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Sample records for aids vaccines

  1. HIV/AIDS and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... against the disease. Is There a Vaccine for HIV? No. There is currently no vaccine that will ... in this video! /* // ** // */ Why Do We Need an HIV Vaccine? Today, more people living with HIV than ...

  2. The Development of an AIDS Mucosal Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Tang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that mucosal tissues contain the largest surface area of the human body and are the front line of natural host defense against various pathogens. In fact, more than 80% of infectious disease pathogens probably gain entry into the susceptible human hosts through open mucosal surfaces. Human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1, a mainly sexually transmitted virus, also primarily targets the vaginal and gastrointestinal mucosa as entry sites for viral transmission, seeding, replication and amplification. Since HIV-1 establishes its early replication in vaginal or rectal mucosal tissues, the induction of sufficient mucosal immunity at the initial site of HIV-1 transmission becomes essential for a protective vaccine. However, despite the fact that current conventional vaccine strategies have remained unsuccessful in preventing HIV-1 infection, sufficient financial support and resources have yet to be given to develop a vaccine able to elicit protective mucosal immunity against sexual transmissions. Interestingly, Chinese ancestors invented variolation through intranasal administration about one thousand years ago, which led to the discovery of a successful smallpox vaccine and the final eradication of the disease. It is the hope for all mankind that the development of a mucosal AIDS vaccine will ultimately help control the AIDS pandemic. In order to discover an effective mucosal AIDS vaccine, it is necessary to have a deep understanding of mucosal immunology and to test various mucosal vaccination strategies.

  3. AIDS vaccine: Present status and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigam P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of a preventive vaccine for HIV is the best hope of controlling the AIDS pandemic. HIV has, however, proved a difficult pathogen to vaccinate against because of its very high mutation rate and capability to escape immune responses. Neutralizing antibodies that can neutralize diverse field strains have so far proved difficult to induce. Adjuvanting these vaccines with cytokine plasmids and a "prime-boost," approach is being evaluated in an effort to induce both CTL and antibody responses and thereby have immune responses active against both infected cells and free viral particles, thereby necessitating fewer doses of recombinant protein to reach maximum antibodies titers. Although obstacles exist in evaluation of candidate HIV vaccines, evidence from natural history studies, new molecular tools in virology and immunology, new adjuvants, new gene expression systems, new antigen delivery systems, recent discoveries in HIV entry and pathogenesis, and promising studies of candidate vaccines in animal models have provided reasons to hope that developing a safe and effective AIDS vaccine is possible and within reach.

  4. AIDS vaccine for Asia Network (AVAN: expanding the regional role in developing HIV vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Kent

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to spread and an AIDS vaccine is urgently needed. Regional alliances and international collaborations can foster the development and evaluation of the next generation of AIDS vaccine candidates. The importance of coordinating and harmonizing efforts across regional alliances has become abundantly clear. We recently formed the AIDS Vaccine for Asia Network (AVAN to help facilitate the development of a regional AIDS vaccine strategy that accelerates research and development of an AIDS vaccine through government advocacy, improved coordination, and harmonization of research; develops clinical trial and manufacturing capacity; supports ethical and regulatory frameworks; and ensures community participation.

  5. An Interview with AIDS Vaccine Researcher Chris Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Megan

    2010-01-01

    The search for an AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) vaccine is truly a global effort, with university laboratories, biotech firms, pharmaceutical companies, nonprofit research organizations, hospitals, and clinics all working together to develop an effective vaccine as quickly as possible. The International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI)…

  6. The development of an AIDS vaccine: progress and promise.

    OpenAIRE

    Fauci, A S; Fischinger, P J

    1988-01-01

    The development of a safe and effective vaccine against infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is of paramount importance to the prevention of AIDS worldwide. Although a great deal has been learned about HIV in a few short years, the development of an AIDS vaccine has proved to be extremely difficult. The lack of an appropriate animal model for AIDS, the absence of a defined protective immune response in persons infected with HIV, the long latent period between initial infection ...

  7. Computer-Aided Vaccine Design: A Brief Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ghasemi Khorasgani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the conventional vaccines have been instrumented in the incidence of many infectious diseases, the advances in genetic engineering and bioinformatics have provided the opportunity for developing improved and new vaccines.Methods: Reverse vaccinology was pioneered by a group of researchers investigating development of a vaccine against serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis. Reverse vaccinology analyzes the entire genome of a pathogen with the aid of computational programs to identify potentially antigenic extracellular proteins.Results: Using this method for Neisseria meningitidis genome analysis, 600 secretory or surface-exposed proteins were identified and, subsequently, 350 proteins were expressed and purified. Finally, seven proteins capable of activating the immune system against a range of strains were identified.Conclusion: Improved computational techniques are now able to provide researchers with high-confidence predictions for complex biological characteristics. This will herald a move to computer-aided biotechnology in which time-consuming and expensive large-scale experimental approaches are progressively replaced by functional bioinformatic investigations.

  8. The Potential of Vaccines for the Control of AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret I Johnston

    1994-01-01

    of attenuated and whole-killed products have led to the pursuit of alternativc designs. including recombinant proteins, vectors and particles, synthetic peptides and naked DNA. Seven recombinant envelope. two recombinant vector and four other candidate vaccines that have entered into phase 1 trials in noninfected individuals have proven safe to date, and have differed In their ability lo induce functional antibody and Cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Two recombinant envelope products have recently progressed to phase 2 testing, Five envelope-based and six other products have entered trial in HIV-infected and individuals and have appeared to be safe, Evidence of new antibody, increased T cell proliferation and lncreased cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity have been reported. Additional placebo controlled trials will be required to evaluate the impact of therapeutic vaccination on CD4 cell count. viral burdrn and clinical end-points. The status of HIV/AIDS vaccine development is reviewed. with emphasis on the challenging task of finding an effieacious, safe, prophylactic vaccine.

  9. Lessons in Nonhuman Primate Models for AIDS Vaccine Research: From Minefields to Milestones

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey D Lifson; Nancy L Haigwood

    2012-01-01

    Nonhuman primate (NHP) disease models for AIDS have made important contributions to the search for effective vaccines for AIDS. Viral diversity, persistence, capacity for immune evasion, and safety considerations have limited development of conventional approaches using killed or attenuated vaccines, necessitating the development of novel approaches. Here we highlight the knowledge gained and lessons learned in testing vaccine concepts in different virus/NHP host combinations.

  10. Ending the Global HIV/AIDS Pandemic: The Critical Role of an HIV Vaccine

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    Fauci, Anthony S.; Folkers, Gregory K.; Marston, Hilary D.

    2014-01-01

    While the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS pandemic continues, the incidence of HIV infections has fallen because of the deployment of antiretroviral drugs and multiple prevention modalities. To achieve a durable end to the pandemic, a vaccine remains essential. Recent advances in vaccinology offer new promise for an effective HIV vaccine. PMID:25151483

  11. Hepatitis B vaccine antibody response and the risk of clinical AIDS or death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Landrum

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Whether seroresponse to a vaccine such as hepatitis B virus (HBV vaccine can provide a measure of the functional immune status of HIV-infected persons is unknown.This study evaluated the relationship between HBV vaccine seroresponses and progression to clinical AIDS or death. METHODS AND FINDINGS: From a large HIV cohort, we evaluated those who received HBV vaccine only after HIV diagnosis and had anti-HBs determination 1-12 months after the last vaccine dose. Non-response and positive response were defined as anti-HBs <10 and ≥ 10 IU/L, respectively. Participants were followed from date of last vaccination to clinical AIDS, death, or last visit. Univariate and multivariable risk of progression to clinical AIDS or death were evaluated with Cox regression models. A total of 795 participants vaccinated from 1986-2010 were included, of which 41% were responders. During 3,872 person-years of observation, 122 AIDS or death events occurred (53% after 1995. Twenty-two percent of non-responders experienced clinical AIDS or death compared with 5% of responders (p<0.001. Non-response to HBV vaccine was associated with a greater than 2-fold increased risk of clinical AIDS or death (HR 2.47; 95% CI, 1.38-4.43 compared with a positive response, after adjusting for CD4 count, HIV viral load, HAART use, and delayed type hypersensitivity skin test responses (an in vivo marker of cell-mediated immunity. This association remained evident among those with CD4 count ≥ 500 cells/mm³ (HR 3.40; 95% CI, 1.39-8.32. CONCLUSIONS: HBV vaccine responses may have utility in assessing functional immune status and risk stratificating HIV-infected individuals, including those with CD4 count ≥ 500 cells/mm³.

  12. Novel Vaccine Approach Achieves “Functional Cure” of AIDS Virus in Monkeys | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer, and Jeff Lifson, Guest Writer Scientists at the Oregon Health & Science University and the AIDS and Cancer Virus Program of the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research have used a novel vaccine approach to achieve a “functional cure” and apparent eradication of infection with a monkey version of the AIDS virus.

  13. DNA/MVA Vaccines for HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Smita S; Amara, Rama R

    2014-01-01

    Since the initial proof-of-concept studies examining the ability of antigen-encoded plasmid DNA to serve as an immunogen, DNA vaccines have evolved as a clinically safe and effective platform for priming HIV-specific cellular and humoral responses in heterologous "prime-boost" vaccination regimens. Direct injection of plasmid DNA into the muscle induces T- and B-cell responses against foreign antigens. However, the insufficient magnitude of this response has led to the development of approaches for enhancing the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines. The last two decades have seen significant progress in the DNA-based vaccine platform with optimized plasmid constructs, improved delivery methods, such as electroporation, the use of molecular adjuvants and novel strategies combining DNA with viral vectors and subunit proteins. These innovations are paving the way for the clinical application of DNA-based HIV vaccines. Here, we review preclinical studies on the DNA-prime/modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA)-boost vaccine modality for HIV. There is a great deal of interest in enhancing the immunogenicity of DNA by engineering DNA vaccines to co-express immune modulatory adjuvants. Some of these adjuvants have demonstrated encouraging results in preclinical and clinical studies, and these data will be examined, as well.

  14. DNA/MVA Vaccines for HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita S. Iyer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the initial proof-of-concept studies examining the ability of antigen-encoded plasmid DNA to serve as an immunogen, DNA vaccines have evolved as a clinically safe and effective platform for priming HIV-specific cellular and humoral responses in heterologous “prime-boost” vaccination regimens. Direct injection of plasmid DNA into the muscle induces T- and B-cell responses against foreign antigens. However, the insufficient magnitude of this response has led to the development of approaches for enhancing the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines. The last two decades have seen significant progress in the DNA-based vaccine platform with optimized plasmid constructs, improved delivery methods, such as electroporation, the use of molecular adjuvants and novel strategies combining DNA with viral vectors and subunit proteins. These innovations are paving the way for the clinical application of DNA-based HIV vaccines. Here, we review preclinical studies on the DNA-prime/modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA-boost vaccine modality for HIV. There is a great deal of interest in enhancing the immunogenicity of DNA by engineering DNA vaccines to co-express immune modulatory adjuvants. Some of these adjuvants have demonstrated encouraging results in preclinical and clinical studies, and these data will be examined, as well.

  15. HIV-2 and its role in conglutinated approach towards Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Vaccine Development

    OpenAIRE

    Diwan, Batul; Saxena, Rupali; Tiwari, Archana

    2013-01-01

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is one of the most critically acclaimed endemic diseases, caused by two lentiviruses HIV-1 and 2. HIV-2 displays intimate serological and antigenic resemblance to Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) along with less pathogenicity, lower infectivity and appreciable cross reactivity with HIV-1 antigens. The present era is confronted with the challenge to fabricate a vaccine effective against all clades of both the species of HIV. But vaccine development ...

  16. [Studies on virulence of HIV and development of non-virulent live AIDS vaccine using monkeys].

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    Hayami, Masanori; Horiuchi, Reii

    2004-06-01

    A great effort for developing AIDS vaccine has been carried out in the world, designed by various new ideas based on basic research information obtained in recent virology and immunology. Withall it, to obtain effective AIDS vaccine is considered skeptical. One of the reasons of its difficulty is a lack of experimental animals susceptible to HIV-1. In our laboratory, we have succeeded in developing chimeric SIV having 3' half of HIV-1 genome including env (SHIV), which is infectious to macaque monkeys. One of SHIVs has been proved nonpathogenic in monkeys from various aspects and it afforded protective immunity to monkeys against pathogenic SHIV challenge infection. Now, we are trying to develop anti-HIV live attenuated vaccines using the nonpathogenic SHIV as a starting material. In the history of virus vaccine, live attenuated vaccines have been proved most effective in measles and polio-myelitis. However, it is not clear whether nonpathogenic HIV exists or not. Futhermore, even if nonpathogenic HIV could be obtained, there is possibility that it will easily mutate to pathogenic one. Therefore, to develop live attenuated AIDS vaccine is considered dangerous. In this article, We will introduce our research on SHIV pathogenicity using monkeys and hypothesize possibility to obtain nonpathogenic HIV which is speculated from the origin and evolution of HIV/SIV. To clarify virulence and nonvirulence of HIV and to obtain nonpathogenic virus are not only applied research but also basic science to dissolve the fundemental question why HIV can induce the disease.

  17. New Animal Model Could Boost Research on AIDS Drugs and Vaccines | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer, and Jeff Lifson, Guest Writer In a research milestone reported in the June 20 issue of the journal Science, scientists have developed a minimally modified version of HIV-1, the virus that causes AIDS in infected humans, that is capable of causing progressive infection and AIDS in monkeys. The advance should help create more authentic animal models of the disease and provide a potentially invaluable approach for faster and better preclinical evaluation of new drugs and vaccines.

  18. Building collaborative networks for HIV/AIDS vaccine development: the AVIP experience.

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    Ferrantelli, Flavia; Buttò, Stefano; Cafaro, Aurelio; Wahren, Britta; Ensoli, Barbara

    2006-11-01

    The need for an effective HIV/AIDS vaccine is imperative to halt a pandemic that involves more than 40 million individuals worldwide as of 2005 and is causing enormous socio-economic losses, especially in developing countries (DC). The overall failure of more than two decades of HIV vaccine research justifies the demands for a concerted effort for the rapid development of new and efficacious vaccines against HIV/AIDS. In this context, building international collaborative networks is a must for speeding up scientific research and optimizing the use of funding in a synergistic fashion, as resources for HIV/AIDS are limited and do not involve most of the biggest Pharmas that are more interested in drug discovery. The AIDS Vaccine Integrated Project (AVIP) consortium is an example of synergistic partnership of international European Union and DC experts with a common research goal. AVIP is a European Commission-funded (FP-6), consortium-based, 5-year program directed to the fast development of new HIV/AIDS vaccine candidates to be tested in phase I clinical trials in Europe for future advancement to phase II/III testing in DC. To ensure their rapid development, AVIP novel combined vaccines include both regulatory and structural HIV antigens, which have already been tested, as single components, in phase I clinical trials. In particular, such combination vaccines may be superior to earlier vaccine candidates, the vast majority of which are based only on either structural or regulatory HIV products. In fact, the generation of immune responses to both types of viral antigens expressed either early (regulatory products) or late (structural products) during the viral life cycle can maximize immune targeting of both primary or chronic viral infection. Further, the rational design of combined vaccines allows exploitation of immunomodulatory functions of HIV regulatory proteins, which can improve immunity against structural vaccine components. The building of the AVIP

  19. Therapeutic dendritic-cell vaccine for simian AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu,W; Wu,XX; Lu,YZ; Guo,WZ; Andrieu,JM

    2005-01-01

    An effective immune response against human immunodeficiency virus or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is critical in achieving control of viral replication. Here, we show in SIV-infected rhesus monkeys that an effective and durable SIV-specific cellular and humoral immunity is elicited by a vaccination with chemically inactivated SIV-pulsed dendritic cells. After three immunizations made at two-week intervals, the animals exhibited a 50-fold decrease of SIV DNA and a 1,000-fold decrease of SIV RNA in peripheral blood. Such reduced viral load levels were maintained over the remaining 34 weeks of the study. Molecular and cellular analyses of axillary and inguinal node lymphocytes of vaccinated monkeys revealed a correlation between decreased SIV DNA and RNA levels and increased SIV-specific T-cell responses. Neutralizing antibody responses were augmented and remained elevated. Inactivated whole virus-pulsed dendritic cell vaccines are promising means to control diseases caused by immunodeficiency viruses.

  20. HIV/AIDS vaccine development: are we walking out from the dark?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Yan-min; WANG You-chun; XU Jian-qing

    2010-01-01

    @@ The need for AIDS vaccine has been emphasized by the increase of HIV-1 prevalence in sexual transmission which bridges the spreading of HIV-1 from high-risk population to other populations. After more than two-decade intensive effort on the AIDS vaccine development, it remains elusive whether and how an effective vaccine will be achieved. Recent data released from a phase Ⅲ trial in Thailand showed a partial protection might be accomplishable by(R)the "prime-boost"combination of two vaccines: ALVAC(R) HIV vaccine (the prime), and AIDSVAX(R) B/E vaccine (the boost).1 This unprecedented large clinical trial observed that the prime-boost combination lowered the rate of HIV infection by 31.2% compared to placebo based on the modified intent-to-treat population (n=51 vs. n=74,respectively; P=0.04). However, debating on the efficacy interpretation of this trial arose among field scientists.Furthermore, how to improve the efficacy will become the most important question to be tackled. Here we reviewed the recent publications and summarized the major progress achieved.

  1. Private demand for a HIV/AIDS vaccine: evidence from Guadalajara, Mexico.

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    Whittington, Dale; Matsui-Santana, Osmar; Freiberger, John J; Van Houtven, George; Pattanayak, Subhrendu

    2002-06-01

    The private demand for a hypothetical vaccine that would provide lifetime protection against HIV/AIDS to an uninfected adult was measured in Guadalajara, Mexico, using the concept of willingness to pay (WTP). A 91-question survey instrument was administered by trained enumerators employing contingent valuation techniques to 234 adults, aged 18-60. Our estimates of private demand indicate that individuals anticipate sizable personal benefits from such a vaccine, and that they would be willing to allocate a substantial portion of their income to be protected in this way from HIV infection. A conservative estimate of the mean WTP of adults in the Guadalajara sample is 6358 pesos (669 US dollars) and the median is 3000 pesos (316 US dollars). A multivariate statistical analysis of the determinants of individuals' WTP shows that individuals with higher incomes, with spouses or partners, and with higher perceived risks of becoming infected with HIV are willing to pay more for the vaccine. Older respondents are willing to pay less. These results suggest that there is likely to be a potentially large private market for a HIV/AIDS vaccine in the middle-income developing countries such as Mexico. These findings have important implications both for the level of R&D effort that is devoted to a vaccine and, assuming these efforts are successful, for future policies to make the vaccine available to the public.

  2. HIV-1/AIDS vaccine development: are we in the darkness before the dawn?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Chao; XU Jian-qing

    2008-01-01

    @@ The pandemic of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been devastating for the last two decades in a number of developing countries and constituting a grand challenge to the public health.WHO/UNAIDS estimates that approximately 33.2million people were living with HIV-1 infection by the end of 2007 and almost 2.5 million new infections occurred in 2007. An unprecedented scientifc challenge for the AIDS vaccine community is how to develop an effective HIV vaccine that can block HIV transmission and consequently stop the continuing spread of HIV-1.The recent failure of Merck Phase Ⅱ B trial alerted the HIV vaccine community that new vaccine strategies need to be more exclusively explored. In this review, we outline the basics of HIV vaccine and retrospect the history of the road to HIV vaccine in last two decades,and highlight the challenges we are currently facing and new strategies to develop HIV vaccines in this field.The Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai

  3. Macromolecular Assemblage in the Design of a Synthetic AIDS Vaccine

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    Defoort, Jean-Philippe; Nardelli, Bernardetta; Huang, Wolin; Ho, David D.; Tam, James P.

    1992-05-01

    We describe a peptide vaccine model based on the mimicry of surface coat protein of a pathogen. This model used a macromolecular assemblage approach to amplify peptide antigens in liposomes or micelles. The key components of the model consisted of an oligomeric lysine scaffolding to amplify peptide antigens covalently 4-fold and a lipophilic membrane-anchoring group to further amplify noncovalently the antigens many-fold in liposomal or micellar form. A peptide antigen derived from the third variable domain of glycoprotein gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), consisting of neutralizing, T-helper, and T-cytotoxic epitopes, was used in a macromolecular assemblage model (HIV-1 linear peptide amino acid sequence 308-331 in a tetravalent multiple antigen peptide system linked to tripalmitoyl-S-glycerylcysteine). The latter complex, in liposome or micelle, was used to immunize mice and guinea pigs without any adjuvant and found to induce gp120-specific antibodies that neutralize virus infectivity in vitro, elicit cytokine production, and prime CD8^+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes in vivo. Our results show that the macromolecular assemblage approach bears immunological mimicry of the gp120 of HIV virus and may lead to useful vaccines against HIV infection.

  4. Immunological response to hepatitis B vaccination in patients with AIDS and virological response to highly active antiretroviral therapy.

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    Paitoonpong, Leilani; Suankratay, Chusana

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies showed that an immunological response to hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination in patients with AIDS was lower than in the normal population. However, those with virological response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may have a normal immunological response to HBV vaccination. In our study, patients with AIDS who had a virological response to HAART and no immunity to HBV received 3 doses of HBV vaccine (20 microg of Engerix-B(R)) on d 0, 30, and 180. Anti-HBs level was measured 1 month after complete vaccination. Of 28 patients, overall response rate to vaccination was 71.4%. The responder group had a significantly higher CD4 count at 1 month after complete vaccination than the non-responder group (466.95+/-146.94 and 335+/-112.62 cells/microl, p =0.035). The patients receiving efavirenz-containing HAART had better response than those without efavirenz-containing HAART (p =0.030). The responder group had received a longer duration of HAART. In conclusion , to our knowledge, ours is the first prospective study to determine the immunological response to HBV vaccination in all patients with AIDS who had maintained the virological response after receiving HAART throughout the study period. Patients with AIDS and virological response to HAART have a good immunological response to HBV vaccination.

  5. Researchers See New Patterns in Spread of AIDS Virus; Progress in Development of a Vaccine Sparks Optimism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, David L.

    1990-01-01

    Reports presented at the Sixth International Conference on Aids are summarized including efforts to develop a vaccine, expansion of the epidemic into new areas, the high rate of infection among Romanian children, the crisis in Africa, and evidence of relapsing behaviors among homosexual men in the United States. (MLW)

  6. AID activity in B cells strongly correlates with polyclonal antibody affinity maturation in-vivo following pandemic 2009-H1N1 vaccination in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Surender; Frasca, Daniela; Blomberg, Bonnie; Golding, Hana

    2012-09-01

    The role of Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID) in somatic hypermutation and polyclonal antibody affinity maturation has not been shown for polyclonal responses in humans. We investigated whether AID induction in human B cells following H1N1pdm09 vaccination correlated with in-vivo antibody affinity maturation against hemagglutinin domains in plasma of young and elderly individuals. AID was measured by qPCR in B cells from individuals of different ages immunized with the H1N1pdm09 influenza vaccine. Polyclonal antibody affinity in human plasma for the HA1 and HA2 domains of the H1N1pdm09 hemagglutinin was measured by antibody-antigen complex dissociation rates using real time kinetics in Surface Plasmon Resonance. Results show an age-related decrease in AID induction in B cells following H1N1pdm09 vaccination. Levels of AID mRNA before vaccination and fold-increase of AID mRNA expression after H1N1pdm09 vaccination directly correlated with increase in polyclonal antibody affinity to the HA1 globular domain (but not to the conserved HA2 stalk). In the younger population, significant affinity maturation to the HA1 globular domain was observed, which associated with initial levels of AID and fold-increase in AID after vaccination. In some older individuals (>65 yr), higher affinity to the HA1 domain was observed before vaccination and H1N1pdm09 vaccination resulted in minimal change in antibody affinity, which correlated with low AID induction in this age group. These findings demonstrate for the first time a strong correlation between AID induction and in-vivo antibody affinity maturation in humans. The ability to generate high affinity antibodies could have significant impact on the elucidation of age-specific antibody responses following vaccination and eventual clinical efficacy and disease outcome.

  7. Relation of activation-induced deaminase (AID) expression with antibody response to A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination in HIV-1 infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagigi, Alberto; Pensieroso, Simone; Ruffin, Nicolas; Sammicheli, Stefano; Thorstensson, Rigmor; Pan-Hammarström, Qiang; Hejdeman, Bo; Nilsson, Anna; Chiodi, Francesca

    2013-04-26

    The relevance of CD4+T-cells, viral load and age in the immunological response to influenza infection and vaccination in HIV-1 infected individuals has previously been pointed out. Our study aimed at assessing, in the setting of 2009 A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccination, whether quantification of activation-induced deaminase (AID) expression in blood B-cells may provide additional indications for predicting antibody response to vaccination in HIV-1 infected patients with similar CD4+T-cell counts and age. Forty-seven healthy controls, 37 ART-treated and 17 treatment-naïve HIV-1 infected patients were enrolled in the study. Blood was collected prior to A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination and at 1, 3 and 6 months after vaccination. Antibody titers to A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine were measured by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay while the mRNA expression levels of AID were measured by quantitative real time PCR. Upon B-cell activation in vitro, AID increase correlated to antibody response to the A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine at 1 month after vaccination in all individuals. In addition, the maximum expression levels of AID were significantly higher in those individuals who still carried protective levels of A(H1N1)pdm09 antibodies after 6 months from vaccination. No correlation was found between CD4+T-cell counts or age at vaccination or HIV-1 viral load and levels of A(H1N1)pdm09 antibodies. Assessing AID expression before vaccination may be an additional useful tool for defining a vaccination strategy in immune-compromised individuals at risk of immunization failure.

  8. Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaccinated? For many years, a set of annual vaccinations was considered normal and necessary for dogs and ... to protect for a full year. Consequently, one vaccination schedule will not work well for all pets. ...

  9. DermaVir: a plasmid DNA-based nanomedicine therapeutic vaccine for the treatment of HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori, Franco

    2011-10-01

    The HIV global pandemic continues to rage with over 33 million people living with the disease. Although multidrug therapy has improved the prognosis for those infected by the virus, it has not eradicated the infection. Immunological therapies, including therapeutic vaccines, are needed to supplement drug therapy in the search for a 'functional cure' for HIV. DermaVir (Genetic Immunity Kft, Budapest, Hungary and McLean, Virginia, USA), an experimental HIV/AIDS therapeutic vaccine, combines three key elements of rational therapeutic vaccine design: a single plasmid DNA (pDNA) immunogen expressing 15 HIV antigens, a synthetic pDNA nanomedicine formulation and a dendritic cell-targeting topical-vaccine administration. DermaVir's novel mechanism of action, natural transport by epidermal Langerhans cells to the lymph nodes to express the pDNA-encoded HIV antigens and induce precursor/memory T cells with high proliferation capacity, has been consistently demonstrated in mouse, rabbit, primate and human subjects. Safety, immunogenicity and preliminary efficacy of DermaVir have been clinically demonstrated in HIV-infected human subjects. The DermaVir technology platform for dendritic cell-based therapeutic vaccination might offer a new treatment paradigm for cancer and infectious diseases.

  10. AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000594.htm HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...

  11. Enveloped viruses understood via multiscale simulation: computer-aided vaccine design

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    Shreif, Z.; Adhangale, P.; Cheluvaraja, S.; Perera, R.; Kuhn, R.; Ortoleva, P.

    Enveloped viruses are viewed as an opportunity to understand how highly organized and functional biosystems can emerge from a collection of millions of chaotically moving atoms. They are an intermediate level of complexity between macromolecules and bacteria. They are a natural system for testing theories of self-assembly and structural transitions, and for demonstrating the derivation of principles of microbiology from laws of molecular physics. As some constitute threats to human health, a computer-aided vaccine and drug design strategy that would follow from a quantitative model would be an important contribution. However, current molecular dynamics simulation approaches are not practical for modeling such systems. Our multiscale approach simultaneously accounts for the outer protein net and inner protein/genomic core, and their less structured membranous material and host fluid. It follows from a rigorous multiscale deductive analysis of laws of molecular physics. Two types of order parameters are introduced: (1) those for structures wherein constituent molecules retain long-lived connectivity (they specify the nanoscale structure as a deformation from a reference configuration) and (2) those for which there is no connectivity but organization is maintained on the average (they are field variables such as mass density or measures of preferred orientation). Rigorous multiscale techniques are used to derive equations for the order parameters dynamics. The equations account for thermal-average forces, diffusion coefficients, and effects of random forces. Statistical properties of the atomic-scale fluctuations and the order parameters are co-evolved. By combining rigorous multiscale techniques and modern supercomputing, systems of extreme complexity can be modeled.

  12. Phylodynamics of HIV-1 from a phase III AIDS vaccine trial in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Pérez-Losada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2003, a phase III placebo-controlled trial (VAX003 was completed in Bangkok, Thailand. Of the 2,546 individuals enrolled in the trial based on high risk for infection through injection drug use (IDU, we obtained clinical samples and HIV-1 sequence data (envelope glycoprotein gene gp120 from 215 individuals who became infected during the trial. Here, we used these data in combination with other publicly available gp120 sequences to perform a molecular surveillance and phylodynamic analysis of HIV-1 in Thailand. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: Phylogenetic and population genetic estimators were used to assess HIV-1 gp120 diversity as a function of vaccination treatment, viral load (VL and CD4(+ counts, to identify transmission clusters and to investigate the timescale and demographics of HIV-1 in Thailand. Three HIV-1 subtypes were identified: CRF01_AE (85% of the infections, subtype B (13% and CRF15_AE (2%. The Bangkok IDU cohort showed more gp120 diversity than other Asian IDU cohorts and similar diversity to that observed in sexually infected individuals. Moreover, significant differences (P<0.02 in genetic diversity were observed in CRF01_AE IDU with different VL and CD4(+ counts. No phylogenetic structure was detected regarding any of the epidemiological and clinical factors tested, although high proportions (35% to 50% of early infections fell into clusters, which suggests that transmission chains associated with acute infection play a key role on HIV-1 spread among IDU. CRF01_AE was estimated to have emerged in Thailand in 1984.5 (1983-1986, 3-6 years before the first recognition of symptomatic patients (1989. The relative genetic diversity of the HIV-1 population has remained high despite decreasing prevalence rates since the mid 1990s. CONCLUSIONS: Our study and recent epidemiological reports indicate that HIV-1 is still a major threat in Thailand and suggest that HIV awareness and prevention needs to be strengthened to avoid

  13. Subtype C gp140 Vaccine Boosts Immune Responses Primed by the South African AIDS Vaccine Initiative DNA-C2 and MVA-C HIV Vaccines after More than a 2-Year Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Glenda E; Mayer, Kenneth H; Elizaga, Marnie L; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Allen, Mary; Morris, Lynn; Montefiori, David; De Rosa, Stephen C; Sato, Alicia; Gu, Niya; Tomaras, Georgia D; Tucker, Timothy; Barnett, Susan W; Mkhize, Nonhlanhla N; Shen, Xiaoying; Downing, Katrina; Williamson, Carolyn; Pensiero, Michael; Corey, Lawrence; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2016-06-01

    A phase I safety and immunogenicity study investigated South African AIDS Vaccine Initiative (SAAVI) HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C) DNA vaccine encoding Gag-RT-Tat-Nef and gp150, boosted with modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) expressing matched antigens. Following the finding of partial protective efficacy in the RV144 HIV vaccine efficacy trial, a protein boost with HIV-1 subtype C V2-deleted gp140 with MF59 was added to the regimen. A total of 48 participants (12 U.S. participants and 36 Republic of South Africa [RSA] participants) were randomized to receive 3 intramuscular (i.m.) doses of SAAVI DNA-C2 of 4 mg (months 0, 1, and 2) and 2 i.m. doses of SAAVI MVA-C of 1.45 × 10(9) PFU (months 4 and 5) (n = 40) or of a placebo (n = 8). Approximately 2 years after vaccination, 27 participants were rerandomized to receive gp140/MF59 at 100 μg or placebo, as 2 i.m. injections, 3 months apart. The vaccine regimen was safe and well tolerated. After the DNA-MVA regimen, CD4(+) T-cell and CD8(+) T-cell responses occurred in 74% and 32% of the participants, respectively. The protein boost increased CD4(+) T-cell responses to 87% of the subjects. All participants developed tier 1 HIV-1C neutralizing antibody responses as well as durable Env binding antibodies that recognized linear V3 and C5 peptides. The HIV-1 subtype C DNA-MVA vaccine regimen showed promising cellular immunogenicity. Boosting with gp140/MF59 enhanced levels of binding and neutralizing antibodies as well as CD4(+) T-cell responses to HIV-1 envelope. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00574600 and NCT01423825.).

  14. Computer-aided vaccine designing approach against fish pathogens Edwardsiella tarda and Flavobacterium columnare using bioinformatics softwares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendran R

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Radha Mahendran,1 Suganya Jeyabaskar,1 Gayathri Sitharaman,1 Rajamani Dinakaran Michael,2 Agnal Vincent Paul1 1Department of Bioinformatics, 2Centre for Fish Immunology, School of Life Sciences, Vels University, Pallavaram, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India Abstract: Edwardsiella tarda and Flavobacterium columnare are two important intracellular pathogenic bacteria that cause the infectious diseases edwardsiellosis and columnaris in wild and cultured fish. Prediction of major histocompatibility complex (MHC binding is an important issue in T-cell epitope prediction. In a healthy immune system, the T-cells must recognize epitopes and induce the immune response. In this study, T-cell epitopes were predicted by using in silico immunoinformatics approach with the help of bioinformatics tools that are less expensive and are not time consuming. Such identification of binding interaction between peptides and MHC alleles aids in the discovery of new peptide vaccines. We have reported the potential peptides chosen from the outer membrane proteins (OMPs of E. tarda and F. columnare, which interact well with MHC class I alleles. OMPs from E. tarda and F. columnare were selected and analyzed based on their antigenic and immunogenic properties. The OMPs of the genes TolC and FCOL_04620, respectively, from E. tarda and F. columnare were taken for study. Finally, two epitopes from the OMP of E. tarda exhibited excellent protein–peptide interaction when docked with MHC class I alleles. Five epitopes from the OMP of F. columnare had good protein–peptide interaction when docked with MHC class I alleles. Further in vitro studies can aid in the development of potential peptide vaccines using the predicted peptides. Keywords: E. tarda, F. columnare, edwardsiellosis, columnaris, T-cell epitopes, MHC class I, peptide vaccine, outer membrane proteins 

  15. Information Vaccine: Using Graphic Novels as an HIV/AIDS Prevention Resource for Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Kendra S.; Gavigan, Karen

    2014-01-01

    HIV/AIDS infections are growing at an alarming rate for young adults. In 2009, youth, ages 13-29, accounted for 39% of all new HIV infections in the U.S. (Division of HIV/ AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 2011). South Carolina ranks eighth in the nation for new HIV cases, while the capital city of Columbia ranks seventh…

  16. AIDS vaccine research in Asia: needs and opportunities. Report from a UNAIDS/WHO/NIID meeting Tokyo, 28-30 October 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-30

    A meeting was organized by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the Japanese National Institute of Infectious Diseases (NIID) with the following objectives: (i) to discuss public health and economic rationale to accelerate the development and evaluation of HIV vaccines suitable for use in Asia; (ii) to review ongoing preclinical HIV vaccine research in Asia; (iii) to review the Asian experience in conducting clinical trials of HIV candidate vaccines; (iv) to explore possibilities for international collaboration between countries in the region and with other countries and institutions; and (v) to discuss issues related to availability of future effective HIV vaccines. The meeting was attended by participants from Australia, China, France, Germany, India, Japan, Malaysia, Myanmar, South Korea, Thailand, United Kingdom, and the United States of America. The HIV epidemic in Asia is rapidly spreading and has already resulted in a total of 7 million HIV infections in the region. The epidemic already has a significant public health and economic impact, which may be worse in the future, unless effective intervention programmes are successfully implemented. A safe, effective, and affordable vaccine should be considered as the best hope for a long-term solution to the HIV epidemic in Asia. Asian scientists and institutions have established a number of international collaborations to isolate and characterize prevalent HIV-1 strains (mostly belonging to subtypes C and E) and are developing candidate vaccines based on these subtypes. In the region, phase I/II clinical trials of preventative HIV candidate vaccines have been conducted in Australia, China and Thailand. Since 1993, a comprehensive National AIDS Vaccine Plan has allowed Thailand to conduct phase I/II trials of six different preventative or therapeutic candidate vaccines, and the first phase III preventative efficacy trial has been approved. The meeting

  17. Perceived need of a parental decision aid for the HPV vaccine: content and format preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Julia; Swain, Geoffrey; Weinhardt, Lance S

    2012-03-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a precursor of cervical cancer. In 2006, the Federal Drug Administration licensed a vaccine to protect against four types of HPV. Three years postlicensure of the vaccine, HPV vaccination is still fraught with controversy. To date, research suggests that contrary to popular notions, parents are less concerned with controversies on moral issues and more with uncertainty regarding because long-term safety of a drug is resolved after licensure. This study was designed to understand whether mothers from diverse ethnicities perceive a need for a decision support tool. Results suggest that the design of a culturally tailored decision support tool may help guide parents through the decision-making process.

  18. Bad Blood: The Tuskegee Syphilis Study and Legacy Recruitment for Experimental AIDS Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Kimberly Sessions

    2005-01-01

    For African Americans, medical research often connotes exploitation and cruelty, making recruiting African Americans to participate in HIV vaccine trials particularly daunting. But infusing adult education principles into such efforts is both increasing African American participation and helping heal the legacy of the Tuskegee experiment.

  19. Roundtable for the Development of Drugs and Vaccines Against Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-06

    AIDS) SUBTITLE: Workshop Summary: Government and Industry .. Collaboration in AIDS Drug Development Aoneealon Foy PTIS ’IA& ----- DTI ’ TAB PRINCIPAL ...8217 stating that the government should generally acquire the principal or exclusine rights to inventions derived from federally supported research. IPAs w, ould...obligation to adminiter its patent rights in a responsible manner that benefits societN This mean,,, for one thing. not privatizing patents covering

  20. Failure of highly active antiretroviral therapy in reconstituting immune response to Clostridium tetani vaccine in aged AIDS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Regis M; Andrade, Arnaldo F B; Lazaro, Marta A; Vieira, Morgana M M; Barros, Priscila O; Borner, Alice R S; Silva-Filho, Renato G; Santos, Juliana O; Brindeiro, Rodrigo M; Tanuri, Amilcar; Bento, Cleonice A M

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of age on tetanus-specific immune response in successfully highly active antiretroviral therapy-treated AIDS patients, using healthy age-matched individuals as controls. Whole Peripheral blood mononuclear cells or CD8(+) cell-depleted peripheral blood mononuclear cells from previously tetanus toxoid (TT)-immunized individuals were activated with TT plus IL-2, and cell proliferation, cytokine production, and in vitro HIV-1 replication were measured. The in vivo magnitude of the humoral immune response was also assessed by antibody measurements. Our results showed that, compared with other groups, both in vitro TT-specific lymphoproliferation and serum antibody concentration were lower in older AIDS patients. Although the IL-1beta and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production were higher in cultures from aged HIV-1-infected patients, a dramatic damage on the interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) release was observed, when compared with younger patients. CD8(+) T lymphocytes depletion reduced IL-1beta and TNF-alpha release in the older groups, however, it did not significantly alter their IFN-gamma production. Furthermore, the neutralization of endogenous IL-10 did not change the IFN-gamma deficiency in older AIDS patients. Finally, the lower cellular immune response in this patient group was not related to in vitro HIV-1 replication. The results suggest that successfully highly active antiretroviral therapy-treated aged AIDS patients do not reconstitute the immune response to TT, making them probably more susceptible to tetanus even after vaccination.

  1. Now that you want to take your HIV/AIDS vaccine/biological product research concept into the clinic: what are the "cGMP"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Rebecca L; Rangavajhula, Vijaya; Pullen, Jeffrey K; Butler, Chris; Mehra, Vijay; Shapiro, Stuart; Pensiero, Michael

    2015-04-08

    The Division of AIDS Vaccine Research Program funds the discovery and development of HIV/AIDS vaccine candidates. Basic researchers, having discovered a potential vaccine in the laboratory, next want to take that candidate into the clinic to test the concept in humans, to see if it translates. Many of them have heard of "cGMP" and know that they are supposed to make a "GMP product" to take into the clinic, but often they are not very familiar with what "cGMP" means and why these good practices are so important. As members of the Vaccine Translational Research Branch, we frequently get asked "can't we use the material we made in the lab in the clinic?" or "aren't Phase 1 studies exempt from cGMP?" Over the years, we have had many experiences where researchers or their selected contract manufacturing organizations have not applied an appropriate degree of compliance with cGMP suitable for the clinical phase of development. We share some of these experiences and the lessons learned, along with explaining the importance of cGMP, just what cGMP means, and what they can assure, in an effort to de-mystify this subject and facilitate the rapid and safe translational development of HIV vaccines.

  2. Merck Ad5艾滋病疫苗的研究进展%Progress in Research on Merck's Ad5-based AIDS Vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘强

    2011-01-01

    安全有效的疫苗是艾滋病防治的有效手段.上世纪90年代,Merck公司开始研发腺病毒5型(Ad5)载体T细胞概念艾滋病疫苗.2007年9月,在II b期临床观察中宣告失败,给疫苗学界带来沉重打击.本文就Merck Ad5艾滋病疫苗的构建、临床前期和I、Ⅱ期临床观察以及学术界对其失败原因的分析作一综述.%An effective vaccine remains the primary goal for a comprehensive strategy to curb the global HIV epidemic. Merck began to develop adenovirus type 5 ( Ad5 )-based AIDS vaccine in 1990s. In 2007, Merck and NIAID announced that a phase Ⅱb clinical trial of an Ad5-based AIDS vaccine was discontinued after an interim analysis revealed that the vaccine did not work. The vaccine construction, preclinical and clinical trials and causes of failure are reviewed in this paper.

  3. Effects of Oral Levamisole as an Adjuvant to Hepatitis B Vaccine in HIV/ AIDS Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayad, Babak; Alavian, Seyyed Moayed; Najafi, Farid; Soltani, Bita; Shirvani, Maria; Janbakhsh, Alireza; Mansouri, Feyzollah; Afsharian, Mandana; Vaziri, Siavash; Alikhani, Arash; Bashiri, Homayoon

    2012-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients are also frequently exposed to the hepatitis B virus (HBV), due to the common routes of transmission, therefore, prevention of hepatitis B results in decreased complications of the disease. Objectives Since the immune response of HIV patients to hepatitis B vaccination is less robust than that found in healthy individuals, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of a levamisole adjuvant on increasing the immune response. Patients and Methods In this study, 89 HIV infected patients, without a history of HBV infection or vaccination, were randomly allocated into experimental (44 patients) and control (45 patients) groups. HBV vaccination was performed using the Hepavax-Gene TF vaccine, 40 μg three times at intervals of; zero, one, and three months. Levamisole 50 mg twice a day or a placebo, was administered to the experimental and control groups, respectively, for a period of six days before to six days after the vaccination. Immune response was evaluated by measuring hepatitis B surface antibodies (HBsAb) concurrently with the second and third vaccine administration, and at one and three months at the conclusion of the vaccination program. Results The immune response following the threevaccinations was higher in those who were receiving levamisole compared with the controls (90% vs. 65.38%) (P = 0.05). Furthermore, the immune response and the mean antibody titer following the repeated vaccination in the experimental group showed a higher increase than in the control group. The immune response and the mean titer of antibody were not associated with; age, sex, body mass index, history of smoking and/or intravenous drug use in either of the groups. However, regarding CD4+ cells more than 200 cell/mm3, mean antibody production significantly increased in both groups. Conclusions Using levamisole with the hepatitis B vaccination can increase the immune response and antibody titer mean in HIV infected

  4. Systems analysis of MVA-C induced immune response reveals its significance as a vaccine candidate against HIV/AIDS of clade C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Elena Gómez

    Full Text Available Based on the partial efficacy of the HIV/AIDS Thai trial (RV144 with a canarypox vector prime and protein boost, attenuated poxvirus recombinants expressing HIV-1 antigens are increasingly sought as vaccine candidates against HIV/AIDS. Here we describe using systems analysis the biological and immunological characteristics of the attenuated vaccinia virus Ankara strain expressing the HIV-1 antigens Env/Gag-Pol-Nef of HIV-1 of clade C (referred as MVA-C. MVA-C infection of human monocyte derived dendritic cells (moDCs induced the expression of HIV-1 antigens at high levels from 2 to 8 hpi and triggered moDCs maturation as revealed by enhanced expression of HLA-DR, CD86, CD40, HLA-A2, and CD80 molecules. Infection ex vivo of purified mDC and pDC with MVA-C induced the expression of immunoregulatory pathways associated with antiviral responses, antigen presentation, T cell and B cell responses. Similarly, human whole blood or primary macrophages infected with MVA-C express high levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines involved with T cell activation. The vector MVA-C has the ability to cross-present antigens to HIV-specific CD8 T cells in vitro and to increase CD8 T cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. The immunogenic profiling in mice after DNA-C prime/MVA-C boost combination revealed activation of HIV-1-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell memory responses that are polyfunctional and with effector memory phenotype. Env-specific IgG binding antibodies were also produced in animals receiving DNA-C prime/MVA-C boost. Our systems analysis of profiling immune response to MVA-C infection highlights the potential benefit of MVA-C as vaccine candidate against HIV/AIDS for clade C, the prevalent subtype virus in the most affected areas of the world.

  5. Development of a flow cytometric bead immunoassay and its assessment as a possible aid to potency evaluation of enterotoxaemia vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Buys

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxaemia, an economically important disease of sheep, goats and calves, is caused by systemic effects of the epsilon toxin produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium perfringens type D. The only practical means of controlling the occurrence of enterotoxaemia is to immunise animals by vaccination. The vaccine is prepared by deriving a toxoid from the bacterial culture filtrate and the potency of the vaccine is tested with the in vivo mouse neutralisation test (MNT. Due to ethical, economic and technical reasons, alternative in vitro assays are needed. In this study an indirect cytometric bead immunoassay (I-CBA was developed for use in vaccine potency testing and the results were compared with those obtained using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA and the MNT. Sera were collected from guinea pigs immunised with three different production batches of enterotoxaemia vaccine and the levels of anti-epsilon toxin antibodies were determined. Although the intra- and inter-assay variability was satisfactory, epsilon antitoxin levels determined by both the I-ELISA and indirect cytometric bead immunoassay (I-CBA tests were higher than those of the MNT assay. In contrast to the MNT, all of the serum samples were identified as having antitoxin levels above the required minimum (not less than 5 U/mL. These results indicate that the respective in vitro tests in their current formats are not yet suitable alternatives to the in vivo MNT. The growing demand for a more humane, cost-effective and efficient method for testing the potency of enterotoxaemia vaccines, however, provides a strong impetus for further optimisation and standardisation of the I-CBA assay but further analytical research is required.

  6. Antigen Gene Cloning and Expression of HIV-1 Toward AIDS Vaccine Design Ⅱ. Subtype Classification and Quasi-species Identification of HIV-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Qingping (曾庆平); YANG Ruiyi (杨瑞仪); FENG Liling (冯丽玲); CHEN Zhuhua (陈竹华); ZENG Changhong (曾常红)

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze subtypes and quasi-species of isolatedviruses from HIV-1 infected individuals among the populationof Guangdong Province, for understanding the molecularepidemioiogical dynamics of local HIV-1 isolates, thus laying afoundation for designing a candidate AIDS vaccine.Methods: By hetero-duplex mobility assay (HMA) andsingle strand conformation poly- morphism (SSCP) analysison amplicons from single-primed polymerase chain reaction(SP-PCR), subtypes and quasi-species of tested HIV-1 isolateswere elucidated, and amplicons were sequenced forconfirmation.Results: Specific amplicons from different subtypes andquasi-species of HIV-1 could be discernible by HMA andSSCP analysis.Conclusion: HIV-1 isolates from different patients might beeither a different subtype or an identical subtype, and HIV-1isolates from an individual were present in a population ofquasi-species.

  7. HIV Vaccine-Challenges and Opportunities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The need for an efficacious HIV/AIDS vaccine remains the highest priority of the world HIV/AIDS agenda. The generation of an efficacious HIV/AIDS vaccine proves an enormous scientific challenge. This article reviews the neutralizing antibody problem, elusive immune protection, immunogen design, pre-existing anti-vector immunity and design of phase 3 vaccine trials and the challenges and opportunities in development of HIV/AIDS vaccine are discussed.

  8. Therapeutic DNA vaccine induces broad T cell responses in the gut and sustained protection from viral rebound and AIDS in SIV-infected rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Heydenburg Fuller

    Full Text Available Immunotherapies that induce durable immune control of chronic HIV infection may eliminate the need for life-long dependence on drugs. We investigated a DNA vaccine formulated with a novel genetic adjuvant that stimulates immune responses in the blood and gut for the ability to improve therapy in rhesus macaques chronically infected with SIV. Using the SIV-macaque model for AIDS, we show that epidermal co-delivery of plasmids expressing SIV Gag, RT, Nef and Env, and the mucosal adjuvant, heat-labile E. coli enterotoxin (LT, during antiretroviral therapy (ART induced a substantial 2-4-log fold reduction in mean virus burden in both the gut and blood when compared to unvaccinated controls and provided durable protection from viral rebound and disease progression after the drug was discontinued. This effect was associated with significant increases in IFN-γ T cell responses in both the blood and gut and SIV-specific CD8+ T cells with dual TNF-α and cytolytic effector functions in the blood. Importantly, a broader specificity in the T cell response seen in the gut, but not the blood, significantly correlated with a reduction in virus production in mucosal tissues and a lower virus burden in plasma. We conclude that immunizing with vaccines that induce immune responses in mucosal gut tissue could reduce residual viral reservoirs during drug therapy and improve long-term treatment of HIV infection in humans.

  9. Biocompatible anionic polymeric microspheres as priming delivery system for effetive HIV/AIDS Tat-based vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Titti

    Full Text Available Here we describe a prime-boost regimen of vaccination in Macaca fascicularis that combines priming with novel anionic microspheres designed to deliver the biologically active HIV-1 Tat protein and boosting with Tat in Alum. This regimen of immunization modulated the IgG subclass profile and elicited a balanced Th1-Th2 type of humoral and cellular responses. Remarkably, following intravenous challenge with SHIV89.6Pcy243, vaccinees significantly blunted acute viremia, as compared to control monkeys, and this control was associated with significantly lower CD4+ T cell depletion rate during the acute phase of infection and higher ability to resume the CD4+ T cell counts in the post-acute and chronic phases of infection. The long lasting control of viremia was associated with the persistence of high titers anti-Tat antibodies whose profile clearly distinguished vaccinees in controllers and viremics. Controllers, as opposed to vaccinated and viremic cynos, exhibited significantly higher pre-challenge antibody responses to peptides spanning the glutamine-rich and the RGD-integrin-binding regions of Tat. Finally, among vaccinees, titers of anti-Tat IgG1, IgG3 and IgG4 subclasses had a significant association with control of viremia in the acute and post-acute phases of infection. Altogether these findings indicate that the Tat/H1D/Alum regimen of immunization holds promise for next generation vaccines with Tat protein or other proteins for which maintenance of the native conformation and activity are critical for optimal immunogenicity. Our results also provide novel information on the role of anti-Tat responses in the prevention of HIV pathogenesis and for the design of new vaccine candidates.

  10. HIV/AIDS and the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters HIV/AIDS and the Flu Questions & Answers Language: English ... people with HIV and AIDS. Should people with HIV/AIDS receive the inactivated influenza vaccine? People with ...

  11. Utilizing a TLR5-Adjuvanted Cytomegalovirus as a Lentiviral Vaccine in the Nonhuman Primate Model for AIDS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse D Deere

    Full Text Available Despite tremendous progress in our understanding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV natural history and advances in HIV treatment, there is neither an approved vaccine nor a cure for infection. Here, we describe the development and characterization of a novel replicating vaccine vector utilizing Cytomegalovirus (CMV and a TLR5 adjuvant. After partial truncation of the central, immunodominant hypervariable domain, flagellin (fliC from Salmonella was cloned downstream of a codon optimized gag gene from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV and transiently expressed in telomerized rhesus fibroblast (TeloRF cells in culture. Lysates generated from these transfected cells induced the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, in a mouse macrophage cell line, in a TLR5-dependent manner. The Gag/FliC expression construct was cloned into a bacterial artificial chromosome encoding the rhesus CMV (RhCMV genome, and infectious RhCMV was generated following transfection of TeloRF cells. This virus stably expressed an SIV Gag/FliC fusion protein through four serial passages. Lysates generated from infected cells induced TNF-α in a TLR5-dependent manner. Western blot analysis of infected cell lysates verified expression of a Gag/FliC fusion protein using a SIV p27 capsid monoclonal antibody. Lastly, rhesus macaques inoculated with this novel RhCMV virus demonstrated increased inflammatory responses at the site of inoculation seven days post-infection when compared to the parental RhCMV. These results demonstrate that an artificially constructed replicating RhCMV expressing an SIV Gag/FliC fusion protein is capable of activating TLR5 in a macrophage cell line in vitro and induction of an altered inflammatory response in vivo. Ongoing animals studies are aimed at determining vaccine efficacy, including subsequent challenge with pathogenic SIV.

  12. R5 clade C SHIV strains with tier 1 or 2 neutralization sensitivity: tools to dissect env evolution and to develop AIDS vaccines in primate models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagadenahalli B Siddappa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-1 clade C (HIV-C predominates worldwide, and anti-HIV-C vaccines are urgently needed. Neutralizing antibody (nAb responses are considered important but have proved difficult to elicit. Although some current immunogens elicit antibodies that neutralize highly neutralization-sensitive (tier 1 HIV strains, most circulating HIVs exhibiting a less sensitive (tier 2 phenotype are not neutralized. Thus, both tier 1 and 2 viruses are needed for vaccine discovery in nonhuman primate models. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We constructed a tier 1 simian-human immunodeficiency virus, SHIV-1157ipEL, by inserting an "early," recently transmitted HIV-C env into the SHIV-1157ipd3N4 backbone [1] encoding a "late" form of the same env, which had evolved in a SHIV-infected rhesus monkey (RM with AIDS. SHIV-1157ipEL was rapidly passaged to yield SHIV-1157ipEL-p, which remained exclusively R5-tropic and had a tier 1 phenotype, in contrast to "late" SHIV-1157ipd3N4 (tier 2. After 5 weekly low-dose intrarectal exposures, SHIV-1157ipEL-p systemically infected 16 out of 17 RM with high peak viral RNA loads and depleted gut CD4+ T cells. SHIV-1157ipEL-p and SHIV-1157ipd3N4 env genes diverge mostly in V1/V2. Molecular modeling revealed a possible mechanism for the increased neutralization resistance of SHIV-1157ipd3N4 Env: V2 loops hindering access to the CD4 binding site, shown experimentally with nAb b12. Similar mutations have been linked to decreased neutralization sensitivity in HIV-C strains isolated from humans over time, indicating parallel HIV-C Env evolution in humans and RM. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SHIV-1157ipEL-p, the first tier 1 R5 clade C SHIV, and SHIV-1157ipd3N4, its tier 2 counterpart, represent biologically relevant tools for anti-HIV-C vaccine development in primates.

  13. Vaccines against poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Calman A; Saul, Allan

    2014-08-26

    With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vaccines for neglected infectious diseases. However, the majority of this went to three diseases: HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and not neglected diseases. Much of it went to basic research rather than development, with an ongoing decline in funding for product development partnerships. Further investment in vaccines against diarrheal diseases, hepatitis C, and group A Streptococcus could lead to a major health impact in LMICs, along with vaccines to prevent sepsis, particularly among mothers and neonates. The Advanced Market Commitment strategy of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) Alliance is helping to implement vaccines against rotavirus and pneumococcus in LMICs, and the roll out of the MenAfriVac meningococcal A vaccine in the African Meningitis Belt represents a paradigm shift in vaccines against poverty: the development of a vaccine primarily targeted at LMICs. Global health vaccine institutes and increasing capacity of vaccine manufacturers in emerging economies are helping drive forward new vaccines for LMICs. Above all, partnership is needed between those developing and manufacturing LMIC vaccines and the scientists, health care professionals, and policy makers in LMICs where such vaccines will be implemented.

  14. HPV vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer; Genital warts - HPV vaccine; Cervical dysplasia - HPV vaccine; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine; Cancer of the cervix - HPV vaccine; Abnormal ...

  15. Strategy for AIDS Prevention and Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has been circulating in China for over 25 year. While making progress and achievements on HIV/AIDS prevention, there still are great challenge and difficulties such as HIV epidemic controlling and vaccine research.

  16. "HIV-peplotion vaccine"--a novel approach to protection against AIDS by transepithelial transport of viral peptides to Langerhans cells for long-term antiviral CTL response. (A review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Y

    1996-01-01

    Viral vaccines which stimulate the humoral immune response in humans have been successful in preventing most of the known virus diseases except dengue fever, respiratory syncytial virus infections and HIV-1-related AIDS. Burke [1] raised a concern that anti-HIV-1 antibodies may add a risk factor to immunized individuals infected with HIV-1. An approach to develop HIV-1 vaccines capable of stimulating anti-HIV-1 cytotoxic T cells requires an understanding of the importance of epidermal and epithelial Langerhans cells (LC). These cells are professional antigen-presenting cells which express HLA class I and class II molecules. Epithelial LC are present in a specific layer in the skin, genitalia and gut and may be accessible to viral antigens by local application in a vehicle for transepithelial transport of viral proteins/peptides (designated "HIV-1 Peplotion vaccine"). This approach is supported by the reports that HIV-1 gp160 in ISCOM induced MHC class I CTL response [2], mixing of cationic lipids with viral proteins formed complexes which were delivered to cell cytoplasm and the degraded peptides stimulated CTLs by HLA class I mechanism [3] and viral proteins encapsulated in pH-sensitive liposomes administered to LC induced primary antiviral CTLs [4]. Current studies in our laboratory deal with (a) selection of the vehicle for transepidermal transport of peptides and the conditions for selective uptake by epidermal LC [5]; (b) computer analysis of HIV-1 proteins to detect the putative proteolytic cleavage peptides with amino acid motifs which allow association with different known HLA class I haplotype molecules on LCs and synthetic peptide uptake from "without" by LC. The "HIV-1 Peplotion vaccine", when developed, will be useful for continual stimulation of antiviral CTLs in uninfected individuals and HIV-1 carriers by repetitive application to skin, genitalia and gut. The "Peplotion vaccine" will be applied by vaccinees, will be affordable for all human

  17. Vaccination priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Robert; Baños, Ana; deBernardis, Chiara

    2003-02-01

    Selection of immunizations should be based on requirements and on risk of infection. According to the International Health Regulations, many countries require yellow fever vaccination and proof thereof as the International Certificate of vaccination. Additionally selected countries require proof of vaccination against cholera and meningococcal disease. A consultation for travel health advice is always an opportunity to ascertain that routine immunizations have been performed. Recommended immunizations often are more important for traveller's health than the required or routine ones. The most frequent vaccine preventable infection in non-immune travellers to developing countries is hepatitis A with an average incidence rate of 0.3% per month; in high risk backpackers or foreign-aid-volunteers this rate is 2.0%. Many immunizations are recommended for special risk groups only: there is a growing tendency in many countries to immunize all young travellers to developing countries against hepatitis B, as it is uncertain who will voluntarily or involuntarily get exposed. The attack rate of influenza in intercontinental travel is estimated to be 1%. Immunity against poliomyelitis remains essential for travel to Africa and parts of Asia. Many of the 0.2-0.4% who experience an animal bite are at risk of rabies. Typhoid fever is diagnosed with an incidence rate of 0.03% per month among travellers to the Indian subcontinent, North and West Africa (except Tunisia), and Peru, elsewhere this rate is 10-fold lower. Meningococcal disease, Japanese encephalitis, cholera and tuberculosis have been reported in travellers, but these infections are rare in this population. Although no travel health vaccine is cost beneficial, most professionals will offer protection against the frequent risks, while most would find it ridiculous to use all available vaccines in every traveller. It is essentially an arbitrary decision made on the risk level one wishes to recommend protection--but the

  18. 艾滋病疫苗专题文献引文特征的可视化分析%Visual analysis of features of citations in papers on AIDS vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭婉君; 张世玉; 王伟

    2014-01-01

    Important papers representing the advances in AIDS vaccine research were retrieved from Web of Sci-ence using HistCite.The citation chronological chart was plotted by analyzing the relation between their citation fre-quency and cited frequency , and analyzing their citation sequences , which shows the development rules and histori-cal development path in AIDS vaccine research , and provides a certain reference value for the researchers in related fields at home and abroad.%以Web of Science的艾滋病疫苗研究文献作为数据来源,利用引文分析可视化软件HistCite,找出代表艾滋病疫苗研究领域发展的重要文献,并分析文献之间引用与被引用关系和引用序列,获得引文编年图谱,梳理出艾滋病疫苗研究领域的发展规律和历史发展轨迹,为国内外相关领域的研究人员提供一定的参考。

  19. Therapeutic HIV Peptide Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic vaccines aim to control chronic HIV infection and eliminate the need for lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). Therapeutic HIV vaccine is being pursued as part of a functional cure for HIV/AIDS. We have outlined a basic protocol for inducing new T cell immunity during chronic HIV-1...... infection directed to subdominant conserved HIV-1 epitopes restricted to frequent HLA supertypes. The rationale for selecting HIV peptides and adjuvants are provided. Peptide subunit vaccines are regarded as safe due to the simplicity, quality, purity, and low toxicity. The caveat is reduced immunogenicity...

  20. HIV DNA Vaccine: Stepwise Improvements Make a Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara K. Felber

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Inefficient DNA delivery methods and low expression of plasmid DNA have been major obstacles for the use of plasmid DNA as vaccine for HIV/AIDS. This review describes successful efforts to improve DNA vaccine methodology over the past ~30 years. DNA vaccination, either alone or in combination with other methods, has the potential to be a rapid, safe, and effective vaccine platform against AIDS. Recent clinical trials suggest the feasibility of its translation to the clinic.

  1. Rapid and scalable plant-based production of a cholera toxin B subunit variant to aid in mass vaccination against cholera outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystal Teasley Hamorsky

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cholera toxin B subunit (CTB is a component of an internationally licensed oral cholera vaccine. The protein induces neutralizing antibodies against the holotoxin, the virulence factor responsible for severe diarrhea. A field clinical trial has suggested that the addition of CTB to killed whole-cell bacteria provides superior short-term protection to whole-cell-only vaccines; however, challenges in CTB biomanufacturing (i.e., cost and scale hamper its implementation to mass vaccination in developing countries. To provide a potential solution to this issue, we developed a rapid, robust, and scalable CTB production system in plants. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a preliminary study of expressing original CTB in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana, the protein was N-glycosylated with plant-specific glycans. Thus, an aglycosylated CTB variant (pCTB was created and overexpressed via a plant virus vector. Upon additional transgene engineering for retention in the endoplasmic reticulum and optimization of a secretory signal, the yield of pCTB was dramatically improved, reaching >1 g per kg of fresh leaf material. The protein was efficiently purified by simple two-step chromatography. The GM1-ganglioside binding capacity and conformational stability of pCTB were virtually identical to the bacteria-derived original B subunit, as demonstrated in competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, surface plasmon resonance, and fluorescence-based thermal shift assay. Mammalian cell surface-binding was corroborated by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. pCTB exhibited strong oral immunogenicity in mice, inducing significant levels of CTB-specific intestinal antibodies that persisted over 6 months. Moreover, these antibodies effectively neutralized the cholera holotoxin in vitro. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, these results demonstrated that pCTB has robust producibility in Nicotiana plants and retains most, if not all, of major

  2. [Travelers' vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchi, Kazunobu

    2011-09-01

    The number of Japanese oversea travelers has gradually increased year by year, however they usually pay less attention to the poor physical condition at the voyage place. Many oversea travelers caught vaccine preventable diseases in developing countries. The Vaccine Guideline for Oversea Travelers 2010 published by Japanese Society of Travel Health will be helpful for spreading the knowledge of travelers' vaccine and vaccine preventable diseases in developing countries. Many travelers' vaccines have not licensed in Japan. I hope these travelers' vaccines, such as typhoid vaccine, meningococcal vaccine, cholera vaccine and so on will be licensed in the near future.

  3. Leptospirosis vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Leptospirosis is a serious infection disease caused by pathogenic strains of the Leptospira spirochetes, which affects not only humans but also animals. It has long been expected to find an effective vaccine to prevent leptospirosis through immunization of high risk humans or animals. Although some leptospirosis vaccines have been obtained, the vaccination is relatively unsuccessful in clinical application despite decades of research and millions of dollars spent. In this review, the recent advancements of recombinant outer membrane protein (OMP vaccines, lipopolysaccharide (LPS vaccines, inactivated vaccines, attenuated vaccines and DNA vaccines against leptospirosis are reviewed. A comparison of these vaccines may lead to development of new potential methods to combat leptospirosis and facilitate the leptospirosis vaccine research. Moreover, a vaccine ontology database was built for the scientists working on the leptospirosis vaccines as a starting tool.

  4. Vaccine Hesitancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact.

  5. THE AIDS HANDBOOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Khan

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection and AIDS is increasingly becoming a major public health problem in our country. Currently, the reported cases represent only the 'tip of the iceberg' of the problem. In view of the fact that no cure or vaccine for the disease has yet been found, spreading knowledge and removing misconceptions is about the only way that AIDS can be effectively tackled.This handbook, developed by Prof. Shankar Chowdhury and associates, seeks to address all levels of medical and non-medical AIDS workers, as well as the layman. It deals with topics ranging from biology of the virus, symptoms and transmission of disease, to prevention, counselling for infected persons and action plan for AIDS education.The biology of the virus and the immune system is described in simple terms, as well as methods of testing for HIV, and what these test results mean. The progression of disease in adults and children, development of symptoms, diagnostic criteria for AIDS, treatment and outcome of disease is dealt with. How AIDS spreads between people, and the health risk for health workers and families is examined. The various ways in which transmission of HIV can be prevented is looked at in detail, including public health measures, national and internatonal action, and ethical and human rights issues involved.

  6. A New Decade of Vaccines

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, JFA

    2011-09-01

    The call for a new decade of vaccines was made in December 2010. The aims are to secure the further discovery, development and delivery of vaccination. The first challenge is the acquisition of funds for the research and development of 20 new vaccines1. The Gates Foundation has pledged $10 billion for this venture. The other major players are WHO, UNICEF and the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. The top priorities are TB, AIDS and Malaria. It is hoped that a Malaria vaccine will available in 3 years. The ambitious target of saving the lives of over 7 million children has been set. The programme must also address the need for vaccines in insulin dependent diabetes, cancers and degenerative diseases2.

  7. A candidate HIV/AIDS vaccine (MVA-B) lacking vaccinia virus gene C6L enhances memory HIV-1-specific T-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Arriaza, Juan; Nájera, José Luis; Gómez, Carmen E; Tewabe, Nolawit; Sorzano, Carlos Oscar S; Calandra, Thierry; Roger, Thierry; Esteban, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    The vaccinia virus (VACV) C6 protein has sequence similarities with the poxvirus family Pox_A46, involved in regulation of host immune responses, but its role is unknown. Here, we have characterized the C6 protein and its effects in virus replication, innate immune sensing and immunogenicity in vivo. C6 is a 18.2 kDa protein, which is expressed early during virus infection and localizes to the cytoplasm of infected cells. Deletion of the C6L gene from the poxvirus vector MVA-B expressing HIV-1 Env, Gag, Pol and Nef antigens from clade B (MVA-B ΔC6L) had no effect on virus growth kinetics; therefore C6 protein is not essential for virus replication. The innate immune signals elicited by MVA-B ΔC6L in human macrophages and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) are characterized by the up-regulation of the expression of IFN-β and IFN-α/β-inducible genes. In a DNA prime/MVA boost immunization protocol in mice, flow cytometry analysis revealed that MVA-B ΔC6L enhanced the magnitude and polyfunctionality of the HIV-1-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell memory immune responses, with most of the HIV-1 responses mediated by the CD8+ T-cell compartment with an effector phenotype. Significantly, while MVA-B induced preferentially Env- and Gag-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, MVA-B ΔC6L induced more Gag-Pol-Nef-specific CD8+ T-cell responses. Furthermore, MVA-B ΔC6L enhanced the levels of antibodies against Env in comparison with MVA-B. These findings revealed that C6 can be considered as an immunomodulator and that deleting C6L gene in MVA-B confers an immunological benefit by enhancing IFN-β-dependent responses and increasing the magnitude and quality of the T-cell memory immune responses to HIV-1 antigens. Our observations are relevant for the improvement of MVA vectors as HIV-1 vaccines.

  8. DENGUE VACCINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thisyakorn, Usa; Thisyakorn, Chule

    2015-01-01

    The uniqueness of the dengue viruses (DENVs) and the spectrum of disease resulting from infection have made dengue vaccine development difficult. Several vaccine candidates are currently being evaluated in clinical studies. The candidate currently at the most advanced clinical development stage, a live-attenuated tetravalent vaccine based on the chimeric yellow fever-dengue virus (CYD-TDV), has progressed to Phase 3 efficacy studies. Several other live-attenuated vaccines, as well as subunit, DNA, and purified inactivated vaccine candidates are at earlier stages of clinical development. Additional technological approaches, such as virus-vectored and Virus-Like Particles (VLP)-based vaccines are under evaluation in preclinical studies.

  9. Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  10. AIDS (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  11. Rabies Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... high risk of exposure to rabies, such as veterinarians, animal handlers, rabies laboratory workers, spelunkers, and rabies biologics production workers should be offered rabies vaccine. The vaccine should also be considered for: (1) ...

  12. Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    Controversy over the aggregate impact of foreign aid has focused on reduced form estimates of the aid-growth link. The causal chain, through which aid affects developmental outcomes including growth, has received much less attention. We address this gap by: (i) specifying a structural model of th...

  13. Edible vaccines.

    OpenAIRE

    Artnzen, C J

    1997-01-01

    Vaccines were the result of trial and error research until molecular biology and genetic engineering made possible the creation of of many new and improved vaccines. New vaccines need to be inexpensive, easily administered, and capable of being stored and transported without refrigeration; without these characteristics, developing countries find it difficult to adopt vaccination as the central strategy for preventing their most devastating diseases. The authors describe a promising approach t...

  14. Periodontal vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjan Malhotra; Anoop Kapoor; Vishakha Grover; Aaswin Kaur Tuli

    2011-01-01

    Vaccine is the name applied generally to a substance of the nature of dead or attenuated living infectious material introduced into the body with the object of increasing its power to resist or get rid of a disease. Vaccines are generally prophylactic, i.e. they ameliorate the effects of future infection. One such vaccine considered here is the "Periodontal vaccine". Till date, no preventive modality exists for periodontal disease and treatment rendered is palliative. Thus, availability of pe...

  15. HPV Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness HPV Vaccine KidsHealth > For Teens > HPV Vaccine Print A A A What's in this article? ... 11 or 12 through age 21 If needed, kids can get the vaccine starting at age 9. continue How Does the ...

  16. DNA vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Jens-Peter

    2001-12-01

    Immunization by genes encoding immunogens, rather than with the immunogen itself, has opened up new possibilities for vaccine research and development and offers chances for new applications and indications for future vaccines. The underlying mechanisms of antigen processing, immune presentation and regulation of immune responses raise high expectations for new and more effective prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines, particularly for vaccines against chronic or persistent infectious diseases and tumors. Our current knowledge and experience of DNA vaccination is summarized and critically reviewed with particular attention to basic immunological mechanisms, the construction of plasmids, screening for protective immunogens to be encoded by these plasmids, modes of application, pharmacokinetics, safety and immunotoxicological aspects. DNA vaccines have the potential to accelerate the research phase of new vaccines and to improve the chances of success, since finding new immunogens with the desired properties is at least technically less demanding than for conventional vaccines. However, on the way to innovative vaccine products, several hurdles have to be overcome. The efficacy of DNA vaccines in humans appears to be much less than indicated by early studies in mice. Open questions remain concerning the persistence and distribution of inoculated plasmid DNA in vivo, its potential to express antigens inappropriately, or the potentially deleterious ability to insert genes into the host cell's genome. Furthermore, the possibility of inducing immunotolerance or autoimmune diseases also needs to be investigated more thoroughly, in order to arrive at a well-founded consensus, which justifies the widespread application of DNA vaccines in a healthy population.

  17. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Infirmary (ground-floor, bldg. 57), with their vaccine, without a prior appointment. The vaccine can be reimbursed directly by Uniqa providing you attach the receipt and the prescription that you will receive from the Medical Service the day of your injection at the infirmary. Ideally, the vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2007 (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00). CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor. Medical Service

  18. Periodontal vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Malhotra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine is the name applied generally to a substance of the nature of dead or attenuated living infectious material introduced into the body with the object of increasing its power to resist or get rid of a disease. Vaccines are generally prophylactic, i.e. they ameliorate the effects of future infection. One such vaccine considered here is the "Periodontal vaccine". Till date, no preventive modality exists for periodontal disease and treatment rendered is palliative. Thus, availability of periodontal vaccine would not only prevent and modulate periodontal disease, but also enhance the quality of life of people for whom periodontal treatment cannot be easily obtained. The aim of the research should be development of a multispecies vaccine targeting the four prime periodontal pathogens, viz. Porphyromonas gingivalis, T. forsythus, T. denticola and A. comitans. Success is still elusive in case of periodontal vaccine due to the complex etiopathogenesis of the disease.

  19. HIV / AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Respond to Pre-Award Requests Manage Your Award Negotiation & Initial Award After Award ... New Trial Launched in West Africa to Evaluate Three Vaccination Strategies , April 6, 2017 Monoclonal Antibody Cures Marburg Infection ...

  20. Two double-blinded, randomized, comparative trials of 4 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope vaccines in HIV-1-infected individuals across a spectrum of disease severity: AIDS Clinical Trials Groups 209 and 214.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooley, R T; Spino, C; Kuritzkes, D; Walker, B D; Valentine, F A; Hirsch, M S; Cooney, E; Friedland, G; Kundu, S; Merigan, T C; McElrath, M J; Collier, A; Plaeger, S; Mitsuyasu, R; Kahn, J; Haslett, P; Uherova, P; deGruttola, V; Chiu, S; Zhang, B; Jones, G; Bell, D; Ketter, N; Twadell, T; Chernoff, D; Rosandich, M

    2000-11-01

    The potential role of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific immune responses in controlling viral replication in vivo has stimulated interest in enhancing virus-specific immunity by vaccinating infected individuals with HIV-1 or its components. These studies were undertaken to define patient populations most likely to respond to vaccination, with the induction of novel HIV-1-specific cellular immune responses, and to compare the safety and immunogenicity of several candidate recombinant HIV-1 envelope vaccines and adjuvants. New lymphoproliferative responses (LPRs) developed in 350 cells/mm(3) and were usually strain restricted. Responders tended to be more likely than nonresponders to have an undetectable level of HIV-1 RNA at baseline (P=.067). Induction of new cellular immune responses by HIV-1 envelope vaccines is a function of the immunologic stage of disease and baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA level and exhibits considerable vaccine strain specificity.

  1. Flu vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor.CERN Medical Service

  2. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service

  3. Flu Vaccination

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service

  4. Flu Vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical service

  5. Leptospirosis vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Li; Wang Zhijun; Węgrzyn Alicja

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Leptospirosis is a serious infection disease caused by pathogenic strains of the Leptospira spirochetes, which affects not only humans but also animals. It has long been expected to find an effective vaccine to prevent leptospirosis through immunization of high risk humans or animals. Although some leptospirosis vaccines have been obtained, the vaccination is relatively unsuccessful in clinical application despite decades of research and millions of dollars spent. In this review, the...

  6. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    A critical account of the rise of celebrity-driven “compassionate consumption” Cofounded by the rock star Bono in 2006, Product RED exemplifies a new trend in celebrity-driven international aid and development, one explicitly linked to commerce, not philanthropy. Brand Aid offers a deeply informed...

  7. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...

  8. Current status of toxoplasmosis vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kur, Józef; Holec-Gasior, Lucyna; Hiszczyńska-Sawicka, Elzbieta

    2009-06-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by an intracellular protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, is widespread throughout the world. The disease is of major medical and veterinary importance, being a cause of congenital disease and abortion in humans and domestic animals. In addition, recently it has gained importance owing to toxoplasma encephalitis in AIDS patients. In the last few years, there has been considerable progress towards the development of a vaccine for toxoplasmosis, and a vaccine based on the live-attenuated S48 strain was developed for veterinary uses. However, this vaccine is expensive, causes side effects and has a short shelf life. Furthermore, this vaccine may revert to a pathogenic strain and, therefore, is not suitable for human use. Various experimental studies have shown that it may be possible to develop a vaccine against human toxoplasmosis. Recent progress in knowledge of the protective immune response generated by T. gondii and the current status of development of a vaccine for toxoplasmosis are highlighted.

  9. The development of an AIDS mucosal vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Xian Tang; Zhiwei Chen

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that mucosal tissues contain the largest surface area of the human body and are the front line of natural host defense against various pathogens. In fact, more than 80% of infectious disease pathogens probably gain entry into the susceptible human hosts through open mucosal surfaces. Human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1), a mainly sexually transmitted virus, also primarily targets the vaginal and gastrointestinal mucosa as entry sites for viral transmission, seeding, ...

  10. New, More Authentic Model for AIDS Will Accelerate Studies | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer, and Jeff Lifson, Guest Writer Researchers are working to develop a more authentic animal model of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and AIDS that is expected to speed up studies of experimental treatments and vaccines.

  11. HIV Vaccine Trials Network: activities and achievements of the first decade and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Kublin, James G.; Morgan, Cecilia A.; Day, Tracey A.; Gilbert, Peter B.; Self, Steve G.; McElrath, M. Juliana; Corey, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) is an international collaboration of scientists and educators facilitating the development of HIV/AIDS preventive vaccines. The HVTN conducts all phases of clinical trials, from evaluating experimental vaccines for safety and immunogenicity, to testing vaccine efficacy. Over the past decade, the HVTN has aimed to improve the process of designing, implementing and analyzing vaccine trials. Several major achievements include streamlining protocol developmen...

  12. Selecting Viruses for the Seasonal Influenza Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Flu Vaccines Vaccine Effectiveness Types of Flu Vaccine Flu Shot Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine Intradermal Influenza (Flu) Vaccination ... Cell-Based Flu Vaccines Flublok Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Vaccine Flu Vaccination by Jet Injector Adjuvant Vaccine Vaccine Virus ...

  13. Seasonal Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Flu Vaccines Vaccine Effectiveness Types of Flu Vaccine Flu Shot Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine Intradermal Influenza (Flu) Vaccination ... Cell-Based Flu Vaccines Flublok Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Vaccine Flu Vaccination by Jet Injector Adjuvant Vaccine Vaccine Virus ...

  14. Hearing Aid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A man realized that he needed to purchase ahearing aid, but he was unwilling to spend muchmoney. "How much do they run?"he asked theclerk. "That depends," said. the salesman. "Theyrun from 2 to 2000."

  15. Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... slightly different from the ITC and is nearly hidden in the ear canal. Both canal hearing aids ... Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  16. What Has 30 Years of HIV Vaccine Research Taught Us?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Esparza

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available When HIV was discovered and established as the cause of AIDS in 1983–1984, many people believed that a vaccine would be rapidly developed. However, 30 years have passed and we are still struggling to develop an elusive vaccine. In trying to achieve that goal, different scientific paradigms have been explored. Although major progress has been made in understanding the scientific basis for HIV vaccine development, efficacy trials have been critical in moving the field forward. Major lessons learned are: the development of an HIV vaccine is an extremely difficult challenge; the temptation of just following the fashion should be avoided; clinical trials are critical, especially large-scale efficacy trials; HIV vaccine research will require long-term commitment; and sustainable collaborations are needed to accelerate the development of an HIV vaccine. Concrete actions must be implemented with the sense of urgency imposed by the severity of the AIDS epidemic.

  17. What Has 30 Years of HIV Vaccine Research Taught Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza, José

    2013-10-30

    When HIV was discovered and established as the cause of AIDS in 1983-1984, many people believed that a vaccine would be rapidly developed. However, 30 years have passed and we are still struggling to develop an elusive vaccine. In trying to achieve that goal, different scientific paradigms have been explored. Although major progress has been made in understanding the scientific basis for HIV vaccine development, efficacy trials have been critical in moving the field forward. Major lessons learned are: the development of an HIV vaccine is an extremely difficult challenge; the temptation of just following the fashion should be avoided; clinical trials are critical, especially large-scale efficacy trials; HIV vaccine research will require long-term commitment; and sustainable collaborations are needed to accelerate the development of an HIV vaccine. Concrete actions must be implemented with the sense of urgency imposed by the severity of the AIDS epidemic.

  18. Types of Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed to ...

  19. Vaccine Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tweet Share Compartir Back to School: Vaccines for Preteens Learn about the safety of Tdap, Meningococcal, and ... file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer file Text file ...

  20. Typhoid Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... serious disease. It is caused by bacteria called Salmonella Typhi. Typhoid causes a high fever, fatigue, weakness, stomach ... a typhoid carrier. • Laboratory workers who work with Salmonella Typhi bacteria. Inactivated typhoid vaccine (shot) • One dose provides ...

  1. Plant Viruses as Nanoparticle-Based Vaccines and Adjuvants.

    OpenAIRE

    Marie-Ève Lebel; Karine Chartrand; Denis Leclerc; Alain Lamarre

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Vaccines are considered one of the greatest medical achievements in the battle against infectious diseases. However, the intractability of various diseases such as hepatitis C, HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and cancer poses persistent hurdles given that traditional vaccine-development methods have proven to be ineffective; as such, these challenges have driven the emergence of novel vaccine design approaches. In this regard, much effort has been put into the develop...

  2. Influenza vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerhus, Sven Frederick

    2015-01-01

    The Cochrane Library was systematically searched for meta-analyses regarding influenza vaccination of various populations, both healthy and sick. An effect in reducing the number of cases of influenza, influenza-like illness or complications to influenza was found in some studies, but, generally......, the quality of the studies was low, and several studies lacked hard clinical endpoints. Data on adverse effects were scarce. More randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of influenza vaccination are warranted....

  3. Antipneumococcal vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP is a gram-positive bacterium with more than 90 known serotypes causing around 11% of all deaths worldwide in children aged 1-59 months. A new era in prevention of SP-related diseases started in at the beginning of 2000s when a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 was recommended as the vaccine of choice in pediatric age. PCV7 dramatically reduced invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD among children with indirect effects noted among other age groups as well. However, thanks to a strict surveillance network, an increase in non-vaccine serotypes (NVTs causing IPD was noted worldwide and in late 2000s a new second generation vaccine (13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-PCV13 with an expanded serotype coverage was licensed. Due to the lack of solid effectiveness data, up to know it is difficult to predict how the composition of NVTs will change after the large-scale introduction of PCV13 or whether the characteristics of the serotypes will change. Long-term surveillance of both IPD, pneumonia, acute otitis media and carriage will be crucial to ascertain whether these second generation vaccines are having the desired effect of reducing the incidence of diseases in the long term. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  4. Your child's first vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... multi.html . CDC review information for Multi Pediatric Vaccines: Your Child's First Vaccines: What you need to know (VIS): ... baby. 2. Some children should not get certain vaccines Most children can safely get all of these vaccines. But ...

  5. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  6. Influenza Vaccine, Live Intranasal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV). The nasal spray flu vaccine (live attenuated influenza vaccine or LAIV) should NOT ... to your doctor or pharmacist about the best flu vaccine option for you or your family.

  7. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... after acetaminophen or ibuprofen Think Prevention! Get the flu vaccine each year. Try to avoid large crowds during ... Vaccines My Kids Need? How Many Doses of Flu Vaccine Does My Child Need? Your Child's Immunizations: Influenza ...

  8. Scientific challenges and opportunities in developing novel vaccines for the emerging and developing markets: New Technologies in Emerging Markets, October 16th-18th 2012, World Vaccine Congress, Lyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhar, Sonali

    2013-04-01

    Vaccines have had a major role in enhancing the quality of life and increasing life expectancy. Despite these successes and the development of new vaccine technologies, there remain multiple infectious diseases including AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis that require effective prophylactic vaccines. New and traditional technologies have a role in the development and delivery of the new vaccine candidates. The scientific challenges, opportunities and funding models for developing vaccines for low resource settings are highlighted here.

  9. Live attenuated HIV vaccines: predicting the tradeoff between efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blower, S M; Koelle, K; Kirschner, D E; Mills, J

    2001-03-13

    The utility of live attenuated vaccines for controlling HIV epidemics is being debated. Live attenuated HIV vaccines (LAHVs) could be extremely effective in protecting against infection with wild-type strains, but may not be completely safe as the attenuated strain could cause AIDS in some vaccinated individuals. We present a theoretical framework for evaluating the consequences of the tradeoff between vaccine efficacy (in terms of preventing new infections with wild-type strains) and safety (in terms of vaccine-induced AIDS deaths). We use our framework to predict, for Zimbabwe and Thailand, the epidemiological impact of 1,000 different (specified by efficacy and safety characteristics) LAHVs. We predict that paradoxically: (i) in Zimbabwe (where transmission is high) LAHVs would significantly decrease the AIDS death rate, but (ii) in Thailand (where transmission is low) exactly the same vaccines (in terms of efficacy and safety characteristics) would increase the AIDS death rate. Our results imply that a threshold transmission rate exists that determines whether any given LAHV has a beneficial or a detrimental impact. We also determine the vaccine perversity point, which is defined in terms of the fraction of vaccinated individuals who progress to AIDS as a result of the vaccine strain. Vaccination with any LAHV that causes more than 5% of vaccinated individuals to progress to AIDS in 25 years would, even 50 years later, lead to perversity (i.e., increase the annual AIDS death rate) in Thailand; these same vaccines would lead to decreases in the annual AIDS death rate in Zimbabwe.

  10. Survey of Obstetrics and Gynecology Residents Regarding Pneumococcal Vaccination in Pregnancy: Education, Knowledge, and Barriers to Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily E. Fay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine is recommended for adults over 65 years of age and younger adults with certain medical conditions. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC state insufficient evidence to recommend routine pneumococcal vaccination during pregnancy, but the vaccine is indicated for pregnant women with certain medical conditions. We designed this project to gauge obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN resident knowledge of maternal pneumococcal vaccination. Methods. We administered a 22-question survey to OB/GYN residents about maternal pneumococcal vaccination. We performed descriptive analysis for each question. Results. 238 OB/GYN residents responded. Overall, 69.3% of residents reported receiving vaccination education and 86.0% reported having ready access to vaccine guidelines and safety data. Most residents knew that asplenia (78.2%, pulmonary disease (77.3%, and HIV/AIDS (69.4% are indications for vaccination but less knew that cardiovascular disease (45.0%, diabetes (35.8%, asthma (42.8%, nephrotic syndrome (19.7%, and renal failure (33.6% are also indications for vaccination. Conclusion. OB/GYN residents are taught about vaccines and have ready access to vaccine guidelines and safety data. However, knowledge of indications for pneumococcal vaccination in pregnancy is lacking. Likely, the opportunity to vaccinate at-risk pregnant patients is being missed.

  11. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    activists, scholars and venture capitalists, discusses the pros and cons of changing the world by ‘voting with your dollars’. Lisa Ann Richey and Stefano Ponte (Professor at Roskilde University and Senior Researcher at DIIS respectively), authors of Brand Aid: Shopping Well to Save the World, highlight how...

  12. Safety of vaccine adjuvants: focus on autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, Jan Willem; Gould, Sarah; Tanir, Jennifer Y

    2015-03-24

    Questions have been recently raised regarding the safety of vaccine adjuvants, particularly in relation to autoimmunity or autoimmune disease(s)/disorder(s) (AID). The International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) formed a scientific committee and convened a 2-day workshop, consisting of technical experts from around the world representing academia, government regulatory agencies, and industry, to investigate and openly discuss the issues around adjuvant safety in vaccines. The types of adjuvants considered included oil-in-water emulsions and toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists. The state of science around the use of animal models and biomarkers for the evaluation and prediction of AID were also discussed. Following extensive literature reviews by the HESI committee, and presentations by experts at the workshop, several key points were identified, including the value of animal models used to study autoimmunity and AID toward studying novel vaccine adjuvants; whether there is scientific evidence indicating an intrinsic risk of autoimmunity and AID with adjuvants, or a higher risk resulting from the mechanism of action; and if there is compelling clinical data linking adjuvants and AID. The tripartite group of experts concluded that there is no compelling evidence supporting the association of vaccine adjuvants with autoimmunity signals. Additionally, it is recommended that future research on the potential effects of vaccine adjuvants on AID should consider carefully the experimental design in animal models particularly if they are to be used in any risk assessment, as an improper design and model could result in misleading information. Finally, studies on the mechanistic aspects and potential biomarkers related to adjuvants and autoimmunity phenomena could be developed.

  13. Plant Viruses as Nanoparticle-Based Vaccines and Adjuvants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Ève Lebel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Vaccines are considered one of the greatest medical achievements in the battle against infectious diseases. However, the intractability of various diseases such as hepatitis C, HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and cancer poses persistent hurdles given that traditional vaccine-development methods have proven to be ineffective; as such, these challenges have driven the emergence of novel vaccine design approaches. In this regard, much effort has been put into the development of new safe adjuvants and vaccine platforms. Of particular interest, the utilization of plant virus-like nanoparticles and recombinant plant viruses has gained increasing significance as an effective tool in the development of novel vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. The present review summarizes recent advances in the use of plant viruses as nanoparticle-based vaccines and adjuvants and their mechanism of action. Harnessing plant-virus immunogenic properties will enable the design of novel, safe, and efficacious prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines against disease.

  14. Tactile Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtaramossadat Homayuni

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Tactile aids, which translate sound waves into vibrations that can be felt by the skin, have been used for decades by people with severe/profound hearing loss to enhance speech/language development and improve speechreading.The development of tactile aids dates from the efforts of Goults and his co-workers in the 1920s; Although The power supply was too voluminous and it was difficult to carry specially by children, it was too huge and heavy to be carried outside the laboratories and its application was restricted to the experimental usage. Nowadays great advances have been performed in producing this instrument and its numerous models is available in markets around the world.

  15. Negotiating Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Fraser, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a new analytical approach to the study of aid negotiations. Building on existing approaches but trying to overcome their limitations, it argues that factors outside of individual negotiations (or the `game' in game-theoretic approaches) significantly affect the preferences...... of actors, the negotiating strategies they fashion, and the success of those strategies. This approach was employed to examine and compare the experiences of eight countries: Botswana, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania and Zambia. The article presents findings from these country studies...... which investigated the strategies these states have adopted in talks with aid donors, the sources of leverage they have been able to bring to bear in negotiations, and the differing degrees of control that they have been able to exercise over the policies agreed in negotiations and those implemented...

  16. AIDS: resource materials for school personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, G B; Metress, E; Price, J H

    1987-01-01

    The AIDS dilemma continues to escalate, leaving a legacy that probably will affect the nation for years to come. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control, the National Academy of Sciences, and the U.S. Surgeon General have noted that in the absence of a vaccine or treatment for AIDS, education remains the only effective means to prevent the spread of the disease. Thus, schools have an important role in protecting the public health. To respond appropriately to the situation, school personnel must become familiar with relevant information and resources available concerning AIDS. This article first provides essential information about AIDS using a question-and-answer format. Second, policy statements addressing school attendance by students infected with the virus that causes AIDS are presented. Third, hotlines that can be used to obtain more detailed information about AIDS are described. Fourth, organizations that can provide information for school health education about AIDS are identified. Fifth, an annotated list of audiovisual materials that schools can use to provide education about AIDS is provided. Sixth, a bibliography of publications relevant to school health education about AIDS is offered.

  17. Challenges in Mucosal HIV Vaccine Development: Lessons from Non-Human Primate Models

    OpenAIRE

    Iskra Tuero; Marjorie Robert-Guroff

    2014-01-01

    An efficacious HIV vaccine is urgently needed to curb the AIDS pandemic. The modest protection elicited in the phase III clinical vaccine trial in Thailand provided hope that this goal might be achieved. However, new approaches are necessary for further advances. As HIV is transmitted primarily across mucosal surfaces, development of immunity at these sites is critical, but few clinical vaccine trials have targeted these sites or assessed vaccine-elicited mucosal immune responses. Pre-clinic...

  18. Accelerating the development of a safe and effective HIV vaccine: HIV vaccine case study for the Decade of Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koff, Wayne C; Russell, Nina D; Walport, Mark; Feinberg, Mark B; Shiver, John W; Karim, Salim Abdool; Walker, Bruce D; McGlynn, Margaret G; Nweneka, Chidi Victor; Nabel, Gary J

    2013-04-18

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the etiologic agent that causes AIDS, is the fourth largest killer in the world today. Despite the remarkable achievements in development of anti-retroviral therapies against HIV, and the recent advances in new prevention technologies, the rate of new HIV infections continue to outpace efforts on HIV prevention and control. Thus, the development of a safe and effective vaccine for prevention and control of AIDS remains a global public health priority and the greatest opportunity to eventually end the AIDS pandemic. Currently, there is a renaissance in HIV vaccine development, due in large part to the first demonstration of vaccine induced protection, albeit modest, in human efficacy trials, a generation of improved vaccine candidates advancing in the clinical pipeline, and newly defined targets on HIV for broadly neutralizing antibodies. The main barriers to HIV vaccine development include the global variability of HIV, lack of a validated animal model, lack of correlates of protective immunity, lack of natural protective immune responses against HIV, and the reservoir of infected cells conferred by integration of HIV's genome into the host. Some of these barriers are not unique to HIV, but generic to other variable viral pathogens such as hepatitis C and pandemic influenza. Recommendations to overcome these barriers are presented in this document, including but not limited to expansion of efforts to design immunogens capable of eliciting broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV, expansion of clinical research capabilities to assess multiple immunogens concurrently with comprehensive immune monitoring, increased support for translational vaccine research, and engaging industry as full partners in vaccine discovery and development.

  19. Rotavirus Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including a severe allergy to latex. Babies with "severe combined immunodeficiency" (SCID) should not get rotavirus vaccine. Babies who have had a type of bowel blockage called "intussusception" should not get ... with moderate or severe diarrhea or vomiting. Check with your doctor if ...

  20. Polio Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Resources Share Polio Vaccine What is polio?Poliomyelitis (polio, for short) is a serious illness that can cause paralysis (when you can't move your arms and legs) or even death. Polio is caused by a virus. The virus can be spread by drinking water ...

  1. Teaching AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, R V

    1989-06-01

    This article reviews a peer group Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) educational program at a university in Australia. Studies in the US have shown that most adolescents, although sexually active, do not believe they are likely to become infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and therefore do not attempt to modify their sexual behavior. A 1st step in educating students is to introduce them to condoms and impress upon them the fact that condoms should be used at the beginning of all sexual relationships, whether homosexual or heterosexual. In this program 3rd year medical students were targeted, as they are effective communicators and disseminators of information to the rest of the student body. After class members blow up condoms, giving them a chance to handle various brands and observe the varying degrees of strength, statistical evidence about the contraceptive failure rate of condoms (0.6-14.7 per 100 women-years) is discussed. Spermicides, such as nonoxynol-9 used in conjunction with condoms, are also discussed, as are condoms for women, packaging and marketing of condoms, including those made from latex and from the caecum of sheep, the latter condoms being of questionable effectiveness in preventing transmission of the virus. The care of terminal AIDS cases and current global and national statistics on AIDS are presented. The program also includes cash prizes for the best student essays on condom use, the distribution of condoms, condom key rings and T-shirts, and a student-run safe sex stand during orientation week. All of these activities are intended to involve students and attract the interest of the undergraduate community. Questionnaires administered to students at the end of the course revealed that the lectures were received favorably. Questionnaires administered to new medical and English students attending orientation week revealed that 72% of students thought the stand was a good idea and 81% and 83%, respectively found it

  2. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    activists, scholars and venture capitalists, discusses the pros and cons of changing the world by ‘voting with your dollars’. Lisa Ann Richey and Stefano Ponte (Professor at Roskilde University and Senior Researcher at DIIS respectively), authors of Brand Aid: Shopping Well to Save the World, highlight how......Can Citizen Consumers Make a Difference? DIIS researcher contributes to a Boston Review - New Democracy Forum In the current issue of Boston Review (November/December 2011), contributors to a ‘New Democracy Forum’ debate whether Citizen Consumers can make a difference in stimulating responsible...

  3. Varicella (Chickenpox) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ProQuad® (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine, Varicella Vaccine) ... up to about 1 person in 5) and measles-like rash (about 1 person in 20) than MMR and varicella vaccines given separately. Moderate Problems:Seizure (jerking or staring) ...

  4. New Vaccines for the World's Poorest People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Strych, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The 2000 Millennium Development Goals helped stimulate the development of life-saving childhood vaccines for pneumococcal and rotavirus infections while greatly expanding coverage of existing vaccines. However, there remains an urgent need to develop new vaccines for HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, as well as for respiratory syncytial virus and those chronic and debilitating (mostly parasitic) infections known as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). The NTDs represent the most common diseases of people living in extreme poverty and are the subject of this review. The development of NTD vaccines, including those for hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease, is being led by nonprofit product development partnerships (PDPs) working in consortia of academic and industrial partners, including vaccine manufacturers in developing countries. NTD vaccines face unique challenges with respect to their product development and manufacture, as well as their preclinical and clinical testing. We emphasize global efforts to accelerate the development of NTD vaccines and some of the hurdles to ensuring their availability to the world's poorest people.

  5. Meningococcal Vaccine (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines ... or her parents, and the doctor. Why the Vaccines Are Recommended Meningococcal disease is caused by a ...

  6. Meningococcal Vaccine (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines Print ... of Shots? Meningitis How Do I Know Which Vaccines My Kids Need? How Can I Comfort My Baby During ...

  7. Your Baby's First Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Page Some children should not get certain vaccines Most children can safely get all of these vaccines. But ... has ever had a severe reaction after any vaccination. A child who has a severe (life-threatening) allergy to ...

  8. Vaccines.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supported by science, on vaccine safety. Are your child’s vaccines up to date? Getting all recommended vaccines on time can protect your child from serious diseases. Protect your community! Did you ...

  9. Vaccines Stop Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... meningitis won't infect, cripple, or kill children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

  10. Vaccines and Thimerosal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Thimerosal in Vaccines Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Thimerosal is ... harm. Thimerosal prevents the growth of bacteria in vaccines. Thimerosal is added to vials of vaccine that ...

  11. Vaccination in Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    vaccines have reduced the need for usage of antibiotics with more than 99 % since the 1980s. Fish can be vaccinated by three different administration routes: injection, immersion and oral vaccination. Injection vaccination (intraperitoneal injection of vaccine) is the most time consuming and labor...... intensive method, which however, provides the best protection of the fish. Immersion vaccination is used for immunization of a high number of small fish is cost-efficient and fast (30 sec immersion into vaccine). Oral vaccination (vaccine in feed) is the least efficient. As in higher vertebrates fish...... respond to vaccination by increasing the specific antibody titer and by activating the cellular responses. My talk will cover vaccination methods in fish, immune responses and some adverse effect of oil-adjuvanted vaccines in fish with reference to our work in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss....

  12. Modeling HIV vaccines in Brazil: assessing the impact of a future HIV vaccine on reducing new infections, mortality and number of people receiving ARV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goretti P Fonseca

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The AIDS epidemic in Brazil remains concentrated in populations with high vulnerability to HIV infection, and the development of an HIV vaccine could make an important contribution to prevention. This study modeled the HIV epidemic and estimated the potential impact of an HIV vaccine on the number of new infections, deaths due to AIDS and the number of people receiving ARV treatment, under various scenarios. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The historical HIV prevalence was modeled using Spectrum and projections were made from 2010 to 2050 to study the impact of an HIV vaccine with 40% to 70% efficacy, and 80% coverage of adult population, specific groups such as MSM, IDU, commercial sex workers and their partners, and 15 year olds. The possibility of disinhibition after vaccination, neglecting medium- and high-risk groups, and a disease-modifying vaccine were also considered. The number of new infections and deaths were reduced by 73% and 30%, respectively, by 2050, when 80% of adult population aged 15-49 was vaccinated with a 40% efficacy vaccine. Vaccinating medium- and high-risk groups reduced new infections by 52% and deaths by 21%. A vaccine with 70% efficacy produced a great decline in new infections and deaths. Neglecting medium- and high-risk population groups as well as disinhibition of vaccinated population reduced the impact or even increased the number of new infections. Disease-modifying vaccine also contributed to reducing AIDS deaths, the need for ART and new HIV infections. CONCLUSIONS: Even in a country with a concentrated epidemic and high levels of ARV coverage, such as Brazil, moderate efficacy vaccines as part of a comprehensive package of treatment and prevention could have a major impact on preventing new HIV infections and AIDS deaths, as well as reducing the number of people on ARV. Targeted vaccination strategies may be highly effective and cost-beneficial.

  13. Vaccine-Preventable Disease Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home | About | A-Z | Contact | Follow Vaccine Information You Need VACCINE BASICS Evaluating Online Health Information FAQs How Vaccines Work Importance of Vaccines Paying for Vaccines State Immunization Programs ...

  14. HIV-1 Polymorphism: a Challenge for Vaccine Development - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgado MG

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The perspective for the development of anti-HIV/AIDS vaccines became a target sought by several research groups and pharmaceutical companies. However, the complex virus biology in addition to a striking genetic variability and the limited understanding of the immunological correlates of protection have made this an enormous scientific challenge not overcome so far. In this review we presented an updating of HIV-1 subtypes and recombinant viruses circulating in South American countries, focusing mainly on Brazil, as one of the challenges for HIV vaccine development. Moreover, we discussed the importance of stimulating developing countries to participate in the process of vaccine evaluation, not only testing vaccines according to already defined protocols, but also working together with them, in order to take into consideration their local information on virus diversity and host genetic background relevant for the vaccine development and testing, as well as including local virus based reagents to evaluate the immunogenicity of the candidate vaccines.

  15. [Vaccination against mouse pox].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnel, H

    1985-01-01

    Attenuated MVA-strain of vaccinia virus has been efficient in the control of enzootic mousepox and in prophylactic vaccination. The virus has been used as a live vaccine for prophylactic and emergency vaccinations as well as for sanitation of populations. More than 100 000 vaccinations were carried out safely. Even after suspension of the obligatory vaccination of humans against smallpox the MVA-vaccine can be employed without risk and danger.

  16. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a combination product containing Haemophilus influenzae type b, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Polio Vaccine)

  17. AIDS.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... concerns. Search Services Share This Help National HIV/AIDS Strategy Check out NHAS's latest progress in the ... from AIDS.gov Read more AIDS.gov tweets AIDS.gov HIV/AIDS Basics • Federal Resources • Using New ...

  18. Aids for Handicapped Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Div. for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

    The reference circular provides information on approximately 50 reading and writing aids intended for physically or visually handicapped individuals. Described are low vision aids, aids for holding a book or turning pages, aids for reading in bed, handwriting aids, typewriters and accessories, braille writing equipment, sound reproducers, and aids…

  19. Macroeconomic Issues in Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjertholm, Peter; Laursen, Jytte; White, Howard

    foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,......foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,...

  20. Vaccines and vaccinations. The strategic issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, R B

    2001-05-01

    The rapid proliferation of companion animal vaccines, advances in diagnostic and vaccine technology, and concerns over vaccine safety are clearly among the most important issues practicing veterinarians face as we enter the 21st century. Although many would argue that these are already issues, the future promises to be especially challenging as the vaccines we currently use and the protocols we recommend undergo unprecedented review.

  1. Crawling Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The Institute for the Achievement of Human Potential developed a device known as the Vehicle for Initial Crawling (VIC); the acronym is a tribute to the crawler's inventor, Hubert "Vic" Vykukal; is an effective crawling aid. The VIC is used by brain injured children who are unable to crawl due to the problems of weight-bearing and friction, caused by gravity. It is a rounded plywood frame large enough to support the child's torso, leaving arms and legs free to move. On its underside are three aluminum discs through which air is pumped to create an air-bearing surface that has less friction than a film of oil. Upper side contains the connection to the air supply and a pair of straps which restrain the child and cause the device to move with him. VIC is used with the intent to recreate the normal neurological connection between brain and muscles. Over repetitive use of the device the child develops his arm and leg muscles as well as coordination. Children are given alternating therapy, with and without the VIC until eventually the device is no longer needed.

  2. Scientific Opinion on field trials for bovine tuberculosis vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The opinion provides advice relating to the design of field trials to test the performance of a vaccine for bovine tuberculosis (bTB, along with a test to Detect Infected among Vaccinated Animals (DIVA. The objective of cattle vaccination is to use the vaccine in combination with presently applied control measures within the EU as an aid towards bTB eradication. The ideal field trials for the DIVA test will follow the OIE guidelines for test validation. Any deviations from the ideal trial design in relation to DIVA test performance should be justified, and the bias that may subsequently be introduced should be accounted for. The ideal field trial design for vaccination performance should implement a double-blind randomised test scenario, and allow for known risk factors in the field situation. Any deviations from the ideal trial design in relation to vaccine performance should also be justified and bias that may subsequently be introduced should be accounted for. Relevant risk factors and possible confounders that should be taken into consideration in the design of field trials are described in this opinion. The safety of a candidate vaccine is guaranteed in the registration of a vaccine medication by a competent authority. The field trials will need to fulfil these requirements to prove that the use of this vaccine in the field is safe for both public health and the environment. Some additional remarks regarding the safety of this specific vaccine are included in this opinion.

  3. Applications of nanoparticles for DNA based rabies vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Muhammad Ali A; Khan, Sajid Umar; Ali, Zeeshan; Yang, Haowen; Liu, Keke; Mao, Lanlan

    2014-01-01

    Rabies is a fatal encephalomyelitis. Most cases occur in developing countries and are transmitted by dogs. The cell culture vaccines as associated with high cost; therefore, have not replaced the unsafe brain-derived vaccines. In the developing countries these brain-derived rabies vaccines still can be seen in action. Moreover, there will be a need for vaccines against rabies-related viruses against which classical vaccines are not always effective. The worldwide incidence of rabies and the inability of currently used vaccination strategies to provide highly potent and cost-effective therapy indicate the need for alternate control strategies. DNA vaccines have emerged as the safest vaccines and best remedy for complicated diseases like hepatitis, HIV, and rabies. A number of recombinant DNA vaccines are now being developed against several diseases such as AIDS and malaria. Therefore, it can be a valuable alternative for the production of cheaper rabies vaccines against its larger spectrum of viruses. In this review we report published data on DNA-based immunization with sequences encoding rabies with special reference to nanotechnology.

  4. Dried influenza vaccines : Over the counter vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saluja, Vinay; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.

    2010-01-01

    Since last year influenza pandemic has struck again after 40 years, this is the right moment to discuss the different available formulation options for influenza vaccine. Looking back to the last 4 decades, most vaccines are still formulated as liquid solution. These vaccines have shown a poor stabi

  5. HIV and AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Kids > HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...

  6. Heart attack first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  7. Breathing difficulties - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difficulty breathing - first aid; Dyspnea - first aid; Shortness of breath - first aid ... Breathing difficulty is almost always a medical emergency. An exception is feeling slightly winded from normal activity, ...

  8. Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) and Flu Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Flu Vaccines Vaccine Effectiveness Types of Flu Vaccine Flu Shot Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine Intradermal Influenza (Flu) Vaccination ... Cell-Based Flu Vaccines Flublok Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Vaccine Flu Vaccination by Jet Injector Adjuvant Vaccine Vaccine Virus ...

  9. Pneumococcal Vaccines (PCV, PPSV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or HIV infection); or cochlear implants. Why the Vaccines Are Recommended Children younger than 2 years old, adults over 65, ... of a pneumococcal vaccine or to the DTaP vaccine Caring for Your Child After Immunization These vaccines may cause mild fever ...

  10. Vaccine Basics (Smallpox)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Smallpox About Smallpox History of Smallpox Spread and Eradication of Smallpox Transmission Signs and Symptoms Prevention and Treatment Smallpox Vaccine Basics Vaccine Safety Side Effects of Vaccination Who Should Get a Smallpox Vaccination? Bioterrorism The ...

  11. History of vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Stanley

    2014-08-26

    Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before.

  12. Mucosal vaccination of fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Kiron, V.

    2014-01-01

    Among the novel vaccination methods, mucosal vaccination seems to possess all the desired criteria. The chapter reviews the state-of-the-art knowledge regarding this type of vaccination with a focus on their uptake, immune stimulation, and where possible, discusses their potential as future vaccines

  13. Nucleic Acid Vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Shan

    2004-01-01

    @@ Anew method of immunization was discovered in the early 1990s. Several research groups independently demonstrated that direct inoculation of DNA plasmids coding for a specific protein antigen could elicit immune responses against that antigen[1-4].Since in theory the mRNA molecules also have the potential to be translated into the protein antigen, this vaccination approach was officially named by WHO as the nucleic acid vaccination even though the term DNA vaccine has been used more commonly in the literature. This novel approach is considered the fourth generation of vaccines after live attenuated vaccines, killed or inactivated vaccines and recombinant protein based subunit vaccines.

  14. Vaccine adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follows, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Millions of adults are vaccinated annually against the seasonal influenza virus. An undetermined number of individuals will develop adverse events to the influenza vaccination. Those who suffer substantiated vaccine injuries, disabilities, and aggravated conditions may file a timely, no-fault and no-cost petition for financial compensation under the National Vaccine Act in the Vaccine Court. The elements of a successful vaccine injury claim are described in the context of a claim showing the seasonal influenza vaccination was the cause of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

  15. AIDS education -- theory and practice. AIDS education: getting the right message across.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    In the absence of a drug or vaccine to curtail the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, health education offers the most productive approach. The majority of National AIDS Committees have established AIDS education programs aimed at reducing the high-risk behaviors associated with AIDS. The content of an AIDS educational program varies according to the educational level and cultural norms of the target audience, but is crucial to determining whether misconceptions and prejudices about the disease will be reinforced or dispelled. It is suggested that all AIDS-related materials should be examined in relation to the following factors: accuracy (correct statistics and factually true statements); current (the presentation of present trends and developments); appropriate to objectives (suitable for the purpose); appropriate to the level of the target audience (in terms of not only literacy level, but also emotional maturity and special sensitivities); adequate (sufficient information as to be useful); and objective and unbiased. Each subject covered in AIDS prevention materials--the natural history of the epidemic, the nature of infection with AIDS, signs and symptoms, modes of transmission, and preventive strategies--should be analyzed in relation to the above factors.

  16. Evaluation of Novel Oral Vaccine Candidates and Validation of a Caprine Model of Johne's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray E. Hines

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Johne’s disease (JD caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP is a major threat to the dairy industry and possibly some cases of Crohn’s disease in humans. A MAP vaccine that reduced of clinical disease and/or reduced fecal shedding would aid in the control of JD. The objectives of this study were 1 to evaluate the efficacy of 5 attenuated strains of MAP as vaccine candidates compared to a commercial control vaccine using the protocol proposed by the Johne’s Disease Integrated Program (JDIP Animal Model Standardization Committee (AMSC, and 2 to validate the AMSC Johne’s disease goat challenge model. Eighty goat kids were vaccinated orally twice at 8 and 10 weeks of age with an experimental vaccine or once subcutaneously at 8 weeks with Silirum® (Zoetis, or a sham control oral vaccine at 8 and 10 weeks. Kids were challenged orally with a total of approximately 1.44 X 10^9 CFU divided in 2 consecutive daily doses using MAP ATCC-700535 (K10-like bovine isolate. All kids were necropsied at 13 months post challenge. Results indicated that the AMSC goat challenge model is a highly efficient and valid model for JD challenge studies. None of the experimental or control vaccines evaluated prevented MAP infection or eliminated fecal shedding, although the 329 vaccine lowered the incidence of infection, fecal shedding, tissue colonization and reduced lesion scores, but less than the control vaccine. Based on our results the relative performance ranking of the experimental live-attenuated vaccines evaluated, the 329 vaccine was the best performer, followed by the 318 vaccine, then 316 vaccine, 315 vaccine and finally the 319 vaccine was the worst performer. The subcutaneously injected control vaccine outperformed the orally-delivered mutant vaccine candidates. Two vaccines (329 and 318 do reduce presence of JD gross and microscopic lesions, slow progression of disease, and one vaccine (329 reduced fecal shedding and tissue

  17. Evaluation of novel oral vaccine candidates and validation of a caprine model of Johne's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Murray E; Turnquist, Sue E; Ilha, Marcia R S; Rajeev, Sreekumari; Jones, Arthur L; Whittington, Lisa; Bannantine, John P; Barletta, Raúl G; Gröhn, Yrjö T; Katani, Robab; Talaat, Adel M; Li, Lingling; Kapur, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Johne's disease (JD) caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is a major threat to the dairy industry and possibly some cases of Crohn's disease in humans. A MAP vaccine that reduced of clinical disease and/or reduced fecal shedding would aid in the control of JD. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the efficacy of 5 attenuated strains of MAP as vaccine candidates compared to a commercial control vaccine using the protocol proposed by the Johne's Disease Integrated Program (JDIP) Animal Model Standardization Committee (AMSC), and (2) to validate the AMSC Johne's disease goat challenge model. Eighty goat kids were vaccinated orally twice at 8 and 10 weeks of age with an experimental vaccine or once subcutaneously at 8 weeks with Silirum® (Zoetis), or a sham control oral vaccine at 8 and 10 weeks. Kids were challenged orally with a total of approximately 1.44 × 10(9) CFU divided in two consecutive daily doses using MAP ATCC-700535 (K10-like bovine isolate). All kids were necropsied at 13 months post-challenge. Results indicated that the AMSC goat challenge model is a highly efficient and valid model for JD challenge studies. None of the experimental or control vaccines evaluated prevented MAP infection or eliminated fecal shedding, although the 329 vaccine lowered the incidence of infection, fecal shedding, tissue colonization and reduced lesion scores, but less than the control vaccine. Based on our results the relative performance ranking of the experimental live-attenuated vaccines evaluated, the 329 vaccine was the best performer, followed by the 318 vaccine, then 316 vaccine, 315 vaccine and finally the 319 vaccine was the worst performer. The subcutaneously injected control vaccine outperformed the orally-delivered mutant vaccine candidates. Two vaccines (329 and 318) do reduce presence of JD gross and microscopic lesions, slow progression of disease, and one vaccine (329) reduced fecal shedding and tissue colonization.

  18. Vaccines against poverty

    OpenAIRE

    MacLennan, Calman A.; Saul, Allan

    2014-01-01

    With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vacc...

  19. [HIV/AIDS infection. The Brazilian view. AIDS in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, A P; De Sa, C A; Rubini, N

    1996-01-01

    The Ministry of Health coordinates and orients in Brazil all the activities concerning the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome which is officially designated as AIDS. The first AIDS' case registered in Brazil was, by retrospective diagnosis, in 1981 but it was in 1982 that the first two diagnosis in live patients were made. The incidence is very high in this country that is among the ones where the higher number of cases are being registered. The great majority of the Brazilian cases occurs in the cities and in direct proportion to the population index. The groups of risk are the same universally known and a comparative increase of heterosexual transmission is noted, chiefly due to the use of injectable drugs and bisexuality of the male partners. Another problem that is being increased is pediatric AIDS, with raising importance of perinatal transmission as well as the use of injectable drugs and precocious prostitution in adolescence. The transfusional and haemophilic AIDS have proportionally decreased due to the control of blood products. The control and the orientation activity of the Ministry of Health is directed to varied points such as: compulsory cases notification, cooperation between public and private sectors, preventive and sexual orientation, freely delivered medication and laboratory tests including sigilous tests, lay and technical personnel preparation, diversified informative and educational campaigns. Trial tests with anti-HIV vaccines have begun to be performed. Multiple Reference Centers were officially established by the administration. Among them is to be quoted the Hospital Universitário Gaffrée Guinle of Rio de Janeiro where the authors work. It is credited for its intensive activity and pioneerism. In this Institution special attention was due against discrimination of HIV-infected patients, to diagnosis, to anonymous and sigilous tests, to medical and psychological assistance, to myocardium involvement, to the virologic study of the

  20. Typhoid fever vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa; Marks, Florian; Fox, Kimberley

    2015-06-19

    Typhoid vaccination is an important component of typhoid fever prevention and control, and is recommended for public health programmatic use in both endemic and outbreak settings. We reviewed experiences with various vaccination strategies using the currently available typhoid vaccines (injectable Vi polysaccharide vaccine [ViPS], oral Ty21a vaccine, and injectable typhoid conjugate vaccine [TCV]). We assessed the rationale, acceptability, effectiveness, impact and implementation lessons of these strategies to inform effective typhoid vaccination strategies for the future. Vaccination strategies were categorized by vaccine disease control strategy (preemptive use for endemic disease or to prevent an outbreak, and reactive use for outbreak control) and vaccine delivery strategy (community-based routine, community-based campaign and school-based). Almost all public health typhoid vaccination programs used ViPS vaccine and have been in countries of Asia, with one example in the Pacific and one experience using the Ty21a vaccine in South America. All vaccination strategies were found to be acceptable, feasible and effective in the settings evaluated; evidence of impact, where available, was strongest in endemic settings and in the short- to medium-term. Vaccination was cost-effective in high-incidence but not low-incidence settings. Experience in disaster and outbreak settings remains limited. TCVs have recently become available and none are WHO-prequalified yet; no program experience with TCVs was found in published literature. Despite the demonstrated success of several typhoid vaccination strategies, typhoid vaccines remain underused. Implementation lessons should be applied to design optimal vaccination strategies using TCVs which have several anticipated advantages, such as potential for use in infant immunization programs and longer duration of protection, over the ViPS and Ty21a vaccines for typhoid prevention and control.

  1. Home Health Aides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... specifications Help to keep clients engaged in their social networks and communities Home health aides, unlike personal care aides , typically work ... self-care and everyday tasks. They also provide social supports and assistance that enable clients to participate in their ... more information about home health aides, including voluntary credentials for aides, visit ...

  2. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...... evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... for aid in the future...

  3. Types of Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Foreign aid is given for many purposes and different intentions, yet most studies treat aid flows as a unitary concept. This paper uses factor analysis to separate aid flows into different types. The main types can be interpreted as aid for economic purposes, social purposes, and reconstruction......; a residual category captures remaining purposes. Estimating the growth effects of separable types of aid suggests that most aid has no effects while reconstruction aid has direct positive effects. Although this type only applies in special circumstances, it has become more prevalent in more recent years....

  4. A 2020 vision for vaccines against HIV, tuberculosis and malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappuoli, Rino; Aderem, Alan

    2011-05-26

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), malaria and tuberculosis collectively cause more than five million deaths per year, but have nonetheless eluded conventional vaccine development; for this reason they represent one of the major global public health challenges as we enter the second decade of the twenty-first century. Recent trials have provided evidence that it is possible to develop vaccines that can prevent infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and malaria. Furthermore, advances in vaccinology, including novel adjuvants, prime-boost regimes and strategies for intracellular antigen presentation, have led to progress in developing a vaccine against tuberculosis. Here we discuss these advances and suggest that new tools such as systems biology and structure-based antigen design will lead to a deeper understanding of mechanisms of protection which, in turn, will lead to rational vaccine development. We also argue that new and innovative approaches to clinical trials will accelerate the availability of these vaccines.

  5. Military Relevant Infectious Diseases Endemic to Kenya: Vaccine and Clinical Trials and Entomology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Diseases Endemic to Kenya: Vaccine and Clinical Trials and Entomology PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Professor Solomon Mpoke RECIPIENT...NUMBER W81XWH-07-2-0065 Military Relevant Infectious Diseases Endemic to Kenya: Vaccine and Clinical Trials and Entomology 5b. GRANT NUMBER...civilians to regions of the world where these diseases are endemic. Research was undertaken in malaria, HIV/AIDS, entomology , enterics

  6. Military Vaccines in Today’s Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    HIV-AIDS, Chikungunya , Rift Valley fever, Argentinian hemorrhagic fever, and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), have been developed and...against the mosquito-borne Chikungunya virus, which was developed by the Army in the 1970s, was transferred to French scientists for further study...after an explosive outbreak of Chikungunya in the Indian Ocean Islands in 2006.5,6 The live-attenuated Chikungunya vaccine was previously evaluated

  7. The emergence of HIV/AIDS in the Americas and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M Thomas P; Rambaut, Andrew; Wlasiuk, Gabriela

    2007-01-01

    HIV/AIDS epidemic outside sub-Saharan Africa and the most genetically diverse subtype B epidemic, which might present challenges for HIV-1 vaccine design and testing. The emergence of the pandemic variant of subtype B was an important turning point in the history of AIDS, but its spread was likely...

  8. Nasal spray flu vaccine (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The flu vaccine can also be administered as a nasal spray instead of the usual injection method. It can be ... the recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV). The nasal spray flu vaccine (live attenuated influenza vaccine or LAIV) should not ...

  9. Vaccination: An Act of Love

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... benefits of vaccines. For this reason, we created Vaccination Week in the Americas to get vaccines to ... and no one gets left behind. Help the vaccination teams when they come to your town, your ...

  10. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  11. Immunogenicity of DNA and Recombinant Sendai Virus Vaccines Expressing the HIV-1 gag Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia FENG; Shuang-qing YU; Tsugumine Shu; Tetsuro Matano; Mamoru Hasegawa; Xiao-li WANG; Hong-tao MA; Hong-xia LI; Yi ZENG

    2008-01-01

    Combinations of DNA and recombinant-viral-vector based vaccines are promising AIDS vaccine methods because of their potential for inducing cellular immune responses. It was found that Gag-specific cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL) responses were associated with lowering viremia in an untreated HIV-1 infected cohort. The main objectives of our studies were the construction of DNA and recombinant Sendal virus vector (rSeV) vaccines containing a gag gene from the prevalent Thailand subtype B strain in China and trying to use these vaccines for therapeutic and prophylactic vaccines. The candidate plasmid DNA vaccine pcDNA3.1(+)-gag and recombinant Sendai virus vaccine (rSeV-gag) were constructed separately. It was verified by Western blotting analysis that both DNA and rSeV-gag vaccines expressed the HIV-1 Gag protein correctly and efficiently. Balb/c mice were immunized with these two vaccines in different administration schemes. HIV-1 Gag-specific CTL responses and antibody levels were detected by intracellular cytokine staining assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) respectively. Combined vaccines in a DNA prime/rSeV-gag boost vaccination regimen induced the strongest and most long-lasting Gag-specific CTL and antibody responses. It maintained relatively high levels even 9 weeks post immunization. This data indicated that the prime-boost regimen with DNA and rSeV-gag vaccines may offer promising HIV vaccine regimens.

  12. Vaccines and Immunization Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Michael D; Meador, Anna E

    2016-03-01

    Vaccines are among most cost-effective public health strategies. Despite effective vaccines for many bacterial and viral illnesses, tens of thousands of adults and hundreds of children die each year in the United States from vaccine-preventable diseases. Underutilization of vaccines requires rethinking the approach to incorporating vaccines into practice. Arguably, immunizations could be a part all health care encounters. Shared responsibility is paramount if deaths are to be reduced. This article reviews the available vaccines in the US market, as well as practice recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices.

  13. MMR Vaccine (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attenuvax® Measles Vaccine ... R-Vax® II (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine) ... M-R® II (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine)

  14. Aid and growth regressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Tarp, Finn

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between foreign aid and growth in real GDP per capita as it emerges from simple augmentations of popular cross country growth specifications. It is shown that aid in all likelihood increases the growth rate, and this result is not conditional on ‘good’ policy....... There are, however, decreasing returns to aid, and the estimated effectiveness of aid is highly sensitive to the choice of estimator and the set of control variables. When investment and human capital are controlled for, no positive effect of aid is found. Yet, aid continues to impact on growth via...

  15. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has......Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...

  16. Aid and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2006-01-01

    evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has......Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...

  17. Vaccine Safety Datalink

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Vaccine Safety Datalink is part of the National Immunization Program within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and was started in recognition of gaps in the scientific knowledge of rare vaccine side effects.

  18. Vaccines in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Eric M L; Chahin, Salim; Berger, Joseph R

    2016-04-01

    Vaccinations help prevent communicable disease. To be valuable, a vaccine's ability to prevent disease must exceed the risk of adverse effects from administration. Many vaccines present no risk of infection as they are comprised of killed or non-infectious components while other vaccines consist of live attenuated microorganisms which carry a potential risk of infection-particularly, in patients with compromised immunity. There are several unique considerations with respect to vaccination in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population. First, there has been concern that vaccination may trigger or aggravate the disease. Second, disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) employed in the treatment of MS may increase the risk of infectious complications from vaccines or alter their efficacy. Lastly, in some cases, vaccination strategies may be part of the treatment paradigm in attempts to avoid complications of therapy.

  19. Vaccines and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that pregnant women receive the seasonal inactivated flu vaccine (flu shot). Pregnant women are at an increased risk ... please see the MotherToBaby fact sheet Seasonal Influenza Vaccine (Flu Shot) during Pregnancy: https://mothertobaby.org/fact-sheets/ ...

  20. Generating memory with vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellino, Flora; Galli, Grazia; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Rappuoli, Rino

    2009-08-01

    The goal of vaccination is to induce long-lasting protective immune memory. Although most vaccines induce good memory responses, the type of memory induced by different vaccines may be considerably different. In addition, memory responses to the same vaccine may be influenced by age, environmental and genetic factors. Results emerging from detailed and integrated profiling of immune-responses to natural infection or vaccination suggest that the type and duration of immune memory are largely determined by the magnitude and complexity of innate immune signals that imprint the acquired immune primary responses. Here we summarize results obtained from analyzing human immune memory responses to different types of vaccines. We will also discuss how extending clinical investigation to events occurring early after vaccination can help identify early predictive markers of protective memory and thus contribute to faster development of better and safer vaccines.

  1. The HPV Vaccination Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following the release of a consensus statement from the NCI-Designated Cancer Centers urging HPV vaccination in the United States, Dr. Noel Brewer discusses the country’s low vaccination rates and how clinicians can help to improve them.

  2. The Complexity of a Dengue Vaccine: A Review of the Human Antibody Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacky Flipse

    Full Text Available Dengue is the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. Yet, there are no vaccines or specific antivirals available to prevent or treat the disease. Several dengue vaccines are currently in clinical or preclinical stages. The most advanced vaccine is the chimeric tetravalent CYD-TDV vaccine of Sanofi Pasteur. This vaccine has recently cleared Phase III, and efficacy results have been published. Excellent tetravalent seroconversion was seen, yet the protective efficacy against infection was surprisingly low. Here, we will describe the complicating factors involved in the generation of a safe and efficacious dengue vaccine. Furthermore, we will discuss the human antibody responses during infection, including the epitopes targeted in humans. Also, we will discuss the current understanding of the assays used to evaluate antibody response. We hope this review will aid future dengue vaccine development as well as fundamental research related to the phenomenon of antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection.

  3. The Complexity of a Dengue Vaccine: A Review of the Human Antibody Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flipse, Jacky; Smit, Jolanda M

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. Yet, there are no vaccines or specific antivirals available to prevent or treat the disease. Several dengue vaccines are currently in clinical or preclinical stages. The most advanced vaccine is the chimeric tetravalent CYD-TDV vaccine of Sanofi Pasteur. This vaccine has recently cleared Phase III, and efficacy results have been published. Excellent tetravalent seroconversion was seen, yet the protective efficacy against infection was surprisingly low. Here, we will describe the complicating factors involved in the generation of a safe and efficacious dengue vaccine. Furthermore, we will discuss the human antibody responses during infection, including the epitopes targeted in humans. Also, we will discuss the current understanding of the assays used to evaluate antibody response. We hope this review will aid future dengue vaccine development as well as fundamental research related to the phenomenon of antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection.

  4. Vaccines in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitali M Shah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a specific disease. More than two centuries have passed since the first successful vaccine for smallpox was developed. We′ve come a long way since. Today′s vaccines are among the 21 st century′s most successful and cost-effective public health tools for preventing diseases.

  5. HIV/AIDS Coinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Laotian Mongolian Spanish Turkish Vietnamese Hindi Subscribe HIV/AIDS Coinfection Approximately 10% of the HIV-infected population ... Control and Prevention website to learn about HIV/AIDS and Viral Hepatitis guidelines and resources. Home About ...

  6. HIV/AIDS Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Partner Spotlight Awareness Days Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or ... AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets ...

  7. Neurological Complications of AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in recent years has improved significantly because of new drugs and treatments. AIDS clinicians often fail to recognize ... in recent years has improved significantly because of new drugs and treatments. AIDS clinicians often fail to recognize ...

  8. Deaths following influenza vaccination--background mortality or causal connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokia, Ehud S; Silverman, Barbara G; Green, Manfred; Kedem, Hagai; Guindy, Michal; Shemer, Joshua

    2007-12-12

    In October 2006, four deaths occurred in Israel shortly after influenza immunization, resulting in a temporary halt to the vaccination campaign. After an epidemiologic investigation, the Ministry of Health concluded that these deaths were not related to the vaccine itself and the campaign resumed; however, vaccine uptake was markedly reduced. Estimates of true background mortality in this high-risk population would aid in public education and quell unnecessary concerns regarding vaccine safety. We used data from a large HMO to estimate mortality in influenza vaccine recipients aged 55 and over during four consecutive winters (2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006). Date of immunization was ascertained from patient treatment files, vital status through Israeli National Insurance Institute data. We calculated crude death rates within 7, 14 and 30 days of influenza immunization, and used a Cox Proportional Hazards Model to estimate the risk of death within 14 days of vaccination, adjusting for age and comorbid conditions (age over 75, history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease, status as homebound patient) in 2006. The death rate among influenza vaccine recipients ranged from 0.01 to 0.02% within 7 days and 0.09-0.10% at 30 days. Influenza immunization was associated with a decreased risk of death within 14 days after adjustment for comorbidities (Hazard ratio, 0.33, 95% CI, 0.18-0.61). Our findings support the assumption that influenza vaccination is not associated with increased risk of death in the short term.

  9. Nasopharyngeal microbial interactions in the era of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Eileen M; Smith-Vaughan, Heidi C; Robins-Browne, Roy M; Mulholland, E Kim; Satzke, Catherine

    2013-05-01

    The nasopharynx of children is often colonised by microorganisms such as Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) that can cause infections including pneumonia and otitis media. In this complex environment, bacteria and viruses may impact each other through antagonistic as well as synergistic interactions. Vaccination may alter colonisation dynamics, evidenced by the rise in non-vaccine serotypes following pneumococcal conjugate vaccination. Discovery of an inverse relationship between S. pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus carriage generated concern that pneumococcal vaccination could increase S. aureus carriage and disease. Here we review data on co-colonisation of pathogens in the nasopharynx, focusing on S. pneumoniae and the impact of pneumococcal vaccination. Thus far, pneumococcal vaccination has not had a sustained impact on S. aureus carriage but it is associated with an increase in non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae in acute otitis media aetiology. Advances in bacterial and viral detection methodologies have facilitated research in nasopharyngeal microbiology and will aid investigation of potential vaccine-induced changes, particularly when baseline studies can be conducted prior to pneumococcal vaccine introduction.

  10. Aid and growth regressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Tarp, Finn

    2001-01-01

    . There are, however, decreasing returns to aid, and the estimated effectiveness of aid is highly sensitive to the choice of estimator and the set of control variables. When investment and human capital are controlled for, no positive effect of aid is found. Yet, aid continues to impact on growth via...... investment. We conclude by stressing the need for more theoretical work before this kind of cross-country regressions are used for policy purposes....

  11. Brucellosis vaccines for livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Zakia I; Pascual, David W

    2016-11-15

    Brucellosis is a livestock disease responsible for fetal loss due to abortions. Worldwide, this disease has profound economic and social impact by reducing the ability of livestock producers to provide an adequate supply of disease-free meat and dairy products. In addition to its presence in domesticated animals, brucellosis is harbored in a number of wildlife species creating new disease reservoirs, which adds to the difficulty of eradicating this disease. Broad and consistent use of the available vaccines would contribute in reducing the incidence of brucellosis. Unfortunately, this practice is not common. In addition, the current brucellosis vaccines cannot provide sterilizing immunity, and in certain circumstances, vaccinated livestock are not protected against co-mingling Brucella-infected wildlife. Given that these vaccines are inadequate for conferring complete protection for some vaccinated livestock, alternatives are being sought, and these include genetic modifications of current vaccines or their reformulations. Alternatively, many groups have sought to develop new vaccines. Subunit vaccines, delivered as a combination of soluble vaccine plus adjuvant or the heterologous expression of Brucella epitopes by different vaccine vectors are currently being tested. New live attenuated Brucella vaccines are also being developed and tested in their natural hosts. Yet, what is rarely considered is the route of vaccination which could improve vaccine efficacy. Since Brucella infections are mostly transmitted mucosally, mucosal delivery of a vaccine has the potential of eliciting a more robust protective immune response for improved efficacy. Hence, this review will examine these questions and provide the status of new vaccines for livestock brucellosis.

  12. Designing State Aid Formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  13. Determinants of State Aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiren, K.; Brouwer, E.

    2010-01-01

    From economic theory we derive a set of hypotheses on the determination of state aid. Econometric analysis on EU state aid panel data is carried out to test whether the determinants we expect on the basis of theory, correspond to the occurrence of state aid in practice in the EU. We find that politi

  14. Fever: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Fever: First aid Fever: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A fever is a rise in body temperature. It's usually a sign of infection. The ... 2 C) or higher Should I treat a fever? When you or your child is sick, the ...

  15. Stroke: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Stroke: First aid Stroke: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A stroke occurs when there's bleeding into your brain or when normal blood flow to ... next several hours. Seek immediate medical assistance. A stroke is a true emergency. The sooner treatment is ...

  16. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel

    inputs. We take as our point of departure a growth accounting analysis and review both intended and unintended effects of aid. Mozambique has benefited from sustained aid inflows in conflict, post-conflict and reconstruction periods. In each of these phases aid has made an unambiguous, positive...

  17. Vaccination for Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehen, Stephan; Hengartner, Hans; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.

    1991-01-01

    Recombinant virus vaccines that express a limited number of epitopes are currently being developed to prevent disease by changing the relative balance between viral spread and the immune response. Some circumstances, however, were found in infections with a noncytopathic virus in which vaccination caused disease; sensitive parameters included the genetic background of the host, the time or dose of infection, and the constituents of the vaccine. Thus, immunopathologic damage by T cells may be an unwanted consequence of vaccination with the new types of peptide or recombinant vaccines that are being investigated for the human immunodeficiency viruses and other pathogens.

  18. Advances in FIV vaccine technology

    OpenAIRE

    Uhl, Elizabeth W.; Martin, Marcus; Coleman, James K.; Yamamoto, Janet K.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in vaccine technology are occurring in the molecular techniques used to develop vaccines and in the assessment of vaccine efficacy, allowing more complete characterization of vaccine-induced immunity correlating to protection. FIV vaccine development has closely mirrored and occasionally surpassed the development of HIV-1 vaccine, leading to first licensed technology. This review will discuss technological advances in vaccine designs, challenge infection assessment, and characterizat...

  19. HIV Vaccine: Recent Advances, Current Roadblocks, and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muni Rubens

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV/AIDS is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In spite of successful interventions and treatment protocols, an HIV vaccine would be the ultimate prevention and control strategy. Ever since identification of HIV/AIDS, there have been meticulous efforts for vaccine development. The specific aim of this paper is to review recent vaccine efficacy trials and associated advancements and discuss the current challenges and future directions. Recombinant DNA technologies greatly facilitated development of many viral products which were later incorporated into vectors for effective vaccines. Over the years, a number of scientific approaches have gained popularity and include the induction of neutralizing antibodies in late 1980s, induction of CD8 T cell in early 1990s, and combination approaches currently. Scientists have hypothesized that stimulation of right sequences of somatic hypermutations could induce broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs capable of effective neutralization and viral elimination. Studies have shown that a number of host and viral factors affect these processes. Similarly, eliciting specific CD8 T cells immune responses through DNA vaccines hold future promises. In summary, future studies should focus on the continuous fight between host immune responses and ever-evasive viral factors for effective vaccines.

  20. Emerging Vaccine Informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqun He

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine informatics is an emerging research area that focuses on development and applications of bioinformatics methods that can be used to facilitate every aspect of the preclinical, clinical, and postlicensure vaccine enterprises. Many immunoinformatics algorithms and resources have been developed to predict T- and B-cell immune epitopes for epitope vaccine development and protective immunity analysis. Vaccine protein candidates are predictable in silico from genome sequences using reverse vaccinology. Systematic transcriptomics and proteomics gene expression analyses facilitate rational vaccine design and identification of gene responses that are correlates of protection in vivo. Mathematical simulations have been used to model host-pathogen interactions and improve vaccine production and vaccination protocols. Computational methods have also been used for development of immunization registries or immunization information systems, assessment of vaccine safety and efficacy, and immunization modeling. Computational literature mining and databases effectively process, mine, and store large amounts of vaccine literature and data. Vaccine Ontology (VO has been initiated to integrate various vaccine data and support automated reasoning.

  1. Vaccinations for pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Geeta K; Heine, R Phillips

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician-gynecologists are well suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease-related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and neonatal benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and health care provider resources.

  2. Vaccines for allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2012-06-01

    Vaccines aim to establish or strengthen immune responses but are also effective for the treatment of allergy. The latter is surprising because allergy represents a hyper-immune response based on immunoglobulin E production against harmless environmental antigens, i.e., allergens. Nevertheless, vaccination with allergens, termed allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying therapy of allergy with long-lasting effects. New forms of allergy diagnosis and allergy vaccines based on recombinant allergen-derivatives, peptides and allergen genes have emerged through molecular allergen characterization. The molecular allergy vaccines allow sophisticated targeting of the immune system and may eliminate side effects which so far have limited the use of traditional allergen extract-based vaccines. Successful clinical trials performed with the new vaccines indicate that broad allergy vaccination is on the horizon and may help to control the allergy pandemic.

  3. Conditional Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) studies the effect of development aid using econometrics on macro data. It contains about 100 papers of which a third analyzes conditional models where aid effectiveness depends upon z, so that aid only works for a certain range of the variable. The key term...... in this family of AEL models is thus an interaction term of z times aid. The leading candidates for z are a good policy index and aid itself. In this paper, meta-analysis techniques are used (i) to determine whether the AEL has established the said interaction terms, and (ii) to identify some of the determinants...... of the differences in results between studies. Taking all available studies in consideration, we find no support for conditionality with respect to policy, while conditionality regarding aid itself is dubious. However, the results differ depending on the authors’ institutional affiliation....

  4. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel

    This paper considers the relationship between external aid and development in Mozambique from 1980 to 2004. The main objective is to identify the specific mechanisms through which aid has influenced the developmental trajectory of the country and whether one can plausibly link outcomes to aid...... inputs. We take as our point of departure a growth accounting analysis and review both intended and unintended effects of aid. Mozambique has benefited from sustained aid inflows in conflict, post-conflict and reconstruction periods. In each of these phases aid has made an unambiguous, positive...... contribution both enabling and supporting rapid growth since 1992. At the same time, the proliferation of donors and aid-supported interventions has burdened local administration and there is a distinct need to develop government accountability to its own citizens rather than donor agencies. In ensuring...

  5. China vs. AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LURUCAI

    2004-01-01

    CHINA's first HIV positive diagnosis was in 1985, the victim an ArgentineAmerican. At that time most Chinese,medical workers included, thought of AIDS as a phenomenon occurring outside of China. Twenty years later, the number of HIV/AIDS patients has risen alarmingly. In 2003, the Chinese Ministry of Health launched an AIDS Epidemiological Investigation across China with the support of the WHO and UN AIDS Program. Its results show that there are currently 840,000 HIV carriers, including 80,000 people with full-blown AIDS, in 31 Chinese provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. This means China has the second highest number of HIV/AIDS cases in Asia and 14th highest in the world. Statistics from the Chinese Venereal Disease and AIDS Prevention Association indicate that the majority of Chinese HIV carriers are young to middle aged, more than half of them between the ages of 20 and 29.

  6. Aid Effectiveness on Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) is econo¬metric studies of the macroeconomic effects of development aid. It contains about 100 papers of which 68 are reduced form estimates of theeffect of aid on growth in the recipient country. The raw data show that growth is unconnected to aid......, but the AEL has put so much structure on the data that all results possible have emerged. The present meta study considers both the best-set of the 68 papers and the all-set of 543 regressions published. Both sets have a positive average aid-growth elasticity, but it is small and insignificant: The AEL has...... betweenstudies is real. In particular, the aid-growth association is stronger for Asian countries, and the aid-growth association is shown to have been weaker in the 1970s....

  7. Vaccine development for Tuberculosis: Past, Present and Future Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dileep Tiwari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available About one third of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb, and new infections occur at a rate of about one per second. Additionally, more people in the developed world contact tuberculosis (TB because their immune systems are more likely to be compromised due to higher exposure to immunosuppressive drugs, substance abuse, or AIDS. The distribution of tuberculosis is not uniform across the globe, still the treatment is difficult and requires long courses of multiple antibiotics. However, antibiotic resistance is a growing problem in multidrugresistant (MDR tuberculosis. But mostly the prevention relies on screening programs and vaccination, usually with Bacillus Calmette- Guérin (BCG vaccine. BCG is the most commonly used vaccine worldwide, but not as a powerful vaccine. BCG also provides some protection against severe forms of pediatric TB, but has been shown to be unreliable against adult pulmonary TB which accounts for most of the disease burden worldwide. Currently, there is an urgent need for novel, more effective vaccine that can prevent all forms of TB including drug resistant strains for all age groups and among people with HIV. The first recombinant tuberculosis vaccine rBCG30, entered clinical trials in year 2004, but, still no effective vaccine is available in a market. Study showed that DNA TB vaccine given with conventional chemotherapy can accelerate the disappearance of bacteria as well as protect against re-infection in mice and it is quite effective against TB. A very promising TB vaccine, MVA85A, is currently in phase II trials and is based on a genetically modified vaccinia virus. Many other strategies are also being used to develop novel vaccines, including both subunit vaccines such as Hybrid-1, HyVac4 or M72, and recombinant adenoviruses such as Ad35. Some of these vaccines can be effectively administered without needles making them preferable for areas where HIV is very common and few of

  8. Current and future prophylactic vaccines for hepatitis C virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunlop JI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available James I Dunlop, Anna M Owsianka, Vanessa M Cowton, Arvind H Patel MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Glasgow, Scotland, UK Abstract: The development of a vaccine is necessary to combat the global hepatitis C virus (HCV epidemic. The key to the development of a prophylactic vaccine is understanding the immune response in those who spontaneously resolve HCV infections versus those who develop chronic disease. Several promising vaccine candidates based on the use of viral vectors are currently in Phase I and Phase II clinical trials. The recently solved structures of the E2 glycoprotein have greatly aided epitope- and antibody-based vaccine design. Keywords: antibody, E1E2 glycoproteins, epitope, HCV, neutralizing antibody, viral vector

  9. HIV/AIDS Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Respond to Pre-Award Requests Manage Your Award Negotiation & Initial Award After Award ... New Trial Launched in West Africa to Evaluate Three Vaccination Strategies , April 6, 2017 Monoclonal Antibody Cures Marburg Infection ...

  10. Vaccine process technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsberg, Jessica O; Buckland, Barry

    2012-06-01

    The evolution of vaccines (e.g., live attenuated, recombinant) and vaccine production methods (e.g., in ovo, cell culture) are intimately tied to each other. As vaccine technology has advanced, the methods to produce the vaccine have advanced and new vaccine opportunities have been created. These technologies will continue to evolve as we strive for safer and more immunogenic vaccines and as our understanding of biology improves. The evolution of vaccine process technology has occurred in parallel to the remarkable growth in the development of therapeutic proteins as products; therefore, recent vaccine innovations can leverage the progress made in the broader biotechnology industry. Numerous important legacy vaccines are still in use today despite their traditional manufacturing processes, with further development focusing on improving stability (e.g., novel excipients) and updating formulation (e.g., combination vaccines) and delivery methods (e.g., skin patches). Modern vaccine development is currently exploiting a wide array of novel technologies to create safer and more efficacious vaccines including: viral vectors produced in animal cells, virus-like particles produced in yeast or insect cells, polysaccharide conjugation to carrier proteins, DNA plasmids produced in E. coli, and therapeutic cancer vaccines created by in vitro activation of patient leukocytes. Purification advances (e.g., membrane adsorption, precipitation) are increasing efficiency, while innovative analytical methods (e.g., microsphere-based multiplex assays, RNA microarrays) are improving process understanding. Novel adjuvants such as monophosphoryl lipid A, which acts on antigen presenting cell toll-like receptors, are expanding the previously conservative list of widely accepted vaccine adjuvants. As in other areas of biotechnology, process characterization by sophisticated analysis is critical not only to improve yields, but also to determine the final product quality. From a regulatory

  11. Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safrit, Jeffrey T; Fast, Patricia E; Gieber, Lisa; Kuipers, Hester; Dean, Hansi J; Koff, Wayne C

    2016-06-03

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the cause of one of the most lethal pandemics in human history, although in recent years access to highly effective anti-retroviral therapy has provided new hope worldwide. Transmission of HIV by sexual contact, childbirth and injection drug use has been reduced, but 2 million are newly infected each year, and much of the transmission is from people who do not know their status. In addition to known methods, a preventive vaccine is needed to end the pandemic. The extraordinary mutability and genetic diversity of HIV is an enormous challenge, but vaccines are being designed for broad coverage. Computer-aided design of mosaic immunogens, incorporating many epitopes from the entire genome or from conserved regions aim to induce CD8+ T cells to kill virus-infected cells or inhibit virus replication, while trimeric envelope proteins or synthetic mimics aim to induce broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies similar to those cloned from some infected patients. Induction of more potent and durable responses may require new adjuvants or replicating chimeric vectors chimeras that bear HIV genes. Passive or genetic delivery of broadly neutralizing antibodies may provide broad protection and/or lead to insights for vaccine designers. Proof-of-concept trials in non-human primates and in one human efficacy trial have provided scientific clues for a vaccine that could provide broad and durable protection against HIV. The use of vaccines to destroy HIV reservoirs as part of therapy or cure is now also being explored.

  12. Potent T cell Responses Induced by Single DNA Vaccine Boosted with Recombinant Vaccinia Vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianxing Liu; Chao Qiu; Yang Huang; Jianqing Xu; Yiming Shao

    2013-01-01

    Plasmid DNA,an effective vaccine vector,can induce both cellular and humoral immune responses.However,plasmid DNA raises issues concerning potential genomic integration after injection.This issue should be considered in preclinical studies.Tiantan vaccinia virus (TV) has been most widely utilized in eradicating smallpox in China.This virus has also been considered as a successful vaccine vector against a few infectious diseases.Potent T cell responses through T-cell receptor (TCR) could be induced by three injections of the DNA prime vaccine followed by a single injection of recombinant vaccinia vaccine.To develop a safer immunization strategy,a single DNA prime followed by a single recombinant Tiantan vaccinia (rTV) AIDS vaccine was used to immunize mice.Our data demonstrated that one DNA prime/rTV boost regimen induced mature TCR activation with high functional avidity,preferential T cell Vβ receptor usage and high sensitivity to anti-CD3 antibody stimulation.No differences in T cell responses were observed among one,two or three DNA prime/rTV boost regimens.This study shows that one DNA prime/rTV boost regimen is sufficient to induce potent T cell responses against HIV.

  13. Vaccine herd effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyong; Johnstone, Jennie; Loeb, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Vaccination ideally protects susceptible populations at high risk for complications of the infection. However, vaccines for these subgroups do not always provide sufficient effectiveness. The herd effect or herd immunity is an attractive way to extend vaccine benefits beyond the directly targeted population. It refers to the indirect protection of unvaccinated persons, whereby an increase in the prevalence of immunity by the vaccine prevents circulation of infectious agents in susceptible populations. The herd effect has had a major impact in the eradication of smallpox, has reduced transmission of pertussis, and protects against influenza and pneumococcal disease. A high uptake of vaccines is generally needed for success. In this paper we aim to provide an update review on the herd effect, focusing on the clinical benefit, by reviewing data for specific vaccines.

  14. Vaccines and Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Susanna; Bianchini, Sonia; Dellepiane, Rosa Maria; Principi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The distinctive immune system characteristics of children with Kawasaki disease (KD) could suggest that they respond in a particular way to all antigenic stimulations, including those due to vaccines. Moreover, treatment of KD is mainly based on immunomodulatory therapy. These factors suggest that vaccines and KD may interact in several ways. These interactions could be of clinical relevance because KD is a disease of younger children who receive most of the vaccines recommended for infectious disease prevention. This paper shows that available evidence does not support an association between KD development and vaccine administration. Moreover, it highlights that administration of routine vaccines is mandatory even in children with KD and all efforts must be made to ensure the highest degree of protection against vaccine-preventable diseases for these patients. However, studies are needed to clarify currently unsolved issues, especially issues related to immunologic interference induced by intravenous immunoglobulin and biological drugs.

  15. Vaccination against seasonal flu

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The Medical Service once again recommends you to get your annual flu vaccination for the year.   Vaccination is the most effective way of avoiding the illness and any serious consequences and protecting those around you. The flu can have especially serious consequences for people with chronic conditions (diabetes, cardio-vascular disease, etc.), pregnant women, infants, and people over 65 years of age. Remember, anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor) with their vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement by UNIQA. NB: The Medical Service cannot provide this vaccination service for family members or retired members of the personnel. For more information: • The "Seasonal flu" flyer by the Medical Service • Recommendations of the Swiss Federal Office of Public...

  16. Vaccination and neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Gkampeta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Active immunization of children has been proven very effective in elimination of life threatening complications of many infectious diseases in developed countries. However, as vaccination-preventable infectious diseases and their complications have become rare, the interest focuses on immunization-related adverse reactions. Unfortunately, fear of vaccination-related adverse effects can led to decreased vaccination coverage and subsequent epidemics of infectious diseases. This review includes reports about possible side effects following vaccinations in children with neurological disorders and also published recommendations about vaccinating children with neurological disorders. From all international published data anyone can conclude that vaccines are safer than ever before, but the challenge remains to convey this message to society.

  17. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro and meso-levels, recent literature has turned decidedly pessimistic with respect to the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth. Policy implications, such as the complete cessation of aid to Africa......, are being drawn on the basis of fragile evidence. This paper first assesses the aid-growth literature with a focus on recent contributions. The aid-growth literature is then framed, for the first time, in terms of the Rubin Causal Model, applied at the macroeconomic level. Our results show that aid has...... a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run with point estimates at levels suggested by growth theory. We conclude that aid remains an important tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor nations....

  18. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    2009-01-01

    The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro and meso-levels, recent literature has turned decidedly pessimistic with respect to the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth. Policy implications, such as the complete cessation of aid to Africa......, are being drawn on the basis of fragile evidence. This paper first assesses the aid-growth literature with a focus on recent contributions. The aid-growth literature is then framed, for the first time, in terms of the Rubin Causal Model, applied at the macroeconomic level. Our results show that aid has...... a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run with point estimates at levels suggested by growth theory. We conclude that aid remains an important tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor nations....

  19. Vaccine Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back After Treatment Prostate Cancer Treating Prostate Cancer Vaccine Treatment for Prostate Cancer Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) is ... less advanced prostate cancer. Possible side effects of vaccine treatment Side effects from the vaccine tend to ...

  20. Influenza Vaccine, Inactivated or Recombinant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... die from flu, and many more are hospitalized.Flu vaccine can:keep you from getting flu, make flu ... inactivated or recombinant influenza vaccine?A dose of flu vaccine is recommended every flu season. Children 6 months ...

  1. Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  2. Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  3. HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... percentage is less than 15%. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  4. Recombinant MVA vaccines: dispelling the myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottingham, Matthew G; Carroll, Miles W

    2013-09-06

    Diseases such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and cancer are prime targets for prophylactic or therapeutic vaccination, but have proven partially or wholly resistant to traditional approaches to vaccine design. New vaccines based on recombinant viral vectors expressing a foreign antigen are under intense development for these and other indications. One of the most advanced and most promising vectors is the attenuated, non-replicating poxvirus MVA (modified vaccinia virus Ankara), a safer derivative of the uniquely successful smallpox vaccine. Despite the ability of recombinant MVA to induce potent humoral and cellular immune responses against transgenic antigen in humans, especially when used as the latter element of a heterologous prime-boost regimen, doubts are occasionally expressed about the ultimate feasibility of this approach. In this review, five common misconceptions over recombinant MVA are discussed, and evidence is cited to show that recombinant MVA is at least sufficiently genetically stable, manufacturable, safe, and immunogenic (even in the face of prior anti-vector immunity) to warrant reasonable hope over the feasibility of large-scale deployment, should useful levels of protection against target pathogens, or therapeutic benefit for cancer, be demonstrated in efficacy trials.

  5. AIDS in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  6. JPRS Report, Epidemiology, Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    at home. For this they can thank the National Federation of Gays and Lesbians (LBL). -To develop an adequate core of specialists in AIDS prevention... Homosexuality [Vusie Ginindza; Mbabane THE TIMES OF SWAZILAND, 15 May 91] ...................................... 4 JPRS-TEP-91-012 5 June 1991 2 AIDS TANZANIA...sensitivity and not to sensa- tionalize the issue. Health Workers ’Alarmed’ at rise in AIDS, Homosexuality SWAZILAND MB1505085891 Mbabane THE TIMES

  7. Radiographic imaging of aids

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, M B

    2002-01-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has impacted the civilized world like no other disease. This research aimed to discuss some of the main aids-related complications and their detection by radiology tests, specifically central nervous system and musculoskeletal system disorders. The objectives are: to show specific characteristics of various diseases of HIV patient, to analyze the effect of pathology in patients by radiology, to enhance the knowledge of technologists in aids imaging and to improve communication skills between patient and radiology technologists.

  8. Vaccines for Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Current medications for drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines to elicit antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status for two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (cocaine and nicotine) and two that are still in pre-clinical development (methamphetamine and heroin). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns for anti-addiction vaccine development and their use as future therapeutics. PMID:22130115

  9. Alphavirus replicon vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Veen, Ryan L; Harris, D L Hank; Kamrud, Kurt I

    2012-06-01

    The alphavirus replicon technology has been utilized for many years to develop vaccines for both veterinary and human applications. Many developments have been made to the replicon platform recently, resulting in improved safety and efficacy of replicon particle (RP) vaccines. This review provides a broad overview of the replicon technology and safety features of the system and discusses the current literature on RP and replicon-based vaccines.

  10. Existing antibacterial vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Natalia; Ravanfar, Parisa; Satyaprakash, Anita; Satyaprakah, Anita; Pillai, Sivaprabha; Creed, Rosella

    2009-01-01

    There are countless bacterial pathogens that cause disease in humans. Many of these bacterial infections not only cause significant morbidity and mortality in the human population but also cause a significant economic impact on society. Vaccines allow for reduction and potential eradication of such diseases. This article will review the currently approved antibacterial vaccines, which are vaccines for pertussis, tetanus, diphtheria, meningococcus, pneumococcus, Haemophilus influenza, cholera, typhoid, and anthrax.

  11. Developing vaccines against pandemic influenza.

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, J M

    2001-01-01

    Pandemic influenza presents special problems for vaccine development. There must be a balance between rapid availability of vaccine and the safeguards to ensure safety, quality and efficacy of vaccine. Vaccine was developed for the pandemics of 1957, 1968, 1977 and for the pandemic alert of 1976. This experience is compared with that gained in developing vaccines for a possible H5N1 pandemic in 1997-1998. Our ability to mass produce influenza vaccines against a pandemic threat was well illust...

  12. Music and hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-10-31

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems.

  13. Vaccines, our shared responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Jain, Rishabh; Suri, Rajinder Kumar

    2015-05-05

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) held its fifteenth annual meeting from October 27-29, 2014, New Delhi, India. The DCVMN, together with the co-organizing institution Panacea Biotec, welcomed over 240 delegates representing high-profile governmental and nongovernmental global health organizations from 36 countries. Over the three-day meeting, attendees exchanged information about their efforts to achieve their shared goal of preventing death and disability from known and emerging infectious diseases. Special praise was extended to all stakeholders involved in the success of polio eradication in South East Asia and highlighted challenges in vaccine supply for measles-rubella immunization over the coming decades. Innovative vaccines and vaccine delivery technologies indicated creative solutions for achieving global immunization goals. Discussions were focused on three major themes including regulatory challenges for developing countries that may be overcome with better communication; global collaborations and partnerships for leveraging investments and enable uninterrupted supply of affordable and suitable vaccines; and leading innovation in vaccines difficult to develop, such as dengue, Chikungunya, typhoid-conjugated and EV71, and needle-free technologies that may speed up vaccine delivery. Moving further into the Decade of Vaccines, participants renewed their commitment to shared responsibility toward a world free of vaccine-preventable diseases.

  14. Dengue virus vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yauch, Lauren E; Shresta, Sujan

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in tropical and subtropical regions, causing hundreds of millions of infections each year. Infections range from asymptomatic to a self-limited febrile illness, dengue fever (DF), to the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). The expanding of the habitat of DENV-transmitting mosquitoes has resulted in dramatic increases in the number of cases over the past 50 years, and recent outbreaks have occurred in the United States. Developing a dengue vaccine is a global health priority. DENV vaccine development is challenging due to the existence of four serotypes of the virus (DENV1-4), which a vaccine must protect against. Additionally, the adaptive immune response to DENV may be both protective and pathogenic upon subsequent infection, and the precise features of protective versus pathogenic immune responses to DENV are unknown, complicating vaccine development. Numerous vaccine candidates, including live attenuated, inactivated, recombinant subunit, DNA, and viral vectored vaccines, are in various stages of clinical development, from preclinical to phase 3. This review will discuss the adaptive immune response to DENV, dengue vaccine challenges, animal models used to test dengue vaccine candidates, and historical and current dengue vaccine approaches.

  15. Vaccines Through Centuries: Major Cornerstones of Global Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inaya eHajj Hussein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple cornerstones have shaped the history of vaccines, which may contain live attenuated viruses, inactivated organisms/viruses, inactivated toxins, or merely segments of the pathogen that could elicit an immune response.The story began with Hippocrates 400 B.C. with his description of mumps and diphtheria. No further discoveries were recorded until 1100 A.D. when the smallpox vaccine was described. During the 18th century, vaccines for cholera and yellow fever were reported and Edward Jenner, the father of vaccination and immunology, published his work on small pox.The 19th century was a major landmark, with the Germ Theory of disease of Louis Pasteur, the discovery of the germ tubercle bacillus for tuberculosis by Robert Koch, and the isolation of pneumococcus organism by George Miller Sternberg. Another landmark was the discovery of diphtheria toxin by Emile Roux and its serological treatment by Emil Von Behring and Paul Ehrlih. In addition, Pasteur was able to generate the first live attenuated viral vaccine against rabies. Typhoid vaccines were then developed, followed by the plague vaccine of Yersin. At the beginning of World War I, the tetanus toxoid was introduced, followed in 1915 by the pertussis vaccine. In 1974, The Expanded Program of Immunization was established within the WHO for BCG, Polio, DTP, measles, yellow fever and hepatitis B. The year 1996 witnessed the launching of the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative. In 1988, the WHO passed a resolution to eradicate polio by the year 2000 and in 2006; the first vaccine to prevent cervical cancer was developed. In 2010 The Decade of vaccines was launched, and on April 1st 2012, the United Nations launched the shot@Life campaign. In brief, the armamentarium of vaccines continues to grow with more emphasis on safety, availability and accessibility. This mini review highlights the major historical events and pioneers in the course of development of vaccines, which have eradicated

  16. AIDS: Anti-HIV Agents, Therapies, and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-26

    LOEWENSTEIN . 1988. Autonomous functional domains of chemically synthesized human immunodeficiency virus tat trans-activator protein. Cell 55: 1179...ddA) with Anti-HIV Activity KARL B. FRANK, EDWARD V. CONNELL, a MICHAEL J. HOLMAN, DONNA M. HURYN,- BARBARA C. SLUBOSKI, STEVE Y. TAM," LOUIS J

  17. A Novel DNA-Based Vaccine Methodology for Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    delivery of DNA to the tongue suggests the tongue may be an inductive site for mucosal immunity . 18 To evaluate the immune effects of IL-6, we delivered DNA...indicate the enhanced protection seen with IL-6 and tongue delivery is not due to induction of localized mucosal immunity . These results further suggest...that the tongue is not an inductive site for mucosal immunity . However, these results do not account for potential differences between the mouse and

  18. HIV-1 vaccine-specific responses induced by Listeria vector vaccines are maintained in mice subsequently infected with a model helminth parasite, Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shollenberger, Lisa M; Bui, Cac T; Paterson, Yvonne; Nyhoff, Lindsay; Harn, Donald A

    2013-11-19

    In areas co-endemic for helminth parasites and HIV/AIDS, infants are often administered vaccines prior to infection with immune modulatory helminth parasites. Systemic Th2 biasing and immune suppression caused by helminth infection reduces cell-mediated responses to vaccines such as tetanus toxoid and BCG. Therefore, we asked if infection with helminthes post-vaccination, alters already established vaccine induced immune responses. In our model, mice are vaccinated against HIV-1 Gag using a Listeria vaccine vector (Lm-Gag) in a prime-boost manner, then infected with the human helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni. This allows us to determine if established vaccine responses are maintained or altered after helminth infection. Our second objective asked if helminth infection post-vaccination alters the recipient's ability to respond to a second boost. Here we compared responses between uninfected mice, schistosome infected mice, and infected mice that were given an anthelminthic, which occurred coincident with the boost or four weeks prior, as well as comparing to un-boosted mice. We report that HIV-1 vaccine-specific responses generated by Listeria vector HIV-1 vaccines are maintained following subsequent chronic schistosome infection, providing further evidence that Listeria vector vaccines induce potent vaccine-specific responses that can withstand helminth infection. We also were able to demonstrate that administration of a second Listeria boost, which markedly enhanced the immune response, was minimally impacted by schistosome infection, or anthelminthic therapy. Surprisingly, we also observed enhanced antibody responses to HIV Gag in vaccinated mice subsequently infected with schistosomes.

  19. Designing HER2 vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Teresa M; Fanger, Gary R; Hand, Susan; Gerard, Catherine; Bruck, Claudine; Cheever, Martin A

    2002-06-01

    HER2/neu is a compelling cancer vaccine candidate because it is overexpressed on some cancer cells relative to normal tissues, it is known to be immunogenic in both animal models and in humans, and it is already known to be targetable by the antibody component of the immune system in the form of monoclonal antibody therapy with trastuzumab. Vaccines offer the theoretical advantage of being able to elicit T-cell responses in addition to antibody responses. HER2 vaccines have been shown to provide benefit in animal models and to be immunogenic in humans. However, the optimal vaccine formulation is not yet known and the therapeutic efficacy of the vaccines in humans has not yet been evaluated. HER2 vaccine approaches currently being tested include peptide-based, DNA plasmid-based, and protein-based vaccines. Our group has developed and started testing a protein-based vaccine composed of both the extracellular domain of HER2 and the carboxyl terminal autophosphorylation portion of the intracellular domain. The extracellular domain was retained to provide for antibody targeting. The kinase domain of the intracellular domain was excluded because of its high degree of homology to other human kinases. The carboxyl terminal autophosphorylation domain was retained because it is the most unique and possibly most immunogenic portion of the HER2 molecule with the least homology to other members of the HER family. The vaccine, termed dHER2, is immunogenic in mice and primates. In animal models it can elicit CD8 and CD4 T-cell responses as well as antibody responses that suppress the growth of HER2-positive cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Vaccine trials are contemplated in patients with breast cancer that will determine whether the vaccine construct is similarly immunogenic in humans.

  20. Magnetic Implants Aid Hearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宏

    1995-01-01

    The next generation of hearing aids may use tiny magnets that fit inside the ear. Researchersat a California company and an engineer at the University of Virginia are both developing systems that rely on magnets to convey sounds. Conventional hearing aids have three components:a microphone, an amplifier, and a speaker. The microphone picks up sounds and sends them to the am-

  1. Genetic Immunity to AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In an article on genetic immunity to AIDS published in Science magazine, American and Chinese scientists claim to have discovered why certain HIV carriers do not develop full-blown AIDS. They say that the key to this conundrum lies in a particular protein in the endocrine system that inhibits development of HIV.

  2. Aid and sectoral growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Thiele, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    This article examines empirically the proposition that aid to poor countries is detrimental for external competitiveness, giving rise to Dutch disease type effects. At the aggregate level, aid is found to have a positive effect on growth. A sectoral decomposition shows that the effect is (i...

  3. International Aid to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavot, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

  4. AIDS Epidemiological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  5. Aid and Income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lof, Matthijs; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    to nonrandom omission of a large proportion of observations. Furthermore, we show that NDHKM’s use of co-integrated regressions is not a suitable empirical strategy for estimating the causal effect of aid on income. Evidence from a Panel VAR model estimated on the dataset of NDHKM, suggests a positive...... and statistically significant long-run effect of aid on income....

  6. First Aid: Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns A A A Scald burns from hot water and other liquids are the most common burns in early childhood. Because burns range from mild ...

  7. The Aid Effectiveness Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL consists of empirical macro studies of the effects of development aid. At the end of 2004 it had reached 97 studies of three families, which we have summarized in one study each using meta-analysis. Studies of the effect on investments show that they rise by 1/3 of the aid – the rest is c...

  8. First Aid: Diaper Rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Diaper Rash KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Diaper Rash A A A Diaper rash is a common skin condition in babies. ... rash is due to irritation caused by the diaper, but it can have other causes not related ...

  9. First Aid: Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Scald burns from hot water and other liquids are the most common burns in early childhood. Because burns range from mild to life threatening, ...

  10. Aid, Development, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klees, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The world faces pervasive poverty and inequality. Hundreds of billions of dollars in international aid have been given or loaned to developing countries though bilateral and multilateral mechanisms, at least, ostensibly, in order to do something about these problems. Has such aid helped? Debates around this question have been ongoing for decades,…

  11. HIV and AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... one HIV test by the time they are teens. If you are having sex, have had sex in the past, or shared ... reviewed: October 2015 previous 1 • 2 • ... STDs How Do People Get AIDS? Can You Get HIV From Having Sex With Someone Who Has AIDS? Can Someone Get ...

  12. First Aid: Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A en español Folleto de instructiones: Caídas (Falls) With all the running, climbing, and exploring kids ...

  13. AIDS as Metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Liz

    1994-01-01

    Scholarly interest in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has spread throughout the humanities, attracting the attention of historians of medicine, political scientists, sociologists, public health scholars, and anthropologists. Most theorists hope their research will aid in policymaking or change understanding of the epidemic. (MSE)

  14. Clinical development of Ebola vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Saranya

    2015-09-01

    The ongoing outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa highlighted the lack of a licensed drug or vaccine to combat the disease and has renewed the urgency to develop a pipeline of Ebola vaccines. A number of different vaccine platforms are being developed by assessing preclinical efficacy in animal models and expediting clinical development. Over 15 different vaccines are in preclinical development and 8 vaccines are now in different stages of clinical evaluation. These vaccines include DNA vaccines, virus-like particles and viral vectors such as live replicating vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV), human and chimpanzee adenovirus, and vaccinia virus. Recently, in preliminary results reported from the first phase III trial of an Ebola vaccine, the rVSV-vectored vaccine showed promising efficacy. This review charts this rapidly advancing area of research focusing on vaccines in clinical development and discusses the future opportunities and challenges faced in the licensure and deployment of Ebola vaccines.

  15. Childhood Vaccine Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Childhood Vaccine Schedule Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents ... as pneumonia, blood infections, and bacterial meningitis Rotavirus vaccine (three ... in babies and young children 4 Months DTaP, Hib, IPV, PCV, RV 6 ...

  16. Vaccines and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Paz, Ziv; Israeli, Eitan; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2009-11-01

    Vaccines have been used for over 200 years and are the most effective way of preventing the morbidity and mortality associated with infections. Like other drugs, vaccines can cause adverse events, but unlike conventional medicines, which are prescribed to people who are ill, vaccines are administered to healthy individuals, thus increasing the concern over adverse reactions. Most side effects attributed to vaccines are mild, acute and transient; however, rare reactions such as hypersensitivity, induction of infection, and autoimmunity do occur and can be severe and even fatal. The rarity and subacute presentation of post-vaccination autoimmune phenomena means that ascertaining causality between these events can be difficult. Moreover, the latency period between vaccination and autoimmunity ranges from days to years. In this article, on the basis of published evidence and our own experience, we discuss the various aspects of the causal and temporal interactions between vaccines and autoimmune phenomena, as well as the possible mechanisms by which different components of vaccines might induce autoimmunity.

  17. Vaccines and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, M; Chiappini, E; Galli, L

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines have eradicated or controlled many infectious diseases, saving each year millions of lives and quality of life of many other millions of people. In spite of the success of vaccines over the last two centuries, parents (and also some health care workers) gloss over the devastating consequences of diseases, which are now avoided thanks to vaccines, and direct their attention to possible negative effects of immunization. Three immunological objections are raised: vaccines cause antigenic overload, natural immunity is safer and better than vaccine-induced immunity, and vaccines induce autoimmunity. The last point is examined in this review. Theoretically, vaccines could trigger autoimmunity by means of cytokine production, anti-idiotypic network, expression of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigens, modification of surface antigens and induction of novel antigens, molecular mimicry, bystander activation, epitope spreading, and polyclonal activation of B cells. There is strong evidence that none of these mechanisms is really effective in causing autoimmune diseases. Vaccines are not a source of autoimmune diseases. By contrast, absolute evidence exists that infectious agents can trigger autoimmune mechanisms and that they do cause autoimmune diseases.

  18. Towards universal influenza vaccines?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractVaccination is the most cost-effective way to reduce the considerable disease burden of seasonal influenza. Although seasonal influenza vaccines are effective, their performance in the elderly and immunocompromised individuals would benefit from improvement. Major problems related to the

  19. Pricing of new vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bruce Y; McGlone, Sarah M

    2010-08-01

    New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical, and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following ten components: 1. Conduct a target population analysis; 2. Map potential competitors and alternatives; 3. Construct a vaccine target product profile (TPP) and compare it to projected or actual TPPs of competing vaccines; 4. Quantify the incremental value of the new vaccine's characteristics; 5. Determine vaccine positioning in the marketplace; 6. Estimate the vaccine price-demand curve; 7. Calculate vaccine costs (including those of manufacturing, distribution, and research and development); 8. Account for various legal, regulatory, third party payer, and competitor factors; 9. Consider the overall product portfolio; 10. Set pricing objectives; 11. Select pricing and pricing structure. While the biomedical literature contains some studies that have addressed these components, there is still considerable room for more extensive evaluation of this important area.

  20. Trends in vaccine adjuvants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijns, V.E.J.C.; Lavelle, E.C.

    2011-01-01

    Adjuvants are essential components of most clinically used vaccines. This is because the majority of nonliving vaccines are relatively poor inducers of adaptive immunity unless effective adjuvants are co-administered. Aluminum salts (alum) have been used as adjuvants with great success for almost a

  1. Conscientious Objection to Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Steve; Giubilini, Alberto; Walker, Mary Jean

    2017-03-01

    Vaccine refusal occurs for a variety of reasons. In this article we examine vaccine refusals that are made on conscientious grounds; that is, for religious, moral, or philosophical reasons. We focus on two questions: first, whether people should be entitled to conscientiously object to vaccination against contagious diseases (either for themselves or for their children); second, if so, to what constraints or requirements should conscientious objection (CO) to vaccination be subject. To address these questions, we consider an analogy between CO to vaccination and CO to military service. We argue that conscientious objectors to vaccination should make an appropriate contribution to society in lieu of being vaccinated. The contribution to be made will depend on the severity of the relevant disease(s), its morbidity, and also the likelihood that vaccine refusal will lead to harm. In particular, the contribution required will depend on whether the rate of CO in a given population threatens herd immunity to the disease in question: for severe or highly contagious diseases, if the population rate of CO becomes high enough to threaten herd immunity, the requirements for CO could become so onerous that CO, though in principle permissible, would be de facto impermissible.

  2. The Influence of Delivery Vectors on HIV Vaccine Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Omusiro Ondondo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Development of an effective HIV/AIDS vaccine remains a big challenge, largely due to the enormous HIV diversity which propels immune escape. Thus novel vaccine strategies are targeting multiple variants of conserved antibody and T cell epitopic regions which would incur a huge fitness cost to the virus in the event of mutational escape. Besides immunogen design, the delivery modality is critical for vaccine potency and efficacy, and should be carefully selected in order to not only maximise transgene expression, but to also enhance the immuno-stimulatory potential to activate innate and adaptive immune systems. To date, five HIV vaccine candidates have been evaluated for efficacy and protection from acquisition was only achieved in a small proportion of vaccinees in the RV144 study which used a canarypox vector for delivery. Conversely, in the STEP study (HVTN 502 where human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5 was used, strong immune responses were induced but vaccination was more associated with increased risk of HIV acquisition than protection in vaccinees with pre-existing Ad5 immunity. The possibility that pre-existing immunity to a highly promising delivery vector may alter the natural course of HIV to increase acquisition risk is quite worrisome and a huge setback for HIV vaccine development. Thus, HIV vaccine development efforts are now geared towards delivery platforms which attain superior immunogenicity while concurrently limiting potential catastrophic effects likely to arise from pre-existing immunity or vector-related immuno-modulation. However, it still remains unclear whether it is poor immunogenicity of HIV antigens or substandard immunological potency of the safer delivery vectors that has limited the success of HIV vaccines. This article discusses some of the promising delivery vectors to be harnessed for improved HIV vaccine efficacy.

  3. Current research on drugs and vaccines for fighting bird flu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2007-12-01

    Bird flu, or avian flu, caused by the H5N1 virus, is of concern worldwide. The antiviral drugs oseltamivir and zanamivir have been used to treat human cases, and resistance has been reported. Studies on the molecular mechanisms of antiviral resistance are needed to understand the problem and to aid future drug development. Control of a major outbreak would require a vaccine, but current manufacturing technology is not adequate to support influenza vaccine production in the event of an avian influenza outbreak.

  4. Vaccination: Who Should Do It, Who Should Not and Who Should Take Precautions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Flu Vaccines Vaccine Effectiveness Types of Flu Vaccine Flu Shot Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine Intradermal Influenza (Flu) Vaccination ... Cell-Based Flu Vaccines Flublok Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Vaccine Flu Vaccination by Jet Injector Adjuvant Vaccine Vaccine Virus ...

  5. DNA fusion gene vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter Johannes; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2010-01-01

    DNA vaccines are versatile and safe, but limited immunogenicity has prevented their use in the clinical setting. Experimentally, immunogenicity may be enhanced by the use of new delivery technologies, by coadministration of cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or by fusion...... of antigens into molecular domains that enhance antigen presentation. More specifically, the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines may benefit from increased protein synthesis, increased T-cell help and MHC class I presentation, and the addition of a range of specific cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular...... with viral-vectored vaccines, various synergistic components may need to be incorporated into DNA vaccines. From the perspective of the future clinical use of DNA vaccines, it has been suggested that antigen presentation should be improved and cytokine coadministration attempted. However, even...

  6. Diseases and vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom; Almlund, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    between authorities, politicians, media and citizens. On the contrary, no broad commitment about the offer of a new pandemic vaccine to individuals from e.g. at-risk groups was reached. The vaccine was characterized by considerable uncertainty with regard to effects and side effects and many people...... considered the vaccine as risky and a threat more severe than the influenza. The health authorities? communication was more unclear on this question, confusion increased in the Danish population and more critical voices were raised. This uncertain communication about the vaccines? effects and side effects...... and the critical voices in the population are widespread in communication about vaccines in general and an increasing number of people are expressing skepticism and deselect this product. The communication processes are seen as a typical example of the difficulties of communicating science and risk and show how...

  7. Against vaccine assay secrecy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herder, Matthew; Hatchette, Todd F; Halperin, Scott A; Langley, Joanne M

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the transparency of the evidence base behind health interventions such as pharmaceuticals, biologics, and medical devices, has become a major point of critique, conflict, and policy focus in recent years. Yet the lack of publicly available information regarding the immunogenicity assays upon which many important, widely used vaccines are based has received no attention to date. In this paper we draw attention to this critical public health problem by reporting on our efforts to secure vaccine assay information in respect of 10 vaccines through Canada's access to information law. We argue, under Canadian law, that the public health interest in having access to the methods for these laboratory procedures should override claims by vaccine manufacturers and regulators that this information is proprietary; and, we call upon several actors to take steps to ensure greater transparency with respect to vaccine assays, including regulators, private firms, researchers, research institutions, research funders, and journal editors.

  8. Against vaccine assay secrecy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herder, Matthew; Hatchette, Todd F; Halperin, Scott A; Langley, Joanne M

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the transparency of the evidence base behind health interventions such as pharmaceuticals, biologics, and medical devices, has become a major point of critique, conflict, and policy focus in recent years. Yet the lack of publicly available information regarding the immunogenicity assays upon which many important, widely used vaccines are based has received no attention to date. In this paper we draw attention to this critical public health problem by reporting on our efforts to secure vaccine assay information in respect of 10 vaccines through Canada's access to information law. We argue, under Canadian law, that the public health interest in having access to the methods for these laboratory procedures should override claims by vaccine manufacturers and regulators that this information is proprietary; and, we call upon several actors to take steps to ensure greater transparency with respect to vaccine assays, including regulators, private firms, researchers, research institutions, research funders, and journal editors. PMID:25826194

  9. Neisseria meningitidis B vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Lai, Piero Luigi; Gasparini, Roberto

    2011-09-01

    Invasive infections caused by Neisseria meningitidis are a serious public health problem worldwide and have a heavy economic impact. The incidence of invasive disease due to Neisseria meningitidis is highly variable according to geographical area and serogroup distribution. Since the introduction of vaccination programs with conjugated vaccine C in children and adolescents, most cases of invasive meningococcal disease in developed countries have been caused by meningococcus B. It is important to underline that invasive meningococcal disease will not be controlled until safe and effective vaccines for meningococcal B are available and widely used. The aims of this article are to describe the most recent developments in meningococcal B vaccines and to discuss how these vaccines can contribute to containing meningococcal disease.

  10. Vaccine safety--vaccine benefits: science and the public's perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C B; Marcuse, E K

    2001-11-01

    The development of cowpox vaccination by Jenner led to the development of immunology as a scientific discipline. The subsequent eradication of smallpox and the remarkable effects of other vaccines are among the most important contributions of biomedical science to human health. Today, the need for new vaccines has never been greater. However, in developed countries, the public's fear of vaccine-preventable diseases has waned, and awareness of potential adverse effects has increased, which is threatening vaccine acceptance. To further the control of disease by vaccination, we must develop safe and effective new vaccines to combat infectious diseases, and address the public's concerns.

  11. Cancer vaccines: harnessing the potential of anti-tumor immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckow, Mark A

    2013-10-01

    Although the presence of cancer suggests failure of the immune system to protect against development of tumors, the possibility that immunity can be redirected and focused to generate an anti-tumor response offers great translational possibility. The key to this is identifying antigens likely to be present in any given tumor and functionally critical to tumor survival and growth. Such tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) are varied and optimally should be absent from normal tissue. Of particular interest are TAAs associated with the tumor stroma, as immunity directed against the stroma may restrict the ability of the tumor to grow and metastasize. Important to directing the immune system toward an effect anti-tumor response is the understanding of how TAAs are processed and how the tumor is able to evade immune elimination. The process of immunoediting happens in response to the selective pressure that the immune system places upon tumor cell populations and allows for emergence of tumor cells capable of escaping immune destruction. Efforts to harness the immune system for clinical application has been aided by vaccines based on purified recombinant protein or nucleic acid TAAs. For example, a vaccine for canine melanoma has been developed and approved based on immunization with DNA components of tyrosinase, a glycoprotein essential to melanin synthesis. The performance of cancer vaccines has been aided in some cases when supplemented with immunostimulatory molecules such as interleukin 2 or a novel extracellular matrix vaccine adjuvant. Vaccines with the broadest menu of antigenic targets may be those most likely to succeed against cancer. For this reason, tissue vaccines produced from harvested tumor material may offer significant benefit. With several cancer vaccines on the veterinary and human markets, efforts to understand basic tumor immunology are soon to yield great dividends.

  12. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisa B. Palatnik-De-Sousa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global-warming, co-infection with immunosuppressive diseases and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans

  13. The Vaccine Safety Datalink: successes and challenges monitoring vaccine safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Michael M; Gee, Julianne; Weintraub, Eric S; Belongia, Edward A; Lee, Grace M; Glanz, Jason M; Nordin, James D; Klein, Nicola P; Baxter, Roger; Naleway, Allison L; Jackson, Lisa A; Omer, Saad B; Jacobsen, Steven J; DeStefano, Frank

    2014-09-22

    The Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) is a collaborative project between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and 9 health care organizations. Established in 1990, VSD is a vital resource informing policy makers and the public about the safety of vaccines used in the United States. Large linked databases are used to identify and evaluate adverse events in over 9 million individuals annually. VSD generates rapid, important safety assessments for both routine vaccinations and emergency vaccination campaigns. VSD monitors safety of seasonal influenza vaccines in near-real time, and provided essential information on the safety of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine during the recent pandemic. VSD investigators have published important studies demonstrating that childhood vaccines are not associated with autism or other developmental disabilities. VSD prioritizes evaluation of new vaccines; searches for possible unusual health events after vaccination; monitors vaccine safety in pregnant women; and has pioneered development of biostatistical research methods.

  14. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

  15. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... turn Javascript on. Photo: The NAMES Project Foundation HIV and AIDS are a global catastrophe. While advances ...

  16. Political dimensions of AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewett, N

    1988-01-01

    World political aspects and the example of Australia as a national political response to AIDS are presented. Global policy on AIDS is influenced by the fact that the AIDS epidemic is the 1st to be largely predictable, that long lag times occur between intervention and measurable events, and by the prompt, professional leadership of WHO, lead by Dr. J. Mann. WHO began a Global Programme on AIDS in 1987, modelled on the responses of Canada and Australia. A world summit of Ministers of Health was convened in January 1988. These moves generated a response qualified by openness, cooperation, hope and common sense. The AIDS epidemic calls for unprecedented involvement of politicians: they must coordinate medical knowledge with community action, deal with public fear, exert strong, rational leadership and avoid quick, appealing counterproductive responses. 3 clear directions must be taken to deal with the epidemic: 1) strong research and education campaigns; 2) close contact with political colleagues, interest groups and the community; 3) a national strategy which enjoins diverse interest groups, with courage, rationality and compassion. In Australia, the AIDS response began with the unwitting infection of 3 infants by blood transfusion. A public information campaign emphasizing a penetrating TV ad campaign was instituted in 1987. Policy discussions were held in all parliamentary bodies. The AIDS epidemic demands rapid, creative responses, a break from traditions in health bureaucracy, continual scrutiny of funding procedures and administrative arrangements. In practical terms in Australia, this meant establishing a special AIDS branch within the Health Advancement Division of the Community Health Department. AIDS issues must remain depoliticized to defuse adversary politics and keep leaders in a united front.

  17. [Present status of vaccines in 1989].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussey, M; Dabadie, A

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe 2 new vaccines now available in France: one is the GenHevac, an hepatitis B vaccine, the first virus recombinant vaccine; the other one is the Typhim Vi, a polysaccharide typhoid vaccine. Three other vaccines are currently used in foreign countries and will be soon available: the Hemophilus influenzae vaccine, the acellular pertussis vaccine and the varicella vaccine. Rotavirus and Cytomegalovirus vaccines are studied for their clinical efficacy.

  18. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh

    2013-01-01

    Recent litterature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This article assesses what meta-analysis has to contribute to the litterature on the effectiveness...... of foreign aid in terms of growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....

  19. Aid Supplies Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel

    2015-01-01

    What determines how much foreign aid donors provide? Existing answers to this question point to a complex range of influences. However, the tasks of distinguishing between long- and short-run factors, as well as differences between donors, have not been adequately addressed. Taking advantage...... of data spanning nearly 50 years, this paper uses panel cointegration techniques to consider these issues. The analysis provides clear evidence for heterogeneity both between donors and over time, bandwagon effects, and a growing influence of security considerations in aid provision. Domestic...... macroeconomic shocks have a moderate but delayed effect on aid disbursements....

  20. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn

    Some recent literature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses what meta-analysis has to say about the effectiveness of foreign aid in terms...... of the growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....

  1. Pulmonary complications of AIDS: radiologic features. [AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, B.A.; Pomeranz, S.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Rosen, M.J.; Train, J.S.; Norton, K.I.; Mendelson, D.S.

    1984-07-01

    Fifty-two patients with pulmonary complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied over a 3-year period. The vast majority of the patients were homosexual; however, a significant number were intravenous drug abusers. Thirteen different organisms were noted, of which Pneumocystis carinii was by far the most common. Five patients had neoplasia. Most patients had initial abnormal chest films; however, eight patients subsequently shown to have Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia had normal chest films. A significant overlap in chest radiographic findings was noted among patients with different or multiple organisms. Lung biopsy should be an early consideration for all patients with a clinical history consistent with the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Of the 52 patients, 41 had died by the time this report was completed.

  2. Uganda pioneers ALVAC -- and informed consent. Vaccine trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, H; Nsubuga, L

    1997-02-01

    Pasteur Merieux, a French pharmaceutical company, has developed a promising new experimental vaccine against AIDS. The vaccine, ALVAC VCP205, contains live, genetically engineered canaripox virus carrying several small fragments of HIV. Canaripox virus causes disease among canary birds, but not in humans. ALVAC VCP205 has already been tested on more than 100 volunteers in the US and France who have shown no ill effects. Clinical trials will start in Uganda in early 1997, at which point 40 young male volunteers in Kampala will be administered the vaccine. The volunteers are soldiers of the Ugandan army. Possibly continuing until 2005, the trials will assess the safety of ALVAC VCP205 and, if successful, lead to much larger trials involving thousands of Ugandans in 1998. Only then will scientists know whether the vaccine can protect humans against HIV infection. The need for a vaccine, the Uganda trial, and concerns over whether trial subjects are truly volunteers are discussed. There is also concern over whether the vaccine will be affordable in Uganda if it is shown to be effective and whether it will be appropriate for use by Ugandans at risk of HIV infection. ALVAC VCP205 is designed to provide the greatest level of protection against HIV-1 subtype B, the dominant strain of HIV in Europe and the US. In Uganda, strains A and D predominate.

  3. Flu vaccination in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Siettou

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In periods of seasonal influenza, during pandemic flu in the past and from recent experience that we have the emergence of influenza A (H1N1, pregnant compared with non-pregnant women are at increased risk to get sick and to develop serious complications up to mortality. Purpose: This paper examines the risks that arise for pregnant from contamination with the flu virus and the safety of influenza vaccination in pregnancy. Method: The method involves searching review and research studies in Pubmed data base mainly of the 2000 until 2009 and the words were used is pregnancy, flu vaccination, complications of the flu vaccination at the period of pregnancy. Results: Morbidity during periods of seasonal influenza in pregnant women is increased, while in times of pandemic are recorded fatalities. Based on this, specific recommendations have been made for a flu vaccination in pregnant women, both from the CDC, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists in the U.S. and other official bodies like the World Health Organization, according to that the constitution of influenza vaccine in the pregnancy is necessary, given that the probability of morbidity in this period is increased at 10%. Conclusions: The studies so far to influenza vaccination in pregnancy, do not record serious complications for pregnant women and infants. However more research needs to be done on the safety of influenza vaccination in pregnancy.

  4. Antibody persistence and T-cell balance: Two key factors confronting HIV vaccine development

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, George K.; DeVico, Anthony L.; Gallo, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    The quest for a prophylactic AIDS vaccine is ongoing, but it is now clear that the successful vaccine must elicit protective antibody responses. Accordingly, intense efforts are underway to identify immunogens that elicit these responses. Regardless of the mechanism of antibody-mediated protection, be it neutralization, Fc-mediated effector function, or both, antibody persistence and appropriate T-cell help are significant problems confronting the development of a successful AI...

  5. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... equity (covering the populations in need of services). Financing for sustainability (covering the costs of services). Innovation for acceleration (looking towards the future). WHO is a cosponsor of the Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS (UNAIDS). Within UNAIDS, WHO leads ...

  6. First Aid: Croup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... with each breath has a pale or bluish color around the mouth drools or has difficulty swallowing ...

  7. Buying a Hearing Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Calendar ENTCareers Marketplace ENT Careers Marketplace Log in b Log in Toggle navigation b Join Now Donate Now ... using your hearing aids in quiet surroundings, gradually building up to noisier environments. Then eventually work up ...

  8. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying the white blood cells ... It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most ...

  9. AidData

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — AidData is a research and innovation lab making information on development finance more accessible and actionable. Tracking more than $6 trillion dollars from 90+...

  10. Convulsions - first aid - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100212.htm Convulsions - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To use ... slide 2 out of 2 Overview When a seizure occurs, the main goal is to protect the ...

  11. Alphavirus-Based Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundstrom, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Alphavirus vectors based on Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus have been widely applied for vaccine development. Naked RNA replicons, recombinant viral particles, and layered DNA vectors have been subjected to immunization in preclinical animal models with antigens for viral targets and tumor antigens. Moreover, a limited number of clinical trials have been conducted in humans. Vaccination with alphavirus vectors has demonstrated efficient immune responses and has showed protection against challenges with lethal doses of virus and tumor cells, respectively. Moreover, vaccines have been developed against alphaviruses causing epidemics such as Chikungunya virus.

  12. Research toward Malaria Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Louis H.; Howard, Russell J.; Carter, Richard; Good, Michael F.; Nussenzweig, Victor; Nussenzweig, Ruth S.

    1986-12-01

    Malaria exacts a toll of disease to people in the Tropics that seems incomprehensible to those only familiar with medicine and human health in the developed world. The methods of molecular biology, immunology, and cell biology are now being used to develop an antimalarial vaccine. The Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria have many stages in their life cycle. Each stage is antigenically distinct and potentially could be interrupted by different vaccines. However, achieving complete protection by vaccination may require a better understanding of the complexities of B- and T-cell priming in natural infections and the development of an appropriate adjuvant for use in humans.

  13. Anti-addiction vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite intensive efforts to eradicate it, addiction to both legal and illicit drugs continues to be a major worldwide medical and social problem. Anti-addiction vaccines can produce the antibodies to block the effects of these drugs on the brain, and have great potential to ameliorate the morbidity and mortality associated with illicit drug intoxications. This review provides a current overview of anti-addiction vaccines that are under clinical trial and pre-clinical research evaluation. It also outlines the development challenges, ethical concerns, and likely future intervention for anti-addiction vaccines. PMID:22003367

  14. Cellular based cancer vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Met, O; Svane, I M;

    2012-01-01

    Cancer vaccines designed to re-calibrate the existing host-tumour interaction, tipping the balance from tumor acceptance towards tumor control holds huge potential to complement traditional cancer therapies. In general, limited success has been achieved with vaccines composed of tumor...... in vitro migration via autocrine receptor-mediated endocytosis of CCR7. In the current review, we discuss optimal design of DC maturation focused on pre-clinical as well as clinical results from standard and polarized dendritic cell based cancer vaccines....

  15. Meningococcal vaccine evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Bona

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of bacterial sepsis and meningitis worldwide. Although polysaccharide and glycoconjugate vaccines have been developed for serogroups A, C, Y and W-135, currently there are no broadly effective vaccines available for the prevention of meningococcal B disease. A general overview of the burden of the disease and the strains prevalence in the world with the focus in particular on the Italian situation is provided in this article, together with the vaccinations developed and under evaluation.

  16. Hypophyseal pathology in AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Mosca, L; Costanzi, G; Antonacci, C.; Boldorini, R; Carboni, N.; Cristina, S; Liberani, C.; Parravicini, C.; Pirolo, A.; Vago, L

    1992-01-01

    One hundred and eleven pituitary glands of patients (93 males, 18 females; mean age 32 years, 5 months) who died of fully developed AIDS or ARC were examined under light microscopy with the aid of immunohistochemistry. On post mortem (p.m.) examination a wide series of multiorgan alterations was noticed. Microscopically vanous lesions in both adeno- and neurohypophysis were seen. These ranged from vessel damage to secondaries to systemic infections, neoplas...

  17. Plasma-aided manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohet, J. L.

    1993-12-01

    Plasma-aided manufacturing is used for producing new materials with unusual and superior properties, for developing new chemical compounds and processes, for machining, and for altering and refining materials and surfaces. Plasma-aided manufacturing has direct applications to semiconductor fabrication, materials synthesis, welding, lighting, polymers, anti-corrosion coatings, machine tools, metallurgy, electrical and electronics devices, hazardous waste removal, high performance ceramics, and many other items in both the high-technology and the more traditional industries in the United States.

  18. DNA vaccines and intradermal vaccination by DNA tattooing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhuis, K; van den Berg, J H; Schumacher, T N; Haanen, J B A G

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, DNA vaccination has been developed as a method for the induction of immune responses. However, in spite of high expectations based on their efficacy in preclinical models, immunogenicity of first generation DNA vaccines in clinical trials was shown to be poor, and no DNA vaccines have yet been licensed for human use. In recent years significant progress has been made in the development of second generation DNA vaccines and DNA vaccine delivery methods. Here we review the key characteristics of DNA vaccines as compared to other vaccine platforms, and recent insights into the prerequisites for induction of immune responses by DNA vaccines will be discussed. We illustrate the development of second generation DNA vaccines with the description of DNA tattooing as a novel DNA delivery method. This technique has shown great promise both in a small animal model and in non-human primates and is currently under clinical evaluation.

  19. Vaccine safety controversies and the future of vaccination programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Guido; Duclos, Philippe; Margolis, Harold; Lavanchy, Daniel; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Meheus, André; Lambert, Paul-Henri; Emiroğlu, Nedret; Badur, Selim; Van Damme, Pierre

    2005-11-01

    In the years following the hepatitis B vaccination/multiple sclerosis controversy, a number of new issues regarding vaccine safety have been raised, in some cases leading to more debate and confusion. Against this background, an international group of experts was convened to review the current points of view concerning the use of thimerosal as a preservative and its potential risks; the suggested link between thimerosal-containing vaccines and acute lymphoblastic leukemia; the alleged association between aluminum-containing vaccines/macrophagic myofasciitis and general systemic complaints; a possible link between vaccination and autoimmune pathology; and a hypothetical link between measles-mumps-rubella vaccination and autism. At present, there are no data to conclude that childhood vaccines, and in particular hepatitis B vaccine, pose a serious health risk or justify a change in current immunization practice. However, vaccine "scares" continue to have an international impact on immunization coverage. Creating a positive environment for immunization can be achieved by repositioning the value of vaccines and vaccination, supported by evidence-based information. The role of international organizations, the media, and the industry in the implementation of communication strategies was discussed and the impact of litigation issues on vaccination was evaluated. The Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board confirms its commitment to current recommendations for universal and risk group hepatitis B vaccination and further encourages the conduct of vaccine safety studies and the dissemination of their results.

  20. EXPERIMENTAL MEASLES VACCINES: A RESEARCH TOOL IN VACCINATION EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Liashenko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The review article considers different variants of measles vaccine that may be classified into two groups, i.e., vaccines that do not contain viable measles virus, and attenuated measles vaccines which could be employed in unusual manner.The first group includes DNA-vaccines, recombinant vaccine strains encoding synthesis of measles hemagglutinin and fusion protein, as well as peptide vaccines containing molecular fragments of these proteins. The mentioned variants of vaccines were effective in animal experiments, but they have not been tested in humans. The second group includes live attenuated mucosal measles vaccins applied in combination with immunomodulator(s, as aerosol and intranasally. Efficiency of these vaccines was tested and confirmed by immunization of children and adults. Mucosal measles vaccine induces local production of IgA measles antibodies, along with induced synthesis of circulating IgM and IgG antibodies against measles. The latter experimental variant could be a live attenuated measles vaccine containing some immunity-modulating agent. Elaboration of these variant was based on the known data about transient immunosuppressive activity of measles vaccine. An appropriate experimental variant represents a mixture of attenuated measles vaccine and synthetic immunomodulating agent (MP-2 peptide which protects T-lymphocytes from inhibitory effect of the measles virus. In present revue, some data are presented concerning the mechanisms of immunogenic activity and adverse effects of measles vaccines.

  1. Multilateral Aid | L’aide multilatérale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral and Multilateral Aid, DAC Members, 1960–2010 (in million USD constant, 2009Aide bilatérale et multilatérale des pays membres du CAD, 1960-2010 (en millions USD constants de 2009­Bilateral and Multilateral Aid by Recipient Region, DAC Members, 2008 (in percentage of total aid by RegionAide bilatérale et multilatérale des pays membres du CAD par region de destination, 2008 (en pourcentage de l’aide totale par régionSources: OECD (2010 2010 DAC Report on Multilateral Aid (Paris: O...

  2. Improved NYVAC-based vaccine vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen V Kibler

    Full Text Available While as yet there is no vaccine against HIV/AIDS, the results of the phase III Thai trial (RV144 have been encouraging and suggest that further improvements of the prime/boost vaccine combination of a poxvirus and protein are needed. With this aim, in this investigation we have generated derivatives of the candidate vaccinia virus vaccine vector NYVAC with potentially improved functions. This has been achieved by the re-incorporation into the virus genome of two host range genes, K1L and C7L, in conjunction with the removal of the immunomodulatory viral molecule B19, an antagonist of type I interferon action. These novel virus vectors, referred to as NYVAC-C-KC and NYVAC-C-KC-ΔB19R, have acquired relevant biological characteristics, giving higher levels of antigen expression in infected cells, replication-competency in human keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts, activation of selective host cell signal transduction pathways, and limited virus spread in tissues. Importantly, these replication-competent viruses have been demonstrated to maintain a highly attenuated phenotype.

  3. Drying a tuberculosis vaccine without freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yun-Ling; Sampson, Samantha; Germishuizen, Willem Andreas; Goonesekera, Sunali; Caponetti, Giovanni; Sadoff, Jerry; Bloom, Barry R; Edwards, David

    2007-02-20

    With the increasing incidence of tuberculosis and drug resistant disease in developing countries due to HIV/AIDS, there is a need for vaccines that are more effective than the present bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine. We demonstrate that BCG vaccine can be dried without traditional freezing and maintained with remarkable refrigerated and room-temperature stability for months through spray drying. Studies with a model Mycobacterium (Mycobacterium smegmatis) revealed that by removing salts and cryoprotectant (e.g., glycerol) from bacterial suspensions, the significant osmotic pressures that are normally produced on bacterial membranes through droplet drying can be reduced sufficiently to minimize loss of viability on drying by up to 2 orders of magnitude. By placing the bacteria in a matrix of leucine, high-yield, free-flowing, "vial-fillable" powders of bacteria (including M. smegmatis and M. bovis BCG) can be produced. These powders show relatively minor losses of activity after maintenance at 4 degrees C and 25 degrees C up to and beyond 4 months. Comparisons with lyophilized material prepared both with the same formulation and with a commercial formulation reveal that the spray-dried BCG has better overall viability on drying.

  4. Vaccines against typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Carlos A; Borsutzky, Stefan; Griot-Wenk, Monika; Metcalfe, Ian C; Pearman, Jon; Collioud, Andre; Favre, Didier; Dietrich, Guido

    2006-05-01

    Because of high infectivity and significant disease burden, typhoid fever constitutes a major global health problem. Implementation of adequate food handling practices and establishment of safe water supplies are the cornerstone for the development of an effective prevention program. However, vaccination against typhoid fever remains an essential tool for the effective management of this disease. Currently, there are two well tolerated and effective licensed vaccines. One is based on defined subunit virulence (Vi) polysaccharide antigen and can be administered either intramuscularly or subcutaneously and the other is based on the use of live attenuated bacteria for oral administration. The advantages and disadvantages of the various approaches taken in the development of a vaccine against typhoid fever are discussed, along with the potential for future vaccine candidates.

  5. Antibacterials: A sweet vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundle, David

    2016-03-01

    Vaccination with a synthetic glycoconjugate, in combination with the administration of an inhibitor that blocks capsular polysaccharide synthesis in bacteria, could offer an alternative route to combat bacterial infections.

  6. Smallpox vaccine revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriotti, Teri

    2002-12-01

    Smallpox is a serious contagious disease which is back in the public eye. Yet, most health care providers are unprepared for its return. Nurses will be key health care professionals in a smallpox outbreak or vaccination program.

  7. Veterinary vaccines against toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiszczyńska-Sawicka, Elżbieta; Gatkowska, Justyna M; Grzybowski, Marcin M; Długońska, Henryka

    2014-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a cosmopolitan protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of mammal and bird species. Common infection leads to high economic (e.g., abortions in sheep) and human (e.g., congenital toxoplasmosis or neurotoxoplasmosis in humans) losses. With one exception (Toxovax for sheep), there are no vaccines to prevent human or animal toxoplasmosis. The paper presents the current state and challenges in the development of a vaccine against toxoplasmosis, designed for farm animals either bred for consumption or commonly kept on farms and involved in parasite transmission. So far, the trials have mostly revolved around conventional vaccines and, compared with the research using laboratory animals (mainly mice), they have not been very numerous. However, the results obtained are promising and could be a good starting point for developing an effective vaccine to prevent toxoplasmosis.

  8. Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a pathogenic microorganism that can cause potentially life- threatening disease in humans. HBV infection is transmitted through exposure ...

  9. What Is a Vaccine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Respond to Pre-Award Requests Manage Your Award Negotiation & Initial Award After Award ... New Trial Launched in West Africa to Evaluate Three Vaccination Strategies , April 6, 2017 Monoclonal Antibody Cures Marburg Infection ...

  10. A randomised controlled trial of Silirum vaccine for control of paratuberculosis in farmed red deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, L A; Wilson, P R; Heuer, C; Mackintosh, C G

    2013-12-07

    A randomised controlled trial to assess the efficacy of Silirum vaccine in control of paratuberculosis in young farmed deer was carried out in 2008-2009 in six New Zealand herds with a history of clinical disease. Vaccination with Silirum was carried out in four-month-old deer, and vaccinates (n=1671) and controls (n=1664) were weighed at vaccination and at 8 and 12 months old, when faecal samples were collected from 125 vaccinates and 123 controls on five farms. Deer were slaughtered between 11 and 20 months of age, and the incidence of gross visceral lymph node (VLN) pathology typical of paratuberculosis in deer, that is, enlarged and/or granulomatous VLN, was recorded. Clinical disease was confirmed in 18 controls and seven vaccinates, representing a vaccine efficacy estimate of 60 per cent (95% CI 3 per cent to 83 per cent, P=0.04). Forty-seven percent (95% CI 38 per cent to 56 per cent) of faecal samples from vaccinates and 55 per cent (95% CI 46 per cent to 64 per cent) from controls were Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis positive (P=0.5). Average daily liveweight gain did not differ between the cohorts. At slaughter, 1.4 per cent of vaccinates and 4.5 per cent of controls had VLN pathology, RR=0.32 (95% CI 0.19 to 0.54, Pvaccination with Silirum may be useful as an aid to control losses associated with clinical paratuberculosis in young deer.

  11. The Ebola Vaccine Team B: a model for promoting the rapid development of medical countermeasures for emerging infectious disease threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterholm, Michael; Moore, Kristine; Ostrowsky, Julie; Kimball-Baker, Kathleen; Farrar, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    In support of accelerated development of Ebola vaccines from preclinical research to clinical trials, in November, 2014, the Wellcome Trust and the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy (CIDRAP) at the University of Minnesota established the Wellcome Trust-CIDRAP Ebola Vaccine Team B initiative. This ongoing initiative includes experts with global experience in various phases of bringing new vaccines to market, such as funding, research and development, manufacturing, determination of safety and efficacy, regulatory approval, and vaccination delivery. It also includes experts in community engagement strategies and ethical issues germane to vaccination policies, including eight African scientists with direct experience in developing and implementing vaccination policies in Africa. Ebola Vaccine Team B members have worked on a range of vaccination programmes, such as polio eradication (Africa and globally), development of meningococcal A disease vaccination campaigns in Africa, and malaria and HIV/AIDS vaccine research. We also provide perspective on how this experience can inform future situations where urgent development of vaccines is needed, and we comment on the role that an independent, expert group such as Team B can have in support of national and international public health authorities toward addressing a public health crisis.

  12. Injecting drugs of abuse and immunity: implications for HIV vaccine testing and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugen, Kenneth E; Nyland, Susan B

    2006-11-01

    The recreational use of legal and illegal drugs has significant effects on immune responses and can potentially modulate susceptibility to infection by a number of pathogens. A number of agents including cannabinoids (marijuana), cocaine opiates, amphetamines, nicotine and alcohol were demonstrated to have potentially adverse effects on the susceptibility to infections, mediated most likely, by adverse effects on immunity. As such, these drugs of abuse could have significant and potentially adverse effects on the vaccination efficacy of a number of vaccines currently on the market and on potential experimental vaccines currently in the pipeline. This review will present an overview on how drugs of abuse potentially impacts immune responses and vaccination efficacy. The emphasis of this review will be the effects of opiate abuse, as exemplified by injecting/intravenous drug users (IDU), on HIV/AIDS and its potential impact on vaccine efficacy trials against this devastating infection/syndrome.

  13. Tuberculosis vaccine types and timings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, Ian M

    2015-03-01

    Traditionally, the design of new vaccines directed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the most successful bacterial pathogen on the planet, has focused on prophylactic candidates that would be given to individuals while they are still young. It is becoming more apparent, however, that there are several types of vaccine candidates now under development that could be used under various conditions. Thus, in addition to prophylactic vaccines, such as recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG or BCG-boosting vaccines, other applications include vaccines that could prevent infection, vaccines that could be given in emergency situations as postexposure vaccines, vaccines that could be used to facilitate chemotherapy, and vaccines that could be used to reduce or prevent relapse and reactivation disease. These approaches are discussed here, including the type of immunity we are trying to specifically target, as well as the limitations of these approaches.

  14. Current status of rotavirus vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ching-Min Wang; Shou-Chien Chen; Kow-Tong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rotaviruses remain the major cause of childhood diarrheal disease worldwide and of diarrheal deaths of infants and children in developing countries. The huge burden of childhood rotavirus-related diarrhea in the world continues to drive the remarkable pace of vaccine development. Data sources: Research articles were searched using terms "rotavirus" and "rotavirus vaccine" in MEDLINE and PubMed. Articles not published in the English language, articles without abstracts, and opinion articles were excluded from the review. After preliminary screening, all articles were reviewed and synthesized to provide an overview of current vaccines and vaccination programs. Results: In this review of the global rotavirus vaccines and vaccination programs, the principles of rotavirus vaccine development and the efficacy of the currently licensed vaccines from both developed and developing countries were summarized. Conclusions: Rotavirus is a common cause of diarrhea in children in both developed and developing countries. Rotavirus vaccination is a cost-effective measure to prevent rotavirus diarrhea.

  15. Vaccine-Induced Enhancement of EIAV Replication and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-14

    including dengue virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and feline infectious peritonitis virus (Porterfield 1986). In many of these cases, the enhancement...funding was to initiate the expansion of ongoing research in which the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV)/Shetland pony animal lentivirus system is...enhancement of EIAV replication and disease. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES AIDS vaccines, equine infectious anemia virus, 16. PRICE CODE

  16. Epilepsy and vaccinations: Italian guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruna, Dario; Balestri, Paolo; Zamponi, Nelia; Grosso, Salvatore; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Romeo, Antonino; Franzoni, Emilio; Osti, Maria; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Longhi, Riccardo; Verrotti, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    Reports of childhood epilepsies in temporal association with vaccination have had a great impact on the acceptance of vaccination programs by health care providers, but little is known about this possible temporal association and about the types of seizures following vaccinations. For these reasons the Italian League Against Epilepsy (LICE), in collaboration with other Italian scientific societies, has decided to generate Guidelines on Vaccinations and Epilepsy. The aim of Guidelines on Vaccinations and Epilepsy is to present recent unequivocal evidence from published reports on the possible relationship between vaccines and epilepsy in order to provide information about contraindications and risks of vaccinations in patients with epilepsy. The following main issues have been addressed: (1) whether contraindications to vaccinations exist in patients with febrile convulsions, epilepsy, and/or epileptic encephalopathies; and (2) whether any vaccinations can cause febrile seizures, epilepsy, and/or epileptic encephalopathies. Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination (MMR) increase significantly the risk of febrile seizures. Recent observations and data about the relationships between vaccination and epileptic encephalopathy show that some cases of apparent vaccine-induced encephalopathy could in fact be caused by an inherent genetic defect with no causal relationship with vaccination.

  17. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Nicol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits.

  18. DNA vaccines against influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachyra, Anna; Góra-Sochacka, Anna; Sirko, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Genetic vaccine technology has been considerably developed within the last two decades. This cost effective and promising strategy can be applied for therapy of cancers and for curing allergy, chronic and infectious diseases, such as a seasonal and pandemic influenza. Despite numerous advantages, several limitations of this technology reduce its performance and can retard its commercial exploitation in humans and its veterinary applications. Inefficient delivery of the DNA vaccine into cells of immunized individuals results in low intracellular supply of suitable expression cassettes encoding an antigen, in its low expression level and, in turn, in reduced immune responses against the antigen. Improvement of DNA delivery into the host cells might significantly increase effectiveness of the DNA vaccine. A vast array of innovative methods and various experimental strategies have been applied in order to enhance the effectiveness of DNA vaccines. They include various strategies improving DNA delivery as well as expression and immunogenic potential of the proteins encoded by the DNA vaccines. Researchers focusing on DNA vaccines against influenza have applied many of these strategies. Recent examples of the most successful modern approaches are discussed in this review.

  19. Rationalizing vaccine injury compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Michelle M

    2008-01-01

    Legislation recently adopted by the United States Congress provides producers of pandemic vaccines with near-total immunity from civil lawsuits without making individuals injured by those vaccines eligible for compensation through the Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. The unusual decision not to provide an alternative mechanism for compensation is indicative of a broader problem of inconsistency in the American approach to vaccine-injury compensation policy. Compensation policies have tended to reflect political pressures and economic considerations more than any cognizable set of principles. This article identifies a set of ethical principles bearing on the circumstances in which vaccine injuries should be compensated, both inside and outside public health emergencies. A series of possible bases for compensation rules, some grounded in utilitarianism and some nonconsequentialist, are discussed and evaluated. Principles of fairness and reasonableness are found to constitute the strongest bases. An ethically defensible compensation policy grounded in these principles would make a compensation fund available to all individuals with severe injuries and to individuals with less-severe injuries whenever the vaccination was required by law or professional duty.

  20. Recombinant baculovirus displayed vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabakaran, Mookkan; Kwang, Jimmy

    2014-01-01

    The rapid evolution of new sublineages of H5N1 influenza in Asia poses the greatest challenge in vaccine development for pre-pandemic preparedness. To overcome the antigenic diversity of H5N1 strains, multiple vaccine strains can be designed based on the distribution of neutralizing epitopes in the globular head of H5 hemagglutinin (HA). Recently, we selected two different HAs of H5N1 strains based on the neutralizing epitopes and reactivity with different neutralizing antibodies. The HAs of selected vaccine strains were individually expressed on the baculovirus envelope (bivalent-BacHA) with its native antigenic configuration. Further, oral delivery of live bivalent-BacHA elicited broadly reactive humoral, mucosal and cell-mediated immune responses and showed complete protection against antigenically distinct H5N1 strains in mice. The strategy for the vaccine strain selection, vaccine design and route of administration will provide an idea for development of a widely protective vaccine against highly pathogenic H5N1 for pre-pandemic preparedness. PMID:23941989

  1. Vaccination strategies against influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanon, E

    2009-01-01

    Every year, Influenza virus infection is at the origin of substantial excess in morbidity and mortality in developed as well as developing countries. Influenza viruses undergo antigenic drift which cause annual replacement of strain included in classical trivalent vaccines. Less frequently, this virus can also undergo antigenic shift, which corresponds to a major antigenic change and can lead to an extra medical burden. Several vaccines have been made available to immunize individuals against seasonal as well as pandemic influenza viruses. For seasonal Influenza vaccines, live attenuated and classical inactivated trivalent vaccines have been licensed and are widely used. Additionally, several strategies are under investigations to improve further the efficacy of existing seasonal vaccines in children and elderly. These include the use of adjuvant, increase in antigen content, or alternative route of delivery. Similarly, several approaches have been licensed to address additional challenge posed by pandemic viruses. The different vaccination strategies used to maximise protection against seasonal as well as pandemic influenza will be reviewed and discussed in the perspective the current threat posed by the H1N1v pandemic Influenza.

  2. Military Infectious Diseases Update on Vaccine Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    development thrusts • Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) vaccines • Shigella vaccines • Campylobacter jejuni vaccines 2011 MHS Conference Vaccines...Injectisome extending from Shigella Injectisome Injectisome graphic 2011 MHS Conference  Campylobacter jejuni – Transmission: Foodborne – Inoculum

  3. Understanding Thimerosal, Mercury, and Vaccine Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fungus. It is used as a preservative for flu vaccines in multi-dose vials, to keep the vaccine ... as much as possible. • Today, except for some flu vaccines in multi-dose vials, no recommended childhood vaccines ...

  4. HIV Vaccination, is Breakthrough Underway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Da-Yong; Wu, Hong-Ying; Lu, Ting-Ren; Xu, Bin; Ding, Jian

    2016-01-01

    After long defeats-almost no marked breakthrough in HIV vaccination campaign has been observed during the past two decades, and we still have not lost our faiths for the development of highly effective and low risk HIV vaccines. Many effective vaccines have been discovered and will certainly enter into the markets within the next 5 to 10 years. In order to promote HIV vaccine developments and clinical HIV therapeutic improvements, this perspective addresses the good and bad sides of currently available HIV vaccines, discusses many subjects of medical significance and finally provides up-to-date information in the field of HIV studies, in particular regarding vaccine developments and HIV pathogenesis.

  5. Women and AIDS: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, N; Margo, G

    1991-01-01

    Around the world, more and more women--principally poor women of color--are being diagnosed with and are dying of AIDS, the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Yet, effective and appropriate prevention programs for women are sorely missing from the global program to control AIDS. To help us understand why this gap exists, and what we must do to close it, the three articles in this issue focus on women and AIDS. Examining the situation in such countries as Zimbabwe and South Africa, as well as in other economically underdeveloped and developed regions, the authors argue that women with the least control over their bodies and their lives are at greatest risk of acquiring AIDS. For example, the high rate of infection among women in Africa cannot be understood apart from the legacy of colonialism (including land expropriation and the forced introduction of a migrant labor system) and the insidious combination of traditional and European patriarchal values. Only by recognizing the socioeconomic and cultural determinants of both disease and sexual behavior, and only by incorporating these insights into our AIDS prevention programs, will we be able to curb the spread of this lethal disease.

  6. AIDS in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhobo, D

    1989-03-01

    Numerous cultural practices and attitudes in Africa represent formidable obstacles to the prevention of the further spread of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Polygamy and concubinage are still widely practiced throughout Africa. In fact, sexual promiscuity on the part of males is traditionally viewed as positive--a reflection of male supremacy and male sexual prowess. The disintegration of the rural African family, brought about by urbanization, the migrant labor system, and poverty, has resulted in widespread premarital promiscuity. Contraceptive practices are perceived by many as a white conspiracy aimed at limiting the growth of the black population and thereby diminishing its political power. Condom use is particularly in disfavor. Thus, AIDS prevention campaigns urging Africans to restrict the number of sexual partners and to use condoms are unlikely to be successful. Another problem is that most Africans cannot believe that AIDS is sexually linked in that the disease does not affect the sex organs as is the case with other sexually transmitted diseases. The degree to which African governments are able to allocate resources to AIDS education will determine whether the epidemic can be controlled. Even with a massive outpouring of resources, it may be difficult to arouse public alarm about AIDS since Africans are so acclimated to living with calamities of every kind.

  7. AIDS ORPHANS GET SPECIAL VISITOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao visits AIDS orphans in Shangcai County,central China’s Henan Province,on November 30,a day before the 20th World AIDS Day. The region of Shangcai has the highest concentration of people living with HIV/AIDS in China. The Chinese Government has released a package of policies that offer people living with HIV/AIDS free medicine,health checks and consultations,as well as free schooling to AIDS orphans.

  8. Increasing Childhood Influenza Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Lin, Chyongchiou J.; Hannibal, Kristin; Reis, Evelyn C.; Gallik, Gregory; Moehling, Krissy K.; Huang, Hsin-Hui; Allred, Norma J.; Wolfson, David H.; Zimmerman, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the 2008 inception of universal childhood influenza vaccination, national rates have risen more dramatically among younger children than older children and reported rates across racial/ethnic groups are inconsistent. Interventions may be needed to address age and racial disparities to achieve the recommended childhood influenza vaccination target of 70%. Purpose To evaluate an intervention to increase childhood influenza vaccination across age and racial groups. Methods In 2011–2012, 20 primary care practices treating children were randomly assigned to Intervention and Control arms of a cluster randomized controlled trial to increase childhood influenza vaccination uptake using a toolkit and other strategies including early delivery of donated vaccine, in-service staff meetings, and publicity. Results The average vaccination differences from pre-intervention to the intervention year were significantly larger in the Intervention arm (n=10 practices) than the Control arm (n=10 practices), for children aged 2–8 years (10.2 percentage points (pct pts) Intervention vs 3.6 pct pts Control) and 9–18 years (11.1 pct pts Intervention vs 4.3 pct pts Control, p<0.05), for non-white children (16.7 pct pts Intervention vs 4.6 pct pts Control, p<0.001), and overall (9.9 pct pts Intervention vs 4.2 pct pts Control, p<0.01). In multi-level modeling that accounted for person- and practice-level variables and the interactions among age, race and intervention, the likelihood of vaccination increased with younger age group (6–23 months), white race, commercial insurance, the practice’s pre-intervention vaccination rate, and being in the Intervention arm. Estimates of the interaction terms indicated that the intervention increased the likelihood of vaccination for non-white children in all age groups and white children aged 9–18 years. Conclusions A multi-strategy intervention that includes a practice improvement toolkit can significantly improve influenza

  9. In "Step" with HIV Vaccines? A Content Analysis of Local Recruitment Campaigns for an International HIV Vaccine Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, Paula M; Macias, Wendy; Chan, Kayshin; Harding, Ashley C

    2009-01-01

    During the past two decades of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, several recruitment campaigns were designed to generate community involvement in preventive HIV vaccine clinical trials. These efforts utilized a blend of advertising and marketing strategies mixed with public relations and community education approaches to attract potential study participants to clinical trials (integrated marketing communications). Although more than 30,000 persons worldwide have participated in preventive HIV vaccine studies, no systematic analysis of recruitment campaigns exists. This content analysis study was conducted to examine several United States and Canadian recruitment campaigns for one of the largest-scale HIV vaccine trials to date (the "Step Study"). This study examined persuasive features consistent with the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) including message content, personal relevance of HIV/AIDS and vaccine research, intended audiences, information sources, and other contextual features. The results indicated variation in messages and communication approaches with gay men more exclusively targeted in these regions. Racial/ethnic representations also differed by campaign. Most of the materials promote affective evaluation of the information through heuristic cueing. Implications for subsequent campaigns and research directions are discussed.

  10. Immune Interference After Sequential Alphavirus Vaccine Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    biological weapons by adversary governments and/or terrorists [4–9]. For veterinary use, there are live, attenuated and inactivated VEE vaccines as...Alphaviruses. In: Knife DM, Howley PM, editors. Fields virology . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007. p. 1023–67. [2] Kuhn RJ...Togaviridae: the viruses and their replication. In: Knife DM, Howley PM, editors. Fields virology . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams

  11. FMD vaccines: reflections on quality aspects for applicability in European disease control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, K; Goris, N; Barnett, P V; MacKay, D K

    2008-01-01

    Most foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines used around the world are inactivated vaccines for prophylactic or emergency use, generally manufactured by the same basic methodology outlined in the OIE Manual and, for Europe, in the European Pharmacopoeia, and for the EU Member States in compliance with Directive 2001/82/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 November 2001 on the Community code relating to veterinary medicinal products as amended by Directive 2004/28/EC. Most of the requirements that apply to all immunological veterinary medicinal products apply equally to FMD vaccines. There are, however, some unique features of the disease and vaccines used against it that require a different approach to fulfil the requirements of the relevant legislation, if a vaccinate-to-live policy will be applied with 'authorized' vaccines. Several aspects of vaccine efficacy and safety are elaborated with emphasis on quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC). The purity of the vaccine in respect of the presence of non-structural protein antibodies could be checked indirectly by serology after vaccination. The viability of a vaccine bank approach was greatly aided by the principle of storing inactivated concentrated FMD viral antigen (Ag) over liquid nitrogen for subsequent formulation into vaccine. A worldwide Ag bank network might be an option for the far future and a solution to the problem of covering many different FMDV serotypes and strains. The producers should respect the strict FMD biosecurity rules worked out by the FAO EUFMD and described in Council Directive 2003/85/EC. Making the experience related to vaccine QA/QC available to all countries will reduce the risk of an FMD outbreak within these countries and consequently will reduce the FMD risk around the world.

  12. Vaccine Effectiveness - How Well Does the Seasonal Flu Vaccine Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to infection with seasonal flu viruses. Information regarding vaccination history is particularly important to these types of evaluations, and can be difficult to confirm, as accurate vaccination records are not always readily available. People who ...

  13. Rhodococcus equi (Prescottella equi) vaccines; the future of vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, C; Vanniasinkam, T; Ndi, S; Barton, M D

    2015-09-01

    For decades researchers have been targeting prevention of Rhodococcus equi (Rhodococcus hoagui/Prescottella equi) by vaccination and the horse breeding industry has supported the ongoing efforts by researchers to develop a safe and cost effective vaccine to prevent disease in foals. Traditional vaccines including live, killed and attenuated (physical and chemical) vaccines have proved to be ineffective and more modern molecular-based vaccines including the DNA plasmid, genetically attenuated and subunit vaccines have provided inadequate protection of foals. Newer, bacterial vector vaccines have recently shown promise for R. equi in the mouse model. This article describes the findings of key research in R. equi vaccine development and looks at alternative methods that may potentially be utilised.

  14. 9 CFR 113.318 - Pseudorabies Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pseudorabies Vaccine. 113.318 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.318 Pseudorabies Vaccine. Pseudorabies Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing... be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall be prepared from...

  15. 9 CFR 113.303 - Bluetongue Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bluetongue Vaccine. 113.303 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.303 Bluetongue Vaccine. Bluetongue Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing... be used for preparing the seeds for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall be prepared...

  16. AIDS in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshell, J; Gacharná, M G; García, M; Jaramillo, L S; Márquez, G; Fergusson, M M; González, S; Prada, E Y; de Rangel, R; de Cabas, R

    1989-01-01

    Between January 1984 and December 1987 a total of 178 AIDS cases were reported to the Colombian Ministry of Health. The location of these cases suggests that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is widely distributed in Colombia. Most of those afflicted (97%) have been adult males. HIV seroprevalence studies of selected population groups revealed the highest antibody prevalence (5.65% in females, 22.5% in males) among individuals involved in high-risk behaviors who participated in a free AIDS testing program. High prevalences (from 0.6% to 3.9% in females, and 14.6% to 15.9% in males) were also found in patients (primarily female prostitutes and male homosexuals) attending clinics for sexually transmitted diseases in several urban areas. The number of AIDS cases in Colombia has doubled or tripled annually since reporting began in 1984, a pattern similar to that observed worldwide.

  17. [AIDS mortality in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, F; Maguin, P; Nicaud, V; Renaud, G

    1986-01-01

    A study about mortality by AIDS had been undertaken since July 1st 1983, in the Service of Information on Medical causes of Death (INSERM SC8), which is in charge of developing mortality statistics in France. From July 1st 1983 to September 30th 1985, 243 deaths due to AIDS were recorded. Only the cases where this diagnosis was clearly mentioned were selected; more than 90% were notified by hospitals and mainly by highly specialized services. The number of deaths, which was low and varied rather irregularly at the beginning, then increased by successive stages. The first year, during which a tenth of deaths was recorded every three months, was followed by a great increase, doubling, then tripling the initial numbers. Lastly, a second and sudden rise occurred during the third trimester of 1985, the trimestrial number of deaths due to AIDS reaching 80.

  18. Cancer Vaccines: A Brief Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sunil; Prendergast, George C

    2016-01-01

    Vaccine approaches for cancer differ from traditional vaccine approaches for infectious disease in tending to focus on clearing active disease rather than preventing disease. In this review, we provide a brief overview of different types of vaccines and adjuvants that have been investigated for the purpose of controlling cancer burdens in patients, some of which are approved for clinical use or in late-stage clinical trials, such as the personalized dendritic cell vaccine sipuleucel-T (Provenge) and the recombinant viral prostate cancer vaccine PSA-TRICOM (Prostvac-VF). Vaccines against human viruses implicated in the development and progression of certain cancers, such as human papillomavirus in cervical cancer, are not considered here. Cancers express "altered self" antigens that tend to induce weaker responses than the "foreign" antigens expressed by infectious agents. Thus, immune stimulants and adjuvant approaches have been explored widely. Vaccine types considered include autologous patient-derived immune cell vaccines, tumor antigen-expressing recombinant virus vaccines, peptide vaccines, DNA vaccines, and heterologous whole-cell vaccines derived from established human tumor cell lines. Opportunities to develop effective cancer vaccines may benefit from seminal recent advances in understanding how immunosuppressive barricades are erected by tumors to mediate immune escape. In particular, targeted ablation of these barricades with novel agents, such as the immune checkpoint drug ipilimumab (anti-CTLA-4) approved recently for clinical use, may offer significant leverage to vaccinologists seeking to control and prevent malignancy.

  19. Vaccines, adjuvants and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Luísa Eça; Baker, Britain; Perricone, Carlo; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2015-10-01

    Vaccines and autoimmunity are linked fields. Vaccine efficacy is based on whether host immune response against an antigen can elicit a memory T-cell response over time. Although the described side effects thus far have been mostly transient and acute, vaccines are able to elicit the immune system towards an autoimmune reaction. The diagnosis of a definite autoimmune disease and the occurrence of fatal outcome post-vaccination have been less frequently reported. Since vaccines are given to previously healthy hosts, who may have never developed the disease had they not been immunized, adverse events should be carefully accessed and evaluated even if they represent a limited number of occurrences. In this review of the literature, there is evidence of vaccine-induced autoimmunity and adjuvant-induced autoimmunity in both experimental models as well as human patients. Adjuvants and infectious agents may exert their immune-enhancing effects through various functional activities, encompassed by the adjuvant effect. These mechanisms are shared by different conditions triggered by adjuvants leading to the autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA syndrome). In conclusion, there are several case reports of autoimmune diseases following vaccines, however, due to the limited number of cases, the different classifications of symptoms and the long latency period of the diseases, every attempt for an epidemiological study has so far failed to deliver a connection. Despite this, efforts to unveil the connection between the triggering of the immune system by adjuvants and the development of autoimmune conditions should be undertaken. Vaccinomics is a field that may bring to light novel customized, personalized treatment approaches in the future.

  20. [Results of Booster Vaccination in Children with Primary Vaccine Failure after Initial Varicella Vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozakiv, Takao; Nishimura, Naoko; Gotoh, Kensei; Funahashi, Keiji; Yoshii, Hironori; Okuno, Yoshinobu

    2016-05-01

    In October 2014, the varicella vaccination policy in Japan was changed from a single voluntary inoculation to two routine inoculations. This paper reports the results of booster vaccination in children who did not show seroconversion after initial vaccination (i.e., primary vaccine failure : PVF) over a 7-year period prior to the introduction of routine varicella vaccination. Between November 2007 and May 2014, 273 healthy children aged between 1.1 and 14.5 years (median : 1.7 years) underwent varicella vaccination. Before and 4 to 6 weeks after vaccination, the antibody titers were measured using an immune adherence hemagglutination (IAHA) assay and a glycoprotein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (gpELISA). In addition, side reactions were examined during the four-week period after vaccination. Children who did not show IAHA seroconversion (PVF) were recommended to receive a booster vaccination, and the measurement of antibody titers and an assessment of side reactions were performed after the booster dose. In May 2015, a questionnaire was mailed to each of the 273 participants to investigate whether they had developed varicella and/or herpes zoster after vaccination. After initial vaccination, the IAHA seroconversion rate was 75% and the mean antibody titer (Log2) with seroconversion was 4.7, while the gpELISA seroconversion rate was 84% and the mean antibody titer (Log10) with seroconversion was 2.4. Among children with PVF, 54 received booster vaccination within 81 to 714 days (median : 139 days) after the initial vaccination. After booster vaccination, the IAHA seroconversion rate was 98% and the mean antibody titer (Log2) with seroconversion was 5.8. Both the seroconversion rate and the antibody titer were higher compared with the values after the initial vaccination (p vaccination, the gpELISA seropositive rate was 100% and the mean positive antibody titer (Log 10) was 3.6 ; similar results were obtained for the IAHA assay, with a significantly higher

  1. Computer aided control engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymkat, Maciej; Ravn, Ole

    1997-01-01

    Current developments in the field of Computer Aided Control Engineering (CACE) have a visible impact on the design methodologies and the structure of the software tools supporting them. Today control engineers has at their disposal libraries, packages or programming environments that may be speci......Current developments in the field of Computer Aided Control Engineering (CACE) have a visible impact on the design methodologies and the structure of the software tools supporting them. Today control engineers has at their disposal libraries, packages or programming environments that may...

  2. 75 FR 48706 - Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Rotavirus Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice with comment period. SUMMARY: Under the National Childhood Vaccine Injury... representative in the case of a child) receiving vaccines covered under the National Vaccine Injury Compensation...-day comment period, and in consultation with the Advisory Commission on Childhood...

  3. 75 FR 48712 - Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Influenza Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice with Comment Period. SUMMARY: Under the National Childhood Vaccine Injury... representative in the case of a child) receiving vaccines covered under the National Vaccine Injury Compensation...-day comment period, and in consultation with the Advisory Commission on Childhood...

  4. Evaluation of vaccine competition using HVT vector vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkey herpesvirus (HVT) has been widely used as a vaccine for Marek’s disease (MD) since the 1970s. Because HVT is a safe vaccine that is poorly sensitive to interference from maternally derived antibodies, it has seen rising use as a vector for vaccines developed for protection against other comm...

  5. Newspaper coverage of HIV/AIDS in China from 2000 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junling; Fu, Hua; Lin, Lavinia; Nehl, Eric J; Wong, Frank Y; Zheng, Pinpin

    2013-01-01

    Mass media in China play a significant role in the dissemination of HIV/AIDS knowledge to the general public. Previous studies have described how the Chinese mass media portray HIV/AIDS in general, but no study has yet to examine changes in patterns of HIV/AIDS reporting over time. This study aims to describe and examine newspaper coverage of HIV/AIDS in China from 2000 to 2010. A systematic search of the China Core Newspapers Database was conducted to identify HIV/AIDS-focused news articles; we found 3648 articles. Results show that coverage rates of HIV/AIDS in newspapers remained low, with only about three articles published per newspaper per year between 2000 and 2010. The sources focused primarily on prevention methods (23.7%), development of a cure or vaccine (21.2%), and education and awareness (17.2%). The HIV/AIDS-related topic covered in an article varied significantly depending on scope (national vs. local) of the newspaper (χ(2)=130.37, particle type (χ(2)=455.72, particles were classified as positive than negative from 2002 to 2010. Findings indicate that the HIV/AIDS news-reporting pattern has shifted in the past decade, with more news stories disclosing information about prevention or treatment. However, coverage of HIV/AIDS remains insufficient. Enhancing collaboration between health educators and media sources can be an important strategy in disseminating HIV/AIDS knowledge.

  6. The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs The ... Pamphlets - Spanish FAQ189, October 2015 PDF Format The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy Pregnancy What is influenza (the flu)? ...

  7. New Vaccines Help Protect You

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues New Vaccines Help Protect You Past Issues / Fall 2006 ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Important new vaccines have recently been approved for use and ...

  8. National Elk Refuge vaccination protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal by the State of Wyoming, Wyoming Game and Fish Department, to vaccinate elk on the National Elk Refuge. The proposal provides a protocol for vaccinating elk...

  9. New vaccines for neglected parasitic diseases and dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumier, Coreen M; Gillespie, Portia M; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2013-09-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a significant source of morbidity and socioeconomic burden among the world's poor. Virtually all of the 2.4 billion people who live on less than $2 per d, more than a third of the world's population, are at risk for these debilitating NTDs. Although chemotherapeutic measures exist for many of these pathogens, they are not sustainable countermeasures on their own because of rates of reinfection, risk of drug resistance, and inconsistent maintenance of drug treatment programs. Preventative and therapeutic NTD vaccines are needed as long-term solutions. Because there is no market in the for-profit sector of vaccine development for these pathogens, much of the effort to develop vaccines is driven by nonprofit entities, mostly through product development partnerships. This review describes the progress of vaccines under development for many of the NTDs, with a specific focus on those about to enter or that are currently in human clinical trials. Specifically, we report on the progress on dengue, hookworm, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, Chagas disease, and onchocerciasis vaccines. These products will be some of the first with specific objectives to aid the world's poorest populations.

  10. Monodisperse, Uniformly-Shaped Particles for Controlled Respiratory Vaccine Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromen, Catherine Ann

    The majority of the world's most infectious diseases occur at the air-tissue interface called the mucosa, including HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, measles, and bacterial or viral gut and respiratory infections. Despite this, vaccines have generally been developed for the systemic immune system and fail to provide protection at the mucosal site. Vaccine delivery directly to the lung mucosa could provide superior lung protection for many infectious diseases, such as TB or influenza, as well as systemic and therapeutic vaccines for diseases such as Dengue fever, asthma, or cancer. Specifically, precision engineered biomaterials are believed to offer tremendous opportunities for a new generation of vaccines. The goal of this approach is to leverage naturally occurring processes of the immune system to produce memory responses capable of rapidly destroy virulent pathogens without harmful exposure. Considerable knowledge of biomaterial properties and their interaction with the immune system of the lung is required for successful translation. The overall goal of this work was to fabricate and characterize nano- and microparticles using the Particle Replication In Non-wetting Templates (PRINT) fabrication technique and optimize them as pulmonary vaccine carriers. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  11. Vaccines for the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Weinberger, Birgit; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix

    2015-01-01

    The aging of the human population is posing serious challenges to research and to public health authorities in order to prevent diseases that more frequently affect the elderly, a portion of the population that will increase more and more in the coming years. While some vaccines exist and are used in the elderly to effectively fight against some infections (e.g. influenza, pneumococci, varicella-zoster virus, diphtheria, and tetanus), still a lot of work remains to be done to better adapt these vaccines and to develop new ones for this age group. The prevention of infectious diseases affecting the elderly can be successful only through a holistic approach. This approach will aim at the following: (1) a deeper understanding of the mechanisms leading to the senescence of the immune system, (2) a better and broader use of vaccines recommended for the elderly, (3) the use of vaccines currently considered only for other age groups and (4) actively priming the population when they are immunological competent, before the physiological waning of immune responsiveness may affect the beneficial effects of vaccination.

  12. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    This year, as usual, the Medical Service is helping to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal flu is especially recommended for anyone who suffers from chronic pulmonary, cardio-vascular or kidney disease or diabetes, is recovering from a serious illness or major surgery, or is over 65 years of age. The flu virus is transmitted through the air and through contact with contaminated surfaces, so frequent hand-washing with soap and/or an antiseptic hand wash is of great importance. As soon as the first symptoms appear (fever above 38°, shivering, coughing, muscle and/or joint pains, generalised weakness), you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. Anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor), with their dose of vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement through UNIQA...

  13. Economics of vaccines revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Maarten J; Standaert, Baudouin A

    2013-05-01

    Performing a total health economic analysis of a vaccine newly introduced into the market today is a challenge when using the conventional cost-effectiveness analysis we normally apply on pharmaceutical products. There are many reasons for that, such as: the uncertainty in the total benefit (direct and indirect) to be measured in a population when using a cohort model; (1) appropriate rules about discounting the long-term impact of vaccines are absent jeopardizing therefore their value at the initial investment; (2) the presence of opposite contexts when introducing the vaccine in developed vs. the developing world with high benefits, low initial health care investment for the latter vs. marginal benefit and high cost for the former; with a corresponding paradox for the vaccine becoming very cost-effective in low income countries but rather medium in middle low to high middle income countries; (3) and the type of trial assessment for the newer vaccines is now often performed with immunogenicity reaction instead of clinical endpoints which still leaves questions on their real impact and their head-to-head comparison. (4.)

  14. Studying Aid: Some Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractINVESTIGATING IDEAS, IDEOLOGIES AND PRACTICES This paper presents some methods for trying to make sense of international aid and of its study.1 Some of the methods may be deemed ethnographic; the others are important partners to them, but rather different. In the course of discussing q

  15. Hearing Aids Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Globally, hearing loss is the second most frequent disability. About 80% of the persons affected by hearing loss do not use hearing aids. The goal of this edited volume is to present a theoretically founded, interdisciplinary approach geared at understanding and improving social interaction impac...

  16. Parent Hearing Aid Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

  17. Hearing Aid Personalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Nielsen, Jakob; Jensen, Bjørn Sand

    2013-01-01

    Modern digital hearing aids require and offer a great level of personalization. Today, this personalization is not performed based directly on what the user actually perceives, but on a hearing-care professional’s interpretation of what the user explains about what is perceived. In this paper, an...

  18. Computer Aided Lecturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, Donald E.

    1994-01-01

    Surveyed students taking a natural resource conservation course to determine the effects of computer software that provides tools for creating and managing visual presentations to students. Results indicated that 94% of the respondents believed computer-aided lectures helped them and recommended their continued use; note taking was more effective,…

  19. AIDS and associated malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charles WOOD; William HARRINGTON Jr

    2005-01-01

    AIDS associated malignancies (ARL) is a major complication associated with AIDS patients upon immunosuppression.Chronically immunocompromised patients have a markedly increased risk of developing lymphoproliferative disease. In the era of potent antiretrovirals therapy (ARV), the malignant complications due to HIV- 1 infection have decreased in developed nations where ARV is administered, but still poses a major problem in developing countries where HIV- 1incidence is high and ARV is still not yet widely available. Even in ARV treated individuals there is a concern that the prolonged survival of many HIV- 1 carriers is likely to eventually result in an increased number of malignancies diagnosed.Malignancies that were found to have high incidence in HIV-infected individuals are Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), Hodgkin's disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The incidence of NHL has increased nearly 200 fold in HIV-positive patients, and accounts for a greater percentage of AIDS defining illness in the US and Europe since the advent of HAART therapy. These AIDS related lymphomas are distinct from their counterparts seen in HIV- 1 seronegative patients.For example nearly half of all cases of ARL are associated with the presence of a gamma herpesvirus, Epstein Barr virus (EBV) or human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8)/Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV). The pathogenesis of ARLs is complex. B-cell proliferation driven by chronic antigenemia resulting in the induction of polyclonal and ultimately monoclonal lymphoproliferation may occur in the setting of severe immunosuppression.

  20. [Post-transfusional AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzini, M; Maccabruni, A; Marcellini, M; Michelone, G; Dei Cas, A

    1987-01-01

    Two cases of post-transfusional AIDS in two premature babies who received blood of the same seropositive donor, are reported. The risk of the susceptibility to HIV infection of these patients, in relation to the immaturity of immune system and to the transfusional treatment often necessary in premature newborns, is stressed.

  1. The CASPAR finding aids

    OpenAIRE

    Meghini, Carlo; Avancini, Henry; Versienti, Loredana

    2011-01-01

    One of the CASPAR key components is the FIND Components, which is implementing the Finding Aids of OAIS. According to OAIS, FIND manages Description Information that is associated to Information Packages in order to support the discovery of those Packages. FIND allows defining, creating, persisting, querying, browsing, and accessing both Description Information and the association between Information Packages and Description Information

  2. Coil Welding Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesenbach, W. T.; Clark, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    Positioner holds coil inside cylinder during tack welding. Welding aid spaces turns of coil inside cylinder and applies contact pressure while coil is tack-welded to cylinder. Device facilitates fabrication of heat exchangers and other structures by eliminating hand-positioning and clamping of individual coil turns.

  3. Enteric parasites and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Cimerman

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report on the importance of intestinal parasites in patients with AIDS, showing relevant data in the medical literature, with special emphasis on epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of enteroparasitosis, especially cryptosporidiasis, isosporiasis, microsporidiasis and strongyloidiasis. DESIGN: Narrative review.

  4. A brief history of vaccines & vaccination in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2014-04-01

    The challenges faced in delivering lifesaving vaccines to the targeted beneficiaries need to be addressed from the existing knowledge and learning from the past. This review documents the history of vaccines and vaccination in India with an objective to derive lessons for policy direction to expand the benefits of vaccination in the country. A brief historical perspective on smallpox disease and preventive efforts since antiquity is followed by an overview of 19 th century efforts to replace variolation by vaccination, setting up of a few vaccine institutes, cholera vaccine trial and the discovery of plague vaccine. The early twentieth century witnessed the challenges in expansion of smallpox vaccination, typhoid vaccine trial in Indian army personnel, and setting up of vaccine institutes in almost each of the then Indian States. In the post-independence period, the BCG vaccine laboratory and other national institutes were established; a number of private vaccine manufacturers came up, besides the continuation of smallpox eradication effort till the country became smallpox free in 1977. The Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) (1978) and then Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) (1985) were launched in India. The intervening events since UIP till India being declared non-endemic for poliomyelitis in 2012 have been described. Though the preventive efforts from diseases were practiced in India, the reluctance, opposition and a slow acceptance of vaccination have been the characteristic of vaccination history in the country. The operational challenges keep the coverage inequitable in the country. The lessons from the past events have been analysed and interpreted to guide immunization efforts.

  5. A brief history of vaccines & vaccination in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant Lahariya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenges faced in delivering lifesaving vaccines to the targeted beneficiaries need to be addressed from the existing knowledge and learning from the past. This review documents the history of vaccines and vaccination in India with an objective to derive lessons for policy direction to expand the benefits of vaccination in the country. A brief historical perspective on smallpox disease and preventive efforts since antiquity is followed by an overview of 19 th century efforts to replace variolation by vaccination, setting up of a few vaccine institutes, cholera vaccine trial and the discovery of plague vaccine. The early twentieth century witnessed the challenges in expansion of smallpox vaccination, typhoid vaccine trial in Indian army personnel, and setting up of vaccine institutes in almost each of the then Indian States. In the post-independence period, the BCG vaccine laboratory and other national institutes were established; a number of private vaccine manufacturers came up, besides the continuation of smallpox eradication effort till the country became smallpox free in 1977. The Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI (1978 and then Universal Immunization Programme (UIP (1985 were launched in India. The intervening events since UIP till India being declared non-endemic for poliomyelitis in 2012 have been described. Though the preventive efforts from diseases were practiced in India, the reluctance, opposition and a slow acceptance of vaccination have been the characteristic of vaccination history in the country. The operational challenges keep the coverage inequitable in the country. The lessons from the past events have been analysed and interpreted to guide immunization efforts.

  6. EPIDEpidemioogy of AIDS%艾滋病流行病学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚天新

    2001-01-01

    This paper described epidemic situation in the whole world and China, transmission routes, associated risk factors in China, and measures of controlling epidemic of HIV/AIDS. Globally, 53.1 million adults and children were HIV/AIDS by the end of 1999. Of them 18.8 million adults and children died from HIV/AIDS. More than 95 percent of those infected with HIV live in developing countries. In 1999, 5.4 million people were newly infected with HIV, and 2.6 million people died of AIDS. Africa, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, is the serious region of HIV/AIDS epidemic. HIV/AIDS in Asia and Eastern Europe is dramatically increasing, but infective rate in developed countries has begun to decrease. In China, since the first case was found in 1985, 17316 HIV/AIDS cases were reported, of them 647 cases were diagnosed as AIDS, of them 367 cases died from AIDS. HIV may be transmitted through unsafe sexual practice, contaminative blood or blood products, injection drug use or perinatal transmission. Unsafe sexual behavior is the major transmission of HIV/AIDS in the whole world, but in China, injecting drug use is the major transmission of HIV/AIDS. And many risk factors, such as lack of knowledge about HIV/AIDS, drug user and commercial sexual behavior increasing, floating population and sexual norm changing, et al, may accelerate expansion of HIV/AIDS of China. Based on this situation, we should actively reinforce prevention and control of HIV/AIDS through surveillance, health education, behavior intervention of high-risk groups, cases treatment and vaccine development.

  7. Clinical Impact of Vaccine Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Puja H; Daza, Alejandro Delgado; Livornese, Lawrence L

    2016-01-01

    The discovery and development of immunization has been a singular improvement in the health of mankind. This chapter reviews currently available vaccines, their historical development, and impact on public health. Specific mention is made in regard to the challenges and pursuit of a vaccine for the human immunodeficiency virus as well as the unfounded link between autism and measles vaccination.

  8. Current scenario of malaria vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarnail Singh Braich

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the deadliest infectious diseases that affects millions of people worldwide including India. As an addition to chemoprophylaxis and other antimalarial interventions malaria vaccine is under extensive research since decades. The vaccine development is more difficult to predict than drug development and presents a unique challenge as already there has been no vaccine effective against a parasite. Effective malaria vaccine could help eliminate and eradicate malaria; there are currently 63 vaccine candidates, 41 in preclinical and clinical stages of development. Vaccines are being designed to target pre-erythrocytic stages, erythrocytic stage or the sexual stages of Plasmodium taken up by a feeding mosquito, or the multiple stages. Two vaccines in preclinical and clinical development target P. falciparum; and the most advanced candidate is the pre-erythrocytic vaccine RTS,S which is in phase-III clinical trials. It is likely that world's first malaria vaccine will be available by 2015 at the country level. More efficacious second generation malaria vaccines are on the way to development. Safety, efficacy, cost and provision of the vaccine to all communities are major concerns in malaria vaccine issue. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 60-66

  9. Needle-free influenza vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Hinrichs, Wouter L.J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Wilschut, Jan C.; Huckriede, Anke

    2010-01-01

    Vaccination is the cornerstone of influenza control in epidemic and pandemic situations. Influenza vaccines are typically given by intramuscular injection. However, needle-free vaccinations could offer several distinct advantages over intramuscular injections: they are pain-free, easier to distribut

  10. Screening for AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-29

    Tests to detect serum antibody to human T-lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III), based on an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that uses whole disrupted HTLV-III virus antigens, are now commercially available in the US. Recent surveys of groups at high risk for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have found that 22-65% of homosexual men, 87% of active intravenous drug users, 56-72% of hemophiliacs, and 35% of women who were sexual partners of men with AIDS have had postitive ELISA tests compared with fewer than 1% of those with no known risk factors. A positive ELISA test could be due to subclinical infection, immunity, or cross-reactivity with other viral antigens. Laboratory error can also produce false positive results. Thus, it is recommended that the ELISA test be repeated at least once on all seropositive specimens before the result is reported to the patient. The western blot test appears to be more specific and less sensitive than the ELISA. Studies of asymptomatic seropositive homosexual men followed for 2-5 years have found that over 50% remain asymptomatic, 5-19% develop full blown AIDS, and 25% develop signs suggestive of the AIDS-related complex. Asymptomatic patients with positive ELISA tests should be made aware of early signs and symptoms of AIDS. Other data suggest that seropositive patients have the HTLV-III virus in their blood, semen, and/or saliva and can transmit the infection. Precautions to prevent transmission, such as the use of condoms, should be taken by such patients. Physicians should be sensitive to the fear and anxiety that a positive ELISA test will create.

  11. [About of vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Maria Luisa; Refolo, Pietro; González-Melado, Fermín J

    2012-01-01

    The debate over compulsory or merely recommended vaccination remains open, albeit latent, in those countries that have mandatory vaccine schedules. Despite the advantages of preventive immunization from the point of medical, economic and social features, it's clear, in the current status of medical ethics, that the exercise of patient autonomy calls for personal responsibility in the election of treatments and, in fact, the vaccines. Therefore, it is necessary to change the simple idea of prevention as , characteristic of a in order to pass to a preventative medicine concept that will be able to support the achievement of moral attitudes towards achieving the good for the individual and for the community. This is only possible from a wherever is possible to present an alternative between mandatory vs. recommendation from the concept of that, with the help of a series of measures, could combine the effective protection for the whole community with the responsible exercise of the personal autonomy.

  12. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    As every year, the Medical Service is taking part in the campaign to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal influenza is especially recommended for people suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney conditions or diabetes, for those recovering from a serious illness or surgical operation and for everyone over the age of 65. The influenza virus is transmitted by air and contact with contaminated surfaces, hence the importance of washing hands regularly with soap and / or disinfection using a hydro-alcoholic solution. From the onset of symptoms (fever> 38°, chills, cough, muscle aches and / or joint pain, fatigue) you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. In the present context of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, it is important to dissociate these two illnesses and emphasise that the two viruses and the vaccines used to combat them are quite different and that protection against one will not pr...

  13. Fundamentals of vaccine immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela S Clem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available From a literature review of the current literature, this article provides an introduction to vaccine immunology including a primer on the components of the immune system, passive vs. active immunization, the mechanism(s by which immunizations stimulate(s immunity, and the types of vaccines available. Both the innate and adaptive immune subsystems are necessary to provide an effective immune response to an immunization. Further, effective immunizations must induce long-term stimulation of both the humoral and cell-mediated arms of the adaptive system by the production of effector cells and memory cells. At least seven different types of vaccines are currently in use or in development that produce this effective immunity and have contributed greatly to the prevention of infectious disease around the world.

  14. Effective Vaccination Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, L; Spears, W; Billings, L; Maxim, P

    2010-10-01

    We present a framework for modeling the spread of pathogens throughout a population and generating policies that minimize the impact of those pathogens on the population. This framework is used to study the spread of human viruses between cities via airplane travel. It combines agent-based simulation, mathematical analysis, and an Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) optimizer. The goal of this study is to develop tools that determine the optimal distribution of a vaccine supply in the model. Using plausible benchmark vaccine allocation policies of uniform and proportional distribution, we compared their effectiveness to policies found by the EA. We then designed and tested a new, more effective policy which increased the importance of vaccinating smaller cities that are flown to more often. This "importance factor" was validated using U.S. influenza data from the last four years.

  15. Challenges in Mucosal HIV Vaccine Development: Lessons from Non-Human Primate Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskra Tuero

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An efficacious HIV vaccine is urgently needed to curb the AIDS pandemic. The modest protection elicited in the phase III clinical vaccine trial in Thailand provided hope that this goal might be achieved. However, new approaches are necessary for further advances. As HIV is transmitted primarily across mucosal surfaces, development of immunity at these sites is critical, but few clinical vaccine trials have targeted these sites or assessed vaccine-elicited mucosal immune responses. Pre-clinical studies in non-human primate models have facilitated progress in mucosal vaccine development by evaluating candidate vaccine approaches, developing methodologies for collecting and assessing mucosal samples, and providing clues to immune correlates of protective immunity for further investigation. In this review we have focused on non-human primate studies which have provided important information for future design of vaccine strategies, targeting of mucosal inductive sites, and assessment of mucosal immunity. Knowledge gained in these studies will inform mucosal vaccine design and evaluation in human clinical trials.

  16. Controversies in vaccine mandates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantos, John D; Jackson, Mary Anne; Opel, Douglas J; Marcuse, Edgar K; Myers, Angela L; Connelly, Beverly L

    2010-03-01

    Policies that mandate immunization have always been controversial. The controversies take different forms in different contexts. For routine childhood immunizations, many parents have fears about both short- and long-term side effects. Parental worries change as the rate of vaccination in the community changes. When most children are vaccinated, parents worry more about side effects than they do about disease. Because of these worries, immunization rates go down. As immunization rates go down, disease rates go up, and parents worry less about side effects of vaccination and more about the complications of the diseases. Immunization rates then go up. For teenagers, controversies arise about the criteria that should guide policies that mandate, rather than merely recommend and encourage, certain immunizations. In particular, policy makers have questioned whether immunizations for human papillomavirus, or other diseases that are not contagious, should be required. For healthcare workers, debates have focused on the strength of institutional mandates. For years, experts have recommended that all healthcare workers be immunized against influenza. Immunizations for other infections including pertussis, measles, mumps, and hepatitis are encouraged but few hospitals have mandated such immunizations-instead, they rely on incentives and education. Pandemics present a different set of problems as people demand vaccines that are in short supply. These issues erupt into controversy on a regular basis. Physicians and policy makers must respond both in their individual practices and as advisory experts to national and state agencies. The articles in this volume will discuss the evolution of national immunization programs in these various settings. We will critically examine the role of vaccine mandates. We will discuss ways that practitioners and public health officials should deal with vaccine refusal. We will contrast responses of the population as a whole, within the

  17. Safety and immunogenicity of influenza vaccine among HIV-infected adults: Conventional vaccine vs. intradermal vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yu Bin; Lee, Jacob; Song, Joon Young; Choi, Hee Jung; Cheong, Hee Jin; Kim, Woo Joo

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have reported poor immune responses to conventional influenza vaccines in HIV-infected individuals. This study sought to elicit more potent immunogenicity in HIV-infected adults using an intradermal vaccine compared with a conventional intramuscular vaccine. This multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label study was conducted at 3 university hospitals during the 2011/2012 pre-influenza season. Three vaccines were used in HIV-infected adults aged 18 – 60 years: an inactivated intramuscular vaccine (Agrippal), a reduced-content intradermal vaccine (IDflu9μg) and a standard-content intradermal vaccine (IDflu15μg). Serum hemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) antibodies and INF-γ ELISpot assay were measured at the time of vaccination and 1 month after vaccination. Adverse events were recorded for 7 d. A total of 28 Agrippal, 30 IDflu9μg, and 28 IDflu15μg volunteers were included in this analysis. One month after vaccination, the GMTs and differences in INF-γ ELISpot assay results were similar among the 3 groups. Seroprotection rates, seroconversion rates and mean fold increases (MFI) among the 3 groups were also similar, at approximately 80%, 50–60% and 2.5 – 10.0, respectively. All three vaccines satisfied the CHMP criteria for the A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 strains, but not those for the B strain. In univariate analysis, no demographic or clinical factors, including age, CD4+ T-cell counts, HIV viral load, ART status and vaccine type, were related to failure to achieve seroprotection. The three vaccines were all well-tolerated and all reported reactions were mild to moderate. However, there was a tendency toward a higher incidence of local and systemic reactions in the intradermal vaccine groups. The intradermal vaccine did not result in higher immunogenicity compared to the conventional intramuscular vaccine, even with increased antigen dose. PMID:26431466

  18. Henan Surveys Blood Donors to Aid AIDS Prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Central China's Henan Province, one of the worst AIDS-hit provinces in the country, launched a sweeping survey in September of past blood donors to ascertain tile number of HIV-infected individuals to aid AIDS prevention and control work.

  19. Perceptions of Aid and Actual Aid in Intergenerational Caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Alexis J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Compared pairs (n=174) of elderly mothers' and their caregiving daughters' perceptions of aid given to the mothers with actual caregiving activities. Results indicated nearly half of the mothers and daughters were accurate in their perceptions of aid given to the mothers; when mothers' perception of aid was inaccurate, mothers overestimated rather…

  20. The chemical bases of the various AIDS epidemics: recreational drugs, anti-viral chemotherapy and malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duesberg, Peter; Koehnlein, Claus; Rasnick, David

    2003-06-01

    In 1981 a new epidemic of about two-dozen heterogeneous diseases began to strike non-randomly growing numbers of male homosexuals and mostly male intravenous drug users in the US and Europe. Assuming immunodeficiency as the common denominator the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) termed the epidemic, AIDS, for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. From 1981-1984 leading researchers including those from the CDC proposed that recreational drug use was the cause of AIDS, because of exact correlations and of drug-specific diseases. However, in 1984 US government researchers proposed that a virus, now termed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is the cause of the non-random epidemics of the US and Europe but also of a new, sexually random epidemic in Africa. The virus-AIDS hypothesis was instantly accepted, but it is burdened with numerous paradoxes, none of which could be resolved by 2003: Why is there no HIV in most AIDS patients, only antibodies against it? Why would HIV take 10 years from infection to AIDS? Why is AIDS not self-limiting via antiviral immunity? Why is there no vaccine against AIDS? Why is AIDS in the US and Europe not random like other viral epidemics? Why did AIDS not rise and then decline exponentially owing to antiviral immunity like all other viral epidemics? Why is AIDS not contagious? Why would only HIV carriers get AIDS who use either recreational or anti-HIV drugs or are subject to malnutrition? Why is the mortality of HIV-antibody-positives treated with anti-HIV drugs 7-9%, but that of all (mostly untreated) HIV-positives globally is only 1.4%? Here we propose that AIDS is a collection of chemical epidemics, caused by recreational drugs, anti-HIV drugs, and malnutrition. According to this hypothesis AIDS is not contagious, not immunogenic, not treatable by vaccines or antiviral drugs, and HIV is just a passenger virus. The hypothesis explains why AIDS epidemics strike non-randomly if caused by drugs and randomly if caused by malnutrition

  1. The chemical bases of the various AIDS epidemics: recreational drugs, anti-viral chemotherapy and malnutrition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Peter Duesberg; Claus Koehnlein; David Rasnick

    2003-06-01

    In 1981 a new epidemic of about two-dozen heterogeneous diseases began to strike non-randomly growing numbers of male homosexuals and mostly male intravenous drug users in the US and Europe. Assuming immunodeficiency as the common denominator the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) termed the epidemic, AIDS, for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. From 1981–1984 leading researchers including those from the CDC proposed that recreational drug use was the cause of AIDS, because of exact correlations and of drug-specific diseases. However, in 1984 US government researchers proposed that a virus, now termed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is the cause of the non-random epidemics of the US and Europe but also of a new, sexually random epidemic in Africa. The virus-AIDS hypothesis was instantly accepted, but it is burdened with numerous paradoxes, none of which could be resolved by 2003: Why is there no HIV in most AIDS patients, only antibodies against it? Why would HIV take 10 years from infection to AIDS? Why is AIDS not self-limiting via antiviral immunity? Why is there no vaccine against AIDS? Why is AIDS in the US and Europe not random like other viral epidemics? Why did AIDS not rise and then decline exponentially owing to antiviral immunity like all other viral epidemics? Why is AIDS not contagious? Why would only HIV carriers get AIDS who use either recreational or anti-HIV drugs or are subject to malnutrition? Why is the mortality of HIV-antibody-positives treated with anti-HIV drugs 7–9%, but that of all (mostly untreated) HIV-positives globally is only 1.4%? Here we propose that AIDS is a collection of chemical epidemics, caused by recreational drugs, anti-HIV drugs, and malnutrition. According to this hypothesis AIDS is not contagious, not immunogenic, not treatable by vaccines or antiviral drugs, and HIV is just a passenger virus. The hypothesis explains why AIDS epidemics strike non-randomly if caused by drugs and randomly if caused by

  2. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faeze Foroughi-Parvar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now.

  3. Communicating vaccine safety during the development and introduction of vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhar, Sonali

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines are the best defense available against infectious diseases. Vaccine safety is of major focus for regulatory bodies, vaccine manufacturers, public health authorities, health care providers and the public as vaccines are often given to healthy children and adults as well as to pregnant woman. Safety assessment is critical at all stages of vaccine development. Effective, clear and consistent communication of the risks and benefits of vaccines and advocacy during all stages of clinical research (including the preparation, approvals, conduct of clinical trials through the post marketing phase) is critically important. This needs to be done for all major stakeholders (e.g. community members, Study Team, Health Care Providers, Ministry of Health, Regulators, Ethics Committee members, Public Health Authorities and Policy Makers). Improved stakeholder alignment would help to address some of the concerns that may affect the clinical research, licensing of vaccines and their wide-spread use in immunization programs around the world.

  4. Chinese vaccine products go global: vaccine development and quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Miao; Liang, Zhenglun; Xu, Yinghua; Wang, Junzhi

    2015-05-01

    Through the continuous efforts of several generations, China has become one of the few countries in the world that is capable of independently addressing all the requirements by the Expanded Program on Immunization. Regulatory science is applied to continuously improve the vaccine regulatory system. Passing the prequalification by WHO has allowed Chinese vaccine products to go global. Chinese vaccine products not only secure disease prevention and control domestically but also serve the needs for international public health. This article describes the history of Chinese vaccine development, the current situation of Chinese vaccine industry and its contribution to the prevention and control of infectious diseases. We also share our experience of national quality control and vaccine regulation during the past decades. China's experience in vaccine development and quality control can benefit other countries and regions worldwide, including the developing countries.

  5. Boosting of DNA Vaccine-Elicited Gamma Interferon Responses in Humans by Exposure to Malaria Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-11

    McClure, J. M. McNicholl, B. Moss, and H. L. Robinson. 2001. Control of a mucosal challenge and prevention of AIDS by a multiprotein DNA/ MVA vaccine...and H. M. McClure. 1999. Neutralizing antibody-independent con- tainment of immunodeficiency virus challenges by DNA priming and recom- binant pox virus

  6. What Is HIV/AIDS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS? Subscribe Translate Text Size Print What Is HIV/AIDS? Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. If left ... need medical treatment to prevent death. Where DId HIV Come From? Scientists identified a type of chimpanzee ...

  7. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... high-risk category, emphasizes Dr. Cargill. Photo: iStock HIV and Pregnancy Are there ways to help HIV- ...

  8. Does Corruption Cause Aid Fatigue?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauhr, Monika; Charron, Nicholas; Nasiritousi, Naghmeh

    2013-01-01

    Does perceived corruption in recipient countries reduce support for foreign aid in donor countries? This under-explored yet salient question is examined using the 2009 Eurobarometer survey for the 27 EU countries. We suggest that perceived corruption can cause aid fatigue but that this relationship...... is highly contextualized. The results show that perceptions about corruption in developing countries reduce overall support for aid among respondents in donor countries. However, this effect is mitigated by country and contextual-level effects and different understandings of what we call the “aid-corruption...... paradox,” namely that the need for foreign aid is often the greatest in corrupt environments. Three different dynamics of the aid-corruption paradox influence support for aid: moral, pragmatic, and strategic understandings. In EU-15 countries, the effect of perceived corruption in recipient states on aid...

  9. Parents' vaccination comprehension and decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Julie S; de Bruin, Wändi Bruine; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2008-03-17

    We report on 30 in-depth mental models interviews with parents discussing vaccination for their children, both in general terms and in response to communications drawn from sources supporting and opposing vaccines. We found that even parents favourable to vaccination can be confused by the ongoing debate, leading them to question their choices. Many parents lack basic knowledge of how vaccines work, and do not find the standard information provided to them to be particularly helpful in explaining it. Those with the greatest need to know about vaccination seem most vulnerable to confusing information. Opportunities for education may be missed if paediatricians do not appreciate parents' specific information needs.

  10. Vaccination-related shoulder dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodor, Marko; Montalvo, Enoch

    2007-01-08

    We present two cases of shoulder pain and weakness following influenza and pneumococcal vaccine injections provided high into the deltoid muscle. Based on ultrasound measurements, we hypothesize that vaccine injected into the subdeltoid bursa caused a periarticular inflammatory response, subacromial bursitis, bicipital tendonitis and adhesive capsulitis. Resolution of symptoms followed corticosteroid injections to the subacromial space, bicipital tendon sheath and glenohumeral joint, followed by physical therapy. We conclude that the upper third of the deltoid muscle should not be used for vaccine injections, and the diagnosis of vaccination-related shoulder dysfunction should be considered in patients presenting with shoulder pain following a vaccination.

  11. A defense of compulsory vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanigan, Jessica

    2014-03-01

    Vaccine refusal harms and risks harming innocent bystanders. People are not entitled to harm innocents or to impose deadly risks on others, so in these cases there is nothing to be said for the right to refuse vaccination. Compulsory vaccination is therefore justified because non-vaccination can rightly be prohibited, just as other kinds of harmful and risky conduct are rightly prohibited. I develop an analogy to random gunfire to illustrate this point. Vaccine refusal, I argue, is morally similar to firing a weapon into the air and endangering innocent bystanders. By re-framing vaccine refusal as harmful and reckless conduct my aim is to shift the focus of the vaccine debate from non-vaccinators' religious and refusal rights to everyone else's rights against being infected with contagious illnesses. Religious freedom and rights of informed consent do not entitle non-vaccinators to harm innocent bystanders, and so coercive vaccination requirements are permissible for the sake of the potential victims of the anti-vaccine movement.

  12. [Preventive vaccinations for medical personnel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwat, Klaus; Goedecke, Marcel; Wulf, Hinnerk

    2014-05-01

    Vaccinations are among the most efficient and important preventive medical procedures. Modern vaccines are well tolerated. In Germany there are no longer laws for mandatory vaccinations, either for the general public or for medical personnel. Vaccinations are now merely "officially recommended" by the top health authorities on the basis of recommendations from the Standing Committee on Vaccinations (STIKO) of the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) according to § 20 para 3 of the Protection against Infection law (IfSG). The management of vaccine damage due to officially recommended vaccinations is guaranteed by the Federal States. Whereas vaccinations in childhood are generally considered to be a matter of course, the willingness to accept them decreases markedly with increasing age. In the medical sector vaccinations against, for example, hepatitis B are well accepted while other vaccinations against, for example, whooping cough or influenza are not considered to be so important. The fact that vaccinations, besides offering protection for the medical personnel, may also serve to protect the patients entrusted to medical care from nosocomial infections is often ignored.

  13. Development of dengue DNA vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danko, Janine R; Beckett, Charmagne G; Porter, Kevin R

    2011-09-23

    Vaccination with plasmid DNA against infectious pathogens including dengue is an active area of investigation. By design, DNA vaccines are able to elicit both antibody responses and cellular immune responses capable of mediating long-term protection. Great technical improvements have been made in dengue DNA vaccine constructs and trials are underway to study these in the clinic. The scope of this review is to highlight the rich history of this vaccine platform and the work in dengue DNA vaccines accomplished by scientists at the Naval Medical Research Center. This work resulted in the only dengue DNA vaccine tested in a clinical trial to date. Additional advancements paving the road ahead in dengue DNA vaccine development are also discussed.

  14. Vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Karin Linda; Samuel, Miny; Wai, Kim Lay

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vaccination is recognized as the only practical measure for preventing Japanese encephalitis. Production shortage, costs, and issues of licensure impair vaccination programmes in many affected countries. Concerns over vaccine effectiveness and safety also have a negative impact...... on acceptance and uptake. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis in terms of effectiveness, adverse events, and immunogenicity. SEARCH STRATEGY: In March 2007, we searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 1......), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, BIOSIS, and reference lists. We also attempted to contact corresponding authors and vaccine companies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), including cluster-RCTs, comparing Japanese encephalitis vaccines with placebo (inert agent or unrelated vaccine...

  15. Ensuring safety of DNA vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessels Stephen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 1990 a new approach for vaccination was invented involving injection of plasmid DNA in vivo, which elicits an immune response to the encoded protein. DNA vaccination can overcome most disadvantages of conventional vaccine strategies and has potential for vaccines of the future. However, today 15 years on, a commercial product still has not reached the market. One possible explanation could be the technique's failure to induce an efficient immune response in humans, but safety may also be a fundamental issue. This review focuses on the safety of the genetic elements of DNA vaccines and on the safety of the microbial host for the production of plasmid DNA. We also propose candidates for the vaccine's genetic elements and for its microbial production host that can heighten the vaccine's safety and facilitate its entry to the market.

  16. How Do People Get AIDS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness How Do People Get AIDS? KidsHealth > For Teens > How Do People Get AIDS? A A A en español ¿Cómo contrae alguien el SIDA? AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome , a disease that ...

  17. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, F.; Steudel, H.; Klotz, D.

    1986-02-01

    Since 1982 (Hauser and co-workers), literature has reported focal cerebral tissue charges in AIDS patients whose diagnosis was unclear at first but which could be identified finally as florid toxoplasmosis encephalitis by biopsy and autopsy. It was found that the value of otherwise reliable serological tests (KBR, Sabin-Feldmann tests, etc.) is questionable in patients with severely impaired or incompetent immune systems, and, in particular, that a negative or uncharacteristic test result may not preclude any opportunistic infection process. Furthermore, isolation of Toxoplasma gondii or specific antibodies from the cerebrospinal fluid will be successful in exceptional cases only. In patients with AIDS or lymphadenopathy syndrome, the differential diagnosis will have to include - first and foremost - reactivated toxoplasma infection (not newly acquired, as a rule) if central neurological symptoms occur.

  18. Mutual aid fund commission

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    The composition of the Board of the Mutual Aid Fund for 2011 is as follows: President: Pascal Droux Vice-president: Connie Potter Treasurer: Louis Pereira Deputy treasurer: Barbara Brugger Secretary: Sonia Casenove Deputy secretary: Isabelle Mardirossian Members: Christopher David Thomas   Jean-Claude Vialis (GAC member)   Marie-Luce Falipou   Gunilla Santiard (Jean-Claude Vialis’s alternate) The role of the Fund is to provide financial help to members of personnel and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund who are in need of exceptional financial assistance. All requests are treated in the strictest confidence. Should you wish to apply for aid from the Fund, kindly contact any member of the Board as given above or Social Services, tel.74479 – 73867.

  19. Mycobacterial Infections in AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ross Hill

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains uniquely important among acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS-associated opportunistic infections: it presents the greatest public health hazard worldwide, is the most readily curable, and is largely preventable with existing means. Given the expanding pool of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seropositive persons, particularly in developing nations where Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a leading health problem, one can expect a continued rise in TB cases during the 1990s. Global efforts to eliminate TB are now inextricably entwined with the effectiveness of measures to curtail the HIV epidemic. Mycobacterium avium complex infection, currently an intractable late complication of aids, may increase in clinical importance as success in managing other opportunistic infections and HIV disease itself improves. Understanding of the pathogenesis and management of mycobacterial diseases should increase rapidly given the renewed research spurred on by the advent of HIV.

  20. Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Medina, Candida;

    Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?......Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?...

  1. Pulmonary mycosis in AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busi Rizzi, Elisa; Schinina, Vincenzo; Bellussi, Angelo; De Santis, Andrea; Mazzuoli, Giovanna; Giosue, Sandro; Bibbolino, Corrado

    2001-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed our series of 35 pulmonary mycosis in patients with AIDS, observed from 1987 to 1999, to correlate the imaging and pathologic findings. We further evaluated the frequency of fungal pneumonia before and after the use of a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Early recognition of pulmonary mycosis is imperative in these patients and improved survival can be achieved with early CT detection and prompt institution of high-dose antifungal therapy.

  2. Computer aided manipulator control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Zawacki, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the hardware and software system of a dedicated mini- and microcomputer network developed at the JPL teleoperator project to aid the operator in real-time control of remote manipulators. The operator can be in series or in parallel with the control computer during operation. The purpose of the project is to develop, demonstrate and evaluate advanced supervisory control concepts and techniques for space applications. The paper concludes with a brief outline of future development plans and issues.

  3. Computer aided product design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantinou, Leonidas; Bagherpour, Khosrow; Gani, Rafiqul

    1996-01-01

    A general methodology for Computer Aided Product Design (CAPD) with specified property constraints which is capable of solving a large range of problems is presented. The methodology employs the group contribution approach, generates acyclic, cyclic and aromatic compounds of various degrees......-liquid equilibria (LLE), solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) and gas solubility. Finally, a computer program based on the extended methodology has been developed and the results from five case studies highlighting various features of the methodology are presented....

  4. Nutritional anemia and AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Ruíz, Óscar; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, UNMSM; Díaz, David; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM, y Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo; Castillo, Óscar; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, UNMSM; Reyes, Rafael; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, UNMSM; Marangoni, Manuela; Programa PROCETSS, Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo; Ronceros, Gerardo; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the type of anemia most frequent in patients with AIDS and the various degrees of anemia. Material and methods: One hundred patients 18 to 60 year-old infected with human immune deficiency virus (HIV) with residence in Lima and Callao were studied from January to December 2001 for blood count bone marrow aspiration, serum iron, transferrin, ferritin, folate and vitamin B12 levels. Samples were evaluated at the “Dos de Mayo” Hospital Clinical Pathology Department. Resu...

  5. Transitional justice and aid

    OpenAIRE

    Hellsten, Sirkku K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the current security-governance-development nexus, something that is often also discussed under the concept of transitional justice (TJ). The paper analyses how the ambiguous, evolving and expanding nature of the concept of TJ affects the planning, coordination, evaluation and assessment of aid given to conflict ridden, post-conflict or (post) authoritarian societies in order to strengthen their democracy. Special attention is paid to gender justice. Illustrations are draw...

  6. HIV/AIDS eradication

    OpenAIRE

    Marsden, Matthew D.; Zack, Jerome A.

    2013-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy can inhibit HIV replication in patients and prevent progression to AIDS. However, it is not curative. Here we provide an overview of what antiretroviral drugs do and how the virus persists during therapy in rare reservoirs, such as latently infected CD4+ T cells. We also outline several innovative methods that are currently under development to eradicate HIV from infected individuals. These strategies include gene therapy approaches intended to create an HIV-resistant i...

  7. Has aid for AIDS raised all health funding boats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Jeremy; Berlan, David; Hafner, Tamara

    2009-11-01

    Global health analysts have debated whether donor prioritization of HIV/AIDS control has lifted all boats, raising attention and funding levels for health issues aside from HIV/AIDS. We investigate this question, considering donor funding for 4 historically prominent health agendas-HIV/AIDS, health systems strengthening, population and reproductive health, and infectious disease control-over the decade 1998-2007. We employ funding data from the Development Assistance Committee of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, which tracks donor aid. The data indicate that HIV/AIDS may have helped to increase funding for the control of other infectious diseases; however, there is no firm evidence that other health issues beyond the control of infectious diseases have benefited. Between 1998 and 2007, funding for HIV/AIDS control rose from just 5.5% to nearly half of all aid for health. Over the same period, funding for health systems strengthening declined from 62.3% to 23.9% of total health aid and that for population and reproductive health declined from 26.4% to 12.3%. Also, even as total aid for health tripled during this decade, aid for health systems strengthening largely stagnated. Overall, the data indicate little support for the contention that donor funding for HIV/AIDS has lifted all boats.

  8. Sex and Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavrel, Erik; Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2008-01-01

    This case study is centered upon the recent debate concerning the decision by Texas Governor Rick Perry to mandate the compulsory vaccination of girls in the Texas public school system against the human papillomavirus (HPV) prior to entering the sixth grade. The interrupted case method is particularly appropriate for this subject with the case…

  9. Nieuw vaccin tegen campylobacter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Het vaccin dat de kip moet beschermen tegen de bacterie Campylobacter werkt in het laboratorium. Dat wil bacterioloog Jaap Wagenaar wel kwijt. Wanneer het er komt en zelfs of het er komt, daarover laat Wagenaar zich niet uit. "Het is een hele klus om het immuunsysteem van kippen effectief op te late

  10. Vaccines Help Protect Us

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the importance of vaccines and how they work.  Created: 4/23/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/23/2013.

  11. Economics of vaccines revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Maarten J.; Standaert, Baudouin A.

    2013-01-01

    Performing a total health economic analysis of a vaccine newly introduced into the market today is a challenge when using the conventional cost-effectiveness analysis we normally apply on pharmaceutical products. There are many reasons for that, such as: the uncertainty in the total benefit (direct

  12. Alphavirus-based vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundstrom, Kenneth

    2014-06-16

    Alphavirus vectors have demonstrated high levels of transient heterologous gene expression both in vitro and in vivo and, therefore, possess attractive features for vaccine development. The most commonly used delivery vectors are based on three single-stranded encapsulated alphaviruses, namely Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Alphavirus vectors have been applied as replication-deficient recombinant viral particles and, more recently, as replication-proficient particles. Moreover, in vitro transcribed RNA, as well as layered DNA vectors have been applied for immunization. A large number of highly immunogenic viral structural proteins expressed from alphavirus vectors have elicited strong neutralizing antibody responses in multispecies animal models. Furthermore, immunization studies have demonstrated robust protection against challenges with lethal doses of virus in rodents and primates. Similarly, vaccination with alphavirus vectors expressing tumor antigens resulted in prophylactic protection against challenges with tumor-inducing cancerous cells. As certain alphaviruses, such as Chikungunya virus, have been associated with epidemics in animals and humans, attention has also been paid to the development of vaccines against alphaviruses themselves. Recent progress in alphavirus vector development and vaccine technology has allowed conducting clinical trials in humans.

  13. Alphavirus-Based Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Lundstrom

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alphavirus vectors have demonstrated high levels of transient heterologous gene expression both in vitro and in vivo and, therefore, possess attractive features for vaccine development. The most commonly used delivery vectors are based on three single-stranded encapsulated alphaviruses, namely Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Alphavirus vectors have been applied as replication-deficient recombinant viral particles and, more recently, as replication-proficient particles. Moreover, in vitro transcribed RNA, as well as layered DNA vectors have been applied for immunization. A large number of highly immunogenic viral structural proteins expressed from alphavirus vectors have elicited strong neutralizing antibody responses in multispecies animal models. Furthermore, immunization studies have demonstrated robust protection against challenges with lethal doses of virus in rodents and primates. Similarly, vaccination with alphavirus vectors expressing tumor antigens resulted in prophylactic protection against challenges with tumor-inducing cancerous cells. As certain alphaviruses, such as Chikungunya virus, have been associated with epidemics in animals and humans, attention has also been paid to the development of vaccines against alphaviruses themselves. Recent progress in alphavirus vector development and vaccine technology has allowed conducting clinical trials in humans.

  14. Tetanus, Diphtheria (Td) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decavac® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids) ... Tenivac® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids) ... Why get vaccinated?Tetanus and diphtheria are very serious diseases. They are rare in the United States today, but people who do become ...

  15. Nanotechnology and vaccine development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Gyeong Kim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the progress of conventional vaccines, improvements are clearly required due to concerns about the weak immunogenicity of these vaccines, intrinsic instability in vivo, toxicity, and the need for multiple administrations. To overcome such problems, nanotechnology platforms have recently been incorporated into vaccine development. Nanocarrier-based delivery systems offer an opportunity to enhance the humoral and cellular immune responses. This advantage is attributable to the nanoscale particle size, which facilitates uptake by phagocytic cells, the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, leading to efficient antigen recognition and presentation. Modifying the surfaces of nanocarriers with a variety of targeting moieties permits the delivery of antigens to specific cell surface receptors, thereby stimulating specific and selective immune responses. In this review, we introduce recent advances in nanocarrier-based vaccine delivery systems, with a focus on the types of carriers, including liposomes, emulsions, polymer-based particles, and carbon-based nanomaterials. We describe the remaining challenges and possible breakthroughs, including the development of needle-free nanotechnologies and a fundamental understanding of the in vivo behavior and stability of the nanocarriers in nanotechnology-based delivery systems.

  16. Dissecting Cancer Vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer Couzin; 丁东

    2004-01-01

    @@ If there's one thing cancer vaccine developers would like to know, it's why only a handful of patients respond strongly to their inventions. Now at an immunology② meeting here, a team of scientists reported that a set of patients with metastatic melanoma③ may be revealing an answer to that mysterious question.

  17. AIDS and Africa. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman, Loretta M; van Niekerk, Anton A

    2002-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is the epicenter of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and in this issue of the Journal, seven authors discuss the moral, social and medical implications of having 70% of those stricken living in this area. Anton A. van Niekerk considers complexities of plague in this region (poverty, denial, poor leadership, illiteracy, women's vulnerability, and disenchantment of intimacy) and the importance of finding responses that empower its people. Solomon Benatar reinforces these issues, but also discusses the role of global politics in sub-Saharan Africa, especially discrimination, imperialism and its exploitation by first world countries. Given the public health crisis, Udo Schüklenk and Richard E. Ashcroft defend compulsory licensing of essential HIV/AIDS medications on consequentialist grounds. Keymanthri Moodley discusses the importance of conducting research and the need to understand a moderate form of communitarianism, also referred to as "ubuntu" or "communalism", to help some Africans understand research as an altruistic endeavour. Godfrey B. Tangwa also defends traditional African values of empathy and ubuntu, discussing how they should be enlisted to fight this pandemic. Loretta M. Kopelman criticizes the tendency among those outside Africa to dismiss the HIV/AIDS pandemic, attributing one source to the ubiquitous and misguided punishment theory of disease. The authors conclude that good solutions must be cooperative ventures among countries within and outside of sub-Saharan Africa with far more support from wealthy countries.

  18. Aid Supplies Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel

    The recent financial crisis has rekindled interest in the foreign aid supply behaviour of bilateral donors. Using the latest data covering the period 1960-2009, this paper examines how such behaviour is related to domestic factors. Based on a simple empirical model, a distinction is made between ...... substantial heterogeneity between countries. There is also good evidence that donor behaviour continues to evolve over time. As such, past trends in aid supplies are unlikely to provide a good guide to those of the future.......The recent financial crisis has rekindled interest in the foreign aid supply behaviour of bilateral donors. Using the latest data covering the period 1960-2009, this paper examines how such behaviour is related to domestic factors. Based on a simple empirical model, a distinction is made between...... long-run supply trends and short-run dynamics, which motivates use of error correction methods. Panel econometric techniques are employed that are consistent in the presence of parameter heterogeneity and cross-section dependence. Results support the error correction framework, but point to very...

  19. Redirecting British foreign aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, M

    1994-01-01

    Britain has longed followed a disease-control strategy for providing aid in the health sector to developing, low-income countries. Given, however, the high level of waste upon tertiary care and specialized medicine in current health programs of low-income countries as documented by the World Bank; the poor performance of existing general government hospitals and clinics; and the poor image of Third World health systems in the eyes of Western officials and government ministers, the chief health advisor of the Overseas Development Administration has called for a drastic redirection of policy toward development aid. Specifically, a shift away from a specific-disease control approach toward an overall, sweeping reform of the health sector in developing countries is urged. The level of waste needs to be reduced and more attention given to the poor. Unless such changes result, government ministers will grow increasingly reluctant to provide tangible aid to the health sectors of countries in need. The availability of such funds invested in effective, well-managed health programs will grow more critical to health in the Third World as populations shift away from communicable disease morbidity and mortality toward illnesses which are of a more noncommunicable nature such as stroke and cancer.

  20. [Vaccination against hepatitis A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balli, F; Di Biase, A R; Viola, L

    1996-01-01

    The epidemiology of hepatitis A, a disease endemic in various countries, is in a state of continuous change. Adults are more exposed to infection and considering the frequent absence of immunity, in contrast to children in whom the disease is almost always asymptomatic, the disease is often serious and prolonged with a mortality of up to 2.5%. The mode of transmission of HAV is predominantly the fecal-oral route; the virus is isolated during the prodromic period of the disease from the feces, blood, bile and seminal fluid. The virus can also be found in saliva (OMS '95); in addition it may also be transmitted by the maternal-fetal route. The HAV infects cells in vitro but does not cause a direct cytopathic effect. At the beginning of the acute phase of the disease the production of anti-HAV antibodies is of the IgM type followed later by IgG. Some studies have shown a potential role of cellular immunity in clearance of the virus from the hepatocytes and in the pathogenesis of the infection of HAV. The efficacy of immunoglobulin serum in the prevention of hepatitis A has been demonstrated since 1944. As regards active immunity two types of vaccinations have been prepared. One with live attenuated HAV carried by either bacteria or virus. The other, killed inactivated HAV, HAV capsule, antigenic subunit, synthetic peptides, anti-idiotypes or virosomes. The recent literature describe the vaccine produced by Merck Sharp & Dohme and by Smith Kline Beecham (SKB); both vaccines are made from HAV, grown in vitro, inactivated with formalin and adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide. The protection of the vaccine begins 14 days after administration and lasts from one month to one year. Numerous studies have been conducted which have shown that the vaccine is effective when given in 2 doses and confers protection against HAV for at least one year. The results have shown that the vaccination causes seroconversion in approximately 100% of subjects, and does not cause serious side

  1. Influence of maternally-derived antibodies in 6-week old dogs for the efficacy of a new vaccine to protect dogs against virulent challenge with canine distemper virus, adenovirus or parvovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Wilson

    2014-01-01

    In conclusion, two doses of the DHPPi/L4R vaccine administered to dogs from six weeks of age in the presence of maternal antibodies aided in the protection against virulent challenge with CDV, CAV-1 or CPV.

  2. Does intention to recommend HPV vaccines impact HPV vaccination rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feemster, Kristen A; Middleton, Maria; Fiks, Alexander G; Winters, Sarah; Kinsman, Sara B; Kahn, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    Despite recommendations for routine vaccination, HPV vaccination rates among adolescent females have remained low. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to determine whether clinician intention to recommend HPV vaccines predicts HPV vaccine series initiation among previously unvaccinated 11 to 18 year-old girls (N=18,083) who were seen by a pediatric clinician (N=105) from a large primary care network within 3 years of vaccine introduction. We used multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations, Cox Regression and standardized survival curves to measure the association between clinician intention and time to and rate of first HPV vaccine receipt among eligible females. All models adjusted for patient age, race/ethnicity, payor category, visit type, and practice location. Eighty-5 percent of eligible 11 to 12 year-old and 95% of 13 to 18 year-old girls were seen by a provider reporting high intention to recommend HPV vaccines. However, only 30% of the cohort initiated the HPV vaccine series and the mean number of days from first eligible visit to series initiation was 190 (95% C.I. 184.2, 195.4). After adjusting for covariates, high clinician intention was modestly associated with girls' likelihood of HPV vaccine series initiation (OR 1.36; 95 % C.I. 1.07, 1.71) and time to first HPV vaccination (HR 1.22; 95% 1.06, 1.40). Despite high intention to vaccinate among this cohort of pediatric clinicians, overall vaccination rates for adolescent girls remained low. These findings support ongoing efforts to develop effective strategies to translate clinician intention into timely HPV vaccine receipt.

  3. Predicting the potential public health impact of disease-modifying HIV vaccines in South Africa: the problem of subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blower, Sally M; Bodine, Erin N; Grovit-Ferbas, Kathie

    2005-06-01

    Current HIV vaccines in development appear unlikely to prevent infection, but could provide benefits by increasing survival; such vaccines are described as disease-modifying vaccines. We review the current status of vaccines and modeling vaccines. We also predict the impact that disease-modifying vaccines could have in South Africa, where multiple subtypes are co-circulating. We model transmissibility/fitness differences among subtypes. We used uncertainty analyses to model vaccines with four characteristics: (i) take, (ii) duration of immunity, (iii) reduction in transmissibility/fitness, and (iv) increase in survival. We reconstructed, and forecasted, the South African epidemic from 1940 to 2140 (assuming no vaccination). We predict that: (i) incidence will peak in 2014, decline, and stabilize, (ii) prevalence will continue to rise, and (iii) the AIDS death rate curve will peak in 2022. Our predictions show that (over the next 135 years) the epidemic in South Africa will switch from a predominantly Subtype C epidemic to an epidemic driven by other subtypes. We predict that the epidemic could remain unchanged, even with mass vaccination with a vaccine that is equally effective against all co-circulating subtypes. However, if the non-C subtypes are less (or equally) transmissible as Subtype C then disease-modifying vaccines could result in eradication. Thus, in countries where multiple-subtypes are co-circulating it is critical to realize that small biological differences among subtypes will have dramatic consequences for the effectiveness of HIV vaccination campaigns. A slight difference in fitness will determine whether a disease-modifying vaccine has almost no impact on the epidemic or can achieve eradication.

  4. Brucellosis Vaccines: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanjani-Roushan Mohammad Reza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Brucellosis is considered as an important zoonotic and worldwide infection with more than half of million human cases, which it occurs more and more in animals like as wild and live stocks. Sheep, cattle, and goats are animal samples that listed. Symptoms of this disease in human are consisted of: undulant fever, back pains, faint, spondylitis, arthritis and orchitis. This infection causes abortion in livestock, and this point is one of the important economic losses. Reduction in milk production is another problem in this disease too. Materials and Methods: This study is conducted by reviewing of the literatures, which are related to this concern, and also visiting PubMed, ISI and other websites. Results: We must pay heed that most zoonoses are maintained in the animal reservoir. These diseases, such as leptospirosis, Q-fever, brucellosis etc. which among them brucellosis can transfer to human via close contact with infected animals or consumption of unpasteurized dairy. Therefore, eradication of this infection in human population is depended on omission of that in possible methods among animals reservoir. Such methods are like test-slaughter and vaccination of livestock. Hence, vaccination is not alone method for controlling, but it is probably economic one. Conclusion: Nowadays a vaccine which is effective for this disease control in human is not available. Of course presented some different vaccines for this infection in livestock that cleave live attenuated, killed bacteria and sub unit. Therefore, for eradication of this disease some vaccines with more effectiveness protection mid fewer side effects are necessary.

  5. A public-professional web-bridge for vaccines and vaccination: user concerns about vaccine safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Basteiro, Alberto L; Alvarez-Pasquín, María-José; Mena, Guillermo; Llupià, Anna; Aldea, Marta; Sequera, Victor-Guillermo; Sanz, Sergi; Tuells, Jose; Navarro-Alonso, José-Antonio; de Arísteguí, Javier; Bayas, José-María

    2012-05-28

    Vacunas.org (http://www.vacunas.org), a website founded by the Spanish Association of Vaccinology offers a personalized service called Ask the Expert, which answers any questions posed by the public or health professionals about vaccines and vaccination. The aim of this study was to analyze the factors associated with questions on vaccination safety and determine the characteristics of questioners and the type of question asked during the period 2008-2010. A total of 1341 questions were finally included in the analysis. Of those, 30% were related to vaccine safety. Questions about pregnant women had 5.01 higher odds of asking about safety (95% CI 2.82-8.93) than people not belonging to any risk group. Older questioners (>50 years) were less likely to ask about vaccine safety compared to younger questioners (OR: 0.44, 95% CI 0.25-0.76). Questions made after vaccination or related to influenza (including H1N1) or travel vaccines were also associated with a higher likelihood of asking about vaccine safety. These results identify risk groups (pregnant women), population groups (older people) and some vaccines (travel and influenza vaccines, including H1N1) where greater efforts to provide improved, more-tailored vaccine information in general and on the Internet are required.

  6. 9 CFR 113.332 - Tenosynovitis Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tenosynovitis Vaccine. 113.332 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.332 Tenosynovitis Vaccine. Tenosynovitis Vaccine shall be prepared from virus... pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production. All serials...

  7. Swine flu vaccination for patients with cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In oncology, vaccination is accepted as an important preventive measure. As a tertiary prevention protocol, several vaccines are recommended for the oncology patients. The newest vaccine in medicine is swine flu vaccine which is developed for prevention of novel H1N1 influenza virus infection. In this paper, the author will briefly discuss on swine flu vaccination for oncology patients.

  8. 42 CFR 70.9 - Vaccination clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vaccination clinics. 70.9 Section 70.9 Public... INTERSTATE QUARANTINE § 70.9 Vaccination clinics. (a) The Director may establish vaccination clinics, through contract or otherwise, authorized to administer vaccines and/or other prophylaxis. (b) A vaccination...

  9. 75 FR 82402 - Proposed Consolidated Vaccine Information Materials for Multiple Infant Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... or DTaP vaccine. If your child is sick on the day her vaccinations are scheduled, your doctor might... Childhood Vaccine Injury Act (NCVIA) (42 U.S.C. 300aa-26), the CDC must develop vaccine information... consolidates the six vaccine information statements for the following childhood vaccines: DTaP,...

  10. 75 FR 48715 - Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... we stopped vaccinating. 2. Who should get MMR vaccine and when? Children should get 2 doses of MMR... National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act (NCVIA) (42 U.S.C. 300aa-26), the CDC must develop vaccine... representative in the case of a child) receiving vaccines covered under the National Vaccine Injury...

  11. Spin models inferred from patient data faithfully describe HIV fitness landscapes and enable rational vaccine design

    CERN Document Server

    Shekhar, Karthik; Ferguson, Andrew L; Barton, John P; Kardar, Mehran; Chakraborty, Arup K

    2013-01-01

    Mutational escape from vaccine induced immune responses has thwarted the development of a successful vaccine against AIDS, whose causative agent is HIV, a highly mutable virus. Knowing the virus' fitness as a function of its proteomic sequence can enable rational design of potent vaccines, as this information can focus vaccine induced immune responses to target mutational vulnerabilities of the virus. Spin models have been proposed as a means to infer intrinsic fitness landscapes of HIV proteins from patient-derived viral protein sequences. These sequences are the product of non-equilibrium viral evolution driven by patient-specific immune responses, and are subject to phylogenetic constraints. How can such sequence data allow inference of intrinsic fitness landscapes? We combined computer simulations and variational theory \\'{a} la Feynman to show that, in most circumstances, spin models inferred from patient-derived viral sequences reflect the correct rank order of the fitness of mutant viral strains. Our f...

  12. Buccal and sublingual vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, Heleen; Vrieling, Hilde; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Jiskoot, Wim; Kersten, Gideon; Amorij, Jean-Pierre

    2014-09-28

    Because of their large surface area and immunological competence, mucosal tissues are attractive administration and target sites for vaccination. An important characteristic of mucosal vaccination is its ability to elicit local immune responses, which act against infection at the site of pathogen entry. However, mucosal surfaces are endowed with potent and sophisticated tolerance mechanisms to prevent the immune system from overreacting to the many environmental antigens. Hence, mucosal vaccination may suppress the immune system instead of induce a protective immune response. Therefore, mucosal adjuvants and/or special antigen delivery systems as well as appropriate dosage forms are required in order to develop potent mucosal vaccines. Whereas oral, nasal and pulmonary vaccine delivery strategies have been described extensively, the sublingual and buccal routes have received considerably less attention. In this review, the characteristics of and approaches for sublingual and buccal vaccine delivery are described and compared with other mucosal vaccine delivery sites. We discuss recent progress and highlight promising developments in the search for vaccine formulations, including adjuvants and suitable dosage forms, which are likely critical for designing a successful sublingual or buccal vaccine. Finally, we outline the challenges, hurdles to overcome and formulation issues relevant for sublingual or buccal vaccine delivery.

  13. Vaccines for fish in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerset, Ingunn; Krossøy, Bjørn; Biering, Eirik; Frost, Petter

    2005-02-01

    Vaccination plays an important role in large-scale commercial fish farming and has been a key reason for the success of salmon cultivation. In addition to salmon and trout, commercial vaccines are available for channel catfish, European seabass and seabream, Japanese amberjack and yellowtail, tilapia and Atlantic cod. In general, empirically developed vaccines based on inactivated bacterial pathogens have proven to be very efficacious in fish. Fewer commercially available viral vaccines and no parasite vaccines exist. Substantial efficacy data are available for new fish vaccines and advanced technology has been implemented. However, before such vaccines can be successfully commercialized, several hurdles have to be overcome regarding the production of cheap but effective antigens and adjuvants, while bearing in mind environmental and associated regulatory concerns (e.g., those that limit the use of live vaccines). Pharmaceutical companies have performed a considerable amount of research on fish vaccines, however, limited information is available in scientific publications. In addition, salmonids dominate both the literature and commercial focus, despite their relatively small contribution to the total volume of farmed fish in the world. This review provides an overview of the fish vaccines that are currently commercially available and some viewpoints on how the field is likely to evolve in the near future.

  14. Vaccine against human Papilloma Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Reina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available At present two prophylactic human papilloma virus (HPV vaccines are commercially available. The Tetravalent vaccine against infection with four VPH types (6, 11, 16, and 18 distributed in the national program in Colombia and the Bivalent vaccine against the VPH types 16 and 18, respectively.  The efficacy and safety of both vaccines has periodically been assessed and they have been declared efficacious and safe by the health authorities of several countries and the Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety ( GACVS of the World’s Health Organization (WHO.In its report of March 2014 the GACVS analyzed the evidence of the relationship between the  Human Papillomavirus Vaccine with  >175 million of doses distributed worldwide and autoimmune diseases, particularly Multiple Sclerosis, Aluminum as adjuvant, Vasculitis caused by vaccine DNA fragments and the Complex Regional Pain Syndrome described in Japan.   The Committee ratified the strict vaccine safety control and based on a thorough examination of existing evidence, reaffirmed that the risk-benefit profile remains favorable. The case of the children of Carmen de Bolivar in Colombia has been described by several authors in other countries as "Massive Psychogenic Event", which has absolute no relationship with the vaccine but its high media dissemination resulted into disastrous consequences for the national vaccination program

  15. Will Synergizing Vaccination with Therapeutics Boost Measles Virus Eradication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plemper, Richard K; Hammond, Anthea L

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Measles virus is a major human pathogen responsible for approximately 150,000 measles deaths annually. The disease is vaccine preventable and eradication of the virus is considered feasible in principle. However, a herd immunity exceeding 95% is required to prevent sporadic viral outbreaks in a population. Declining disease prevalence combined with public anxieties about vaccination safety has increased vaccine refusal especially in the European region, which has resulted in measles resurgence in some areas. Areas covered Here, we discuss whether synergizing effective measles therapeutics with vaccination could contribute to solving an endgame conundrum of measles elimination by accelerating the eradication effort. Based on an anticipated use for protection of high-risk contacts of confirmed measles cases through post-exposure prophylaxis, we identify key elements of the desirable drug profile, review current disease management strategies and the state of experimental inhibitor candidates, evaluate the risk associated with viral escape from inhibition, and consider the potential of measles therapeutics for the management of persistent viral infection of the CNS. Assuming a post-measles world with waning measles immunity, we contemplate the possible impact of therapeutics on controlling the threat imposed by closely related zoonotic pathogens of the same genus as measles virus. Expert opinion Efficacious therapeutics given for post-exposure prophylaxis of high-risk social contacts of confirmed index cases may aid measles eradication by closing herd immunity gaps due to vaccine refusal or failure in populations with overall good vaccination coverage. The envisioned primarily prophylactic application of measles therapeutics to a predominantly pediatric and/or adolescent patient population dictates the drug profile; the article must be safe and efficacious, orally available, shelf-stable at ambient temperature, and amenable to cost-effective manufacture

  16. The use of probabilistic graphical models (PGMs) to develop a cost-effective vaccination strategy against Campylobacter in poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Madsen, A.; Vigre, Håkan

    , epidemiological and economic factors (cost-reward functions) have been included in the models. The final outcome of the models is presented in probabilities of expected level of Campylobacter and financial terms influenced by the decision on vaccination. For example, if the best decision seems to be to vaccinate......Human campylobacteriosis represents an important economic and public health problem. Campylobacter originating from feces of infected chickens will contaminate chicken meat posing a risk to the consumer. Vaccination against Campylobacter in broilers is one probable measure to reduce consumers......’ exposure to Campylobacter.In this presentation we focus on the development of a computerized decision support system to aid management decisions on Campylobacter vaccination of commercial broilers. Broilers should be vaccinated against Campylobacter in the first 2 weeks of age. Therefore, the decision...

  17. Vaccine beliefs of parents who oppose compulsory vaccination.

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were the following: (1) to describe the sociodemographic factors, vaccine beliefs, and behaviors that are associated with parental opposition to compulsory vaccination, and (2) to determine if the availability of a philosophical exemption in a parent's state of residence is associated with parental opposition to compulsory vaccination. METHODS: Data from the 2002 HealthStyles survey were analyzed. Chi-square analysis was used to identify significant associations bet...

  18. Vaccination in children with allergy to non active vaccine components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Fabrizio; Bottau, Paolo; Caimmi, Silvia; Crisafulli, Giuseppe; Lucia, Liotti; Peroni, Diego; Saretta, Francesca; Vernich, Mario; Povesi Dascola, Carlotta; Caffarelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Childhood immunisation is one of the greatest public health successes of the last century. Vaccines contain an active component (the antigen) which induces the immune response. They may also contain additional components such as preservatives, additives, adjuvants and traces of other substances. This review provides information about risks of hypersensitivity reactions to components of vaccines. Furthermore, recommendations to avoid or reduce reactions to vaccine components have been detailed.

  19. Prior population immunity reduces the expected impact of CTL-inducing vaccines for pandemic influenza control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsty J Bolton

    Full Text Available Vaccines that trigger an influenza-specific cytotoxic T cell (CTL response may aid pandemic control by limiting the transmission of novel influenza A viruses (IAV. We consider interventions with hypothetical CTL-inducing vaccines in a range of epidemiologically plausible pandemic scenarios. We estimate the achievable reduction in the attack rate, and, by adopting a model linking epidemic progression to the emergence of IAV variants, the opportunity for antigenic drift. We demonstrate that CTL-inducing vaccines have limited utility for modifying population-level outcomes if influenza-specific T cells found widely in adults already suppress transmission and prove difficult to enhance. Administration of CTL-inducing vaccines that are efficacious in "influenza-experienced" and "influenza-naive" hosts can likely slow transmission sufficiently to mitigate a moderate IAV pandemic. However if neutralising cross-reactive antibody to an emerging IAV are common in influenza-experienced hosts, as for the swine-variant H3N2v, boosting CTL immunity may be ineffective at reducing population spread, indicating that CTL-inducing vaccines are best used against novel subtypes such as H7N9. Unless vaccines cannot readily suppress transmission from infected hosts with naive T cell pools, targeting influenza-naive hosts is preferable. Such strategies are of enhanced benefit if naive hosts are typically intensively mixing children and when a subset of experienced hosts have pre-existing neutralising cross-reactive antibody. We show that CTL-inducing vaccination campaigns may have greater power to suppress antigenic drift than previously suggested, and targeting adults may be the optimal strategy to achieve this when the vaccination campaign does not have the power to curtail the attack rate. Our results highlight the need to design interventions based on pre-existing cellular immunity and knowledge of the host determinants of vaccine efficacy, and provide a framework

  20. Influenza Vaccination Coverage Among Health Care Personnel - United States, 2015-16 Influenza Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Carla L; Yue, Xin; Ball, Sarah W; Donahue, Sara M A; Izrael, David; de Perio, Marie A; Laney, A Scott; Williams, Walter W; Lindley, Megan C; Graitcer, Samuel B; Lu, Peng-Jun; DiSogra, Charles; Devlin, Rebecca; Walker, Deborah K; Greby, Stacie M

    2016-09-30

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends annual influenza vaccination for all health care personnel to reduce influenza-related morbidity and mortality among both health care personnel and their patients (1-4). To estimate influenza vaccination coverage among U.S. health care personnel for the 2015-16 influenza season, CDC conducted an opt-in Internet panel survey of 2,258 health care personnel during March 28-April 14, 2016. Overall, 79.0% of survey participants reported receiving an influenza vaccination during the 2015-16 season, similar to the 77.3% coverage reported for the 2014-15 season (5). Coverage in long-term care settings increased by 5.3 percentage points compared with the previous season. Vaccination coverage continued to be higher among health care personnel working in hospitals (91.2%) and lower among health care personnel working in ambulatory (79.8%) and long-term care settings (69.2%). Coverage continued to be highest among physicians (95.6%) and lowest among assistants and aides (64.1%), and highest overall among health care personnel who were required by their employer to be vaccinated (96.5%). Among health care personnel working in settings where vaccination was neither required, promoted, nor offered onsite, vaccination coverage continued to be low (44.9%). An increased percentage of health care personnel reporting a vaccination requirement or onsite vaccination availability compared with earlier influenza seasons might have contributed to the overall increase in vaccination coverage during the past 6 influenza seasons.

  1. [Protein subunit vaccines: example of vaccination against hepatitis B virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degos, F

    1995-06-15

    Hepatitis B vaccine has been used for over 10 years. It is efficient and safe. Protection of risk groups against hepatitis B virus infection is now achieved and vaccination of newborns and adolescents is a main public health problem. Bad responders are well characterized and immunomodulatory interventions (cytokines) must be tested in these patients. Response to hepatitis B vaccine is genetically determined and the possibility of vaccine induced escape mutants should lead to careful epidemiological studies of the spread of hepatitis B virus infection.

  2. [Adolescence and AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The myths and prejudices that distort the reality and hide the true causes and effects of natural and social phenomena related to sexuality have a fertile ground in AIDS, given its obvious link to sex. The alarming spread of AIDS has been 1 result of these myths and prejudices. Human beings are sexual by nature; genital organs determine sex and also induce sexual behavior. It is by not fairly well accepted that an individual's sexuality exists from birth. Puberty usually begins at 12-16 years for both sexes. The physical changes of puberty terminate in the ability of the female to conceive and the male to procreate. The sexual excitation of adolescents resulting from production of various hormones can only be eliminated by some type of sexual satisfaction or sublimation. Sexuality, according to Freud, is an organizing principle of the personality. The sexual organs exist not merely for reproduction but to provide pleasure. Puberty signifies entry into active sex life. But the ideological structure of society, perpetuated by the family, schools, religion, the mass media, and other social institutions, sends confused signals to adolescents, requiring abstinence and virginity until marriage for women while encouraging sexual adventures for men. Adolescents are confronted by their new sexual feelings in the midst of a virtual bombardment of visual sexual stimuli from the mass media. It becomes impossible for adolescents to satisfy the requirements of appearances while also resolving the problems and pressures of their newly gained sexual maturity. Many adolescents become sexually active, and the problem is not to prevent sexual activity but to improve the conditions under which it occurs. Adolescents, lacking education and information about sex, begin their sex lives without protection. AIDS has now been added to the list of dire consequences that can result. A true sex education beginning in the home is needed to enable young people to develop healthy and full sex

  3. Hearing aid adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemann, Trine; Matthews, Ben; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2012-01-01

    to the interaction during hearing aid fitting. This report of a Danish pilot study describes two such problems. The first problem arises from the requirement that the audiologist needs to ‘translate’ the patient’s subjective hearing description for making technological decisions. The second problem is the way......Conversation analytic research on clinical encounters shows that interactional conduct can be consequential for diagnosis, treatment and compliance. Problems reported for doctor-patient interaction can also be identified in Danish audiological encounters. There are, however, also specific aspects...

  4. First aid in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Sulley, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Achieve the best possible standard with this bestselling book of traditional practice and guidance - now in colour!. First Aid in Mathematics provides all the help and support needed for learning and practising Mathematics. It offers comprehensive coverage of core mathematical topics in clear and accessible language. It is suitable for both native English speakers and students of English as a second language and can be used in class, or as a reference and revision book. - Develops a strong basis of understanding with core topics covered in clear and accessible language. - Improves student's ab

  5. A game dynamic model for vaccine skeptics and vaccine believers: measles as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Eunha; Grefenstette, John J; Albert, Steven M; Cakouros, Brigid E; Burke, Donald S

    2012-02-21

    Widespread avoidance of Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccination (MMR), with a consequent increase in the incidence of major measles outbreaks, demonstrates that the effectiveness of vaccination programs can be thwarted by the public misperceptions of vaccine risk. By coupling game theory and epidemic models, we examine vaccination choice among populations stratified into two behavioral groups: vaccine skeptics and vaccine believers. The two behavioral groups are assumed to be heterogeneous with respect to their perceptions of vaccine and infection risks. We demonstrate that the pursuit of self-interest among vaccine skeptics often leads to vaccination levels that are suboptimal for a population, even if complete coverage is achieved among vaccine believers. The demand for measles vaccine across populations driven by individual self-interest was found to be more sensitive to the proportion of vaccine skeptics than to the extent to which vaccine skeptics misperceive the risk of vaccine. Furthermore, as the number of vaccine skeptics increases, the probability of infection among vaccine skeptics increases initially, but it decreases once the vaccine skeptics begin receiving the vaccination, if both behavioral groups are vaccinated according to individual self-interest. Our results show that the discrepancy between the coverages of measles vaccine that are driven by self-interest and those driven by population interest becomes larger when the cost of vaccination increases. This research illustrates the importance of public education on vaccine safety and infection risk in order to maintain vaccination levels that are sufficient to maintain herd immunity.

  6. Outlook for a dengue vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrby, R

    2014-05-01

    Dengue is an increasing medical problem in subtropical and tropical countries. The search for a safe and effective vaccine is complicated by the fact that there are four types of dengue virus and that, if a vaccine is live attenuated, it should be proven not to cause the life-threatening form of dengue, dengue haemorrhagic fever. So far one vaccine candidate, a four-valent chimeric vaccine constructed from a yellow fever vaccine strain, has reached large clinical trials and has been shown to offer protection against dengue types 1, 3 and 54 but not against dengue type 2. It is highly likely that an effective vaccine will be available in the next decade.

  7. Vaccine prophylaxis: achievements, problems, perspectives of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavrutenkov V.V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents medical and social aspects of immune prophylaxis of infectious diseases; the history of vaccines and vaccination is presented, as well as perspectives of development of vaccine prophylaxis.

  8. Vaccinating Your Preteen: Addressing Common Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used every t​ime a person has sex. For the best protection against HPV, parents should have their children vaccinated. FAQs About All Preteen Vaccines Do adolescent vaccines have serious side effects? ...

  9. Meningococcal Vaccine: A Guide for Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Meningococcal Vaccine Posted under Health Guides . Updated 22 September 2015. + ... of the meningococcal infections. What is the meningococcal vaccine? The meningococcal vaccine protects against the meningococcal bacteria ...

  10. For Parents: Vaccines for Your Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC For Parents: Vaccines for Your Children Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Vaccines Prevent Review the 16 diseases prevented by vaccines recommended for children and teens. Records & Requirements Learn about immunization records ...

  11. Preventing Cervical Cancer with HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  12. Influenza vaccination for children with asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Bat-Chen; Goldman, Ran D.

    2010-01-01

    QUESTION Parents of children with asthma are encouraged by many health organizations to vaccinate their children against seasonal influenza viruses. Is the influenza vaccine efficient in preventing asthma exacerbation? Are current vaccinations safe to administer to children with asthma?

  13. Systematic review of human papillomavirus vaccine coadministration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha, Alinea S; Markowitz, Lauri E; Dunne, Eileen F

    2014-05-13

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is recommended in early adolescence, at an age when other vaccines are also recommended. Administration of multiple vaccines during one visit is an opportunity to improve uptake of adolescent vaccines. We conducted a systematic review of safety and immunogenicity of HPV vaccines coadministered with other vaccines. Our review included 9 studies, 4 of quadrivalent HPV vaccine and 5 of bivalent HPV vaccine; coadministered vaccines included: meningococcal conjugate, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, combined hepatitis A and B, tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis, and inactivated poliovirus vaccines. Studies varied in methods of data collection and measurement of immunogenicity and safety. Noninferiority of immune response and an acceptable safety profile were demonstrated when HPV vaccine was coadministered with other vaccines.

  14. Possible Side-Effects from Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... her at risk of contracting a potentially deadly disease. Adenovirus vaccine side-effects What are the risks from Adenovirus vaccine? A vaccine, like any medicine, could cause a serious reaction. But the risk ...

  15. Weakened Immune System and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Healthcare Professionals Weakened Immune System and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... up to age 26 years Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  16. HIV vaccines: current status worldwide and in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Patricia E; Kaleebu, Pontiano

    2010-10-01

    Since HIV-1 was identified, development of a preventive vaccine has been a major goal. Significant progress toward that goal has been made by 2010. In macaques, a vigorous T effector cell response has protected some animals from disease caused by simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Broadly, neutralizing human anti-HIV antibodies have been isolated and their structures, and targets are rapidly being elucidated. For the first time an AIDS vaccine has shown modest protective efficacy in a human clinical trial. To reach the final goal, there is a need for a coordinated global effort, including a range of approaches including novel high-throughput screening techniques, X-ray crystallography, and monoclonal antibody isolation, analysis of T cell responses and their impact on disease progression, human epidemiology, as well as targeted studies in nonhuman primates. African research teams as well as cohorts of healthy volunteers and HIV-infected individuals have contributed to HIV vaccine research and development in many important ways. It is essential that this work continue to speed the development and deployment of a vaccine suitable for African populations.

  17. Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: State of the Art and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Rizzitelli, Emanuela; Tramalloni, Daniela; Valle, Ivana; Gasparini, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a widely distributed and common virus, that causes benign lesions (such as warts and papillomas) but, if not cleared, can lead to malignant lesions as well, such as intraepithelial lesions and neoplasia. An extensive body of researches has demonstrated that E1 and E2 are involved in viral transcription and replication, E5, E6, and E7 act as oncoproteins, whilst L1 and L2 contribute to the formation of the capsid. However, this view has been recently challenged, since also E2 could play a role in HPV-induced carcinogenesis. Therefore, a complex picture is emerging, opening new ways and perspectives. The present article provides an overview of the biology of HPV, paying particular attention to its structural details and molecular mechanisms. The article also shows how this knowledge has been exploited for developing effective vaccines, both prophilactic/preventive and therapeutic ones. L1-based prophylactic vaccines, like Gardasil, Cervarix, and Gardasil 9, have been already licensed, whilst L2-based second generation preventive vaccines are still under clinical trials. New, highly immunogenic and effective vaccines can be further developed thanks to computer-aided design and bioinformatics/computational biology. The optimization of combinational therapies is another promising opportunity.

  18. Statistical physics of vaccination

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhen; Bhattacharyya, Samit; d'Onofrio, Alberto; Manfredi, Piero; Perc, Matjaz; Perra, Nicola; Salathé, Marcel; Zhao, Dawei

    2016-01-01

    Historically, infectious diseases caused considerable damage to human societies, and they continue to do so today. To help reduce their impact, mathematical models of disease transmission have been studied to help understand disease dynamics and inform prevention strategies. Vaccination - one of the most important preventive measures of modern times - is of great interest both theoretically and empirically. And in contrast to traditional approaches, recent research increasingly explores the pivotal implications of individual behavior and heterogeneous contact patterns in populations. Our report reviews the developmental arc of theoretical epidemiology with emphasis on vaccination, as it led from classical models assuming homogeneously mixing (mean-field) populations and ignoring human behavior, to recent models that account for behavioral feedback and/or population spatial/social structure. Many of the methods used originated in statistical physics, such as lattice and network models, and their associated ana...

  19. Early life vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazerai, Loulieta; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Uddbäck, Ida Elin Maria

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular pathogens represent a serious threat during early life. Importantly, even though the immune system of newborns may be characterized as developmentally immature, with a propensity to develop Th2 immunity, significant CD8+ T-cell responses may still be elicited in the context of optimal...... priming. Replication deficient adenoviral vectors have been demonstrated to induce potent CD8+ T-cell response in mice, primates and humans. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess whether replication-deficient adenovectors could overcome the risk of overwhelming antigen stimulation during...... the first period of life and provide a pertinent alternative in infant vaccinology. To address this, infant mice were vaccinated with three different adenoviral vectors and the CD8+ T-cell response after early life vaccination was explored. We assessed the frequency, polyfunctionality and in vivo...

  20. Travelers' Health: Vaccine Recommendations for Infants and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at age 6 weeks. Routine Infant and Childhood Vaccinations Children should receive routine vaccination for hepatitis A virus; ... recommendations about seasonal influenza vaccination. MMR or MMRV vaccine: Children traveling abroad may need to be vaccinated at ...

  1. TB vaccines in clinical development

    OpenAIRE

    McShane, H; Ginsberg, AM; Ruhwald, M.; Mearns, H

    2016-01-01

    The 4th Global Forum on TB Vaccines, convened in Shanghai, China, from 21 – 24 April 2015, brought together a wide and diverse community involved in tuberculosis vaccine research and development to discuss the current status of, and future directions for this critical effort. This paper summarizes the sessions on TB Vaccines in Clinical Development, and Clinical Research: Data and Findings. Summaries of all sessions from the 4th Global Forum are compiled in a special supplement of Tuberculosi...

  2. DNA vaccines for aquacultured fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, N; LaPatra, S E

    2005-04-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) vaccination is based on the administration of the gene encoding the vaccine antigen, rather than the antigen itself. Subsequent expression of the antigen by cells in the vaccinated hosts triggers the host immune system. Among the many experimental DNA vaccines tested in various animal species as well as in humans, the vaccines against rhabdovirus diseases in fish have given some of the most promising results. A single intramuscular (IM) injection of microgram amounts of DNA induces rapid and long-lasting protection in farmed salmonids against economically important viruses such as infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). DNA vaccines against other types of fish pathogens, however, have so far had limited success. The most efficient delivery route at present is IM injection, and suitable delivery strategies for mass vaccination of small fish have yet to be developed. In terms of safety, no adverse effects in the vaccinated fish have been observed to date. As DNA vaccination is a relatively new technology, various theoretical and long-term safety issues related to the environment and the consumer remain to be fully addressed, although inherently the risks should not be any greater than with the commercial fish vaccines that are currently used. Present classification systems lack clarity in distinguishing DNA-vaccinated animals from genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which could raise issues in terms of licensing and public acceptance of the technology. The potential benefits of DNA vaccines for farmed fish include improved animal welfare, reduced environmental impacts of aquaculture activities, increased food quality and quantity, and more sustainable production. Testing under commercial production conditions has recently been initiated in Canada and Denmark.

  3. Bacterial vaccines and antibiotic resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Normark, Staffan

    2014-01-01

    Spread of antibiotic resistance is mediated by clonal lineages of bacteria that besides being resistant also possess other properties promoting their success. Some vaccines already in use, such as the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, have had an effect on these successful clones, but at the same time have allowed for the expansion and resistance evolution of previously minor clones not covered by the vaccine. Since resistance frequently is horizontally transferred it will be difficult to gene...

  4. [Allergic alveolitis after influenza vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, D; Sennekamp, J; Kirsten, A; Kirsten, D

    2009-09-01

    Allergic alveolitis as a side effect of vaccination is very rare. We report a life-threatening complication in a female patient after influenza vaccination. The causative antigen was the influenza virus itself. Our Patient has suffered from exogen-allergic alveolitis for 12 years. Because of the guidelines of regular administration of influenza vaccination in patients with chronic pulmonary disease further research in patients with known exogen-allergic alveolitis is vitally important for the pharmaceutical drug safety.

  5. Heterologous Prime-Boost Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Shan

    2009-01-01

    An effective vaccine usually requires more than one time immunization in the form of prime-boost. Traditionally the same vaccines are given multiple times as homologous boosts. New findings suggested that prime-boost can be done with different types of vaccines containing the same antigens. In many cases such heterologous prime-boost can be more immunogenic than homologous prime-boost. Heterologous prime-boost represents a new way of immunization and will stimulate better understanding on the...

  6. Aid Policy and the Macroeconomic Management of Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    This is an introduction to the UNU-WIDER special issue of World Development on aid policy and the macroeconomic management of aid. We provide an overview of the 10 studies, grouping them under three sub-themes: the aid–growth relationship; the supply-side of aid (including its level, volatility......, and coordination of donors); and the macroeconomic framework around aid. The studies in the special issue demonstrate the centrality of research methodology, the importance of disaggregation, and the need to account for country-specific situations and problems. This introduction concludes that the sometimes “over...

  7. Knowledge of HIV and AIDS among tertiary students in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Bellal; Kabir, Alamgir; Ferdous, Hasina

    To examine the levels and predictors of knowledge on HIV and AIDS, a survey was conducted among 392 tertiary level students in the University of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Students demonstrated a high knowledge of transmission and prevention of HIV and AIDS yet with considerable misconception. All students said that unprotected sex with an HIV-positive man or woman can transmit the HIV virus to a negative man or woman but at the same time 43.6% of students believed that there is a preventive vaccine for HIV and 39.8% understood that HIV can be cured if it is diagnosed early. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that the students who had more knowledge on HIV and AIDS were: older boys, fathers having more income, business or service as father's occupation, having more mass media exposure, being senior students, living in a university dormitory, and being students of faculty of arts, social sciences, and science. The findings of this study suggest that a special course on health education, including risk perceptions of HIV and AIDS and issues related to sexual and other high risk behavior, should be included in the course curricula irrespective of disciplines at tertiary levels.

  8. Alphavirus-Based Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth Lundstrom

    2014-01-01

    Alphavirus vectors have demonstrated high levels of transient heterologous gene expression both in vitro and in vivo and, therefore, possess attractive features for vaccine development. The most commonly used delivery vectors are based on three single-stranded encapsulated alphaviruses, namely Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Alphavirus vectors have been applied as replication-deficient recombinant viral particles and, more recently, as replication...

  9. Veterinary autogenous vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hera, A; Bures, J

    2004-01-01

    Autogenous vaccines remain a regulatory issue. They are demanded by practising veterinarians and by animal owners and they are quite widely used, mainly in Central European Countries, the Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovak Republic having probably the longest tradition with these products in Central Europe. The scope given in Article 3, Para. 2 (and/or Article 4 for some countries) of Directive 2001/82/EC applies to these products in the Acceding Countries. As these products are exempt from the harmonised regulation at the EU level, they are regulated by individual countries, the regulation varying from practically no regulatory measures in certain countries to a quite complex and demanding regulation in the other countries. Both risks and benefits are related to these products and they shall be taken into account when regulatory measures are considered. The major risks related to veterinary autogenous vaccines relate to possibility of transmission of TSE agents or other viral, bacterial and/or fungal contaminants. As appropriate and well balanced regulation of these products is deemed necessary, considering the risks related to these products, and based on the fact that national regulatory measures could be considered as a trade barrier under certain circumstances, harmonisation of the key issues or legal admission of the nationally based regulatory measures, including movement of these products from the other Member States, shall be laid down in the EU legislation. The veterinary autogenous vaccines complying with basic quality and safety requirements are thus a very useful tool in the animal health and welfare management but their use should be restricted to situations where there is no authorised veterinary medicinal product available and veterinary autogenous vaccines must not be allowed to replace good farming or veterinary practices.

  10. Talking about AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the significance of social relationships to two important stages in the process of sexual behavioral change in response to increased HIV/AIDS risk in rural Africa: the perceived risk of becoming HIV-infected through unprotected sexual intercourse and the preferred methods of protection either through sexual fidelity, or through condom use. The empirical analyses are based on cross-sectional data from the 'Kenyan Diffusion and Ideational Change Project' (KDICP which provides information about AIDS-related, ego-centered communication networks of Kenyan men and women. The results show that perceived risks, as well as preferred methods of protection against HIV-infection, depend in general on the prevailing perceptions and favored protective methods within personal communication networks. However, different influential network properties can be found. The risk-perceptions of women are shaped by strong relationships and cohesive network structures. Male's risk perception depends more on the number of risk-perceivers in their communication networks. Heterogeneous relationships of various kinds are influential on women's and men's probability of favoring sexual faithfulness as a method of protection against HIV-infection.

  11. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Document Server

    SC Unit

    2009-01-01

    As every year, the Medical Service is taking part in the campaign to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal influenza is especially recommended for people suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney conditions or diabetes, for those recovering from a serious illness or surgical operation and for everyone over the age of 65. The influenza virus is transmitted by air and contact with contaminated surfaces, hence the importance of washing hands regularly with soap and / or disinfection using a hydro-alcoholic solution. From the onset of symptoms (fever> 38°, chills, cough, muscle aches and / or joint pain, fatigue) you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. In the present context of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, it is important to dissociate these two illnesses and emphasise that the two viruses and the vaccines used to combat them are quite different and that protection against one will not provide protection against the...

  12. [Herd immunity and effectiveness of vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Andrzej; Stefanoff, Pawel

    2004-01-01

    The effectiveness of vaccinations is discussed in relation to vaccine efficacy and effectiveness of vaccination programs. The types of epidemiological studies used in the assessment of vaccine effectiveness are presented, and most common sources of bias in such studies are listed. Basic formulas for calculation of vaccine effectiveness are given as applied for cohort and case-control studies. The definitions and ways of estimation of indicators of herd immunity as applied to the analysis of the effectiveness of vaccinations are presented.

  13. The March Toward Malaria Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen L.; Vekemans, Johan; Richie, Thomas L.; Duffy, Patrick E.

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 there were an estimated 584,000 deaths and 198 million clinical illnesses due to malaria, the majority in sub-Saharan Africa. Vaccines would be the ideal addition to the existing armamentarium of anti-malaria tools. However, malaria is caused by parasites, and parasites are much more complex in terms of their biology than the viruses and bacteria for which we have vaccines, passing through multiple stages of development in the human host, each stage expressing hundreds of unique antigens. This complexity makes it more difficult to develop a vaccine for parasites than for viruses and bacteria, since an immune response targeting one stage may not offer protection against a later stage, because different antigens are the targets of protective immunity at different stages. Furthermore, depending on the life cycle stage and whether the parasite is extra- or intra-cellular, antibody and/or cellular immune responses provide protection. It is thus not surprising that there is no vaccine on the market for prevention of malaria, or any human parasitic infection. In fact, no vaccine for any disease with this breadth of targets and immune responses exists. In this limited review, we focus on four approaches to malaria vaccines, (1) a recombinant protein with adjuvant vaccine aimed at Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) pre-erythrocytic stages of the parasite cycle (RTS,S/AS01), (2) whole sporozoite vaccines aimed at Pf pre-erythrocytic stages (PfSPZ Vaccine and PfSPZ-CVac), (3) prime boost vaccines that include recombinant DNA, viruses and bacteria, and protein with adjuvant aimed primarily at Pf pre-erythrocytic, but also asexual erythrocytic stages, and (4) recombinant protein with adjuvant vaccines aimed at Pf and Plasmodium vivax sexual erythrocytic and mosquito stages. We recognize that we are not covering all approaches to malaria vaccine development, or most of the critically important work on development of vaccines against P. vivax, the second most important cause of

  14. Chemokines as Cancer Vaccine Adjuvants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agne Petrosiute

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We are witnessing a new era of immune-mediated cancer therapies and vaccine development. As the field of cancer vaccines advances into clinical trials, overcoming low immunogenicity is a limiting step in achieving full success of this therapeutic approach. Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing recruitment of antigen presenting cells (APCs and effector cells to appropriate anatomical sites. This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential vaccine adjuvants. This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants.

  15. The march toward malaria vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen L; Vekemans, Johan; Richie, Thomas L; Duffy, Patrick E

    2015-11-27

    In 2013 there were an estimated 584,000 deaths and 198 million clinical illnesses due to malaria, the majority in sub-Saharan Africa. Vaccines would be the ideal addition to the existing armamentarium of anti-malaria tools. However, malaria is caused by parasites, and parasites are much more complex in terms of their biology than the viruses and bacteria for which we have vaccines, passing through multiple stages of development in the human host, each stage expressing hundreds of unique antigens. This complexity makes it more difficult to develop a vaccine for parasites than for viruses and bacteria, since an immune response targeting one stage may not offer protection against a later stage, because different antigens are the targets of protective immunity at different stages. Furthermore, depending on the life cycle stage and whether the parasite is extra- or intra-cellular, antibody and/or cellular immune responses provide protection. It is thus not surprising that there is no vaccine on the market for prevention of malaria, or any human parasitic infection. In fact, no vaccine for any disease with this breadth of targets and immune responses exists. In this limited review, we focus on four approaches to malaria vaccines, (1) a recombinant protein with adjuvant vaccine aimed at Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) pre-erythrocytic stages of the parasite cycle (RTS,S/AS01), (2) whole sporozoite vaccines aimed at Pf pre-erythrocytic stages (PfSPZ Vaccine and PfSPZ-CVac), (3) prime boost vaccines that include recombinant DNA, viruses and bacteria, and protein with adjuvant aimed primarily at Pf pre-erythrocytic, but also asexual erythrocytic stages, and (4) recombinant protein with adjuvant vaccines aimed at Pf and Plasmodium vivax sexual erythrocytic and mosquito stages. We recognize that we are not covering all approaches to malaria vaccine development, or most of the critically important work on development of vaccines against P. vivax, the second most important cause of

  16. Understanding vaccines: a public imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federman, Ross S

    2014-12-01

    Though once a discovery greatly celebrated by the nation, the vaccine has come under fire in recent decades from skeptics, critics, and a movement set into motion by fraudulent scientists and fueled by frustrated parents looking for answers to the autism conundrum. There is enough denialist resistance to vaccination to bring upon renewed fear of young children and infants becoming infected with diseases, the threats of which had been functionally eradicated from the United States. In more recent years, the surge in independent online journalism and blogging has invited many to rapidly share their opinions with millions of readers and, importantly, has appeared to open the door for opinion to be portrayed as fact. As a result, many parents are inundated with horror stories of vaccine dangers, all designed to eat away at them emotionally while the medical and scientific communities have mounted their characteristic response by sharing the facts, the data, and all of the reliable peer-reviewed and well-cited research to show that vaccines are safe and effective. It has become clear to me that facts are no match for emotion, but perhaps an understanding behind vaccine methodology will help parents overcome these fears of vaccinating. By helping those who doubt vaccines better understand what vaccines really are and how they work in such an incredibly engineered fashion, we may have a stronger weapon than we realize in battling the emotional arsenal that comes from the fear and skepticism of vaccinating.

  17. Current controversies in childhood vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Marquez, Maria; White, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    As pediatric practitioners, one of the contemporary challenges in providing medical care for children is the increasing proportion of vaccination refusal. This occurs in spite of the demonstrated individual and collective benefit and cost effectiveness of vaccination. Controversies regarding vaccine components and side effects have misled parents to believe that vaccines might be harmful based on inaccurate data from the Internet, celebrities, as well as misinterpreted and frankly bad science. This belief of vaccines being harmful has led to fear and decreased immunization rates in spite of sound scientific evidence supporting the safety of vaccines and their lack of association with autism, developmental disabilities or other medical disorders. Some parents also believe in alternative ways to avoid disease, often adhering to practices that have little foundation in the best of empiric science. It is not a coincidence that recent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases, including measles and pertussis (whooping cough), have occurred in areas where vaccination has declined largely due to exemptors. This article intends to review some of the common vaccine myths and controversies and to serve as a resource to provide accurate information and references for busy practitioners and the families that we serve.

  18. [Assessment of BCG vaccine practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechiche, C; Charpille, M; Saissi, G; Sotto, A

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major public health problem. In France, the vaccine against tuberculosis (Bacillus Calmette-Guerin, BCG) is in decline. This decline is firstly due to changes in BGG administration that were implemented in 2006 and secondly because of new recommandations in 2007 that ended compulsory vaccination. To determine their position on this vaccine, in 2013-2014 we asked general practitioners, pediatricians, and Maternal and Infantile Protection Center physicians in the Gard and Herault departments (in Southern France) why this vaccine was not administered and their suggestions for improvement. Most of these doctors (73.9%) stated that they did not oppose this vaccination for children. They expressed concern about potential side effects, technical problems (intradermic injection, multi-dose bottles) and parents' refusal. One quarter of these physicians would have preferred that this vaccine remains compulsory and one third that this vaccine be administered in the maternity hospital. They also requested simplified criteria for patient eligibility, technical improvements (training for intradermal injection, single-dose vaccine) and more information for the public concerning this vaccination.

  19. Preventable Pediatric Stroke via Vaccination?

    OpenAIRE

    Press, Craig A.; Wainwright, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Investigators from the Vascular Effects of Infection in Pediatric Stroke (VIPS) group studied the risk of arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) associated with minor infection and routine childhood vaccinations.

  20. Successful vaccination strategies that protect aged mice from lethal challenge from influenza virus and heterologous severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, Timothy; Whitmore, Alan; Long, Kristin; Ferris, Martin; Rockx, Barry; Funkhouser, William; Donaldson, Eric; Gralinski, Lisa; Collier, Martha; Heise, Mark; Davis, Nancy; Johnston, Robert; Baric, Ralph S

    2011-01-01

    Newly emerging viruses often circulate as a heterogeneous swarm in wild animal reservoirs prior to their emergence in humans, and their antigenic identities are often unknown until an outbreak situation. The newly emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and reemerging influenza virus cause disproportionate disease in the aged, who are also notoriously difficult to successfully vaccinate, likely due to immunosenescence. To protect against future emerging strains, vaccine platforms should induce broad cross-reactive immunity that is sufficient to protect from homologous and heterologous challenge in all ages. From initial studies, we hypothesized that attenuated Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) replicon particle (VRP) vaccine glycoproteins mediated vaccine failure in the aged. We then compared the efficacies of vaccines bearing attenuated (VRP(3014)) or wild-type VEE glycoproteins (VRP(3000)) in young and aged mice within novel models of severe SARS-CoV pathogenesis. Aged animals receiving VRP(3000)-based vaccines were protected from SARS-CoV disease, while animals receiving the VRP(3014)-based vaccines were not. The superior protection for the aged observed with VRP(3000)-based vaccines was confirmed in a lethal influenza virus challenge model. While the VRP(3000) vaccine's immune responses in the aged were sufficient to protect against lethal homologous and heterologous challenge, our data suggest that innate defects within the VRP(3014) platform mediate vaccine failure. Exploration into the mechanism(s) of successful vaccination in the immunosenescent should aid in the development of successful vaccine strategies for other viral diseases disproportionately affecting the elderly, like West Nile virus, influenza virus, norovirus, or other emerging viruses of the future.

  1. National HIV/AIDS Strategy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about the importance of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and the work of CDC.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  2. Aid, social policy, and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn

    This paper discusses past and current social policy strategies in the international aid architecture. From the 1990s, aid strategy and policy shifted to put a stronger emphasis on human development. This accelerated with the Millennium Development Goals and will continue under the Sustainable...... Development Goals, which have even more ambitious targets. The paper also assesses some of the concerns associated with the ‘Paris-style’ aid modalities, and discusses major challenges for the future global development agenda....

  3. Time will tell: community acceptability of HIV vaccine research before and after the “Step Study” vaccine discontinuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula M Frew

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Paula M Frew1,2,3,4, Mark J Mulligan1,2,3, Su-I Hou5, Kayshin Chan3, Carlos del Rio1,2,3,61Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; 2Emory Center for AIDS Research, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; 3The Hope Clinic of the Emory Vaccine Center, Decatur, Georgia, USA; 4Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; 5Department of Health Promotion and Behavior, College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA; 6Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USAObjective: This study examines whether men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM and transgender (TG persons’ attitudes, beliefs, and risk perceptions toward human immunodeficiency virus (HIV vaccine research have been altered as a result of the negative findings from a phase 2B HIV vaccine study.Design: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among MSM and TG persons (N = 176 recruited from community settings in Atlanta from 2007 to 2008. The first group was recruited during an active phase 2B HIV vaccine trial in which a candidate vaccine was being evaluated (the “Step Study”, and the second group was recruited after product futility was widely reported in the media.Methods: Descriptive statistics, t tests, and chi-square tests were conducted to ascertain differences between the groups, and ordinal logistic regressions examined the influences of the above-mentioned factors on a critical outcome, future HIV vaccine study participation. The ordinal regression outcomes evaluated the influences on disinclination, neutrality, and inclination to study participation.Results: Behavioral outcomes such as future recruitment, event attendance, study promotion, and community mobilization did not reveal any differences in participants’ intentions between the groups. However, we observed

  4. National Latino AIDS Awareness Day

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-08

    This podcast highlights National Latino AIDS Awareness Day, to increase awareness of the disproportionate impact of HIV on the Hispanic or Latino population in the United States and dependent territories. The podcast reminds Hispanics or Latinos that they have the power to take control of their health and protect themselves against HIV.  Created: 10/8/2014 by Office of Health Equity, Office of the Director, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention.   Date Released: 10/14/2014.

  5. Public knowledge about AIDS increasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, M J; Waters, W E

    1987-04-04

    In response to concern over the perceived limited effectiveness of Department of Health and Social Security (UK) advertising campaigns to inform the public of the basic facts of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a prospective questionnaire study was undertaken in Southampton, England to test the effectiveness of government education prior to a January, 1987 government television/leaflet advertising campaign. 300 questionnaires about AIDS were mailed in December of 1986 to a sample drawn from electoral rolls. The response rate was 61%. Most of the questions were drawn from material covered in the campaign. The results seemed to indicate a small overall increase in knowledge about AIDS. Some changes from a June survey were noted, e.g.: more people were aware that AIDS is a virus for which there is no cure and that it is not readily transmitted by sharing washing, eating or drinking utensils; more people believed that the statement that women are at greater risk for catching AIDS is false. Respondents were generally favorable to the government's continued use of television, even with explicit language, and to its use of the schools, for AIDS education. Many were not aware of the dangers to intravenous drug users or of the symptoms of AIDS. Other surveys have shown an increasing knowledge of AIDS dangers. It is possible that television coverage of the problem will continue to be necessary, in order that less literate populations be reached. Further AIDS health education in general is needed.

  6. Influenza Vaccinations, Fall 2009: Model School-Located Vaccination Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herl Jenlink, Carolyn; Kuehnert, Paul; Mazyck, Donna

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 H1N1 influenza virus presented a major challenge to health departments, schools, and other community partners to effectively vaccinate large numbers of Americans, primarily children. The use of school-located vaccination (SLV) programs to address this challenge led health departments and schools to become creative in developing models for…

  7. Vaccines and vaccination for avian influenza in poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza (AI) vaccines have been developed and used to protect poultry and other birds in various countries of the world. Protection is principally mediated by an immune response to the subtype-specific hemagglutinin (HA) protein. AI vaccines prevent clinical signs of disease, death, egg pr...

  8. HPV vaccination series completion and co-vaccination: Pairing vaccines may matter for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; McKim Mitchell, Emma; Camacho, Fabian

    2015-10-26

    Very little is known about the effect of concurrent co-vaccination on HPV series completion. This study utilized a retrospective review of a Clinical Data Repository to assess whether concurrent vaccination had an impact on HPV vaccination series completion, and whether there were differences based on age. 3371 patients who received the HPV vaccine at a single academic medical center between the years 2009-2013 were included in this analysis. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for effect of concurrent vaccination on series completion for the age group 9-18 was 1.32 (95% CI 1.09, 1.60). Although not statistically significant, the aOR for effect of concurrent vaccination on completion changed direction for the 19-25 age group and was 0.44 (95% CI 0.17, 1.12). This study provides preliminary evidence that pairing the HPV vaccine with one or more co-vaccines may yield a higher HPV vaccination completion rate among adolescents age 9-18.

  9. Aids and Infectious Diseases (aid) Pmp 2013 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonaguro, Franco M.

    2014-07-01

    The AIDS and Infectious Diseases (AID) PMP of the WFS contributed this year with a session on August 22nd to the Plenary Sessions of the International Seminars on Planetary Emergencies and Associated Meetings--46th Session: The Role of Science in the Third Millennium (Erice, 19-24 August 2013). Furthermore a workshop on August 24th was organized...

  10. Improved ERM vaccination efficacy using combined vaccine administration methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, Kurt; Desmukh, Sidhartha; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    2012-01-01

    We have previously shown that immersion vaccination (30 sec) using the Aquavac Relera vaccine (containing formalin killed Yersinia ruckeri serotype O1 of both biotypes 1 and 2) provides the best protection (when compared to other commercial ERM vaccines on the Danish market) against infection...... following i. p. challenge using Y. ruckeri O1, biotype 2, which at present is the main bacterial pathogen in fingerling trout production in Denmark. Despite a significant protection conferred by this vaccine (immersion) some mortality could be observed following challenge. We have therefore performed...... a study in order to elucidate if different vaccine administration methods (using Aquavac Relera) can improve protection and reduce mortality of exposed trout following challenge with this particular pathogen. Rainbow trout (mean weight 7.8 g) reared at the Bornholm Salmon Hatchery under pathogen free...

  11. Use of Prior Vaccinations for the Development of New Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etlinger, H. M.; Gillessen, D.; Lahm, H.-W.; Matile, H.; Schonfeld, H.-J.; Trzeciak, A.

    1990-07-01

    There is currently a need for vaccine development to improve the immunogenicity of protective epitopes, which themselves are often poorly immunogenic. Although the immunogenicity of these epitopes can be enhanced by linking them to highly immunogenic carriers, such carriers derived from current vaccines have not proven to be generally effective. One reason may be related to epitope-specific suppression, in which prior vaccination with a protein can inhibit the antibody response to new epitopes linked to the protein. To circumvent such inhibition, a peptide from tetanus toxoid was identified that, when linked to a B cell epitope and injected into tetanus toxoid-primed recipients, retained sequences for carrier but not suppressor function. The antibody response to the B cell epitope was enhanced. This may be a general method for taking advantage of previous vaccinations in the development of new vaccines.

  12. Vaccines for leishmaniasis: from proteome to vaccine candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Juliane; Aebischer, Toni

    2011-01-01

    Leishmania spp. cause a wide spectrum of tropical diseases which are threatening an estimated 350 million people around the globe. While in most cases non-fatal, the disease is associated with high morbidity, social stigmata and poverty. However, the most severe form visceral leishmaniasis can be fatal if left untreated. Chemotherapeutics are available but show high toxicity, costs and are prone to resistance development due to prolonged treatment periods. Healing is associated with a life-long resistance to re-infection and this argues for the feasibility of vaccination. However, despite much effort, no such vaccine has become available yet. Here, the status of vaccine development in this field is briefly summarized before the focus is set on the promise of reverse vaccinology for anti-Leishmania vaccine development in the post-genomic era. We report on our own experience with this approach using an instructive example of successful candidate vaccine antigen identification.

  13. Ergogenic Aids and Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrini, Marisa; Del Boʼ, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Great interest is currently shown for the contribution of nutrition to optimize training and athletic performance, and a considerable debate exists about the potential ergogenic value of several dietary supplements. However, most of the products used by athletes do not provide sufficient scientific evidence regarding their efficacy in enhancing physical performance as well as their specificity of action and safety. For this reason, sport nutrition professionals need skills in evaluating the scientific value of papers and advertisements on ergogenic aids and supplements in order to support athletes in their choice. In the present chapter, the efficacy of some of the most popular supplements used by athletes and sport practitioners will be discussed. Particular attention will be devoted to amino acids and derivatives, caffeine and caffeinated energy drinks, and some antioxidants.

  14. Learning to aid learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jacqui

    2016-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) is one of the largest employers in the world and, with 1.3 million staff, the biggest employer in Europe. With over three hundred different careers on offer (NHS 2015), the acquisition of skills and qualifications, through academic and clinical training, is an integral part of day-to-day life in the health service. As such, mentoring has become a significant feature in the preparation of healthcare professionals, to support students and ensure learning needs and experiences are appropriate to competency. This article examines the mentor's role, in relation to a teaching innovation designed to address students' identified learning needs to meet the requirements of the multi-professional learning and assessment in practice course NM6156. The effectiveness of the aids to learning will be assessed through an online quiz, and its usefulness will be analysed with reference to educational theories of learning and development.

  15. AIDS and sex tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, E S; Van Kerkwijk, C

    1992-01-01

    Tourists traveling internationally lower their inhibitions and take greater risks than they would typically in their home cultures. Loneliness, boredom, and a sense of freedom contribute to this behavioral change. Some tourists travel internationally in search of sexual gratification. This motivation may be actively conscious or subconscious to the traveler. Billed as romantic with great natural beauty, Thailand, the Philippines, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and Kenya are popular destinations of tourists seeking sex. The Netherlands and countries in eastern Europe are also popular. With most initial cases of HIV infection in Europe having histories of international travel, mass tourism is a major factor in the international transmission of AIDS. While abroad, tourists have sex with casual partners, sex workers, and/or other tourists. Far from all tourists, however, carry and consistently use condoms with these partners. One study found female and non white travelers to be less likely than Whites and males to carry condoms. The risk of HIV infection increases in circumstances where condoms are not readily available in the host country and/or are of poor quality. Regarding actual condom use, a study found only 34% of sex tourists from Switzerland to consistently use condoms while abroad. 28% of men in an STD clinic in Melbourne, Australia, reported consistent condom use in sexual relations while traveling in Asia; STDs were identified in 73% of men examined. The few studies of tourists suggest that a significant proportion engage in risky behavior while traveling. HIV prevalence is rapidly increasing in countries known as destinations for sex tourism. High infection rates are especially evident among teenage sex workers in Thailand. Simply documenting the prevalence of risky behavior among sex tourists will not suffice. More research is needed on travelers and AIDS with particular attention upon the motivating factors supporting persistent high-risk behavior.

  16. Biotechnology and DNA vaccines for aquatic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, G.

    2008-01-01

    Biotechnology has been used extensively in the development of vaccines for aquaculture. Modern molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning and microarray analysis have facilitated antigen discovery, construction of novel candidate vaccines, and assessments of vaccine efficacy, mode of action, and host response. This review focuses on DNA vaccines for finfish to illustrate biotechnology applications in this field. Although DNA vaccines for fish rhabdoviruses continue to show the highest efficacy, DNA vaccines for several other viral and bacterial fish pathogens have now been proven to provide significant protection against pathogen challenge. Studies of the fish rhabdovirus DNA vaccines have elucidated factors that affect DNA vaccine efficacy as well as the nature of the fish innate and adaptive immune responses to DNA vaccines. As tools for managing aquatic animal disease emergencies, DNA vaccines have advantages in speed, flexibility, and safety, and one fish DNA vaccine has been licensed.

  17. EXPERIMENTAL LIPOSOMAL VIRAL VACCINE SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanova OA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. With the transport links development there is rather important issue respiratory viral infections spread, especially influenza. The only method controlling influenza is vaccination. Search and development effective and safe vaccines is important. Material and methods. In base SO "Mechnikov Institute Microbiology and Immunology National Ukrainian Academy Medical Sciences" in the scientific theme "Developing new approaches to creating viral vaccines and study specific activity depending of type and degree component`s modification" was created several experimental influenza vaccine with subsequent component`s modification for selecting the most optimal pattern of safety and immunogenicity. In assessing the influenza vaccine safety is using a few criteria, including, reactivity, as measured by the frequency of local and systemic adverse (negative effects, which due to its introduction, and for lipid content drugs, ability to influence oxidation processes. At present study phase was determined: a systemic reaction and local reaction of delayed-type hypersensitivity (foot pad swelling assay;b lipids and proteins peroxidation processes after administration officinal and experimental vaccines (content protein’s carbonyl groups, lipid’s hydroperoxides, activity of glutathione-peroxidase.Study objects were trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine, "Vaxigrip" (Sanofi Pasteur, S.A., France, "Inflexal V" (Biotech Ltd. Berne, Switzerland and experimental vaccine samples. Highest immunogenicity vaccines had undergone improvements and modifications using adjuvant systems and acylation influenza proteins. Liposomes 2 – the experimental influenza vaccine with a liposome negative charge and antigenic composition like split vaccines "Vaksihryp". Liposomes 2.1 - the adjuvantexperimental influenza vaccine with modifications liposomal components (etoniy and chlorophyllipt molecules embedded in liposomal membrane. Liposomes 2.2 - the adjuvant

  18. Status of DOE and AID stand-alone photovoltaic system field tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifano, W. J.; Delombard, R.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Scudder, L. R.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is managing stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system projects sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The DOE project includes village PV power demonstration projects in Gabon (four sites) and the Marshall Islands, and PV-powered vaccine refrigerator systems in six countries. The AID project includes a large village power system, a farmhouse system and two water pumping-irrigation systems in Tunisia, a water pumping/grain grinding system in Upper Volta, five medical clinic systems in four countries, PV-powered vaccine refrigerator systems in 18 countries and a PV-powered remote earth station in Indonesia. This paper reviews these PV projects and summarizes significant findings to date.

  19. Designing the financial tools to promote universal access to AIDS care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoni, Patrick; Luchini, Stéphane

    2011-01-01

    We argue that reluctance to invest in drug treatments to fight the AIDS epidemics in developing countries is largely motivated by severe losses occurring from the future albeit uncertain appearance of a curative vaccine. We design a set of securities generating full insurance coverage against such losses, while achieving full risk-sharing with vaccine development agencies. In a General Equilibrium framework, we show that those securities are demanded to improve social welfare in developing countries, to increase current investment in treatments and the provision of public goods. Even though designed for AIDS, those securities can also be applied to other epidemics such as malaria and tuberculosis, as well as any innovative treatment to fight orphan diseases.

  20. 'Communicate to vaccinate' (COMMVAC. building evidence for improving communication about childhood vaccinations in low- and middle-income countries: protocol for a programme of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewin Simon

    2011-12-01

    , evidence, and resources to aid the development of communication strategies for effective vaccination programmes in LMICs.