic species. Highest initial populations were detected in raw chicken breast, wings, and ground chicken, as well as in turkey necks and legs, whereas roasted chicken and turkey products contained less than 1 log10 cfu/g. During storage, yeast populations increased significantly (P sausage. Isolates (152 strains) of yeasts from poultry products consisted of 12 species. Yarrowia lipolytica and Candida zeylanoides were predominant, making up 39 and 26% of the isolates, respectively. Six different species of basidiomycetous yeasts representing 24% of the isolates were identified. Most Y. lipolytica strains showed strong proteolytic and lipolytic activities, whereas C. zeylanoides was weakly lipolytic. Results suggest that yeasts, particularly Y. lipolytica, may play a more prominent role than previously recognized in the spoilage of fresh and processed poultry stored at 5 degrees C.

  4. YeastWeb: a workset-centric web resource for gene family analysis in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Haihua


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, a number of yeast genomes with different physiological features have been sequenced and annotated, which provides invaluable information to investigate yeast genetics, evolutionary mechanism, structure and function of gene families. Description YeastWeb is a novel database created to provide access to gene families derived from the available yeast genomes by assigning the genes into putative families. It has many useful features that complement existing databases, such as SGD, CYGD and Génolevures: 1 Detailed computational annotation was conducted with each entry with InterProScan, EMBOSS and functional/pathway databases, such as GO, COG and KEGG; 2 A well established user-friendly environment was created to allow users to retrieve the annotated genes and gene families using functional classification browser, keyword search or similarity-based search; 3 Workset offers users many powerful functions to manage the retrieved data efficiently, associate the individual items easily and save the intermediate results conveniently; 4 A series of comparative genomics and molecular evolution analysis tools are neatly implemented to allow users to view multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic tree of gene families. At present, YeastWeb holds the gene families clustered from various MCL inflation values from a total of 13 available yeast genomes. Conclusions Given the great interest in yeast research, YeastWeb has the potential to become a useful resource for the scientific community of yeast biologists and related researchers investigating the evolutionary relationship of yeast gene families. YeastWeb is available at

  5. How Do People Get AIDS? (United States)

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness How Do People Get AIDS? KidsHealth > For Teens > How Do People Get AIDS? A A A en español ¿Cómo contrae alguien el SIDA? AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome , a disease that ...

  6. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, F.; Steudel, H.; Klotz, D.


    Since 1982 (Hauser and co-workers), literature has reported focal cerebral tissue charges in AIDS patients whose diagnosis was unclear at first but which could be identified finally as florid toxoplasmosis encephalitis by biopsy and autopsy. It was found that the value of otherwise reliable serological tests (KBR, Sabin-Feldmann tests, etc.) is questionable in patients with severely impaired or incompetent immune systems, and, in particular, that a negative or uncharacteristic test result may not preclude any opportunistic infection process. Furthermore, isolation of Toxoplasma gondii or specific antibodies from the cerebrospinal fluid will be successful in exceptional cases only. In patients with AIDS or lymphadenopathy syndrome, the differential diagnosis will have to include - first and foremost - reactivated toxoplasma infection (not newly acquired, as a rule) if central neurological symptoms occur.

  7. Mutual aid fund commission

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    The composition of the Board of the Mutual Aid Fund for 2011 is as follows: President: Pascal Droux Vice-president: Connie Potter Treasurer: Louis Pereira Deputy treasurer: Barbara Brugger Secretary: Sonia Casenove Deputy secretary: Isabelle Mardirossian Members: Christopher David Thomas   Jean-Claude Vialis (GAC member)   Marie-Luce Falipou   Gunilla Santiard (Jean-Claude Vialis’s alternate) The role of the Fund is to provide financial help to members of personnel and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund who are in need of exceptional financial assistance. All requests are treated in the strictest confidence. Should you wish to apply for aid from the Fund, kindly contact any member of the Board as given above or Social Services, tel.74479 – 73867.

  8. Mycobacterial Infections in AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ross Hill


    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains uniquely important among acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS-associated opportunistic infections: it presents the greatest public health hazard worldwide, is the most readily curable, and is largely preventable with existing means. Given the expanding pool of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seropositive persons, particularly in developing nations where Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a leading health problem, one can expect a continued rise in TB cases during the 1990s. Global efforts to eliminate TB are now inextricably entwined with the effectiveness of measures to curtail the HIV epidemic. Mycobacterium avium complex infection, currently an intractable late complication of aids, may increase in clinical importance as success in managing other opportunistic infections and HIV disease itself improves. Understanding of the pathogenesis and management of mycobacterial diseases should increase rapidly given the renewed research spurred on by the advent of HIV.

  9. Computer aided manipulator control (United States)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Zawacki, R. L.


    This paper describes the hardware and software system of a dedicated mini- and microcomputer network developed at the JPL teleoperator project to aid the operator in real-time control of remote manipulators. The operator can be in series or in parallel with the control computer during operation. The purpose of the project is to develop, demonstrate and evaluate advanced supervisory control concepts and techniques for space applications. The paper concludes with a brief outline of future development plans and issues.

  10. Computer aided product design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantinou, Leonidas; Bagherpour, Khosrow; Gani, Rafiqul


    A general methodology for Computer Aided Product Design (CAPD) with specified property constraints which is capable of solving a large range of problems is presented. The methodology employs the group contribution approach, generates acyclic, cyclic and aromatic compounds of various degrees......-liquid equilibria (LLE), solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) and gas solubility. Finally, a computer program based on the extended methodology has been developed and the results from five case studies highlighting various features of the methodology are presented....

  11. Nutritional anemia and AIDS


    Ruíz, Óscar; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, UNMSM; Díaz, David; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM, y Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo; Castillo, Óscar; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, UNMSM; Reyes, Rafael; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, UNMSM; Marangoni, Manuela; Programa PROCETSS, Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo; Ronceros, Gerardo; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM


    Objectives: To determine the type of anemia most frequent in patients with AIDS and the various degrees of anemia. Material and methods: One hundred patients 18 to 60 year-old infected with human immune deficiency virus (HIV) with residence in Lima and Callao were studied from January to December 2001 for blood count bone marrow aspiration, serum iron, transferrin, ferritin, folate and vitamin B12 levels. Samples were evaluated at the “Dos de Mayo” Hospital Clinical Pathology Department. Resu...

  12. Transitional justice and aid


    Hellsten, Sirkku K.


    This paper examines the current security-governance-development nexus, something that is often also discussed under the concept of transitional justice (TJ). The paper analyses how the ambiguous, evolving and expanding nature of the concept of TJ affects the planning, coordination, evaluation and assessment of aid given to conflict ridden, post-conflict or (post) authoritarian societies in order to strengthen their democracy. Special attention is paid to gender justice. Illustrations are draw...

  13. HIV/AIDS eradication


    Marsden, Matthew D.; Zack, Jerome A.


    Antiretroviral therapy can inhibit HIV replication in patients and prevent progression to AIDS. However, it is not curative. Here we provide an overview of what antiretroviral drugs do and how the virus persists during therapy in rare reservoirs, such as latently infected CD4+ T cells. We also outline several innovative methods that are currently under development to eradicate HIV from infected individuals. These strategies include gene therapy approaches intended to create an HIV-resistant i...

  14. Has aid for AIDS raised all health funding boats? (United States)

    Shiffman, Jeremy; Berlan, David; Hafner, Tamara


    Global health analysts have debated whether donor prioritization of HIV/AIDS control has lifted all boats, raising attention and funding levels for health issues aside from HIV/AIDS. We investigate this question, considering donor funding for 4 historically prominent health agendas-HIV/AIDS, health systems strengthening, population and reproductive health, and infectious disease control-over the decade 1998-2007. We employ funding data from the Development Assistance Committee of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, which tracks donor aid. The data indicate that HIV/AIDS may have helped to increase funding for the control of other infectious diseases; however, there is no firm evidence that other health issues beyond the control of infectious diseases have benefited. Between 1998 and 2007, funding for HIV/AIDS control rose from just 5.5% to nearly half of all aid for health. Over the same period, funding for health systems strengthening declined from 62.3% to 23.9% of total health aid and that for population and reproductive health declined from 26.4% to 12.3%. Also, even as total aid for health tripled during this decade, aid for health systems strengthening largely stagnated. Overall, the data indicate little support for the contention that donor funding for HIV/AIDS has lifted all boats.

  15. Characterization of atypical Candida tropicalis and other uncommon clinical yeast isolates.


    Schlitzer, R L; Ahearn, D G


    Clinical yeast isolates representing alpha-glucoside-deficient variants of Candida tropicalis, C. lusitaniae, atypical C. albicans, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were characterized. Additional physiological tests, including cellobiose fermentation, rhamnose assimilation, and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride reduction, are recommended for the detection and presumptive identification of uncommon Candida spp. in the clinical laboratory.

  16. Advances in yeast systematics and phylogeny and their use as predictors of biotechnologically important metabolic pathways (United States)

    Detection, identification, and classification of yeasts have undergone a major transformation in the last decade and a half following application of gene sequence analyses and genome comparisons. Development of a database (barcode) of easily determined DNA sequences from domains 1 and 2 (D1/D2) of t...

  17. AIDS and Africa. Introduction. (United States)

    Kopelman, Loretta M; van Niekerk, Anton A


    Sub-Saharan Africa is the epicenter of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and in this issue of the Journal, seven authors discuss the moral, social and medical implications of having 70% of those stricken living in this area. Anton A. van Niekerk considers complexities of plague in this region (poverty, denial, poor leadership, illiteracy, women's vulnerability, and disenchantment of intimacy) and the importance of finding responses that empower its people. Solomon Benatar reinforces these issues, but also discusses the role of global politics in sub-Saharan Africa, especially discrimination, imperialism and its exploitation by first world countries. Given the public health crisis, Udo Schüklenk and Richard E. Ashcroft defend compulsory licensing of essential HIV/AIDS medications on consequentialist grounds. Keymanthri Moodley discusses the importance of conducting research and the need to understand a moderate form of communitarianism, also referred to as "ubuntu" or "communalism", to help some Africans understand research as an altruistic endeavour. Godfrey B. Tangwa also defends traditional African values of empathy and ubuntu, discussing how they should be enlisted to fight this pandemic. Loretta M. Kopelman criticizes the tendency among those outside Africa to dismiss the HIV/AIDS pandemic, attributing one source to the ubiquitous and misguided punishment theory of disease. The authors conclude that good solutions must be cooperative ventures among countries within and outside of sub-Saharan Africa with far more support from wealthy countries.

  18. Aid Supplies Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel

    The recent financial crisis has rekindled interest in the foreign aid supply behaviour of bilateral donors. Using the latest data covering the period 1960-2009, this paper examines how such behaviour is related to domestic factors. Based on a simple empirical model, a distinction is made between ...... substantial heterogeneity between countries. There is also good evidence that donor behaviour continues to evolve over time. As such, past trends in aid supplies are unlikely to provide a good guide to those of the future.......The recent financial crisis has rekindled interest in the foreign aid supply behaviour of bilateral donors. Using the latest data covering the period 1960-2009, this paper examines how such behaviour is related to domestic factors. Based on a simple empirical model, a distinction is made between...... long-run supply trends and short-run dynamics, which motivates use of error correction methods. Panel econometric techniques are employed that are consistent in the presence of parameter heterogeneity and cross-section dependence. Results support the error correction framework, but point to very...

  19. Redirecting British foreign aid. (United States)

    Dean, M


    Britain has longed followed a disease-control strategy for providing aid in the health sector to developing, low-income countries. Given, however, the high level of waste upon tertiary care and specialized medicine in current health programs of low-income countries as documented by the World Bank; the poor performance of existing general government hospitals and clinics; and the poor image of Third World health systems in the eyes of Western officials and government ministers, the chief health advisor of the Overseas Development Administration has called for a drastic redirection of policy toward development aid. Specifically, a shift away from a specific-disease control approach toward an overall, sweeping reform of the health sector in developing countries is urged. The level of waste needs to be reduced and more attention given to the poor. Unless such changes result, government ministers will grow increasingly reluctant to provide tangible aid to the health sectors of countries in need. The availability of such funds invested in effective, well-managed health programs will grow more critical to health in the Third World as populations shift away from communicable disease morbidity and mortality toward illnesses which are of a more noncommunicable nature such as stroke and cancer.

  20. Cyanohydrin reactions enhance glycolytic oscillations in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Bjørn Olav; Nielsen, Astrid Gram; Tortzen, Christian;


    Synchronous metabolic oscillations can be induced in yeast by addition of glucose and removal of extracellular acetaldehyde (ACAx). Compared to other means of ACAx removal, cyanide robustly induces oscillations, indicating additional cyanide reactions besides ACA to lactonitrile conversion. Here...

  1. Continuous ethanol fermentation by beer yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kida, Kenji; Morimura, Shigeru; Shima, Noriyuki; Asano, Shinichi; Yamadaki, Motozumi; Miyazawa, Toshiki


    Cooked and uncooked continuous fermentation tests and a bench-scale continuous fermentation test were carried out using a flocculating yeast, beer yeast IFO-2018, and using molasses of various origin. Heat of fermentation was measured at the same time. High productivity was found in a non-cooking continuous fermentation, but lowering of a flocculating ability was a problem. A theoretical equation for calculating the heat of fermentation was introduced and its adaptability was examined. The continuous fermentation unit was a single tank type using a tower type fermentor. The fermentor had a capacity of 0.7 l actual volume, made of glass, and consisted of the two parts, a flowing part and a precipitation/separation part. The yeast used was Saccharomyces crevisiae IFO-2018 in comparison with such yeast as S. cerevisiae IFO-0224 and S. cervisiae EP-1. (7 figs,3 tabs,21 refs)

  2. Structure and function of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available 1. Introduction 2. Isoenzymes of YADH 3. Substrate specificity 4. Kinetic mechanism 5. Primary structure 6. The active site 7. Mutations in the yeast enzyme 8. Chemical mechanism 9. Binding of coenzymes 10. Hydride transfer

  3. Structure and function of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase




    1. Introduction 2. Isoenzymes of YADH 3. Substrate specificity 4. Kinetic mechanism 5. Primary structure 6. The active site 7. Mutations in the yeast enzyme 8. Chemical mechanism 9. Binding of coenzymes 10. Hydride transfer

  4. Monitoring Air Quality with Leaf Yeasts. (United States)

    Richardson, D. H. S.; And Others


    Proposes that leaf yeast serve as quick, inexpensive, and effective techniques for monitoring air quality. Outlines procedures and provides suggestions for data analysis. Includes results from sample school groups who employed this technique. (ML)

  5. Genomic Evolution of the Ascomycete Yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert; Haridas, Sajeet; Salamov, Asaf; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Goker, Markus; Hittinger, Chris; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Lopes, Mariana; Meir-Kolthoff, Jan P.; Rokas, Antonis; Rosa, Carlos; Scheuner, Carmen; Soares, Marco; Stielow, Benjamin; Wisecaver, Jennifer H.; Wolfe, Ken; Blackwell, Meredith; Kurtzman, Cletus; Grigoriev, Igor; Jeffries, Thomas


    Yeasts are important for industrial and biotechnological processes and show remarkable metabolic and phylogenetic diversity despite morphological similarities. We have sequenced the genomes of 16 ascomycete yeasts of taxonomic and industrial importance including members of Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina. Phylogenetic analysis of these and previously published yeast genomes helped resolve the placement of species including Saitoella complicata, Babjeviella inositovora, Hyphopichia burtonii, and Metschnikowia bicuspidata. Moreover, we find that alternative nuclear codon usage, where CUG encodes serine instead of leucine, are monophyletic within the Saccharomycotina. Most of the yeasts have compact genomes with a large fraction of single exon genes, and a tendency towards more introns in early-diverging species. Analysis of enzyme phylogeny gives insights into the evolution of metabolic capabilities such as methanol utilization and assimilation of alternative carbon sources.

  6. Candida infections : detection and epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, A. (Annemarie)


    Despite the fact that the yeast Candida is the number 4 cause of bloodstream infections in the United States and ranks number 8 in Europe, adequate detection methods are lacking. Furthermore, relatively little is known about the epidemiology of Candida. Our aim was to improve the detection and ident

  7. Cytochrome C oxidase Ⅲ interacts with hepatitis B virus X protein in vivo by yeast two-hybrid system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Li; Xiao-Zhong Wang; Jie-Ping Yu; Zhi-Xin Chen; Yue-Hong Huang; Qi-Min Tao


    AIM: To screen and identify the proteins which interact with hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein in hepatocytes by yeast two-hybrid system and to explore the effects of X protein in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS: With HBV X gene amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), HBV X bait plasmid, named pAS2-1-X, was constructed by yeast-two hybridization system3 and verified by auto-sequencing assay. pAS2-1-X was transformed into the yeast AH109, and X-BD fusion protein expressed in the yeast cells was detected by Western blotting. The yeast cells cotransformed with pAS2-1-X and normal human liver cDNA library were grown in selective SC/-trp-leu-his-ade medium. The second screen was performed with β-gal activity detection, and false positive clones were eliminated by segregation analysis, true positive clones were amplified,sequenced and analyzed with bioinformatics. Mating experiment was peformed to confirm the binding of putative proteins to X protein in the yeast cells.RESULTS: Bait plasmid pAS2-1-X was successfully constructed and pAS2-1-X correctly expressed BD-X fusion protein in yeast AH109. One hundred and three clones grew in the selective SC/-trp-leu-his-ade medium, and only one clone passed through β-gal activity detection and segregation analysis. The inserted cDNA fragment showed high homology with Homo sapiens cytochrome C oxidase Ⅲ(COXIII). Furthermore, mating experiment identified that the binding of COXIII to X protein was specific.CONCLUSION: COXIII protein is a novel protein that can interact with X protein in vivo by yeast two-hybrid system,and may contribute to the development of HCC through the interaction with X protein.

  8. Physiological and environmental control of yeast prions. (United States)

    Chernova, Tatiana A; Wilkinson, Keith D; Chernoff, Yury O


    Prions are self-perpetuating protein isoforms that cause fatal and incurable neurodegenerative disease in mammals. Recent evidence indicates that a majority of human proteins involved in amyloid and neural inclusion disorders possess at least some prion properties. In lower eukaryotes, such as yeast, prions act as epigenetic elements, which increase phenotypic diversity by altering a range of cellular processes. While some yeast prions are clearly pathogenic, it is also postulated that prion formation could be beneficial in variable environmental conditions. Yeast and mammalian prions have similar molecular properties. Crucial cellular factors and conditions influencing prion formation and propagation were uncovered in the yeast models. Stress-related chaperones, protein quality control deposits, degradation pathways, and cytoskeletal networks control prion formation and propagation in yeast. Environmental stresses trigger prion formation and loss, supposedly acting via influencing intracellular concentrations of the prion-inducing proteins, and/or by localizing prionogenic proteins to the prion induction sites via heterologous ancillary helpers. Physiological and environmental modulation of yeast prions points to new opportunities for pharmacological intervention and/or prophylactic measures targeting general cellular systems rather than the properties of individual amyloids and prions.

  9. Revaluation of Waste Yeast from Beer Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Suruceanu


    Full Text Available Brewing yeast is an important waste product from beer production. The valorification of slurry yeast mainly consists of separation of vitamins and important nitrogen compounds. The hops compounds, one of the most important raw materials in beer technology are removed beforehand valorification. The prenylflavonoids compounds from hops are important bioactive compounds that can be revaluation with proper technology. Revaluation of prenylflavonoids from waste yeast into dietary supplement, identification and quantification of xanthohumol by HPLC method. Waste yeast from brewery pilot plant of USAMV Cluj Napoca it was dried by atomization and the powder was analyzed on xanthohumol content by HPLC method. For quantification a calibration curve it was used. The process of drying by atomisation lead to a powder product. It was used malt dextrin powder for stabilisation. The final product it was encapsulated. The xanthohumol content of powdered yeast it was 1.94 µg/ml. In conclusion the slurry yeast from beer production it is an important source of prenylflavonoids compounds.

  10. Yeast communities in a natural tequila fermentation. (United States)

    Lachance, M A


    Fresh and cooked agave, Drosophila spp., processing equipment, agave molasses, agave extract, and fermenting must at a traditional tequila distillery (Herradura, Amatitan, Jalisco, México) were studied to gain insight on the origin of yeasts involved in a natural tequila fermentations. Five yeast communities were identified. (1) Fresh agave contained a diverse mycobiota dominated by Clavispora lusitaniae and an endemic species, Metschnikowia agaveae. (2) Drosophila spp. from around or inside the distillery yielded typical fruit yeasts, in particular Hanseniaspora spp., Pichia kluyveri, and Candida krusei. (3) Schizosaccharomyces pombe prevailed in molasses. (4) Cooked agave and extract had a considerable diversity of species, but included Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (5) Fermenting juice underwent a gradual reduction in yeast heterogeneity. Torulaspora delbrueckii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Hanseniaspora spp. progressively ceded the way to S. cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Candida milleri, and Brettanomyces spp. With the exception of Pichia membranaefaciens, which was shared by all communities, little overlap existed. That separation was even more manifest when species were divided into distinguishable biotypes based on morphology or physiology. It is concluded that crushing equipment and must holding tanks are the main source of significant inoculum for the fermentation process. Drosophila species appear to serve as internal vectors. Proximity to fruit trees probably contributes to maintaining a substantial Drosophila community, but the yeasts found in the distillery exhibit very little similarity to those found in adjacent vegetation. Interactions involving killer toxins had no apparent direct effects on the yeast community structure.

  11. Flor Yeast: New Perspectives Beyond Wine Aging (United States)

    Legras, Jean-Luc; Moreno-Garcia, Jaime; Zara, Severino; Zara, Giacomo; Garcia-Martinez, Teresa; Mauricio, Juan C.; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Coi, Anna L.; Bou Zeidan, Marc; Dequin, Sylvie; Moreno, Juan; Budroni, Marilena


    The most important dogma in white-wine production is the preservation of the wine aroma and the limitation of the oxidative action of oxygen. In contrast, the aging of Sherry and Sherry-like wines is an aerobic process that depends on the oxidative activity of flor strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Under depletion of nitrogen and fermentable carbon sources, these yeast produce aggregates of floating cells and form an air–liquid biofilm on the wine surface, which is also known as velum or flor. This behavior is due to genetic and metabolic peculiarities that differentiate flor yeast from other wine yeast. This review will focus first on the most updated data obtained through the analysis of flor yeast with -omic tools. Comparative genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics of flor and wine yeast strains are shedding new light on several features of these special yeast, and in particular, they have revealed the extent of proteome remodeling imposed by the biofilm life-style. Finally, new insights in terms of promotion and inhibition of biofilm formation through small molecules, amino acids, and di/tri-peptides, and novel possibilities for the exploitation of biofilm immobilization within a fungal hyphae framework, will be discussed. PMID:27148192

  12. Flor yeast: new perspectives beyond wine ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-luc eLegras


    Full Text Available The most important dogma in white-wine production is the preservation of the wine aroma and the limitation of the oxidative action of oxygen. In contrast, the ageing of Sherry and Sherry-like wines is an aerobic process that depends on the oxidative activity of flor strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Under depletion of nitrogen and fermentable carbon sources, these yeast produce aggregates of floating cells and form an air-liquid biofilm on the wine surface, which is also known as the velum or flor. This behaviour is due to genetic and metabolic peculiarities that differentiate flor yeast from other wine yeast. This review will focus first on the most updated data obtained through the analysis of flor yeast with -omic tools. Comparative genomics, proteomics and metabolomics of flor and wine yeast strains are shedding new light on several features of these special yeast, and in particular, they have revealed the extent of proteome remodelling imposed by the biofilm life-style. Finally, new insights in terms of promotion and inhibition of biofilm formation through small molecules, amino acids and di/tri-peptides, and novel possibilities for the exploitation of biofilm immobilisation within a fungal hyphae framework, will be discussed.

  13. Disseminated cryptococcosis and fluconazole resistant oral candidiasis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (United States)

    Kothavade, Rajendra J; Oberai, Chetan M; Valand, Arvind G; Panthaki, Mehroo H


    Disseminated cryptococcosis and recurrent oral candidiasis was presented in a-heterosexual AIDS patient. Candida tropicalis (C.tropicalis) was isolated from the oral pseudomembranous plaques and Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) was isolated from maculopapular lesions on body parts (face, hands and chest) and body fluids (urine, expectorated sputum, and cerebrospinal fluid). In vitro drug susceptibility testing on the yeast isolates demonstrated resistance to fluconazole acquired by C. tropicalis which was a suggestive possible root cause of recurrent oral candidiasis in this patient.

  14. The diversity, extracellular enzymatic activities and photoprotective compounds of yeasts isolated in Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline B. M Vaz


    Full Text Available The diversity of yeasts collected from different sites in Antarctica (Admiralty Bay, King George Island and Port Foster Bay and Deception Island and their ability to produce extracellular enzymes and mycosporines were studied. Samples were collected during the austral summer season, between November 2006 and January 2007, from the rhizosphere of Deschampsia antarctica, ornithogenic (penguin guano soil, soil, marine and lake sediments, marine water and freshwater from lakes. A total of 89 isolates belonging to the following genera were recovered: Bensingtonia, Candida, Cryptococcus, Debaryomyces, Dioszegia, Exophiala, Filobasidium, Issatchenkia (Pichia, Kodamaea, Leucosporidium, Leucosporidiella, Metschnikowia, Nadsonia, Pichia, Rhodotorula, and Sporidiobolus, and the yeast-like fungi Aureobasidium, Leuconeurospora and Microglossum. Cryptococcus victoriae was the most frequently identified species. Several species isolated in our study have been previously reported to be Antarctic psychophilic yeasts, including Cr. antarcticus, Cr. victoriae, Dioszegia hungarica and Leucosporidium scottii. The cosmopolitan yeast species A. pullulans, C. zeylanoides, D. hansenii, I. orientalis, K. ohmeri, P. guilliermondii, Rh. mucilaginosa, and S. salmonicolor were also isolated. Five possible new species were identified. Sixty percent of the yeasts had at least one detectable extracellular enzymatic activity. Cryptococcus antarcticus, D. aurantiaca, D. crocea, D. hungarica, Dioszegia sp., E. xenobiotica, Rh. glaciales, Rh. laryngis, Microglossum sp. 1 and Microglossum sp. 2 produced mycosporines. Of the yeast isolates, 41.7% produced pigments and/or mycosporines and could be considered adapted to survive in Antarctica. Most of the yeasts had extracellular enzymatic activities at 4ºC and 20ºC, indicating that they could be metabolically active in the sampled substrates.

  15. Facile chemical functionalization of proteins through intein-linked yeast display. (United States)

    Marshall, Carrie J; Agarwal, Nitin; Kalia, Jeet; Grosskopf, Vanessa A; McGrath, Nicholas A; Abbott, Nicholas L; Raines, Ronald T; Shusta, Eric V


    Intein-mediated expressed protein ligation (EPL) permits the site-specific chemical customization of proteins. While traditional techniques have used purified, soluble proteins, we have extended these methods to release and modify intein fusion proteins expressed on the yeast surface, thereby eliminating the need for soluble protein expression and purification. To this end, we sought to simultaneously release yeast surface-displayed proteins and selectively conjugate with chemical functionalities compatible with EPL and click chemistry. Single-chain antibodies (scFv) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) were displayed on the yeast surface as fusions to the N-terminus of the Mxe GyrA intein. ScFv and GFP were released from the yeast surface with either a sulfur nucleophile (MESNA) or a nitrogen nucleophile (hydrazine) linked to an azido group. The hydrazine azide permitted the simultaneous release and azido functionalization of displayed proteins, but nonspecific reactions with other yeast proteins were detected, and cleavage efficiency was limited. In contrast, MESNA released significantly more protein from the yeast surface while also generating a unique thioester at the carboxy-terminus of the released protein. These protein thioesters were subsequently reacted with a cysteine alkyne in an EPL reaction and then employed in an azide-alkyne cycloaddition to immobilize the scFv and GFP on an azide-decorated surface with >90% site-specificity. Importantly, the immobilized proteins retained their activity. Since yeast surface display is also a protein engineering platform, these approaches provide a particularly powerful tool for the rapid assessment of engineered proteins.

  16. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YKR083C, YKL052C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tochores to the force produced by MT depolymerization thereby aiding in chromosome segregation; is transferr...hores to the force produced by MT depolymerization thereby aiding in chromosome segregation; phosphorylated the force produced by MT depolymerization thereby aiding in chromosome segregation; is transferred to the...roduced by MT depolymerization thereby aiding in chromosome segregation; phosphorylated during the cell cycl

  17. Monitoring yeast physiology during very high gravity wort fermentations by frequent analysis of gene expression. (United States)

    Rautio, Jari J; Huuskonen, Anne; Vuokko, Heikki; Vidgren, Virve; Londesborough, John


    Brewer's yeast experiences constantly changing environmental conditions during wort fermentation. Cells can rapidly adapt to changing surroundings by transcriptional regulation. Changes in genomic expression can indicate the physiological condition of yeast in the brewing process. We monitored, using the transcript analysis with aid of affinity capture (TRAC) method, the expression of some 70 selected genes relevant to wort fermentation at high frequency through 9-10 day fermentations of very high gravity wort (25 degrees P) by an industrial lager strain. Rapid changes in expression occurred during the first hours of fermentations for several genes, e.g. genes involved in maltose metabolism, glycolysis and ergosterol synthesis were strongly upregulated 2-6 h after pitching. By the time yeast growth had stopped (72 h) and total sugars had dropped by about 50%, most selected genes had passed their highest expression levels and total mRNA was less than half the levels during growth. There was an unexpected upregulation of some genes of oxygen-requiring pathways during the final fermentation stages. For five genes, expression of both the Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. bayanus components of the hybrid lager strain were determined. Expression profiles were either markedly different (ADH1, ERG3) or very similar (MALx1, ILV5, ATF1) between these two components. By frequent analysis of a chosen set of genes, TRAC provided a detailed and dynamic picture of the physiological state of the fermenting yeast. This approach offers a possible way to monitor and optimize the performance of yeast in a complex process environment.

  18. [Cytological mechanisms involved in assimilation of n-alkanes by yeasts]. (United States)

    Meĭsel', M N; Medvedeva, G A; Kozlova, T M


    The paper describes cytological mechanism of adaptation of yeasts to assimilation of aliphatic hydrocarbons added to a growth medium as a sole source of carbon. The process was studied by light optical and electron microscopy, employing fluorescent labelling and electron microscopy contrasting. Two types of yeasts were found, which differed by the response of the cell walls to hydrocarbons: those that formed "channels" and those that did not form them. Cytological response to hydrocarbon assimilation was detected also in the mitochondria and canals of the endoplasmic reticulum. Components of the Golgi apparatus may also participate in this process, in particular, in formation of peroxisomes (microbodies). Close contacts of the yeast cells with the hydrocarbon being assimilated is important; assimilation may start in a close vicinity of the cell walls. The rate of flavin production by Candida tropicalis 303 IBFM increases during growth on solid paraffins, beginning with C20-paraffin.

  19. Identification of Posttranslational Modification-Dependent Protein Interactions Using Yeast Surface Displayed Human Proteome Libraries. (United States)

    Bidlingmaier, Scott; Liu, Bin


    The identification of proteins that interact specifically with posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation is often necessary to understand cellular signaling pathways. Numerous methods for identifying proteins that interact with posttranslational modifications have been utilized, including affinity-based purification and analysis, protein microarrays, phage display, and tethered catalysis. Although these techniques have been used successfully, each has limitations. Recently, yeast surface-displayed human proteome libraries have been utilized to identify protein fragments with affinity for various target molecules, including phosphorylated peptides. When coupled with fluorescently activated cell sorting and high throughput methods for the analysis of selection outputs, yeast surface-displayed human proteome libraries can rapidly and efficiently identify protein fragments with affinity for any soluble ligand that can be fluorescently detected, including posttranslational modifications. In this review we compare the use of yeast surface display libraries to other methods for the identification of interactions between proteins and posttranslational modifications and discuss future applications of the technology.

  20. Permeabilization of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell walls using nanosecond high power electrical pulses (United States)

    Stirke, A.; Zimkus, A.; Balevicius, S.; Stankevic, V.; Ramanaviciene, A.; Ramanavicius, A.; Zurauskiene, N.


    The electrical field-induced changes of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells permeabilization to tetraphenylphosphonium (TPP+) ions were studied using square-shaped, nanosecond duration high power electrical pulses. It was obtained that pulses having durations ranging from 10 ns to 60 ns, and generating electric field strengths up to 190 kV/cm significantly (up to 65 times) increase the absorption rate of TPP+ ions without any detectible influence on the yeast cell viability. The modelling of the TPP+ absorption process using a second order rate equation demonstrates that depending on the duration of the pulses, yeast cell clusters of different sizes are homogeniously permeabilized. It was concluded, that nanosecond pulse-induced permeabilization can be applied to increase the operational speed of whole cell biosensors.