Sample records for aids virus

  1. AIDS (United States)

    ... page: // HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...

  2. Mechanisms of Cytotoxicity of the Aids Virus (United States)


    G1 X G2 X GI X G1 X G2 X G1 X Antiserum M 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 M Lane -69 kDa - P55 p40 4 -3OkDa 14 A~ FIG. 4. Specificity of...supplemeinted with (0.5", Nonidet P-40t iiid NIHI AIDS Research and Reference Reagent Pogram incubated for- 301 miii onl ice. The nule~li w crc pelee...eili-dianilter (󈧉-7 plates twice, and thle suIpernatants were reoilc. 1 liiid, thre Nonidet with 1(0 Ig (if recombinant proviral clonie NLHXAD.-\\V(iG

  3. Novel Vaccine Approach Achieves “Functional Cure” of AIDS Virus in Monkeys | Poster (United States)

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer, and Jeff Lifson, Guest Writer Scientists at the Oregon Health & Science University and the AIDS and Cancer Virus Program of the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research have used a novel vaccine approach to achieve a “functional cure” and apparent eradication of infection with a monkey version of the AIDS virus.

  4. Varicella-zoster virus encephalitis in an AIDS patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Toledo


    Full Text Available A 37-year-old man with a three-year history of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome was admitted with impaired consciousness, seizures and fever. He was on highly active antiretroviral therapy and on neurotoxoplasmosis secondary prophylaxis. Laboratory exams from two months before showed a CD4 cell count of 37/µL and a viral load of 230,000 copies/mL. Three months before admission he developed herpetic skin rash in the right trunk and acyclovir was added to his treatment regimen. On physical exam he was drowsy and had motor and sensory aphasia. The patient had elevated protein levels and normal pressure in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. Contrast enhanced computed tomography scan of the brain showed a hypodense lesion in the left parietal lobe, with poorly defined margins and no contrast enhancement. The magnetic resonance scan (MRI showed multiple hyperintensities in T2-weighted image in white and grey matters and hypointense products of hemorrhage in both hemispheres and in the cerebellum. He was empirically treated with intravenous acyclovir and prednisone. Viral DNA of Varicella-zoster virus (VZV was detected in the CSF by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis. Acyclovir was continued for 10 days and the patient became well, with improvement of aphasia.We present a case of VZV encephalitis, confirmed by nested PCR, in a patient with suggestive MRI findings, who succeeded with treatment. VZV encephalitis is a rare opportunistic infection, occurring in 0.1 to 4% of AIDS patients with neurological disease; it is related to severe immunodeficiency and has a high mortality.

  5. Role of the ubiquitin system and tumor viruses in AIDS-related cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagano Joseph S


    Full Text Available Abstract Tumor viruses are linked to approximately 20% of human malignancies worldwide. This review focuses on examples of human oncogenic viruses that manipulate the ubiquitin system in a subset of viral malignancies; those associated with AIDS. The viruses include Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus and human papilloma virus, which are causally linked to Kaposi's sarcoma, certain B-cell lymphomas and cervical cancer, respectively. We discuss the molecular mechanisms by which these viruses subvert the ubiquitin system and potential viral targets for anti-cancer therapy from the perspective of this system. Publication history: Republished from Current BioData's Targeted Proteins database (TPdb;

  6. Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in Patients Diagnosed with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS in Cienfuegos


    Nivia Gontán Quintana; Alain Soto Ugalde; Elena Idaisy Otero Salabarría


    Background: human immunodeficiency virus increases patients´ susceptibility to infections. Consequently, a high incidence of periodontal diseases is observed among them. It is often associated with other lesions of the oral mucous. Objective: to determine the evolution of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease in patients diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS.Methods: a case series study involving HIV-positive patients who attended the Stomatology consultation in Cienfuegos was c...

  7. Inactivation of the AIDS-causing retrovirus and other human viruses in antihemophilic plasma protein preparations by pasteurization. (United States)

    Hilfenhaus, J; Herrmann, A; Mauler, R; Prince, A M


    Heat treatment at 60 degrees C for 10 h in solution (pasteurization) was introduced into the manufacturing process of antihemophilic cryoprecipitate (AHC) and factor VIII concentrates (F VIII) to reduce the risk of transmission of hepatitis to hemophiliacs. Since the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) may also be transmitted to hemophiliacs by antihemophilic plasma protein preparations, we have investigated inactivation of the AIDS virus HTLV III by pasteurization in AHC or F VIII and included in this study cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), poliovirus and vaccinia virus. Each of these viruses was efficiently inactivated by pasteurization although considerable differences were observed between the different viruses HTLV III was rapidly inactivated, becoming nondetectable within 30-60 min. Our findings indicate that pasteurized AHC or F VIII should have a high margin of safety regarding the transmission of AIDS or any other infectious disease caused by viruses such as those tested.

  8. A mathematical model of the spread of the AIDS virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyman, J.M.; Stanley, E.A.


    A mathematical computer model of the spread of the AIDS epidemic in the US is being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This model predicts the spreading of the HIV infection, and subsequent development of clinical AIDS in various population groups. These groups are chosen according to age, frequency and type of sexual contact, population density, and region of the country. Type of sexual contact includes not only the heterosexual, homosexual differentiation but also repeated contacts with such primary partners as spouses. In conjunction with the computer model, we are developing a database containing relevant information on the natural history of the viral infection, the prevalence of the infection and of clinical AIDS in the population, the distribution of people into sexual behavior groups as a function of age and information on interregional contacts. The effects of variable infectiousness and sexual activity during the long period from infection to disease are found to have a major impact on the predictions of the model. 24 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Absolute level of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) DNA in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection is not predictive of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van Baarle (Debbie); K.C. Wolthers (Katja); E. Hovenkamp (Egbert); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); F. Miedema (Frank); M.H.J. van Oers (Marinus); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert)


    textabstractTo study whether Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) load can be used to predict the occurrence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma (AIDS-NHL), we determined EBV load longitudinally for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. EBV load in periphe

  10. Absolute level of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection is not predictive of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Baarle, Debbie; Wolthers, Katja C; Hovenkamp, Egbert; Niesters, Hubert G M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Miedema, Frank; Van Oers, Marinus H J


    To study whether Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) load can be used to predict the occurrence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma (AIDS-NHL), we determined EBV load longitudinally for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. EBV load in peripheral blood mo

  11. Oesophagobronchial fistula caused by varicella zoster virus in a patient with AIDS: a unique case (United States)

    Moretti, F; Uberti-Foppa, C; Quiros-Roldan, E; Fanti, L; Lillo, F; Lazzarin, A


    Human herpesvirus oesophagitis in human immunodeficiency virus positive patients is caused by cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus; no cases of oesophagitis and oesophagobrochial fistula as a result of varicella zoster virus (VZV) have been reported to date. This report describes the case of a patient with a 2–3 mm deep oesophageal ulcer whose viral culture was positive for VZV. The patient was treated with acyclovir with resolution of the symptomatology. After the end of the induction treatment, because of the onset of fever and fits of coughing during eating, the patient underwent oesophagography, which showed an ulcer with an oesophagobronchial fistula in the middle and lower third of the oesophagus. This case report stresses the role of VZV infection as a possible cause of oesophagobronchial fistula, a rare but benign condition in patients with AIDS. PMID:11986352

  12. The relationship between personality traits and AIDS in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. (United States)

    Salehi, Bahman; Zarinfar, Nader; Noori, Hasan


    This study carried out to survey the relationship between personality traits and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. This case-control study was conducted on 79 AIDS patients of Triangle Clinic in Arak (case group) and 80 healthy people of Valiasr Hospital in Arak (control group). Demographic information checklist and Cloninger' Temperament and Character inventory (TCI) were two instruments applied in the study. SPSS software V.19 and tests independent t-tests, Chi squared and Spearman correlation coefficient were used for data analysis with significant level of innovativeness variables (M:74.12), harm avoidance (M: 65.17), reward dependence (M:50.030), and self-directedness (M:35.02) in case group in comparison with control group was significantly higher, and there was a significant difference between two groups variables (P-0.000). The novelty seeking had the highest average in the AIDS patients with a history of addiction (M:74.00), and there was statistically significant difference between perseverance variable (P-0.021) and cooperativeness variable (P-0.041) in the two groups of AIDS patients. There was a significant relationship between novelty seeking and age at the onset of AIDS (P-0.038), harm avoidance and age at the onset of addiction (P-0.046), persistence and age at the onset of AIDS (P-0.035) and the time infected with HIV (P-0.033). It is found that two groups are different due to the personalities, so it is essential to consider the personality traits in order to prevent AIDS and also successfully treat patients suffering from AIDS.

  13. Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in Patients Diagnosed with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS in Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivia Gontán Quintana


    Full Text Available Background: human immunodeficiency virus increases patients´ susceptibility to infections. Consequently, a high incidence of periodontal diseases is observed among them. It is often associated with other lesions of the oral mucous. Objective: to determine the evolution of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease in patients diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS.Methods: a case series study involving HIV-positive patients who attended the Stomatology consultation in Cienfuegos was conducted. The Russell Periodontal Index and the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index were used. Patients were classified taking into account clinical and immunological categories. Statistical processing was performed through SPSS program version 15.0 and Chi-square tests were applied.Results: a high prevalence of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease was observed in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. Correlation with the oral hygiene of the patients studied was found. CD4 count showed no statistical significance in periodontal disease severity. All patients classified as A2 suffer from some stage of periodontal disease, which was the most affected clinical category in spite of presenting mild immunodeficiency.Conclusions: there is a high prevalence of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease in patients diagnosed with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Cienfuegos and it is correlated with patient’s oral hygiene.

  14. AIDS (image) (United States)

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  15. Epstein-Barr virus-associated adult respiratory distress syndrome in a patient with AIDS: a case report and review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stopyra, G A; Multhaupt, H A; Alexa, L


    BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has been associated with fatal pneumonitis in immunocompetent patients. We present a case of fatal adult respiratory distress syndrome caused by EBV infection in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), to our knowledge the first...

  16. Human herpes virus-8 DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage samples from patients with AIDS-associated pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Dodt, K K; Lundgren, Jens Dilling


    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most frequent AIDS-associated neoplasm, and often disseminates to visceral organs, including the lungs. An ante-mortem diagnosis of pulmonary KS is difficult. Recently, DNA sequences resembling a new human herpes virus (HHV-8), have been identified in various forms...

  17. Persistent Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Causes Ultimate Depletion of Follicular Th Cells in AIDS. (United States)

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Malam, Naomi; Lackner, Andrew A; Veazey, Ronald S


    CD4(+) T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are critical for the generation of humoral immune responses to pathogenic infections, providing help for B cell development, survival, and affinity maturation of Abs. Although CD4(+) Tfh cells are reported to accumulate in HIV or SIV infection, we found that germinal center Tfh cells, defined in this study as CXCR5(+)PD-1(HIGH)CD4(+) T cells, did not consistently accumulate in chronically SIV-infected rhesus macaques compared with those infected with less pathogenic simian HIV, vaccinated and SIVmac-challenged, or SIVmac-infected Mamu-A*01(+) macaques, all of which are associated with some control of virus replication and slower disease progression. Interestingly, CXCR5(+)PD-1(HIGH) Tfh cells in lymphoid tissues were eventually depleted in macaques with AIDS compared with the other cohorts. Chronic activation and proliferation of CXCR5(+)PD-1(HIGH) Tfh were increased, but PD-L2 expression was downregulated on B cells, possibly resulting in germinal center Tfh cell apoptosis. Together, these findings suggest that changes in CXCR5(+)PD-1(HIGH) Tfh cells in lymph nodes correlate with immune control during infection, and their loss or dysregulation contribute to impairment of B cell responses and progression to AIDS.

  18. Newcastle disease virus passage in MDBK cells as an aid in detection of a virulent subpopulation. (United States)

    King, D J


    Newcastle disease virus strains (NDV) La Sota, Texas GB (GB), and mixtures of the two strains were serially passaged in embryonated chicken eggs or the MDBK cell line, a more restrictive culture system than eggs for NDV. The two culture systems were compared by evaluating culture harvests for pathogenicity in inoculated chickens; the harvests were identified by hemagglutination-inhibition tests against monoclonal antibodies that can differentiate La Sota and GB cultures. Both viruses, inoculated alone or as mixtures, were propagated by passage in chicken eggs. La Sota strain failed to propagate by continuous passage in MDBK cells, and only GB was identified in culture harvests propagated in MDBK cells that had been inoculated with GB or mixtures of GB and La Sota. The results indicate that the MDBK cell line is a more selective substrate than chicken eggs and suggest that passage in MDBK cells may aid in selecting for more virulent subpopulations of NDV in a mixed culture. Other reference NDV strains, pigeon NDV isolates, and recent lentogenic NDV isolates from chickens were also passaged in MDBK cells; all strains except those that are classified as lentogens like La Sota could be serially propagated in MDBK cells.

  19. AIDS as a zoonosis? Confusion over the origin of the virus and the origin of the epidemics. (United States)

    Marx, Preston A; Apetrei, Cristian; Drucker, Ernest


    Based on findings demonstrating the simian ancestry of HIV, AIDS has been reported to be a zoonosis. However, this theory has never been proved and must seriously be questioned. Several arguments show that HIV-AIDS is not a zoonosis. (i) If AIDS were a zoonosis, there must be evidence of AIDS being directly acquired from an animal species, as is rabies, a disease that is directly acquired from animals. (ii) Despite long-term and frequent human exposure to SIV-infected monkeys in Africa, only 11 cross-species transmission events are known, and only four of these have resulted in significant human-to-human transmission, generating HIV-1 groups M and O and HIV-2 groups A and B. The closest relatives of SIVcpz (HIV-1 group N) and of SIVsm (HIV-2 groups C-H) are extremely rare, with only six HIV-1 group N-infected patients and only single individuals known to be infected by HIV-2 groups C-H. SIV, while capable of cross-species transmission, is thus poorly adapted for disease and epidemic spread. If AIDS were a zoonosis that is capable of significant human-to-human spread, there would be a plethora of founder subtypes and groups. (iii) Human exposure to SIV is thousands of years old, but AIDS emerged only in the 20th century. If AIDS were a zoonosis that spread into the human population, it would have spread to the West during slave trade. (iv) Experimental transmission of SIVs to different species of monkeys is often well controlled by the new host, showing that the virus and not the disease is transmitted. Therefore, we conclude that cross-species transmission of SIV does not in itself constitute the basis for a zoonosis. Transmission per se is not the major requirement for the generation of the AIDS epidemic. All HIVs do derive from simian species, but AIDS does not qualify as a zoonosis and this explanation cannot in itself account for the origin of AIDS epidemic. It is important to distinguish AIDS from true zoonoses (e.g. rabies) because research is needed to

  20. A Web-Based System To Enchance The Management Of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS/ Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV In Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbelusi Olutola


    Full Text Available Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS, a global disease, caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV is arguably the greatest health problem of this age and there is need to make first class information on the management of HIV/AIDS available through the use of Web-Based Technology. This paper examined the various ways of contacting HIV and the effort made by Information and Technology to make life easier for people living with the virus in Nigeria. Questionnaires were distributed to Doctors and people living with HIV/AIDS to access their knowledge and belief about the said disease. MySQL was used to generate the database, to store all the vital information about the patients, their Doctors and their complaints. PHP programming for the implementation of the interfaces, Dreamweaver HTML for the design of the web-based application, T-test and Microsoft Excel were used for the analysis of data collected. The study looked into the occupation, age range and the marital status of different categories of people living with the virus. It was discovered that there were quite large numbers of people who are living with the virus.

  1. Hepatopulmonary syndrome in a patient with AIDS and virus C cirrhosis (viral cirrhosis type C); Sindrome hepatopulmonar em paciente com cirrose por virus C e SIDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Maria Angelica; Gazzana, Marcelo Basso [Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Servico de Pneumologia; Barreto, Sergio Saldanha Menna; Knorst, Marli Maria [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Medicina Interna


    Hepatopulmonary syndrome is characterized by a triad consisting of liver disorder, pulmonary vascular dilatation, and hypoxaemia. No case of hepatopulmonary syndrome associated with AIDS has been reported so far. In this study, the authors report the case of a 43-year woman with AIDS and virus C cirrhosis taking prophylactic cotrimoxazole for pneumocystosis and retroviral therapy. Upon admission, the patient presented dyspnoea, cyanosis, digital clubbing, vascular spiders, and normal chest examination. Chest X-ray revealed bilateral interstitial infiltration and evidenced increased alveolar-arterial gradient and liver function impairment. Intrapulmonary shunt was evidenced by contrast-enhanced echocardiography and radionuclide perfusion scanning, thus confirming hepatopulmonary syndrome. (author)

  2. Adaptation and Study of AIDS Viruses in Animal and Cell Culture Systems (United States)


    category one, e.g , Friend Murine -6- Leukemia Virus (FMuLV), Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV), and the Macaque Type D SAIDS retrovirus (SRV) have been...10). One other animal lentivirus, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), has had some utility in the study of protective immunity and in al. (58) transplanted RNA mumps virus infected human HeLa cells, or RNA vesicular stomatitis virus-infected hamster BHK cells into nude mice

  3. Enveloped viruses understood via multiscale simulation: computer-aided vaccine design (United States)

    Shreif, Z.; Adhangale, P.; Cheluvaraja, S.; Perera, R.; Kuhn, R.; Ortoleva, P.

    Enveloped viruses are viewed as an opportunity to understand how highly organized and functional biosystems can emerge from a collection of millions of chaotically moving atoms. They are an intermediate level of complexity between macromolecules and bacteria. They are a natural system for testing theories of self-assembly and structural transitions, and for demonstrating the derivation of principles of microbiology from laws of molecular physics. As some constitute threats to human health, a computer-aided vaccine and drug design strategy that would follow from a quantitative model would be an important contribution. However, current molecular dynamics simulation approaches are not practical for modeling such systems. Our multiscale approach simultaneously accounts for the outer protein net and inner protein/genomic core, and their less structured membranous material and host fluid. It follows from a rigorous multiscale deductive analysis of laws of molecular physics. Two types of order parameters are introduced: (1) those for structures wherein constituent molecules retain long-lived connectivity (they specify the nanoscale structure as a deformation from a reference configuration) and (2) those for which there is no connectivity but organization is maintained on the average (they are field variables such as mass density or measures of preferred orientation). Rigorous multiscale techniques are used to derive equations for the order parameters dynamics. The equations account for thermal-average forces, diffusion coefficients, and effects of random forces. Statistical properties of the atomic-scale fluctuations and the order parameters are co-evolved. By combining rigorous multiscale techniques and modern supercomputing, systems of extreme complexity can be modeled.

  4. Poverty, gender inequities, and women's risk of human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS. (United States)

    Krishnan, Suneeta; Dunbar, Megan S; Minnis, Alexandra M; Medlin, Carol A; Gerdts, Caitlin E; Padian, Nancy S


    Entrenched economic and gender inequities together are driving a globally expanding, increasingly female, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS epidemic. To date, significant population-level declines in HIV transmission have not been observed, at least in part because most approaches to prevention have presumed a degree of individual control in decision making that does not speak to the reality of women's and girls' circumstances in many parts of the world. Such efforts have paid insufficient attention to critical characteristics of the risk environment, most notably poverty and gender power inequities. Even fewer interventions have addressed specific mechanisms through which these inequities engender risky sexual practices that result in women's disproportionately increased vulnerabilities to HIV infection. This article focuses on identifying those mechanisms, or structural pathways, that stem from the interactions between poverty and entrenched gender inequities and recommending strategies to address and potentially modify those pathways. We highlight four such structural pathways to HIV risk, all of which could be transformed: (1) lack of access to critical information and health services for HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention, (2) limited access to formal education and skill development, (3) intimate partner violence, and (4) the negative consequences of migration prompted by insufficient economic resources. We argue for interventions that enhance women's access to education, training, employment, and HIV/STI prevention information and tools; minimize migration; and by working with men and communities, at the same time reduce women's poverty and promote gender-equitable norms. In conclusion, we identify challenges in developing and evaluating strategies to address these structural pathways.

  5. HIV and AIDS (United States)

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Kids > HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...

  6. Pathological features of the central nervous system lesions with Epstein-Barr virus in patients with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozko V.N.


    Full Text Available Background. HIV infection/AIDS is a social disease and morbidity in some segments of the population is threatening. One of the target organs for HIV is the nervous system. The central nervous system lesion occurring in the form of meningoencephalitison the background of HIV infection is one of the leading death causes in patients with severe immunosuppression. Objective. Reveal the typicalmorphologic changes in the central nervous system during Epstein-Barr virus meningoencephalitis in patients with HIV/AIDS. Methods. Brain tissue and meningesof deceased patients with Epstein-Barr virus meningoencephalitis. Selected 6 deaths – three women and three men, aged 28 to 34 years. Following routine procedure histologic sections were produced, which were stained with hematoxylin and eosin staining, Nissl. Results. We showed signs of development of subacute encephalitis with the presence of giant areas of demyelination by morphological study of the combination of clinical cases of HIV and Epstein-Barr virus infection. In brain tissue we identified giant cells. In addition to this significant feature of the combination of HIV and Epstein-Barr virus infection can be considered productive development of vasculitis with thrombosis and ischemic brain lesions. During histological studies in HIV-infected patients were found: infiltration of the vessel wall by leukocytes, edema and proliferative changes in the intima. All this leads to a narrowing of the lumen and thrombosis with further possible infarct, vessel rupture and hemorrhage. Conclusion. It is established that in case of damage of the central nervous system with Epstein-Barr virus in HIV patients develops subacute giant cell encephalitis with the presence of demyelination areas, a bland astrogliosis, development of productive vasculitis with thrombosis, that complicated by ischemic lesions of the brain.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo CORTI


    Full Text Available Neurological complications of varicella-zoster virus (VZV are infrequent and include various clinical pictures. The reactivation of VZV in patients with AIDS is generally associated with an acute and severe meningoencephalitis. We report the epidemiological, clinical and virological data from 11 consecutive patients with diagnosis of HIV/AIDS and central nervous system (CNS involvement due to VZV. All patients were male and seropositive for HIV. The primary risk factor for HIV infection was unprotected sexual contact. The median of CD4 T cell count was 142 cells/µL. All of them presented signs and symptoms of meningoencephalitis. Six patients (54.5% presented pleocytosis; they all showed high CSF protein concentrations with a median of 2.1 g/dL. Polymerase chain reaction of cerebrospinal fluid specimen was positive for VZV in all of them and they were treated with intravenous acyclovir at doses of 30/mg/kg/day for 21 days. Overall survival was 63% (7 of 11 patients. The four dead patients had low cellular counts in CSF, below the median of this parameter. VZV should be included among the opportunistic pathogens that can involve CNS with a diffuse and severe meningoencephalitis in patients with advanced HIV/AIDS disease.

  8. A novel role for APOBEC3: Susceptibility to sexual transmission of murine acquired immunodeficiency virus (mAIDS is aggravated in APOBEC3 deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Philip H


    Full Text Available Abstract Background APOBEC3 proteins are host factors that restrict infection by retroviruses like HIV, MMTV, and MLV and are variably expressed in hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells, such as macrophages, lymphocytes, dendritic, and epithelia cells. Previously, we showed that APOBEC3 expressed in mammary epithelia cells function to limit milk-borne transmission of the beta-retrovirus, mouse mammary tumor virus. In this present study, we used APOBEC3 knockout mice and their wild type counterpart to query the role of APOBEC3 in sexual transmission of LP-BM5 MLV – the etiological agent of murine AIDs (mAIDs. Results We show that mouse APOBEC3 is expressed in murine genital tract tissues and gametes and that genital tract tissue of APOBEC3-deficient mice are more susceptible to infection by LP-BM5 virus. APOBEC3 expressed in genital tract tissues most likely plays a role in decreasing virus transmission via the sexual route, since mice deficient in APOBEC3 gene have higher genitalia and seminal plasma virus load and sexually transmit the virus more efficiently to their partners compared to APOBEC3+ mice. Moreover, we show that female mice sexually infected with LP-BM5 virus transmit the virus to their off-spring in APOBEC3-dependent manner. Conclusion Our data indicate that genital tissue intrinsic APOBEC3 restricts genital tract infection and limits sexual transmission of LP-BM5 virus.

  9. What Is HIV/AIDS? (United States)

    ... AIDS? Subscribe Translate Text Size Print What Is HIV/AIDS? Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. If left ... need medical treatment to prevent death. Where DId HIV Come From? Scientists identified a type of chimpanzee ...

  10. Human herpes virus-8 DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage samples from patients with AIDS-associated pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Dodt, K K; Lundgren, Jens Dilling


    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most frequent AIDS-associated neoplasm, and often disseminates to visceral organs, including the lungs. An ante-mortem diagnosis of pulmonary KS is difficult. Recently, DNA sequences resembling a new human herpes virus (HHV-8), have been identified in various forms...... of KS. We hypothesized that these sequences are present in samples obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in patients with pulmonary KS. Utilizing a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 7/12 BAL cell samples from HIV-infected patients with endobronchial KS were positive for HHV-8 DNA. In contrast......, only 2/39 samples from HIV-infected patients without evidence of KS were positive (p = 0.007). Detection of HHV-8 in BAL cells of patients with pulmonary KS was highly specific (95%), with a sensitivity of 58% and a positive predictive value of 78%. In conclusion, HHV-8 is associated with pulmonary KS...

  11. Birth Defects Among Children Born to Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Women Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Protocols 219 and 219C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brogly, Susan B.; Abzug, Mark J.; Watts, D. Heather; Cunningham, Coleen K.; Williams, Paige L.; Oleske, James; Conway, Daniel; Sperling, Rhoda S.; Spiegel, Hans; Van Dyke, Russell B.


    Background: Some studies have detected associations between in utero antiretroviral therapy (ARV) exposure and birth defects but evidence is inconclusive. Methods: A total of 2202 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed children enrolled in the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 219 and 219 C p

  12. Computer-aided codon-pairs deoptimization of the major envelope GP5 gene attenuates porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. (United States)

    Ni, Yan-Yan; Zhao, Zhao; Opriessnig, Tanja; Subramaniam, Sakthivel; Zhou, Lei; Cao, Dianjun; Cao, Qian; Yang, Hanchun; Meng, Xiang-Jin


    Synthetic attenuated virus engineering (SAVE) is an emerging technology that enables rapid attenuation of viruses. In this study, by using SAVE we demonstrated rapid attenuation of an arterivirus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The major envelope GP5 gene of PRRSV was codon-pair deoptimized aided by a computer algorithm. The codon-pair deoptimized virus, designated as SAVE5 with a deoptimized GP5 gene, was successfully rescued in vitro. The SAVE5 virus replicated at a lower level in vitro with a significant decrease of GP5 protein expression compared to the wild-type PRRSV VR2385 virus. Pigs experimentally infected with the SAVE5 virus had significantly lower viremia level up to 14 days post-infection as well as significantly reduced gross and histological lung lesions when compared to wild-type PRRSV VR2385 virus-infected pigs, indicating the attenuation of the SAVE5 virus. This study proved the feasibility of rapidly attenuating PRRSV by SAVE.

  13. Exosomes in human semen restrict HIV-1 transmission by vaginal cells and block intravaginal replication of LP-BM5 murine AIDS virus complex. (United States)

    Madison, Marisa N; Jones, Philip H; Okeoma, Chioma M


    Exosomes are membranous extracellular nanovesicles secreted by diverse cell types. Exosomes from healthy human semen have been shown to inhibit HIV-1 replication and to impair progeny virus infectivity. In this study, we examined the ability of healthy human semen exosomes to restrict HIV-1 and LP-BM5 murine AIDS virus transmission in three different model systems. We show that vaginal cells internalize exosomes with concomitant transfer of functional mRNA. Semen exosomes blocked the spread of HIV-1 from vaginal epithelial cells to target cells in our cell-to-cell infection model and suppressed transmission of HIV-1 across the vaginal epithelial barrier in our trans-well model. Our in vivo model shows that human semen exosomes restrict intravaginal transmission and propagation of murine AIDS virus. Our study highlights an antiretroviral role for semen exosomes that may be harnessed for the development of novel therapeutic strategies to combat HIV-1 transmission.

  14. Rapid spread of tomato yellow leaf curl virus in China is aided differentially by two invasive whiteflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huipeng Pan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV was introduced into China in 2006, approximately 10 years after the introduction of an invasive whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn. B biotype. Even so the distribution and prevalence of TYLCV remained limited, and the economic damage was minimal. Following the introduction of Q biotype into China in 2003, the prevalence and spread of TYLCV started to accelerate. This has lead to the hypothesis that the two biotypes might not be equally competent vectors of TYLCV. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The infection frequency of TYLCV in the field-collected B. tabaci populations was investigated, the acquisition and transmission capability of TYLCV by B and Q biotypes were compared under the laboratory conditions. Analysis of B. tabaci populations from 55 field sites revealed the existence of 12 B and 43 Q biotypes across 18 provinces in China. The acquisition and transmission experiments showed that both B and Q biotypes can acquire and transmit the virus, however, Q biotype demonstrated superior acquisition and transmission capability than its B counterparts. Specifically, Q biotype acquired significantly more viral DNA than the B biotype, and reached the maximum viral load in a substantially shorter period of time. Although TYLCV was shown to be transmitted horizontally by both biotypes, Q biotype exhibited significantly higher viral transmission frequency than B biotype. Vertical transmission result, on the other hand, indicated that TYLCV DNA can be detected in eggs and nymphs, but not in pupae and adults of the first generation progeny. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These combined results suggested that the epidemiology of TYLCV was aided differentially by the two invasive whiteflies (B and Q biotypes through horizontal but not vertical transmission of the virus. This is consistent with the concomitant eruption of TYLCV in tomato fields following the recent rapid invasion of Q biotype whitefly in China.

  15. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol (United States)

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

  16. AIDS病人眼部带状疱疹病毒感染病例分析%Herpes zoster virus infection case analyses the AIDS eye part

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective Discuss the ponderance,prognosis,treatment and prophylaxis that the AIDS patient eye part herpes zoster virus opportunistic infection.Method Herpes zoster opportunistic infection case carries out retrospect nature analysis on the AIDS eye part friendship hospital ophthalmology outpatient service makes a definite diagnosis.Result The AIDS eye part herpes zoster virus opportunistic infection inflammation is grave,the pole curing difficulty,the prognosis is bad.Conclusion The herpes zoster opportunistic infection the AIDS disease eye part duplicating each other in taking precautions against and early phase discovers,cures AIDS,ocular infection by to treat long ago being nice%目的 探讨AIDS病人眼部带状疱疹病毒机会性感染的严重性、预后、治疗以及预防.方法 医院眼科门诊确诊的AIDS眼部带状疱疹机会性感染病例行回顾性分析.结果 AIDS眼部带状疱疹病毒机会性感染炎症严重,治疗困难,预后极差.结论 AIDS病眼部带状疱疹性机会性感染重在预防和早期发现,治疗AIDS眼部感染以早治疗为佳.

  17. The Prevalence of Different Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission Routes and Knowledge about AIDS in Infected People with HIV in Sirjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Behzadpour


    Full Text Available Background & Objective: The immune system of Patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS is weekend because of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, and they become vulnerable to several opportunistic and non-opportunistic pathogens and different carcinomas. IV drug abuse, sexual contact, occupational transmission, blood transfusion and maternal-fetal transmission are well known transmission routes for HIV infection. This study was under taken to investigate the prevalence of HIV transmission routs in the HIV infected population of Sirjan, and their knowledge about the disease, in order to plan better preventive strategies. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study was planned. During a 6-month period in 2010, all of the HIV infected people in Sirjan (old and new cases who had a file at the consultation center for high risk behavior, completed a valid and reliable questionnaire. Results: The definite route of transmission was not clear in any of the patients because they had more than one suspicious route. Injected drug abusers were the most common (88.4% followed by those who got tattoos (79.1%, invasive therapeutic procedures, dentistry, surgery and endoscopy (56.1%, high risk sexual behavior (62.8%, bloodletting (9.3%, injuries in the barbershop (9.3% and blood transfusion (2.3%. Conclusion: All of the HIV infected cases in Sirjan were involved with several high risk behaviors, but the major route of transmission, similar to other parts of the country was injected drug abuse. Educational programs for prevention of AIDS should be followed seriously and special attention should be paid to groups with multiple high risk behaviors.

  18. Biomolecular engineering of virus-like particles aided by computational chemistry methods. (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Lua, Linda H L; Middelberg, Anton P J; Sun, Yan; Connors, Natalie K


    Virus-like particles (VLPs) are repetitive organizations of viral proteins assembled in an appropriate physicochemical environment. VLPs can stimulate both innate and adaptive immune responses, due to their particulate structure enabling uptake by antigen presenting cells. These characteristics have led to successful development of VLP-vaccine products, and will ensure their vast potential in years to come. Future success of VLP therapeutic products will be determined by advances in their bioengineering, and also by the development of tools to design for their stability, function and application. This review focuses on approaches for VLP assembly in controlled chemical environments in vivo and in vitro, and the application of computational tools for improved chemical sequence design, and fundamental understanding of assembly.

  19. Central nervous system involvement in Hodgkin's lymphoma associated with Epstein-Barr virus in a patient with AIDS: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Corti


    Full Text Available Intracranial and intraspinal involvement is a rare complication of Hodgkin's disease. We report a case of a patient with diagnosis of AIDS and Hodgkin's lymphoma who developed brain and spinal involvement at the time of the relapse of the neoplasm disease. Mixed cellularity histology was the subtype of Hodgkin's disease in our patient; we identified the Epstein-Barr virus genome in the Reed-Sternberg cells by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization.

  20. AID expression in peripheral blood of children living in a malaria holoendemic region is associated with changes in B cell subsets and Epstein-Barr virus. (United States)

    Wilmore, Joel R; Asito, Amolo S; Wei, Chungwen; Piriou, Erwan; Sumba, P Odada; Sanz, Iñaki; Rochford, Rosemary


    The development of endemic Burkitt's lymphoma (eBL) is closely associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and holoendemic malaria infections. The role of EBV in the development of malignancy has been studied in depth, but there is still little known about the mechanisms by which malaria affects Burkitt's lymphomagenesis. Activation induced cytidine deaminase (AID) expression is necessary for the introduction of c-myc translocations that are characteristic of BL, but a link between AID and EBV or malaria is unclear. To determine whether frequency of malaria exposure leads to increased AID expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) we examined two cohorts of children in western Kenya with endemic and sporadic malaria transmission dynamics. High frequency of malaria exposure led to increased expression of AID, which coincided with decreases in the IgM(+) memory B cells. In the children from the malaria endemic region, the presence of a detectible EBV viral load was associated with higher AID expression compared to children with undetectable EBV, but this effect was not seen in children with sporadic exposure to malaria. This study demonstrates that intensity of malaria transmission correlates with AID expression levels in the presence of EBV suggesting that malaria and EBV infection have a synergistic effect on the development of c-myc translocations and BL.

  1. Non-AIDS definings malignancies among human immunodeficiency virus-positive subjects: Epidemiology and outcome after two decades of HAART era (United States)

    Brugnaro, Pierluigi; Morelli, Erika; Cattelan, Francesca; Petrucci, Andrea; Panese, Sandro; Eseme, Franklyn; Cavinato, Francesca; Barelli, Andrea; Raise, Enzo


    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been widely available in industrialized countries since 1996; its widespread use determined a dramatic decline in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related mortality, and consequently, a significant decrease of AIDS-defining cancers. However the increased mean age of HIV-infected patients, prolonged exposure to environmental and lifestyle cancer risk factors, and coinfection with oncogenic viruses contributed to the emergence of other malignancies that are considered non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs) as a relevant fraction of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected people twenty years after HAART introduction. The role of immunosuppression in the pathogenesis of NADCs is not well defined, and future researches should investigate the etiology of NADCs. In the last years there is a growing evidence that intensive chemotherapy regimens and radiotherapy could be safely administrated to HIV-positive patients while continuing HAART. This requires a multidisciplinary approach and a close co-operation of oncologists and HIV-physicians in order to best manage compliance of patients to treatment and to face drug-related side effects. Here we review the main epidemiological features, risk factors and clinical behavior of the more common NADCs, such as lung cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, colorectal cancer and anal cancer, Hodgkin’s lymphoma and some cutaneous malignancies, focusing also on the current therapeutic approaches and preventive screening strategies. PMID:26279983

  2. [Private companies: an opportunity for hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevention and care in Ivory Coast in the wake of HIV/AIDS?]. (United States)

    Bekelynck, A


    In the 1990s, defenders of "aids exceptionnalism" have promised that the inequities caused by HIV/AIDS could provide leverage in the care of other health issues later. Fifteen years later, this argument can be rethought at the light of the current context of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Ivory Coast. In fact, in this country, the challenges caused by HBVecho those of HIV/AIDS fifteen years ago: high prevalence (8-10%), ignorance of the disease, and high cost of care. To this end, this article compares the role of private companies in the fights against HIV/AIDS in the 2000s and its role in the fight against HBV today. Although some private firms played a critical role in the promotion of universal access to ART, today, they are one of the few places where HBV screening, vaccination and treatment are offered in the country. HIV/AIDS opened the door for private companies to address other diseases through their health care systems. However, many challenges still need to be met: the absence of qualitative ongoing training for health professionals, illness representations and the costs of treatments, which are all related to the lack of international and national collective action. In Ivory Coast, at the early stage of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, national authorities took up the leadership in the fight against AIDS in West Africa, by developing extraverted strategies (Xth ICASA's organization, Unaids initiative hosting). The exceptional international mobilization and the creation of innovative funding mechanisms [International Therapeutic Solidarity Fund (ITSF), Global Fund (GM), and President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR)] have facilitated easy access to ARV. Although 380 million people are infected by chronic HBV in the world, even so, international and national collective actions are fledgling and remained weak. Moreover, private firms have represented leverage for testing, treatment, and the provision of universal access to medication in the context of the HIV/AIDS

  3. Acute meningoencephalomyelitis due to varicella-zoster virus in an AIDS patient: report of a case and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Corti


    Full Text Available Varicella-zoster virus (VZV meningoencephalomyelitis is a rare but severe neurological complication of VZV reactivation in immunocompromised patients. We report the case of an HIV-infected individual who developed an acute and severe meningoencephalomyelitis accompanied by a disseminated cutaneous eruption due to VZV. The presence of VZV DNA in cerebrospinal fluid was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique. The patient started undergoing an intravenous acyclovir therapy with a mild recovery of neurological manifestations. Varicella-zoster virus should be included as a cause of acute meningoencephalomyelitis in patients with AIDS. Early diagnosis followed by specific therapy should modify the rapid and fulminant course for this kind of patients.

  4. HIV/AIDS (United States)

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying the white blood cells ... It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most ...

  5. HIV/AIDS and Drug Abuse: Intertwined Epidemics (United States)

    ... DrugFacts » HIV/AIDS and Drug Abuse: Intertwined Epidemics HIV/AIDS and Drug Abuse: Intertwined Epidemics Email Facebook ... to AIDS, greatly prolonging lives. What Exactly Is HIV/AIDS? HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. This ...

  6. Mycobacterium avium complex in macaques with AIDS is associated with a specific strain of simian immunodeficiency virus and prolonged survival after primary infection. (United States)

    Mansfield, K G; Pauley, D; Young, H L; Lackner, A A


    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques is a frequent opportunistic infection that shares many features with the condition in human AIDS patients. A retrospective analysis of necropsies on 135 macaques with SIV-induced simian AIDS that received neither antiretroviral nor antimicrobial therapy revealed that 17% (23/135) were infected with MAC. MAC developed in 31.3% (21/67) of the animals inoculated with uncloned SIVmac251 versus 1.9% (1/53) and 6.7% (1/15) of the animals inoculated with the molecular clones SIVmac239 and SIVmac239/316EM, respectively (P = .001). This is the first example in which the risk of infection with a specific opportunistic organism was affected by the infecting strain of immunodeficiency virus. In addition, animals with MAC had a longer mean survival after primary infection and lower CD4 cell counts at death than animals that did not develop this opportunistic infection. The SIV-inoculated macaque is a valuable model in which to study the pathogenesis of MAC in the immunocompromised host.

  7. AIDS Epidemiological models (United States)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar


    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  8. Researchers See New Patterns in Spread of AIDS Virus; Progress in Development of a Vaccine Sparks Optimism. (United States)

    Wheeler, David L.


    Reports presented at the Sixth International Conference on Aids are summarized including efforts to develop a vaccine, expansion of the epidemic into new areas, the high rate of infection among Romanian children, the crisis in Africa, and evidence of relapsing behaviors among homosexual men in the United States. (MLW)

  9. The Medical Research Council (UK)/Uganda Virus Research Institute Uganda Research Unit on AIDS--'25 years of research through partnerships'. (United States)

    Kaleebu, P; Kamali, A; Seeley, J; Elliott, A M; Katongole-Mbidde, E


    For the past 25 years, the Medical Research Council/Uganda Virus Research Institute Uganda Research Unit on AIDS has conducted research on HIV-1, coinfections and, more recently, on non-communicable diseases. Working with various partners, the research findings of the Unit have contributed to the understanding and control of the HIV epidemic both in Uganda and globally, and informed the future development of biomedical HIV interventions, health policy and practice. In this report, as we celebrate our silver jubilee, we describe some of these achievements and the Unit's multidisciplinary approach to research. We also discuss the future direction of the Unit; an exemplar of a partnership that has been largely funded from the north but led in the south.

  10. Dysfunctional Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific CD8(+) T lymphocytes and increased EBV load in HIV-1 infected individuals progressing to AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van Baarle (Debbie); F. Miedema (Frank); E. Hovenkamp (Egbert); M.F.C. Callan (Margareth); K.C. Wolthers (Katja); S. Kostense; L.C. Tan; H.G.M. Niesters (Bert); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A.J. McMichael (Andrew); M.H.J. van Oers (Marinus)


    textabstractAcquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin lymphomas (AIDS-NHL) are thought to arise because of loss of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-specific cellular immunity. Here, an investigation was done to determine whether cellular immunity to EBV is lost because of physical loss or dysfu

  11. Dysfunctional Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific CD8(+) T lymphocytes and increased EBV load in HIV-1 infected individuals progressing to AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baarle, D; Hovenkamp, E; Callan, M F; Wolthers, K C; Kostense, S; Tan, L C; Niesters, H G; Osterhaus, A D; McMichael, A J; van Oers, M H; Miedema, F


    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin lymphomas (AIDS-NHL) are thought to arise because of loss of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-specific cellular immunity. Here, an investigation was done to determine whether cellular immunity to EBV is lost because of physical loss or dysfunction of EB

  12. Histoplasmosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS): multicenter study of outcomes and factors associated with relapse. (United States)

    Myint, Thein; Anderson, Albert M; Sanchez, Alejandro; Farabi, Alireza; Hage, Chadi; Baddley, John W; Jhaveri, Malhar; Greenberg, Richard N; Bamberger, David M; Rodgers, Mark; Crawford, Timothy N; Wheat, L Joseph


    Although discontinuation of suppressive antifungal therapy for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated histoplasmosis is accepted for patients with immunologic recovery, there have been no published studies of this approach in clinical practice, and minimal characterization of individuals who relapse with this disease. We performed a multicenter retrospective cohort study to determine the outcome in AIDS patients following discontinuation of suppressive antifungal therapy for histoplasmosis. Ninety-seven patients were divided into a physician-discontinued suppressive therapy group (PD) (38 patients) and a physician-continued suppressive therapy group (PC) (59 patients). The 2 groups were not statistically different at baseline, but at discontinuation of therapy and at the most recent follow-up there were significant differences in adherence to therapy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA, and urinary Histoplasma antigen concentration. There was no relapse or death attributed to histoplasmosis in the PD group compared with 36% relapse (p 150 cells/mL, HIV RNA <400 c/mL, Histoplasma antigenuria <2 ng/mL (equivalent to <4.0 units in second-generation method), and no CNS histoplasmosis.

  13. An implementation evaluation of a voluntary counselling and testing programme for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarryn N. Anderson


    Full Text Available Orientation: Employee wellness programmes have become standard interventions in mostorganisations. In South Africa, these programmes invariably contain an element to addressthe problem of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and acquired immunodeficiencysyndrome (AIDS in the workplace.Research purpose: The purpose of this evaluation was to assess whether or not a VoluntaryCounselling and Testing (VCT programme for HIV and AIDS, at a South African university,was implemented as intended.Motivation for the study: The evaluators were motivated to explore indications in the existingliterature about these programmes that participants in VCT programmes are often not theintended target population who live a high risk lifestyle.Research design, approach and method: A descriptive design was used to evaluate serviceutlisation, service delivery and organisational support. Questionnaire data from 285respondents who participated in the programme and programme records supplied by theprogramme staff were consulted to answer the evaluation questions.Main findings: The evaluation showed that the highest uptake for the programme occurredamongst female students. The low uptake amongst men was a concern. It was found that theprogramme was delivered as intended and that there were enough resources to implement itaccording to standards set.Practical/managerial implications: The systematic report on the programme process providedthe programme managers with practical suggestions for programme improvement.Contribution/value-add: This was the first implementation evaluation of a VCT programme ina South African university context. As such it aimed to educate programme managers to thinkevaluatively about introducing new or continuing existing programmes.

  14. Epidemiology of Human Immuno-deficiency Virus and Quality of Life for People Living with HIV/AIDS in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ommari Baaliy Mkangara; Shaofa NIE; Chongjian WANG; Yihua XU; Saumu Tobbi Mweri; Theresia M Kobelo; Mustaafa Bapumiia


    HIV/AIDS is increasing in prevalence in China and spread of infection from highly risk populations to the general populations was recognized. Despite the fact, there are still only few scien- tific reviews on quality of life (QOL) for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). However, many PLWHAs are struggling with social and psychological influences such as substances abuse, cultural beliefs, depression, stigma, poverty, which can affect their QOL. Public unawareness about infection and disease, willingness to seek medical care and motivation to follow therapy are indirectly influ- encing health outcome. In 2003 Chinese government has established the so-called the "Four Frees and One Care" policy. The policy was officially implemented from 2004 in some areas, yet to date it is not implemented nationwide. This paper discussed the epidemiology of HIV, underlying psychoso- cial factors affecting PLWHAs and their impact on QOL. We put forward some recommendations for stakeholders, advocacy groups, non-government organizations and Chinese government.

  15. Computer-aided identification, design and synthesis of a novel series of compounds with selective antiviral activity against chikungunya virus. (United States)

    Bassetto, Marcella; De Burghgraeve, Tine; Delang, Leen; Massarotti, Alberto; Coluccia, Antonio; Zonta, Nicola; Gatti, Valerio; Colombano, Giampiero; Sorba, Giovanni; Silvestri, Romano; Tron, Gian Cesare; Neyts, Johan; Leyssen, Pieter; Brancale, Andrea


    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an Arbovirus that is transmitted to humans primarily by the mosquito species Aedes aegypti. Infection with this pathogen is often associated with fever, rash and arthralgia. Neither a vaccine nor an antiviral drug is available for the prevention or treatment of this disease. Albeit considered a tropical pathogen, adaptation of the virus to the mosquito species Aedes albopictus, which is also very common in temperate zones, has resulted in recent outbreaks in Europe and the US. In the present study, we report on the discovery of a novel series of compounds that inhibit CHIKV replication in the low μM range. In particular, we initially performed a virtual screening simulation of ∼5 million compounds on the CHIKV nsP2, the viral protease, after which we investigated and explored the Structure-Activity Relationships of the hit identified in silico. Overall, a series of 26 compounds, including the original hit, was evaluated in a virus-cell-based CPE reduction assay. The study of such selective inhibitors will contribute to a better understanding of the CHIKV replication cycle and may represents a first step towards the development of a clinical candidate drug for the treatment of this disease.

  16. Teaching AIDS. (United States)

    Short, R V


    This article reviews a peer group Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) educational program at a university in Australia. Studies in the US have shown that most adolescents, although sexually active, do not believe they are likely to become infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and therefore do not attempt to modify their sexual behavior. A 1st step in educating students is to introduce them to condoms and impress upon them the fact that condoms should be used at the beginning of all sexual relationships, whether homosexual or heterosexual. In this program 3rd year medical students were targeted, as they are effective communicators and disseminators of information to the rest of the student body. After class members blow up condoms, giving them a chance to handle various brands and observe the varying degrees of strength, statistical evidence about the contraceptive failure rate of condoms (0.6-14.7 per 100 women-years) is discussed. Spermicides, such as nonoxynol-9 used in conjunction with condoms, are also discussed, as are condoms for women, packaging and marketing of condoms, including those made from latex and from the caecum of sheep, the latter condoms being of questionable effectiveness in preventing transmission of the virus. The care of terminal AIDS cases and current global and national statistics on AIDS are presented. The program also includes cash prizes for the best student essays on condom use, the distribution of condoms, condom key rings and T-shirts, and a student-run safe sex stand during orientation week. All of these activities are intended to involve students and attract the interest of the undergraduate community. Questionnaires administered to students at the end of the course revealed that the lectures were received favorably. Questionnaires administered to new medical and English students attending orientation week revealed that 72% of students thought the stand was a good idea and 81% and 83%, respectively found it

  17. HIV and AIDS: Medicines to Help You (United States)

    ... by Audience For Women Free Publications HIV and AIDS--Medicines to Help You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... HIV treatment. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. HIV stands for H uman I mmunodeficiency V ...

  18. Generation of lineage-related, mucosally transmissible subtype C R5 simian-human immunodeficiency viruses capable of AIDS development, induction of neurological disease, and coreceptor switching in rhesus macaques. (United States)

    Ren, Wuze; Mumbauer, Alexandra; Gettie, Agegnehu; Seaman, Michael S; Russell-Lodrigue, Kasi; Blanchard, James; Westmoreland, Susan; Cheng-Mayer, Cecilia


    Most human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmissions are initiated with CCR5 (R5)-using viruses across mucosal surfaces, with the majority in regions where HIV type 1 (HIV-1) clade C predominates. Mucosally transmissible, highly replication competent, pathogenic R5 simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIVs) encoding biologically relevant clade C envelopes are therefore needed as challenge viruses in vaccine efficacy studies with nonhuman primates. Here we describe the generation of three lineage-related subtype C SHIVs through four successive rapid transfers in rhesus macaques of SHIVC109F.PB4, a molecular clone expressing the soluble-CD4 (sCD4)-sensitive CCR5-tropic clade C envelope of a recently infected subject in Zambia. The viruses differed in their monkey passage histories and neutralization sensitivities but remained R5 tropic. SHIVC109P3 and SHIVC109P3N were recovered from a passage-3 rapid-progressor animal during chronic infection (24 weeks postinfection [wpi]) and at end-stage disease (34 wpi), respectively, and are classified as tier 1B strains, whereas SHIVC109P4 was recovered from a passage-4 normal-progressor macaque at 22 wpi and is a tier 2 virus, more difficult to neutralize. All three viruses were transmitted efficiently via intrarectal inoculation, reaching peak viral loads of 10(7) to 10(9) RNA copies/ml plasma and establishing viremia at various set points. Notably, one of seven (GC98) and two of six (CL31, FI08) SHIVC109P3- and SHIVC109P3N-infected macaques, respectively, progressed to AIDS, with neuropathologies observed in GC98 and FI08, as well as coreceptor switching in the latter. These findings support the use of these new SHIVC109F.PB4-derived viruses to study the immunopathology of HIV-1 clade C infection and to evaluate envelope-based AIDS vaccines in nonhuman primates.

  19. Human Subjects Issues in AIDS Research. (United States)

    Bayer, Ronald, Ed.


    Six articles are presented on the use of human subjects in research on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Topics include the ethics of human experimentation, female and pediatric AIDS patients, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and AIDS among correctional inmates, community-based AIDS research, and clinical trials of HIV…

  20. Retrospective Species Identification of Microsporidian Spores in Diarrheic Fecal Samples from Human Immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS Patients by Multiplexed Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization▿ (United States)

    Graczyk, Thaddeus K.; Johansson, Michael A.; Tamang, Leena; Visvesvara, Govinda S.; Moura, Laci S.; DaSilva, Alexandre J.; Girouard, Autumn S.; Matos, Olga


    In order to assess the applicability of multiplexed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay for the clinical setting, we conducted retrospective analysis of 110 formalin-stored diarrheic stool samples from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS patients with intestinal microsporidiosis collected between 1992 and 2003. The multiplexed FISH assay identified microsporidian spores in 94 of 110 (85.5%) samples: 49 (52.1%) were positive for Enterocytozoon bieneusi, 43 (45.8%) were positive for Encephalitozoon intestinalis, 2 (2.1%) were positive for Encephalitozoon hellem, and 9 samples (9.6%) contained both E. bieneusi and E. intestinalis spores. Quantitative spore counts per ml of stool yielded concentration values from 3.5 × 103 to 4.4 × 105 for E. bieneusi (mean, 8.8 × 104/ml), 2.3 × 102 to 7.8 × 104 (mean, 1.5 × 104/ml) for E. intestinalis, and 1.8 × 102 to 3.6 × 102 for E. hellem (mean, 2.7 × 102/ml). Identification of microsporidian spores by multiplex FISH assay was more sensitive than both Chromotrope-2R and CalcoFluor White M2R stains; 85.5% versus 72.7 and 70.9%, respectively. The study demonstrated that microsporidian coinfection in HIV/AIDS patients with intestinal microsporidiosis is not uncommon and that formalin-stored fecal samples older than 10 years may not be suitable for retrospective analysis by techniques targeting rRNA. Multiplexed FISH assay is a reliable, quantitative fluorescence microscopy method for the simultaneous identification of E. bieneusi, E. intestinalis, and E. hellem, as well as Encephalitozoon cuniculi, spores in fecal samples and is a useful tool for assessing spore shedding intensity in intestinal microsporidiosis. The method can be used for epidemiological investigations and applied in clinical settings. PMID:17287331

  1. [Cerebral infarction and intracranial aneurysm related to the reactivation of varicella zoster virus in a Japanese acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient]. (United States)

    Yasuda, Chiharu; Okada, Kazumasa; Ohnari, Norihiro; Akamatsu, Naoki; Tsuji, Sadatoshi


    A 35-years-old right-handed man admitted to our hospital with a worsening of dysarthria, left facial palsy and left hemiparesis for 2 days. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was diagnosed when he was 28 years old. At that time, he also was treated for syphilis. After highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) was introduced at the age of 35 years old, serum level of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was not detected, but the number of CD4+ T cells was still less than 200/μl. He had no risk factors of atherosclerosis including hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia. He had neither coagulation abnormality nor autoimmune disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed acute ischemic infarction spreading from the right corona radiate to the right internal capsule without contrast enhancement. Stenosis and occlusion of intracranial arteries were not detected by MR angiography. Although argatroban and edaravone were administered, his neurological deficits were worsened to be difficult to walk independently. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination showed a mild mononuclear pleocytosis (16/μl). Oligoclonal band was positive. The titer of anti-varicella zoster virus (VZV) IgG antibodies was increased, that indicated VZV reactivation in the central nervous system (CNS), although VZV DNA PCR was not detected. Therefore, acyclovir (750 mg/day for 2 weeks) and valaciclovir (3,000 mg/day for 1 month) were administered in addition to stroke therapy. He recovered to be able to walk independently 2 month after the admission.Angiography uncovered a saccular aneurysm of 3 mm at the end of branch artery of right anterior cerebral artery, Heubner artery, 28 days after the admission. We speculated that VZV vasculopathy caused by VZV reactivation in CNS was involved in the pathomechanism of cerebral infarction rather than HIV vasculopathy in the case.

  2. Short Communication: Current Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 and Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type 2 Infections Among HIV/AIDS Patients in São Paulo, Brazil. (United States)

    Caterino-de-Araujo, Adele; Sacchi, Cláudio Tavares; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Campos, Karoline Rodrigues; Magri, Mariana Cavalheiro; Alencar, Wong Kuen


    During the 1990s, high prevalences of HIV/human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HIV/human T lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2) coinfections were detected in São Paulo, Brazil in association with intravenous drug use (IDU). The current prevalences and risk factors for HIV/HTLV-1/-2 were evaluated in 1,608 patients attending the AIDS/STD Reference and Training Center in São Paulo. Blood samples were analyzed for HTLV-1/2-specific antibodies using enzyme immunoassays (EIA Murex HTLV-I+II, Diasorin, and Gold ELISA HTLV-I+II, REM) and immunoblotting (HTLV Blot 2.4, MP Biomedicals and INNO-LIA HTLV-I/II, Innogenetics) and for the pol proviral DNA segments of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 by "in-house" real-time PCR. These analyses revealed that 50 (3.11%) of the samples were HTLV positive, including 25 (1.55%) that were HTLV-1 positive, 21 (1.31%) that were HTLV-2 positive, and 4 (0.25%) that were HTLV positive (untypeable). The median age of the HIV/HTLV-coinfected individuals was 50 years versus 44 years in the overall population (p=0.000). The risk factors associated with HIV/HTLV-1/-2 coinfections were female gender (OR 3.26, 1.78-5.95), black/pardo color (OR 2.21, 1.21-4.03), infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) (OR 4.27, 2.32-7.87) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) (OR 24.40, 12.51-48.11), and intravenous drug use (IDU) (OR 30.01, 15.21-59.29). The current low prevalence of HTLV-1/2 in HIV-infected patients in São Paulo could be explained in part by programs providing IDUs with sterile needles and syringes and changes in the drug usage patterns of individuals from injecting cocaine to smoking crack cocaine.

  3. Variability of bio-clinical parameters in Chinese-origin Rhesus macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus: a nonhuman primate AIDS model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although Chinese-origin Rhesus macaques (Ch RhMs infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV have been used for many years to evaluate the efficacy of AIDS vaccines and therapeutics, the bio-clinical variability of such a nonhuman primate AIDS model was so far not established. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By randomizing 150 (78 male and 72 female Ch RhMs with diverse MHC class I alleles into 3 groups (50 animals per group challenged with intrarectal (i.r. SIVmac239, intravenous (i.v. SIVmac239, or i.v. SIVmac251, we evaluated variability in bio-clinical endpoints for 118 weeks. All SIV-challenged Ch RhMs became seropositive for SIV during 1-2 weeks. Plasma viral load (VL peaked at weeks 1-2 and then declined to set-point levels as from week 5. The set-point VL was 30 fold higher in SIVmac239 (i.r. or i.v.-infected than in SIVmac251 (i.v.-infected animals. This difference in plasma VL increased overtime (>100 fold as from week 68. The rates of progression to AIDS or death were more rapid in SIVmac239 (i.r. or i.v.-infected than in SIVmac251 (i.v.-infected animals. No significant difference in bio-clinical endpoints was observed in animals challenged with i.r. or i.v. SIVmac239. The variability (standard deviation in peak/set-point VL was nearly one-half lower in animals infected with SIVmac239 (i.r. or i.v. than in those infected with SIVmac251 (i.v., allowing that the same treatment-related difference can be detected with one-half fewer animals using SIVmac239 than using SIVmac251. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide solid estimates of variability in bio-clinical endpoints needed when designing studies using the Ch RhM SIV model and contribute to the improving quality and standardization of preclinical studies.

  4. Human immunodeficiency virus and AIDS and other important predictors of maternal mortality in Mulago Hospital Complex Kampala Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khainza Betty


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women with severe maternal morbidity are at high risk of dying. Quality and prompt management and sometimes luck have been suggested to reduce on the risk of dying. The objective of the study was to identify the direct and indirect causes of severe maternal morbidity, predictors of progression from severe maternal morbidity to maternal mortality in Mulago hospital, Kampala, Uganda. Methods This was a longitudinal follow up study at the Mulago hospital's Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Participants were 499 with severe maternal morbidity admitted in Mulago hospital between 15th November 2001 and 30th November 2002 were identified, recruited and followed up until discharge or death. Potential prognostic factors were HIV status and CD4 cell counts, socio demographic characteristics, medical and gynaecological history, past and present obstetric history and intra- partum and postnatal care. Results Severe pre eclampsia/eclampsia, obstructed labour and ruptured uterus, severe post partum haemorrhage, severe abruptio and placenta praevia, puerperal sepsis, post abortal sepsis and severe anaemia were the causes for the hospitalization of 499 mothers. The mortality incidence rate was 8% (n = 39, maternal mortality ratio of 7815/100,000 live births and the ratio of severe maternal morbidity to mortality was 12.8:1. The independent predictors of maternal mortality were HIV/AIDS (OR 5.1 95% CI 2-12.8, non attendance of antenatal care (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.3-9.2, non use of oxytocics (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.7-9.7, lack of essential drugs (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.1-11.3 and non availability of blood for transfusion (OR 53.7, 95% CI (15.7-183.9 and delivery of amale baby (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.6-10.1. Conclusion The predictors of progression from severe maternal morbidity to mortalitywere: residing far from hospital, low socio economic status, non attendance of antenatal care, poor intrapartum care, and HIV/AIDS. There is need to improve on the

  5. HIV/AIDS in Women (United States)

    HIV, the human immunodeficiency virus, kills or damages cells of the body's immune system. The most advanced stage of infection with HIV is AIDS, which stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. ...

  6. Predictors of unsafe sexual behavior among people living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS attending antiretroviral therapy center in Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedar G Mehta


    Full Text Available Background: As more and more people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV live longer and healthier lives because of antiretroviral therapy (ART, an increasing number of sexual transmissions of HIV may arise from these people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA. Hence, this study is conducted to assess the predictors of unsafe sexual behavior among PLWHA on ART in Western India. Materials and Methods: The current cross-sectional study was carried out among 175 PLWHAs attending ART center of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Western India. Unsafe sex was defined as inconsistent and/or incorrect condom use. A total of 39 variables from four domains viz., sociodemographic, relationship-related, medical and psycho-social factors were studied for their relationship to unsafe sexual behavior. The variables found to be significantly associated with unsafe sex practices in bivariate analysis were explored by multivariate analysis using multiple logistic regression in SPSS 17.0 version. Results: Fifty-eight percentage of PLWHAs were practicing unsafe sex. 15 out of total 39 variables showed significant association in bivariate analysis. Finally, 11 of them showed significant association in multivariate analysis. Young age group, illiteracy, lack of counseling, misbeliefs about condom use, nondisclosure to spouse and lack of partner communication were the major factors found to be independently associated with unsafe sex in multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Appropriate interventions like need-based counseling are required to address risk factors associated with unsafe sex.

  7. Anatomic Fat Depots and Coronary Plaque Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected and Uninfected Men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. (United States)

    Palella, Frank J; McKibben, Rebeccah; Post, Wendy S; Li, Xiuhong; Budoff, Matthew; Kingsley, Lawrence; Witt, Mallory D; Jacobson, Lisa P; Brown, Todd T


    Methods.  In a cross-sectional substudy of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, noncontrast cardiac computed tomography (CT) scanning for coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring was performed on all men, and, for men with normal renal function, coronary CT angiography (CTA) was performed. Associations between fat depots (visceral adipose tissue [VAT], abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue [aSAT], and thigh subcutaneous adipose tissue [tSAT]) with coronary plaque presence and extent were assessed with logistic and linear regression adjusted for age, race, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, body mass index (BMI), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) parameters. Results.  Among HIV-infected men (n = 597) but not HIV-uninfected men (n = 343), having greater VAT was positively associated with noncalcified plaque presence (odds ratio [OR] = 1.04, P aSAT and tSAT and greater median VAT among men with BMI aSAT and extent of total plaque among HIV-infected men, but not among HIV-uninfected men. Lower tSAT was associated with greater CAC and total plaque score extent regardless of HIV serostatus. Conclusions.  The presence of greater amounts of VAT and lower SAT may contribute to increased risk for coronary artery disease among HIV-infected persons.

  8. Human immunodeficiency virus integrase inhibitors efficiently suppress feline immunodeficiency virus replication in vitro and provide a rationale to redesign antiretroviral treatment for feline AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciervo Alessandra


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV infection has been hampered by the absence of a specific combination antiretroviral treatment (ART. Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs are emerging as a promising new drug class for HIV-1 treatment, and we evaluated the possibility of inhibiting FIV replication using INSTIs. Methods Phylogenetic analysis of lentiviral integrase (IN sequences was carried out using the PAUP* software. A theoretical three-dimensional structure of the FIV IN catalytic core domain (CCD was obtained by homology modeling based on a crystal structure of HIV-1 IN CCD. The interaction of the transferred strand of viral DNA with the catalytic cavity of FIV IN was deduced from a crystal structure of a structurally similar transposase complexed with transposable DNA. Molecular docking simulations were conducted using a genetic algorithm (GOLD. Antiviral activity was tested in feline lymphoblastoid MBM cells acutely infected with the FIV Petaluma strain. Circular and total proviral DNA was quantified by real-time PCR. Results The calculated INSTI-binding sites were found to be nearly identical in FIV and HIV-1 IN CCDs. The close similarity of primate and feline lentivirus IN CCDs was also supported by phylogenetic analysis. In line with these bioinformatic analyses, FIV replication was efficiently inhibited in acutely infected cell cultures by three investigational INSTIs, designed for HIV-1 and belonging to different classes. Of note, the naphthyridine carboxamide INSTI, L-870,810 displayed an EC50 in the low nanomolar range. Inhibition of FIV integration in situ was shown by real-time PCR experiments that revealed accumulation of circular forms of FIV DNA within cells treated with L-870,810. Conclusion We report a drug class (other than nucleosidic reverse transcriptase inhibitors that is capable of inhibiting FIV replication in vitro. The present study helped establish L-870,810, a compound

  9. Characterization of a new simian immunodeficiency virus strain in a naturally infected Pan troglodytes troglodytes chimpanzee with AIDS related symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghokeng Avelin F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on the evolution of natural SIV infection in chimpanzees (SIVcpz and on the impact of SIV on local ape populations are only available for Eastern African chimpanzee subspecies (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, and no data exist for Central chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes, the natural reservoir of the ancestors of HIV-1 in humans. Here, we report a case of naturally-acquired SIVcpz infection in a P.t.troglodytes chimpanzee with clinical and biological data and analysis of viral evolution over the course of infection. Results A male chimpanzee (Cam155, 1.5 years, was seized in southern Cameroon in November 2003 and screened SIV positive during quarantine. Clinical follow-up and biological analyses have been performed for 7 years and showed a significant decline of CD4 counts (1,380 cells/mm3 in 2004 vs 287 in 2009, a severe thrombocytopenia (130,000 cells/mm3 in 2004 vs 5,000 cells/mm3 in 2009, a weight loss of 21.8% from August 2009 to January 2010 (16 to 12.5 kg and frequent periods of infections with diverse pathogens. DNA from PBMC, leftover from clinical follow-up samples collected in 2004 and 2009, was used to amplify overlapping fragments and sequence two full-length SIVcpzPtt-Cam155 genomes. SIVcpzPtt-Cam155 was phylogenetically related to other SIVcpzPtt from Cameroon (SIVcpzPtt-Cam13 and Gabon (SIVcpzPtt-Gab1. Ten molecular clones 5 years apart, spanning the V1V4 gp120 env region (1,100 bp, were obtained. Analyses of the env region showed positive selection (dN-dS >0, intra-host length variation and extensive amino acid diversity between clones, greater in 2009. Over 5 years, N-glycosylation site frequency significantly increased (p Conclusions Here, we describe for the first time the clinical history and viral evolution of a naturally SIV infected P.t.troglodytes chimpanzee. The findings show an increasing viral diversity over time and suggest clinical progression to an AIDS-like disease, showing that

  10. Linfomas asociados con la infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana: subtipos histológicos y asociación con los virus de Epstein Barr y Herpes-8 AIDS related lymphomas: Histopathological subtypes and association with Epstein Barr virus and Human Herpes virus type-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Corti


    Full Text Available Los linfomas no Hodgkin (LNH constituyen la segunda neoplasia definitoria de Sida más frecuente. En el presente trabajo se evaluaron 48 casos de linfomas asociados con la enfermedad debida al virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (HIV diagnosticados en la División Histopatología del Instituto de Investigaciones Hematológicas de la Academia Nacional de Medicina. Se incluyeron en la investigación 5 mujeres y 43 hombres con una mediana de edad al momento del diagnóstico de la neoplasia de 37 años. La evaluación morfológica se realizó en cortes coloreados con hematoxilina-eosina, estudio inmunohistoquímico para la detección del virus de Epstein Barr (VEB en 48/48 casos, y mediante sonda oligonucleotídica biotinilada para la detección del ADN del Herpes virus humano tipo-8 (HHV-8 en 14/14 linfomas plasmoblásticos (LP. Todos fueron linfomas de fenotipo B, con un curso clínico agresivo y enfermedad neoplásica avanzada al momento del diagnóstico. Se pudo demostrar la fuerte asociación del VEB con los linfomas asociados al sida, con frecuencias que variaron según el subtipo histológico: 16/21 (76% para los linfomas difusos de grandes células; 1/3 casos (33% de linfomas de Burkitt y 3/4 (75% en los linfomas primarios del sistema nervioso central. Globalmente, el genoma del VEB se detectó en 20/28 (71% de las muestras de biopsias de LNH de esta serie. La detección del HHV-8 resultó negativa en los 14 LP. Los linfomas de Hodgkin fueron más frecuentes en varones,18/20 (90%, con un curso clínico agresivo y franco predominio de los subtipos histológicos de peor pronóstico (90% de casos. En estas neoplasias también se comprobó una frecuente asociación patogénica con el VEB (90% de casos.Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL of the B-cell type are the second most common neoplasm among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and AIDS. Here, we evaluated 48 cases of AIDS-related lymphomas (ARL diagnosed at the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Khan


    Full Text Available HIV infection and AIDS is increasingly becoming a major public health problem in our country. Currently, the reported cases represent only the 'tip of the iceberg' of the problem. In view of the fact that no cure or vaccine for the disease has yet been found, spreading knowledge and removing misconceptions is about the only way that AIDS can be effectively tackled.This handbook, developed by Prof. Shankar Chowdhury and associates, seeks to address all levels of medical and non-medical AIDS workers, as well as the layman. It deals with topics ranging from biology of the virus, symptoms and transmission of disease, to prevention, counselling for infected persons and action plan for AIDS education.The biology of the virus and the immune system is described in simple terms, as well as methods of testing for HIV, and what these test results mean. The progression of disease in adults and children, development of symptoms, diagnostic criteria for AIDS, treatment and outcome of disease is dealt with. How AIDS spreads between people, and the health risk for health workers and families is examined. The various ways in which transmission of HIV can be prevented is looked at in detail, including public health measures, national and internatonal action, and ethical and human rights issues involved.

  12. Phylogeny of geminivirus coat protein sequences and digital PCR aid in identifying Spissistilus festinus (Say) as a vector of Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (United States)

    Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV) is a newly identified virus of grapevines, and a putative member of a new genus within the family Geminiviridae. This virus is associated with red blotch disease that was first reported in California in 2008. It affects the profitability of vineyards by ...

  13. Results of detection of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in peripheral blood of HIV/AIDS patients%HIV/AIDS患者外周血EBV-DNA检测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴驰; 赖文杰; 陈建波; 刘厚明; 肖颜玉; 叶飞娣; 单万水


    目的 了解深圳地区人免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)阳性患者和艾滋病(AIDS)患者外周血中EB病毒DNA的检出情况.方法 收集257例HIV/AIDS患者外周血标本,采用实时荧光定量PCR技术检测EB病毒DNA水平.比较不同年龄、性别、门诊及住院HIV/AIDS患者的EBV-DNA阳性率并进行统计学分析.结果 HIV/AIDS患者EBV-DNA总检出率为32.30%(83/257),住院AIDS患者检出率为43.96%( 40/91)明显高于门诊HIV/AIDS患者检出率(25.90%,43/166). 结论 HIV/AIDS患者外周血中EBV-DNA检出率较高,EBV-DNA阳性检出率随着HIV/AIDS患者病情的加重而增加.%Objective To investigate the incidence of Epstein-Barr virus in HIV/AIDS patients from Shenzhen region. Methods The peripheral blood samples of 257 HIV/AIDS cases in Shenzhen Municipal Third People's Hospital from October 2010 to April 2011 were collected and the level of peripheral blood EBV DNA was determined by using fluorescent quantitative PCR, and the infection rate of EBV in HIV-infected patients was analyzed. Results A total of 83 patients (32.30% )carried Epstein-Barr virus. The detection rate of of Epslein rirus in AIDS inpalients was 43.96%,significantly higher than the outpatients (25.90%). Conclusion The infection rate of Epstein virus in peripheral blood of HIV/AIDS cases is high and the positive rate of Epstein virus infection is getting higner alongside with the increase of severity of the disease.

  14. Doctor Strives to Prevent and Treat AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    ONE day in 1989, Dr. Xu Lianzhi received laboratory test result from a man over 50, which clearly showed that he had the AIDS virus. This man was Dr. Xu’s first patient who was infected with the AIDS virus, and was also the first case of AIDS discovered during a routine health check in China. Dr. Xu is the head physician of the Department of Infectious Diseases at the Beijing You An Hospital, a member of the Beijing Venereal

  15. Depo-provera treatment does not abrogate protection from intravenous SIV challenge in female macaques immunized with an attenuated AIDS virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell Genescà

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a previous study, progesterone treatment of female monkeys immunized with live, attenuated SHIV89.6 abrogated the generally consistent protection from vaginal simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV challenge. The mechanisms responsible for the loss of protection remain to be defined. The objective of the present study was to determine whether Depo-Provera administration alters protection from intravenous SIV challenge in SHIV-immunized female macaques. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Two groups of female macaques were immunized with attenuated SHIV89.6 and then challenged intravenously with SIVmac239. Four weeks before challenge, one animal group was treated with Depo-Provera, a commonly used injectable contraceptive progestin. As expected, SHIV-immunized monkeys had significantly lower peak and set-point plasma viral RNA levels compared to naïve controls, but in contrast to previously published findings with vaginal SIV challenge, the Depo-Provera SHIV-immunized animals controlled SIV replication to a similar, or even slightly greater, degree than did the untreated SHIV-immunized animals. Control of viral replication from week 4 to week 20 after challenge was more consistent in the progesterone-treated, SHIV-immunized animals than in untreated, SHIV-immunized animals. Although levels of interferon-gamma production were similar, the SIV-specific CD8(+ T cells of progesterone-treated animals expressed more functions than the anti-viral CD8(+ T cells from untreated animals. CONCLUSIONS: Depo-Provera did not diminish the control of viral replication after intravenous SIV challenge in female macaques immunized with a live-attenuated lentivirus. This result contrasts with the previously reported effect of Depo-Provera(R on protection from vaginal SIV challenge and strongly implies that the decreased protection from vaginal challenge is due to effects of progesterone on the genital tract rather than to systemic effects. Further, these results

  16. Hearing Aids (United States)

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  17. Nutritional anemia and AIDS


    Ruíz, Óscar; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, UNMSM; Díaz, David; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM, y Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo; Castillo, Óscar; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, UNMSM; Reyes, Rafael; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, UNMSM; Marangoni, Manuela; Programa PROCETSS, Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo; Ronceros, Gerardo; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM


    Objectives: To determine the type of anemia most frequent in patients with AIDS and the various degrees of anemia. Material and methods: One hundred patients 18 to 60 year-old infected with human immune deficiency virus (HIV) with residence in Lima and Callao were studied from January to December 2001 for blood count bone marrow aspiration, serum iron, transferrin, ferritin, folate and vitamin B12 levels. Samples were evaluated at the “Dos de Mayo” Hospital Clinical Pathology Department. Resu...

  18. HIV/AIDS eradication


    Marsden, Matthew D.; Zack, Jerome A.


    Antiretroviral therapy can inhibit HIV replication in patients and prevent progression to AIDS. However, it is not curative. Here we provide an overview of what antiretroviral drugs do and how the virus persists during therapy in rare reservoirs, such as latently infected CD4+ T cells. We also outline several innovative methods that are currently under development to eradicate HIV from infected individuals. These strategies include gene therapy approaches intended to create an HIV-resistant i...

  19. Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    Controversy over the aggregate impact of foreign aid has focused on reduced form estimates of the aid-growth link. The causal chain, through which aid affects developmental outcomes including growth, has received much less attention. We address this gap by: (i) specifying a structural model of th...

  20. Screening for AIDS. (United States)


    Tests to detect serum antibody to human T-lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III), based on an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that uses whole disrupted HTLV-III virus antigens, are now commercially available in the US. Recent surveys of groups at high risk for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have found that 22-65% of homosexual men, 87% of active intravenous drug users, 56-72% of hemophiliacs, and 35% of women who were sexual partners of men with AIDS have had postitive ELISA tests compared with fewer than 1% of those with no known risk factors. A positive ELISA test could be due to subclinical infection, immunity, or cross-reactivity with other viral antigens. Laboratory error can also produce false positive results. Thus, it is recommended that the ELISA test be repeated at least once on all seropositive specimens before the result is reported to the patient. The western blot test appears to be more specific and less sensitive than the ELISA. Studies of asymptomatic seropositive homosexual men followed for 2-5 years have found that over 50% remain asymptomatic, 5-19% develop full blown AIDS, and 25% develop signs suggestive of the AIDS-related complex. Asymptomatic patients with positive ELISA tests should be made aware of early signs and symptoms of AIDS. Other data suggest that seropositive patients have the HTLV-III virus in their blood, semen, and/or saliva and can transmit the infection. Precautions to prevent transmission, such as the use of condoms, should be taken by such patients. Physicians should be sensitive to the fear and anxiety that a positive ELISA test will create.

  1. AIDS in Colombia. (United States)

    Boshell, J; Gacharná, M G; García, M; Jaramillo, L S; Márquez, G; Fergusson, M M; González, S; Prada, E Y; de Rangel, R; de Cabas, R


    Between January 1984 and December 1987 a total of 178 AIDS cases were reported to the Colombian Ministry of Health. The location of these cases suggests that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is widely distributed in Colombia. Most of those afflicted (97%) have been adult males. HIV seroprevalence studies of selected population groups revealed the highest antibody prevalence (5.65% in females, 22.5% in males) among individuals involved in high-risk behaviors who participated in a free AIDS testing program. High prevalences (from 0.6% to 3.9% in females, and 14.6% to 15.9% in males) were also found in patients (primarily female prostitutes and male homosexuals) attending clinics for sexually transmitted diseases in several urban areas. The number of AIDS cases in Colombia has doubled or tripled annually since reporting began in 1984, a pattern similar to that observed worldwide.

  2. A Candidate HIV/AIDS Vaccine (MVA-B) Lacking Vaccinia Virus Gene C6L Enhances Memory HIV-1-Specific T-Cell Responses


    Juan García-Arriaza; José Luis Nájera; Carmen E Gómez; Nolawit Tewabe; Sorzano, Carlos Oscar S.; Thierry Calandra; Thierry Roger; Mariano Esteban


    The vaccinia virus (VACV) C6 protein has sequence similarities with the poxvirus family Pox_A46, involved in regulation of host immune responses, but its role is unknown. Here, we have characterized the C6 protein and its effects in virus replication, innate immune sensing and immunogenicity in vivo. C6 is a 18.2 kDa protein, which is expressed early during virus infection and localizes to the cytoplasm of infected cells. Deletion of the C6L gene from the poxvirus vector MVA-B expressing HIV-...

  3. AID expression in peripheral blood of children living in a malaria endemic region is associated with changes in B cell subsets and Epstein-Barr virus (United States)

    Wilmore, Joel R; Asito, Amolo S; Wei, Chungwen; Piriou, Erwan; Sumba, P. Odada; Sanz, Iñaki


    The development of endemic Burkitt's lymphoma (eBL) is closely associated with EBV infection and holoendemic malaria infections. The role of EBV in the development of malignancy has been studied in depth, but there is still little known about the mechanisms by which malaria affects Burkitt's lymphomagenesis. Activation induced cytidine deaminase (AID) expression is necessary for the introduction of c-myc translocations that are characteristic of BL, but a link between AID and EBV or malaria is unclear. To determine if frequency of malaria exposure leads to increased AID expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) we examined two cohorts of children in western Kenya with endemic and sporadic malaria transmission dynamics. High frequency of malaria exposure led to increased expression of AID, which coincided with decreases in the IgM+ memory B cells. In the children from the malaria endemic region, the presence of a detectible EBV viral load was associated with higher AID expression compared to children with undetectable EBV, but this effect was not seen in children with sporadic exposure to malaria. This study demonstrates that intensity of malaria transmission correlates with AID expression levels in the presence of EBV suggesting that malaria and EBV infection have a synergistic effect on the development of c-myc translocations and BL. PMID:25099163

  4. Comparative virology and AIDS (review). (United States)

    Kodama, M; Kodama, T


    The scientific debate between pros and cons of the HIV criminal theory of AIDS still remains unsettled. The purpose of this review is to promote resolution of the problem by extracting a common principle of the host-virus relation using data resources for each of 4 viruses as follows: a) polyoma virus, b) Marek's disease virus, c) Ebola virus, d) Korean hemorrhagic fever virus. Conclusions drawn from this study are given as follows: i) Environment emerged as the cardinal factor to modify the process of virus infection in all of the 4 viruses studied. Above all, an accelerating effect of environmental stress on the progression of virus infection was noted in vivo in the majority of viral diseases. ii) Evidence is available to indicate that a healthy cell (or a healthy individual) may harbor virus genes of multiple species without manifesting any pathologic sign. iii) Evidence also suggests that the biological property as well as morphological structure of a virus may vary in reponse to a change of the bioenvironment. On the basis of the above information, we propose to renounce 2 assumptions of classical infection model: a) the hereditarily determined virulence of a microorganism (including virus) be the sole determinant of infection to the effect that its invasion into the host should automatically complete the programmed course of infection; b) virus, a quasi-living creature, should reserve its behavioral independence irrespective of a change of the bioenvironment. The new infection model was constructed on the basis of the selfish gene concept that had been invented by Richard Dawkins to explain the altruistic behavior of an individual. That is, the fate of an exogenous or endogenous virus is under the dual control of the host genome (selfish gene) and the outer environment. The progression of virus infection is conditioned by a crosstalk between them. The selfish gene may use virus (a lifeless substance) as a magic bullet to induce a designated host response. In

  5. Educating Brazilian workers about AIDS. (United States)


    This article contains a the script for a slide-tape presentation entitled Working Against AIDS, a presentation developed by the Brazil Family Planning Association (BEMFAM) which is designed to debunk common misconceptions about the disease. This audio-visual, which targets Brazilian workers, can be used during talks, seminars, and meetings. A discussion of the issues involved usually follows the presentation of Working Against AIDS. The presentation contains 30 illustrated slides (these are included in the article). The presentation begins by explaining that much of the information concerning AIDS is prejudicial and misleading. The next few slides point out some of the common misconceptions about AIDS, such as claims denying the existence of the disease, or suggestions that only homosexuals and prostitutes are at risk. The presentation then goes on to explain the ways in which the virus can and cannot be transmitted. Then it discusses how the virus destroys the body's natural defenses and explains the ensuing symptoms. Slides 14 and 15 point out that no cure yet exists for AIDS, making prevention essential. Slides 16-23 explain what actions are considered to be high risk and which ones do not entail risk. Noting that AIDS can be prevented, slide 24 says that the disease should not present an obstacle to spontaneous manifestations of human relations. The next slide explains that condoms should always be used when having sex with someone who could be infected with AIDS. Finally slides 26-30 demonstrate the proper way to use and dispose of a condom.

  6. Public knowledge about AIDS increasing. (United States)

    Campbell, M J; Waters, W E


    In response to concern over the perceived limited effectiveness of Department of Health and Social Security (UK) advertising campaigns to inform the public of the basic facts of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a prospective questionnaire study was undertaken in Southampton, England to test the effectiveness of government education prior to a January, 1987 government television/leaflet advertising campaign. 300 questionnaires about AIDS were mailed in December of 1986 to a sample drawn from electoral rolls. The response rate was 61%. Most of the questions were drawn from material covered in the campaign. The results seemed to indicate a small overall increase in knowledge about AIDS. Some changes from a June survey were noted, e.g.: more people were aware that AIDS is a virus for which there is no cure and that it is not readily transmitted by sharing washing, eating or drinking utensils; more people believed that the statement that women are at greater risk for catching AIDS is false. Respondents were generally favorable to the government's continued use of television, even with explicit language, and to its use of the schools, for AIDS education. Many were not aware of the dangers to intravenous drug users or of the symptoms of AIDS. Other surveys have shown an increasing knowledge of AIDS dangers. It is possible that television coverage of the problem will continue to be necessary, in order that less literate populations be reached. Further AIDS health education in general is needed.

  7. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    A critical account of the rise of celebrity-driven “compassionate consumption” Cofounded by the rock star Bono in 2006, Product RED exemplifies a new trend in celebrity-driven international aid and development, one explicitly linked to commerce, not philanthropy. Brand Aid offers a deeply informed...

  8. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn


    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...

  9. Efficacy of zidovudine and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) hyperimmune immunoglobulin for reducing perinatal HIV transmission from HIV-infected women with advanced disease: results of Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 185. (United States)

    Stiehm, E R; Lambert, J S; Mofenson, L M; Bethel, J; Whitehouse, J; Nugent, R; Moye, J; Glenn Fowler, M; Mathieson, B J; Reichelderfer, P; Nemo, G J; Korelitz, J; Meyer, W A; Sapan, C V; Jimenez, E; Gandia, J; Scott, G; O'Sullivan, M J; Kovacs, A; Stek, A; Shearer, W T; Hammill, H


    Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 185 evaluated whether zidovudine combined with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) hyperimmune immunoglobulin (HIVIG) infusions administered monthly during pregnancy and to the neonate at birth would significantly lower perinatal HIV transmission compared with treatment with zidovudine and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) without HIV antibody. Subjects had baseline CD4 cell counts /=200/microL) but not with time of zidovudine initiation (5.6% vs. 4.8% if started before vs. during pregnancy; P=. 75). The Kaplan-Meier transmission rate for HIVIG recipients was 4. 1% (95% confidence interval, 1.5%-6.7%) and for IVIG recipients was 6.0% (2.8%-9.1%) (P=.36). The unexpectedly low transmission confirmed that zidovudine prophylaxis is highly effective, even for women with advanced HIV disease and prior zidovudine therapy, although it limited the study's ability to address whether passive immunization diminishes perinatal transmission.

  10. How you get HIV/AIDS (United States)

    How you get HIV/AIDS Which body fluids contain HIV? HIV is a virus that lives in blood and other fluids in the body. Moving ... answers to any questions you have about HIV/AIDS. Your public health department and health care provider ...

  11. HIV & AIDS Prevention Guide for Parents. (United States)

    Lerro, Marc

    This guide is intended to help parents of adolescents and adults with mental retardation to teach their sons and daughters about HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). An official resolution on AIDS adopted by The Arc, an organization for citizens with mental retardation, begins the guide. This…

  12. Mycobacterial Infections in AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ross Hill


    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains uniquely important among acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS-associated opportunistic infections: it presents the greatest public health hazard worldwide, is the most readily curable, and is largely preventable with existing means. Given the expanding pool of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seropositive persons, particularly in developing nations where Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a leading health problem, one can expect a continued rise in TB cases during the 1990s. Global efforts to eliminate TB are now inextricably entwined with the effectiveness of measures to curtail the HIV epidemic. Mycobacterium avium complex infection, currently an intractable late complication of aids, may increase in clinical importance as success in managing other opportunistic infections and HIV disease itself improves. Understanding of the pathogenesis and management of mycobacterial diseases should increase rapidly given the renewed research spurred on by the advent of HIV.

  13. AIDS and associated malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charles WOOD; William HARRINGTON Jr


    AIDS associated malignancies (ARL) is a major complication associated with AIDS patients upon immunosuppression.Chronically immunocompromised patients have a markedly increased risk of developing lymphoproliferative disease. In the era of potent antiretrovirals therapy (ARV), the malignant complications due to HIV- 1 infection have decreased in developed nations where ARV is administered, but still poses a major problem in developing countries where HIV- 1incidence is high and ARV is still not yet widely available. Even in ARV treated individuals there is a concern that the prolonged survival of many HIV- 1 carriers is likely to eventually result in an increased number of malignancies diagnosed.Malignancies that were found to have high incidence in HIV-infected individuals are Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), Hodgkin's disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The incidence of NHL has increased nearly 200 fold in HIV-positive patients, and accounts for a greater percentage of AIDS defining illness in the US and Europe since the advent of HAART therapy. These AIDS related lymphomas are distinct from their counterparts seen in HIV- 1 seronegative patients.For example nearly half of all cases of ARL are associated with the presence of a gamma herpesvirus, Epstein Barr virus (EBV) or human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8)/Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV). The pathogenesis of ARLs is complex. B-cell proliferation driven by chronic antigenemia resulting in the induction of polyclonal and ultimately monoclonal lymphoproliferation may occur in the setting of severe immunosuppression.

  14. Hearing Aid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A man realized that he needed to purchase ahearing aid, but he was unwilling to spend muchmoney. "How much do they run?"he asked theclerk. "That depends," said. the salesman. "Theyrun from 2 to 2000."

  15. Hearing Aids (United States)

    ... slightly different from the ITC and is nearly hidden in the ear canal. Both canal hearing aids ... Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  16. Molecular characterization of distinct YMV (Yellow mosaic virus) isolates affecting pulses in India with the aid of coat protein gene as a marker for identification. (United States)

    Maheshwari, Richa; Panigrahi, Gatikrushna; Angappan, K


    The present study was carried out to find out the variations present in different isolates of yellow mosaic virus (YMV) causing yellow mosaic disease of pulses in southern parts of India. The coat protein gene of YMV was amplified using gene specific and deng universal primers with DNA isolated from YMV infected samples. Further, cloning and DNA sequencing of CP gene was carried out. CP gene decrypt sequences revealed that YMV infected samples of Black gram, Cowpea and Green gram were similar to the MYMV-Tamil Nadu isolates. Whereas the YMV infected sample of Horse gram was found to be similar with HYMV. Hence, in the present study, two distinct YMV infecting pulses in Tamil Nadu (MYMV and HYMV species) were identified and it was observed that there exists considerable genetic variation among these species. In addition, Cowpea crop which was earlier supposed not to be susceptible for YMV infection also showed the presence of this virus similar to the MYMV. Overall, the findings of the present study indicate that the CP region is efficient enough to provide a simple, rapid, and reliable method for early detection of YMV infections in pulses, which would help to develop proper management strategies to control these viruses.

  17. A candidate HIV/AIDS vaccine (MVA-B) lacking vaccinia virus gene C6L enhances memory HIV-1-specific T-cell responses. (United States)

    García-Arriaza, Juan; Nájera, José Luis; Gómez, Carmen E; Tewabe, Nolawit; Sorzano, Carlos Oscar S; Calandra, Thierry; Roger, Thierry; Esteban, Mariano


    The vaccinia virus (VACV) C6 protein has sequence similarities with the poxvirus family Pox_A46, involved in regulation of host immune responses, but its role is unknown. Here, we have characterized the C6 protein and its effects in virus replication, innate immune sensing and immunogenicity in vivo. C6 is a 18.2 kDa protein, which is expressed early during virus infection and localizes to the cytoplasm of infected cells. Deletion of the C6L gene from the poxvirus vector MVA-B expressing HIV-1 Env, Gag, Pol and Nef antigens from clade B (MVA-B ΔC6L) had no effect on virus growth kinetics; therefore C6 protein is not essential for virus replication. The innate immune signals elicited by MVA-B ΔC6L in human macrophages and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) are characterized by the up-regulation of the expression of IFN-β and IFN-α/β-inducible genes. In a DNA prime/MVA boost immunization protocol in mice, flow cytometry analysis revealed that MVA-B ΔC6L enhanced the magnitude and polyfunctionality of the HIV-1-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell memory immune responses, with most of the HIV-1 responses mediated by the CD8+ T-cell compartment with an effector phenotype. Significantly, while MVA-B induced preferentially Env- and Gag-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, MVA-B ΔC6L induced more Gag-Pol-Nef-specific CD8+ T-cell responses. Furthermore, MVA-B ΔC6L enhanced the levels of antibodies against Env in comparison with MVA-B. These findings revealed that C6 can be considered as an immunomodulator and that deleting C6L gene in MVA-B confers an immunological benefit by enhancing IFN-β-dependent responses and increasing the magnitude and quality of the T-cell memory immune responses to HIV-1 antigens. Our observations are relevant for the improvement of MVA vectors as HIV-1 vaccines.

  18. 艾滋病病毒感染者和病人的营养调查%Investigation on the Nutrition of the Infectors and Patients of AIDS Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马冠生; 刘爱玲; 胡小琪; 李欣悦; 郑世凡; 段一娟; 何英中


    @@ 机体的营养状况对免疫功能有着重要的影响,而免疫力的高低对于艾滋病(AIDS)的发生和发展起十分重要的作用.许多研究表明,营养不良是影响AIDS发展的一个重要因素,能量、蛋白质、微量营养素缺乏可进一步损害HIV感染者和AIDS病人的免疫系统和其他生理功能.

  19. Types of Hearing Aids (United States)

    ... Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed to ...

  20. Use of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) human hyperimmune immunoglobulin in HIV type 1-infected children (Pediatric AIDS clinical trials group protocol 273). (United States)

    Stiehm, E R; Fletcher, C V; Mofenson, L M; Palumbo, P E; Kang, M; Fenton, T; Sapan, C V; Meyer, W A; Shearer, W T; Hawkins, E; Fowler, M G; Bouquin, P; Purdue, L; Sloand, E M; Nemo, G J; Wara, D; Bryson, Y J; Starr, S E; Petru, A; Burchett, S


    The clinical, immunologic, and virologic effects and the pharmacokinetics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) human hyperimmune immunoglobulin (HIVIG) were assessed in 30 HIV-infected children aged 2-11 years. All had moderately advanced disease with an immune complex-dissociated (ICD) p24 antigen >70 pg/mL and were on stable antiviral therapy. Three groups of 10 children received 6 monthly infusions of 200, 400, or 800 mg/kg of HIVIG, and serial immunologic and virologic assays were performed. HIVIG doses as high as 800 mg/kg were safe and well tolerated. The half-life of HIVIG, determined by serial p24 antibody titers, was 13-16 days, the volume of distribution was 102-113 mL/kg, and clearance was 5.6-6.0 mL/kg/day. Plasma ICD p24 decreased during the infusions, but CD4 cell levels, plasma RNA copy number, cellular virus, immunoglobulin levels, and neutralizing antibody titers were minimally affected by the infusions. Clinical status did not change during the 6-month infusion and 3-month follow-up periods.

  1. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano


    activists, scholars and venture capitalists, discusses the pros and cons of changing the world by ‘voting with your dollars’. Lisa Ann Richey and Stefano Ponte (Professor at Roskilde University and Senior Researcher at DIIS respectively), authors of Brand Aid: Shopping Well to Save the World, highlight how...

  2. Face singular do cuidado familiar à criança portadora do vírus HIV/AIDS Cara singular del Cuidado Familiar al niño Portador del Vírus VIH/ SIDA Singular view of family care for children with the HIV / AIDS virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Calcagno Gomes


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conhecer as vivências da família no cuidado à criança portadora do vírus HIV/AIDS. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado em um hospital universitário no primeiro semestre de 2010. Participaram sete familiares cuidadores. Os dados foram coletados por entrevistas semiestruturadas e analisados pela técnica de Análise Temática. RESULTADOS: Evidenciou-se o silenciamento do diagnóstico pelo familiar cuidador que passa a viver em função do cuidado à criança. Como dificuldades para cuidar, destacam-se as condições de saúde da mãe ou sua morte, as hospitalizações como comprometedoras da escolarização e reveladoras do diagnóstico e o medo em contar o diagnóstico à criança. CONCLUSÃO: Acredita-se que os profissionais da saúde/enfermagem necessitam empregar estratégias que possibilitem a essas famílias melhor enfrentamento do cotidiano, assessorando-as para o cuidado, fornecendo informações sobre o HIV/AIDS às pessoas de seu círculo social, diminuindo o estigma e a discriminação a que estão expostas essas crianças.OBJETIVO: Conocer las vivencias de la familia en el cuidado del niño portador del virus VIH/SIDA. MÉTODOS: Fue realizado en un hospital universitario en el primer semestre de 2010. Participaron siete familiares cuidadores. Los datos fueron recolectados por medio de entrevistas semiestructuradas y analizadas por la técnica de Análisis Temático. RESULTADOS: Se evidenció el silenciamiento del diagnóstico por parte del familiar cuidador quien pasa a vivir en función del cuidado al niño. Como dificultades para cuidar, se destacan las condiciones de salud de la madre o su muerte, las hospitalizaciones como comprometedoras de la escolarización y reveladoras del diagnóstico y el miedo para comunicar el diagnóstico al niño. CONCLUSIÓN: Se cree que los profesionales de la salud/enfermería necesitan emplear estrategias que posibiliten a esas familias un mejor enfrentamiento del cotidiano, asesorándolas para

  3. Investigation of Diarrhea in AIDS


    Mönkemüller, Klaus E; C Mel Wilcox


    Chronic diarrhea is a common problem in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), resulting in significant morbidity and potential mortality. In the early stages of immunodeficiency, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients are susceptible to infection with the same enteric pathogens that cause diarrhea in immunocompetent hosts, but with progressive immunodeficiency, these patients become susceptible to numerous opportunistic disorders. The main factor to consider ...

  4. Executive summary of the GESIDA/National AIDS Plan Consensus Document on Antiretroviral Therapy in Adults Infected by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (Updated January 2016). (United States)


    In this update, antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended for all patients infected by type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). The objective of ART is to achieve an undetectable plasma viral load (PVL). Initial ART should comprise 3 drugs, namely, 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI), and 1 drug from another family. Four of the recommended regimens, all of which have an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) as the third drug, are considered a preferred regimen; a further 6 regimens, which are based on an INSTI, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), or a protease inhibitor boosted with cobicistat or ritonavir (PI/COBI, PI/r), are considered alternatives. The reasons and criteria for switching ART are presented both for patients with an undetectable PVL and for patients who experience virological failure, in which case the rescue regimen should include 3 (or at least 2) drugs that are fully active against HIV. The specific criteria for ART in special situations (acute infection, HIV-2 infection, pregnancy) and comorbid conditions (tuberculosis and other opportunistic infections, kidney disease, liver disease, and cancer) are updated.

  5. Tactile Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtaramossadat Homayuni


    Full Text Available Tactile aids, which translate sound waves into vibrations that can be felt by the skin, have been used for decades by people with severe/profound hearing loss to enhance speech/language development and improve speechreading.The development of tactile aids dates from the efforts of Goults and his co-workers in the 1920s; Although The power supply was too voluminous and it was difficult to carry specially by children, it was too huge and heavy to be carried outside the laboratories and its application was restricted to the experimental usage. Nowadays great advances have been performed in producing this instrument and its numerous models is available in markets around the world.

  6. Negotiating Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Fraser, Alastair


    This article presents a new analytical approach to the study of aid negotiations. Building on existing approaches but trying to overcome their limitations, it argues that factors outside of individual negotiations (or the `game' in game-theoretic approaches) significantly affect the preferences...... of actors, the negotiating strategies they fashion, and the success of those strategies. This approach was employed to examine and compare the experiences of eight countries: Botswana, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania and Zambia. The article presents findings from these country studies...... which investigated the strategies these states have adopted in talks with aid donors, the sources of leverage they have been able to bring to bear in negotiations, and the differing degrees of control that they have been able to exercise over the policies agreed in negotiations and those implemented...

  7. Study Discounts Myth of 'Patient Zero' in U.S. AIDS Crisis (United States)

    ... Study Discounts Myth of 'Patient Zero' in U.S. AIDS Crisis Genetic analysis of 40-year-old blood ... in North America of the virus that causes AIDS. One myth already debunked by the research: That ...

  8. The history of AIDS exceptionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Julia H


    Full Text Available Abstract In the history of public health, HIV/AIDS is unique; it has widespread and long-lasting demographic, social, economic and political impacts. The global response has been unprecedented. AIDS exceptionalism - the idea that the disease requires a response above and beyond "normal" health interventions - began as a Western response to the originally terrifying and lethal nature of the virus. More recently, AIDS exceptionalism came to refer to the disease-specific global response and the resources dedicated to addressing the epidemic. There has been a backlash against this exceptionalism, with critics claiming that HIV/AIDS receives a disproportionate amount of international aid and health funding. This paper situations this debate in historical perspective. By reviewing histories of the disease, policy developments and funding patterns, it charts how the meaning of AIDS exceptionalism has shifted over three decades. It argues that while the connotation of the term has changed, the epidemic has maintained its course, and therefore some of the justifications for exceptionalism remain.

  9. Erciyes University Students' Knowledge about AIDS: Differences between Students of Natural and Social Science (United States)

    Tasci, Sultan; Baser, Muruvvet; Mucuk, Salime; Bayat, Meral; Zincir, Handan; Sungur, Gonul


    The authors' goal in this study was to assess differences in knowledge about AIDS between students of natural science (NS) and social science (SS). The authors surveyed 542 students at Erciyes University in Kayseri, Turkey, regarding their knowledge of AIDS. Some differences in knowledge about AIDS (eg, regarding the virus that causes AIDS, the…

  10. Computer simulations of the interaction of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) aspartic protease with spherical gold nanoparticles: implications in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (United States)

    Whiteley, Chris G; Lee, Duu-Jong


    The interaction of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) with human immune-deficiency virus aspartic protease (HIVPR) is modelled using a regime of molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations of the 'docking', first as a rigid-body complex, and eventually through flexible-fit analysis, creates 36 different complexes from four initial orientations of the nanoparticle strategically positioned around the surface of the enzyme. The structural deviations of the enzymes from the initial x-ray crystal structure during each docking simulation are assessed by comparative analysis of secondary structural elements, root mean square deviations, B-factors, interactive bonding energies, dihedral angles, radius of gyration (R g), circular dichroism (CD), volume occupied by C α , electrostatic potentials, solvation energies and hydrophobicities. Normalisation of the data narrows the selection from the initial 36 to one 'final' probable structure. It is concluded that, after computer simulations on each of the 36 initial complexes incorporating the 12 different biophysical techniques, the top five complexes are the same no matter which technique is explored. The significance of the present work is an expansion of an earlier study on the molecular dynamic simulation for the interaction of HIVPR with silver nanoparticles. This work is supported by experimental evidence since the initial 'orientation' of the AgNP with the enzyme is the same as the 'final' AuNP-HIVPR complex generated in the present study. The findings will provide insight into the forces of the binding of the HIVPR to AuNP. It is anticipated that the protocol developed in this study will act as a standard process for the interaction of any nanoparticle with any biomedical target.

  11. Computer simulations of the interaction of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) aspartic protease with spherical gold nanoparticles: implications in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (United States)

    Whiteley, Chris G.; Lee, Duu-Jong


    The interaction of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) with human immune-deficiency virus aspartic protease (HIVPR) is modelled using a regime of molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations of the ‘docking’, first as a rigid-body complex, and eventually through flexible-fit analysis, creates 36 different complexes from four initial orientations of the nanoparticle strategically positioned around the surface of the enzyme. The structural deviations of the enzymes from the initial x-ray crystal structure during each docking simulation are assessed by comparative analysis of secondary structural elements, root mean square deviations, B-factors, interactive bonding energies, dihedral angles, radius of gyration (R g), circular dichroism (CD), volume occupied by C α , electrostatic potentials, solvation energies and hydrophobicities. Normalisation of the data narrows the selection from the initial 36 to one ‘final’ probable structure. It is concluded that, after computer simulations on each of the 36 initial complexes incorporating the 12 different biophysical techniques, the top five complexes are the same no matter which technique is explored. The significance of the present work is an expansion of an earlier study on the molecular dynamic simulation for the interaction of HIVPR with silver nanoparticles. This work is supported by experimental evidence since the initial ‘orientation’ of the AgNP with the enzyme is the same as the ‘final’ AuNP-HIVPR complex generated in the present study. The findings will provide insight into the forces of the binding of the HIVPR to AuNP. It is anticipated that the protocol developed in this study will act as a standard process for the interaction of any nanoparticle with any biomedical target.

  12. Serodiagnosis for Tumor Viruses (United States)

    Morrison, Brian J.; Labo, Nazzarena; Miley, Wendell J.; Whitby, Denise


    The known human tumor viruses include the DNA viruses Epstein-Barr virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus, Merkel cell polyomavirus, human papillomavirus, and hepatitis B virus. RNA tumor viruses include Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type-1 and hepatitis C virus. The serological identification of antigens/antibodies in plasma serum is a rapidly progressing field with utility for both scientists and clinicians. Serology is useful for conducting seroepidemiology studies and to inform on the pathogenesis and host immune response to a particular viral agent. Clinically, serology is useful for diagnosing current or past infection and for aiding in clinical management decisions. Serology is useful for screening blood donations for infectious agents and for monitoring the outcome of vaccination against these viruses. Serodiagnosis of human tumor viruses has improved in recent years with increased specificity and sensitivity of the assays, as well as reductions in cost and the ability to assess multiple antibody/antigens in single assays. Serodiagnosis of tumor viruses plays an important role in our understanding of the prevalence and transmission of these viruses and ultimately in the ability to develop treatments/preventions for these globally important diseases. PMID:25843726

  13. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano


    activists, scholars and venture capitalists, discusses the pros and cons of changing the world by ‘voting with your dollars’. Lisa Ann Richey and Stefano Ponte (Professor at Roskilde University and Senior Researcher at DIIS respectively), authors of Brand Aid: Shopping Well to Save the World, highlight how......Can Citizen Consumers Make a Difference? DIIS researcher contributes to a Boston Review - New Democracy Forum In the current issue of Boston Review (November/December 2011), contributors to a ‘New Democracy Forum’ debate whether Citizen Consumers can make a difference in stimulating responsible...

  14. New, More Authentic Model for AIDS Will Accelerate Studies | Poster (United States)

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer, and Jeff Lifson, Guest Writer Researchers are working to develop a more authentic animal model of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and AIDS that is expected to speed up studies of experimental treatments and vaccines.

  15. Co-infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1: does immune activation lead to a faster progression to AIDS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savino Wilson


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent data have shown that HTLV-1 is prevalent among HIV positive patients in Mozambique, although the impact of HTLV-1 infection on HIV disease progression remains controversial. Our aim was to determine the phenotypic profile of T lymphocytes subsets among Mozambican patients co-infected by HIV and HTLV-1. Methods We enrolled 29 patients co-infected by HTLV-1 and HIV (co-infected, 59 patients mono-infected by HIV (HIV and 16 healthy controls (HC, respectively. For phenotypic analysis, cells were stained with the following fluorochrome-labeled anti-human monoclonal antibodies CD4-APC, CD8-PerCP, CD25-PE, CD62L-FITC, CD45RA-FITC. CD45RO-PE, CD38-PE; being analysed by four-colour flow cytometry. Results We initially found that CD4+ T cell counts were significantly higher in co-infected, as compared to HIV groups. Moreover, CD4+ T Lymphocytes from co-infected patients presented significantly higher levels of CD45RO and CD25, but lower levels of CD45RA and CD62L, strongly indicating that CD4+ T cells are more activated under HTLV-1 plus HIV co-infection. Conclusion Our data indicate that HTLV-1/HIV co-infected patients progress with higher CD4+ T cell counts and higher levels of activation markers. In this context, it is conceivable that in co-infected individuals, these higher levels of activation may account for a faster progression to AIDS.

  16. Dermatology and HIV/AIDS in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Hu


    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS have greatly complicated dermatologic disease and the required care in most regions of Africa. Opportunistic infections, ectoparasites, Kaposi sarcoma, and skin manifestations of systemic infections are exceedingly common in patients with HIV/AIDS. Dermatologists have contributed significantly to our knowledge base about HIV/AIDS and have played an important educational role regarding the clinical manifestations historically. Because of the increased burden of skin disease in Africa due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic we must redouble our efforts to provide dermatology education to care providers in Africa. We review the burden of skin disease in Africa, how it relates to HIV/AIDS and global infectious disease, current educational strategies in Africa to address this need, and suggest potential solutions to move these efforts forward.

  17. AIDS: resource materials for school personnel. (United States)

    Fulton, G B; Metress, E; Price, J H


    The AIDS dilemma continues to escalate, leaving a legacy that probably will affect the nation for years to come. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control, the National Academy of Sciences, and the U.S. Surgeon General have noted that in the absence of a vaccine or treatment for AIDS, education remains the only effective means to prevent the spread of the disease. Thus, schools have an important role in protecting the public health. To respond appropriately to the situation, school personnel must become familiar with relevant information and resources available concerning AIDS. This article first provides essential information about AIDS using a question-and-answer format. Second, policy statements addressing school attendance by students infected with the virus that causes AIDS are presented. Third, hotlines that can be used to obtain more detailed information about AIDS are described. Fourth, organizations that can provide information for school health education about AIDS are identified. Fifth, an annotated list of audiovisual materials that schools can use to provide education about AIDS is provided. Sixth, a bibliography of publications relevant to school health education about AIDS is offered.

  18. 21 CFR 866.3520 - Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. 866... Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Rubeola (measles) virus serological... to rubeola virus in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of measles and...

  19. (United States)

    ... concerns. Search Services Share This Help National HIV/AIDS Strategy Check out NHAS's latest progress in the ... from Read more tweets HIV/AIDS Basics • Federal Resources • Using New ...

  20. Aids for Handicapped Readers. (United States)

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Div. for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

    The reference circular provides information on approximately 50 reading and writing aids intended for physically or visually handicapped individuals. Described are low vision aids, aids for holding a book or turning pages, aids for reading in bed, handwriting aids, typewriters and accessories, braille writing equipment, sound reproducers, and aids…

  1. NELA: A Community Response to HIV/AIDS in Nigeria (United States)

    Soyinka, Femi; Ogundare, Dipo; Olowookere, Kemi; Akinsola, Yemisi; Alade, Adeyemi; Moronkola, O. A.


    The greatest current threat to humanity, most especially in the developing countries of the world, is HIV/AIDS. The first case of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria was in 1986 in Lagos. Due to inaction and denial by the people, there was a rapid but subtle transmission of the virus within Nigeria's various populations and communities. Presently, the disease has…

  2. AIDS Knowledge and Behavior in a Migrant Farmworker Population. (United States)

    Foulk, David; And Others


    Describes research conducted in three rural Georgia migrant labor camps composed of Hispanic and Black males to collect information about the workers' knowledge of and risk for contracting the AIDS virus. Research indicates a significant need for AIDS education and intervention with this overlooked population. (Author)

  3. Macroeconomic Issues in Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjertholm, Peter; Laursen, Jytte; White, Howard

    foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,......foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,...

  4. Crawling Aid (United States)


    The Institute for the Achievement of Human Potential developed a device known as the Vehicle for Initial Crawling (VIC); the acronym is a tribute to the crawler's inventor, Hubert "Vic" Vykukal; is an effective crawling aid. The VIC is used by brain injured children who are unable to crawl due to the problems of weight-bearing and friction, caused by gravity. It is a rounded plywood frame large enough to support the child's torso, leaving arms and legs free to move. On its underside are three aluminum discs through which air is pumped to create an air-bearing surface that has less friction than a film of oil. Upper side contains the connection to the air supply and a pair of straps which restrain the child and cause the device to move with him. VIC is used with the intent to recreate the normal neurological connection between brain and muscles. Over repetitive use of the device the child develops his arm and leg muscles as well as coordination. Children are given alternating therapy, with and without the VIC until eventually the device is no longer needed.

  5. The development of an AIDS vaccine: progress and promise.


    Fauci, A S; Fischinger, P J


    The development of a safe and effective vaccine against infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is of paramount importance to the prevention of AIDS worldwide. Although a great deal has been learned about HIV in a few short years, the development of an AIDS vaccine has proved to be extremely difficult. The lack of an appropriate animal model for AIDS, the absence of a defined protective immune response in persons infected with HIV, the long latent period between initial infection ...

  6. Opportunistic infections and malignancies in 231 Danish AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Gerstoft, J; Tauris, P;


    We analysed cumulative disease frequencies in the first 231 adult Danish AIDS patients with life tables. There was a certain hierarchical pattern in the occurrence of complicating diseases. Herpes zoster, Kaposi's sarcoma and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia were early manifestations, whereas...... diseases caused by cytomegalovirus and atypical mycobacteria tended to occur later in the course of AIDS. Compared with all other AIDS patients, homosexual men were more likely to develop Kaposi's sarcoma, cytomegalovirus chorioretinitis and mucocutaneous herpes simplex virus infection. The proportion...

  7. Heart attack first aid (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  8. Breathing difficulties - first aid (United States)

    Difficulty breathing - first aid; Dyspnea - first aid; Shortness of breath - first aid ... Breathing difficulty is almost always a medical emergency. An exception is feeling slightly winded from normal activity, ...

  9. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Research (AIDS) (United States)


    scale [Wallston, Wallston,& DeVellis, 1978]; Temoshok Coping Vignettes), and social functioning (short-form version of the UCLA Loneliness scale ; Hays... scale screening was conducted that year, and it was determined that 1 million to 1.5 million Americans, mostly young adult males, were infected. The...McNaLr, Lorr, Droppleman, 1981), coping styles (Cortauld Emotional Control scale [Watson & Greer, 1982]; Multidimensional Health Locus of Control

  10. Mechanisms of Cytotoxicity of the Aids Virus (United States)


    mama ow., p’ rates. IA) The pied of yecoe~ariioam dbMXDA doASe Is fopreeledg d~qvammaiical Terpio room Ne o p od’ lath HXADA Ifriptetes Widoie* 312 to...inhibit NF-kB recuitment by the Tax ptatei of HEW-l, Aich binds directly to the NF-kB Fre---sor, and by tumor necrosis factori-alpa (M’*flpaa). We will...Cell, 65, 651-662. long terminal repeat of mouse mammary tumor vi- Kim, S., Ikeuchi, K., Byrn, R., Groopman, J. & Baltimore, rus. Nature (Lond.), 350

  11. Home Health Aides (United States)

    ... specifications Help to keep clients engaged in their social networks and communities Home health aides, unlike personal care aides , typically work ... self-care and everyday tasks. They also provide social supports and assistance that enable clients to participate in their ... more information about home health aides, including voluntary credentials for aides, visit ...

  12. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...... evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... for aid in the future...

  13. Types of Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Foreign aid is given for many purposes and different intentions, yet most studies treat aid flows as a unitary concept. This paper uses factor analysis to separate aid flows into different types. The main types can be interpreted as aid for economic purposes, social purposes, and reconstruction......; a residual category captures remaining purposes. Estimating the growth effects of separable types of aid suggests that most aid has no effects while reconstruction aid has direct positive effects. Although this type only applies in special circumstances, it has become more prevalent in more recent years....

  14. Opportunistic ocular infections in AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shikha Baisakhiya DOMS; FGO


    As the number of HIV infected patients is multiplying exponentially day by day so are the associated ocular complications.The increasing longevity of individuals with HIV disease has resulted in greater numbers of pa-tients with ocular opportunistic infection.By the means of this article we describe various opportunistic ocular infections in AIDS and their clinical manifestations,discussed under four headings;1 )adnexal manifestation;2)anterior segment manifestation;3)posterior segment manifestation;4)neuro ophthalmic manifestation . Herpes zoster ophthalmicus,molluscum contagiosum and Kaposi sarcoma are common adnexal manifestations. Molluscum contagiosum being the commonest.Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV)and herpes simplex virus (HSV) most commonly cause infectious keratitis in HIV-positive patients .As compared to the immunocompetent indi-viduals the frequency of bacterial and fungal keratitis is not more in HIV patients,but it tends to be more se-vere.Posterior segment structures involved in HIV-positive patients include the retina,choroid,and optic nerve head.The herpesvirus family is implicated most commonly in infections of the retina and choroid in HIV positive patients.CMV is the most common cause of retinitis and the commonest intraocular infection in AIDS. Atypical presentations resistance to conventional treatment and higher rate of recurrence make the diagnosis and therapeutic intervention more difficult and challenging.In addition,in one eye,several infections may occur at the same time,rendering the situation more difficult.

  15. Investigation of Diarrhea in AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus E Mönkemüller


    Full Text Available Chronic diarrhea is a common problem in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS, resulting in significant morbidity and potential mortality. In the early stages of immunodeficiency, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected patients are susceptible to infection with the same enteric pathogens that cause diarrhea in immunocompetent hosts, but with progressive immunodeficiency, these patients become susceptible to numerous opportunistic disorders. The main factor to consider when tailoring the work-up of diarrhea in the HIV-infected patient is the immune status, which is reflected by the total CD4 lymphocyte cell count. A CD4 count of less than 100 cells/µL is significantly correlated with opportunistic disorders. For the HIV-infected patient with diarrhea, repeated stool studies to investigate for bacteria, ova and parasites should be the first step. When either upper or lower gastrointestinal tract symptoms are present and stool studies are negative, endoscopy directed to the probable organ of involvement is appropriate. If localizing symptoms are absent, the most appropriate next test is sigmoidoscopy with biopsies. Not infrequently, despite extensive evaluation, the cause of diarrhea in patients with AIDS remains unexplained. Recently, the widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, including protease inhibitors, has led to a change in the epidemiology of diarrhea in AIDS patients. As their immune status improves, HIV-infected patients treated with combination therapy become less prone to opportunistic disorders. However, diarrhea appears to be frequent because several antiretroviral agents can themselves cause diarrhea.

  16. Aid and growth regressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Tarp, Finn


    This paper examines the relationship between foreign aid and growth in real GDP per capita as it emerges from simple augmentations of popular cross country growth specifications. It is shown that aid in all likelihood increases the growth rate, and this result is not conditional on ‘good’ policy....... There are, however, decreasing returns to aid, and the estimated effectiveness of aid is highly sensitive to the choice of estimator and the set of control variables. When investment and human capital are controlled for, no positive effect of aid is found. Yet, aid continues to impact on growth via...

  17. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has......Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...

  18. Aid and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn


    evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has......Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...

  19. The lonely voyage :support or isolation for gay men with AIDS?


    Shands, Nancy


    Twenty-five gay men, 20 with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and 5 with either AIDS Related Complex (ARC) or who tested positive for the AIDS virus, were asked in semi-structured interviews whether they felt supported or isolated. Areas covered included society in general, employment, housing, health care, insurance, religion, families of origin, ex-wives, children, friends and lovers. Subjects indicated that fear of AIDS, homophobia, and death anxiety were ...

  20. HIV/AIDS epidemic in the State of Amazonas: characteristics and trends from 2001 to 2012


    Romina do Socorro Marques de Oliveira; Adele Schwartz Benzaken; Valeria Saraceni; Meritxell Sabidó


    A scoping review was conducted to describe the epidemiological characteristics of the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, from 2001 to 2012, and temporary patterns were estimated from surveillance data. The results suggest that in its third decade, the Amazon HIV/AIDS epidemic is far from being stabilized and displays rising AIDS incidence and mortality rates and late diagnoses. The data suggest that AIDS cases ...

  1. HIV/AIDS Coinfection (United States)

    ... Laotian Mongolian Spanish Turkish Vietnamese Hindi Subscribe HIV/AIDS Coinfection Approximately 10% of the HIV-infected population ... Control and Prevention website to learn about HIV/AIDS and Viral Hepatitis guidelines and resources. Home About ...

  2. HIV/AIDS Basics (United States)

    ... Partner Spotlight Awareness Days Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or ... AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets ...

  3. Neurological Complications of AIDS (United States)

    ... in recent years has improved significantly because of new drugs and treatments. AIDS clinicians often fail to recognize ... in recent years has improved significantly because of new drugs and treatments. AIDS clinicians often fail to recognize ...

  4. Aid and growth regressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Tarp, Finn


    . There are, however, decreasing returns to aid, and the estimated effectiveness of aid is highly sensitive to the choice of estimator and the set of control variables. When investment and human capital are controlled for, no positive effect of aid is found. Yet, aid continues to impact on growth via...... investment. We conclude by stressing the need for more theoretical work before this kind of cross-country regressions are used for policy purposes....

  5. Designing State Aid Formulas (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine


    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  6. Determinants of State Aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiren, K.; Brouwer, E.


    From economic theory we derive a set of hypotheses on the determination of state aid. Econometric analysis on EU state aid panel data is carried out to test whether the determinants we expect on the basis of theory, correspond to the occurrence of state aid in practice in the EU. We find that politi

  7. Fever: First Aid (United States)

    First aid Fever: First aid Fever: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A fever is a rise in body temperature. It's usually a sign of infection. The ... 2 C) or higher Should I treat a fever? When you or your child is sick, the ...

  8. Stroke: First Aid (United States)

    First aid Stroke: First aid Stroke: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A stroke occurs when there's bleeding into your brain or when normal blood flow to ... next several hours. Seek immediate medical assistance. A stroke is a true emergency. The sooner treatment is ...

  9. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel

    inputs. We take as our point of departure a growth accounting analysis and review both intended and unintended effects of aid. Mozambique has benefited from sustained aid inflows in conflict, post-conflict and reconstruction periods. In each of these phases aid has made an unambiguous, positive...

  10. Virus Discovery Using Tick Cell Lines (United States)

    Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Attoui, Houssam


    While ticks have been known to harbor and transmit pathogenic arboviruses for over 80 years, the application of high-throughput sequencing technologies has revealed that ticks also appear to harbor a diverse range of endogenous tick-only viruses belonging to many different families. Almost nothing is known about these viruses; indeed, it is unclear in most cases whether the identified viral sequences are derived from actual replication-competent viruses or from endogenous virus elements incorporated into the ticks’ genomes. Tick cell lines play an important role in virus discovery and isolation through the identification of novel viruses chronically infecting such cell lines and by acting as host cells to aid in determining whether or not an entire replication-competent, infective virus is present in a sample. Here, we review recent progress in tick-borne virus discovery and comment on the actual and potential applications for tick cell lines in this emerging research area. PMID:27679414

  11. Conditional Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) studies the effect of development aid using econometrics on macro data. It contains about 100 papers of which a third analyzes conditional models where aid effectiveness depends upon z, so that aid only works for a certain range of the variable. The key term...... in this family of AEL models is thus an interaction term of z times aid. The leading candidates for z are a good policy index and aid itself. In this paper, meta-analysis techniques are used (i) to determine whether the AEL has established the said interaction terms, and (ii) to identify some of the determinants...... of the differences in results between studies. Taking all available studies in consideration, we find no support for conditionality with respect to policy, while conditionality regarding aid itself is dubious. However, the results differ depending on the authors’ institutional affiliation....

  12. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel

    This paper considers the relationship between external aid and development in Mozambique from 1980 to 2004. The main objective is to identify the specific mechanisms through which aid has influenced the developmental trajectory of the country and whether one can plausibly link outcomes to aid...... inputs. We take as our point of departure a growth accounting analysis and review both intended and unintended effects of aid. Mozambique has benefited from sustained aid inflows in conflict, post-conflict and reconstruction periods. In each of these phases aid has made an unambiguous, positive...... contribution both enabling and supporting rapid growth since 1992. At the same time, the proliferation of donors and aid-supported interventions has burdened local administration and there is a distinct need to develop government accountability to its own citizens rather than donor agencies. In ensuring...

  13. China vs. AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    CHINA's first HIV positive diagnosis was in 1985, the victim an ArgentineAmerican. At that time most Chinese,medical workers included, thought of AIDS as a phenomenon occurring outside of China. Twenty years later, the number of HIV/AIDS patients has risen alarmingly. In 2003, the Chinese Ministry of Health launched an AIDS Epidemiological Investigation across China with the support of the WHO and UN AIDS Program. Its results show that there are currently 840,000 HIV carriers, including 80,000 people with full-blown AIDS, in 31 Chinese provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. This means China has the second highest number of HIV/AIDS cases in Asia and 14th highest in the world. Statistics from the Chinese Venereal Disease and AIDS Prevention Association indicate that the majority of Chinese HIV carriers are young to middle aged, more than half of them between the ages of 20 and 29.

  14. Aid Effectiveness on Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) is econo¬metric studies of the macroeconomic effects of development aid. It contains about 100 papers of which 68 are reduced form estimates of theeffect of aid on growth in the recipient country. The raw data show that growth is unconnected to aid......, but the AEL has put so much structure on the data that all results possible have emerged. The present meta study considers both the best-set of the 68 papers and the all-set of 543 regressions published. Both sets have a positive average aid-growth elasticity, but it is small and insignificant: The AEL has...... betweenstudies is real. In particular, the aid-growth association is stronger for Asian countries, and the aid-growth association is shown to have been weaker in the 1970s....

  15. ECHO virus (United States)

    ... page: // ECHO virus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that lead to ...

  16. Conocimiento de Transmision de SIDA y Percepcion Hacia los Ninos con SIDA en el Salon de Clases de los Maestros de Educacion Especial (Knowledge of AIDS Transmission and Special Education Teachers' Attitudes towards Children with AIDS in the Classroom). (United States)

    Lopez de Williams, Milka

    This Spanish-language master's thesis presents a study which measured special education teachers' knowledge of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) virus transmission and their attitudes toward children with AIDS in schools. Attitudes were then related to social variables such as sex, teacher's age, and knowing someone with AIDS. A survey of…

  17. Control of feline leukaemia virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Weijer (Kees); F.G.C.M. Uytdehaag (Fons); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)


    textabstractFeline leukaemia virus (FeLV) usually occurs in its natural species, the domestic cat. FeLV is also important to human individuals as a comparative model, as it may cause a variety of diseases, some malignant and some benign, such as immunosuppression, which bears a resemblance to AIDS (

  18. The development of AIDS or AIDS-related conditions in a cohort of HIV antibody-positive homosexual men during a 3-year follow-up period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Kolby, P; Sindrup, J


    One hundred and thirty-three homosexual men seropositive for the antibody against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were enrolled in a prospective study in 1984-85. The 3-year cumulative incidences of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related conditions, by life-table analyses...

  19. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro and meso-levels, recent literature has turned decidedly pessimistic with respect to the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth. Policy implications, such as the complete cessation of aid to Africa......, are being drawn on the basis of fragile evidence. This paper first assesses the aid-growth literature with a focus on recent contributions. The aid-growth literature is then framed, for the first time, in terms of the Rubin Causal Model, applied at the macroeconomic level. Our results show that aid has...... a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run with point estimates at levels suggested by growth theory. We conclude that aid remains an important tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor nations....

  20. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn


    The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro and meso-levels, recent literature has turned decidedly pessimistic with respect to the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth. Policy implications, such as the complete cessation of aid to Africa......, are being drawn on the basis of fragile evidence. This paper first assesses the aid-growth literature with a focus on recent contributions. The aid-growth literature is then framed, for the first time, in terms of the Rubin Causal Model, applied at the macroeconomic level. Our results show that aid has...... a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run with point estimates at levels suggested by growth theory. We conclude that aid remains an important tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor nations....

  1. AIDS in South Africa. (United States)

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H


    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  2. JPRS Report, Epidemiology, Aids (United States)


    at home. For this they can thank the National Federation of Gays and Lesbians (LBL). -To develop an adequate core of specialists in AIDS prevention... Homosexuality [Vusie Ginindza; Mbabane THE TIMES OF SWAZILAND, 15 May 91] ...................................... 4 JPRS-TEP-91-012 5 June 1991 2 AIDS TANZANIA...sensitivity and not to sensa- tionalize the issue. Health Workers ’Alarmed’ at rise in AIDS, Homosexuality SWAZILAND MB1505085891 Mbabane THE TIMES

  3. Radiographic imaging of aids

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, M B


    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has impacted the civilized world like no other disease. This research aimed to discuss some of the main aids-related complications and their detection by radiology tests, specifically central nervous system and musculoskeletal system disorders. The objectives are: to show specific characteristics of various diseases of HIV patient, to analyze the effect of pathology in patients by radiology, to enhance the knowledge of technologists in aids imaging and to improve communication skills between patient and radiology technologists.

  4. AIDS in position to ravage India. (United States)

    Jayaraman, K S


    The Joint UN Program on AIDS reports that India has more than 3 million adults infected with HIV, more HIV-infected adults than any other country in the world. By the year 2005, India will have more people infected with HIV than does Africa. Having sex with a Bombay housewife today is at least twice as risky as it was to have sex with a prostitute in the city's red light district in 1988. 2-3% of all women in the city are infected with HIV. There is ignorance, apathy, corruption, and lack of commitment at all levels with regard to HIV/AIDS. Accordingly, India's lackluster campaign against AIDS launched 10 years ago has lost momentum just as the epidemic is exploding and at a time when traditional beliefs about cultural barriers and the sexual behavior of Indian males are being called into question. Considerable homosexual behavior occurs in India. However, the most important factor contributing to the spread of HIV throughout India is the virus' spread from urban areas into small villages, often through migrant laborers. Ignorance, illiteracy, and poverty in villages will make AIDS prevention especially difficult. Indian government policy forbidding the distribution of condoms in prisons, needles to injectable-drug users, and free drugs to AIDS patients further contributes to the spread of HIV.

  5. Malaysia urges ASEAN to tackle AIDS crisis. (United States)


    Urgent action is needed to fight the alarming spread of HIV/AIDS that infected 1.3 million people in Southeast Asia last year alone, Malaysia's foreign minister said July 24, 2000. Syed Hamid said the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) should tackle at regional and national level an epidemic that was taking its most drastic toll among the region's youth. "HIV/AIDS not only represents a major public health and social problem but is a serious challenge to development as well," Syed Hamid told the opening ceremony of ASEAN's 33rd annual foreign ministers' meeting. The crisis requires commitment at the "highest political level," he said, warning that HIV/AIDS could become a transnational problem within the 10-member group. Foreign ministers have recommended their leaders discuss the crisis later this year at an informal summit in Singapore and hold a summit on HIV/AIDS in conjunction with the 7th ASEAN Summit in Brunei next year. "I think people recognized the importance and the adverse impacts on our social development," Syed Hamid told reporters later. "I think it is a real issue that we cannot run away from." Among ASEAN members, Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar have some of the highest infection rates in Asia of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.

  6. AIDS -- why African successes are scoffed. (United States)

    Ankomah, B


    Pressures to create a profitable Third World market for Western drugs may have led to the suppression of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) treatments developed in Africa. Six years before four Western pharmaceutical companies announced the discovery of a three-drug regimen that appears to produce remission in some patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Ugandan physician Dr. Charles Ssali had developed a similar formulation. Beginning in 1989, Dr. Ssali gave HIV-infected patients at his Kampala clinic a preparation, Miriandina, containing 27 naturally occurring anti-oxidants and micronutrients that stimulate the immune system and prevent progression to AIDS. To date, he has treated over 12,000 patients, with an 80% success rate. His first patient, who presented in 1989 with full-blown AIDS, is alive and symptom-free. Miriandina is taken for 12-18 months, at a cost of only US $0.50 per tablet ($600 for six months of treatment). Another herbal formulation, Pearl Omega, developed by scientist Arthur Obel with funds provided by the Kenyan government, has produced a similar reversal of AIDS symptoms. However, international donor organizations and the AIDS establishment have refused to fund these African-based efforts or to publicize their success. It is suggested that this reflects a plan to force African countries to take out World Bank loans to finance the more expensive ($8300 a course) Western-based protease inhibitors.

  7. Music and hearing aids. (United States)

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J


    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems.

  8. Magnetic nanotherapeutics for dysregulated synaptic plasticity during neuroAIDS and drug abuse


    Sagar, Vidya; Atluri, Venkata Subba Rao; Pilakka-Kanthikeel, Sudheesh; Nair, Madhavan


    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a neurotropic virus. It induces neurotoxicity and subsequent brain pathologies in different brain cells. Addiction to recreational drugs remarkably affects the initiation of HIV infections and expedites the progression of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) associated neuropathogenesis. Symptoms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are noticed in many AIDS patients. At least 50 % of HIV diagnosed cases show one or other kind of neur...

  9. Two double-blinded, randomized, comparative trials of 4 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope vaccines in HIV-1-infected individuals across a spectrum of disease severity: AIDS Clinical Trials Groups 209 and 214. (United States)

    Schooley, R T; Spino, C; Kuritzkes, D; Walker, B D; Valentine, F A; Hirsch, M S; Cooney, E; Friedland, G; Kundu, S; Merigan, T C; McElrath, M J; Collier, A; Plaeger, S; Mitsuyasu, R; Kahn, J; Haslett, P; Uherova, P; deGruttola, V; Chiu, S; Zhang, B; Jones, G; Bell, D; Ketter, N; Twadell, T; Chernoff, D; Rosandich, M


    The potential role of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific immune responses in controlling viral replication in vivo has stimulated interest in enhancing virus-specific immunity by vaccinating infected individuals with HIV-1 or its components. These studies were undertaken to define patient populations most likely to respond to vaccination, with the induction of novel HIV-1-specific cellular immune responses, and to compare the safety and immunogenicity of several candidate recombinant HIV-1 envelope vaccines and adjuvants. New lymphoproliferative responses (LPRs) developed in 350 cells/mm(3) and were usually strain restricted. Responders tended to be more likely than nonresponders to have an undetectable level of HIV-1 RNA at baseline (P=.067). Induction of new cellular immune responses by HIV-1 envelope vaccines is a function of the immunologic stage of disease and baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA level and exhibits considerable vaccine strain specificity.

  10. Opportunistic infections and malignancies in 231 Danish AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Gerstoft, J; Tauris, P;


    We analysed cumulative disease frequencies in the first 231 adult Danish AIDS patients with life tables. There was a certain hierarchical pattern in the occurrence of complicating diseases. Herpes zoster, Kaposi's sarcoma and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia were early manifestations, whereas...... diseases caused by cytomegalovirus and atypical mycobacteria tended to occur later in the course of AIDS. Compared with all other AIDS patients, homosexual men were more likely to develop Kaposi's sarcoma, cytomegalovirus chorioretinitis and mucocutaneous herpes simplex virus infection. The proportion...... of patients who developed particular diseases changed with calendar time. Most striking was a three to fourfold decrease in diseases caused by cytomegalovirus. In conclusion, the study showed that disease frequencies in patients with AIDS may vary with the patients risk behaviour and duration of AIDS...

  11. Magnetic Implants Aid Hearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The next generation of hearing aids may use tiny magnets that fit inside the ear. Researchersat a California company and an engineer at the University of Virginia are both developing systems that rely on magnets to convey sounds. Conventional hearing aids have three components:a microphone, an amplifier, and a speaker. The microphone picks up sounds and sends them to the am-

  12. Genetic Immunity to AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In an article on genetic immunity to AIDS published in Science magazine, American and Chinese scientists claim to have discovered why certain HIV carriers do not develop full-blown AIDS. They say that the key to this conundrum lies in a particular protein in the endocrine system that inhibits development of HIV.

  13. Aid and sectoral growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Thiele, Rainer


    This article examines empirically the proposition that aid to poor countries is detrimental for external competitiveness, giving rise to Dutch disease type effects. At the aggregate level, aid is found to have a positive effect on growth. A sectoral decomposition shows that the effect is (i...

  14. International Aid to Education (United States)

    Benavot, Aaron


    Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

  15. Aid and Income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lof, Matthijs; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn


    to nonrandom omission of a large proportion of observations. Furthermore, we show that NDHKM’s use of co-integrated regressions is not a suitable empirical strategy for estimating the causal effect of aid on income. Evidence from a Panel VAR model estimated on the dataset of NDHKM, suggests a positive...... and statistically significant long-run effect of aid on income....

  16. First Aid: Burns (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns A A A Scald burns from hot water and other liquids are the most common burns in early childhood. Because burns range from mild ...

  17. The Aid Effectiveness Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL consists of empirical macro studies of the effects of development aid. At the end of 2004 it had reached 97 studies of three families, which we have summarized in one study each using meta-analysis. Studies of the effect on investments show that they rise by 1/3 of the aid – the rest is c...

  18. First Aid: Diaper Rash (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Diaper Rash KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Diaper Rash A A A Diaper rash is a common skin condition in babies. ... rash is due to irritation caused by the diaper, but it can have other causes not related ...

  19. First Aid: Burns (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Scald burns from hot water and other liquids are the most common burns in early childhood. Because burns range from mild to life threatening, ...

  20. Aid, Development, and Education (United States)

    Klees, Steven J.


    The world faces pervasive poverty and inequality. Hundreds of billions of dollars in international aid have been given or loaned to developing countries though bilateral and multilateral mechanisms, at least, ostensibly, in order to do something about these problems. Has such aid helped? Debates around this question have been ongoing for decades,…

  1. HIV and AIDS (United States)

    ... one HIV test by the time they are teens. If you are having sex, have had sex in the past, or shared ... reviewed: October 2015 previous 1 • 2 • ... STDs How Do People Get AIDS? Can You Get HIV From Having Sex With Someone Who Has AIDS? Can Someone Get ...

  2. First Aid: Falls (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A en español Folleto de instructiones: Caídas (Falls) With all the running, climbing, and exploring kids ...

  3. AIDS as Metaphor. (United States)

    McMillen, Liz


    Scholarly interest in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has spread throughout the humanities, attracting the attention of historians of medicine, political scientists, sociologists, public health scholars, and anthropologists. Most theorists hope their research will aid in policymaking or change understanding of the epidemic. (MSE)

  4. The Development of an AIDS Mucosal Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Tang


    Full Text Available It is well known that mucosal tissues contain the largest surface area of the human body and are the front line of natural host defense against various pathogens. In fact, more than 80% of infectious disease pathogens probably gain entry into the susceptible human hosts through open mucosal surfaces. Human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1, a mainly sexually transmitted virus, also primarily targets the vaginal and gastrointestinal mucosa as entry sites for viral transmission, seeding, replication and amplification. Since HIV-1 establishes its early replication in vaginal or rectal mucosal tissues, the induction of sufficient mucosal immunity at the initial site of HIV-1 transmission becomes essential for a protective vaccine. However, despite the fact that current conventional vaccine strategies have remained unsuccessful in preventing HIV-1 infection, sufficient financial support and resources have yet to be given to develop a vaccine able to elicit protective mucosal immunity against sexual transmissions. Interestingly, Chinese ancestors invented variolation through intranasal administration about one thousand years ago, which led to the discovery of a successful smallpox vaccine and the final eradication of the disease. It is the hope for all mankind that the development of a mucosal AIDS vaccine will ultimately help control the AIDS pandemic. In order to discover an effective mucosal AIDS vaccine, it is necessary to have a deep understanding of mucosal immunology and to test various mucosal vaccination strategies.

  5. AIDS in South Africa: Therapeutic Interventions to Strengthen Resilience among Orphans and Vulnerable Children (United States)

    Heath, Melissa Allen; Donald, David R.; Theron, Linda C.; Lyon, Rachel Crook


    Worldwide, approximately 10% of the 34.2 million individuals infected by human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are under the age of 18. Additionally, 17.8 million children have experienced one or both parents dying of HIV/AIDS. In comparison to other countries, South Africa has the highest per capita of…

  6. HIV/AIDS and its implications – a global threat that medicine alone cannot cure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Liljestrand, Jerker; Barnett, Anthony


    During the last twenty-five years we have learned how the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes AIDS, how it spreads and how it does not. We have also watched as AIDS has destroyed whole populations, and observed which responses appear most efficacious. One of the most alarming characteristic...

  7. Education about HIV/AIDS--Theoretical Underpinnings for a Practical Response (United States)

    Miedema, Esther A. J.; Maxwell, Claire; Aggleton, Peter


    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related education is seen by many as central to increasing young people's awareness of, as well as decreasing their vulnerability to, HIV. There is less agreement, however, on the central goals of HIV- and AIDS-related education and the form it might best take. This…

  8. Using System Dynamics to model the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Botswana and Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howell, R.; Wesselink, O.; Pruyt, E.


    Uganda and Botswana present two interesting and contrasting cases in the AIDS epidemic. System dynamics models of the AIDS epidemic in Botswana and Uganda were created to examine the future development of the virus in both countries and evaluate existing and future policy measures. The effect of exi

  9. Female Secondary School Adolescents' Sexual Behavior and School Based HIV/AIDS Education Program (United States)

    Inyang, Mfrekemfon P.


    Most adolescents engage in indiscriminate sexual experimentations. This practice exposes them to the risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndromes (AIDS) are among the deadly diseases that exist globally. Twice as many girls, compared to boys…

  10. Lazarus and Group Psychotherapy: AIDS in the Era of Protease Inhibitors (United States)

    Gushue, George V.; Brazaitis, Sarah J.


    A new class of medications, protease inhibitors, has dramatically improved the health of many people with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). This development has had a major impact on the lives of those affected by HIV/AIDS. This article considers how a group is affected by the larger systems of…

  11. And in Kenya, an ambitious effort: AIDS cases multiplying despite attacks on problem. (United States)

    Momanyi, R; Ngugi, J


    The existence in Kenya of 750,000 individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and 41,000 cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has impelled state officials and nongovernmental organizations to develop a more comprehensive approach to AIDS prevention. For example, PLAN Kiambu's AIDS Education, Prevention, and Community Support Program is providing emergency assistance (food, medical care, financial support) to those with AIDS and their families, facilitating school attendance of children orphaned by AIDS, establishing AIDS support groups, conducting outreach to prostitutes and other high-risk groups, and developing educational materials for children 7-16 years of age. Traditional media, such as drama, songs, and dance, are the preferred communication channels for AIDS education. People with AIDS are recruited to serve as peer counselors. Another nongovernmental organization has targeted female children for educational campaigns aimed at raising their self-esteem and capacity to be assertive.

  12. Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in HIV/AIDS and immune reconstitution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jielin Zhang; Clyde S Crumpacker


    @@ The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) causes an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).HIV-1 infects human immune cells,specifically CD4+ lymphocytes, which leads to AIDS and undermines reconstitution of immunity. The unique challenges of HIV/AIDS have triggered multidisciplinary investigators to study the virology of the pathogen and the biology of the host cells, especially the interactions of HIV-1 with T-lymphocytes,macrophages, and hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) [1-8].

  13. Children affected with HIV/AIDS: Information of HIV/AIDS in five Colombian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Trejos


    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe information about HIV/AIDS in a youth population under 18 years of age affected with HIV/AIDS and caregivers in five Colombian cities: Cali, Buenaventura, Barranquilla, Santa Marta, and Cartagena.Methods: 286 personal surveys were conducted: 11 of children who were aware of their status of involvement with HIV/AIDS and 275 of caregivers of children who did not know their status of involvement with HIV/AIDS. The surveys were conducted in health institutions in the State and private sectors and private, using instruments in line with training programs from participating institutions to inquire about HIV/AIDS. Descriptive analysis was performed of the data and tabulation was done with the SPSS program.Results: Most children who knew their status of involvement with HIV/AIDS report that by acquiring the HIV virus, they may develop other diseases; however, half of these fail to recognize that AIDS weakens the body’s ability to fight infection. The children surveyed partly recognized the HIV/AIDS transmission and treatment mechanisms, while caregivers possess adequate information on the disease. We found reasons to delay the delivery of diagnosis by caregivers 96.2% (N=275 related to avoiding psychological harm to the children, and that if they were to know said status, they might inadvertently disclose this to others, probably exposing them to stigma and/or discrimination. Likewise, professionals providing health services to HIV seropositive children express lack of training regarding the proper procedure and age to reveal such information.Conclusions: It is a priority to enhance the capacity, information, and education of patients about effects, characteristics, manifestations, and treatment of the disease within the comprehensive health management processes conducive to supporting affected families.

  14. Children affected with HIV/AIDS: Information of HIV/AIDS in five Colombian cities*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Trejos


    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe information about HIV/AIDS in a youth population under 18 years of age affected with HIV/AIDS and caregivers in five Colombian cities: Cali, Buenaventura, Barranquilla, Santa Marta, and Cartagena. Methods: 286 personal surveys were conducted: 11 of children who were aware of their status of involvement with HIV/AIDS and 275 of caregivers of children who did not know their status of involvement with HIV/AIDS. The surveys were conducted in health institutions in the State and private sectors and private, using instruments in line with training programs from participating institutions to inquire about HIV/AIDS. Descriptive analysis was performed of the data and tabulation was done with the SPSS program. Results: Most children who knew their status of involvement with HIV/AIDS report that by acquiring the HIV virus, they may develop other diseases; however, half of these fail to recognize that AIDS weakens the body’s ability to fight infection. The children surveyed partly recognized the HIV/AIDS transmission and treatment mechanisms, while caregivers possess adequate information on the disease. We found reasons to delay the delivery of diagnosis by caregivers 96.2% (N=275 related to avoiding psychological harm to the children, and that if they were to know said status, they might inadvertently disclose this to others, probably exposing them to stigma and/or discrimination. Likewise, professionals providing health services to HIV seropositive children express lack of training regarding the proper procedure and age to reveal such information. Conclusions: It is a priority to enhance the capacity, information, and education of patients about effects, characteristics, manifestations, and treatment of the disease within the comprehensive health management processes conducive to supporting affected families.

  15. HIV, AIDS, and the Future (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... turn Javascript on. Photo: The NAMES Project Foundation HIV and AIDS are a global catastrophe. While advances ...

  16. Political dimensions of AIDS. (United States)

    Blewett, N


    World political aspects and the example of Australia as a national political response to AIDS are presented. Global policy on AIDS is influenced by the fact that the AIDS epidemic is the 1st to be largely predictable, that long lag times occur between intervention and measurable events, and by the prompt, professional leadership of WHO, lead by Dr. J. Mann. WHO began a Global Programme on AIDS in 1987, modelled on the responses of Canada and Australia. A world summit of Ministers of Health was convened in January 1988. These moves generated a response qualified by openness, cooperation, hope and common sense. The AIDS epidemic calls for unprecedented involvement of politicians: they must coordinate medical knowledge with community action, deal with public fear, exert strong, rational leadership and avoid quick, appealing counterproductive responses. 3 clear directions must be taken to deal with the epidemic: 1) strong research and education campaigns; 2) close contact with political colleagues, interest groups and the community; 3) a national strategy which enjoins diverse interest groups, with courage, rationality and compassion. In Australia, the AIDS response began with the unwitting infection of 3 infants by blood transfusion. A public information campaign emphasizing a penetrating TV ad campaign was instituted in 1987. Policy discussions were held in all parliamentary bodies. The AIDS epidemic demands rapid, creative responses, a break from traditions in health bureaucracy, continual scrutiny of funding procedures and administrative arrangements. In practical terms in Australia, this meant establishing a special AIDS branch within the Health Advancement Division of the Community Health Department. AIDS issues must remain depoliticized to defuse adversary politics and keep leaders in a united front.

  17. Cardiovascular implications from untreated human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jason V; Lundgren, Jens D


    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become an important cause of morbidity and mortality among individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection with access to antiretroviral medications, as the risk for AIDS has fallen and life expectancy improved. Traditional CVD risk...

  18. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh


    Recent litterature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This article assesses what meta-analysis has to contribute to the litterature on the effectiveness...... of foreign aid in terms of growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....

  19. Aid Supplies Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel


    What determines how much foreign aid donors provide? Existing answers to this question point to a complex range of influences. However, the tasks of distinguishing between long- and short-run factors, as well as differences between donors, have not been adequately addressed. Taking advantage...... of data spanning nearly 50 years, this paper uses panel cointegration techniques to consider these issues. The analysis provides clear evidence for heterogeneity both between donors and over time, bandwagon effects, and a growing influence of security considerations in aid provision. Domestic...... macroeconomic shocks have a moderate but delayed effect on aid disbursements....

  20. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn

    Some recent literature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses what meta-analysis has to say about the effectiveness of foreign aid in terms...... of the growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....

  1. HIV/AIDS and rheumatoid arthritis. (United States)

    Cunha, Bernardo M; Mota, Licia Maria H; Pileggi, Gecilmara S; Safe, Izabella P; Lacerda, Marcus V G


    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an infectious disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It was first recognized in the United States in 1981, and the HIV/AIDS epidemic has since spread to affect all countries. The interface of HIV/AIDS with opportunistic infectious diseases is well characterized, but further research is required into the concurrence of other chronic diseases. The objective of this review was to identify possible interferences of HIV infection in the diagnosis and management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A review of the available evidence was conducted using the GRADE approach. Overall, the quality of evidence was low. Our main conclusions were: (1) the occurrence of rheumatoid-like arthritis in patients with HIV/AIDS is quite rare; therefore, it is not recommended that HIV infection be considered routinely as a differential diagnosis in this condition (C2); (2) HIV infection may lead to rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody positivity, but usually at low titers (C1); (3) RA might cause false-positive HIV serology and ELISA seems to be a more specific test for HIV in patients with RA (C2); (4) RA and AIDS may coexist, even in cases of severe immunosuppression (C1); (5) RA emergence may seldom occur during or after immune reconstitution (C1); and (6) there is insufficient safety data to recommend use of specific disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in RA patients with HIV/AIDS. Therefore, these drugs should be used cautiously (C1).

  2. Audiological and Ontological Findings in Acquired Immune-Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Vadoudfam


    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is the virus that causes AIDS (acquired immune-deficiency syndrome. Head and neck are the most common sites in contamination with this virus. HIV can affect outer, middle and inner parts of the ear. Changing in the color of the skin, effusion, infection and sudden hearing loss are some types of the audiological and ontological findings in such patients.

  3. Pulmonary complications of AIDS: radiologic features. [AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, B.A.; Pomeranz, S.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Rosen, M.J.; Train, J.S.; Norton, K.I.; Mendelson, D.S.


    Fifty-two patients with pulmonary complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied over a 3-year period. The vast majority of the patients were homosexual; however, a significant number were intravenous drug abusers. Thirteen different organisms were noted, of which Pneumocystis carinii was by far the most common. Five patients had neoplasia. Most patients had initial abnormal chest films; however, eight patients subsequently shown to have Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia had normal chest films. A significant overlap in chest radiographic findings was noted among patients with different or multiple organisms. Lung biopsy should be an early consideration for all patients with a clinical history consistent with the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Of the 52 patients, 41 had died by the time this report was completed.

  4. High specificity of a novel Zika virus ELISA in European patients after exposure to different flaviviruses. (United States)

    Huzly, Daniela; Hanselmann, Ingeborg; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Panning, Marcus


    The current Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas caused an increase in diagnostic requests in European countries. Here we demonstrate high specificity of the Euroimmun anti-ZIKV IgG and IgM ELISA tests using putative cross-reacting sera of European patients with antibodies against tick-borne encephalitis virus, dengue virus, yellow fever virus and hepatitis C virus. This test may aid in counselling European travellers returning from regions where ZIKV is endemic.

  5. Prostitution, AIDS, and preventive health behavior. (United States)

    Campbell, C A


    Although considerable attention has been placed on the role of prostitutes in the AIDS epidemic, little attention has been directed to features of prostitutes' work lives which are relevant to the control of AIDS. This article reviews several aspects of prostitution in the United States which have implications for control of the epidemic. The article first reviews the epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among prostitutes. The legalized system of prostitution in Nevada serves as a basis for comparison to illegal prostitution. This article examines the effectiveness of mandatory testing of prostitutes for monitoring and controlling the epidemic. And finally, a peer education approach as a means to control HIV infection among prostitutes is explored.

  6. Human immunodeficiency virus endocrinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Sinha


    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV endocrinopathy encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders. Almost all the endocrine organs are virtually affected by HIV infection. HIV can directly alter glandular function. More commonly secondary endocrine dysfunction occurs due to opportunistic infections and neoplasms in immunocompromised state. The complex interaction between HIV infection and endocrine system may be manifested as subtle biochemical and hormonal perturbation to overt glandular failure. Antiretroviral therapy as well as other essential medications often result in adverse endocrinal consequences. Apart from adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, diabetes and bone loss, AIDS wasting syndrome and HIV lipodystrophy need special reference. Endocrinal evaluation should proceed as in other patients with suspected endocrine dysfunction. Available treatment options have been shown to improve quality of life and long-term mortality in AIDS patients.

  7. Migrant labor and sexually transmitted disease: AIDS in Africa. (United States)

    Hunt, C W


    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is worldwide, but the clinical and epidemiological pattern of the disease in Africa is different from that in developed areas. "Type 1 AIDS" occurs in industrialized North America and Europe; it has a distinctive sex ratio (16:1) and risk pattern of IV drug use and sexual practices. "Type 2 AIDS" occurs in Third World countries, particularly in eastern, southern, and central Africa. It is characterized by an entirely different sex ratio (1:1) and by distinctively different risk patterns. Both epidemics are caused by the HIV-1 virus. The key concept for understanding the origins of the differences between Type 1 and Type 2 AIDS is the migratory labor system in eastern, central, and southern Africa. This system causes long absences, increased family breakdown, and increased numbers of sexual partners. Historically the organization of this labor market has created a population which suffers from epidemics of sexually transmitted diseases. These historical patterns are presented as evidence for the contemporary transmission of AIDS. When contemporary AIDS and HIV-1 seropositivity prevalence data are examined, a systematic temporal and geographic pattern emerges for the AIDS epidemic in Africa. Despite a paucity of good data, the prevalence data from eastern, central, and southern Africa support the thesis of migrant labor's role in the transmission of AIDS.

  8. Zika Virus (United States)

    Zika is a virus that is spread mostly by mosquitoes. A pregnant mother can pass it to ... through blood transfusions. There have been outbreaks of Zika virus in the United States, Africa, Southeast Asia, ...

  9. Chikungunya Virus (United States)

    ... Gaines, PhD, MPH, MA, CHES Differentiating Chikungunya From Dengue: A Clinical Challenge For Travelers CDC Travelers' Health Chikungunya Virus Home Prevention Transmission Symptoms & Treatment Geographic Distribution Chikungunya virus in ...

  10. Chikungunya virus (United States)

    Chikungunya virus infection; Chikungunya ... Where Chikungunya is found Before 2013, the virus was found in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific oceans. In late 2013, outbreaks occurred for the first time in the ...

  11. VirusSeeker, a computational pipeline for virus discovery and virome composition analysis. (United States)

    Zhao, Guoyan; Wu, Guang; Lim, Efrem S; Droit, Lindsay; Krishnamurthy, Siddharth; Barouch, Dan H; Virgin, Herbert W; Wang, David


    The advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) has vastly increased our ability to discover novel viruses and to systematically define the spectrum of viruses present in a given specimen. Such studies have led to the discovery of novel viral pathogens as well as broader associations of the virome with diverse diseases including inflammatory bowel disease, severe acute malnutrition and HIV/AIDS. Critical to the success of these efforts are robust bioinformatic pipelines for rapid classification of microbial sequences. Existing computational tools are typically focused on either eukaryotic virus discovery or virome composition analysis but not both. Here we present VirusSeeker, a BLAST-based NGS data analysis pipeline designed for both purposes. VirusSeeker has been successfully applied in several previously published virome studies. Here we demonstrate the functionality of VirusSeeker in both novel virus discovery and virome composition analysis.

  12. HIV/AIDS (United States)

    ... equity (covering the populations in need of services). Financing for sustainability (covering the costs of services). Innovation for acceleration (looking towards the future). WHO is a cosponsor of the Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS (UNAIDS). Within UNAIDS, WHO leads ...

  13. First Aid: Croup (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... with each breath has a pale or bluish color around the mouth drools or has difficulty swallowing ...

  14. Buying a Hearing Aid (United States)

    ... Contact Us Calendar ENTCareers Marketplace ENT Careers Marketplace Log in b Log in Toggle navigation b Join Now Donate Now ... using your hearing aids in quiet surroundings, gradually building up to noisier environments. Then eventually work up ...

  15. AidData (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — AidData is a research and innovation lab making information on development finance more accessible and actionable. Tracking more than $6 trillion dollars from 90+...

  16. Convulsions - first aid - slideshow (United States)

    ... this page: // Convulsions - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To use ... slide 2 out of 2 Overview When a seizure occurs, the main goal is to protect the ...

  17. Hypophyseal pathology in AIDS


    Mosca, L; Costanzi, G; Antonacci, C.; Boldorini, R; Carboni, N.; Cristina, S; Liberani, C.; Parravicini, C.; Pirolo, A.; Vago, L


    One hundred and eleven pituitary glands of patients (93 males, 18 females; mean age 32 years, 5 months) who died of fully developed AIDS or ARC were examined under light microscopy with the aid of immunohistochemistry. On post mortem (p.m.) examination a wide series of multiorgan alterations was noticed. Microscopically vanous lesions in both adeno- and neurohypophysis were seen. These ranged from vessel damage to secondaries to systemic infections, neoplas...

  18. Plasma-aided manufacturing (United States)

    Shohet, J. L.


    Plasma-aided manufacturing is used for producing new materials with unusual and superior properties, for developing new chemical compounds and processes, for machining, and for altering and refining materials and surfaces. Plasma-aided manufacturing has direct applications to semiconductor fabrication, materials synthesis, welding, lighting, polymers, anti-corrosion coatings, machine tools, metallurgy, electrical and electronics devices, hazardous waste removal, high performance ceramics, and many other items in both the high-technology and the more traditional industries in the United States.

  19. Gastroenteritis: First Aid (United States)

    ... Viruses. Food or water contaminated by bacteria or parasites. Reaction to a new food. Young children may ... gastroenteritis. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. ...

  20. Multilateral Aid | L’aide multilatérale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Bilateral and Multilateral Aid, DAC Members, 1960–2010 (in million USD constant, 2009Aide bilatérale et multilatérale des pays membres du CAD, 1960-2010 (en millions USD constants de 2009­Bilateral and Multilateral Aid by Recipient Region, DAC Members, 2008 (in percentage of total aid by RegionAide bilatérale et multilatérale des pays membres du CAD par region de destination, 2008 (en pourcentage de l’aide totale par régionSources: OECD (2010 2010 DAC Report on Multilateral Aid (Paris: O...

  1. Comparing eLearning and Classroom Instruction on HIV/AIDS Knowledge Uptake and Internalizing among South African and Irish Pupils (United States)

    van Zyl, Hendra; Visser, Pieter; van Wyk, Elmarie; Laubscher, Ria


    Objective: Innovative public health approaches are required to improve human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) education and prevention among adolescents, one of the most vulnerable groups to HIV/AIDS. Consequently, elearning and classroom instruction was assessed for HIV/AIDS knowledge uptake and internalizing…

  2. Targeting the audience for AIDS messages by actual and perceived risk. (United States)

    Snyder, L B; Rouse, R A


    Since there are many ways to segment an audience into target groups, we suggest that a productive strategy for AIDS education is to divide the audience by their actual and perceived risk. We provide an example in which we segmented an urban U.S. sample and make suggestions as to how messages appropriate for each group can be constructed. In our sample, the "unthreatened" accurately assessed their low risk of AIDS, and showed high knowledge and tolerance rates. The "panicked," who included more women and Hispanics, inaccurately thought themselves at high risk because of misunderstandings about the causes of AIDS, and showed more intolerance of people with AIDS. "Deniers" continued to have multiple sexual partners and take precautions irregularly, despite seeing AIDS as a social problem and having more education and AIDS knowledge. In contrast, "gamblers" recognized their higher risk of AIDS and were most likely to have taken some action, although not enough to prevent sexual transmission of the HIV virus.

  3. Bone Marrow Gene Therapy for HIV/AIDS. (United States)

    Herrera-Carrillo, Elena; Berkhout, Ben


    Bone marrow gene therapy remains an attractive option for treating chronic immunological diseases, including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This technology combines the differentiation and expansion capacity of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) with long-term expression of therapeutic transgenes using integrating vectors. In this review we summarize the potential of bone marrow gene therapy for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. A broad range of antiviral strategies are discussed, with a particular focus on RNA-based therapies. The idea is to develop a durable gene therapy that lasts the life span of the infected individual, thus contrasting with daily drug regimens to suppress the virus. Different approaches have been proposed to target either the virus or cellular genes encoding co-factors that support virus replication. Some of these therapies have been tested in clinical trials, providing proof of principle that gene therapy is a safe option for treating HIV/AIDS. In this review several topics are discussed, ranging from the selection of the antiviral molecule and the viral target to the optimal vector system for gene delivery and the setup of appropriate preclinical test systems. The molecular mechanisms used to formulate a cure for HIV infection are described, including the latest antiviral strategies and their therapeutic applications. Finally, a potent combination of anti-HIV genes based on our own research program is described.

  4. Virus Innexins induce alterations in insect cell and tissue function (United States)

    Polydnaviruses are dsDNA viruses that induce immune and developmental alterations in their caterpillar hosts. Characterization of polydnavirus gene families and family members is necessary to understand mechanisms of pathology and evolution of these viruses, and may aid to elucidate the role of host...

  5. Women and AIDS: introduction. (United States)

    Krieger, N; Margo, G


    Around the world, more and more women--principally poor women of color--are being diagnosed with and are dying of AIDS, the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Yet, effective and appropriate prevention programs for women are sorely missing from the global program to control AIDS. To help us understand why this gap exists, and what we must do to close it, the three articles in this issue focus on women and AIDS. Examining the situation in such countries as Zimbabwe and South Africa, as well as in other economically underdeveloped and developed regions, the authors argue that women with the least control over their bodies and their lives are at greatest risk of acquiring AIDS. For example, the high rate of infection among women in Africa cannot be understood apart from the legacy of colonialism (including land expropriation and the forced introduction of a migrant labor system) and the insidious combination of traditional and European patriarchal values. Only by recognizing the socioeconomic and cultural determinants of both disease and sexual behavior, and only by incorporating these insights into our AIDS prevention programs, will we be able to curb the spread of this lethal disease.

  6. AIDS in Africa. (United States)

    Mokhobo, D


    Numerous cultural practices and attitudes in Africa represent formidable obstacles to the prevention of the further spread of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Polygamy and concubinage are still widely practiced throughout Africa. In fact, sexual promiscuity on the part of males is traditionally viewed as positive--a reflection of male supremacy and male sexual prowess. The disintegration of the rural African family, brought about by urbanization, the migrant labor system, and poverty, has resulted in widespread premarital promiscuity. Contraceptive practices are perceived by many as a white conspiracy aimed at limiting the growth of the black population and thereby diminishing its political power. Condom use is particularly in disfavor. Thus, AIDS prevention campaigns urging Africans to restrict the number of sexual partners and to use condoms are unlikely to be successful. Another problem is that most Africans cannot believe that AIDS is sexually linked in that the disease does not affect the sex organs as is the case with other sexually transmitted diseases. The degree to which African governments are able to allocate resources to AIDS education will determine whether the epidemic can be controlled. Even with a massive outpouring of resources, it may be difficult to arouse public alarm about AIDS since Africans are so acclimated to living with calamities of every kind.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao visits AIDS orphans in Shangcai County,central China’s Henan Province,on November 30,a day before the 20th World AIDS Day. The region of Shangcai has the highest concentration of people living with HIV/AIDS in China. The Chinese Government has released a package of policies that offer people living with HIV/AIDS free medicine,health checks and consultations,as well as free schooling to AIDS orphans.

  8. Safety and pharmacokinetics of hyperimmune anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immunoglobulin administered to HIV-infected pregnant women and their newborns. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 185 Pharmacokinetic Study Group. (United States)

    Lambert, J S; Mofenson, L M; Fletcher, C V; Moye, J; Stiehm, E R; Meyer, W A; Nemo, G J; Mathieson, B J; Hirsch, G; Sapan, C V; Cummins, L M; Jimenez, E; O'Neill, E; Kovacs, A; Stek, A


    The pharmacokinetics and safety of hyperimmune anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) intravenous immunoglobulin (HIVIG) were evaluated in the first 28 maternal-infant pairs enrolled in a randomized, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)-controlled trial of HIVIG maternal-infant HIV transmission prophylaxis. Using 200 mg/kg, mean half-life and volume of distribution (Vd) in women were 15 days and 72 mL/kg, respectively, after one and 32 days and 154 mL/kg after three monthly infusions, with stable 4 mL/kg/day clearance. Transplacental passage occurred. Newborn single-dose half-life, Vd, and clearance were 30 days, 143 mL/kg, and 4 mL/kg/day, respectively. HIVIG rapidly cleared maternal serum immune complex-dissociated p24 antigen, and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels were stable. Mild to moderate adverse clinical effects occurred in 2 of 103 maternal and 2 of 25 infant infusions. No adverse hematologic, blood chemistry, or immunologic effects were seen. HIVIG is well-tolerated in HIV-infected pregnant women and their newborns, clears antigenemia, crosses the placenta, and exhibits pharmacokinetics similar to those of other immunoglobulin preparations.

  9. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) manifesting Gerstmann's syndrome. (United States)

    Saito, H; Sakai, H; Fujihara, K; Fujihara, K; Itoyama, Y


    We reported a case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) via multiple blood transfusions, who manifested progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) about 18 months after the development of AIDS. PML initiated with right hemiparesis, dysphasia, and Gerstmann's syndrome and resulted in death within 2 months after the onset. Neuroimaging examinations revealed white matter lesions mainly in the left posterior parietal lobe. The cortical gray matter also showed abnormal signal intensity. Peripheral CD4+ lymphocyte count was 81/microl. Routine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examinations were negative. CSF antibodies against herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus as well as serum antibody against toxoplasma gondii were negative. Though autopsy or biopsy of the brain was not performed, JC virus genomes were detected in the CSF sample by a polymerase chain reaction, and their sequencing showed unique alterations of the regulatory regions, characteristic to PML-type JC virus.

  10. [AIDS mortality in France]. (United States)

    Hatton, F; Maguin, P; Nicaud, V; Renaud, G


    A study about mortality by AIDS had been undertaken since July 1st 1983, in the Service of Information on Medical causes of Death (INSERM SC8), which is in charge of developing mortality statistics in France. From July 1st 1983 to September 30th 1985, 243 deaths due to AIDS were recorded. Only the cases where this diagnosis was clearly mentioned were selected; more than 90% were notified by hospitals and mainly by highly specialized services. The number of deaths, which was low and varied rather irregularly at the beginning, then increased by successive stages. The first year, during which a tenth of deaths was recorded every three months, was followed by a great increase, doubling, then tripling the initial numbers. Lastly, a second and sudden rise occurred during the third trimester of 1985, the trimestrial number of deaths due to AIDS reaching 80.

  11. Determinants of HIV/AIDS in armed conflict populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danvas Omare


    Full Text Available More than 40 million people worldwide have been infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV since it was first reported in 1981. Over 25 million of these have lost their lives to the disease. Most of the studies related to HIV/AIDS have been conducted in stable populations across the globe. Few of these studies have been devoted to displaced populations, particularly those in areas of conflict. Displaced populations that are forced to leave their homes in most cases find themselves in unfamiliar territories, often poor and hungry. Many of them become refugees and internally displaced people (IDPs. The objective of this review was to address a number of different social determinants of HIV/AIDS in displaced populations in areas of conflict. A comprehensive review of peer reviewed literature published in English between 1990 and 2010 obtained through an open search of PUBMED database using key words such as “HIV and war”, “HIV/AIDS and conflict”, “AIDS and security” was conducted. Twelve different studies that looked at the implications of HIV/AIDS in conflict or displaced populations were retrieved. The review revealed that there were various factors influencing conflict and HIV/AIDS such as forced population displacement, breakdown of traditional sexual norms, lack of health infrastructure, and poverty and powerlessness of women and children. Social determinants of increased HIV/AIDS prevalence in displaced populations are scarcity of food, poverty, insecurity of displaced populations and gender power differentials.

  12. Telling the stories of people with AIDS in rural Haiti. (United States)

    Fitzgerald, D W; Simon, T B


    For 20 years, Hospital Albert Schweitzer (HAS) in Haiti's Artibonite Valley has struggled with the evolving acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. Initial efforts to confront the disease met numerous obstacles including denial, stigmatization, powerlessness, and mistrust. Over time, HAS and local community organizations developed a new approach to the AIDS problem. The first step in this approach flowed from the founding principle of HAS: Reverence for Life; hospital staff and community leaders provided hospice care to people dying of AIDS. Caring for people with AIDS and hearing the stories of people with AIDS quickly generated sympathy and a personal sense of vulnerability among community leaders and created a desire for community human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) education and prevention. Using the stories of people with AIDS as a basis, a community education program was launched. More than 1,000 church leaders, voodoo priests, and schoolteachers were trained. The majority of these leaders returned to their communities and started creative and unexpected initiatives to confront the AIDS problem.

  13. The chemical bases of the various AIDS epidemics: recreational drugs, anti-viral chemotherapy and malnutrition. (United States)

    Duesberg, Peter; Koehnlein, Claus; Rasnick, David


    In 1981 a new epidemic of about two-dozen heterogeneous diseases began to strike non-randomly growing numbers of male homosexuals and mostly male intravenous drug users in the US and Europe. Assuming immunodeficiency as the common denominator the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) termed the epidemic, AIDS, for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. From 1981-1984 leading researchers including those from the CDC proposed that recreational drug use was the cause of AIDS, because of exact correlations and of drug-specific diseases. However, in 1984 US government researchers proposed that a virus, now termed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is the cause of the non-random epidemics of the US and Europe but also of a new, sexually random epidemic in Africa. The virus-AIDS hypothesis was instantly accepted, but it is burdened with numerous paradoxes, none of which could be resolved by 2003: Why is there no HIV in most AIDS patients, only antibodies against it? Why would HIV take 10 years from infection to AIDS? Why is AIDS not self-limiting via antiviral immunity? Why is there no vaccine against AIDS? Why is AIDS in the US and Europe not random like other viral epidemics? Why did AIDS not rise and then decline exponentially owing to antiviral immunity like all other viral epidemics? Why is AIDS not contagious? Why would only HIV carriers get AIDS who use either recreational or anti-HIV drugs or are subject to malnutrition? Why is the mortality of HIV-antibody-positives treated with anti-HIV drugs 7-9%, but that of all (mostly untreated) HIV-positives globally is only 1.4%? Here we propose that AIDS is a collection of chemical epidemics, caused by recreational drugs, anti-HIV drugs, and malnutrition. According to this hypothesis AIDS is not contagious, not immunogenic, not treatable by vaccines or antiviral drugs, and HIV is just a passenger virus. The hypothesis explains why AIDS epidemics strike non-randomly if caused by drugs and randomly if caused by malnutrition

  14. The chemical bases of the various AIDS epidemics: recreational drugs, anti-viral chemotherapy and malnutrition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Peter Duesberg; Claus Koehnlein; David Rasnick


    In 1981 a new epidemic of about two-dozen heterogeneous diseases began to strike non-randomly growing numbers of male homosexuals and mostly male intravenous drug users in the US and Europe. Assuming immunodeficiency as the common denominator the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) termed the epidemic, AIDS, for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. From 1981–1984 leading researchers including those from the CDC proposed that recreational drug use was the cause of AIDS, because of exact correlations and of drug-specific diseases. However, in 1984 US government researchers proposed that a virus, now termed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is the cause of the non-random epidemics of the US and Europe but also of a new, sexually random epidemic in Africa. The virus-AIDS hypothesis was instantly accepted, but it is burdened with numerous paradoxes, none of which could be resolved by 2003: Why is there no HIV in most AIDS patients, only antibodies against it? Why would HIV take 10 years from infection to AIDS? Why is AIDS not self-limiting via antiviral immunity? Why is there no vaccine against AIDS? Why is AIDS in the US and Europe not random like other viral epidemics? Why did AIDS not rise and then decline exponentially owing to antiviral immunity like all other viral epidemics? Why is AIDS not contagious? Why would only HIV carriers get AIDS who use either recreational or anti-HIV drugs or are subject to malnutrition? Why is the mortality of HIV-antibody-positives treated with anti-HIV drugs 7–9%, but that of all (mostly untreated) HIV-positives globally is only 1.4%? Here we propose that AIDS is a collection of chemical epidemics, caused by recreational drugs, anti-HIV drugs, and malnutrition. According to this hypothesis AIDS is not contagious, not immunogenic, not treatable by vaccines or antiviral drugs, and HIV is just a passenger virus. The hypothesis explains why AIDS epidemics strike non-randomly if caused by drugs and randomly if caused by

  15. Computer aided control engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymkat, Maciej; Ravn, Ole


    Current developments in the field of Computer Aided Control Engineering (CACE) have a visible impact on the design methodologies and the structure of the software tools supporting them. Today control engineers has at their disposal libraries, packages or programming environments that may be speci......Current developments in the field of Computer Aided Control Engineering (CACE) have a visible impact on the design methodologies and the structure of the software tools supporting them. Today control engineers has at their disposal libraries, packages or programming environments that may...

  16. Across sectional study: the knowledge, attitude, perception, misconception and views (KAPMV) of adult family members of people living with human immune virus-HIV acquired immune deficiency syndrome-AIDS (PLWHA). (United States)

    Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Bandari, Deepak Kumar; Elnour, Asim Ahmad; Ahmad, Akram; Khan, Muhammad Umair; Baraka, Mohamed; Hamad, Farah; Shehab, Abdulla


    We intended to assess knowledge, attitude, perception, misconception and views (KAP-MV) of family members of PLWHA. A cross-sectional retrospective study conducted in Anti-retroviral centre of Mahatma Gandhi Memorial-MGM hospital, Warangal, Telangana, South-India from July to September 2014. A questionnaire containing 41 items was distributed among adult family members accompanying patients living with HIV/AIDS-PLWHA. Level of KAP-MV was categorized into poor (0-28), average (29-55) and good (56-82). Analysis was performed by Pearson's Chi square, analysis of variance and Spearman's correlation test on 41 variables using SPSS version 21 and p < 0.01. 538 questionnaires were distributed, response rate was (96 %). On knowledge scale, respondents had a mean score of 8.0 ± 1.7, attitude 5.8 ± 3.4, perception 23.4 ± 4.1, misconceptions 8.0 ± 2.1 and views 8.0 ± 3.9. The respondents mean score was 53.2 ± 9.1 (64.9 %). Overall, level of education, marital status, religious beliefs, and employment status has significant (p < 0.001) associations with KAP-MV. Knowledge was significantly correlated with respondents' attitude (r = -0.15, p < 0.001), perception (0.39; p < 0.001), and views (0.381; p < 0.001). Family members of PLWHA with less knowledge score had more negative attitude, perception and views. Level of education, marital status, religious beliefs and employment status were identified as key barriers. Interventions targeting family members of PLWHA are warranted. Practice implications are as follows: Encourage role of family members.Deploy interventions.Minimize barriers.Change misconceptions.

  17. Challenges and counter challenges in HIV/AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingsheng Li; Charles Wood


    @@ Since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, there has been significant progress in combating the virus.In addition to identifying HIV,1 scientists have developed an array of antiretroviral drugs and successfully converted the once deadly disease into a treatable and chronic condition.2 Nevertheless, this battle is far from over and HIV still outsmarts humans in multiple ways and poses tremendous challenges. Within this context, the Chinese Medical Journal has timely published this special issue on HIV/AIDS, highlighting the ongoing challenges posed by HIV and potential solutions to these problems.

  18. A situational analysis of HIV and AIDS in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwar Muhammad


    Full Text Available Abstract HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus transmission has been reduced by protected sex and screening of blood products and other body fluids in the developed countries. It has been reported that Pakistan is at high risk of HIV/AIDS infection but presently the prevalence rate is considerably low. The number of reported cases of HIV/AIDS in Pakistan has been continuously increasing since 1987. By 2010 the total number of registered cases has reached to 6000 and this figure is on the rise with the passage of time. Some serious strategies must be implemented to control this deadly disease.

  19. Novel AIDS therapies based on gene editing. (United States)

    Khalili, Kamel; White, Martyn K; Jacobson, Jeffrey M


    HIV/AIDS remains a major public health issue. In 2014, it was estimated that 36.9 million people are living with HIV worldwide, including 2.6 million children. Since the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), in the 1990s, treatment has been so successful that in many parts of the world, HIV has become a chronic condition in which progression to AIDS has become increasingly rare. However, while people with HIV can expect to live a normal life span with cART, lifelong medication is required and cardiovascular, renal, liver, and neurologic diseases are still possible, which continues to prompt research for a cure for HIV. Infected reservoir cells, such as CD4+ T cells and myeloid cells, allow persistence of HIV as an integrated DNA provirus and serve as a potential source for the re-emergence of virus. Attempts to eradicate HIV from these cells have focused mainly on the so-called "shock and kill" approach, where cellular reactivation is induced so as to trigger the purging of virus-producing cells by cytolysis or immune attack. This approach has several limitations and its usefulness in clinical applications remains to be assessed. Recent advances in gene-editing technology have allowed the use of this approach for inactivating integrated proviral DNA in the genome of latently infected cells or knocking out HIV receptors. Here, we review this strategy and its potential to eliminate the latent HIV reservoir resulting in a sterile cure of AIDS.

  20. Computer Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Computer viruses are small software programs that are designed to spread from one computerto another and to interfere with computer operation.A virus might delete data on your computer,use your e-mail program to spread itself to othercomputers,or even erase everything on your hard disk.Viruses are most easily spread by attach-ments in e-mail messages or instant messaging messages.That is why it is essential that you never

  1. Studying Aid: Some Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)


    textabstractINVESTIGATING IDEAS, IDEOLOGIES AND PRACTICES This paper presents some methods for trying to make sense of international aid and of its study.1 Some of the methods may be deemed ethnographic; the others are important partners to them, but rather different. In the course of discussing q

  2. Hearing Aids Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Globally, hearing loss is the second most frequent disability. About 80% of the persons affected by hearing loss do not use hearing aids. The goal of this edited volume is to present a theoretically founded, interdisciplinary approach geared at understanding and improving social interaction impac...

  3. Parent Hearing Aid Experiences (United States)

    Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard


    This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

  4. Hearing Aid Personalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Nielsen, Jakob; Jensen, Bjørn Sand


    Modern digital hearing aids require and offer a great level of personalization. Today, this personalization is not performed based directly on what the user actually perceives, but on a hearing-care professional’s interpretation of what the user explains about what is perceived. In this paper, an...

  5. Computer Aided Lecturing. (United States)

    Van Meter, Donald E.


    Surveyed students taking a natural resource conservation course to determine the effects of computer software that provides tools for creating and managing visual presentations to students. Results indicated that 94% of the respondents believed computer-aided lectures helped them and recommended their continued use; note taking was more effective,…

  6. [Post-transfusional AIDS]. (United States)

    Azzini, M; Maccabruni, A; Marcellini, M; Michelone, G; Dei Cas, A


    Two cases of post-transfusional AIDS in two premature babies who received blood of the same seropositive donor, are reported. The risk of the susceptibility to HIV infection of these patients, in relation to the immaturity of immune system and to the transfusional treatment often necessary in premature newborns, is stressed.

  7. The CASPAR finding aids


    Meghini, Carlo; Avancini, Henry; Versienti, Loredana


    One of the CASPAR key components is the FIND Components, which is implementing the Finding Aids of OAIS. According to OAIS, FIND manages Description Information that is associated to Information Packages in order to support the discovery of those Packages. FIND allows defining, creating, persisting, querying, browsing, and accessing both Description Information and the association between Information Packages and Description Information

  8. Coil Welding Aid (United States)

    Wiesenbach, W. T.; Clark, M. C.


    Positioner holds coil inside cylinder during tack welding. Welding aid spaces turns of coil inside cylinder and applies contact pressure while coil is tack-welded to cylinder. Device facilitates fabrication of heat exchangers and other structures by eliminating hand-positioning and clamping of individual coil turns.

  9. Enteric parasites and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Cimerman


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report on the importance of intestinal parasites in patients with AIDS, showing relevant data in the medical literature, with special emphasis on epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of enteroparasitosis, especially cryptosporidiasis, isosporiasis, microsporidiasis and strongyloidiasis. DESIGN: Narrative review.

  10. Self-care Agency of AIDS Patients Undergoing Anti-virus Treatment and Its Influencing Factors%艾滋病首次接受抗病毒治疗患者自我护理能力及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓; 陈小英


    目的:调查研究艾滋病抗病毒治疗患者的自我护理能力现状,并分析其影响因素。方法采用Kearney等研制的自我护理能力测量量表、张作记设计的家庭关怀度量表及简易应对方式问卷等,对首次接受抗病毒治疗的246例艾滋病患者进行调查,使用SPSS 11.5对收集的资料进行统计学分析。结果艾滋病患者自我护理能力总体得分较低(99.65±15.52)分,其中90.7%患者的自我护理能力中低等水平;患者的年龄、文化程度、疾病症状影响其自我护理能力水平(P<0.01);患者的家庭关怀度总得分(5.05±0.86)分,处于家庭功能中度障碍状态,患者的家庭关怀度与其自我护理能力成正相关性;患者的简易应对方式中的积极应对方式总得分低于消极应对方式总得分,多数患者采取消极应对方式;患者的积极应对方式与其自我护理能力水平呈正相关,而患者的消极应对方式则与之呈负相关。结论艾滋病抗病毒治疗患者自我护理能力普遍处于中低等水平,亟待提高,在构建和实施护理措施时,应关注年老、文化程度较低、疾病症状明显等特殊群体患者。同时,有效提高患者的家庭关怀度,重视患者的心理评估和疏导,改善其消极心理因素,采取积极应对方式,从而提高其自我护理能力水平。%Objective To investigate the status quo of self-care agency of AIDS patients undergoing anti-virus treatment and its influencing factors. Methods Totally 246 AIDS patients undergoing anti-virus treatment for the first time were investigated with Exercise of Self-care-agency Scale (ESCA), Index of Family Care developed by Zhang Zuoji and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire and the results were analyzed by SPSS 11.5. Results The total score of self-care agency of AIDS patients was 99.65± 15.52. Of the total, 90.7% of the patients were with a low or below level of self

  11. A Canonical Correlation Analysis of AIDS Restriction Genes and Metabolic Pathways Identifies Purine Metabolism as a Key Cooperator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanhui Ye


    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus causes a severe disease in humans, referred to as immune deficiency syndrome. Studies on the interaction between host genetic factors and the virus have revealed dozens of genes that impact diverse processes in the AIDS disease. To resolve more genetic factors related to AIDS, a canonical correlation analysis was used to determine the correlation between AIDS restriction and metabolic pathway gene expression. The results show that HIV-1 postentry cellular viral cofactors from AIDS restriction genes are coexpressed in human transcriptome microarray datasets. Further, the purine metabolism pathway comprises novel host factors that are coexpressed with AIDS restriction genes. Using a canonical correlation analysis for expression is a reliable approach to exploring the mechanism underlying AIDS.

  12. Effectiveness of School-based Education on HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior among Secondary School Students in Wuhan, China


    Xiaohui Gao; Yu Wu; Yu Zhang; Naixing Zhang; Jie Tang; Jun Qiu; Xiaofang Lin; Yukai Du


    BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are among the most complex health problems in the world. Young people are at high risk of HIV and AIDS infections and are, therefore, in need of targeted prevention. School-based HIV/AIDS health education may be an effective way to prevent the spread of AIDS among adolescents. METHODS: The study was a school-based intervention conducted in three middle schools and two high schools in Wuhan, China, wh...

  13. An overview of the history of epidemic of and response to HIV/AIDS in China: achievements and challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Yan; Adrian Liau; WU Zun-you


    @@ Since the first case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in China was identified and reported in 1985, the country has experienced dramatic changes in the course of its human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS epidemic along with the government's response to it in the past 24 years.

  14. Health Care and the Social Construction of AIDS: Impact of Disease Definitions on Psychosocial Adaptation and Economic Circumstances. (United States)

    Crystal, Stephen; Jackson, Marguerite

    As with other illnesses, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a socially constructed phenomenon, not simply a biological entity. Biologically, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection causes immunosuppression, which in turn causes a spectrum of disease states. The official definition of AIDS by the Centers for Disease Control requires…

  15. Neopterin and human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B


    to predict the later development of AIDS. The increased neopterin concentrations show that the immune system is activated in HIV infection and demonstrate the presence of an interaction between the virus and the immune system. The most important future use of neopterin measurements may be in fast evaluation...

  16. Antiviral drug resistance of herpes simplex virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stranska, Ruzena


    Infections with herpes simplex virus (HSV) usually have an asymptomatic or benign course. However, severe infections do occur, particularly in HIV/AIDS patients or transplant recipients, and may be life-threatening unless adequate antiviral therapy is given. Since its introduction in the early 1980

  17. Henan Surveys Blood Donors to Aid AIDS Prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Central China's Henan Province, one of the worst AIDS-hit provinces in the country, launched a sweeping survey in September of past blood donors to ascertain tile number of HIV-infected individuals to aid AIDS prevention and control work.

  18. Perceptions of Aid and Actual Aid in Intergenerational Caregiving. (United States)

    Walker, Alexis J.; And Others


    Compared pairs (n=174) of elderly mothers' and their caregiving daughters' perceptions of aid given to the mothers with actual caregiving activities. Results indicated nearly half of the mothers and daughters were accurate in their perceptions of aid given to the mothers; when mothers' perception of aid was inaccurate, mothers overestimated rather…

  19. The epidemiology of AIDS in Iran from beginning until now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradi F


    Full Text Available The problem of AIDS had not been recognized up to 1981 and in 1984 it was found that HIV virus is factor of this disease. For the time beings AIDS/HIV infection has chanched to a pandemic and cases affected to it are now reported from all over the world. In our country the first case was reported in 1987. Regarding the importance of disease and recognition of its prevention and transmission routes, based on disease epidemiology in country, this survey was conducted. This study was performed in 1999-2000 and is retrospective descriptive study. The main purpose of study is epidemiology of AIDS in Iran from beginning until now. Total information of cases of AIDS/HIV from beginning in Iran and all performed activities were obtained from ministry of health center for disease control-AIDS Dept. 95 files existing in the archives of Imam Khomeini hospital related to AIDS were also studied. 1953 cases of HIV+ have been reported until March of year 2000. At the same time 250 cases of AIDS have been reported which 215 of them died. Among transmission routes, in AIDS disease the most common way of transmission was transfusion of infected blood or its components but in HIV+ case the most one was drug injection. With respect to age, the higher and lower rate of affected people were in 30-39 and 0-4 ranges years respectively. The sex percentage in AIDS affected and HIV+ persons were 90.8% and 9.2%; 95.2% and 4.8% male and female respectively. 130 from 1953 HIV+ cases had travel to abroad.

  20. Trado-Cultural Practices, Situation, Analysis and Epidemiological Factors in the Spread of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria (United States)

    Adesina, Modupe Olutayo


    This paper attempted to look at the Trado-cultural practices in the spread of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is virus that gradually attack and weaken the body immune system, whose task is to fight off infections and illness. Eventually, the body loses its ability to fight off and defend itself and thereby become…

  1. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... high-risk category, emphasizes Dr. Cargill. Photo: iStock HIV and Pregnancy Are there ways to help HIV- ...

  2. Does Corruption Cause Aid Fatigue?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauhr, Monika; Charron, Nicholas; Nasiritousi, Naghmeh


    Does perceived corruption in recipient countries reduce support for foreign aid in donor countries? This under-explored yet salient question is examined using the 2009 Eurobarometer survey for the 27 EU countries. We suggest that perceived corruption can cause aid fatigue but that this relationship...... is highly contextualized. The results show that perceptions about corruption in developing countries reduce overall support for aid among respondents in donor countries. However, this effect is mitigated by country and contextual-level effects and different understandings of what we call the “aid-corruption...... paradox,” namely that the need for foreign aid is often the greatest in corrupt environments. Three different dynamics of the aid-corruption paradox influence support for aid: moral, pragmatic, and strategic understandings. In EU-15 countries, the effect of perceived corruption in recipient states on aid...

  3. Computer Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    If you work with a computer,it is certain that you can not avoid dealing, with at least one computer virus.But how much do you know about it? Well,actually,a computer virus is not a biological' one as causes illnesses to people.It is a kind of computer program

  4. Phytophthora viruses. (United States)

    Cai, Guohong; Hillman, Bradley I


    Phytophthora sp. is a genus in the oomycetes, which are similar to filamentous fungi in morphology and habitat, but phylogenetically more closely related to brown algae and diatoms and fall in the kingdom Stramenopila. In the past few years, several viruses have been characterized in Phytophthora species, including four viruses from Phytophthora infestans, the late blight pathogen, and an endornavirus from an unnamed Phytophthora species from Douglas fir. Studies on Phytophthora viruses have revealed several interesting systems. Phytophthora infestans RNA virus 1 (PiRV-1) and PiRV-2 are likely the first members of two new virus families; studies on PiRV-3 support the establishment of a new virus genus that is not affiliated with established virus families; PiRV-4 is a member of Narnaviridae, most likely in the genus Narnavirus; and Phytophthora endornavirus 1 (PEV1) was the first nonplant endornavirus at the time of reporting. Viral capsids have not been found in any of the above-mentioned viruses. PiRV-1 demonstrated a unique genome organization that requires further examination, and PiRV-2 may have played a role in late blight resurgence in 1980s-1990s.

  5. AIDS in an infant causing severe failure to thrive. (United States)

    Elias-Jones, A C; Larcher, V F; Price, E H


    A nine-month-old female Jamaican infant presented with a history of severe failure to thrive, recurrent pneumonia and developmental delay. She was found to have hepatosplenomegaly, generalised lymphadenopathy and hypotonia. Investigations revealed polyclonal hypergammaglobulinaemia, cytomegalovirus in her urine, and patchy lung infiltrates on her chest radiographs. Three separate tests were positive for human immunodeficiency virus in both the infant and her mother, suggesting vertical transmission, and confirming AIDS as the cause of the severe failure to thrive.

  6. Determinants of HIV/AIDS in armed conflict populations


    Danvas Omare; Amar Shireesh Kanekar


    More than 40 million people worldwide have been infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) since it was first reported in 1981. Over 25 million of these have lost their lives to the disease. Most of the studies related to HIV/AIDS have been conducted in stable populations across the globe. Few of these studies have been devoted to displaced populations, particularly those in areas of conflict. Displaced populations that are forced to leave their homes in most cases find themselves in un...

  7. HIV and AIDS: where is the epidemic going?


    Mertens, T.E.; Low-Beer, D.


    Routine surveillance of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection and AIDS has been established over the past decade in many countries around the world. HIV estimates derived from empirical data are essential to the assessment of the HIV situation in different parts of the world and trends are used in tracking the development of regional epidemics, thereby keeping intervention activities focused on realities. As of the end of 1995, and following an extensive country-by-country review of HI...

  8. How Do People Get AIDS? (United States)

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness How Do People Get AIDS? KidsHealth > For Teens > How Do People Get AIDS? A A A en español ¿Cómo contrae alguien el SIDA? AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome , a disease that ...

  9. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, F.; Steudel, H.; Klotz, D.


    Since 1982 (Hauser and co-workers), literature has reported focal cerebral tissue charges in AIDS patients whose diagnosis was unclear at first but which could be identified finally as florid toxoplasmosis encephalitis by biopsy and autopsy. It was found that the value of otherwise reliable serological tests (KBR, Sabin-Feldmann tests, etc.) is questionable in patients with severely impaired or incompetent immune systems, and, in particular, that a negative or uncharacteristic test result may not preclude any opportunistic infection process. Furthermore, isolation of Toxoplasma gondii or specific antibodies from the cerebrospinal fluid will be successful in exceptional cases only. In patients with AIDS or lymphadenopathy syndrome, the differential diagnosis will have to include - first and foremost - reactivated toxoplasma infection (not newly acquired, as a rule) if central neurological symptoms occur.

  10. Mutual aid fund commission

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    The composition of the Board of the Mutual Aid Fund for 2011 is as follows: President: Pascal Droux Vice-president: Connie Potter Treasurer: Louis Pereira Deputy treasurer: Barbara Brugger Secretary: Sonia Casenove Deputy secretary: Isabelle Mardirossian Members: Christopher David Thomas   Jean-Claude Vialis (GAC member)   Marie-Luce Falipou   Gunilla Santiard (Jean-Claude Vialis’s alternate) The role of the Fund is to provide financial help to members of personnel and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund who are in need of exceptional financial assistance. All requests are treated in the strictest confidence. Should you wish to apply for aid from the Fund, kindly contact any member of the Board as given above or Social Services, tel.74479 – 73867.

  11. Women and AIDS care: coping with "triple jeopardy". (United States)

    Henry, K


    Women in developing countries are at "triple jeopardy" in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. As women, a combination of biological, social, and economic risk factors increase their vulnerability to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. As mothers, they can infect their children with HIV. And, as society's traditional caregivers, women are burdened with the care of sick family members. The most effective AIDS programs deliver counseling and social support to family caregivers as well as clinical management of AIDS-related illnesses and nursing care. In several African countries, the physical, financial, and emotional demands associated with home care of AIDS patients are addressed by mobile teams of health workers and counselors. Government health services and nongovernmental organizations are training village health workers to help people cope with the fear and stigma associated with AIDS. These community AIDS workers conduct formal and informal educational sessions, visit homes to provide counseling, instruct caregivers on precautions to protect themselves from infection, and refer people for HIV testing and medical treatment. A multisectoral approach to providing the mix of services required is the best strategy for maximizing program coverage while maintaining a high quality of services.

  12. Pulmonary mycosis in AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busi Rizzi, Elisa; Schinina, Vincenzo; Bellussi, Angelo; De Santis, Andrea; Mazzuoli, Giovanna; Giosue, Sandro; Bibbolino, Corrado


    We retrospectively reviewed our series of 35 pulmonary mycosis in patients with AIDS, observed from 1987 to 1999, to correlate the imaging and pathologic findings. We further evaluated the frequency of fungal pneumonia before and after the use of a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Early recognition of pulmonary mycosis is imperative in these patients and improved survival can be achieved with early CT detection and prompt institution of high-dose antifungal therapy.

  13. Computer aided manipulator control (United States)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Zawacki, R. L.


    This paper describes the hardware and software system of a dedicated mini- and microcomputer network developed at the JPL teleoperator project to aid the operator in real-time control of remote manipulators. The operator can be in series or in parallel with the control computer during operation. The purpose of the project is to develop, demonstrate and evaluate advanced supervisory control concepts and techniques for space applications. The paper concludes with a brief outline of future development plans and issues.

  14. Computer aided product design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantinou, Leonidas; Bagherpour, Khosrow; Gani, Rafiqul


    A general methodology for Computer Aided Product Design (CAPD) with specified property constraints which is capable of solving a large range of problems is presented. The methodology employs the group contribution approach, generates acyclic, cyclic and aromatic compounds of various degrees......-liquid equilibria (LLE), solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) and gas solubility. Finally, a computer program based on the extended methodology has been developed and the results from five case studies highlighting various features of the methodology are presented....

  15. Transitional justice and aid


    Hellsten, Sirkku K.


    This paper examines the current security-governance-development nexus, something that is often also discussed under the concept of transitional justice (TJ). The paper analyses how the ambiguous, evolving and expanding nature of the concept of TJ affects the planning, coordination, evaluation and assessment of aid given to conflict ridden, post-conflict or (post) authoritarian societies in order to strengthen their democracy. Special attention is paid to gender justice. Illustrations are draw...

  16. Human retroviruses and AIDS 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korber, B.; Foley, B.; Leitner, T. [eds.] [and others


    This compendium is the result of an effort to compile, organize, and rapidly publish as much relevant molecular data concerning the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) and related retroviruses as possible. The scope of the compendium and database is best summarized by the four parts that it comprises: (1) Nucleic Acid Alignments, (2) Amino Acid Alignments, (3) Reviews and Analyses, and (4) Related Sequences. Information within all the parts is updated throughout the year on the Web site, This year we are not including floppy diskettes as the entire compendium is available both at our Web site and at our ftp site. If you need floppy diskettes please contact either Bette Korber ( or Kersti Rock ( by email or fax ((505) 665-4453). While this publication could take the form of a review or sequence monograph, it is not so conceived. Instead, the literature from which the database is derived has simply been summarized and some elementary computational analyses have been performed upon the data. Interpretation and commentary have been avoided insofar as possible so that the reader can form his or her own judgments concerning the complex information. The exception to this are reviews submitted by experts in areas deemed of particular and basic importance to research involving AIDS viral sequence information. These are included in Part III, and are contributed by scientists with particular expertise in the area of interest. In addition to the general descriptions below of the parts of the compendium, the user should read the individual introductions for each part.

  17. Has aid for AIDS raised all health funding boats? (United States)

    Shiffman, Jeremy; Berlan, David; Hafner, Tamara


    Global health analysts have debated whether donor prioritization of HIV/AIDS control has lifted all boats, raising attention and funding levels for health issues aside from HIV/AIDS. We investigate this question, considering donor funding for 4 historically prominent health agendas-HIV/AIDS, health systems strengthening, population and reproductive health, and infectious disease control-over the decade 1998-2007. We employ funding data from the Development Assistance Committee of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, which tracks donor aid. The data indicate that HIV/AIDS may have helped to increase funding for the control of other infectious diseases; however, there is no firm evidence that other health issues beyond the control of infectious diseases have benefited. Between 1998 and 2007, funding for HIV/AIDS control rose from just 5.5% to nearly half of all aid for health. Over the same period, funding for health systems strengthening declined from 62.3% to 23.9% of total health aid and that for population and reproductive health declined from 26.4% to 12.3%. Also, even as total aid for health tripled during this decade, aid for health systems strengthening largely stagnated. Overall, the data indicate little support for the contention that donor funding for HIV/AIDS has lifted all boats.

  18. AIDS and Africa. Introduction. (United States)

    Kopelman, Loretta M; van Niekerk, Anton A


    Sub-Saharan Africa is the epicenter of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and in this issue of the Journal, seven authors discuss the moral, social and medical implications of having 70% of those stricken living in this area. Anton A. van Niekerk considers complexities of plague in this region (poverty, denial, poor leadership, illiteracy, women's vulnerability, and disenchantment of intimacy) and the importance of finding responses that empower its people. Solomon Benatar reinforces these issues, but also discusses the role of global politics in sub-Saharan Africa, especially discrimination, imperialism and its exploitation by first world countries. Given the public health crisis, Udo Schüklenk and Richard E. Ashcroft defend compulsory licensing of essential HIV/AIDS medications on consequentialist grounds. Keymanthri Moodley discusses the importance of conducting research and the need to understand a moderate form of communitarianism, also referred to as "ubuntu" or "communalism", to help some Africans understand research as an altruistic endeavour. Godfrey B. Tangwa also defends traditional African values of empathy and ubuntu, discussing how they should be enlisted to fight this pandemic. Loretta M. Kopelman criticizes the tendency among those outside Africa to dismiss the HIV/AIDS pandemic, attributing one source to the ubiquitous and misguided punishment theory of disease. The authors conclude that good solutions must be cooperative ventures among countries within and outside of sub-Saharan Africa with far more support from wealthy countries.

  19. Aid Supplies Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel

    The recent financial crisis has rekindled interest in the foreign aid supply behaviour of bilateral donors. Using the latest data covering the period 1960-2009, this paper examines how such behaviour is related to domestic factors. Based on a simple empirical model, a distinction is made between ...... substantial heterogeneity between countries. There is also good evidence that donor behaviour continues to evolve over time. As such, past trends in aid supplies are unlikely to provide a good guide to those of the future.......The recent financial crisis has rekindled interest in the foreign aid supply behaviour of bilateral donors. Using the latest data covering the period 1960-2009, this paper examines how such behaviour is related to domestic factors. Based on a simple empirical model, a distinction is made between...... long-run supply trends and short-run dynamics, which motivates use of error correction methods. Panel econometric techniques are employed that are consistent in the presence of parameter heterogeneity and cross-section dependence. Results support the error correction framework, but point to very...

  20. Redirecting British foreign aid. (United States)

    Dean, M


    Britain has longed followed a disease-control strategy for providing aid in the health sector to developing, low-income countries. Given, however, the high level of waste upon tertiary care and specialized medicine in current health programs of low-income countries as documented by the World Bank; the poor performance of existing general government hospitals and clinics; and the poor image of Third World health systems in the eyes of Western officials and government ministers, the chief health advisor of the Overseas Development Administration has called for a drastic redirection of policy toward development aid. Specifically, a shift away from a specific-disease control approach toward an overall, sweeping reform of the health sector in developing countries is urged. The level of waste needs to be reduced and more attention given to the poor. Unless such changes result, government ministers will grow increasingly reluctant to provide tangible aid to the health sectors of countries in need. The availability of such funds invested in effective, well-managed health programs will grow more critical to health in the Third World as populations shift away from communicable disease morbidity and mortality toward illnesses which are of a more noncommunicable nature such as stroke and cancer.

  1. Zika virus productively infects primary human placenta-specific macrophages (United States)

    Jurado, Kellie Ann; Simoni, Michael K.; Tang, Zhonghua; Uraki, Ryuta; Hwang, Jesse; Householder, Sarah; Wu, Mingjie; Lindenbach, Brett D.; Abrahams, Vikki M.; Guller, Seth


    The strong association of Zika virus infection with congenital defects has led to questions of how a flavivirus is capable of crossing the placental barrier to reach the fetal brain. Here, we demonstrate permissive Zika virus infection of primary human placental macrophages, commonly referred to as Hofbauer cells, and placental villous fibroblasts. We also demonstrate Zika virus infection of Hofbauer cells within the context of the tissue ex vivo using term placental villous explants. In addition to amplifying infectious virus within a usually inaccessible area, the putative migratory activities of Hofbauer cells may aid in dissemination of Zika virus to the fetal brain. Understanding the susceptibility of placenta-specific cell types will aid future work around and understanding of Zika virus–associated pregnancy complications. PMID:27595140

  2. Virus expression in different tissues of normal and tumor-bearing mice inoculated with a murine leukemia virus. (United States)

    Youn, J K; Santillana, M; Hue, G; Barski, G


    Evolution of virus expression in different lymphoid organs as well as in solid syngeneic tumors of mice inoculated with an MuLV was studied with the aid of in vitro XC co-culture technique. When normal adult mice of strain XLII were inoculated intraperitoneally with a cultured Rauscher virus (RC), the virus could be detected, 10 days after inoculation, only in bone marrow in small amounts and thereafter no virus could be found in any of the organs tested, including bone marrow, spleen, thymus, lymph node and kidney. However, when age- and sex-matched parallel mice bearing syngeneic subcutaneous non-viral tumors were inoculated similarly with the RC virus, the virus could be detected abundantly not only in bone marrow and spleen but also in tumors during the first 3 weeks and even 6 weeks after virus inoculation. Transitional decrease or disappearance of the virus was observed around the 25th-31st day in organs and tumors of the inoculated mice. When the tumor mass was removed from these mice by surgery, the virus disappeared rapidly and definitely from all the organs tested. The virus recovered from in vitro explanted and cultured tumors, taken from mice inoculated with the virus, induced typical lymphoid leukemia in BALB/c mice inoculated as newborns. However, from certain aspects (hypertrophy of the thymus and lymph nodes), this virus was different from the original RC virus.

  3. Preventing the sexual transmission of AIDS during adolescence. (United States)

    Remafedi, G J


    In order to be effective, the national effort to contain the spread of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) must include a youth focus. Knowledge of adolescent sexual behavior, drug use, and sexually transmitted diseases suggests that many adolescents are in jeopardy of acquiring Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections; and they are among those most likely to benefit from preventative efforts as they explore adult roles and lifestyles. Preventative education should particularly target gay and other homosexually active young men. Effective teaching uses a variety of approaches and media, both inside and outside the classroom. Learning about AIDS is most likely to effect behavioral change when accompanied by other programs to build social supports, self-esteem, and positive identity. The ethical and rational use of HIV antibody testing may be a helpful adjunct to education for certain adolescents. Ultimately, our society's ability to address complex, associated social issues will determine our ability to control AIDS.

  4. "Lamyai" teaches young Thai women about AIDS and STDs. (United States)

    Cash, K; Anasuchatkul, B; Busayawong, W


    The young women 13-21 years of age who migrate in large numbers from villages in Northern Thailand to obtain employment in urban factories comprise a group at high risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. To encourage these women to protect themselves from infection, workplace projects were developed in textile factories in Chiang Mai. Pre-project research conducted among 250 female factory workers revealed good awareness of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) coupled with a perception of personal invulnerability and a reluctance to request that partners use condoms due to fears of being considered promiscuous. To address these issues, a romantic illustrated novel about a factory worker who is infected with the AIDS virus by her fiance and a humorous comic book featuring "Brother Protector Condom" were prepared. The materials were introduced to groups of 10 or more women led by either trained peer educators or health promoters. Participants overcame initial shyness about the explicit pictures and reported the group meetings gave them confidence to talk to their sexual partners about condom use. Post-intervention evaluation showed that peer-led groups were most effective in improving self-esteem, communication skills, and commitment to AIDS prevention. Although the health promoters had more in-depth knowledge of AIDS and human reproduction, they tended to lecture rather than facilitate discussion. Moreover, the age and educational differences between the factory workers and health promoters impeded the trust and open discussion that developed in peer-led groups.

  5. Computer viruses (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.


    The worm, Trojan horse, bacterium, and virus are destructive programs that attack information stored in a computer's memory. Virus programs, which propagate by incorporating copies of themselves into other programs, are a growing menace in the late-1980s world of unprotected, networked workstations and personal computers. Limited immunity is offered by memory protection hardware, digitally authenticated object programs,and antibody programs that kill specific viruses. Additional immunity can be gained from the practice of digital hygiene, primarily the refusal to use software from untrusted sources. Full immunity requires attention in a social dimension, the accountability of programmers.

  6. Multiscale Modeling of Virus Structure, Assembly, and Dynamics (United States)

    May, Eric R.; Arora, Karunesh; Mannige, Ranjan V.; Nguyen, Hung D.; Brooks, Charles L.

    Viruses are traditionally considered as infectious agents that attack cells and cause illnesses like AIDS, Influenza, Hepatitis, etc. However, recent advances have illustrated the potential for viruses to play positive roles for human health, instead of causing disease [1, 2]. For example, viruses can be employed for a variety of biomedical and biotechnological applications, including gene therapy[3], drug delivery[4], tumor targeting[5], and medical imaging[6]. Therefore, it is important to understand quantitatively how viruses operate such that they can be engineered in a predictive manner for beneficial roles.

  7. Aids-relaterede non-Hodgkin-lymfomer. Klinisk billede og prognose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, M; Hansen, P B


    to be a clear association between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and immunoblastic lymphomas (a subtype of large cell lymphomas) in AIDS patients. Patients with AIDS often have widespread disease at presentation and frequent involvement of extranodal sites (CNS, liver, bone marrow, the digestive tract and skin...... below 130 x 10(9)/l, widespread symptoms of disease, presence of EBV in the lymphoma and immunoblastic histology. Udgivelsesdato: 1998-Apr-27...

  8. New Animal Model Could Boost Research on AIDS Drugs and Vaccines | Poster (United States)

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer, and Jeff Lifson, Guest Writer In a research milestone reported in the June 20 issue of the journal Science, scientists have developed a minimally modified version of HIV-1, the virus that causes AIDS in infected humans, that is capable of causing progressive infection and AIDS in monkeys. The advance should help create more authentic animal models of the disease and provide a potentially invaluable approach for faster and better preclinical evaluation of new drugs and vaccines.

  9. Lessons in Nonhuman Primate Models for AIDS Vaccine Research: From Minefields to Milestones


    Jeffrey D Lifson; Nancy L Haigwood


    Nonhuman primate (NHP) disease models for AIDS have made important contributions to the search for effective vaccines for AIDS. Viral diversity, persistence, capacity for immune evasion, and safety considerations have limited development of conventional approaches using killed or attenuated vaccines, necessitating the development of novel approaches. Here we highlight the knowledge gained and lessons learned in testing vaccine concepts in different virus/NHP host combinations.

  10. [Oral hairy leukoplakia. Early sign of AIDS]. (United States)

    López, N; Piña, F


    Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is a new lesion that appears specifically on the lateral borders of the tongue. It has basically been detected in immunosuppressed male homosexuals and it is associated with the later development of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or HIV infection. Epstein-Barr virus has been suggested to be the possible etiological agent. A review of the existing literature pointing out definition, clinical, histopathologic and ultrastructural features, prognostic and treatment is made. Moreover the characteristics of the individuals suffering from it are equally studied. The role of the dentist at detecting the lesion, as well as the importance of its definitive diagnostic are emphasized, in virtue of the effects that may have a bearing on patients.

  11. Zika Virus (United States)

    ... partners in government, academia, and the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries to better understand Zika virus, the disease ... Associated Co-Infections Allergy, Immunology, Transplantation Research Resources Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Resources Preclinical and Clinical Services ...

  12. [Adolescence and AIDS]. (United States)


    The myths and prejudices that distort the reality and hide the true causes and effects of natural and social phenomena related to sexuality have a fertile ground in AIDS, given its obvious link to sex. The alarming spread of AIDS has been 1 result of these myths and prejudices. Human beings are sexual by nature; genital organs determine sex and also induce sexual behavior. It is by not fairly well accepted that an individual's sexuality exists from birth. Puberty usually begins at 12-16 years for both sexes. The physical changes of puberty terminate in the ability of the female to conceive and the male to procreate. The sexual excitation of adolescents resulting from production of various hormones can only be eliminated by some type of sexual satisfaction or sublimation. Sexuality, according to Freud, is an organizing principle of the personality. The sexual organs exist not merely for reproduction but to provide pleasure. Puberty signifies entry into active sex life. But the ideological structure of society, perpetuated by the family, schools, religion, the mass media, and other social institutions, sends confused signals to adolescents, requiring abstinence and virginity until marriage for women while encouraging sexual adventures for men. Adolescents are confronted by their new sexual feelings in the midst of a virtual bombardment of visual sexual stimuli from the mass media. It becomes impossible for adolescents to satisfy the requirements of appearances while also resolving the problems and pressures of their newly gained sexual maturity. Many adolescents become sexually active, and the problem is not to prevent sexual activity but to improve the conditions under which it occurs. Adolescents, lacking education and information about sex, begin their sex lives without protection. AIDS has now been added to the list of dire consequences that can result. A true sex education beginning in the home is needed to enable young people to develop healthy and full sex

  13. Hearing aid adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemann, Trine; Matthews, Ben; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa


    to the interaction during hearing aid fitting. This report of a Danish pilot study describes two such problems. The first problem arises from the requirement that the audiologist needs to ‘translate’ the patient’s subjective hearing description for making technological decisions. The second problem is the way......Conversation analytic research on clinical encounters shows that interactional conduct can be consequential for diagnosis, treatment and compliance. Problems reported for doctor-patient interaction can also be identified in Danish audiological encounters. There are, however, also specific aspects...

  14. First aid in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Sulley, Robert


    Achieve the best possible standard with this bestselling book of traditional practice and guidance - now in colour!. First Aid in Mathematics provides all the help and support needed for learning and practising Mathematics. It offers comprehensive coverage of core mathematical topics in clear and accessible language. It is suitable for both native English speakers and students of English as a second language and can be used in class, or as a reference and revision book. - Develops a strong basis of understanding with core topics covered in clear and accessible language. - Improves student's ab

  15. Beyond SHM and CSR: AID and related cytidine deaminases in the host response to viral infection. (United States)

    Rosenberg, Brad R; Papavasiliou, F Nina


    As the primary effector of immunoglobulin somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR), activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) serves an important function in the adaptive immune response. Recent advances have demonstrated that AID and a group of closely related cytidine deaminases, the APOBEC3 proteins, also act in the innate host response to viral infection. Antiviral activity was first attributed to APOBEC3G as a potent inhibitor of HIV. It is now apparent that the targets of the APOBEC3 proteins extend beyond HIV, with family members acting against a wide variety of viruses as well as host-encoded retrotransposable genetic elements. Although it appears to function through a different mechanism, AID also possesses antiviral properties. Independent of its antibody diversification functions, AID protects against transformation by Abelson murine leukemia virus (Ab-MLV), an oncogenic retrovirus. Additionally, AID has been implicated in the host response to other pathogenic viruses. These emerging roles for the AID/APOBEC cytidine deaminases in viral infection suggest an intriguing evolutionary connection of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms.

  16. Aid Policy and the Macroeconomic Management of Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Tarp, Finn


    This is an introduction to the UNU-WIDER special issue of World Development on aid policy and the macroeconomic management of aid. We provide an overview of the 10 studies, grouping them under three sub-themes: the aid–growth relationship; the supply-side of aid (including its level, volatility......, and coordination of donors); and the macroeconomic framework around aid. The studies in the special issue demonstrate the centrality of research methodology, the importance of disaggregation, and the need to account for country-specific situations and problems. This introduction concludes that the sometimes “over...

  17. AIDS and discrimination: Points of view of a group of adolescents and persons that live with the human immune-deficiency virus. SIDA y discriminación: Percepción de un grupo de adolescentes y personas que viven con el virus de inmunudeficiencia humana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elinor Dulzaides Iglesias

    Full Text Available Background: Since the beginnings of the Infection with HIV, mankind has been greatly concerned. This disease emerged with a series of stigmata, injuring personal integrity of those who suffer from it. Methods: A descriptive study made in Cienfuegos, in which 120 adolescents and 29 PVHIV were inquired and also conferences about this illness were given. Results and Conclusions: The 120 inquired affirmed they knew about the disease and was receiving information regarding it. The majority identifies blood, vaginal secretions, semen, sharing contaminated needles and syringes as main ways of transmission, they also consider that keeping a stable mate friend is the best way to protect themselves. The 50,8% think the names of the infected should be informed to population, and the 15,% is worried about sharing their working or scholar life with them. The 26% think the infected people should live isolated in a sanatorium. On the other hand, 16 PVHIV said they have felt sometimes discriminated, and 11 stated that at the time of asking for medical help, the personnel have attended them in a despicable manner. 3 of them felt the familiar rejection, and 7 stated that the community and his very friends were getting away from them.

    Fundamento:La infección por el virus de inmunudeficiencia humana desde sus comienzos ha constituido una fuente de preocupación para la humanidad. Surgió acompañada de una serie de estigmas que en cierta medida dañan la integridad personal de los que la padecen. Objetivo: Comprobar el grado de conocimientos que poseen los adolescentes sobre el VIH y su percepción acerca de la enfermedad y el trato a los que la padecen. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo realizado en Cienfuegos, en el que fueron encuestados 120 adolescentes y 29 personas que viven con virus de inmunudeficiencia humana, y durante el cual fueron

  18. Talking about AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available This paper explores the significance of social relationships to two important stages in the process of sexual behavioral change in response to increased HIV/AIDS risk in rural Africa: the perceived risk of becoming HIV-infected through unprotected sexual intercourse and the preferred methods of protection either through sexual fidelity, or through condom use. The empirical analyses are based on cross-sectional data from the 'Kenyan Diffusion and Ideational Change Project' (KDICP which provides information about AIDS-related, ego-centered communication networks of Kenyan men and women. The results show that perceived risks, as well as preferred methods of protection against HIV-infection, depend in general on the prevailing perceptions and favored protective methods within personal communication networks. However, different influential network properties can be found. The risk-perceptions of women are shaped by strong relationships and cohesive network structures. Male's risk perception depends more on the number of risk-perceivers in their communication networks. Heterogeneous relationships of various kinds are influential on women's and men's probability of favoring sexual faithfulness as a method of protection against HIV-infection.

  19. The Definition of Epstein Barr Virus (EBV)’s Role in HTLV-III Infected USAF Personnel as Related to Disease Progression (United States)


    W , Ench Y, Kisner D, Hersh EK, Reuben 3M, Manseil. Enhwxnd serological and virological findings of Epstein-Barr virus in patients with AIDS and... Kisner , D.L., Hersh, E.M., Reuben, J.M., Mansell, P.W.A.: Enhanoed serologic and virologic findings of Eptein-Barr virus in patients with AIDS and

  20. Adolescent HIV/AIDS: Issues and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naswa Smriti


    Full Text Available Adolescence (10- 19 years is a phase of physical growth and development accompanied by sexual maturation, often leading to intimate relationships. Adolescent HIV/AIDS is a separate epidemic and needs to be handled and managed separately from adult HIV. The adolescents can be subdivided into student, slum and street youth; street adolescents being most vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. Among various risk factors and situations for adolescents contracting HIV virus are adolescent sex workers, child trafficking, child labor, migrant population, childhood sexual abuse, coercive sex with an older person and biologic (immature reproductive tract as well as psychological vulnerability. The most common mode of transmission is heterosexual, yet increasing number of perinatally infected children are entering adolescence. This is due to "bimodal progression" (rapid and slow progressors among the vertically infected children. Clinically, the HIV infected adolescents present as physically stunted individuals, with delayed puberty and adrenarche. Mental illness and substance abuse are important co-morbidities. The disclosure and declaration of HIV status to self and family is challenging and guilt in sexually infected adolescents and tendency to blame parents if vertically affected need special consideration and proper counseling. Serodiscordance of the twins and difference in disease progression of seroconcordant twins are added causes of emotional trauma. Treatment related issues revolve around the when and what of initiation of ART; the choice of antiretrovirals and their dosages; issues related to long term ADRs; sense of disinhibition following ART commencement; adherence and resistance.

  1. Emerging Viruses in the Felidae: Shifting Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith A. Brown


    Full Text Available The domestic cat is afflicted with multiple viruses that serve as powerful models for human disease including cancers, SARS and HIV/AIDS. Cat viruses that cause these diseases have been studied for decades revealing detailed insight concerning transmission, virulence, origins and pathogenesis. Here we review recent genetic advances that have questioned traditional wisdom regarding the origins of virulent Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP diseases, the pathogenic potential of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV in wild non-domestic Felidae species, and the restriction of Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV mediated immune impairment to domestic cats rather than other Felidae species. The most recent interpretations indicate important new evolutionary conclusions implicating these deadly infectious agents in domestic and non-domestic felids.

  2. Emerging viruses in the Felidae: shifting paradigms. (United States)

    O'Brien, Stephen J; Troyer, Jennifer L; Brown, Meredith A; Johnson, Warren E; Antunes, Agostinho; Roelke, Melody E; Pecon-Slattery, Jill


    The domestic cat is afflicted with multiple viruses that serve as powerful models for human disease including cancers, SARS and HIV/AIDS. Cat viruses that cause these diseases have been studied for decades revealing detailed insight concerning transmission, virulence, origins and pathogenesis. Here we review recent genetic advances that have questioned traditional wisdom regarding the origins of virulent Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) diseases, the pathogenic potential of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) in wild non-domestic Felidae species, and the restriction of Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) mediated immune impairment to domestic cats rather than other Felidae species. The most recent interpretations indicate important new evolutionary conclusions implicating these deadly infectious agents in domestic and non-domestic felids.

  3. National HIV/AIDS Strategy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about the importance of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and the work of CDC.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  4. Aid, social policy, and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn

    This paper discusses past and current social policy strategies in the international aid architecture. From the 1990s, aid strategy and policy shifted to put a stronger emphasis on human development. This accelerated with the Millennium Development Goals and will continue under the Sustainable...... Development Goals, which have even more ambitious targets. The paper also assesses some of the concerns associated with the ‘Paris-style’ aid modalities, and discusses major challenges for the future global development agenda....

  5. National Latino AIDS Awareness Day

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast highlights National Latino AIDS Awareness Day, to increase awareness of the disproportionate impact of HIV on the Hispanic or Latino population in the United States and dependent territories. The podcast reminds Hispanics or Latinos that they have the power to take control of their health and protect themselves against HIV.  Created: 10/8/2014 by Office of Health Equity, Office of the Director, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention.   Date Released: 10/14/2014.

  6. Computer Viruses. Technology Update. (United States)

    Ponder, Tim, Comp.; Ropog, Marty, Comp.; Keating, Joseph, Comp.

    This document provides general information on computer viruses, how to help protect a computer network from them, measures to take if a computer becomes infected. Highlights include the origins of computer viruses; virus contraction; a description of some common virus types (File Virus, Boot Sector/Partition Table Viruses, Trojan Horses, and…

  7. Synonymous Virus Genome Recoding as a Tool to Impact Viral Fitness. (United States)

    Martínez, Miguel Angel; Jordan-Paiz, Ana; Franco, Sandra; Nevot, Maria


    Synthetic genome recoding is a novel method of generating viruses with altered phenotypes, whereby many synonymous mutations are introduced into the protein coding region of the virus genome without altering the encoded proteins. Virus genome recoding with large numbers of slightly deleterious mutations has produced attenuated forms of several RNA viruses. Virus genome recoding can also aid in investigating virus interactions with innate immune responses, identifying functional virus genome structures, strategically ameliorating cis-inhibitory signaling sequences related to complex viral functions, to unravel the relevance of codon usage for the temporal regulation of viral gene expression and improving our knowledge of virus mutational robustness and adaptability. The present review discusses the impacts of synonymous genome recoding with regard to expanding our comprehension of virus biology, and the development of new and better therapeutic strategies.

  8. Aids and Infectious Diseases (aid) Pmp 2013 Report (United States)

    Buonaguro, Franco M.


    The AIDS and Infectious Diseases (AID) PMP of the WFS contributed this year with a session on August 22nd to the Plenary Sessions of the International Seminars on Planetary Emergencies and Associated Meetings--46th Session: The Role of Science in the Third Millennium (Erice, 19-24 August 2013). Furthermore a workshop on August 24th was organized...

  9. Accessory Genes Confer a High Replication Rate to Virulent Feline Immunodeficiency Virus


    Troyer, Ryan M.; Thompson, Jesse; Elder, John H.; VandeWoude, Sue


    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that causes AIDS in domestic cats, similar to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS in humans. The FIV accessory protein Vif abrogates the inhibition of infection by cat APOBEC3 restriction factors. FIV also encodes a multifunctional OrfA accessory protein that has characteristics similar to HIV Tat, Vpu, Vpr, and Nef. To examine the role of vif and orfA accessory genes in FIV replication and pathogenicity, we generated chimeras between tw...

  10. AIDS in the HAART era: New York's heterogeneous geography. (United States)

    Wallace, Robert G


    During the 1990s, the number of new AIDS cases in New York City, USA, declined precipitously. The declines, beginning before highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was introduced, were geographically heterogeneous across two New York City boroughs analyzed. From 1993 to 1998, zip codes in Lower Manhattan, with large white and affluent populations, had declines as much as 55% more than the rest of Manhattan. Bronx zip codes underwent still lesser declines. Declines also differed within zip codes among subpopulations. White zip code populations tended to have greater declines than Latino populations, which in turn tended to have greater declines than black populations. According to bivariate and stepwise regressions, an array of socioeconomic and community stress variables acted in combination on the decline in New York AIDS. Manhattan's declines in total AIDS incidence were primarily defined by changes in AIDS incidence for whites and for men who have sex with men, racial segregation, and the proportions of households in upper income classes and under rent stress. Bronx declines in total AIDS are principally explained by a broader range of income classes, and social instability as marked by housing overcrowding and cirrhosis and drug mortalities. Whatever the combination of proximate causes for the decline in AIDS incidence in 1990s New York (educational campaigns, HAART, demographic stochasticity), the decline was shaped by the city's socioeconomic structure and political and ecological history. That structure and history generates the geographically defined aggregates of behaviors that promote or impede AIDS decline. Such spatial heterogeneity may provide for HIV refugia, areas where the virus can weather the epidemic's contraction, a troubling possibility with the accelerating microbicidal failures of combination therapies.

  11. Ergogenic Aids and Supplements. (United States)

    Porrini, Marisa; Del Boʼ, Cristian


    Great interest is currently shown for the contribution of nutrition to optimize training and athletic performance, and a considerable debate exists about the potential ergogenic value of several dietary supplements. However, most of the products used by athletes do not provide sufficient scientific evidence regarding their efficacy in enhancing physical performance as well as their specificity of action and safety. For this reason, sport nutrition professionals need skills in evaluating the scientific value of papers and advertisements on ergogenic aids and supplements in order to support athletes in their choice. In the present chapter, the efficacy of some of the most popular supplements used by athletes and sport practitioners will be discussed. Particular attention will be devoted to amino acids and derivatives, caffeine and caffeinated energy drinks, and some antioxidants.

  12. Learning to aid learning. (United States)

    Richards, Jacqui


    The National Health Service (NHS) is one of the largest employers in the world and, with 1.3 million staff, the biggest employer in Europe. With over three hundred different careers on offer (NHS 2015), the acquisition of skills and qualifications, through academic and clinical training, is an integral part of day-to-day life in the health service. As such, mentoring has become a significant feature in the preparation of healthcare professionals, to support students and ensure learning needs and experiences are appropriate to competency. This article examines the mentor's role, in relation to a teaching innovation designed to address students' identified learning needs to meet the requirements of the multi-professional learning and assessment in practice course NM6156. The effectiveness of the aids to learning will be assessed through an online quiz, and its usefulness will be analysed with reference to educational theories of learning and development.

  13. Genotypic distribution of HHV-8 in AIDS individuals without and with Kaposi sarcoma: Is genotype B associated with better prognosis of AIDS-KS? (United States)

    Tozetto-Mendoza, Tania Regina; Ibrahim, Karim Yaqub; Tateno, Adriana Fumie; Oliveira, Cristiane Mendes de; Sumita, Laura Massami; Sanchez, Maria Carmem Arroyo; Luna, Expedito José; Pierrotti, Ligia Camara; Drexler, Jan Felix; Braz-Silva, Paulo Henrique; Pannuti, Claudio Sérgio; Romano, Camila Malta


    AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS) caused by human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) is the most severe and resistant form of KS tumor. Our aim was to verify whether there is an association between HHV-8 variability and development of AIDS-KS in Brazil by comparing the HHV-8 variability between individuals without and with KS. Saliva samples and blood, when available, were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques for detection of the fragments of ORF K1 of HHV-8, which were then genotyped and analyzed regarding the genetic variability. Our study described 106 positive cases for HHV-8 in the saliva from 751 AIDS patients without previous KS. In addition, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of HHV-8 in 34 of the 106 AIDS patients without KS and in 33 of the 37 patients with active KS. The distribution of HHV-8 genotypes A, B, C, and F in AIDS individuals was indistinguishable by comparing non-KS and KS groups, as well as regarding ethnicity. Considering the KS group, genotype B was associated with better prognosis of KS tumor. Interestingly, we found a particular profile of diversity within clade C and 2 recombinant patterns of HHV-8 in the saliva of AIDS individuals without KS. We emphasize the need to achieve standard genotyping protocol for ORF K1 amplification, thus allowing for substantial detection of HHV-8 variants. Our findings can shed light on the role of HHV-8 variability in the pathogenesis of AIDS-KS.

  14. Tuberculosis: The Connection between TB and HIV (the AIDS Virus) (United States)

    ... the Facts Tuberculosis - The Connection between TB and HIV 12-Dose Regimen for Latent TB Infection-Patient Education Brochure Posters Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test Wall Chart World TB Day Think TB Stop TB Reports & Articles Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports (MMWRs) DTBE Authored ...

  15. AIDS and sex tourism. (United States)

    Herold, E S; Van Kerkwijk, C


    Tourists traveling internationally lower their inhibitions and take greater risks than they would typically in their home cultures. Loneliness, boredom, and a sense of freedom contribute to this behavioral change. Some tourists travel internationally in search of sexual gratification. This motivation may be actively conscious or subconscious to the traveler. Billed as romantic with great natural beauty, Thailand, the Philippines, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and Kenya are popular destinations of tourists seeking sex. The Netherlands and countries in eastern Europe are also popular. With most initial cases of HIV infection in Europe having histories of international travel, mass tourism is a major factor in the international transmission of AIDS. While abroad, tourists have sex with casual partners, sex workers, and/or other tourists. Far from all tourists, however, carry and consistently use condoms with these partners. One study found female and non white travelers to be less likely than Whites and males to carry condoms. The risk of HIV infection increases in circumstances where condoms are not readily available in the host country and/or are of poor quality. Regarding actual condom use, a study found only 34% of sex tourists from Switzerland to consistently use condoms while abroad. 28% of men in an STD clinic in Melbourne, Australia, reported consistent condom use in sexual relations while traveling in Asia; STDs were identified in 73% of men examined. The few studies of tourists suggest that a significant proportion engage in risky behavior while traveling. HIV prevalence is rapidly increasing in countries known as destinations for sex tourism. High infection rates are especially evident among teenage sex workers in Thailand. Simply documenting the prevalence of risky behavior among sex tourists will not suffice. More research is needed on travelers and AIDS with particular attention upon the motivating factors supporting persistent high-risk behavior.

  16. AIDS - associated parasitic diarrhoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora D


    Full Text Available Since the advent of human immunodeficiency virus infection, with its profound and progressive effect on the cellular immune system, a group of human opportunistic pathogens has come into prominence. Opportunistic parasitic infection can cause severe morbidity and mortality. Because many of these infections are treatable, an early and accurate diagnosis is important. This can be accomplished by a variety of methods such as direct demonstration of parasites and by serological tests to detect antigen and/or specific antibodies. However, antibody response may be poor in these patients and therefore immunodiagnostic tests have to be interpreted with caution. Cryptosporidium parvum , Isospora belli , Cyclospora cayetanensis , Microsporidia, Entamoeba histolytica and Strongyloides stercoralis are the commonly detected parasites. Detection of these parasites will help in proper management of these patients because drugs are available for most of these parasitic infections.

  17. AIDS Resource Manual for Educators. (United States)

    Edwards, Sara A., Ed.; And Others

    This manual presents, for educators, known facts about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), how it is transmitted, and how it can be prevented. Answers to common questions about AIDS are listed and a summary sheet is provided. A resource list is included that contains names, addresses, and phone numbers of organizations that produce or…

  18. Combating Homophobia in AIDS Education. (United States)

    Croteau, James M.; Morgan, Suzanne


    Reviews literature explicating connection between homophobia and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and then calls for integration of antihomophobia elements into AIDS education. Discusses negative messages in portrayals of homosexual and bisexual men and in discussions of safer sexual practices. Suggests guidelines for countering…

  19. Moral Character and Student Aid (United States)

    Flint, Thomas A.


    Thirty years after the creation of federal student financial aid programs through the Higher Education Act of 1965, the link between moral character and student financial aid programs is once again influencing the public policy debate. A careful look at the debate, though, shows that the nature of concerns has shifted. In the past, the question…

  20. HIV/AIDS and Pregnancy (United States)

    If you have HIV/AIDS and find out you are pregnant or think you may be pregnant, you should let your health care provider know as soon as possible. Some HIV/AIDS medicines may harm your baby. Your health ...

  1. Basic HIV/AIDS Statistics (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Statistics Center . How many people are diagnosed with HIV each year in the United States? In 2015, ...

  2. World AIDS Day PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    December 1 is World AIDS Day. In this PSA, communities are encouraged to get tested for HIV.  Created: 11/16/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 11/16/2011.

  3. Information Handbook for Teacher Aides. (United States)

    Pucciarelli, Catherine S., Ed.

    This handbook provides an introduction for teacher aides recently hired by the Nassau Board of Cooperative Education Services (BOCES) to work with handicapped students. Topics covered include mental, learning, physical and emotional disabilities, the role of the teacher aide, crisis intervention, building students' self-esteem, managing student…

  4. Translation: Aids, Robots, and Automation. (United States)

    Andreyewsky, Alexander


    Examines electronic aids to translation both as ways to automate it and as an approach to solve problems resulting from shortage of qualified translators. Describes the limitations of robotic MT (Machine Translation) systems, viewing MAT (Machine-Aided Translation) as the only practical solution and the best vehicle for further automation. (MES)

  5. Aid and Sectoral Labour Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Thiele, Rainer


    The paper examines empirically the proposition that aid to poor countries is detrimental for external competitiveness, giving rise to Dutch disease type effects. At the aggregate level, aid is found to have a positive effect on growth of labour productivity. A sectoral decomposition shows that th...... of dollarization in financial liabilities at the firm level....

  6. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for the simian immunodeficiency virus. (United States)

    Letvin, N L; Schmitz, J E; Jordan, H L; Seth, A; Hirsch, V M; Reimann, K A; Kuroda, M J


    A non-human primate model for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus monkey, was used to explore the role of the AIDS virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response in disease pathogenesis. This CTL response was measured using the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I/peptide tetramer technology. Large numbers of tetramer-binding CD8+ T lymphocytes were demonstrable not only in the peripheral blood, but in lymph nodes and even in semen of chronically SIV-infected monkeys. The central role of these effector T lymphocytes in containing SIV spread during primary infection was demonstrated by showing that early SIV clearance during primary infection correlated with the emergence of the tetramer binding CD8+ T lymphocytes and that in vivo depletion of CD8+ lymphocytes eliminated the ability of the infected monkeys to contain SIV replication. These observations suggest that an effective AIDS vaccine should elicit a potent virus-specific CTL response. In fact, a live, recombinant SIV vaccine constructed using the attenuated pox virus vector modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) elicited a high-frequency CTL response, comparable in magnitude to that elicited by SIV infection itself. This suggests that vaccine modalities such as MVA may prove useful in creating an effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine. These studies also indicate the power of both the SIV/macaque model and MHC class I/peptide tetramers for assessing AIDS vaccine strategies.

  7. HIV/AIDS counseling skills and strategies: Can testing and counseling curb the epidemic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Shireesh Kanekar


    Conclusions: Multiple approaches are used by counselors in providing education and prevention counseling to ′at risk′ individuals and also individuals who have been infected with the virus. No one method is superior to another and some gamut of techniques are practiced by HIV/AIDS counselors.

  8. Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of HIV/AIDS in China (2005)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chinese Medical Association and Chinese Center for


    @@ Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS),caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), has become a major public health issue in China. It not only posesses formidable challenges for the health of the Chinese people, but has also influenced China's economic development and social stability.

  9. Ending the Global HIV/AIDS Pandemic: The Critical Role of an HIV Vaccine (United States)

    Fauci, Anthony S.; Folkers, Gregory K.; Marston, Hilary D.


    While the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS pandemic continues, the incidence of HIV infections has fallen because of the deployment of antiretroviral drugs and multiple prevention modalities. To achieve a durable end to the pandemic, a vaccine remains essential. Recent advances in vaccinology offer new promise for an effective HIV vaccine. PMID:25151483

  10. Analysis of the capacity to produce IL-3 in murine AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuenschwander, A U; Marker, O; Thomsen, Allan Randrup


    Adult C57BL/6 mice infected with LP-BM5 murine leukaemia virus represent a model of murine AIDS (MAIDS). In this study we have analysed the capacity of CD4+ T cells from infected mice to produce IL-3 following stimulation with ConA for 24-72 h. In contrast to the position with IL-2, the production...

  11. Colleges Could Play Crucial Role in Halting Spread of AIDS Epidemic, Public-Health Officials Say. (United States)

    Biemiller, Lawrence


    Public-health specialists say colleges and universities could play a crucial role in halting the spread of AIDS by educating all their students about the disease and how to avoid becoming infected with the virus that causes it. Reaching minority groups and drug users, and "safe sex" kits are discussed. (MLW)

  12. Attitudes towards and Knowledge of AIDS. (United States)

    Edwards, Andrew; Hiday, Virginia Aldige'

    Most research on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has been medical and most social science research on AIDS has been concerned with social factors in its spread and with social-psychological effects of contracting AIDS. This study was conducted to examine public attitudes toward, and public knowledge about AIDS. Knowledge about AIDS was…

  13. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase is dispensable for virus-mediated liver and skin tumor development in mouse models. (United States)

    Nguyen, Tung; Xu, Jianliang; Chikuma, Shunsuke; Hiai, Hiroshi; Kinoshita, Kazuo; Moriya, Kyoji; Koike, Kazuhiko; Marcuzzi, Gian Paolo; Pfister, Herbert; Honjo, Tasuku; Kobayashi, Maki


    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) not only promotes immune diversity by initiating somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination in immunoglobulin genes but also provokes genomic instability by introducing translocations and mutations into non-immunoglobulin genes. To test whether AID is essential for virus-induced tumor development, we used two transgenic tumor models: mice expressing hepatitis C virus (HCV) core proteins (HCV-Tg), driven by the hepatitis B virus promoter, and mice expressing human papillomavirus type 8 proteins (HPV8-Tg), driven by the Keratin 14 promoter. Both strains were analyzed in the absence and presence of AID by crossing each with AID (-/-) mice. There was no difference in the liver tumor frequency between the HCV-Tg/AID (+/+) and HCV-Tg/AID (-/-) mice at 20 months of age although the AID (+/+) mice showed more severe histological findings and increased cytokine expression. Furthermore, a low level of AID transcript was detected in the HCV-Tg/AID (+/+) liver tissue that was not derived from hepatocytes themselves but from intra-hepatic immune cells. Although AID may not be the direct cause of HCV-induced oncogenesis, AID expressed in B cells, not in hepatocytes, may prolong steatosis and cause increased lymphocyte infiltration into HCV core protein-induced liver lesions. Similarly, there was no difference in the time course of skin tumor development between the HPV8-Tg/AID (-/-) and HPV8-Tg/AID (+/+) groups. In conclusion, AID does not appear to be required for tumor development in the two virus-induced tumor mouse models tested although AID expressed in infiltrating B cells may promote inflammatory reactions in HCV core protein-induced liver pathogenesis.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of White Spot Syndrome Virus Isolated from Cultured Litopenaeus vannamei in Mexico (United States)

    Rodriguez-Anaya, Libia Zulema; Gonzalez-Galaviz, Jose Reyes; Casillas-Hernandez, Ramón; Lares-Villa, Fernando; Estrada, Karel


    The first genome sequence of a Mexican white spot syndrome virus is presented here. White spot syndrome is a shrimp pandemic virus that has devastated production in Mexico for more than 10 years. The availability of this genome will greatly aid epidemiological studies worldwide, contributing to the molecular diagnostic and disease prevention in shrimp farming. PMID:26966222

  15. Oropuche virus: A virus present but ignored

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Mattar V.


    Full Text Available Bunyaviruses are RNA viruses that affect animals and plants; they have five genera and four of them affect humans: Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Phlebovirus and Hantavirus. All of them are Arbovirus, except Hantavirus. The Orthobunyaviruses comprise Oropouche, Tahyna, La Crosse virus, California encephalitis virus and Heartland virus recently discovered (1. Except for Heartland virus which is transmitted by ticks of the genus Amblyoma, these Phleboviruses have as vectors mosquitoes, which bite small mammals which are able to be as reservoirs amplifiers.

  16. Nuclear medicine and AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Doherty, M.J. (Saint Thomas' Hospital, London (United Kingdom) Kent and Canterbury Hospital, Canterbury (United Kingdom). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Nunan, T.O. (Saint Thomas' Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine)


    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and its associated illnesses in a relatively young population of patients provides an expanding role for nuclear medicine. The disease enforces a review of each department's infection control procedures. It has also resulted in an increase in the number of patients presenting with diseases such as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, Kaposi's sarcoma etc. which prior to the HIV epidemic were extremely rare. Thus in high risk patients the interpretation of abnormalities in nuclear medicine scans needs to include the spectrum of opportunistic infections and unusual tumours. The presence of opportunistic infections in the severely immunocompromised patient has led to the development of techniques not normally used, i.e. lung [sup 99]Tc[sup m]-diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) transfer/clearance, donor leukocyte scanning to allow rapid diagnosis of an abnormality. Radionuclide techniques are also used to monitor the effect of therapy directed at the HIV itself or against opportunistic infections. This review covers aspects of infection control as well as the use of radionuclides to investigate specific problems related to HIV infection and therapy of the associated disease processes. (author).

  17. HIV/AIDS and Shifting Urban China’s Socio-Moral Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hood, Johanna


    In this article, I address the lack of research in current scholarship on the impacts China’s changing media is having on those who consume messages about HIV and AIDS, and on the political, social, celebrity and corporate activism which have resulted from the improved circulation of knowledge...... about the virus in society. To do so, I position current ways of understanding the virus, its marketability and the myriad activism that knowledge of the virus encourages, in light of the impact that initial knowledge of HIV and AIDS sufferers in China had when introduced to the general, urban public. I...... sufferers” (aizibing huanzhe) through local stories of extreme suffering were critical to the broad-based changes and sustained successful bio-activism that followed their publication....

  18. Alaska Dental Health Aide Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Shoffstall-Cone


    Full Text Available Background. In 1999, An Oral Health Survey of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN Dental Patients found that 79% of 2- to 5-year-olds had a history of tooth decay. The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium in collaboration with Alaska’s Tribal Health Organizations (THO developed a new and diverse dental workforce model to address AI/AN oral health disparities. Objectives. This paper describes the workforce model and some experience to date of the Dental Health Aide (DHA Initiative that was introduced under the federally sanctioned Community Health Aide Program in Alaska. These new dental team members work with THO dentists and hygienists to provide education, prevention and basic restorative services in a culturally appropriate manner. Results. The DHA Initiative introduced 4 new dental provider types to Alaska: the Primary Dental Health Aide, the Expanded Function Dental Health Aide, the Dental Health Aide Hygienist and the Dental Health Aide Therapist. The scope of practice between the 4 different DHA providers varies vastly along with the required training and education requirements. DHAs are certified, not licensed, providers. Recertification occurs every 2 years and requires the completion of 24 hours of continuing education and continual competency evaluation. Conclusions. Dental Health Aides provide evidence-based prevention programs and dental care that improve access to oral health care and help address well-documented oral health disparities.

  19. HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Fact Sheet (United States)

    ... and effective in people. What is an HIV/AIDS clinical trial? HIV/AIDS clinical trials help researchers ... to HIV Can anyone participate in an HIV/AIDS clinical trial? It depends on the study. Some ...

  20. HIV/AIDS and the Flu (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters HIV/AIDS and the Flu Questions & Answers Language: English ... people with HIV and AIDS. Should people with HIV/AIDS receive the inactivated influenza vaccine? People with ...

  1. Reprieve for Thailand's AIDS campaign. (United States)

    Clements, A


    A promilitary coalition began to govern Thailand in March 1992. It reduced the budget for the original proposed national AIDS awareness campaign from 30 million British pounds to almost 15 million British pounds. The Ministry of Health professed that the campaign had exaggerated the problem of AIDS in Thailand and had damaged tourism. Yet prodemocracy demonstrations in Bangkok in which troops killed many protesters restored the politicians who started the AIDS campaign to power in May 1992. There were to remain in power until new elections in September 1992. In July, the Minister of Health, Mechai Viravaidya, said he would step down if the government did not completely restore the 30 million British pounds for the AIDS campaign. It then increased the budget to almost that amount. Mr. Viravaidya initiated Thailand's open policy on the AIDS crisis and was known as Mr. Condom. He claimed that at the present HIV prevalence rate, Thailand may have between 2-4 million HIV infected people by 2000. If the country would take on anti-AIDS efforts now, however, they could cut the spread of HIV by 75%. As of mid-1992, about 400,000 people living in Thailand were HIV positive. The AIDS campaign planned to sue the mass media to inform people about AIDS especially those in universities and schools and high risk occupational groups. The increasing number of construction workers in Bangkok and existing sex workers were a high risk occupational group. At the 2nd national seminar of AIDS, the Minister of Health reproached tourists who come to Thailand for its sex industry. He said that Thailand does not need the 1 billion British pounds they bring to Thailand annually, and Thais do not want their homeland to be referred to as the sex capital.

  2. AIDS. Grim news for Asia. (United States)


    While Asia was the last region to be exposed to the global spread of HIV and AIDS, the incidence of HIV infection there is increasing fastest. The Asian Development Bank predicts mortality from AIDS will cause some town and village populations to begin declining by the year 2000. With an estimated 1 million people infected in India, and 400,000 in Thailand, these 2 countries are particularly exposed to the risk of epidemic HIV spread. In 5 years, more people may be affected by AIDS in India than anywhere else in the world. Concern over a growing presence of HIV is also merited for the Philippines, Indonesia, China, and the drug trade's Golden Triangle. The Second International Conference on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific in November 1992 stressed that AIDS no longer affects only homosexual and IV drug using populations. 50% of new infections worldwide in the first half of 1992 were among women, 65% of Thailand's AIDS cases are among heterosexuals, and 3-5% of Thailand's long-haul truck drivers have tested positive for HIV infection. HIV and AIDS robs economies and societies of their best workers. The immediate costs of caring for AIDS patients will pale next to the far greater losses to be realized in private sector economic productivity. Asia's more developed economies will probably be able to survive the epidemic, but small, poor countries like Laos will wilt. Prompt action must be taken to overcome public and religious ignorance and objections to promoting and using condoms throughout the region. For the first time, Beijing has organized an AIDS awareness conference for male homosexuals. Further, Singapore has implemented compulsory testing for lower-income foreign workers. Pakistan has even solicited educational assistance and support from Islamic religious leaders; similar action is being considered in Bangladesh.

  3. The effects of HIV/AIDS on economic growth and human capitals: a panel study evidence from Asian countries. (United States)

    Roy, Shongkour


    Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) affects economic growths by reducing the human capitals are among the most poorly understood aspect of the AIDS epidemic. This article analyzes the effects of the prevalence of HIV and full-blown AIDS on a country's human capitals and economic growths. Using a fixed effect model for panel data 1990-2010 from the Asia, I explored the dynamic relationships among HIV/AIDS, economic growths, and human capitals within countries over time. The econometric effects concerned that HIV/AIDS plays an important role in the field of economic growths and it is measured as a change in real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and human capitals. The modeling results for the Asian countries indicates HIV/AIDS prevalence that has a hurtful effect on GDP per capita by reducing human capitals within countries over time.

  4. Psychological first-aid: a practical aide-memoire. (United States)

    Leach, J


    Despite advances made in recent years in medical first aid, psychiatric intervention, survival training and equipment design, many people still perish quickly during and immediately following a disastrous event. In this study, individuals and groups of survivors of life-threatening events were debriefed and the behavior of those who coped well during such a threat to life were compared with those who did not. The behaviors of those who coped well were distilled into a set of principles for psychological first aid; that is, a series of simple actions for use within a disaster which serves to recover victims to functional behavior as quickly as possible, thus increasing their chance for survival. These principles of psychological first aid have recently been introduced into basic first aid and survival training courses for both military and civilian units.

  5. Aid Efficacy: An Institutional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Alonso Rodríguez


    Full Text Available This work aims to explore some of the weaknesses that the international aid system presents for efficaciously operating in promoting development. For this, it adopts an institutionalapproach, attempting to investigate the problems of asymmetry in information that occur both in relationships between donor and receiver and within aid organisations. The analysis of these aspects leads the author to underscore the importance that learning processes have in enriching interventions in development; he also underscores the importance of the attitudes and aptitudes of the agents in fostering these processes of improvement in aid quality.

  6. Positioning the image of AIDS. (United States)

    Cooter, Roger; Stein, Claudia


    AIDS posters can be treated as material objects whose production, distribution and consumption varied across time and place. It is also possible to reconstruct and analyse the public health discourse at the time these powerful images appeared. More recently, however, these conventional historical approaches have been challenged by projects in literary and art criticism. Here, images of AIDS are considered in terms of their function in and for a new discursive regime of power centred on the human body and its visualization. How images of AIDS came to be understood in Western culture in relation to wider political and economic conditions redefines the historical task.

  7. Aid, Social Policy, and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn


    This paper discusses past and current social policy strategies in the international aid architecture as an introduction to the UNU-WIDER Special Issue. Beginning in the 1990s, aid strategy and policy shifted to put a stronger emphasis on human development. This accelerated with the Millennium...... Development Goals (MDGs) and will continue under the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which have even more ambitious targets. The paper also assesses some of the concerns associated with the ‘Paris-style’ aid modalities, and discusses major challenges for the future global development agenda....

  8. Aid and Authoritarianism in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In 2013 almost half of Africa’s top aid recipients were ruled by authoritarian regimes. While the West may claim to promote democracy and human rights, in practice major bilateral and international donors, such as USAID , DFID , the World Bank and the European Commission, have seen their aid...... and Authoritarianism in Africa sheds light on the political intricacies and moral dilemmas raised by the relationship between foreign aid and autocratic rule in Africa. Through contributions by leading experts exploring the revival of authoritarian development politics in Ethiopia, Uganda, Rwanda, Cameroon, Mozambique...

  9. Aid and Sectoral Labour Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Thiele, Rainer


    that the effect is significant and positive both in the tradables and the nontradables sectors. The paper thus finds no empirical support for the hypothesis that aid reduces external competitiveness in developing countries. Possible reasons are the existence of large idle labour capacity and high levels......The paper examines empirically the proposition that aid to poor countries is detrimental for external competitiveness, giving rise to Dutch disease type effects. At the aggregate level, aid is found to have a positive effect on growth of labour productivity. A sectoral decomposition shows...

  10. Empowering communities to fight AIDS through participatory evaluation. (United States)

    Coghlan, A; Kabandu, M; Musungu, M J


    A field test combined participatory evaluation methods with more traditional techniques to assess the progress of The AIDS Service Organization (TASO) Community Initiatives program in Uganda to encourage greater community involvement in improving the program. Approximately 1.5 million people in Uganda are infected with the HIV virus. Estimated HIV prevalence ranges from 25 to 30% in the capital city of Kampala and is as high as 50% in some trading centers along the main highway, but as low as 1% in some rural areas. To empower people within their own communities to prevent the further spread of HIV and better support people with AIDS, TASO launched The Community Initiatives program in 1990. Under this program, TASO trainers help community leaders form a village AIDS committee and identify community needs and objectives. Local leaders then select community AIDS workers, who receive training from TASO in AIDS prevention, education, counseling, and care. These community volunteers conduct formal and informal educational sessions with groups and individuals, visit homes to provide counseling and assistance with care, distribute condoms, and refer people for HIV testing and medical treatment. During 1993 an evaluation plan in 2 of the 17 TCI-supported communities was field tested. The primary data collection methods were a knowledge, attitudes, and practices survey, followed by focus group discussions, and individual interviews with key informants. Several participatory methods also involved community members in data collection, analysis, and interpretation. More than 300 people gathered in the trading center of Biharwe to comment on the evaluation results from a community-based AIDS program. Through this process of encouraging audience participation and eliciting feedback, the evaluation sessions armed the work of the community implementors, disseminated more knowledge about changing sexual norms, and fostered greater community support for the program.

  11. Pharmacological Inhibition of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee Bienzle


    Full Text Available Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV is a member of the retroviridae family of viruses and causes an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS in domestic and non-domestic cats worldwide. Genome organization of FIV and clinical characteristics of the disease caused by the virus are similar to those of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Both viruses infect T lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages, and their replication cycle in infected cells is analogous. Due to marked similarity in genomic organization, virus structure, virus replication and disease pathogenesis of FIV and HIV, infection of cats with FIV is a useful tool to study and develop novel drugs and vaccines for HIV. Anti-retroviral drugs studied extensively in HIV infection have targeted different steps of the virus replication cycle: (1 inhibition of virus entry into susceptible cells at the level of attachment to host cell surface receptors and co-receptors; (2 inhibition of fusion of the virus membrane with the cell membrane; (3 blockade of reverse transcription of viral genomic RNA; (4 interruption of nuclear translocation and viral DNA integration into host genomes; (5 prevention of viral transcript processing and nuclear export; and (6 inhibition of virion assembly and maturation. Despite much success of anti-retroviral therapy slowing disease progression in people, similar therapy has not been thoroughly investigated in cats. In this article we review current pharmacological approaches and novel targets for anti-lentiviral therapy, and critically assess potentially suitable applications against FIV infection in cats.

  12. Frequent Simian Foamy Virus Infection in Persons Occupationally Exposed to Nonhuman Primates


    SWITZER, WILLIAM M.; Bhullar, Vinod; Shanmugam, Vedapuri; Cong, Mian-er; Parekh, Bharat; Lerche, Nicholas W; Yee, JoAnn L.; Ely, John J.; Boneva, Roumiana; Chapman, Louisa E.; Folks, Thomas M.; Heneine, Walid


    The recognition that AIDS originated as a zoonosis heightens public health concerns associated with human infection by simian retroviruses endemic in nonhuman primates (NHPs). These retroviruses include simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), simian T-cell lymphotropic virus (STLV), simian type D retrovirus (SRV), and simian foamy virus (SFV). Although occasional infection with SIV, SRV, or SFV in persons occupationally exposed to NHPs has been reported, the characteristics and significance of t...

  13. A model for HIV/AIDS pandemic with optimal control (United States)

    Sule, Amiru; Abdullah, Farah Aini


    Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is pandemic. It has affected nearly 60 million people since the detection of the disease in 1981 to date. In this paper basic deterministic HIV/AIDS model with mass action incidence function are developed. Stability analysis is carried out. And the disease free equilibrium of the basic model was found to be locally asymptotically stable whenever the threshold parameter (RO) value is less than one, and unstable otherwise. The model is extended by introducing two optimal control strategies namely, CD4 counts and treatment for the infective using optimal control theory. Numerical simulation was carried out in order to illustrate the analytic results.

  14. Mucosal immunity in the female genital tract, HIV/AIDS. (United States)

    Reis Machado, Juliana; da Silva, Marcos Vinícius; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; dos Reis, Marlene Antônia; Monteiro, Maria Luiza Gonçalves dos Reis; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes; Miranda Corrêa, Rosana Rosa


    Mucosal immunity consists of innate and adaptive immune responses which can be influenced by systemic immunity. Despite having been the subject of intensive studies, it is not fully elucidated what exactly occurs after HIV contact with the female genital tract mucosa. The sexual route is the main route of HIV transmission, with an increased risk of infection in women compared to men. Several characteristics of the female genital tract make it suitable for inoculation, establishment of infection, and systemic spread of the virus, which causes local changes that may favor the development of infections by other pathogens, often called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The relationship of these STDs with HIV infection has been widely studied. Here we review the characteristics of mucosal immunity of the female genital tract, its alterations due to HIV/AIDS, and the characteristics of coinfections between HIV/AIDS and the most prevalent STDs.

  15. Mucosal Immunity in the Female Genital Tract, HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Reis Machado


    Full Text Available Mucosal immunity consists of innate and adaptive immune responses which can be influenced by systemic immunity. Despite having been the subject of intensive studies, it is not fully elucidated what exactly occurs after HIV contact with the female genital tract mucosa. The sexual route is the main route of HIV transmission, with an increased risk of infection in women compared to men. Several characteristics of the female genital tract make it suitable for inoculation, establishment of infection, and systemic spread of the virus, which causes local changes that may favor the development of infections by other pathogens, often called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. The relationship of these STDs with HIV infection has been widely studied. Here we review the characteristics of mucosal immunity of the female genital tract, its alterations due to HIV/AIDS, and the characteristics of coinfections between HIV/AIDS and the most prevalent STDs.

  16. Embracing Life with AIDS: Psychotherapy through Guided Imagery and Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth E. Bruscia


    Full Text Available This case describes individual psychotherapy with Matt, a 26-year old man recently infected with the AIDS virus.  In the eleven sessions, Guided Imagery and Music (GIM was used as the main technique within a psychodynamic orientation.  Through an intense process of imagery transformation, Matt gained insight into how traumatic events from his past prevented him from coping with the emotional challenges of living with AIDS.  Ultimately, this led him to confront one of the most important questions of his life:  Shall I live dead, or shall I die living?

  17. Computer aided surface representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhill, R.E.


    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation and display of surfaces, interpolating to given information, in three or more dimensions. In a typical problem, we wish to create a surface from some discrete information. If this information is itself on another surface, the problem is to determine a surface defined on a surface,'' which is discussed below. Often, properties of an already constructed surface are desired: such geometry processing'' is described below. The Summary of Proposed Research from our original proposal describes the aims of this research project. This Summary and the Table of Contents from the original proposal are enclosed as an Appendix to this Progress Report. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through algorithms and computer graphics displays is utilized in the research. The wide range of activity, directed in both theory and applications, makes this project unique. Last month in the first Ardent Titan delivered in the State of Arizona came to our group, funded by the DOE and Arizona State University. Although the Titan is a commercial product, its newness requires our close collaboration with Ardent to maximize results. During the past year, four faculty members and several graduate research assistants have worked on this DOE project. The gaining of new professionals is an important aspect of this project. A listing of the students and their topics is given in the Appendix. The most significant publication during the past year is the book, Curves and Surfaces for Computer Aided Geometric Design, by Dr. Gerald Farin. This 300 page volume helps fill a considerable gap in the subject and includes many new results on Bernstein-Bezier curves and surfaces.

  18. Injection drug use and HIV/AIDS transmission in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian; Xin; CHU; Judith; A; LEVY


    After nearly three decades of being virtually drug free, use of heroin and other illicit drugs has re-emerged in China as a major public health problem. One result is that drug abuse, particularly heroin injection, has come to play a predominant role in fueling China's AIDS epidemic. The first outbreak of HIV among China's IDUs was reported in the border area of Yunnan province between China and Myanmar where drug trafficking is heavy. Since then drug-related HIV has spread to all 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. This paper provides an overview to HIV/AIDS transmission through injection drug use in China. It begins with a brief history of the illicit drug trade in China, followed by a discussion of the emergence of drug related AIDS, and a profile of drug users and their sexual partners who have contracted the virus or who are vulnerable to infection. It ends by summarizing three national strategies being used by China to address both drug use and AIDS as major health threats.

  19. Knowledge of HIV and AIDS among tertiary students in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Bellal; Kabir, Alamgir; Ferdous, Hasina

    To examine the levels and predictors of knowledge on HIV and AIDS, a survey was conducted among 392 tertiary level students in the University of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Students demonstrated a high knowledge of transmission and prevention of HIV and AIDS yet with considerable misconception. All students said that unprotected sex with an HIV-positive man or woman can transmit the HIV virus to a negative man or woman but at the same time 43.6% of students believed that there is a preventive vaccine for HIV and 39.8% understood that HIV can be cured if it is diagnosed early. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that the students who had more knowledge on HIV and AIDS were: older boys, fathers having more income, business or service as father's occupation, having more mass media exposure, being senior students, living in a university dormitory, and being students of faculty of arts, social sciences, and science. The findings of this study suggest that a special course on health education, including risk perceptions of HIV and AIDS and issues related to sexual and other high risk behavior, should be included in the course curricula irrespective of disciplines at tertiary levels.

  20. The epidemic of HIV/AIDS in developing countries; the current scenario in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babar Masroor E


    Full Text Available Abstract HIV (Human Immunodeficiency virus causes (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS, in which the immune system of body totally fails to develop any defense against the foreign invaders. Infection with HIV occurs by transfer of blood, semen, and breast milk. HIV/AIDS is a global problem and it results nearly 25 million deaths worldwide. Developing countries like Pakistan have issues regarding Public Health. Currently, epidemic of HIV/AIDS is established in Pakistan and there is a threat of an expanded HIV/AIDS outbreak in the country. The major reason is that population is engaging in high-risk practices, low awareness about HIV/AIDS, and treacherous blood transfusion practices. A supplementary threat to Pakistan is India because both sharing a border and India is facing a rapidly growing HIV/AIDS epidemic. Local NGOs, National and International organizations are warning that in near future Pakistan may experiences bad situation regarding HIV/AIDS. In the present article we focused current situation of surveillance of HIV/AIDS, its virology, genotype, diagnostics, high-risk groups, reasons of vulnerability in Pakistani population, and the role of different national and international organizations in this situation.

  1. Are physiotherapy graduates adequately prepared to to manage hiv/aids patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Puckree


    Full Text Available Physiotherapy learners treat patients with Human Immuno-deficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS. There is no available published research on physiotherapy learners' opinions about how the South Afican physiotherapy undergraduate program is  helping them cope with HIV/AIDS patients. This study determines whether the physiotherapy degree offered at South African Universities, adequately prepares learners to cope with HIV/AIDS patients. Differences in knowledge and attitudes of physiotherapy learners regarding HIV/AIDS, amongst  universities is also explored. Two hundred and two senior physiotherapy learners from eight South African universities returned their  questionnaires and 55% of these were viable for analysis. A large portion (79% of learners indicated that the physiotherapy undergraduate degree did not adequately prepare them to cope with HIV/AIDS patients. Learners' knowledge and attitudes regarding HIV/AIDS differed significantly (41% to 73%  amongst universities. Formal lectures on HIV/AIDS significantly affected knowledge (0% -100% but not attitude towards patients. The role of the physiotherapist, precautions, transmission modes, syndrome stages, counseling and clinical skills were considered critical in the management of HIV/AIDS patients.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satrio Budi Wibowo


    Full Text Available Pergaulan bebas dan penggunaan narkoba yang marak di Indonesia, menyebabkan semakin pesatnya penyebaran Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV di Indonesia. Pad a tahun 2000 jumlah pengidap AIDS naik menjadi 3 kali lipat dan parahnya, trend ini terus berlangsung hingga saat ini. Intervensi yang tepat untuk merubah perilaku rentan penyebab menyebamya HIV amat dibutuhkan. Intervensi perlakuan dibuat dengan mentargetkan perilaku yang rentan terhadap penyebaran HIV. Perilaku yang menjadi targen dan akan di rubah dalam tulisan ini adalah; a Perilaku mengkuti tes HIV b Mengurangi perilaku beresiko penyebab penyebaran HIV c Mengembangkan pola hidup sehat pada pengidap HIV.Kata Kunci: lntervensi, HIV

  3. How to Get Hearing Aids (United States)

    ... records from your hearing healthcare professional, and may purchase your hearing aid elsewhere (ex: by mail order, ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  4. Hearing Aid Fitting & Electrophysiologic Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Jalaei


    Full Text Available Rehabilitation of deaf individual is one of the important subjects that has attracted attention of many researchers during past centuries. Different opinions have been established in this direction. Electrophysiologic tests were established and developed parallel to developments in rehabilitation. Therefore, opinion of using electrophysiologic test for evaluation and fitting of hearing aid became gradually popular. Ultimately, the electrophysiologic tests are used in evaluation and fitting of hearing aid in two ways: 1-Direct way 2- Indirect way "nIn direct way aided ABR is obtained and special attention is paid to wave V. This technique has many difficulties. Inindirect way, electrophysiologic tests such, ECochG, OAE and ABR, AMLR, ALR and P300 and other objective tests are used, especially in infants and neonates for evaluating the state of hearing. Researches are continuing in this field. It is probable to have aided electrophysiologic responses with speech stimuli in near future.

  5. HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials (United States)

    ... Home Apps APIs Widgets Order Publications Skip Nav HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Home > Clinical Trials Español small ... Renal (Kidney) Complications/Damage Skin Diseases FDA-Approved HIV Drugs Abacavir Atazanavir Atripla Cobicistat Combivir Complera Darunavir ...

  6. Different Styles of Hearing Aids (United States)

    ... Careers Certification Publications Events Advocacy Continuing Education Practice Management Research Home / Information for the Public / Hearing and Balance Different Styles of Hearing Aids In-the-Canal (ITC) and ...

  7. The return to foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Henrik

    We investigate the marginal productivity of investment across countries. The aim is to estimate the return on investments financed by foreign aid and by domestic resource mobilization, using aggregate data. Both returns are expected to vary across countries and time. Consequently we develop a cor...... cent. This is in accord with micro estimates of the economic rate of return.......We investigate the marginal productivity of investment across countries. The aim is to estimate the return on investments financed by foreign aid and by domestic resource mobilization, using aggregate data. Both returns are expected to vary across countries and time. Consequently we develop...... a correlated random coefficients model, to estimate the average aggregate return on ‘aid investments’ and ‘domestic investments’. Across different estimators and two different sources for GDP and investment data our findings are remarkably robust; the average gross return on ‘aid investments’ is about 20 per...

  8. Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic (United States)

    ... to text United Nations. Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development ; 2015. ← Return to text UNAIDS. 2011 Political Declaration on HIV/AIDS; 2011, available at: ... 2030 ; 2014. ← Return to text Global Fund. Grants Portfolio; ...

  9. Electronic aids to conceptual design (United States)

    Bouchard, Eugene E.


    Presented in viewgraph form are techniques to improve the conceptual design of complex systems. The paper discusses theory of design, flexible software tools for computer aided design, and methods for enhancing communication among design teams.

  10. Visual Landing Aids (VLA) Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Visual Landing Aids (VLA) Laboratory serves to support fleet VLA systems by maintaining the latest service change configuration of currently deployed VLA...

  11. Plant Virus Metagenomics: Advances in Virus Discovery. (United States)

    Roossinck, Marilyn J; Martin, Darren P; Roumagnac, Philippe


    In recent years plant viruses have been detected from many environments, including domestic and wild plants and interfaces between these systems-aquatic sources, feces of various animals, and insects. A variety of methods have been employed to study plant virus biodiversity, including enrichment for virus-like particles or virus-specific RNA or DNA, or the extraction of total nucleic acids, followed by next-generation deep sequencing and bioinformatic analyses. All of the methods have some shortcomings, but taken together these studies reveal our surprising lack of knowledge about plant viruses and point to the need for more comprehensive studies. In addition, many new viruses have been discovered, with most virus infections in wild plants appearing asymptomatic, suggesting that virus disease may be a byproduct of domestication. For plant pathologists these studies are providing useful tools to detect viruses, and perhaps to predict future problems that could threaten cultivated plants.

  12. TGF-β suppression of HBV RNA through AID-dependent recruitment of an RNA exosome complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxin Liang


    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor (TGF-β inhibits hepatitis B virus (HBV replication although the intracellular effectors involved are not determined. Here, we report that reduction of HBV transcripts by TGF-β is dependent on AID expression, which significantly decreases both HBV transcripts and viral DNA, resulting in inhibition of viral replication. Immunoprecipitation reveals that AID physically associates with viral P protein that binds to specific virus RNA sequence called epsilon. AID also binds to an RNA degradation complex (RNA exosome proteins, indicating that AID, RNA exosome, and P protein form an RNP complex. Suppression of HBV transcripts by TGF-β was abrogated by depletion of either AID or RNA exosome components, suggesting that AID and the RNA exosome involve in TGF-β mediated suppression of HBV RNA. Moreover, AID-mediated HBV reduction does not occur when P protein is disrupted or when viral transcription is inhibited. These results suggest that induced expression of AID by TGF-β causes recruitment of the RNA exosome to viral RNP complex and the RNA exosome degrades HBV RNA in a transcription-coupled manner.

  13. AIDS and the management prerogative. (United States)

    Gildea, J


    As with affirmative action in the '70s, it is the big companies that have, in just the last 10 or 12 months, begun to address AIDS in the workplace. Their top executives have come to add such action to the list of management responsibilities. More employers of all sizes may join them, especially those that grasp the true role--and the non-role--of geography in the AIDS epidemic.

  14. The structure and dynamics of the research fronts in HIV/AIDS research: part-whole and adaptive specialization

    CERN Document Server

    Fajardo-Ortiz, David; Duran, Luis; Dumontier, Michel; Lara, Miguel; Ochoa, Hector; Castano, Victor M


    In this paper, we have identified and analyzed the emergence, structure and dynamics of the paradigmatic research fronts that established the fundamentals of the biomedical knowledge on HIV/AIDS. A search of papers with the identifiers "HIV/AIDS", "Human Immunodeficiency Virus" and "Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome" in the Web of Science (Thomson Reuters), was carried out. A citation network of those papers was constructed. Then, a sub-network of the papers with the highest number of inter-citations (with a minimal in-degree of 30) was selected to perform a combination of network clustering and text mining to identify the paradigmatic research fronts and analyze their dynamics. Seven research fronts were identified in this sub-network. Each one of the fronts are related to one of the following topics: "preliminary pathology research", "virus entry", "virus tropism", "drug resistance", "genetic expression", "assembly", and "virus replication". The emergence of these fronts occurred in successive "waves" over...

  15. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  16. Zika Virus and Pregnancy (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your ...

  17. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your ...

  18. Computer Viruses: An Overview. (United States)

    Marmion, Dan


    Discusses the early history and current proliferation of computer viruses that occur on Macintosh and DOS personal computers, mentions virus detection programs, and offers suggestions for how libraries can protect themselves and their users from damage by computer viruses. (LRW)

  19. Virus Ebola Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharyono Wuryadi


    Full Text Available Virus Marburg dan Ebola diklasifikasikan sebagai virus yang sangat menular dan dimasukkan dalam klasifikasi sebagai virus/pathogen dengan derajat biosafety 4, sehingga untuk menanganinya diperlukan laboratorium khusus tingkat 4.

  20. Hepatitis Virus Infections in Poultry. (United States)

    Yugo, Danielle M; Hauck, Ruediger; Shivaprasad, H L; Meng, Xiang-Jin


    Viral hepatitis in poultry is a complex disease syndrome caused by several viruses belonging to different families including avian hepatitis E virus (HEV), duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV-1, -2, -3), duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3, fowl adenoviruses (FAdV), and turkey hepatitis virus (THV). While these hepatitis viruses share the same target organ, the liver, they each possess unique clinical and biological features. In this article, we aim to review the common and unique features of major poultry hepatitis viruses in an effort to identify the knowledge gaps and aid the prevention and control of poultry viral hepatitis. Avian HEV is an Orthohepevirus B in the family Hepeviridae that naturally infects chickens and consists of three distinct genotypes worldwide. Avian HEV is associated with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome or big liver and spleen disease in chickens, although the majority of the infected birds are subclinical. Avihepadnaviruses in the family of Hepadnaviridae have been isolated from ducks, snow geese, white storks, grey herons, cranes, and parrots. DHBV evolved with the host as a noncytopathic form without clinical signs and rarely progressed to chronicity. The outcome for DHBV infection varies by the host's ability to elicit an immune response and is dose and age dependent in ducks, thus mimicking the pathogenesis of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and providing an excellent animal model for human HBV. DHAV is a picornavirus that causes a highly contagious virus infection in ducks with up to 100% flock mortality in ducklings under 6 wk of age, while older birds remain unaffected. The high morbidity and mortality has an economic impact on intensive duck production farming. Duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3 are astroviruses in the family of Astroviridae with similarity phylogenetically to turkey astroviruses, implicating the potential for cross-species infections between strains. Duck astrovirus (DAstV) causes

  1. A new epidemic model of computer viruses (United States)

    Yang, Lu-Xing; Yang, Xiaofan


    This paper addresses the epidemiological modeling of computer viruses. By incorporating the effect of removable storage media, considering the possibility of connecting infected computers to the Internet, and removing the conservative restriction on the total number of computers connected to the Internet, a new epidemic model is proposed. Unlike most previous models, the proposed model has no virus-free equilibrium and has a unique endemic equilibrium. With the aid of the theory of asymptotically autonomous systems as well as the generalized Poincare-Bendixson theorem, the endemic equilibrium is shown to be globally asymptotically stable. By analyzing the influence of different system parameters on the steady number of infected computers, a collection of policies is recommended to prohibit the virus prevalence.

  2. Cutaneous mixed infections in AIDS. (United States)

    Piérard, G E; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Estrada, J A; Rurangirwa, A; Dosal, F L


    We report a new case of mixed infection occurring at the same site of the skin in a human immune deficiency virus-positive patient. Hyperkeratotic and crusted erosions contained fusospirochetal organisms, Cryptococcus neoformans, and another unidentified fungus.

  3. Oncogenic viruses and cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangxiang; George; Luo; Jing-hsiung; James; Ou


    <正>This special issue of the journal is dedicated to the important topic of oncogenic viruses and cancer.It contains seven review articles covering all known oncogenic viruses except for human T-lymphotropic virus type1(HTLV-1).These review articles are contributed by experts on specific viruses and their associated human cancers.Viruses account for about 20%of total human cancer cases.Although many viruses can cause various tumors in animals,only seven of them

  4. Global scenario of HIV/AIDS: Declining trend and moving toward cure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Sekar


    Full Text Available People living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS (PLH/PLHA are increasing worldwide (29.8 million in 2001 and 36.9 million in 2014 mainly owing to the aversion of AIDS related deaths by effective antiretroviral therapy (ART. Although the prevalence is increasing, the new HIV infections decreased from 3.4 million in 2001 to 2 million in 2014, and AIDS-related deaths were decreased from the peak of 2.4 million in 2005 to 1.2 million in 2014. Implementation of ART with wide coverage and free access, especially in low- and middle-income countries is an important reason for the decline of AIDS-related deaths. Further, it is expected that the recent understanding in the mechanisms of latent infection and importance of reservoir could help to achieve a "functional cure" from HIV infection in near future.

  5. Mirtazapine and mefloquine therapy for non-AIDS-related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. (United States)

    Epperla, Narendranath; Medina-Flores, Rafael; Mazza, Joseph J; Yale, Steven H


    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is an opportunistic infection of the human nervous system caused by the JC virus. We report what is, to the best of our knowledge, the second reported case using a combination of mefloquine and mirtazapine in a patient with non-AIDS-related PML with a good clinical outcome. Conversely, the recent trial of mefloquine in 21 patients with AIDS and 3 without AIDS failed to show a reduction of JC viral DNA levels in the cerebral spinal fluid. However, the positive clinical response seen in our patient after the initiation of this combination therapy suggests that further studies in the form of randomized controlled trials for the treatment of non-AIDS-related PML are warranted.

  6. Integrating Social Marketing Into Fijian HIV/AIDS Prevention Programs: Lessons From Systematic Review. (United States)

    Sewak, Aarti; Singh, Gurmeet


    Social marketing techniques have been tested and proven useful within the health sector worldwide. In Fiji, social marketing was introduced in the early 1990s, and more rapidly during the last decade to improve national response to an increasing incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Given the limited amount of research in the area of program evaluation in Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs), this study systematically analyzes five Fijian HIV/AIDS prevention programs through Andreasen's benchmark criteria, in order to identify gaps in program design that ultimately impact program effectiveness. Assessment results unveil some interesting trends regarding the focus and applications of past Fijian HIV/AIDS prevention programs in the past decade. This article discusses these findings and other valuable lessons for future HIV/AIDS prevention strategies in Fiji and elsewhere.

  7. Clinical features and treatment of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus co-infection among patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To estimate the clinical features of hepatitis B virus(HBV)and hepatitis C virus(HCV)co-infection among acquired immune deficiency syndrome(AIDS)patients and the interaction of lamivudine(3 TC)contained antiretroviral therapy(ART)with hepatitis virus replication.Methods From 2004 to 2010,199human immunodeficiency virus(HIV)/HBV coinfected patients admitted to Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University were enrolled,including 76 cases of HIV/HBV/HCV triple infection and 123 cases of

  8. The Chinese medicine Restore Plus Granules improves the immune status and decreases the HIV virus loading in patients with HIV/AIDS in Nairobi, Kenya%肯尼亚内罗毕地区HIV携带者和艾滋病患者饮用中药Restore Plus 颗粒冲剂提高免疫功能降低病毒载量的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁自云; Charles F.L.Mbakaya; Yeri Kombe; Wilfred Kisingu; James Kariuki; Erastus Muniu; Lucy Kanyara; 方静; 毛建平


    Objective: In a randomized, placebo-controlled study in Nairobi, Kenya, the effect of 22-month medication with Restore Plus Granules, an herbal immune drink, on the immune function of HIV/AIDS patients was evaluated. Methods; Totally 71 patients aged 29 -49 years who met the criteria were randomly dividedinto two groups; 41 patients were treated with Restore Plus Granules and 30 patients with placebo. In all patients, 61 ( >80% ) were the females of low income and low education levels, and they were single, widowed, or married. Results; Compared with the placebo group, patients in Restore Plus group demonstrated improvement in appetite, weight, general system review and low temperature during and post-management. In particular, the signs and symptoms of HIV & AIDS were obviously resolved. The diarrhea reduced from a prevalence of 10. 5% to 0% , the upper respiratory infection also decreased from 10. 5% to 0% , and the headache decreased from 15. 8% to 4. 0% , the skin rashes decreased from 21.1% to 4. 2% , the fatigue decreased from 15. 8% to 0% . Among the patients in Restore Plus group, 85.7% showed better appetite in the 12th month. Furthermore, the patients in Restore Plus group had higher CD3+ and CD4+ lymphocyte counts and significant reduction of HIV virus loading, yet some patients showed virus undetectable. The liver function tests remained comparable between the groups. No adverse side effects were observed. Conclusion; Drinking Restore Plus Granules obviously improved the immune function of HIV/AIDS patients, and had no toxic effects. Some patients showed undetectable viral loads. Restore Plus could be used for a diet cure to HIV/AIDS patients.%目的:评价肯尼亚内罗毕地区HIV携带者和艾滋病(AIDS)患者饮用Restore Plus颗粒冲剂22个月后受试者免疫功能的改善情况.方法:将29 ~ 49岁的受试者71人随机分为2组:安慰剂组(n=30)和Restore Plus颗粒冲剂组(n=41).其中61人(80%以上)为低收入、低教育背

  9. 30 CFR 57.18010 - First aid. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid. 57.18010 Section 57.18010 Mineral... Underground § 57.18010 First aid. An individual capable of providing first aid shall be available on all... aid training shall be made available to all interested miners....

  10. 29 CFR 1915.98 - First aid. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid. 1915.98 Section 1915.98 Labor Regulations...) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT General Working Conditions § 1915.98 First aid...) Unless a first aid room and a qualified attendant are close at hand and prepared to render first aid...

  11. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary...

  12. Training Aids for Online Instruction: An Analysis. (United States)

    Guy, Robin Frederick

    This paper describes a number of different types of training aids currently employed in online training: non-interactive audiovisual presentations; interactive computer-based aids; partially interactive aids based on recorded searches; print-based materials; and kits. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of aid are noted, and a table…

  13. Detection and diagnosis of rice-infecting viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamaki Uehara Ichiki


    Full Text Available Rice-infecting viruses have caused serious damage to rice production in Asian, American, and African countries, where about 30 rice viruses and diseases have been reported. To control these diseases, developing accurate, quick methods to detect and diagnose the viruses in the host plants and any insect vectors of the viruses is very important. Based on an antigen–antibody reaction, serological methods such as latex agglutination reaction (LAR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA have advanced to detect viral particles or major proteins derived from viruses. They aid in forecasting disease and surveying disease spread and are widely used for virus detection at plant protection stations and research laboratories. From the early 2000s, based on sequence information for the target virus, several other methods such as reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and reverse transcription- loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP have been developed that are sensitive, rapid, and able to differentiate closely related viruses. Recent techniques such as real-time RT-PCR can be used to quantify the pathogen in target samples and monitor population dynamics of a virus, and metagenomic analyses using next-generation sequencing and microarrays show potential for use in the diagnosis of rice diseases.

  14. How to perform first aid. (United States)

    Gloster, Annabella Satu; Johnson, Phillip John


    RATIONALE AND KEY POINTS: This article aims to help nurses to perform first aid in a safe, effective and patient-centred manner. First aid comprises a series of simple, potentially life-saving steps that an individual can perform with minimal equipment. Although it is not a legal requirement to respond to an emergency situation outside of work, nurses have a professional duty to respond and provide care within the limits of their competency. First aid is the provision of immediate medical assistance to an ill or injured person until definitive medical treatment can be accessed. First aid can save lives and it is essential that nurses understand the basic principles. REFLECTIVE ACTIVITY: Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. Your skill in performing first aid and any areas where you may need to extend your knowledge. 2. How reading this article will change your practice. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: .

  15. First-aid boxes - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department


    With a view to ensuring optimum use of the first-aid boxes on the CERN site, we should like to remind you of various changes introduced in March 2009: The TSO of the buildings concerned is responsible for the first-aid boxes, including checking their contents.   First-aid boxes may be restocked ONLY at the CERN stores (SCEM No. 54.99.80). This is no longer possible at the Infirmary. The associated cost is charged to the Departments.   First-aid boxes should be used only for mild injuries. All other cases should be referred to the Medical Service Infirmary (Bldg. 57 – ground-floor, tel. 73802) between 8.00 a.m. and 5.30 p.m. or to the Fire and Rescue Service (tel. 74444). N.B.: This information does not apply to the red emergency first-aid boxes in the underground areas or to the emergency kits for use in the event of being splashed with hydrofluoric acid.

  16. Why foreign aid does (not) improve democracy?


    Audrey Menard


    Foreign aid has become closely connected to the development of democracy since the nineties. This paper analyses the democracy effects of aid accounting for this change in donors’ criteria. This approach contributes to the literature by analysing how the kind of donor allocating aid flows influences the effect of aid on democ- racy. I estimate a dynamic panel data model using data from 52 African countries between 1997 and 2008. I find that aid favours democracy. However when consider- ing th...

  17. Pragmatic Acts In HIV/AIDS Social Management Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyin Makinde


    Full Text Available Studies on the social management of HIV and AIDS have focused on how awareness about HIV and AIDS has been created through organised and interpersonal communication. These studies have not investigated context-constrained language use in the advertisements on the disease despite the wide coverage and potential effectiveness of the public sensitisation about HIV and AIDS. This study, therefore, investigated the pragmatic features of language in selected HIV and AIDS management advertisements with a view to identifying the pragmatic acts of the language. Aspects of pragmatic act theory, noted for negotiability of meaning context based interactional situations was adopted for the research. All the 25 advertisements broadcast between December 2006 and June 2009, to all African countries on both private and government-owned television stations in Nigeria by an International non-governmental agency known as 'it begins with you' (YOU constituted the data. Fifty–four utterances were generated from the adverts and were subjected to qualitative analysis and reported in simple percentages. Six pragmatic functions manifested in the advertisements: Co-opting and Projecting were realised through inference (INF, shared situational knowledge (SSK and relevance (REL to bring the audience into the war against HIV/AIDS. Encouraging and Emboldening were projected through SSK and INF to motivate the audience to go for HIV test and speak openly about the virus. Instigating was done using indirect speech act to empower the female against discrimination and stigmatisation. Advising was achieved through SSK and INF to promote fidelity and safe sexual behaviour. The analysis of YOU advertisements through pragmatic act theory presupposes that pragmatic functions were exploited by the advertisers to sensitise the audience, promote social ties and project into an HIV free generation.

  18. Pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus infection is associated with expansion of the enteric virome. (United States)

    Handley, Scott A; Thackray, Larissa B; Zhao, Guoyan; Presti, Rachel; Miller, Andrew D; Droit, Lindsay; Abbink, Peter; Maxfield, Lori F; Kambal, Amal; Duan, Erning; Stanley, Kelly; Kramer, Joshua; Macri, Sheila C; Permar, Sallie R; Schmitz, Joern E; Mansfield, Keith; Brenchley, Jason M; Veazey, Ronald S; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S; Wang, David; Barouch, Dan H; Virgin, Herbert W


    Pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection is associated with enteropathy, which likely contributes to AIDS progression. To identify candidate etiologies for AIDS enteropathy, we used next-generation sequencing to define the enteric virome during SIV infection in nonhuman primates. Pathogenic, but not nonpathogenic, SIV infection was associated with significant expansion of the enteric virome. We identified at least 32 previously undescribed enteric viruses during pathogenic SIV infection and confirmed their presence by using viral culture and PCR testing. We detected unsuspected mucosal adenovirus infection associated with enteritis as well as parvovirus viremia in animals with advanced AIDS, indicating the pathogenic potential of SIV-associated expansion of the enteric virome. No association between pathogenic SIV infection and the family-level taxonomy of enteric bacteria was detected. Thus, enteric viral infections may contribute to AIDS enteropathy and disease progression. These findings underline the importance of metagenomic analysis of the virome for understanding AIDS pathogenesis.

  19. New drug treatments for HIV infection and AIDS. A review following the Seventh International Conference on AIDS, Florence 16-21 June 1991.


    Venning, G R; Scott, G. M.


    1. OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the status of clinical development of zidovudine and new drugs for the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections. 2. METHOD--A critical review of the clinical trial reports and assessment of the design and methodology of the therapeutic trials. Evaluation of the drugs being tested and of the specific difficulties in testing drugs in AIDS. 3. CONCLUSIONS--Drugs are being tested in a unique climate of public opinion characterised by (1) fast track crit...

  20. Projections of HIV infections and AIDS cases to the year 2000. (United States)

    Chin, J; Sato, P A; Mann, J M


    After the recognition of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) in the early 1980s, uncertainty about the present and future dimensions of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection led to the development of many models to estimate current and future numbers of HIV infections and AIDS cases. The Global Programme on AIDS (GPA) of the World Health Organization (WHO) has developed an AIDS projection model which relies on available HIV seroprevalence data and on the annual rate of progression from HIV infection to AIDS for use in areas where reporting of AIDS cases is incomplete, and where scant data are available to quantify biological and human behavioural variables. Virtually all models, including the WHO model, have projected large increases in the number of AIDS cases by the early 1990s. Such short-term projections are considered relatively reliable since most of the new AIDS cases will develop in persons already infected with HIV. Longer-term prediction (10 years or longer) is less reliable because HIV prevalence and future trends are determined by many variables, most of which are still not well understood. WHO has now applied the Delphi method to project HIV prevalence from the year 1988 to mid-2000. This method attempts to improve the quality of the judgements and estimates for relatively uncertain issues by the systematic use of knowledgeable "experts". The mean value of the Delphi projections for HIV prevalence in the year 2000 is between 3 and 4 times the 1988 base estimate of 5.1 million; these projections have been used to obtain annual estimates of adult AIDS cases up to the year 2000. Coordinated HIV/AIDS prevention and control programmes are considered by the Delphi participants to be potentially capable of preventing almost half of the new HIV infections that would otherwise occur between 1988 and the year 2000. However, more than half of the approximately 5 million AIDS cases which are projected for the next decade will occur despite the most

  1. Risk for cancer among people living with AIDS, 1997-2012: the São Paulo AIDS-cancer linkage study. (United States)

    Tanaka, Luana F; Latorre, Maria R D O; Gutierrez, Eliana B; Curado, Maria P; Froeschl, Guenter; Heumann, Christian; Herbinger, Karl-Heinz


    Previous studies have reported an increased risk for certain types of cancer in the HIV-infected population. The aim of this study was to assess the risk for cancer in people with AIDS (PWA) in comparison with the general population in São Paulo (Brazil), between 1997 and 2012. A population-based registry linkage study was carried out to assess the risk for cancer, using a standardized incidence ratio (SIR) approach. A total of 480 102 person-years, of which 337 941 (70.4%) person-years were men, were included in the analysis. Around 2074 cancer cases were diagnosed among PWA, of which 51.0% were non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADC). The risk for AIDS-defining cancers and NADC in the male population with AIDS was significantly higher than that in the general population (SIR=27.74 and 1.87, respectively), as it was in the female population with AIDS compared with the general population (SIR=8.71 and 1.44, respectively). Most virus-related NADC occurred at elevated rates among PWA: anal cancer (SIR=33.02 in men and 11.21 in women), liver (SIR=4.35 in men and 4.84 in women), vulva and vagina (SIR=6.78 in women) and Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR=5.84 in men and 2.71 in women). Lung (SIR=2.24 in men and 2.60 in women) and central nervous system (SIR=1.92 in men and 3.48 in women) cancers also occurred at increased rates. Cancer burden among PWA in São Paulo was similar to that described in high-income countries such as the USA and Italy following the introduction of the highly active antiretroviral therapy. As coinfection with oncogenic viruses disproportionally affects this population, virus-related cancers accounted for a great share of excessive cases.

  2. Diagnostic imaging, preautopsy imaging and autopsy findings of 8 AIDS cases: a comparative study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-jun; GAO Yan-qing; CHENG Jing-liang; ZHANG Yu-zhong


    Background Aquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) presents a challenge to medical researchers because of its unique pathological and clinical picture. The clinical data, particularly autopsy evidence, from China have failed to provide enough pathological and etiological evidence for AIDS diagnosis, which impairs the reliability of the diagnosis and our full understanding of the occurrence and development of AIDS complications. The purpose of this study was to investigate the imaging and pathologic characteristics of AIDS.Methods Autopsy, imaging and pathological data from 8 cases of AIDS were retrospectively analyzed. Routine CT scanning of different body parts was performed during their periods of hospitalization. Transverse CT scanning was conducted from the skull to the pelvis immediately after the occurrence of death. After routine formalin fixing, 7 cardevers were cross sectioned for autopsy in freezing state and 1 for gross autopsy. Tissues were obtained from each section and organs for pathological examinations.Results The autopsy data indicated the presence of parasitic infections, bacterial infections, fungal infections, and virus infections in AIDS patients. Pneumocystis pneumonia, pulmonary tuberculosis, coccobacteria pneumonia, Aspergillus pneumonia, cytomegalovirus pneumonia, toxoplasma encephalitis, lymphoma and cerebrovascular diseases were found in these patients.Conclusions During the course of AIDS progression, the concurrent multiple infections as well as tumor development may result in multiple organ pathological changes and clinically complex symptoms that further complicate the imaging and pathological manifestations, thus resulting in difficult differential diagnosis. A combination of imaging data and autopsy data can help to clarify the diagnosis.

  3. The health literacy needs of women living with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Thompson


    Full Text Available Women in Sub-Saharan Africa are disproportionately affected by the virus and constitute 60% of the total HIV/AIDS infections in this region. Current recommendations endorse the involvement of people living with HIV in the development of programmes for people living with the virus. The purpose of the study was to explore and describe the health literacy needs of women living with HIV. The research design was qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual. After women living with HIV/AIDS were sampled purposively, semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight women and qualitative content analysis done. The findings revealed that the women expressed a need to increase their knowledge about HIV/AIDS. The knowledge they needed ranged from basic pathophysiology about HIV/AIDS, to the impact of HIV/AIDS on their health, to an awareness of the modes of HIV transmission and methods of protecting others from being infected. Other important health literacy needs related to self-care and correct antiretroviral use. A need for psychosocial skills was also identified in order for women to build and maintain their relationships. Recommendations were made for nursing practice, education and further research, based on these findings.

  4. Changing the Course of AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann


    of social change in southern Africa. This sociological study of HIV/AIDS peer education in diverse South African businesses tries to understand "the web of social relationships that influence behavior" (5), particularly with reference to Erving Goffman's classic framing of social space as "front stage......" and "back stage" and Victor Turner's notion of "liminality." So-called front-stage behavior includes that of workplace peer educators who give training sessions to coworkers within vertically structured communication programs run by HIV/AIDS managers; back-stage interventions include educators...

  5. Governance and Foreign Aid Allocation (United States)


    Aid the Rest Have Done So Much Ill and So Little Good,” Penguin Press, 2005 25. Easterly, William; Levine, Ross and Roodman , David . “New Data, New...Subramanian, “What Undermines Aid’s Impact on Growth?” IMF Working Paper 05/126, Washington, D.C., 2005b 156 85. Roodman , David “An Index of Donor...2000) measure of good policy. Roodman (2004) weights aid from individual donors depending on whether it goes to poor countries and whether it goes to

  6. [Simultaneous meningitis caused by Candida and tuberculosis as manifestation of AIDS]. (United States)

    Arias Gómez, M; Requena Caballero, I; Lema Devesa, C; Suárez Dono, J; Llovo Martínez, J; Martino, V


    Opportunistic germs meningoencephalitis plays an important role within neurologic pathology in aids. Treponema pallidum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis among bacteries, Cryptococcus neoformans in fungus group, Toxoplasma gondii in protozoos group and Papovavirus JC in virus one are the most frequently implicated germs. Sometimes infections are mixed. We present a simultaneous meningitis case produced by Candida albicans and Mycobacterium tuberculosis that coursed with neutrophilic pleocytosis in CSF and normal glucose CSF levels, consisting the clinical debut of aids. Repeated CSF examinations are the diagnostic clue owing, as in our case, instauration of early treatment. Present case of simultaneous tuberculous and candidiasic meningitis is the first one described in a HIV positive patient.

  7. Medical management of human immunodeficiency virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kempen John


    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/ acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS pandemic has pervasive effects on culture, economics, policy, and human development. All organs can be affected by complications of HIV/AIDS, including the eye. When sufficient resources are available and widespread antiretroviral resistance does not exist, the four available classes of antiretroviral agents - nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, and fusion inhibitors - can be combined to provide highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. For many (not all patients, HAART converts an inexorably fatal disease into a chronic disease with a fairly good prognosis. Use of HAART often induces partial immune recovery, which has predominantly beneficial effects on ocular complications of AIDS. However, HAART-induced immune recovery sometimes results in immune recovery inflammatory syndromes, such as immune recovery uveitis. Use of HAART is the single most useful intervention for most patients with ocular complications of AIDS. However, specific ocular therapy is also critical to avoid blindness in the early months before immune recovery can occur, or if HAART is unavailable. Increasing availability of HAART worldwide shows great promise to alleviate one of the world′s greatest plagues. However, predictable secular trends in the AIDS epidemic make it likely that the number of cases of ocular complications of AIDS will increase substantially before they decrease. Ophthalmologists worldwide should be familiar with the diagnosis and management of cytomegalovirus retinitis - the most common ocular complication of AIDS - and should establish partnerships with physicians who are able to provide HAART. Research is needed to determine the optimal approach for managing cytomegalovirus retinitis in resource-constrained settings.

  8. Chronic Hepatitis B and C Virus Infection and Risk for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in HIV-Infected Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qing; De Luca, Andrea; Smith, Colette


    Background: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the most common AIDS-defining condition in the era of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Whether chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection promote NHL in HIV-infected patients is unclear. Objective: To investigate whether chronic HB...

  9. The human herpes virus 8-encoded chemokine receptor is required for angioproliferation in a murine model of Kaposi's sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian K; Manfra, Denise J; Grisotto, Marcos G;


    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus or human herpes virus 8 is considered the etiological agent of KS, a highly vascularized neoplasm that is the most common tumor affecting HIV/AIDS patients. The KS-associated herpesvirus/human herpes virus 8 open reading frame 74 encodes a constitutively...

  10. Heterogeneity in risk-behaviour matters; Modelling the spread of HIV and Hepatitis C Virus among injecting drug users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, A.S. de


    By sharing injecting equipment, blood borne infections are spread among Injecting Drug Users (IDU). One infection that affects many IDU is the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), which can cause liver cirrhosis and liver carcinoma. The virus that causes AIDS, HIV, is also spread by this route. In this thesis,

  11. Understanding ebola virus transmission. (United States)

    Judson, Seth; Prescott, Joseph; Munster, Vincent


    An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus.

  12. Knowledge, attitudes and risk behaviour related to HIV and AIDS: the case of international students in a Finnish university. (United States)

    Suominen, Tarja; Karanja-Pernu, Caroline; Kylmä, Jari; Houtsonen, Jarmo; Välimäki, Maritta


    The purpose of this pilot study was to illustrate international university students' knowledge of HIV and AIDS, attitudes towards HIV and AIDS and risk behaviours in relation to HIV and AIDS. Questionnaires were posted to 140 students, and 32 responded. Data were analysed statistically. The results indicated a fairly good knowledge level of HIV and AIDS. The majority of students were well aware of the general facts about HIV and AIDS, modes of transmission and main risk groups, and they were also aware of the universal precautions. The majority of students had positive attitudes towards persons with HIV and AIDS and were willing to care for them. The students identified well with risk behaviours. Most agreed that their knowledge level of HIV and AIDS did affect their risk behaviours, while others felt it was a matter of choice, personal attitude and practice. Choice is a determining factor for decisions made by students in relation to HIV and AIDS. Future research focusing on factors influencing these choices that put them at risk of contracting the HIV virus is recommended. Students also need to be enlightened on matters concerning symptoms of HIV and AIDS.

  13. Broadly neutralizing antibodies targeted to mucin-type carbohydrate epitopes of human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Nielsen, C; Arendrup, M;


    . This inhibition was found in infection of both lymphocytic cells and monocytoid cells. Viruses tested included six HIV-1 and five HIV-2 isolates propagated in different cells, as well as infectious plasma from AIDS patients. The antiviral effect of anti-Tn MAbs occurred by specific binding of the MAb to the virus......The cancer-related mucin-type carbohydrate neoantigen Tn was found on gp160 and gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Tn neutralized infection with cell-free virus and blocked fusion between HIV-infected and uninfected cells...

  14. A Hearing Aid Primer 1 (United States)

    Yetter, Carol J.


    This hearing aid primer is designed to define the differences among the three levels of hearing instrument technology: conventional analog circuit technology (most basic), digitally programmable/analog circuit technology (moderately advanced), and fully digital technology (most advanced). Both moderate and advanced technologies mean that hearing…

  15. Hearing Aid with Visual Indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The invention comprises a hearing aid, which has a casing containing a signal receiving part for receiving an audio signal, an audio transducer for providing an audio signal to the user, a signal transmission path between the signal receiving part and the audio transducer, whereby a battery is pr...

  16. Hearing aids with no batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, Dennis


    part of design practices concerning the development of hearing aids. Within design studies, the idea of a skilled practitioner has a host of brothers and sisters all prefaced with the family name 'skilled'- skilled users, skilled workers, skilled employees - but the basic idea is the same for all...

  17. Hospital mutual aid evacuation plan. (United States)

    Phillips, R


    Health care facilities need to be prepared for disasters such as floods, tornadoes and earthquakes. Rochester, NY, and its surrounding communities devised a hospital mutual aid evacuation plan in the event a disaster occurs and also to comply with the Joint Commission. This document discusses the plan's development process and also provides the end result.

  18. Suicide in Relation to AIDS. (United States)

    Beckerman, Nancy L.


    Explores many dimensions of suicide among the terminally ill, including preemptive, surcease, and rational suicide. The critical issues addressed are the incidence of suicide in HIV-positive individuals, contributing factors associated with the risk of suicide among people with HIV/AIDS, and the clinical and ethical implications of this issue for…

  19. A Checklist of Aid Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Getting the mountains of earthquake relief supplies from the point of arrival at Shuangliu Airport,a major distribution hub for domestic and international aid provision in Chengdu, capital of quake-hit Sichuan Province,to the far reaches of the devastated countryside is no mean feat.It is a systematic process that

  20. The Drafting and Submission of an HIV/AIDS Policy Draft for a Native American Child Welfare Agency. (United States)

    Holzemer, Daniel Pete

    An Indian child welfare agency realized the need for an HIV/AIDS policy when a diabetic child possibly exposed to the HIV virus was placed in one of the agency's licensed foster homes. A focus-group interview process was selected for policy development because this method appeared to parallel the Native American cultural approach toward consensus…

  1. Human retroviruses and AIDS 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, G.; Korber, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Wain-Hobson, S.; Jeang, Kuan-Teh; Henderson, L.E.; Pavlakis, G.N. [eds.


    This compendium, including accompanying floppy diskettes, is the result of an effort to compile and rapidly publish all relevant molecular data concerning the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) and related retroviruses. The scope of the compendium and database is best summarized by the five parts it comprises: (I) Nucleic Acid Alignments and Sequences; (II) Amino Acid Alignments; (III) Analysis; (IV) Related Sequences; (V) Database communications.

  2. Viruses infecting reptiles. (United States)

    Marschang, Rachel E


    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch's postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  3. Task Lists for Health Occupations. Radiologic Aide. Activity Aide. Optometric Assistant. Physical Therapy Aide. Education for Employment Task Lists. (United States)

    Lathrop, Janice

    These task lists contain employability skills and tasks for the following health occupations: radiologic aide, activity aide, physical therapy aide, and optometric assistant. The duties and tasks found in these lists form the basis of instructional content for secondary, postsecondary, and adult occupational training programs. Employability skills…

  4. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo Approach to Estimate AIDS after HIV Infection. (United States)

    Apenteng, Ofosuhene O; Ismail, Noor Azina


    The spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the resulting acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a major health concern in many parts of the world, and mathematical models are commonly applied to understand the spread of the HIV epidemic. To understand the spread of HIV and AIDS cases and their parameters in a given population, it is necessary to develop a theoretical framework that takes into account realistic factors. The current study used this framework to assess the interaction between individuals who developed AIDS after HIV infection and individuals who did not develop AIDS after HIV infection (pre-AIDS). We first investigated how probabilistic parameters affect the model in terms of the HIV and AIDS population over a period of time. We observed that there is a critical threshold parameter, R0, which determines the behavior of the model. If R0 ≤ 1, there is a unique disease-free equilibrium; if R0 1, the disease-free equilibrium is unstable. We also show how a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach could be used as a supplement to forecast the numbers of reported HIV and AIDS cases. An approach using a Monte Carlo analysis is illustrated to understand the impact of model-based predictions in light of uncertain parameters on the spread of HIV. Finally, to examine this framework and demonstrate how it works, a case study was performed of reported HIV and AIDS cases from an annual data set in Malaysia, and then we compared how these approaches complement each other. We conclude that HIV disease in Malaysia shows epidemic behavior, especially in the context of understanding and predicting emerging cases of HIV and AIDS.

  5. [HIV/AIDS infection. The Brazilian view. AIDS in Brazil]. (United States)

    Gonçalves, A P; De Sa, C A; Rubini, N


    The Ministry of Health coordinates and orients in Brazil all the activities concerning the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome which is officially designated as AIDS. The first AIDS' case registered in Brazil was, by retrospective diagnosis, in 1981 but it was in 1982 that the first two diagnosis in live patients were made. The incidence is very high in this country that is among the ones where the higher number of cases are being registered. The great majority of the Brazilian cases occurs in the cities and in direct proportion to the population index. The groups of risk are the same universally known and a comparative increase of heterosexual transmission is noted, chiefly due to the use of injectable drugs and bisexuality of the male partners. Another problem that is being increased is pediatric AIDS, with raising importance of perinatal transmission as well as the use of injectable drugs and precocious prostitution in adolescence. The transfusional and haemophilic AIDS have proportionally decreased due to the control of blood products. The control and the orientation activity of the Ministry of Health is directed to varied points such as: compulsory cases notification, cooperation between public and private sectors, preventive and sexual orientation, freely delivered medication and laboratory tests including sigilous tests, lay and technical personnel preparation, diversified informative and educational campaigns. Trial tests with anti-HIV vaccines have begun to be performed. Multiple Reference Centers were officially established by the administration. Among them is to be quoted the Hospital Universitário Gaffrée Guinle of Rio de Janeiro where the authors work. It is credited for its intensive activity and pioneerism. In this Institution special attention was due against discrimination of HIV-infected patients, to diagnosis, to anonymous and sigilous tests, to medical and psychological assistance, to myocardium involvement, to the virologic study of the

  6. General Information about AIDS-Related Lymphoma (United States)

    ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ...

  7. Treatment Options for AIDS-Related Lymphoma (United States)

    ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ...

  8. UN Says AIDS Crisis Is Getting Worse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CynthiaKirk; 邹国如


    The fifteenth International AIDS Conference ends Fridav in Bangkok, Thailand.There has not been much good news. In fact,the United Nations AIDS program reported last week that the crisis (危机) is getting worse.

  9. Finally, Proof That Hearing Aids Help (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_163889.html Finally, Proof That Hearing Aids Help High-quality digital devices provide 'significant benefit' ... but solid evidence about the value of hearing aids has been lacking -- until now. New research findings " ...

  10. Strategy for AIDS Prevention and Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    HIV/AIDS has been circulating in China for over 25 year. While making progress and achievements on HIV/AIDS prevention, there still are great challenge and difficulties such as HIV epidemic controlling and vaccine research.

  11. Stages of AIDS-Related Lymphoma (United States)

    ... Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment Childhood NHL Treatment Research AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About AIDS-Related Lymphoma Go to Health Professional Version Key ...

  12. Many Misuse OTC Sleep Aids: Survey (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_162790.html Many Misuse OTC Sleep Aids: Survey Consumer Reports finds the non-prescription drugs ... people taking so many over-the-counter sleep aids, and doing so much longer than they were ...

  13. HIV/AIDS and Fungal Infections (United States)

    ... Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch People living with HIV/AIDS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir As ... Page Preventing fungal infections in people living with HIV/AIDS Fungi are difficult to avoid because they ...

  14. Machine-Aided Indexing for NASA STI. (United States)

    Wilson, John


    Describes the use of machine aided indexing as part of NASA's information systems. The discussion covers reasons for incorporating machine aided indexing, the lexical dictionary used, subject switching, natural language processing, benefits to the system, and possible future developments. (CLB)

  15. Treatment Option Overview (AIDS Related-Lymphoma) (United States)

    ... Treatment Childhood NHL Treatment Research AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About AIDS-Related ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  16. CDC WONDER: AIDS Public Use Data (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The AIDS Public Information Data Set (APIDS) for years 1981-2002 on CDC WONDER online database contains counts of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) cases...

  17. Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (United States)

    ... education Fact Sheet PFS005: Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus AUGUST 2015 • Reasons for Getting Tested • Who Should ... For More Information • Glossary Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that ...

  18. Analysis of Virus Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Kalyani


    Full Text Available Security of wired and wireless networks is the most challengeable in today's computer world. The aim of this study was to give brief introduction about viruses and worms, their creators and characteristics of algorithms used by viruses. Here wired and wireless network viruses are elaborated. Also viruses are compared with human immune system. On the basis of this comparison four guidelines are given to detect viruses so that more secure systems are made. While concluding this study it is found that the security is most challengeable, thus it is required to make more secure models which automatically detect viruses and prevent the system from its affect.

  19. Sociocultural and epidemiological aspects of HIV/AIDS in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Troy D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A legacy of colonial rule coupled with a devastating 16-year civil war through 1992 left Mozambique economically impoverished just as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV epidemic swept over southern Africa in the late 1980s. The crumbling Mozambican health care system was wholly inadequate to support the need for new chronic disease services for people with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. Methods To review the unique challenges faced by Mozambique as they have attempted to stem the HIV epidemic, we undertook a systematic literature review through multiple search engines (PubMed, Google Scholar™, SSRN, AnthropologyPlus, AnthroSource using Mozambique as a required keyword. We searched for any articles that included the required keyword as well as the terms 'HIV' and/or 'AIDS', 'prevalence', 'behaviors', 'knowledge', 'attitudes', 'perceptions', 'prevention', 'gender', drugs, alcohol, and/or 'health care infrastructure'. Results UNAIDS 2008 prevalence estimates ranked Mozambique as the 8th most HIV-afflicted nation globally. In 2007, measured HIV prevalence in 36 antenatal clinic sites ranged from 3% to 35%; the national estimate of was 16%. Evidence suggests that the Mozambican HIV epidemic is characterized by a preponderance of heterosexual infections, among the world's most severe health worker shortages, relatively poor knowledge of HIV/AIDS in the general population, and lagging access to HIV preventive and therapeutic services compared to counterpart nations in southern Africa. Poor education systems, high levels of poverty and gender inequality further exacerbate HIV incidence. Conclusions Recommendations to reduce HIV incidence and AIDS mortality rates in Mozambique include: health system strengthening, rural outreach to increase testing and linkage to care, education about risk reduction and drug adherence, and partnerships with traditional healers and midwives to effect a lessening of stigma.

  20. Etiology and evaluation of diarrhea in AIDS: a global perspective at the millennium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. Mel Wilcox


    @@INTRODUCTION It has now been almost 20 years since the initial descriptions of a heretofore unrecognized disorder afflicting homosexual men and manifesting as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and Kaposi′s sarcoma. With the identification of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the etiology of this syndrome, there has been exponential growth in our understanding of this devastating immune disorder. During the first decade of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), there was an explosion of cases in the United States and Africa.

  1. The Statistical Precision of Medical Screening Procedures: Application to Polygraph and AIDS Antibodies Test Data


    Gastwirth, Joseph L.


    The increased use of screening tests for drug use or antibodies to the HTLV-III (AIDS) virus, as well as pre-employment polygraph testing, has raised concerns about the reliability of the results of these procedures. This paper reviews the mathematical model underlying the analysis of data from screening tests. In addition to the known formulas for the proportion of positive (negative) classifications that are correct, we provide a large sample approximation to their standard errors. The resu...

  2. International AIDS Society conference update. Compound targeting Rev protein promising. Orphaned approach still looking for home. (United States)


    While clinicians and HIV/AIDS patients anxiously watch the trend of the virus developing resistance to multiple antiretroviral therapies, the question remains whether new drug research will continue to save the day. Some suggest there will need to be multiple new classes of antiretroviral drugs developed in order to stretch further the life span of longtime HIV patients. One potential new class would target the Rev protein, an approach that has received very little attention from the research and pharmaceutical communities.




    HIV infection and psychiatric disorders have a complex relationship. Being HIV infected could result in psychiatric disorders as a psychological consequence of the infection (or) because of the effect of HIV virus on the brain. AIM : To evaluate the personality profile and associated psychiatric co m orbidity of people living with HIV/AIDS and to analyze the correlation between the two in a tertiary care center. MATERIALS & METHODS : PL W HA on ...

  4. HIV-2 and its role in conglutinated approach towards Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Vaccine Development


    Diwan, Batul; Saxena, Rupali; Tiwari, Archana


    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is one of the most critically acclaimed endemic diseases, caused by two lentiviruses HIV-1 and 2. HIV-2 displays intimate serological and antigenic resemblance to Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) along with less pathogenicity, lower infectivity and appreciable cross reactivity with HIV-1 antigens. The present era is confronted with the challenge to fabricate a vaccine effective against all clades of both the species of HIV. But vaccine development ...

  5. Crofelemer for the treatment of chronic diarrhea in patients living with HIV/AIDS


    Patel TS; Crutchley RD; Tucker AM; Cottreau J; Garey KW


    Twisha S Pate, Rustin D Crutchley, Anne M Tucker, Jessica Cottreau, Kevin W Garey Department of Clinical Sciences and Administration, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Diarrhea is a common comorbidity present in patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) who are treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. With a multifactorial etiology, this diarrhea often becomes difficult to manage. In addition, some...

  6. Plant Viruses as Nanoparticle-Based Vaccines and Adjuvants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Ève Lebel


    Full Text Available Vaccines are considered one of the greatest medical achievements in the battle against infectious diseases. However, the intractability of various diseases such as hepatitis C, HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and cancer poses persistent hurdles given that traditional vaccine-development methods have proven to be ineffective; as such, these challenges have driven the emergence of novel vaccine design approaches. In this regard, much effort has been put into the development of new safe adjuvants and vaccine platforms. Of particular interest, the utilization of plant virus-like nanoparticles and recombinant plant viruses has gained increasing significance as an effective tool in the development of novel vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. The present review summarizes recent advances in the use of plant viruses as nanoparticle-based vaccines and adjuvants and their mechanism of action. Harnessing plant-virus immunogenic properties will enable the design of novel, safe, and efficacious prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines against disease.

  7. Monitoring and evaluation of sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes: Strengthening outcome indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elma Nelisiwe Maleka


    Full Text Available There are number of Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs in South Africa that use sport as a tool to respond to Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS, however, little is reported about the outcomes and impact of these programmes. The aim of this study is to contribute to a generic monitoring and evaluation framework by improving the options for the use of outcome indicators of sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes of selected NGOs in South Africa. A qualitative method study was carried out with seven employees of five selected NGOs that integrate sport to deliver HIV/AIDS programmes in South Africa. The study further involved six specialists/experts involved in the field of HIV/AIDS and an official from Sport Recreation South Africa (SRSA. Multiple data collection instruments including desktop review, narrative systematic review, document analysis, one-on-one interviews and focus group interview were used to collect information on outcomes and indicators for sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes. The information was classified according to the determinants of HIV/AIDS. The overall findings revealed that the sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes of five selected NGOs examined in this study focus on similar HIV prevention messages within the key priorities highlighted in the current National Strategic Plan for HIV/AIDS, STIs and TB of South Africa. However, monitoring and evaluating outcomes of sport-based HIV/AIDS programmes of the selected NGOs remains a challenge. A need exists for the improvement of the outcome statements and indicators for their sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes. This study proposed a total of 51 generic outcome indicators focusing on measuring change in the knowledge of HIV/AIDS and change in attitude and intention towards HIV risk behaviours. In addition, this study further proposed a total of eight generic outcome indicators to measure predictors of HIV risk behaviour

  8. 21 CFR 874.3300 - Hearing Aid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hearing Aid. 874.3300 Section 874.3300 Food and... EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3300 Hearing Aid. (a) Identification. A hearing aid is wearable sound-amplifying device that is intended to compensate for impaired hearing....

  9. 30 CFR 56.18010 - First aid. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid. 56.18010 Section 56.18010 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Programs § 56.18010 First aid. An individual capable of providing first aid shall be available on all shifts. The individual...

  10. 27 CFR 24.243 - Filtering aids. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filtering aids. 24.243... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.243 Filtering aids. Inert fibers, pulps, earths, or similar materials, may be used as filtering aids in the cellar treatment...

  11. Black Americans and HIV/AIDS (United States)

    ... HIV/AIDS: The Basics Black Americans and HIV/AIDS: The Basics Feb 07, 2017 Facebook Twitter LinkedIn ... Black Americans have been disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS since the epidemic’s beginning, and that disparity has ...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with recommendations provided by the starting...

  13. 45 CFR 707.10 - Auxiliary aids. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary aids. 707.10 Section 707.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS ENFORCEMENT OF... § 707.10 Auxiliary aids. (a) The Agency shall furnish appropriate auxiliary aids where necessary...

  14. Observations from One Champion of AIDS Orphans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    ON December 1, 2003,the CCTV program News Research aired a special feature on AIDS orphans at the Love and Care Family AIDS orphanage. The public attention this raised brought large social donations for the orphanage and signaled greater public efforts to help AIDS orphans.

  15. 9 CFR 113.2 - Testing aids. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Testing aids. 113.2 Section 113.2... Testing aids. To better ensure consistent and reproducible test results when Standard Requirement tests... Agriculture, may provide testing aids, when available, to licensees, permittees, and applicants for...




  17. Does Foreign Aid increase Foreign Direct Investment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Sunesen, Eva Rytter


    We examine the idea that aid and FDI are complementary sources of foreign capital. We argue that the relationship between aid and FDI is theoretically ambiguous: aid raises the marginal productivity of capital when used to finance complementary inputs (like public infrastructure and human capital...

  18. Eastern Africa: mapping the politics of AIDS. (United States)

    Hyden, G; Lanegran, K


    The political constraints slowing the battle against AIDS in Africa are getting AIDS on the public agenda, integrating the international community into the AIDS policy-making agenda and cultural barriers in national AIDS strategies. Policy making in most Africa is bureaucratic rather than democratic, so whether AIDS is a government priority depends largely on perception of AIDS risk by the leaders. In Zambia and Uganda, AIDS is a concern because it affects the ethnic group or family in power, while in Tanzania and Kenya, AIDS is associated with minority or "high risk" groups. The domination of AIDS agenda setting within nations in Africa by international donors and non-governmental organizations is a problem, made more severely severed by sensitivity of Africans who perceive research as a foreign effort to prove that AIDS originated there. Foreign domination is also detrimental because it prevents localities from becoming committed to AIDS interventions. Cultural barriers against effective interventions are similar to those in Western countries: AIDS is seen as a disease of shame affecting immoral people. In addition, the prevalent concept of fatalism defeats the Western insistence on intervention and strategies. Furthermore, women who are largely dependent on men cannot insist on preventive behavior, not do they have organizations in place to protect their rights. Finally, the concepts of behavioralism, and learning new behaviors for person-centered reasons, are foreign to much of Africa.

  19. Hepatitis Delta Virus: A Peculiar Virus


    Carolina Alves; Cristina Branco; Celso Cunha


    The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is distributed worldwide and related to the most severe form of viral hepatitis. HDV is a satellite RNA virus dependent on hepatitis B surface antigens to assemble its envelope and thus form new virions and propagate infection. HDV has a small 1.7 Kb genome making it the smallest known human virus. This deceivingly simple virus has unique biological features and many aspects of its life cycle remain elusive. The present review endeavors to gather the available ...

  20. Multicriteria methodology for decision aiding

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Bernard


    This is the first comprehensive book to present, in English, the multicriteria methodology for decision aiding In the foreword the distinctive features and main ideas of the European School of MCDA are outlined The twelve chapters are essentially expository in nature, but scholarly in treatment Some questions, which are too often neglected in the literature on decision theory, such as how is a decision made, who are the actors, what is a decision aiding model, how to define the set of alternatives, are discussed Examples are used throughout the book to illustrate the various concepts Ways to model the consequences of each alternative and building criteria taking into account the inevitable imprecisions, uncertainties and indeterminations are described and illustrated The three classical operational approaches of MCDA synthesis in one criterion (including MAUT), synthesis by outranking relations, interactive local judgements, are studied This methodology tries to be a theoretical or intellectual framework dire...

  1. Is international conservation aid enough? (United States)

    Law, Elizabeth A.


    Bare et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 125010) ask an important question: is international conservation enough? Since the 1990’s international conservation donors have spent over 3.4 billion on biodiversity conservation related projects in sub-Saharan Africa. Both donors and recipients have a right to know if this is effective. Surprisingly, this question is rarely asked. It is a difficult question—involving many rival social, environmental, and economic explanations. Bare, Kauffman and Miller uncover some interesting associations, supporting existing hypotheses and proposing their own: that conservation aid alone is insufficient to mitigate drivers of deforestation (and in some cases may even exacerbate forest loss). This controversial result warrants further investigation—but what is needed now is nuance and robustness in further analyses, to have more confidence in the critique and it’s implications for international conservation aid.

  2. Tuberculous cerebritis and tuberculoma in a patient with AIDS: Literature review and case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abrishamkar


    Full Text Available Tuberculous brain cerebritis, abscess and tuberculoma in AIDS patients are considered as rare conditions and only few cases have been reported in the literature. The present case is a 28-year-old man with AIDS and previous systemic tuberculosis, denied by him and his family. He was admitted to our department due to headache, hemiparesis and seizures. A brain computed tomography (CT scan disclosed a frontal hypodense lesion with a non-homogenous contrast enhancement that was reported as a high grade glioma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a diffuse hypointense lesion in right frontal area on T1-weighted, and hyperintense on T2-weighted and flair view, but there was a small paraventricular region with hypointensity on both T1, T2 and flair series, which was also reported to be a high grade glioma. Because of clinical course and imaging findings, the patient was a candidate for operation. After operation, the results of pathology and laboratory examination confirmed the diagnosis of tuberculous brain cerebritis and tuberculoma with positive Acquired Immune Virus (HIV serology. Thus, tuberculous cerebritis, tuberculoma and abscesses should be considered in the differential diagnosis of focal brain lesions in AIDS patients, but AIDS should also be considered in every patient with an uncommon cerebral lesion who is not cooperative with medical healthcare providers. Surgical excision or biopsy and anti-tuberculous treatment are the mainstay in management of these lesions in patients with AIDS. KEY WORDS: AIDS, tuberculoma, tuberculosis cerebritis.

  3. Association of HIV transmissions and non-transmission knowledge with negative attitudes to HIV/AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Yu-feng; WANG Hua-dong; ZHAO Cun-xi; YAO Ying-shui; YE Dong-qing; JIANG Zuo-jun


    Background Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immure deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)-related stigma is an obstacle to the implementation of treatment, care, and support programs for people living with HIV/AIDS. This study explored the association of the HIV knowledge with the attitudes toward HIV/AIDS.Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in HIV epidemic rural areas with 5355 participants. Their knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS were assessed, and the associations of HIV transmission and non-transmission knowledge with negative attitudes towards the HIV/AIDS were analyzed.Results Negative attitudes were significantly correlated with the HIV non-transmission knowledge and the correlation was higher than that with HIV transmission knowledge among participants who were male, 20 years old and migrant workers, students and respondents of and above junior high school. However, among those who were female, age 30 and older, illiterate with primary school education, negative attitudes were significantly associated with HIV non-transmission knowledge and the association was lower than that with HIV transmission knowledge.Conclusions HIV transmission knowledge and non-transmission knowledge have different influences on negative attitudes towards HIV/AIDS among different demographic subgroups.

  4. Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Abe


    Full Text Available Of 168 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection-related liver disease, 20 patients who had received 100 mg of lamivudine plus 10 mg/day of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV (ADV group and 124 patients who had received 0.5 mg/day of entecavir or 100 mg/day of lamivudine (non-ADV group for >1 year were enrolled. For comparative analyses, 19 well-matched pairs were obtained from the groups by propensity scores. At the time of enrollment, serum creatinine and phosphate concentrations were similar between the ADV and non-ADV groups; however, urinary phosphate ( and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP ( concentrations were significantly higher in the ADV group than in the non-ADV group. Serum BAP was significantly higher at the time of enrollment than before ADV administration in the ADV group (, although there was no significant change in serum BAP concentration in the non-ADV group. There was a significant positive correlation between the period of ADV therapy and ΔBAP (, . Serum BAP concentration increased before increase in serum creatinine concentration and was useful for early detection of adverse events and for developing adequate measures for continuing ADV for chronic HBV infection-related liver disease.

  5. WHERE2 Location Aided Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Armin; Agapiou, George; Brunel, Loïc


    networks, mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) and cognitive radio. Location based approaches are found to allevi- ate significant signaling overhead in various forms of modern communication paradigms that are very information hungry in terms of channel state information at the transmitter......This paper presents an overview of preliminary results of investigations within the WHERE2 Project on identifying promising avenues for location aided enhancements to wireless communication systems. The wide ranging contributions are organized according to the following targeted systems: cellular...

  6. Computer Aided Design of Couplings



    The research work explores computer-aided approach to the design of ten different couplings, viza viz: flange, solid rigid, hollow rigid, old ham/ cross-sliding, pin type flexible, sleeve, seller cone/compression, split muff, pulley flange and fairbian’s lap-box couplings. The approach utilizesstandard design equations of these couplings and link them together in computer software todetermine the design parameters of the couplings. The work reviews the procedural stepsinvolved in the design o...

  7. Computer Aided Design of Couplings



    The research work explores computer-aided approach to the design of ten different couplings, viz a viz: flange, solid rigid, hollow rigid, old ham/ cross-sliding, pin type flexible, sleeve, seller cone/ compression, split muff, pulley flange and fairbian’s lap-box couplings. The approach utilizes standard design equations of these couplings and link them together in computer software to determine the design parameters of the couplings. The work reviews the procedural steps involved in the des...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Management of any problem starts with an accurate diagnosis and this is not different in the field of endodontics. The diagnosis of dental pulp status should be seen as a synthesis of history , clinical examination , special tests and radiological examination , and not as the outcome of any one specific test. With the advent of technologies in our day to day life we need the help of technologies in dentistry also. An effort has been made to provide readers with contemporary , evidence based prospective on endodontic diagnosis. Vitality testing is an important aid in the diagnosis of pulp disease and apical periodontitis. The ideal pulp test method should provide a simple , objective , standardized , reproducible , nonpainful , noninjurious , accurate and inexpensive way of assessing the condition of the pulp tissue. This article describes the various t echnologies that are available to aid the dental practitioner in detecting a tooth with a relevant endodontic disease. It also explains the need and limitation of the technologies as an aid in our management of endodontically affected tooth.

  9. Aid instability as a measure of uncertainty and the positive impact of aid on growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, R; Morrissey, O


    This article contributes to the literature on aid and economic growth. We posit that uncertainty, measured as the instability of aid receipts, will influence the relationship between aid and investment, how recipient governments respond to aid, and will capture the fact that some countries are espec

  10. Primary meningeal Epstein-Barr virus-related leiomyosarcoma in a man infected with human immunodeficiency virus: review of literature, emphasizing the differential diagnosis and pathogenesis. (United States)

    Zevallos-Giampietri, Eduardo-Alfredo; Yañes, Hugo Heinicke; Orrego Puelles, José; Barrionuevo, Carlos


    We describe the clinical, radiologic, surgical, and pathologic findings of a 29-year-old Peruvian human immunodeficiency virus-infected man with a primary parasellar meningeal leiomyosarcoma involving the left lesser esphenoidal wing and the cavernous sinus. Over a period of 13 months, he developed headache, vomiting, insomnia, and diplopia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a left parasellar extra-axial mass that was isointense in T1, hypointense in T2, and gadolinium-enhanced. The patient underwent subtotal resection of the tumor. The neoplasm was composed of spindle cells with smooth-muscle features. It showed moderate atypia, inconspicuous nucleoli, and scanty mitosis. No tumor necrosis was detected. The immunohistochemistry revealed strong positivity for vimentin, desmin, and smooth-muscle alpha-actin. A low-grade leiomyosarcoma was diagnosed. The in situ hybridization showed positive nuclear reactivity for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA. The immunohistochemistry was negative for Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1. The main differential diagnosis of primary meningeal smooth-muscle tumors includes meningioma and peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Epstein-Barr virus has been demonstrated in most smooth-muscle tumors associated with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Primary meningeal smooth-muscle tumors, exceedingly rare neoplasms, remarkably affect young adults with AIDS. Comparatively, most AIDS-related visceral (nonmeningeal) smooth-muscle tumors have been reported in children. The permissiveness and tumorigenesis associated with Epstein-Barr virus may depend on the age of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

  11. AIDS defining disease: Disseminated cryptococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Anupama


    Full Text Available Disseminated cryptococcosis is one of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome defining criteria and the most common cause of life threatening meningitis. Disseminated lesions in the skin manifest as papules or nodules that mimic molluscum contagiosum (MC. We report here a human immunodeficiency virus positive patient who presented with MC like lesions. Disseminated cryptococcosis was confirmed by India ink preparation and histopathology. The condition of the patient improved with amphotercin B.

  12. Tumorigenic DNA viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, G.


    The eighth volume of Advances in Viral Oncology focuses on the three major DNA virus groups with a postulated or proven tumorigenic potential: papillomaviruses, animal hepatitis viruses, and the Epstein-Bar virus. In the opening chapters, the contributors analyze the evidence that papillomaviruses and animal hepatitis viruses are involved in tumorigenesis and describe the mechanisms that trigger virus-host cell interactions. A detailed section on the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) - comprising more than half the book - examines the transcription and mRNA processing patterns of the virus genome; the mechanisms by which EBV infects lymphoid and epithelial cells; the immunological aspects of the virus; the actions of EBV in hosts with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; and the involvement of EBV in the etiology of Burkitt's lymphoma.

  13. Zika Virus Fact Sheet (United States)

    ... sheets Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Zika virus Fact sheet Updated 6 September 2016 Key ... and last for 2-7 days. Complications of Zika virus disease Based on a systematic review of ...

  14. Viruses and human cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, R.C.; Haseltine, W.; Klein, G.; Zur Hausen, H.


    This book contains papers on the following topics: Immunology and Epidemiology, Biology and Pathogenesis, Models of Pathogenesis and Treatment, Simian and Bovine Retroviruses, Human Papilloma Viruses, EBV and Herpesvirus, and Hepatitis B Virus.

  15. Acute bee paralysis virus [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Acute bee paralysis virus [gbvrl]: 14 CDS's (15780 codons) fields: [triplet] [frequ...osomal protein / MAP kinase List of codon usage for each CDS (format) Homepage Acute bee paralysis virus ...

  16. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to ...

  17. Quasispecies of dengue virus. (United States)

    Kurosu, Takeshi


    Pathogenic viruses have RNA genomes that cause acute and chronic infections. These viruses replicate with high mutation rates and exhibit significant genetic diversity, so-called viral quasispecies. Viral quasispecies play an important role in chronic infectious diseases, but little is known about their involvement in acute infectious diseases such as dengue virus (DENV) infection. DENV, the most important human arbovirus, is a causative agent of dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Accumulating observations suggest that DENV exists as an extremely diverse virus population, but its biological significance is unclear. In other virus diseases, quasispecies affect the therapeutic strategies using drugs and vaccines. Here, I describe the quasispecies of DENV and discuss the possible role of quasispecies in the pathogenesis of and therapeutic strategy against DENV infection in comparison with other viruses such as Hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus type 1, and poliovirus.

  18. Ebola Virus Disease (United States)

    ... Marburg virus outbreaks: Ebola and Marburg virus disease epidemics: preparedness, alert, control, and evaluation When an outbreak ... Offices WHO African Region WHO Region of the Americas WHO South-East Asia Region WHO European Region ...

  19. Hepatitis virus panel (United States)

    ... page: // Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  20. Social aspects of HIV/AIDS and aging: a thematic review. (United States)

    Roger, Kerstin Stieber; Mignone, Javier; Kirkland, Susan


    Little research can be found describing social aspects of aging with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in Canada specifically, despite an overall increase in an aging population and increased numbers of those aging with HIV/AIDS. A systematic literature review was conducted with a selective focus on social aspects related to older adults who are living with or at risk for contracting HIV/AIDS. The primary themes that emerged in the literature are ageism and stigma, gender, mental health, and social supports. Recommendations for future research regarding prevention and education of risks for older adults and programming suitable for a wide range of audiences are presented.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection which leads to severe suppression of immune functions where CD4+ cell count falls below 200 cells/µl. AIDS is a real threat to the health of mankind and the search for effective therapies is still of great importance. Antiretroviral therapy for the treatment of AIDS is costly and many limitations are associated with antiretroviral therapy. Hence, herbal medicines are frequently used as alternate medicines by individuals living with HIV.Numerous plant-derived compounds have been evaluated for inhibitory effects on HIV replication and many have been found to inhibit different steps in HIV replication cycle. The aim of this review is to give an idea for herbal medicines which are used to inhibit HIV.

  2. Does foreign aid harm political institutions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    The notion that foreign aid harms the institutions of recipient governments remains prevalent. We combine new disaggregated aid data and various metrics of political institutions to re-examine this relationship. Long-run cross-section and alternative dynamic panel estimators show a small positive...... net effect of total aid on political institutions. Distinguishing between types of aid according to their frequency domain and stated objectives, we find this aggregate net effect is driven primarily by the positive contribution of more stable inflows of ‘governance aid’. We conclude the data do...... not support the view that aid has had a systematic negative effect on political institutions....

  3. National Institutes of Health, Office of AIDS Research (United States)

    ... Contact Us Main Navigation for the Office of AIDS Research Homepage ABOUT OAR SCIENTIFIC AREAS STRATEGIC PLAN ... HIV/AIDS INFORMATION Welcome to the Office of AIDS Research. Welcome to the Office of AIDS Research ...

  4. Hypertrophic herpes simplex simulating anal neoplasia in AIDS patients: report of five cases. (United States)

    Nadal, Sidney R; Calore, Edenilson E; Manzione, Carmen R; Horta, Sergio C; Ferreira, Aurea F; Almeida, Lis V


    Five patients (4 males; mean age, 46.4 years) with painful verrucous perianal lesions caused by herpes simplex virus are described. All patients had had AIDS for a long time and were using highly active antiretroviral therapy. CD4+ counts ranged from 73 to 370/mm3. All lesions were submitted to resection under subdural anesthesia. Histologic examinations revealed epithelial hyperplasia and dense inflammatory process, composed mainly of lymphocytes and plasma cells, extended just to the hypodermis. Immunohistochemistry was positive for herpes simplex virus Type 2 in four patients and for herpes simplex virus Type 1 in one patient, and did not detect human papillomavirus antigens. Three patients had recurrences after 3, 10, and 12 months. Resection was performed on two patients; one had a new recurrence after three months. Oral acyclovir eliminated the lesion in the third patient. The analysis of our patients suggests that herpes simplex virus, Types 1 and 2, may cause verrucous lesions simulating neoplasia in patients with AIDS using antiretroviral therapy.

  5. Aids e a Aids das ciências


    Kenneth R. de Camargo Jr


    Este trabalho visa apresentar parte dos desenvolvimentos de uma pesquisa sobre a construção das doenças no discurso biomédico, partindo de uma abordagem ligada à sociologia do conhecimento, aqui definida como antiessencialista. Com o intuito de demonstrar algumas das questões teórico-metodológicas apontadas, os dados da pesquisa referentes ao estabelecimento do HIV como agente etiológico da Aids, obtidos a partir da revisão de textos médicos, são analisados através do recurso a categorias de ...

  6. Health aid and governance in developing countries. (United States)

    Fielding, David


    Despite anecdotal evidence that the quality of governance in recipient countries affects the allocation of international health aid, there is no quantitative evidence on the magnitude of this effect, or on which dimensions of governance influence donor decisions. We measure health-aid flows over 1995-2006 for 109 aid recipients, matching aid data with measures of different dimensions of governance and a range of country-specific economic and health characteristics. Everything else being equal, countries with more political rights receive significantly more aid, but so do countries with higher corruption levels. The dependence of aid on political rights, even when we control for other governance indicators, suggests that health aid is sometimes used as an incentive to reward political reforms.

  7. Does Foreign Aid Increase Foreign Direct Investment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Sunesen, Eva Rytter

    that the theoretical relationship between foreign aid and FDI is indeterminate. Aid may raise the marginal productivity of capital by financing complementary inputs, such as public infrastructure projects and human capital investment. However, aid may also crowd out productive private investments if it comes......  The notion that foreign aid and foreign direct investment (FDI) are complementary sources of capital is conventional among governments and international cooperation agencies. This paper argues that the notion is incomplete. Within the framework of an open economy Solow model we show...... in the shape of physical capital transfers. We therefore turn to an empirical analysis of the relationship between FDI and disaggregated aid flows. Our results strongly support the hypotheses that aid invested in complementary inputs draws in foreign capital while aid invested in physical capital crowds out...

  8. Avian influenza virus (United States)

    Avian influenza (AI) is caused by type A influenza virus, a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family. AI viruses are serologically categorized into 16 hemagglutinin (H1-H16) and 9 neuraminidase (N1-N9) subtypes. All subtypes have been identified in birds. Infections by AI viruses have been reported in ...

  9. Virus diseases of fish (United States)

    Watson, Stanley W.


    Viruses are probably the cause of a wide spectrum of fish diseases. Although relatively few virus diseases of fish are known today, some of the diseases of unknown etiology, as well as some diseases presently accepted as due to bacteria, protozoa, fungi or nutritional deficiencies, possibly will be recognized eventually as virus diseases.

  10. Computer Virus Protection (United States)

    Rajala, Judith B.


    A computer virus is a program--a piece of executable code--that has the unique ability to replicate. Like biological viruses, computer viruses can spread quickly and are often difficult to eradicate. They can attach themselves to just about any type of file, and are spread by replicating and being sent from one individual to another. Simply having…

  11. Avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) severely impact poultry egg production. Decreased egg yield and hatchability, as well as misshapen eggs, are often observed during infection with AIV and NDV, even with low-virulence strains or in vaccinated flocks. Data suggest that in...

  12. Virus-induced Systemic Vasculitides: New Therapeutic Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Guillevin


    Full Text Available The best therapeutic strategy in virus-induced vasculitides should take into account the etiology of the disease and be adapted to the pathogenesis. The combination of antiviral treatments and plasma exchanges has been proven effective in polyarteritis nodosa (PAN. In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-related vasculitis this strategy is also effective and does not jeopardize, like cytotoxic agents, the outcome of AIDS. In vasculitis related to HCV-associated cryoglobulinemia, plasma exchanges improve the outcome but the poor effectiveness of antiviral drugs is not able to favor, usually, a definite recovery of the patients and relapses are frequent.

  13. The taxonomy of viruses should include viruses. (United States)

    Calisher, Charles H


    Having lost sight of its goal, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses has redoubled its efforts. That goal is to arrive at a consensus regarding virus classification, i.e., proper placement of viruses in a hierarchical taxonomic scheme; not an easy task given the wide variety of recognized viruses. Rather than suggesting a continuation of the bureaucratic machinations of the past, this opinion piece is a call for insertion of common sense in sorting out the avalanche of information already, and soon-to-be, accrued data. In this way information about viruses ideally would be taxonomically correct as well as useful to working virologists and journal editors, rather than being lost, minimized, or ignored.

  14. Nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy among people living with HIV/AIDS attending two tertiary care hospitals in district of northern India


    Mukesh Shukla; Monika Agarwal,; Jai Vir Singh; Anil Kumar Tripathi; Anand Kumar Srivastava; Vijay Kumar Singh


    Introduction: Adherence to antiretroviral therapy is a principal predictor for the success of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment. It remains as a challenge to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) treatment and care with the widespread of the associated risks. Therefore, study aims to assess nonadherence level and factors associated with nonadherence to ART among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA). Materials and Methods: A hospital-based, cross-sectional study was conducted at t...

  15. Impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the Pathogenesis and Outcome of Patients with Glioblastoma Multiforme


    Choy, Winward; Lagman, Carlito; Lee, Seung J.; Bui, Timothy T; Safaee, Michael; Yang, Isaac


    Background Improvement in antiviral therapies have been accompanied by an increased frequency of non-Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) defining malignancies, such as glioblastoma multiforme. Here, we investigated all reported cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients with glioblastoma and evaluated their clinical outcomes. A comprehensive review of the molecular pathogenetic mechanisms underlying glioblastoma development in the setting of HIV/AIDS is provided. Met...

  16. Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus in HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boateng Wiafe MD MSc


    Full Text Available Herpes zoster is a common infection caused by the human herpes virus 3, the same virus that causes chickenpox. It is a member of herpes viridae, the same family as the herpes simplex virus, Epstein- Barr virus, and cytomegalovirus. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus occurs when a latent varicella zoster virus in the trigeminal ganglia involving the ophthalmic division of the nerve is reactivated. Of the three divisions of the fifth cranial nerve, the ophthalmic is involved 20 times more frequently than the other divisions.

  17. Opportunistic Neurologic Infections in Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). (United States)

    Albarillo, Fritzie; O'Keefe, Paul


    Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality despite the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) especially in the resource-limited regions of the world. Diagnosis of these infections may be challenging because findings on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis and brain imaging are nonspecific. While brain biopsy provides a definitive diagnosis, it is an invasive procedure associated with a relatively low mortality rate, thus less invasive modalities have been studied in recent years. Diagnosis, therefore, can be established based on a combination of a compatible clinical syndrome, radiologic and CSF findings, and understanding of the role of HIV in these infections. The most common CNS opportunistic infections are AIDS-defining conditions; thus, treatment of these infections in combination with HAART has greatly improved survival.

  18. [Psychoimmunology and AIDS: a review of the literature]. (United States)

    Montagne, G; Lalonde, R; Brouillette, M J


    In recent years, several studies have been carried out concerning the effect of psychosocial factors on the course of infection due to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). After summarizing the current status of general knowledge in the field of psychoimmunology, this article reviews the results of studies conducted in regard to HIV. Two conclusions are reached. The first is that current research has not shown psychosocial factors to have any impact on either the immunity status of seropositive patients or the medical complications inherent to AIDS. The second conclusion is that several types of intervention, in particular psychoeducational approaches, stress management programs, and the strengthening of social and family support, give good results where the psychosocial well-being of patients is concerned and should motivate various health professionals to improve the focus of their interventions. Furthermore, significant methodological weaknesses in several indexed studies are noted, and these should be rectified to enable future studies to confirm or correct the present observations.

  19. Self-Fitting Hearing Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitte Keidser


    Full Text Available A self-contained, self-fitting hearing aid (SFHA is a device that enables the user to perform both threshold measurements leading to a prescribed hearing aid setting and fine-tuning, without the need for audiological support or access to other equipment. The SFHA has been proposed as a potential solution to address unmet hearing health care in developing countries and remote locations in the developed world and is considered a means to lower cost and increase uptake of hearing aids in developed countries. This article reviews the status of the SFHA and the evidence for its feasibility and challenges and predicts where it is heading. Devices that can be considered partly or fully self-fitting without audiological support were identified in the direct-to-consumer market. None of these devices are considered self-contained as they require access to other hardware such as a proprietary interface, computer, smartphone, or tablet for manipulation. While there is evidence that self-administered fitting processes can provide valid and reliable results, their success relies on user-friendly device designs and interfaces and easy-to-interpret instructions. Until these issues have been sufficiently addressed, optional assistance with the self-fitting process and on-going use of SFHAs is recommended. Affordability and a sustainable delivery system remain additional challenges for the SFHA in developing countries. Future predictions include a growth in self-fitting products, with most future SFHAs consisting of earpieces that connect wirelessly with a smartphone and providers offering assistance through a telehealth infrastructure, and the integration of SFHAs into the traditional hearing health-care model.

  20. Viruses of asparagus. (United States)

    Tomassoli, Laura; Tiberini, Antonio; Vetten, Heinrich-Josef


    The current knowledge on viruses infecting asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is reviewed. Over half a century, nine virus species belonging to the genera Ilarvirus, Cucumovirus, Nepovirus, Tobamovirus, Potexvirus, and Potyvirus have been found in this crop. The potyvirus Asparagus virus 1 (AV1) and the ilarvirus Asparagus virus 2 (AV2) are widespread and negatively affect the economic life of asparagus crops reducing yield and increasing the susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stress. The main properties and epidemiology of AV1 and AV2 as well as diagnostic techniques for their detection and identification are described. Minor viruses and control are briefly outlined.