WorldWideScience

Sample records for aids vaccines

  1. Why is There No AIDS Vaccine?

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Rey Biel

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides an economic explanation for the non-existence of a vaccine against AIDS. It comments on previously claimed economic reasons why private laboratories do not have incentives to invest in an AIDS vaccine and provides a new one: private companies already operate in the market for treatment of already infected patients, which market is threatened by the eventual emergence of a vaccine that cuts the cycle of infection. Finally, the paper discusses some mechanisms to provide ince...

  2. HIV/AIDS and Vaccines

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    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  3. AIDS vaccine: Present status and future challenges

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    Nigam P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of a preventive vaccine for HIV is the best hope of controlling the AIDS pandemic. HIV has, however, proved a difficult pathogen to vaccinate against because of its very high mutation rate and capability to escape immune responses. Neutralizing antibodies that can neutralize diverse field strains have so far proved difficult to induce. Adjuvanting these vaccines with cytokine plasmids and a "prime-boost," approach is being evaluated in an effort to induce both CTL and antibody responses and thereby have immune responses active against both infected cells and free viral particles, thereby necessitating fewer doses of recombinant protein to reach maximum antibodies titers. Although obstacles exist in evaluation of candidate HIV vaccines, evidence from natural history studies, new molecular tools in virology and immunology, new adjuvants, new gene expression systems, new antigen delivery systems, recent discoveries in HIV entry and pathogenesis, and promising studies of candidate vaccines in animal models have provided reasons to hope that developing a safe and effective AIDS vaccine is possible and within reach.

  4. Development of an AIDS vaccine using Sendai virus vectors.

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    Ishii, Hiroshi; Matano, Tetsuro

    2015-11-01

    Development of an effective AIDS vaccine is crucial for the control of global human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) prevalence. We have developed a novel AIDS vaccine using a Sendai virus (SeV) vector and investigated its efficacy in a macaque AIDS model of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection. Its immunogenicity and protective efficacy have been shown, indicating that the SeV vector is a promising delivery tool for AIDS vaccines. Here, we describe the potential of SeV vector as a vaccine antigen delivery tool to induce effective immune responses against HIV-1 infection. PMID:26232346

  5. Role of nanotechnology in HIV/AIDS vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Chen, Chunying

    2016-08-01

    HIV/AIDS is one of the worst crises affecting global health and influencing economic development and social stability. Preventing and treating HIV infection is a crucial task. However, there is still no effective HIV vaccine for clinical application. Nanotechnology has the potential to solve the problems associated with traditional HIV vaccines. At present, various nano-architectures and nanomaterials can function as potential HIV vaccine carriers or adjuvants, including inorganic nanomaterials, liposomes, micelles and polymer nanomaterials. In this review, we summarize the current progress in the use of nanotechnology for the development of an HIV/AIDS vaccine and discuss its potential to greatly improve the solubility, permeability, stability and pharmacokinetics of HIV vaccines. Although nanotechnology holds great promise for applications in HIV/AIDS vaccines, there are still many inadequacies that result in a variety of risks and challenges. The potential hazards to the human body and environment associated with some nano-carriers, and their underlying mechanisms require in-depth study. Non-toxic or low-toxic nanomaterials with adjuvant activity have been identified. However, studying the confluence of factors that affect the adjuvant activity of nanomaterials may be more important for the optimization of the dosage and immunization strategy and investigations into the exact mechanism of action. Moreover, there are no uniform standards for investigations of nanomaterials as potential vaccine adjuvants. These limitations make it harder to analyze and deduce rules from the existing data. Developing vaccine nano-carriers or adjuvants with high benefit-cost ratios is important to ensure their broad usage. Despite some shortcomings, nanomaterials have great potential and application prospects in the fields of AIDS treatment and prevention. PMID:26952542

  6. Strengthening capacity for AIDS vaccine research: analysis of the Pfizer Global Health Fellows Program and the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Vian, Taryn; Koseki, Sayaka; Feeley, Frank G; Beard, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Background Industry partnerships can help leverage resources to advance HIV/AIDS vaccine research, service delivery, and policy advocacy goals. This often involves capacity building for international and local non-governmental organizations (NGOs). International volunteering is increasingly being used as a capacity building strategy, yet little is known about how corporate volunteers help to improve performance of NGOs in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Methods This case study helps to extend our...

  7. Computer-Aided Vaccine Design: A Brief Report

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    R Ghasemi Khorasgani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the conventional vaccines have been instrumented in the incidence of many infectious diseases, the advances in genetic engineering and bioinformatics have provided the opportunity for developing improved and new vaccines.Methods: Reverse vaccinology was pioneered by a group of researchers investigating development of a vaccine against serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis. Reverse vaccinology analyzes the entire genome of a pathogen with the aid of computational programs to identify potentially antigenic extracellular proteins.Results: Using this method for Neisseria meningitidis genome analysis, 600 secretory or surface-exposed proteins were identified and, subsequently, 350 proteins were expressed and purified. Finally, seven proteins capable of activating the immune system against a range of strains were identified.Conclusion: Improved computational techniques are now able to provide researchers with high-confidence predictions for complex biological characteristics. This will herald a move to computer-aided biotechnology in which time-consuming and expensive large-scale experimental approaches are progressively replaced by functional bioinformatic investigations.

  8. Protection of Macaques against AIDS with a Live Attenuated SHIV Vaccine is of Finite Duration

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Anil; Liu, Zhenqian; Sheffer, Darlene; Smith, Marilyn; Singh, Dinesh K.; Buch, Shilpa; Narayan, Opendra

    2007-01-01

    Using background data that live vaccines against several viral pathogens are effective in inducing life-long protection against disease, we undertook studies in macaques to determine the duration of protection that two live SHIV vaccines could induce against AIDS. Earlier studies had established that macaques immunized once with a live vaccine and challenged 6 months later were protected, and that other macaques given two sequential inoculations of live vaccines were protected for at least on...

  9. Hepatitis B vaccine antibody response and the risk of clinical AIDS or death.

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    Michael L Landrum

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Whether seroresponse to a vaccine such as hepatitis B virus (HBV vaccine can provide a measure of the functional immune status of HIV-infected persons is unknown.This study evaluated the relationship between HBV vaccine seroresponses and progression to clinical AIDS or death. METHODS AND FINDINGS: From a large HIV cohort, we evaluated those who received HBV vaccine only after HIV diagnosis and had anti-HBs determination 1-12 months after the last vaccine dose. Non-response and positive response were defined as anti-HBs <10 and ≥ 10 IU/L, respectively. Participants were followed from date of last vaccination to clinical AIDS, death, or last visit. Univariate and multivariable risk of progression to clinical AIDS or death were evaluated with Cox regression models. A total of 795 participants vaccinated from 1986-2010 were included, of which 41% were responders. During 3,872 person-years of observation, 122 AIDS or death events occurred (53% after 1995. Twenty-two percent of non-responders experienced clinical AIDS or death compared with 5% of responders (p<0.001. Non-response to HBV vaccine was associated with a greater than 2-fold increased risk of clinical AIDS or death (HR 2.47; 95% CI, 1.38-4.43 compared with a positive response, after adjusting for CD4 count, HIV viral load, HAART use, and delayed type hypersensitivity skin test responses (an in vivo marker of cell-mediated immunity. This association remained evident among those with CD4 count ≥ 500 cells/mm³ (HR 3.40; 95% CI, 1.39-8.32. CONCLUSIONS: HBV vaccine responses may have utility in assessing functional immune status and risk stratificating HIV-infected individuals, including those with CD4 count ≥ 500 cells/mm³.

  10. Novel Vaccine Approach Achieves “Functional Cure” of AIDS Virus in Monkeys | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer, and Jeff Lifson, Guest Writer Scientists at the Oregon Health & Science University and the AIDS and Cancer Virus Program of the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research have used a novel vaccine approach to achieve a “functional cure” and apparent eradication of infection with a monkey version of the AIDS virus.

  11. DNA/MVA Vaccines for HIV/AIDS

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    Smita S. Iyer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the initial proof-of-concept studies examining the ability of antigen-encoded plasmid DNA to serve as an immunogen, DNA vaccines have evolved as a clinically safe and effective platform for priming HIV-specific cellular and humoral responses in heterologous “prime-boost” vaccination regimens. Direct injection of plasmid DNA into the muscle induces T- and B-cell responses against foreign antigens. However, the insufficient magnitude of this response has led to the development of approaches for enhancing the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines. The last two decades have seen significant progress in the DNA-based vaccine platform with optimized plasmid constructs, improved delivery methods, such as electroporation, the use of molecular adjuvants and novel strategies combining DNA with viral vectors and subunit proteins. These innovations are paving the way for the clinical application of DNA-based HIV vaccines. Here, we review preclinical studies on the DNA-prime/modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA-boost vaccine modality for HIV. There is a great deal of interest in enhancing the immunogenicity of DNA by engineering DNA vaccines to co-express immune modulatory adjuvants. Some of these adjuvants have demonstrated encouraging results in preclinical and clinical studies, and these data will be examined, as well.

  12. Building collaborative networks for HIV/AIDS vaccine development: the AVIP experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrantelli, Flavia; Buttò, Stefano; Cafaro, Aurelio; Wahren, Britta; Ensoli, Barbara

    2006-11-01

    The need for an effective HIV/AIDS vaccine is imperative to halt a pandemic that involves more than 40 million individuals worldwide as of 2005 and is causing enormous socio-economic losses, especially in developing countries (DC). The overall failure of more than two decades of HIV vaccine research justifies the demands for a concerted effort for the rapid development of new and efficacious vaccines against HIV/AIDS. In this context, building international collaborative networks is a must for speeding up scientific research and optimizing the use of funding in a synergistic fashion, as resources for HIV/AIDS are limited and do not involve most of the biggest Pharmas that are more interested in drug discovery. The AIDS Vaccine Integrated Project (AVIP) consortium is an example of synergistic partnership of international European Union and DC experts with a common research goal. AVIP is a European Commission-funded (FP-6), consortium-based, 5-year program directed to the fast development of new HIV/AIDS vaccine candidates to be tested in phase I clinical trials in Europe for future advancement to phase II/III testing in DC. To ensure their rapid development, AVIP novel combined vaccines include both regulatory and structural HIV antigens, which have already been tested, as single components, in phase I clinical trials. In particular, such combination vaccines may be superior to earlier vaccine candidates, the vast majority of which are based only on either structural or regulatory HIV products. In fact, the generation of immune responses to both types of viral antigens expressed either early (regulatory products) or late (structural products) during the viral life cycle can maximize immune targeting of both primary or chronic viral infection. Further, the rational design of combined vaccines allows exploitation of immunomodulatory functions of HIV regulatory proteins, which can improve immunity against structural vaccine components. The building of the AVIP

  13. New Animal Model Could Boost Research on AIDS Drugs and Vaccines | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer, and Jeff Lifson, Guest Writer In a research milestone reported in the June 20 issue of the journal Science, scientists have developed a minimally modified version of HIV-1, the virus that causes AIDS in infected humans, that is capable of causing progressive infection and AIDS in monkeys. The advance should help create more authentic animal models of the disease and provide a potentially invaluable approach for faster and better preclinical evaluation of new drugs and vaccines.

  14. HIV/AIDS vaccine development: are we walking out from the dark?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Yan-min; WANG You-chun; XU Jian-qing

    2010-01-01

    @@ The need for AIDS vaccine has been emphasized by the increase of HIV-1 prevalence in sexual transmission which bridges the spreading of HIV-1 from high-risk population to other populations. After more than two-decade intensive effort on the AIDS vaccine development, it remains elusive whether and how an effective vaccine will be achieved. Recent data released from a phase Ⅲ trial in Thailand showed a partial protection might be accomplishable by(R)the "prime-boost"combination of two vaccines: ALVAC(R) HIV vaccine (the prime), and AIDSVAX(R) B/E vaccine (the boost).1 This unprecedented large clinical trial observed that the prime-boost combination lowered the rate of HIV infection by 31.2% compared to placebo based on the modified intent-to-treat population (n=51 vs. n=74,respectively; P=0.04). However, debating on the efficacy interpretation of this trial arose among field scientists.Furthermore, how to improve the efficacy will become the most important question to be tackled. Here we reviewed the recent publications and summarized the major progress achieved.

  15. A common pharmacophoric footprint for AIDS vaccine design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisterer, Christoph; Mihailescu, Dan; Smith, Jeremy C; Reed, Jennifer

    2004-07-15

    The most promising target antigen for an HIV vaccine designed using the classic antibody strategy has been the viral coat protein gp120. Unfortunately, its high variability has prevented this approach. We examine here a 15-residue peptide derived from the CD4-binding domain of gp120. By use of molecular dynamics computer simulation, it is shown that despite considerable sequence variation, the three-dimensional structure of the peptide is preserved over the full range of clade-specific sequences. Furthermore, sequences threaded onto the structure exhibit common three-dimensional electrostatic and hydrophobic properties. These common physicochemical characteristics constitute a pharmacophoric footprint that promises to be useful in the design of a synthetic antigen for vaccine development. PMID:15239651

  16. HIV-1/AIDS vaccine development: are we in the darkness before the dawn?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Chao; XU Jian-qing

    2008-01-01

    @@ The pandemic of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been devastating for the last two decades in a number of developing countries and constituting a grand challenge to the public health.WHO/UNAIDS estimates that approximately 33.2million people were living with HIV-1 infection by the end of 2007 and almost 2.5 million new infections occurred in 2007. An unprecedented scientifc challenge for the AIDS vaccine community is how to develop an effective HIV vaccine that can block HIV transmission and consequently stop the continuing spread of HIV-1.The recent failure of Merck Phase Ⅱ B trial alerted the HIV vaccine community that new vaccine strategies need to be more exclusively explored. In this review, we outline the basics of HIV vaccine and retrospect the history of the road to HIV vaccine in last two decades,and highlight the challenges we are currently facing and new strategies to develop HIV vaccines in this field.The Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai

  17. Association of TLR7 variants with AIDS-like disease and AIDS vaccine efficacy in rhesus macaques.

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    Roman A Siddiqui

    Full Text Available In HIV infection, TLR7-triggered IFN-α production exerts a direct antiviral effect through the inhibition of viral replication, but may also be involved in immune pathogenesis leading to AIDS. TLR7 could also be an important mediator of vaccine efficacy. In this study, we analyzed polymorphisms in the X-linked TLR7 gene in the rhesus macaque model of AIDS. Upon resequencing of the TLR7 gene in 36 rhesus macaques of Indian origin, 12 polymorphic sites were detected. Next, we identified three tightly linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP as being associated with survival time. Genotyping of 119 untreated, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV-infected male rhesus macaques, including an 'MHC adjusted' subset, revealed that the three TLR7 SNPs are also significantly associated with set-point viral load. Surprisingly, this effect was not observed in 72 immunized SIV-infected male monkeys. We hypothesize (i that SNP c.13G>A in the leader peptide is causative for the observed genotype-phenotype association and that (ii the underlying mechanism is related to RNA secondary structure formation. Therefore, we investigated a fourth SNP (c.-17C>T, located 17 bp upstream of the ATG translation initiation codon, that is also potentially capable of influencing RNA structure. In c.13A carriers, neither set-point viral load nor survival time were related to the c.-17C>T genotype. In c.13G carriers, by contrast, the c.-17C allele was significantly associated with prolonged survival. Again, no such association was detected among immunized SIV-infected macaques. Our results highlight the dual role of TLR7 in immunodeficiency virus infection and vaccination and imply that it may be important to control human AIDS vaccine trials, not only for MHC genotype, but also for TLR7 genotype.

  18. 107 The modern methods for HIV/AIDS vaccine evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Korobova, S.V.; Sidorovich, I.G.; Kornilaeva, G.V.

    2014-01-01

    The spread of HIV/AIDS increases worldwide, a safe and efficacious vaccine remains the cornerstone for a prevention strategy to stop HIV-1 epidemic. Both humoral (neutralizing antibodies) and cellular (CTL) responses are able to control HIV infection. Non-neutralizing HIV-specific antibodies could play an important role in preventing or controlling HIV infection. These antibodies can bind to infected cells and recruit innate immune effector cells, such as natural killer (NK) cells, to lyse in...

  19. Vaccination contre la souche influenza PR8 à l'aide d'un vaccin recombinant SG33-M2e

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer, Guillaume

    2010-01-01

    Cette étude présente un essai d’immunisation à l’aide d’un vaccin recombinant poxviral. Le processus de fabrication du vaccin est basé sur la fusion protéique entre l’antigène considéré et une protéine d’enveloppe du poxvirus. L’objectif est double : valider ce mode de construction et créer un vaccin protégeant contre les virus Influenza de type A. Nous avons utilisé comme antigène l’ectodomaine de la protéine M2, nommé M2e. Le Poxvirus de départ est la souche vaccinale utilisée pour protéger...

  20. Vaccinations

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    ... vaccinated? For many years, a set of annual vaccinations was considered normal and necessary for dogs and ... to protect for a full year. Consequently, one vaccination schedule will not work well for all pets. ...

  1. AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000594.htm HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...

  2. Investigating HIV/AIDS Patients’ Immune Response to Hepatitis B Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negin Esmaeilpour

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Because of the increased risk of chronicity of hepatitis B in HIV infected patients, immunization against HBV is recommended in patients infected with human immune deficiency virus. This study aims at determining the factors which affect the response to HBV vaccination in Iranian HIV positive adults, compared with a healthy control group. Methods: From April 2007 to May 2008, 50 HIV+ and 50 healthy control subjects who were seronegative for HBV received 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine at 0, 1 and 3-month points. About 1-2 months after the last dose of vaccine, HBS antibodies were tested in the two groups. Persons were considered vaccine responders if their HBS antibody levels were greater than 10 mIU/ml. Results: In the HIV+ group 40 cases (80% were vaccine responder and in control group, 46(92% people responded to vaccine .The difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (P=0.8. There were no significant relationships between age, gender, BMI, smoking, alcohol drinking and the method infection and HARRT treatment. In the HIV group vaccine response was associated with CD4 count level (P=0.03. Conclusion: HIV infected patients are recommended to be HBV vaccinated at the regular doses and intervals. If CD4 count is less than 200/µl, HBS antibody should be tested in certain period for HIV+ individuals.

  3. Subtype C gp140 Vaccine Boosts Immune Responses Primed by the South African AIDS Vaccine Initiative DNA-C2 and MVA-C HIV Vaccines after More than a 2-Year Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Glenda E; Mayer, Kenneth H; Elizaga, Marnie L; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Allen, Mary; Morris, Lynn; Montefiori, David; De Rosa, Stephen C; Sato, Alicia; Gu, Niya; Tomaras, Georgia D; Tucker, Timothy; Barnett, Susan W; Mkhize, Nonhlanhla N; Shen, Xiaoying; Downing, Katrina; Williamson, Carolyn; Pensiero, Michael; Corey, Lawrence; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2016-06-01

    A phase I safety and immunogenicity study investigated South African AIDS Vaccine Initiative (SAAVI) HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C) DNA vaccine encoding Gag-RT-Tat-Nef and gp150, boosted with modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) expressing matched antigens. Following the finding of partial protective efficacy in the RV144 HIV vaccine efficacy trial, a protein boost with HIV-1 subtype C V2-deleted gp140 with MF59 was added to the regimen. A total of 48 participants (12 U.S. participants and 36 Republic of South Africa [RSA] participants) were randomized to receive 3 intramuscular (i.m.) doses of SAAVI DNA-C2 of 4 mg (months 0, 1, and 2) and 2 i.m. doses of SAAVI MVA-C of 1.45 × 10(9) PFU (months 4 and 5) (n = 40) or of a placebo (n = 8). Approximately 2 years after vaccination, 27 participants were rerandomized to receive gp140/MF59 at 100 μg or placebo, as 2 i.m. injections, 3 months apart. The vaccine regimen was safe and well tolerated. After the DNA-MVA regimen, CD4(+) T-cell and CD8(+) T-cell responses occurred in 74% and 32% of the participants, respectively. The protein boost increased CD4(+) T-cell responses to 87% of the subjects. All participants developed tier 1 HIV-1C neutralizing antibody responses as well as durable Env binding antibodies that recognized linear V3 and C5 peptides. The HIV-1 subtype C DNA-MVA vaccine regimen showed promising cellular immunogenicity. Boosting with gp140/MF59 enhanced levels of binding and neutralizing antibodies as well as CD4(+) T-cell responses to HIV-1 envelope. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00574600 and NCT01423825.). PMID:27098021

  4. Perceived need of a parental decision aid for the HPV vaccine: content and format preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Julia; Swain, Geoffrey; Weinhardt, Lance S

    2012-03-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a precursor of cervical cancer. In 2006, the Federal Drug Administration licensed a vaccine to protect against four types of HPV. Three years postlicensure of the vaccine, HPV vaccination is still fraught with controversy. To date, research suggests that contrary to popular notions, parents are less concerned with controversies on moral issues and more with uncertainty regarding because long-term safety of a drug is resolved after licensure. This study was designed to understand whether mothers from diverse ethnicities perceive a need for a decision support tool. Results suggest that the design of a culturally tailored decision support tool may help guide parents through the decision-making process. PMID:21444922

  5. Bad Blood: The Tuskegee Syphilis Study and Legacy Recruitment for Experimental AIDS Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Kimberly Sessions

    2005-01-01

    For African Americans, medical research often connotes exploitation and cruelty, making recruiting African Americans to participate in HIV vaccine trials particularly daunting. But infusing adult education principles into such efforts is both increasing African American participation and helping heal the legacy of the Tuskegee experiment.

  6. Investigating HIV/AIDS Patients’ Immune Response to Hepatitis B Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Negin Esmaeilpour; Nahid Mirzaei; Reza Chaman; Mehrnaz Rasoulinejad; Mahboobeh Haji-Abdolbaghi; Maryam Roham; SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi; Seyyed Mostafa Hosseini; Mazeyar Parsa; Ladan Payvar- Mehr; Hamid Emadi-Koochak

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Because of the increased risk of chronicity of hepatitis B in HIV infected patients, immunization against HBV is recommended in patients infected with human immune deficiency virus. This study aims at determining the factors which affect the response to HBV vaccination in Iranian HIV positive adults, compared with a healthy control group. Methods: From April 2007 to May 2008, 50 HIV+ and 50 healthy control subjects who were seronegative for HBV received 3 doses of hepatitis B va...

  7. Phylodynamics of HIV-1 from a Phase III AIDS vaccine trial in North America

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Losada, M.; Jobes, D. V.; Sinangil, F.; Crandall, K. A.; Posada, D; Berman, P.W.

    2010-01-01

    In 2003, a phase III placebo-controlled trial (VAX004) of a candidate HIV-1 vaccine (AIDSVAX B/B) was completed in 5,403 volunteers at high risk for HIV-1 infection from North America and the Netherlands. A total of 368 individuals became infected with HIV-1 during the trial. The envelope glycoprotein gene (gp120) from the HIV-1 subtype B viruses infecting 349 patients was sequenced from clinical samples taken as close as possible to the time of diagnosis, rendering a final data set of 1,047 ...

  8. Safety and Immunogenicity of Early Measles Vaccination in Children Born to HIV-Infected Mothers in the United States: Results of Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group (PACTG) Protocol 225

    OpenAIRE

    Chandwani, Sulachni; Beeler, Judy; Li, Hong; Audet, Susette; Smith, Betsy; Moye, John; Nalin, David; Krasinski, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Background. PACTG (Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group) 225, a multicenter, randomized, open-label trial in the United States evaluated reactogenicity and immunogenicity of 2 vaccination regimens: monovalent measles vaccine (Attenuvax) at 6 months of age and measles, mumps, and rubella, live attenuated (MMRII) vaccine at 12 months of age (2D), or only MMRII at 12 months of age (1D) in human immunodeficiency virus–infected (HIV-infected) (POS) and uninfected (NEG) children in the pre–highly a...

  9. Development of a flow cytometric bead immunoassay and its assessment as a possible aid to potency evaluation of enterotoxaemia vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Buys

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxaemia, an economically important disease of sheep, goats and calves, is caused by systemic effects of the epsilon toxin produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium perfringens type D. The only practical means of controlling the occurrence of enterotoxaemia is to immunise animals by vaccination. The vaccine is prepared by deriving a toxoid from the bacterial culture filtrate and the potency of the vaccine is tested with the in vivo mouse neutralisation test (MNT. Due to ethical, economic and technical reasons, alternative in vitro assays are needed. In this study an indirect cytometric bead immunoassay (I-CBA was developed for use in vaccine potency testing and the results were compared with those obtained using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA and the MNT. Sera were collected from guinea pigs immunised with three different production batches of enterotoxaemia vaccine and the levels of anti-epsilon toxin antibodies were determined. Although the intra- and inter-assay variability was satisfactory, epsilon antitoxin levels determined by both the I-ELISA and indirect cytometric bead immunoassay (I-CBA tests were higher than those of the MNT assay. In contrast to the MNT, all of the serum samples were identified as having antitoxin levels above the required minimum (not less than 5 U/mL. These results indicate that the respective in vitro tests in their current formats are not yet suitable alternatives to the in vivo MNT. The growing demand for a more humane, cost-effective and efficient method for testing the potency of enterotoxaemia vaccines, however, provides a strong impetus for further optimisation and standardisation of the I-CBA assay but further analytical research is required.

  10. Development of a flow cytometric bead immunoassay and its assessment as a possible aid to potency evaluation of enterotoxaemia vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, Angela; Macdonald, Raynard; Crafford, Jannie; Theron, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxaemia, an economically important disease of sheep, goats and calves, is caused by systemic effects of the epsilon toxin produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium perfringens type D. The only practical means of controlling the occurrence of enterotoxaemia is to immunise animals by vaccination. The vaccine is prepared by deriving a toxoid from the bacterial culture filtrate and the potency of the vaccine is tested with the in vivo mouse neutralisation test (MNT). Due to ethical, economic and technical reasons, alternative in vitro assays are needed. In this study an indirect cytometric bead immunoassay (I-CBA) was developed for use in vaccine potency testing and the results were compared with those obtained using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) and the MNT. Sera were collected from guinea pigs immunised with three different production batches of enterotoxaemia vaccine and the levels of anti-epsilon toxin antibodies were determined. Although the intra- and inter-assay variability was satisfactory, epsilon antitoxin levels determined by both the I-ELISA and indirect cytometric bead immunoassay (I-CBA) tests were higher than those of the MNT assay. In contrast to the MNT, all of the serum samples were identified as having antitoxin levels above the required minimum (not less than 5 U/mL). These results indicate that the respective in vitro tests in their current formats are not yet suitable alternatives to the in vivo MNT. The growing demand for a more humane, cost-effective and efficient method for testing the potency of enterotoxaemia vaccines, however, provides a strong impetus for further optimisation and standardisation of the I-CBA assay but further analytical research is required. PMID:24832497

  11. HIV Vaccine-Challenges and Opportunities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The need for an efficacious HIV/AIDS vaccine remains the highest priority of the world HIV/AIDS agenda. The generation of an efficacious HIV/AIDS vaccine proves an enormous scientific challenge. This article reviews the neutralizing antibody problem, elusive immune protection, immunogen design, pre-existing anti-vector immunity and design of phase 3 vaccine trials and the challenges and opportunities in development of HIV/AIDS vaccine are discussed.

  12. Biocompatible anionic polymeric microspheres as priming delivery system for effetive HIV/AIDS Tat-based vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Titti

    Full Text Available Here we describe a prime-boost regimen of vaccination in Macaca fascicularis that combines priming with novel anionic microspheres designed to deliver the biologically active HIV-1 Tat protein and boosting with Tat in Alum. This regimen of immunization modulated the IgG subclass profile and elicited a balanced Th1-Th2 type of humoral and cellular responses. Remarkably, following intravenous challenge with SHIV89.6Pcy243, vaccinees significantly blunted acute viremia, as compared to control monkeys, and this control was associated with significantly lower CD4+ T cell depletion rate during the acute phase of infection and higher ability to resume the CD4+ T cell counts in the post-acute and chronic phases of infection. The long lasting control of viremia was associated with the persistence of high titers anti-Tat antibodies whose profile clearly distinguished vaccinees in controllers and viremics. Controllers, as opposed to vaccinated and viremic cynos, exhibited significantly higher pre-challenge antibody responses to peptides spanning the glutamine-rich and the RGD-integrin-binding regions of Tat. Finally, among vaccinees, titers of anti-Tat IgG1, IgG3 and IgG4 subclasses had a significant association with control of viremia in the acute and post-acute phases of infection. Altogether these findings indicate that the Tat/H1D/Alum regimen of immunization holds promise for next generation vaccines with Tat protein or other proteins for which maintenance of the native conformation and activity are critical for optimal immunogenicity. Our results also provide novel information on the role of anti-Tat responses in the prevention of HIV pathogenesis and for the design of new vaccine candidates.

  13. Effects of Oral Levamisole as an Adjuvant to Hepatitis B Vaccine in HIV/ AIDS Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Sayad, Babak; Alavian, Seyyed Moayed; Najafi, Farid; Soltani, Bita; Shirvani, Maria; Janbakhsh, Alireza; Mansouri, Feyzollah; Afsharian, Mandana; Vaziri, Siavash; Alikhani, Arash; Bashiri, Homayoon

    2012-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients are also frequently exposed to the hepatitis B virus (HBV), due to the common routes of transmission, therefore, prevention of hepatitis B results in decreased complications of the disease. Objectives Since the immune response of HIV patients to hepatitis B vaccination is less robust than that found in healthy individuals, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of a levamisole adjuvant on increasing the immune response. Patients...

  14. Utilizing a TLR5-Adjuvanted Cytomegalovirus as a Lentiviral Vaccine in the Nonhuman Primate Model for AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deere, Jesse D.; Chang, W. L. William; Castillo, Luis D.; Schmidt, Kim A.; Kieu, Hung T.; Renzette, Nicholas; Kowalik, Timothy; Barthold, Stephen W.; Shacklett, Barbara L.; Barry, Peter A.; Sparger, Ellen E.

    2016-01-01

    Despite tremendous progress in our understanding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) natural history and advances in HIV treatment, there is neither an approved vaccine nor a cure for infection. Here, we describe the development and characterization of a novel replicating vaccine vector utilizing Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and a TLR5 adjuvant. After partial truncation of the central, immunodominant hypervariable domain, flagellin (fliC) from Salmonella was cloned downstream of a codon optimized gag gene from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and transiently expressed in telomerized rhesus fibroblast (TeloRF) cells in culture. Lysates generated from these transfected cells induced the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), in a mouse macrophage cell line, in a TLR5-dependent manner. The Gag/FliC expression construct was cloned into a bacterial artificial chromosome encoding the rhesus CMV (RhCMV) genome, and infectious RhCMV was generated following transfection of TeloRF cells. This virus stably expressed an SIV Gag/FliC fusion protein through four serial passages. Lysates generated from infected cells induced TNF-α in a TLR5-dependent manner. Western blot analysis of infected cell lysates verified expression of a Gag/FliC fusion protein using a SIV p27 capsid monoclonal antibody. Lastly, rhesus macaques inoculated with this novel RhCMV virus demonstrated increased inflammatory responses at the site of inoculation seven days post-infection when compared to the parental RhCMV. These results demonstrate that an artificially constructed replicating RhCMV expressing an SIV Gag/FliC fusion protein is capable of activating TLR5 in a macrophage cell line in vitro and induction of an altered inflammatory response in vivo. Ongoing animals studies are aimed at determining vaccine efficacy, including subsequent challenge with pathogenic SIV. PMID:27182601

  15. HIV/AIDS and the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters HIV/AIDS and the Flu Questions & Answers Language: English ... to people with HIV/AIDS. Should people with HIV/AIDS receive the inactivated influenza vaccine? People with ...

  16. R5 clade C SHIV strains with tier 1 or 2 neutralization sensitivity: tools to dissect env evolution and to develop AIDS vaccines in primate models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagadenahalli B Siddappa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-1 clade C (HIV-C predominates worldwide, and anti-HIV-C vaccines are urgently needed. Neutralizing antibody (nAb responses are considered important but have proved difficult to elicit. Although some current immunogens elicit antibodies that neutralize highly neutralization-sensitive (tier 1 HIV strains, most circulating HIVs exhibiting a less sensitive (tier 2 phenotype are not neutralized. Thus, both tier 1 and 2 viruses are needed for vaccine discovery in nonhuman primate models. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We constructed a tier 1 simian-human immunodeficiency virus, SHIV-1157ipEL, by inserting an "early," recently transmitted HIV-C env into the SHIV-1157ipd3N4 backbone [1] encoding a "late" form of the same env, which had evolved in a SHIV-infected rhesus monkey (RM with AIDS. SHIV-1157ipEL was rapidly passaged to yield SHIV-1157ipEL-p, which remained exclusively R5-tropic and had a tier 1 phenotype, in contrast to "late" SHIV-1157ipd3N4 (tier 2. After 5 weekly low-dose intrarectal exposures, SHIV-1157ipEL-p systemically infected 16 out of 17 RM with high peak viral RNA loads and depleted gut CD4+ T cells. SHIV-1157ipEL-p and SHIV-1157ipd3N4 env genes diverge mostly in V1/V2. Molecular modeling revealed a possible mechanism for the increased neutralization resistance of SHIV-1157ipd3N4 Env: V2 loops hindering access to the CD4 binding site, shown experimentally with nAb b12. Similar mutations have been linked to decreased neutralization sensitivity in HIV-C strains isolated from humans over time, indicating parallel HIV-C Env evolution in humans and RM. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SHIV-1157ipEL-p, the first tier 1 R5 clade C SHIV, and SHIV-1157ipd3N4, its tier 2 counterpart, represent biologically relevant tools for anti-HIV-C vaccine development in primates.

  17. Immunogenic profiling in mice of a HIV/AIDS vaccine candidate (MVA-B expressing four HIV-1 antigens and potentiation by specific gene deletions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan García-Arriaza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The immune parameters of HIV/AIDS vaccine candidates that might be relevant in protection against HIV-1 infection are still undefined. The highly attenuated poxvirus strain MVA is one of the most promising vectors to be use as HIV-1 vaccine. We have previously described a recombinant MVA expressing HIV-1 Env, Gag, Pol and Nef antigens from clade B (referred as MVA-B, that induced HIV-1-specific immune responses in different animal models and gene signatures in human dendritic cells (DCs with immunoregulatory function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In an effort to characterize in more detail the immunogenic profile of MVA-B and to improve its immunogenicity we have generated a new vector lacking two genes (A41L and B16R, known to counteract host immune responses by blocking the action of CC-chemokines and of interleukin 1beta, respectively (referred as MVA-B DeltaA41L/DeltaB16R. A DNA prime/MVA boost immunization protocol was used to compare the adaptive and memory HIV-1 specific immune responses induced in mice by the parental MVA-B and by the double deletion mutant MVA-B DeltaA41L/DeltaB16R. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that both vectors triggered HIV-1-specific CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells, with the CD8(+ T-cell compartment responsible for >91.9% of the total HIV-1 responses in both immunization groups. However, MVA-B DeltaA41L/DeltaB16R enhanced the magnitude and polyfunctionality of the HIV-1-specific CD4(+ and CD8(+ T-cell immune responses. HIV-1-specific CD4(+ T-cell responses were polyfunctional and preferentially Env-specific in both immunization groups. Significantly, while MVA-B induced preferentially Env-specific CD8(+ T-cell responses, MVA-B DeltaA41L/DeltaB16R induced more GPN-specific CD8(+ T-cell responses, with an enhanced polyfunctional pattern. Both vectors were capable of producing similar levels of antibodies against Env. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings revealed that MVA-B and MVA-B DeltaA41L/DeltaB16R

  18. Poliovirus Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Isik Yalcin

    2008-01-01

    The two types of poliovirus vaccines are inactivated vaccine, given parenterally, and live virus vaccine, given orally. Oral poliovirus is the vaccine of choice for global eradication. Either inactivated vaccine or oral vaccine may be given concurrently with other routinely recommended childhood vaccines. No serious adverse events have been associated with the vaccine. Oral poliovirus vaccine can cause vaccine associated paralytic poliomyelitis.

  19. Vaccine Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the safety of Tdap, Meningococcal, and HPV vaccines Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine is Very Safe Read about the safety of ... Hepatitis A Vaccine Safety Hepatitis B Vaccine Safety Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Safety FAQs about HPV Safety Influenza (Flu) Vaccine ...

  20. New Dengue Virus Vaccine Shows Promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157799.html New Dengue Virus Vaccine Shows Promise Research may also aid ... 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental vaccine against dengue -- the mosquito-borne virus behind a very painful ...

  1. AIDS Epidemiyolojisi

    OpenAIRE

    SÜNTER, A.T.; PEKŞEN, Y.

    2010-01-01

    AIDS was first defined in the United States in 1981. It spreads to nearly all the countries of the world with a great speed and can infect everbody without any differantiation. The infection results in death and there is no cure or vaccine for it, yet. To data given to World Health Organization until July-1994, it is estimated that there are about 1 million patients and about 22 millions HIV positive persons In the world. Sixty percent of HIV positive persons are men and 40% are women. The di...

  2. Malaria vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Some have argued that the vaccine against malaria developed by Manuel Pattaroyo, a Colombian scientist, is being tested prematurely in humans and that it is unlikely to be successful. While the Pattaroyo vaccine has been shown to confer protection against the relatively mild malaria found in Colombia, doubts exist over whether it will be effective in Africa. Encouraging first results, however, are emerging from field tests in Tanzania. The vaccine triggered a strong new immune response, even in individuals previously exposed to malaria. Additional steps must be taken to establish its impact upon mortality and morbidity. Five major trials are underway around the world. The creator estimates that the first ever effective malaria vaccine could be available for widespread use within five years and he has no intention of securing a patent for the discovery. In another development, malaria specialists from 35 African countries convened at an international workshop in Zimbabwe to compare notes. Participants disparaged financial outlays for the fight against malaria equivalent to 2% of total AIDS funding as insufficient; noted intercountry differences in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment; and found information exchange between anglophone and francophone doctors to be generally poor. PMID:12287671

  3. Strategy for AIDS Prevention and Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has been circulating in China for over 25 year. While making progress and achievements on HIV/AIDS prevention, there still are great challenge and difficulties such as HIV epidemic controlling and vaccine research.

  4. 艾滋病疫苗专题文献引文特征的可视化分析%Visual analysis of features of citations in papers on AIDS vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭婉君; 张世玉; 王伟

    2014-01-01

    Important papers representing the advances in AIDS vaccine research were retrieved from Web of Sci-ence using HistCite.The citation chronological chart was plotted by analyzing the relation between their citation fre-quency and cited frequency , and analyzing their citation sequences , which shows the development rules and histori-cal development path in AIDS vaccine research , and provides a certain reference value for the researchers in related fields at home and abroad.%以Web of Science的艾滋病疫苗研究文献作为数据来源,利用引文分析可视化软件HistCite,找出代表艾滋病疫苗研究领域发展的重要文献,并分析文献之间引用与被引用关系和引用序列,获得引文编年图谱,梳理出艾滋病疫苗研究领域的发展规律和历史发展轨迹,为国内外相关领域的研究人员提供一定的参考。

  5. HPV vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; Cervarix; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer ... Girls ages 11 and 12 should receive the HPV vaccine series: The vaccine is given in three shots ...

  6. Rabies virus-based vaccines elicit neutralizing antibodies, poly-functional CD8+ T cell, and protect rhesus macaques from AIDS-like disease after SIVmac251 challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faul, Elizabeth J.; Aye, Pyone P.; Papaneri, Amy B.; Pahar, Bapi; McGettigan, James P.; Schiro, Faith; Chervoneva, Inna; Montefiori, David C.; Lackner, Andrew A.; Schnell, Matthias J.

    2010-01-01

    Highly attenuated rabies virus (RV) vaccine vectors were evaluated for their ability to protect against highly pathogenic SIVmac251 challenge. Mamu-A*01 negative rhesus macaques were immunized in groups of four with either: RV expressing SIVmac239-GagPol, a combination of RV expressing SIVmac239-Env and RV expressing SIVmac239-GagPol, or with empty RV vectors. Eight weeks later animals received a booster immunization with a heterologous RV expressing the same antigens. At twelve weeks post-boost, all animals were challenged intravenously with 100 TCID50 of pathogenic SIVmac251-CX. Immunized macaques in both vaccine groups had 1.3–1.6-log fold decrease in viral set point compared to control animals. The GagPol/Env immunized animals also had a significantly lower peak viral load. When compared to control animals following challenge, vaccinated macaques had a more rapid induction of SIVmac251 neutralizing antibodies and of CD8+ T cell responses to various SIV epitopes. Moreover, vaccinated macaques better-maintained peripheral memory CD4+ T cells and were able to mount a poly-functional CD8+ T cell response in the mucosa. These findings indicate promise for RV-based vectors and have important implications for the development of an efficacious HIV vaccine. PMID:19879223

  7. Ontology-based Brucella vaccine literature indexing and systematic analysis of gene-vaccine association network

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang Zuoshuang; Hur Junguk; Feldman Eva L; He Yongqun

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Vaccine literature indexing is poorly performed in PubMed due to limited hierarchy of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) annotation in the vaccine field. Vaccine Ontology (VO) is a community-based biomedical ontology that represents various vaccines and their relations. SciMiner is an in-house literature mining system that supports literature indexing and gene name tagging. We hypothesize that application of VO in SciMiner will aid vaccine literature indexing and mining of va...

  8. Therapeutic HIV Peptide Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic vaccines aim to control chronic HIV infection and eliminate the need for lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). Therapeutic HIV vaccine is being pursued as part of a functional cure for HIV/AIDS. We have outlined a basic protocol for inducing new T cell immunity during chronic HIV-1...... infection directed to subdominant conserved HIV-1 epitopes restricted to frequent HLA supertypes. The rationale for selecting HIV peptides and adjuvants are provided. Peptide subunit vaccines are regarded as safe due to the simplicity, quality, purity, and low toxicity. The caveat is reduced immunogenicity...

  9. Pneumococcal vaccine.

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a frequent cause of pneumonia and meningitis. This article looks at the pneumococcal vaccine, its uses, efficacy, and adverse effects and how vaccination may be improved. We also look at the role of the new conjugate vaccines.

  10. Polio Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to its advantages over IPV in providing intestinal immunity and providing secondary spread of the vaccine to unprotected contacts. Who needs this vaccine and when? Side Effects Excerpt from Vaccine Information Statement A Polio-Free ...

  11. Smallpox Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Newsletters Events Also Known As Smallpox = Vaccinia Smallpox Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The smallpox ... like many other vaccines. For that reason, the vaccination site must be cared for carefully to prevent ...

  12. Rabies virus-based vaccines elicit neutralizing antibodies, poly-functional CD8+ T cell, and protect rhesus macaques from AIDS-like disease after SIVmac251 challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth J. Faul; Aye, Pyone P.; Papaneri, Amy B.; Pahar, Bapi; McGettigan, James P.; Schiro, Faith; Chervoneva, Inna; Montefiori, David C.; Lackner, Andrew A.; Schnell, Matthias J.

    2009-01-01

    Highly attenuated rabies virus (RV) vaccine vectors were evaluated for their ability to protect against highly pathogenic SIVmac251 challenge. Mamu-A*01 negative rhesus macaques were immunized in groups of four with either: RV expressing SIVmac239-GagPol, a combination of RV expressing SIVmac239-Env and RV expressing SIVmac239-GagPol, or with empty RV vectors. Eight weeks later animals received a booster immunization with a heterologous RV expressing the same antigens. At twelve weeks post-bo...

  13. Vaccine Hesitancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact. PMID:26541249

  14. Adolescent Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Hacımustafaoğlu

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent period usually are omitted regarding the vaccination and the other health evaluations, in our country. Adolescent period is usually considered as between the ages of 8-18 years. During this period, it is important to evaluate routine adolescent examination as well as vaccination status.Childhood (0-18 years) vaccination can be considered in three stages; infantil period vaccinations (

  15. Human immunodeficiency virus vaccine an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V T Beena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of acquired immuno deficiency syndrome (AIDS in late1980s, the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has reached pandemic proportions, representing a global developmental and public health threat. Finding of a safe, globally effective and affordable HIV vaccine offers the best hope for the future control of the disease pandemic. Significant progress has been made over the past years in the areas of basic virology, immunology, and pathogenesis of HIV/AIDS and the development of anti-retroviral drugs. However, the search for an HIV vaccine faces formidable scientific challenges related to the high genetic variability of the virus, the lack of immune correlates of protection, limitations with the existing animal models and logistical problems associated with the conduct of multiple clinical trials. Most of the vaccine approaches developed so far aim at inducing cell-mediated immune responses. Multiple vaccine concepts and vaccination strategies have been tested, including DNA vaccines, subunit vaccines, live vectored recombinant vaccines, various prime-boost vaccine combinations and vaccine based on broadly neutralizing human anti-HIV Antibody 2G12. This article reviews the state of the art in HIV vaccine research, summarizes the results obtained so far and discusses the challenges to be met in the development of a successful HIV vaccine.

  16. Hepatitis Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B ...

  17. Mucosal adjuvants to improve wildlife rabies vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Tricia; Van Dalen, Kaci; Hurley, Jerome; Nash, Paul

    2012-10-01

    RABORAL V-RG(®)a is a recombinant vaccine used in oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programs for wildlife in the United States. Vaccination rates for raccoons are substantially lower than vaccination rates for gray foxes and coyotes. Research suggests that the low viscosity of the oral vaccine may preclude animals from receiving an effective dose when biting into the vaccine bait delivery system. We evaluated the possibility of using two benign compounds, chitosan and N,N,N-trimethylated chitosan (TMC), to increase the viscosity of the vaccine and potentially act as adjuvants to improve the immune response in raccoons (Procyon lotor). Forty mildly sedated raccoons were orally vaccinated via needleless syringe with either RABORAL V-RG (n = 12), chitosan+RABORAL V-RG (n = 12), TMC+ RABORAL V-RG (n = 12), or no vaccine (n = 4), on day 0 and again on day 90. We collected sera every 2-4 wk for 4 mo and evaluated rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies (rVNA). Raccoons were considered responders if rVNA titers were ≥ 0.1 IU/mL. Eleven of 12 raccoons vaccinated with TMC+RABORAL V-RG responded after one dose of vaccine, as did eight of 12 vaccinated with RABORAL V-RG, and three of 12 vaccinated with chitosan+ RABORAL V-RG. Our results suggest that the inclusion of an adjuvant, such as TMC, could increase vaccine efficacy to aid in controlling rabies virus spread in wildlife reservoirs. PMID:23060506

  18. Differences in HIV vaccine acceptability between genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakinami, Lisa; Newman, Peter A; Lee, Sung-Jae; Duan, Naihua

    2008-05-01

    The development of safe and efficacious preventive HIV vaccines offers the best long-term hope of controlling the AIDS pandemic. Nevertheless, suboptimal uptake of safe and efficacious vaccines that already exist suggest that HIV vaccine acceptability cannot be assumed, particularly among communities most vulnerable to HIV. The present study aimed to identify barriers and motivators to future HIV vaccine acceptability among low socioeconomic, ethnically diverse men and women in Los Angeles County. Participants completed a cross-sectional survey assessing their attitudes and beliefs regarding future HIV vaccines. Hypothetical HIV vaccine scenarios were administered to determine HIV vaccine acceptability. Two-sided t-tests were performed, stratified by gender, to examine the association between vaccine acceptability and potential barriers and motivators. Barriers to HIV vaccine acceptability differed between men and women. For women, barriers to HIV vaccine acceptability were related to their intimate relationships (pnegative experiences with health care providers (pGender-specific interventions may increase vaccine acceptability among men and women at elevated risk for HIV infection. Among women, interventions need to focus on addressing barriers due to gendered power dynamics in relationships and discrimination in health care. Among men, education that addresses fears and misconceptions about adverse effects of HIV vaccination on health and the importance of vaccination as one component of integrated HIV prevention may increase vaccine acceptability. PMID:18484322

  19. Postgenomics of Neisseria meningitidis for vaccines development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, Giulia; Braconi, Daniela; Martelli, Paola; Santucci, Annalisa

    2007-10-01

    Meningococcal disease is a global problem. Multivalent (A, C, Y, W135) conjugate vaccines have been developed and licensed; however, an effective vaccine against serogroup B has not yet become available. Outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines have been used to disrupt serogroup B epidemics and outbreaks. Postgenomic technologies have been useful in aiding the discovery of new protein vaccine candidates. Moreover, proteomic technologies enable large-scale identification of membrane and surface-associated proteins, and provide suitable methods to characterize and standardize the antigen composition of OMV-based vaccines. PMID:17941821

  20. A New Decade of Vaccines

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, JFA

    2011-09-01

    The call for a new decade of vaccines was made in December 2010. The aims are to secure the further discovery, development and delivery of vaccination. The first challenge is the acquisition of funds for the research and development of 20 new vaccines1. The Gates Foundation has pledged $10 billion for this venture. The other major players are WHO, UNICEF and the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. The top priorities are TB, AIDS and Malaria. It is hoped that a Malaria vaccine will available in 3 years. The ambitious target of saving the lives of over 7 million children has been set. The programme must also address the need for vaccines in insulin dependent diabetes, cancers and degenerative diseases2.

  1. Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG as an HIV Vaccine Vector

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Rosamund; Chege, Gerald; Shephard, Enid; Stutz, Helen; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2010-01-01

    HIV-1 has resulted in a devastating AIDS pandemic. An effective HIV/AIDS vaccine that can be used to either, prevent HIV infection, control infection or prevent progression of the disease to AIDS is needed. In this review we discuss the use of Mycobacterium bovis BCG, the tuberculosis vaccine, as a vaccine vector for an HIV vaccine. Numerous features make BCG an attractive vehicle to deliver HIV antigens. It has a good safety profile, elicits long-lasting cellular immune responses and in addi...

  2. Reproductive toxicity testing of vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaccines play a major role in the prevention of human birth defects by protecting the pregnant woman from teratogenic or otherwise harmful infections. Until now, it has not been common practice to perform preclinical developmental toxicity tests for new vaccines. Despite the excellent safety record of vaccines, increased attention is now being given to the feasibility of screening new vaccines for developmental hazards in animals before their use in humans. Contrary to previous assumptions, many vaccines are now given to potentially pregnant women. Any new components of the vaccine formulation (adjuvants, excipients, stabilisers, preservatives, etc...) could also be tested for influences on development, although based on past experience the risks are limited by the very low dosages used. The conferred immunity following vaccination lasts for several years. Therefore, the developing conceptus may theoretically be exposed to the induced antibodies and/or sensitised T-cells, even if the pregnant woman was last vaccinated during childhood (particularly if she encounters the antigen during pregnancy through exposure to infection). However, it should be kept in mind that viral or bacterial infections represent a higher risk for a pregnant woman than the potential adverse effects related to vaccination or the associated immune response. Non-clinical safety studies may be employed as an aid for hazard identification. In these studies interactions of the vaccine with the maternal immune system or with the developmental systems of the offspring are considered. Post-natal examinations are necessary to detect all possible manifestations of developmental toxicity, such as effects on the immune system. Species selection for the preclinical studies is based on immunogenicity to the vaccine and the relative timing and rate of transfer of maternal antibodies to the offspring. A single study design is proposed for the pre- and post-natal developmental assessments of vaccines in

  3. HPV vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; Cervarix; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer ... HPV is a common virus that is spread through sexual contact. There are several types of HPV. ...

  4. Diphtheria Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children and adults - Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Diphtheria Vaccination Pronounced (dif-THEER-ee-a) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Diphtheria causes a thick covering in the back of ...

  5. Introduction to a Special Issue of the Journal of Immunological Methods: Building Global Resource Programs to Support HIV/AIDS Clinical Trial Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Ana M.; Thomas N Denny; O’Gorman, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    This Special Issue of the Journal of Immunological Methods includes 16 manuscripts describing quality assurance activities related to virologic and immunologic monitoring of six global laboratory resource programs that support international HIV/AIDS clinical trial studies: Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery (CAVD); Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology (CHAVI); External Quality Assurance Program Oversight Laboratory (EQAPOL); HIV Vaccine Trial Network (HVTN); International AIDS Vaccine...

  6. Pneumococcal Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Chen-Fang Ho; Tzou-Yien Lin

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading bacterial pathogen of infectious diseases inchildren and adolescents. The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine could preventinvasive pneumococcal infection with broader serotype coverage but still has some limitations.On the other hand, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has been shown todecrease cases of nasopharyngeal acquired S. pneumoniae vaccine serotypes and provedherd immunity. The safety and efficacy against vaccine serotype pneumo...

  7. DNA vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Coban, Cevayir; Kobiyama, Kouji; Jounai, Nao; Tozuka, Miyuki; Ishii, Ken J.

    2013-01-01

    Since the introduction of DNA vaccines two decades ago, this attractive strategy has been hampered by its low immunogenicity in humans. Studies conducted to improve the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines have shown that understanding the mechanism of action of DNA vaccines might be the key to successfully improving their immunogenicity. Our current understanding is that DNA vaccines induce innate and adaptive immune responses in two ways: (1) encoded protein (or polypeptide) antigen(s) by the DNA...

  8. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Infirmary (ground-floor, bldg. 57), with their vaccine, without a prior appointment. The vaccine can be reimbursed directly by Uniqa providing you attach the receipt and the prescription that you will receive from the Medical Service the day of your injection at the infirmary. Ideally, the vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2007 (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00). CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor. Medical Service

  9. Accelerating Next Generation Vaccine Development for Global Disease Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Koff, Wayne C.; Dennis R Burton; R.Johnson, Philip; Walker, Bruce D; King, Charles R.; Nabel, Gary J.; Ahmed, Rafi; Bhan, Maharaj Kishan; Plotkin, Stanley A.

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines are among the greatest successes in the history of public health. However, past strategies for vaccine development are unlikely to succeed in the future against major global diseases such as AIDS, TB, and malaria. For such diseases, the correlates of protection are poorly defined and the pathogens evade immune detection and/or exhibit extensive genetic variability. Recent advances have heralded in a new era of vaccine discovery. However, translation of these advances into vaccines re...

  10. Hepatitis Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  11. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Ogholikhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver.

  12. Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    Controversy over the aggregate impact of foreign aid has focused on reduced form estimates of the aid-growth link. The causal chain, through which aid affects developmental outcomes including growth, has received much less attention. We address this gap by: (i) specifying a structural model of the...... main relationships; (ii) estimating the impact of aid on a range of final and intermediate outcomes; and (iii) quantifying a simplied representation of the full structural form, where aid impacts on growth through key intermediate outcomes. A coherent picture emerges: aid stimulates growth and reduces...

  13. Flu Vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service

  14. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service

  15. Flu vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor.CERN Medical Service

  16. Flu Vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical service

  17. AIDS (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medication can suppress symptoms. ...

  18. Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  19. Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... electrical nerve impulses and send them to the auditory nerve, which connects the inner ear to the ... prefer. Cleaning makes a difference in hearing aid comfort. A perfectly comfortable hearing aid can become pretty ...

  20. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles and instituti......Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles and...... institutions of the aid system; and (c) discusses whether aid has been effective. While much of the original optimism about the impact of foreign aid needed modification, there is solid evidence that aid has indeed helped further growth and poverty reduction...

  1. Leptospirosis vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Li; Wang Zhijun; Węgrzyn Alicja

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Leptospirosis is a serious infection disease caused by pathogenic strains of the Leptospira spirochetes, which affects not only humans but also animals. It has long been expected to find an effective vaccine to prevent leptospirosis through immunization of high risk humans or animals. Although some leptospirosis vaccines have been obtained, the vaccination is relatively unsuccessful in clinical application despite decades of research and millions of dollars spent. In this review, the...

  2. [AIDS in Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, H

    1987-12-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is believed to have begun in Rwanda with the transmission of green monkey virus to humans; the virus spread among prostitutes and truck drivers along the highways and then to the cities. In the most threatened areas, for example, Kinshasa in Zaire, 20% of the inhabitants are infected. 8% of pregnant women are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive. Social conditions are important. In Kenya prostitutes who work along the highways are carriers of socially transmitted diseases and genital sores. They are 60-80% HIV-positive. The better-off prostitutes at bars and hotels enjoy better health and fewer contacts and are 30% HIV-positive. It should be possible to develop a vaccine against the AIDS virus, but only a few virologists believe that this can be done within 10 years. Because HIV virus mutates rapidly, many different vaccines would have to be prepared. About 80 countries are cooperating with the World Health Organization to combat HIV and AIDS in Africa. Traveling and working abroad is beginning to be a problem. 15 countries have introduced restrictions on foreign visitors. Swedish midwives have an important role to play in fighting HIV. Their youth counseling activities can spread information about HIV and AIDS. Children who are in early stages of sexuality are probably the most important group to be influenced. It is already too late to begin informing 15-17 year olds about the disease. Midwives should probably be starting much sooner, perhaps even with 10-year olds. PMID:3692943

  3. Typhoid vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, A; Dutta, A K

    2001-08-01

    Typhoid fever continues to be a major public health problem in developing countries with about 33 million cases per year. Protective efficacy of traditional acetone/phenol killed vaccines is similar to newer typhoid vaccines (Ty21A and Vi antigen vaccine) but side effects of these newer vaccines are considerably less. Though the mortality is low, typhoid fever causes considerable morbidity and loss of working days. Problems during treatment are increasing due to emergence and spread of multidrug resistant S. typhi. Hence to decrease the incidence of typhoid fever in addition to ensuring safe water supply and excreta disposal a typhoid vaccine needs to be introduced in the National Immunization Schedule. PMID:11563251

  4. [AIDS: faith healers versus medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottingar, V

    1989-09-01

    The majority of AIDS patients in Africa rely on traditional healers to treat their disease rather than on Western medicine. Most western medical treatments currently available are beyond the financial resources of all but the wealthiest Africans, and most African countries lack the means to provide serious medical treatment for AIDS patients. AZT is almost the only drug used on a wide scale against AIDS, but its cost is estimated by the World Health Organization at $7-8000/year for each individual, not counting other treatments and hospital care. AIDS therapies offered by African health services exhaust their already meager health budgets. The money is lacking even to buy condoms to prevent the epidemic from spreading. Hospital hygiene may be poor and diagnostic and therapeutic tools lacking even for those AIDS patients able to be treated by modern medical specialists. Africa lacks the financial, scientific, social, and economic means of combatting AIDS. Some AIDS experts suggest that African governments underestimate the number of seropositive individuals in order to avoid frightening the population and discouraging tourists and investors. In the absence of an effective treatment or vaccine, the only tools to fight AIDS will be raising the awareness of the population to the gravity of the threat, systematic screening of blood donors, sterilization of syringes, and distribution of condoms. PMID:12282686

  5. Tumor vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumor vaccines have several potential advantages over standard anticancer regiments. They represent highly specific anticancer therapy. Inducing tumor-specific memory T-lymphocytes, they have potential for long-lived antitumor effects. However, clinical trials, in which cancer patients were vaccinated with tumor vaccines, have been so far mainly disappointing. There are many reasons for the inefficiency of tumor vaccines. Most cancer antigens are normal self-molecules to which immune tolerance exists. That is why the population of tumor-specific lymphocytes is represented by a small number of low-affinity T-lymphocytes that induce weak antitumor immune response. Simultaneously, tumors evolve many mechanisms to actively evade immune system, what makes them poorly immunogenic or even tolerogenic. Novel immunotherapeutic strategies are directed toward breaking immune tolerance to tumor antigens, enhancing immunogenicity of tumor vaccines and overcoming mechanisms of tumor escape. There are several approaches, unfortunately, all of them still far away from an ideal tumor vaccine that would reject a tumor. Difficulties in the activation of antitumor immune response by tumor vaccines have led to the development of alternative immunotherapeutic strategies that directly focus on effector mechanisms of immune system (adoptive tumor- specific T-lymphocyte transfer and tumor specific monoclonal antibodies). (author)

  6. New, More Authentic Model for AIDS Will Accelerate Studies | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer, and Jeff Lifson, Guest Writer Researchers are working to develop a more authentic animal model of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and AIDS that is expected to speed up studies of experimental treatments and vaccines.

  7. Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG as an HIV vaccine vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Rosamund; Chege, Gerald; Shephard, Enid; Stutz, Helen; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2010-06-01

    HIV-1 has resulted in a devastating AIDS pandemic. An effective HIV/AIDS vaccine that can be used to either, prevent HIV infection, control infection or prevent progression of the disease to AIDS is needed. In this review we discuss the use of Mycobacterium bovis BCG, the tuberculosis vaccine, as a vaccine vector for an HIV vaccine. Numerous features make BCG an attractive vehicle to deliver HIV antigens. It has a good safety profile, elicits long-lasting cellular immune responses and in addition manufacturing costs are affordable, a necessary consideration for developing countries. In this review we discuss the numerous factors that influence generation of a genetically stable recombinant BCG vaccine for HIV. PMID:20353397

  8. Arthropod vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R; Opdebeeck, J P

    1999-03-01

    Antigens located in the midgut of the tick are hidden from the host's immune system. Egg production of ticks can be reduced when ticks are fed on animals vaccinated with midgut antigens of the tick, and a subunit vaccine formulated with the recombinant antigen Bm86 is now available that can reduce the number of ticks infesting cattle grazing on pasture. Midgut antigens used in vaccines against insects that transmit pathogenic organisms to humans have not been as effective in reducing insect fecundity and an alternative approach may be necessary. Transmission-blocking vaccines directed at interfering with the vector-pathogen interaction could result in loss of vector competence and block the spread of disease-causing organisms. PMID:10198800

  9. Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prefer the open-fit hearing aid because their perception of their voice does not sound “plugged up.” ... My voice sounds too loud. The “plugged-up” sensation that causes a hearing aid user’s voice to ...

  10. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    A critical account of the rise of celebrity-driven “compassionate consumption” Cofounded by the rock star Bono in 2006, Product RED exemplifies a new trend in celebrity-driven international aid and development, one explicitly linked to commerce, not philanthropy. Brand Aid offers a deeply informed...

  11. Major histocompatibility complex class I-associated vaccine protection from simian immunodeficiency virus-infected peripheral blood cells

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of vaccine protection from infected cells from another individual of the same species, vaccinated rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were challenged with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from another animal diagnosed with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Half of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)- vaccinated animals challenged were protected, whereas unprotected vaccinates progressed as rapidly to AIDS. Protection was unrelated to either total ant...

  12. Influenza vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerhus, Sven Frederick

    2015-01-01

    The Cochrane Library was systematically searched for meta-analyses regarding influenza vaccination of various populations, both healthy and sick. An effect in reducing the number of cases of influenza, influenza-like illness or complications to influenza was found in some studies, but, generally......, the quality of the studies was low, and several studies lacked hard clinical endpoints. Data on adverse effects were scarce. More randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of influenza vaccination are warranted....

  13. Antipneumococcal vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP is a gram-positive bacterium with more than 90 known serotypes causing around 11% of all deaths worldwide in children aged 1-59 months. A new era in prevention of SP-related diseases started in at the beginning of 2000s when a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 was recommended as the vaccine of choice in pediatric age. PCV7 dramatically reduced invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD among children with indirect effects noted among other age groups as well. However, thanks to a strict surveillance network, an increase in non-vaccine serotypes (NVTs causing IPD was noted worldwide and in late 2000s a new second generation vaccine (13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-PCV13 with an expanded serotype coverage was licensed. Due to the lack of solid effectiveness data, up to know it is difficult to predict how the composition of NVTs will change after the large-scale introduction of PCV13 or whether the characteristics of the serotypes will change. Long-term surveillance of both IPD, pneumonia, acute otitis media and carriage will be crucial to ascertain whether these second generation vaccines are having the desired effect of reducing the incidence of diseases in the long term. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  14. Vaccines Against Malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Ouattara, Amed; Laurens, Matthew B.

    2014-01-01

    No licensed malaria vaccine currently exists; however, final phase 3 testing results of a leading candidate vaccine are forthcoming. Continued challenges to malaria vaccine developers include genetically diverse strains found in nature and establishment of a vaccine correlate of protection.

  15. HPV Vaccine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (JORRP). What is the HPV vaccine? The HPV vaccine provides protection against some types of HPV. ... I am pregnant. Should I get the HPV vaccine? The HPV vaccine is not recommended for pregnant women because ...

  16. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  17. Vaccines and Thimerosal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preparedness Vaccine Safety Partners About ISO Thimerosal in Vaccines Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Thimerosal is ... harm. Thimerosal prevents the growth of bacteria in vaccines. Thimerosal is added to vials of vaccine that ...

  18. Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A - Z Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET The Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine The vaccinia virus is the "live ... it cannot cause smallpox. What is a "live virus" vaccine? A "live virus" vaccine is a vaccine ...

  19. Directed vaccination against pneumococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Hill, Andrew; Beitelshees, Marie; Shao, Shuai; Lovell, Jonathan F; Davidson, Bruce A; Knight, Paul R; Hakansson, Anders P; Pfeifer, Blaine A; Jones, Charles H

    2016-06-21

    Immunization strategies against commensal bacterial pathogens have long focused on eradicating asymptomatic carriage as well as disease, resulting in changes in the colonizing microflora with unknown future consequences. Additionally, current vaccines are not easily adaptable to sequence diversity and immune evasion. Here, we present a "smart" vaccine that leverages our current understanding of disease transition from bacterial carriage to infection with the pneumococcus serving as a model organism. Using conserved surface proteins highly expressed during virulent transition, the vaccine mounts an immune response specifically against disease-causing bacterial populations without affecting carriage. Aided by a delivery technology capable of multivalent surface display, which can be adapted easily to a changing clinical picture, results include complete protection against the development of pneumonia and sepsis during animal challenge experiments with multiple, highly variable, and clinically relevant pneumococcal isolates. The approach thus offers a unique and dynamic treatment option readily adaptable to other commensal pathogens. PMID:27274071

  20. Rabies virus-based vaccines elicit neutralizing antibodies, poly-functional CD8+ T cell, and protect rhesus macaques from AIDS-like disease after SIV(mac251) challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faul, Elizabeth J; Aye, Pyone P; Papaneri, Amy B; Pahar, Bapi; McGettigan, James P; Schiro, Faith; Chervoneva, Inna; Montefiori, David C; Lackner, Andrew A; Schnell, Matthias J

    2009-12-11

    Highly attenuated rabies virus (RV) vaccine vectors were evaluated for their ability to protect against highly pathogenic SIV(mac251) challenge. Mamu-A*01 negative rhesus macaques were immunized in groups of four with either: RV expressing SIV(mac239)-GagPol, a combination of RV expressing SIV(mac239)-Env and RV expressing SIV(mac239)-GagPol, or with empty RV vectors. Eight weeks later animals received a booster immunization with a heterologous RV expressing the same antigens. At 12 weeks post-boost, all animals were challenged intravenously with 100 TCID(50) of pathogenic SIV(mac251-CX). Immunized macaques in both vaccine groups had 1.3-1.6-log-fold decrease in viral set point compared to control animals. The GagPol/Env immunized animals also had a significantly lower peak viral load. When compared to control animals following challenge, vaccinated macaques had a more rapid induction of SIV(mac251) neutralizing antibodies and of CD8(+) T cell responses to various SIV epitopes. Moreover, vaccinated macaques better maintained peripheral memory CD4(+) T cells and were able to mount a poly-functional CD8(+) T cell response in the mucosa. These findings indicate promise for RV-based vectors and have important implications for the development of an efficacious HIV vaccine. PMID:19879223

  1. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics: News

    OpenAIRE

    Riedmann, Eva M.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term effectiveness shown for Merck’s chickenpox vaccine Again—no link between vaccines and autism Experimental ovarian cancer vaccine successful in phase 1 Sinovac’s HFMD vaccine meets phase 3 study goal A vaccine for long-suffering cat allergy patients Vaccines are key to breaking infectious disease-malnutrition cycle Cancer vaccine failures due to the adjuvant IFA? Novartis’ typhoid vaccine make good progress

  2. The Influence of Delivery Vectors on HIV Vaccine Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    BeatriceOmusiroOndondo

    2014-01-01

    Development of an effective HIV/AIDS vaccine remains a big challenge, largely due to the enormous HIV diversity which propels immune escape. Thus novel vaccine strategies are targeting multiple variants of conserved antibody and T cell epitopic regions which would incur a huge fitness cost to the virus in the event of mutational escape. Besides immunogen design, the delivery modality is critical for vaccine potency and efficacy, and should be carefully selected in order to not only maximise t...

  3. The influence of delivery vectors on HIV vaccine efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Ondondo, Beatrice O.

    2014-01-01

    Development of an effective HIV/AIDS vaccine remains a big challenge, largely due to the enormous HIV diversity which propels immune escape. Thus novel vaccine strategies are targeting multiple variants of conserved antibody and T cell epitopic regions which would incur a huge fitness cost to the virus in the event of mutational escape. Besides immunogen design, the delivery modality is critical for vaccine potency and efficacy, and should be carefully selected in order to not only maximize t...

  4. HIV Vaccine Research: The Challenge and the Way Forward

    OpenAIRE

    Hai-Bo Wang; Qiu-Hua Mo; Ze Yang

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a worldwide epidemic, with over 35 million people infected currently. Therefore, the development of a safe and effective HIV-1 vaccine is on top of the global health priority. In the past few years, there have been many promising advances in the prevention of HIV/AIDS, among which the RV144 Thai trial has been encouraging and suggests optimization of the current vaccine strategies or search for novel strategies. He...

  5. HIV-1 vaccine design: Learning from natural infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.L.G.M. van den Kerkhof

    2016-01-01

    Het humane immuundeficiëntie virus type 1 (hiv-1) is het virus dat aids veroorzaakt. Er is nog steeds geen bescherming tegen een hiv-1 infectie en de beëindiging van de wereldwijde epidemie kan waarschijnlijk alleen worden bereikt met behulp van een vaccin. Een hiv-1 vaccin zal bescherming moeten bi

  6. The value of HIV protective epitope research for informed vaccine design against diverse viral pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Victor G; Byrareddy, Siddappa N.

    2014-01-01

    The success of vaccine regimens against viral pathogens hinges on the elicitation of protective responses. Hypervariable pathogens such as HIV avoid neutralization by masking protective epitopes with more immunogenic decoys. The identification of protective, conserved epitopes is crucial for future vaccine candidate design. The strategies employed for identification of HIV protective epitopes will also aid towards rational vaccine design for other viral pathogens.

  7. A Small Dose of HIV? HIV Vaccine Mental Models and Risk Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Peter A.; Seiden, Danielle S.; Roberts, Kathleen J.; Kakinami, Lisa; Duan, Naihua

    2009-01-01

    Existing knowledge and beliefs related to HIV vaccines provide an important basis for the development of risk communication messages to support future HIV vaccine dissemination. This study explored HIV vaccine mental models among adults from segments of the population disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. Nine focus groups were conducted with…

  8. Hearing Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Food and Drug Administration Staff FDA permits marketing of new laser-based hearing aid with potential ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  9. The impact of new technologies on vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, G P; Diwan, M; Razvi, F; Malhotra, R

    1999-01-01

    Vast changes are taking place in vaccinology consequent to the introduction of new technologies. Amongst the vaccines included in the Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI), the pertussis vaccine has been replaced by acellular purified fractions devoid of side-effects. Non-pathogenic but immunogenic mutants of tetanus and diptheria toxins are likely to replace the toxoids. An effective vaccine against hepatitis B prepared by recombinant technology is in large-scale use. Conjugated vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae b, S. pneumococcus and meningococcus are now available, as also vaccines against mumps, rubella and measles. Combination vaccines have been devised to limit the number of injections. Vaccine delivery systems have been developed to deliver multiple doses of the vaccine at a single contact point. A genetically-engineered oral vaccine for typhoid imparts better and longer duration of immunity. Oral vaccines for cholera and other enteric infections are under clinical trials. The nose as a route for immunization is showing promise for mucosal immunity and for anti-inflammatory experimental vaccines against multiple sclerosis and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The range of vaccines has expanded to include pathogens resident in the body such as Helicobacter pylori (duodenal ulcer), S. mutans (dental caries), and human papilloma virus (carcinoma of the cervix). An important progress is the recognition that DNA alone can constitute the vaccines, inducing both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. A large number of DNA vaccines have been made and shown interesting results in experimental animals. Live recombinant vaccines against rabies and rinderpest have proven to be highly effective for controlling these infections in the field, and those for AIDS are under clinical trial. Potent adjuvants have added to the efficacy of the vaccines. New technologies have emerged to 'humanize' mouse monoclonals by genetic engineering and express these

  10. 76 FR 76025 - World AIDS Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-31420 Filed 12-5-11; 8:45 am] Billing code... HIV, continuing research to develop a vaccine, and incorporating new scientific tools into our... history, which calls for strong, coordinated policy initiatives, enhanced HIV/ AIDS...

  11. Vaccine Vexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maya; Reid

    2011-01-01

    IT’S always nice when expectations are exceeded by half a billion dollars.This was the case for the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization(GAVI) at its fundraising conference in June.A public-private initiative,GAVI,which works to ensure children in developing countries receive crucial vaccinations,had gone into the meeting hoping to net $3.7 billion.They came away with $4.3 billion,"despite the fact that donors everywhere are coping with budget crises," as Bill Gates

  12. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics: News

    OpenAIRE

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2013-01-01

    Vaccinating boys against HPV to reduce cancer rates across the sexes New melanoma vaccine contains natural product from marine sponges Impact of Hib conjugate vaccines in developing countries Electronic Health Records to keep track of immunization status Pregnant women urged to get whooping cough vaccination New nano-coating developed to preserve vaccines Alternative approach to creating a universal flu vaccine New modular vaccine design: MAPS technology

  13. A stimulating way to improve T cell responses to poxvirus-vectored vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Isaacs, Stuart N.

    2010-01-01

    Vaccines remain one of the most cost-effective public health measures. Despite ongoing efforts, protective vaccines against cancer and many infectious diseases, including malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS, are still not in hand. Most investigators believe that to succeed against these difficult targets, vaccines that generate potent T cell responses are needed. In this issue of the JCI, Salek-Ardakani et al. show how the relative virulence of a virus/vaccine vector affects the memory CD8+ T...

  14. Vexing Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    Schools play a key role in ensuring that children are being immunized against diseases, but conflicting research is making enforcement difficult. This article discusses a growing trend of vaccine avoidance and the endless supply of conflicting information and research about immunization safety. Despite the controversy, many people appear to accept…

  15. Replicating vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early work on fish immunology and disease resistance demonstrated fish (like animals and humans) that survived infection were typically resistant to re-infection with the same pathogen. The concepts of resistance upon reinfection lead to the research and development of replicating (live) vaccines in...

  16. Types of Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed to ...

  17. Fish Vaccines in Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccination is a proven, cost-effective method to prevent infectious diseases in animals. Current fish vaccines can be categorized as killed fish vaccines or modified live vaccines. The major advantage of live vaccine is their ability to stimulate both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses for ...

  18. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Riedmann, Eva M.

    2013-01-01

    DNA vaccine for T1D promising in the clinic HPV vaccines halved infections in US teenage girls Modified DC immunotherapy against melanoma New study looks at clinical severity of human H7N9 infections Prevnar vaccines are valuable for healthcare systems GAPVAC: New consortium in the fight of brain cancer Cytomegalovirus vaccine to enter phase 3 Malaria vaccination using chemically attenuated parasites

  19. Varicella (Chickenpox) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ProQuad® (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine, Varicella Vaccine) ... up to about 1 person in 5) and measles-like rash (about 1 person in 20) than MMR and varicella vaccines given separately. Moderate Problems:Seizure (jerking or staring) ...

  20. R&D models: lessons from vaccine history

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Paul; Post, Sarah; Srinivas, Smita

    2007-01-01

    A preventive HIV vaccine offers the best hope for ending the AIDS pandemic. Scientific evidence suggests that an HIV vaccine is possible, and funding for HIV vaccine research and development (R&D) has increased substantially in recent years. The speed of progress toward an HIV vaccine will depend on the management of the effort as well as on its scale, however, and organizational issues have been the subject of vigorous debate. With this paper, we seek to shed light on these debates by examin...

  1. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    activists, scholars and venture capitalists, discusses the pros and cons of changing the world by ‘voting with your dollars’. Lisa Ann Richey and Stefano Ponte (Professor at Roskilde University and Senior Researcher at DIIS respectively), authors of Brand Aid: Shopping Well to Save the World, highlight how...

  2. Negotiating Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Fraser, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a new analytical approach to the study of aid negotiations. Building on existing approaches but trying to overcome their limitations, it argues that factors outside of individual negotiations (or the `game' in game-theoretic approaches) significantly affect the preferences of...

  3. Vaccination in Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    vaccines have reduced the need for usage of antibiotics with more than 99 % since the 1980s. Fish can be vaccinated by three different administration routes: injection, immersion and oral vaccination. Injection vaccination (intraperitoneal injection of vaccine) is the most time consuming and labor...... intensive method, which however, provides the best protection of the fish. Immersion vaccination is used for immunization of a high number of small fish is cost-efficient and fast (30 sec immersion into vaccine). Oral vaccination (vaccine in feed) is the least efficient. As in higher vertebrates fish...... respond to vaccination by increasing the specific antibody titer and by activating the cellular responses. My talk will cover vaccination methods in fish, immune responses and some adverse effect of oil-adjuvanted vaccines in fish with reference to our work in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss....

  4. Vaccinations during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you do need any vaccinations, wait 1 month after you get them before you try to get pregnant. ... vaccine during pregnancy, you can get it right after you give birth. Getting the Tdap vaccine soon after ...

  5. Vaccines Stop Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... meningitis won't infect, cripple, or kill children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

  6. Childhood Vaccine Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Childhood Vaccine Schedule Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents ... please turn Javascript on. When to Vaccinate What Vaccine Why Birth (or any age if not previously ...

  7. Who Needs Chickenpox Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines and Immunizations Share Compartir Who Needs Chickenpox Vaccine For Public Children under age 13 years should ... who have never had chickenpox or received chickenpox vaccine should get two doses, at least 28 days ...

  8. Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV)Treatment of pneumococcal infections with penicillin and other drugs used to be more effective. But ... the disease, through vaccination, even more important. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV) protects against 23 types of pneumococcal ...

  9. Vaccines Stop Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Diseases and Vaccinations Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table ... if we take away the protection given by vaccination, more and more people will be infected and ...

  10. Vaccinations and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 23, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 207 Vaccinations and HIV WHAT ARE VACCINATIONS? WHAT’S DIFFERENT FOR ... your viral load within 4 weeks of any vaccination. Flu shots have been studied more than any ...

  11. Vaccines for Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GO" or visit Healthmap Vaccine Finder . Vaccines for Pregnant Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... and your growing family healthy. If you are pregnant or planning a pregnancy, the specific vaccinations you ...

  12. Vaccine-Preventable Disease Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home | About | A-Z | Contact | Follow Vaccine Information You Need VACCINE BASICS Evaluating Online Health Information FAQs How Vaccines Work Importance of Vaccines Paying for Vaccines State Immunization Programs ...

  13. Influenza Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Ellebedy, A. H.; Webby, R J

    2009-01-01

    Influenza A viruses pose a substantial threat to the human population whether by purposeful manipulation and release or by the natural process of interspecies transmissions from animal reservoirs. The challenge with preparing for these events with vaccination strategies is that the best forms of protective immunity target the most variably of the viral proteins, hemagglutinin. Add to this even just the natural extent of variation in this protein and the challenges to vaccinologists become gre...

  14. [Poliovirus vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2012-06-01

    To avoid the risk of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) and polio outbreaks due to circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses, an inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) was introduced for routine immunization in a number of countries with a low risk of polio outbreaks. Currently, production and marketing of a standalone conventional IPV and two diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus-IPV (Sabin-derived IPV; sIPV) products have been submitted, and it is expected that the IPV products will be introduced in Japan in the autumn of 2012. At the same time, a decline in the OPV immunization rate became apparent in Japan due to serious public concerns about a remaining risk of VAPP and introduction of IPV in the near future. Therefore, the recent development of polio immunity gaps should be carefully monitored, and surveillance of suspected polio cases and laboratory diagnosis of polioviruses have to be intensified for the transition period from OPV to IPV in Japan. The development of sIPV is one of the most realistic options to introduce affordable IPV to developing countries. In this regard, further clinical studies on its efficacy, safety, and interchangeability of sIPV will be needed after the introduction of the sIPV products, which will be licensed in Japan for the first time in the world. PMID:23189825

  15. Vaccines against malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Adrian V. S.

    2011-01-01

    There is no licenced vaccine against any human parasitic disease and Plasmodium falciparum malaria, a major cause of infectious mortality, presents a great challenge to vaccine developers. This has led to the assessment of a wide variety of approaches to malaria vaccine design and development, assisted by the availability of a safe challenge model for small-scale efficacy testing of vaccine candidates. Malaria vaccine development has been at the forefront of assessing many new vaccine technol...

  16. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics: News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedmann, Eva M.

    2014-01-01

    Oncolytic immunotherapy reduces the size of melanoma tumors in phase 3 trial EV71 vaccine protects children against HFMD Influenza vaccination important for risk groups Bharat‘s rotavirus vaccine is safe and modestly efficacious Successfully avoiding the cold-chain for vaccines FDA approval for Stallergenes’ sublingual grass pollen allergy immunotherapy HPV vaccination campaign could change from three to two doses in the UK Valneva continues phase 2/3 trial of Pseudomonas aeruginosa vaccine PMID:25290656

  17. New Vaccines for the World's Poorest People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Strych, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The 2000 Millennium Development Goals helped stimulate the development of life-saving childhood vaccines for pneumococcal and rotavirus infections while greatly expanding coverage of existing vaccines. However, there remains an urgent need to develop new vaccines for HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, as well as for respiratory syncytial virus and those chronic and debilitating (mostly parasitic) infections known as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). The NTDs represent the most common diseases of people living in extreme poverty and are the subject of this review. The development of NTD vaccines, including those for hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease, is being led by nonprofit product development partnerships (PDPs) working in consortia of academic and industrial partners, including vaccine manufacturers in developing countries. NTD vaccines face unique challenges with respect to their product development and manufacture, as well as their preclinical and clinical testing. We emphasize global efforts to accelerate the development of NTD vaccines and some of the hurdles to ensuring their availability to the world's poorest people. PMID:26356803

  18. Meningococcal Vaccine (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines ...

  19. Tetanus (Lockjaw) Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children and adults - Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Tetanus (Lockjaw) Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Tetanus (lockjaw) is a serious disease that causes painful ...

  20. Tactile Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtaramossadat Homayuni

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Tactile aids, which translate sound waves into vibrations that can be felt by the skin, have been used for decades by people with severe/profound hearing loss to enhance speech/language development and improve speechreading.The development of tactile aids dates from the efforts of Goults and his co-workers in the 1920s; Although The power supply was too voluminous and it was difficult to carry specially by children, it was too huge and heavy to be carried outside the laboratories and its application was restricted to the experimental usage. Nowadays great advances have been performed in producing this instrument and its numerous models is available in markets around the world.

  1. Modeling HIV vaccines in Brazil: assessing the impact of a future HIV vaccine on reducing new infections, mortality and number of people receiving ARV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goretti P Fonseca

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The AIDS epidemic in Brazil remains concentrated in populations with high vulnerability to HIV infection, and the development of an HIV vaccine could make an important contribution to prevention. This study modeled the HIV epidemic and estimated the potential impact of an HIV vaccine on the number of new infections, deaths due to AIDS and the number of people receiving ARV treatment, under various scenarios. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The historical HIV prevalence was modeled using Spectrum and projections were made from 2010 to 2050 to study the impact of an HIV vaccine with 40% to 70% efficacy, and 80% coverage of adult population, specific groups such as MSM, IDU, commercial sex workers and their partners, and 15 year olds. The possibility of disinhibition after vaccination, neglecting medium- and high-risk groups, and a disease-modifying vaccine were also considered. The number of new infections and deaths were reduced by 73% and 30%, respectively, by 2050, when 80% of adult population aged 15-49 was vaccinated with a 40% efficacy vaccine. Vaccinating medium- and high-risk groups reduced new infections by 52% and deaths by 21%. A vaccine with 70% efficacy produced a great decline in new infections and deaths. Neglecting medium- and high-risk population groups as well as disinhibition of vaccinated population reduced the impact or even increased the number of new infections. Disease-modifying vaccine also contributed to reducing AIDS deaths, the need for ART and new HIV infections. CONCLUSIONS: Even in a country with a concentrated epidemic and high levels of ARV coverage, such as Brazil, moderate efficacy vaccines as part of a comprehensive package of treatment and prevention could have a major impact on preventing new HIV infections and AIDS deaths, as well as reducing the number of people on ARV. Targeted vaccination strategies may be highly effective and cost-beneficial.

  2. Neurological Complications of AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS Neurological Complications of AIDS Fact Sheet Feature Federal domestic HIV/AIDS information ... Where can I get more information? What is AIDS? AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is a condition ...

  3. Targeting dendritic cells for improved HIV-1 vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smed-Sörensen, Anna; Loré, Karin

    2013-01-01

    As dendritic cells (DCs) have the unique capacity to activate antigen-naive T cells they likely play a critical role in eliciting immune responses to vaccines. DCs are therefore being explored as attractive targets for vaccines, but understanding the interaction of DCs and clinically relevant vaccine antigens and adjuvants is a prerequisite. The HIV-1/AIDS epidemic continues to be a significant health problem, and despite intense research efforts over the past 30 years a protective vaccine has not yet been developed. A common challenge in vaccine design is to find a vaccine formulation that best shapes the immune response to protect against and/or control the given pathogen. Here, we discuss the importance of understanding the diversity, anatomical location and function of different human DC subsets in order to identify the optimal target cells for an HIV-1 vaccine. We review human DC interactions with some of the HIV-1 vaccine antigen delivery vehicles and adjuvants currently utilized in preclinical and clinical studies. Specifically, the effects of distinctly different vaccine adjuvants in terms of activation of DCs and improving DC function and vaccine efficacy are discussed. The susceptibility and responses of DCs to recombinant adenovirus vectors are reviewed, as well as the strategy of directly targeting DCs by using DC marker-specific monoclonal antibodies coupled to an antigen. PMID:22975879

  4. Scientific Opinion on field trials for bovine tuberculosis vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The opinion provides advice relating to the design of field trials to test the performance of a vaccine for bovine tuberculosis (bTB, along with a test to Detect Infected among Vaccinated Animals (DIVA. The objective of cattle vaccination is to use the vaccine in combination with presently applied control measures within the EU as an aid towards bTB eradication. The ideal field trials for the DIVA test will follow the OIE guidelines for test validation. Any deviations from the ideal trial design in relation to DIVA test performance should be justified, and the bias that may subsequently be introduced should be accounted for. The ideal field trial design for vaccination performance should implement a double-blind randomised test scenario, and allow for known risk factors in the field situation. Any deviations from the ideal trial design in relation to vaccine performance should also be justified and bias that may subsequently be introduced should be accounted for. Relevant risk factors and possible confounders that should be taken into consideration in the design of field trials are described in this opinion. The safety of a candidate vaccine is guaranteed in the registration of a vaccine medication by a competent authority. The field trials will need to fulfil these requirements to prove that the use of this vaccine in the field is safe for both public health and the environment. Some additional remarks regarding the safety of this specific vaccine are included in this opinion.

  5. Applications of nanoparticles for DNA based rabies vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Muhammad Ali A; Khan, Sajid Umar; Ali, Zeeshan; Yang, Haowen; Liu, Keke; Mao, Lanlan

    2014-01-01

    Rabies is a fatal encephalomyelitis. Most cases occur in developing countries and are transmitted by dogs. The cell culture vaccines as associated with high cost; therefore, have not replaced the unsafe brain-derived vaccines. In the developing countries these brain-derived rabies vaccines still can be seen in action. Moreover, there will be a need for vaccines against rabies-related viruses against which classical vaccines are not always effective. The worldwide incidence of rabies and the inability of currently used vaccination strategies to provide highly potent and cost-effective therapy indicate the need for alternate control strategies. DNA vaccines have emerged as the safest vaccines and best remedy for complicated diseases like hepatitis, HIV, and rabies. A number of recombinant DNA vaccines are now being developed against several diseases such as AIDS and malaria. Therefore, it can be a valuable alternative for the production of cheaper rabies vaccines against its larger spectrum of viruses. In this review we report published data on DNA-based immunization with sequences encoding rabies with special reference to nanotechnology. PMID:24730305

  6. History of vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Plotkin, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before.

  7. Influenza vaccines for avian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczynski, Darrell R; Swayne, David E

    2009-01-01

    Beginning in Southeast Asia in 2003, a multinational epizootic outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was identified in commercial poultry and wild bird species. This lineage, originally identified in Southern China in 1996 and then Hong Kong in 1997, caused severe morbidity and mortality in many bird species, was responsible for considerable economic losses via trade restrictions, and crossed species barriers (including its recovery from human cases). To date, these H5N1 HPAI viruses have been isolated in European, Middle Eastern, and African countries, and are considered endemic in many areas where regulatory control and different production sectors face substantial hurdles in controlling the spread of this disease. While control of avian influenza (AI) virus infections in wild bird populations may not be feasible at this point, control and eradiation of AI from commercial, semicommercial, zoo, pet, and village/backyard birds will be critical to preventing events that could lead to the emergence of epizootic influenza virus. Efficacious vaccines can help reduce disease, viral shedding, and transmission to susceptible cohorts. However, only when vaccines are used in a comprehensive program including biosecurity, education, culling, diagnostics and surveillance can control and eradication be considered achievable goals. In humans, protection against influenza is provided by vaccines that are chosen based on molecular, epidemiologic, and antigenic data. In poultry and other birds, AI vaccines are produced against a specific hemagglutinin subtype of AI, and use is decided by government and state agricultural authorities based on risk and economic considerations, including the potential for trade restrictions. In the current H5N1 HPAI epizootic, vaccines have been used in a variety of avian species as a part of an overall control program to aid in disease management and control. PMID:19768403

  8. Nucleic Acid Vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Shan

    2004-01-01

    @@ Anew method of immunization was discovered in the early 1990s. Several research groups independently demonstrated that direct inoculation of DNA plasmids coding for a specific protein antigen could elicit immune responses against that antigen[1-4].Since in theory the mRNA molecules also have the potential to be translated into the protein antigen, this vaccination approach was officially named by WHO as the nucleic acid vaccination even though the term DNA vaccine has been used more commonly in the literature. This novel approach is considered the fourth generation of vaccines after live attenuated vaccines, killed or inactivated vaccines and recombinant protein based subunit vaccines.

  9. Modeling HIV Vaccines in Brazil: Assessing the Impact of a Future HIV Vaccine on Reducing New Infections, Mortality and Number of People Receiving ARV

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Goretti P. Fonseca; Steven Forsythe; Alexandre Menezes; Shilpa Vuthoori; Cristina Possas; Valdiléa Gonçalves Veloso; Francisca de Fátima Lucena; John Stover

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The AIDS epidemic in Brazil remains concentrated in populations with high vulnerability to HIV infection, and the development of an HIV vaccine could make an important contribution to prevention. This study modeled the HIV epidemic and estimated the potential impact of an HIV vaccine on the number of new infections, deaths due to AIDS and the number of people receiving ARV treatment, under various scenarios. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The historical HIV prevalence was modeled using Spe...

  10. Altered Response Hierarchy and Increased T-Cell Breadth upon HIV-1 Conserved Element DNA Vaccination in Macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Viraj Kulkarni; Antonio Valentin; Margherita Rosati; Candido Alicea; Singh, Ashish K; Rashmi Jalah; Broderick, Kate E.; Sardesai, Niranjan Y.; Sylvie Le Gall; Beatriz Mothe; Christian Brander; Morgane Rolland; Mullins, James I.; Pavlakis, George N.; Felber, Barbara K.

    2014-01-01

    HIV sequence diversity and potential decoy epitopes are hurdles in the development of an effective AIDS vaccine. A DNA vaccine candidate comprising of highly conserved p24(gag) elements (CE) induced robust immunity in all 10 vaccinated macaques, whereas full-length gag DNA vaccination elicited responses to these conserved elements in only 5 of 11 animals, targeting fewer CE per animal. Importantly, boosting CE-primed macaques with DNA expressing full-length p55(gag) increased both magnitude o...

  11. Vaccines against poverty

    OpenAIRE

    MacLennan, Calman A.; Saul, Allan

    2014-01-01

    With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vacc...

  12. Towards universal influenza vaccines?

    OpenAIRE

    Osterhaus, Ab; Fouchier, Ron; Rimmelzwaan, Guus

    2011-01-01

    Vaccination is the most cost-effective way to reduce the considerable disease burden of seasonal influenza. Although seasonal influenza vaccines are effective, their performance in the elderly and immunocompromised individuals would benefit from improvement. Major problems related to the development and production of pandemic influenza vaccines are response time and production capacity as well as vaccine efficacy and safety. Several improvements can be envisaged. Vaccine production technologi...

  13. Oral vaccination of fish

    OpenAIRE

    Embregts, Carmen W.E.; Forlenza, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The limited number of oral vaccines currently approved for use in humans and veterinary species clearly illustrates that development of efficacious and safe oral vaccines has been a challenge not only for fish immunologists. The insufficient efficacy of oral vaccines is partly due to antigen breakdown in the harsh gastric environment, but also to the high tolerogenic gut environment and to inadequate vaccine design. In this review we discuss current approaches used to develop oral vaccines fo...

  14. Human biomarkers: can they help us to develop a new tuberculosis vaccine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Helen A; Dockrell, Hazel M

    2016-06-01

    The most effective intervention for the control of infectious disease is vaccination. The BCG vaccine, the only licensed vaccine for the prevention of tuberculosis (TB) disease, is only partially effective and a new vaccine is urgently needed. Biomarkers can aid the development of new TB vaccines through discovery of immune mechanisms, early assessment of vaccine immunogenicity or vaccine take and identification of those at greatest risk of disease progression for recruitment into smaller, targeted efficacy trials. The ultimate goal, however, remains a biomarker of TB vaccine efficacy that can be used as a surrogate for a TB disease end point and there remains an urgent need for further research in this area. PMID:27203133

  15. The AIDS Pandemic in Uganda : Social Capital and the Role of NGOs in Alleviating the Impact of HIV/AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Muriisa, Roberts Kabeba

    2007-01-01

    AIDS has a devastating impact on individuals and society. It is defined as Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and it is a condition caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). This condition occurs when people who have lived with HIV for a long time lose their immunity and become susceptible to various opportunistic infections. AIDS often results in death. At present, there is neither a vaccine against HIV nor a cure for AIDS. Apart from the numerous deaths it causes, HIV/AIDS has othe...

  16. Evaluation of Novel Oral Vaccine Candidates and Validation of a Caprine Model of Johne's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray E. Hines

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Johne’s disease (JD caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP is a major threat to the dairy industry and possibly some cases of Crohn’s disease in humans. A MAP vaccine that reduced of clinical disease and/or reduced fecal shedding would aid in the control of JD. The objectives of this study were 1 to evaluate the efficacy of 5 attenuated strains of MAP as vaccine candidates compared to a commercial control vaccine using the protocol proposed by the Johne’s Disease Integrated Program (JDIP Animal Model Standardization Committee (AMSC, and 2 to validate the AMSC Johne’s disease goat challenge model. Eighty goat kids were vaccinated orally twice at 8 and 10 weeks of age with an experimental vaccine or once subcutaneously at 8 weeks with Silirum® (Zoetis, or a sham control oral vaccine at 8 and 10 weeks. Kids were challenged orally with a total of approximately 1.44 X 10^9 CFU divided in 2 consecutive daily doses using MAP ATCC-700535 (K10-like bovine isolate. All kids were necropsied at 13 months post challenge. Results indicated that the AMSC goat challenge model is a highly efficient and valid model for JD challenge studies. None of the experimental or control vaccines evaluated prevented MAP infection or eliminated fecal shedding, although the 329 vaccine lowered the incidence of infection, fecal shedding, tissue colonization and reduced lesion scores, but less than the control vaccine. Based on our results the relative performance ranking of the experimental live-attenuated vaccines evaluated, the 329 vaccine was the best performer, followed by the 318 vaccine, then 316 vaccine, 315 vaccine and finally the 319 vaccine was the worst performer. The subcutaneously injected control vaccine outperformed the orally-delivered mutant vaccine candidates. Two vaccines (329 and 318 do reduce presence of JD gross and microscopic lesions, slow progression of disease, and one vaccine (329 reduced fecal shedding and tissue

  17. Animal models for HIV/AIDS research

    OpenAIRE

    Hatziioannou, Theodora; Evans, David T.

    2012-01-01

    The AIDS pandemic continues to present us with unique scientific and public health challenges. Although the development of effective antiretroviral therapy has been a major triumph, the emergence of drug resistance requires active management of treatment regimens and the continued development of new antiretroviral drugs. Moreover, despite nearly 30 years of intensive investigation, we still lack the basic scientific knowledge necessary to produce a safe and effective vaccine against HIV-1. An...

  18. Typhoid fever vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa; Marks, Florian; Fox, Kimberley

    2015-06-19

    Typhoid vaccination is an important component of typhoid fever prevention and control, and is recommended for public health programmatic use in both endemic and outbreak settings. We reviewed experiences with various vaccination strategies using the currently available typhoid vaccines (injectable Vi polysaccharide vaccine [ViPS], oral Ty21a vaccine, and injectable typhoid conjugate vaccine [TCV]). We assessed the rationale, acceptability, effectiveness, impact and implementation lessons of these strategies to inform effective typhoid vaccination strategies for the future. Vaccination strategies were categorized by vaccine disease control strategy (preemptive use for endemic disease or to prevent an outbreak, and reactive use for outbreak control) and vaccine delivery strategy (community-based routine, community-based campaign and school-based). Almost all public health typhoid vaccination programs used ViPS vaccine and have been in countries of Asia, with one example in the Pacific and one experience using the Ty21a vaccine in South America. All vaccination strategies were found to be acceptable, feasible and effective in the settings evaluated; evidence of impact, where available, was strongest in endemic settings and in the short- to medium-term. Vaccination was cost-effective in high-incidence but not low-incidence settings. Experience in disaster and outbreak settings remains limited. TCVs have recently become available and none are WHO-prequalified yet; no program experience with TCVs was found in published literature. Despite the demonstrated success of several typhoid vaccination strategies, typhoid vaccines remain underused. Implementation lessons should be applied to design optimal vaccination strategies using TCVs which have several anticipated advantages, such as potential for use in infant immunization programs and longer duration of protection, over the ViPS and Ty21a vaccines for typhoid prevention and control. PMID:25902360

  19. Who Should Not Get Vaccinated with These Vaccines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be updated.) Top of Page HPV-Cervarix (Human Papillomavirus) vaccine Some people should not get HPV vaccine or ... updated.) Top of Page HPV-Gardasil-9 (Human Papillomavirus) vaccine Some people should not get HPV vaccine. Anyone ...

  20. Rotavirus vaccine: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Goel Manish; Arun, Kumar; Bilas, Jain Ram; Ruchi, Jain; Pardeep, Khanna; Pradeep, Siwach

    2012-12-01

    Worldwide, large proportion i.e., 37% of deaths due to diarrhea in young children is attributed to rotavirus. A monovalent P1A[8] G1 vaccine and a pentavalent bovine-human reassortant vaccine human rotavirus vaccine had shown good clinical efficacy without any increase in intussusception among vaccine recipients. WHO recommends that the first dose of rotavirus vaccine should be administered to infants up to age of 6-15 weeks irrespective of the prior history of rotavirus infection and the maximum age for administering the last dose of the vaccine should be 32 weeks. Booster doses are not recommended. The current update reviews the issues related to rotavirus vaccines and their usages like milestones in the development of rotavirus vaccines, concerns regarding their efficacy and cost-effectiveness, immunity after natural infection, potential for changes in virus strains, current recommendations, post marketing surveillance, and future challenges and scope for further research regarding rotavirus vaccines. PMID:25145068

  1. Antibody to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp160 in mucosal specimens of asymptomatic HIV-1-infected volunteers parenterally immunized with an experimental recombinant HIV-1 IIIB gp160 vaccine. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases-sponsored AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Group.

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, J S; Viscidi, R; Walker, M. C.; Clayman, B; Winget, M; Wolff, M.; Schwartz, D H

    1997-01-01

    Twenty-two human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected, asymptomatic volunteers with CD4 cell counts of >600 cells/mm3 who were enrolled in a phase I immunotherapy trial comparing two schedules of immunization of an HIV-1 IIIB-based recombinant gp160 (rgp160) experimental vaccine were evaluated for rgp160-specific antibodies in parotid saliva, genital secretions, and serum. When the study was unblinded, it was determined that five volunteers had received rgp160 on a month 0, 1, 2, 3,...

  2. In “Step” with HIV Vaccines? A Content Analysis of Local Recruitment Campaigns for an International HIV Vaccine Study

    OpenAIRE

    Frew, Paula M; Macias, Wendy; Chan, Kayshin; Harding, Ashley C.

    2009-01-01

    During the past two decades of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, several recruitment campaigns were designed to generate community involvement in preventive HIV vaccine clinical trials. These efforts utilized a blend of advertising and marketing strategies mixed with public relations and community education approaches to attract potential study participants to clinical trials (integrated marketing communications). Although more than 30,000 persons worldwide have participated in preventive HIV vaccine st...

  3. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine (Gardasil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes or ringing in the ears.Like all vaccines, HPV vaccines will continue to be monitored for unusual ... visit CDC's website at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines. HPV Vaccine (Gardasil) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health ...

  4. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine (Cervarix)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes or ringing in the ears. Like all vaccines, HPV vaccines will continue to be monitored for unusual ... gov/std/hpv and http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines HPV Vaccine (Cervarix) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health ...

  5. Vaccine-Preventable Childhood Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Vaccines and Immunizations Share Compartir Vaccine-Preventable Childhood Diseases On this Page Protect Your ... American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP). Descriptions of Vaccine-preventable Child Diseases The following vaccine-preventable diseases, ...

  6. Current Vaccine Shortages and Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC.gov . Vaccines and Immunizations Share Compartir Current Vaccine Shortages & Delays Last Updated December 7, 2015 On ... schedule are included in this update. Chart of Vaccines* in Delay or Shortage Vaccines are listed in ...

  7. Diphtheria Vaccination: Who Needs It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and adults - Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Diphtheria Vaccination: Who Needs It? Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) See also: Healthcare Personnel Vaccination Recommendations [1 page] July 2008 Top of Page ...

  8. Influenza virus neuraminidase (NA): a target for antivirals and vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadesh, Anitha; Salam, Abdul Ajees Abdul; Mudgal, Piya Paul; Arunkumar, Govindakarnavar

    2016-08-01

    Influenza, the most common infectious disease, poses a great threat to human health because of its highly contagious nature and fast transmissibility, often leading to high morbidity and mortality. Effective vaccination strategies may aid in the prevention and control of recurring epidemics and pandemics associated with this infectious disease. However, antigenic shifts and drifts are major concerns with influenza virus, requiring effective global monitoring and updating of vaccines. Current vaccines are standardized primarily based on the amount of hemagglutinin, a major surface antigen, which chiefly constitutes these preparations along with the varying amounts of neuraminidase (NA). Anti-influenza drugs targeting the active site of NA have been in use for more than a decade now. However, NA has not been approved as an effective antigenic component of the influenza vaccine because of standardization issues. Although some studies have suggested that NA antibodies are able to reduce the severity of the disease and induce a long-term and cross-protective immunity, a few major scientific issues need to be addressed prior to launching NA-based vaccines. Interestingly, an increasing number of studies have shown NA to be a promising target for future influenza vaccines. This review is an attempt to consolidate studies that reflect the strength of NA as a suitable vaccine target. The studies discussed in this article highlight NA as a potential influenza vaccine candidate and support taking the process of developing NA vaccines to the next stage. PMID:27255748

  9. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jiansong; Yam, Wing-Cheong; Chen, Zhiwei

    2016-05-01

    Following HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB) continues to be the second most deadly infectious disease in humans. The global TB prevalence has become worse in recent years due to the emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensively-drug resistant (XDR) strains, as well as co-infection with HIV. Although Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has nearly been used for a century in many countries, it does not protect adult pulmonary tuberculosis and even causes disseminated BCG disease in HIV-positive population. It is impossible to use BCG to eliminate the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection or to prevent TB onset and reactivation. Consequently, novel vaccines are urgently needed for TB prevention and immunotherapy. In this review, we discuss the TB prevalence, interaction between M. tb and host immune system, as well as recent progress of TB vaccine research and development. PMID:27156616

  10. Chikungunya vaccines in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwameis, Michael; Buchtele, Nina; Wadowski, Patricia Pia; Schoergenhofer, Christian; Jilma, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    Chikungunya virus has become a global health threat, spreading to the industrial world of Europe and the Americas; no treatment or prophylactic vaccine is available. Since the late 1960s much effort has been put into the development of a vaccine, and several heterogeneous strategies have already been explored. Only two candidates have recently qualified to enter clinical phase II trials, a chikungunya virus-like particle-based vaccine and a recombinant live attenuated measles virus-vectored vaccine. This review focuses on the current status of vaccine development against chikungunya virus in humans and discusses the diversity of immunization strategies, results of recent human trials and promising vaccine candidates. PMID:26554522

  11. HIV-vaccine-jægeren fra Århus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars

    2008-01-01

    AIDS og den manglende HIV-vaccine, der en gang for alle kan forebygge den dødbringende sygdom, er den største sundhedsmæssige udordring på verdensplan udtaler Lars Østergaard Udgivelsesdato: 06.11.08......AIDS og den manglende HIV-vaccine, der en gang for alle kan forebygge den dødbringende sygdom, er den største sundhedsmæssige udordring på verdensplan udtaler Lars Østergaard Udgivelsesdato: 06.11.08...

  12. Vaccines today, vaccines tomorrow: a perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Loucq, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines are considered as one of the major contributions of the 20th century and one of the most cost effective public health interventions. The International Vaccine Institute has as a mission to discover, develop and deliver new and improved vaccines against infectious diseases that affects developing nations. If Louis Pasteur is known across the globe, vaccinologists like Maurice Hilleman, Jonas Salk and Charles Mérieux are known among experts only despite their contribution to global hea...

  13. Macroeconomic Issues in Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjertholm, Peter; Laursen, Jytte; White, Howard

    foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,......foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,...

  14. Evaluation of novel oral vaccine candidates and validation of a caprine model of Johne's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hines, Murray E.; Turnquist, Sue E.; Marcia R. S. Ilha; Rajeev, Sreekumari; Jones, Arthur L.; Whittington, Lisa; Bannantine, John P.; Barletta, Raúl G.; Gröhn, Yrjö T.; Katani, Robab; Talaat, Adel M.; Li, Lingling; Kapur, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Johne's disease (JD) caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is a major threat to the dairy industry and possibly some cases of Crohn's disease in humans. A MAP vaccine that reduced of clinical disease and/or reduced fecal shedding would aid in the control of JD. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the efficacy of 5 attenuated strains of MAP as vaccine candidates compared to a commercial control vaccine using the protocol proposed by the Johne's Disease I...

  15. Pregnancy-associated Malaria and the Prospects for Syndrome-specific Antimalaria Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Joseph D.; Deitsch, Kirk W.

    2004-01-01

    Aided by the Plasmodium falciparum genome project, recent discoveries regarding the molecular basis of malaria pathogenesis have led to a better understanding of the interactions between host and parasite. Although vaccines that prevent infection by malaria parasites remain only hopes for the future, there are now more immediate prospects for vaccines that protect against specific disease syndromes. Here, we discuss the latest advances in the development of a vaccine that specifically targets...

  16. Immunogenicity of DNA and Recombinant Sendai Virus Vaccines Expressing the HIV-1 gag Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia FENG; Shuang-qing YU; Tsugumine Shu; Tetsuro Matano; Mamoru Hasegawa; Xiao-li WANG; Hong-tao MA; Hong-xia LI; Yi ZENG

    2008-01-01

    Combinations of DNA and recombinant-viral-vector based vaccines are promising AIDS vaccine methods because of their potential for inducing cellular immune responses. It was found that Gag-specific cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL) responses were associated with lowering viremia in an untreated HIV-1 infected cohort. The main objectives of our studies were the construction of DNA and recombinant Sendal virus vector (rSeV) vaccines containing a gag gene from the prevalent Thailand subtype B strain in China and trying to use these vaccines for therapeutic and prophylactic vaccines. The candidate plasmid DNA vaccine pcDNA3.1(+)-gag and recombinant Sendai virus vaccine (rSeV-gag) were constructed separately. It was verified by Western blotting analysis that both DNA and rSeV-gag vaccines expressed the HIV-1 Gag protein correctly and efficiently. Balb/c mice were immunized with these two vaccines in different administration schemes. HIV-1 Gag-specific CTL responses and antibody levels were detected by intracellular cytokine staining assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) respectively. Combined vaccines in a DNA prime/rSeV-gag boost vaccination regimen induced the strongest and most long-lasting Gag-specific CTL and antibody responses. It maintained relatively high levels even 9 weeks post immunization. This data indicated that the prime-boost regimen with DNA and rSeV-gag vaccines may offer promising HIV vaccine regimens.

  17. HIV and AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Kids > HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...

  18. HIV-AIDS Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area The HIV-AIDS Connection AIDS was first recognized in 1981 ... cancers. Why is there overwhelming scientific consensus that HIV causes AIDS? Before HIV infection became widespread in ...

  19. Heart attack first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle becomes ...

  20. AIDS.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  1. Breathing difficulties - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difficulty breathing - first aid; Dyspnea - first aid; Shortness of breath - first aid ... Breathing difficulty is almost always a medical emergency. An exception is feeling slightly winded from normal activity, ...

  2. Heart attack first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  3. Nosebleed, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Nosebleed, First Aid A A A First Aid for Nosebleed: View ... of the nose, causing bleeding into the throat. First Aid Guide The following self-care measures are recommended: ...

  4. Unconsciousness - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss of consciousness - first aid; Coma - first aid; Mental status change; Altered mental status ... has a change in mental status, follow these first aid steps: Call or tell someone to call 911 . ...

  5. Splinter, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Splinter, First Aid A A A First Aid for Splinter: View ... wet, it makes the area prone to infection. First Aid Guide Self-care measures to remove a splinter ...

  6. MMR Vaccine (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attenuvax® Measles Vaccine ... R-Vax® II (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine) ... M-R® II (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine)

  7. Key Facts about Seasonal Flu Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flu is to get vaccinated each year. Flu Vaccination Why should people get vaccinated against the flu? ... Vaccine Benefits What are the benefits of flu vaccination? While how well the flu vaccine works can ...

  8. Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tdap= Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Vaccination Pronounced (per-TUS-iss) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Whooping cough — known medically as pertussis — is a ...

  9. Vaccine Safety Datalink

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Vaccine Safety Datalink is part of the National Immunization Program within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and was started in recognition of gaps in the scientific knowledge of rare vaccine side effects.

  10. The HPV Vaccination Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following the release of a consensus statement from the NCI-Designated Cancer Centers urging HPV vaccination in the United States, Dr. Noel Brewer discusses the country’s low vaccination rates and how clinicians can help to improve them.

  11. Screening Tests and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Text size | Print | Screening Tests and Vaccines This information in Spanish ( en español ) Getting important screening tests and vaccines can save your life. Check this section of ...

  12. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engerix-B® ... a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... What is hepatitis B?Hepatitis B is a serious infection that affects the liver. It is caused by the hepatitis B virus.In ...

  13. RECOMBINANT INFLUENZA VACCINES

    OpenAIRE

    Sedova, E.; Shcherbinin, D.; Migunov, A.; Smirnov, Iu; Logunov, D.; Shmarov, M.; Tsybalova, L.; Naroditskiĭ, B.; O. Kiselev; Gintsburg, A.

    2012-01-01

    This review covers the problems encountered in the construction and production of new recombinant influenza vaccines. New approaches to the development of influenza vaccines are investigated; they include reverse genetics methods, production of virus-like particles, and DNA- and viral vector-based vaccines. Such approaches as the delivery of foreign genes by DNA- and viral vector-based vaccines can preserve the native structure of antigens. Adenoviral vectors are a promising gene-delivery pla...

  14. Rotavirus vaccines: an overview.

    OpenAIRE

    Midthun, K; Kapikian, A Z

    1996-01-01

    Rotavirus vaccine development has focused on the delivery of live attenuated rotavirus strains by the oral route. The initial "Jennerian" approach involving bovine (RIT4237, WC3) or rhesus (RRV) rotavirus vaccine candidates showed that these vaccines were safe, well tolerated, and immunogenic but induced highly variable rates of protection against rotavirus diarrhea. The goal of a rotavirus vaccine is to prevent severe illness that can lead to dehydration in infants and young children in both...

  15. Vaccines and global health

    OpenAIRE

    Greenwood, Brian; Salisbury, David; Hill, Adrian V. S.

    2011-01-01

    Vaccines have made a major contribution to global health in recent decades but they could do much more. In November 2011, a Royal Society discussion meeting, ‘New vaccines for global health’, was held in London to discuss the past contribution of vaccines to global health and to consider what more could be expected in the future. Papers presented at the meeting reviewed recent successes in the deployment of vaccines against major infections of childhood and the challenges faced in developing ...

  16. Vaccination during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Bozzo, Pina; Narducci, Andrea; Einarson, Adrienne

    2011-01-01

    Question One of my patients is studying to become a dental hygienist. Owing to the program requirements, she received several vaccinations last week, including measles-mumps-rubella, varicella, and hepatitis B (HB) vaccines, as well as a tetanus booster. However, today a blood test confirmed that she is currently 6 weeks pregnant. What is known about the safety of these vaccines during pregnancy, and are there any general recommendations for vaccines for women who are planning to become pregn...

  17. Vaccine chronicle in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    The concept of immunization was started in Japan in 1849 when Jenner’s cowpox vaccine seed was introduced, and the current immunization law was stipulated in 1948. There have been two turning points for amendments to the immunization law: the compensation remedy for vaccine-associated adverse events in 1976, and the concept of private vaccination in 1994. In 1992, the regional Court of Tokyo, not the Supreme Court, decided the governmental responsibility on vaccine-associated adverse events, ...

  18. Clinical vaccine development

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Seunghoon

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is regarded as one of the biggest triumphs in the history of medicine. We are living in the most successful period of vaccine development. The accumulation of multidisciplinary knowledge and the investment of massive funding have enabled the development of vaccines against many infectious diseases as well as other diseases including malignant tumors. The paradigm of clinical vaccine evaluation and licensure has also been modernized based on scientific improvements and historical e...

  19. Vaccines in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitali M Shah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a specific disease. More than two centuries have passed since the first successful vaccine for smallpox was developed. We′ve come a long way since. Today′s vaccines are among the 21 st century′s most successful and cost-effective public health tools for preventing diseases.

  20. A Dengue Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Anna P

    2016-06-30

    Denvaxia is the first licensed vaccine for the prevention of dengue. It is a live vaccine developed using recombinant DNA technology. The vaccine is given as three doses over the course of a year and has the potential to prevent hundreds of thousands of hospitalizations each year. PMID:27368091

  1. Vaccination: problems and perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Kharit

    2014-01-01

    Massive vaccination had proved its effective morbidity reduction. Today it is necessary to extend vaccination schedule, creation of selective, regional schedules based on epidemiological, clinical, economical substantiation. Development of vaccination needs the profound scientific research, modernization of adverse reaction observing system, betterment training system and awareness of population.

  2. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the same shot with other vaccines.Routine hepatitis B vaccination was recommended for some U.S. adults and children ... 95%, and by 75% in other age groups.Vaccination gives long-term protection from hepatitis B infection, possibly lifelong.

  3. Polysaccharide-Based Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Violeta Fernández; Balbin, Yury Valdés; Calderón, Janoi Chang; Icart, Luis Peña; Verez-Bencomo, Vicente

    Capsular polysaccharides (CPS) and lipopolysaccharides from bacteria are employed for the production of vaccines against human diseases. Initial development of CPS as a vaccine was followed by the development and introduction of conjugate polysaccharide-protein vaccines. The principles leading to both developments are reviewed.

  4. EXPERIMENTAL MEASLES VACCINES: A RESEARCH TOOL IN VACCINATION EVENTS

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Liashenko

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. The review article considers different variants of measles vaccine that may be classified into two groups, i.e., vaccines that do not contain viable measles virus, and attenuated measles vaccines which could be employed in unusual manner.The first group includes DNA-vaccines, recombinant vaccine strains encoding synthesis of measles hemagglutinin and fusion protein, as well as peptide vaccines containing molecular fragments of these proteins. The mentioned variants of vaccines were ...

  5. Implications of the Virginia human papillomavirus vaccine mandate for parental vaccine acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Margaret Jane; Adams Tufts, Kimberly

    2013-05-01

    In 2009, Virginia became the first state in the United States to enact a school vaccine mandate for the human papillomavirus (HPV), putting it at the forefront of the national HPV vaccine mandate controversy. It is critical to explore the public response and sensemaking where the mandate has already been enacted. Thus, we conducted 8 focus group discussions among 33 Virginia parents to explore how they conceptualized the virus and vaccine and their responses to the mandate. Findings suggest that many parents are skeptical of and reluctant to follow a state-mandated vaccine requirement, choosing instead to opt out of the vaccine until they decide the time is right for their daughter and/or until they feel confident in their knowledge about the virus, vaccine, and the impetus for the mandate. Study results can inform future legislation among states considering HPV-related mandates and aid in the development of health-promotion materials within the context of a state mandate. PMID:23275459

  6. Importance of vaccination habit and vaccine choice on influenza vaccination among healthy working adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chyongchiou J; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Toback, Seth L; Rousculp, Matthew D; Raymund, Mahlon; Ambrose, Christopher S; Zimmerman, Richard K

    2010-11-10

    This randomized cluster trial was designed to improve workplace influenza vaccination rates using enhanced advertising, choice of vaccine type (intranasal or injectable) and an incentive. Workers aged 18-49 years were surveyed immediately following vaccination to determine factors associated with vaccination behavior and choice. The questionnaire assessed attitudes, beliefs and social support for influenza vaccine, demographics, and historical, current, and intentional vaccination behavior. Of the 2389 vaccinees, 83.3% received injectable vaccine and 16.7% received intranasal vaccine. Factors associated with previous influenza vaccination were older age, female sex, higher education and greater support for injectable vaccine (all P<.02). Current influenza vaccination with intranasal vaccine vs. injectable vaccine was associated with higher education, the study interventions, greater support for the intranasal vaccine and nasal sprays, less support of injectable vaccine, more negative attitudes about influenza vaccine, and a greater likelihood of reporting that the individual would not have been vaccinated had only injectable vaccine been offered (all P<.01). Intentional vaccine choice was most highly associated with previous vaccination behavior (P<.001). A key to long term improvements in workplace vaccination is to encourage first time influenza vaccination through interventions that include incentives, publicity and vaccine choice. PMID:20638452

  7. The Complexity of a Dengue Vaccine: A Review of the Human Antibody Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacky Flipse

    Full Text Available Dengue is the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. Yet, there are no vaccines or specific antivirals available to prevent or treat the disease. Several dengue vaccines are currently in clinical or preclinical stages. The most advanced vaccine is the chimeric tetravalent CYD-TDV vaccine of Sanofi Pasteur. This vaccine has recently cleared Phase III, and efficacy results have been published. Excellent tetravalent seroconversion was seen, yet the protective efficacy against infection was surprisingly low. Here, we will describe the complicating factors involved in the generation of a safe and efficacious dengue vaccine. Furthermore, we will discuss the human antibody responses during infection, including the epitopes targeted in humans. Also, we will discuss the current understanding of the assays used to evaluate antibody response. We hope this review will aid future dengue vaccine development as well as fundamental research related to the phenomenon of antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection.

  8. Vaccine-Associated Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benage, Matthew; Fraunfelder, Frederick W

    2016-01-01

    All of the widely administered vaccines have been reported to cause uveitis. The ocular inflammation is usually temporary and resolves with topical ocular steroids. During a 26-year period, a total of 289 cases of vaccine-associated uveitis were reported to three adverse reaction reporting databases. Hepatitis B vaccine, either alone or administered with other vaccines, appears to be the leading offender. Clinicians are encouraged to report cases of vaccine- or drug-associated ocular adverse reactions to www.eyedrugregistry.com. PMID:27039491

  9. Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics: News

    OpenAIRE

    Riedmann, Eva M.

    2013-01-01

    GSK`s Synflorix: Highly effective at preventing invasive pneumococcal disease Positive phase 1 interim results for killed whole-virus HIV vaccine Therapeutic HBV vaccine drives immune responses in liver New tuberculosis vaccine candidate to enter the clinic Novartis receives positive CHMP opinion for MenB vaccine Bexsero New research points way to faster flu vaccines New Meth vaccine shows promise in animals RTS,S malaria vaccine reduces malaria by approximately one-third in African infants

  10. Advances in FIV vaccine technology

    OpenAIRE

    Uhl, Elizabeth W.; Martin, Marcus; Coleman, James K.; Yamamoto, Janet K

    2008-01-01

    Advances in vaccine technology are occurring in the molecular techniques used to develop vaccines and in the assessment of vaccine efficacy, allowing more complete characterization of vaccine-induced immunity correlating to protection. FIV vaccine development has closely mirrored and occasionally surpassed the development of HIV-1 vaccine, leading to first licensed technology. This review will discuss technological advances in vaccine designs, challenge infection assessment, and characterizat...

  11. [Vaccinations for international travelers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berens-Riha, N; Alberer, M; Löscher, T

    2014-03-01

    Vaccinations are a prominent part of health preparations before international travel. They can avoid or significantly reduce the risk of numerous infectious diseases. Until recently, vaccination against yellow fever was the only obligatory vaccination. However, according to updated international health regulations, other vaccinations and prophylactic measures may be required at entry from certain countries. For all routine vaccinations as recommended in Germany, necessary revaccination and catch-up of missed vaccinations should be administered before travel. At most destinations the risk of infection is higher than in Germany. Hepatitis A vaccine is generally recommended for travelers to areas of increased risk, polio vaccine for all destinations where eradication is not yet confirmed (Asia and Africa). The indications for other travel vaccines must take into consideration travel destination and itinerary, type and duration of travel, individual risk of exposure as well as the epidemiology of the disease to be prevented. Several vaccines of potential interest for travel medicine, e.g., new vaccines against malaria and dengue fever, are under development. PMID:24519704

  12. Vaccines for allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2012-06-01

    Vaccines aim to establish or strengthen immune responses but are also effective for the treatment of allergy. The latter is surprising because allergy represents a hyper-immune response based on immunoglobulin E production against harmless environmental antigens, i.e., allergens. Nevertheless, vaccination with allergens, termed allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying therapy of allergy with long-lasting effects. New forms of allergy diagnosis and allergy vaccines based on recombinant allergen-derivatives, peptides and allergen genes have emerged through molecular allergen characterization. The molecular allergy vaccines allow sophisticated targeting of the immune system and may eliminate side effects which so far have limited the use of traditional allergen extract-based vaccines. Successful clinical trials performed with the new vaccines indicate that broad allergy vaccination is on the horizon and may help to control the allergy pandemic. PMID:22521141

  13. Types of Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Foreign aid is given for many purposes and different intentions, yet most studies treat aid flows as a unitary concept. This paper uses factor analysis to separate aid flows into different types. The main types can be interpreted as aid for economic purposes, social purposes, and reconstruction; a...... residual category captures remaining purposes. Estimating the growth effects of separable types of aid suggests that most aid has no effects while reconstruction aid has direct positive effects. Although this type only applies in special circumstances, it has become more prevalent in more recent years....

  14. New tuberculosis vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Montañés, Carlos; Gicquel, Brigitte

    2011-03-01

    The current tuberculosis (TB) vaccine, bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), is a live vaccine used worldwide, as it protects against severe forms of the disease, saving thousands of lives every year, but its efficacy against pulmonary forms of TB, responsible for transmission of the diseases, is variable. For more than 80 years now no new TB vaccines have been successfully developed. Over the last decade the effort of the scientific community has resulted in the design and construction of promising vaccine candidates. The goal is to develop a new generation of vaccines effective against respiratory forms of the disease. We will focus this review on new prophylactic vaccine candidates that aim to prevent TB diseases. Two are the main strategies used to improve the immunity conferred by the current BCG vaccine, by boosting it with new subunit vaccines, and a second strategy is focused on the construction of new more effective live vaccines, capable to replace the current BCG and to be used as prime vaccines. After rigorous preclinical studies in different animal models new TB vaccine candidates enter in clinical trials in humans. First, a small Phase I for safety followed by immunological evaluation in Phase II trials and finally evaluated in large population Phase III efficacy trials in endemic countries. At present BCG prime and boost with different subunit vaccine candidates are the more advanced assessed in Phase II. Two prime vaccines (based on recombinant BCG) have been successfully evaluated for safety in Phase I trials. A short number of live attenuated vaccines are in advance preclinical studies and the candidates ready to enter Phase I safety trials are produced under current good manufacturing practices. PMID:21420568

  15. Thinking about Aid Predictability

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, Matthew; Wilhelm, Vera

    2008-01-01

    Researchers are giving more attention to aid predictability. In part, this is because of increases in the number of aid agencies and aid dollars and the growing complexity of the aid community. A growing body of research is examining key questions: Is aid unpredictable? What causes unpredictability? What can be done about it? This note draws from a selection of recent literature to bring s...

  16. How to Get Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Products Hearing Aids How to get Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... my hearing aids? How do I get hearing aids? To get hearing aids, you should first have ...

  17. Vaccine Effectiveness - How Well Does the Seasonal Flu Vaccine Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flu viruses. What are the benefits of flu vaccination? While how well the flu vaccine works can ... of age and older). How are benefits of vaccination measured? Public health researchers measure how well flu ...

  18. Vaccine development for Tuberculosis: Past, Present and Future Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dileep Tiwari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available About one third of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb, and new infections occur at a rate of about one per second. Additionally, more people in the developed world contact tuberculosis (TB because their immune systems are more likely to be compromised due to higher exposure to immunosuppressive drugs, substance abuse, or AIDS. The distribution of tuberculosis is not uniform across the globe, still the treatment is difficult and requires long courses of multiple antibiotics. However, antibiotic resistance is a growing problem in multidrugresistant (MDR tuberculosis. But mostly the prevention relies on screening programs and vaccination, usually with Bacillus Calmette- Guérin (BCG vaccine. BCG is the most commonly used vaccine worldwide, but not as a powerful vaccine. BCG also provides some protection against severe forms of pediatric TB, but has been shown to be unreliable against adult pulmonary TB which accounts for most of the disease burden worldwide. Currently, there is an urgent need for novel, more effective vaccine that can prevent all forms of TB including drug resistant strains for all age groups and among people with HIV. The first recombinant tuberculosis vaccine rBCG30, entered clinical trials in year 2004, but, still no effective vaccine is available in a market. Study showed that DNA TB vaccine given with conventional chemotherapy can accelerate the disappearance of bacteria as well as protect against re-infection in mice and it is quite effective against TB. A very promising TB vaccine, MVA85A, is currently in phase II trials and is based on a genetically modified vaccinia virus. Many other strategies are also being used to develop novel vaccines, including both subunit vaccines such as Hybrid-1, HyVac4 or M72, and recombinant adenoviruses such as Ad35. Some of these vaccines can be effectively administered without needles making them preferable for areas where HIV is very common and few of

  19. Vaccine process technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsberg, Jessica O; Buckland, Barry

    2012-06-01

    The evolution of vaccines (e.g., live attenuated, recombinant) and vaccine production methods (e.g., in ovo, cell culture) are intimately tied to each other. As vaccine technology has advanced, the methods to produce the vaccine have advanced and new vaccine opportunities have been created. These technologies will continue to evolve as we strive for safer and more immunogenic vaccines and as our understanding of biology improves. The evolution of vaccine process technology has occurred in parallel to the remarkable growth in the development of therapeutic proteins as products; therefore, recent vaccine innovations can leverage the progress made in the broader biotechnology industry. Numerous important legacy vaccines are still in use today despite their traditional manufacturing processes, with further development focusing on improving stability (e.g., novel excipients) and updating formulation (e.g., combination vaccines) and delivery methods (e.g., skin patches). Modern vaccine development is currently exploiting a wide array of novel technologies to create safer and more efficacious vaccines including: viral vectors produced in animal cells, virus-like particles produced in yeast or insect cells, polysaccharide conjugation to carrier proteins, DNA plasmids produced in E. coli, and therapeutic cancer vaccines created by in vitro activation of patient leukocytes. Purification advances (e.g., membrane adsorption, precipitation) are increasing efficiency, while innovative analytical methods (e.g., microsphere-based multiplex assays, RNA microarrays) are improving process understanding. Novel adjuvants such as monophosphoryl lipid A, which acts on antigen presenting cell toll-like receptors, are expanding the previously conservative list of widely accepted vaccine adjuvants. As in other areas of biotechnology, process characterization by sophisticated analysis is critical not only to improve yields, but also to determine the final product quality. From a regulatory

  20. Aid and growth regressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Tarp, Finn

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between foreign aid and growth in real GDP per capita as it emerges from simple augmentations of popular cross country growth specifications. It is shown that aid in all likelihood increases the growth rate, and this result is not conditional on ‘good’ policy....... There are, however, decreasing returns to aid, and the estimated effectiveness of aid is highly sensitive to the choice of estimator and the set of control variables. When investment and human capital are controlled for, no positive effect of aid is found. Yet, aid continues to impact on growth via...

  1. Vaccination against seasonal flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The Medical Service once again recommends you to get your annual flu vaccination for the year.   Vaccination is the most effective way of avoiding the illness and any serious consequences and protecting those around you. The flu can have especially serious consequences for people with chronic conditions (diabetes, cardio-vascular disease, etc.), pregnant women, infants, and people over 65 years of age. Remember, anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor) with their vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement by UNIQA. NB: The Medical Service cannot provide this vaccination service for family members or retired members of the personnel. For more information: • The "Seasonal flu" flyer by the Medical Service • Recommendations of the Swiss Federal Office of Public...

  2. Recombinant influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedova, E S; Shcherbinin, D N; Migunov, A I; Smirnov, Iu A; Logunov, D Iu; Shmarov, M M; Tsybalova, L M; Naroditskiĭ, B S; Kiselev, O I; Gintsburg, A L

    2012-10-01

    This review covers the problems encountered in the construction and production of new recombinant influenza vaccines. New approaches to the development of influenza vaccines are investigated; they include reverse genetics methods, production of virus-like particles, and DNA- and viral vector-based vaccines. Such approaches as the delivery of foreign genes by DNA- and viral vector-based vaccines can preserve the native structure of antigens. Adenoviral vectors are a promising gene-delivery platform for a variety of genetic vaccines. Adenoviruses can efficiently penetrate the human organism through mucosal epithelium, thus providing long-term antigen persistence and induction of the innate immune response. This review provides an overview of the practicability of the production of new recombinant influenza cross-protective vaccines on the basis of adenoviral vectors expressing hemagglutinin genes of different influenza strains. PMID:23346377

  3. [Vaccination for international travelers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazola, M Pilar; Serrano, Almudena; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-05-01

    Traveler's vaccination is one of the key strategies for the prevention of infectious diseases during international travel. The risk of acquiring an infectious disease is determined in each case by the characteristics of the traveler and the travel, so the pre-departure medical advice of the traveler must be individualized. The World Health Organization classifies travelerś vaccines into three groups. - Vaccines for routine use in national immunization programs: Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, polio, measles-mumps-rubella, tetanus-diphtheria-whooping a cough, and chickenpox. - Vaccinations required by law in certain countries before to enter them: yellow fever, meningococcal disease and poliomyelitis. - Vaccines recommended depending on the circumstances: cholera, japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, meningococcal disease, typhoid fever, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies and BCG. This review is intended to introduce the reader to the field of international vaccination. PMID:26920587

  4. Vaccines against leptospirosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines against leptospirosis followed within a year of the first isolation of Leptospira, with the first use of a killed whole cell bacterin vaccine in guinea pigs published in 1916. Since then, bacterin vaccines have been used in humans, cattle, swine, and dogs and remain the only vaccines licensed at the present time. The immunity elicited is restricted to serovars with related lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigen. Likewise, vaccines based on LPS antigens have clearly demonstrated protection in animal models, which is also at best serogroup specific. The advent of leptospiral genome sequences has allowed a reverse vaccinology approach for vaccine development. However, the use of inadequate challenge doses and inappropriate statistical analysis invalidates many of the claims of protection with recombinant proteins. PMID:25388138

  5. Vaccine Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preventing and treating prostate cancer spread to bones Vaccine treatment for prostate cancer Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) is ... less advanced prostate cancer. Possible side effects of vaccine treatment Side effects from the vaccine tend to ...

  6. Anthrax vaccination strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Cybulski, Robert J.; Sanz, Patrick; O'Brien, Alison D.

    2009-01-01

    The biological attack conducted through the U.S. postal system in 2001 broadened the threat posed by anthrax from one pertinent mainly to soldiers on the battlefield to one understood to exist throughout our society. The expansion of the threatened population placed greater emphasis on the reexamination of how we vaccinate against Bacillus anthracis. The currently-licensed Anthrax Vaccine, Adsorbed (AVA) and Anthrax Vaccine, Precipitated (AVP) are capable of generating a protective immune res...

  7. Immunobiology of Influenza Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez Lorenzo, Margarita M.; Fenton, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Vaccination is the primary strategy for prevention and control of influenza. The surface hemagglutinin (HA) protein of the influenza virus contains two structural elements (head and stalk) that differ in their potential utility as vaccine targets. The head of the HA protein is the primary target of antibodies that confer protective immunity to influenza viruses. The underlying health status, age, and gene polymorphisms of vaccine recipients and, just as importantly, the extent of the antigeni...

  8. Influenza vaccination during pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldman, Ran D.; Koren, Gideon

    2002-01-01

    QUESTION: A 27-year-old patient of mine recently learned she is pregnant. She took the influenza vaccine offered at work when she was 7 weeks pregnant. Is her fetus at risk of malformations? ANSWER: No evidence indicates that killed influenza vaccine is teratogenic, even if given during the first trimester. Since 1996, Health Canada's Centre for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended that pregnant women in their second and third trimesters be vaccinated. This should not be interpreted...

  9. Vaccines for allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    Vaccines aim to establish or strengthen immune responses but are also effective for the treatment of allergy. The latter is surprising because allergy represents a hyper-immune response based on immunoglobulin E production against harmless environmental antigens, i.e., allergens. Nevertheless, vaccination with allergens, termed allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying therapy of allergy with long-lasting effects. New forms of allergy diagnosis and allergy vaccines based o...

  10. Vaccination against RSV

    OpenAIRE

    Kaaijk, Patricia; Luytjes, Willem; Rots, Nynke Y.

    2013-01-01

    The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of lower respiratory tract illness (LRI) in infants worldwide. Also persons with heart/lung disease or an immunodeficiency disorder, and the elderly are at increased risk for severe LRI upon RSV infection. Although there is at present no licensed RSV vaccine available, it is a priority target for several vaccine developers. For the implementation of a future RSV vaccination within national immunization schemes, various strategies can be...

  11. Potent T cell Responses Induced by Single DNA Vaccine Boosted with Recombinant Vaccinia Vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianxing Liu; Chao Qiu; Yang Huang; Jianqing Xu; Yiming Shao

    2013-01-01

    Plasmid DNA,an effective vaccine vector,can induce both cellular and humoral immune responses.However,plasmid DNA raises issues concerning potential genomic integration after injection.This issue should be considered in preclinical studies.Tiantan vaccinia virus (TV) has been most widely utilized in eradicating smallpox in China.This virus has also been considered as a successful vaccine vector against a few infectious diseases.Potent T cell responses through T-cell receptor (TCR) could be induced by three injections of the DNA prime vaccine followed by a single injection of recombinant vaccinia vaccine.To develop a safer immunization strategy,a single DNA prime followed by a single recombinant Tiantan vaccinia (rTV) AIDS vaccine was used to immunize mice.Our data demonstrated that one DNA prime/rTV boost regimen induced mature TCR activation with high functional avidity,preferential T cell Vβ receptor usage and high sensitivity to anti-CD3 antibody stimulation.No differences in T cell responses were observed among one,two or three DNA prime/rTV boost regimens.This study shows that one DNA prime/rTV boost regimen is sufficient to induce potent T cell responses against HIV.

  12. Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safrit, Jeffrey T; Fast, Patricia E; Gieber, Lisa; Kuipers, Hester; Dean, Hansi J; Koff, Wayne C

    2016-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the cause of one of the most lethal pandemics in human history, although in recent years access to highly effective anti-retroviral therapy has provided new hope worldwide. Transmission of HIV by sexual contact, childbirth and injection drug use has been reduced, but 2 million are newly infected each year, and much of the transmission is from people who do not know their status. In addition to known methods, a preventive vaccine is needed to end the pandemic. The extraordinary mutability and genetic diversity of HIV is an enormous challenge, but vaccines are being designed for broad coverage. Computer-aided design of mosaic immunogens, incorporating many epitopes from the entire genome or from conserved regions aim to induce CD8+ T cells to kill virus-infected cells or inhibit virus replication, while trimeric envelope proteins or synthetic mimics aim to induce broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies similar to those cloned from some infected patients. Induction of more potent and durable responses may require new adjuvants or replicating chimeric vectors chimeras that bear HIV genes. Passive or genetic delivery of broadly neutralizing antibodies may provide broad protection and/or lead to insights for vaccine designers. Proof-of-concept trials in non-human primates and in one human efficacy trial have provided scientific clues for a vaccine that could provide broad and durable protection against HIV. The use of vaccines to destroy HIV reservoirs as part of therapy or cure is now also being explored. PMID:26993335

  13. Challenges for HIV vaccine dissemination and clinical trial recruitment: if we build it, will they come?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Peter A; Duan, Naihua; Rudy, Ellen T; Anton, Peter A

    2004-12-01

    HIV vaccine availability does not guarantee uptake. Given suboptimal uptake of highly efficacious and already accessible vaccines in the United States, low vaccine coverage in the developing world, and the expectation that initial HIV vaccines will be only partially efficacious, the public health community will face formidable challenges in disseminating U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved HIV vaccines. HIV/AIDS stigma, fear of vaccine- induced HIV infection, social side effects of testing HIV-positive, and mistrust of government and research present additional obstacles to HIV vaccine dissemination. Increased risk behaviors because of HIV vaccine availability can undermine the effectiveness of partially efficacious vaccines in reducing HIV incidence. HIV vaccine efficacy trials also face significant challenges in recruitment of sufficient volunteers and possible increases in risk behaviors due to trial participation. Planning and designing interventions to facilitate successful recruitment for large-scale phase 3 efficacy trials is a vital step towards U.S. FDA-approved HIV vaccines. Rather than despair in the face of momentous HIV vaccine dissemination challenges, or presume unrealistically that vaccine uptake will ensue automatically and that risk behavior increases will not occur, let us deem the estimated 10-year window to an approved HIV vaccine as an opportunity to investigate and confront these challenges. A consumer research agenda founded on social marketing principles is needed to facilitate the design of empirically-based interventions tailored to the unique needs and preferences of specific segments of consumers. Social marketing interventions may increase future HIV vaccine uptake and clinical trial participation, and mitigate increases in HIV risk behaviors. PMID:15659880

  14. Vaccines, our shared responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Jain, Rishabh; Suri, Rajinder Kumar

    2015-05-01

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) held its fifteenth annual meeting from October 27-29, 2014, New Delhi, India. The DCVMN, together with the co-organizing institution Panacea Biotec, welcomed over 240 delegates representing high-profile governmental and nongovernmental global health organizations from 36 countries. Over the three-day meeting, attendees exchanged information about their efforts to achieve their shared goal of preventing death and disability from known and emerging infectious diseases. Special praise was extended to all stakeholders involved in the success of polio eradication in South East Asia and highlighted challenges in vaccine supply for measles-rubella immunization over the coming decades. Innovative vaccines and vaccine delivery technologies indicated creative solutions for achieving global immunization goals. Discussions were focused on three major themes including regulatory challenges for developing countries that may be overcome with better communication; global collaborations and partnerships for leveraging investments and enable uninterrupted supply of affordable and suitable vaccines; and leading innovation in vaccines difficult to develop, such as dengue, Chikungunya, typhoid-conjugated and EV71, and needle-free technologies that may speed up vaccine delivery. Moving further into the Decade of Vaccines, participants renewed their commitment to shared responsibility toward a world free of vaccine-preventable diseases. PMID:25749248

  15. Rabies vaccines and interferon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, G. S.

    1972-01-01

    Samples of Fermi, Semple, modified Semple, Duck embryo and tissue culture rabies vaccine were inoculated by different routes and in different doses into rabbits, mice and hamsters. The vaccines induced neither detectable interferon nor immediate protection against lethal challenge with CVS rabies virus. Under similar conditions, high but transient levels of interferon were induced in control animals of the same species with the polynucleotide complex Poly I.C. Hamsters but not mice were protected by Poly I.C.-induced interferon. No autointerference by vaccine with challenge virus was established. Vaccine-induced protection in mice was directly related to immune response. PMID:4506993

  16. DNA fusion gene vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter Johannes; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Thomsen, Allan Randrup;

    2010-01-01

    DNA vaccines are versatile and safe, but limited immunogenicity has prevented their use in the clinical setting. Experimentally, immunogenicity may be enhanced by the use of new delivery technologies, by coadministration of cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or by fusion...... with these modifications, it is likely that the primary use of DNA vaccines may be as primers for viral-vectored vaccines, rather than as single agents. This review discusses the approaches used to enhance DNA vaccine immunogenicity, with a primary focus on fusion strategies that enhance antigen presentation....

  17. Magnitude and Diversity of Cytotoxic-T-Lymphocyte Responses Elicited by Multiepitope DNA Vaccination in Rhesus Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Subbramanian, Ramu A.; Kuroda, Marcelo J.; Charini, William A.; Barouch, Dan H.; Costantino, Cristina; Santra, Sampa; Schmitz, Jörn E.; Martin, Kristi L.; Lifton, Michelle A.; Gorgone, Darci A.; Shiver, John W.; Letvin, Norman L.

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to develop an AIDS vaccine that elicits high-frequency cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses with specificity for a diversity of viral epitopes, we explored two prototype multiepitope plasmid DNA vaccines in the simian-human immunodeficiency virus/rhesus monkey model to determine their efficiency in priming for such immune responses. While a simple multiepitope vaccine construct demonstrated limited immunogenicity in monkeys, this same multiepitope genetic sequence inserted into...

  18. Immunization of Newborn Rhesus Macaques with Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Vaccines Prolongs Survival after Oral Challenge with Virulent SIVmac251

    OpenAIRE

    Van Rompay, Koen K. A.; Greenier, Jennifer L.; Cole, Kelly Stefano; Earl, Patricia; Moss, Bernard; Steckbeck, Jonathan D.; Pahar, Bapi; Rourke, Tracy; Montelaro, Ronald C.; Canfield, Don R; Tarara, Ross P; Miller, Christopher; McChesney, Michael B.; Marthas, Marta L.

    2003-01-01

    There is an urgent need for active immunization strategies that, if administered shortly after birth, could protect infants in developing countries from acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection through breast-feeding. Better knowledge of the immunogenic properties of vaccine candidates in infants and of the effect of maternal antibodies on vaccine efficacy will aid in the development of such a neonatal HIV vaccine. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of infant macaques...

  19. Manipulation of BCG vaccine: a double-edged sword.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, V K; Srivastava, R; Srivastava, B S

    2016-04-01

    Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), an attenuated vaccine derived from M. bovis, is the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis (TB). Despite its protection against TB in children, the protective efficacy in pulmonary TB is variable in adolescents and adults. In spite of the current knowledge of molecular biology, immunology and cell biology, infectious diseases such as TB and HIV/AIDS are still challenges for the scientific community. Genetic manipulation facilitates the construction of recombinant BCG (rBCG) vaccine that can be used as a highly immunogenic vaccine against TB with an improved safety profile, but, still, the manipulation of BCG vaccine to improve efficacy should be carefully considered, as it can bring in both favourable and unfavourable effects. The purpose of this review is not to comprehensively review the interaction between microorganisms and host cells in order to use rBCG expressing M. tuberculosis (Mtb) immunodominant antigens that are available in the public domain, but, rather, to also discuss the limitations of rBCG vaccine, expressing heterologous antigens, during manipulation that pave the way for a promising new vaccine approach. PMID:26810060

  20. How HIV Causes AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share this: Main Content Area How HIV Causes AIDS HIV destroys CD4 positive (CD4+) T cells, which ... and disease, ultimately resulting in the development of AIDS. Most people who are infected with HIV can ...

  1. HIV/AIDS Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Providers Prevention Resources Newsletter Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or ... AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets ...

  2. Aids for visual impairment.

    OpenAIRE

    Dudley, N. J.

    1990-01-01

    This article provides only a flavour of the type and range of aids available to the visually impaired person. Many other aids for leisure, learning, and daily living are illustrated in the RNIB equipment and games catalogue.

  3. AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 158 AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings WHY ARE THERE SO MANY AIDS ... sweat, saliva or urine of an infected person. Myth: A pregnant woman with HIV infection always infects ...

  4. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: The Flu Print ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  5. First Aid and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid & Safety Keeping your child safe is your top priority. ... to call for help, and more. First Aid & Safety Center Home Sweet Home A Safe and Spooktacular ...

  6. MICROFICHE AIDS DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This data set contains counts of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) cases reported to state and local health departments, by demographics; case-definition; HIV exposure group (risk factors for AIDS); Half-year of diagnosis, report, and death.

  7. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  8. Drug abuse first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000016.htm Drug abuse first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... Diarrhea Hallucinations Nausea and vomiting Restlessness Shaking Death First Aid 1. Check the patient's airway, breathing, and pulse. ...

  9. Poisoning first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... or burns Stupor Unconsciousness Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing: ...

  10. Frostbite, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Frostbite, First Aid A A A Severe frostbite can result in ... became frozen). Frostbite is often associated with hypothermia. First Aid Guide In the case of mild frostbite, the ...

  11. Jellyfish Stings, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Jellyfish Stings, First Aid A A A The rash caused by a ... to Portuguese man-of-war stings as well. First Aid Guide The rescuer should take care to avoid ...

  12. Unconsciousness, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Unconsciousness, First Aid A A A Unconsciousness signs and symptoms can ... keep the airway clear while awaiting medical care. First Aid Guide If you find an unconscious person, try ...

  13. Tick Bites, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Tick Bites, First Aid A A A It is important to inspect ... temporary paralysis in their host (called tick paralysis). First Aid Guide To remove an embedded tick: Wash your ...

  14. Heat Cramps, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Cramps, First Aid A A A Heat cramp signs and symptoms ... if later stages of heat illness are suspected. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures, ...

  15. Blisters, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Blisters, First Aid A A A Blisters on the feet are ... can also be found via the Disease List. First Aid Guide Blisters often go away on their own ...

  16. Heatstroke, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heatstroke, First Aid A A A Heatstroke signs and symptoms can ... specific to the earlier stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide When heatstroke is suspected, seek emergency medical ...

  17. Heat Exhaustion, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Exhaustion, First Aid A A A Heat exhaustion signs and symptoms ... specific to the other stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures ...

  18. First aid kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001958.htm First aid kit To use the sharing features on this ... ahead, you can create a well-stocked home first aid kit. Keep all of your supplies in one ...

  19. Head Trauma, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Head Trauma, First Aid A A A Head trauma signs and symptoms ... to take care for potential neck/spinal injury. First Aid Guide If you suspect either a serious head ...

  20. Bruises, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Bruises, First Aid A A A Bruises lighten and change color ... Bruises can be a sign of internal bleeding. First Aid Guide If there is external bleeding in addition ...

  1. Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adacel® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine) ... Boostrix® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine)

  2. Fiscal effects of aid

    OpenAIRE

    Timmis, Emilija

    2015-01-01

    This thesis analyses fiscal effects of aid, first of health aid on health spending for a sample of developing countries and then broadly for Ethiopia and Tanzania. Particular attention is paid to data quality and the severe difficulties in achieving a reliable disaggregation of aid into its on-budget and off-budget components. The first essay assesses the sensitivity of estimated health aid fungibility to how the missing data (often considerable) are treated and explores a novel (at least in...

  3. Studying Aid: Some Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, Des

    2003-01-01

    textabstractINVESTIGATING IDEAS, IDEOLOGIES AND PRACTICES This paper presents some methods for trying to make sense of international aid and of its study.1 Some of the methods may be deemed ethnographic; the others are important partners to them, but rather different. In the course of discussing questions of aid policy and practice—such as: Should international development aid exist at all? How should aid be conducted? Should humanitarian relief be provided in conflict situations when it can ...

  4. Aid and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Tarp, Finn

    2006-01-01

    Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categoriz...

  5. Universal influenza vaccines: Shifting to better vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlanda Scorza, Francesco; Tsvetnitsky, Vadim; Donnelly, John J

    2016-06-01

    Influenza virus causes acute upper and lower respiratory infections and is the most likely, among known pathogens, to cause a large epidemic in humans. Influenza virus mutates rapidly, enabling it to evade natural and vaccine-induced immunity. Furthermore, influenza viruses can cross from animals to humans, generating novel, potentially pandemic strains. Currently available influenza vaccines induce a strain specific response and may be ineffective against new influenza viruses. The difficulty in predicting circulating strains has frequently resulted in mismatch between the annual vaccine and circulating viruses. Low-resource countries remain mostly unprotected against seasonal influenza and are particularly vulnerable to future pandemics, in part, because investments in vaccine manufacturing and stockpiling are concentrated in high-resource countries. Antibodies that target conserved sites in the hemagglutinin stalk have been isolated from humans and shown to confer protection in animal models, suggesting that broadly protective immunity may be possible. Several innovative influenza vaccine candidates are currently in preclinical or early clinical development. New technologies include adjuvants, synthetic peptides, virus-like particles (VLPs), DNA vectors, messenger RNA, viral vectors, and attenuated or inactivated influenza viruses. Other approaches target the conserved exposed epitope of the surface exposed membrane matrix protein M2e. Well-conserved influenza proteins, such as nucleoprotein and matrix protein, are mainly targeted for developing strong cross-protective T cell responses. With multiple vaccine candidates moving along the testing and development pipeline, the field is steadily moving toward a product that is more potent, durable, and broadly protective than previously licensed vaccines. PMID:27038130

  6. Vaccines Through Centuries: Major Cornerstones of Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajj Hussein, Inaya; Chams, Nour; Chams, Sana; El Sayegh, Skye; Badran, Reina; Raad, Mohamad; Gerges-Geagea, Alice; Leone, Angelo; Jurjus, Abdo

    2015-01-01

    Multiple cornerstones have shaped the history of vaccines, which may contain live-attenuated viruses, inactivated organisms/viruses, inactivated toxins, or merely segments of the pathogen that could elicit an immune response. The story began with Hippocrates 400 B.C. with his description of mumps and diphtheria. No further discoveries were recorded until 1100 A.D. when the smallpox vaccine was described. During the eighteenth century, vaccines for cholera and yellow fever were reported and Edward Jenner, the father of vaccination and immunology, published his work on smallpox. The nineteenth century was a major landmark, with the "Germ Theory of disease" of Louis Pasteur, the discovery of the germ tubercle bacillus for tuberculosis by Robert Koch, and the isolation of pneumococcus organism by George Miller Sternberg. Another landmark was the discovery of diphtheria toxin by Emile Roux and its serological treatment by Emil Von Behring and Paul Ehrlih. In addition, Pasteur was able to generate the first live-attenuated viral vaccine against rabies. Typhoid vaccines were then developed, followed by the plague vaccine of Yersin. At the beginning of World War I, the tetanus toxoid was introduced, followed in 1915 by the pertussis vaccine. In 1974, The Expanded Program of Immunization was established within the WHO for bacille Calmette-Guerin, Polio, DTP, measles, yellow fever, and hepatitis B. The year 1996 witnessed the launching of the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative. In 1988, the WHO passed a resolution to eradicate polio by the year 2000 and in 2006; the first vaccine to prevent cervical cancer was developed. In 2010, "The Decade of vaccines" was launched, and on April 1st 2012, the United Nations launched the "shot@Life" campaign. In brief, the armamentarium of vaccines continues to grow with more emphasis on safety, availability, and accessibility. This mini review highlights the major historical events and pioneers in the course of development of vaccines

  7. Vaccines Through Centuries: Major Cornerstones of Global Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inaya eHajj Hussein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple cornerstones have shaped the history of vaccines, which may contain live attenuated viruses, inactivated organisms/viruses, inactivated toxins, or merely segments of the pathogen that could elicit an immune response.The story began with Hippocrates 400 B.C. with his description of mumps and diphtheria. No further discoveries were recorded until 1100 A.D. when the smallpox vaccine was described. During the 18th century, vaccines for cholera and yellow fever were reported and Edward Jenner, the father of vaccination and immunology, published his work on small pox.The 19th century was a major landmark, with the Germ Theory of disease of Louis Pasteur, the discovery of the germ tubercle bacillus for tuberculosis by Robert Koch, and the isolation of pneumococcus organism by George Miller Sternberg. Another landmark was the discovery of diphtheria toxin by Emile Roux and its serological treatment by Emil Von Behring and Paul Ehrlih. In addition, Pasteur was able to generate the first live attenuated viral vaccine against rabies. Typhoid vaccines were then developed, followed by the plague vaccine of Yersin. At the beginning of World War I, the tetanus toxoid was introduced, followed in 1915 by the pertussis vaccine. In 1974, The Expanded Program of Immunization was established within the WHO for BCG, Polio, DTP, measles, yellow fever and hepatitis B. The year 1996 witnessed the launching of the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative. In 1988, the WHO passed a resolution to eradicate polio by the year 2000 and in 2006; the first vaccine to prevent cervical cancer was developed. In 2010 The Decade of vaccines was launched, and on April 1st 2012, the United Nations launched the shot@Life campaign. In brief, the armamentarium of vaccines continues to grow with more emphasis on safety, availability and accessibility. This mini review highlights the major historical events and pioneers in the course of development of vaccines, which have eradicated

  8. AIDS and journalism. Trying to tell too clear a story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J

    1994-12-01

    Much in science is complex. Scientists, by definition, work within the realm of complex hypothesis, empirical evidence, and proof. Questions, answers, details, complexities; that is the domain of the scientist. Journalists, on the other hand, are paid to develop and present stories which are clearly read and interpreted by the general public. The mechanics and dynamics of HIV and AIDS are among the most complex scientific challenges in the history of humankind. Journalists calling upon scientists to obtain and report clear, concise, information about the agent and its resulting pandemic are therefore surely not always going to receive simple, readily reportable responses. HIV is a moving target upon which research continues. While there are some definitively affirmative and some definitively negative factors about HIV, the gray areas and speculation remain vast. The author gives a few examples of AIDS stories which the media mishandled because they were trying to tell too clear a story. He then discusses stories flawed because scientists managed to present clear information about which journalists were overly skeptical. In one case, the public was informed that AIDS vaccines were not working, with headlines which insinuated that the vaccines themselves were causing infections. None of the vaccines, however, contained infectious materials. As a result, people became overly fearful of participating in HIV vaccine trials. Coverage of the potential identification of HIV-3 was premature and only scared people, while Rolling Stone magazine's article hypothesizing the origin of HIV via trials of a contaminated polio vaccine in the Belgium Congo in the late 1950s should not have been published. Clear answers about HIV/AIDS are few and far between, but interesting and significant stories can still be found; they are just hard to tell. PMID:12319130

  9. First Aid: Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A Text Size en ... Floors, Doors & Windows, Furniture, Stairways: Household Safety Checklist First Aid: Broken Bones Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries ...

  10. First Aid: Rashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Rashes KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Rashes Print A A A Text Size Rashes ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Skin Infections Poison Ivy Erythema Multiforme Hives (Urticaria) ...

  11. First Aid: Dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Dehydration KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Dehydration Print A A A Text Size Dehydration ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Summer Safety Heat Illness First Aid: Heat Illness Sun Safety Dehydration Diarrhea Vomiting Word! ...

  12. First Aid: Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Text Size Scald ... THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns Household Safety: Preventing ...

  13. First Aid: Choking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Choking KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Choking Print A A A Text Size Choking ... usually are taught as part of any basic first-aid course. Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD Date reviewed: ...

  14. First Aid: Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Animal Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Animal Bites Print A A A Text Size ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid & Safety Center Infections That Pets Carry Dealing With ...

  15. First Aid: Croup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Croup KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Croup Print A A A Text Size Croup ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Coughing X-Ray Exam: Neck Why Is Hand ...

  16. A "vaccine" made of ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owur, M

    1989-03-01

    Mathematical modelling techniques suggest that health education campaigns that promote safe sex--"a vaccine made of ideas"--have a magnified effect on rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. However, surveys conducted in a range of countries have shown that mass media educational campaigns increase knowledge yet have a limited impact on behavior. Most effective are community-based initiatives that utilize existing networks and draw on local cultural traditions. For example, a Nairobi health education program in which prostitutes selected by their peers led group meetings where condoms were distributed led to increasing rates of condom use and a reduction in the risk of HIV infection. There is agreement that young people should receive education on the transmission of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) before they become sexually active and at risk, yet the age at which such education should begin and the content of the curriculum are controversial issues. It is further essential to recognize that about 40 million of the world's children do not attend school, and many are "street kids" who are forced into prostitution by economic necessity at an early age. Research, pretesting, and evaluation of any AIDS prevention campaigns are essential, especially under conditions of limited resources. PMID:12316486

  17. Clinical development of Ebola vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Saranya

    2015-09-01

    The ongoing outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa highlighted the lack of a licensed drug or vaccine to combat the disease and has renewed the urgency to develop a pipeline of Ebola vaccines. A number of different vaccine platforms are being developed by assessing preclinical efficacy in animal models and expediting clinical development. Over 15 different vaccines are in preclinical development and 8 vaccines are now in different stages of clinical evaluation. These vaccines include DNA vaccines, virus-like particles and viral vectors such as live replicating vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV), human and chimpanzee adenovirus, and vaccinia virus. Recently, in preliminary results reported from the first phase III trial of an Ebola vaccine, the rVSV-vectored vaccine showed promising efficacy. This review charts this rapidly advancing area of research focusing on vaccines in clinical development and discusses the future opportunities and challenges faced in the licensure and deployment of Ebola vaccines. PMID:26668751

  18. Cochlear-Meningitis Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevnar 13®) 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide (PPSV) (Pneumovax®) Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate (Hib) Tetravalent (A, C, Y, W-135) ... CDC immunization guidelines for routine meningococcal vaccination. The Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine is not routinely recommended for those ...

  19. Chimeric Pestivirus Experimental Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Ilona; Blome, Sandra; Beer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Chimeric pestiviruses have shown great potential as marker vaccine candidates against pestiviral infections. Exemplarily, we describe here the construction and testing of the most promising classical swine fever vaccine candidate "CP7_E2alf" in detail. The description is focused on classical cloning technologies in combination with reverse genetics. PMID:26458840

  20. Aid with Multiple Personalities

    OpenAIRE

    Djankov, Simeon; Jose G. Montalvo; Reynal-Querol, Marta

    2009-01-01

    The existing research on foreign aid offers inconclusive evidence on the factors that make aid effective. In this paper, we study the supply of aid money in 112 developing countries over the period 1960-1999 and find that the presence of multiple donors in a given country renders aid less effective. In particular, an aid-receiving country at the median of the donor fractionalization distribution will grow one percentage point faster than a country at the 75th percentile. This is in part becau...

  1. An HTLV-I vaccine: why, how, for whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Thé, G; Bomford, R

    1993-05-01

    Endemic infection with the human T cell leukemia/lymphoma viruses I and II (HTLV-I/II) is now recognized to be worldwide, and is becoming epidemic among intravenous drug abusers (IVDAs) in the United States and Europe. The number of people around the world infected with HTLV-I can be estimated as between 10 and 20 million (Table 1). HTLV-I causes a rapidly progressing adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), and an incurable progressive neuromyelopathy named tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM), as well as a number of less well-studied syndromes. There is evidence that coinfection with HTLV-I or -II accelerates progression to AIDS. The cumulative lifetime risk of developing ATLL or TSP/HAM is around 5%, which, in terms of the induction of serious diseases, places HTLV-I in the same category of viruses for which efficient vaccines are made and used. Furthermore, there are factors favoring the feasibility of a vaccine against HTLV-I, in that the virus displays relatively low antigenic variability, natural immunity occurs in humans, and experimental vaccination with the envelope (Env) antigen is successful in animal models. A vaccine against HTLV-I would be of significant public health value in the fields of oncology, neurology, and AIDS, and it would serve as a pathfinder for a vaccine against HIV. PMID:8318266

  2. Why foreign aid fails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokopijević Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main point of this paper is that foreign aid fails because the structure of its incentives resembles that of central planning. Aid is not only ineffective, it is arguably counterproductive. Contrary to business firms that are paid by those they are supposed to serve (customers, aid agencies are paid by tax payers of developed countries and not by those they serve. This inverse structure of incentives breaks the stream of pressure that exists on the commercial market. It also creates larger loopholes in the principle-agent relationship on each point along the chain of aid delivery. Both factors enhance corruption, moral hazard and negative selection. Instead of promoting development, aid extends the life of bad institutions and those in power. Proposals to reform foreign aid – like aid privatization and aid conditionality – do not change the existing structure of the incentives in aid delivery, and their implementation may just slightly improve aid efficacy. Larger improvement is not possible. For that reason, foreign aid will continue to be a waste of resources, probably serving some objectives different to those that are usually mentioned, like recipient’s development poverty reduction and pain relief.

  3. Conditional Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) studies the effect of development aid using econometrics on macro data. It contains about 100 papers of which a third analyzes conditional models where aid effectiveness depends upon z, so that aid only works for a certain range of the variable. The key term...... in this family of AEL models is thus an interaction term of z times aid. The leading candidates for z are a good policy index and aid itself. In this paper, meta-analysis techniques are used (i) to determine whether the AEL has established the said interaction terms, and (ii) to identify some of the...... determinants of the differences in results between studies. Taking all available studies in consideration, we find no support for conditionality with respect to policy, while conditionality regarding aid itself is dubious. However, the results differ depending on the authors’ institutional affiliation....

  4. China vs. AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LURUCAI

    2004-01-01

    CHINA's first HIV positive diagnosis was in 1985, the victim an ArgentineAmerican. At that time most Chinese,medical workers included, thought of AIDS as a phenomenon occurring outside of China. Twenty years later, the number of HIV/AIDS patients has risen alarmingly. In 2003, the Chinese Ministry of Health launched an AIDS Epidemiological Investigation across China with the support of the WHO and UN AIDS Program. Its results show that there are currently 840,000 HIV carriers, including 80,000 people with full-blown AIDS, in 31 Chinese provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. This means China has the second highest number of HIV/AIDS cases in Asia and 14th highest in the world. Statistics from the Chinese Venereal Disease and AIDS Prevention Association indicate that the majority of Chinese HIV carriers are young to middle aged, more than half of them between the ages of 20 and 29.

  5. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... and your loved ones from HIV/AIDS. The AIDS Memorial Quilt In 1987, a total of 1, ...

  6. Vaccine approaches to malaria control and elimination: Insights from mathematical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael T; Verity, Robert; Churcher, Thomas S; Ghani, Azra C

    2015-12-22

    A licensed malaria vaccine would provide a valuable new tool for malaria control and elimination efforts. Several candidate vaccines targeting different stages of the malaria parasite's lifecycle are currently under development, with one candidate, RTS,S/AS01 for the prevention of Plasmodium falciparum infection, having recently completed Phase III trials. Predicting the public health impact of a candidate malaria vaccine requires using clinical trial data to estimate the vaccine's efficacy profile--the initial efficacy following vaccination and the pattern of waning of efficacy over time. With an estimated vaccine efficacy profile, the effects of vaccination on malaria transmission can be simulated with the aid of mathematical models. Here, we provide an overview of methods for estimating the vaccine efficacy profiles of pre-erythrocytic vaccines and transmission-blocking vaccines from clinical trial data. In the case of RTS,S/AS01, model estimates from Phase II clinical trial data indicate a bi-phasic exponential profile of efficacy against infection, with efficacy waning rapidly in the first 6 months after vaccination followed by a slower rate of waning over the next 4 years. Transmission-blocking vaccines have yet to be tested in large-scale Phase II or Phase III clinical trials so we review ongoing work investigating how a clinical trial might be designed to ensure that vaccine efficacy can be estimated with sufficient statistical power. Finally, we demonstrate how parameters estimated from clinical trials can be used to predict the impact of vaccination campaigns on malaria using a mathematical model of malaria transmission. PMID:26476361

  7. Lassa fever vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan P; McCormick, Joseph B

    2004-04-01

    Lassa fever remains a serious challenge to public health in West Africa threatening both local residents in rural areas and those who serve them, particularly medical care providers. Given the ecology of the rodent host and conditions in the endemic area, a vaccine is mandatory for control. The challenge is to overcome the scientific, political and economic obstacles to producing a human use vaccine candidate. There are some scientific issues to resolve. It is known that the G-protein confers protection but we do not know its duration. If the N-protein is also included there may be a better duration of protection but it is unclear whether the N-protein as a vaccine may possibly enhance the infection. The original vaccinia vector must be replaced by new vectors, chimeras or by delivering DNA in some format. A live vaccine is attractive because it can confer protection in a single shot. A killed vaccine is more stable, particularly for distribution in the tropics but usually requires repeated shots. For practical reasons a live vaccine format should probably be pursued, which could then be combined with a yellow fever vaccine, using the same cold chains, since this disease occupies the same endemic areas in West Africa. Lassa vaccine initiatives have suffered from a lack of funding in the past but bioterrorism has brought new resources to Lassa virus science. Adequate funding and applications of new vaccine technologies give hope that we may soon see a vaccine in clinical trials. However, the difficulty of conducting trials in endemic areas and lack of political stability remain serious problems. PMID:15056044

  8. The Influence of Delivery Vectors on HIV Vaccine Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BeatriceOmusiroOndondo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Development of an effective HIV/AIDS vaccine remains a big challenge, largely due to the enormous HIV diversity which propels immune escape. Thus novel vaccine strategies are targeting multiple variants of conserved antibody and T cell epitopic regions which would incur a huge fitness cost to the virus in the event of mutational escape. Besides immunogen design, the delivery modality is critical for vaccine potency and efficacy, and should be carefully selected in order to not only maximise transgene expression, but to also enhance the immuno-stimulatory potential to activate innate and adaptive immune systems. To date, five HIV vaccine candidates have been evaluated for efficacy and protection from acquisition was only achieved in a small proportion of vaccinees in the RV144 study which used a canarypox vector for delivery. Conversely, in the STEP study (HVTN 502 where human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5 was used, strong immune responses were induced but vaccination was more associated with increased risk of HIV acquisition than protection in vaccinees with pre-existing Ad5 immunity. The possibility that pre-existing immunity to a highly promising delivery vector may alter the natural course of HIV to increase acquisition risk is quite worrisome and a huge setback for HIV vaccine development. Thus, HIV vaccine development efforts are now geared towards delivery platforms which attain superior immunogenicity while concurrently limiting potential catastrophic effects likely to arise from pre-existing immunity or vector-related immuno-modulation. However, it still remains unclear whether it is poor immunogenicity of HIV antigens or substandard immunological potency of the safer delivery vectors that has limited the success of HIV vaccines. This article discusses some of the promising delivery vectors to be harnessed for improved HIV vaccine efficacy.

  9. The influence of delivery vectors on HIV vaccine efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondondo, Beatrice O

    2014-01-01

    Development of an effective HIV/AIDS vaccine remains a big challenge, largely due to the enormous HIV diversity which propels immune escape. Thus novel vaccine strategies are targeting multiple variants of conserved antibody and T cell epitopic regions which would incur a huge fitness cost to the virus in the event of mutational escape. Besides immunogen design, the delivery modality is critical for vaccine potency and efficacy, and should be carefully selected in order to not only maximize transgene expression, but to also enhance the immuno-stimulatory potential to activate innate and adaptive immune systems. To date, five HIV vaccine candidates have been evaluated for efficacy and protection from acquisition was only achieved in a small proportion of vaccinees in the RV144 study which used a canarypox vector for delivery. Conversely, in the STEP study (HVTN 502) where human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) was used, strong immune responses were induced but vaccination was more associated with increased risk of HIV acquisition than protection in vaccinees with pre-existing Ad5 immunity. The possibility that pre-existing immunity to a highly promising delivery vector may alter the natural course of HIV to increase acquisition risk is quite worrisome and a huge setback for HIV vaccine development. Thus, HIV vaccine development efforts are now geared toward delivery platforms which attain superior immunogenicity while concurrently limiting potential catastrophic effects likely to arise from pre-existing immunity or vector-related immuno-modulation. However, it still remains unclear whether it is poor immunogenicity of HIV antigens or substandard immunological potency of the safer delivery vectors that has limited the success of HIV vaccines. This article discusses some of the promising delivery vectors to be harnessed for improved HIV vaccine efficacy. PMID:25202303

  10. Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine in HIV-Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Afrasiabian

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The risk of developing chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV is 5% in general population but can reach up to 20% in HIV patients. The response rate to HBV vaccine in HIV infected patients is 23.8-56 percent. The aim of this study was to evaluate response of HIV-infected patients to 20 µg dose of recombinant HBV vaccine. Materials & Methods: In this quasi experimental study, 51 subjects, sampled through census, were HIV patients who had HBsAg negative test in HIV/AIDS counseling and care center. Patients were vaccinated with 20 µg of recombinant HBV vaccine, IM at intervals of 0, 1 and 6 months. Response to the vaccine was checked 2 months after the last injection. Data were analyzed with SPSS software, using descriptive statistics and nonparametric tests. Results: The mean age of the patients was 33.68±8.37 years. Two patients were female (3.9% and 49 patients were male (96.1%. Mean of hepatitis B antibody level was 47.55±71.58 mIU/ml. The levels of antibody in different patients were as follow: 31 patients (60.8% 10 mIU/ml. There was no significant correlation between antibody levels and CD4+ cell count (correlation coefficient = -0.191. Conclusion: Response to hepatitis B vaccination is low in HIV infected patients. Conventional dose of HBV vaccine is not enough to get protective immunity. Therefore, two-fold dose of vaccine dose, repeat of conventional dose or increasing of interval administration of hepatitis B vaccine should be considered in future studies.

  11. Vaccination practices of Quebec family physicians. Influenza vaccination status and professional practices for influenza vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milord F

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess influenza vaccination status and influenza vaccination practices of family physicians in Quebec. DESIGN: Mail survey of a random sample of 1000 family physicians. SETTING: Family practices in the province of Quebec. PARTICIPANTS: Of 1000 Quebec family physicians sent questionnaires, 550 responded. After excluding physicians who worked only in institutions, had no patients older than 65 years, or did clinical work less than 20% of the time, 379 respondents were eligible for the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Vaccination status of family physicians in 1996 and professional practices based on six clinical and administrative activities pertaining to influenza vaccination. RESULTS: Prevalence of vaccination was 35.5% (95% confidence interval 30.8% to 40.4% among responding physicians and was higher among those 60 years and older, those with a chronic condition, and those perceiving high peer pressure to get vaccinated. Most respondents frequently assessed the current influenza vaccination status of their patients, risk factors for influenza-related complications, and contraindications to the vaccine. They also frequently provided education about influenza and its vaccine, recommended vaccination, and administered the vaccine. Only a few reported assessing prior influenza vaccinations or recording vaccination status regularly. Finally, vaccinated physicians recommended the vaccine more frequently to their patients than unvaccinated physicians did. CONCLUSION: Promotion programs focusing on peer influence could increase vaccination of family physicians. This could in turn improve vaccination coverage of elderly patients.

  12. Parental knowledge of paediatric vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borràs Eva

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although routine vaccination is a major tool in the primary prevention of some infectious diseases, there is some reluctance in a proportion of the population. Negative parental perceptions of vaccination are an important barrier to paediatric vaccination. The aim of this study was to investigate parental knowledge of paediatric vaccines and vaccination in Catalonia. Methods A retrospective, cross-sectional study was carried out in children aged Results An association was observed between greater vaccination coverage of the 4:4:4:3:1 schedule (defined as: 4 DTPa/w doses, 4 Hib doses, 4 OPV doses, 3 MenC doses and 1 MMR dose and maternal age >30 years (OR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.20–4.43 and with a knowledge of vaccination score greater than the mean (OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.28–0.72. The score increased with maternal educational level and in parents of vaccinated children. A total of 20.47% of parents stated that vaccines could have undesirable consequences for their children. Of these, 23.26% had no specific information and 17.83% stated that vaccines can cause adverse reactions and the same percentage stated that vaccines cause allergies and asthma. Conclusion Higher vaccination coverage is associated with older maternal age and greater knowledge of vaccination. Vaccination coverage could be raised by improving information on vaccines and vaccination.

  13. Mumps - Vaccine Q and A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC.gov . Vaccines and Immunizations Share Compartir Mumps - Vaccine Q&A For Parents Is there a vaccine to prevent mumps? Yes. Two doses of mumps- ... 12 years old. UPDATED July 2010 Is the vaccine effective/does it work? One dose of mumps ...

  14. Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine in HIV-Infected Patients

    OpenAIRE

    SH Afrasiabian; K Hajibageri; V Esmaeil Nasab; N Esmaeil Nasab; SH Sayfi

    2007-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: The risk of developing chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) is 5% in general population but can reach up to 20% in HIV patients. The response rate to HBV vaccine in HIV infected patients is 23.8-56 percent. The aim of this study was to evaluate response of HIV-infected patients to 20 µg dose of recombinant HBV vaccine. Materials & Methods: In this quasi experimental study, 51 subjects, sampled through census, were HIV patients who had HBsAg negative test in HIV/AIDS ...

  15. HIV-1 vaccine design: Learning from natural infection

    OpenAIRE

    Kerkhof, van den, T.L.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Het humane immuundeficiëntie virus type 1 (hiv-1) is het virus dat aids veroorzaakt. Er is nog steeds geen bescherming tegen een hiv-1 infectie en de beëindiging van de wereldwijde epidemie kan waarschijnlijk alleen worden bereikt met behulp van een vaccin. Een hiv-1 vaccin zal bescherming moeten bieden tegen de verschillende subtypes die wereldwijd voorkomen. Ongeveer 10-30% van de hiv-1 geïnfecteerde patiënten ontwikkelen zogenoemde "breed-neutraliserende" antistoffen. Alhoewel deze antisto...

  16. HIV-1 vaccine design: Learning from natural infection

    OpenAIRE

    Schuitemaker, J.; Sanders, R W; Kerkhof, van den, T.L.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Het humane immuundeficiëntie virus type 1 (hiv-1) is het virus dat aids veroorzaakt. Er is nog steeds geen bescherming tegen een hiv-1 infectie en de beëindiging van de wereldwijde epidemie kan waarschijnlijk alleen worden bereikt met behulp van een vaccin. Een hiv-1 vaccin zal bescherming moeten bieden tegen de verschillende subtypes die wereldwijd voorkomen. Ongeveer 10-30% van de hiv-1 geïnfecteerde patiënten ontwikkelen zogenoemde “breed-neutraliserende” antistoffen. Alhoewel deze antisto...

  17. [Current events in vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, M; Aumaître, H; Beytout, J; Bloch, K; Bouhour, D; Callamand, P; Chave, C; Cheymol, J; Combadière, B; Dahlab, A; Denis, F; De Pontual, L; Dodet, B; Dommergues, M-A; Dufour, V; Gagneur, A; Gaillat, J; Gaudelus, J; Gavazzi, G; Gillet, Y; Gras-le-Guen, C; Haas, H; Hanslik, T; Hau-Rainsard, I; Larnaudie, S; Launay, O; Lorrot, M; Loulergue, P; Malvy, D; Marchand, S; Picherot, G; Pinquier, D; Pulcini, C; Rabaud, C; Regnier, F; Reinert, P; Sana, C; Savagner, C; Soubeyrand, B; Stephan, J-L; Strady, C

    2011-11-01

    The annual meeting of the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) ; which brought together nearly 5000 participants from over 80 countries in Vancouver, Canada, October 21 to 24, 2010 ; provided a review of the influenza (H1N1) 2009 pandemic, evaluated vaccination programmes and presented new vaccines under development. With 12,500 deaths in the United States in 2009-2010, the influenza (H1N1) 2009 pandemic was actually less deadly than the seasonal flu. But it essentially hit the young, and the toll calculated in years of life lost is high. The monovalent vaccines, whether live attenuated or inactivated with or without adjuvants, were well tolerated in toddlers, children, adults and pregnant women. In order to protect infants against pertussis, family members are urged to get their booster shots. The introduction of the 13-valent Pneumococcal conjugated vaccine in the beginning of 2010 may solve - but for how long ? - the problem of serotype replacement, responsible for the re-increasing incidence of invasive Pneumococcal infections observed in countries that had introduced the 7-valent vaccine. The efficacy of a rotavirus vaccine has been confirmed, with a reduction in hospitalization in the United States and a reduction in gastroenteritis-related deaths in Mexico. In the United States, vaccination of pre-adolescents against human papillomavirus (HPV) has not resulted in any specific undesirable effects. Routine vaccination against chicken pox, recommended since 1995, has not had an impact on the evolution of the incidence of shingles. Vaccination against shingles, recommended in the United States for subjects 60 years and over, shows an effectiveness of 55 %, according to a cohort study (Kaiser Permanente, Southern California). Although some propose the development of personalized vaccines according to individual genetic characteristics, the priority remains with increasing vaccine coverage, not only in infants but also in adults and the elderly. Vaccine

  18. Translational Activities to Enable NTD Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, S A; Coler, R N; Carter, D; Siddiqui, A A

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop new vaccines for tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, and malaria, as well as for chronic and debilitating infections known as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). The term "NTD" emerged at the beginning of the new millennium to describe a set of diseases that are characterized as (1) poverty related, (2) endemic to the tropics and subtropics, (3) lacking public health attention and inadequate industrial investment, (4) having poor research funding and a weak research and development (R&D) pipeline, (5) usually associated with high morbidity but low mortality, and (6) often having no safe and long-lasting treatment available. Many additional challenges to the current control and elimination programs for NTDs exist. These include inconsistent performance of diagnostic tests, regional differences in access to treatment and in treatment outcome, lack of integrated surveillance and vector/intermediate host control, and impact of ecological climatic changes particularly in regions where new cases are increasing in previously nonendemic areas. Moreover, the development of NTD vaccines, including those for schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, leprosy, hookworm, and Chagas disease are being led by nonprofit product development partnerships (PDPs) working in partnership with academic and industrial partners, contract research organizations, and in some instances vaccine manufacturers in developing countries. In this review, we emphasize global efforts to fuel the development of NTD vaccines, the translational activities needed to effectively move promising vaccine candidates to Phase-I clinical trials and some of the hurdles to ensuring their availability to people in the poorest countries of Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. PMID:27571699

  19. DNA vaccine: the miniature miracle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Kaliaperumal

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available DNA, the essential part of the life is making way in to new vaccine technology. Plasmid vectors from the bacteria have revolutionized the world of vaccine design by its new technology – DNA vaccines. Small portion of the nucleotides from the pathogen held under the control of promoter in a plasmid vector can be used as a vaccine. DNA vaccines alleviate the odds of the other vaccines by having good hold on both the faces of the immunity. The key to the success of DNA vaccine lies in the route of administration of the vaccine which can be done in many ways. Prime boost strategy is an approach used to boost the action of DNA vaccine. To date there are only four DNA vaccine available in the market. [Vet World 2013; 6(4.000: 228-232

  20. Flu vaccination in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Siettou

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In periods of seasonal influenza, during pandemic flu in the past and from recent experience that we have the emergence of influenza A (H1N1, pregnant compared with non-pregnant women are at increased risk to get sick and to develop serious complications up to mortality. Purpose: This paper examines the risks that arise for pregnant from contamination with the flu virus and the safety of influenza vaccination in pregnancy. Method: The method involves searching review and research studies in Pubmed data base mainly of the 2000 until 2009 and the words were used is pregnancy, flu vaccination, complications of the flu vaccination at the period of pregnancy. Results: Morbidity during periods of seasonal influenza in pregnant women is increased, while in times of pandemic are recorded fatalities. Based on this, specific recommendations have been made for a flu vaccination in pregnant women, both from the CDC, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists in the U.S. and other official bodies like the World Health Organization, according to that the constitution of influenza vaccine in the pregnancy is necessary, given that the probability of morbidity in this period is increased at 10%. Conclusions: The studies so far to influenza vaccination in pregnancy, do not record serious complications for pregnant women and infants. However more research needs to be done on the safety of influenza vaccination in pregnancy.

  1. [Vaccinations in respiratory medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lode, H M; Stahlmann, R

    2015-09-01

    Vaccinations are the most successful and cost-effective measures for prevention of infections. Important pathogens of respiratory tract infections (e.g. influenza viruses and pneumococci) can be effectively treated by vaccinations. The seasonal trivalent and recently now quadrivalent influenza vaccines include antigens from influenza A and B type viruses, which have to be modified annually oriented to the circulating strains. The effective protection by influenza vaccination varies considerably (too short protection time, mismatch); therefore, administration late in the year is the best approach (November/December). Two pneumococcal vaccines are recommended for adults: the over 30-year-old 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) and the 4-year-old 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13). The immunological and clinical efficacy of PPV23 is controversially discussed; however, a moderate reduction of invasive pneumococcal infections is widely accepted. The PCV13 stimulates a T-cell response and has currently demonstrated its clinical efficacy in an impressive study (CAPiTA). The problem of PCV13 is the relatively limited coverage of only 47% of the currently circulating invasive pneumococcal serotypes. PMID:26330051

  2. Reasons for non-vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Dannetun, Eva

    2006-01-01

    Vaccines are among the most effective public health interventions used today. Population based vaccination programmes are mainly aimed at protecting against common childhood diseases, but other population groups are also the targets for different recommendations. The objectives of this thesis were to assess coverage and reasons for non-vaccination for three of vaccination programmes recommended by the National Board of Health and Welfare: influenza vaccine for the elderly, ...

  3. Vaccine acceptance: The UK perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, John A; Mahgoub, Hamid; Shankar, Ananda Giri

    2013-01-01

    The United Kingdom has had a long history with vaccine acceptability dating back to Edward Jenner’s theory of small pox vaccination. More recently, the discredited, Wakefield study published in 1998 continues to cause MMR skepticism. In pregnant women pertussis vaccination has been considerably more successful than influenza vaccination. Influenza vaccine uptake in healthcare workers remains poor. The media, politicians, and health reforms have contributed to the mixed coverage for these vacc...

  4. Aid Effectiveness on Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) is econo¬metric studies of the macroeconomic effects of development aid. It contains about 100 papers of which 68 are reduced form estimates of theeffect of aid on growth in the recipient country. The raw data show that growth is unconnected to aid, but the...... AEL has put so much structure on the data that all results possible have emerged. The present meta study considers both the best-set of the 68 papers and the all-set of 543 regressions published. Both sets have a positive average aid-growth elasticity, but it is small and insignificant: The AEL has...... not established that aid works. Using meta-regression analysis it is shown that about 20 factors influence the results. Much of the variation between studies is an artifact and can be attributed to publication outlet, institu¬tional affiliation, and specification differences. However, some of the...

  5. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    , are being drawn on the basis of fragile evidence. This paper first assesses the aid-growth literature with a focus on recent contributions. The aid-growth literature is then framed, for the first time, in terms of the Rubin Causal Model, applied at the macroeconomic level. Our results show that aid......The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro and meso-levels, recent literature has turned decidedly pessimistic with respect to the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth. Policy implications, such as the complete cessation of aid to Africa...... has a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run with point estimates at levels suggested by growth theory. We conclude that aid remains an important tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor nations....

  6. Vaccination against Klebsiella aerogenes.

    OpenAIRE

    Roe, E. A.; Jones, R J

    1984-01-01

    Klebsiella vaccine was prepared from strains of Klebsiella aerogenes with capsular types K1, K36, K44 and K Cross (a type which cross-reacts in vitro with sera from many klebsiella capsular types). The vaccine was extracted by dialysis and ultrafiltration from capsular material released during growth of the bacteria in a five-day batch culture. Mice given one dose of vaccine from K1a (1.0 microgram/mouse) survived lethal intraperitoneal challenge of 11/11 homologous klebsiella strains four da...

  7. Research toward Malaria Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Louis H.; Howard, Russell J.; Carter, Richard; Good, Michael F.; Nussenzweig, Victor; Nussenzweig, Ruth S.

    1986-12-01

    Malaria exacts a toll of disease to people in the Tropics that seems incomprehensible to those only familiar with medicine and human health in the developed world. The methods of molecular biology, immunology, and cell biology are now being used to develop an antimalarial vaccine. The Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria have many stages in their life cycle. Each stage is antigenically distinct and potentially could be interrupted by different vaccines. However, achieving complete protection by vaccination may require a better understanding of the complexities of B- and T-cell priming in natural infections and the development of an appropriate adjuvant for use in humans.

  8. Hepatitis B vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanò, Luisa; Paladini, Sara; Galli, Cristina; Raimondo, Giovanni; Pollicino, Teresa; Zanetti, Alessandro R

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus is a worldwide leading cause of acute and chronic liver disease including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Effective vaccines have been available since the early '80s and vaccination has proved highly successful in reducing the disease burden, the development of the carrier state and the HB-related morbidity and mortality in the countries where vaccination has been implemented.   Neutralizing (protective) antibodies (anti-HBs) induced by vaccination are targeted largely towards the amino acid hydrophilic region, referred to as the common a determinant which is present on the outer protein coat or surface antigen (HBsAg), spanning amino acids 124-149. This provides protection against all HBV genotypes (from A to H) and is responsible for the broad immunity afforded by hepatitis B vaccination. Thus, alterations of residues within this region of the surface antigen may determine conformational changes that can allow replication of the mutated HBV in vaccinated people. An important mutation in the surface antigen region was identified in Italy some 25 years ago in infants born to HBsAg carrier mothers who developed breakthrough infections despite having received HBIG and vaccine at birth. This virus had a point mutation from guanosine to adenosine at nucleotide position 587, resulting in aa substitution from glycine (G) to arginine (R) at position 145 in the a determinant. Since the G145R substitution alters the projecting loop (aa 139-147) of the a determinant, the neutralizing antibodies induced by vaccination are no longer able to recognize the mutated epitope. Beside G145R, other S-gene mutations potentially able to evade neutralizing anti-HBs and infect vaccinated people have been described worldwide. In addition, the emergence of Pol mutants associated with resistance to treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogues can select viruses with crucial changes in the overlapping S-gene, potentially able to alter the S protein immunoreactivity. Thus

  9. Alphavirus-Based Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundstrom, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Alphavirus vectors based on Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus have been widely applied for vaccine development. Naked RNA replicons, recombinant viral particles, and layered DNA vectors have been subjected to immunization in preclinical animal models with antigens for viral targets and tumor antigens. Moreover, a limited number of clinical trials have been conducted in humans. Vaccination with alphavirus vectors has demonstrated efficient immune responses and has showed protection against challenges with lethal doses of virus and tumor cells, respectively. Moreover, vaccines have been developed against alphaviruses causing epidemics such as Chikungunya virus. PMID:27076308

  10. Cellular based cancer vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Met, O; Svane, I M;

    2012-01-01

    Cancer vaccines designed to re-calibrate the existing host-tumour interaction, tipping the balance from tumor acceptance towards tumor control holds huge potential to complement traditional cancer therapies. In general, limited success has been achieved with vaccines composed of tumor...... in vitro migration via autocrine receptor-mediated endocytosis of CCR7. In the current review, we discuss optimal design of DC maturation focused on pre-clinical as well as clinical results from standard and polarized dendritic cell based cancer vaccines....

  11. Hearing Aids and Music

    OpenAIRE

    Chasin, Marshall; Russo, Frank A.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the primary concern for hearing aid design and fitting is optimization for speech inputs. However, increasingly other types of inputs are being investigated and this is certainly the case for music. Whether the hearing aid wearer is a musician or merely someone who likes to listen to music, the electronic and electro-acoustic parameters described can be optimized for music as well as for speech. That is, a hearing aid optimally set for music can be optimally set for speech, even...

  12. Radiographic imaging of aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has impacted the civilized world like no other disease. This research aimed to discuss some of the main aids-related complications and their detection by radiology tests, specifically central nervous system and musculoskeletal system disorders. The objectives are: to show specific characteristics of various diseases of HIV patient, to analyze the effect of pathology in patients by radiology, to enhance the knowledge of technologists in aids imaging and to improve communication skills between patient and radiology technologists

  13. Radiographic imaging of aids

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, M B

    2002-01-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has impacted the civilized world like no other disease. This research aimed to discuss some of the main aids-related complications and their detection by radiology tests, specifically central nervous system and musculoskeletal system disorders. The objectives are: to show specific characteristics of various diseases of HIV patient, to analyze the effect of pathology in patients by radiology, to enhance the knowledge of technologists in aids imaging and to improve communication skills between patient and radiology technologists.

  14. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmore, N. J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    2002-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Ca...

  15. Aid, growth, and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro- and meso-levels, recent literature doubts the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses the aid-growth literature and, taking inspiration from the program...... evaluation literature, we re-examine key hypotheses. In our findings, aid has a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run, with confidence intervals conforming to levels suggested by growth theory. Aid remains a key tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor...

  16. Music and hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  17. HIV / AIDS Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS Network and the Philippines Department of Health (DOH) collaborated to produce the AIDS Candlelight Memorial at the Philippine International Convention Center (PICC), May 1995, and World AIDS Day activities on December 1, 1995. After the memorial, a fashion show, "Body Shots," provided a channel for information on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). On World AIDS Day, at the request of DOH, the Network provided speakers who lectured on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS in different government offices. Prior to World AIDS Day, the Network focused on strengthening its cohesiveness and building the capabilities of its member organizations through lectures and symposia during November. Network activities were coordinated by the Remedios AIDS Foundation with support from the other members of the Coordinating Council: Health Action Information Network (HAIN); Caritas; Kabalikat, Stop Trafficking of Pilopinos Foundation, Inc. (STOP);and the Library Foundation (TLF). The Coordinating Council elected for 1996 includes the Remedios AIDS Foundation, HAIN, Caritas, TLF, STOP, the Foundation for Adolescent Development (FAD), and the Salvation Army. PMID:12291699

  18. Influenza Vaccination Coverage Among Health Care Personnel--United States, 2014-15 Influenza Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Carla L; Yue, Xin; Ball, Sarah W; Donahue, Sara M A; Izrael, David; de Perio, Marie A; Laney, A Scott; Williams, Walter W; Lindley, Megan C; Graitcer, Samuel B; Lu, Peng-jun; Bridges, Carolyn B; DiSogra, Charles; Sokolowski, John; Walker, Deborah K; Greby, Stacie M

    2015-09-18

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends annual influenza vaccination for all health care personnel (HCP) to reduce influenza-related morbidity and mortality among both HCP and their patients and to decrease absenteeism among HCP. To estimate influenza vaccination coverage among U.S. HCP for the 2014–15 influenza season, CDC conducted an opt-in Internet panel survey of 1,914 HCP during March 31–April 15, 2015. Overall, 77.3% of HCP survey participants reported receiving an influenza vaccination during the 2014–15 season, similar to the 75.2% coverage among HCP reported for the 2013–14 season. Vaccination coverage was highest among HCP working in hospitals (90.4%) and lowest among HCP working in long-term care (LTC) settings (63.9%). By occupation, coverage was highest among pharmacists (95.3%) and lowest among assistants and aides (64.4%). Influenza vaccination coverage was highest among HCP who were required by their employer to be vaccinated (96.0%). Among HCP without an employer requirement for vaccination, coverage was higher for HCP working in settings where vaccination was offered on-site at no cost for 1 day (73.6%) or multiple days (83.9%) and lowest among HCP working in settings where vaccine was neither required, promoted, nor offered on-site (44.0%). Comprehensive vaccination strategies that include making vaccine available at no cost at the workplace along with active promotion of vaccination might help increase vaccination coverage among HCP and reduce the risk for influenza to HCP and their patients. PMID:26389743

  19. Prior Population Immunity Reduces the Expected Impact of CTL-Inducing Vaccines for Pandemic Influenza Control

    OpenAIRE

    Bolton, Kirsty J.; McCaw, James M.; Brown, Lorena; Jackson, David; Kedzierska, Katherine; McVernon, Jodie

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines that trigger an influenza-specific cytotoxic T cell (CTL) response may aid pandemic control by limiting the transmission of novel influenza A viruses (IAV). We consider interventions with hypothetical CTL-inducing vaccines in a range of epidemiologically plausible pandemic scenarios. We estimate the achievable reduction in the attack rate, and, by adopting a model linking epidemic progression to the emergence of IAV variants, the opportunity for antigenic drift. We demonstrate that C...

  20. Macaques vaccinated with live-attenuated SIV control replication of heterologous virus

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Matthew R.; Weiler, Andrea M.; Weisgrau, Kim L.; Piaskowski, Shari M.; Furlott, Jessica R.; Weinfurter, Jason T.; Kaizu, Masahiko; Soma, Taeko; León, Enrique J.; MacNair, Caitlin; Leaman, Dan P.; Zwick, Michael B.; Gostick, Emma; Musani, Solomon K.; Price, David A.

    2008-01-01

    An effective AIDS vaccine will need to protect against globally diverse isolates of HIV. To address this issue in macaques, we administered a live-attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaccine and challenged with a highly pathogenic heterologous isolate. Vaccinees reduced viral replication by ∼2 logs between weeks 2–32 (P ≤ 0.049) postchallenge. Remarkably, vaccinees expressing MHC-I (MHC class I) alleles previously associated with viral control completely suppressed acute phase repl...

  1. Monkeying around with HIV vaccines: using rhesus macaques to define ‘gatekeepers’ for clinical trials

    OpenAIRE

    Shedlock, Devon J.; Silvestri, Guido; David B. Weiner

    2009-01-01

    Rhesus macaques are an important animal model for the study of human disease and the development of vaccines against HIV and AIDS. HIV vaccines have been benchmarked in rhesus macaque preclinical challenge studies using chimeric viruses made up of parts of HIV and simian immunodeficency viruses. However, the lack of efficacy in a recent clinical trial calls for a re-evaluation of the scientific assumptions regarding the predictive value of using data generated from rhesus macaques as a ‘gatek...

  2. Paternal education status significantly influences infants’ measles vaccination uptake, independent of maternal education status

    OpenAIRE

    Rammohan Anu; Awofeso Niyi; Fernandez Renae C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite increased funding of measles vaccination programs by national governments and international aid agencies, structural factors encumber attainment of childhood measles immunisation to levels which may guarantee herd immunity. One of such factors is parental education status. Research on the links between parental education and vaccination has typically focused on the influence of maternal education status. This study aims to demonstrate the independent influence of p...

  3. Investigating the origin of AIDS: some ethical dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, B

    2003-08-01

    The theory that AIDS originated from contaminated polio vaccines raises a number of challenging issues with ethical dimensions. The Journal of Medical Ethics dealt with a submission about the theory a decade ago; subsequent developments have raised further issues. Four areas of contention are addressed: whether the theory should be investigated; whether anyone should be blamed; whether defamation actions are appropriate, and whether the scientific community has a responsibility to examine unorthodox theories. PMID:12930866

  4. Vaccines: Engineering immune evasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascola, John R.

    2006-05-01

    One obstacle to realizing the promise of viral vectors for vaccine delivery is pre-existing immunity to such vectors. An adroit application of structure-based design points to a way around that problem.

  5. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines On This Page What are human papillomaviruses? Which cancers are caused by HPV? Who gets HPV infections? Can HPV infections be ...

  6. Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a pathogenic microorganism that can cause potentially life- threatening disease in humans. HBV infection is transmitted through exposure ...

  7. Antibacterials: A sweet vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundle, David

    2016-03-01

    Vaccination with a synthetic glycoconjugate, in combination with the administration of an inhibitor that blocks capsular polysaccharide synthesis in bacteria, could offer an alternative route to combat bacterial infections.

  8. Tetanus, Diphtheria (Td) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenivac® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids) ... Why get vaccinated?Tetanus and diphtheria are very serious diseases. They are rare in the United States today, but people who do become ...

  9. Tetanus, Diphtheria (Td) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenivac® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids) ... Why get vaccinated?Tetanus and diphtheria are very serious diseases. They are rare in the United States today, but people who do become infected often have severe ...

  10. Ingredients of Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is packaged. Monosodium glutamate ( MSG ) and 2-phenoxy-ethanol which are used as stabilizers in a few ... mercury, aluminum, formaldehyde, human serum albumin, antibiotics, and yeast proteins in vaccines have not been found to ...

  11. Cancer vaccine--Antigenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Antigenics is developing a therapeutic cancer vaccine based on heat-shock proteins (HSPs). The vaccine [HSPPC-96, Oncophage] is in a pivotal phase III clinical trial for renal cancer at 80 clinical sites worldwide. The trial is enrolling at least 500 patients who are randomised to receive surgical removal of the primary tumour followed by out-patient treatment with Oncophage((R)) or surgery only. This study was initiated on the basis of results from a pilot phase I/II study and preliminary results from a phase II study in patients with renal cell cancer. In October 2001, Oncophage was designated as a fast-track product by the Food and Drug Administration in the US for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma. Oncophage is in phase I/II trials in Italy for colorectal cancer (30 patients) and melanoma. The trials in Italy are being conducted at the Istituto dei Tumouri, Milan (in association with Sigma-Tau). Preliminary data from the phase II trial for melanoma was presented at the AACR-NCI-EORTC International Conference in Florida, USA, in October 2001. Oncophage is also in a phase I/II (42 patients) and a phase II trial (84 patients) in the US for renal cell cancer, a phase II trial in the US for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (35 patients), a phase II trial in the US for sarcoma (20-35 patients), a phase I/II trial in the US for melanoma (36 patients), and phase I/II trials in Germany for gastric (30 patients) and pancreatic cancers. A pilot phase I trial in patients with pancreatic cancer began in the US in 1997 with 5 patients enrolled. In November 2000, Antigenics announced that this trial had been expanded to a phase I/II study which would now include survival as an endpoint and would enroll 5 additional patients. The US trials are being performed at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. The trials in Germany are being carried out at Johannes Gutenberg-University Hospital, Mainz. Oncophage is an autologous vaccine consisting of

  12. Governments, off-patent vaccines, smallpox and universal childhood vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music, Stanley

    2010-01-22

    WHO is now celebrating more than 30 years of freedom from smallpox. What was originally seen as a victory over an ancient scourge can now be viewed as an epidemiologically driven programme to overcome governmental inertia and under-achievement in delivering an off-patent vaccine. Though efforts are accelerating global vaccine use, a plea is made to push the world's governments to commit to universal childhood vaccination via a proposed new programme. The latter should begin by exploiting a long list of ever more affordable off-patent vaccines, vaccines that can virtually eliminate the bulk of the world's current vaccine-preventable disease burden. PMID:19699330

  13. AIDS is your business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Sydney; Simon, Jonathon; Vincent, Jeffrey R; MacLeod, William; Fox, Matthew; Thea, Donald M

    2003-02-01

    If your company operates in a developing country, AIDS is your business. While Africa has received the most attention, AIDS is also spreading swiftly in other parts of the world. Russia and Ukraine had the fastest-growing epidemics last year, and many experts believe China and India will suffer the next tidal wave of infection. Why should executives be concerned about AIDS? Because it is destroying the twin rationales of globalization strategy-cheap labor and fast-growing markets--in countries where people are heavily affected by the epidemic. Fortunately, investments in programs that prevent infection and provide treatment for employees who have HIV/AIDS are profitable for many businesses--that is, they lead to savings that outweigh the programs' costs. Due to the long latency period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS symptoms, a company is not likely to see any of the costs of HIV/AIDS until five to ten years after an employee is infected. But executives can calculate the present value of epidemic-related costs by using the discount rate to weigh each cost according to its expected timing. That allows companies to think about expenses on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs as investments rather than merely as costs. The authors found that the annual cost of AIDS to six corporations in South Africa and Botswana ranged from 0.4% to 5.9% of the wage bill. All six companies would have earned positive returns on their investments if they had provided employees with free treatment for HIV/AIDS in the form of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), according to the mathematical model the authors used. The annual reduction in the AIDS "tax" would have been as much as 40.4%. The authors' conclusion? Fighting AIDS not only helps those infected; it also makes good business sense. PMID:12577655

  14. Fundamentals of Vaccine Immunology

    OpenAIRE

    Angela S Clem

    2011-01-01

    From a literature review of the current literature, this article provides an introduction to vaccine immunology including a primer on the components of the immune system, passive vs. active immunization, the mechanism(s) by which immunizations stimulate(s) immunity, and the types of vaccines available. Both the innate and adaptive immune subsystems are necessary to provide an effective immune response to an immunization. Further, effective immunizations must induce long-term stimulation of bo...

  15. Rotavirus vaccines Review

    OpenAIRE

    KURUGÖL, Zafer

    2007-01-01

    Rotavirus is a major cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide and infects almost all children in the first 5 years of life with severe dehydrating gastroenteritis occurring primarily among children 4 to 36 months of age Rotavirus causes an estimated 600 000 deaths and more than 2 million hospitalizations each year A tetravalent rhesus human reassortant rotavirus vaccine Rotashield was licensed in 1998 for routine immunization of infants in the United States However the vaccine was subsequentl...

  16. Next Generation Pneumococcal Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Kristin L Moffitt; Malley, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Currently licensed pneumococcal vaccines are based on the generation of antibodies to the pneumococcal polysaccharide, of which there are more than 90 different types. While these vaccines are highly effective against the serotypes included, their high cost and limited serotype coverage limits their usefulness worldwide, particularly in low resources areas. Thus alternative or adjunctive options are being actively pursued. This review will present these various approaches, including variation...

  17. Vaccines for Pandemic Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Luke, Catherine J.; Subbarao, Kanta

    2006-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Asia and associated human infections have led to a heightened level of awareness and preparation for a possible influenza pandemic. Vaccination is the best option by which spread of a pandemic virus could be prevented and severity of disease reduced. Production of live attenuated and inactivated vaccine seed viruses against avian influenza viruses, which have the potential to cause pandemics, and their testing in preclinical studies and...

  18. Advances in influenza vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Reperant, Leslie A.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.

    2014-01-01

    Influenza virus infections yearly cause high morbidity and mortality burdens in humans, and the development of a new influenza pandemic continues to threaten mankind as a Damoclean sword. Influenza vaccines have been produced by using egg-based virus growth and passaging techniques that were developed more than 60 years ago, following the identification of influenza A virus as an etiological agent of seasonal influenza. These vaccines aimed mainly at eliciting neutralizing antibodies targetin...

  19. Vaccination in Elite Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Gärtner, Barbara C.; de Meyer, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Public health vaccination guidelines cannot be easily transferred to elite athletes. An enhanced benefit from preventing even mild diseases is obvious but stronger interference from otherwise minor side effects has to be considered as well. Thus, special vaccination guidelines for adult elite athletes are required. In most of them, protection should be strived for against tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, measles, mumps and varicella. When living or travelin...

  20. Anti-addiction vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Despite intensive efforts to eradicate it, addiction to both legal and illicit drugs continues to be a major worldwide medical and social problem. Anti-addiction vaccines can produce the antibodies to block the effects of these drugs on the brain, and have great potential to ameliorate the morbidity and mortality associated with illicit drug intoxications. This review provides a current overview of anti-addiction vaccines that are under clinical trial and pre-clinical research evaluation. It ...

  1. Meningococcal vaccines Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kurugöl, Zafer

    2007-01-01

    Meningococcal disease presenting primarily as meningococcemia and meningitis continues to be a devastating problem around the world In the past 200 years several meningococcal epidemics have been noted in Europe Africa Asia and the United States Annually 500 000 cases of invasive meningococcal disease occur still worldwide of which 8805;50 000 result in death Therefore vaccine development has been undertaken in earnest for the prevention of this disease Polysaccharide vaccines have been avail...

  2. Nieuw vaccin tegen campylobacter

    OpenAIRE

    Wagenaar, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Het vaccin dat de kip moet beschermen tegen de bacterie Campylobacter werkt in het laboratorium. Dat wil bacterioloog Jaap Wagenaar wel kwijt. Wanneer het er komt en zelfs of het er komt, daarover laat Wagenaar zich niet uit. "Het is een hele klus om het immuunsysteem van kippen effectief op te laten treden tegen Campylobacter", zegt Wagenaar die werkt bij het CVI en hoogleraar is aan de Universiteit Utrecht. "Geen van de vaccins die onderzoekers tot nu hebben uitgeprobeerd werken"

  3. [Influenza vaccine and adjuvant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    Adjuvant is originated from the Latin word "adjuvare" which means "help" in English to enhance the immunological responses when given together with antigens. The beginning of adjuvant was mineral oil which enhanced the immune response when it was given with inactivated Salmonella typhimurium. Aluminium salt was used to precipitate diphtheria toxoid and increased level of antibody response was demonstrated when administered with alum-precipitated antigens. Since 1930, aluminium salt has been used as DTaP (diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine) adjuvant. Many candidates were tested for adjuvant activity but only aluminum salt is allowed to use for human vaccines. New adjuvant MF59, oil-in-water emulsion type, was developed for influenza vaccine for elderly (Fluad) and series of AS adjuvant are used for hepatitis B, pandemic flue, and human papiloma virus vaccines. Oil-adjuvanted influenza pandemic vaccines induced higher antibody response than alum-adjuvanted vaccine with higher incidence of adverse events, especially for local reactions. Alum-adjuvanted whole virion inactivated H5N1 vaccine was developed in Japan, and it induced relatively well immune responses in adults. When it applied for children, febrile reaction was noted in approximately 60% of the subjects, with higher antibodies. Recent investigation on innate immunity demonstrates that adjuvant activity is initiated from the stimulation on innate immunity and/or inflammasome, resulting in cytokine induction and antigen uptake by monocytes and macrophages. The probable reason for high incidence of febrile reaction should be investigated to develop a safe and effective influenza vaccine. PMID:22129866

  4. Current status of rotavirus vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ching-Min Wang; Shou-Chien Chen; Kow-Tong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rotaviruses remain the major cause of childhood diarrheal disease worldwide and of diarrheal deaths of infants and children in developing countries. The huge burden of childhood rotavirus-related diarrhea in the world continues to drive the remarkable pace of vaccine development. Data sources: Research articles were searched using terms "rotavirus" and "rotavirus vaccine" in MEDLINE and PubMed. Articles not published in the English language, articles without abstracts, and opinion articles were excluded from the review. After preliminary screening, all articles were reviewed and synthesized to provide an overview of current vaccines and vaccination programs. Results: In this review of the global rotavirus vaccines and vaccination programs, the principles of rotavirus vaccine development and the efficacy of the currently licensed vaccines from both developed and developing countries were summarized. Conclusions: Rotavirus is a common cause of diarrhea in children in both developed and developing countries. Rotavirus vaccination is a cost-effective measure to prevent rotavirus diarrhea.

  5. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Nicol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits.

  6. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, A F; Andrade, C V; Russomano, F B; Rodrigues, L L S; Oliveira, N S; Provance, D W

    2016-01-01

    Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits. PMID:27074168

  7. Prophylactic HPV vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić Aljoša

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. Cervical and other anogenital cancers, cervical and anal intraepithelial neoplasia, genital warts, and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis are HPV associated diseases. Prophylactic HPV vaccines are composed of HPV L1 capsid protein that self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs when expressed in recombinant systems. Two types of prophylactic vaccines are designed as a bivalent vaccine to protect against high-risk HPV types 16 and 18 and a quadrivalent vaccine designed to protect against HPV 16 and 18, and low-risk, genital wart-causing HPV 6 and 11. Proof-of-principle trials have suggested that intramuscular injections of VLPs result in strong adaptive immune responses that are capable of neutralizing subsequent natural infections. Recent research on the safety and efficacy of candidate prophylactic vaccines against HPV have shown very promising results with nearly 100% efficacy in preventing the development of persistent infections and cervical precancerous lesions in vaccinated individuals.

  8. Immunology of BVDV vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridpath, Julia F

    2013-01-01

    Providing acquired immune protection against infection with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) is challenging due to the heterogeneity that exists among BVDV strains and the ability of the virus to infect the fetus and establish persistent infections. Both modified live and killed vaccines have been shown to be efficacious under controlled conditions. Both humoral and cellular immune responses are protective. Following natural infection or vaccination with a modified live vaccine, the majority of the B cell response (as measured by serum antibodies) is directed against the viral proteins E2 and NS2/3, with minor responses against the Erns and E1 proteins. Vaccination with killed vaccines results in serum antibodies directed mainly at the E2 protein. It appears that the major neutralizing epitopes are conformational and are located within the N-terminal half of the E2 protein. While it is thought that the E2 and NS2/3 proteins induce protective T cell responses, these epitopes have not been mapped. Prevention of fetal infections requires T and B cell response levels that approach sterilizing immunity. The heterogeneity that exists among circulating BVDV strains, works against establishing such immunity. Vaccination, while not 100% effective in every individual animal, is effective at the herd level. PMID:22883306

  9. Therapeutic Cancer Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhenlong; Li, Zhong; Jin, Huajun; Qian, Qijun

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is one of the major leading death causes of diseases. Prevention and treatment of cancer is an important way to decrease the incidence of tumorigenesis and prolong patients' lives. Subversive achievements on cancer immunotherapy have recently been paid much attention after many failures in basic and clinical researches. Based on deep analysis of genomics and proteomics of tumor antigens, a variety of cancer vaccines targeting tumor antigens have been tested in preclinical and human clinical trials. Many therapeutic cancer vaccines alone or combination with other conventional treatments for cancer obtained spectacular efficacy, indicating the tremendously potential application in clinic. With the illustration of underlying mechanisms of cancer immune regulation, valid, controllable, and persistent cancer vaccines will play important roles in cancer treatment, survival extension and relapse and cancer prevention. This chapter mainly summarizes the recent progresses and developments on cancer vaccine research and clinical application, thus exploring the existing obstacles in cancer vaccine research and promoting the efficacy of cancer vaccine. PMID:27240458

  10. Vaccinations for Adults with Hepatitis C Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinations for Adults with Hepatitis C Infection This table shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

  11. Vaccinations for Adults with HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinations for Adults with HIV Infection The table below shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

  12. Drying a tuberculosis vaccine without freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yun-Ling; Sampson, Samantha; Germishuizen, Willem Andreas; Goonesekera, Sunali; Caponetti, Giovanni; Sadoff, Jerry; Bloom, Barry R; Edwards, David

    2007-02-20

    With the increasing incidence of tuberculosis and drug resistant disease in developing countries due to HIV/AIDS, there is a need for vaccines that are more effective than the present bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine. We demonstrate that BCG vaccine can be dried without traditional freezing and maintained with remarkable refrigerated and room-temperature stability for months through spray drying. Studies with a model Mycobacterium (Mycobacterium smegmatis) revealed that by removing salts and cryoprotectant (e.g., glycerol) from bacterial suspensions, the significant osmotic pressures that are normally produced on bacterial membranes through droplet drying can be reduced sufficiently to minimize loss of viability on drying by up to 2 orders of magnitude. By placing the bacteria in a matrix of leucine, high-yield, free-flowing, "vial-fillable" powders of bacteria (including M. smegmatis and M. bovis BCG) can be produced. These powders show relatively minor losses of activity after maintenance at 4 degrees C and 25 degrees C up to and beyond 4 months. Comparisons with lyophilized material prepared both with the same formulation and with a commercial formulation reveal that the spray-dried BCG has better overall viability on drying. PMID:17299039

  13. Improved NYVAC-based vaccine vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen V Kibler

    Full Text Available While as yet there is no vaccine against HIV/AIDS, the results of the phase III Thai trial (RV144 have been encouraging and suggest that further improvements of the prime/boost vaccine combination of a poxvirus and protein are needed. With this aim, in this investigation we have generated derivatives of the candidate vaccinia virus vaccine vector NYVAC with potentially improved functions. This has been achieved by the re-incorporation into the virus genome of two host range genes, K1L and C7L, in conjunction with the removal of the immunomodulatory viral molecule B19, an antagonist of type I interferon action. These novel virus vectors, referred to as NYVAC-C-KC and NYVAC-C-KC-ΔB19R, have acquired relevant biological characteristics, giving higher levels of antigen expression in infected cells, replication-competency in human keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts, activation of selective host cell signal transduction pathways, and limited virus spread in tissues. Importantly, these replication-competent viruses have been demonstrated to maintain a highly attenuated phenotype.

  14. International Aid to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavot, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

  15. AIDS Epidemiological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  16. Genetic Immunity to AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In an article on genetic immunity to AIDS published in Science magazine, American and Chinese scientists claim to have discovered why certain HIV carriers do not develop full-blown AIDS. They say that the key to this conundrum lies in a particular protein in the endocrine system that inhibits development of HIV.

  17. Aid and Income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lof, Matthijs; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    to nonrandom omission of a large proportion of observations. Furthermore, we show that NDHKM’s use of co-integrated regressions is not a suitable empirical strategy for estimating the causal effect of aid on income. Evidence from a Panel VAR model estimated on the dataset of NDHKM, suggests a...... positive and statistically significant long-run effect of aid on income....

  18. AIDS and Chemical Dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Melvin I.

    After defining HIV and the AIDS disease and outlining symptoms and means of infection, this fact sheet lists the ways alcohol and drugs are involved with the AIDS epidemic, noting that needle-sharing transmits the virus; that alcohol or mood-altering drugs like crack cocaine cause disinhibition, increase sex drive, encourage sex for drugs, and…

  19. [Oral hygiene aids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovius, M; Leemans, G J

    1994-05-01

    Different dental hygiene aids are discussed, such as floss, tape, superfloss, gauze, flat shoelace, toothpick, interproximal brush, single-tufted brush, electric toothbrush, manual toothbrush and oral irrigation. Research shows that not one specific aid is superior to another if effectiveness is taken into consideration. Other factors which can influence oral hygiene efficacy are discussed as well. PMID:11830968

  20. Changing epidemiology of AIDS.

    OpenAIRE

    Donovan, C. A.; Stratton, E.

    1994-01-01

    It has been 15 years since AIDS made its first appearance in North America, probably longer worldwide. In that time, our knowledge of the epidemiology of AIDS has grown and changed. This review highlights significant aspects of the epidemic with particular emphasis on the evolution of this disease in North America.

  1. Hearing aid and Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Reza Nazeri

    1999-01-01

    Prescription of hearing aid is an extensive special category of knowledge in the field of audiology. This article is aimed at discussing the function of hearing aid and also management of patients in the noisy environments and presenting solutions to overcome problems regarding to this issue along with taking a look to the equipments prepared nowadays to cope with noisy situations.

  2. Aid and sectoral growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Thiele, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    This article examines empirically the proposition that aid to poor countries is detrimental for external competitiveness, giving rise to Dutch disease type effects. At the aggregate level, aid is found to have a positive effect on growth. A sectoral decomposition shows that the effect is (i) sign...... labour capacity that prevents the real exchange rate from appreciating....

  3. Implementing AIDS Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace C. Huerta

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available The world has been challenged by the AIDS epidemic for 15 years. In 1985, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, allocated funds to all state departments of education to assist schools in the development of AIDS education policies and programs. Yet, these policies do not ensure that all students receive effective AIDS education. On September 21, 1991, the Arizona Legislature passed Senate Bill 1396, which requires public schools to annually provide AIDS education in grades K-12. The bill was rescinded in 1995. With prohibitive curriculum guidelines, limited teacher training opportunities and tremendous instructional demands, this educational policy was implemented in disparate forms. By examining the perspectives of the Arizona educators (representing three school districts, this qualitative study reveals how teachers ultimately controlled the delivery and nature of AIDS instruction based upon personal values, views of teacher roles, and their interpretation of the mandate itself.

  4. Current progress in the development of a prophylactic vaccine for HIV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena J Gamble

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Lena J Gamble1, Qiana L Matthews1,21Division of Human Gene Therapy, Departments of Medicine, Pathology, Surgery, Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Gene Therapy Center, 2Center for AIDS Research, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: Since its discovery and characterization in the early 1980s as a virus that attacks the immune system, there has been some success for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 infection. However, due to the overwhelming public health impact of this virus, a vaccine is needed urgently. Despite the tireless efforts of scientist and clinicians, there is still no safe and effective vaccine that provides sterilizing immunity. A vaccine that provides sterilizing immunity against HIV infection remains elusive in part due to the following reasons: 1 degree of diversity of the virus, 2 ability of the virus to evade the hosts’ immunity, and 3 lack of appropriate animal models in which to test vaccine candidates. There have been several attempts to stimulate the immune system to provide protection against HIV-infection. Here, we will discuss attempts that have been made to induce sterilizing immunity, including traditional vaccination attempts, induction of broadly neutralizing antibody production, DNA vaccines, and use of viral vectors. Some of these attempts show promise pending continued research efforts.Keywords: HIV, prophylactic vaccine, AIDS, viral vectors, sterilizing immunity

  5. 9 CFR 113.318 - Pseudorabies Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pseudorabies Vaccine. 113.318 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.318 Pseudorabies Vaccine. Pseudorabies Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing... be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall be prepared from...

  6. Experimental oral polio vaccines and acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, E

    2001-06-29

    The simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) of the common chimpanzee is widely acknowledged as the direct ancestor of HIV-1. There is increasing historical evidence that during the late 1950s, kidneys were routinely excised from central African chimpanzees by scientists who were collaborating with the polio vaccine research of Dr Hilary Koprowski, and sent - inter alia - to vaccine-making laboratories in the USA and Africa, and to unspecified destinations in Belgium. While there is no direct evidence that cells from these kidneys were used as a substrate for growing Dr Koprowski's oral polio vaccines, there is a startling coincidence between places in Africa where his CHAT vaccine was fed, and the first appearances in the world of HIV-1 group M and group-M-related AIDS. Because of the enormous implications of the hypothesis that AIDS may be an unintended iatrogenic (physician-caused) disease, it is almost inevitable that this theory will engender heated opposition from many of those in the scientific establishment, and those with vested interests. PMID:11405924

  7. A brief history of vaccines & vaccination in India

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrakant Lahariya

    2014-01-01

    The challenges faced in delivering lifesaving vaccines to the targeted beneficiaries need to be addressed from the existing knowledge and learning from the past. This review documents the history of vaccines and vaccination in India with an objective to derive lessons for policy direction to expand the benefits of vaccination in the country. A brief historical perspective on smallpox disease and preventive efforts since antiquity is followed by an overview of 19 th century efforts to replace ...

  8. Vaccine hesitancy: Definition, scope and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Noni E

    2015-08-14

    The SAGE Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy concluded that vaccine hesitancy refers to delay in acceptance or refusal of vaccination despite availability of vaccination services. Vaccine hesitancy is complex and context specific, varying across time, place and vaccines. It is influenced by factors such as complacency, convenience and confidence. The Working Group retained the term 'vaccine' rather than 'vaccination' hesitancy, although the latter more correctly implies the broader range of immunization concerns, as vaccine hesitancy is the more commonly used term. While high levels of hesitancy lead to low vaccine demand, low levels of hesitancy do not necessarily mean high vaccine demand. The Vaccine Hesitancy Determinants Matrix displays the factors influencing the behavioral decision to accept, delay or reject some or all vaccines under three categories: contextual, individual and group, and vaccine/vaccination-specific influences. PMID:25896383

  9. 75 FR 48712 - Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Influenza Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... autism in children. In 2004 the Institute of Medicine reviewed many studies looking into this theory and... the vaccine. 5. What are the risks from inactivated influenza vaccine? A vaccine, like any medicine... palsy) that can lead to breathing or swallowing problems. Anyone with a weakened immune system....

  10. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57 Section 410.57 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu...

  11. In "Step" with HIV Vaccines? A Content Analysis of Local Recruitment Campaigns for an International HIV Vaccine Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, Paula M; Macias, Wendy; Chan, Kayshin; Harding, Ashley C

    2009-01-01

    During the past two decades of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, several recruitment campaigns were designed to generate community involvement in preventive HIV vaccine clinical trials. These efforts utilized a blend of advertising and marketing strategies mixed with public relations and community education approaches to attract potential study participants to clinical trials (integrated marketing communications). Although more than 30,000 persons worldwide have participated in preventive HIV vaccine studies, no systematic analysis of recruitment campaigns exists. This content analysis study was conducted to examine several United States and Canadian recruitment campaigns for one of the largest-scale HIV vaccine trials to date (the "Step Study"). This study examined persuasive features consistent with the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) including message content, personal relevance of HIV/AIDS and vaccine research, intended audiences, information sources, and other contextual features. The results indicated variation in messages and communication approaches with gay men more exclusively targeted in these regions. Racial/ethnic representations also differed by campaign. Most of the materials promote affective evaluation of the information through heuristic cueing. Implications for subsequent campaigns and research directions are discussed. PMID:19609373

  12. Research Report: HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reports » HIV/AIDS » Letter from the Director HIV/AIDS Email Facebook Twitter Letter from the Director Human ... the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) — has been with us for three decades now. ...

  13. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

  14. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... turn Javascript on. Photo: The NAMES Project Foundation HIV and AIDS are a global catastrophe. While advances ...

  15. HIV/AIDS: Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  16. What Is HIV/AIDS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  17. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... Victoria Cargill talks to students about HIV and AIDS at the opening of a National Library of ...

  18. Answers about HIV Vaccine Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... trial participation by people of all races/ethnicities, genders and socioeconomic backgrounds. • Support vaccine volunteers and/or ... preventive HIV vaccines. These include leading universities, biotechnology companies, pharmaceutical firms and government agencies such as NIAID. • ...

  19. Update on Veterinary Tuberculosis Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Objective: At the conclusion of this presentation, the participant will know the current status of veterinary tuberculosis vaccine research and development, and understand the challenges which remain for the future introduction of tuberculosis vaccines intended for wildlife and livestock...

  20. Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and click "GO" or visit Healthmap Vaccine Finder . Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... critical for people with health conditions such as liver disease. If you have chronic liver disease, talk ...

  1. The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs ... Pamphlets - Spanish FAQ189, October 2015 PDF Format The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy Pregnancy What is influenza (the ...

  2. Measles Vaccination: Who Needs It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources News Newsletters Events Measles Vaccination: Who Needs It? Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccine Measles ... it is eliminated from the body. Who Needs It? Children Children should get 2 doses of MMR ...

  3. Tuberculosis vaccine: time to change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontalvo-Rivera Dilia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis has been frequently related to poverty. There is an increase as prevalence of morbidity and growing amount of tuberculosis cases in coinfection with HIV/ AIDS, which overtake control strategies to control the aforementioned illness. This is worsened by the appearance of resistance to antitubercular agents. The WHO in its twentieth report notified that by 2014 there were 9.6 million new cases and 1.5 million of deaths due to this disease. Of these deaths 890.000 were men, 480.000 women and 140.000 children (1. 490.000 tuberculosis cases and 64.000 deaths with negative HIV were documented in children under the age of 15. For the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in (TBMDR, the joint resistance to isoniazid and rifampin was 3.5% in new cases and 20.5% in previously treated cases (1. The illness is still a public health problem; therefore, it generates promotion and prevention activities with the purpose of stopping its spreading. One of the alternatives to prevent the spreading is the elaboration of vaccines against noxae in the human being. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a microorganism which is a part of the groups composed by: M. bovis, M. bovis BCG, M. canneti, M. pinnipedii, M. africanum, M. microti, M.caprae, M. mungi y M. orygis.

  4. Aid Supplies Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel

    2015-01-01

    What determines how much foreign aid donors provide? Existing answers to this question point to a complex range of influences. However, the tasks of distinguishing between long- and short-run factors, as well as differences between donors, have not been adequately addressed. Taking advantage of...... data spanning nearly 50 years, this paper uses panel cointegration techniques to consider these issues. The analysis provides clear evidence for heterogeneity both between donors and over time, bandwagon effects, and a growing influence of security considerations in aid provision. Domestic...... macroeconomic shocks have a moderate but delayed effect on aid disbursements....

  5. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh

    2013-01-01

    Recent litterature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This article assesses what meta-analysis has to contribute to the litterature on the effectiveness of...... foreign aid in terms of growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....

  6. Aid and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2006-01-01

    Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...... been effective in furthering economic growth and development is discussed in some detail. I add perspective and identify some critical unresolved issues. I finally turn to the current development debate and discuss some key concerns, I believe should be kept in mind in formulating any agenda for aid in...

  7. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn

    Some recent literature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses what meta-analysis has to say about the effectiveness of foreign aid in terms of...... the growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....

  8. Pulmonary complications of AIDS: radiologic features. [AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, B.A.; Pomeranz, S.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Rosen, M.J.; Train, J.S.; Norton, K.I.; Mendelson, D.S.

    1984-07-01

    Fifty-two patients with pulmonary complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied over a 3-year period. The vast majority of the patients were homosexual; however, a significant number were intravenous drug abusers. Thirteen different organisms were noted, of which Pneumocystis carinii was by far the most common. Five patients had neoplasia. Most patients had initial abnormal chest films; however, eight patients subsequently shown to have Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia had normal chest films. A significant overlap in chest radiographic findings was noted among patients with different or multiple organisms. Lung biopsy should be an early consideration for all patients with a clinical history consistent with the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Of the 52 patients, 41 had died by the time this report was completed.

  9. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    This year, as usual, the Medical Service is helping to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal flu is especially recommended for anyone who suffers from chronic pulmonary, cardio-vascular or kidney disease or diabetes, is recovering from a serious illness or major surgery, or is over 65 years of age. The flu virus is transmitted through the air and through contact with contaminated surfaces, so frequent hand-washing with soap and/or an antiseptic hand wash is of great importance. As soon as the first symptoms appear (fever above 38°, shivering, coughing, muscle and/or joint pains, generalised weakness), you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. Anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor), with their dose of vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement through UNIQA...

  10. Technical Transformation of Biodefense Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Shan; Wang, Shixia

    2009-01-01

    Biodefense vaccines are developed against a diverse group of pathogens. Vaccines were developed for some of these pathogens a long time ago but they are facing new challenges to move beyond the old manufacturing technologies. New vaccines to be developed against other pathogens have to determine whether to follow traditional vaccination strategies or to seek new approaches. Advances in basic immunology and recombinant DNA technology have fundamentally transformed the process of formulating a ...

  11. Current scenario of Malaria Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, SS; Gupta, MC; Braich, JS

    2012-01-01

    Malaria, one of the deadliest infectious diseases, affects millions of people worldwide including India. As an addition to chemoprophylaxis and other antimalarial interventions malaria vaccine is under extensive research since decades. The vaccine development is more difficult to predict than drug development and presents a unique challenge as there has never before been a vaccine effective against a parasite. Effective malaria vaccine could help eliminate and eradicate malaria. There are cur...

  12. Current scenario of malaria vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Jarnail Singh Braich; Surinder Singh Malik

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is one of the deadliest infectious diseases that affects millions of people worldwide including India. As an addition to chemoprophylaxis and other antimalarial interventions malaria vaccine is under extensive research since decades. The vaccine development is more difficult to predict than drug development and presents a unique challenge as already there has been no vaccine effective against a parasite. Effective malaria vaccine could help eliminate and eradicate malaria; there are c...

  13. Rotaviruses: from pathogenesis to vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, Harry B.; Estes, Mary K.

    2009-01-01

    Rotaviruses cause life-threatening gastroenteritis in children worldwide; the enormous disease burden has focused efforts to develop vaccines and led to the discovery of novel mechanisms of gastrointestinal virus pathogenesis and host responses to infection. Two live-attenuated vaccines for gastroenteritis (Rotateq and Rotarix) have been licensed in many countries. This review summarizes the latest data on these vaccines, their effectiveness and challenges to global vaccination. Recent insigh...

  14. A brief history of vaccines & vaccination in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant Lahariya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenges faced in delivering lifesaving vaccines to the targeted beneficiaries need to be addressed from the existing knowledge and learning from the past. This review documents the history of vaccines and vaccination in India with an objective to derive lessons for policy direction to expand the benefits of vaccination in the country. A brief historical perspective on smallpox disease and preventive efforts since antiquity is followed by an overview of 19 th century efforts to replace variolation by vaccination, setting up of a few vaccine institutes, cholera vaccine trial and the discovery of plague vaccine. The early twentieth century witnessed the challenges in expansion of smallpox vaccination, typhoid vaccine trial in Indian army personnel, and setting up of vaccine institutes in almost each of the then Indian States. In the post-independence period, the BCG vaccine laboratory and other national institutes were established; a number of private vaccine manufacturers came up, besides the continuation of smallpox eradication effort till the country became smallpox free in 1977. The Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI (1978 and then Universal Immunization Programme (UIP (1985 were launched in India. The intervening events since UIP till India being declared non-endemic for poliomyelitis in 2012 have been described. Though the preventive efforts from diseases were practiced in India, the reluctance, opposition and a slow acceptance of vaccination have been the characteristic of vaccination history in the country. The operational challenges keep the coverage inequitable in the country. The lessons from the past events have been analysed and interpreted to guide immunization efforts.

  15. Vaccination: An Act of Love

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SPOTS! AH’M SICK, MA! AH CAIN’T GIT NO VACCINE T’DAY! 13 OH, SON! HOW’ ... D TELL HIS FOLKS HE WAS GOIN’ T’GIT VACCINATED AN’ HE’D GO SWIMMIN’! "” ” HE DIDN’ ... T’THE HEALTH CLINIC! HEH! HEH! AH GOTTA GIT THET VACCINE! WAIT! WE’LL GO WITH YOU! ...

  16. ERM immersion vaccination and adjuvants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, J.; Chettri, J. K.; Jaafar, R. M.;

    2015-01-01

    Two candidate adjuvants were tested with a commercial ERM dip vaccine (AquaVac™ Relera, MSD Animal Health) for rainbow trout in an experimental design compatible with common vaccination practices at farm level, i.e. immersion of fish in vaccine (±adjuvant) for 30 s. The adjuvants were the...

  17. Current scenario of malaria vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarnail Singh Braich

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the deadliest infectious diseases that affects millions of people worldwide including India. As an addition to chemoprophylaxis and other antimalarial interventions malaria vaccine is under extensive research since decades. The vaccine development is more difficult to predict than drug development and presents a unique challenge as already there has been no vaccine effective against a parasite. Effective malaria vaccine could help eliminate and eradicate malaria; there are currently 63 vaccine candidates, 41 in preclinical and clinical stages of development. Vaccines are being designed to target pre-erythrocytic stages, erythrocytic stage or the sexual stages of Plasmodium taken up by a feeding mosquito, or the multiple stages. Two vaccines in preclinical and clinical development target P. falciparum; and the most advanced candidate is the pre-erythrocytic vaccine RTS,S which is in phase-III clinical trials. It is likely that world's first malaria vaccine will be available by 2015 at the country level. More efficacious second generation malaria vaccines are on the way to development. Safety, efficacy, cost and provision of the vaccine to all communities are major concerns in malaria vaccine issue. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 60-66

  18. Buying a Hearing Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatments & Cures Buying a Hearing Aid Cancer Treatment Scams Cancer Treatment Scams CURE-ious Bookmark Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Tests ... Money Privacy, Identity & Online Security Blog Video & Media Scam Alerts Get health and fitness updates by email ...

  19. The Aid Effectiveness Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL consists of empirical macro studies of the effects of development aid. At the end of 2004 it had reached 97 studies of three families, which we have summarized in one study each using meta-analysis. Studies of the effect on investments show that they rise by 1/3 of the aid – the rest is...... crowded out by a fall in savings. Studies of the effect on growth show an insignificant positive effect. Studies of the effect on growth, conditional on something else, have till now shown weak results. The Dutch Disease effect of aid has been ignored. The best aggregate estimate is that since its start...... in the early 1960s aid has increased the standard of living in the poor countries by 20%....

  20. Performance Aided Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario

    2014-01-01

    The paper present the methodologies and tools developed in the framework of Performance Aided Design (PAD), a term that indicates the shift in the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools from a mere translation in a digital environment of the operations once carried on paper, to an evolving...... paradigm where the increasing integration of parametric tools and performative analysis is changing the way we learn and design. The term Performance Aided Architectural Design (PAD) is proposed at the Master of Science of Architecture and Design at Aalborg University, with the aim of extending a tectonic...... tradition of architecture with computational tools, preparing the basis for the creation of the figure of a modern master builder, sitting at the boundary of the disciplines of architecture and engineering. Performance Aided Design focuses on the role of performative analysis, embedded tectonics, and...

  1. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying the white blood cells ... It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most ...

  2. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel

    inputs. We take as our point of departure a growth accounting analysis and review both intended and unintended effects of aid. Mozambique has benefited from sustained aid inflows in conflict, post-conflict and reconstruction periods. In each of these phases aid has made an unambiguous, positive...... sustained future growth, Mozambique will have to develop its capacity to maximise the benefits from its natural resources while ensuring at the same time the necessary framework is put in place to promote constructive integration in international markets...... contribution both enabling and supporting rapid growth since 1992. At the same time, the proliferation of donors and aid-supported interventions has burdened local administration and there is a distinct need to develop government accountability to its own citizens rather than donor agencies. In ensuring...

  3. World AIDS Day 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Excerpts of speeches given at a public rally on World AIDS Day 1998 underscore the need to energize support for those living with HIV/AIDS, emphasize the importance of increasing public education efforts, and memorialize those lost to the disease. Reverend Pat Bumgardner stressed the need to educate children about practicing safe sex and the dangers of drug use. He also focused attention on AIDS as a worldwide crisis, with the 30 million people who have HIV or AIDS. Councilwoman Margarita Lopez spoke about achieving objectives and securing resources through activism. She also condemned New York City's Mayor for trying to hinder the rally. Anne Chelimsky, who did not speak at the rally but attended it, reflected on her new role as an activist, and on how the rally affected her. PMID:11367196

  4. AidData

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — AidData is a research and innovation lab making information on development finance more accessible and actionable. Tracking more than $6 trillion dollars from 90+...

  5. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Casual contact, such as hugging Mosquitoes Participating in sports Touching items that were touched by a person ... 20 years. People with AIDS have had their immune system damaged by HIV. They are at very high ...

  6. House OK's Russian aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses the 2.5 Billion dollar aid package to Russia which House Appropriations Foreign Operations Subcommittee Chairman David Obey successfully defended on the House floor last June. Arizona Republican Jon Kyl offered an admendment that would cut 700 million from the package and was defeated with a 118 to 140 vote. The bill is currently in the hands of the Senate. The controversy over the bill and details concerning the aid package are discussed. The aid deal includes 250 million dollars for nuclear reactor safety and energy as well as environmental technical assistance, 655 million dollars to aid private sector development, and 704 million dollars for additional technical and economic assistance

  7. AIDS: A National Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issues in Science and Technology, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Contains excerpts from a special study on the AIDS epidemic by the Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. Presents an overview of the problem, outlines educational needs and public health measures, and identifies future research needs. (ML)

  8. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It kills or damages the body's immune system cells. AIDS stands ... is the most advanced stage of infection with HIV. HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with ...

  9. Fundamentals of vaccine immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela S Clem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available From a literature review of the current literature, this article provides an introduction to vaccine immunology including a primer on the components of the immune system, passive vs. active immunization, the mechanism(s by which immunizations stimulate(s immunity, and the types of vaccines available. Both the innate and adaptive immune subsystems are necessary to provide an effective immune response to an immunization. Further, effective immunizations must induce long-term stimulation of both the humoral and cell-mediated arms of the adaptive system by the production of effector cells and memory cells. At least seven different types of vaccines are currently in use or in development that produce this effective immunity and have contributed greatly to the prevention of infectious disease around the world.

  10. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    As every year, the Medical Service is taking part in the campaign to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal influenza is especially recommended for people suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney conditions or diabetes, for those recovering from a serious illness or surgical operation and for everyone over the age of 65. The influenza virus is transmitted by air and contact with contaminated surfaces, hence the importance of washing hands regularly with soap and / or disinfection using a hydro-alcoholic solution. From the onset of symptoms (fever> 38°, chills, cough, muscle aches and / or joint pain, fatigue) you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. In the present context of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, it is important to dissociate these two illnesses and emphasise that the two viruses and the vaccines used to combat them are quite different and that protection against one will not pr...

  11. AIDS: the hidden enemy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, J; Sabatier, R

    1987-01-01

    This article discusses the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic an its effect on developing countries, with emphasis on Africa. The AIDS death toll will be high in the US: 180,000 by 1991, but it will be in the millions in developing countries. In Africa, AIDS is mainly transmitted heterosexually, is as prevalent among women as among men, and is taking a serious toll among professional classes and young wage earners. The social costs of funerals has increased, and company clinics and sick pay funds have been overwhelmed. In Uganda, the epidemic adds to the state of psychological shock people have sufferred because of the civil war. Medical professionals have been hard-pressed to acquire equipment for testing blood for the virus, although there have been efforts to protect blood supplies through exhaustive testing. Endemic tuberculosis becomes an even more serious problem in developing countries, since AIDS lowers resistance to it. AIDS also effects many developing country children, usually through infected mothers, who can transmit AIDS through breast milk or during pregnancy of birth. This poses a dilemma for promoters of breastfeeding. It is also feared that innoculation of immunosuppressed children may be dangerous. The global picture suggests that Africa is hardest hit: seropositivity prevalence ranges from 0.7% of Congo blood donors to 33% of male donors in Lusaka Zambia. Brazil's cases are mainly homosexual, and in Asia the prevalence is mostly low, although there is a great potential danger in countries where prostitution and heroin addiction are prevalent. The only effective weapon against AIDS is education and blood testing to prevent spread. Despite good education programs in some countries, e.g. Rwanda, there is still widespread ignorance of how AIDS is spread. PMID:12314457

  12. Aid and Vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Filippo Presbitero

    2013-01-01

    Managing and identifying risks are a key challenge for Low Income Countries (LICs), which are extremely vulnerable to exogenous shocks. However, the use of risk management tools by developing countries is quite limited. The paper discusses in which ways aid could strengthen the capacity of LICs to deal with vulnerability to external shocks and to manage capital flows. We provide some novel empirical evidence on the potential role of aid as output stabilizer and shock absorber in recipient cou...

  13. Chagas' disease and AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Vaidian, Anil K; Louis M Weiss; Tanowitz, Herbert B.

    2004-01-01

    Chagas' disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi is an opportunistic infection in the setting of HIV/AIDS. Some individuals with HIV and chronic T. cruzi infection may experience a reactivation, which is most commonly manifested by meningoencephalitis. A reactivation myocarditis is the second most common manifestation. These presentations may be difficult to distinguish from toxoplasmosis in individuals with HIV/AIDS. The overlap of HIV and Trypanosoma cruzi infection occurs not only in endemic ar...

  14. [The liver and AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rull, S; Sanchís, M J; Palacios, A; Anguiz, A; Colomina, J

    1992-02-01

    Hepatic disorders in AIDS are very common, although the injuries observed are usually non-specific. This is the reason why the real usefulness of hepatic biopsy in this patients is being currently discussed. In this work, such aspect and the hepatic injuries observed in patients with AIDS are discussed. Current indications for hepatic biopsy are summarized, as well as its later manipulation in order to obtain maximum profitability of it. PMID:1576316

  15. World AIDS Day 2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CynthiaKirk; 刘保行

    2005-01-01

    December first was World AIDS Day. Last year, the campaign (运动;活动) centered on women and girls. They made up almost half of all people infected with the virus HIV that causes AIDS. And H1V was spreading faster among women than men in most areas of the world. These findings (发现) werefrom the yearly report by the United Nations and the World Health Organization, a UN agency

  16. Hearing aid adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemann, Trine; Matthews, Ben; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2012-01-01

    to the interaction during hearing aid fitting. This report of a Danish pilot study describes two such problems. The first problem arises from the requirement that the audiologist needs to ‘translate’ the patient’s subjective hearing description for making technological decisions. The second problem...... is the way in which the hearing aid user’s implicit and often unrealistic expectations are handled. This kind of research has potential application for developing a model of best practices....

  17. Controversies in vaccine mandates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantos, John D; Jackson, Mary Anne; Opel, Douglas J; Marcuse, Edgar K; Myers, Angela L; Connelly, Beverly L

    2010-03-01

    Policies that mandate immunization have always been controversial. The controversies take different forms in different contexts. For routine childhood immunizations, many parents have fears about both short- and long-term side effects. Parental worries change as the rate of vaccination in the community changes. When most children are vaccinated, parents worry more about side effects than they do about disease. Because of these worries, immunization rates go down. As immunization rates go down, disease rates go up, and parents worry less about side effects of vaccination and more about the complications of the diseases. Immunization rates then go up. For teenagers, controversies arise about the criteria that should guide policies that mandate, rather than merely recommend and encourage, certain immunizations. In particular, policy makers have questioned whether immunizations for human papillomavirus, or other diseases that are not contagious, should be required. For healthcare workers, debates have focused on the strength of institutional mandates. For years, experts have recommended that all healthcare workers be immunized against influenza. Immunizations for other infections including pertussis, measles, mumps, and hepatitis are encouraged but few hospitals have mandated such immunizations-instead, they rely on incentives and education. Pandemics present a different set of problems as people demand vaccines that are in short supply. These issues erupt into controversy on a regular basis. Physicians and policy makers must respond both in their individual practices and as advisory experts to national and state agencies. The articles in this volume will discuss the evolution of national immunization programs in these various settings. We will critically examine the role of vaccine mandates. We will discuss ways that practitioners and public health officials should deal with vaccine refusal. We will contrast responses of the population as a whole, within the

  18. Knowledge and attitudes towards HIV vaccines among Soweto adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIntyre James A

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore adolescent HIV risk perception, HIV vaccine knowledge, willingness to participate in future HIV vaccine clinical trials, and the factors that influence willingness to participate among high school students in Soweto, South Africa, we recruited school-going youth through randomly selected local high schools. All pupils within the selected schools from whom parental consent and child assent could be obtained were eligible for participation. A self-administered, facilitated questionnaire was completed by all participants. Findings Perception of adolescent HIV risk was high. Some misconceptions regarding vaccine research were common, particularly regarding placebo and potential eligibility criteria for prophylactic vaccine trials. Of 240 responses to the willingness item, 84 (35% indicated they were "probably willing" and 126 (52.5% that they were "definitely willing to participate". There were no significant differences in willingness by gender, age, school grade, or institution. Factors that were rated as "very important" in determining willingness included receiving current information about HIV research [n = 201 (88.9%], doing something to honour people who have HIV or have died of AIDS [n = 168 (70.9%], getting free counselling and testing [n = 167 (70.5], that participants may receive some protection against HIV infection from the vaccine [n = 160 (70.2%], and improving motivation to avoid risky behaviour [n = 134 (59%]. Conclusion Soweto school-going youth report high degrees of willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials. This may be related to the high levels of adolescent HIV risk perception. Whether hypothetical willingness translates to participation will await data from adolescent HIV vaccine trials.

  19. The relationship between influenza vaccination habits and location of vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Uscher-Pines

    Full Text Available Although use of non-medical settings for vaccination such as retail pharmacies has grown in recent years, little is known about how various settings are used by individuals with different vaccination habits. We aimed to assess the relationship between repeated, annual influenza vaccination and location of vaccination.We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 4,040 adults in 2010.We fielded a nationally representative survey using an online research panel operated by Knowledge Networks. The completion rate among sampled panelists was 73%.39% of adults reported that they have never received a seasonal influenza vaccination. Compared to those who were usually or always vaccinated from year to year, those who sometimes or rarely received influenza vaccinations were significantly more likely to be vaccinated in a medical setting in 2009-2010.RESULTS indicate that while medical settings are the dominant location for vaccination overall, they play an especially critical role in serving adults who do not regularly receive vaccinations. By exploring vaccination habits, we can more appropriately choose among interventions designed to encourage the initiation vs. maintenance of desired behaviors.

  20. Smallpox vaccines for biodefense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Richard B; Ovsyannikova, Inna; Poland, Gregory A

    2009-11-01

    Few diseases can match the enormous impact that smallpox has had on mankind. Its influence can be seen in the earliest recorded histories of ancient civilizations in Egypt and Mesopotamia. With fatality rates up to 30%, smallpox left its survivors with extensive scarring and other serious sequelae. It is estimated that smallpox killed 500 million people in the 19th and 20th centuries. Given the ongoing concerns regarding the use of variola as a biological weapon, this review will focus on the licensed vaccines as well as current research into next-generation vaccines to protect against smallpox and other poxviruses. PMID:19837292

  1. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faeze Foroughi-Parvar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now.

  2. Japanese encephalitis vaccines: current vaccines and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monath, T P

    2002-01-01

    Vaccination against JE ideally should be practiced in all areas of Asia where the virus is responsible for human disease. The WHO has placed a high priority on the development of a new vaccine for prevention of JE. Some countries in Asia (Japan, South Korea, North Korea, Taiwan, Vietnam, Thailand, and the PRC) manufacture JE vaccines and practice childhood immunization, while other countries suffering endemic or epidemic disease (India, Nepal, Laos, Cambodia, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines) have no JE vaccine manufacturing or policy for use. With the exception of the PRC, all countries practicing JE vaccination use formalin inactivated mouse brain vaccines, which are relatively expensive and are associated with rare but clinically significant allergic and neurological adverse events. New inactivated JE vaccines manufactured in Vero cells are in advanced preclinical or early clinical development in Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and the PRC. An empirically derived, live attenuated vaccine (SA14-14-2) is widely used in the PRC. Trials in the PRC have shown SA14-14-2 to be safe and effective when administered in a two-dose regimen, but regulatory concerns over manufacturing and control have restricted international distribution. The genetic basis of attenuation of SA14-14-2 has been partially defined. A new live attenuated vaccine (ChimeriVax-JE) that uses a reliable flavivirus vaccine--yellow fever 17D--as a live vector for the envelope genes of SA14-14-2 virus is in early clinical trials and appears to be well tolerated and immunogenic after a single dose. Vaccinia and avipox vectored vaccines have also been tested clinically, but are no longer being pursued due to restricted effectiveness mediated by anti-vector immunity. Other approaches to JE vaccines--including naked DNA, oral vaccination, and recombinant subunit vaccines--have been reviewed. PMID:12082985

  3. Neurological complications of rabies vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullu, Millind S; Rodrigues, Sean; Muranjan, Mamta N; Bavdekar, Sandeep B; Kamat, Jaishree R; Hira, Priya R

    2003-02-01

    The rabies vaccines containing neural elements are used in some countries including India. We report three cases that presented with various neurological complications following the use of these vaccines. The presenting manifestations included those of encephalitis, radiculitis and acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. These neurological complications are highlighted so that scientific evidence compels the community to discontinue the use of the neural tissue rabies vaccines. Newer generation cell culture rabies vaccines should be preferred over the neural tissue rabies vaccines for post-exposure prophylaxis. PMID:12626831

  4. Experience with registered mucosal vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Guido; Griot-Wenk, Monika; Metcalfe, Ian C; Lang, Alois B; Viret, Jean-François

    2003-01-30

    Most pathogens gain access to their host through mucosal surfaces. It is therefore desirable to develop vaccination strategies that lead to mucosal immune responses. Ideally, a vaccine should be administered mucosally in order to elicit mucosal protection. Several attenuated live viral and bacterial pathogens are registered as oral vaccines for human use, including the oral polio vaccine (Sabin) as well as attenuated strains of Salmonella typhi and Vibrio cholerae. These attenuated bacterial live vaccines-S. typhi Ty21a as well as V. cholerae CVD 103-HgR-are employed as vaccines against typhoid and cholera, respectively. In this manuscript, we review the immune responses that are induced by these vaccines, with a focus on mucosal immunity. PMID:12531339

  5. Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Medina, Candida;

    Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?......Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?...

  6. Alphavirus-Based Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Lundstrom

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alphavirus vectors have demonstrated high levels of transient heterologous gene expression both in vitro and in vivo and, therefore, possess attractive features for vaccine development. The most commonly used delivery vectors are based on three single-stranded encapsulated alphaviruses, namely Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Alphavirus vectors have been applied as replication-deficient recombinant viral particles and, more recently, as replication-proficient particles. Moreover, in vitro transcribed RNA, as well as layered DNA vectors have been applied for immunization. A large number of highly immunogenic viral structural proteins expressed from alphavirus vectors have elicited strong neutralizing antibody responses in multispecies animal models. Furthermore, immunization studies have demonstrated robust protection against challenges with lethal doses of virus in rodents and primates. Similarly, vaccination with alphavirus vectors expressing tumor antigens resulted in prophylactic protection against challenges with tumor-inducing cancerous cells. As certain alphaviruses, such as Chikungunya virus, have been associated with epidemics in animals and humans, attention has also been paid to the development of vaccines against alphaviruses themselves. Recent progress in alphavirus vector development and vaccine technology has allowed conducting clinical trials in humans.

  7. Immunology of BVDV vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of vaccination to control bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections presents exceptional challenges due to the nature of the virus, the unique interaction of the virus with the immune system, and its ability to establish persistent infections. The lack of proof reading function during th...

  8. Vaccines Help Protect Us

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the importance of vaccines and how they work.  Created: 4/23/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/23/2013.

  9. Developments in rabies vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, D J; Fooks, A R; Johnson, N

    2012-09-01

    The development of vaccines that prevent rabies has a long and distinguished history, with the earliest preceding modern understanding of viruses and the mechanisms of immune protection against disease. The correct application of inactivated tissue culture-derived vaccines is highly effective at preventing the development of rabies, and very few failures are recorded. Furthermore, oral and parenteral vaccination is possible for wildlife, companion animals and livestock, again using inactivated tissue culture-derived virus. However, rabies remains endemic in many regions of the world and causes thousands of human deaths annually. There also remain no means of prophylaxis for rabies once the virus enters the central nervous system (CNS). One reason for this is the poor immune response within the CNS to infection with rabies virus (RABV). New approaches to vaccination using modified rabies viruses that express components of the innate immune system are being applied to this problem. Preliminary reports suggest that direct inoculation of such viruses could trigger an effective anti-viral response and prevent a fatal outcome from RABV infection. PMID:22861358

  10. Genetically modified tumour vaccines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 3, Suppl. 1 (2005), S7. ISSN 1214-021X. [Cells VI - Biological Days /18./. 24.10.2005-26.10.2005, České Budějovice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : tumour vaccines * HPV16 Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  11. Dissecting Cancer Vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer Couzin; 丁东

    2004-01-01

    @@ If there's one thing cancer vaccine developers would like to know, it's why only a handful of patients respond strongly to their inventions. Now at an immunology② meeting here, a team of scientists reported that a set of patients with metastatic melanoma③ may be revealing an answer to that mysterious question.

  12. Polio vaccine and retroviruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Beale, J; Horaud, F.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we consider the main steps in the process of manufacture of oral polio vaccine and assess the probable clearance factor for HIV retrovirus at each step. We conclude that the processes employed would have eliminated retrovirus contamination for all practical purposes.

  13. Vaccine Adverse Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about data collection Información en español acerca del Sistema para Reportar Reacciones Adversas a las Vacunas (VAERS) ( ... by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ...

  14. Stabilization of live Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines during vaccination with second generation Spray-Vac® vaccine stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilutions and application of live Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines without the use of vaccine stabilizing compounds may lead to significant loss of vaccine viability and loss of vaccine efficacy. Vaccine viability may decreases due to osmotic lysis of the mycoplasma as well as the presence of chlo...

  15. AIDS ORPHANS GET SPECIAL VISITOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao visits AIDS orphans in Shangcai County,central China’s Henan Province,on November 30,a day before the 20th World AIDS Day. The region of Shangcai has the highest concentration of people living with HIV/AIDS in China. The Chinese Government has released a package of policies that offer people living with HIV/AIDS free medicine,health checks and consultations,as well as free schooling to AIDS orphans.

  16. Early AIDS dementia complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A frequent complication of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is AIDS dementia complex (ADC). The authors evaluated seven patients with AIDS (aged 28-55 years, all male) for ADC by psychiatric evaluation, neuropsychological testing, CT scanning, and IMP-SPECT. Six of seven patients exhibited cognitive or behavioral abnormalities. Neuropsychological testing showed general deficits but no cases of explicit dementia. SPECT showed marked abnormalities in two cases: posterior temporal-parietal diminution of tracer uptake in one case (posterior/anterior=0.81) and marked right/left subcortical asymmetry (1.17) in the other. In three additional cases there was asymmetric tracer uptake in the subcortical and parietal regions. CT findings were normal in all seven cases. The authors conclude that functional imaging with the use of IMP-SPECT may be a useful method to follow ADC progression and response to therapy

  17. Swine flu vaccination for patients with cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2011-01-01

    In oncology, vaccination is accepted as an important preventive measure. As a tertiary prevention protocol, several vaccines are recommended for the oncology patients. The newest vaccine in medicine is swine flu vaccine which is developed for prevention of novel H1N1 influenza virus infection. In this paper, the author will briefly discuss on swine flu vaccination for oncology patients.

  18. A constitution for AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, L M

    1996-01-15

    The Indian Health Organization projected the number of deaths per day due to AIDS by the year 2000 at 10,000. An interdisciplinary international conference was held in New Delhi to draft an international law governing the issues related to AIDS. Human freedom and public health policies are the most affected by this disease. In the absence of an international AIDS law, judicial verdicts set precedents and could have serious ramifications. A participant from the John Marshall Law School, Chicago, suggested that instead of making new laws, the existing ones from the colonial past should be repealed. This includes Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, which provides criminal sanctions against those who indulge in unnatural relations with man, woman, or animal. Penalizing homosexuality will only perpetuate clandestine relations and spread the virus into their families. Another participant seconded this motion stating that even a sex worker must be protected from abuse and indignity. The National AIDS Control Organization responded to the criticism that the government had not utilized all the World Bank funds allocated for anti-AIDS projects. The trends of the epidemic were the most important indicators not just the numbers. In Manipur and Mizoram, infection was almost entirely due to injecting drug use. The Saheli project undertaken in the red-light areas of Bombay encompassed brothel owners and prostitutes, which could be replicated in other areas. Because existing government policies were focusing on prevention, there was no protection of an HIV-infected individual's privacy, one participant from Madras stated. The confidentiality issue was also echoed by a US participant. The New Delhi Declaration and Action Plan on HIV/AIDS was also discussed. It forbids discrimination in employment, education, housing, health care, social security, travel, and marital and reproductive rights. Providing sterile needles and ensuring the safety of the blood supply were other concerns

  19. Vaccine against human Papilloma Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Reina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available At present two prophylactic human papilloma virus (HPV vaccines are commercially available. The Tetravalent vaccine against infection with four VPH types (6, 11, 16, and 18 distributed in the national program in Colombia and the Bivalent vaccine against the VPH types 16 and 18, respectively.  The efficacy and safety of both vaccines has periodically been assessed and they have been declared efficacious and safe by the health authorities of several countries and the Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety ( GACVS of the World’s Health Organization (WHO.In its report of March 2014 the GACVS analyzed the evidence of the relationship between the  Human Papillomavirus Vaccine with  >175 million of doses distributed worldwide and autoimmune diseases, particularly Multiple Sclerosis, Aluminum as adjuvant, Vasculitis caused by vaccine DNA fragments and the Complex Regional Pain Syndrome described in Japan.   The Committee ratified the strict vaccine safety control and based on a thorough examination of existing evidence, reaffirmed that the risk-benefit profile remains favorable. The case of the children of Carmen de Bolivar in Colombia has been described by several authors in other countries as "Massive Psychogenic Event", which has absolute no relationship with the vaccine but its high media dissemination resulted into disastrous consequences for the national vaccination program

  20. Experimental rabies vaccines for humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGettigan, James P

    2010-10-01

    Rabies remains a global public health threat that kills more than 55,000 people per year. Rabies disproportionately affects children and, therefore, is ranked the seventh most important infectious disease due to years lost. Prevention of human rabies is accomplished by controlling rabies in domestic and wild animals, including the use of vaccination programs. The usefulness of human rabies vaccines is hampered by high cost, complicated vaccination regimens and lack of compliance, especially in areas of Africa and Asia where human rabies infections are endemic. A single-dose vaccine would greatly benefit efforts to combat this global health threat. However, a single-dose vaccine based on current inactivated vaccines does not appear feasible and other approaches are needed. Technology has advanced since modern human rabies vaccines were developed over 40 years ago. In addition, our understanding of immunological principles that influence the outcome of vaccination has increased. This article describes the current status of inactivated rabies virus vaccines and recent developments arising from the use of reverse genetics technologies designed to develop replication-deficient or single-cycle live rabies virus-based vectors for use as a single-dose rabies vaccine for humans. PMID:20923268

  1. Aid Supplies Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel

    The recent financial crisis has rekindled interest in the foreign aid supply behaviour of bilateral donors. Using the latest data covering the period 1960-2009, this paper examines how such behaviour is related to domestic factors. Based on a simple empirical model, a distinction is made between...... substantial heterogeneity between countries. There is also good evidence that donor behaviour continues to evolve over time. As such, past trends in aid supplies are unlikely to provide a good guide to those of the future....

  2. Hearing Aid Personalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Nielsen, Jakob; Jensen, Bjørn Sand;

    2013-01-01

    Modern digital hearing aids require and offer a great level of personalization. Today, this personalization is not performed based directly on what the user actually perceives, but on a hearing-care professional’s interpretation of what the user explains about what is perceived. In this paper, an...... interactive personalization system based on Gaussian process regression and active learning is proposed, which personalize the hearing aids based directly on what the user perceives. Preliminary results demonstrate a significant difference between a truly personalized setting obtained with the proposed system...

  3. Computer aided control engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymkat, Maciej; Ravn, Ole

    1997-01-01

    Current developments in the field of Computer Aided Control Engineering (CACE) have a visible impact on the design methodologies and the structure of the software tools supporting them. Today control engineers has at their disposal libraries, packages or programming environments that may be speci......Current developments in the field of Computer Aided Control Engineering (CACE) have a visible impact on the design methodologies and the structure of the software tools supporting them. Today control engineers has at their disposal libraries, packages or programming environments that may...

  4. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...... been effective in furthering economic growth and development is discussed in some detail. I add perspective and identify some critical unresolved issues. I finally turn to the current development debate and discuss some key concerns, which I believe should be kept in mind in formulating any agenda for...

  5. The use of probabilistic graphical models (PGMs) to develop a cost-effective vaccination strategy against Campylobacter in poultry

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Madsen, A.; Vigre, Håkan

    2012-01-01

    Human campylobacteriosis represents an important economic and public health problem. Campylobacter originating from feces of infected chickens will contaminate chicken meat posing a risk to the consumer. Vaccination against Campylobacter in broilers is one probable measure to reduce consumers’ exposure to Campylobacter.In this presentation we focus on the development of a computerized decision support system to aid management decisions on Campylobacter vaccination of commercial broilers. Broi...

  6. Antibody-Mediated Fcγ Receptor-Based Mechanisms of HIV Inhibition: Recent Findings and New Vaccination Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Christiane Moog; Vincent Holl; Maryse Peressin

    2009-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic is one of the most devastating pandemics worldwide. Today, the major route of infection by HIV is sexual transmission. One of the most promising strategies for vaccination against HIV sexual infection is the development of a mucosal vaccine, which should be able to induce strong local and systemic protective immunity. It is believed that both humoral and cellular immune responses are needed for inducing a sterilizing protection against HIV. Recently, passive administrati...

  7. Parasite vaccines--a reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, J P; Mulcahy, G

    2001-07-12

    Over the last decade, the anti-parasitics market has been the fastest growing sector of the overall $18 billion animal health market. While drugs for the treatment of parasites of livestock still dominate this sector and will continue to be developed or re-formulated, because of consumer demands for chemical-free food and of concerns regarding the environment and animal welfare there is a growing interest in the development of safe and effective vaccines. There is also a call for vaccines in the lucrative $3 billion-plus companion animal market. These demands for vaccines will add a greater impetus to an area that has seen tremendous success in the last 15 years. A number of anti-parasite vaccines have been developed, e.g. the recombinant 45w and EG95 oncosphere proteins against Taenia ovis and Echinococcus granulosis, respectively, and the Bm86 vaccine against Boophilus microplus. In addition, the cathepsin L vaccines against the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, and the H11 vaccine against Haemonchus contortus are progressing well. There are also many additional vaccine candidates for H. contortus and for other nematodes such as Ostertagia and Trichostrongylus spp. that may ultimately lead to broad-spectrum gastrointestinal worm vaccines. Live or attenuated-live vaccines are available for the control of avian coccidiosis, toxplasmosis in sheep and anaplasmosis in cattle, although molecular vaccines against protozoans are still proving elusive. The wealth of information in genomics, proteomics and immunology that has been forthcoming together will new methods of vaccine production and delivery should see many new vaccines reach the marketplace in the near future. PMID:11516584

  8. The Safety of Adjuvanted Vaccines Revisited: Vaccine-Induced Narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S Sohail; Montomoli, Emanuele; Pasini, Franco Laghi; Steinman, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Despite the very high benefit-to-risk ratio of vaccines, the fear of negative side effects has discouraged many people from getting vaccinated, resulting in the reemergence of previously controlled diseases such as measles, pertussis and diphtheria. This fear has been amplified more recently by multiple epidemiologic studies that confirmed the link of an AS03-adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine (Pandemrix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Germany) used in Europe during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic [A(H1N1) pdm09] with the development of narcolepsy, a chronic sleep disorder, in children and adolescents. However, public misperceptions of what adjuvants are and why they are used in vaccines has created in some individuals a closed "black box" attitude towards all vaccines. The focus of this review article is to revisit this "black box" using the example of narcolepsy associated with the European AS03-adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine. PMID:27228647

  9. Distempter Vaccination of Dogs: Factors Which Could Cause Vaccine Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Povey, R. Charles

    1986-01-01

    Distemper vaccination failures are uncommon. A number of factors which could cause such failure are discussed. The blocking effect of maternal antibody can be expected in 50% of pups at six weeks but is not important after 12 weeks. Among intercurrent infections, the immunosuppressive effect of parvovirus has the potential to precipitate vaccine-induced distemper. Corticosteroids at levels up to 10 mg/kg do not interfere with successful distemper vaccination. Anesthesia or surgery has little ...

  10. Undesired consequences of vaccination and faults in vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Prodanov Jasna; Došen Radoslav; Lalić Milan; Gagrčin Mladen; Orlić Dušan B.

    2002-01-01

    Different diseases in domestic animals require the application of different methods of immunological protection, depending on the type of vaccine manner of application and type of adjuvant. The objective of the work was to consider general principles and the basic requirements for efficient vaccination. It points out existing faults in practice which lead to the occurrence of mistakes made during vaccination and the appearance of resulting undesired consequences. There are many reasons why va...

  11. Vaccination Against Tuberculosis With Whole-Cell Mycobacterial Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriba, Thomas J; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Henri Lambert, Paul; Sanicas, Melvin; Martin, Carlos; Neyrolles, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Live attenuated and killed whole-cell vaccines (WCVs) offer promising vaccination strategies against tuberculosis. A number of WCV candidates, based on recombinant bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or related mycobacterial species are in various stages of preclinical or clinical development. In this review, we discuss the vaccine candidates and key factors shaping the development pathway for live and killed WCVs and provide an update on progress. PMID:27247343

  12. Current ethical issues in HIV/AIDS research and HIV/AIDS care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlongwa, P

    2016-04-01

    HIV/AIDS is a global public health concern with more than 30 million deaths having been reported. Over 70% of the 35 million people with HIV/AIDS live in sub-Saharan Africa. The current available antiretroviral treatments are limited because they do not cure but slow the progression of disease. Therefore, care and treatment for HIV/AIDS and its related research, especially in HIV-preventive vaccine trials, require stringent ethical guidelines because of the vulnerability of the affected individuals as it with all clinical trials. These guidelines should incorporate the basic principles in ethics which include autonomy of individuals, beneficence, non-malfeasance and justice in the care and participation of individuals in research. With at least one in five African adults infected with the disease living in sub-Saharan Africa, this review will discuss the current ethical issues in HIV care and HIV research based on the South African context as well as exploring some of the issues globally. PMID:27109274

  13. Tetravalent DNA vaccine product as a vaccine candidate against dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Kevin R; Teneza-Mora, Nimfa; Raviprakash, Kanakatte

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is the most important arbovirus worldwide and is the virus that causes dengue fever and the more severe dengue hemorrhagic fever. There are four serotypes of dengue with each possessing the ability to cause disease. Developing a preventive vaccine is the most efficient and effective way to prevent these diseases, and because immunity to one serotype does not protect against the other serotypes, a vaccine must provide tetravalent protection. We used DNA immunization as a platform to develop a tetravalent vaccine. In this chapter, we describe the laboratory, regulatory, and clinical methodology for evaluating a candidate tetravalent vaccine in a Phase 1 clinical trial. PMID:24715294

  14. Knowledge about aids/HIV infection among female college students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the level of awareness about HIV/ AIDs infection among female college students of Lahore. Results: Ninety-five percent students had heard about HIV/AIDS and its presence in Pakistan, 61.7 % students knew that HIV/AIDS is caused by germs and 91.2% knew about its transmissibility. Over 70% of students knew that HIV can be transmitted through sexual contact, infected blood transfusion, and re-use of infected injection needles. Moreover, only 19.2% mentioned ear/nose piercing with infected needles while 46.8% mentioned breast-feeding as sources of transmission of HIV/AIDS. However, 57% were of the view that second hand clothing cannot spread AIDS. Individuals having multiple sexual partners (78.2%), drug addicts (38.8%), homosexuals (39.2%), commercial sex workers (52.2%) and health care workers (16.2%) were identified as high-risk groups. Only 33.2% student perceived that women are at higher risk of acquiring HIV as compared to men. Regarding prevention of AIDS, 61.0% mentioned avoiding promiscuous sex, 49.3% knew use of condoms and 60.2% were aware that AIDS can be prevented by avoiding homosexuality. Sixty-eight percent and 70.2% students respectively held the view that avoiding used needles for injections in hospitals and laboratories for screening blood or blood products can prevent AIDS, while 78.2% and 55.8% respectively knew that there is no cure or vaccine available for AIDS. Majority of the students (71.5%) have discussed AIDS with their friends while discussion with siblings, parents and teachers was not common. Conclusion: The general level of awareness regarding HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention was satisfactory among college girls included in the study. However, a number of misconceptions and myths like getting HIV/AIDS through nose/ear piercing, its relation to Islam, and use of second hand clothing need to be clarified. (author)

  15. Spin models inferred from patient data faithfully describe HIV fitness landscapes and enable rational vaccine design

    CERN Document Server

    Shekhar, Karthik; Ferguson, Andrew L; Barton, John P; Kardar, Mehran; Chakraborty, Arup K

    2013-01-01

    Mutational escape from vaccine induced immune responses has thwarted the development of a successful vaccine against AIDS, whose causative agent is HIV, a highly mutable virus. Knowing the virus' fitness as a function of its proteomic sequence can enable rational design of potent vaccines, as this information can focus vaccine induced immune responses to target mutational vulnerabilities of the virus. Spin models have been proposed as a means to infer intrinsic fitness landscapes of HIV proteins from patient-derived viral protein sequences. These sequences are the product of non-equilibrium viral evolution driven by patient-specific immune responses, and are subject to phylogenetic constraints. How can such sequence data allow inference of intrinsic fitness landscapes? We combined computer simulations and variational theory \\'{a} la Feynman to show that, in most circumstances, spin models inferred from patient-derived viral sequences reflect the correct rank order of the fitness of mutant viral strains. Our f...

  16. Influence of maternally-derived antibodies in 6-week old dogs for the efficacy of a new vaccine to protect dogs against virulent challenge with canine distemper virus, adenovirus or parvovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Wilson

    2014-01-01

    In conclusion, two doses of the DHPPi/L4R vaccine administered to dogs from six weeks of age in the presence of maternal antibodies aided in the protection against virulent challenge with CDV, CAV-1 or CPV.

  17. The emergence of HIV/AIDS in the Americas and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M Thomas P; Rambaut, Andrew; Wlasiuk, Gabriela;

    2007-01-01

    HIV-1 group M subtype B was the first HIV discovered and is the predominant variant of AIDS virus in most countries outside of sub-Saharan Africa. However, the circumstances of its origin and emergence remain unresolved. Here we propose a geographic sequence and time line for the origin of subtype...... B and the emergence of pandemic HIV/AIDS out of Africa. Using HIV-1 gene sequences recovered from archival samples from some of the earliest known Haitian AIDS patients, we find that subtype B likely moved from Africa to Haiti in or around 1966 (1962-1970) and then spread there for some years before...... HIV/AIDS epidemic outside sub-Saharan Africa and the most genetically diverse subtype B epidemic, which might present challenges for HIV-1 vaccine design and testing. The emergence of the pandemic variant of subtype B was an important turning point in the history of AIDS, but its spread was likely...

  18. Computer aided control engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymkat, Maciej; Ravn, Ole

    Current developments in the field of Computer Aided Control Engineering (CACE) have a visible impact on the design methodologies and the structure of the software tools supporting them. Today control engineers has at their disposal libraries, packages or programming environments that may be...

  19. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health days Meetings and consultations 2014 Fact sheets Features Commentaries 2014 Multimedia Contacts HIV/AIDS Fact sheet Updated July 2016 Key facts HIV continues to be a major global public health issue, having claimed more than 35 million lives so far. In 2015, 1.1 (940 000– ...

  20. Computer aided magnet design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the elements of a computer aided magnet design system is outlined. The methods of solving the field equations are briefly reviewed, followed by a survey of available codes. Particular examples of the use of RAL codes in solving 3D magnetic design problems are given. Future developments are discussed. (author)

  1. Computer aided safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces 20 selected papers from the 38 papers presented at the Technical Committee/Workshop on Computer Aided Safety Analysis organized by the IAEA in co-operation with the Institute of Atomic Energy in Otwock-Swierk, Poland on 25-29 May 1987. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 20 technical papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Hearing Aids Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Globally, hearing loss is the second most frequent disability. About 80% of the persons affected by hearing loss do not use hearing aids. The goal of this edited volume is to present a theoretically founded, interdisciplinary approach geared at understanding and improving social interaction impac...

  3. AIDS, a development challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    During the Joint Conference of African Ministers of Planning and Finance, hosted by the UN Economic Commission for Africa in Addis Ababa on May 6-8, 1999, HIV/AIDS was highlighted as one of the major agendas for development planning. AIDS was considered to have a major impact on the household economy, the private sector, and at the macroeconomic level. Aside from the emotional impact of losing a loved one, the families of deceased HIV-infected individuals suffer an almost 50% reduction of income. This would consequently lead to cutting down on educational expenditures. On the other hand, national economies and private sectors suffer from a decreased purchasing power and loss of competitiveness in the global economy due to illiteracy. Furthermore, 50% of the national budget would be allocated for AIDS treatment, while private companies would experience a 7-20% decrease in profits as a result of high cost of medical treatment. In addition, the reduced pool of skilled labor and high expense of training would eventually bring about a decrease in high quality foreign investment. At the macroeconomic level, AIDS would result in a 1% reduction of gross domestic product growth per capita annually. It was suggested that strong political support, broad institutional participation and carefully selected program intervention, as well as openness about the disease and information dissemination on its cause and spread are deemed effective in the plan of eliminating the spread of the disease. PMID:12349447

  4. Leishmaniasis and AIDS coinfection*

    OpenAIRE

    Hozannah, Adriana; Santos, Monica; Chrusciak-Talhari, Anette; Talhari, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis and HIV coinfection has been reported in Brazil since the initial description of AIDS in the country. We report an HIV-positive patient under antiretroviral treatment who presented with cutaneous leishmaniasis which was successfully treated with meglumine antimoniate.

  5. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  6. Studying Aid: Some Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractINVESTIGATING IDEAS, IDEOLOGIES AND PRACTICES This paper presents some methods for trying to make sense of international aid and of its study.1 Some of the methods may be deemed ethnographic; the others are important partners to them, but rather different. In the course of discussing q

  7. AIDS Overspill to Everyman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Xu Wenqing, national project officer of the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), recently issued a warning that the men/women ratio of HIV infection in China now stands at 5:5. This indicates that AiDS now threatens other than intravenous drug users, sex workers and hemophiliacs.

  8. Apartheid and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, A T

    1989-11-25

    To persuade South Africa to abolish its apartheid policy several measures have been taken by the international community, including economic sanctions. The harm done by sanctions to the South African economy is obvious. As economic activity has slowed down, unemployment, especially in the black community, has risen. For the unemployed poverty and hunger are harsh realities while for those lucky enough to have jobs income remains quite high. Prostitution has become a way of redistributing income and for many families it is the only way to avoid starvation. With prostitution, however, has come AIDS: it is estimated that HIV infection is doubling every 5-8 months. On 1 calculation 85% of sexually active blacks could be infected with HIV by 1996; most would proceed to AIDS and die, leaving millions of children without parents. Although economic sanctions have speeded up some measure of reform in South Africa they are now harming the very people they were intended to help. Furthermore insidious voices are already being heard saying the government should stop all reform processes and anti-AIDS campaigns and just "sit it out" for the next few years. A further consequence of an ailing economy is the unavailability of funding for those who wish to curb the spread of AIDS via educational and other programs. [Full text] PMID:2573792

  9. DIAPASON, supervision aid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diapason, a supervision aid system, gives to the operator a synthetic representation of the process. It permits to predict the evolution of the process in order to realize an anticipated control; in incidental conditions, it permits a precocious detection and gives a default diagnostic. It comprises 3 modules used in a spent fuel reprocessing simulator. 9 refs

  10. Oesophageal candiasis in AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, S. P. S.; Ranga, Rupender K.; Singh, Jagat; Yadav, Rohtas

    2003-01-01

    With the explosion in the number of AIDS patients, many of these are likely to consult to otolaryngologists the head & neck is a rather common site to be affected. Sometimes only oesophageal candidiasis is the presenting feature as in the present case which is being reported show typical radiological appearance. the differential diagnosis and treatment of nesophageal candidiasis is briefly discussed

  11. Aid Projects Benefit Xigaze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Motivated by the thirdnational conference onwork in Tibet held by theCPC Central Committeeand the State Council meeting in July1994, Shanghai and Shandong provincedecided to provide aid to the Xigazearea from May 1995 onwards. Thefourth conference on work in Tibet heldin May 2001 again established that the

  12. More than First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoessler, Sally

    2011-01-01

    The school nurse is an important member of the school team since school health services keep students in school, in the classroom, and ready to learn. Although school nurses are often seen as the people who deliver first aid at school, their role is much deeper and has such breadth that only a registered, professional nurse has the skill set to…

  13. Agglomeration and aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brakman (Steven); J.H. Garretsen (Harry); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractA key issue in development economics is the explanation of core-periphery patterns around the world. Combining this issue with that of analyzing unilateral transfers (e.g. foreign aid) points in the direction of the use of New Economic Geography (NEG) models which, so far, has not been d

  14. First Aid Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a challenge wherein students will be asked to design a portable first aid kit that is normally carried in a recreational vehicle (RV), but can also be hand-carried or backpacked off road for distances of approximately 1-2 miles. This can be a very practical challenge for the students because it touches everyone. Everybody…

  15. First aid advisor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saffer, S.I.; Weng, Wen-Chang [Texas A & M Univ., Commerce, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A knowledge-based system (KBS), First Aid Advisor (FAA), is developed to provide a guidance for either a trained or untrained person to take some emergent actions to rescue the victim from life-threatening hazard or to prevent from causing serious problem before the Emergency Medical Service System (EMS) personnels arrive the scene. The First Aid Advisor will collect victim`s information by interacting with the user through a sequence of questions, analyze the victim`s problem, and give instructions step by step before offering a final advice. Since all the possible conditions are taken into consideration, it will guide the user to perform first aid from the most to the least urgent step for the victim. Furthermore, it will offer a suitable first aid advice for victim and eliminate the possibility of wrong actions done by trained person due to carelessness or nervousness. Offering advice to handle problems involving life-threatening conditions is the main objective of this system. In this paper, we will describe six major components of FAA and their respective tasks. Decision tables and dependency diagrams used in FAA implementation will also be described. System performance issues will conclude the paper.

  16. AIDS and associated malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charles; WOOD; William; HARRINGTON; Jr

    2005-01-01

    AIDS associated malignancies (ARL) is a major complication associated with AIDS patients upon immunosuppression.Chronically immunocompromised patients have a markedly increased risk of developing lymphoproliferative disease. In the era of potent antiretrovirals therapy (ARV), the malignant complications due to HIV- 1 infection have decreased in developed nations where ARV is administered, but still poses a major problem in developing countries where HIV- 1incidence is high and ARV is still not yet widely available. Even in ARV treated individuals there is a concern that the prolonged survival of many HIV- 1 carriers is likely to eventually result in an increased number of malignancies diagnosed.Malignancies that were found to have high incidence in HIV-infected individuals are Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), Hodgkin's disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The incidence of NHL has increased nearly 200 fold in HIV-positive patients, and accounts for a greater percentage of AIDS defining illness in the US and Europe since the advent of HAART therapy. These AIDS related lymphomas are distinct from their counterparts seen in HIV- 1 seronegative patients.For example nearly half of all cases of ARL are associated with the presence of a gamma herpesvirus, Epstein Barr virus (EBV) or human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8)/Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV). The pathogenesis of ARLs is complex. B-cell proliferation driven by chronic antigenemia resulting in the induction of polyclonal and ultimately monoclonal lymphoproliferation may occur in the setting of severe immunosuppression.

  17. EPIDEpidemioogy of AIDS%艾滋病流行病学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚天新

    2001-01-01

    This paper described epidemic situation in the whole world and China, transmission routes, associated risk factors in China, and measures of controlling epidemic of HIV/AIDS. Globally, 53.1 million adults and children were HIV/AIDS by the end of 1999. Of them 18.8 million adults and children died from HIV/AIDS. More than 95 percent of those infected with HIV live in developing countries. In 1999, 5.4 million people were newly infected with HIV, and 2.6 million people died of AIDS. Africa, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, is the serious region of HIV/AIDS epidemic. HIV/AIDS in Asia and Eastern Europe is dramatically increasing, but infective rate in developed countries has begun to decrease. In China, since the first case was found in 1985, 17316 HIV/AIDS cases were reported, of them 647 cases were diagnosed as AIDS, of them 367 cases died from AIDS. HIV may be transmitted through unsafe sexual practice, contaminative blood or blood products, injection drug use or perinatal transmission. Unsafe sexual behavior is the major transmission of HIV/AIDS in the whole world, but in China, injecting drug use is the major transmission of HIV/AIDS. And many risk factors, such as lack of knowledge about HIV/AIDS, drug user and commercial sexual behavior increasing, floating population and sexual norm changing, et al, may accelerate expansion of HIV/AIDS of China. Based on this situation, we should actively reinforce prevention and control of HIV/AIDS through surveillance, health education, behavior intervention of high-risk groups, cases treatment and vaccine development.

  18. Targeting vaccines to dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Camilla; Sundblad, Anne; Hovgaard, Lars

    2002-01-01

    be far superior to that of B-cells and macrophages. DC are localized at strategic places in the body at sites used by pathogens to enter the organism, and are thereby in an optimal position to capture antigens. In general, vaccination strategies try to mimic the invasiveness of the pathogens. DC are...... considered to play a central role for the provocation of primary immune responses by vaccination. A rational way of improving the potency and safety of new and already existing vaccines could therefore be to direct vaccines specifically to DC. There is a need for developing multifunctional vaccine drug...... delivery systems (DDS) with adjuvant effect that target DC directly and induce optimal immune responses. This paper will review the current knowledge of DC physiology as well as the progress in the field of novel vaccination strategies that directly or indirectly aim at targeting DC....

  19. Preventing Cervical Cancer with HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  20. Meningococcal Vaccines: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Meningococcal ACWY Vaccines: What You Need to Know (VIS) Page Content ... to help protect against serogroup B . Meningococcal ACWY Vaccines There are two kinds of meningococcal vaccines licensed ...

  1. Vaccines: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Diseases and Vaccinations Vaccines: What You Need to Know Past Issues / ... b), and Varicella (protects against chicken pox). The vaccination charts that follow offer a simple overview of ...

  2. Statistical physics of vaccination

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhen; Bhattacharyya, Samit; d'Onofrio, Alberto; Manfredi, Piero; Perc, Matjaz; Perra, Nicola; Salathé, Marcel; Zhao, Dawei

    2016-01-01

    Historically, infectious diseases caused considerable damage to human societies, and they continue to do so today. To help reduce their impact, mathematical models of disease transmission have been studied to help understand disease dynamics and inform prevention strategies. Vaccination - one of the most important preventive measures of modern times - is of great interest both theoretically and empirically. And in contrast to traditional approaches, recent research increasingly explores the pivotal implications of individual behavior and heterogeneous contact patterns in populations. Our report reviews the developmental arc of theoretical epidemiology with emphasis on vaccination, as it led from classical models assuming homogeneously mixing (mean-field) populations and ignoring human behavior, to recent models that account for behavioral feedback and/or population spatial/social structure. Many of the methods used originated in statistical physics, such as lattice and network models, and their associated ana...

  3. AIDS: there's hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    In 1993, 10 years after realizing that AIDS posed a threat to the future of mankind, social mobilization will improve the odds against AIDS. The objective is to create awareness about the virus, and to affect positive behavioral change through advocacy, communication, and grass-roots actions. The first goal is to change the societal attitude about the status of youth and women in order to understand that gender inequality fuels the pandemic. They are the most vulnerable groups, therefore their economic and social power must be improved. The Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women constitute a platform for broader action by governmental, nongovernmental, and religious institutions. In addition, these organizations need strong allies in society: 1) the media, which can communicate the importance of youth, women, and attitudes in the epidemic; 2) religious leaders, who can be powerful sources of advocacy for change in attitudes as well as support and care for AIDS-affected individuals and families; 3) policy makers, who can be crucial in changing existing policies and altering the allocation of government resources to youth and women; 4) human rights organizations, which play an important role in promoting the concept of health as a human right and for enhancing the understanding of AIDS in the context of discrimination and poverty; 5) the private sector, including commerce and industry, which can promote changes in attitude within the work force and AIDS prevention initiatives; and 6) parent-teacher groups and models for youth, who can educate them about socially acceptable and unacceptable behavior and can empower them to make responsible behavior choices. PMID:12179231

  4. [AIDS in Tanzania].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barstad, S

    1993-04-20

    The World Health Organization has announced that within 3 years 10% of Tanzania's population of 26 million will be infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). But there is some faint hope in the research of Tanzanian traditional medicine. An almost 90-year-man, Waziri Mrisho, is credited with having treated AIDS patients successfully with herbs that strengthen the immune system. Margaret Nakamya was stricken by the symptoms of AIDs in March 1990. She was referred to Waziri and started using his herbs. 3 years later she weighs 49 kg compared to 40 kg before. The old man's son set up a little factory where he pulverizes herbs and sells them at the price he can command The 3 types of trees that the herbal medicine is taken from grow in the wild, but some have also been planted around the factory. Even if these herbs are effective, it will take years before the AIDS epidemic is over, when people have changed their lifestyles. The means of communication (TV, cinema, radio, telephone) are missing or inadequate. In the Kagera region, with 1.2 million inhabitants, 25% of pregnant women are HIV-infected and 65,000 children lost their parents to AIDS. There are 2000 children in Dar Es Salaam living in the streets. The Anglican St. Albans Church runs a center for street kids where they get meals 3 times a week. The nurse Ruth Nesje enlisted a Norwegian physician and homeopath in a research project involving 30 AIDS patients in Norway. The University in Bergen will do in vitro testing. One group of patients will receive both AZT and the herbs, another group will get only AZT, and the 3rd group will obtain only the herbs. The Norwegian Nursing Association, NORAD, and DANIDA also plan various projects in the Tanga region. PMID:8499187

  5. DNA vaccines for aquacultured fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; LaPatra, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    fully addressed, although inherently the risks should not be any greater than with the commercial fish vaccines that are currently used. Present classification systems lack clarity in distinguishing DNA-vaccinated animals from genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which could raise issues in terms of...... licensing and public acceptance of the technology. The potential benefits of DNA vaccines for farmed fish include improved animal welfare, reduced environmental impacts of aquaculture activities, increased food quality and quantity, and more sustainable production. Testing under commercial production...

  6. Hepatitis B vaccination in prisons.

    OpenAIRE

    Awofeso Niyi

    2002-01-01

    The opportunities and problems for hepatitis B vaccination programmes in prison settings are discussed. In particular, the advantages of modelling are stressed and an active case-finding approach is advocated. Measures for maintaining good case-holding are also discussed, and a 0, 1, 2 months vaccination regimen with 20 microg doses of vaccine is advocated for prison settings. A higher reference level for inferring adequate immunization is also recommended, with booster injections for inmates...

  7. A perspective on malaria vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Desowitz, R S; Miller, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    The data obtained with adjuvant—antigen vaccines against asexual malaria parasites in different host—parasite systems are reviewed. From these data the problems associated with antimalarial vaccine development and testing are considered. The requirement for an adjuvant to induce immunity and the type of adjuvant required depends primarily on the host. Since the immune response of man to malaria vaccines is unknown, it is impossible to predict which animal infection is most likely to be a fait...

  8. Progress with new malaria vaccines.

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Malaria is a parasitic disease of major global health significance that causes an estimated 2.7 million deaths each year. In this review we describe the burden of malaria and discuss the complicated life cycle of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for most of the deaths from the disease, before reviewing the evidence that suggests that a malaria vaccine is an attainable goal. Significant advances have recently been made in vaccine science, and we review new vaccine technologies a...

  9. Experimental rabies vaccines for humans

    OpenAIRE

    McGettigan, James P.

    2010-01-01

    Rabies remains a global public health threat that kills more than 55,000 people per year. Rabies disproportionately affects children and, therefore, is ranked the seventh most important infectious disease due to years lost. Prevention of human rabies is accomplished by controlling rabies in domestic and wild animals, including the use of vaccination programs. The usefulness of human rabies vaccines is hampered by high cost, complicated vaccination regimens and lack of compliance, especially i...

  10. Effective Vaccine for Lassa Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher-Hoch, S P; Hutwagner, L.; Brown, B.; McCormick, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    Lassa fever has been estimated to cause 5,000 deaths annually in West Africa. Recently, war in the zone where Lassa fever is hyperendemic has severely impeded control and treatment. Vaccination is the most viable control measure. There is no correlation between antibody levels and outcome in human patients, and inactivated vaccines produce high titers of antibodies to all viral proteins but do not prevent virus replication and death in nonhuman primates. Accordingly, we vaccinated 44 macaques...

  11. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    OpenAIRE

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, u...

  12. Considerations in vaccine patent protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazell, Lorna

    2010-12-01

    This feature article discusses the basic principles of patentability as related to vaccine research, and outlines recent cases in the US and EU in which vaccine patents have been considered. Issues regarding eligibility for supplementary protection, as currently being considered by the Court of Justice of the EU, are also outlined, as well as the implications of such issues in protecting future vaccine research. PMID:21154148

  13. Flu vaccination in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Siettou; Maria Saridi

    2012-01-01

    In periods of seasonal influenza, during pandemic flu in the past and from recent experience that we have the emergence of influenza A (H1N1), pregnant compared with non-pregnant women are at increased risk to get sick and to develop serious complications up to mortality. Purpose: This paper examines the risks that arise for pregnant from contamination with the flu virus and the safety of influenza vaccination in pregnancy. Method: The method involves searching review and research studies in ...

  14. Rationally designed tularemia vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Barbara J.; Ark, Nicole M

    2009-01-01

    Tularemia, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis, can be contracted by the bite of an arthropod vector or by inhalation. This disease occurs relatively infrequently but can be severe and even life-threatening if untreated. Until recently, there were few laboratories studying this organism; however, concerns over its potential use as a biological weapon have led to renewed attention to F. tularensis research, particularly in the area of vaccine development. Advances in t...

  15. The chemical bases of the various AIDS epidemics: recreational drugs, anti-viral chemotherapy and malnutrition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Peter Duesberg; Claus Koehnlein; David Rasnick

    2003-06-01

    In 1981 a new epidemic of about two-dozen heterogeneous diseases began to strike non-randomly growing numbers of male homosexuals and mostly male intravenous drug users in the US and Europe. Assuming immunodeficiency as the common denominator the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) termed the epidemic, AIDS, for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. From 1981–1984 leading researchers including those from the CDC proposed that recreational drug use was the cause of AIDS, because of exact correlations and of drug-specific diseases. However, in 1984 US government researchers proposed that a virus, now termed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is the cause of the non-random epidemics of the US and Europe but also of a new, sexually random epidemic in Africa. The virus-AIDS hypothesis was instantly accepted, but it is burdened with numerous paradoxes, none of which could be resolved by 2003: Why is there no HIV in most AIDS patients, only antibodies against it? Why would HIV take 10 years from infection to AIDS? Why is AIDS not self-limiting via antiviral immunity? Why is there no vaccine against AIDS? Why is AIDS in the US and Europe not random like other viral epidemics? Why did AIDS not rise and then decline exponentially owing to antiviral immunity like all other viral epidemics? Why is AIDS not contagious? Why would only HIV carriers get AIDS who use either recreational or anti-HIV drugs or are subject to malnutrition? Why is the mortality of HIV-antibody-positives treated with anti-HIV drugs 7–9%, but that of all (mostly untreated) HIV-positives globally is only 1.4%? Here we propose that AIDS is a collection of chemical epidemics, caused by recreational drugs, anti-HIV drugs, and malnutrition. According to this hypothesis AIDS is not contagious, not immunogenic, not treatable by vaccines or antiviral drugs, and HIV is just a passenger virus. The hypothesis explains why AIDS epidemics strike non-randomly if caused by drugs and randomly if caused by

  16. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2009-01-01

    As every year, the Medical Service is taking part in the campaign to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal influenza is especially recommended for people suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney conditions or diabetes, for those recovering from a serious illness or surgical operation and for everyone over the age of 65. The influenza virus is transmitted by air and contact with contaminated surfaces, hence the importance of washing hands regularly with soap and / or disinfection using a hydro-alcoholic solution. From the onset of symptoms (fever> 38°, chills, cough, muscle aches and / or joint pain, fatigue) you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. In the present context of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, it is important to dissociate these two illnesses and emphasise that the two viruses and the vaccines used to combat them are quite different and that protection against one will not provide protection against the...

  17. Vaccine-derived polioviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Cara C; Diop, Ousmane M; Sutter, Roland W; Kew, Olen M

    2014-11-01

    The attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has many properties favoring its use in polio eradication: ease of administration, efficient induction of intestinal immunity, induction of durable humoral immunity, and low cost. Despite these advantages, OPV has the disadvantage of genetic instability, resulting in rare and sporadic cases of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) and the emergence of genetically divergent vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs). Whereas VAPP is an adverse event following exposure to OPV, VDPVs are polioviruses whose genetic properties indicate prolonged replication or transmission. Three categories of VDPVs are recognized: (1) circulating VDPVs (cVDPVs) from outbreaks in settings of low OPV coverage, (2) immunodeficiency-associated VDPVs (iVDPVs) from individuals with primary immunodeficiencies, and (3) ambiguous VDPVs (aVDPVs), which cannot be definitively assigned to either of the first 2 categories. Because most VDPVs are type 2, the World Health Organization's plans call for coordinated worldwide replacement of trivalent OPV with bivalent OPV containing poliovirus types 1 and 3. PMID:25316847

  18. HPV vaccine acceptability among Kenyan women

    OpenAIRE

    Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Otieno, Walter Agingu; Brewer, Noel T.; Agot, Kawango; Smith, Jennifer S.

    2010-01-01

    As human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines become available in less developed countries, understanding women’s attitudes towards HPV vaccines can help guide approaches to immunization programs. We assessed knowledge and interest in prophylactic HPV vaccines among Kenyan women seeking women’s health services (N=147). They knew little about cervical cancer or HPV vaccine. Most women (95%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 92%, 99%), however, were willing to have their daughters vaccinated with a vaccin...

  19. Foreign Aid and Consumption Smoothing; Evidence From Global Food Aid

    OpenAIRE

    Erwin Tiongson; Benedict J. Clements; Sanjeev Gupta

    2003-01-01

    Global food aid is considered a critical consumption smoothing mechanism in many countries. However, its record of stabilizing consumption has been mixed. This paper examines the cyclical properties of food aid with respect to food availability in recipient countries, with a view to assessing its impact on consumption in some 150 developing countries and transition economies, covering 1970 to 2000. The results show that global food aid has been allocated to countries most in need. Food aid ha...

  20. Understanding vaccines: a public imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federman, Ross S

    2014-12-01

    Though once a discovery greatly celebrated by the nation, the vaccine has come under fire in recent decades from skeptics, critics, and a movement set into motion by fraudulent scientists and fueled by frustrated parents looking for answers to the autism conundrum. There is enough denialist resistance to vaccination to bring upon renewed fear of young children and infants becoming infected with diseases, the threats of which had been functionally eradicated from the United States. In more recent years, the surge in independent online journalism and blogging has invited many to rapidly share their opinions with millions of readers and, importantly, has appeared to open the door for opinion to be portrayed as fact. As a result, many parents are inundated with horror stories of vaccine dangers, all designed to eat away at them emotionally while the medical and scientific communities have mounted their characteristic response by sharing the facts, the data, and all of the reliable peer-reviewed and well-cited research to show that vaccines are safe and effective. It has become clear to me that facts are no match for emotion, but perhaps an understanding behind vaccine methodology will help parents overcome these fears of vaccinating. By helping those who doubt vaccines better understand what vaccines really are and how they work in such an incredibly engineered fashion, we may have a stronger weapon than we realize in battling the emotional arsenal that comes from the fear and skepticism of vaccinating. PMID:25506276